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Title: Mrs. Hale's Receipts for the Million - Containing Four Thousand Five Hundred and Forty-five - Receipts, Facts, Directions, etc. in the Useful, Ornamental, - and Domestic Arts
Author: Hale, Sarah Josepha
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  MRS. HALE'S

  RECEIPTS FOR THE MILLION:

  CONTAINING

  FOUR THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-FIVE

  Receipts, Facts, Directions, etc.

  IN THE

  USEFUL, ORNAMENTAL, AND DOMESTIC ARTS,

  AND IN THE CONDUCT OF LIFE.

  BEING A

  COMPLETE FAMILY DIRECTORY.

  RELATIVE TO

  Accomplishments,|Economy,         |Ladies' Work, |Phrenology,
                  |                 |              |
  Amusements,     |Etching,         |Feather Work, |Potichomanie,
                  |                 |              |
  Beauty,         |Etiquette,       |Manners,      |Poultry,
                  |                 |              |
  Birds,          |Flowers,         |Marriage,     |Riding,
                  |                 |              |
  Building,       |Gardening,       |Medicines,    |Swimming,
                  |                 |              |
  Children,       |Grecian Painting,|Needlework,   |Surgery, Domestic
                  |                 |              |
  Cookery,        |Health,          |Nursing,      |Temperance,
                  |                 |              |
  Courtship,      |Home,            |Out-Door Work,|Trees, etc.
                  |                 |              |
  Dress, etc.     |Housekeeping,    |Painting,     |Women's Duties,

                      Words of Washington, etc.

  BY MRS. SARAH JOSEPHA HALE.

  Philadelphia:
  T. B. PETERSON, NO. 306 CHESTNUT STREET.



  Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, by

  SARAH JOSEPHA HALE,

  In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, in
  and for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.



PREFACE.


"_All the labor of man is for his mouth,_" says Solomon. If this
proverb be understood, as it was undoubtedly meant--that the chief
aim and purpose of all human labor are to make the homes of mankind
places of enjoyment, we see how important the art of household
management becomes.

While preparing my "New Cook Book," I was naturally led to examine
the subject, and the result was a deep conviction of the need of
another work on domestic economy, or directions how to guide the
house. This led me to prepare the present treatise, embodying rules
and receipts, such as never before have been brought together for the
help and instruction of a household.

"_Knowledge is power_" always; knowledge used for good purposes is
wisdom. Knowledge, like gold, must be gained by personal effort; and
usually, in small quantities, and by continued exertions, both wisdom
and gold are accumulated.

It has been by washing the sands of common experience and gathering
the small bits of science and art found here and there on the mining
ground of common knowledge, that this large work, containing the pure
gold of truth, applicable to all the needs of common life, has been
made. A few _nuggets_ will be seen, such as the collected maxims of
Franklin, and the "Words of Washington," never before placed within
the reach of the popular mind.

In the economy and well-being of the family, personally and
individually, improvement should be sedulously kept in view. It is
not enough that woman understands the art of cookery and of managing
her house: she must also take care of herself; of children; of all
who will be dependent on her for direction, for health, for happiness.

Personal appearance is important; the art of beautifying a home is
important; the knowledge of ways and means by which the clothing
of a family may be kept in good order, with the least expense of
time and money, is important; some knowledge of plants, flowers,
gardening, and of domestic animals, is of much benefit, particularly
to those who live in the country; and more important than all, is a
knowledge of the best means of preserving or restoring health. Then
there is the very important matter of home happiness to be kept in
view. Amusements, accomplishments, elegant arts, manners, modes of
conduct in society; all these are necessary knowledge. And to crown
the whole, those indispensable rules and maxims of moral improvement,
which are the foundation of good in the character and life of
rational, immortal beings, must be made familiar. All this has been
attempted in "Receipts for the Million," as every person may see by
examining "The Table of Contents" and the "Index."

The aim of both my works on domestic matters has been to awaken
the attention of my own sex to these subjects, belonging, so
unquestionably, to woman's department. _The home administration_
is in her hands; how salutary and powerful this may be made in its
influence on humanity is yet hardly imagined, even by the most
sagacious and earnest advocates of woman's elevation.

Would that those of my sex who are urging onward, into the industrial
pursuits, and other professions appropriate for men, might turn
their attention to improvements in domestic economy. Here is an open
field, where their heads and hearts as well as hands may find ample
scope and noble objects. The really great woman never undervalues her
own sphere. Madame Roland excelled in her _ménage_; Mrs. Somerville
is eminent for domestic qualities; Mrs. Sigourney is a pattern
housekeeper; and a multitude of other names and examples may be
met with in my recent work,[A] where genius is found adorning home
pursuits.

There should be Lectures on Housekeeping, and other subjects
connected with domestic life, instituted in every Ladies Seminary.
This would serve to remedy, in some degree, the evils that now attend
a boarding-school education. The grand defect of this is, that
teachers too often leave out of sight the application of learning
to the home pursuits of young ladies. So when these return to the
parental roof, they give themselves up to novel reading, as their
chief mental resource.

A better time is coming. Women, capable of using their faculties for
the improvement of society, will not much longer remain in the castle
of indolence. Miss Nightingale will find followers. And as the active
pursuits of women will naturally centre in the domestic circle, great
advances in the art of making home the place of happiness must be
made.

May this book help onward the good work.

  S. J. H.

  _Philadelphia_, October 1st, 1857.



  CONTENTS


  PREFACE                                                         3

  CONTENTS                                                        5

  PART I.

  HOME AND ITS EMPLOYMENTS.

  House Cleaning--Repairing Furniture--Cleaning Stoves and
  Grates--Mending Glass, China, &c.--Coloring and Polishing
  Furniture, &c.--Removing unpleasant Odors--Fires--Water and
  Cisterns--Carriages and Harness--Washing--To remove Stains--To
  clean Silks, Lace, &c.--Paste, Glue, and Cement--Dyeing--Blacking
  for Boots, Shoes, &c.--To destroy Insects--The
  Kitchen, &c.                                        _Page 9 to 88_

  PART II.

  HEALTH AND BEAUTY.

  Rules for the preservation of Health--Simple Recipes efficacious
  in common diseases and slight injuries--Burns and Scalds--Fevers
  --Plasters, Blisters, Ointments, &c.--Poisons and Antidotes--Baths
  and Bathing--The Toilet, or hints for the preservation
  of Beauty--The Dressing-Table                     _Page 89 to 150_

  PART III.

  HOME PURSUITS AND DOMESTIC ARTS.

  Needle-work--Explanation of Stitches--Preparation of House-Linen
  --Patchwork--Silk Embroidery--Fancy-work--Ink--Birds,
  Fish, Flowers, &c.--House-Plants--Window-Plants--To
  manage a Watch                                   _Page 151 to 187_

  PART IV.

  DOMESTIC ECONOMY, AND OTHER MATTERS WORTH KNOWING.

  Teas--Coffee--Various Recipes for making Essences, &c.--Preserving
  Fruit, Vegetables, Herbs, &c.--Hints to Farmers--Management
  of a Horse--Raising Poultry--Preservation from
  Fire--Drowning--Suffocation--Thunderstorms       _Page 188 to 209_

  PART V.

  MISTRESS, MOTHER, NURSE, AND MAID.

  Of the Table--On the management of Infants, young Children,
  and the Sick--Qualifications of a good Nurse--Food for the Sick
  and for Children--Drinks for the Sick--Simple mixtures--Rules
  for Women Servants                               _Page 210 to 264_

  PART VI.

  HINTS ABOUT AGRICULTURE, GARDENING, DOMESTIC ANIMALS, &c.

  Manure--Soil--Hay--Grains--Vegetables--To destroy Insects--Vermin
  --Weeds--Cows, Calves, Sheep, &c.--Gardening--The
  Orchard--Timber--Building--Bees                  _Page 265 to 318_

  PART VII.

  MISCELLANEOUS.

  Choice and cheap Cookery--New Receipts--Southern Dishes--Cakes,
  Bread, Pies, and Puddings--Home-made Wines, Mead,
  Nectar, &c.--Washing--Hints on Diet, Exercise, and Economy
  --Painting--Books--Periodicals and Newspapers    _Page 319 to 384_

  PART VIII.

  ELEGANT AND INGENIOUS ARTS.

  Water-Colors used in Drawing--Directions for mixing Colors--Wash
  Colors for Maps--To paint Flowers, Birds, Landscapes,
  &c., in Water-Colors--Potichomanie--Grecian Painting--Diaphanic
  Feather Flowers--Sea-Weeds--Botanical Specimens, Leaf
  Impressions, &c.--Transferring to Glass, Wood, &c.--Emblematic
  Stones--Staining Stone, Wood, &c.--Ornamental Leather work--Dyeing
  --Games--Evening Pastime                        _Page 385 to 431_

  PART IX.

  WORK IN DOORS AND OUT.

  Household maxims--Household receipts for many things--Care
  of Furs--Wise economy--Things to know--Cleanliness--Prevention
  of accidents--Domestic hints--More hints on Agriculture--Cattle
  --Gardening--Drying Herbs--Properties and uses of Vegetables
  --Vegetables to cultivate--Fruit Trees and Fruit--Vermin
  on Trees                                         _Page 431 to 484_

  PART X.

  PERSONAL MATTERS.

  Dress of Ladies--Dress of a Gentleman--Manners--Rules of
  Etiquette--Dinner Parties--Balls and Evening Parties--Courtship
  and Marriage--Marriage Ceremony--After Marriage--Directions
  to a Wife--Directions to a Husband--Our House--Conversation--Rules
  of Conduct                                       _Page 484 to 533_

  PART XI.

  HEALTH AND WEALTH.

  Preservation of Health--Baths--Exercise--Terms expressing the
  properties of medicines--Ointments and Cerates--Embrocations
  and Liniments--Enemas--Poultices--Special rules for the prevention
  of Cholera--Rules for a Sick Room--Domestic Surgery--Bandages
  --Riches--Temperance--Way to Wealth              _Page 533 to 590_

  PART XII.

  THE FAMILY AT HOME.

  A good Table--Bread, &c.--Meats--Vegetables--Household
  management--Beverages--Useful Receipts for Family Practice
  --Miscellaneous Receipts, Rules, &c.--Dietetic maxims--Hints
  to Mechanics and Workmen--Maxims and Morals for all Men--Home
  Industry for Young Ladies--Pets--Swimming--Riding--Home
  Counsels--Parlor Amusements--The training of Daughters,
  &c.--Sentiments of Flowers--Signs of the Weather--Air--Its
  effects on Life--Importance of Laws--Phrenology--Synopsis of
  American History--Words of Washington--Useful Family
  Tables                                           _Page 590 to 699_



MRS. HALE'S

RECEIPTS FOR THE MILLION,

CONTAINING

FOUR THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-FIVE

RECEIPTS, FACTS, ETC.



PART I.

HOME AND ITS EMPLOYMENTS.

  _House cleaning--Repairing Furniture--Washing--Mending Glass,
  China, &c.--Dyeing--Blacking for Boots, Shoes, &c.--To destroy
  Insects--The Kitchen, &c._


1. _House Cleaning._--The spring is more particularly the time for
house-cleaning; though, of course, it requires attention monthly.

Begin at the top of the house; first take up the carpets, and, if
they require it, let them be scoured; or as carpets are sometimes
injured by scouring, they may be well beaten, and if necessary,
washed with soda and water.

Remove all the furniture from the room, have the chimneys swept where
fires have been kept, and clean and blacken the grates. Wrap old
towels, (they should be clean), around the bristles of the broom,
and sweep lightly the ceiling and paper; or, if requisite, the paper
should be cleaned with bread, as elsewhere directed. Then wash the
paint with a flannel or sponge, and soap and water, and, as fast as
one person cleans, another should follow, and with clean cloths, wipe
the paint perfectly dry. Let the windows be cleaned, and scour the
floor. Let the furniture be well rubbed; and the floor being dry,
and the carpets laid down, the furniture may be replaced. The paper
should be swept every three months.


2. _To clean Bed-rooms._--In cleaning bed-rooms infested with bugs,
take the bedsteads asunder, and wash every part of them, but
especially the joints, with a strong solution of corrosive sublimate
in spirits of turpentine; as the sublimate is a fatal poison, the
bottle containing the above solution should be labelled "Poison;"
it should be used very carefully, and laid on with a brush kept for
the purpose. Bugs can only be removed from walls by taking down the
paper, washing them with the above poison, and re-papering.

In bed-rooms with fires, a whisk-brush is best to clear the curtains
and hangings from dust.

To remove grease or oil from boards, drop on the spots spirits of
turpentine before the floor is scoured.

The house-maid should be provided with a box, with divisions, to
convey her various utensils, as brushes, black lead, &c., from room
to room, and a small mat to kneel upon while cleaning the grate.


3. _Scouring Bed-rooms._--This should never be done in winter if it
can be avoided, as it is productive of many coughs and colds. If
inevitable, a dry day should be selected, and the windows and doors
should be left wide open till dusk. A fire ought always to be made in
the room after cleaning.


4. _To clean Carpets._--Before sweeping a carpet, sprinkle over it
a few handfuls of waste tea-leaves. A stiff hair-broom or brush
should be used, unless the carpet be very dirty, when a whisk or
carpet-broom should be used first, followed by another made of hair
to take off the loose dirt. The frequent use of a stiff broom soon
injures the beauty of the best carpet. An ordinary clothes-brush is
best adapted for superior carpets.

When Brussels carpets are very much soiled, take them up and beat
them perfectly free from dust. Have the floor thoroughly scoured and
dry, and nail the carpet firmly down to it. If still soiled, take
a pailful of clean, cold water, and put into it about three gills
of ox-gall. Take another pail, with clean, cold water only; now rub
with a soft scrubbing-brush some of the ox-gall water on the carpet,
which will raise a lather. When a convenient-sized portion is done,
wash the lather off with a clean linen cloth dipped in the clean
water. Let this water be changed frequently. When all the lather has
disappeared, rub the part with a clean, dry cloth. After all is done,
open the window to allow the carpet to dry. A carpet treated in this
manner, will be greatly refreshed in color, particularly the greens.
Kidderminster carpets will scarcely bear the above treatment without
becoming so soft as speedily to become dirty again. This may, in some
measure, be prevented by brushing them over with a hot, weak solution
of size in water, to which a little alum has been added. Curd soap
dissolved in hot water, may be used instead of ox-gall, but it is
more likely to injure the colors, if produced by false dyes. Where
there are spots of grease in the carpeting, they may be covered with
curd soap dissolved in boiling water, and rubbed with a brush until
the stains are removed, when they must be cleaned with warm water as
before. The addition of a little gall to the soap renders it more
efficacious.

The carpets should be nailed on the full stretch, else they will
shrink.

Fullers' earth is also used for cleaning carpets; and alum, or soda,
dissolved in water, for reviving the colors.


5. _To clean Turkey Carpets._--To revive the color of a Turkey
carpet, beat it well with a stick till the dust is all got out; then,
with a lemon or sorrel juice, take out the spots of ink, if the
carpet be stained with any; wash it in cold water, and afterwards
shake out all the water from the threads of the carpet. When it is
thoroughly dry, rub it all over with the crumb of a hot wheaten loaf;
and, if the weather is very fine, hang it out in the open air a night
or two.


6. _Cheap Carpeting._--Sew together strips of the cheapest cotton
cloth, of the size of the room, and tack the edges to the floor. Then
paper the cloth, as you would the sides of a room, with any sort of
room paper. After being well dried, give it two coats of varnish,
and your carpet is finished. It can be washed like carpets, without
injury, retains its gloss, and, on chambers or sleeping rooms, where
it will not meet rough usage, will last for two years, as good as new.


7. _To beat a Carpet._--Hang the carpet upon a clothes-line, or upon
a stout line between two trees; it should then be beaten on the
_wrong side_, by three or four persons, each having a pliable stick,
with cloth tied strongly in a knob on the end, in order to prevent
the carpet from being torn, or the seams split, by the sharp end
of the stick. When thoroughly beaten on the wrong side, the carpet
should be turned, and beaten on the right side.


8. _Floor or Oil Cloths._--Floor-cloths should be chosen that are
painted on a fine cloth, which is well covered with the color, and
the patterns on which do not rise much above the ground, as they wear
out first. The durability of the cloth will depend much on these
particulars, but more especially on the time it has been painted, and
the goodness of the colors. If they have not been allowed sufficient
time for becoming thoroughly hardened, a very little use will injure
them; and, as they are very expensive articles, care in preserving
them is necessary. It answers to keep them some time before they are
used, either hung up in a dry barn where they will have air, or laid
down in a spare room.

When taken up for the winter, they should be rolled round a
carpet-roller, and observe not to crack the paint by turning the
edges in too suddenly.

Old carpets answer extremely well, painted and seasoned some months
before laid down. If for passages, the width must be directed when
they are sent to the manufactory, as they are cut before painting.


9. _To clean Floor cloths._--Sweep, then wipe them with a flannel;
and when all dust and spots are removed, rub with a waxed flannel,
and then with a dry plain one; but use little wax, and rub only
enough with the latter to give a little smoothness, or it may
endanger falling.

Washing now and then with milk, after the above sweeping and
dry-rubbing them, gives as beautiful a look, and they are less
slippery.


10. _Method of Cleaning Paper-hangings._--Cut into eight half
quarters a large loaf, two days old; it must neither be newer nor
staler. With one of these pieces, after having blown off all the dust
from the paper to be cleaned, by means of a good pair of bellows,
begin at the top of the room, holding the crust in the hand, and
wiping lightly downward with the crumb, about half a yard at each
stroke, till the upper part of the hangings is completely cleaned
all round. Then go round again, with the like sweeping stroke
downwards, always commencing each successive course a little higher
than the upper stroke had extended, till the bottom be finished. This
operation, if carefully performed, will frequently make very old
paper look almost equal to new.

Great caution must be used not by any means to rub the paper hard,
nor to attempt cleaning it the cross, or horizontal way. The dirty
part of the bread, too, must be each time cut away, and the pieces
renewed as soon as it may become necessary.


11. _To clean Paint._--Never use a cloth, but take off the dust with
a little long-haired brush, after blowing off the loose parts with
the bellows. With care, paint will look well for a long time, if
guarded from the influence of the sun. When soiled, dip a sponge or
a bit of flannel into soda and water, wash it off quickly, and dry
immediately, or the soda will eat off the color. Some persons use
strong soap and water, instead.

When the wainscot requires scouring, it should be done from the top
downwards, and the water be prevented from running on the unclean
parts as much as possible, or marks will be made which will appear
after the whole is finished. One person should dry with old linen, as
fast as the other has scoured off the dirt, and washed off the soap.


12. _To give to Boards a beautiful appearance._--After washing them
very nicely with soda and warm water and a brush, wash them with a
very large sponge and clean water. Both times observe to leave no
spot untouched; and clean straight up and down, not crossing from
board to board; then dry with clean cloths, rubbed hard up and down
in the same way.

The floors should not be often wetted, but very thoroughly when done;
and once a-week dry-rubbed with hot sand and a heavy brush the right
way of the boards.

The sides of stairs or passages on which are carpets or floor-cloths,
should be washed with sponge instead of linen or flannel, and the
edges will not be soiled. Different sponges should be kept for the
above two uses; and those and the brushes should be well washed when
done with, and kept in dry places.


12a. _To extract Oil from Boards or Stone._--Make a strong ley of
pearlashes and soft water, and add as much unslaked lime as it will
take up; stir it together, and then let it settle a few minutes;
bottle it, and stop close; have ready some water to lower it as used,
and scour the part with it. If the liquor should lie long on the
boards, it will draw out the color of them; therefore do it with care
and expedition.


13. _To scour Boards._--Mix together one part lime, three parts
common sand, and two parts soft soap; lay a little of this on the
scrubbing-brush, and rub the board thoroughly. Afterwards rinse
with clean water, and dry with a clean coarse cloth. This will keep
the boards a good color: it is also useful in keeping away vermin.
For that object, early in the spring, beds should be taken down,
and furniture in general removed and examined; bed-hangings and
window-curtains, if not washed, should be shaken and brushed; and the
joints of bedsteads, the backs of drawers, and indeed, every part of
furniture, except polished mahogany, should be carefully cleaned with
the above mixture, or with equal parts of lime and soft soap, without
any sand. In old houses, where there are holes in the boards, which
often abound with vermin, after scrubbing in, as far as the brush can
reach, a thick plaster of the above should be spread over the holes,
and covered with paper. When these things are timely attended to, and
combined with general cleanliness, vermin may generally be kept away,
even in crowded cities.


14. _To wash Stone Stairs and Halls._--Wash them first with hot water
and a clean flannel, and then wash them over with pipe-clay mixed in
water. When dry, rub them, with a coarse flannel.


15. _To take Oil and Grease out of Floors and Stone Halls._--Make
a strong infusion of potash with boiling water; add to it as much
quick-lime as will make it of the consistence of thick cream; let it
stand a night, then pour off the clear part, which is to be bottled
for use. When wanted, warm a little of it; pour it upon the spots,
and after it has been on them for a few minutes, scour it off with
warm water and soap, as it is apt to discolor the boards when left
too long on them. When put upon stone, it is best to let it remain
all night; and if the stain be a bad one, a little powdered hot lime
may be put upon it before the infusion is poured on.


16. _To clean Marble._--Muriatic acid, either diluted or pure, as
occasion may require, proves efficacious. If too strong, it will
deprive the marble of its polish, which may be easily restored by the
use of a piece of felt, with some powder of putty or tripoli, with
either, making use of water.


17. _To clean Marble. Another way._--Mix ¼ lb. of soft soap with
the same of pounded whiting, 1 oz. of soda, and a piece of stone-blue
the size of a walnut; boil these together for ¼ of an hour; whilst
hot, rub it over the marble with a piece of flannel, and leave it
on for 24 hours; then wash it off with clean water, and polish the
marble with a piece of coarse flannel, or what is better, a piece of
an old hat.


18. _To take Stains out of Marble._--Mix unslaked lime in finest
powder with stringent soap-ley, pretty thick, and instantly with a
painter's brush lay it on the whole of the marble. In two months'
time wash it off perfectly clean; then have ready a fine thick lather
of soft soap, boiled in soft water; dip a brush in it, and scour the
marble. This will, with very good rubbing, give a beautiful polish.


19. _To take Iron-stains out of Marble._--An equal quantity of fresh
spirit of vitriol and lemon-juice being mixed in a bottle, shake it
well; wet the spots, and in a few minutes rub with soft linen till
they disappear.


20. _Mixture for cleaning Stone Stairs, Hall Pavements, &c._--Boil
together half a pint each of size and stone-blue water, with two
table-spoonfuls of whiting, and two cakes of pipe-makers' clay,
in about two quarts of water. Wash the stones over with a flannel
slightly wetted in this mixture; and when dry, rub them with flannel
and a brush. Some persons recommend beer, but water is much better
for the purpose.


21. _To Color or Paper the Walls of Rooms._--If a ceiling or wall is
to be whitewashed or colored, the first thing to be done is, to wash
off the dirt and stains with a brush and clean water, being careful
to move the brush in one direction, up and down, and not all sorts of
ways, or the work will look smeary afterwards. When dry, the ceiling
is ready for whitewash, which is to be made by mixing whiting and
water together, till quite smooth, and as thick as cream. Dissolve
half-an-ounce of glue in a teacupful of water, stir it into the
whitewash. This _size_, as it is called, prevents the white or color
rubbing off the wall, and a teacupful is enough for a gallon of wash.
Stone color is made by mixing a little yellow ochre and blue black
with the size, and then stirring it into the whitewash; yellow or red
ochre are also good colors, and, with vermilion or indigo, any shade
may be prepared, according to taste.

If paper is to be used, the wall must be washed with clean water, as
above explained; and while wet, the old color must be scraped off
with a knife, or a smooth-edged steel scraper of any sort. It will
be best to wet a yard or two at a time, and then scrape. Next, wash
the wall all over with size, made with an ounce of glue to a gallon
of water; and when this is dry, the wall is ready for the paper.
This must be cut into lengths according to the different parts of
the room; one edge of the plain strip must be cut off close to the
pattern, and the other left half an inch wide. If the paper is thick,
it should lie a minute or two after it is pasted; but if thin, the
sooner it is on the wall, the better. Begin by placing the close-cut
edge of the paper at one side of the window, stick it securely to
meet the ceiling, let it hang straight, and then press it down
lightly and regularly with a clean cloth. The close-cut edge of the
next length will cover the half-inch left on the first one, and so
make a neat join; and in this way you may go all round the room, and
finish at the other side of the window.


22. _Damp Walls._--Damp may be prevented from exuding from walls
by first drying them thoroughly, and then covering them with the
following mixture: In a quart of linseed oil, boil three ounces of
litharge, and four ounces of resin. Apply this in successive coats,
and it will form a hard varnish on the wall after the fifth coating.


23. _To clean Moreen Curtains._--Having removed the dust and clinging
dirt as much as possible with a brush, lay the curtain on a large
table, sprinkle on it a little bran, and rub it round with a piece of
clean flannel; when the bran and flannel become soiled, use fresh,
and continue rubbing till the moreen looks bright, which it will do
in a short time.


24. _To clean Calico Furniture._--Shake off the loose dust; then
lightly brush with a small, long-haired furniture-brush; after which
wipe it closely with clean flannels, and rub it with dry bread.

If properly done, the curtains will look nearly as well as at first;
and, if the color be not light, they will not require washing for
years.

Fold in large parcels, and put carefully by.

While the furniture remains up, it should be preserved from the sun
and air as much as possible, which injure delicate colors; and the
dust may be blown off with bellows.

By the above mode curtains may be kept clean, even to use with the
linings newly dipped.


25. _Making Beds._--Close or press bedsteads are ill adapted for
young persons or invalids; when their use is unavoidable, the
bed-clothes should be displaced every morning, and left for a short
time before they are shut up.

The windows of bed-rooms should be kept open for some hours every
day, to carry off the effluvia from the bed-clothes; the bed should
also be shaken up, and the clothes spread about, in which state the
longer they remain, the better.

The bed being made, the clothes should not be tucked in at the sides
or foot, as that prevents any further purification taking place, by
the cool air passing through them.

A warming-pan should be chosen without holes in the lid. About a yard
of moderately-sized iron chain, made red hot and put into the pan, is
a simple and excellent substitute for coals.


26. _To Detect Dampness in Beds._--Let the bed be well warmed, and
immediately after the warming-pan is taken out, introduce between the
sheets, in an inverted position, a clean glass goblet: after it has
remained in that situation a few minutes, examine it; if found dry
and not tarnished with steam, the bed is perfectly safe; and _vice
versa_. In the latter case, it will be best to sleep between the
blankets.


27. _Beech-tree Leaves._--The leaves of the beech-tree, collected at
autumn, in dry weather, form an admirable article for filling beds
for the poor. The smell is grateful and wholesome; they do not harbor
vermin, are very elastic, and may be replenished annually without
cost.


28. _Useful Hints relative to Bed-clothes, Mattresses, Cushions,
&c._--The purity of feathers and wool employed for mattresses and
cushions ought to be considered as a first object of salubrity.
Animal emanations may, under many circumstances, be prejudicial
to the health; but the danger is still greater, when the wool
is impregnated with sweat of persons who have experienced putrid
and contagious diseases. Bed-clothes, and the wool of mattresses,
therefore, cannot be too often beat, carded, cleaned, and washed.
This is a caution which cannot be too often recommended.

It would be very easy in most situations, and very effectual, to
fumigate them with muriatic gas.


29. _To clean Feathers of their Oil._--In each gallon of clean water
mix a pound of quick-lime, and when the undissolved lime settles in
fine powder, pour off the lime-water for use. Having put the feathers
to be cleaned into a tub, pour the clear lime-water upon them, and
stir them well about; let them remain three or four days in the
lime-water, which should then be separated from them by laying them
in a sieve. The feathers should next be washed in clean water, and
dried upon fine nets; they will then only require beating, to get rid
of the dust, previous to use.

To restore the spring of damaged feathers, it is only necessary to
dip them in warm water for a short time.


30. _To purify Wool infested with Insects._--The process of
purification consists in putting into three pints of boiling water
a pound and a half of alum, and as much cream of tartar, which are
diluted in twenty-three pints more of cold water. The wool is then
left immersed in this liquor during some days, after which it is
washed and dried. After this operation, it will no longer be subject
to be attacked by insects.


31. _To clean Looking-glasses._--Keep for this purpose a piece of
sponge, a cloth, and a silk handkerchief, all entirely free from
dirt, as the least grit will scratch the fine surface of the glass.
First, sponge it with a little spirit of wine, or gin and water, so
as to clean off all spots; then, dust over it powder-blue, tied in
muslin, rub it lightly and quickly off with the cloth, and finish
by rubbing it with the silk handkerchief. Be careful not to rub the
edges of the frames.


32. _To preserve Gilding, and clean it._--It is impossible to prevent
flies from staining the gilding without covering it; before which,
blow off the light dust, and pass a feather or clean brush over it,
but never touch it with water; then, with strips of paper, or rather
gauze, cover the frames of your glasses, and do not remove till the
flies are gone.

Linen takes off the gilding and deadens its brightness; it should,
therefore, never be used for wiping it.

A good preventive against flies is, to boil three or four leeks in a
pint of water, and then with a gilding-brush wash over the glasses
and frames with the liquid, and the flies will not go near the
articles so washed. This will not injure the frames in the least.
Stains or spots may be removed by gently wiping them with cotton
dipped in sweet oil.


33. _To retouch the rubbed parts of a Picture-frame._--Give the wood
a coating of size made by dissolving isinglass with a weak spirit.
When nearly dry, lay on some gold leaf; and polish, when quite dry,
with an agate burnisher, or any similar substance.


34. _Furniture Oil._--Put into a jar one pint of linseed oil into
which stir one ounce of powdered rose pink, and one ounce of alkanet
root, beaten in a mortar: set the jar in a warm place for a few
days, when the oil will be deeply colored, and the substances having
settled, the oil may be poured off, and will be excellent for
darkening new mahogany.


35. _Furniture Paste._--Put turpentine into a glazed pot, and
scrape beeswax into it, which stir about till the liquid is of the
thickness of cream; it will then be good for months, if kept clean;
and furniture cleaned with the liquid thus made, will not receive
stains so readily as when the turpentine and wax are heated over the
fire; which plan is, besides, very dangerous; but if the heating be
preferred, place the vessel containing the wax and turpentine in
another containing boiling water.


36. _French Polish for Furniture._--To one pint of spirits of wine,
add half an ounce of gum-shellac, half an ounce of gum-lac, a quarter
of an ounce of gum-sandarac; place the whole in a gentle heat,
frequently shaking it, till the gums are dissolved, when it is fit
for use. Make a roller of list, put a little of the polish upon it,
and cover that with a piece of soft linen rag, which must be lightly
touched with cold-drawn linseed oil. Rub the wood in a circular
direction, not covering too large a space at a time, till the pores
of the wood are sufficiently filled up. After this, rub in the same
manner spirits of wine, with a small portion of the polish added to
it; and a most brilliant polish will be produced. If the article
should have been polished with wax, it will be necessary to clean it
off with fine glass paper.


37. _Another Polish and Varnish._--The only way to preserve polish on
rosewood French-polished furniture, is to keep it continually rubbed
with a chamois leather and a silk handkerchief. We have no better
remedy to offer for scratches on the wood than filling them in with
a little oil covered with alkanet-root. The following varnish for
furniture not French-polished, has been highly recommended: Melt one
part of virgin white wax with eight parts of petroleum; lay a slight
coat of this mixture on the wood with a fine brush while warm; the
oil will then evaporate, and leave a thin coat of wax, which should
afterwards be polished with a coarse woolen cloth.


38. _Polish for Dining Tables._--Is to rub them with cold-drawn
linseed oil, thus: Put a little in the middle of a table, and then
with a piece of linen (never use woolen) cloth rub it well all over
the table; then take another piece of linen and rub it for ten
minutes, then rub it till quite dry with another cloth. This must
be done every day for some months, when you will find your mahogany
acquire a permanent and beautiful lustre, unattainable by any other
means, and equal to the finest French polish; and if the table is
covered with the table-cloth only, the hottest dishes will make no
impression upon it; and when once this polish is produced, it will
only require dry rubbing with a linen cloth for about ten minutes,
twice in a week, to preserve it in the highest perfection; which
never fails to please your employers; and remember, that to please
others is always the surest way to profit yourself.

If the appearance must be more immediately produced, take some
FURNITURE PASTE.


39. _Varnished Furniture._--This may be finished off so as to look
equal to the best French polished wood, in the following manner,
which is also suitable to other varnished surfaces. Take two ounces
of Tripoli powder, put it into an earthen pot, with just enough water
to cover it; then take a piece of white flannel, lay it over a piece
of cork or rubber, and proceed to polish the varnish, always wetting
it with the Tripoli and water. It will be known when the process is
finished by wiping a part of the work with a sponge, and observing
whether there is a fair, even gloss. When this is the case, take a
bit of mutton suet and fine flour, and clean the work.

Frames of varnished wood may be cleaned to look new, by careful
washing with a sponge and soap and water, but nothing stronger should
be used.


40. _Varnish for Violins, &c._--Take a gallon of rectified spirits
of wine, twelve ounces of mastic, and a pint of turpentine varnish;
put them all together in a tin can, and keep it in a very warm place,
shaking it occasionally till it is perfectly dissolved; then strain
it, and it is fit for use. If you find it necessary, you may dilute
it with turpentine varnish. This varnish is also very useful for
furniture of plum-tree, mahogany, or rosewood.


41. _White Varnish._--The white varnish used for toys is made of
sandarac, eight ounces; mastic, two ounces; Canada balsam, four
ounces; alcohol, one quart. This is white, drying, and capable of
being polished when hard. Another varnish for objects of the toilet,
such as work-boxes, card-cases, &c., is made of gum sandarac, six
ounces; elemi (genuine), four ounces: anime, one ounce; camphor, half
an ounce; rectified spirit, one quart. Melt slowly. These ingredients
may, of course, be lessened in proportion.


42. _To remove Ink-spots from Mahogany._--Drop on the spots a very
small quantity of spirits of salt; rub it with a feather or piece
of flannel, taking care not to let the spirit reach the fingers or
clothes; in four or five minutes, wash it off with water.

Or, mix a teaspoonful of burnt alum, powdered, with a quarter of an
ounce of oxalic acid, in half a pint of cold water; to be used by
wetting a rag with it, and rubbing it on the ink-spots.

Or, crumple a piece of blotting-paper, so as to make it firm, wet
it, and with it rub the ink-spot firmly and briskly, when it will
disappear; and the white mark from the operation may be immediately
removed by rubbing it with a cloth.

43. _Or:_--Dilute ½ a teaspoonful of oil of vitriol with a large
spoonful of water, and touch the part with a feather; watch it, for
if it stays too long, it will leave a white mark. It is, therefore,
better to rub it quickly, and repeat if not quite removed.


44. _To clean Chairs._--Scrape down one or two ounces of beeswax, put
it into a jar, and pour as much spirits of turpentine over it as will
cover it: let it stand till dissolved. Put a little upon a flannel
or bit of green baize, rub it upon the chairs, and polish them with
a brush. A very small portion of finely-powdered white rosin may be
mixed with the turpentine and wax.


45. _To clean and restore the Elasticity of Cane Chair Bottoms,
Couches, &c._--Turn up the chair bottom, &c., and with hot water and
a sponge wash the cane work well, so that it may be well soaked;
should it be dirty, you must add soap; let it dry in the air, and you
will find it as tight and firm as when new, providing the cane is not
broken.


46. _Blacking for Leather Seats, &c._--Beat well the yolks of
two eggs, and the white of one; mix a tablespoonful of gin and a
teaspoonful of sugar, thicken it with ivory black, add it to the
eggs, and use as common blacking; the seats or cushions being left a
day or two to harden.


47. _To prevent Hinges Creaking._--Rub them with soft soap, or a
feather dipped in oil.


48. _Swallows' Nests._--To prevent swallows building under eaves, or
in window corners, rub the places with oil or soft soap.


49. _To clean Polished Grates and Irons._--Make into a paste with
cold water, four pounds of putty-powder and one of finely-powdered
whiting; rub off carefully the spots from the irons, and with a
dry clean duster rub the irons with the mixture always in the same
direction till bright and clear. Plain dry whiting will keep it
highly polished if well attended to every day. The putty mixture
should be used only to remove spots.


50. _To clean the Back of the Grate, the inner Hearth, and the fronts
of Cast-Iron Stoves._--Mix black lead and whites of eggs well beaten
together; dip a painter's brush, and wet all over, then rub it bright
with a hard brush.


51. _To remove the Black from the Bright Bars of Polished Stoves in a
few minutes._--Rub them well with some of the following mixture on
a bit of broadcloth; when the dirt is removed, wipe them clean, and
polish with glass (not sand) paper.

52. _For Mixture_:--Boil slowly one pound of soft soap in two quarts
of water to one quart. Of this jelly take three or four spoonfuls,
and mix to a consistence with emery.


53. _To clean Bright Stoves._--There are many ways of cleaning a
stove, but if the ornamental parts be neglected, rust will soon
disfigure the surface, and lead to incalculable trouble. Emery dust,
moistened into a paste with sweet oil, should be kept in a little
jar; this should be applied on a bung, up and down, never crossways,
until marks or burns disappear. A dry leather should then remove the
oil, and a polish should afterwards be given with putty powder on a
dry clean leather.


54. _Another way to clean Grates._--The best mixture for cleaning
bright stove-grates is rotten-stone and sweet oil: they require
constant attention, for, if rust be once suffered to make its
appearance, it will become a toil to efface it. Polished fire-irons,
if not allowed to rust by neglect, will require merely rubbing with
leather; and the higher the polish, the less likely they are to rust.
If the room be shut up for a time, and the grates be not used, to
prevent their rusting, cover them with lime and sweet oil.

Bright fenders are cleaned as stoves; cast-iron fenders require black
lead; they should not, however, be cleaned in the sitting-room, as
the powdered lead may fly about and injure carpets and furniture. A
good plan is to send cast-iron fenders to be bronzed or lackered by
the iron-monger; they will then only require brushing, to free the
dust from the ornamental work. The bright top of a fender should be
cleaned with fine emery-paper.


55. _To prevent Fire-Irons becoming Rusty._--Rub them with sweet
oil, and dust over them unslaked lime. If they be rusty, oil them
for two or three days, then wipe them dry, and polish with flour
emery, powdered pumice-stone, or lime. A mixture of tripoli with half
its quantity of sulphur, will also remove rust; as will emery mixed
with soft soap, boiled to a jelly. The last mixture is also used for
removing the fire-marks from bright bars.


56. _To Color the Backs of Chimneys with Lead Ore._--Clean them with
a very strong brush, and carefully rub off the dust and rust; pound
about a quarter of a pound of lead ore into a fine powder, and put it
into a vessel with half a pint of vinegar, then apply it to the back
of the chimney with a brush. When it is made black with this liquid,
take a dry brush, dip it in the same powder without vinegar; then dry
and rub it with this brush, till it becomes as shining as glass.


57. _To blacken the fronts of Stone Chimney-pieces._--Mix oil-varnish
with lamp-black, and a little spirit of turpentine to thin it to the
consistence of paint. Wash the stone with soap and water very clean;
then sponge it with clear water; and when perfectly dry, brush it
over twice with this color, letting it dry between the times. It
looks extremely well. The lamp-black must be sifted first.


58. _Composition that will effectually prevent Iron, Steel, &c., from
rusting._--This method consists in mixing, with fat oil varnish,
four-fifths of well rectified spirit of turpentine. The varnish is
to be applied by means of a sponge; and articles varnished in this
manner will retain their metallic brilliancy, and never contract any
spots of rust. It may be applied to copper, and to the preservation
of philosophical instruments; which, by being brought into contact
with water, are liable to lose their splendor, and become tarnished.


59. _To keep Arms and polished Metal from Rust._--Dissolve one ounce
of camphor in two pounds of hog's lard, observing to take off the
scum; then mix as much black lead as will give the mixture an iron
color. Fire-arms, &c., rubbed over with this mixture, and left with
it on twenty-four hours, and then dried with a linen cloth, will keep
clean for many months.


60. _To preserve Irons from Rust._--Melt fresh mutton-suet, and smear
over the iron with it while hot; then dust it well with unslaked lime
pounded and tied up in a muslin. Irons so prepared will keep many
months. Use no oil for them but salad-oil, there being water in all
other.

Fire-irons should be wrapped in baize, and kept in a dry place, when
not used.


61. _To prevent polished Hardware and Cutlery from taking
Rust._--Case-knives, snuffers, watch-chains, and other small articles
made of steel, may be preserved from rust, by being carefully wiped
after use, and then wrapped in coarse brown paper, the virtue of
which is such, that all hardware goods from Sheffield, Birmingham,
&c., are always wrapped in the same.


62. _Another way._--Beat into three pounds of fresh hog's-lard two
drachms of camphor till it is dissolved; then add as much black lead
as will make it the color of broken steel. Dip a rag in it, and rub
it thick on the stove, &c., and the steel will never rust, even if
wet. When it is to be used, the grease must be washed off with hot
water, and the steel be dried before polishing.


63. _To take Rust out of Steel._--Cover the steel with sweet oil
well rubbed on it, and in forty-eight hours use unslaked lime finely
powdered, to rub until all the rust disappears.


64. _To clean Plate._--See that the plate is quite free from grease,
by having been washed, if necessary, in warm soap and water. Then mix
some whiting with water, and with a sponge rub it well on the plate,
which will take the tarnish off, making use of a brush not too hard,
to clean the intricate parts. Next, take some rouge-powder, mix it
with water to about the thickness of cream, and with a small piece of
leather (which should be kept for that purpose only) apply the rouge.
This, with a little rubbing, will produce a most beautiful polish.
This is the actual manner in which silversmiths clean their plate.


65. _The common method of cleaning Plate._--First wash it well with
soap and warm water; when perfectly dry, mix together a little
whiting and sweet oil, so as to make a soft paste; then take a piece
of flannel, rub it on the plate, then with a leather, and plenty of
dry whiting, rub it clean off again; then with a clean leather and a
brush, finish it.


66. _An easy way to clean Plate._--A flannel and soap, and soft
water, with proper rubbing, will clean plate nicely. It should be
wiped dry with a good-sized piece of soft leather.


67. _Plate Powder._--In most of the articles sold as plate
powders, under a variety of names, there is an injurious mixture
of quicksilver, which is said sometimes so far to penetrate and
render silver brittle, that it will even break with a fall. Whiting,
properly purified from sand, applied wet, and rubbed till dry, is
one of the easiest, safest, and certainly the cheapest of all plate
powders: jewelers and silversmiths, for small articles, seldom use
any thing else. If, however, the plate be boiled a little in water,
with an ounce of calcined hartshorn in powder to about three pints
of water, then drained over the vessel in which it was boiled, and
afterwards dried by the fire, while some soft linen rags are boiled
in the liquid till they have wholly imbibed it; these rags will,
when dry, not only assist to clean the plate, which must afterwards
be rubbed bright with leather, but also serve admirably for cleaning
brass locks, finger-plates, &c.


68. _To cleanse Gold._--Wash the article in warm suds made of
delicate soap and water, with ten or fifteen drops of sal-volatile.
(The sal-volatile will render the metal brittle. This hint may be
used or left, at pleasure.)


69. _To clean Brass and Copper._--Rub it over slightly with a bit
of flannel dipped in sweet oil; next, rub it hard with another bit
dipped in finely-powdered rotten stone; then make it clean with a
soft linen cloth, and finish by polishing it with a plate-leather.


70. _Obs._--The inside of brass or copper vessels should be scoured
with fullers' earth and water, and set to dry, else the tinning will
be injured.


71. _Another way to clean Brass and Copper._--Put one pennyworth of
powdered rotten stone into a dry, clean quart bottle; nearly fill it
up with cold soft water; shake it well, and add one penny-worth of
vitriol. Rub it on with a rag, and dry it with a clean, soft cloth,
and then polish it with a plate-leather. This mixture will keep for
a long time, and becomes better the longer it is kept. But the first
method gives the most lasting polish, as well as the finest color.


72. _To clean Brass Ornaments._--Wash the ornament in a strong
solution of boiled roche-alum, in the proportion of an ounce to a
pint of water. When dry, rub them with fine tripoli powder.


73. _Polishing Paste for Britannia metal, tins, brasses, and
coppers_, is composed of rotten-stone, soft soap, and oil of
turpentine.

The stone must be powdered and sifted through a muslin or hair sieve:
mix with it as much soft soap as will bring it to the stiffness
of putty: to about half-a-pound of this, add two ozs. of oil of
turpentine. It may be made up in balls, or put in gallipots; it
will soon become hard, and will keep any length of time. Method of
using:--The articles to be polished should be perfectly freed from
grease and dirt. Moisten a little of the paste with water, smear it
over the metal, then rub briskly with dry rag or wash-leather, and it
will soon bear a beautiful polish.


74. _To clean Britannia metal._--Rub the article with a piece of
flannel moistened with sweet oil; then apply a little pounded
rotten-stone or polishing paste with the finger, till the polish is
produced; then wash the article with soap and hot water, and when
dry, rub with soft wash-leather, and a little fine whiting.


75. _To clean Pewter._--Scour it with fine white sand, and strong ley
made with wood-ashes, soda, or pearl-ash; then rinse the pewter in
clean water, and set it to drain. The best method, however, is to use
the oil of tartar and sand.


76. _To clean Tin Covers._--Get the finest whiting; mix a little of
it powdered with the least drop of sweet oil, rub the covers well
with it, and wipe them clean; then dust over them some dry whiting
in a muslin bag, and rub bright with dry leather. This last is to
prevent rust, which the cook must guard against by wiping them dry,
and putting them by the fire when they come from the parlor; for if
but once hung up damp, the inside will rust.


77. _Safe Method of cleaning Tea-urns._--In an earthen gallipot
put one ounce of bees'-wax, cut up in small pieces; set it by the
fireside, until perfectly melted and quite hot, very near boiling
heat; remove the jar from the fire, and stir into it rather
less than a table-spoonful of salad oil, and rather more than a
table-spoonful of best spirits of turpentine; continue stirring till
well mixed and nearly cold; fill the urn with boiling water so as to
make it thoroughly hot, apply a thin coating of the above mixture,
and rub with a soft cloth, till all stickiness is removed, then
polish with a clean rag and a little crocus powder.

N. B.--The crocus powder must be very fine, so as to sift through
muslin.


78. _To clean Gilt or Lacquered Articles._--Brush them with warm soap
and water, wipe them, and set them before the fire to dry; finish
with a soft cloth. By this simple means may be cleaned ormolu and
French gilt candelabra, branches, and lamps; mosaic gold and gilt
jewelry, toys and ornaments. Care is requisite in brushing the dirt
from fine work, and finishing it quite dry. Any thing stronger than
soap, as acids, pearl-ash, or soda, will be liable to remove the
lacquer.

_To polish inlaid Brass Ornaments._--Mix powdered tripoli and linseed
oil, and dip in it a piece of hat, with which rub the brass; then, if
the wood be ebony, or dark rosewood, polish it with elder ashes in
fine powder.


79. _To clean Lacquer._--Make a paste of starch, one part; powdered
rotten-stone, twelve parts; sweet oil, two parts; oxalic acid, one
part; water to mix.


80. _To clean Door-plates._--To clean brass-plates on doors, so as
not to injure the paint at the edges, cut the size of the plate out
of a large piece of mill-board, place it against the door, and rub
the plate with rotten-stone, or crocus and sweet oil, upon leather.


81. _To clean Mother-o'-pearl._--Wash in whiting and water. Soap
destroys the brilliancy.


82. _To clean Knives and Forks._--Hold the knives straightly on
the board, and pass them backward and forward in as straight a
line as possible. Forks should be cleaned with a stick covered
with buff-leather, and finished with a brush. The best article for
cleaning is the powder of the well-known Flanders bricks.


83. _Of Knife-boards._--A knife-board properly made, should consist
of an inch-deal-board, five feet long, with a hole at one end by
which it is to be hung up when not in use. At this end, the left
hand, and close to the front edge, should be fastened a stiff brush
for cleaning forks. At the other end should be a box, with the
open end towards the hand, and a sliding lid; this should contain
a bath-brick, leathers for forks, &c., so that the materials for
cleaning may be shut in and hung up with the board.

Or, cover a smooth board free from knots, with thick buff-leather,
on which spread, the thickness of a shilling, the following
paste:--emery, one ounce; crocus, three ounces; mixed with lard or
sweet oil. This composition will not only improve the polish, but
also the edges of the knives.


84. _To re-fasten the loose handles of Knives and Forks._--Make
a cement of common brick-dust and rosin, melted together.
Seal-engravers understand this receipt.


85. _Metal Kettles and other Vessels._--The crust on boilers and
kettles arises from the hardness of the water boiled in them. Its
formation may be prevented by keeping in the vessel a marble, or a
potato tied in a piece of linen.

Tin-plate vessels are cleanly and convenient; but, unless carefully
dried after washing, they will soon rust in holes.

Iron coal-scoops are liable to rust from the damp of the coals.

If cold water be thrown on cast-iron when hot (as the back of a
grate), it will crack. Cast-iron articles are brittle, and cannot be
repaired.

The tinning of copper-saucepans should be kept perfect, clean, and
dry: in which case they may be used with safety.

Copper pans, _if put away damp_, will become coated with poisonous
crust, or verdigris, as will also a boiling-copper, if left wet.
When used for cooking, and not properly cleaned, copper vessels have
occasioned death to persons partaking of soup which had been warmed
in a pan infected with verdigris.

Untinned copper or brass vessels are at all times dangerous: it
is absurd to suppose, that if the copper or brass pan be scoured
bright and clean, there is little or no danger, for this makes but a
trifling difference; such vessels for culinary purposes ought to be
banished for ever from the kitchen.

A polished silver or brass tea-urn will keep the water hotter than
one of a dull brown color, such as is most commonly used. The more of
the surface of a kettle that is polished, the sooner will water boil
in it, as the part coated with soot drives off rather than retains
heat.

A polished metal tea-pot is preferable to one of earthenware; because
the earthen pot retains the heat only one-eighth of the time that a
silver or polished metal pot will; consequently, the latter will best
_draw_ the tea.

A German saucepan is best adapted for boiling milk in: this is a
saucepan glazed with white earthenware, instead of being tinned in
the usual manner; the glaze prevents the tendency to burn, which, it
is well known, milk possesses.

A stewpan, made as the German saucepan, is preferable to a metal
preserving-pan; simple washing keeps it sweet and clean, and neither
color nor flavor can by any chance be communicated to the article
boiled in it.

Ornamental furniture, inlaid with brass or buhl, should not be placed
very near the fire, as the metal when it becomes warm expands, and,
being then too large for the space in which it was laid, starts from
the wood.

"German silver" will not rust; but it does not contain a particle of
silver, it being only white copper. If left in vinegar, or any acid
mixture, it will become coated with verdigris. Salt should never be
left in silver cellars, else the metal will be much injured.


86. _To clean Glasses._--Glasses should be first washed in warm clean
soap-suds, and rinsed in fresh cold water; wipe off the wet with one
cloth, and finish them with another.


87. _Cleaning Decanters._--Those encrusted with dregs of port wine,
can be readily freed from stain by washing them with the refuse of
the teapot, leaves and all. Dip the decanter into a vessel containing
warm water, to prevent the hot tea-leaves from cracking the glass,
then empty the teapot into the decanter, and shake it well. The
_tannin_ of the tea has a chemical affinity for the _crust_ on the
glass.


88. _To clean Decanters._--Put into them broken egg-shells, pieces of
coarse brown or blotting paper, with pearlash, and nearly fill them
with lukewarm water; shake them well for a few minutes, or, if very
dirty, leave them for some hours, when rinse the decanters with cold
water. The settlement of the crust of wine in decanters, may be best
prevented by rinsing at night, with cold water, all the decanters
used during the day. To clean the outer work of decanters, rub it
with a damp sponge dipped in whiting; then brush it well, rinse the
vessel in cold water, drain, and finish with a fine dry cloth.


89. _To remove Crust from Glass._--It often happens that glass
vessels used for flowers and other purposes, receive an unsightly
crust hard to be removed by scouring. The best method is to wash it
with a little diluted spirit of salts, which will soon loosen it.


90. _To cleanse Bottles._--To cleanse bottles with bad smells, put
into them pieces of blotting or brown paper, and fill up with water;
shake the bottles, and leave them for a day or two, when, if they be
not sweetened, repeat the process, and rinse with pure water.


91. _To restore the Lustre of Glasses tarnished by Age or
Accident._--Strew on them powdered fuller's-earth, carefully cleared
from sand, &c., and rub them carefully with a linen cloth. Oxide of
tin (putty) would perhaps be better.


92. _To clean China._--_China_ is best cleaned, when very dirty, with
finely-powdered fuller's-earth and warm water; afterwards rinsing it
well in clean water. A little clean soft soap may be added to the
water instead of fuller's-earth. The same plan is recommended for
cleaning glass.


93. _To clean Alabaster._--Remove any spots of grease with spirit of
turpentine: then dip the article in water for about ten minutes, rub
it with a painter's brush and let it dry; finish by rubbing it with a
soft brush dipped into dry and fine plaster of Paris.


94. _To bleach Ivory._--Ivory that has become discolored, may be
brought to a pure whiteness by exposing it to the sun under glasses;
having first brushed the ivory with pumice-stone, burnt and made into
a paste with water. To conceal the cracks in antique ivory, brush out
the dust with warm water and soap, and then place the ivory under
glass. It should be daily exposed to the sun, and turned from time
to time, that it may become equally bleached.


95. _Glazed Vessels._--The glazing of stone ware is sometimes very
imperfect: to test it, nearly fill the vessel with vinegar, into
which put some fat of beef, salted; boil for half an hour, and set
it by for a day, when, if the glazing be imperfect, small black
particles of lead will be seen at the bottom of the vessel.


96. _Use of Candle Snuffs for cleaning Glass._--Candle snuffs are
generally thrown away as useless; they are, however, of great utility
for cleaning mirrors and windows, especially the former. For this
purpose take a small quantity of the burnt snuffs and rub them with a
soft cloth upon the surface of the mirror. In a short time a splendid
polish will appear, superior to that obtained by other means. We
know those who clean the whole of the windows in a large house with
snuffs; and we are told that not only are the windows cleaned much
better but also much quicker than by the ordinary methods.

_A Razor Strop Paste_ is also made of candle-snuffs, and answers very
well. It consists in simply rubbing a small quantity of the snuffs
upon the strop; this imparts a keener edge to the razor than when no
such paste is employed. Mechi's celebrated Magic Razor Strop Paste is
certainly an excellent article, but we question whether it be much
superior to the ordinary and common-place substance now recommended.


97. _To loosen the Glass Stopples of Smelling Bottles and
Decanters._--With a feather rub a drop or two of olive oil round
the stopple, close to the mouth of the bottle or decanter, which
must be then placed before the fire, at the distance of a foot or
eighteen inches; in which position the heat will cause the oil to
spread downward between the stopple and the neck. When the bottle
or decanter has grown warm, gently strike the stopple on one side,
and on the other, with any light wooden instrument; then try it
with the hand. If it will not yet move, place it again before the
fire, adding, if you choose, another drop of oil. After a while
strike again as before; and by persevering in this process, however
tightly the stopple may be fastened in, you will at length succeed in
loosening it.


98. _Or_, knocking the stopper gently with a piece of wood, first
on one side, then on the other, will generally loosen it. If this
method does not succeed, a cloth wetted with hot water and applied to
the neck, will sometimes expand the glass sufficiently to allow the
stopper to be easily withdrawn.


99. _Crockery and Glass._--Crockery and glass, to be used for holding
hot water, are best seasoned by boiling them, by putting the articles
in a saucepan of cold water over the fire, and letting the water just
boil; the saucepan should then be removed, and the articles should be
allowed to remain in it till the water is cold. Some kind of pottery
is best seasoned by soaking in cold water.

Choose thin rather than thick glasses, as the thin glass is less
likely to be broken by boiling water than that which is thicker; for,
thin glass allows the heat to pass through it in least time. The
safest plan is to pour boiling water very slowly into cold glasses.

As boiling water will often break cold glass, so a cold liquid will
break hot glass; thus wine, if poured into decanters that have been
placed before the fire, will frequently break them.

Glass dishes and stands made in moulds are much cheaper than others,
and they have a good appearance, if not placed near cut-glass.

Lamp-glasses are often cracked by the flame being too high when they
are first placed round it; the only method of preventing which is to
lower the flame before the glass is put on the lamp, and to raise the
flame gradually as the glass heats.


100. _Polished Tea Urns preferable to varnished ones._--Polished tea
urns may be kept boiling with a much less expense of spirits of wine,
than such as are varnished; and the cleaner and brighter the dishes,
and covers for dishes, which are used for bringing food to table,
and for keeping it hot, the more effectually will they answer that
purpose.


101. _Japanned Candlesticks and Tea-Trays, and Paper work._--To
remove grease from these, let the water be just warm enough to melt
it; then wipe them with a cloth, and if they look smeared, sprinkle a
little flour on them, and wipe it clean off. Wax candles should not
be burned in the candlesticks, as the wax cannot be taken off without
injuring the varnish. Paper work is liable to break if let fall, or
if boiling water be poured on it.


102. _To clean Lamps._--Bronzed lamps should be wiped carefully; if
oil be frequently spilled over them, it will cause the bronzing to
be rubbed off sooner than it would disappear by wear. Brass lamps
are best cleaned with crocus or rotten-stone and sweet oil. Lackered
lamps may be washed with soap and water, but should not be touched
with acid or very strong ley, else the lacker will soon come off.
When lamps are foul inside, wash them with potash and water, rinse
them well, set them before the fire, and be sure they are dry before
oil is again put into them.

Lamps will have a less disagreeable smell, if, before using, the
cottons be dipped in hot vinegar, and dried.

To clean ground-glass shades, wash the insides carefully with weak
soap and water, lukewarm, rub them very lightly and dry with a soft
cloth.


103. _To make economical Wicks for Lamps._--When using a lamp with
a flat wick, if you take a piece of clean cotton stocking, it will
answer the purpose as well as the cotton wicks which are sold in the
shops.


104. _Wax Candles._--Should they get dirty and yellow, wet them with
a piece of flannel dipped in spirits of wine.


105. _Blowing out a Candle._--There is one small fact in domestic
economy which is not generally known; but which is useful, as saving
time, trouble, and temper. If a candle be blown out holding it above
you, the wick will not smoulder down, and may therefore be easily
lighted again; but if blown upon downwards, the contrary is the case.


106. _Plain Hints about Candles._--Candles improve by keeping a few
months. Those made in winter are the best. The most economical, as
well as the most convenient plan, is to purchase them by the box,
keeping them always in a cool, dry place. If wax candles become
discolored or soiled, they may be restored by rubbing them over with
a clean flannel slightly dipped in spirits of wine. Candles are
sometimes difficult to light. They will ignite instantly, if, when
preparing them for the evening, you dip the top in spirits of wine,
shortly before they are wanted. Light them always with a match, and
do not hold them to the fire, as that will cause the tops to melt and
drip. Always hold the match to the side of the wick, and not over
the top. If you find the candles too small for the candlesticks,
always wrap a small piece of white paper round the bottom end, not
allowing the paper to appear above the socket. Cut the wicks to a
convenient length for lighting (nearly close); for if the wick is too
long at the top, it will be very difficult to ignite, and will also
bend down, and set the candle to running. Glass receivers, for the
droppings of candles, are very convenient, as well as ornamental. The
pieces of candles that are left each evening should be placed in a
tin box kept for that purpose, and used for bed lights.


107. _To make an improved Candle._--Make the wicks about half the
usual size, and wet them with spirits of turpentine; dry them, before
dipping, in the sunshine, or in some favorable place, and the candles
will be more durable, emit a steadier and clearer blaze, and be in
every way superior to those made in the ordinary way.


108. _Quicksilver._--Tallow will take up quicksilver. Vinegar kills
it.


109. _To give any Close-grained Wood the appearance of
Mahogany._--The surface of the wood must first be planed smooth, and
then rubbed with weak aquafortis; after which it is to be finished
with the following varnish:--To three pints of spirit of wine is to
be added four ounces and a half of dragon's blood and an ounce of
soda, which have been previously ground together; after standing
some time, that the dragon's blood may dissolve, the varnish is to
be strained, and laid on the wood with a soft brush. This process is
to be repeated, and then the wood possesses the perfect appearance
of mahogany. When the polish diminishes in brilliancy, it may be
speedily restored by rubbing the article with linseed oil.


110. _To Darken Mahogany._--Drop a nodule of lime in a basin of
water, and wash the mahogany with it.


111. _To make Imitation Rosewood._--Brush the wood over with a strong
decoction of logwood, while hot; repeat this process three or four
times; put a quantity of iron-filings amongst vinegar; then with a
flat open brush, made with a piece of cane, bruised at the end, or
split with a knife, apply the solution of iron-filings and vinegar
to the wood in such a manner as to produce the fibres of the wood
required. After it is dry, the wood must be polished with turpentine
and bees'-wax.


112. _Imitation of Ebony._--Pale-colored woods are stained in
imitation of ebony by washing them with, or steeping them in a strong
decoction of logwood or galls, allowing them to dry, and then washing
them over with a solution of the sulphate or acetate of iron. When
dry, they are washed with clean water, and the process repeated, if
required. They are, lastly, polished or varnished.


113. _Cheap Coloring for Rooms._--Boil any quantity of potatoes,
bruise them, and pour on them boiling water until a pretty thick
mixture is obtained, which is to be passed through a sieve; then mix
whiting with boiling water, and add it to the potato mixture. To
color it, add either of the ochres, lampblack, &c.


114. _Cheap Paint._--Tar mixed with yellow ochre makes an excellent
green paint, for coarse wood-work, iron fencing, &c.


115. _Weather-proof Composition._--Mix a quantity of sand with double
the quantity of wood ashes, well sifted, and three times as much
slaked lime; grind these with linseed oil, and use the composition
as paint; the first coat thin, the second thick; and in a short time
it will become so hard as to resist weather and time.

Or, slake lime in tar, and into it dip sheets of the thickest brown
paper, to be laid on in the manner of slating.


116. _Artificial Marble._--Soak in a solution of alum a quantity of
plaster of Paris. Bake it in an oven, and grind it to a powder. When
wanted, mix it with water to about the consistency of plaster. It
sets into an exceedingly hard composition, and takes a high polish.
It may be mixed with various colored minerals or ochres to represent
the various marbles, and is a valuable receipt.


117. _To give Wooden Stairs the Appearance of Stone._--Paint the
stairs, step, by step, with white paint, mixed with strong drying
oil. Strew it thick with silver sand.

It ought to be thoroughly dry next morning, when the loose sand is to
be swept off. The painting and sanding is to be repeated, and when
dry, the surface is to be done over with pipe-clay, whiting, and
water; which may be boiled in an old saucepan, and laid on with a bit
of flannel, not too thick, otherwise it will be apt to scale off.

A penny cake of pipe-clay, which must be scraped, is the common
proportion to half a lump of whiting.

The pipe-clay and whiting is generally applied once a week, but that
might be done only as occasion requires.


118. _Lime for Cottage Walls, &c._--Take a stone or two of unslaked
white lime, and dissolve it in a pail of cold water. This, of course,
is whitewash. The more lime used, the thicker it will be; but the
consistence of cream is generally advisable. In another vessel
dissolve some green vitriol in hot water. Add it, when dissolved, to
the whitewash, and a buff is produced. The more vitriol used, the
darker it will be. Stir it well up, and use it in the same way as
whitewash, having first carefully got off all the old dirt from the
walls. Two or three coats are usually given. For a border at top and
base, use more vitriol, to make it darker than the walls. If you have
stencil-plates, you can use it with them. This is cheap, does not rub
off like ochre, and is pure and wholesome, besides being disinfecting.


119. _A White for Inside Painting, which dries in about four hours,
and leaves no smell._--Take one gallon of spirits of turpentine, and
two pounds of frankincense; let them simmer over a clear fire till
dissolved, then strain and bottle it. Add one quart of this mixture
to a gallon of bleached linseed oil, shake them well together, and
bottle them likewise. Grind any quantity of white-lead very fine with
spirits of turpentine, then add a sufficient quantity of the last
mixture to it, till you find it fit for laying on. If it grows thick
in working, it must be thinned with spirit of turpentine; it gives a
flat, or dead white.


120. _A Green Paint for Garden Stands, Trellisses, &c._--Take mineral
green, and white lead ground in turpentine; mix up the quantity you
wish with a small quantity of turpentine-varnish; this serves for
the first coat; for the second, put as much varnish in your mixture
as will produce a good gloss; if you desire a brighter green, add a
small quantity of Prussian blue, which will much improve the beauty
of the color.


121. _Cheap and beautiful Green._--The cost of this paint is less
than one-fourth of oil color, and the beauty far superior. Take
four pounds of Roman vitriol, and pour on it a tea-kettleful of
boiling water; when dissolved, add two pounds of pearl-ash, and stir
the mixture well with a stick until the effervescence cease; then
add a quarter of a pound of pulverized arsenic, and stir the whole
together. Lay it on with a paint brush, and if the wall has not been
painted before, at least two, or even three coats, will be requisite.
If a pea-green is required, put in less, and if an apple-green, more,
of the yellow arsenic.


122. _To Destroy the Smell of Fresh Paint._--Mix chloride of lime
with water, with which damp some hay, and strew it upon the floor.


123. _To take the Smell of Paint from Rooms._--Let three or four
broad tubs, each containing about eight gallons of water, and one
ounce of vitriolic acid, be placed in the new painted room near the
wainscot; this water will absorb and retain the effluvia from the
paint in three days, but the water should be renewed each day during
that time.


124. _To remove Unpleasant Odors._--The unpleasant smell of new
paint is best removed by time and atmospheric ventilation; but
tubs of water placed in the apartment, will act more rapidly; with
this inconvenience, however, that the gloss of the paint will be
destroyed. Unpleasant smells from water-closets, or all articles of
furniture connected with them, may be modified by the application of
lime-water, to which may be added the soap-suds that have been used
in washing, which neutralize the pungently offensive salts; a little
quick-lime put into a night-chair will destroy all disagreeable
effluvia. Aromatic pastiles of the following composition may be
burned with great success: take of camphor, flowers of benzoin,
powdered charcoal, powdered cascarilla bark, powdered Turkey myrrh,
and powdered nitre, each equal quantities; beat them with syrup
sufficient to form a mass, and divide into pastiles of a conical
shape. They may be mixed up with spirit of turpentine (the rectified
oil) or anything that is inflammable. Syrup does best, as it is most
adhesive.


125. _To prevent disagreeable Smells from Privies, Night Chairs,
&c._--Milk of lime (water in which lime has been slaked, and which
is whitened by the fine particles of that substance) must be mixed
with a ley of ashes, or soapy water that has been used in washing,
then thrown into the sink of the privy; it will destroy the offensive
smell. By these means, for the value of a few pence, any collection
of filth whatever may be neutralized.

For the night-chair of sick persons, put within the vessel half a
pound of quicklime, half an ounce of powdered sal-ammoniac, and water
one pint: this will prevent any disagreeable odor.


126. _Remarks._--Quicklime, or even lime just slaked, answers the
purpose without any addition. It is the only thing used in camps,
particularly in hot countries, to keep the ditches from creating
contagion.


127. _To clean Books or Prints._--Ink spots may be removed by oxalic
acid dissolved in water, and carefully applied with a hair pencil.
To remove oil or grease, warm the spot, lay over it blotting paper,
and upon it the heated blade of a knife, when the blotting-paper will
absorb the grease; then apply spirits of turpentine, with a hair
pencil, and restore the whiteness of the paper with spirits of wine.


128. _To preserve Books._--A few drops of any perfumed oil will
secure libraries from the consuming effects of mouldiness and damp.
Russian leather which is perfumed with the tar of the birch-tree,
never moulds; and merchants suffer large bales of this article to
lie in the London Docks in the most careless manner, knowing that it
cannot sustain any injury from damp.


129. _To clean Oil Paintings._--Clean the picture well with a sponge,
dipped in warm beer; after it has become perfectly dry, wash it with
a solution of the finest gum-dragon, dissolved in pure water. Never
use blue starch, which tarnishes and eats out the coloring; nor white
of eggs, which casts a thick varnish over pictures, and only mends
bad ones by concealing the faults of the coloring.


130. _To Light a Coal Fire._--A considerable saving of time and
trouble might often be effected, if housemaids would attend to the
following rules in lighting a fire:--Clear the grate well from ashes
and cinders; then lay at the bottom of it a few lumps of _fresh
coal_, about the size of ducks' eggs, so as not wholly to obstruct
the air passing between the bars on which they are placed. This done,
put a small quantity of waste paper or shavings next upon the coal;
then a few sticks or pieces of split wood placed carefully above it,
so that they may not project between the bars; then a layer of the
cinders you have before taken from the grate; and next a few lumps of
coal on the top. Take care to _complete_ this process before applying
the light, which may easily be done afterwards by means of a lucifer
match, and you will seldom fail to have a good fire in a few minutes.

Nothing is easier than to light a fire in the way here recommended,
but the coals and cinders must be laid in place by hand, and not
thrown in anyhow with the shovel. If the kindling wood be green or
damp, it should be dried over night, as a more miserable task cannot
be attempted than to light a fire with damp materials.


131. _Another Way._--To light a fire from one already kindled, put
three or four pieces of charcoal between the bars of the grate; then
lay a few pieces of fresh coal upon the bottom of the grate in which
the second fire is to be made, and place upon them, crosswise, the
lighted pieces of charcoal; cover them with pieces of fresh coal,
and blow them with the hand-bellows, when the charcoal will set fire
to the fresh coal, and a brisk fire will be made in a few minutes.
On the contrary, if we light a fire with wood, some time must elapse
before it can safely be blown.


132. _Economy in Fuel._--A saving of nearly one-third of the coal
consumed may be made by the following easy means:--Let the coal
ashes, which are usually thrown into the dust bin, be preserved in
a corner of the coal hole, and make your servants add to them from
your coal heap an equal part of the small coal or slack, which is too
small to be retained in the grate, and pour a small quantity of water
upon the mixture. When you make up your fire, place a few round coals
in front, and throw some of this mixture behind; it saves the trouble
of sifting your ashes, gives a warm and pleasant fire, and a very
small part only will remain unburnt.


133. _Fire Balls._--Mix one bushel of small coal, or saw-dust, or
both, with two bushels of sand, and one bushel and a half of clay;
make the mixture into balls with water, and pile them in a dry place,
to harden them. A fire cannot be lighted with these balls; but when
it burns strong, put them on above the top bar, and they will keep up
a strong heat.


134. _To prevent the ill effects of Charcoal._--Set over the burning
charcoal a vessel of boiling water, the steam of which will prevent
danger from the fumes.


135. _Method of sweeping Chimneys without employing Children, and the
danger attending the old Method pointed out._--Procure a rope for the
purpose, twice the length of the height of the chimney; to the middle
of it tie a bush (broom furze, or any other), of sufficient size to
fill the chimney; put one end of the rope down the chimney (if there
be any windings in it, tie a bullet or round stone to the end of the
rope), and introduce the wood end of the bush after the rope has
descended into the chamber; then let a person pull it down. The bush,
by the elasticity of its twigs, brushes the sides of the chimney as
it descends, and carries the soot with it. If necessary, the person
at the top, who has hold of the other end of the rope, draws the bush
up again; but, in this case, the person below must turn the bush, to
send the wood end foremost, before he calls to the person at top to
pull it up.

Many people, who are silent to the calls of humanity, are yet
attentive to the voice of interest: chimneys cleansed in this way
never need a tenth part of the repairs required where they are swept
by children, who being obliged to work themselves up by pressing
with their feet and knees on one side, and their back on the other,
often force out the bricks which divide the chimneys. This is one of
the causes why, in many houses, a fire in one apartment always fills
the adjoining ones with smoke, and sometimes even the neighboring
house. Nay, some houses have even been burnt by this means; for a
foul chimney, taking fire, has been frequently known to communicate,
by these apertures, to empty apartments, or to apartments filled with
timber, where, of course, it was not thought necessary to make any
examination, after extinguishing the fire in the chimney where it
began.


136. _To revive a dull Fire._--Powdered nitre, strewed on the fire,
is the best bellows that can be used.


137. _Fires, Stoves, &c._--It is wasteful to wet small coal, though
it is commonly thought to make a fire last longer: in truth, it
wastes the heat, and for a time makes a bad fire.

A close stove intended to warm an apartment should not have a
polished surface, else it will keep in the heat; whereas, if of rough
and unpolished cast iron, the heat will be dispersed through the room.

Long, shallow grates, are uneconomical, as the body of the coal in
them is not soon heated, and requires to be oftener replenished to
keep up the fire.

A good fire should be bright without being too hot: the best and
quickest mode of making up a neglected fire is to stir out the ashes,
and with the tongs fill up the spaces between the bars with cinders
or half-burnt coals: this method will soon produce a glowing fire. If
coke can be mixed with coals, the fire will require extra attention:
coke, however, makes too much dust for fires in the best rooms.


138. _Water._--Hard water by boiling may be brought nearly to the
state of soft. A piece of chalk put into spring water will soften it.

Rain, or the softest water, is better adapted than any other for
washing and cleaning; but it must be filtered for drinking in large
towns, as it becomes impure from the roofs and plaster of houses. The
best water has the greatest number of air bubbles when poured into a
glass. Hard water will become thick and foul sooner than soft water.


139. _To purify Water for drinking._--Filter river water through a
sponge, more or less compressed, instead of stone or sand, by which
the water is not only rendered more clear, but wholesome; for sand
is insensibly dissolved by the water, so that in four or five years
it will have lost a fifth part of its weight. Powder of charcoal
should be added to the sponge when the water is foul, or fetid. Those
who examine the large quantity of terrene matter on the inside of
tea-kettles will be convinced all water should be boiled before drunk.


140. Or, take a large flower-pot, and put either a piece of sponge or
some cleanly-washed moss over the hole at the bottom. Fill the pot
three-quarters with a mixture of equal parts of clean sharp sand, and
charcoal in pieces the size of peas. On this lay a piece of linen or
woollen cloth, large enough to hang over the sides of the pot. Pour
the water to be filtered into the basin formed by the cloth, and it
will come out pure through the sponge or moss at the bottom.


141. _To purify River, or Muddy Water._--Dissolve half an ounce of
alum in a pint of warm water, and stirring it about in a puncheon
of water from the river, all the impurities will soon settle to the
bottom, and in a day or two it will become quite clear.


142. _To purify muddy Water of Rivers or Pits._--Make a number of
holes in the bottom of a deep tub; lay some clean gravel thereon, and
above this some clean sand; sink this tub in the river or pit, so
that only a few inches of the tub will be above the surface of the
water; the river or pit water will filter through the sand, and rise
clear through it to the level of the water on the outside, and will
be pure and limpid.


143. _Method of making putrid Water sweet in a Night's Time._--Four
large spoonfuls of unslaked lime put into a puncheon of ninety
gallons of putrid water, at sea, will, in one night, make it as clear
and sweet as the best spring water just drawn: but unless the water
is afterwards ventilated sufficiently to carbonize the lime, it will
be a lime water. Three ounces of pure unslaked lime should saturate
ninety gallons of water.


144. _Lead Cisterns._--_Lead Cisterns_ are unsafe to hold water
for culinary purposes: if the water has stood in them several days
undisturbed, a small white coating may be observed at the upper edge
of the water: on any addition of water, this coating is washed off,
and if there be the slightest acidity in the vessel, this coating
will be dissolved in the water, and thus a poison be conveyed into
the stomach. To prevent this, the insides of lead cisterns should be
occasionally examined and cleared out.


145. _To prevent the freezing of Water in Pipes in the Winter
Time._--By tying up the ball-cock with straw or flannel during
the frost, the freezing of pipes will often be prevented; in fact,
it will always be prevented where the main pipe is higher than
the cistern or other reservoir, and the pipe is laid in a regular
inclination from one to the other, for then no water can remain
in the pipe; or if the main is lower than the cistern, and the
pipe regularly inclines, upon the supply's ceasing, the pipe will
immediately exhaust itself. When water is in the pipes, if each cock
be left a little dripping, the circulation of the water will prevent
its freezing in the pipes.


146. _To preserve Water and Meat from Putrefaction in long
Voyages._--The crews of two Russian ships, which sailed round the
world, were extremely healthy. During the whole three years of their
voyage only two men died of the crew of the Neva, and the Naveshda
did not lose a single man. It is known that their fresh water was
preserved in charred casks, but it is not so generally known that
they used the same precaution for preserving their salted provisions.
The beef they carried out with them tasted as pleasantly upon their
return, as it did three years before, when first salted.


147. _To make Sea-water fit for washing Linen._--Soda put into
sea-water renders it turbid; the lime and magnesia fall to the
bottom. Therefore, to make sea-water fit for washing linen, put in
soda enough as not only to effect a precipitation of these earths,
but to render the water sufficiently alkaline.


148. _Steam._--When the steam from a tea-kettle appears cloudy, it
should be taken from the fire, as the water is then fast boiling
away; the steam when the water first boils being quite transparent,
so as scarcely to be seen near the mouth of the spout. The top of the
kettle should be kept bright, as a polished surface keeps in the heat.


149. _To clean a Carriage._--Wash the body and wheels with a mop,
brush, and plenty of water. Then blacken and clean all the straps
and leather, first cleaning the brass or other ornaments as those on
harness. Next brush the inside lining, clean the glasses, and clean
and trim the lamps. Stains may be removed from panels by rubbing them
with sweet oil on baize. The wheels should be occasionally greased or
oiled, and the linchpins examined.


150. _For Coach Wheels._--Melt over a slow fire one pound of lard,
and half a pound of black lead in powder, stirring them well; remove
the mixture from the fire, and stir till cold.


151. _Harness Makers' Jet._--Take one drachm of indigo, a quarter of
an ounce of isinglass, half an ounce of soft soap, four ounces of
glue, one pennyworth of logwood raspings, and one quart of vinegar;
boil the whole together over a slow fire, till reduced to one pint.
A small quantity is then to be taken up on a piece of clean sponge,
and thinly applied to harness, boots, &c., taking care that they are
previously well cleaned.

N.B.--A small quantity of sulphate of iron (green vitriol) would
perhaps greatly improve this.


152. _To clean Harness._--Having washed off the wet dirt, sponge the
harness clean, and hang it up to dry. Next, brush it with a dry, hard
brush, and clean the brass ornaments.

For this purpose, mix a quarter of a pint of turpentine, with two
ounces of rotten-stone, two ounces of finely-powdered charcoal, and
a quarter of a pint of droppings of sweet oil; apply this paste with
leather, and polish it off with powdered charcoal.

Or, clean the brass ornaments with the following mixture, which is
used in the Royal Mews: dissolve one ounce of oxalic acid in a pint
of water, to which add a pint of naphtha. To give the brass-work a
fine color, powder some sal-ammoniac, moisten it with water, and rub
it upon the ornaments; then heat them over charcoal, and polish with
dried bran and whiting.

Or, wash the brass-work with a strong solution of roche alum, and
polish it with tripoli.

To restore the color of harness, clean it, and brush over it the
following mixture:--boil half a pound of logwood chips in three
quarts of soft water, to which add three ounces of galls bruised and
one ounce of alum.


153. _Oiling Old Leather._--A practice is common of wetting harness,
&c., before it is to be oiled, under the idea that it soaks in the
oil better for wetting. No two things are less capable of union than
oil and water. The leather appears soft after the above practice,
but a dry day will soon show how hard the leather becomes when the
water it has imbibed has evaporated, and how rotten the heart of the
leather is, although the outside appears yet oily. If leather be dry
and then oiled, the quantity of oil consumed will tell whether the
leather has absorbed the oil or not. If it have, it will last for
years, if it be oiled thoroughly every spring. The most durable stuff
to nail up garden trees, is leather soaked in oil, and then drained
before use. Old shoes and harness will thus be of use when no longer
of service to the body.


154. _General Washing._--Counterpanes, blankets, bed-hangings, &c.,
should be washed in summer, as they will then dry quickly, and be of
good color.

By putting linen and cotton stockings to soak the night before they
are to be washed, much soap and labor will be saved.

If clothes remain long dirty, they will not only require more soap
and labor, but be much injured in washing.


155. _Washing Preparation._--Half a pound of soap; half a pound
of soda; quarter of a pound of _quick_-lime. Cut up the soap and
dissolve it in half a gallon of boiling water; pour half a gallon
of boiling water over the soda; and enough boiling water over the
quick-lime to cover it. The lime must be quick and fresh; if quick,
it will bubble up when the hot water is poured over it. Prepare
each of these in separate vessels. Put the dissolved lime and soda
together, and boil them for twenty minutes. Then pour them into a jar
to settle.

Another method of making this preparation is--Instead of preparing
each of the articles by themselves, dissolve over night half a pound
of soda in one gallon of boiling water, pour it on the lime, and let
it settle; cut up the soap, and pour the clear water from the lime
and soda upon it. In the morning it will be a dissolved mass, fit for
use. In this way the twenty minutes' boiling of the lime and soda is
dispensed with.

In either of these processes white or common yellow soap may be used.
But the lime should be white and quick. If it does not bubble and
hiss when the water is poured on it, it is unfit for use.

This preparation contains nothing injurious to the linen. It has been
proved by trial that if the directions are rightly followed, it is
less destructive than the old method.


156. _How to proceed after having made the Preparation._--Set aside
the flannels and colored things, as they _must not_ be washed in
this way. They may be washed in the usual way while the others are
boiling.

The night before, the collars and wristbands of shirts, the feet of
stockings, &c., should be rubbed well with soap and set to soak.

In the morning pour ten gallons of water into the copper, and having
strained the mixture of lime and soda well, taking great care not
to disturb the settlings, put it, together with the soap, into the
water, and make the whole boil before putting in the clothes. A plate
should be placed at the bottom of the copper to prevent the clothes
from burning.

Boil each lot of clothes from half an hour to an hour. Then rinse
them well in cold blue water. When dry they will be beautifully white.

The same water will do for _three_ lots. Wash the finer things first.

After having been used for the clothes, the mixture may be employed
for cleaning silver, brass, or any other kind of metal; which should
afterwards be dried and polished with leather. The liquid may also be
used for scouring floors, or cleaning paint.


157. _To make Starch._--Dissolve as much starch as will be required
in a very small quantity of cold water; then pour boiling water on it
till it is of the right consistency, and let it boil once or twice.

In _mixing starch_, put a lump of sugar in it to prevent it from
sticking to the iron. Stirring the starch for a minute with a sperm
candle improves it when it is wanted for shirt bosoms or collars.


158. _Gum Arabic Starch._--Get two ounces of fine white gum arabic,
and pound it to powder. Next put it into a pitcher, and pour on it a
pint or more of boiling water, (according to the degree of strength
you desire,) and then having covered it, let it set all night. In the
morning, pour it carefully from the dregs into a clean bottle, cork
it, and keep it for use. A table-spoonful of gum water stirred into a
pint of starch that has been made in the usual manner, will give to
lawns (either white or printed) a look of newness to which nothing
else can restore them after washing. It is also good (much diluted)
for thin white muslin and bobbinet.


159. _To keep Muslins of a good Color._--Never wash muslins or any
kind of white cotton goods, with linen; for the latter deposits or
discharges a gum and coloring matter every time it is washed, which
discolors and dyes the cotton. _Wash them by themselves._


160. _To wash Flannels._--Flannels should be washed in soft water,
soap, and much blue. The water should be as hot as the hands will
bear; wring them as dry as possible, shake them and hang them out;
but do not rinse them after the lather.


161. _To make Flannels not shrink._--The first time of washing put
them into a pail of boiling water, and let them lie till cold.


162. _To scour Flannels._--Slice half a pound of yellow soap, and
dissolve it in boiling water, so as to make it of the thickness of
oil; cover the flannels with warm water, add a lump of pearlash, and
about one-third of the soap-solution; beat them till no head rises on
the water; then pour it off, and proceed as before with hotter water,
without pearlash.


163. _To wash Woollens._--Use soft water; and, in order to make a
lather, put half a pound of soap into a gallon of water, (or as much
more in proportion as is necessary,) and boil it until the soap is
dissolved; wash through two waters, (unless one is found sufficient,)
as warm as can be borne, adding, as you go on, what quantity of the
soap-water is needed; wring them out each time; then throw them into
a rinsing-tub, and fill, to covering, with boiling water. Let them
remain until cool enough to admit of handling, then proceed to rinse
well, and wring them.

N. B.--Observe, the rinsing-water must be _hard water_--this is the
secret. This method will do for any kinds of woollens; but for large
and strong, such as blankets, or carpets, &c., perhaps wringing would
be better omitted, and in all cases, care should be taken to spread
out the articles straight and smooth.


164. _Drying Clothes._--If the weather be favorable, the drying
may be best finished in the open air; but if the weather be damp
or doubtful, the article should be, without delay, spread before a
fire, or hung in an apartment where there is a strong current of air.
A dry cloth should be placed on the line hedge, or horse, and the
woollen article spread upon it. The more quickly the drying can be
accomplished the better. For this reason, settled dry weather should
be chosen for this kind of work; if windy, all the better.


165. _Family Washing._--[The following method, though not generally
known, is much practiced in many families.] Melt together half a
pound each of washing soda and of soap cuttings, mix well with
sixteen gallons of water, pour it lukewarm over the dirty linen,
and leave to soak for twenty-four hours. Drain this water from the
clothes, and put them into a boiler, with a second supply of the same
preparation cold, and let them boil for rather a longer time than if
they had been previously washed. They will then require to be washed
out in clean, warm water, looking carefully over them that the parts
requiring it may be rubbed; afterwards rinse in the usual way. This
direction applies to all white and brown-holland articles. Bobbinet,
and lace, retain their color best, if only _scalded_, not _boiled_.
This mode of washing has been adopted for many years in a family of
seven persons; the linen is of an excellent color, with only half the
assistance formerly required, and the quantity of soap used is much
lessened.

N. B. The refuse water is a good manure for fruit trees.


166. _Substitutes for Soap._--Put any quantity of pearl-ash or soda
into a large jar, cover it lightly, and in a few days it will become
liquid; then mix with it an equal quantity of newly-slaked lime, and
double its quantity of soft water: boil it half an hour, add as much
more hot water, and pour off the liquor.

Two ounces of pearl-ash, used with a pound and a half of soap, will
effect a considerable saving.

For coarse purposes, soft soap is a saving of nearly one-half. The
most economical plan of keeping hard soap, is to cut it into pieces
of about a pound each, and keep it moderately dry.

A little pipe-clay dissolved in the water, or rubbed with the soap on
the clothes, will give the dirtiest linen the appearance of having
been bleached; it will also clean them with about half the labor, and
a saving of full one-fourth of the soap. Pipe-clay will also render
hard water nearly as soft as rain-water.

Carpets, moreen curtains, or other woollen goods, may be cleaned with
the coarse pulp of potatoes, used as a kind of soap.


167. _Horse-chestnut Soap._--It is not generally known that the
horse-chestnut contains a soapy juice, not only useful in bleaching,
but in washing linens and stuffs. The nuts must be peeled and ground,
and the meal of twenty of them will be sufficient to mix with ten
quarts of hot water, with which the clothes may be washed without
soap; the clothes should then be rinsed in spring-water. The same
meal being steeped in hot water, and mixed with an equal quantity of
bran, will make a nutritious food for poultry.


168. _To wash a Cotton Counterpane._--Slice a pound of mottled soap,
dissolve it in a pailful of boiling water, and add a small lump of
pearl-ash; next, put the counterpane into warm water, with a bowl of
the soap-solution, beat it and turn it, wash it in a second liquor,
and rinse it in cold water; then put three tea-spoonfuls of liquid
blue into a thin liquor, stir together, and put in the counterpane;
beat it a few minutes, and dry it in the air.


169. _To wash Silk Stockings, White and Black._--Cut in thin bits
some white soap, and boil it in soft water; pour a little of it among
cold, soft water, and wash the stockings, first upon the inner side;
repeat the washing with fresh suds and water, till they are washed
quite clean; turn the outside, the last time of washing, and if the
feet be very dirty, rub a little of the boiled soap upon them, but
not upon the legs. If to be colored, mix the dye with a little clean
suds, and dip in the white stockings; draw them out smooth, and lay
them upon a sheet on a bed, with the window open, and when almost
dry, lay them upon a piece of flannel, and with another bit rolled
up, rub them hard and quick one way till they are dry.


170. _To wash Thread Stockings and Gloves._--Fine thread-stockings
and gloves should be well soaped, put into a lather of cold water,
and boiled; they should then be put into a fresh, cold lather, and be
boiled again; when, on taking them out, they will require little more
than rinsing.


171. _To wash Cotton Stockings._--Lay them in cold water at night;
next day boil them in a copper with some soda and soap; stir them
well about, and they will become quite clean without any rubbing;
rinse them well in cold water, and bleach them; when nearly dry,
draw them smooth, folding them straight over the instep. Place them
under a heavy weight, or iron them.


172. _To wash Cotton Bed-furniture, and printed Calicoes in
general._--1. Get rid of as much dirt as possible, by brushing and
shaking.

2. Do not let the dirty things lie about in a damp wash-house, or in
any way become damp before they are fairly wetted.

3. On no account use a particle of soda, pearl-ash, or any thing of
the kind.

4. Allow plenty of water, and plenty of room in the tub.

5. Use soft water, no hotter than would be pleasant for washing the
hands.

6. Rub with soap in the ordinary way. Mottled soap is preferable to
yellow. If a general wash is about, the liquor in which flannels have
been washed the second time, does very well for the first washing of
colored things; or that in which muslins have been washed a second
time, provided no soda or anything else of the kind was used.

7. When the first washing is completed, have ready another tub
with water of the same degree of warmth, into which put each piece
immediately on wringing it out of the first liquor.

8. Repeat the process of washing in the second liquor, carefully
observing that every part is clean.

9. On wringing out of the second liquor, immediately plunge each
piece into cold _spring_ water for rinsing.

10. On wringing each piece out of the rinsing water, immediately hang
it out, and let it dry as quickly as possible.

11. In hanging up, put any thick double parts next the line, letting
the thinner part hang down and blow about. When these are dry, the
positions may be changed, and the thick parts hung downwards.

12. If, through unfavorable weather, or any other circumstance, the
drying cannot proceed at once, the things had better remain all night
in the rinsing water, than be laid about damp. If they are half-dry
out-of-doors, when taken in for the night let them be hung or spread
in a room, and again hung out early next day. If there is no chance
of favorable drying abroad, they should be quickly dried before a
fire, or round a stove.

13. If starching is required, a sufficient quantity of made starch
may be stirred into the rinsing water.


173. _How to wash Printed Dresses._--A very cool lather of white
soap, of the best quality, should be used, as the inferior soaps
contain rosin, and other pernicious ingredients most destructive to
colors. Soda, pearl-ash, vinegar, alum, salt, washing-powder, &c.,
although they may not injure some colors, should never be used; for
they will most certainly destroy others. Printed dresses should not
be washed with household or body linen, or put into scalding water.
It is desirable to wash colors with a light hand, so as not to
subject them to hard rubbing, and to rinse with plenty of clean cold
water, and to dry in the open air. Claret, chocolate, purple, lilac,
red, pink, and black, are the most permanent; the cloth for these
colors being prepared in a peculiar manner, and which process has the
effect of better fixing them to it. Blue, green, drab, ruby, crimson,
buff, dahlia, orange, and cinnamon, as they do not admit of the cloth
being so prepared, of course require more careful treatment, or some
of the surface color may possibly on the first washing scale off
and tinge the white, especially if not well rinsed; but by a little
discretion the most delicate colors may be effectually preserved.


174. _To wash Chintz, so as to preserve its Gloss and Beauty._--Take
two pounds of rice and boil it in two gallons of water, till soft;
when done, pour the whole into a tub; let it stand till about the
warmth you in general use for colored linens; put the chintz in, and
use the rice instead of soap; wash it in this, till the dirt appears
to be out; then boil the same quantity as above, but strain the rice
from the water, and mix it in warm water. Wash it in this till quite
clean; afterwards rinse it in the water the rice was boiled in; this
will answer the end of starch, and no dew will affect it, as it will
be stiff while it is worn. If a gown, it must be taken to pieces, and
when dried, hang it as smooth as possible; after dry, rub it with a
sleek stone, but use no iron.


175. _To protect Children from Burning._--Add one ounce of alum to
the last water used in rinsing children's dresses, and they will be
rendered uninflammable, or so slightly combustible that they would
take fire slowly, if at all, and would not flame.


176. _Composition for Washing in Sea-water._--Mix a strong solution
of potash with an equal weight of pipe-clay, and work them to a
paste, one pound of which will soften four gallons of sea-water.


177. _To bleach a Faded Dress._--Wash the dress in hot suds, boil
it and rinse it, then dry it in the sun. Should it not be rendered
perfectly white, lay the dress in the sun for several days.


178. _To preserve the Color of a Print Dress._--Rip the skirt from
the body, and wash them in cold rain water in which a handful of
common salt has been thrown. Do not expose it to the sun to dry, but
roll it tightly in a coarse cloth until dry enough to iron.


179. _To wash White Lace._--A quarter of a cake of white wax, six
lumps of sugar, and a dessert-spoonful of made starch, to be mixed
with a quart of soft water. Tack the lace very slightly in a thin
cloth dipped in cold water, then let it lie in a strong lather for
one day. Change the water, and leave it in a second lather all night.
Put the above materials into a saucepan, boil the lace in it for ten
minutes, then throw it into cold water, and when nearly dry iron it.


180. _Washing Kid Gloves._--Have ready a little new milk in one
saucer, and a piece of brown soap in another, and a clean cloth or
towel, folded three or four times. On the cloth, spread out the glove
smooth and neat. Take a piece of flannel, dip it in the milk, then
rub off a good quantity of soap to the wetted flannel, and commence
to rub the glove downwards towards the fingers, holding it firmly
with the left hand. Continue this process until the glove, if white,
looks of a dingy yellow, though clean: if colored, till it looks dark
and spoiled. Lay it to dry, and the operator will soon be gratified
to see that her old gloves look nearly new. They will be soft,
glossy, smooth, shapely, and elastic. Dark, and especially black
mourning gloves, should be of the very best and high-priced.


181. _To iron Shirt Fronts and Dresses._--Shirt-fronts are most
conveniently ironed upon a deal board about 12 inches long and 8
wide, covered with fine flannel; to be placed between the back and
front of the shirt, after the back is ironed. The skirts of dresses
also may be ironed in a similar manner, using a board as long as the
skirt, 26 inches wide at one end, and 12 inches at the other. The
board should be covered with a blanket, and rest upon a thin block of
wood at each end, to keep it from creasing the skirt beneath it.


182. _To clean Hair Brushes and Combs._--Sub-carbonate of soda or
potash sometimes called salt of tartar or salt of wormwood, is to
be dissolved in boiling water--two heaped tea-spoonfuls will be
sufficient for half a pint; into this mixture dip the hairs of the
brush, and draw the comb through many times. The brush and comb,
with the help of this solution, will quickly cleanse each other;
dry quickly and they will be as white as new. Observe two things:
the potass must be kept in a stopper bottle, or it will soon become
liquid; when liquid it is not injured for use, but if left in paper
would be wasted; also the mahogany or satin-wood back of the brush
must be kept out of the solution, as it is apt to discolor wood.


183. _To clean Sponge._--Put into two pints of hot water about three
cents worth of Salts of lemon, and steep the sponge in it. After it
is clean, rinse it in clean water.

_Or_, immerse it in cold buttermilk, and let it soak a few hours.
Then rinse it in pure water.


184. _To clean Ermine and Minivar._--Take a piece of soft flannel,
dip it in common flour, and rub the fur with it, being careful to rub
it against the grain. Shake it well and rub again with the flannel
till all the flour is out of it.


185. _To clean Swansdown._--White swansdown may be washed in soap and
water; after washing, shake it out, and when the down is somewhat
raised, shake it before a clear fire to dry.


186. _To clean Leather Cases._--To clean hat cases, writing-desks,
&c., dissolve in warm water a small quantity of oxalic acid, and wash
the articles with a sponge wet in the solution. When dry they will
look almost equal to new.


187. _To take Stains out of Linen._--_Stains caused by Acids_ can be
removed by wetting the part, and laying on it some salt of wormwood;
then rub it without diluting it with more water.

_Or_, let the cloth imbibe a little water without dipping, and hold
the part over a lighted match, at a due distance. The spots will be
removed by the sulphureous gas.

_Or_, tie up in the stained part some pearlash; then scrape some soap
into cold soft water to make a lather, and boil the linen till the
stain disappears.


188. _Stains of Wine, Fruit, &c., after they have been long in the
Linen._--Rub the part on each side with yellow soap; then lay on
a mixture of starch in cold water very thick; rub it well in, and
expose the linen to the sun and air till the stain comes out. If not
removed in three or four days, rub that off and renew the process.
When dry it may be sprinkled with a little water.

_Recent Stains of Fruit_ may be removed by holding the linen tightly
stretched over a tub and pouring hot water over the part. This must
be done before any soap has been applied to it.

_Obs._ As soon as a stain is made on table-linen, &c., rub on it
common table salt before it has time to dry; the salt will keep it
damp till the cloth is washed, when the stain will disappear; or wash
the stain lightly when the cloth is removed.


189. _To restore Scorched Linen._--Peel and slice two onions, and
extract the juice by squeezing or pounding. Cut up half an ounce of
white soap and two ounces of fullers' earth; mix with them the onion
juice and half a pint of vinegar. Boil this composition well, and
spread it, when cool, over the scorched part of the linen, leaving it
to dry thereon. Then wash out the linen.


190. _To restore Linen that has long been Stained._--Rub the stains
on each side with wet brown soap; mix some starch to a thick paste,
with cold water, and spread it over the soaped places; then expose
the linen to the air. If the stains do not disappear in three or four
days, rub off the mixture, and repeat the process with fresh soap and
starch. Then dry it, wet it with cold water, and wash it.


191. _Grease or Wax Spots._--Grease-spots should be rubbed with
strong pearlash and water. Spots of wax or oil paint should be
rubbed with turpentine, and washed with soap and water: or, wax, if
moistened repeatedly with spirits of wine, may be brushed off. Or,
dissolve six ounces of alum in half a pint of water, warm it, wash
the stained part with it, and leave it to dry.


_Or_, in a quart of warm water, dissolve a little white soap, and
one ounce of pearlash; to which add two spoonsful of ox-gall, and a
little essence of lavender or bergamot: mix the whole, strain it, and
keep it in a bottle. In using it, put a small quantity on the spot,
brush, and wash it with warm water, so as entirely to remove the
liquor applied, which might injure the cloth if allowed to remain.


192. _Other Stains._--_Many other Stains_ may be taken out by dipping
the linen in sour buttermilk, and drying it in a hot sun. Then wash
it in cold water, and dry it, two or three times a-day.


193. _Ironmoulds._--Ironmoulds should be wetted, then laid on a hot
water-plate, and a little essential salt of lemons put on the part.
If the linen becomes dry, wet it, and renew the process, observing
that the plate is kept boiling hot. Much of the powder sold under the
name of salt of lemons is a spurious preparation; and therefore it
is necessary to dip the linen in a good deal of water, and wash it
as soon as the stain is removed, to prevent the part from being worn
into holes by the acid. _Ink spots_ can be removed in the same way.


194. _To take Mildew out of Linen._--Take soap, and rub it well; then
scrape some fine chalk, and rub that also in the linen; lay it on the
grass; as it dries wet it a little, and it will come out at twice
doing.


195. _Or_, mix soft soap with starch powdered, half as much salt
and the juice of a lemon; lay it on the part on both sides with a
painter's brush. Let it lie on the grass day and night till the stain
comes out.


196. _To discharge all Stains which are not Metallic._--Mix two
tea-spoonfuls of water with one of spirit of salt; let the stain lie
in it for one or two minutes; then rinse the article in cold water.
This will be found particularly useful in removing stains from white
doilys.


197. _Prepared Ox-gall for taking out Spots._--Boil together one pint
of ox-gall and two ounces of powdered alum; to which add two ounces
of common salt; let the liquor settle, add a few drops of essence of
lemon, pour it off into a bottle, and cork tightly.


198. _Salt of Lemons._--Mix one ounce of salt of sorrel in very
fine powder, with an equal quantity of cream of tartar; this is the
_salt_ sold in the shops; but, as it is only recommended for removing
ironmoulds or ink spots, it will be better to use only the salt of
sorrel.


199. _To bleach Linen._--Mix common bleaching powder, in the
proportion of one pound to a gallon of water; stir it occasionally
for three days, let it settle, and pour it off clear. Then make a ley
of one pound of soda to a gallon of boiling soft water, in which soak
the linen for twelve hours, and boil it half an hour; next, soak it
in the bleaching liquor, made as above; and lastly, wash it in the
usual manner.

Discolored linen or muslin may be restored, by putting a portion of
bleaching liquor into the tub wherein the articles are soaking.


200. _Use of Potatoes in Bleaching._--This method of bleaching
consists in substituting for soap, an equal quantity of potatoes
three-parts boiled. The linen is first boiled for nearly an hour; it
is next put into a tub of boiling water, from which each piece is
taken separately, and rubbed with the potatoes, as with soap. The
linen is then boiled with the potatoes for half an hour, next taken
out, rubbed, and rinsed two or three times in cold soft water, wrung,
and hung up to dry. Kitchen linen, which has mostly the smell of
tallow, loses it after having been bleached by this process.


201. _To Remove fresh Ink Stains._--Let one person hold the part
that is spotted between his two hands over a basin and rub it, while
another pours water gradually from a decanter upon it, and let a
whole pitcher-full be used if necessary; or if the ruffle, apron,
&c. be at liberty, let it be dipped into a basin filled with water,
and there squeezed and dipped in again, taking care to change the
water every two or three squeezes. If the ink be spilled on a green
table carpet, it may immediately be taken out with a tea-spoon so
entirely, that scarcely any water at all shall be wanted afterwards,
provided it was only that instant spilled, as the down of the cloth
prevents the immediate soaking in of the ink, or of any other liquor
(except oil); but if it have lain some time, be the time ever so
long, provided the place be still wet, by pouring on it fresh clean
water, by little and little at a time, and gathering it up again each
time with a spoon, pressing hard to squeeze it out of the cloth into
the spoon, you will at last bring it to its natural color, as if no
such accident had happened.


202. _To take out Spots of Ink._--As soon as the accident happens,
wet the place with juice of sorrel or lemon, or with vinegar, and the
best hard white soap.


203. _To remove Ink Stains._--Get a pint cup, or narrow-topped jug,
full of boiling water; place the stained part (of the linen, &c.)
on the top of the cup; dip it in, draw it tight over the top of the
cup, and, while wet and hot, with your finger rub in a little salt of
sorrel. The acid should remain on the linen for half-an-hour before
it is washed. As salt of sorrel is a powerful poison, the paper
should be marked POISON, and kept carefully locked up, when not in
use.


204. _The fumes of brimstone useful in removing Spots or Stains in
Linen, &c._--If a red rose be held in the fumes of a brimstone match,
the color will soon begin to change, and, at length, the flower will
become white. By the same process, fruit-stains or iron-moulds may
be removed from linen or cotton cloths, if the spots be previously
moistened with water. With iron-moulds, weak muriatic acid is
preferable, assisted by heat; as by laying the cloth on a tea-pot or
kettle, filled with boiling water.


205. _To remove Stains from Black Bombazine, Crape or Cloth._--Boil a
large handful of fig-leaves in two quarts of water until reduced to a
pint; squeeze the leaves quite dry, and put the liquor into a bottle
for use. The article should be rubbed with a sponge dipped in the
liquor. The word POISON should be written on the bottle, to prevent
any accident.


206. _To clean Black Satin._--Boil three pounds of potatoes to a pulp
in a quart of water; strain through a sieve, and brush the satin
with it on a board or table. The satin must not be wrung, but folded
down in cloths for three hours, and then ironed on the wrong side.


207. _To restore Color taken out by Acids._--Sal-volatile or
hartshorn will suffice for this purpose. It may be dropped on silk
without doing any injury.


208. _To take out Spots on Silk._--Rub the spots with spirit of
turpentine; this spirit exhaling, carries off with it the oil that
causes the spot.


209. _To extract Grease from Silks._--Scrape French chalk, put it on
a grease-spot, and hold it near the fire, or over a warm iron, or
water-plate filled with boiling water. The grease will melt, and the
French chalk absorb it. Brush or rub it off; repeat if necessary.


210. _Another way._--To remove a grease spot from silk, scrape some
French chalk on the wrong side; let it remain some time, and then
brush off. Magnesia is also a good remedy.


211. _To extract Grease from Silks or Stuffs (another way)._--Take
a lump of magnesia, and rub it wet over the spot; let it dry; then
brush the powder off, and the spot will disappear.

_Or_, take a visiting or other card; separate it, and rub the spot
with the soft internal part, and it will disappear without taking the
gloss off the silk.


212. _To take Spots out of Cloths, Stuffs, Silk, Cotton, and
Linen._--Take two quarts of spring water, put in it a little fine
white potash, about the quantity of a walnut, and a lemon cut in
slices; mix these well together, and let it stand for twenty-four
hours in the sun; then strain it off, and put the clear liquid up for
use. This water takes out all spots, whether pitch, grease, or oil,
as well in hats, as cloths and stuffs, silk or cotton, and linen. As
soon as the spot is taken out, wash the place with fair water; for
cloths of a deep color, add to a spoonful of the mixture as much fair
water as to weaken it.

Grease spots in cloth may be removed by using soap and water with
a tooth or nail brush, and afterwards wiping off the lather with
the wet corner of a towel. Essence of lemon, or pure spirit of
turpentine, will remove pitch from cloth, &c.

In woollen cloth, an easier method is to scrape off the hard tallow
with the edge of a tea-spoon, then rub the part briskly with a clean
woollen rag, shifting the rag as the part becomes dirty; or, place
some blotting paper on the spot, and press it with a hot iron,
occasionally moving the paper.


213. _To clean Silks or Merinoes, &c._--Grate two or three large
potatoes, add to them a pint of cold water, let them stand a short
time, and pour off the liquid clear, or strain it through a sieve,
when it will be fit for use. Lay the silk on a flat surface,
and apply the liquid with a clean sponge, till the dirt is well
separated, dip each piece in a pail of clean water, and hang up to
dry without wringing. Iron whilst damp on the wrong side. Should
the silk be of more than one color, it is desirable to wet a small
piece first, lest the dress should be spoiled, by moisture causing
the colors to run; but for self-colored silks, the direction is an
excellent one; and satinettes, even of light colors, if not greased
or stained, make up again nearly equal to new.


214. _To clean Silks._--If of any other color than black, wash
them in a hot lather of soft soap and water, and rinse them in
plain warm water, to which a small quantity of dye may be added,
according to the color: a few drops of vitriol added to the water
will freshen crimson, scarlet, maroon, or bright yellow; lemon-juice
for pink, rose, or carnation; pearlash for blue and purple; and for
olive-green, a pinch of verdigris; but acid must not be used for
fawn, brown, or orange. Then squeeze the liquid from the silk, roll
it in a coarse sheet, and wring it: spread it out, and rub it on the
wrong side with gum-water, with a little pearlash in it; dry it in a
warm room, and finish with calendering or mangling it.

Black silk should be sponged with hot ox-gall on both sides, then
rinsed, and dried smooth on a board. Or, spread black plain silks
upon a board, soap the dirty place, and brush the silk on both sides
with a fine soap lather; put it into hot water, rinse it through cold
water, and, having squeezed and dried it, smooth it on the right side
with an iron, moderately heated.


215. _To make Old Silk look as well as New._--Unpick the dress, put
it into a tub and cover it with cold water; let it remain an hour;
dip it up and down, but do not wring it; hang it up to drain. Iron it
very damp, and it will look well.


216. _To clean Silks._--A quarter-pound of soft soap, a teaspoonful
of brandy, a pint of gin. Mix all well together. With a sponge or
flannel spread the mixture on each side of the silk without creasing
it. Wash it in two or three pails of cold water, and iron on the
wrong side when rather wet.


217. _To remove Stains from Silks._--Stains produced by vinegar,
lemon-juice, oil of vitriol, or other sharp corrosives, may often be
removed from silks by mixing a little pearlash with soap-lather and
passing the silk through them. Spirits of hartshorn will also often
restore the color.


218. _To dip Rusty Black Silk._--Boil logwood and water half an hour,
in which simmer the silk for the same time; then take it out, and
put into the dye a little blue vitriol, or green copperas; cool it,
and simmer the silk in it for half an hour. Or, boil a handful of
fig-leaves in two quarts of water until it be reduced to one pint;
squeeze the leaves, and bottle the liquor for use. When wanted,
sponge the silk with it.

The word _Poison_ should be written on the bottle.


219. _Black Reviver._--Upon two ounces of powdered logwood, and half
an ounce of green copperas, pour three pints of boiling water: let
it stand till cold, when strain for use, by sponging the faded stuff
with it.

To revive black cloth, boil it with logwood in water for half an
hour, the cloth having been previously cleaned, dipped in warm water,
and squeezed dry; next, take out the cloth, add a small piece of
green copperas, and boil it another half hour; then hang it in the
air an hour or two, rinse it twice or thrice in cold water, dry it,
and finish it with a soft brush, over which two or three drops of
olive oil have been rubbed.


220. _White Satin._--Stone blue and flannel will make white satin
look nearly new, especially if rubbed afterwards with crumbs of bread.


221. _Blond Lace._--When blond lace gets tumbled, breathing upon it,
and afterwards shaking it, will be found to answer the purpose of an
iron, without chance of making the lace look yellow, as it probably
would be by the use of an iron. There is no necessity for unpicking
the lace.


222. _To raise the Surface or Pile of Velvet when pressed
down._--Warm a smoothing-iron moderately, and cover it with a wet
cloth, and hold it under the velvet; the vapor arising from the
heated cloth will raise the pile of the velvet, with the assistance
of a rush whisk.


223. _To remove Grease or Oil Paint from Cloth._--Moisten them with a
few drops of concentrated solution of subcarbonate of potash; rub the
spot between the fingers, and then wash the spot with a little warm
water.


224. _Another way._--To remove oil paint, rub the part with a bit of
flannel dipped in spirits of wine or turpentine.


225. _Spots from Woollen Cloths._--Fullers' earth, or tobacco
pipe-clay, being put wet on an oil spot, absorbs the oil as the water
evaporates, and leaves the vegetable or animal fibres of cloth clean,
on being beaten or brushed out. When the spot is occasioned by tallow
or wax, it is necessary to heat the part cautiously by an iron or the
fire, while the cloth is drying. In some kinds of goods, blotting
paper, bran, or raw starch, may be used with advantage.


226. _To clean a White or Drab Coat._--If the coat be much soiled,
brush well into the cloth, the way of the nap some of the following:
mix pounded pipe-clay and whiting, some fullers' earth, and a little
stone blue dissolved in vinegar enough to form the whole into a
paste. When the coat is quite dry, rub it well, beat it to get out
the dust, and brush it well.


227. _To clean Cashmere Stuff._--If common soap be employed, these
valuable fabrics will be injured, and rendered less pliant and
velvety than before. The proper method is to use a soapy root common
in Russia and the East, in the Greek islands, and in Italy. Its
original name is _ishkar_, and it affords an ash-colored powder,
which, mixed with water into a paste, will free the stuff from any
greasy stains, and leave them the yellow tint so much prized.


228. _To make Portable Balls for removing Spots from Clothes in
general._--Take fullers'-earth perfectly dried, so that it crumbles
into powder, moisten it with the clear juice of lemons, and add a
small quantity of pure pearl-ashes; then work and knead the whole
carefully together, till it acquires the consistence of a thick
elastic paste; form it into convenient small balls, and expose them
to the heat of the sun, in which they ought to be completely dried.
In this state they are fit for use in the manner following:--First,
moisten the spot on your clothes with water, then rub it with the
ball just described, and suffer it again to dry in the sun: after
having washed the spot with pure water, it will entirely disappear.


229. _To make Breeches Balls._--Mix half a pound of Bath brick in
fine powder, one pound of pipe-clay, two ounces of pumice-stone in
fine powder, and three ounces of ox-gall; color the mixture with
yellow ochre, umber, or Irish slate, to the desired shade, and shape
into balls.


230. _Scouring Drops._--Mix with one ounce of pyroligneous ether,
three drachms of essence of lemon. These will remove oil or grease
from woollen cloth, silk, &c., by rubbing the spot with a piece of
the same article, moistened with the drops.


231. _To take out Wax or Spermaceti from Cloth._--Hold a red-hot iron
steadily within about an inch of the cloth, and in a few minutes the
wax will evaporate; then rub the cloth with whitish paper, to remove
any mark that may remain.


232. _To take Wax out of Velvet of all Colors except Crimson._--Take
a crummy wheaten loaf, cut it in two, toast it before the fire,
and, while very hot, apply it to the part spotted with wax. Then
apply another piece of toasted bread hot as before, and continue the
application till the wax is entirely taken out.


233. _For taking Grease out of the Leaves of Books._--Fold up, in
two small bags made of fine open muslin, some ashes of burnt bones,
finely powdered, or of calcined hartshorn, which is always ready
prepared at the shops of the druggists. Lay the bags of muslin
containing the powder, one on each side of the greasy leaf; and,
having heated a pair of fire-tongs, or hair-dresser's pinching-tongs,
of a moderate warmth, press with them the two bags against the
greasy spot, and hold them some time in that situation. Repeat the
process, if necessary.

When the irons cannot be conveniently used, the powder may be heated
over the fire, in a clean earthen vessel; and, whilst hot, applied,
without any muslins, on each side of the grease spot, and a weight
laid on it to assist its effect.


234. _To remove Spots of Grease from Paper._--Take an equal quantity
of roach alum, burnt, and flour of brimstone, finely powdered
together; wet the paper a little, and put a small quantity of the
powder on the place, rubbing it gently with your finger, and the spot
will disappear.


235. _To discharge Grease from Leather._--Apply the white of an egg
to the spot, and dry it in the sun; or, mix two table-spoonfuls of
spirit of turpentine, half an ounce of mealy potatoes, and some of
the best Durham mustard. Apply this mixture to the spot, and rub it
off when dry. A little vinegar added, renders it more efficacious.


236. _For cleaning light Kid Gloves._--If the gloves are not so much
soiled as to require wetting, they may be cleaned thus:--Scrape fine
as much as a tea-spoonful of French chalk. Put on the gloves as for
wear, taking care that the hands be not only clean, but cool and
dry. Put some of the powdered chalk into the palm of one glove, and
rub the hands and fingers together, just as if the chalk were soap
employed in washing the hands. In this way rub in all the chalk. Then
take off the gloves, without shaking them, and lay them aside for
an hour or two, or a night, if it suit. Again put them on, and clap
the hands together till all the chalk is shaken out. Fullers' earth,
powdered and sifted, may be used in the same manner as French chalk,
and will answer nearly as well. Or, gloves slightly soiled, may be
cleaned by rubbing with a very clean and dry bit of India-rubber.
White kid gloves, or very light stone-color, or lilac, (not darker
than what is called a French white,) may be stained of a bright and
delicate yellow, just the color of cowslips, by rubbing them with the
petals of the common white rose. The roses must be fresh gathered
for this purpose; and the best method of applying the leaves, is
by putting the glove on its proper hand, and then rubbing. If not
convenient to do the whole at one time, the effect is not injured by
laying them aside, and taking up again. When done, they look quite
equal to new, and keep clean longer than gloves of the same color
stained in the ordinary way.


237. _Another way to clean Kid Gloves._--First see that your hands
are clean; then put on the gloves and wash them, as though you were
washing your hands, in a basin of turpentine. Burning fluid will do
equally well. Then hang them up in a warm place, or where there is a
good current of air, which will carry off all smell of turpentine.
This method was brought from Paris, and thousands of dollars have
been made by it. The spirits of hartshorn may be substituted for the
turpentine.


238. _Washing Gloves._--If the gloves are so much soiled as to
require washing, the best application is a strong lather made of
curd soap with new milk; or water will do. A very small quantity of
liquid will suffice. Before wetting the glove, run a strong thread
through the opposite sides, close to the wrist binding. Leave it
about a quarter of a yard long, and make a large knot at each end.
This is to form a loop or handle by which to hang up the glove to
dry, and hold it open. Having prepared the lather, put one glove on
the hand, and apply the lather by means of a shaving brush or a piece
of fine flannel, carrying the strokes downwards--that is, from the
wrist or arm to the tips of the fingers. Continue this process till
the dirt disappears, though the glove appears of a dingy, ill-looking
color. Then take a clean soft towel, and dab it till the soap is
removed. Take off the glove, blow into it to open all the fingers,
and, by means of the aforesaid loop, hang it to dry in a shady but
airy place. The loop should be fixed to two pegs, or by two pegs or
strings, fastened to a line in such a manner as to keep the sides of
the glove apart while drying. When dry, they will have regained their
original color, and be smooth, glossy, soft, and shapable. Or, the
gloves when cleaned as above, may be laid to dry on several folds of
clean linen above and below. Limerick gloves should be washed clean
with a strong lather of soap and water, applied with a brush as
above. The lather must not be warmer than new milk. When dry from the
lather, apply a solution of saffron, stronger or weaker, according
to the color desired. A very small quantity of saffron will suffice.
Pour boiling water to it, and let it steep at least twelve hours
before using. Those who are frequently cleaning this kind of gloves,
may steep a drachm of saffron in half-a-pint of boiling water, and
when cold, put the whole into a bottle, without straining. Cork it
close, and it will keep a long time for use as required.


239. _To clean Straw Bonnets._--Put a chafing-dish, with some lighted
charcoal, into a close room or large box; then strew on the coals an
ounce or two of powdered brimstone, and let the bonnets hang in the
room or box for some hours, when they remain to be blocked.


240. _To bleach Straw Hats, &c._--Straw hats and bonnets are bleached
by putting them, previously washed in pure water, into a box with
burning sulphur; the fumes which arise, unite with the water on the
bonnets, and the sulphurous acid thus formed, bleaches them.


241. _Method of Bleaching Straw._--Dip the straw in a solution of
oxygenated muriatic acid, saturated with potash. (Oxygenated muriate
of lime is much cheaper.) The straw is thus rendered very white, and
its flexibility is increased.


242. _Varnish for Straw or Chip Hats._--Powder half-an-ounce of black
sealing-wax, put it into a bottle with two ounces of spirits of wine,
and set it in a warm place. Lay it on warm with a soft hair-brush,
before the fire or sun.


243. _Straw Bonnets._--If a straw bonnet is not worth the expense of
properly cleaning, it may be greatly improved both in comfort and
appearance, by washing it with soap and water, applied by means of a
bit of flannel or sponge. Afterwards rinse with clean water, and dry
quickly in the air. When dry, wash over with the white of an egg,
finely beaten. The wire had better be removed before washing, and put
on afresh. There is no great art in reducing a straw bonnet for a
child. Take off all the ribs of straw that form a sort of border by
going round the edge; as many also of the straight ribs as will leave
the front nearly of the depth required. From the remaining front
ribs cut off a little at each end; fasten the ends securely, and
again set on the border ribs. Unpick the sewing of the head-piece,
till two, three, or more of the top rounds are taken off, so as to
bring it to the size required. Then sew again as many as will bring
it to a proper depth. It is not intended to say, that a person who
never learned the art of straw bonnet-making, and has not the proper
blocks, &c., will do it as well as one who has; but any notionable
needle-woman may do it, so as to look much better than a large bonnet
on the small head of a child. A bonnet-shape of pasteboard or buckram
may be renewed by laying it between two sheets of damp paper, and
ironing with a hot iron. The wire must be previously removed and
afterwards put on afresh. To clean silk and ribbons, wash in cold
rain water with a very little soap. Avoid squeezing and wringing. If
very dirty, two waters may be requisite; the second may be slightly
blued, unless the color of the silk forbids it (as yellow or red).
Spread on a clean towel, and while damp, iron with a piece of clean
paper placed between the silk or ribbon and the iron.


244. _Paste._--Take two table-spoonfuls of flour and stir it into
a half pint of cold water until the lumps are all broken, then
pour this into a pint of boiling water, stirring while doing so;
afterwards let it boil up once or twice, and take off.


245. _Superior Paste._--Mix flour and water, with a little brown
sugar, and a very small quantity of corrosive sublimate in powder,
and boil it until sufficiently thick and smooth. The sugar will keep
the paste flexible, and prevent it scaling off from smooth surfaces,
and the corrosive sublimate will check its fermentation: a drop or
two of oil of anise-seed, lavender, or bergamot will prevent the
paste turning mouldy.


246. _Bookbinders' Paste._--Mix wheaten flour first in cold water,
then boil it till it be of a glutinous consistence; this method makes
common paste. Mix a _fourth_, _fifth_, or _sixth_ of the weight of
the flour of powdered alum, and if required stronger, add a little
powdered resin.


247. _Rice Glue._--Mix rice flour smoothly with cold water, and
simmer it over a slow fire, when it will form a delicate and durable
cement, not only answering all the purposes of common paste, but well
adapted for joining paper and card-board ornamental work.


248. _A most excellent Glue._--Beat an ounce of isinglass to shreds:
dissolve it gradually in a pint of brandy, by means of gentle heat,
and then strain the solution through a piece of fine muslin. The
glue thus obtained should be kept in glass closely stopped. When
required for use, it should be dissolved with moderate heat, when
it will appear thin, transparent, and almost limpid. When applied
in the manner of common glue, its effect is so powerful as to join
together the parts of wood stronger than the wood itself is united.
This glue dries into a very strong, tough, and transparent substance,
not easily damaged by anything but aqueous moisture, which renders it
unfit for any use where it would be much exposed to wet or damp air.


249. _Parchment Glue._--Take one pound of parchment, and boil it in
six quarts of water till the quantity be reduced to one, then strain
off the dregs, and boil it again till it be of the consistence of
glue.

The same may be done with glovers' cuttings of leather, which make a
colorless glue, if not burnt in the evaporation of the water.


250. _To make Lip Glue, for joining Paper, Silk, or thin Leather,
&c._--Take of isinglass and parchment glues, of each one ounce;
sugar-candy and gum-tragacanth, each two drachms; add to them an
ounce of water, and boil the whole together till the mixture, when
cold, is of the consistence of glue; then form the same into small
rolls, or any other figure that may be most convenient, and it will
be fit for use.

This glue may be wet with the tongue, and rubbed on the edges of the
paper, silk, or leather, that are to be joined; and on being laid
together, and suffered to dry, they will be united as firmly as any
other part of the substance.


251. _Liquid Glue._--Pour naphtha upon shellac until of a creamy
consistence, and keep it closely corked. This glue will unite iron,
wood, glass, &c. It is water-proof, and dries quickly.


252. _Glue to hold against Fire or Water._--Mix a handful of
quick-lime in four ounces of linseed-oil, boil them to a good
thickness, then spread it on tin plates in the shade, and it will
become exceedingly hard; but may be easily dissolved over the fire,
as glue.


253. _To mend China._--Mix together equal parts of fine glue, white
of eggs, and white of lead, and with it anoint the edges of the
article to be mended; press them together, and when hard and dry
scrape off as much of the cement as sticks about the joint. The juice
of garlic is another good cement, and leaves no mark where it has
been used.


254. _Cement and Ground Glass Imitation._--In half-a-pint spirits of
wine steep one ounce of isinglass twenty-four hours, then dissolve
it over a slow fire, keeping the vessel covered that the spirit may
not evaporate (for this purpose a double saucepan should be used,
the outer one containing water, after the manner of a glue-pot; or
the solution may be made in a jar with a lid, tied over also with
bladder, and placed in a saucepan of water--the water should surround
the jar to the height of two inches or more, but not so high as to
float it). When the isinglass is completely dissolved, add the juice
of garlic, obtained by pounding in a mortar six cloves of the root,
and straining through linen. Mix well, and cork close for a short
time. The mixture will then cement either glass or crystal.


254a. _Cement to resist Fire and Water._--Half-a-pint each of vinegar
and milk, simmer them together till the curd separates. Strain, and
with the whey mix the whites of five eggs well beaten up. The mixture
of these two substances being complete, add sifted quick-lime, and
make the whole into the consistence of putty. Let it be carefully
applied--that is, to lay it on every part of the broken edges, and to
make the edges fit exactly; as soon as it is perfectly dry, it will
be found to resist both heat and moisture. Whatever the article was
originally calculated to bear, it is again fitted to bear as much as
if it had never been broken.


255. _To imitate Ground Glass._--Rub the glass over with a lump of
glaziers' putty, carefully and uniformly until the surface is equally
covered. This is an excellent imitation of ground glass, and is not
injured by rain or damp. It is useful for kitchen windows, &c.


256. _To cement Broken China._--Mix some oyster-shell powder with
the white of a fresh egg, to the thickness of white paint, lay it on
thick at the two edges and join them as exact and quick as possible,
then put it before the fire till the china is quite hot, and it will
cement in about two minutes. Pour boiling water into it directly,
wipe it dry, scrape it clean on both sides with a penknife, and it
will appear only as a crack. Mix no more than you can use for one
or two things at a time; for if the cement grows hard, it will be
spoiled. The powder may be bought at the apothecaries'; but it is
best prepared at home, which is done as follows:--Choose a large,
deep oyster-shell; put it in the middle of a clear fire till red-hot,
then take it out and scrape away the black parts; pound the rest in
a mortar as fine as possible; sift and beat it a second time, till
quite smooth and fine.


257. _Obs._--In cementing china and glass, first heat the portions,
and when the cement is applied, press them closely together, as the
thinner the cement is, the more firmly it holds.


258. _To cement Broken China or Glass._--Beat lime to the finest
powder, and sift it through fine muslin; then tie some into a thin
muslin; put on the edges of the broken china some white of egg; dust
some lime quickly on the same, and unite them exactly.


259. _Chinese method of mending China._--Take a piece of flint-glass,
beat it to a fine powder, and grind it well with the white of an egg,
and it joins china without riveting, so that no art can break it in
the same place. You are to observe, that the composition is to be
ground extremely fine.


260. _Improved Corks for preserving Wine or Chemical Liquors._--Melt
together two parts of white wax and one part of beef suet; dip your
corks in this mixture, and immediately dry them in a stove upon an
iron plate; repeat this operation twice, and the corks thus prepared
will preserve any liquor well without imparting any ill-flavor
thereto.


261. _Bottle Cement._--Common red and black sealing-wax, of each
half-a-pound; bees'-wax, quarter of an ounce. Melt them in an earthen
pipkin or brass kettle. The former is preferable, because the cement
may be kept in it, and again melted whenever it is wanted for use.
When the mixture begins to froth, and seems likely to boil over, stir
with a tallow candle, which will settle the froth. As soon as the
whole is melted, it is ready for use.


262. _Bottle Cement._--Melt in an iron ladle some rosin, and a
quarter as much bees'-wax; add a little Venetian red, stir with a
piece of candle, and, when smoothly melted, dip in the top of the
bottles, so as completely to cover them. In making this cement, be
careful not to leave it a moment while it is on the fire.


263. _Blood Cement._--Blood Cement, for repairing copper boilers,
&c., is made by pounded quick-lime and ox-blood mixed together: it
must be applied fresh made, as it soon becomes so hard as to be unfit
for use.


264. _Diamond Cement._--Diamond Cement, for glass or china, is made
by dissolving a quarter of an ounce of isinglass in water, by boiling
it to the consistence of cream. Add a table-spoonful of spirits of
wine. Use warm.


265. _Cement for attaching Metal to Glass or Porcelain._--Take two
ounces of a thick solution of glue, and mix with one ounce of linseed
oil varnish, or three-quarters of an ounce of Venice turpentine.
Boil together, agitating them until thoroughly mixed. The pieces to
be cemented should be left untouched, after having been united, for
forty-eight or sixty hours.


266. _To mend Tortoise-Shell._--To mend tortoise-shell, bring the
edges of the pieces to fit each other, observing to give the same
inclination of grain to each; then secure them in a piece of paper,
and place them between hot irons or pincers; apply pressure, and let
them cool. Take care that the heat is not too great, or it will burn
the shell.


267. _To clean Gold Chains, &c._--Make a lather of soap and water;
boil the chain in it for a few minutes, and immediately on taking it
out, lay it in magnesia powder which has been heated by the fire;
when dry, rub it with flannel; if embossed, use a brush.

_Or:_--Wash it well in soap and water, and put it while wet into a
bag with some fresh, clean bran; shake it well, and in a few minutes
it will be found perfectly clean.


268. _To restore Pearls._--Soak them in hot water in which bran has
been boiled, with a little salt of tartar and alum, and rub them
gently between the hands; rinse them in lukewarm water, and lay them
out to dry.

To preserve the color of pearls, keep them in dry common magnesia,
instead of the cotton-wool used in jewel-cases, and they will never
lose their brilliance.


269. _To clean Gold or Silver Lace._--Rub it gently with cotton wool,
or a soft brush dipped in spirits of wine, taking care not to injure
the silk beneath.


270. _To clean Gold and Silver Lace._--Sew the lace in linen cloth,
and boil it in a pint of water, and two ounces of soap; and then wash
the lace in water.


271. _To improve Gilding._--Mix one gill of water, two ounces of
purified nitre, one ounce of alum and one ounce of common salt. Lay
this over gilt articles with a brush, and their color will be much
improved.


272. _Incombustible Varnish for Wood._--Equal parts of alum and
isinglass, dissolved and mixed, applied to wood, prevents it from
burning. Liquids can be boiled in a wooden vessel on a common fire,
if this varnish be applied to it. The wood chars sometimes, but does
not flame.


273. _Cement for Iron Flues._--Common salt and sifted wood-ashes in
equal parts, made into a paste with water, is a very good cement for
iron flues, and may be applied when the flue is hot or cold. Iron
filings and vinegar will do almost as well, or rather iron filings
moistened with diluted muriatic acid. These are generally used for
filling up the space between cylinders.


274. _Preparation of common Cement for joining Alabaster, Marble,
Porphyry, or other Stones._--Take of bees'-wax two pounds, and of
rosin one pound; melt them, and add one pound and a half of the same
kind of matter, (powdered,) as the body to be cemented is composed
of, strewing it into the melted mixture, and stirring them well
together, and afterwards kneading the mass in water, that the powder
may be thoroughly incorporated with wax and rosin. The proportion of
the powdered matter may be varied, where required, in order to bring
the cement nearer to the color of the body on which it is employed.

This cement must be heated when applied; as must also the parts of
the subject to be cemented together; and care must be taken likewise,
that they be thoroughly dry.

When this composition is properly managed, it forms an extremely
strong cement, which will even suspend a projecting body of
considerable weight, after it is thoroughly dry and set, and is
therefore of great use to all carvers in stone, or others who may
have occasion to join together the parts of bodies of this nature.

Melted sulphur, applied to fragments of stones previously heated (by
placing them before a fire) to at least the melting point of sulphur,
and then joined with the sulphur between, makes a pretty firm and
durable joining.

Chips out of corners, and similar little deficiencies in the
stone, may also be filled up with melted sulphur, in which some of
the powder of the stone has been mixed: but the stone should be
previously heated.


275. _Strong Cement._--To prevent the escape of the vapors of water,
spirit, and liquors not corrosive, the simple application of slips
of moistened bladder will answer very well for glass, and paper with
good paste for metal. Bladder, to be very adhesive, should be soaked
some time in water moderately warm, till it feels clammy, it then
sticks very well; if smeared with white of eggs instead of water, it
adheres still closer.


276. _To scour a Hat._--Rub yellow soap on a hard brush, dip it into
boiling water, and brush the hat round with the nap; if the nap be
clotted, continue to brush it till it is smooth, and free from soap;
then, if requisite, scrape out the dirt, by passing round the hat an
edged piece of wood, or the back of a knife; next, beat the nap with
a cane, hang the hat to dry, and pass a heated flat iron two or three
times gently over it; brush it afterwards.


277. _Management of Razor Strops._--Most razor strops are spoiled by
being left too dry; a drop or two of sweet oil, frequently added to
the strop, would remedy this; and, after using the strop, passing the
razor on the inside of a warm hand, gives the smoothest and finest
edge; putting the razor in warm water makes it cut very keen, and
perhaps nothing makes a better razor strop than crocus martis, with a
little sweet oil, rubbed well on leather with a glass bottle.


278. _To prevent Gentlemen's Hats from being injured by Rain._--Shake
off the water as much as possible; then with a clean linen cloth or
silk handkerchief wipe the hat carefully, keeping the beaver flat and
smooth, in the same direction as it was first placed; then with hands
fix it in the original shape, and hang it at a distance from the fire
to dry. A few hours after, or the next morning, lay the hat on the
table, and brush it round and round several times with a soft brush
in the proper direction, and you will find your hat not in the least
injured by the rain.

If the gloss is not quite so high as you wish, take a flat iron,
moderately heated, and pass the same two or three times gently over
the hat; brush it afterwards; and it will be nearly as handsome as
when first sent home from the shop.


279. _Dyeing._--Occasionally, when colored articles of silk, wool, or
cotton have been cleaned, their color requires to be made deeper; at
other times, it maybe desirable to change the color altogether, when
that already in the stuff must be discharged, and the article dyed
anew.

Articles of any color may be dyed black, and black may easily be
re-dyed. Blues can be made green or black; green may be made brown,
and brown, green; and any color on re-dyeing, will take a darker tint
than at first. A black may be dyed maroon, claret, or dark-brown; but
green is the best color into which black can be changed.

Most colors can be discharged by boiling the articles in water, with
a small quantity of spirits of salts in it. Yellows, browns, and
blues, are not easily discharged; maroons, reds of some kinds, and
olives, may be easily discharged, by boiling them in water, with a
small quantity of the following articles: roche-alum, for maroons;
oil of vitriol--a very small quantity--for olives and grays; alum,
pearlash, or soap, will discharge green to a yellow, which may be
boiled off with soap.


280. _To Alum Silks._--Silk should be alumed cold, for when it is
alumed hot, it is deprived of a great part of its lustre. The alum
liquor should always be strong for silks, as they take the dye more
readily afterwards.


281. _Various Dyes._--The following are the articles employed for the
colors most in use, the proportions depending upon the depth or the
shade required.

_Lilac and Purple._--Boil archil in water; or, boil logwood in water;
and, when cold, dip the article to be dyed into it, having previously
passed it through a weak solution of alum in water. From logwood also
may be obtained different shades of _Violet_.

Effective _Lilac_ dyes may be produced from the berries of the
Portugal laurel; and from the black currant, after the juice has been
expressed.

_Red_ is obtained from madder, and Brazil wood; the article being
first dipped in weak alum and water, then in the dye, and lastly in a
decoction of archil and water, to give it a bloom.

_Rose_, _Flesh-color_, _Poppy_, and _Cherry-red_, are obtained from a
decoction of carthamus in water, with a little soda and lemon juice.
For a poppy-color, the article should first be dipped in a weak
solution of arnatto in water; and for a pale carnation, a little soap
should be added to the carthamus.

_Pink Bloom._--Archil is employed to give a bloom to pinks, whites,
&c., as for silk stockings; for which purpose, also, pink saucers are
used.

_Scarlet_ is obtained from cochineal; but, for cotton and wool, the
color derived from it is little superior to that given by madder.

_Nankeen_ is obtained from Spanish arnatto dissolved in hot water,
with a small portion of pearlash in it.

_Blue_ is prepared from indigo; but, as this dye is not easily made,
it will be better to purchase a bottle of "Blue Dye."

_Yellow_ may be obtained from the juice of the tops of
potato-flowers, fustic chips, weld or dyers' weed, turmeric, and
Dutch pink.

_Green_ consists of blue and yellow dyes, mixed.

_Orange_ is extracted from carthamus. _Cinnamon_ from logwood, Brazil
wood, and fustic, mixed; or from a strong decoction made from the
green tops and flowers of the common heath.

_Black_ is formed by logwood and green copperas boiled in water;
the color being improved by first boiling the article with galls, or
alder-bark, in water; or by first dyeing it with walnut-peels.

_Gray_ is produced by diluting black dye.

_Brown_ is obtained from walnut-peels, or the bark of birch.

_Olives_ are made from blue, red, and brown.

The pericarp of the Scotch rose contains a fine purple juice which,
diluted with water, dyes silk and muslin _Peach-color_; the addition
of alum will make it a deep _Violet_ dye.

In all cases, except otherwise specified, the article to be dyed
should be first steeped in a weak solution of alum in water.


282. _To dye the Linings of Curtains, Furniture Covers, &c._--Wash
the articles clean, and, having prepared the dye according to either
of the previous recipes, dip them, rinse them in pump water, then in
water-starch; dry them quickly, and mangle or calender them.


283. _To dye Silk Stockings._--Wash and _boil_ the stockings, if
requisite, in soap and water, and rinse them in clear hot water.
Put three table-spoonfuls of archil into a wash-hand basin of hot
water, in which soak the stockings until they become of a lilac
shade, when rinse them lightly in cold water. Dry them in fumes of
brimstone, and when they are bleached to the required flesh-color,
rub the right side with clean flannel or glass, and iron them. If the
pink saucer-color be used instead of archil, the stockings will not
require bleaching with brimstone.

_For Black Stockings._--Having dyed them, finish them on wooden legs,
by rubbing them with flannel moistened with olive oil. Rub each pair
half an hour.


284. _To dye Gloves to look like York Tan._--Put some saffron into
one pint of soft water boiling hot, and let it infuse all night; next
morning wet the leather with a brush. The tops should be sewn close
to prevent the color from getting in.

_To dye White Gloves a beautiful Purple._--Boil 4 ozs. of logwood
and 2 ozs. of roche-alum in 3 pints of soft water till half-wasted.
Let it stand to be cold after straining. Let the gloves be nicely
mended; then do them over with a brush, and when dry repeat it. Twice
is sufficient, unless the color is to be very dark. When dry, rub off
the loose dye with a coarse cloth. Beat up the white of an egg, and
with a sponge rub it over the leather. The dye will stain the hands,
but wetting them with vinegar before they are washed will take it off.


285. _To dye Straw and Chip Bonnets Black._--Boil them in strong
logwood liquor three or four hours, occasionally adding green
copperas, and taking the bonnets out to cool in the air, and this
must be continued for some hours. Let the bonnets remain in the
liquor all night, and the next morning take them out, dry them in
the air, and brush them with a soft brush. Lastly, rub them inside
and out with a sponge moistened with oil, and then send them to be
blocked.


286. _To make Nankeen Dye._--Boil equal parts of arnatto and common
potash in water, till the whole are dissolved. This will produce
the _pale reddish buff_ so much in use, and sold under the name of
_Nankeen Dye_.


287. _To dye Cotton a fine Buff Color._--Let the twist or yarn be
boiled in pure water, to cleanse it; then wring it, run it through a
dilute solution of iron in the vegetable acid, which printers call
_iron liquor_; wring, and run it through lime-water, to raise it;
wring it again, and run it through a solution of starch and water;
then wring it once more, and dry, wind, warp, and weave it for use.


288. _To dye Worsted or Woollen Black._--Put in half a gallon of
water a piece of bi-chromate of potash, the size of a horse-bean.
Boil the articles in this seven or eight minutes. Take them out
and wash them. Then in another half-gallon of water put in one
table-spoonful and a half of ground logwood; boil the articles in
this the same length of time as before. Then wash them in cold water.


289. _To dye Hair and Feathers Green._--Take of verdigris or verditer
1 oz., gum water, 1 pint; mix them well, and dip the hair or feathers
into the mixture, shaking them well about.


290. _Waterproof Clothing._--First make the cloak, coat, or trowsers
of _linen_; then soak them well for a day or two in _boiled_ oil;
then hang them up in a dry place till perfectly dry, without wringing
the oil out; then paint them, without turpentine or dryers being in
the paint, black, or any other color you like, and lay the paint on
thinly, and let it dry. (This is the method practised by seamen.)

_Waterproof Clothing._--Make the garment of strong unbleached calico;
hang it up in a dry place, and, with a brush, give it two coats
of boiled linseed oil. Buy the oil ready-boiled; a pint will be
sufficient for a cape or pair of overalls. Canvas may be prepared in
the same way for rick-cloths, or other roofing purposes.

_Another way._--Get some weak size, such as is used by paper-makers;
make it hot, and stir a small lump of alum, and a small quantity
of soap lather into it. Then with a brush apply it to the garment
equally all over, as recommended above with the oil. If the garment
be of good cloth, the size may be laid on inside.


291. _Chinese Method of rendering Cloth Waterproof._--To one ounce
of white wax, melted, add one quart of spirits of turpentine, which,
when thoroughly mixed and cold, dip the cloth in and hang it up to
dry. By this cheap and easy method, muslin, as well as the strongest
cloths, will be rendered impenetrable to the hardest rains, without
the pores being filled up, or any injury done, when the cloth is
colored.


292. _To preserve Furs and Woollens from Moths._--Let the former
be occasionally combed while in use, and the latter be brushed and
shaken. When not wanted, dry them first, let them be cool; then mix
among them bitter apples from the apothecary's in small muslin bags,
sew the articles in several folds of linen, carefully turned in at
the edges, and keep them from damp.

_Or_, lay amongst them the cuttings of Russia leather.


293. _Or_--Leaves from the tobacco plant are very effectual in
keeping off moths. Lay them between the folds of the blankets,
carpets, &c. Air furs, occasionally.


294. _To prevent Moths._--In the month of April beat your fur
garments well with a small cane or elastic stick, then lap them up in
linen without pressing the fur too hard, and put between the folds
some camphor in small lumps; then put your furs in this state in
boxes well closed.

When the furs are wanted for use, beat them well as before, and
expose them for twenty-four hours to the air, which will take away
the smell of the camphor.


295. _Easy Method of preventing Moths in Furs or Woollens._--Sprinkle
the furs or woollen stuffs, as well as the drawers or boxes in which
they are kept, with spirits of turpentine; the unpleasant scent of
which will speedily evaporate, on exposure of the stuffs to the
air. Some persons place sheets of paper, moistened with spirits of
turpentine, over, under, or between pieces of cloth, &c., and find it
a very effectual method.


296. _To preserve Furs, Woollens, &c._--many woollen-drapers put
bits of camphor, the size of a nutmeg, in papers, on different parts
of the shelves in their shops; and as they brush their cloths every
two, three, or four months, this keeps them free from moths; and this
should be done in boxes where furs, &c., are put. A tallow candle is
frequently put within each muff when laid by.


297. _To keep Moths, Beetles, etc., from Clothes._--Put a piece of
camphor in a linen bag, or some aromatic herbs, in the drawers, among
linen or woollen clothes, and neither moth nor worm will come near
them.


298. _A celebrated Blacking Cake for Boots and Shoes._--Take one
part of gum tragacanth, four parts of river water, two parts of
neat's-foot, or some other softening, lubricating oil, two parts of
superfine ivory-black, one part of Prussian blue in fine powder,
or indigo, four parts of brown sugar-candy; boil the mixture; and
when the composition is of a proper consistence, let it be formed
into cakes of such a size that each cake may make a pint of liquid
blacking.


299. _Good Blacking for Boots and Shoes._--Take of ivory black, one
pound; lamp-black, half an ounce; treacle, one pound; sweet oil, one
ounce and a half; coarse gum Arabic, half an ounce; green copperas,
three-quarters of an ounce; and stale vinegar, three pints and a
half. Mix all well together, having first dissolved the gum in a
little water; then add gradually, briskly stirring the mixture, half
an ounce of oil of vitriol; let it stand two days, occasionally
stirring it, and it will be fit for use.

Or, two ounces of ivory-black, one tea-spoonful of oil of vitriol,
a table-spoonful of sweet-oil, and two ounces of sugar-candy, to be
mixed with half a pint of vinegar.


300. _Liquid Blacking._--Ivory-black, quarter of a pound; treacle,
half a pound, well mixed; to which add sweet oil, one pennyworth, and
small beer three pints; add after, oil of vitriol, one pennyworth,
which will cause it to boil. Fit for use in three days.


301. _French Polish for Boots and Shoes._--Logwood chips, half a
pound; glue, quarter of a pound; indigo, pounded very fine, quarter
of an ounce; soft soap, quarter of an ounce; isinglass, quarter of
an ounce; boil these ingredients in two pints of vinegar and one of
water, during ten minutes after ebullition, then strain the liquid.
When cold it is fit for use. To apply the French polish, the dirt
must be washed from the boots and shoes; when these are quite dry,
the liquid polish is put on with a bit of sponge.


302. _To clean White Satin Shoes._--Rub them lengthways of the satin,
with a piece of new white flannel dipped in spirits of wine. If
slightly soiled, you may clean them by rubbing with stale bread.

White satin shoes should be kept in blue paper closely wrapped, with
coarse brown paper outside.

To keep your thin, light slippers in shape, when you put them away,
fold them ever lengthways or sideways, and tie the strings round
them. You should have a covered box purposely for your shoes.


303. _To clean Boot-tops Brown._--Mix, in the same quantity of water,
one ounce of oxalic acid, half an ounce of muriatic acid, a small
vial of spirits of lavender, and two tea-spoonfuls of salt of lemon.
Each bottle should be carefully labeled and marked "Poison."


304. _Directions for using the Liquid._--For the white tops: to be
scrubbed well with a clean hard brush, then sponged well with cold
water, all one way; and allowed to dry gradually in the sun, or by
the fire.

Brown tops are not to be scrubbed with a brush, but sponged all over
with the mixture, till all stains be removed; then sponged well with
cold water, and rubbed with flannel till they be highly polished.


305. _Shoes._--When about being measured for shoes, place the foot
firmly on the ground, as the foot is larger in a standing than in a
sitting posture.


306. _Shoes._--One hint about shoes--a most essential and expensive
article of family wear. However worn and full of holes the soles
may be, if the upper leathers are whole, or soundly mended, and the
stitching firm, the soles may be covered with the newly adopted
article gutta percha, and at a very small expense the shoes will be
rendered as good as new. We have seen shoes which even the eldest
daughter of the Smith family despised as not worth carrying home,
made quite sound and respectable in appearance, and to serve many
months in constant wear, by being thus soled at the cost of only a
few pence. Thin shoes that have been worn only in-doors, and which
are laid aside on account of the tops becoming shabby, perhaps worn
out, while the sewing is sound, may be made very tidy by covering
with woollen cloth, or with a bit of thick knitting, or platted list,
stitched on as close as possible to the regular seam.


307. _To prevent Snow-water from penetrating Boots and Shoes._--Take
equal quantities of bees'-wax and mutton-suet, and melt them in an
earthen pipkin over a slow fire. Lay the mixture, while hot, over the
boots and shoes, which ought also to be made warm. Let them stand
before the fire a short time, and set them aside till they are cold;
then rub them with dry woollen stuff, so that you may not grease the
blacking-brushes. If you black the shoes before the mixture be put
on, they will afterwards take the blacking much better.

Or, boil together for half an hour, a quart of linseed oil, two
ounces of resin, and half an ounce of white vitriol, and incorporate
with them a quarter of a pint of spirit of turpentine, and two ounces
of well-dried oak sawdust. Lay the mixture on the soles of the boots.


308. _Water-proof Boots._--A pint of boiled linseed oil, half a pound
of mutton suet, six ounces of clean bees'-wax, and four ounces of
resin, are to be melted and well mixed over a fire. Of this, while
warm, but not hot enough to shrink the leather, with a brush lay on
plentifully over new boots or shoes, when quite dry and clean. The
leather remains pliant. The New England fishermen preserve their
boots water-tight by this method, which, it is said, has been in use
among them above one hundred years. They can thus stand in water hour
after hour without inconvenience.


309. _Water-proof Boots._--I have had three pairs of boots for the
last six years (no shoes), and I think I shall not require any more
for the next six years to come. The reason is, that I treat them in
the following manner: I put a pound of tallow and half a pound of
rosin in a pot on the fire; when melted and mixed, I warm the boots
and apply the hot stuff with a painter's brush, until neither the
sole or the upper-leather will suck in any more. If it is desired
that the boots should immediately take a polish, melt an ounce of wax
with a tea-spoonful of lamp-black. A day after the boots have been
treated with tallow and rosin, rub over them this wax in turpentine,
but not before the fire. The exterior will then have a coat of wax
alone, and will shine like a mirror. Tallow, or any other grease,
becomes rancid, and rots the stitching as well as the leather; but
the rosin gives it an antiseptic quality, which preserves the whole.
Boots and shoes should be so large as to admit of wearing cork
soles.--_Correspondent of Mechanics' Magazine._


310. _To make Cloth or Outer Clothing of any description
Water-proof._--Take a quarter of an ounce of _yellow_ or _Castile_
soap, and one gallon of rain water; boil for twenty minutes; skim,
and when cold, put in the cloth or garment; let it remain soaking
twenty-four hours; take it out, and hang to drain; when half-dry,
put it into the following solution:--Alum, half a pound; sugar of
lead, quarter of a pound; dissolved in four gallons of rain water.
Let the cloth be thoroughly soaked, and then hang to dry. This
process entirely destroys the capillary attraction in the fibres
and threads of the cloth, and the rain or wet pours off the surface
without lodging or penetrating through the cloth. The solution has
_no effect_ in _altering_ the texture or appearance of the cloth or
article immersed. Great care must be taken as regards the sugar of
lead, not to leave it where children or any persons ignorant of its
qualities can get access to it, as it is a powerful poison.


311. _To make an Oil-skin Coat or Wrapper._--If a stout coat or
wrapper is wanted, let the material be strong unbleached or brown
calico. If a light one is preferred, make use of brown holland. Soak
it (when made) in hot water, and hang to dry; then boil ten ounces
of India-rubber in one quart of _raw linseed oil_, until dissolved;
(this will require about three hours' boiling,) when cold, mix with
the oil so prepared about half a pint of paint of any color which may
be preferred, and of the same consistency as that used for painting
wood. With a paint-brush lay a thin coat over the outside of the
wrapper, brushing it well into the seams. Hang it to dry in a current
of air, but sheltered from a powerful sun. When _thoroughly_ dry,
give it another coat; dry as before, and then give a third and last
coat. The wrapper, when _well dried_, will be ready for use.


312. _To make Gutta Percha Soles._--The gutta percha possesses
properties which render it invaluable for winter shoes. _It is,
compared with leather, a slow conductor of heat_; the effect of
this is, that the warmth of the feet is retained, however cold the
surface may be on which the person stands, and that clammy dampness,
so objectionable in the wear of India rubber shoes, is entirely
prevented. On first using gutta percha shoes, the wearer is forcibly
struck with the superior warmth and comfort which is produced by this
non-conducting property; and I confidently predict, that all those
who try gutta percha, will be steady consumers.

We shall now give the method of fixing the gutta percha soles. Make
the sole of the boot perfectly clean and dry, scratch it with an awl
or a fork until it becomes rough, warm it before the fire, and spread
over it with a hot iron or poker some of the "solution" sold for this
purpose, or in the absence of this, place some of the thin parings of
the gutta percha on the sole, holding it to the fire, and spreading
it as before. When this has been repeated two or three times, and
all is well covered, warm the gutta percha sole, and the sole of the
boot at the same time, until both become soft and sticky, place the
sole on the boot, and press it down carefully, beginning at the toe,
so as to press out the air and make it adhere closely; nothing more
remains to be done, than as soon as it becomes hard to pare the edges
with a sharp knife, and trim off as may be necessary. All the parings
and old pieces should be saved, as gutta percha is not injured by
use, and may be sold to the manufacturer in order to be restored and
made up again.


313. _Fly Water._--Most of the fly-waters, and other preparations
commonly sold for the destruction of flies, are variously disguised
poisons, dangerous and even fatal to the human species: such as
solutions of mercury, arsenic, &c., mixed with honey or syrup. The
following preparation, however, without endangering the lives of
children, or other incautious persons, is not less fatal to flies
than even a solution of arsenic. Dissolve two drachms of the extract
of quassia in half a pint of boiling water; and adding a little sugar
or syrup, pour the mixture on plates. To this enticing food the flies
are extremely partial, and it never fails to destroy them.

A strong infusion of green tea, sweetened, is as effectual in
poisoning flies, as the solution of arsenic generally sold for that
purpose.


314. _To destroy Flies._--Ground black pepper and moist sugar,
intimately mixed in equal quantities, and diluted with milk, placed
in saucers, adding fresh milk, and stirring the mixture as often as
necessary, succeeds admirably in occasioning their death.


315. _Another way to destroy Flies._--Pour a little simple oxymel (an
article sold by druggists) into a common tumbler glass, and place
in the glass a piece of cap paper, made into the shape of the upper
part of a funnel, with a hole at the bottom to admit the flies.
Attracted by the smell, they readily enter the trap in swarms, and by
the thousands soon collected prove that they have not the wit or the
disposition to return.


316. _To remove Flies._--Flies and other insects may be kept from
attacking meat, by dusting it over with pepper, powdered ginger, or
any other spice, or by skewering a piece of paper to it on which a
drop of creosote has been poured. The spices may be readily washed
off with water before dressing the meat.


317. _To keep off Flies._--Place camphor on or near what you wish to
protect from them.


318. _Wasps and Flies._--These insects may be killed immediately by
dipping a feather in a little sweet oil, and touching their backs
with it. When intent on fruit this can easily be done. Insects of
different kinds are readily killed by oil; it closes up the lateral
pores by which they breathe.


319. _To destroy Ants and Wasps._--Ants are destroyed by opening the
nest and putting in quick-lime, and throwing water on it.

Wasps may be destroyed in the same way; only it will be requisite
that the person who does it should be covered with muslin, or
something over the face, hands, &c., so that the wasps shall not be
able to sting them.


320. _To destroy Ants._--Ants that frequent houses or gardens may be
destroyed by taking flour of brimstone, half a pound, and potash,
four ounces: set them in an iron or earthen pan over the fire till
dissolved and united; afterwards beat them to a powder, and infuse a
little of this powder in water; and wherever you sprinkle it the ants
will die, or fly the place.


321. _Another Method._--Corrosive sublimate, mixed well with sugar,
has proved a mortal poison to them, and is the most effectual way of
destroying these insects.


322. _To destroy Cockroaches, &c._--Stir a small quantity of arsenic
with some bread-crumbs, which lay near the insects' haunts; meantime,
be careful to keep dogs and cats out of the way. Poisoned wafers are
also made for killing cockroaches: a trap is made with a glass well,
for the same purpose; but a more simple contrivance is to half-fill
a glazed basin, or pie-dish, with sweetened beer or linseed oil, and
set in places frequented by cockroaches. They will attack the _red_
wax of sealed bottles, but will not touch _black_ wax.


323. _To destroy Crickets._--To destroy crickets at night, set
dishes or saucers filled with the grounds of beer or tea, on the
kitchen-floor, and, in the morning, the crickets will be found dead
from excess of drinking.


324. _To drive away Fleas._--Sprinkle about the bed a few drops of
oil of lavender, and the fleas will soon disappear.

Fumigation with brimstone, or fresh leaves of penny-royal sewed in a
bag, and laid in the bed, will have the desired effect.


325. _Liquor for destroying Caterpillars, Ants, and other
Insects._--Take a pound and three-quarters of soap, the same quantity
of flower of sulphur, two pounds of champignons, or puff-balls, and
fifteen gallons of water. When the whole has been well mixed, by the
aid of a gentle heat, sprinkle the insects with the liquor, and it
will instantly kill them.


326. _To destroy Rats._--Cut a number of corks or a piece of sponge
as thin as sixpences; stew them in grease, and place them in the way
of the rats. They will greedily devour this delicacy, and will die of
indigestion.


327. _To kill Rats, another way._--There are two objections to the
common mode of killing rats, by laying poison for them; first, the
danger to which it exposes other animals and even human beings;
second, the possibility that the rats may cause an intolerable
stench, by dying in their holes. The following method is free from
these objections, and has proved effectual in clearing houses
infested with these vermin.

Oil of amber and ox-gall in equal parts, add to them oatmeal or flour
sufficient to form a paste, which divide into little balls and lay
them in the middle of a room which rats are supposed or known to
visit. Surround the balls with a number of vessels filled with water.
The smell of the oil will be sure to attract the rats, they will
greedily devour the balls, and becoming intolerably thirsty, will
drink till they die on the spot.


328. _To expel Rats._--Catch one in a trap; muzzle it, with the
assistance of a fellow-servant, and slightly singe some of the hair;
then smear the part with turpentine, and set the animal loose; if
again caught, leave it still at liberty, as the other rats will shun
the place which it inhabits. It is said to be a fact that a toad
placed in a cellar will free it from rats.

Rats may be expelled from cellars and granaries simply by scattering
a few stalks and leaves of mullen in their paths. There is something
very annoying in this plant to the rat. It affords, therefore, a very
easy method of getting rid of a most perplexing evil, and much more
economical and less troublesome than gunpowder, "rat exterminator,"
cats, or traps.


329. _To destroy Fleas and other Vermin on Animals._--To destroy
them on dogs, rub the animal, when out of the house, with the common
Scotch snuff, except the nose and eyes. Rub the powder well into the
roots of the hair. Clear lime-water destroys the flea-worm without
injuring the skin or hair.

Oil of turpentine, when applied to animals, which were covered with
insects, destroyed the insects, without hurting the animal.


330. _To destroy Bugs._--Mix half a pint of spirits of turpentine and
half a pint of best rectified spirits of wine, in a strong bottle,
and add in small pieces about half an ounce of camphor, which will
dissolve in a few minutes. Shake the mixture well together; and, with
a sponge or brush dipped in it, well wet the bed and furniture where
the vermin breed. This will infallibly destroy both them and their
nits, though they swarm. The dust, however, should be well brushed
from the bedstead and furniture, to prevent, from such carelessness,
any stain. If that precaution is attended to, there will be no
danger of soiling the richest silk or damask. On touching a live bug
with only the tip of a pin put into the mixture, the insect will be
instantly deprived of existence, and should any bugs happen to appear
after using the mixture, it will only be from not wetting the linen,
&c., of the bed, the foldings and linings of the curtains near the
rings or the joints, or holes in and about the bed or head-board, in
which places the vermin nestle and breed; so that those parts being
well wetted with more of the mixture, which dries as fast as it is
used, and pouring it into the joints and holes, where the sponge
and brush cannot reach, it will never fail totally to destroy them.
The smell of this mixture, though powerful, is extremely wholesome,
and to many persons very agreeable. It exhales, however, in two or
three days. Only one caution is necessary; but that is important. The
mixture must be well shaken when used; _but never applied by candle
light_, lest the spirits, being attracted by the flare of the candle,
might cause a conflagration.


331. _Kitchen Cloths._--The four kinds of cloths requisite for
the kitchen, are knife-cloths, dusters, tea and glass-cloths.
Knife-cloths should be made of coarse sheeting. Dusters are generally
made of mixed cotton and linen. The best material for tea and
glass-cloths, is a sheet which has begun to wear thin.

Besides the above cloths, are knife-tray-cloths, house-cloths for
cleaning, pudding and cheese-cloths, and towels.


332. _Clothes' Posts_ soon decay at the bottom, if left standing
in the ground; but, if fitted into sockets so as to be removable,
they will last for years. The sockets should be made of one-inch
elm, eighteen inches in length, tapering downwards. When finished,
they ought to be about three inches square inside, at the upper end.
They are to be driven firmly into the earth till just level with the
surface. The posts are then made to drop in and stand firm, and can
be taken out, and put under shelter when not in use. A cover should
be fitted to each socket, to keep litter from falling in when the
post is removed. A drying-ground should not be too much exposed to
the wind, as the violent flapping tears the corners of table-cloths,
sheets, &c., and overblown linen feels flabby after mangling.


333. _Out-houses and Cellars._--If these have not been recently
cleansed, have them thoroughly cleaned out and white-washed. A dirty
cellar is an abomination, and the fruitful source of many diseases.
Let all your out-buildings have a thorough overhauling and repairing.


334. _To purify Houses._--An able chemist recommends a mixture of one
pound of chloride of lime in ten gallons of water. Throw a quart of
this daily down the sink or water-closet. It will not cost five cents
a week.

One of the best and most pleasant disinfectants is coffee. Pound
well-dried raw coffee-beans in a mortar, and strew the powder over
a moderately heated iron plate. The simple traversing of the house
with a roaster containing freshly roasted coffee will clear it of
offensive smells.



PART II.

HEALTH AND BEAUTY.

  _Rules for the preservation of Health, and simple Recipes
  found often efficacious in common diseases and slight
  injuries_--_Directions for preparing Remedies and ministering to
  the Sick and Suffering_--_The Toilet, or hints and suggestions for
  the preservation of Beauty, with some useful Recipes for those who
  need them_.


335. _Means of preserving Health._--Light and sunshine are needful
for your health. Get all you can; keep your windows clean. Do not
block them up with curtains, plants, or bunches of flowers: these
last poison the air in small rooms.

Fresh air is needful for your health. As often as you can, open all
your windows, if only for a short time, in bad weather; in fine
weather, keep them open, but never sit in draughts. When you get up,
open the windows wide, and throw down the bed-clothes, that they may
be exposed to fresh air some hours daily before they are made up.
Keep your bed-clothes clean; hang them to the fire when you can.
Avoid wearing at night what you wear in the day. Hang up your day
clothes at night. Except in the severest weather, in small crowded
sleeping-rooms, a little opening at the top of the window-sash is
very important; or, you will find one window-pane of perforated zinc
very useful. You will not catch cold half so easily by breathing
pure air at night. Let not the beds be directly under the windows.
Sleeping in exhausted air creates a desire for stimulants.

Pure water is needful for your health. Wash your bodies as well as
your faces, rubbing them all over with a coarse cloth. If you cannot
wash thus every morning, pray do so once a week. Crying and cross
children are often pacified by a gentle washing of their little hands
and faces--it soothes them. Babies' heads should be washed carefully,
every morning, with yellow soap. No scurf should be suffered to
remain upon them. Get rid of all slops and dirty water at once,
but do not throw them out before your doors; and never suffer dead
cabbage-leaves or dirt of any kind to remain there; all these poison
the air, and bring fevers. All bad smells are _poison_; never rest
with them. Keep your back yards clean. Pig-sties are very injurious;
slaughter-houses are equally hurtful: the smells from both excite
typhus fever, and cause ill health. Frederick the Great said, that
one fever was more fatal to him than seven battles. Disease, and
even death, is often the consequence of our own negligence. Wash
your rooms and passages at least once a week; use plenty of clean
water; but do not let your children stay in them while they are
wet--it may bring on croup or inflammation of the chest. If you read
your Bibles--which it is earnestly hoped you do--you will find how
cleanliness, both as to the person and habitation, was taught to the
Jews by God himself; and we read in the 4th chapter of Nehemiah, that
when they were building their second temple, and defending their
lives against their foes, having no time for rest, they contrived
to put off their clothes for washing. It is a good old saying, that
_Cleanliness is next to Godliness_. See Heb. x. 22.

Wholesome food is needful for your health. Buy the most
strengthening. Pieces of fresh beef and mutton go the farthest.
Eat plenty of fresh salt with food; it prevents disease. Pray do
not let your children waste their pocket-money in tarts, cakes,
sugar-plums, sour fruit, &c.; they are very unwholesome, and hurt
the digestion. People would often, at twenty years of age, have
a nice little sum of money to help them on in the world, if they
had put in the savings-bank the money so wasted. Cocoa is cheaper
and much more nourishing than tea. None of these liquids should be
taken _hot_, but lukewarm; when hot, they inflame the stomach, and
produce indigestion. All kinds of intoxicating drinks are to be
avoided, or taken in the utmost moderation. If possible, abstain from
them altogether. Money saved from drink, will help to educate your
children, and make your homes happier.

We are all made to breathe the pure air of heaven, and therefore much
illness is caused by being constantly in-doors. This is especially
the case with mothers of families, young milliners, ironers,
shoe-makers, tailors, &c. Let such persons make a point, whenever it
is possible, of taking exercise in the _open air_ for at least an
hour and a half, _daily_. Time would be saved in the long-run, by
the increased energy and strength gained, and by the warding off of
disease.

Be sure to get your children vaccinated, between the third and sixth
month after birth, before teething begins, and when they are in a
good state of health for it. This would save a great many lives.
On no account give your children laudanum, or any kind of sleeping
medicine; numbers are killed by it.


336. _Directions in severe Sickness._--Whenever any one of your
family is taken violently ill, send as soon as possible for the most
skilful physician--and follow, carefully, his orders. But, many
times, the mother is the best physician, and the only one needed
for her children, if she has been trained to take proper care of
her own health, as every woman should be. The following recipes and
directions may be of great service to young mothers, and those who
have not been accustomed to minister to the sick.


337. _To purify the Chambers of the Sick._--Close the windows and
doors of the room to be purified, except one door; close also
the chimney aperture, except two or three inches at the bottom,
and remove all the iron and brass furniture; then put three
table-spoonsful of common salt into a dish or pan, place it upon the
floor of the apartment, and pour at once upon the salt a quarter of
a pint of oil of vitriol; retire, and close the room for forty-eight
hours, during which time vapor will continue to rise and diffuse
itself completely through the room, so as to destroy the matter on
which infection depends. The room may then be entered, the doors
and windows thrown open, and a fire made in the grate, so that the
apartment may be perfectly ventilated.


338. _To prevent Infection._--As a preservative, carry with you and
smell occasionally, a handkerchief sprinkled with this mixture; half
an ounce of spirits of camphor, half a pint of water, and five ounces
of pyroligneous acid.

Cascarilla bark is good to smoke, to prevent the effects of malaria,
and in sick rooms to correct bad effluvia. It yields a fine aromatic
odor, and is very wholesome for sedentary and studious people to
smoke, if mixed with good tobacco. The proportions for either of
these purposes are as follow: one pound of Turkey tobacco, four
ounces of Dutch canister tobacco, and one ounce of Cascarilla bark,
broken small; mix the above, and smoke a pipe of it every evening,
when the house is shut up; it is also a good digester after meals.


339. _Fumigating Pastilles._--Pound and mix gum benjamin and
frankincense in powder, of each two drachms; gum myrrh, storax,
cascarilla bark, and nitre, of each, powdered, one ounce and a half;
and charcoal powder, one ounce: moisten, and shape into pastilles
with gum-water, and a very little turpentine.

The stalks of dried lavender, if burnt, have an agreeable scent, and
form a substitute for pastilles; they may be cut small, and burnt in
little vessels.


340. _To use Chloride of Lime._--This preventive of contagion may be
used as follows: stir one pound of the chloride of lime into four
gallons of water; allow it to settle for a short time, pour off the
clear solution, and keep it in well-corked bottles.

In houses infected, sprinkle the rooms morning and evening with the
above liquid; and pour some of it into shallow dishes or basins.
Sprinkle it about the room and bed-linen occasionally, and admit
fresh air. Infected linen should be dipped in the mixture about five
minutes, and then in common water, before it is sent to the wash.

A wine-glassful added to the water of a night-chair or bed-pan, will
prevent any smell. To destroy the effluvia from drains, sewers,
cesspools, &c., pour into them a quart of the mixture, with a pail of
water.

Meat sprinkled with, or dipped in the mixture, and hung in the air,
will not be attacked by flies, nor be tainted, for some time.

Water in cisterns may be purified, and its animalcula killed, by
putting about a pint of the mixture to one hundred gallons of water.

This mixture will also destroy bugs, if the joints and crevices of
bedsteads be washed with it. It will likewise remove the smell of
paint in a day, if the newly painted room be sprinkled with it, and
if some be placed there in dishes or saucers.


341. _Disinfecting Liquid._--In a wine-bottle full of cold water
dissolve two ounces of sugar of lead, and add two ounces of
aqua-fortis. Shake the mixture well. A very small quantity of the
liquid in its strongest form should be used for cleansing all chamber
utensils. To remove offensive odors, dilute the liquid with eight
or ten parts of water, moisten clean cloths thoroughly with it, and
hang them in various parts of the room. The offensive gases are
neutralized by chemical action. Fumigation is merely substituting one
odor for another. In all practicable cases, _fresh air_, and plenty
of it, is far the best disinfectant.


342. _To prevent Abrasions of the Skin in persons confined to their
beds; a very valuable recipe._--Apply occasionally to the tender
parts of the body, with a feather, this mixture. Beat to a strong
froth the white of an egg, then drop in gradually, while beating it,
two tea-spoonfuls of spirits of wine. Bottle it for use.


343. _To prevent Discolorations of the Skin after a blow or
fall._--Moisten a little dry starch or arrow-root with cold water,
and lay it on the injured part. It should be done immediately, so
as to prevent the action of the air upon the skin; however, it may
be applied with good effect some hours afterwards. It is a French
receipt, and is quite valuable.


344. _A recipe for Neuralgia in the Face._--Make a lotion with half a
pint of rose-water and two tea-spoonfuls of white vinegar. Apply it
to the part affected, three or four times a-day, using a fresh linen
cloth each time. In two or three days the pain will pass away. This
has been an effectual cure with many, but as the disease arises from
various causes, there is no specific for it.


345. _Eye Water for weak eyes._--Infuse in boiling water, till cold,
half an ounce of poppy heads, and the same quantity of chamomile
flowers. Strain this mixture, and add two table-spoonfuls of vinegar,
and one of brandy. Apply it warm, night and morning.


346. _Another._--Put into a two-ounce phial fifteen drops of
laudanum, fill it with two-thirds of rose-water, and one-third of
rectified spirits of Mindererus. Use it with a sponge.


347. _To cure a Bruise in the Eye._--Take conserve of red roses, or
a bruised apple, put them in a fold of thin cambric, apply it to the
eye, and it will draw the bruise out.


348. _Cold or Inflammation of the Eyes._--Mix a few bread crumbs with
the white of an egg, put it in a bag of soft muslin, and apply it
to the eye. It will afford relief in a few minutes, and generally a
cure in a day. It is best applied at night, or when lying down. When
removed, bathe the eye well with warm water, using a bit of muslin,
not a sponge.


349. _Carvacrol, the new remedy for the Tooth-ache._--Dr. Bushman
gives (in the _Medical Times_) the following account of this new
compound, which, though well known in Germany as a quick and
effectual cure for one of the most worrying ills "that flesh is heir
to," is now for the first time published in England. Carvacrol is
an oily liquid, with a strong taste and unpleasant odor. It may be
made by the action of iodine on oil of caraway or on camphor. A few
drops applied on cotton wool (to a decayed and painful tooth) give
immediate relief. Carvacrol much resembles creosote in appearance,
and is used in similar cases of tooth-ache, but its effect is much
more speedy and certain.


350. _To cure Tooth-ache._--A remedy, often effectual, is to fill the
mouth with warm water, and immediately after with cold.


351. _Another cure for Tooth-ache._--Powdered alum will not only
relieve the tooth-ache, but prevent the decay of the tooth.


352. _Gum-boils._--A gum-boil is sometimes a primary disease,
depending on an inflammation of the gums from accidental and common
causes, in which case the lancet, or leaving it to nature, soon
restores the gum to a healthy state; but it more generally arises
from a carious tooth, in which case extraction is necessary. If
there be any constitutional disturbance about the face, leeches and
purgatives, and the usual means for subduing inflammation may be
resorted to.


353. _Diseases of the Ear._--Sometimes ear-ache is connected with
chronic ulceration in the internal and external part of the
ear--when injections of warm water and soap are advisable. In this
case, there is sometimes a constant fœtid discharge--for which the
following mixture has been recommended:--Mix three drachms of ox-gall
and one drachm of balsam of Peru. Put a drop on a little cotton in
the ear.


354. _Temporary Deafness._--If the ear be inflamed, inject water into
it with a syringe, as warm as the patient can bear it, and foment the
part with the decoction of poppy-heads and chamomile flowers. Should
this not relieve the pain, a drop of oil of cloves with a little oil
of almonds should be dropped into the ear, and cotton wool put into
it. If the ear discharge much, inject warm water with Castile soap
into it.


355. _For a Pain in the Ear._--Oil of sweet almonds, two drachms, and
oil of amber, four drops. Apply four drops of this mixture, when in
pain, to the part affected.


356. _Another cure for the Ear-ache._--Dip a little cotton into a
mixture of oil of sweet almonds and laudanum, and put it into the
ear; or, apply a small poultice, in which is put a raw chopped clove
of garlic; or, roast a small onion, and put as much of the inside
into the ear as you conveniently can.


357. _To kill Earwigs, or other Insects, which may accidentally
have crept into the Ear._--Let the person under this distressing
circumstance lay his head upon a table, the side upwards that is
afflicted; at the same time, let some friend carefully drop into
the ear a little sweet oil or oil of almonds. A drop or two will be
sufficient, which will instantly destroy the insect and remove the
pain, however violent.


358. _Bleeding at the Nose._--In obstinate cases, blow a little gum
Arabic powder up the nostrils through a quill, which will immediately
stop the discharge.


359. _Another cure for Bleeding at the Nose._--_Elevating the
patient's arm_ will often have the desired effect. The explanation
is based upon physiological grounds: the greater force required to
propel the blood through the vessels of the arm, when elevated,
causes the pressure upon the vessels of the head to be diminished, by
the increased action which takes place in the course of the brachial
arteries. If the theory be sound, both arms should be elevated.


360. _To destroy Corns and Warts._--Put into an earthen pipkin a
quarter of a pint of linseed oil, to which add one ounce of resin and
a little litharge. Warm them together; spread them upon leather, and
apply them to corns or warts.


361. _To destroy Warts._--Dissolve as much common washing soda as the
water will take up; wash the warts with this for a minute or two, and
let them dry without wiping. Keep the water in a bottle, and repeat
the washing often. It will remove the largest warts.

Caustic is an effectual though troublesome application. The juice
of the common annual spurge plant is as efficacious a remedy; as is
the bark of the willow tree, burnt to ashes, mixed with vinegar, and
applied to the warts. The juice of the marigold is another remedy.


362. _A certain cure for Warts._--Steep in vinegar the inner rind of
a lemon for twenty-four hours, and apply it to the wart. The lemon
must not remain on more than three hours, and should be applied fresh
every day. To apply acetic acid with a camel's hair-brush, is still
better.


363. _Corns on the Feet._--These are usually made by wearing shoes
over-tight; but, walking on pavement in very thin shoes will cause
corns and bunions, because of bruising the feet on the hard stones.


364. _To prevent Corns from growing on the Feet._--Easy shoes;
frequently bathing the feet in lukewarm water, with a little salt or
potashes dissolved in it.


365. _Sir H. Davy's Corn Solvent._--Potash, two parts; salts of
sorrel, one part; each in fine powder. Mix, and lay a small quantity
on the corn for four or five successive nights, binding it on with a
rag.


366. _To cure Corns._--_An effectual remedy._--The cause of corns,
and likewise the torture they occasion, is simply friction; and to
lessen the friction, you have only to use your toe as you do in like
circumstances a coach wheel--lubricate it with some oily substance.
The best and cleanest thing to use, is a little sweet oil rubbed on
the affected part (after the corn is carefully pared) with the tip
of the finger, which should be done on getting up in the morning,
and just before stepping into bed at night. In a few days the pain
will diminish, and in a few days more it will cease, when the nightly
application may be discontinued.


367. _Another cure for Corns._--Place the feet for half an hour for
two or three nights successively, in a pretty strong solution of
common soda. The alkali dissolves the indurated cuticle, and the corn
falls out spontaneously, leaving a small excavation, which soon fills
up. This is an almost certain remedy.


368. _To cure soft Corns._--Dip a soft linen rag in turpentine, and
place it over the corn night and morning. In a few days the corn
will disappear. A little sweet oil rubbed on them is often of great
service. Or, a small piece of cotton placed between the toes is
sometimes efficacious; or, the juice or pulp of a lemon.


369. _To cure Bunions in their commencement._--Bind the joint
tightly, either with broad tape or adhesive plaster. The strip should
be kept on as long as the least uneasiness is felt. It should wrap
quite round the foot.


370. _Lotion for Chilblains._--Mix distilled vinegar and spirit of
mindererus, of each four ounces, with half an ounce of borax.

In common cases of chilblains, apply pieces of soft linen, moistened
with spirits of camphor, soap liniment, camphor liniment, &c. When
the swellings break, apply emollient ointments for a few days. Equal
quantities of sweet oil, lime water, and spirits of wine, are also an
excellent remedy for chilblains.


371. _Simple remedy for Chilblains._--Soak them in warm bran and
water, then rub them well with mustard-seed flour; but it will be
better if they are done before they break.


372. _Another remedy._--Cut an onion in thick slices, and with these
rub the chilblains thoroughly, on two or three nights, before a good
fire, and they will soon disappear.


373. _Sir A. Cooper's Chilblain Liniment._--One ounce of camphorated
spirit of wine, half an ounce of liquid subacetate of lead; mix, and
apply in the usual way three or four times a day. Some persons use
vinegar as a preventive; its efficacy might be increased, by the
addition to the vinegar of one-fourth of its quantity of camphorated
spirit.


374. _Note._--Those who are most liable to chilblains, should, on the
approach of winter, cover the parts most subject to be affected, with
woollen gloves or stockings, and not expose the hands or feet too
much to wet and cold.


375. _To stop violent Bleeding from a Cut._--Make a paste, by mixing
fine flour with vinegar, and lay it on the cut.


376. _An excellent Styptic._--The outside woof of silk-worms has been
tried with great success by several people, more especially by a
lady, who, in mending a pen, cut her thumb to the bone, and through
part of the nail; it bled profusely; but, by trying this styptic, and
binding up the wound, the hemorrhage stopped, and the wound healed in
three days.


377. _A new and useful Styptic._--Take brandy, or common spirit,
two ounces; Castile soap, two drachms; potash, one drachm; scrape
the soap fine, and dissolve it in the brandy; then add the potash,
and mix it well together, and keep it close stopped from the air in
a phial. When you apply it, warm it in a vessel, or dip pledges of
lint into it, and the blood will immediately congeal. It operates by
coagulating the blood, both a considerable way within the vessels, as
well as the extravasated blood without, and restraining, at the same
time, the mouths of the vessels.

It forms a valuable embrocation, in cases of tumors or swellings from
bruises, by being frequently rubbed on the part. It is also used in a
similar manner for rheumatic pains.


378. _To prevent Wounds from mortifying._--Sprinkle sugar on them.
The Turks wash fresh wounds with wine, and sprinkle sugar on them.
Obstinate ulcers may be cured with sugar dissolved in a strong
decoction of walnut leaves.


379. _To cure Ring-worms._--Dissolve borax in water, and apply it at
first, it will produce a burning sensation and redness; it should
then be discontinued for a few days, and being resumed, the ring-worm
will soon disappear.

To sponge the head daily with vinegar and water, in the proportion of
half a pint of vinegar to a pint and a half of water, will prevent or
cure ring-worms.


380. _Another cure for Ring-worms._--To one part of sulphuric acid,
add about twenty parts of water. Use a brush or feather, and apply it
to the part, night and morning. A very few dressings will generally
cure. If the solution is too strong, dilute it with more water; and
if the irritation is excessive, rub a little oil or other softening
applicant; but avoid soap.

While the patches are in an inflamed and irritable condition, it
is necessary to limit the local applications to regular washing or
sponging with warm water, or some softening fomentation.


381. _Cure for Erysipelas._--A simple poultice made of cranberries,
pounded fine, and applied in a raw state, has proved a certain remedy.


382. _Remedy for fainting._--First place the patient in the
horizontal posture, throw cold water over the face, and bathe
the hands with vinegar and water; loosen the dress, and admit a
free current of fresh, cool air. Pungent salts, ether, or _eau de
Cologne_, should be held occasionally to the nose, and the temples
should be rubbed with either of the two latter. When the patient has
partly recovered, a small quantity of wine, cold water, or ten or
twenty drops of sal-volatile or ether, in water, should be given.


383. _Remedy for Fits._--If a person fall in a fit, let him remain
on the ground, provided his face be pale; for should it be fainting
or temporary suspension of the heart's action, you may cause death
by raising him upright, or by bleeding; but if the face be red or
dark-colored, raise him on his seat, throw cold water on his head
immediately; cold water is the best restorative.


384. _German method of preventing Hysterics._--Caraway seeds, finely
pounded, with a small proportion of ginger and salt, spread upon
bread and butter, and eaten every day, especially early in the
morning, and at night, before going to bed, are successfully used in
Germany, as a domestic remedy against hysterics.


385. _Stomachic Mixture._--Camphor julep, one ounce; sweet spirit
of nitre, half an ounce; compound tincture of cardamoms, spirit of
anise-seed, of each five drachms; oil of caraway, twelve drops;
syrup of ginger, two drachms; peppermint-water, two drachms. Mix. A
table-spoonful occasionally in flatulency and dyspepsia.


386. _Red lavender drops for Nervous Attacks._--Fill a quart bottle
with the blossoms of lavender, and pour on it as much brandy as it
will contain; let it stand ten days, then strain it, and add of
nutmeg bruised, cloves, mace, and cochineal, a quarter of an ounce
each, and bottle it for use. In nervous cases, a little may be taken
dropped on a bit of sugar; and in the beginning of a bowel complaint,
a tea-spoonful, taken in half a glass of peppermint water, will often
prove efficacious.


387. _Eggs in Jaundice._--The yolk of an egg, either eaten raw, or
slightly boiled, is perhaps the most salutary of all the animal
substances. It is a natural soap, and, in all jaundice cases no
food is equal to it. When the gall is either too weak, or, by
accidental means, is not permitted to flow in sufficient quantity
into the duodenum, our food, which consists of watery and oily
parts, cannot unite so as to become chyle. Such is the nature of the
yolk of an egg, that it is capable of uniting water and oil into an
uniform substance, thereby making up for the deficiency of natural
bile.--_Dr. A. Hunter._


388. _Aperient for Children._--Gingerbread made with oatmeal instead
of flour, is a very useful aperient for children.


389. _Cramp._--Cramp in the calves of the legs is a very disagreeable
complaint, to which those who have their legs confined in tight boots
are subject in travelling. An effectual preventative of this pain, is
to stretch out the heel of the leg as far as possible, at the same
time drawing up the toes towards the body.

A garter applied tightly round the limb affected will, in most cases,
speedily remove this complaint. When it is more obstinate, a brick
should be heated, wrapped in a flannel bag, and placed at the foot
of the bed, against which the person troubled may place his feet.
_No remedy, however, is equal to that of diligent and long-continued
friction._

Cramp is apt to attack the calves of the legs and toes soon after
retiring to rest. Get out of bed, and exercise the muscles vigorously.


390. _For Spasms._--Mix four table-spoonsful of camphor julep and
twenty drops of sal-volatile, for a dose, to be repeated twice or
thrice a day.


391. _To apply Leeches._--Make the part clean and dry, and dry the
leeches in a clean cloth; if this fail, scratch the surface of the
skin with a point of a lancet, and apply the leech on the spot,
moistened with the blood. To apply a number of leeches, put them into
a very small wine-glass, which hold over them till they are fixed.
If the skin be much inflamed and heated, pour a little tepid water
into the water containing the leeches, before they are taken out to
be applied. If sulphur be taken internally, or applied externally,
leeches will not bite; neither will they bite if the skin be covered
with perspiration; or if there be tobacco smoke or vinegar-vapor in
the room.

All that is requisite to stop the bleeding, after the leech is taken
away, is constant pressure on the spot; a piece of sponge or cotton,
the size of a pin's head, is to be put upon the aperture, and kept
there by cross slips of adhesive plaster spread upon linen, or the
surgeon's strapping: if greater pressure be necessary, some linen may
be placed between the stopper and the plaster.


392. _A useful embrocation for Rheumatism, Lumbago, or
Strains._--Half an ounce of strongest camphorated spirit, one ounce
spirits of turpentine, one raw egg, half pint best vinegar. Well
mix the whole, and keep it closely corked. To be rubbed in three or
four times a day. For rheumatism in the head, or face-ache, rub all
over the back of the head and neck, as well as the part which is the
immediate seat of pain.


393. _For Gout and Rheumatism._--Mix in one pound of honey one ounce
of flour of sulphur, half an ounce of cream of tartar, two drachms
of ginger, in powder, and half a nutmeg, grated: for rheumatism,
add half a drachm of gum-guaiacum, powdered. The full dose is two
tea-spoonsful at bed-time and early in the morning, in a tumbler of
hot water. This is "the Chelsea Pensioners' recipe."


394. _Influenza._--Influenza is an Italian word, and means what we
express in English by almost the same word, influence. The word as
applied to this disease, originated from the belief held by our
ancestors, of the influence of the stars upon human affairs. When a
complaint suddenly appeared, and affected great numbers without an
obvious cause, the visitation was ascribed to the stars. Whatever
might have been the origin of the name, it is an appropriate one, for
the Influenza certainly springs from some pervading influence. It
may, for anything we can prove to the contrary, be occasioned by some
subtle poison diffused throughout the atmosphere, which medical men
call a _miasm_. Bad air, rising from marshy ground, occasions ague;
and bad air arising from drains in towns, from cess-pools, and other
collections of filth, gives rise to the worst kinds of fever. And it
is not a matter of chance: the ague will continue in marshy countries
till these are drained; and in the dirty quarters of a large town,
there is sure to be typhus fever. If we cannot, in these cases, see,
taste, or touch the bad air, or even smell it, we know that fens
poison the air with a matter that causes ague, and animal refuse
with what causes fever and many other diseases. But, the existence
of a peculiar poison in the air in influenza, is very doubtful. It
is likely, however, and generally believed by medical men, that
influenza arises from certain states or changes in the air connected
with heat and moisture. Now, though it appears in hot weather and
cold, in dry and wet, it may still depend on certain conditions of
the weather, just as a person will sometimes take a cough in a warm
moist day, and again in a dry east wind; and just, in fact, as we see
a fog, which depends on atmospheric changes, produced under different
circumstances. The brisk air of the country often gives town-people
a head-cold, and country people sometimes suffer in the same way
when they visit town. During every season, certain people have
"head-colds," coughs, and "feverish colds." These are produced by
certain states of climate acting on certain states of constitution.
At particular seasons such complaints abound--at others they abound
still more; and again, from some singularity, they prevail so much,
that people say, there is an _Influenza_.

In simple cases, confinement to a pure and temperate air, warm
drinks, and a warm bath, or at least a warm foot-bath, with an extra
blanket, and a little more rest than usual, keeping to mild food
and toast and water, and taking, if necessary, a dose of aperient
medicines--is all that is required. In serious cases, the domestic
treatment must become professional. Mustard plasters to the back,
relieve the head-ache. Squills, and other medicines, "loosen" the
outstanding cough. Bark and wine, and even cold baths, are sometimes
requisite for the weakness left behind. But these things can only be
used with discrimination by a regular professional man.


395. _For the Breath._--Persons who suffer from difficulty of
breathing and oppression on the chest, will find great relief
from the following simple contrivance. A tea-kettle is to be
kept boiling, either over a fire or over a common night-lamp or
nursing-candlestick. A tin tube is to be fitted on to the spout of
the tea-kettle, of such length and form as to throw the steam in
front of the sick person, who will then breathe in it. This prevents
the distressing sensation occasioned by inhaling the cold night air,
which will be felt by persons suffering from asthma or water on the
chest, and which is not obviated either by clothing or fire.


396. _To relieve Asthma._--Soak some blotting-paper in a strong
solution of saltpetre; dry it, take a piece about the size of your
hand, and on going to bed, light it, and lay it upon a plate in your
bed-room. By doing so, persons, however badly afflicted with asthma,
will find that they can sleep almost as well as when in health. (Many
persons have experienced relief from the use of this specific.)


397. _Relief for Asthma--another way._--Mix two ounces of the best
honey with one ounce of castor oil, and take a tea-spoonful, night
and morning.


398. _Gargle for Sore Throat._--On twenty-five or thirty leaves of
the common sage, pour a pint of boiling water; let the infusion stand
half an hour. Add vinegar enough to make it moderately acid, and
honey to the taste. Use it as a gargle, several times a day. This
combination of the astringent and emollient principle seldom fails to
produce the desired effect.


399. _To prevent Lamps from being pernicious to Asthmatic persons, or
others liable to Complaints of the Chest._--Let a sponge, three or
four inches in diameter, be moistened with pure water, and in that
state be suspended by a string or wire, exactly over the flame of the
lamp, at the distance of a few inches; this substance will absorb all
the smoke emitted during the evening or night; after which, it should
be rinsed in warm water, by which means it will be again rendered fit
for use.


400. _The use of Tar-water in expanding the Lungs of Public Speakers,
&c._--It has been found by the experience of many, that drinking
tar-water very much deterges and opens the lungs, and thereby gives
a very sensibly greater ease in speaking. A quart of tar is to be
stirred six minutes in a gallon of water; but if there be somewhat
less tar, it may do as well, especially at first, to try how it sits
on the stomach. Take about one-fourth of a pint, at four several
times, at a due distance from meals. Begin taking it in the spring
for about fourteen days, and continue it for a greater length of
time, as occasion may require.


401. _To prevent Danger from Wet Clothes._--Keep if possible in
motion, and take care not to go near a fire or into any very warm
place, so as to occasion a sudden heat, till some time after you have
been able to procure dry clothes.


402. _Cold and Damp Feet._--Nothing can be more erroneous than the
notion that by pouring spirits into boots and shoes, when the feet
are wet, will prevent the effects of cold; on the contrary, the
practice often produces cold, inflammation, and obstruction in the
bowels. When the spirit reaches the feet, it immediately evaporates:
the stronger it is, the more quickly it evaporates, and the greater
is the cold produced.


403. _For Whooping Cough._--Mix two tea-spoonfuls of paregoric
elixir, one table-spoonful of oxymel of squills, and the same
quantity of water and mucilage of gum-arabic. A tea-spoonful may be
taken three or four times a-day, or when the cough is troublesome.

Treat the whooping cough with the same care as you would any other
cough. Keep the children warmly clothed, and dryly lodged, and
in the house, at all times, except in warm sunny days, when air
and exercise in moderation, observing that they do not overheat
themselves, may do good. Put their feet in a pan of warm water just
before they go to bed, and be careful to wipe them dry and wrap them
in flannel. During the day they must wear woollen stockings and
thick-soled shoes. Let their drink be toast-water, tea and raspberry
vinegar mixed with water, two table-spoonfuls to a half-pint, or
less if it be very sharp. Red or black currant-jelly dissolved in
water makes a pleasant, cool drink. Be sure you give no kind of quack
medicines--but an occasional dose of simple opening medicine, if
the bowels are confined; and a quarter of a grain, or half a grain
of plain ipecacuanha powder in a tea-spoonful of gruel or jelly at
bed-time. Rub the chest and between the shoulders, with equal parts
of rum and turpentine, adding a little oil, if it is too harsh for
the skin. The child might suck an ipecacuanha lozenge two or three
times a-day. Effervescent, saline draughts are very grateful and
beneficial, where there is not only continual nausea, but frequent
sickness from the spasmodic nature of the cough. If it be attended
with pain in the chest or side, seek advice from a medical man
without delay.


404. _For common Coughs._--Mix one ounce of oil of almonds, one
drachm of powdered gum arabic, one ounce of syrup, and one ounce and
a half of water; take a tea-spoonful or two occasionally.


405. _Winter Cough._--Mix two ounces of oxymel of stramonium with six
ounces of the decoction of Iceland moss; take a dessert-spoonful when
the cough is troublesome.


406. _For Cough and Hoarseness._--Beat well a newly laid egg, and
stir it into a quarter of a pint of new milk, warmed, to which add a
table-spoonful of capillaire.

A piece of anchovy will almost instantly restore the just tone of
voice to any one who has become hoarse by public speaking.


407. _White Mixture for Coughs._--Beat well the yolk of an egg, mix
with it in a mortar half a drachm of powdered spermaceti, a little
loaf sugar and twenty drops of laudanum (tincture of opium); add a
gill of water, and mix well: a table-spoonful of this mixture will
relieve an obstinate cough.

Or, mix half a pint of almond emulsion, two drachms of syrup of
poppies, the same of oxymel of squills, and one drachm of powder of
gum tragacanth; two table-spoonfuls to be taken often.


408. _Colds._--A daily exposure to the outward air is absolutely
necessary to secure us against the injurious influence of our
variable climate. For cure of catarrh, reduce the amount of food,
take exercise, keep the bowels open, and bathe the feet in warm water
at bed-time.--_Henderson._


409. _For a Cold in the Head._--What is called a head-bath is useful.
Fill a wash-hand basin with boiling water, and add an ounce of flour
of mustard; then hold the head, covered with a cloth to prevent the
escape of the steam, over the basin as long as any steam arises.


410. _For a troublesome Cough._--Take of treacle and the best white
wine vinegar six table-spoonfuls each; add forty drops of laudanum;
mix it well, and put it into a bottle. A tea-spoonful to be taken
occasionally when the cough is troublesome.


411. _For a sudden Hoarseness._--Mix one tea-spoonful of sweet
spirits of nitre in a wine-glassful of water. This may be taken two
or three times a day.


412. _Hoarseness._--A piece of flannel, dipped in brandy, and applied
to the chest, and covered with a dry flannel, is to be worn all
night. Four or six small onions, boiled, and put on buttered toast,
and eaten for supper, are likewise good for colds on the chest.


413.--_Children's Coughs._--A few tea-spoonfuls of warm treacle taken
occasionally, and particularly at bed-time, or when the cough is
troublesome, will be found beneficial, especially for infants and
children.


414. _For a "hacking" Cough._--Dissolve an ounce of mutton suet in a
pint of milk, and drink it warm.


415. _For a Cough._--Mix vinegar and treacle in equal quantities,
and let a tea-spoonful be taken occasionally, when the cough is
troublesome. This is the recipe of Dr. James, of Carlisle.


416. _Quinsy, or Ulcerated Sore Throat._--Bake or roast three or
four large onions or six smaller ones, till soft. Peel them quickly,
and beat them flat with a rolling-pin or glass bottle. Then put
them immediately in a thin muslin bag that will reach from ear to
ear, and about three inches deep. Apply it speedily, and as warm as
possible, to the throat. Keep it on day and night, changing it when
the strength of the onions appears to be exhausted, and substituting
fresh ones. Flannel must be worn round the neck after the poultice is
removed.


417. _Saline Draught._--Dissolve one scruple of carbonate of potassa,
(salt of tartar), in a table-spoonful of lemon-juice, and three
table-spoonfuls of water; sweeten with lump sugar, and drink while it
effervesces. This is an excellent remedy for sore throats, nausea, &c.


418. _Another._--Dissolve one drachm each of nitric acid and
carbonate of potassa in three-quarters of a pint of water; add one
ounce each of syrup of orange-peel and spirit of nutmeg, and mix. Two
table-spoonfuls to be taken in fevers and inflammatory sore throats.


419. _To make Gargles._--For relaxed sore throat, mix five ounces of
Cayenne pepper gargle, two ounces of infusion of roses, and one ounce
of syrup of roses.

Or, mix with the Cayenne pepper gargle, three ounces of vinegar,
three drachms of tincture of myrrh, and four drachms of honey of
roses.

For inflammatory sore throats, mix six ounces of infusion of roses,
one ounce of tincture of myrrh, and one ounce of honey of roses.

Or, mix one drachm and a half of saltpetre, two ounces of honey, and
six ounces of rose-water.

For scorbutic gums, mix six ounces of infusion of roses, one ounce of
borax, and one ounce of honey of roses.

To make the Cayenne pepper gargle, pour six ounces of boiling water
upon one scruple of Cayenne pepper; cover it, and let it stand for
three hours.


420. _To cure Hiccough._--This is caused by flatulency, indigestion,
and acidity. It may be relieved generally by a sudden fright or
surprise, or any sudden application of cold; also by drinking cold
water slowly; eating a small piece of ice, taking a pinch of snuff,
or anything that excites coughing. Or, take one tea-spoonful of
common vinegar.


421. _A simple cure for Dysentery--which has never failed._--Take
some butter off the churn, immediately after being churned, just
as it is, without being salted or washed; clarify it over the fire
like honey. Skim off all the milky particles when melted over a
clear fire. Let the patient (if an adult) take two table-spoonfuls
of the clarified remainder, twice or thrice within the day. This has
never failed to effect a cure, and in many cases it has been almost
instantaneous.


422. _For Diarrhœa._--Fill a tea-cup with dry flour, press it down,
and cover it with a buttered cloth, tying it very closely; boil it
three hours, when turn it out to cool into a hard mass. Grate a tea
or a dessert-spoonful of it into peppermint water for children, or
into a glass of port wine for adults.


423. _Chalk Mixture._--Mix half an ounce of prepared chalk, the same
of lump sugar, and one ounce of powdered gum Arabic, with a pint of
water. This is an excellent remedy for diarrhœa.


424. _Fig Paste for Constipation._--Cut up small one pound of figs,
and mix it with two ounces of senna carefully picked over, and one
tea-cupful of molasses; stew it till it becomes thoroughly mixed
and firm; then cool it. A piece about half as large as a fig will
generally be sufficient.


425. _Laxatives._--Infusions of Epsom salts and senna are often taken
as laxatives, or opening medicines. It is a well-known fact, that a
tea-spoonful of salts in a tumbler of cold water, if drunk before
breakfast, is as effectual a dose as the usual ounce. Senna, too,
if steeped in cold water, is equally efficacious, and free from the
nauseous bitter taste which it has when infused in boiling water.


426. _To cure Boils._--Boil in half a pint of milk one table-spoonful
of shot; pour it off, and drink it in small doses.


427. _To cure a Felon._--A felon generally appears on the end of the
fingers or thumbs; it is extremely painful for weeks, and sometimes
for months, and, in most cases, cripples or disfigures the finger
or thumb that falls a victim to it. But it can easily be cured, if
attended to in time. As soon as the pain is felt, take the thin white
skin of an egg, which is found inside next to the shell; put it round
the end of the finger or thumb affected, and keep it there until
the pain subsides. As soon as the skin becomes dry, it will be very
painful, and likely continue so for half an hour or more; but be not
alarmed. If it grows painful, bear it; it will be of short duration
in comparison to what the disease would be. A cure will be certain.


BURNS AND SCALDS.

428. We mention several remedies which have obtained popular
reputation in these accidents, and which are valuable not only as
giving more or less relief, but as being generally at hand, or to be
readily procured in every dwelling. They are, wheat flour, which may
be thickly sprinkled over the injured parts with a common kitchen
dredger, till a perfect crust is formed--an excellent application.
Finely-scraped chalk or magnesia, applied in the same way. These
act both by excluding the atmospheric air, and absorbing the fluid
secreted by the vessels of the inflamed surface. Another application
reported to be very efficacious in allaying the pain, is a piece
of lint wetted with a saturated solution of carbonate of soda. A
poultice of grated raw turnip or potato, applied cold, is quickly
productive of ease in slight burns, but requires renewing often
enough to keep up the sensation of coldness.


429. _Burns._--Apply to, or wrap round the burnt part, some folds
of cotton bought in sheets; however severe the pain may be, it will
abate in a few hours. Should blisters arise, they may next day be
carefully pricked with a needle, so as to break the skin as little as
possible; and the cotton kept on till the cure is effected.


430. _A remedy for a Burn or Scald._--Apply immediately a thick
covering of wool to the burnt part, and bind it on tight; in the
course of half an hour very little pain will be felt, and scarcely
any blister will remain. As this remedy is so simple, no housekeeper
should be without loose wool at hand, in case of an accident. This
remedy was discovered by the child of a woolcomber having been
dreadfully scalded: its mother laid it in a basket of newly carded
wool, whilst she ran for a doctor; when she returned, she found the
child fast asleep amongst the wool, and when it awoke the excessive
pain had subsided. We have frequently tried it, and invariably with
success.


431. _For Burns and Scalds._--Plunge the injured part into cold
spring or ice water; or, lay on it pounded ice wrapped in linen.

Or, dissolve four ounces of alum in a quart of hot water; dip a cloth
into it, and lay it on the part. As soon as it becomes hot and dry,
repeat the application.

Apply to a burn, bruise, or cut, the moist surface of the inside
coating of the shell of a raw egg; it will adhere of itself, and heal
without pain.


432. _Efficacy of Vinegar in curing Burns and Scalds._--Vinegar is
a great antiseptic and corrector of putrescence and mortification.
The progressive tendency of burns of the unfavorable kind, or those
that are ill-treated, is to putrescence and mortification. When the
outward skin is not broken, it may be freely used every hour or two;
where the skin is broken, and if it gives pain, it must be gently
used. But, equal parts of tepid vinegar and water applied every three
or four hours, is the best rule to be directed by.


433. _Vitriol Accidents._--For a burn by vitriol, or any similar
cause, lay on, with a feather, the white of eggs mixed with powdered
chalk, and immediate relief will follow.

Or, immediately after the accident, plunge the scalded limb in spirit
of turpentine, and keep it there a few minutes.

Or, dissolve in water or fresh soap-boilers' lees, a little soda or
potash, and apply it instantly, and it will prevent all injury to the
person or clothing.


FEVERS.

434. Feverish symptoms in young children may be reduced, and often
entirely cured by sponging in tepid or cold water, according to
the age and condition of the patient. Rest, in a clean bed, after
sponging, is necessary. Should the fever continue, a gentle emetic
may be given. Cold water is the best beverage in fevers, but if very
thirsty, give the child a little warm tea.


435. _Dr. Dickson's cure for a Fever._--When a man is hot, and his
skin dry all over, no matter what the cause be, you may bring his
condition to the state of health by throwing cold water over him.
You may do the same by an emetic. Oh! an emetic has a wonderful
power in fever; and the old physicians treated all fevers in the
first instance by emetics. They did not trouble themselves much
about the cause. The _state_ of the patient was what they cared
most about. When he was cold, they warmed him, sometimes with one
thing, sometimes with another. When hot, they cooled him; not in the
Sangrado fashion of these days, by draining him of his life's blood;
but by the employment of an emetic, or by sponging him over with cold
water!


436. _Easy and almost instantaneous cure for the Fever and Ague._--An
hour or two before the fit comes on, take a new-laid egg, in a glass
of vinegar or brandy, and go to bed immediately.

This very simple recipe has cured a great many, after more celebrated
preparations have proved unsuccessful.


437. _Cure for Yellow Fever._--The New Orleans Tropic gives the
following recipe, which is said to be used with great success in
Mexico, in cases of yellow fever: "A tumbler two-thirds full of olive
oil, well mixed with the juice of _two limes_, and a tea-spoonful of
fine table salt, is the common remedy in that country; that he has
seen it used in hundreds of cases, many of them the most desperate
he ever saw, and that he never knew it fail to produce a cure in a
solitary instance! It sometimes causes the patient to vomit; in such
cases it should be repeated until the stomach will retain it."


438. _Treatment of Scarlet Fever--important prescription._--Dr.
Lindsly, of Washington, strongly recommends the mode of treatment of
scarlet fever, resorted to by Dr. Schneemann, physician to the King
of Hanover. It is as follows, and exceedingly simple:

_Treatment of Scarlet Fever by inunction._--From the first day
of the illness, and as soon as we are certain of its nature, the
patient must be rubbed morning and evening over the whole body with
a piece of bacon, in such a manner that, with the exception of the
head, a covering of fat is everywhere applied. In order to make this
rubbing-in somewhat easier, it is best to take a piece of bacon the
size of the hand, choosing a part still armed with the rind, that we
may have a firm grasp. On the soft side of this piece slits are to be
made, in order to allow the oozing out of the fat. The rubbing must
be thoroughly performed, and not too quickly, in order that the skin
may be regularly saturated with the fat. The beneficial results of
the application are soon obvious; with a rapidity bordering on magic,
all, even the most painful symptoms of the disease are allayed;
quiet, sleep, good humor, appetite, return; and there remains only
the impatience to quit the sick room.


439. _Inflammatory Fevers._--In diseases termed "inflammatory,"
what measure so ready or so efficacious as to dash a pitcher or two
of cold water over the patient--_Cold Affusion_, as it is called?
Whilst serving in the army, I cured hundreds of inflammatory fevers
in this manner--fevers, that, in the higher ranks of society, under
the bleeding and starving systems--would have kept an apothecary and
physician--to say nothing of nurses and cuppers--visiting the patient
twice or thrice a day for a month, if he happened to live so long.

Gentlemen, with the cold dash you may easily,

    "While others meanly take whole months to slay,
     Produce a cure in half a summer's day."--DR. DICKSON.


440. _Beverage for Fevers._--Boil two drachms of powdered alum in a
pint of milk, and strain. The draught is a wine-glassful.


441. _Mustard Poultices._--Make a bag of the size required of fine,
close muslin; mix equal quantities of mustard and flour, (or a
larger proportion of mustard, should the case require it), with
boiling water, until of a proper consistency. Fill the bag with it;
sew it up, and, covering it with a handkerchief or piece of clean,
soft linen, apply it to the part affected. When it has been on long
enough, take it off, and lay on another piece of soft linen.


442. _Bread Poultice._--Mr. Abernethy directs a bread and water
poultice to be made as follows:--Put half a pint of hot water into
a pint basin; add to this as much of the crumb of bread as the
water will cover, then place a plate over the basin, and let it
remain about ten minutes; stir the bread about in the water, or, if
necessary, chop it a little with the edge of a knife, and drain off
the water, by holding the knife on the top of the basin, but do not
press the bread as is usually done; then take it out lightly, spread
it about one-third of an inch thick on some soft linen, and lay it
upon the part. If it be a wound, you may place a bit of lint dipped
in oil beneath the poultice. There is nothing better than the bread
poultice for broken surfaces.


443. _Linseed Poultice._--Is made by simply mixing linseed meal into
a paste with hot water.


444. _Management of Blisters._--Spread the plaster thinly on paper
or linen, and rub over it a few drops of olive oil. In this way the
blister acts speedily, and with less irritation than usual.


445. _Simple Ointment._--This is made by melting in a pipkin, by the
side of the fire, without boiling, one part of yellow or white wax,
and two parts of hog's lard or olive oil.


446. _Spermaceti Ointment._--This consists of a quarter of an ounce
of white wax, three-quarters of an ounce of spermaceti, and three
ounces of olive oil, melted as before. This is the common dressing
for a blister.


447. _Elder-flower Ointment._--This is the mildest, blandest, and
most cooling ointment which can be used; and it is very suitable
for anointing the face or neck when sun-burnt. It is made of fresh
elder-flowers, stripped from the stalks, two pounds of which are
simmered in an equal quantity of hog's-lard till they become crisp;
after which, the ointment, whilst fluid, is strained through a coarse
sieve.


448. _Calamine Ointment, or Turner's Cerate._--This consists of half
a pound of yellow wax and a pint of olive oil, which are to be melted
together; this being done, half a pound of calamine powder is to be
sifted in, and stirred till the whole be completely mixed.


449. _Sulphur Ointment._--This is made by rubbing well together three
ounces of flowers of sulphur and half a pound of hog's lard. This
ointment, if properly applied, is a certain cure for that nastiest
of all nasty, and most easily-caught disease, the itch, which,
although generally found among poor people, occasionally steals into
the houses of the wealthy. The proper mode of managing it is, for
the infected to rub himself well all over with the ointment, night
and morning, for three days, during which time he must wear, without
change, some old body-linen, stockings, and gloves, and lie in a
pair of old sheets or blankets. Washing in the least degree is to
be carefully avoided as the plague, for it will protract the cure.
On the fourth day let him go into a warm bath, wash himself clean,
and he will then be found quite well. Everything which had been worn
during the cure should be burnt, sheets and all; but the blankets may
be scoured.


PLASTERS, BLISTERS, OINTMENTS, &c.

450. The beneficial influence obtained from all such local
applications depends upon the change of temperature they are capable
of producing. Their results will vary with constitutions. Most
patients, who suffer from chronic disease, point to a particular spot
as the locality where they are most incommoded with "cold chills."
This is the point for the application of the galbanum or other "warm
plaster." A plaster of this kind to the loins has enabled me to cure
a host of diseases that had previously resisted every other mode
of treatment. The same application to the chest, when the patient
complained of chilliness in that particular part, has materially
aided me in the treatment of many cases of phthisis. In both
instances, where _heat_ was the more general complaint, cold sponging
has been allowed by an equally beneficial effect.

The ingredients of plasters, blisters, ointments, lotions, &c., what
are they but combinations of the agents with which we combat fever?
Their beneficial influence depends upon the change of motion and
temperature which they produce by their electrical or chemical action
on the nerves of the part to which they are directed. Cantharides
will not blister the dead--they have very little effect even on a
dying man!--_Dr. Dickson's Lectures._


451. _Liquid Opodeldoc._--Dissolve one ounce of camphor in a little
spirits of wine, and two ounces of soft soap in a little water; put
these into a bottle, add half a drachm of oil of rosemary and the
same of oil of thyme; shake them well together; add three-quarters of
a pint of spirits of wine, and a quarter of a pint of water; set it
in a warm place, and shake it occasionally, for a few days. This is
an excellent remedy for bruises, sprains, chilblains, &c.


452. _Extract of Arnica, for Bruises, Sprains, Burns, &c._--Take
one ounce of arnica flowers, dried; that prepared by the Shakers is
considered the best; and put them in a wide-mouthed bottle; pour
just enough scalding water over them to moisten them, and afterwards
about a pint or a pint and a half of spirits of wine. In case of a
burn or bruise, &c., wet a cloth in the arnica and lay it on the part
affected. Renew the application occasionally, and the pain will soon
be removed.


453. _For a Sprain._--Mix equal parts of spirit of camphor, distilled
vinegar, and turpentine, and rub the part affected.

Cold water applications are excellent for sprains; as, to bathe the
part in cold water, to pour cold water upon it, or to put bandages
wet in cold water around it.

Extract of arnica, applied to a sprain, will remove the pain in a
short time.


454. _Contusions or Bruises._--In slight bruises, and those not
likely to be followed by much inflammation, nothing more is usually
necessary than to bathe the part in cold water, or with spirit,
as eau de Cologne, brandy, &c., mixed with an equal proportion of
vinegar and water. In more severe cases, however, and where the
accident is near an important part, as the eye, or any of the
joints, it becomes a desirable object to prevent the approach of
inflammation. This is to be attempted by the application of leeches,
repeating them according to circumstances; purgatives and a low diet
may become necessary. In the last stage of a bruise, where there is
merely a want of tone in the parts, and swellings from the effused
blood, &c., friction should be employed, either simply, or with any
common liniment, as opodeldoc. Wearing a bandage, pumping cold water
on the part, succeeded by warm friction, also a saturated solution
of common salt in water, have each been found beneficial. The roots
of bryony and Solomon's seal, bruised and applied as a poultice, are
efficacious in hastening the disappearance of the lividity of bruises.


455. _Lime Water._--Pour three quarts of water upon eight pounds of
unslaked lime; let stand half an hour, when add three gallons of
water, and pour it off.

It is useful in cases of derangement of the digestive organs.


456. _Walnut Water._--This is recommended as a remedy in subduing
nausea and vomiting, if administered in doses of a wine-glassful
every half-hour. It is distilled from green walnuts, angelica-seeds,
and brandy.


457. _Uses of Borax._--Powdered borax, mixed with honey, or conserve
of roses, is an excellent remedy for inside sores of the mouths of
children.

If a little of the mixture be dissolved in warm water, it will form,
when cold, an efficacious gargle for an ulcerated sore throat.

If a weak solution of borax in rose-water be constantly applied, by
means of a fine linen cloth, over the redness which often affects the
noses of delicate persons, it will relieve the sense of heat, and
remove the redness. Many other spots on the face may be similarly
removed.

It is likewise a very useful application to chilblains.


458. _The virtues of Sage._--This valuable herb was held in such high
esteem among the ancients, that they have left us a Latin verse,
which signifies--

_"Why should a man die whilst he has sage in his garden?"_

It is reckoned admirable as a cordial, and to sweeten and cleanse
the blood. It is good in nervous cases, and is given in fevers,
with a view to promote perspiration. With the addition of a little
lemon-juice, it is very grateful and cooling.


459. _Sage Tea._--Wood sage, which grows naturally, is the finest
kind; with a little alum it makes an excellent gargle for a sore
throat. It may be made as tea, but is better if boiled.


460. _Senna Tea._--Macerate for an hour, in a covered vessel, one
ounce and a half of senna, a drachm of ginger, sliced, and a pint of
boiling water; the dose is from one-half to a wine-glassful. Or, mix
two drachms of senna, with a little Bohea tea, in a quarter of a pint
of boiling water, and add, when poured off clear, a little sugar and
milk.


461. _Chamomile Tea._--Take of chamomile flowers one ounce, boiling
water, one quart; simmer for ten minutes, and strain.

Chamomile tea is well known as an emetic, when taken in a tepid
state. In some parts of England, a strong infusion of chamomile is
frequently taken at bed-time, as hot as it can be swallowed, when it
produces perspiration, and next morning acts as a purgative. It is
also there considered as one of the best remedies for indigestion,
colic, pains and obstructions of the bowels, especially when arising
from cold. A cup of coffee taken hot on an empty stomach, will
frequently be as efficacious as the chamomile, in either of the above
cases.

A small cupful of the tea, cold, taken in the morning, fasting, is
often serviceable for indigestion. Chamomiles are also employed in
fomentations, their greatest use being to retain the heat of the
application.


462. _Linseed Tea._--Pour two quarts of boiling water upon one ounce
of linseed, and two drachms of liquorice-root, sliced; let it stand
six hours.


463. _Mint Tea._--Mint, to be used as tea, should be cut when just
beginning to flower, and should be dried in the shade. The young
leaves are eaten in salads, and some eat them as the leaves of sage,
with bread and butter.


464. _Nitre_ is a cheap and valuable medicine, both cooling and
purifying to the blood. In the feverishness that attends a cold,
from seven to ten grains of purified nitre, in a glass of water, may
be taken two or three times a day, with safety and advantage. For old
wounds, such as are commonly called "a bad leg," great benefit will
be derived from taking a solution of nitre, prepared thus:--In one
pint of boiling water, dissolve two ounces of saltpetre; of which
take a table-spoonful twice a day. If it should occasion pain, a
little hot ginger-tea will soon give relief.


465. _To make Verjuice._--The acid of the juice of the crab or
wilding is called by the country people, verjuice, and is much used
in recent sprains, and in other cases, as an astringent or repellant.


466. _Medicines in Travelling._--In case of change of food
disagreeing with the stomach, dissolve a tea-spoonful of Epsom salts
in half a pint of water, as warm as it can be drunk, and repeat the
dose every half-hour, until it operates.

For diarrhœa, or acidity of stomach, mix one drachm of compound
powder of kino, with half an ounce of compound powder of chalk;
divide into six powders, and take one or two a day, in three
table-spoonfuls of water, and a tea-spoonful of brandy.


467. _To prevent Sea-sickness._--Pass a broad belt round the body,
and place within it, on the region of the stomach, a pad stuffed
with wool or horse-hair; this, when tightly braced, restrains the
involuntary motion of the stomach, occasioned by the lurching of the
vessel. During sickness, very weak cold brandy and water will be
found the best means of allaying the heat and irritation.

The frequent use of any sea-sickness preventive is, however, attended
with danger.


468. _Valuable properties of Cherry-tree Gum._--The gum that
exudes from the trunk and branches of the cherry-tree is equal to
gum-Arabic. Hasselquist relates that, during a siege, more than an
hundred men were kept alive for two months nearly, without any other
sustenance than a little of this gum taken into the mouth sometimes,
and suffered gradually to dissolve.


469. _How to get Sleep._--How to get sleep is to many persons a
matter of high importance. Nervous persons who are troubled with
wakefulness and excitability, usually have a strong tendency of blood
on the brain, with cold extremities. The pressure of the blood on the
brain keeps it in a stimulated or wakeful state, and the pulsations
in the head are often painful. Let such rise and chafe the body and
extremities with a brush or towel, or rub smartly with the hands to
promote circulation and withdraw the excessive amount of blood from
the brain, and you will sleep in a few moments. A cold bath, or a
sponge bath and rubbing, or a good run, or a rapid walk in the open
air, or going up or down stairs a few times, just before retiring,
will aid in equalizing circulation, and promoting sleep. These rules
are simple and easy of application in castle or cabin, and minister
to the comfort of thousands who would freely expend money for an
anodyne to promote "Nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep."


470. _Remedy for Bad Breath._--Take from five to ten drops of
muriatic acid, in an ale-glassful of barley-water, and add a little
lemon-juice and lemon-peel to flavor; mix for a draught to be taken
three times a day, for a month or six weeks at least, and, if
effectual, it may be continued occasionally. Another medicine of this
kind, which has often proved beneficial when the stomach has been
wrong, and the bowels costive, is the following: Take one drachm of
sulphate of magnesia, two drachms of tincture of calumba, one ounce
and a half of infusion of roses; make a draught, to be taken every
morning, or every other morning, an hour before breakfast, for at
least a month.


471. _Corpulence._--Those who are afflicted with corpulence should
not allow themselves above six hours' sleep in the twenty-four. They
should take as much exercise as possible, and avoid cream, malt
liquors and soups--at least until they have succeeded in reducing
their bulk. Salt provisions are good, having a tendency to promote
perspiration, and carry off fat. Soda water is also beneficial.
_Recipe_: Take Castile soap, in the form of pills, or electuary, of
from one to four drachms dissolved in a quarter of a pint of soft
water, when going to bed. But let not our lovely girls abuse their
constitutions by drinking vinegar for this purpose, for consumption
has often been produced by that habit.


472. _Leanness._--This is not a disease; on the contrary, lean
people are generally healthy, muscular, strong, and active, and
remarkable for a keen appetite. But when there appears a diminution
of strength--when the spirits sink, and the food does not freely
digest--then leanness is the sign of lurking disease. Such patients
should take a cup of milk warm from the cow every morning, or cold
milk, with two raw fresh eggs beaten up with it. A pint of the best
porter or stout at dinner, and the same at supper. Tea is better than
coffee, and salad with strong supplies of oil, not much vinegar, are
recommended.


473. _Cure for Stammering._--Impediments in the speech may be cured,
where there is no malformation of the organs of articulation, by
perseverance for three or four months in the simple remedy of reading
aloud, with the teeth closed, for at least two hours in the course of
each day.


POISONS AND ANTIDOTES.

474. _Acids._--These cause great heat, and sensation of burning
pain, from the mouth down to the stomach. Remedies, magnesia, soda,
pearlash, or soap, dissolved in water; then use stomach-pump or
emetics.


475. _Alcohol._--First cleanse out the stomach by an emetic, then
dash cold water on the head, and give ammonia (spirits of hartshorn.)


476. _Alkalies._--Best remedy is vinegar.


477. _Ammonia._--Remedy, lemon-juice or vinegar, afterwards milk and
water or flaxseed tea.


478. _Arsenic._--Remedies, in the first place evacuate the stomach,
then give the white of eggs, lime-water, or chalk and water, charcoal
and the preparations of iron, particularly hydrate.


479. _Belladonna, or Night Henbane._--Give emetics, and then plenty
of vinegar and water or lemonade.


480. _Charcoal._--In poisons by carbonic gas, remove the patient
to open air, dash cold water on the head and body, and stimulate
nostrils and lungs by hartshorn, at the same time rubbing the chest
briskly.


481. _Corrosive Sublimate._--Give white of eggs freshly mixed with
water, or give wheat flour and water, or soap and water freely.


482. _Creosote._--White of eggs and the emetics.


483. _Laudanum._--Same as opium.


484. _Lead. White Lead and Sugar of Lead._--Remedies, alum,
cathartic, such as castor oil and Epsom salts, especially.


485. _Mushrooms, when poisonous._--Give emetics, and then plenty of
vinegar and water, with dose of ether, if handy.


486. _Nitrate of Silver_, (_lunar caustic_).--Give a strong solution
of common salt, and then emetics.


487. _Nitrate of Potash, or Saltpetre._--Give emetics, then copious
draughts of flaxseed tea, milk and water, and other soothing drinks.


488. _Opium._--First give a strong emetic of mustard and water, then
strong coffee and acid drinks, dash cold water on the head.


489. _Oxalic Acid._--Frequently mistaken for Epsom Salts. Remedies,
chalk, magnesia, or soap and water freely, then emetics.


490. _Prussic Acid._--When there is time, administer chlorine, in the
shape of soda or lime. Hot brandy and water. Hartshorn and turpentine
also useful.


491. _Snake Bites, &c._--Apply immediately strong hartshorn, and take
it internally; also, give sweet oil, and stimulants freely. Apply a
ligature tight above the part bitten, and then apply a cupping-glass.


492. _Tartar Emetic._--Give large doses of tea made of galls,
Peruvian bark, or white oak bark.


493. _Tobacco._--First an emetic, then astringent tea, then
stimulants.


494. _Verdigris._--Plenty of white of egg and water.


495. _White Vitriol._--Give the patient plenty of milk and water.

In almost all cases of poisoning, emetics are highly useful, and
of those, one of the very best, because most prompt and ready, is
the common mustard flour or powder, a spoonful of which, stirred up
in warm water, may be given every five or ten minutes, until free
vomiting can be obtained.

Emetics and warm demulcent drinks, such as milk and water, flaxseed
or slippery elm tea, chalk water, &c., should be administered without
delay. The subsequent management of the case will of course be left
to a physician.


496. _To prevent Death from the Bite of Venomous Animals._--From
observations made by Dr. Bancroft, it is found, that in South
America, where the most venomous serpents abound, a very tight
ligature, instantly made after the bite, between the part bitten and
the trunk of the body, will prevent immediate danger, and allow time
for proper means of remedy, either by excision of the whole joint,
just above the ligature, or by topical applications upon the part
bitten.

For instance, if the bite should be upon the end of the finger, a
tight ligature of small cord should immediately be made beyond the
next joint of the finger.

If the bite is on any part of the hand, the ligature should be made
above the wrist, by means of a garter or cord, lapped several times
round the arm, and rendered as tight as possible, by a small stick
thrust betwixt the folds of the cord or garter, and twisted round
very hard, to prevent the circulation of the blood betwixt the part
bitten and the other part of the body. Ligatures of the same kind,
applied by any one present, or the man himself, will frequently save
a person's life, where, by accident, an artery in any of the limbs is
wounded, and no surgeon is at hand.


497. _Prevention of Hydrophobia._--As there has been hitherto no
remedy discovered which can be said to possess a specific control
over this dreadful malady, and therefore little hope can be
entertained of a cure for it, our best endeavors should be directed
to the _preventive_ treatment. This is to be commenced, then, by
completely cutting out the whole wound as soon as possible after the
bite of a suspected animal. After this, bleeding should be encouraged
by immersion in warm water, or the application of a cupping-glass.
Caustic should next be applied to every part of the wound, which
is then to be covered with a poultice, and suffered to heal by
granulation, or be kept open, and made to suppurate, by irritating
ointments. The excision should never be omitted, even though the
bitten part have healed, and let the interval since its occurrence be
what it may. As for any of innumerable so-called specifics, there is
not one that is worth a moment's trial.


498. _To alleviate the Pain occasioned by the Sting of Gnats._--The
disagreeable itching occasioned by the sting of these insects, may be
removed by volatile alkali, or immediately rubbing and washing the
part affected with cold water.

At night, to rub with fuller's earth and water, lessens the
inflammation.


499. _Simple and effectual cure for those who may accidentally have
swallowed a Wasp._--Instantly, on the alarming accident taking
place, put a tea-spoonful of common salt in your mouth, which will
instantaneously not only kill the wasp, but at the same time heal the
sting.


500. _For the Sting of a Wasp or Bee._--Spread over the part a
plaster of salad oil and common salt; if oil be not at hand, the
salt may be used, moistened with water or vinegar. Or, keep the part
constantly moist with a rag dipped in sal-volatile and cold water,
as strong as can be borne without raising the skin. Or, immediately
after taking out the sting, get an onion and bruise it, and apply
it to the stung place, and it will afford immediate relief. Or, a
washerwoman's blue-bag, applied in the same manner, will have a like
effect.


501. _Sting of a Nettle._--Rub the part affected with balm, rosemary,
mint, or any other aromatic herb, and the smart will soon cease.


BATHS AND BATHING.

502. The best materials for constructing baths, are slabs of polished
marble, bedded with water-tight cement, in a wooden case, and
carefully united at the edges. But, as white or veined marble baths
are apt to get yellow or discolored by frequent use, and cannot
easily be cleaned, large Dutch tiles, or square pieces of white
earthenware, are sometimes substituted; these, however, are with
difficulty kept water-tight, so that marble is altogether preferable.
Copper, or tinned iron plates, are also used; the former is more
expensive at the outset, but far more durable than the latter, which
is also liable to leakage at the joints, unless excellently made.
Both copper and iron should be well covered, in and outside, with
several coats of paint. Wooden tubs--square, oblong, or oval--are
sometimes used for warm baths, and are cheap and convenient; but
the wood contracts a mouldy smell, and there is great difficulty in
preventing shrinkage in them, and keeping them water-tight.

The fittest place for baths, is the bed-room floor; they are
sometimes placed in the basement story, which is cold and damp, and
in all weather disagreeable.

Due attention should be paid to the warming and ventilation of the
bath-room. A temperature of 70 degrees, by the thermometer, should be
kept up in it; and ventilation is requisite, to prevent the moisture
settling upon the walls and furniture.

An improvement in the construction of baths, is a slightly hollowed
space at one end, to receive the head of the bather, so as to prevent
that sensation of cramp which is often experienced from the ordinary,
abrupt shape of a bath.

The hand is a very uncertain test for the heat of water, and should,
therefore, not be relied on in preparing a bath; but a thermometer
should be employed, which will denote the actual temperature, thus:--

  Cold bath, from 32° to  75° of Fahrenheit.
  Tepid  "     "  75  to  92  "      "
  Warm   "     "  92  to  98  "      "
  Hot    "     "  98  to 114  "      "
  Vapor  "     " 100  to 140  "      "


503. _Hand Shower-Bath._--An excellent hand shower-bath for children,
has been invented. It consists of a metal vessel, containing about
a gallon, the bottom of which is pierced with holes, while the upper
part is open, and provided with a handle. When intended to be used,
the vessel is immersed in a pail of water, and it quickly fills from
the lower part. The thumb is placed over the aperture at the apex,
which prevents all escape of water. It may be held at a convenient
distance over the child, and the moment the thumb is removed, there
falls a refreshing shower, which may be stopped instantaneously, by
placing the thumb over the upper opening.


504. _Simple Vapor Bath._--Wrap the patient in blankets, which fasten
closely about the neck, leaving the head exposed: then place him
in a chair, under which set a basin or deep dish, with half a pint
of spirits of wine, or whisky, which should be ignited: close the
blankets to the floor, and in a few minutes the patient will be in a
profuse perspiration, and should be put to bed between warm blankets.


505. _Advantages of Bathing._--It is a fact officially recorded,
that during the terrible visitations of cholera in France, out of
nearly 16,228 subscribers to the public baths of Paris, Bordeaux, and
Marseilles, only two deaths among them were ascribed to cholera. We
doubt whether there exists a more effectual preventive of disease of
every kind, and a greater promoter of good health at all times, than
the practice of daily bathing.


506. _Uses of Hot Water._--The efficacy of hot water, on many
occasions in life, cannot be too generally known. It is an excellent
gargle for a bad sore throat, or quinsy. In bruises, hot water,
by immersion and fomentation, will remove pain, and prevent
discoloration and stiffness. It has the same effect after a blow. It
should be applied as quickly as possible, and as hot as it can be
borne. Insertion in hot water will also cure that troublesome and
very painful ailment, the whitlow.


507. _Good effects of Bathing._--"I am often asked, what baths are
safest--as if everything, by its fitness or unfitness, is not safe,
or the reverse. The value of all baths depends upon their fitness;
and that, in many instances, can only be known by trial. It depends
upon constitution, more than upon the name of a disease, whether
particular patients shall be benefited by one bath or another.
Generally speaking, when the skin is hot and dry, a cold bath will do
good; and when chilly, a hot bath. But the reverse sometimes happens.
The cold stage of ague, may at once be cut short by a cold bath. I
have seen a shivering hypochondriac dash into the cold plunge bath,
and come out, in a minute or two, perfectly cured of all his aches
and whimseys. But, in cases of this nature, everything depends upon
the _glow_ or _reaction_ which the bath produces; and that has as
much to do with surprise or shock as with the temperature of the
bath. I have seen a person with a hot, dry skin, go into a warm bath,
and come out just as refreshed as if he had taken a cold one. In that
case, the perspiration which it excited, must have been the principal
means of relief.

"So far as my own experience goes, I prefer the cold and tepid
shower-baths, and the cold plunge-bath, to any other; but there are
cases in which these disagree, and I, therefore, occasionally order
the warm or vapor-bath instead."--_Dr. Dickson._


508. _Diet for Patients._--"I am every day asked by my patients,
what diet they should take. I generally answer by the question, 'How
old are you?' Suppose they say, _Forty_--'Forty!' I rejoin: 'you who
have had forty years' experience of what agrees and disagrees with
you--how can you ask me who have no experience of the kind in your
case whatever?' Surely, gentlemen, a patient's experience of what
agrees and disagrees with his own particular constitution, is far
better than any theory of yours or mine. Why, bless my life! in many
chronic diseases, the diet which a man can take to-day, would be
rejected with disgust to-morrow; under such circumstances, would you
still, according to common medical practice, tell a sick person to go
on taking what he himself found worried him to death? Gentlemen, I
hope better things of you.

"The only general caution you need give your patients on the
subject of diet, is _moderation_; moderation in using the things
which they find agree with themselves best. You may direct them to
take their food in small quantities at a time, at short _periodic_
intervals--intervals of two or three hours, for example; and tell
them to take the trouble to masticate it properly before they
swallow it, so as not to give a weak stomach the _double_ work of
mastication and digestion--these processes being, even in health,
essentially distinct. Unless properly comminuted and mixed with the
saliva, how can you expect the food to be anything but a source of
inconvenience to persons whom the smallest trifle will frequently
discompose?"--_Dr. Dickson's Lectures._


509. _Abstinence, or Starvation._--Beware of carrying this too
far!--for "abstinence engenders maladies." So Shakspeare said, and
so nature will tell you, in the teeth of all the doctors in Europe!
Abstinence may produce almost every form of disease which has entered
into the consideration of the physician.--_Ibid._


510. _The Blood is the Life--never be Bled!_--"He who loses a pint
of blood, loses a pint of his life. Of what is the body composed?
Is it not of blood, and blood only? What fills up the excavation
of an ulcer or an abscess? What re-produces the bone of the leg or
thigh, after it has been thrown off dead, in nearly all its length?
what but the living BLOOD, under the vito-electrical influence of
the brain and nerves! How does the slaughtered animal die? Of loss
of blood solely. Is not the blood, then, in the impressive language
of Scripture, 'the life of the flesh?' How remarkable, that while
the value of the blood to the animal economy should be thus so
distinctly and emphatically acknowledged, blood-letting is not even
once alluded to, among the various modes of _cure_ mentioned in
the sacred volume. We have 'balms,' 'balsams,' 'baths,' 'charms,'
'physics,'--'poultices,' even--but loss of blood, never! Had it been
practised by the Jews, why this omission? Will the men who now so
lavishly pour out the blood, dispute its importance in the animal
economy? Will they deny that it forms the basis of the solids?
that when the body has been wasted by long disease, it is by the
blood only it can recover its healthy volume and appearance?"--_Dr.
Dickson's Lectures._


THE TOILET.

511. Personal beauty is the gift of nature, but its preservation
depends much on the care of its possessor. Beauty may also be
cultivated and enhanced; even plainness may be improved, and the
defects that sickness, accidents, and age impress on the human
features and form, may be greatly remedied by simple means, and
attention to a few important rules.

The first requisite for the preservation and improvement of personal
beauty is _good temper_. The teachings of the New Testament, if
you follow its precepts, will insure you this grace. The second
requirement is _good health_. The most important rules for its
preservation and recovery are given in this chapter. The third
requisite comprises attention to neatness, and that general care of
the person which the rules and receipts we here subjoin, will aid in
making complete.


512. _Of the Hair._--It is a great mistake to plait the hair of
children under eleven or twelve years of age. The process of plaiting
more or less strains the hairs in their roots by pulling them tight;
tends to deprive them of their requisite supply of nutriment; and
checks their growth. The hair of girls should be cut rather short,
and allowed to curl freely. When they are about eleven or twelve, the
hair should be twisted into a coil, not too tight, nor tied at the
end with thin thread, but with a piece of riband.


513. _Do not Shave the Head._--Shaving the head is always injurious
to the hair, the bulbs being frequently destroyed by the process; and
washing frequently with an alkaline preparation, such as soap and
water, is decidedly objectionable, for that, as well as sea-water, is
very apt to change the color of the hair.


514. _To purify and beautify the Hair._--An excellent means of
keeping the hair sweet, clean, glossy, and curly, is to brush it with
a rather hard brush dipped by the surface only in eau de Portugal
("Portugal water"). In order to have it fresh and of fine quality,
take a pint of orange flower water, a pint of rose water, and half a
pint of myrtle water. To these put a quarter of an ounce of distilled
spirit of musk, and an ounce of spirit of ambergris. Shake the whole
well together, and the water will be ready for use. Only a small
quantity should be made at a time, as it does not keep long, except
in moderate weather, being apt to spoil either with cold or heat.


515. _To promote the Growth of Hair._--Mix equal parts of olive oil
and spirits of rosemary, and add a few drops of oil of nutmeg. If the
hair be rubbed every night with a little of this liniment, and the
proportion be very gradually augmented, it will answer every purpose
of increasing the growth of hair, much more effectually than can be
attained by any of the boasting empirical preparations which are
imposed on the credulous purchaser.


516. _Curling Liquid for the Hair._--When the hair will not curl
naturally, the curling irons should not be used; they only extract
the moisture, and render the hair crisp and harsh. An excellent
curling liquid is the following:--Put two pounds of common soap, cut
small, into three pints of spirits of wine, with eight ounces of
potash, and melt the whole, stirring it with a clean piece of wood.
Add some essence of amber, vanilla, and nevoli, about a quarter of an
ounce of each, to render the fluid agreeable. The liquids which are
sold for the professed purpose of assisting in curling the hair, are
chiefly composed of either oily or extractive substances.


517. _To prevent Hair from falling out._--Make a strong decoction of
white-oak bark in water, and use it freely. It is best to make but
little at a time, and have it fresh at least once a fortnight.


518. _To avoid Grey Hairs._--Those who would avoid that prominent
mark of approaching old age, called grey hair, must be careful in the
treatment of the hair in their youth. They must avoid constricting
the skin, and strangling the hair at its roots, and everything that
may throw into the blood an undue portion of lime. We say an _undue_
portion, because a certain quantity of lime is indispensable in our
system for repairing the wear and tear of the bones, teeth, &c. The
lime necessary for the repair of bone is manufactured by the stomach
and liver, along with the blood, from various articles of our diet
which contain it. The greatest supply is usually from the water
which we drink, or which is employed in the various processes of
cooking and preparing liquors. All animal food also contains some
portion of lime, as well as some of the sorts of vegetable food.
Ascertain, then, by chemical trial, whether the water used for your
tea, coffee, soups, &c., contains a large proportion of lime; and,
if it do, you must either have it chemically purified, or remove to
some other place where the water is more free from lime. If water
be hard, you may be certain that it contains too much lime to be
safely used. Rain-water is the safest for tea and other liquids.
Bread will always contain a portion of lime; you must, therefore, be
careful in dealing with respectable bakers, who will not increase
that unavoidable quantity by means of adulterating matter (such as
whiting) which contains lime.


519. _To soften and cleanse the Hair._--Beat up an egg, rub it well
into the hair, and then wash the head well. If the hair is very oily,
add the juice of half a lemon. This receipt also answers much better
for washing pet dogs than soap.


520. _To make a Curling Fluid for the Hair._--Melt a piece of white
bees'-wax, about the size of a filbert kernel or large pea, in one
ounce of olive oil; to this add one or two drops of attar of roses or
any other perfume.


521. _Gen. Twiggs' Hair Dye._--Dissolve in a pint of rose-water, one
ounce of lac sulphur, and half an ounce of sugar of lead. Wet the
hair with this mixture thoroughly every night, shaking the bottle
occasionally. Some persons prefer whisky to rose-water, in mixing the
articles.


522. _To change Hair to a deep Brown._--A solution of silver caustic
in water is the foundation of all the nostrums for this purpose. It
must be well diluted before used.


523. _To dye the Hair Black._--Procure from the dyer's a quantity of
walnut-water; and with this wash the hair, as the first part of the
process. Then make an aromatic tincture of galls, by scenting the
common tincture with any agreeable perfume; and with this wet the
hair, which must next be moistened with a strong solution of sulphate
of iron.


524. _A simple Hair-dye._--Boil in a pint of water a handful of
rosemary; when cold, strain and bottle, but do not cork it. Renew it
every few weeks. Wet the hair with it every night.


525. _To darken the Eye-brows._--Take an ounce of walnuts, an ounce
of frankincense, an ounce of resin, and an ounce of mastick. Burn
them all on clear, red-hot charcoal, and receive the fumes into a
funnel, in which a very fine black powder, slightly perfumed and
unctuous, will adhere. Mix this with a little oil of myrtle, in a
leaden mortar, and apply it to the eye-brows. This paste has the
property of resisting both heat and perspiration; but it must be
occasionally renewed. The following method may also be used: Burn
a clove in the flame of a wax-candle, dip it into the juice of
elder-berries, and apply it to the eye-brows. The powder, also,
which is used in the East for painting the eye-lashes, and which is
composed of antimony and bismuth, may be safely and advantageously
used. Or, a paste prepared from powdered black lead, with eau de
Cologne, or oil of myrtle, or essence of bergamot, will suffice for
the purpose. When the eye-brows become long and shaggy, they give a
ferocious and repulsive expression to the countenance. The scissors
should in that case be often used. Some of the longest hairs might
also be removed with the tweezers.


526. _To know whether Hair Powder is adulterated with Lime._--Put a
little crude sal-ammoniac, in powder, to the suspected hair powder,
and add a little warm water to the mixture, and stir it about; if the
powder has been adulterated with lime, a strong smell of volatile
alkali will arise from this mixture.


527. _To perfume Hair Powder._--Take one drachm of musk, four ounces
of lavender blossoms, one and a half drachm of civet, and half a
drachm of ambergris; pound the whole together, and pass it through a
sieve. Preserve this mixture in well-stopped bottles, and add more or
less thereof, as agreeable, in your hair powder.


528. _To improve the Hair._--Powdered hartshorn, mixed with oil,
being rubbed upon the head of persons who have lost their hair,
will cause it to grow again. A very good oil for the hair is made
by mixing one part of the liquid hartshorn with nine parts of pure
castor-oil.


529. _An economical Hair Wash._--Dissolve in one quart of boiling
water one ounce of borax and half an ounce of camphor; these
ingredients fine. When cool, the solution will be ready for use.
Damp the hair with it frequently. This wash not only cleanses and
beautifies, but strengthens the hair, preserves the color, and
prevents baldness.


530. _To remove Superfluous Hair._--This is very difficult, for
if you pull the hair out by the roots from those places which it
disfigures, there are thousands of roots ready to start through
the skin the moment you make room for them. Old authors recommend
depilatories in great variety. The principal of these methods consist
in rubbing upon the part from which the hair is to be removed,
leaven, parsley water, juice of acacia, the gum of ivy or of the
cherry-tree, dissolved in spirits of wine, &c. Madame Elisi Voiart,
in her "Encyclopédie des Dames," recommends a few drops of dulcified
spirit of salt, (that is, muriatic acid distilled with rectified
spirits of wine,) to be applied with a camel hair pencil.


OF THE COMPLEXION.

531. _Never Paint._--The use of white paint as a cosmetic affects the
eyes, which it renders painful and watery. It changes the texture
of the skin, on which it produces pimples; attacks the teeth,
destroys the enamel, and loosens them. It heats the mouth and throat,
infecting and corrupting the saliva. Lastly, it penetrates the pores
of the skin, acting by degrees on the spongy substance of the lungs,
and inducing disease. Powdered magnesia, or violet powder, is no
further injurious than by stopping the pores of the skin; but this is
quite injury enough to preclude its use. The best cosmetics are early
hours, exercise, and temperance.


532. _To soften the Skin and improve the Complexion._--Mix in a cup
of milk a little flowers of sulphur; let it stand for an hour or two;
then, without disturbing the sulphur, rub the milk into the skin. It
will keep it soft and clear. It should be used before washing.


533. _How to treat Freckles._--Most of us have observed the effect
produced on white paper by holding it closely to the fire: it changes
rapidly from white to brown, and becomes scorched. Chemists tell us
that most combustible things, both in the animal and vegetable world,
have carbon for their basis--_so has the skin_; and, if it be exposed
to the heat, it becomes, like them, spotted or charred. The iron and
oxygen in the blood also assist to produce this effect. Thus we have
the cause of freckles. Those who, like Richard Cœur de Lion, and
Mary Queen of Scots, have red hair (which is caused by a red-colored
oil, more strongly impregnated with iron than others), are most
liable to freckles.

The most effectual means of removing freckles, is the use of those
chemicals which will dissolve the existing combination. The freckles
are situated in the second or middle membrane of the skin; and,
before any other application, it will be advisable to soften the
surface by the use of some mild balsam or paste.


534. _For Freckles._--One ounce of bitter almonds, one ditto of
barley flour, mix with a sufficient quantity of honey to make the
whole into a smooth paste; with which the face, more particularly
where the freckles are visible, is to be anointed at night, and the
paste washed off in the morning. After a few days the skin will be
prepared for a chemical remedy.


535. _Another._--To decompose the freckles, by laying hold of the
iron, the following mixture may be applied: Take one drachm of
muriatic acid, half a pint of rain-water, half a tea-spoonful of
spirit of lavender; mix well together, and apply two or three times a
day to the freckles, with a camel's hair brush. The acid seizes upon
the iron, and the oxygen is disengaged.


536. _Purifying water for Freckled Skin._--Take one tea-spoonful of
liquor of potassa, two ounces and a half of pure water, and ten drops
of eau de Cologne. Mix, and apply three times a day with a camel's
hair brush.


537. _Cosmetic Lotion for Freckles._--Take a tea-cupful of cold sour
milk, scrape into it a quantity of horse-radish. Let this stand
from six to twelve hours; and then, being well strained, let it be
applied, as before directed, two or three times a day.


538. _Preventive Wash for Sunburn._--Take two drachms of borax,
one drachm of Roman alum, one drachm of camphor, half an ounce of
sugar-candy, and one pound of ox-gall; mix and stir well together,
and repeat the stirring three or four times a day, until the mixture
becomes transparent; then strain it through filtering paper, and it
is fit for use.


539. _Grape Lotion for Sunburn._--Dip a bunch of green grapes in
a basin of water; sprinkle it with powdered alum and salt, mixed
together; wrap it in paper, and bake it under hot ashes; then express
the remaining juice, and wash the face with the liquid.


540. _Lemon Cream for Sunburn and Freckles._--Put two spoonfuls of
fresh cream into half a pint of new milk; squeeze into it the juice
of a lemon, and half a glass of brandy, a little alum, and loaf
sugar; boil the whole, skim it well, and, when cool, it will be fit
for use.


541. _A French Receipt._--Take equal parts of the seeds of the
melon, pompion, gourd, and cucumber, pounded and reduced to powder
or meal; add to it fresh cream sufficient to dilute the flour; beat
all up together, adding a sufficient quantity of milk, as it may be
required, to make an ointment, and then apply it to the face. Leave
it there for half an hour, and then wash it off with warm soft water.
Pimpernel water is often used on the continent for the purpose of
whitening the complexion. It is there in so high reputation, that it
is said generally that it ought to be continually on the toilet of
every lady who cares for the brightness of her skin.


542. _Moles._--The author of "The Art of Beauty," whose work appeared
in 1824, has very judiciously observed: "The common brown mole
appears to be much of the same nature as freckles, and to be situated
in the middle layer of the skin, or membrane of color. Moles are
sometimes so placed as to improve rather than injure a fine face.
They contrast with the delicacy of a fair skin, and give a pleasing
archness of expression to the countenance. They are, however, most
frequently found on women of a dark complexion. The coloring matter,
as in the case of freckles and sunburn, is probably some chemical
combination of iron. Moles have evidently a superabundant vitality,
and a tendency to increased action, in consequence, perhaps, of the
stimulus of the iron; and hence they are often slightly elevated
above the surface, and the natural down of the skin is changed into
a tuft of hair. The same cosmetic applications may be tried as for
freckles, with gentle friction, but they are seldom successful. But
it will be found very dangerous to apply depilatories to eradicate
the tufts of hair on moles, as cancer in the face is not unfrequently
the consequence of such applications."


543. _Birth Marks._--Let them alone, or apply to some eminent surgeon
to attempt their removal.


544. _Worm Pimple, with black points._--They are very common,
and very unsightly, giving the skin an oily, greasy, and dirty
appearance. Their origin is to be traced to the obstruction of the
fountains or glands placed immediately under the skin, from which a
minute pipe carries off the perspiration. This moisture, not getting
free egress, thickens and closes the pores: it then catches the dust
and other impurities, floating in the atmosphere, and soon becomes
black. If squeezed violently between the nails, this thickened
matter will be driven out, in the form of a yellowish white worm,
with a black head, which is nothing more than the extraneous matter
just mentioned. That there is any vitality in it, is an absurd, but
popular and prevalent error. These pimples generally cluster on the
sides of the nose and on the forehead, whilst the skin around them
is greasy. They should be thoroughly pressed out of every pore, or
there they will remain, and no cosmetic will dislodge them. When
this is effectually done, the following safe and simple application
may be tried: take one ounce of bitter almonds and one ounce of
barley-flour; mix them with honey, until they form a smooth paste,
and anoint the skin at night. Gentle friction, either with the hand
or with a soft glove, is also good. When this state of the skin is
induced by bilious disorders, indigestion, &c., sulphur, purgatives,
and other remedies must be taken to remove it; but not without
medical advice, as they often are the reverse of effectual.


545. _Another simple Remedy._--Bathe the pimples several times a
day with lukewarm water and a sponge, rubbing the sponge over a
piece of yellow soap. There is a truly healing power in soap, which
is surprising when we learn to appreciate it, and which is quite
distinct from mere cleanliness.


546. _Wash for Pimples._--Dissolve half a drachm of salt of tartar
in three ounces of spirit of wine; apply with linen or a camel-hair
pencil.


547. _A Paste for the Skin._--Boil the whites of four eggs in
rose-water; add to it a small quantity of alum; beat the whole to the
consistence of a paste. This will give great firmness to the skin.


548. _Cold Cream._--Take two ounces of oil of sweet almonds, and
one drachm each of white wax and spermaceti, or half an ounce of
white wax alone, which scrape very fine, and put them with the oil
into an earthen dish, to melt slowly on the embers, and stir it
till it becomes quite smooth. When it is cooling, add one ounce of
rose-water, and put it into a gallipot, closely covered. It should be
a very thick cream.


549. _Fard._--This paste is useful in removing sun-burnings, effects
of wind on the face, and accidental cutaneous eruptions. It must be
applied on going to bed. First, wash the face, and, when dry, rub the
fard over it, and let it remain all night. Take two ounces of oil of
sweet almonds, and the same quantity of spermaceti; melt them over a
slow fire. When they are dissolved and mixed, take it from the fire,
and stir into it one table-spoonful of fine honey. Continue stirring
it till it is cold, and it is then fit for use.


550. _Court-plaster, or black Sticking-plaster._--Take half an ounce
of benzoin, and six ounces of rectified spirit; dissolve and strain;
then take one ounce of isinglass, and half a pint of hot water;
dissolve and strain separately from the former. Mix the two, and set
them aside to cool, when a jelly will be formed; and this is warmed
and brushed ten or twelve times over a piece of black silk, stretched
smooth. When this is done enough, and dry, finish it with a solution
of four ounces of chian turpentine in six ounces of tincture of
benzoin.


551. _An excellent Tooth-powder._--One of the best tooth-powders is
made by mixing together one ounce and a half of prepared chalk, half
an ounce of powder of bark, and a quarter of an ounce of camphor.


552. _Charcoal Tooth-powder._--Pound charcoal as fine as possible,
in a mortar, or grind it in a mill; then well sift it, and apply a
little of it to the teeth about twice a week, and it will not only
render them beautifully white, but will also make the breath sweet,
and the gums firm and comfortable.

If the charcoal is ground in a mortar, it is convenient to grind it
in water, to prevent the dust from flying about. Indeed, the powder
is more convenient for use, when kept in water.


553. _A safe Tooth-powder._--Cut a slice of thick bread into squares,
and burn it till it becomes charcoal. Pound it, and sift it through a
_fine_ muslin. It is then ready for use.


554. _Another Tooth-powder._--Mix hartshorn shavings, calcined and
pulverized, three-fifths; myrrh, pulverized, two-fifths.


555. _A good Dentifrice._--Dissolve two ounces of borax in three
pints of boiling water; before it is quite cold, add one tea-spoonful
of tincture of myrrh, and one table-spoonful of spirits of camphor.
Bottle the mixture for use. Add one wine-glassful of the solution
to half a pint of tepid water, and use it daily. It preserves and
beautifies the teeth, arrests decay, and induces a healthy action in
the gums.


556. _Camphor Tooth-powder._--This excellent dentifrice is made by
mixing prepared chalk, finely pulverized, and sifted through a fine
muslin, with an equal quantity of pulverized camphor, prepared in the
same way. It is a good preservative of the teeth.


557. _Orris-root Tooth-powder._--Mix equal quantities of finely
pulverized and sifted orris-root and prepared chalk. Charcoal may
be used instead of chalk, in both these receipts, but it must be
prepared with great care, else its grittiness will injure the enamel
of the teeth.


558. _To whiten the Teeth._--Mix honey with finely powdered charcoal,
and use the paste as a dentifrice.


559. _Wash for the Teeth._--One ounce of myrrh, powdered, and
dissolved in one pint of spirits of wine. A little of this dropped on
the tooth-brush, is excellent for the teeth and gums.


560. _To remove Tartar from the Teeth._--1st. The use of the
tooth-brush night and morning, and at least rinsing the mouth after
every meal at which animal food is taken. 2d. Once daily run the
brush lightly two or three times over soap, then dip it in salt,
and with it clean the teeth, working the brush up and down rather
than--or as well as--backwards and forwards. This is a cheap, safe,
and effectual dentifrice. 3d. Eat freely of common cress--the sort
used with mustard, under the name of small salad; it must be eaten
with salt only. If thus used two or three days in succession, it
will effectually loosen tartar, even of long standing. The same
effect is produced, though perhaps not in an equal degree, by eating
strawberries and raspberries, especially the former. A leaf of common
green sage rubbed on the teeth, is useful both in cleansing and
polishing, and probably many other common vegetable productions also.


561. _Obs._ Soap is not at all a desirable medium for cleaning the
teeth, as, though it may whiten for the time, the alkaline process
destroys the enamel.


562. _To fill a decayed Tooth._--When a tooth is too much decayed
to be filled by a dentist, or the person is at a distance from one,
gutta percha will be found an useful expedient. Drop a small piece
of this substance in boiling water, then taking off as much as will
probably fill the tooth nearly level, press it, while soft, into the
cavity. Then hold cold water in the mouth on that side, to harden it.
It has been known to preserve a tooth two years at least, and keeps
it free from cold.


FOR THE DRESSING-TABLE.

563. _To make soft Pomatum._--Beat half a pound of unsalted fresh
lard in common water; then soak and beat it in two rose-waters; drain
it, and beat it with two spoonfuls of brandy; let it drain from this;
add to it some essence of lemon, and keep it in small pots.


564. _Or_: Soak half a pound of clear beef marrow, and one pound
of unsalted fresh lard, in water, two or three days, changing and
beating it every day. Put it into a sieve, and, when dry, into a
jar, and the jar into a saucepan of water. When melted, pour it into
a basin, and beat it with two spoonfuls of brandy; drain off the
brandy, and then add essence of lemon, bergamot, or any other scent
that is liked.


565. _Hard Pomatum._--Prepare equal quantities of beef marrow and
mutton suet, as before, using the brandy to preserve it, and adding
the scent; then pour it into moulds, or, if you have none, into
phials of the size you choose the rolls to be. When cold, break the
bottles, clear away the glass carefully, and put paper round the
rolls.


566. _Or_: Take equal quantities of marrow, melted and strained,
lard, and castor oil; warm all together; add any scent you please;
stir until cold, and put into pots.


567. _Pomade Divine._--Clear one and a half pound of beef marrow
from the strings and bone; put it into an earthen pan or vessel of
water fresh from the spring, and change the water night and morning
for ten days; then steep it in rose-water twenty-four hours, and
drain it in a cloth till quite dry. Take one ounce of each of the
following articles, namely: storax, gum-benjamin, and odoriferous
cypress powder; half an ounce of cinnamon, two drachms of cloves, and
two drachms of nutmeg, all finely powdered: mix them with the marrow
above prepared; then put all the ingredients into a pewter pot that
holds three pints; make a paste of white of egg and flour, and lay
it upon a piece of rag. Over that must be another piece of linen,
to cover the top of the pot very close, that none of the steam may
evaporate. Put the pot into a large copper pot with water, observing
to keep it steady, that it may not reach to the covering of the
pot that holds the marrow. As the water shrinks, add more, boiling
hot--for it must boil four hours without ceasing a moment. Strain the
ointment through a linen cloth into small pots, and, when cold, cover
them. Do not touch it with anything but silver. It will keep many
years.


568. _To make Jessamine Butter._--Hog's lard melted, and well washed
in fair water, laid an inch thick in a dish, and strewed over with
jessamine flowers, will imbibe the scent, and make a very fragrant
pomatum.


569. _Rowland's Macassar Oil._--This is made by boiling castor oil,
scenting it with oil of roses, and coloring it, while warm, with
alkanet root.


570. _Macassar Oil._--Common oil, three quarts; spirits of wine, half
a pint; cinnamon powder, three ounces; bergamot, two ounces: heat
them together in a large pipkin, then remove it from the fire, and
add four small pieces of alkanet root, keeping it closely covered for
several hours. Let it then be filtered through a funnel lined with
filtering paper.


571. _Wash for the Skin._--Four ounces of potash, four ounces of
rose-water, two ounces of pure brandy, and two ounces of lemon-juice;
put all these into two quarts of water, and when you wash, put a
table-spoonful or two of the mixture into the basin of water you
intend washing in.


572. _To make Milk of Roses._--To one pint of rose-water, add one
ounce of oil of almonds and ten drops of the oil of tartar.

N. B.--Let the oil of tartar be poured in last.


573. _Almond Paste._--Blanch half a pound of sweet almonds and a
quarter of a pound of bitter almonds, and beat them to powder in a
mortar with half a pound of loaf sugar; then beat them into a paste
with orange-flower water.


574. _Almond Powder._--Blanch six pounds of bitter almonds, dry and
beat them, and press from them one pint of oil; then beat them in an
iron mortar, and pass the powder through a sieve. Keep it from air
and moisture in a glass jar. Used instead of soap for washing the
hands, it imparts a singular delicacy to their appearance.


575. _Violet Powder._--This preparation is universally applied for
drying the skin after washing, especially at the joints, which,
if left even damp, produces chaps and chafing, often followed, if
neglected, by inflammation. Violet powder is best prepared by mixing
three parts of the best wheat starch with one of finely-ground
orris-root; the latter adds to the drying power of the starch,
and imparts, at the same time, an agreeable odor like that of
violet--hence the name of the mixture. It is also prepared by
perfuming starch with essential oils, without the addition of
orris-root: but, though the scent of the powder is stronger, and
to some more tempting to use, it is far less beneficial in its
application. The scent, acting as a stimulant to the skin, increases
rather than abates any tendency to redness. Unperfumed powder is,
therefore, the best to use, dusted over the part with a little brush
made of swan's-down, called a puff.


576. _Another Powder for Chaps, &c._--Take dry hemlock bark, powder
it, by rubbing on a fine grater; then sift this powder through gauze
or muslin, and sprinkle it lightly on the part chapped. It is a safe
and certain curative.


577. _Pearl White._--Bismuth dissolved in aqua-fortis, is pearl
white. This, though at first it whitens, afterwards blackens the
skin, as all preparations from lead do; and therefore none of them
are safely to be used.--_Dr. Moyes' Lectures._


578. _Pot-pourri._--Put into a large china jar the following
ingredients in layers, with bay-salt strewed between the layers:
two pecks of damask roses, part in buds and part blown; violets,
orange-flowers, and jessamine, a handful of each; orris-root sliced,
benjamin and storax, two ounces of each; quarter of an ounce of musk;
quarter of a pound of angelica root, sliced; a quart of the red
parts of clove-gillyflowers; two handfuls of lavender flowers; half
a handful of rosemary flowers; bay and laurel leaves, half a handful
of each; three Seville oranges, stuck as full of cloves as possible,
dried in a cool oven, and pounded; half a handful of knotted
marjoram; and two handfuls of balm of Gilead, dried. Cover all quite
close. When the pot is uncovered the perfume is very fine.


579. _A quicker sort of sweet Pot-pourri._--Take three handfuls of
orange-flowers, three of clove-gillyflowers, three of damask roses,
one of knotted marjoram, one of lemon-thyme, six bay-leaves, a
handful of rosemary, one of myrtle, half of mint, one of lavender,
the rind of a lemon, and a quarter of an ounce of cloves. Chop all,
and put them in layers, with pounded bay-salt between, up to the tip
of the jar.

If all the ingredients cannot be obtained at once, put them in as you
get them; always throwing in salt with every new article.


580. _Hungary Water._--Mix one quart of spirits of wine; half a pint
of water; and three-quarters of an ounce of oil of rosemary.


581. _Lavender Water._--Mix in a quart bottle three drachms of oil
of lavender; one pint rectified spirit of wine; shake them well
together, and add an ounce of orange-flower water, an ounce of
rose-water, four ounces of distilled water, and, if you like, two or
three drachms of essence of musk.


582. _Rose-water._--When the roses are in full bloom pick the leaves
carefully off, and to every quart of water put a peck of them; put
them in a cold still over a slow fire, and distil gradually; then
bottle the water; let it stand in the bottle three days, and then
cork it close.


583. _Another._--Take two pounds of rose leaves, place them on a
napkin tied round the edges of a basin filled with hot water, and
put a dish of cold water upon the leaves; keep the bottom water hot,
and change the water at top as soon as it begins to grow warm. By
this kind of distillation you will extract a great quantity of the
essential oil of the roses by a process which cannot be expensive,
and will prove very beneficial.


584. _Tincture of Roses._--Put into a bottle the petals of the common
rose, and pour upon them spirits of wine; cork the bottle, and let it
stand for two or three months. It will then yield a perfume little
inferior to attar of roses. Common vinegar is much improved by a very
small quantity of this mixture being added to it.


585. _Honey Water._--One ounce of essence of bergamot, three drachms
of English oil of lavender, half a drachm of oil of cloves, half a
drachm of aromatic vinegar, six grains of musk, one and a half pint
of spirits of wine. Mix and distil.


586. _Honey Water._--Take one pint of spirit as above, and three
drachms of essence of ambergris; shake them well daily.


587. _Sweet-scented Water._--Put one quart of rose-water, and the
same quantity of orange-water, into a large and wide-mouthed glass:
strew upon it two handfuls of jessamine flowers; put the glass in the
_balneum mariæ_, or on a slow fire, and when it is distilled, add to
it a scruple of musk and the same quantity of ambergris.


588. _A very fine Scent._--Take six drachms of oil of lavender, three
of the essence of bergamot, sixty drops of ambergris, and two grains
of musk. Mix these into a pint of the best rectified spirits of wine.


589. _To whiten the Hands._--Take a wine-glassful of eau de Cologne,
and another of lemon-juice; then scrape two cakes of brown Windsor
soap, or the same quantity of pure white soap, to a powder, and mix
well in a mould. When hard, it will be excellent for whitening the
hands.


590. _Camphor Cerate for Chapped Hands._--The following receipt was
given to the contributor by a maid of honor to Queen Victoria. It is
an excellent one. Scrape into an _earthen_ vessel one ounce and a
half of spermaceti and half an ounce of white wax; add six drachms
of pounded camphor, and four table-spoonfuls of the best olive oil.
Let it stand near the fire till it dissolves, stirring it well when
liquid. _Before_ the hands are washed, rub them thoroughly with a
little of the cerate, then wash them as usual. Putting the cerate
on before retiring, answers very well. This quantity costs about
twenty-five cents, and will last three winters. The vessel it is kept
in should be covered, to prevent evaporation.


591. _Paste for Chapped Hands._--Mix a quarter of a pound of unsalted
lard, which has been washed in soft water, and then in rose-water,
with the yolks of two new-laid eggs, and a large spoonful of honey.
Add as much fine oatmeal or almond-paste as will work into a paste.

_Or_:--Blanch one pound of bitter almonds, and pound them smooth in
a marble mortar; add half an ounce of camphor, one ounce of honey,
quarter of a pound of spermaceti, pounded and mixed with the almonds,
till it becomes a smooth paste. Put it into jars, and tie it down
till wanted.


592. _To prevent inconvenience from Perspiration of the
Hands._--Ladies who work lace or embroidery sometimes suffer
inconvenience from the perspiration on their hands; which may be
remedied, by rubbing the hands frequently with a little dry wheaten
bran.


593. _Another._--Any of the milder kinds of soaps will be found to
answer the purpose of keeping the hands clean, soft, and as white as
nature will permit.


594. _For preserving the Nails._--One ounce of oil of bitter almonds;
one drachm of oil of tartar per deliquium; one ounce of prepared
crabs'-eyes. Mix up with essence of lemon, to scent it.

La Forest recommends rubbing the nails with lemon as a detergent.


595. _To whiten the Nails._--Mix two drachms of diluted sulphuric
acid, one drachm of tincture of myrrh, and four ounces of
spring-water. Cleanse the nails with soap, and then dip the fingers
in the mixture.


596. _To remove Stains from the Hands._--Dip your hands in warm
water, and rub on the stain a small portion of oxalic acid powder
and cream of tartar, mixed together in equal quantities. Keep it in
a box. When the stain disappears, wash the hands with fine soap or
almond cream. A box of this stain powder should always be kept on
hand.


597. _To make Wash-balls._--Shave thin two pounds of new white soap
into about a tea-cupful of rose-water, then pour on as much boiling
water as will soften it. Put into a brass pan a pint of sweet oil,
half an ounce of oil of almonds, half a pound of spermaceti, and set
all over the fire till dissolved; then add the soap and half an ounce
of camphor, that has first been reduced to powder by rubbing it in a
mortar, with a few drops of spirits of wine, or lavender-water, or
any other scent. Boil ten minutes, then pour it into a basin, and
stir it till it is quite thick enough to roll into hard balls, which
must then be done immediately. If essence is used, stir it in quickly
after it is taken off the fire.


598. _Essence of Soap, for shaving or washing hands._--Take a pound
and a half of fine white soap, in thin slices, and add thereto two
ounces of salt of tartar; mix them well together, and put this
mixture into one quart of spirits of wine, in a bottle which will
hold double the quantity of the ingredients: tie a bladder over the
mouth of the bottle, and prick a pin through the bladder; set it to
digest in a gentle heat, and shake the contents from time to time,
taking care to take out the pin at such times, to allow passage for
the air from within. When the soap is dissolved, filter the liquor
through paper, to free it from impurities; then scent it with a
little bergamot or essence of lemon. It will have the appearance of
fine oil, and a small quantity will lather with water like soap, and
is much superior in use for washing or shaving.


599. _Naples Soap._--Put into a pipkin or saucepan half a pint of
ley, (strong enough to bear an egg,) with two ounces of lamb suet and
one ounce of olive oil; simmer them over a fire until they be thick,
when pour the mixture into a flat pan, cover it with glass, and
expose it to the heat of the sun for seven weeks, stirring it once a
day: the soap will then be made, and may be perfumed with a few drops
of oil of ambergris, which should be well mixed. Put the soap into
small jars, and it will be improved by keeping.


600. _Transparent Soap._--Put into a bottle Windsor soap, in thin
shavings; half fill with spirits of wine, and set it near the fire
till the soap be dissolved, when pour it into a mould to cool.


601. _Genuine Windsor Soap._--To make this famous soap for washing
the hands, shaving, &c., nothing more is necessary than to slice the
best white soap as thin as possible, melt it in a stew-pan over a
slow fire, scent it well with oil of caraway, and then pour it into a
frame or mould made for that purpose, or a small drawer, adapted in
size and form to the quantity. When it has stood three or four days
in a dry situation, cut into square pieces, and it is ready for use.
By this simple mode, substituting any more favorite scent for that of
caraway, all persons may suit themselves with a good perfumed soap,
at the most trifling expense.


602. _To make Lady Derby's Soap._--Two ounces of bitter almonds,
blanched, one ounce and a quarter of tincture of benjamin, one pound
of good plain white soap, and one piece of camphor the size of a
walnut. The almonds and camphor are to be beaten in a mortar until
they are completely mixed, then work up with them the tincture of
benjamin. The mixture being perfectly made, work the soap into it
in the same manner. If the smell is too powerful of the camphor and
tincture of benjamin, melt the soap by the fire, and the perfume will
go off. This soap has been tried by many persons of distinction, is
excellent in its qualities for cleansing the skin, and will be found
greatly to assist the complexion, the ingredients being perfectly
safe.


603. _To make superior Honey Soap._--Cut into thin shavings two
pounds of common yellow or white soap; put it on the fire with just
water enough to keep it from burning: when quite melted, add a
quarter of a pound of honey, stirring it till it boils; then take
it off, and add a few drops of any agreeable perfume: pour it into
a deep dish to cool, and then cut it into squares. It improves by
keeping. It will soften and whiten the skin.


604. _Paste for Chapped Lips._--Put four ounces of olive oil into a
bottle with one ounce of alkanet root; stop it up, and set it for
some days in the sun, shaking it often until it becomes perfectly
bright; then strain the oil from the alkanet, add to it one ounce of
white wax, and one ounce and a half of clarified mutton suet: let the
mixture simmer a little while over a slow fire. When it begins to
cool, mix with it a few drops of any essential oil.


605. _Chapped or Sore Lips._--May be healed by the frequent
application of honey-water, and protecting them from the influence of
cold air.


606. _Lip Salve._--Melt together an ounce of white wax, the same of
beef marrow, and three ounces of white pomatum, with a small piece of
alkanet root, tied in muslin; perfume, when cool, with attar of rose
or any other essence. It should be strained while hot.


607. _Bad Breath from Onions._--A few leaves of parsley eaten with
vinegar, will prevent any disagreeable consequences from eating
onions.


608. _Wash for the Mouth._--An excellent wash for the mouth is made
of half an ounce of tincture of myrrh and two ounces of Peruvian
bark. Keep in a phial for use. A few drops in a glass of water are
sufficient.


609. _Eau de Cologne._--Mix essence of bergamot, lemon, lavender,
and orange-flower, of each one drachm; essence of cinnamon, half a
drachm; spirit of rosemary, and honey-water, each two ounces; spirits
of wine, one pint: let the mixture stand two weeks, then put it in a
glass retort, the body of which immerse in boiling water contained
in a vessel placed over a lamp, while the beak of the retort is
introduced into a large reservoir (a decanter, for example): keep the
water boiling, while the mixture will distil into the receiver, which
should be covered with cold wet cloths. In this manner Cologne-water
may be obtained as good as the best Farina, at one-fourth the price.
A coffee-lamp or nursery-furnace will best answer to boil the water.

The above is the most simple method of _distilling_, without the
regular _still_.


610. _To make Eau de Cologne._--Rectified spirits of wine, four
pints; oil of bergamot, one ounce; oil of lemon, half an ounce;
oil of rosemary, half a drachm; oil of Neroli, three-quarters of a
drachm; oil of English lavender, one drachm; oil of oranges, one
drachm. Mix well, and then filter. If these proportions are too
large, smaller ones may be used.


611. _A very pleasant Perfume, and also preventive against
Moths._--Take of cloves, caraway seeds, nutmeg, mace, cinnamon,
and Tonquin beans, of each one ounce; then add as much Florentine
orris-root as will equal the other ingredients put together. Grind
the whole well to powder, and then put it in little bags, among your
clothes, &c.


612. _Method of extracting Essences from Flowers._--Procure a
quantity of the petals of any flowers which have an agreeable
fragrance; card thin layers of cotton, which dip into the finest
Florence or Lucca oil; sprinkle a small quantity of fine salt on the
flowers, and lay them, a layer of cotton and a layer of flowers,
until an earthen vessel or a wide-mouthed glass bottle is full.
Tie the top close with a bladder, then lay the vessel in a south
aspect to the heat of the sun, and in fifteen days, when uncovered,
a fragrant oil may be squeezed away from the whole mass, little
inferior (if roses are used) to the highly-valued attar of roses.


613. _Curious small Cakes of Incense for perfuming Apartments._--Take
equal quantities of lignum rhodium and anise, in powder, with a
little powder of dried Seville orange-peel, and the same of gum
benzoin, or benjamin, and beat all together in a marble mortar: then,
adding some gum-dragon, or tragacanth, dissolved in rose-water,
put in a little civet; beat the whole again together; make up this
mixture into small cakes, and place them on paper to dry. One of
these cakes being burnt in the largest apartment, will diffuse a most
agreeable odor through the whole room.


614. _To perfume Linen._--Rose-leaves dried in the shade, cloves
beat to a powder, and mace, scraped; mix them together, and put the
composition into little bags.


615. _To make an excellent Smelling-bottle._--Take an equal quantity
of sal-ammoniac and unslaked lime, pound them separately, then mix,
and put them in a bottle to smell to. Before you put in the above,
drop two or three drops of the essence of bergamot in the bottle,
then cork it close. A drop or two of ether, added to the same, will
greatly improve it.


616. _Aromatic Vinegar._--Throw into two pounds of acetic acid
one ounce each of the dried tops of rosemary and the dried leaves
of sage, half an ounce each of the dried flowers of lavender and
of bruised cloves. Let them remain untouched for seven days; then
express the liquid and filter it through paper. This is useful in
sick rooms.


617. _Lavender Vinegar._--Prepare a stone jar or bottle, and to each
pint of vinegar put into it, add half an ounce of fresh lavender
flowers; cover closely, and set it aside for a day or two; then set
the jar upon hot cinders for eight or ten hours; and when cold,
strain and bottle it. It is a refreshing perfume.


618. _Spirit and Oil of Roses._--A few drops of attar of roses,
dissolved in spirits of wine, form the _esprit de rose_ of the
perfumers; and the same quantity dissolved in fine sweet oil, their
_huile antique à la rose_.


619. _Essence of Musk._--Mix one drachm of musk with the same
quantity of pounded loaf sugar; add six ounces of spirit of wine:
shake together, and pour off for use.

Musk is seldom obtained pure: when it smells of ammonia, it is
adulterated. To preserve it, it should be made quite dry; when to be
used as a perfume, it should be moistened.


620. _Odeur Delectable._--Mix four ounces of distilled rose-water,
four ounces of orange-flower water, one drachm of oil of cloves, two
drachms of oil of bergamot, two grains of musk, one pint of spirits
of wine. Macerate thoroughly, and add one drachm of essence of musk.
This delicious scent is a universal favorite with the ladies of the
_beau monde_ in Paris.


621. _Eau D'Ange._--Pound in a mortar fifteen cloves and one pound
of cinnamon; put the whole into a quart of water, with four grains
anise-seed; let it stand over a charcoal fire twenty-four hours; then
strain off the liquor and bottle it. The perfume is excellent, and
will be useful for the hands, face, and hair.


622. _Shaving._--The hone and razor-strop should be kept in good
condition. The German hone is best: it should be frequently moistened
with oil, and laid up in a place where it will not readily become
dry: if it be rubbed with soap, instead of oil, previously to using,
it will give additional keenness and fineness to the edge of the
razor.

The strop should also be kept moist with a drop or two of sweet oil:
a little crocus and oil rubbed in the strop with a glass bottle will
give the razor a fine edge; as will also a paste made of tutty powder
and solution of oxalic acid.

Mr. Knight, president of the Horticultural Society, has invented
the following apparatus and method of sharpening a razor: Procure a
round bar of cast steel, three inches long, and about one-third of
an inch in diameter; rub it smooth from end to end with glass paper;
next, smear over its surface a paste of oil and the charcoal of wheat
straw, and fix the steel into a handle. To set a razor, dip it in hot
water, raise its back, and move it without pressure, in circles, from
heel to point, and back again; clean the blade on the palm of the
hand, and again dip it into hot water. This newly invented apparatus
may be purchased at any cutler's.

A very small piece of nitre, dissolved in water and applied to the
face after shaving, will remove any unpleasant sensation, though the
first application may be somewhat painful.


623. _Shaving Liquids._--1. Rub in a marble mortar an ounce of any
fine soap, with two drachms of carbonate of potassa. When these two
substances are incorporated, continue rubbing, and add gradually a
pint of lavender-water, or any other odorous water made by dissolving
essential oils in alcohol sixty degrees above proof. When the whole
is well combined, filter the liquid, and bottle it for use. To make
a lather, put a few drops into a wine-glass of tepid water; dip your
brush in the mixture, and, when rubbed on the face, a fine lather
will appear. 2. Dissolve any quantity of fine soap in alcohol, either
with or without perfume. Use it according to the preceding directions.


624. _An Easy Shave._--The operation of shaving may be robbed of its
unpleasant sensations by rubbing the chin over with grease, or a
sweet oil, before the application of the razor. The best razor-strop
in the world is one's own hand, moistened with its own natural oil or
perspiration. Sharpen the razor thus before you wash your hands, and
you will find this natural strop most efficacious. After shaving, to
allay irritation, wash the chin with Portugal water.


625. _Composition for Shaving, without the use of razor, soap, or
water._--Mix one pint and a half of clear lime-water, two ounces of
gum-Arabic, half an ounce of isinglass, an eighth of an ounce of
cochineal, a quarter of an ounce of turmeric-root (made into powder),
an eighth of an ounce of salt of tartar, and an eighth of an ounce of
cream of tartar, together: boil them for one hour at least (stirring
up the mixture during the whole time of boiling, and be careful not
to let it boil over), clear it through a sieve; then add two and
a half pounds of pumice stone, finely pulverized; mix the whole
together with the hands, by the assistance of the white of two eggs,
well stirred up. Then divide the cake into twelve small ones. Dry
them in the open air for three days; put them into an oven moderately
heated for twenty-four hours, when they will be ready for use. Apply
them, with a gentle friction, to the beard, and they will produce the
effect of shaving by rubbing off the hair.



PART III.

HOME PURSUITS AND DOMESTIC ARTS.

  _Needle-work_, _Fancy-work_--_Preparations for
  Writing_--_Flowers_--_House Plants_--_Birds_--_Gold Fish_, _&c._


The first and best use of the needle is common or plain sewing. Every
woman and girl should understand this art, the beginning of all arts,
and the most indispensable to civilization.

It is unnecessary to dilate on the importance of common needlework,
and to this female accomplishment, so universally necessary, we shall
principally confine our directions.


626. _Requisites for Sewing._--A neat work-box well supplied with all
the implements required, including knife, scissors (of at least three
sizes), needles and pins in sufficient variety, bodkins, thimbles,
thread and cotton, bobbins, marking silks, black lead pencils, &c.,
should be provided, and be furnished with a lock and key, to prevent
the contents being thrown into confusion by children or unauthorized
intruders.

The lady, being thus provided, and having her materials, implements,
&c., placed in order upon her work-table, to the edge of which it is
an advantage to have a pincushion affixed by means of a screw--may
commence her work, and proceed with it with pleasure to herself, and
without annoyance to any visitor who may favor her with a call. We
would recommend, wherever practicable, that the work-table should
be made of cedar, and that the windows of the working parlor should
open into a garden well supplied with odoriferous flowers and plants,
the perfume of which will materially cheer the spirits of those
especially, whose circumstances compel them to devote the greatest
portion of their time to sedentary occupations. If these advantages
cannot be obtained, at least the room should be well-ventilated, and
furnished with a few cheerful plants, and a well-filled scent-jar.
The beneficent Creator intended all his children, in whatever station
of life they might be placed, to share in the common bounties of
his providence; and when she, who works not for pleasure, but to
obtain the means of subsistence, is compelled to seclude herself, for
days or weeks together, from the cheering influence of exercise in
the open air, it becomes both her duty, and that of those for whom
she labors, to secure as much of these advantages, or of the best
substitutes for them, as the circumstances of the case will admit.


EXPLANATION OF STITCHES.

627. _Hemming._--Turn down the raw edge as evenly as possible.
Flatten, and be careful, especially in turning down the corners. Hem
from right to left; bring the point of the needle from the chest
toward the right hand. Fasten the thread without a knot, and when you
finish, sew several stitches close together, and cut off the thread.


628. _Mantua-maker's Hem._--You lay the raw edge of one of your
pieces a little below that of the other; the upper edge is then
turned over the other twice, and felled down as strong as possible.


629. _Sewing and Felling._--If you have selvages, join them together,
and sew them firmly. If you have raw edges, turn down one of the
edges once, and the other double the breadth, and then turn half
of it back again. This is for the fell. The two pieces are pinned
together, face to face, and seamed together--the stitches being in a
slanting direction, and just deep enough to hold the separate pieces
firmly together. Then flatten the seam with the thumb, turn the work
over, and fell it the same as hemming. The thread is fastened by
being worked between the pieces, and sewn over.


630. _Running._--Take _three threads, leave three_, and, in order
that the work may be kept as firm as possible, back-stitch
occasionally. If you sew selvages, they must be joined evenly
together; but if raw edges, one must be turned down once, and the
other laid upon it, but a few threads from the top: in this case, it
must be felled afterwards.


631. _Stitching._--The work must be as even as possible. Turn down a
piece to stitch to; draw a thread to stitch upon, twelve or fourteen
threads from the edge. Being thus prepared, you take _two threads
back_, and so bring the needle out from _under two before_. Proceed
in this manner to the end of the row; and, in joining a fresh piece
of thread, take care to pass the needle between the edges, and so
bring it out where the last stitch is finished.


632. _Gathering._--You begin by taking the article to be gathered,
and dividing it into halves, and then into quarters, putting on
pins to make the divisions. The piece to which you are intending to
gather it, must be gathered about twelve threads from the top, taking
three threads on the needle, and leaving four; and so proceeding
alternately until one quarter is gathered. Fasten the thread by
twisting it round a pin; stroke the gathers, so that they lie evenly
and neatly, with a strong needle or pin. You then proceed as before,
until all the gathers are gathered. Then take out the pins, and
regulate the gathers of each quarter so as to correspond with those
of the piece to which it is to be sewed. The gathers are then to be
fastened on, one at a time; and the stitches must be in a slanting
direction. The part to be gathered must be cut quite even before
commencing, or else it will be impossible to make the gathering look
well.


633. _Double Gathering, or Puffing._--This is sometimes employed in
setting on frills, and, when executed properly, has a pretty effect.
You first gather the top in the usual way; then, having stroked down
the gathers, you gather again under the first gathering, and of such
a depth as you wish the puffing to be. You then sew on the first
gathering to the gown, frock, &c., you design to trim, at a distance
corresponding with the width of the puffing, and the second gathering
sewed to the edge, so as to form a full hem. You may make a double
hem, if you please, by gathering three times instead of only twice;
and one of the hems may be straight, while the other is drawn to one
side a little. This requires much exactness in the execution, but, if
properly done, it gives a pleasing variety to the work.


634. _German Hemming._--Turn down both the raw edges once, taking
care so to do it as that both turns may be toward your person; you
then lay one below the other, so as that the smooth edge of the
nearest does not touch the other, but lies just beneath it. The lower
one is then to be hemmed or felled to the piece against which you
have laid it, still holding it before you. You are next to open your
sleeve, or whatever else you have been employed upon, and, laying the
upper fold over the lower, fell it down, and the work is done.


635. _Binding._--Various kinds of work have binding set on to them,
in preference to hemming them, or working them in herring-bone
stitch. Flannel is generally bound, sometimes with a thin tape, made
for the purpose, and called "flannel binding." It is also common to
bind flannel with sarcenet riband. The binding is so put on as to
show but little over the edge on the right side, where it is hemmed
down neatly; on the other side it is run on with small stitches.


636. _Braiding._--Silk braid looks pretty, and is used for a variety
of purposes. In putting it on, it is best to sew it with silk drawn
out of the braid, as it is a better match, and the stitches will be
less perceived.


637. _Marking._--It is of essential importance that clothes should
be marked and numbered. This is often done with ink; but as some,
persons like to mark with silk, we shall describe the stitch. Two
threads are to be taken each way of the cloth, and the needle must
be passed three ways, in order that the stitch may be complete. The
first is aslant from the person, toward the right hand; the second is
downward toward you; and the third is the reverse of the first--that
is, aslant from you, toward the left hand. The needle is to be
brought out at the corner of the stitch nearest to that you are about
to make. The shapes of the letters or figures can be learned from an
inspection of any common sampler.


638. _Piping._--This is much used in ornamenting children's and other
dresses. It is made by enclosing a card of the proper thickness in a
strip of silk cut crosswise, and must be put on as evenly as possible.


639. _Plaiting._--The plaits must be as even as it is possible to
place them one against another. In double plaiting, they lie both
ways, and meet in the middle.


640. _To keep Thread, Sewing-silk, &c._--In making up linen, thread
is much preferable to cotton. Sewing-silk should be folded up neatly
in wash-leather, and colored threads and cotton in paper, as the air
and light are likely to injure them. Buttons, hooks and eyes, and
all metal implements, when not in use, should be kept folded up, as
exposure to the air not only tarnishes them, but is likely to injure
them in a variety of ways.


INSTRUCTIONS IN THE PREPARATION OF HOUSE-LINEN.

641. _Bedroom Linen._--This includes quilts, blankets, sheets,
pillow-covers, towels, table-covers and pincushion-covers.


642. _Quilts._--These are of various sizes and qualities, in
accordance with the purposes to which they are applied. They are
generally made of the outside material and the lining--wadding
or flannel being laid between--and stitched in diamonds or other
devices. The stitches must pass through the whole, and the edges of
the quilt are to be secured by a braiding or binding proper for the
purpose. They are best done in a frame.


643. _Blankets._--These are generally bought, ready-prepared for
use. It is sometimes necessary to work over the edges at the end,
which should be done with scarlet worsted, in a very wide kind of
button-hole stitch.


644. _Sheets._--These are made of fine linen, coarse linen, and
cotton-sheeting. Linen sheets are best for summer, and many prefer
them at all seasons. If the sheeting is not sufficiently wide for the
bed, two lengths must be sewed together. The seam up the middle must
be sewed as neatly as possible, and the ends may be either hemmed or
seamed: the latter is the preferable method. Sheets and all bedroom
linen should be marked and numbered; to add the date of the year is
also an advantage.


645. _Pillow-cases._--These are made of fine or coarse linen, and
sometimes of cotton cloth. The material should be of such a width
as to correspond with the length of the pillow. One yard and three
nails, doubled and seamed up, is the proper size. One end is seamed
up, and the other hemmed with a broad hem, and furnished with strings
or buttons as is deemed most convenient. We think the preferable way
of making pillow covers is to procure a material of a sufficient
width, when doubled, to admit the pillow. The selvages are then sewed
together, and the ends seamed and hemmed as before directed. Bolster
covers are made in nearly the same manner, only that a round patch is
let into one end, and a tape for a slot is run into the other.


646. _Towels._--Towels are made of diaper or huckaback, of a quality
adapted to the uses to which they are applicable. They should be one
yard long and about ten or twelve nails wide. The best are bought
single, and are fringed at the ends. Others are neatly hemmed, and
sometimes have a tape-loop attached to them, by which they can be
suspended against a wall.


647. _Dressing Table Covers._--These may be made of any material
that is proper for the purpose. Fine diaper generally, but sometimes
dimity and muslin are employed, or the table is covered with a
kind of Marseilles quilting, which is prepared expressly for the
purpose. Sometimes the covers are merely hemmed round, but they
look much neater if fringed, or bordered with a moderately full
frill. Sometimes a worked border is set on. All depends upon taste
and fancy. A neat and genteel appearance, in accordance with the
furniture of the apartment, should be especially regarded.


648. _Pincushion Covers._--A large pincushion, having two covers
belonging to it, should belong to each toilet table. The covers are
merely a bag into which the cushion is slipped. They may be either
worked or plain; always of white muslin or linen cambric; and should
have small tassels at each corner, and a frill or fringe all round.


649. _Table Linen._--This department of plain needlework comprises
table-cloths, dinner-napkins, and large and small tray napkins.


650. _Table-cloths._--These may be purchased either singly, or cut
from the piece. In the latter case the ends should be hemmed as
neatly as possible, and marked and numbered.


651. _Dinner Napkins._--These are of various materials; if cut from
the piece, they must be hemmed at the ends the same as table-cloths.
Large and small tray napkins and knife-box cloths, are made in the
same manner. The hemming of all these should be extremely neat. It
is a pretty and light employment for very young ladies; little girls
even should do this work, and thus early acquire habits of neatness
and usefulness, which will prove useful in after life.


652. _Housemaid and Kitchen Linen._--In the housemaid's department,
paint cloths, old and soft, and chamber bottle cloths, fine and
soft, are to be provided. To these must be added dusters, flannels
for scouring, chamber bucket-cloths, which last should be of a kind
and color different from everything else. All these must be neatly
hemmed and run, or seamed if necessary. Nothing, in a well-directed
family, should bear the impress of neglect, or be suffered to assume
an untidy appearance.


653. _Clothes-bags._--Clothes-bags of different sizes should also be
provided, of two yards in length, and either one breadth doubled, in
which case only one seam will be required, or of two breadths, which
makes the bags more suitable for large articles of clothing. These
bags are to be seamed up neatly at the bottom, and to have strings
which will draw run in at the top. The best material is canvas, or
strong unbleached linen. In the kitchen department, you will require
both table and dresser cloths, which should be made as neat as
possible.


654. _Mending._--In cutting up an old garment, it is a great
advantage to have a portion of the same material new. For this
reason, when purchasing cloth for a new garment, buy a little
additional quantity for repairs, and take care that it is kept for
that purpose, and not wasted in any way.

It was formerly the custom with all careful women, when buying a
dress, to buy an extra yard for new sleeving. To be sure a gown was
then more expensive than now; but it should be remembered, that if
six gowns can be bought for the money that used to buy three or
four, they cannot be made up in the same time at home, nor for the
same money if put out. Any tolerably handy woman, though she may not
choose to venture upon cutting out and making a new dress, may repair
one, having the old pattern and lining to work by, and the very
creases and stitches for a guide. If, by so doing, a gown will wear
half as long again, the price of a little over-quantity at first, and
a few hours employed on the work, are well bestowed.

The same remark applies to the garments of men. Unless these be
bought ready-made, the pieces should be carefully laid by for
repairs. In children's clothing, these alterations and repairs are
often needed.


655. _Patchwork._--Many improvements may be made in patchwork that
most of us have been accustomed to see for years. It is a kind
of needlework very interesting for little girls; and old ladies
frequently resort to this for amusement by their cosy firesides,
during the long winter evenings, when tired of reading.


656. _Of the Materials._--_The materials_ necessary for patchwork
are such portions of wearing apparel, whether cloth, calico, linen,
holland, silk, velvet, cotton, &c., such as would otherwise be thrown
away, or saved for the rag-man. No matter how small the portion,
every scrap has its use. The next necessary article is some stiff
paper--old envelopes, backs of letters, brown paper, &c., to form the
shapes; lastly, the design--shapes, cut out in _tin_, and the designs
themselves.

The materials should be arranged into shades and qualities. After
having been cut to required sizes, and the irregularities of the
edges neatly repaired, they are ready for use.


657. _Patterns._--The _patterns_ may be varied _ad infinitum_, if the
person possesses the least talent for drawing; but for the sake of
those who may not be able to do this, we submit the following simple
and effective designs to be executed in any of the materials.


658. _To make the Patchwork._--The pattern should be placed before
the person, and the shades being selected, the several pieces
arranged so as to form the design, and the edges then neatly sewed
together; after which they are either pressed, or ironed, the papers
removed, and the lining proceeded with.

When silks and velvets are employed, it improves the effect to
combine the two, taking the silk for the lighter, and the velvet for
the darker shades; or, as in figures 5, 6, 8, and 11, to have silk
for the lighter shades, and two velvets for the others, shaded to
pattern.

A very pretty effect is produced by combining Holland and calico,
silk and satin, silk or satin and velvet, and rough and fine cloth.

_The various articles_ that may be manufactured, are quilts in
colored and white calico; anti-macassars in silks; ottomans in silks
and velvets, silks and cloth; table-covers in silks and cloth;
cushions for chairs or sofas, in silks; and mats, rugs, and carpets,
in cloth.

We have seen many useful white quilts for children's cots, made
from the cuttings remaining after shirt making. The centre might be
of Holland and calico, pattern 10, fig. 5, and then fig. 7, with
a fringe border, knitted. Numerous rugs might be made in colored
cloths, to look equal to carpets, for poor people, and wear much
better.

[Illustration: Figs. 1-6]

[Illustration: Figs. 7-11]

[Illustration: AN ELEGANT MUSNUD FOR A SOFA.]


659. _The materials_ required, consist of braid of various hues,
purse-silk of different shades, bed-ticking, feathers, down,
horse-hair, or worsted ends; the design-shapes, some cord for
pipings, the various colored cloths, silks, &c., and a curtain-ring
or a piece of cardboard for the centre.

_The size_ varies from fifteen to eighteen inches in diameter,
according to taste.

_The colors_ cannot be fixed, because it depends much upon taste,
but we have made the elegant musnud given p. 160, by placing cobalt
as the right hand centre-piece, then (proceeding from right to left)
white, salmon, purple, crimson, amber, pea-green, and madder-brown.
The handles are amber, the side brown, and the back purple.

It is better, in combining or arranging all colors for patchwork,
to keep as near as possible to the harmony observed by Nature;
therefore, to attend to the same order displayed in the case of a
refracted ray of light, viz., violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow,
orange, and red, adding, in this case, white, to represent the ray in
its natural state before refraction or dispersion of its colors took
place.

_To make the Musnud._--Cut two circles of fifteen or eighteen inches
in diameter in bed-ticking, and a strip of the same material three
inches deep, and thrice the length of the diameter; make into the
usual shape, and stuff with feathers, down, horse-hair, or the refuse
ends of worsted. Cut out two handles as in the design, of the same
material, and sew them on. Rub the _inside_ of the bed-ticking with a
lump of bees'-wax previous to making up the musnud, (as it prevents
the feathers and dust working through,) and tack the centre down.

Cut out the back in a piece of purple moreen, or any other material,
then cut four strips of brown cashmere, each three inches deep and
five long, join these neatly together to form the side, and braid the
following design in bright yellow on it, finishing the veining of the
leaves in chain-stitch with purse silk.

The wedge-shaped pieces should now be cut out in the various colored
cloths, &c., and braided as in the design, four being braided with
floral, and four with fancy designs. Each piece should measure nine
inches in length and six inches and three-quarters in breadth at the
outer part. The centre piece should measure two inches and a quarter
in diameter, be of a dark brown, and braided with a bright yellow
star.

_To cover the musnud_, sew the pieces neatly together, and cover the
joining with narrow strips of dark brown cloth, braided in bright
yellow to resemble a chain; cover the curtain ring, or circular piece
of card-board, with the central piece, and sew it on.

Now affix the pipings cut crossways out of brown cloth, and cover the
handles with amber-colored material, braid and pipe them; join the
back to the side with an intervening piping, slip the musnud into the
lower covering, and sew on the top.

In _braiding_ the patterns, the purple ground should have a scarlet
braid.

The brown, yellow.

In finishing the braiding, it will require the occasional aid of some
chain-stitch work in purse-silk, for the veinings of the leaves,
stamens, tendrils, &c.

_Note._--This particularity in arranging _colors and patterns_
may seem very trifling to some people; but rules are required in
all finished work. Habits of attention are an important part of
education, or, rather, are indispensable to a well-trained mind.
Therefore, we say, be particular to do all you undertake in a proper
manner; and if you are making _patchwork_, aim at perfection of its
kind. But never fall in love with your own creations, and worship
them as idols; and never neglect common household duties for fanciful
needlework. Remember, also, that _reading_ is more refining to the
taste than finger-work; and that to _read well_ is a much higher
accomplishment than any mere skill in counting stitches and matching
shades.


FOR SILK EMBROIDERY.

660. _Useful Patterns for working in Cord, Silk, and Muslin._--These
are what are called "endless patterns," to be worked in cord.

These fashions for embroidering the borders of cloaks, pelisses,
sacques, &c., on merino, or fine cassimere, or flannel, with silk,
are to be wrought with coarse or fine silk, or with a mixture of the
two, according to the degree of intricacy or simplicity in the parts
of the pattern.

We give two designs; from these, other combinations may be made, to
suit the fancy of the embroiderer.

[Illustration: (Two 'Endless Patterns' for borders of cloaks etc.)]


SILK EMBROIDERY, ANOTHER WAY.

_See p. 164._

661.--In these patterns for embroidering the borders of cloaks,
pelisses, sacques, &c., on merino, or fine cassimere, or flannel,
with silk, are to be wrought with coarse or fine silk, or with
a mixture of the two, according to the degree of intricacy or
simplicity in the parts of the pattern.

These patterns are equally serviceable for muslin, or any other
material.

No. 1, to be worked on fine flannel or merino, with a mixture of
coarse and fine silk.

No. 2, to be worked on flannel or merino, with fine silk.

[Illustration: No. 1. No. 2.]


662. _Sewing on glazed Calico._--By passing a cake of white soap
a few times over a piece of glazed calico, or any other stiffened
material, the needle will penetrate as easily as through any other
kind of work.


663. _To make Glass Jars to look like China._--Paint figures to
resemble those in China jars, and cut them out so that none of the
white paper remains; then, with thick gum-arabic water, fasten them
to the inside of the glass. Let them stand to dry for twenty-four
hours. Then wipe off with a wet cloth the gum-arabic on the glass
between the prints, and let them stand a few hours longer. Then take
white wax and flake white, ground very fine, and melt them together.
With a japanning-brush go over all the glass above the prints: done
in this manner, they will hold water. For a blue ground, use white
wax and Prussian blue, ground fine; for red, wax and vermilion, or
carmine; for green, wax and verdigris; for chocolate, wax and burnt
umber.


664. _To give Plaster Figures the appearance of Marble._--Put into a
well-glazed earthen vessel, four pounds of clear water and one ounce
of pure curd soap, grated; add one ounce of white bees'-wax, cut into
thin slices. Let them dissolve over a slow fire. As soon as the whole
is incorporated, it is fit for use. Let the figure be thoroughly
dried, then suspend it by a twine, and dip it once into the varnish;
upon taking it out, the varnish will appear to have been absorbed; in
two minutes' time, stir the compost, and dip it a second time, which
is generally sufficient. Cover it carefully from the dust for a week;
then, with a soft muslin rag, rub the figure gently, when a most
brilliant gloss will be produced.


665. _To improve Plaster Casts._--Brush them over with size, and,
when dry, varnish them with copal varnish.


666. _To dissolve Putty._--To remove old putty from glazed frames,
brush over it pearlash and slaked stone-burnt lime, mixed to the
thickness of paint.


ANGLO-JAPANESE WORK.

[Illustration: (Example of Anglo-Japanese work; a jewellry box).]

667. This elegant and most useful work is very easy in its execution,
while the means and appliances for its performance are within the
reach of every one. The materials are simply yellow withered leaves,
a little dissolved gum, black paint, and copal varnish: while the
objects to be ornamented may be a box, cupboard, table, &c., in fact,
any old furniture that has been rendered unsightly by age or long
use. A plain deal box, costing about a shilling, may by this process,
so far as the outside goes, be converted into a costly-looking
dressing-case. An exquisite chess-board may be made, with very
little skill, from a square piece of deal. Flower-pots, pole-screens,
folding and hand-screens, may all be decorated in this manner, and,
from untidy-looking lumber, may be converted into articles of use,
elegance, and beauty; and this at a merely nominal expense, _taste_
being the chief requisite in the production. The employment forms one
of the most agreeable and pleasing amusements for summer days and
winter evenings; in the summer, giving a purpose and an aim to many a
joyous ramble, for in these desultory walks a goodly collection may
be made of Nature's ambered jewels.

All leaves that are small, of uneven shape, and serrated at the
edges, are well adapted for this work. As they are collected, they
should be placed between sheets of paper, but not close together,
then pressed by placing a board on the top, with a weight upon it, to
express any moisture that may be therein, and to render them quite
flat. In the autumn, the sweet-scented geranium-leaves, the maple,
thorn, chrysanthemum, wild parsley, fern, and a multitude of others,
may be found, including the smaller sycamore and small vine-leaves;
but they must all have turned of a golden hue, or reddish-tinted
yellow. Prepare the article to be ornamented, thus:--First rub the
surface smoothly down with sand-paper; then coat it over with black
paint, which can be procured, ready-mixed, at any oil-shop; when dry,
rub it down smoothly with pumice-stone, and give two more coats.
When these are dry, arrange the leaves on the surface in a careless
manner, but not in groups, unless preferred. Butterflies drawn, and
colored yellow with gamboge, or cut out of prints, and then colored,
may be stuck at different spaces with advantage; but there should
be no other color than the brown and different tints of yellow in
the leaves. Gum the wrong side of the leaf, and press it on in its
appointed place with a hard tuft of wadding, fastened tightly up in a
piece of silk. Continue this with the whole of the leaves; and when
they are all gummed on, dissolve some gelatine or isinglass in warm
water, and while rather warm, brush it well over every portion of the
work, using the brush entirely one way, not forward and back. When
dry, give the work three coats of the best copal varnish, letting the
article remain a day or two between each coat. This process, though
elaborate in detail, is easily and even quickly done, and will well
repay any trouble that may be taken, as, with a renewed coat of
varnish every five or six years, it will remain, as long as the wood
will hold together, as bright in appearance as when first finished.


668. _Sealing Wax Varnish._--For fancy work, this has, of late years,
been much used, and if well applied, and the wax good, will be a very
good imitation of India Japan. The method of making the varnish or
japan is very easy, being simply reducing the wax to a coarse powder,
and pouring the best spirits of wine on it in a bottle, and letting
it gradually dissolve without heat, shaking the bottle occasionally
till it is all dissolved. A two-ounce stick of the best wax will
be enough for a quarter of a pint of spirits. Recollect that much
depends on the goodness of the sealing-wax; and that you may vary the
color of the varnish by using different colored wax. As this varnish
dries very quickly, it should not be made until it is wanted for use.


669. _Method of preparing the Composition used for Colored Drawings
and Prints, so as to make them resemble Paint in Oil._--Take of
Canada Balsam, one ounce; spirit of turpentine, two ounces; mix them
together. Before this composition is applied, the drawing or print
should be sized with a solution of isinglass in water, and when dry,
apply the varnish with a camel-hair brush.


670. _Oil and Water Gilding._--In oil gilding, the frame is first
covered with a composition of whiting and parchment size, then with
a coating of "_oil gold size_," (a kind of varnish,) upon which when
nearly dry, gold leaf is applied.


671. _In Water Gilding_, a size mixed with _water_ is used. Parts
of the frame are burnished, other parts left _dead_. This is the
most beautiful and expensive style of gilding, but it does not bear
washing as oil gilding does.

["The Carver and Gilder," published by Knight, furnishes much useful
information on this subject.]


672. _To mount Prints or Maps._--Upon a table, floor, or board,
stretch a piece of calico or smooth canvas, by first fixing it with
tacks along one side, then straining it tightly with one hand, and
driving the tacks with the other: nail the remaining edges, leaving
no wrinkles on the surface. Paste the back of the print or map, fold
it together, and let it remain until the paper is _soaked_, then open
it, and place it evenly on the canvas, cover it with a sheet of clean
paper, and beginning in the middle, rub it down carefully with the
hand, going from the centre all round to the edges, until all the air
is excluded, and the paper adheres closely to the canvas. When quite
dry, with a large camel-hair brush lay on a coating of parchment
size, repeating this when dry: then varnish with mastic varnish.
Parchment size is made by boiling parchment cuttings in water, until
it forms a jelly when cold. Mastic varnish may be procured at oil and
color-shops.


673. _New Camera Lucida._--Sir John Robinson devised, a few years
since, a cheap and easily-used camera lucida, applicable to the
delineation of flowers and other small objects. A piece of plate
glass is made to stand in a vertical position by means of a support.
It rests on a table covered with white paper, and the object is
placed on the paper on one side of the glass. On looking down from
that side of the glass diagonally, an image of the object is seen on
the paper on the other side, and a drawing of it can be readily taken.


674. _Varnish for Oil Pictures._--According to the number of your
pictures, take the whites of the same number of eggs, and an equal
number of pieces of sugar-candy, the size of a hazel-nut, dissolved,
and mix it with a tea-spoonful of brandy; beat the whites of your
eggs to a froth, and let it settle; take the clear, put it to your
brandy and sugar, mix them well together, and varnish over your
pictures with it.

This is much better than any other varnish, as it is easily washed
off when your pictures want cleaning again.


675. _To take Impressions of Butterflies' Wings._--Lay the wings
gently on paper, wet with gum arabic water, and nearly dry; a copy
will be left when the wing is removed, but inferior in beauty to the
wing itself. It is better to gum the wings themselves on paper, and
paint the body of the fly in its natural position.


676. _To preserve the Eggs of Birds._--First clean them of their
contents. This may be done with the larger eggs by making a hole
on one side large enough to admit a quill, and shaking out the
contents. Then wash them well with a solution of camphor, not too
strong, or it will make them brittle. When dry, fasten them with gum
on the side in which the hole was made to a piece of card board,
and write the name under each. As the colors of many of them are
perishable, to preserve them give them a slight coating of varnish.
The best varnish for this purpose is isinglass dissolved in gin. In
cleaning the smaller eggs, make a hole at each end, a little to one
side, and blow them. The camphor solution need not be used.


677. _To make Artificial Coral._--Melt together four parts of yellow
resin and one part of vermilion. Dip twigs, cinders or stones in
this, and when dry they will resemble coral.


678. _An Excellent Pen-Wiper for Steel Pens._--Fill a short,
wide-mouthed vial with shot, the smaller the better. Whenever it is
necessary to clean the pen, rub it up and down in the shot. This
is much more effectual than cloth wipers, and the shot will last a
life-time.


679. _To preserve Steel Pens._--Metallic pens may be preserved from
rusting by throwing into the bottle containing the ink a few nails,
or broken pieces of steel pens, if not varnished. The corrosive
action of the acid which the ink contains is expended on the iron so
introduced, and will not therefore affect the pen.


680. _Black Paper for drawing Patterns._--Mix and smooth lamp-black
and sweet oil; with a bit of flannel cover a sheet or two of large
writing-paper with this mixture; then dab the paper dry with a bit of
fine linen, and keep it by for using in the following manner:--Put
the black side on another sheet of paper, and fasten the corners
together with small pins. Lay on the back of the black paper the
pattern to be drawn, and go over it with the point of a steel pencil;
the black paper will then leave the impression of the pattern on the
under sheet, on which you must draw it with ink.

If you draw patterns on cloth or muslin, do it with a pen dipped in a
bit of stone blue, a bit of sugar, and a little water, mixed smooth
in a teacup, in which it will be always ready for use, if fresh: wet
to a due consistence as wanted.


681. _To make Transparent Paper for Drawing._--Tracing paper is
readily made by taking a sheet of very thin silk, or other paper,
and rubbing it over gently with some soft substance, filled with a
mixture of equal parts of drying oil, and oil of turpentine, which,
being suspended and dried, will be fit for use in a few days; or
it may be had at any of the shops. Lay this transparent material
on the print or drawing to be transferred, and, with a sharp black
lead pencil, trace the outlines exactly as they appear through the
paper. If more permanent or stronger lines are wished, ink mixed with
ox-gall will be necessary to make it adhere to the oiled surface.


682. _Transparent Paper._--Wet some fine paper with a feather on both
sides with a thin layer of rosin, dissolved in spirits of wine. It
will then serve to put over anything you wish to take off.


683. _Method of using Tracing Paper._--Take a piece of the size
required, and rub it equally over, on one side, with black lead,
reduced to a powder, till the surface will not readily soil a finger;
then lay a piece of white paper with the leaded side of this paper
next to it, under the print, and securing them firmly together with
pins at the corners, proceed to take the outlines with a blunt point,
and some degree of pressure, which will transfer the lead to the
clean paper precisely in the direction the point passed over the
print; this may be corrected with the black lead pencil, and cleansed
of any soil by the crumbs of stale bread.


684. _Method of setting Pencil Drawings._--A solution of alum water,
in which the drawing is to be dipped (not washed on with a brush, as
it would smear) will answer the purpose extremely well.


685. _Wash for preserving Drawings made with Black Lead Pencil, or
with hard Black Chalk._--A thin wash of isinglass will fix either
black lead or hard black chalk, &c., so as to prevent their rubbing
out; or the same effect may be produced by the simple application
of skimmed milk. The best way of using the latter, is, to lay the
drawing flat upon the surface of the milk, and then, taking it up
expeditiously, to hang it by the one corner till it drains and dries.
The milk must be perfectly free from cream, or it will grease the
paper.


686. _To make Red Sealing Wax._--To every ounce of shell-lac
take half an ounce each of resin and vermilion, all reduced to a
fine powder. Melt them over a moderate fire; and when thoroughly
incorporated and sufficiently cool, form the composition into what
are called sticks. On account of the dearness of shell-lac, seed-lac
is usually substituted. A more ordinary sort, but sufficiently good
for most occasions, may be made by mixing equal parts of resin and
shell-lac with two parts of red lead and one of vermilion. In a still
commoner sort, the vermilion is often entirely omitted.


MARKING INK.

687. Mix in six drachms of distilled water, two drachms of
sub-nitrate of silver, and two drachms of gum-arabic. For the
mordant, mix with four ounces of water, half an ounce of gum-arabic,
and half an ounce of sub-carbonate of soda. The article to be marked
should first be wetted with the mordant, and pressed smooth, and
should be thoroughly dried before it is written upon. The mark should
be exposed to the light for some time, to become black.


688. _Permanent Red Ink for marking Linen._--This useful preparation,
which was contrived by Dr. Smellie, of Edinburgh, who was originally
a printer in that city, may be used either with types, a hair pencil,
or even with a pen: Take half an ounce of vermillion, and a drachm of
salt of steel; let them be finely levigated with linseed oil, to the
thickness or limpidity required for the occasion. This has not only
a very good appearance, but will, it is said, be found perfectly to
resist the effects of acids, as well as of all alkaline leys. It may
be made of other colors, by substituting the proper articles instead
of vermillion.


689. _An Indelible Ink for marking Linen._--Pour a little aqua-fortis
into a cup, and add to it a small piece of pure silver; when the
effervescence ceases, filter the solution through a piece of
blotting-paper, and put it into a small phial; then add to it a
little gum-arabic and a little of the paint, called sap-green. After
the whole is perfectly combined it is then fit for use.


690. _To take out Writing._--When recently written, ink may be
completely removed by the oxymuriatic acid (concentrated and in
solution). The paper is to be washed over repeatedly with the acid;
but it will be necessary afterwards to wash it also with lime-water,
for the purpose of neutralizing any acid that may be left on the
paper, and which would considerably weaken it. But if the ink have
been _long_ written, it will have undergone such a change as to
prevent the preceding process from taking effect. It ought therefore
to be washed with liver of sulphur (sulphuret of ammonia), before the
oxymuriatic acid is applied. It may be washed with a hair pencil.


691. _To make Old Writing legible._--Take six bruised gall-nuts, and
put them to a pint of strong white wine; let it stand in the sun for
forty-eight hours. Dip a brush in it and wash the writing, and by the
color you will discover whether the mixture is strong enough of the
galls.


692. _Sympathetic Ink._--With a clean pen write on paper with a
solution of muriate of cobalt, so diluted with water, that the
writing when dry will be invisible. On gently warming the paper,
the writing will appear of a blue or greenish color, which will
disappear again when cool. A solution of muriate of copper forms a
yellow and sympathetic ink, and acetate of cobalt a rose or purple.
If a landscape be drawn representing a winter scene, the paper being
overlaid where the foliage should be with the green sympathetic ink,
then, on gently warming the drawing, it will represent summer. Sky
and water may be drawn with the blue, and standing corn with the
yellow ink.


693. _Blue Ink._--Dissolve a small quantity of indigo in a little
oil of vitriol, and add a sufficient quantity of water, in which
gum-arabic has been dissolved.


694. _Yellow Ink._--Dissolve gamboge in a solution of gum-arabic.


695. _Scarlet Ink._--Dissolve vermilion in a solution of gum-arabic.


696. _Red Ink._--Boil one ounce of Brazil wood in half-a-pint of
water for a quarter of an hour; add to the decoction three drachms of
gum-arabic, and an ounce of alum.


697. _Green Ink._--Verdigris, two ounces; cream of tartar, one ounce;
water, half a pint; boil till reduced to one half, and filter.


698. _Excellent Writing Ink._--Boil eight ounces of galls in coarse
powder, and four ounces of logwood in thin chips, in twelve pints of
rain water, for one hour: strain the liquor, and add four ounces of
green copperas, three ounces of powdered gum-arabic, one ounce of
blue vitriol, and one ounce of rock candy, powdered; stir the mixture
until the whole be dissolved, then let it subside twenty-four hours;
decant it very steadily, and put it into stone bottles for use.

A clove kept in it will prevent it from becoming mouldy.


699. _Black Ink._--To make one gallon, take of pounded blue nutgalls
one pound; copperas, six ounces; gum common, four ounces; soft water,
one gallon. Dissolve the gum separately by the fire, and add, after
it has boiled a quarter of an hour. Let the ink be boiled over a slow
fire three-quarters of an hour.


700. _To make Ink._--To four ounces of bruised galls, allow two of
copperas and two of gum-arabic; put the galls into a large bottle,
with three pints of rain water; and, in three or four days, dissolve
the gum in hot water, and add it with the copperas. Shake the bottle
frequently for some days. A few cloves may be put into the bottle, to
prevent the ink from moulding.


701. _Ink Powder._--Take five ounces of the cleanest nutgalls, bruise
them, and sift the powder very fine; then add one ounce of white
copperas, two ounces of Roman vitriol, gum-arabic, half an ounce;
pound and sift them very fine. An ounce of this powder will make a
pint of very black ink.


702. _To prevent Ink from moulding._--Half-a-dozen cloves, bruised
with gum-arabic, are to be put into the bottle. If a very fine ink is
wanted, white wine, or vinegar and water, should be used, instead of
water alone.


703. _To make Indian Ink._--Put six lighted wicks into a dish of oil;
hang an iron or tin concave cover over it, so as to receive all the
smoke; when there is a sufficient quantity of soot settled to the
cover, then take it off gently with a feather upon a sheet of paper,
and mix it up with gum-tragacanth to a proper consistence.

N. B. The clearest oil makes the finest soot, consequently the best
ink.


704. _Indian Ink._--Take horse-beans, burn them till they are
perfectly black, grind them to a fine powder, and, with weak
gum-arabic water make it into a paste, and form it into long square
cakes.


705. _To make China Ink._--Take dried black horse-beans, burn them
to a powder, mix them up with gum-arabic water, and bring them to a
mass; press it well, and let it dry.


MANAGEMENT OF CANARY-BIRDS.

706. Canary-birds, that are kept tame, will breed three or four
times in the year. Towards the middle of March, begin to match
your birds, putting one cock and hen into the breeding-cage, which
should be large, so that the birds may have room to fly and exercise
themselves. Place two boxes or little basket-nests in the cage, for
the hen to lay her eggs in, because she will sometimes have a second
brood before the first are fit to fly, leaving the care of them
to the father-bird, who feeds and brings them up with much care,
while she is sitting on her second nest of eggs. Whilst your birds
are pairing, feed them, besides the usual seeds, with the yolks of
hard-boiled eggs, bread that has been moistened, or, if hard, grated
fine, and pounded almond-meat. When the young birds are to be fed,
give the same soft food, and be sure have it fresh every day; also
furnish the old birds with fresh greens, such as cabbage-lettuce,
chick weed, groundsel, &c. Give fresh water every day, and a clean
bath every morning. The hen lays, commonly, four or five eggs, and
sits fourteen days. When the young are hatched, leave them to the
care of the old birds, to nurse and bring up till they can fly and
feed themselves, which is, usually, in about twenty days.


707. _Gold and Silver Fish._--Pure rain-water is best to keep these
delicate little creatures in; they should never be put into water
that has been boiled. It is a good plan to throw them in the morning
into a large bowl of fresh water, with a few bread-crumbs in it, and
let them remain there an hour. Then put them in pure fresh water in
their vases. The water should be changed every day. If the bread
remains in the water to become sour, it will kill the fish.


708. _Improvement in the management of Bees._--The improvement is
that of having double skeps or hives, the one on the top of the
other. When the lower skep is filled with honey, it is to be removed
after the bees are admitted (through a passage which is made to be
opened) into the upper skep; into this skep food must be put, and
the bees will remain there, and go on with their work in it. When
it is filled with honey, the former skep, with food in it, may be
replaced, and the bees again admitted into it. The full skep is then
to be taken away. This change of the skeps must always be made about
midsummer; and by thus annually removing the full one, more honey
will be collected than is usual, and the bees will not be destroyed.


709. _To preserve Flowers in Water._--Mix a little carbonate of soda
with the water, and it will preserve the flowers for a fortnight.
Common saltpetre is also a good preservative.


710. _To preserve Flowers in Winter._--Take the latest buds just as
they are ready to open; cut them off, leaving the stem about three
inches long; cover the end of the stem with melted sealing-wax, and
when the buds are a little withered, wrap them separately in paper,
and place them in a dry box. When you wish to have the buds blossom,
cut off the sealed end, and put them into water in which a little
saltpetre has been dissolved. In twelve hours the buds will be open.


711. _To take Impressions of Leaves._--Dissolve in a saucerful
of water about a tea-spoonful of bichromate of potash. Pass the
paper to be used through this solution, and, while wet, press the
leaves lightly upon it, and expose it to the sun when it is shining
brightly. When perfectly dry, remove the leaves, and a _fac-simile_
will be left in a light lemon shade, while the rest of the paper will
be of a dark brown.


712. _To preserve the natural color in Petals of dried
Flowers._--Immerse the petals for some minutes in alcohol. The
colors will fade at first, but in a short time they will resume,
permanently, their natural tint.


713. _To revive faded Flowers._--Nearly all flowers may be revived,
when faded, by placing one-third of the stalks in hot water; when it
has become cold, the flowers will be re-set and fresh; the end of the
stalks should then be cut off and the flowers put into cold water.

Or, dip flowers in spirits of wine for twenty minutes; at first they
will appear to have entirely faded; but in drying, the colors will
revive, and the fragrance be prolonged.

A few grains of salt put into the water with flowers, will keep them
from fading.

Sand may be substituted for water.

Flowers may be preserved throughout the winter, if plucked when they
are half-blown, dipped, stalks downward, in equal quantities of water
and verjuice mixed, and sprinkled with bay salt. They should be kept
in an earthenware vessel, closely covered, and in a warm place; when,
in mid-winter, if the flowers be taken out, washed in cold water, and
held before a gentle fire, they will open as if in their first bloom.


714. _To paint Cloth, Cambric, Sarcenet, &c., so as to render them
Transparent._--Grind to a fine powder three pounds of clear white
resin, and put it into two pounds of good nut-oil, to which a strong
drying quality has been given: set the mixture over a moderate fire,
and keep stirring it till all the resin is dissolved; then put in two
pounds of the best Venice turpentine, and keep stirring the whole
well together; and if the cloth or cambric be thoroughly varnished
on both sides with this mixture, it will be quite transparent. In
this operation, the surface upon which the varnish is to be applied,
must be stretched tight and made fast during the application. This
mode of rendering cloth, &c. transparent, is excellently adapted
for window-blinds. The varnish will likewise admit of any design in
oil-colors being executed upon it as a transparency.


715. _Varnish to prevent the rays of the Sun from passing through
the glasses of Windows._--Pulverize gum-tragacanth, and put it to
dissolve for twenty-four hours in whites of eggs, well beaten. Lay a
coat of this on the panes of your windows, with a soft brush, and let
it dry.


716. _To stain paper or parchment Yellow._--Paper may be stained of
a beautiful yellow, by the tincture of turmeric, formed by infusing
an ounce or more of the root, powdered, in a pint of spirit of
wine. This, by the addition of water, may be made to give any tint
of yellow, from the lightest straw to the full color called French
yellow, and will be equal in brightness even to the best dyed silks.
If yellow is wanted of a warmer or redder cast, anotta, or dragon's
blood, must be added to the tincture.


717. _To stain paper or parchment Crimson._--A very fine crimson
stain may be given to paper, by a tincture of the Indian lake, which
may be made by infusing the lake some days in spirit of wine, and
then pouring off the tincture from the dregs.


718. _To stain paper or parchment Green._--Paper or parchment may
be stained green by the solution of verdigris in vinegar, or by the
crystals of verdigris dissolved in water; also by the solution of
copper in aquafortis, made by adding filings of copper, gradually, to
the aquafortis, till no ebullition ensues; or, the spirit of salt may
be substituted for the aquafortis.


HOUSE-PLANTS.

719. Plants require much light and fresh air; a light garret is
an excellent place for them; even those which will not bear the
outer air, must have the air of the room frequently freshened by
ventilation, to preserve them in health. They should not stand in a
draught of air. In frosty weather the windows should be kept close,
and at night, the shutters. In sharp frost, instead of stirring out
the fire, leave a little on retiring to rest, with a guard before it
for security.

As a general rule, never water plants while the sun shines. The time
should be in the evening, or early in the morning, unless it be
confined to watering the roots, in which case transplanted plants,
and others in a growing state, may be watered at any time; and, if
they are shaded from the sun, they may also be watered over the tops.

The water, if taken from a well or cold spring, should be exposed one
day to the sun, otherwise it will chill the plants. A small quantity
only should be applied at a time, that it may have the effect of
refreshing rain.

Rain water is the best for plants; next river water; hard spring
water is the worst.


720. _To air Plants, and ventilate Rooms wherein they are
contained._--Plants should have air, every day in the year, to make
them grow well; but this matter, in sitting-rooms, will not of course
be regulated for their sakes, especially in the colder seasons.
Wherever placed, however, some attention should be paid to airing
and ventilating the rooms regularly, by opening the windows, and
occasionally the doors, in order to excite a free circulation of air.
This should be done to a certain extent every day, according to the
state of the weather, except in the time of severe frost, when it
would not be advisable to admit external air. But at such times, if
bad weather be of long continuance, the rooms may be ventilated by
means of the doors, and by exciting a current of air in the passages,
or other parts of the house.

In very severe frost, or in a continuation of damp weather, moderate
fires should be made for the sake of the plants, if placed in rooms
not occupied. The window shutters should also be closed at night.


721. _Hints to Lovers of Flowers._--A most beautiful and
easily-attained show of evergreens may be had by a very simple plan,
which has been found to answer remarkably well on a small scale. If
geranium branches taken from luxuriant and healthy trees, just before
the winter sets in, be cut as for slips, and immersed in soap-water,
they will, after drooping for a few days, shed their leaves, put
forth fresh ones; and continue in the finest vigor all the winter. By
placing a number of bottles thus filled in a flower-basket, with moss
to conceal the bottles, a show of evergreens is easily insured for
the whole season. They require no fresh water.


722. _Bulbous Roots._--The time to put bulbous roots, as the
hyacinth, narcissus, and jonquil, into glasses filled with water,
is from September to November, and the earliest will begin blooming
about Christmas. The glasses should be blue, as that color best
suits the roots; put in water enough to cover the bulb one third; let
the water be soft, change it once a week, and put in a pinch of salt
at each change. Keep the glasses in a moderately warm place, and near
to the light.

They should have fresh water about once in ten days. The leaves
should not be plucked off before they decay, or the root will be
deprived of much of its natural nourishment. When they have decayed,
the bulbs should be taken up, laid in the shade to dry, cleaned,
and kept in sand in a dry place till wanted to replant. The offsets
should be taken off, and planted according to size.


723. _Geraniums._--The shrubby kinds are commonly increased by
cuttings, which, if planted in June or July, and placed in the shade,
will take root in five weeks. They are the most tender, and when
placed out of doors, should be defended from strong winds, and be so
placed as to enjoy the sun till eleven o'clock in the morning. As the
shrubby kinds grow fast, so as to fill the pots with their roots, and
push them through the opening at the bottom, they should be moved
every two or three weeks in summer, and the fresh roots cut off. They
should also be newly potted twice in the summer: once about a month
after they are placed abroad, and again towards the end of August.
When this is done, all the roots outside the earth should be pared
off, and as much of the old earth removed as can be done without
injuring the plants. They should then be planted in a larger pot;
some fresh earth should first be laid at the bottom, and on that the
plant should be placed, so that the old earth adhering to it may be
about an inch below the rim of the pot; it should next be filled up,
and the pot slightly shaken: the earth must then be gently pressed
down at the top, leaving a little space for water to be given without
running over the rim; finally, the plant should be liberally watered,
and the stem fastened to a stake, to prevent the wind displacing the
roots before they are newly fixed.

As the branches grow, and new leaves are formed at the top of them,
the lower ones may die, and should be plucked off every week.

Geranium slips should be planted in May, June, or July, taking only
the last year's shoots, from which the leaves must be stripped. When
planted, give them water, and place them in the shade: when they have
taken root, let them have the sun in the morning. The slips chosen
for cutting should not be such as bear flowers; and they should be
inserted about half their length in the earth.

Geraniums, except the shrubby kinds, require shelter from frost only,
and should have free air admitted to them, when the weather is not
very severe. In sultry weather, they should all be watered liberally
every morning, except some few of a succulent nature, which must be
watered sparingly; the latter may be known by plucking a leaf from
them. Geraniums may be watered three times a week, when not frosty,
in winter.


724. _Artificial Mould for Plants._--Russian potash, one drachm;
water, four ounces; one tea-spoonful of oil. Mix the whole well
together. Seeds put in this mixture will grow for a time at least, as
well as if planted in common soil.


725. _To take Impressions of Plants._--Take half a sheet of fine
paper, and cover the surface with sweet oil; let it stand a minute or
two, then rub off the superficial oil, and hang the paper in the air;
when almost dry, move the paper slowly over the flame of a candle or
lamp, till it is perfectly black; lay on it the plant or leaf, place
a piece of clean paper over, and rub it equally with the fingers for
half a minute. Then place the plant on the paper or scrap-book where
it is desired to have the impression, cover it with blotting paper,
and, on repeating the rubbing, a representation of the plant will
appear equal to the finest engraving. The same piece of black paper
will serve for a number of impressions.


726. _Another Process._--Burn a common cork till reduced to powder;
mix with it a tea-spoonful of olive oil, making a thick paste. Paint
the veiny side of the leaf with a camel-hair brush, and lay it, with
the painted side down, on a piece of clean paper. Submit it to a
strong and even pressure (it is best placed in a book and put under
a weight,) for about fifteen minutes; remove the leaf carefully, and
there will be an exact representation left. Very veiny leaves are
best. These impressions are almost equal to engravings. Collections
of them might be made interesting, by having narratives of rambles
written under them, stating the features of the spot from which the
leaves were gathered.


DIRECTIONS FOR WINDOW-PLANTS.

727. _Through January and February._--The summer
flowering-plants--such as geraniums, fuchsias, &c.--should be
kept as nearly dormant as possible, allowing just enough water to
prevent flagging, and all the light that can be spared from the more
interesting division of winter-bloomers; of the latter class, such
things as china-roses, cinerarias, hyacinths and other bulbs, will
now be in an active state, some of them flowering, and others about
to do so; these must be liberally treated with water. Mignonnette,
however, must be excepted. Above everything, keep the leaves clean;
they are few in number, and feeble in action, but they have yet an
important function to perform; and, without they are kept as healthy
as possible, the plant cannot begin a new growth with the vigor it is
desirable it should possess. The pots should be occasionally scrubbed
with clean water, but do not paint or otherwise fill up their pores,
for air is as essential to the roots as to the foliage, and no
inconsiderable quantity finds its way to them through the sides of
a clean pot. With the same view, the surface of the soil should be
frequently stirred; the process keeps it open, prevents the growth
of moss and weeds, and imparts a better appearance. The water given
should always be rather warmer than the atmosphere of the room; and
rain-water, slightly heated, is the best.


728. _March._--The whole of these plants will be benefited by
re-potting. Geraniums and fuchsias delight in light rich earth;
calceolarias (lady's slipper), roses, the chimney campanula, and
others which grow as freely, should have a larger proportion of loam;
whatever manure is added for either, must be thoroughly decayed. The
pots should be perfectly clean, inside and out; take care to have
each properly drained with pieces of slate or potsherds, in size and
number proportionate to the pot; the larger ones require from one to
three inches of this drainage. In removing the plants, take off the
matted fibres with a knife; loosen the soil moderately, and, when
in its place, press the new earth tightly round it; give a gentle
watering, and keep them rather warm for a few days; afterwards they
should have plenty of air on fine days, and water as they become
dry. Station each where it may receive the direct light, and pay
particular attention to keeping the leaves clean.


729. _April._--On the attention given through this month, most of
the success for the season will depend. The plants are now, or ought
to be, in a very active growth, which must be encouraged by moderate
and regular supplies of water and air. Pinch out the points of the
growing shoots of such plants as are required to become bushy; this
is commonly called "stopping," and, with such things as geraniums,
fuchsias, myrtles, and others of similar habit, is very necessary.
Cactuses must have a sunny position, and plenty of water. Mignonette
in pots and boxes, will require thinning, so as to leave the plants
about three inches apart. The several kinds of China roses form
beautiful window ornaments, and occasion but little trouble: at this
time they are coming rapidly into bloom. Look for and destroy insects
of all sorts, every few days; they multiply so fast, that without
constant attention, the plants are soon overrun. The leaves must be
kept clear of dust, and the branches properly tied out to sticks,
that the centre may receive its due share of light.


730. _May._--As the influence of the advancing season and power of
the sun begins to be felt, the management of window-plants becomes
easier, and must be gradually changed from the careful nursing
hitherto necessary, to a course of almost constant exposure that will
render the plants robust and hardy.


731. _June._--From this time till the middle of September, plants in
pots may be placed out of doors; they are, in fact, better in the
open air, than in the heated atmosphere of a room. Except in stormy
seasons, they may stand out night and day, in some slightly-sheltered
spot. As a precaution against the effects of strong sun-light, it is
advisable to place the pots in which the plants grow, into others a
size or two larger, and fill the space between them with moss; for
many plants, having slender fibrous roots, are easily injured by the
heat of the sun scorching them through the pot. Such as stand upon
the ground, should have a thick layer of ashes spread for them, to
prevent worms from creeping in. Wash their leaves frequently with
clean water, and remove insects. When any portion of the collection
is kept in-doors, a window facing the north or west is to be
preferred, and plenty of air must be admitted. As soon as geraniums
have done flowering, they should be cut down, re-potted, and the
tops struck, to form plants for next year. This is a good time to
propagate nearly all kinds of pot-plants; most of them strike with
freedom on a warm border in sandy soil, covered with a glass, and
kept moderately watered. Myrtles, and some other hard-wooded plants,
may be struck by placing the cuttings, for about half their length,
into a phial filled with water. Seeds must be sown in light earth, as
soon as they are thoroughly ripe.


732. _July._--Fuchsias, in a growing state, should receive a final
potting: place them in large, perfectly clean pots, using a mixture
of turfy loam and peat, or leaf mould; train the shoots, and water
liberally. Geraniums that have done flowering, should also be
re-potted; they require a lighter soil, such as one part turfy loam,
two parts leaf mould, and the remainder sand: cut down the tops to
within two or three joints of their base, and set the plants in a
warm sheltered place, to induce them to grow again: the cuttings may
be struck in a frame or hand-glass, and will form nice plants by next
season. Cactuses should be kept in a sunny situation, and have plenty
of water. Camellias which have made their season's growth, may be set
out of doors, to ripen. China roses may be re-potted, if requisite,
and are easily propagated now, in the same manner as geraniums.
Separate and pot violets, for early spring-flowering; keep them and
similar plants, as the cyclamen, &c., in the most shaded place out
of doors. The whole tribe of lilies are handsome window-plants, and
some of the dwarf Japan kinds peculiarly adapted for the purpose;
they are just beginning to bloom, and should have plenty of air
and water. The Chinese primrose may be sown in pots of light rich
earth, and, if covered with a piece of glass, will vegetate quickly,
and form nice plants by the autumn. Propagation of such plants as
myrtles, sweet-scented verbena, or lemon plant, chimney campanulas,
&c., is now easy, and should be attended to without loss of time.
Water all the plants with regularity, and in quantities proportionate
to their size and the state of the weather; but particularly keep the
leaves clean, by frequent sprinklings of clean water and sponging.
The essential points in the culture of every plant, is to allow the
functions of both roots and leaves to be carried on in a proper
manner--the first, by placing them in suitable soil, and the latter,
by clearing them of all impurities.


733. _August._--Needs only a continuance of the attention recommended
last month. Let them have plenty of air, light, and water, with a
slight protection from the mid-day sun; propagation may still be
carried on successfully. Pot the bella-donna and Guernsey lilies, to
flower in autumn; and the young plants of the Chinese primrose should
be placed three or four together, in pots of light rich earth, and
nursed, to forward their growth as far as possible.


734. _September._--The geraniums cut down in July, will now be
pushing forth a number of young shoots; these must be encouraged as
much as possible, by keeping the plants in a sheltered place, and
duly supplying them with moisture. When the shoots have grown two
or three joints, they should be stopped by picking out the points,
in order to render them bushy. The cuttings made at the same period
will now be fit for potting; put each one separately into a small
pot, and treat them as the older plants. Young plants of myrtles, and
indeed all others that are properly rooted, should receive similar
treatment. Cinerarias are among the most useful of spring-flowering
plants, and if a few seedlings can be obtained now, they will make
nice plants, with the treatment recommended for geraniums. Cyclamen,
Guernsey, or Bella-donna lilies, and Lachenalias should be re-potted;
the first and last are very handsome spring-flowering plants, and
the lilies are exceedingly beautiful through October and November;
all of them are of reasonable price, and well worth adding to the
usual stock of window plants. Fill a few pots with fibrous loam,
and sprinkle them over with mignonette, nemophila insignis, and
intermediate stocks; leave the pots in the open air, and thin the
plants to about three or four of the strongest, as soon as they can
be handled. Pot off china primroses, putting one plant into each
three-inch pot. Encourage the chrysanthemums in pots with alternate
applications of manure water, repot the strongest, and allow them all
plenty of room, or the leaves are liable to injury. Set all plants as
they grow out of flower in the sun, to ripen their wood, but do not
let them suffer from drought.


735. _October._--The principal endeavor among this class of plants
must now be directed towards getting them into a state of rest;
water very cautiously, giving air whenever the weather will permit,
and at all times let them enjoy whatever sunshine occurs, and
uninterrupted light. Now that the respiring power of the leaves
becomes lessened, it is most essential that every particle of dust be
carefully removed; the surface of the soil in which they grow should
be occasionally stirred, to keep it clean and porous, and even the
outside of the pots should be washed, for the same end. If it be
necessary to stand the pots in saucers, when the plants are watered,
the waste which runs through should be regularly emptied away, as
much mischief ensues from allowing the roots to remain in the water.


736. _November._--The directions given last month must be closely
observed throughout the remainder of the year. The great object being
to keep the majority of the plants in a resting condition, that
they may start the more vigorously on the return of genial weather.
Winter, or early spring-flowering plants, such as violets, China
primroses, cyclamen, and roses, are, however, to be excepted from
this rule; they are now in an active state, and must be encouraged
accordingly. As soon as hyacinths and other bulbs, placed in pots
last month, have become pretty well rooted, they may be brought into
the window, and being placed near the light, will grow rapidly;
those in glasses should have the water changed once or twice a week.
Chrysanthemums in pots require plenty of water while in bloom, and
when their beauty declines, the plants should be taken to a warm part
of the garden, or placed in a light shed, to complete their maturity.


737. _December._--If the geraniums or other plants taken from the
borders in autumn, exhibit signs of rottenness, remove the decaying
parts, and dust the wounds with quick-lime or sulphur, keep them
comparatively dry and as much exposed to the sun as possible; air is
essential whenever it can be admitted. Remember previous directions
regarding the employment of pans; they are a most fatal source of
disease and death when left with water in them. Water sparingly, keep
the leaves clean, and wait patiently. Flowering plants must still
form the exception, as mentioned last month.


738. _To manage a Watch._--_First_: Wind your watch as nearly as
possible at the same hour every day. _Secondly_: Be careful that your
key is in good condition, as there is much danger of injuring the
machine when the key is worn or cracked; there are more mainsprings
and chains broken through a jerk in winding, than from any other
cause, which injury will, sooner or later, be the result, if the
key be in bad order. _Thirdly_: As all metals contract by cold,
and expand by heat, it must be manifest, that to keep the watch
as nearly as possible at one temperature, is a necessary piece of
attention. _Fourthly_: Keep the watch as constantly as possible
in one position--that is, if it hangs by day, let it hang by night
against something soft. _Fifthly_: the hands of a pocket-chronometer
or duplex watch, should never be set backwards; in other watches this
is a matter of no consequence. _Sixthly_: The glass should never
be opened in watches that set and regulate at the back. One or two
other directions more, it is of vital importance that you bear in
mind. On regulating a watch, should it be fast, move the regulator
a trifle towards the slow, and if going slow, do the reverse; you
cannot move the regulator too slightly or too gently at a time,
and the only inconvenience that can arise is, that you may have to
perform the duty more than once. On the contrary, if you move the
regulator too much at a time you will be as far, if not farther
than ever, from attaining your object; so that you may repeat the
movement until quite tired and disappointed--stoutly blaming both
watch and watch-maker, while the fault is entirely your own. Again,
you cannot be too careful in respect of the nature and condition of
your watch-pocket; see that it be made of some material that is soft
and pliant--such as wash-leather, which is the best; and, also, that
there be no flue or nap that may be torn off when taking the watch
out of the pocket. Cleanliness, too, is as needful here as in the key
before winding; for if there be dust or dirt in either instance, it
will, you may rely upon it, work its way into the watch, as well as
wear away the engine turning of the case.



PART IV.

DOMESTIC ECONOMY, AND OTHER MATTERS WORTH KNOWING.

  _Of the different kinds of Tea, Coffee, &c.--Preserving Fruits,
  Flowers, &c.--Care of Fires--and other Hints._


TEAS.

739.--The names of the different kinds of tea, relate to the time of
their being gathered, or to some peculiarity in their manufacture.
It is a general rule, that all tea is fine in proportion to the
tenderness and immaturity of the leaves. The quality and value of the
different kinds diminish as they are gathered later in the season.

BLACK TEAS.--As soon as the leaf-bud begins to expand, it is gathered
to make _Pekoe_. A few days' later growth produces black-leaved
Pekoe. The next picking is called _Souchong_; as the leaves grow
larger and more mature, they form _Congou_; and the last picking is
_Bohea_.

_Bohea_ is called by the Chinese, _Ta-cha_ (large tea), on account of
the maturity and size of the leaves; it contains a larger proportion
of woody fibre than other teas, and its infusion is of a darker color
and coarser flavor.

_Congou_, the next higher kind, is named from a corruption of the
Chinese _Koong-foa_ (great care, or assiduity). This forms the bulk
of the black tea imported, and is mostly valued for its strength.

_Souchong--Seaou-choong_ (small, scarce sort), is the finest of the
stronger black tea, with a leaf that is generally entire and curly.
It is much esteemed for its fragrance and fine flavor.

_Pekoe_ is a corruption of the Canton name, _Pak-ho_ (white down),
being the first sprouts of the leaf-buds; they are covered with a
white silky down. It is a delicate tea, rather deficient in strength,
and is principally used for flavoring other teas.


740. GREEN TEAS.--The following are the principal kinds: _Twankay_,
_Hyson-Skin_, _Hyson_, _Gunpowder_, and _Young Hyson_.

_Young Hyson_ is a delicate young leaf, called in the original
language, _Yu-tsien_ (before the rains), because gathered in the
early spring.

_Hyson_, from the Chinese word _He-tchune_, which means, flourishing
spring. This fine tea is gathered early in the season, and prepared
with great care and labor. Each leaf is picked separately, and nipped
off above the footstalk, and every separate leaf is rolled in the
hand. It is much esteemed for its flavor.

_Gunpowder Tea_ is only Hyson rolled and rounded, to give it the
_granular_ appearance whence it derives its name. The Chinese call it
_Choo-cha_ (pearl tea).

_Hyson-Skin_ is so named from the Chinese term, in which connection
_skin_ means the refuse, or inferior portion. In preparing Hyson,
all leaves that are of a coarse yellow, or imperfectly twisted
appearance, are separated, and sold as _skin-tea_, at an inferior
price.

_Twankay_ is the last picking of green tea, and the leaf is not
rolled or twisted as much as the dearer descriptions. There is
altogether less trouble bestowed on the preparation.


COFFEE.

741.--The infusion or decoction of the roasted seeds of the
coffee-berry, when not too strong, is a wholesome, exhilarating, and
strengthening beverage; and, when mixed with a large proportion of
milk, is a proper article of diet for literary and sedentary people.
It is especially suited to persons advanced in years. People who are
bilious and liable to costiveness, should abstain from it. When drank
very strong, it proves stimulating and heating in a considerable
degree, creating thirst and producing watchfulness. By an abusive
indulgence in this drink, the organs of digestion are impaired, the
appetite is destroyed, nutrition is impeded, and emaciation, general
debility, paralytic affections, and nervous fever, are brought on.


742. _Proper method of making Toast and Water, and the advantages
resulting therefrom._--Take a slice of fine and stale loaf-bread,
cut very thin--as thin as toast is ever cut--and let it be carefully
toasted on both sides, until it be _completely browned all over_, but
nowise blackened or burned in any way. Put this into a common deep
stone or china jug, and pour over it, from the tea-kettle, as much
clean boiling water as you wish to make into drink. Much depends on
the water being actually in a boiling state. Cover the jug with a
saucer or plate, and let the drink cool until it be quite cold; it is
then fit to be used. The fresher it is made the better, and of course
the more agreeable. The above will be found a pleasant, light, and
highly-diuretic drink. It is peculiarly grateful to the stomach, and
excellent for carrying off the effects of any excess in drinking.
It is also a most excellent drink at meals, and may be used in the
summer-time, if more agreeable to the drinker.


743. _Baked Milk._--Put half a gallon of milk into a jar, and tie it
down with writing-paper. Let it stand in a moderately warm oven about
eight or ten hours. It will then be of the consistence of cream. It
is used by persons who are weak or consumptive.


744. _Substitute for Cream, in Tea or Coffee._--Beat the white of an
egg to a froth, put to it a very small lump of butter, and mix well.
Then turn the coffee to it gradually, so that it may not curdle. If
perfectly done, it will be an excellent substitute for cream. For
tea, omit the butter, using only the egg. This might be of great use
at sea, as eggs can be preserved fresh in various ways.


745. _Economical use of Nutmegs._--If a person begin to grate a
nutmeg at the _stalk_ end, it will prove hollow throughout; whereas
the _same_ nutmeg, grated from the _other_ end, would have proved
sound and solid to the last. This circumstance may thus be accounted
for:--The centre of a nutmeg consists of a number of fibres issuing
from the stalk, and its continuation through the centre of the fruit;
the other ends of which fibres, though closely surrounded and pressed
by the fruit, do not adhere to it. When the stalk is grated away,
those fibres, having lost their hold, gradually drop out, and the
nutmeg appears hollow: as more of the stalk is grated away, others
drop out in succession, and the hollow continues through the whole
nut. By beginning at the contrary end, the fibres above-mentioned are
grated off at their core end, with the surrounding fruit, and do not
drop out and cause a hole.


746. _To ascertain the quality of Nutmegs._--Oil of nutmegs being of
great value, it is often extracted from the nuts which are exposed
to sale, and which are thereby rendered of very little value. To
ascertain the quality of nutmegs, force a pin into them; and if good,
however dry they may appear, the oil will be seen oozing out all
round the pin.


747. _Essence of Nutmeg._--Is made by dissolving one ounce of the
essential oil in a pint of rectified spirits. It is an expensive but
invaluable mode of flavoring, in the arts of the cook or confectioner.


748. _To make Essence of Celery._--Soak for a fortnight half an ounce
of the seeds of celery in one gill of brandy. A few drops will flavor
a pint of soup or broth equal to a head of celery.


749. _Tincture of Lemon-peel._--Fill a wide-mouthed pint bottle half
full of brandy; when a lemon is used, pare off the rind very thin,
and put it into the brandy. In two weeks the spirit will be strongly
impregnated with the flavor of the lemon.


750. _To test the purity of Spirits._--See if the liquor will burn
away entirely: or, place a hollow ivory-ball in it; the deeper the
ball sinks, the lighter the liquor, and consequently more spirituous.


751. _To purify Olive Oil._--Turn the oil into a crock or bottle, and
pour in a quantity of pure water; shake the vessel vigorously, and
let it stand two hours. The mucilaginous matter which is the cause of
rancidity, will be separated from the oil, and remain in the water.
The oil can be decanted, and re-bottled for use.


752. _To preserve Eggs._--The most simple and easy mode of preserving
eggs, is to rub the outside of the shell, as soon as gathered from
the nest, with a little butter, or any other grease that is not
fetid. By filling up the pores of the shell, the evaporation of
the liquid part of the egg is prevented; and either by that means,
or by excluding the external air, which Fourcroy supposes destroys
the milkiness which most people are fond of in new-laid eggs, that
milkiness will be preserved for mouths, as perfect as when the egg
was taken from the nest.


753. _Cream preserved in Long Voyages._--Mix with a quantity of fresh
rich cream half its weight of white sugar in powder; stir the whole
well together, and preserve it in bottles well corked. In this state
it is ready to mix with tea or coffee, and has continued in good
condition during a voyage to America.


754. _To preserve Hazel Nuts in great perfection for many
months._--Hazel nuts may be kept a long time in full kernel by
burying them in earthen pots, well closed, a foot or two in the
ground. They keep best in gravelly or sandy places.


755. _Easy Method of preserving Animal Food._--Fresh meat may be kept
for nine or ten days perfectly sweet and good, in the heat of summer,
by lightly covering the same with bran, and hanging it in a high
and windy room; a cupboard full of small holes, or a wire safe, is
recommended to be placed in such a room, to keep away the flies.


756. _To purify Lemon-juice._--Add one ounce of pulverized, well
burnt charcoal, to a quart of lemon-juice; after standing twelve
hours, filter the juice through white blotting-paper; it will keep
good several years in a cellar, in a bottle, well corked; a thick
crust will form beneath the cork, and the mucilage will fall to the
bottom.


757. _To detect Copper in Liquids._--Spirit of hartshorn mixed with
them, turns them blue. Therefore tea is not dried on copper, as an
infusion of it is not turned blue by this mixture. Cider, being
passed through brass pots, is detected by this experiment.--_Dr.
Moyes' Lectures._


758. _To detect the Mixture of Arsenic._--A solution of blue vitriol
dropped into any liquid in which arsenic has been put, will turn it
green.


759. _To test Mushrooms._--Rub the upper skin with a gold ring or any
piece of gold: the part rubbed will turn yellow if it is a _poisonous
fungus_.


760. _To prepare Salt._--Set a lump of salt in a plate before the
fire, and when dry, pound it in a mortar, or rub two pieces of salt
together; it will then be free from lumps, and in very fine powder.


761. _To make Cheap and Good Vinegar._--To eight gallons of clear
rain water, add three quarts of molasses; turn the mixture into a
clean tight cask, shake it well two or three times, and add three
spoonsful of good yeast, or two yeast cakes. Place the cask in
a warm place, and in ten or fifteen days, add a sheet of common
wrapping-paper, smeared with molasses, and torn into narrow strips,
and you will have good vinegar. The paper is necessary to form the
"mother," or life of the liquor.


762. _To prevent Mouldiness._--The best preventive is any of the
essential oils, as the oil of lavender, cloves, peppermint, &c.
Russia leather, which is scented with the tar of the birch-tree, is
not subject to mouldiness, and books bound in it will even prevent
mouldiness in other books bound in calf, near which they happen to
lie.

Aromatic seeds are not subject to mould, and gingerbread, or cakes
containing caraway seeds are far less liable to mouldiness than plain
bread. Children have been poisoned by eating mouldy bread.


763. _To keep Fruits._--To preserve fruits, you must keep them in
a room rather above the ground floor, sheltered alike from the sun
and damp; it is even prudent, in order to avoid opening the windows,
to let out the humid exhalations of the fruit, to have a stove in
the room, and light a fire in it now and then. The decaying fruit
should be carefully removed. Cherries, grapes, &c., are kept sound
by hanging them to threads, and then inclosing them in new boxes or
barrels; these are closed as tightly as possible, and deposited in a
dry place. Some preserve them by laying them in sawdust or bran.


764. _To preserve Apples._--Dry a glazed jar perfectly well, put a
few pebbles in the bottom; fill the jar with apples, and cover it
with a bit of wood made to fit exactly; and over that, put a little
fresh mortar. The pebbles attract the damp of the apples. The mortar
draws the air from the jar, and leaves the apples free from its
pressure, which, together with the principle of putrefaction which
the air contains, are the causes of decay. Apples, kept thus, have
been found quite sound, fair, and juicy, in July.


765. _To keep Potatoes from frost._--If you have not a convenient
store-place for them, dig a trench three or four feet deep, into
which they are to be laid as they are taken up, and then covered with
the earth taken out of the trench, raised up in the middle like the
roof of a house, and covered with straw, to carry off the rain. They
will be thus preserved from the frost, and can be taken up as they
are wanted.


766. _To dry Corn for winter use._--Sweet corn is the best. Husk it.
Have a pot of boiling water--put in your corn and let it boil three
minutes--then cut it from the cobs and put it in pans in a warm oven.
It must be stirred frequently; when perfectly dry put it away in
bags. When wanted for use, soak it all night, next day boil it an
hour with a little salt; before it is dished stir in flour, pepper,
and butter.


767. _To preserve Aromatic and other Herbs._--The boxes and drawers
in which vegetable matters are kept should not impart to them any
smell or taste; and more certainly to avoid this, they should be
lined with paper. Such as are volatile, of a delicate texture, or
subject to suffer from insects, must be kept in well covered glasses.
Fruits and oily seeds, which are apt to become rancid, must be kept
in a cool and dry, but by no means in a warm or moist place.


768. _To dry Herbs._--Dry the gathered crop, thinly spread out, and
shaded from the sun; tie the herbs in small bundles, and keep them
compactly pressed down and covered with white paper. Or, after drying
them, put each sort into a small box, and by means of boards, of the
size of the interior length and width of the box, and a screw-press,
press the herbs into cakes, or little trusses. These should be
afterwards carefully wrapped up in paper, and be kept in a dry place,
when they will retain their aroma as perfectly as when they were put
into the press, for, at least, three years. By the common mode of
hanging up herbs in loose bundles, the odor soon escapes.


769. _To dry Chamomile Flowers._--Pull them, from time to time, as
they are produced; for the plants continue to blossom in succession
for several months. When gathered, dry them gradually, partly in the
sun, and partly in the shade, by being spread upon a mat or sheet,
removed out of the sun in the heat of the day, and placed in it
mornings and evenings.

_Lavender Flowers_ should also be dried as chamomiles.

_Marigold Flowers_, dried, improve broths and soups, however much
they may have got into disuse.


770. _Winter Herbs._--The best time for gathering herbs for winter
use is when they are in blossom. If left till they are in seed, the
strength goes to the seed. They are best picked from the stocks,
dried quickly (but not burnt), before the fire, and rubbed into
powder, then bottled.


771. _Galvanism a Protector of Trees._--A German journal states that
the application of galvanism has been made in Austria for preserving
trees and plants from the ravages of insects. The process is very
simple, consisting only in placing two rings, one of copper, the
other of zinc, attached together, around the tree or plant. Any
insect that touches the copper receives an electric shock, which
kills it or causes it to fall to the ground.


772. _Moss on Trees._--The following is an excellent application to
the scraped trunk to prevent the growth of moss, and destroy eggs of
insects. One gallon of soft soap, one pound of flour of sulphur, and
one quart of salt, to be well stirred together and put on with a hard
brush.


773. _To destroy Caterpillars in Gooseberry Trees._--Gather dust
from any turnpike road, and shake it well among the trees, and the
caterpillars will immediately fall to the ground. It is an excellent
plan to dust the trees twice or three times a week, as it will
effectually prevent the lodgment of caterpillars.


774. _A neat method of Grafting._--Prepare the stock and the graft in
the same way as for grafting with clay in the common way. Then take
a long slip of India-rubber, three-quarters of an inch broad, and
about the thickness of a shilling. Tie one end of this elastic riband
with a thread, well prepared by rubbing with shoemakers' wax, to the
stock, a little below where it is cut for being joined to the graft;
then make the joint as neatly as possible, and wrap it round with the
riband, taking due care to keep the India-rubber fully stretched,
and to make it overlap at each turn fully one-half of the breadth of
the previous round, till the whole is covered, then tie the top with
a thread in the same manner as at the bottom, and the operation is
finished. After grafting the trees in the manner described, nothing
is done to them till they are completely set, when the India-rubber
slips are taken off to be ready again for the next year. When opened
up, there is scarcely any appearance of a joint, and altogether they
are much neater than when done with clay.


775. _To Kill Vermin on Plants._--Tobacco water is much used for the
above purposes; it is made by pouring a gallon of boiling water upon
a pound of tobacco leaves, and straining it in twenty minutes.

Or, syringe the plants with this mixture: put into a jar five gallons
of spring water and four ounces of chloride of lime, to which add
four ounces of vitriol; when the lime is precipitated, pour off the
clear solution, and keep it air-tight.

Or, mix coal tar and water, and sprinkle it over the infected plants.


776. _To Propagate Plants._--It may be received as a general
principle, that all plants which produce shoots may be propagated by
cuttings; though some plants are much more difficult to propagate
in this manner than others. Generally speaking, all the soft-wooded
plants which have abundance of sap, such as geraniums, fuchsias,
petunias, and verbenas, strike root readily. The usual mode for
striking cuttings is to put them in fine sand, and to cover them
with a bell-glass. Some cuttings which are difficult to strike are
directed to have bottom heat; that is, the pots in which they are
planted should be plunged into a hot-bed, that the stimulus afforded
by the heat may induce the cuttings to throw out roots.


777. _Plants watered by being placed in Dishes, improper._--The
practice of placing flats or saucers under plants, and feeding them
by the roots, that is, pouring the water continually into these
dishes, and never on the earth at top, is highly improper. The water
should always be poured on the surface of the earth, that it may
filter completely through it, to the benefit and refreshment of the
fibres.


778. _When to plant Annual and Perennial Flowers._--Many kinds of
annuals and perennials, sown in March and the beginning of April,
will be fit for transplanting about the end of May, and may either be
planted in patches about borders, or in beds, as fancy shall direct.
Of these, the kinds improved by transplanting are, amaranthuses,
China asters, columbines, French and African marigolds, fox-gloves,
hollyhocks, India pinks, love-lies-bleeding, mallows, mignonette,
prince's feather, scabious, stocks, sun-flowers, sweet-williams,
wall-flowers, and others. They should be planted out in a showery
time, if possible, or otherwise be frequently watered, till they have
struck root.


779. _To preserve Flower Seeds._--Those who are curious about saving
flower-seeds must attend to them in the month of August. Many kinds
will begin to ripen apace, and should be carefully sticked and
supported, to prevent them from being shaken by high winds, and so
partly lost. Others should be defended from much wet; such as asters,
marigolds, and generally those of the class Syngenesia; as from the
construction of their flowers they are apt to rot, and the seeds to
mould, in bad seasons. Whenever they are thought ripe, or indeed any
others, in wet weather, they should be removed to an airy shed or
loft, gradually dried, and rubbed or beat out at conveniency.


780. _Easy Method of discovering whether or not Seeds are
sufficiently ripe._--Seeds, when not sufficiently ripe, will swim,
but when arrived at full maturity, they will be found uniformly to
fall to the bottom; a fact that is said to hold equally true of all
seeds, from the cocoa-nut to the orchis.


HINTS TO FARMERS.

781. There are some things that all farmers ought to know.

Sheep put into fresh stubble are apt to be killed by eating too much
grain.

A bare pasture enriches not the soil, nor fattens the animals, nor
increases the wealth of the owner.

One animal well fed is of more value than two poorly kept.

The better animals can be fed, and the more comfortable they can be
kept, the more profitable they are--and all farmers work for profit.

Ground once well plowed is better than thrice poorly.

Bountiful crops are more profitable than poor ones. Make the soil
rich, pulverize it well, and keep it clean, and it generally will be
productive.

Weeds that grow unmolested around the fences, stumps, and stones,
scatter their seeds over the farm, and are very likely to increase.

Cows well fed in winter give more milk in summer. An ox that is in
good condition in the spring, will perform more labor, and stand the
heat of summer much better than one that is poor.

When you see the fence down, put it up: if it remains until
to-morrow, the cattle may get over.

What ought to be done to-day, do it; for to-morrow it may rain.

A strong horse will work all day without food, but keep him at it,
and he will not last long.

A rich soil will produce good crops without manure, but keep it at
it, and it will tire.

Farmers' sons had better learn to hold the plow, and feed the pigs,
than measure tape and count buttons.

Young ladies who have the good fortune to become farmers' wives will
find it more profitable to know how to make Johnny-cake, butter, and
cheese, than to play on the piano.

All who wish to be rich, must spend less than they earn.


MANAGEMENT OF A HORSE.

782. When a horse is brought in hot, loosen the girth, and allow the
saddle to remain on for five minutes. Let him be walked about in
summer, and, in the winter, be put directly in the stable.

A horse should not be permitted to drink cold water, whilst warm;
neither should the legs or feet of a horse be washed, until he gets
cold.

Horses prefer soft water, and it is best for them. If the water be
very hard and brackish, put a small piece of chalk into a pail of
water, some time before it is given to the horse.

Fourteen pounds of hay in one day, or one hundred pounds a week, with
three feeds of corn a day, are sufficient for a horse that is not
over-worked.

In travelling, after the principal feed, let a horse have not less
than two hours' rest, that his food may have time to digest.

After a hard day's work, give a horse about two gallons of gruel,
made with a quart of oatmeal, half a gallon of ale, half a quartern
of brandy, and the proper quantity of water. Wetted bran may be given
advantageously to lean horses.


783. _To dress a Horse._--On entering the stable, first give him
about a gallon of clean water in a clean pail; then shake up the
best litter under the manger, sweep out the stall, and clean out the
stable.

Whilst the horse is feeding, _dress_ him: first, curry him all over
with the currycomb, to loosen the dirt and dust on his skin; then
remove the dust with a whalebone brush; next, smooth and cleanse the
coat with a wisp of straw; and again use the brush and currycomb, to
take off what dust may remain; after which, whisk him again with a
damp lock of hay; and, finally, rub him down with a woollen or linen
cloth.

Then turn round the horse in the stall, brush his head well, and wisp
it clean and smooth with a damp lock of hay. Then wipe the dust and
filth from the inside of the ears with a damp sponge, and draw the
ears through the hands for a few minutes, until they are warm. Wash
out the sponge, and with it cleanse the dust, &c., from the eyes;
sponge the nostrils, and then rub the whole head with a cloth, in the
same manner as the body.

Next, turn the horse round into his proper situation, put on the
head-stall, and with a sponge wash the dirt and filth from under the
tail. Then, clean and lay the mane with a comb and water-brush, used
alternately with both hands; again wipe over the head and body, put
on the body-clothes, and fasten them with a surcingle.

Examine the heels, pick out the dirt from the feet, and wash the
heels with a brush and plenty of water. If the horse has bad feet,
they should be dressed and stuffed.

Lastly, shake hay into the rack; and then the horse will be
completely dressed.


784. _Horse Flies._--To prevent horses being teased with flies, take
two or three small handfuls of walnut leaves, upon which pour two or
three quarts of soft cold water; let it infuse one night; pour the
whole next morning into a kettle, and let it boil for a quarter of an
hour: when cold, it will be ready for use. Nothing more is required
than to moisten a sponge with the liquid, and, before the horse
goes out of the stable, let those parts which are most irritable be
smeared over with the liquor, namely, between and upon the ears, the
flank, &c.


785. _To milk Cows._--A cow should be milked _clean_. Not a drop, if
it can be avoided, should be left in the udder. It has been proved
that the half-pint that comes out _last_, has _twelve times_, I think
it is, as much butter in it, as the half-pint that comes out _first_.
The udder would seem to be a sort of milk-pan, in which the cream is
uppermost, and, of course, comes out last, seeing that the outlet is
at the bottom. But, besides this, if you do not milk clean, the cow
will give less and less milk, and will become dry much sooner than
she ought.--_Cobbett._


RAISING POULTRY.

786. There is scarcely any branch of farming operations more
productive than the raising of poultry for market; and yet, with a
large majority of our agriculturists, it is considered of but little
account. The proximity to a great market, and the facilities for
reaching it possessed by many of our farmers in this country, should
make the rearing of poultry an object of attention.


787. _To fatten Poultry._--Poultry should be fattened in coops, and
kept very clean. They should be furnished with gravel, but with no
water. Their only food, barley-meal, mixed so thin with water, as
to serve them for drink. Their thirst makes them eat more than they
would, in order to extract the water that is among the food. This
should not be put in troughs but laid upon a board, which should be
clean washed every time fresh food is put upon it. It is foul and
heated water which is the sole cause of the pip.


788. _Method of expeditiously fattening Chickens._--Take, for that
purpose, a quantity of rice, and grind or pound it into a fine flour;
mix sufficient for present use with milk and a little coarse sugar;
stir the whole well over the fire, till it makes a thick paste; and
feed the chickens, in the day-time only, by putting as much of it as
they can eat, but no more, into the troughs belonging to their coops.
It must be eaten while warm; and, if they have also beer to drink,
they will soon grow very fat. A mixture of oatmeal and treacle,
combined till it crumbles, is said to form a food for chickens, of
which they are so fond, and with which they thrive so rapidly, that
at the end of two months they become as large as the generality of
full-grown fowls fed in the common way.


789. _Method of fattening Geese and Ducks._--Geese, the more quiet
and undisturbed they are kept, the faster and better they fatten. Put
young geese into a place that is almost dark; feed them with ground
malt mixed with milk, and they will very soon, and at very little
expense, be fit to kill.

Another way is cheaper still:--Mix barley-meal, pretty thick, with
water, which they must constantly have by them, to eat as they
choose; in another part of the shed where they are, keep a pan with
some boiled oats and water, for them to resort to when they are
inclined to change their food. This variety is agreeable to them,
and they thrive apace, being so fattened at less expense than in any
other manner.


790. _Cobbett's method of fattening Geese._--Geese are raised by
_grazing_: but, to fat them, something more is required. Corn of some
sort, or boiled Swedish turnips, or carrots, or white cabbages, or
lettuces, make the best fatting. The modes that are resorted to by
the French for fatting geese, are, I hope, such as Englishmen will
never think of. He who can deliberately inflict _torture_ upon an
animal, in order to heighten the pleasure his palate is to receive in
eating it, is an abuser of the authority which God has given him, and
is, indeed, a tyrant in his heart. Who would think himself safe, if
at the _mercy_ of such a man?


791. _Swedish method of raising Turkeys._--As soon as the young
turkeys leave the shell, they are made to swallow one or two
pepper-corns, and returned to their mother. They are afterwards fed
with crumbs of bread and milk, and with common dock-leaves, chopped
small, and mixed with fresh buttermilk, and kept in a warm place or
sunshine, and guarded from the rain or from running among nettles.

Nothing, however, is more useful for them than the common garden
pepper-cress, or cut-leaved cress. They are very fond of it; and,
supplied with as much of it as they will eat, they will not be
delicate in their other food.


792. _To fatten Turkeys as they do in Norfolk._--The quality and size
of the Norfolk turkeys are superior to those of any other part of
England. They are fed almost entirely with buckwheat; and give them
with it boiled oats, boiled malt, or boiled barley, and sometimes,
for change, even boiled wheat and water.


793. _To fatten Ducks._--Feed them with the same food as the turkeys
or geese, and let them have a pan of water to dabble in.


794. _To make Hens lay perpetually._--Hens will lay perpetually, if
treated in the following manner:--Keep no roosters (cocks): give
the hens fresh meat, chopped up like sausage-meat, once a day; a
very small portion, say half an ounce a day to each hen, during the
winter, or from the time insects disappear in the fall till they
appear again in the spring. Never allow any eggs to remain in the
nest for what are called "nest eggs." When the roosters do not run
with the hens, and no nest eggs are left in the nest, the hens will
not cease laying after the production of twelve or fifteen eggs, as
they always do when roosters and nest eggs are allowed; but continue
laying perpetually. The only reason why hens do not lay in winter as
freely as in summer, is the want of animal food, which they get in
summer in abundance, in the form of insects.


HINTS FOR THE PRESERVATION OF HUMAN LIFE FROM FIRE.

795. _Cautions._--Sweep chimneys regularly; sweep frequently the
lower part of the chimney within reach; the kitchen chimney should be
swept once a month.


796. _Fires in Chimneys._--When a chimney or flue is on fire, throw
into the fire-place handfuls of flour of sulphur, which will destroy
the flame. Or, apply a wet blanket, or old carpet, to the throat of
the chimney, or over the front of the fire-place. A chimney-board, or
register-flap, will answer the same purpose, by stopping the draught
of air from below.

Beware of lights near combustibles; of children near fires and
lights; and do not trust them with candles. Do not leave clothes to
dry by the fire unwatched, either day or night; do not leave the
poker in the fire; see that all be safe before you retire to rest.


797. _Persons in Danger._--When _a fire_ happens, put it out in
its earliest stage; if suffered to extend itself, give the alarm.
Beware of opening doors, &c., to increase the fire by fresh air.
Muster the whole family, see that none are missing. First save lives,
then property. Think of the ways of escape; by the stairs, if no
better way--creep along a room where the fire is, and creep down
stairs backwards on hands and knees--(heated air ascends); come down
stairs with a pillow before your face, and a wet blanket round the
body, and hold your breath; or try the roof of the adjoining house.
Throw out of the window a feather bed, to leap upon in the last
extremity--fasten fire-escapes to the bed-posts first--send children
down by the sack fastened to a rope, taking care of the iron spikes
and area; then lower yourselves.


798. _Means of Extinction._--The safety of the inmates being
ascertained, the first object at a fire should be the exclusion of
all fresh and the confinement of all burnt air--_suffocate_ the
flames--and remember that burnt air is as great, if not a greater
enemy to fire than water. For both purposes, of excluding the
one air, and confining the other, all openings should be kept as
carefully closed as possible. The prevailing practice of _breaking
windows_ is peculiarly mischievous. The only excuse for this is the
admission of water; but if the firemen were provided with self
supporting ladders, (that need not lean against the wall,) they might
direct the water-hose through a single broken pane, with ten times
more accuracy than by their random squirting from the street. Water
should be made to beat out the fire by its impetus; sprinkling is
useless.


799. _Neighbors and Spectators._--When a fire happens, let every
respectable neighbor attend. Send instantly for engines, both of
the parish and of the insurance companies, and the parish and
other ladder and fire-escapes. Look for the nearest fireplug--send
instantly for policemen, and see they attend, and are active.


800. _Method of escape from Fire._--The following simple machine
ought always to be kept in an upper apartment. It is nothing more
than a shilling or eighteen-penny rope, one end of which should
always be made fast to something in the chamber, and at the other
end should be a noose to let down children or infirm persons, in
case of fire. Along the rope there should be several knots, to serve
as resting places for the hands and feet of the person who drops
down by it. No family occupying high houses should ever be without a
contrivance of this kind.


801. _To make Water more efficacious in extinguishing Fires._--Throw
into a pump, which contains fifty or sixty buckets of water, eight
or ten pounds of salt or pearlashes, and the water thus impregnated
will wonderfully accelerate the extinction of the most furious
conflagration. Muddy water is better than clear, and _can_ be
obtained when salt and ashes cannot.


802. _To extinguish Fires speedily._--Much mischief arises from want
of a little presence of mind on these alarming occasions. A small
quantity of water, well and immediately applied, will frequently
obviate great danger. The moment an alarm of fire is given, wet some
blankets well in a bucket of water, and spread them upon the floor
of the room where the fire is, and afterwards beat out the other
flames with a blanket thus wet. Two or three buckets of water thus
used early, will answer better than hundreds applied at a later
period. Linen thus wet will be useful, but will not answer so well as
woollen.


803. _To escape from or go into a House on fire._--Creep or crawl
with your face near the ground, and, although the room be full of
smoke to suffocation, yet near the floor the air is pure, and may
be breathed with safety. The best escape from upper windows is by a
knotted rope; but, if a leap is unavoidable, then the bed should be
thrown out first, or beds prepared for the purpose.


804. _Hints respecting Women's and Children's Clothes catching
fire._--The woman and children in every family should be particularly
told and shown, that flame always tends upwards; and, consequently,
that as long as they continue erect, or in an upright posture, while
their clothes are burning, the fire generally beginning at the lower
part of the dress, the flames meeting additional fuel, as they rise,
become more powerful in proportion; whereby the neck and head, being
more exposed than other parts to the intense and concentrated heat,
must necessarily be most injured. In a case of this kind, where
the sufferer happens to be alone, and cannot extinguish the flames
by _instantly throwing the clothes over the head, and rolling or
lying upon them_, she may still avoid great agony, and save her
life, _by throwing herself at full-length on the floor, and rolling
herself thereon_. This method may not extinguish the flame, but, to
a certainty, will retard its progress, prevent fatal injury to the
neck and head, and afford opportunity for assistance; and it may be
more practicable than the other, to the aged and infirm. A carpet
or hearth-rug instantly lapped round the head and body, is almost a
certain preventive of danger.


805. _Method of rendering all sorts of Paper, Linen, and Cotton,
less combustible._--This desirable object may be, in some degree,
effected, by immersing these combustible materials in a strong
solution of alum-water; and, after drying them, repeating this
immersion, if necessary. Thus, neither the color nor the quality of
the paper will be in the least affected; on the contrary, both will
be improved: and the result of the experiment may be ascertained, by
holding a slip of paper, so prepared, over a candle.


806. _To extricate Horses from fire._--If the harness be thrown over
a draught, or the saddle placed on the back of a saddle horse, they
may be led out of the stable as easily as on common occasions.
Should there be time to substitute the bridle for the halter, the
difficulty towards saving them will be still further diminished.


807. _Method of rendering assistance to persons in danger of
Drowning._--This desirable object appears attainable by the proper
use of a man's hat and pocket-handkerchief, which (being all the
apparatus necessary) is to be used thus:--Spread the handkerchief on
the ground, and place a hat, with the brim downwards, on the middle
of the handkerchief; and then tie the handkerchief round the hat
as you would tie up a bundle, keeping the knots as near the centre
of the crown as may be. Now, by seizing the knots in one hand, and
keeping the opening of the hat upwards, a person, without knowing
how to swim, may fearlessly plunge into the water with what may be
necessary to save the life of a fellow-creature.

If a person should fall out of a boat, or the boat upset, by going
foul of a cable, &c., or should he fall off the quays, or indeed fall
into any water from which he could not extricate himself, but must
wait some little time for assistance--had he presence of mind enough
to whip off his hat, and hold it by the brim, placing his fingers
withinside the crown, and hold it so, (top downwards), he would
be able, by this method, to keep his mouth well above water till
assistance should reach him. It often happens that danger is descried
long before we are involved in the peril, and time enough to prepare
the above method; and a courageous person would, in seven instances
out of ten, apply to them with success; and travellers, in fording
rivers at unknown fords, or where shallows are deceitful, might make
use of these methods with advantage.


808. _To prevent excessive Thirst, in cases of emergency at Sea, in
the summer-time._--When thirst is excessive, as is often the case
in summer-time, during long voyages, avoid, _if possible, even in
times of the greatest necessity_, the drinking of salt water to allay
the thirst; but rather keep thinly clad, and frequently dip in the
sea, which will appease both hunger and thirst for a long time, and
prevent the disagreeable sensation of swallowing salt water.


809. _Best mode of avoiding the fatal Accidents of Open
Carriages._--Jumping out is particularly dangerous, (the motion of
the gig communicating a different one to the one you give yourself by
jumping), which tends very much to throw you on your side or head.
Many suppose it very easy to jump a little forward, and alight safe:
they will not find it so on trial. The method of getting out behind
the carriage, is the most safe of any, having often tried it when the
horse has been going very fast. Perhaps it is best to fix yourself
firm, and remain in the carriage.


810. _Recovery from Suffocation, &c._--There are many occasions of
danger, on which a person who can hold breath for a minute or two,
may save the life of another. The best preparation for rendering such
assistance is, by breathing deep, hard, and quick, (as a person would
do after running,) and ceasing with his lungs full of air; he will
then find himself able to hold his breath more than twice as long as
he would without such preparation.

If in a brewer's fermenting vat, or an opened cess-pool, one man
sinks senseless and helpless, from breathing the foul air, another
man of cool mind would, by the above preparation, have abundant time,
in most cases, to descend by the ladder or bucket, and rescue the
sufferer, without any risk to himself. In entering a room on fire, a
knowledge of this fact may be useful.

The following precautions should also be regarded. Avoid all
unnecessary exertion; go coolly and quietly to the spot where help is
required; do no more than is needful, leaving the rest to be done by
those in a safe atmosphere.

In case of _choke-damp_, as in a brewer's vat, hold the head as high
as may be: in case of a fire in the room, keep the head as low as
possible.

If a rope be at hand, fasten it to the person who is _giving_ help,
that he may be succored, if he venture too far. Many deaths happen
in succession in cess-pools, and similar cases, for want of this
precaution.

It is hardly needful to say, do not try to breathe the air of the
place where help is required. Yet many persons fail, in consequence
of forgetting this precaution. If the temptation to breathe be at all
given way to, the _necessity_ increases, and the helper himself is
greatly endangered. Resist the tendency, and retreat in time.

Be careful to commence giving aid with the lungs _full_ of air, not
empty; for the preparation consists chiefly in laying up for the
time, in the lungs, a store of that pure air which is so essential to
life.


811. _Thunder Storms._--The safest situation during a thunder-storm
is the cellar; for when a person is below the surface of the earth,
the lightning must strike it before it can reach him, and will
probably be expended on it. Dr. Franklin advises persons apprehensive
of lightning to sit in the middle of a room, not under a metal
lustre, or any other conductor, and to place their feet upon another
chair. It will be still safer, he adds, to lay two or three beds or
mattresses in the middle of the room, and to place the chairs upon
them. A hammock suspended with silk cords would be an improvement on
this apparatus. Persons out of doors should avoid trees, &c.

The distance of a thunder-storm and its consequent danger can easily
be estimated. As light travels at the rate of 192,000 miles in a
second of time, its effects may be considered as instantaneous within
any moderate distance. Sound is transmitted at the rate of only 1142
feet in a second. By observing, therefore, the time which intervenes
between the flash of lightning and the thunder which accompanies it,
a very near calculation may be made of its distance.


812. _Stroke of Lightning._--Throw cold water upon them as soon as
possible. It will often restore persons struck by lightning when
apparently insensible, or even dead.


813. _A few Concise Rules for the Recovery of Persons apparently
Drowned._--The body on being taken out of the water, should be
conveyed to the nearest house, _in the gentlest manner possible_; the
wet clothes must be removed, and the body well dried with a towel; it
must then be placed on a mattress, laid on a table of proper height
and length. Care must always be taken to lay the head considerably
higher than the extremities, and to place the body on the right side.
The lungs should be inflated with a pair of bellows, not forcibly,
but gradually, so as to imitate the action of respiration.

Do not place the body in a high degree of heat; (below 98 degrees of
Fahrenheit's scale is the best temperature,) clear the apartment of
all supernumerary persons, and let the windows and doors be open, to
admit a free circulation of air.

Apply friction, _after the lungs have been expanded_, with the hand
only, or with a little oil on the fingers.

No injections are necessary, nor emetics, except in particular cases:
bleeding is also a doubtful remedy: electricity, _in judicious
hands_, may prove highly beneficial.

Let no rolling of the body be used with a view of emptying it of
water; there is no water present, or scarcely any. The heart being
overloaded with blood, may be burst by this injudicious proceeding,
and more mischief has been done by tossing and rolling the body,
than by any other erroneous treatment. Hot water, in bottles, may be
applied to the feet and ankles, as soon as respiration commences:
when the blood begins to circulate, heat may be gradually increased,
and the patient removed to a warm bed, where he must be carefully
watched till the action of the heart be completely restored.

The following way is commended by those who have seen it tried: 1.
Lose no time. 2. Handle the body gently. 3. Carry the body with the
head gently raised, and never hold it up by the feet. 4. Send for
medical assistance immediately, and in the mean time act as follows:
1. Strip the body, rub it dry; then rub it in hot blankets, and
place it in a warm bed in a warm room. 2. Cleanse away the froth and
mucus from the nose and mouth. 3. Apply warm bricks, bottles, bags
of sand, &c., to the arm-pits, between the thighs and the soles of
the feet. 4. Rub the surface of the body with the hands enclosed in
warm dry worsted socks. 5. If possible, put the body into a warm
bath. 6. To restore breathing, put the pipe of a common bellows in
one nostril, carefully closing the other and the mouth; at the same
time drawing downward, and pushing gently backward, the upper part of
the windpipe, to allow a more free admission of air; blow the bellows
gently, in order to inflate the lungs, till the breast be raised a
little; then set the mouth and nostrils free, and press gently on
the chest; repeat this until signs of life appear. When the patient
revives, apply smelling-salts to the nose, give warm wine or brandy
and water. _Cautions._--1. Never rub the body with salt or spirits.
2. Never roll the body on casks. 3. Continue the remedies for twelve
hours without ceasing.



PART V.

MISTRESS--MOTHER--NURSE--AND MAID.

  _In which are set forth the prominent Duties of each department,
  and the most important Rules for the guidance and care of the
  Household._


OF THE TABLE

814. The taste and management of the mistress are always displayed in
the general conduct of the table; for, though that department of the
household be not always under her direction, it is always under her
eye. Its management involves judgment in expenditure, respectability
of appearance, and the comfort of her husband as well as of those
who partake of their hospitality. Inattention to it is always
inexcusable, and should be avoided for the lady's own sake, as it
occasions a disagreeable degree of bustle, and evident annoyance to
herself, which is never observable in a well-regulated establishment.

Perhaps there are few occasions on which the respectability of a man
is more immediately felt, than the style of dinner to which he may
accidentally bring home a visitor. Every one ought to live according
to his circumstances, and the meal of the tradesman ought not to
emulate the entertainments of the higher classes; but, if merely two
or three dishes be well served, with the proper accompaniments, the
table-linen clean, the small sideboard neatly laid, and all that
is necessary be at hand, the expectation of both the husband and
friend will be gratified, because no interruption of the domestic
arrangements will disturb their social intercourse.

Should there be only a joint and a pudding, they should always be
served up separately; and the dishes, however small the party, should
always form two courses. Thus, in the old fashioned style of "fish,
soup, and a roast," the soup and fish are placed at the top and
bottom of the table, removed by the joint with vegetables and pastry;
or, should the company consist of eight or ten, a couple or more
of side-dishes in the first course, with game and a pudding in the
second, accompanied by confectionary, are quite sufficient.

In most of the books which treat of cookery, various bills of fare
are given, which are never exactly followed. The mistress should give
a moderate number of those dishes which are most in season. The cuts
which are inserted in some of those lists, put the soup in the middle
of the table--where it should never be placed. For a small party, a
single lamp in the centre is sufficient; but, for a larger number,
the room should be lighted with lamps hung over the table, and the
centre occupied by a _plateau_ of glass or plate, ornamented with
flowers or figures.


815. _Carefulness._--A proper quantity of household articles should
always be allowed for daily use. Each should also be kept in its
proper place, and applied to its proper use. Let all repairs be done
as soon as wanted, remembering the old adage of "a stitch in time;"
and never, if possible, defer any necessary household concern a
moment beyond the time when it ought to be attended to.

In the purchase of glass and crockery-ware, either the most customary
patterns should be chosen, in order to secure their being easily
matched, when broken; or, if a scarce design be adopted, an extra
quantity should be bought, to guard against the annoyance of the set
being spoiled by breakage--which, in the course of time, must be
expected to happen. There should likewise be plenty of common dishes,
that the table-set may not be used for putting away cold meat, &c.

The cook should be encouraged to be careful of coals and cinders: for
the latter there is a new contrivance for sifting, without dispersing
the dust, by means of a covered tin bucket.

Small coal, wetted, makes the strongest fire for the back of the
grate, but must remain untouched till it cakes. Cinders, lightly
wetted, give a great degree of heat, and are better than coal, for
furnaces, ironing-stoves, and ovens.


816. _Attention to little things._--By attention to _little things_,
the neat appearance of a house may be secured, and time and labor
saved. For instance, when you are sewing, carefully deposit your
bits of thread, &c., in a little basket or box, instead of throwing
them on the floor. And again: set your chairs out a little from the
wall, instead of putting them close to it, which would not only rub
the paint from the chairs, but would soon deface the beauty of the
wall-paper. These appear like trifling things--but nothing is too
trifling to demand our attention, when we are endeavoring to fulfil
the duties of our sphere.


817. _Cheerfulness._--Does it seem singular that _cheerfulness_ is
placed among the requisites for good house-keeping? But it is of far
more importance than you would, at first view, imagine. What matters
it to a brother or husband, if the house be ever so neat, or the
meals punctually and well prepared, if the mistress of it is fretful
and fault-finding--ever discontented and complaining. The _outside_
of such a house is ever the most attractive to him, and any and
_every_ excuse will be made for absenting himself; and the plea of
business or engagements will be made to her who is doomed to pass her
hours needlessly in solitude.


818. _Of Economy in Expenditure._--Economy should be the first
point in all families, whatever be their circumstances. A prudent
housekeeper will regulate the ordinary expenses of a family,
according to the annual sum allowed for housekeeping. By this means,
the provision will be uniformly good, and it will not be requisite to
practise meanness on many occasions, for the sake of meeting extra
expense on one.

The best check upon outrunning an income is to pay bills weekly, for
you may then retrench in time. This practice is likewise a salutary
check upon the correctness of the accounts themselves.

To young beginners in housekeeping, the following brief _hints on
domestic economy_, in the management of a moderate income, may
perhaps not prove unacceptable.

A bill of parcels and receipt should be required, even if the money
be paid at the time of purchase; and, to avoid mistakes, let the
goods be compared with these when brought home; or, if paid or at
future periods, a bill should be sent with the article, and regularly
filed on separate files for each tradesman.

An inventory of furniture, linen, and china should be kept, and the
things examined by it twice a-year, or oftener if there be a change
of servants; the articles used by servants should be intrusted to
their care, with a list, as is done with the plate. In articles not
in common use, such as spare bedding, tickets of parchment, numbered
and specifying to what they belong, should be sewed on each; and
minor articles in daily use, such as household cloths and kitchen
requisites, should be occasionally looked to.


819. _Books and Accounts._--Housekeeping books, with printed forms
for the various heads of expenditure, and the several articles,
are used in many families; but accounts may be kept with as much
certainty in plain books.


820. _Servants._--In the _hiring of Servants_, it is an excellent
plan to agree to increase their wages annually to a fixed sum,
where it should stop, and to recommend that a portion of it should
be regularly placed in a savings-bank. An incentive will thus be
offered to good conduct; and when the hoard saved up amounts to any
considerable sum, the possessor will generally feel more inclined to
enlarge than to expend it.

A kindly feeling of indulgence on the part of the mistress
towards her servants, in the matter of petty faults, coupled with
good-natured attention to their daily comforts, and occasional
permission to visit and receive a few of their near friends, would
go far to create a cordial degree of attachment, which must be
ever desirable to a respectable family, and cheaply purchased by
such consideration. Mildness of language will generally be met by
respectful language on the part of a servant, and of itself will
produce a saving of temper at least to the master or mistress. Due
praise will mostly be found a powerful stimulus to good, and in some
measure a preventive to bad conduct, on the part of a servant.

Do not speak harshly or imperatively to servants, or tell them of
their faults in the presence of strangers or visitors; but take the
earliest opportunity of reproving them after your company have left.


821. _Store-room._--A store-room is essential for the custody of
articles in constant use, as well as for others which are only
occasionally called for. These should be at hand when wanted, each in
separate drawers, or on shelves and pegs, all under the lock and key
of the mistress, and never be given out to the servants but under her
inspection.

Pickles and preserves, prepared and purchased sauces, and all sorts
of groceries, should be there stored; the spices pounded and corked
up in small bottles, sugar broken, and everything in readiness for
use. Lemon-peel, thyme, parsley, and all sorts of sweet herbs, should
be dried and grated for use in seasons of plenty; the tops of tongues
saved, and dried, for grating into omelets, &c.; and care taken that
nothing be wasted that can be turned to good account.

Coarse nets suspended in the store-room are very useful in preserving
the finer kinds of fruit, lemons, &c., which are spoiled if allowed
to touch. When _lemons_ and _oranges_ are cheap, a proper quantity
should be bought and prepared, both for preserving the juice, and
keeping the peel for sweetmeats and grating, especially by those who
live in the country, where they cannot always be had; and they are
perpetually wanted in cookery.


822. _Sugar._--The lowest-priced and coarsest sugar is not the
cheapest in the end, as it is heavy, dirty, and of a very inferior
degree of sweetness; that which is most refined is the sweetest: the
best has a bright and gravelly appearance. East India sugars appear
finer in proportion to the price; but they do not contain so much
sweetness as the other kinds. Loaf-sugars should be chosen as fine
and as close in texture as possible, except they are for preserving,
when the coarse, strong, open kind is preferable.


823. _Pepper._--The finest Cayenne pepper consists of powdered
bird-pepper; but, as this is of a bad color, it is often adulterated
to heighten the color. English chilies, dried and pounded, make good
pepper.

White pepper is inferior to black, although the former is sold at the
highest price. White pepper is merely black pepper deprived of its
outer coating, which has a stimulating property; so that white pepper
is much weaker than black.


824. _Cinnamon_, when good, is rather thin and pliable, and about the
substance of thick paper, of yellowish-brown color, sweetish taste,
and pleasant odor: that which is hard, thick, and dark-colored,
should be rejected.


825. _Articles in Season._--Some weak-minded persons affect to
despise articles of food when they are plentiful and cheap, not
knowing that such is the time when the articles are in the greatest
perfection.

Young and inexperienced housekeepers sometimes incur unnecessary
expense by ordering articles of food when they are scarce, dear, and
hardly come into season. This can only be prevented by attention to
the seasons of different articles.


826. _Every Family to make their own Sweet Oil._--With a small
hand-mill, every family might make their own sweet oil. This may
easily be done, by grinding or beating the seeds of white poppies
into a paste, then boil it in water, and skim off the oil as it
rises; one bushel of seed weighs fifty pounds, and produces two
gallons of oil. Of the sweet olive oil sold, one-half is oil of
poppies. The poppies will grow in any garden; it is the large-head
white poppy, sold by apothecaries. Large fields are sown with poppies
in France and Flanders, for the purpose of expressing oil from their
seed for food. When the seed is taken out, the poppy head when dried
is boiled to an extract, which is sold at two shillings per ounce,
and it is to be preferred to opium, which now sells very high. Large
fortunes may be acquired by the cultivation of poppies. Women and
children could attend to the cultivation of any quantity required
for their own use, in making oil, and it would be found a profitable
branch of industry, when engaged in on a large scale.


827. _Candles and Lamps._--In purchasing wax, spermaceti, or
composition candles for _company_, there will be a saving by
proportioning the length and size of the lights to the probable
duration of the party. Mixed wax and spermaceti make the best
candles, of which a long _four_ (that is, four to the pound,) will
last ten hours; a short _six_ will burn six hours; a _three_, twelve
hours.

A moderate-sized French table-lamp, will consume a quarter of a pint
of oil in twelve hours and a half.

A common japanned kitchen-lamp, with one burner, will consume
one-eighth of a pint of oil in nine hours.


828. _Neats'-foot Oil._--Boil the feet for several hours, as for
making stock for jelly; skim off the oily matter from time to time
as it rises, and, when it ceases to come up, pour off the water; next
day, take off the cake of fat and oil which will be found on the top;
boil it and the oil before obtained, together with a little cold
water; let it cool; pour off the water, and bottle the oil for use.
This oil being perfectly pure, and free from smell, may be used with
the French lights in a sick-room.


829. _Soap._--Soap, as well as candles, is improved by keeping. Buy
your store for the winter as early as September, and cut the large
bars of soap into pieces, to dry. It goes farther, and is better.


830. _Coals._--Lay in your stock of coal and wood, during summer,
when fuel of all kinds is cheapest.


831. _Good method of making Fires._--In managing your fires during
the day, first lay on a shovelful of the dust and ashes from under
the grate, then a few coals, then more ashes, and afterwards a few
more coals, and thus proceed till your grate is properly filled,
placing a few round coals in front. You will find that the ashes
retain the heat better than coals alone; you will have less smoke, a
pleasant fire, and a very little waste left at night.


832. _Kitchen-Paper._--Whited-brown and common writing is much
used: it should be bought by the ream or half-ream, which will be
much cheaper than by the quire. White paper only should be used for
singeing, and for covering meat, pastry, &c.


833. _Economy in Tinder._--The very high price of paper, at present,
renders the saving of even the smallest quantity of linen or cotton
rags of consequence, as they sell very dear. Trifling as it may be
thought, yet it will be found that a considerable quantity of rags
may be saved in a family, by using as tinder for lighting matches,
the contents of the common snuffers, collected in the course of the
evening.


834. _To prevent Accidents, from leaving a poker in the fire._--The
following invention is equally simple and secure:--Immediately above
that square part of the poker, by blacksmiths called "the bit," let
a small cross of iron, about an inch and a half each way, be welded
in.

The good consequences of this simple contrivance will be--

1st. If the poker, by the fire giving way, should slip out, it will
probably catch on the edge of the fender.

2d. If it should not, it cannot injure the hearth or carpet, as the
hot part of the poker will be borne up some inches.

3d. The poker cannot be run into the fire further than the bit,
which, in regard to a polished poker, is also of some consequence.


ON THE MANAGEMENT OF INFANTS, YOUNG CHILDREN, AND THE SICK.

835. In a previous work--"Mrs. Hale's New Cook Book,"--I gave
many receipts for preparing food for invalids and children; but
something more is needed. Young mothers and nurses, who are often
inexperienced, will, I am sure, thank me for taking pains to procure,
from the most eminent authorities, the best directions and recipes
to aid them in the discharge of their arduous and most important
duties. The preservation of life, and the formation of the physical
constitution, as well as the moral development of the young beings
committed by Divine Providence to the especial care of woman, render
it one of the best accomplishments of our sex, to learn all we can
respecting the high vocation whereunto we are called, viz., that of
conservators of humanity.


836. _Of young Infants._--Immediately on the birth of the child, it
should be received into soft fine flannel, sufficient completely
to envelop or wrap round the body, in which, with the mouth and
nose scarcely exposed, it should repose at least an hour. The child
may then be washed with _tepid_ water, tenderly and cautiously,
yet speedily made dry with soft linen cloth. Afterwards let it be
expeditiously dressed, and put into a warm, bed, and, during the
first week or fortnight, exposed as little as possible to cold air:
how long this caution may be necessary, will depend on the season of
the year, or the temperature of the atmosphere. By strictly adhering
to this mode of managing a new-born infant, it will not suffer from
catarrh, cough, difficulty of breathing, diarrhea, sore eyes, or
stoppage in the head.

Children are frequently placed under the care of a nurse, who, from
her experience, is supposed qualified for the important trust; but
it often happens, either from her obstinacy or self-importance, that
the most judicious plan of treatment recommended by the attending
physician, is defeated.

At this period the mother is called on, by religious and moral
obligation, as well as by the ties of natural affection, to suckle
her infant: no doubt could be entertained of her immediate assent to
so powerful an impulse, if uninfluenced by her friends or relatives.
It cannot be denied, that she may be disqualified for the office
by various maladies, by an incipient phthisis, by a scorbutic or
scrofulous taint, by hysterical or nervous affections, &c. However,
the fitness or unfitness of the mother for this endearing office,
should be determined by the attending physician. There are many
instances recorded of women who had been extremely delicate and
sickly previous to their first confinement, becoming afterwards
healthy and robust. On the contrary, there are several histories of
other women, who previously had enjoyed good health, suffering from
counteracting the regular process of nature. The flow of the milk
being checked, undue determinations have taken place to the chest or
head, and in some cases proved fatal.

In the bowels of children at the time of their birth, there is an
accumulation of what is called "the meconium." For whatever purpose
it was intended before the birth of the child, it would become
injurious were it afterwards suffered to remain. Nature has provided
the means for its removal, by giving to the new milk an aperient
quality. Therefore it is advisable to wait, even to the third day,
for the appearance of the milk, rather than attempt to remove the
meconium by castor oil, or any other mild aperient medicine. The
coats of the child's stomach and bowels are so extremely tender and
irritable, that the mildest purgative will give pain, and disorder
the health of the infant. By waiting for the milk, relief is obtained
by the means nature has provided, without the slightest inconvenience.


837. _Clothing._--The clothing for children cannot be too simple: it
should be so formed as to admit of being easily and quickly changed,
free from all bandages or pins, and secured only by tape. Shoes or
stockings may be dispensed with, until the child begins to use its
legs, as they keep the feet wet and unpleasant, unless changed every
hour. The child left to itself, will soon begin to enjoy the use and
freedom of its limbs.


838. _Food._--The proper food for children is a subject of
more importance. That which nature has provided is the milk of
its parent; but, when this is lacking, a preparation formed of
cow's milk and water, with a little loaf sugar, in the following
proportions, supplies the desideratum:--Take of fresh cow's milk, one
table-spoonful; hot water, two table-spoonfuls; loaf sugar, as much
as may be agreeable. Such nourishment will alone be sufficient for
its support, until the end of the first three months. At this period,
it may require a small portion of light animal food, of which, how
to select the most nutritious, to regulate the quantity, and to
administer it, after proper intervals, must depend on the experience
of the nurse. Experience is often superseded by convenience: if
the child cries, the nurse attributes it to a want of food, and,
by her agency, it is fed almost every hour, both night and day. It
is seldom that a child cries from abstinence, if it be healthy and
free from pain. In the infantile state, the powers of the digestive
organs are much weaker than at a more advanced period of life;
and therefore, although the food is more simple, it requires an
interval of some hours to convert it into chyle: if this process be
interrupted by frequent feeding, the chyle will be crude, and pass
off without affording due nourishment to the child. Sickness in
children arises from the quality or quantity of their food, unduly
administered. The food for children should be light and simple--gruel
alone, or mixed with cow's milk; mutton broth, or beef tea; stale
bread, rusks, or biscuits, boiled in water to a proper consistence,
and a little sugar added. The great mortality of children in large
towns, may be attributed to the poverty of their parents, who cannot
purchase the necessary food or clothing, nor find leisure to attend
to cleanliness, air, and exercise, so indispensably necessary to the
well-being of their offspring. In the wealthy ranks of society, these
means are easily obtained; and in the management of their children,
we have only to dread the abuse of these advantages. Happy would it
be both for rich and poor, if the superfluities of the one could be
transferred for the benefit of the other.

When six months old, a child may be fed every four hours, when
awake. Nothing can be more injurious to health than too frequent or
irregular meals. Children, if left to themselves, soon acquire the
habit of passing through the night without being fed.


839. _Weaning_ of children should not take place under six months,
if the mother be in health, nor be deferred beyond nine months. It
cannot be too frequently impressed on the mind of the parent, that
the future health and strength of her child depend on a due supply
of the food which nature has provided. Regarding her own health, the
chances are that it will be improved--at all events, it is incumbent
on her to make the experiment; if her strength falls off, she may at
any time retire from the effort, and engage a wet-nurse.

This _foster-parent_ should not be more than thirty years of age,
nor should her milk be more than three months old. She should be in
health, free from scorbutic or scrofulous taints, from cutaneous
scurf, or eruptions, perfectly clean in her person, and extremely
neat in her management of whatever concerns the child. She must be
sober and temperate: her diet should consist of a due proportion
of bread, fresh meat, and vegetables; her drink, tea, chocolate,
and milk and water; but on no consideration either wine or any
other spirituous liquors. These, if drank by the nurse, will prove
injurious to the child.


840. _Proper Medicines for Infants._--Nature has not only provided
food for infants, but likewise given to them a constitution capable
of correcting those slight deviations from health, to which alone
they are liable when properly nursed. This has induced many to
assert that medicines are not required in the nursery: perhaps the
assertion might be correct, if children were suffered to remain in
a state of nature: the further they are removed from it, the evils
they have to contend with bear a proportionate increase. As most of
their complaints arise from a want of attention to their food, to
air, and exercise, by a prompt and skilful use of medicine, these
complaints may be removed; therefore, it is not the use but the abuse
of medicine that should be avoided. If a child be tormented by a pin
running into the flesh, no one would contend against the removal of
the pin.

The diseases to which children are liable, are sore eyes, sore ears,
sore head, scald head, sickness and vomiting, thrush, red gum,
yellow gum, pain in the bowels, diarrhea, dentition, chilblains,
rickets, worms, scrofula, catarrh, cough, measles, &c.


841. _Sore Eyes_ frequently occur on the second or third day after
the birth, occasioned by too early an exposure of the child to a
cold atmosphere: the eyelids swell, become closed, and discharge a
purulent matter. It may be relieved by fomenting the eyelids with
equal parts of lime water and elder-flower water. Dip some fine old
linen cloth into this mixture, moderately warmed, and apply it to
the eyelids. This is a mild astringent application: if the swellings
should not be reduced by it, the following, which is more astringent,
will probably succeed: Take of white vitriol, two grains; rose-water,
two ounces; mix them together. Should it be necessary, the quantity
of white vitriol may be increased.


842. _Sore Ears._--Excoriations of the skin frequently happen either
behind the ears, in the folds of the skin, on the neck, in the
groins, or wherever the folds of the skin, come in contact. Wash the
skin morning and evening with cold water, make it perfectly dry with
a fine linen cloth, then shake on lightly the following powder: Take
white ceruse, one part; wheaten starch, in flour, three parts; mix
them together. Or, take Goulard's extract, French brandy, of each,
one drachm; rose-water, four ounces. Mix them together, and apply it
with soft linen cloth to the excoriations of the skin.

The following liniment may be relied on: Take acetate of lead, one
scruple; rose-water, half an ounce; melted beef marrow, one ounce.
Rub the acetate of lead in the rose-water, until they are intimately
mixed, then melt the marrow over a gentle heat; afterwards pour the
mixture upon the marrow by little and little, taking care that each
addition be incorporated with the marrow, so as to form an uniform
mass. This may be applied with a camels'-hair pencil.


843. _Sore Head._--This complaint appears first on the forehead, in
large white spots or scabs, which, if neglected, soon spread over
the whole surface of the head. It is sometimes dry, at others moist,
with a thin, watery discharge. It is named the crusta lactea, or
milky crust. There are two methods of treating it. Nurses encourage
the discharge by applying cabbage leaves, oil-cloth, &c.; this is by
no means necessary; it makes the head offensive, and the appearance
of the child disgusting. It is much better to cure it as soon as
possible, by washing the scabs night and morning with equal parts of
brandy and water; then lay on the following ointment: Take, olive
oil, five drachms; white wax, two drachms; calcined zinc, one drachm.
Melt the oil and wax together, then add the zinc by degrees, and keep
stirring it until they are intimately mixed.


844. _Scald Head_ is totally unlike the preceding disease:
brown-colored scabs appear on the crown of the head, which discharge
a glutinous matter, and unite the hairs, so as to prevent their being
separated with a comb: these scabs continue to spread until they
occupy the whole of the scalp.

Keep the hair cut as close as possible, wash the head with a strong
solution of soap in water, night and morning; as soon as it can be
done, instead of cutting the hair with scissors, let it be shaved
close once a day.

Every one has a remedy for this complaint; perhaps the following
ointment will be found one of the most effective: Take Barbadoes tar,
one ounce; the dust of the lycoperdon, or puff fungus, one drachm.
Mix them well together, and rub in a part of it to the roots of the
hair, after washing the head with the soap and water. By steadily
persevering in these means, and giving an occasional purge, the cure
will soon be accomplished.


845. _Sickness and Vomiting._--Soon after the birth, children
are frequently annoyed by these symptoms: they are occasioned by
the indiscreet conduct of the nurses, who are apt to give either
improper food or medicine. At this early period, as before remarked,
the stomach is incapable of digesting any other food than the milk
of its mother; consequently, whatever is forced into it, remains
there undigested, until, by a convulsive effort, it is thrown off
by vomiting. So long as it remains in the stomach, the child is
restless, and in other respects indisposed. It may be relieved by a
tea-spoonful of castor-oil, to be repeated, until one or two motions
are occasioned.

Children who are dry nursed are most subject to sickness and
vomiting; the natural remedy is the breast of a healthy woman.
Without this relief, gripings and diarrhea frequently come on and
prove fatal.

Children so circumstanced, may be relieved by the following emetic:

Take of ipecacuanha, two drachms; boiling water, four ounces. Let
them stand together until the water grows cold, then strain off the
liquor. To one ounce of the liquor, add eight drops of antimonial
wine. Dose, two tea-spoonfuls every half hour, until it excites
vomiting.


846. _The Thrush_, or sore mouth, is a complaint very painful, and,
if neglected, fatal to children. When it first comes on, it resembles
small pieces of curd lying loose upon the tongue; it gradually
spreads itself over the inside of the mouth, but afterwards rapidly
advances to the throat, stomach, and bowels. Therefore, when the
white specks appear, proper means should be instantly employed to
remove them, or to suspend their progress. If the child be costive,
give the following aperient:

Take of calcined magnesia, two scruples; common mint water, two
ounces; mix them together. The dose, a dessert-spoonful every half
hour, until it operates. Or, take of manna, one ounce; senna leaves,
one drachm; common mint-water, four ounces. Boil them together, until
the manna be dissolved, then strain off the liquor. Dose, two drachms
every half hour, until two or more motions are occasioned.

For cleaning the mouth, take equal parts of borax and white sugar;
rub them together into a fine powder. Of this put a small quantity
into the child's mouth, which will be distributed to every part by
the motion of its tongue. Repeat this application three or four times
a day: if used early, it will keep the mouth free from white specks,
and remove the complaint in a few days.

If, on the contrary, it should be neglected, and suffered to extend
to the stomach and bowels, gentle emetics ought to be employed,
such as the following antimonial emetic: Take of antimonial wine,
forty drops; mint-water, two ounces. Mix them together. Dose, a
dessert-spoonful every half hour, until it excites vomiting.

This disease rarely occurs in children, who take no other food but
the milk of the mother, or foster-parent. It is so far contagious,
that if a healthy child be put to the breast of a woman, who is
suckling another child, having the thrush, it will contract this
complaint.


847. _Red Gum_ requires no farther attention than keeping the bowels
gently open, and avoiding an exposure to cold air. It is symptomatic
of healthy action, and ought not to be checked.


848. _Infantile Jaundice._--The skin of new-born infants is sometimes
tinged with bile, and gives the appearance of jaundice; by some it
has been named the yellow gum. It seems to be occasioned by the
sudden change in the circulation of the blood, immediately on the
birth, by which an increased flow of blood is conveyed to the liver,
and consequently an increased secretion of bile follows, which from
various causes may be prevented from passing off freely into the
intestines. It is attended with no danger, and is generally removed
by mild purgatives.

The hare-lip, frænum linguæ, or tongue-tied, requires surgical aid.


849. _Pain in the Bowels_ may happen with or without diarrhea, and
is often produced by improper food, or exposure to cold air. The
symptoms are frequent fits of crying, drawing up the knees towards
the bowels, which are hard and tense to the touch, accompanied
either with an obstinate costiveness, or thin, watery, and frequent
evacuations, slimy, sour, and of a green color. This complaint is
oftentimes relieved by the following powders: Take Turkey rhubarb,
in very fine powder, calcined magnesia, of each, twelve grains;
compound powder of ipecacuanha, four grains. Mix them well together,
and divide them into six doses: one to be given night and morning,
to a child under three months; above that age, the dose should be
increased.

The health and diet of the mother, or nurse, should be strictly
attended to. In some cases the pain is extremely acute, and the
agony of the child is known by its cries. Whenever this happens,
the following mixture may be given: Take of Turkey rhubarb, in fine
powder, twelve grains; magnesia, eight grains; tincture of rhubarb,
one drachm; syrup of poppies, two drachms; simple mint-water, an
ounce and a half. Mix them together. Dose, if within the first or
second month, two tea-spoonfuls every fourth hour. The phial should
be shaken before the medicine is poured out.


850. _Other remedies for the Colic in Infants._--A great variety of
cordials, spices, and opiates, has been recommended, and frequently
used, to relieve the pain and expel the wind. They may sometimes
answer the purpose, especially in sudden fits of pain in the stomach,
from cold or any other accidental cause. At all times, they should
be sufficiently diluted with water, cautiously given, and seldom
repeated. When the effects of these medicines go off, the pain
returns; therefore it is not a desirable mode of obtaining relief. Of
the cordials, Geneva, mixed with water, is the least objectionable;
being impregnated with the essential oil of juniper-berries, it is an
excellent and safe carminative. However, these warm medicines are by
no means to be relied on for the removal of the cause of this malady,
their effect being merely temporary: such as Godfrey's cordial, and
other nostrums--being compounds of opium, spices, and brandy. Opium,
when judiciously administered, is an invaluable remedy; the dose of
it should be most accurately proportioned to the age of the patient,
and urgency of the symptoms, otherwise it may become a _poison_;
and, therefore, should never be given to children, unless under the
direction of the most skilful in the profession. Few nurseries are
without a medicine of this kind; it quiets the pain of the infant,
induces sleep, and leaves the nurse to her repose. Children under
this treatment become languid, pallid, incapable of exertion, and, at
length, rickety.

The following anodyne mixture will generally relieve the griping
pains of diarrhea:--Take of prepared chalk, and gum-arabic, each one
drachm; syrup of white poppies, three drachms; Geneva, two drachms;
water, four ounces. Mix them together. Dose, a dessert-spoonful after
each motion.

In bowel-complaints, chalk has been objected to, as too powerful
an astringent in checking diarrhea suddenly: this may be obviated
by giving it only after each motion. When the bowels have been
previously acted on, either by the rhubarb powders, or by the
antimonial emetic, the chalk mixture is a never-failing remedy. It
may be given with or without opium, according to the urgency of the
symptoms.

The following medicine, by exciting a determination to the skin,
effectually relieves the sufferings of the child:--Take ipecacuanha,
in coarse powder, two drachms; boiling water, four ounces. When cold,
strain off the liquor through a fine piece of linen cloth: then add
to three ounces of this liquor--of Geneva, three drachms; syrup of
white poppies, two drachms. Dose, a dessert-spoonful every fourth
hour.

When this state of the bowels is followed by convulsions, the lower
extremities, or the whole body, should be immersed in a warm bath.
During the preparation of a bath, flannel dipped in warm water and
wrung dry, may be applied to the extremities. Leeches and blisters,
under skilful directions, will subdue the violence of the symptoms.


851. _Convulsions_--Are generally symptomatic, and, for the most
part, in children, occasioned by the growth of their teeth:
therefore, the gums should be carefully examined, to ascertain
whether they arise from this cause; if so, the lancet should be
immediately and freely used, to divide the gum down to the teeth.
This operation is not painful, nor in the least degree hazardous,
therefore ought not to be delayed.


852. _Dentition._--There is no period in infancy that requires more
skill and attention, than that which passes from the first movement
of the teeth in their sockets, to their subsequent advance through
the gums. At the birth of the child, the teeth are lodged within the
jaw-bones, and enveloped by a membrane or bag, which is distended as
the teeth enlarge and press forward, frequently attended with pain,
fever, diarrhea, and convulsions. These symptoms first appear towards
the end of the third month, when the child is said to be breeding its
teeth: they arise from the first enlargement of the teeth in their
sockets, and subside as soon as they pass above the jaw. Between the
sixth and ninth month, the teeth as they rise, press upon the gums,
when the same train of symptoms take place. Some children suffer very
little pain during this process; others suffer most severely: this
depends chiefly on the nerves being more or less irritable. When
the child preserves its appetite and cheerfulness, and is free from
fever, no medicine can be required, except what may be necessary
to obviate costiveness. This should be carefully attended to, as
nothing tends more effectually to relieve or prevent the symptoms of
dentition, than a free discharge from the bowels.

An increased secretion of saliva marks the first advance of the
teeth, followed, in irritable habits, by diarrhea, fever, thirst,
and convulsions. The use of the gum-lancet should not be neglected,
whenever the symptoms are urgent. The parents frequently object to
this mode of relief, conceiving it to be a painful operation. As a
proof of the contrary, children that have once been relieved by it,
will eagerly press their gums upon the lancet. If the tooth should
not appear after the first use of the lancet, the incision may be
frequently repeated.

The symptoms may be relieved by the following emetic:--Take of
tartar-emetic, one grain; dissolve it in two ounces of distilled
water. Dose, two tea-spoonfuls every half-hour, until it excites
vomiting.

This remedy will relax the tension of the gums, and lessen the force
of the fever.

If the habit of the child should be costive, the mildest purgatives
should be employed, to occasion two or more motions daily--such
as manna, dissolved in common mint-water; or senna-tea; or the
following:--Take of senna leaves, one drachm; the yellow rind of the
lemon, eight grains: boil them in two ounces of water; strain off the
liquor, when cold; and give a dessert-spoonful as a dose for children
three or four months old. Or, take manna and fresh-drawn oil of sweet
almonds, of each, one ounce; syrup of roses, two ounces: mix them
together. Dose, a dessert-spoonful.


853. _The Croup_--At its commencement has the appearance of common
catarrh, but speedily assumes its peculiar character, which is marked
by hoarseness, with a shrillness and ringing sound in coughing
and breathing; so shrill is the noise made by the child, that it
resembles the sound of air forced through a tube of brass. This
inflammation, seated in the membrane which lines the windpipe, is
attended with stricture, difficult respiration, cough, quick pulse,
heat, and a flushed countenance.

This disease comes on suddenly, and is extremely rapid in its
progress; therefore, vigorous measures must be instantly adopted.
Give an emetic, then apply a blister across the throat, and keep the
bowels open with laxative injections.


854. _Cure for Croup._--Dr. Fisher, of Boston, relates in a late
number of the Medical _Journal_, a case in which a severe attack of
croup was cured by the application of sponge, wrung out of hot water,
to the throat, together with water treatment, which he describes as
follows:--

"Soon after making the first application of sponges to the throat,
I wrapped the child in a woolen blanket, wrung out in warm water,
as a substitute for a warm bath, and gave twenty drops of the wine
of antimony in a little sweetened water, which was swallowed with
difficulty. I persevered in the application of the hot, moist sponges
for an hour, when the child was so much relieved that I ventured to
leave it.

"These applications were continued through the night, and in the
morning the child was well."

It will never do to trifle with this terrible disease. The quicker
the remedies are applied, the better. Instead of antimony, we would
recommend small quantities of alum water, given every ten or fifteen
minutes, until the child vomits.


855. _Rickets_--Are, for the most part, induced by improper food
and bad nursing. Their approach is marked by a sickly, pallid
countenance, cough, and difficult respiration. The bones of the legs
and arms lose their firmness, and become more or less crooked; the
bones of the head do not unite, and the spine becomes distorted. At
its first appearance it may be successfully counteracted by a strict
attention to cleanliness in every thing that concerns the child, by
exercise in the open air, by cold bathing, by friction of the limbs
night and morning, and by a light, nutritious diet. Before the use
of the bath, the bowels should be cleared by the following aperient
powder:--

Take of Rhubarb, in fine powder, six grains; calcined magnesia, three
grains; common mint-water, six drachms. Mix them together.

During the use of the cold bath, either Peruvian bark or steel may be
employed to strengthen the child: such as,

The precipitate of the sulphate of iron, three grains; syrup of
cinnamon, a tea-spoonful. When mixed, to be taken three times a-day.
Or, take of the resinous extract of bark, one drachm; the syrup of
cinnamon, seven drachms. Mix them together. The dose, a tea-spoonful,
three times a-day.


856. _Scrofula._--Although it has been considered as an hereditary
disease, may be induced in a child, whose parents have no such taint,
by a neglect of proper food, air and exercise. On the contrary, when
the taint does exist in the parent, the offspring may pass through
life with the enjoyment of tolerable health, by a strict attention to
those means which are known to invigorate the body. Of preventives,
there are none so efficacious as sea air, sea bathing, and the
internal use of the sea water, in sufficient quantity to act on
the bowels, and the local application of it to the glands which are
enlarged. Indeed, the children of diseased parents should reside on
the coast, in order to have the full benefit of these advantages.
Friction should be applied generally on the surface of the body, with
the hand covered with a flannel glove, night and morning. Food of
easy digestion is to be preferred, such as shell-fish, game, poultry,
beef or mutton. Bark and steel, as medicines, may be occasionally
administered with good effect. This disease, which bids defiance to
the regular physician, cannot with propriety be placed on the list of
casualties, or sudden seizures.


857. _Worms._--There are three species of worms which infest the
intestines: namely, the flat worm, or tænia; the long, round worm,
lumbrici; the short, round worm, or ascarides. The tænia is of rare
occurrence when compared with the lumbrici or ascarides, but more
difficult to remove. Full doses of sulphate of iron, with occasional
active doses of calomel, force them to retire. The lumbrici are
destroyed by repeated doses of calomel and scammony. The ascarides,
being found in the lowest portion of the intestines, are easily
removed by injections of lime-water, or a solution of aloes.

Parents who would preserve their children from worms, ought to allow
them plenty of exercise in the open air; to take care that their
food be wholesome and sufficiently solid; and, as far as possible,
to prevent their eating raw herbs, roots, or green trashy fruits. It
will not be amiss to allow a child who is subject to worms, a glass
of red wine after meals; as every thing that braces and strengthens
the stomach, is good both for preventing and expelling these vermin.
In order to prevent any mistake of what I have here said in favor
of _solid_ food, it may be proper to observe, that I only made use
of that word in opposition to _slops_ of every kind; not to advise
parents to cram their children with meat, two or three times a-day.
This should only be allowed at dinner, and in moderate quantities,
or it would create, instead of preventing, worms; for there is no
substance in nature which generates so many worms as the flesh of
animals, when in a state of putrefaction. Meat, therefore, at the
principal meal, should always be accompanied with plenty of good
bread, and young, tender, and well-boiled vegetables; especially
in the spring, when these are poured forth from the bosom of the
earth in such profusion. They promote the end in view, by keeping
the body moderately open, without the aid of artificial physic.
The ripe fruits of autumn produce the same effect; and, from their
cooling, antiputrescent qualities, are as wholesome as the unripe are
pernicious. I also very earnestly conjure parents not to take the
alarm at every imaginary symptom of worms, and directly run for drugs
to the quack, or apothecary. They should first try the good effects
of proper diet and regimen, and never have recourse to medicines till
after unequivocal proofs of the nature of the complaint.

Honey and milk are very good for worms; so is strong salt water;
likewise, powdered sage and molasses taken freely.


858. _Quinsy_--Is the common inflammatory sore throat, attended by a
sense of heat and fulness in the throat, by difficult deglutition,
generally preceded by shivering, with a sense of coldness. On
inspection, the tonsils appear red and enlarged. These symptoms
continuing to increase, the patient is threatened with suffocation,
the tonsils suppurate, when, by a spontaneous bursting of the
abscess, relief instantly follows. It often happens that the abscess
does not give way so soon as expected, when the puncture of a lancet
puts an end to the alarming sufferings of the patient. In some cases,
the quantity of matter contained in the tumor is very considerable,
and instances have occurred, when, from the sudden bursting of the
tumor, the patient being in a horizontal position, suffocation has
followed, from the matter falling into the lungs.

To guard against these evils, an emetic of ipecacuanha should be
administered, and a blister applied to the neck. As soon as the
effect of the emetic has ceased, and the stomach will receive it,
give the following aperient mixture:--Take of tartarized kali, three
drachms; infusion of senna, two ounces; tincture of senna, two
drachms. Mix them together.

If blisters are objected to, a piece of fine flannel, moistened with
the compound spirit of ammonia, may be placed round the neck. Gargles
are to be used in every stage of this disease; at first, they should
be mildly detergent, as the following:--Take of barley-water, six
ounces and a half; honey of roses, one ounce; tincture of myrrh, and
vinegar, of each, two drachms. Mix them together, and cleanse the
mouth and throat with some of the gargle from time to time.

When the violence of the symptoms begins to subside, a sharper
gargle becomes necessary; for this purpose the following is
recommended:--Take of infusion of red roses, seven ounces; honey of
roses, one ounce; diluted sulphuric acid, twenty drops. Mix them
together.

Throughout the course of this disease, keep the bowels open with mild
purgatives or laxative injections. When the swelling of the tonsils
comes on rapidly, send instantly for a surgeon.


859. _Whooping Cough._--This is a violent, convulsive cough, attended
at first with slight febrile symptoms. Its shortest duration is three
weeks; during this time, the symptoms may be rendered milder, or more
aggravated, by the mode of treatment.

During the first three or four weeks, keep the child or patient in an
uniform degree of temperature; if possible, never below 64 degrees of
Fahrenheit's scale. The diet should be light, chiefly bread, milk,
and vegetables with butter. Rice or Indian puddings, with plenty of
molasses, are good food for children in this disease. If the cough is
very violent, and the phlegm hard in the throat, a gentle emetic of
ipecacuanha, or some preparation of antimony, should be given every
second or third morning, to clear the stomach from the mucus which,
in this cough, is constantly secreted. By these means, the violence
of the disease will soon be overcome; whereas, by an exposure to cold
air, and neglecting all precautions, you may aggravate and continue
the cough for months. In the summer, change of air is one of the best
remedies; and be sure to avoid whatever has a tendency to irritate
the throat, or excite the action of the heart. In this, as in every
other disease, the state of the bowels should be carefully attended
to. A mild aperient is sometimes necessary.


860. _Colds._--The best _preventive_ of colds, is to wash your
children every day thoroughly in cold water, if they are strong
enough to bear it; if not, add a little warm water, and rub the skin
dry. This keeps the pores open. If they do take cold, give them a
warm bath as soon as possible; if that is not convenient, bathe the
feet and hands, and wash the body all over in warm water; then give a
cup of warm tea, and cover the patient in bed.


861.--If a _Sore Throat_ follow, take a tumbler of molasses and
water, half-and-half, when going to bed; and rub the throat with a
mixture of sweet or goose-oil and spirits of turpentine; then wear
flannel round it.


862. _Canker, or Sore Month._--Steep blackberry-leaves, sweeten with
honey, sprinkle in a little burnt alum, and wash the mouth often with
this decoction.


863. _Cutaneous Eruptions in Children._--Children, while on the
breast, are seldom free from eruptions of one kind or other. These,
however, are not often dangerous, and ought never to be dried up
but with the greatest caution. They tend to free the bodies of
infants from hurtful humors, which, if retained, might produce fatal
disorders. The eruptions of children are chiefly owing to improper
food and neglect of cleanliness. If a child be stuffed at all hours
with food that its stomach is not able to digest, such food not
being properly assimilated, instead of nourishing the body, fills it
with gross humors. These must either break out in form of eruptions
upon the skin, or remain in the body, and occasion fevers and other
internal disorders.

Eruptions are the effect of improper food, or want of cleanliness:
a proper attention to these alone will generally be sufficient to
remove them. If this should not be the case, some drying medicines
will be necessary. When they are applied, the body ought at the same
time to be kept open, and cold is carefully to be avoided. We know
no medicine that is more safe for drying up cutaneous eruptions than
sulphur, provided it be prudently used. A little of the flour of
sulphur may be mixed with fresh butter, oil, or hog's lard, and the
parts affected frequently touched with it.

The most obstinate of all the eruptions incident to children are, the
_tinea capitis_, or scabbed head, and chilblains. The scabbed head
is often exceedingly difficult to cure, and sometimes, indeed, the
cure proves worse than the disease. I have frequently known children
seized with internal disorders, of which they died soon after their
scabbed heads had been healed by the application of drying medicines.
The cure ought always first to be attempted by keeping the head very
clean, cutting off the hair, combing and brushing away the scabs,
&c. If this is not sufficient, let the head be shaved once a-week,
washed daily with yellow soap, and gently anointed with a liniment
made of train-oil, eight ounces, red precipitate, in fine powder,
one drachm. And if there be proud flesh, it should be touched with
a bit of blue vitriol, or sprinkled with a little burnt alum. While
these things are doing, the patient must be confined to a regular
light diet, the body should be kept gently open, and cold, as far as
possible, ought to be avoided. To prevent any bad consequences from
stopping this discharge, it will be proper, especially in children of
a gross habit, to make an issue in the neck or arm, which may be kept
open till the patient becomes more strong, and the constitution be
somewhat mended.


864. _Wounded Feet._--When a nail or pin has been run into the foot,
instantly bind on a rind of salt pork; if the foot swell, bathe it in
a strong decoction of wormwood, then bind on another rind of pork,
and keep quiet till the wound is well. The lockjaw is often caused by
such wounds, if neglected.


865. _For a Bruise or Sprain._--Bathe the part in cold water, till
you can get ready a decoction of wormwood. This is one of the
best remedies for sprains and bruises. When the wormwood is fresh
gathered, pound the leaves and wet them either with water or vinegar,
and bind them on the bruise; when the herb is dry, put it into cold
water, and let it boil a short time, then bathe the bruise and bind
on the herb.

Always keep cotton wool, scraped lint, and wormwood on hand.


866. _Ear-ache in Children._--The ear-ache is usually caused by a
sudden cold. Steam the head over hot herbs, bathe the feet, and put
into the ear cotton wool wet with sweet oil and paregoric.


867. _To make Artificial Sea Water, for bathing Children._--Take
common sea salt, two pounds; bitter purging salt, two ounces,
magnesia earth, half an ounce; dissolve all in river water, six
gallons. These are the exact proportions and contents of sea water,
from an accurate analyzation.


868. _Another method of making Sea Water._--Take common salt, half an
ounce; rain, or river water, pure, a pint; spirit of sea salt, twenty
drops. Mix it.


869. _Valuable concise Rules for preserving Health in Winter._--Keep
the feet from wet, and the head well defended when in bed; avoid
too plentiful meals; drink moderately warm and generous, but not
inflaming liquors; go not abroad without breakfast. Shun the night
air as you would the plague; and let your houses be kept from damps
by warm fires. By observing these few and simple rules, better health
may be expected than from the use of the most powerful medicines.


870. _Avoid, as much as possible, living near Church-yards._--The
putrid emanations arising from church-yards are very dangerous;
and parish-churches, in which many corpses are interred, become
impregnated with an air so corrupted, especially in spring, when the
ground begins to grow warm, that it is prudent to avoid this evil as
much as possible, as it may be, and, in some cases, has been, one of
the chief sources of putrid fevers which are so prevalent at that
season.


871. _Cautions in visiting Sick Rooms._--Do not venture into a sick
room if you are in a violent perspiration; for the moment your body
becomes cold, it is in a state likely to absorb the infection; nor
visit a sick person, (if the complaint be of a contagious nature,)
with an _empty stomach_, nor swallow your saliva. In attending a
sick person, place yourself where the air passes from the door or
window, to the bed of the invalid, not between the invalid and the
fire, as the heat of the fire will draw the infectious vapor in that
direction, and you would run much danger from breathing in it.


872. _Syncope, or Fainting._--When fainting comes on from loss of
blood, inanition, or sudden emotions of the mind, the patient should
be placed in a horizontal position, with the head gently raised.
Volatile salts should be applied to the nose, and when the patient
is sufficiently recovered, a few spoonfuls of warm cordial medicine
should be administered.


873. _Preventive of Autumnal Rheumatisms._--For the sake of bright
and polished stoves, do not, when the weather is cold, refrain from
making fires. There is not a more useful document for health to the
inhabitants of this climate, than "follow your feelings."


874. _To promote Sleep._--No fire, candle, rush-light, or lamp,
should be kept burning, during the night, in a bed-room; for it not
only vitiates the air, but disturbs the nerves of the child. Keep the
bed-chamber well ventilated--this greatly promotes healthful rest.


875. _Useful Properties of Celandine._--The juice of this plant cures
tetters and ring-worms, destroys warts, and cures the itch.


876. _Singularly useful Properties of Garlic._--The smell of garlic,
which is formidable to many ladies, is, perhaps, the most infallible
remedy in the world against the vapors, and all the nervous disorders
to which women are subject. Of this (says St. Pierre) I have had
repeated experience.


877. _The Usefulness of two common Plants._--Every plant in the
corn-field possesses virtues particularly adapted to the maladies
incident to the condition of the laboring man. The poppy cures the
pleurisy, procures sleep, stops hemorrhages, and spitting of blood.
Poppy seeds form an emulsion similar to that from almonds in every
respect, when prepared in the same manner. They also yield, by
expression, fine salad oil, like that from Florence. The blue-bottle
is diuretic, vulnerary, cordial, and cooling; an antidote to the
stings of venomous insects, and a remedy for inflammation of the eyes.


QUALIFICATIONS OF A GOOD NURSE.

878. _Good Temper._--An even temper is among the principal
qualifications, if not the most desirable one, for a good nurse; and
without this gentleness and a kind manner, she must be considered
deficient.


879. _Firmness._--Next in importance to good temper, are _firmness_
and decision of character, the exercise of which is frequently, or
rather absolutely indispensable, in the management of the sick.


880. _Discrimination._--This talent enables the nurse to distinguish
between circumstances which, to an unobserving person, appear nearly
allied to each other, but where there is, in reality, an important
difference. It is only or generally acquired by experience and
observation, and requires good sense as its foundation and support.
It is the faculty of right judgment.


881. _Self-denial._--The business of taking care of the sick, if
rightly attended to, requires a devotion to the interests and wants
of the patient, which can only be given by the good nurse, who can
willingly, and from her heart, practise the heavenly precepts of
doing as she would be done by, and denying herself any indulgences
that interfere with her duties.


882. _General Intelligence._--Another important qualification of a
good nurse, is such knowledge of reading, and subjects of general
interest, as make her able to interest and amuse her patient during
the weary hours of slow recovery, or desponding intervals of
intermitting diseases.


883. _Abstinence from improper habits._--The habit of using snuff in
any manner--smoking--sipping intoxicating liquors--taking opium--or
indulging in any improper and disagreeable habit of actions or
expressions, should be carefully avoided by those who hold the
responsible and important station of nurses of the sick.


884. _Cleanliness._--This is a cardinal virtue; and no woman can be a
good nurse who is careless in her own apparel, and slatternly in her
habits. In the preparation of food for the sick, the most scrupulous
neatness should be observed.


885. _Industry, Economy, and Good Housewifery._--All three of these
qualifications are essential, and usually associated in the same
person; but, the _exercise_ of qualities is necessary to their
improvement--and a nurse who has proved herself competent, is most
worthy of being trusted.


886. _Prudence and Piety._--The principles of true discretion, or
prudence of character, are based on the Christian religion, as are
all the moral virtues. The nurse must be religious, or she will
rarely be discreet; and the opportunities constantly afforded her of
influencing the mind and heart of her patient, render her station
one of great trust and responsibility. A _good nurse_ is a woman that
deserves honor as well as reward.


887. _Rules for the Nurse._--1. Keep the patient's room quiet,
well-aired, and clean as possible.

2. Never excite disagreeable mental emotions in the sick, by telling
sad stories and melancholy news; nor allow the presence of unpleasant
persons or objects.

3. Never whisper, nor seem to be telling what the sick are not
permitted to hear.

4. Administer to the necessities of the invalid, promptly and kindly;
but do not worry him with questions and constant attentions, when
these are not needed.

5. Never disturb the quiet sleep of the patient, even to give
medicine, unless peremptorily charged to do so by the physician. A
refreshing sleep is often better than medicine, for the sick; but do
not sleep yourself, and allow the suffering one to lie awake, and
needing your care.


888. _Administering Medicine._--There are certain rules, if observed
in giving medicine, that will render the duty less disagreeable to
the nurse, by making it more tolerable to the patient.

1st. Select the most agreeable and suitable ingredient in which it is
to be exhibited.

2d. Take as small a quantity of this as can possibly be made to
answer the purpose of mixing.

3d. If it be disagreeable to the taste, prepare the mouth for its
reception by holding in, and rinsing it with some acid, as strong
vinegar, lemon juice, or something of the kind.

4th. Never mix the medicine within sight or hearing of the patient.

5th. Let it be prepared without her knowledge; and insist upon its
being taken immediately upon being presented, for the longer her mind
is permitted to dwell upon it, the more abhorrent it will become.

6th. Endeavor to destroy the taste and smell as much as possible, by
any appropriate means, when it has not been done by the apothecary or
physician.

7th. Let the mouth be well rinsed with the acid after taking it, and
let a swallow or two of lemonade, or some other admissible drink, be
taken.


889. _Plasters and Poultices--Mustard Plasters._--Take a sufficient
quantity of bread crumbs finely rubbed, add mustard in proportion to
the required strength; form a poultice of the proper consistency,
by adding vinegar or water. Dr. Wood thinks water preferable, as
he is of the opinion that vinegar destroys an essential property
of the mustard. Mustard employed for this purpose should be whole
grain, fresh as can be procured, and bruised or mashed in a mortar,
or by any other convenient means. When mustard cannot be procured,
horse radish leaves may be substituted; they must be rolled with a
rolling-pin, to mash and make soft the hard stems, and withered by
pouring over them a little scalding water.

After they have been applied, the feet must be frequently examined
to see that they do not get cold. Often more harm than good is done
by the nurse neglecting this part of her duty. Burdock and cabbage
leaves are frequently directed to be applied to the feet; they are
prepared in the same manner, and require the same attention.


890. _Spice Plaster._--Pulverized cloves, cinnamon, and Cayenne
pepper, half an ounce each; mix, and add flour and wine of galls, or
diluted spirits, to form this plaster; lay it hot on the region of
the stomach. It is excellent for pains and spasms.


891. _Alum Cataplasm._--Take any quantity of the white of eggs;
agitate it with a large lump of alum, till it be coagulated.


892. _Cataplasm of common Salt._--Take crumbs of bread, and linseed
meal, of each equal parts; water, saturated with salt, a sufficient
quantity to give it a proper consistency.

This poultice may be applied to the indolent swellings of the glands,
in scrofulous habits, where the patient is deprived of the benefit
of the sea air and water. A constant use of it will frequently
occasion great inflammation of the skin, requiring a suspension of
its use for a few days; but as soon as the inflammation subsides, it
should be repeated. By the use of this poultice, strumous humors,
and scrofulous enlargements, of a chronic nature, have been totally
dispersed.


893. _Cerate of Cantharides._--Take of spermaceti ointment, six
drachms; cantharides, in fine powder, one drachm. Mix them together.

This is the proper application to keep up a constant discharge from
the part to which a blister has been applied.


894. _Bark Poultice._--Take of Peruvian bark, one ounce: sprinkle it
over a piece of thick muslin of the required size; take another piece
of the same size; lay it over the bark, and quilt them together,
to keep the bark to its place; moisten it with brandy or vinegar.
Some of the aromatics may be used in conjunction with the bark, if
indicated.

Let it be worn over the stomach and bowels. It has proved singularly
beneficial in cases of obstinate intermittents, and debility arising
therefrom.


895. _Mush Poultice._--Mush poultices are sometimes ordered; this
constitutes an invaluable application in cases of violent pain in the
stomach and bowels, such as colic, cramp, &c. It is made by simply
boiling the corn-meal until it attains the proper consistency. It
must be spread on a cloth, and applied as warm as can be endured.
We have known the most inveterate cases relieved by it in fifteen
minutes.--_Shore._


FOOD FOR THE SICK AND FOR CHILDREN.

896. A few rules, the reasons for which may be found in the
Introductory Remarks of "Mrs. Hale's New Cook Book," will be of some
advantage here:--

First. Select those substances that are the most soluble--that are
readily converted into chyle by the _gastric juice_.

Second. Those that experience has shown to be the most nutritious.

Third. Those that contain the least amount of stimulus.

Fourth. These to be given in quantity and frequency proportioned to
the general strength or debility of the patient.

By careful observation, the feelings of the invalid will be found to
furnish the most unequivocal evidence of the truth of the foregoing
principles--any deviation from which will soon be attended with
symptoms more or less unpleasant.


897. _Arrow-root_--Contains, in small bulk, a greater proportion of
nourishment than any other farinaceous substance yet known.

Take of arrow-root, one table-spoonful; sweet milk, half a pint;
boiling-water, half a pint: boil these together for a few moments.


898. _Arrow-root Jelly._--Take one spoonful of arrow-root, and cold
water sufficient to form a paste; add one pint of boiling water:
stir it briskly, and boil it a few minutes, when it will become a
smooth, clear jelly. A little sugar and sherry wine may be added, for
debilitated patients; but for infants, a drop or two of the essence
of caraway-seed or cinnamon is preferable, wine being very apt to
become acid in the stomach of infants, and thus disagree with the
bowels.


899. _Sago._--Take two table-spoonfuls of sago, and one pint of
boiling water; stir together, and boil gently, until it thickens.
Wine, sugar, and nutmeg may be added, according to circumstances.


900. _Boiled Flour._--Take of fine flour, one pound; tie it up in a
linen cloth as tight as possible, and, after frequently dipping it
in cold water, dredge the outside with flour, till a crust is formed
round it, which will prevent the water soaking into it while boiling.
It is then to be boiled until it becomes a hard, dry mass.

Two or three spoonfuls of this may be grated, and prepared in
the same manner as arrow-root, for which it forms an excellent
substitute, and can be obtained in the country, where, perhaps, the
other cannot.


901. _A nourishing Jelly for a Sick Person._--Put into a stone jar or
jug, a set of calf's-feet, cut in pieces, a quart of milk, five pints
of water, a little mace, half an ounce of isinglass, and a handful
of hartshorn shavings. Tie some brown paper over the jug, and put it
into the oven with household bread. When done, strain it through a
sieve; and when cold, take off the fat. Some of it may occasionally
be warmed up with wine and sugar. It is good taken as broth, with
herbs.


902. _Restorative._--One ounce of candied eringo-root, one ounce of
sago, one ounce of pearl-barley, and one ounce of rice. Boil them
in four quarts of water, till reduced to half that quantity. Take a
dessert-spoonful either in milk or wine.


903. _Vegetable Soup._--Take one turnip, one potato, and one onion;
let them be sliced, and boiled in one quart of water for an hour; add
as much salt and parsley as is agreeable, and pour the whole on a
slice of toasted bread.


904. _Egg Gruel._--Boil a pint of new milk; beat two new-laid eggs to
a light froth, and pour in while the milk boils: stir them together
thoroughly, but do not let them boil, sweeten it with the best of
loaf-sugar, and grate in a whole nutmeg; add a little salt, if you
like it. Drink half of it while it is warm, and the other half in two
hours. It is said to be good for the dysentery, as well as nourishing.


905. _Rice Jelly._--Boil a quarter of a pound of rice-flour with half
a pound of loaf-sugar, in a quart of water, till the whole becomes
one glutinous mass; then strain off the jelly, and let it stand to
cool. This food is very nourishing and beneficial to invalids.


906. _Gruels._--Have ready a pint of boiling water, and mix three
large spoonfuls of finely-sifted oat-meal, rye, or Indian, in cold
water; pour it into the skillet while the water boils; let it boil
eight or ten minutes. Throw in a large handful of raisins to boil, if
the patient is well enough to bear them. When put in a bowl, add a
little salt, white sugar, and nutmeg.


907. _Stewed Prunes._--Stew them very gently in a small quantity
of water, till the stones slip out. Physicians consider them safe
nourishment in fevers.


DRINKS FOR THE SICK.

908. Water is the beverage prepared by the bountiful Creator to
allay the thirst of all living creatures on the earth; and when the
bare quenching of thirst is the object, clear, pure cold water is
the best drink that can be given: but, when other objects are to be
attained, a combination becomes necessary, into which, generally,
enters an acid, an alkali, a stimulus, a tonic, or some article of
nourishment. In bilious diseases, acidulated drinks are often found
beneficial--and one of the best of these is in the form of lemonade.


909. _Lemonade._--Take fresh lemon-juice, four ounces; fresh and very
thin-peeled lemon, half an ounce; white sugar, four ounces; boiling
water, three pints. Let this mixture stand till cold, then strain for
use. As this drink sometimes causes pain in the bowels, it should not
be drank too freely.


910. _Apple-Water._--Take one tart apple of ordinary size, well
baked; let it be well mashed; pour on it one pint of boiling water;
beat them well together; let it stand to cool, and strain it off for
use. Add loaf-sugar, if the patient desire it.


911. _Vinegar Mixture._--Take of good vinegar three ounces, water,
one pint; loaf-sugar, two-and-a-half ounces.


ALKALESCENT DRINKS.

912. These are used for what is commonly termed, a _sour
stomach_--_heart-burn_--arising from indigestion. The following is
the combination employed by an eminent physician, in his own case.


913. _Dyspeptic Ley._--Take of hickory ashes, 1 quart; soot, two
ounces; boiling water, 1 gallon. Mix, and let them stand for
twenty-four hours, frequently stirring the ingredients; then pour
off the ley, and bottle it up. A tea-cup of this liquor may be given
three times a-day.


STIMULATING DRINKS.

914. These are given in cases of great debility. Madeira, sherry,
or port wines are usually combined with some other fluid, like the
following.


915. _Wine Whey._--Take of fresh cow's milk, half a pint; white
Madeira wine, one ounce. Boil the milk, then add the wine.


916. _Mustard Whey._--Cow's milk, 1 pint; bruised mustard seed, one
ounce; simmer together till the curd separates, then add half a pint
of Madeira wine. A spoonful of this to be taken every hour or two, in
low fevers and cases of debilitated stomachs.


TONIC DRINKS.

917. _Decoction of Peruvian Bark._--Peruvian bark, bruised, one
ounce; cold water, one pint. Boil together for ten minutes, then add
half an ounce of Virginia snake-root, and two drachms of orange-peel,
bruised. Keep the infusion near the fire for half an hour, in a close
vessel. A wine-glassful may be taken every hour.


918. _Columbo Root and Ginger._--Colombo root, bruised, one ounce;
ginger, two drachms; boiling water, one pint. Let them infuse
one hour by the fire; and give of the strained liquor (cold) a
wine-glassful every two hours.

This infusion, when freely used, has proved successful in bowel
complaint (chronic diarrhea) of long standing.


919. _Peruvian Bark and Valerian._--For this decoction, take Peruvian
bark, bruised, one ounce; water, one pint; take of Valerian root, one
ounce; boiling water, one pint; infuse for one hour and strain. Add
the decoction of bark to this infusion, and give a tea-cupful, cold,
three or four times a-day.

This is chiefly employed in rheumatic headache in which it is
sometimes very serviceable. It was a favorite prescription of the
late Dr. Parrish.


920. _Chamomile and Orange-peel._--For this infusion, take
chamomile-flowers, one ounce; orange-peel, half an ounce; cold water,
three pints; soak together twenty-four hours. Take a tea-cupful four
times a-day.

The chamomile infusion is more agreeable to the taste when cold, and
is less apt to spoil than when made of boiling water.


921. _Wild Cherry-tree Bark._--Take of this bark, dried and bruised,
one ounce; orange-peel, bruised, two drachms; water, one pint. Boil
the bark alone for ten minutes, then add the orange-peel. Take a
wine-glassful, cold, twice a-day.


922. _Dog-wood Bark._--Dog-wood bark, bruised, one ounce; water, one
pint. Boil for twenty or thirty minutes and strain. A wine-glassful
may be given every hour. This is a very good substitute for Peruvian
bark in fever-and-ague.


923. _Sage Tea._--Night sweats have been cured, when more powerful
remedies had failed, by fasting morning and night, and drinking cold
sage tea constantly and freely.


924. _Gentian-root Infusion._--Gentian-root, half an ounce;
orange-peel, pounded, two drachms; hot water, one pint. Let these
stand an hour. This will be found useful in debility of the digestive
organs. A wine-glassful may be given every two or three hours.


925. _Infusion for Rheumatism._--One ounce of gum-guaiacum must be
bruised and put into a pint of French brandy, in which it must remain
for at least thirty hours. When the gum is dissolved, shake the
bottle, and pour a little of this infusion into rather more than a
wine-glassful of tepid water; take this at bed-time, for three nights.


926. _Mixture for Rheumatism._--One ounce of salad mustard must be
simmered in a pint of soft water, till the liquor is reduced to half
a pint; strain it through muslin, and add a pint of milk, fresh from
the cow. Let it boil only two minutes, and take a small tea-cupful,
milk-warm, night and morning.


NUTRITIVE DRINKS.

927. _The best Method of obtaining pure Soft Water for Medicinal
Purposes, without distilling it._--Place an earthen pan in the
fields, at a considerable distance from the smoke of any town, to
catch the rain as it falls. People living in the country, can easily
save this clean, pure rain-water. Set it for an hour in a cool
cellar, or put ice into it, and it is the most reviving drink for a
thirsty invalid.


928. _Toast and Water._--Toast thin slices of bread on both sides
carefully; then pour cold water over the bread and cover it tight for
one hour; or use boiling water, and let it cool.


929. _Waters for cooling Draughts of Preserved or Fresh Fruits--Apple
Water, Lemon Water, &c._--Pour boiling water on the preserved or
fresh fruits, sliced; or squeeze out the juice, boil it with sugar,
and add water.


930. _Barley Water._--Take pearl barley, two ounces; wash it, till it
be freed from dust, in cold water: afterwards boil it in a quart of
water for a _few_ minutes, strain off the liquor, and throw it away.
Then boil it in four pints and a half of water, until it be reduced
one half.


931. _Laxative Whey._--Take of the dried buds of the damask rose, one
ounce; rennet whey, one quart. Let them stand together twelve hours,
then strain off the liquor, and add of crystals of tartar, and white
sugar, a suitable proportion, to render it more active, and at the
same time more palatable.


932. _Wine Whey._--Wine whey is a cooling and safe drink in fevers.
Set half a pint of sweet milk at the fire, pour in one glass of wine,
and let it remain perfectly still, till it curdles; when the curds
settle, strain it, and let it cool. It should not get more than
blood-warm. A spoonful of rennet-water hastens the operation. Make
palatable with loaf-sugar and nutmeg, if the patient can bear it.


933. _Lemon Syrup, for a Cough._--To a pint and a half of water, add
two large poppy-heads, and two large lemons. Boil them till they are
soft, press the lemons into the water, strain the liquor, and add
half a drachm of saffron, and half a pound of brown sugar-candy,
pounded. Boil all together till the sugar-candy is dissolved; stir
the whole till you perceive it will jelly; strain it a second time,
and take the seeds from the poppies.


934. _Turnip Syrup, for a Cold or Affection of the Lungs._--Roast
twelve or more fine turnips in an apple roaster, press the juice from
them, and add sugar-candy to your taste. Take a tea-cupful at night
and in the morning.


935. _Rose Gargle._--Take of red rose-buds, dried, half an ounce;
boiling water, two pints; diluted vitriolic acid, three drachms; mix
these together, macerate for half an hour, and draw off the liquor.
Sweeten with an ounce of honey.


936. _Detergent Gargle._--Borax powder, two drachms; rose-water, six
ounces; honey of roses, one ounce. Mix together. To be used in the
thrush.


937. _Common Gargle._--Honey-water, seven ounces; honey of roses, six
drachms; vinegar, half an ounce; tincture of myrrh, two drachms. Mix
these together.


938. _Starch Injection._--Take of the jelly of starch, four ounces;
linseed oil, half an ounce. Mix them over a gentle heat, and add
forty drops of tincture of opium. To be used in alvine fluxes, to
allay the irritation which occasions constant tenesmus.


939. _Spermaceti Ointment._--Take of spermaceti, half an ounce; white
wax, two ounces; olive oil, four ounces. Melt them together over a
slow fire, and keep stirring till cold.


940. _Elder-flower Ointment._--Gather the buds or earliest flowers of
the elder-bush; simmer these in fresh butter, or sweet lard; it makes
a healing and cooling ointment for the skin, in cutaneous diseases.


941. _Elder-flower Poultice._--A poultice of elder-flower tea and
biscuit, is good as a preventive to mortification.


942. _White-bean Poultice._--Nothing is so good to take down
swellings, as a soft poultice of stewed white beans, put on in a thin
muslin bag, and renewed every hour or two.


A FEW SIMPLE MIXTURES, &c.

943. _Squill Mixture._--Take of the milk of ammoniacum, four ounces;
syrup of squills, three ounces; mix them together. Dose, two large
spoonsful every sixth hour. It is efficacious in coughs, asthma, and
oppression on the chest.


944. _Chalk Mixture._--Take of prepared chalk, one ounce; double
refined sugar, six drachms; gum arabic, in powder, one ounce; water,
two pints. Mix them together.


945. _Camphor Mixture._--Take of camphor, one drachm; rectified
spirit of wine, a few drops. Rub them together. Add half an ounce
of double refined sugar and one pint of boiling distilled, or rain
water. When cold, strain off the liquor.


946. _Infusion of Senna._--Take of senna leaves, one ounce and a
half; ginger, in powder, one drachm; of boiling distilled, or rain
water, one pint. Macerate for an hour. When cold, strain off the
liquor.


947. _Cordial Julep._--Take of peppermint water, four ounces; pimento
water, two ounces; compound spirit of ammonia, tincture of castor, of
each two drachms. Mix them together. Dose, two large spoonsful.


948. _Mucilage of Quince Seed._--Take of quince seeds, one drachm;
rain or distilled water, half a pint. Boil over a gentle fire, until
the liquor becomes thick and viscid.


949. _Lime Water._--Take of quick lime, eight ounces; rain or
distilled water, twelve pints. Suffer them to stand together one
hour, then decant the liquor.


950. _Alum Whey._--Take of alum, two drachms; cow's milk, one pint.
Boil them together, until the curd be formed; then strain off the
liquor, and add spirit of nutmeg, two ounces; syrup of cloves, one
ounce.

It is employed with advantage in diabetes, in uterine and other
fluxes.


951. _Whortleberries._--Whortleberries, commonly called
huckleberries, dried, are a useful medicine for children. Made into
tea, and sweetened with molasses, they are very beneficial, when the
system is in a restricted state, and the digestive powers out of
order.


952. _Blackberries._--Blackberries are extremely useful, in cases of
dysentery. To eat the berries is very healthy; tea, made of the roots
and leaves is beneficial; and a syrup made of the berries is still
better. Blackberries have sometimes effected a cure when physicians
despaired.


953. _Method of causing Children to cut their Teeth easily._--Feed
them with an ivory spoon and boat--to be made thick, round, and
smooth at the edges. Ivory being of the same hardness and texture as
the jaws and tender teeth, the gums are not hurt or injured, but,
when they are thus pressed, facilitate the teeth in their progress;
whereas, the silver implements, being of a hard texture, and the
edges made thin, bruise and wound the gums, and make a hard seam; so
that the teeth cannot make their way direct, and, if they do cut,
come irregularly; so that the operation of lancing is frequently
absolutely necessary, which, of course, must prejudice the teeth, as
some are exposed before the time they are fit to cut.

By this method, fevers, convulsions, &c., owing to the teeth being
not able to find their way through the hard seam, may be prevented.
It must be often observed, that children cry much when feeding, as if
ill, or disgusted with their food; whereas it is frequently owing to
quite the contrary; for, being hungry, and over eager to take their
food, they press hard, through eagerness, on the boat and spoon,
which, being sharp, bruises and cuts the gums, and consequently
causes great pain, which, by the ivory implements, will be prevented.
Those who cannot afford ivory, may have horn or wood, or even pewter
is greatly preferable to silver, provided the edges are made thick,
round, and smooth. The wooden sort, unless they are kept very sweet
and clean, on that very account, are the least eligible, and should
be made, however, of box, or such hard and close-textured wood as is
the least liable to be tainted by the milky food.


954. _Rules for the Preservation of the Teeth and Gums._--The teeth
are bones, thinly covered over with a fine enamel, and this enamel is
more or less substantial in different persons. Whenever this enamel
is worn through by too coarse a powder, or too frequently cleaning
the teeth, or eaten through by a scorbutic humor in the gums, the
tooth cannot remain long sound, any more than a filbert-kernel can,
when it has been penetrated by a worm.

The teeth, therefore, are to be cleaned, but with great precaution;
for, if you wear the enamel off faster by cleaning the outside than
nature supplies it within, your teeth will suffer more by this
method, than perhaps by a total neglect.


955. _Stammering._--Impediments in the speech may be cured, where
there is no mal-formation of the organs of articulation, by
perseverance, for three or four months, in the simple remedy of
reading aloud, with the teeth closed, for at least two hours in the
course of each day.


956. _Of Preservers, and Rules for the Preservation of
Sight._--Though it may be impossible to prevent the absolute decay of
sight, whether arising from age, partial disease, or illness, yet,
by prudence and good management, its natural failure may certainly
be retarded, and the general habits of the eyes strengthened, which
good purposes will be promoted by a proper attention to the following
maxims:--

1. Never sit for any length of time in absolute gloom, or exposed to
a blaze of light. The reasons on which this rule is founded, prove
the impropriety of going hastily from one extreme to the other,
whether of darkness or of light, and show us that a southern aspect
is improper for those whose sight is weak and tender.

2. Avoid reading small print.

3. Never read in the dark; nor, if the eyes be disordered, by
candle-light. Happy those who learn this lesson betimes, and begin
to preserve their sight before they are reminded by pain of the
necessity of sparing them. The frivolous attention to a quarter of
an hour in the evening, has cost numbers the perfect and comfortable
use of their eyes for many years; the mischief is effected
imperceptibly--the consequences are inevitable.

4. The eye should not be permitted to dwell on glaring objects, more
particularly on first waking in the morning; the sun should not, of
course, be suffered to shine in the room at that time, and a moderate
quantity of light only be admitted. It is easy to see that, for the
same reasons, the furniture of a bed should be neither altogether of
a white or red color; indeed, those whose eyes are weak, would find
considerable advantage in having green for the furniture of their
bed-chamber. Nature confirms the propriety of the advice given in
this rule; for the light of the day comes on by slow degrees, and
green is the universal color she presents to our eyes.

5. The long-sighted should accustom themselves to read with
rather less light, and somewhat nearer to the eye than what they
naturally like; while those that are short-sighted, should rather
use themselves to read with the book as far off as possible: by
this means, both would improve and strengthen their sight; while a
contrary course will increase its natural imperfections.

There is nothing which preserves the sight longer than always using,
both in reading and writing, that moderate degree of light which
is best suited to the eye: too little, strains them--too great a
quantity, dazzles and confounds them. The eyes are less hurt by the
want of light, than by the excess of it: too little light never does
any harm, unless they are strained by efforts to see objects to which
the degree of light is inadequate; but too great a quantity has,
by its own power, destroyed the sight. Thus, many have brought on
themselves a cataract, by frequently looking at the sun or a fire;
others have lost their sight by being brought too suddenly from an
extreme of darkness into the blaze of day. How dangerous the looking
on bright, luminous objects, is to the sight, is evident from its
effects in those countries which are covered, the greater part of the
year, with snow, where blindness is exceedingly frequent, and where
the traveller is obliged to cover his eyes with crape, to prevent
the dangerous and often sudden effects of too much light: even the
untutored savage tries to avoid the danger, by framing a little
wooden case for his eyes, with only two narrow slits. A momentary
gaze at the sun will, for a time, unfit the eyes for vision, and
render them insensible to impressions of a milder nature.


957. _The Feet_--Should be washed in cold water every morning, and
wiped very dry. Stockings, if too small, cripple the feet as surely
as small shoes. Always be careful to give the foot room enough, and
you will be rarely troubled with corns. When the toe-nails have a
tendency to turn in, so as to be painful, the nail should always
be kept scraped _very thin_, and as near the flesh as possible. As
soon as the corner of the nail can be raised up out of the flesh, it
should be kept from again entering, by putting a tuft of fine lint
under it.


958. _For Sore Feet._--The thin white skin which comes from suet, is
excellent to bind upon the feet, for chilblains. Rubbing with Castile
soap, and afterwards with honey, is likewise highly recommended.


959. _A Vapor-Bath at home._--Place _strong_ sticks across a tub of
water, at the boiling-point, and sit upon them, entirely enveloped
in a blanket, feet and all. The steam from the water will be a
vapor-bath. Some people put herbs into the water. Steam-baths are
excellent for severe colds, and for some disorders in the bowels.
They should not be taken without the advice of an experienced nurse
or physician. Great care should be taken not to renew the cold after;
it would be doubly dangerous.


RULES FOR WOMEN SERVANTS.

960. _Of the Cookmaid._--When a young woman undertakes the situation
of cookmaid in a family, where only one or two other servants are
kept, she will have many duties to perform, besides preparing and
dressing the provisions, although that is her principal business.
What those duties are, will, of course, depend very much upon the
habits of the family with whom she lives; and whether there is a
man-servant or a boy kept; as, if not, the cleaning of knives, shoes,
and various things that would be done by them, become the business of
the cook-maid.


961. _General duties of the Cookmaid._--The part of the house in
which her chief work lies is the kitchen; but she is also expected
to clean the passage or hall, the stone door-steps, the bell-pull,
name-plate, knocker, and all things outside the house which are kept
cleaned; also, the kitchen stairs, pantry, servants' offices, and
areas; and, in many families, the dining-room as well as the kitchen
windows, and the light over or at the sides of the hall door. It is
her place to scour the dresser, table, shelves, &c., in the kitchen
and pantry, and to keep both places clean and in order; to wash the
plates and dishes, to keep the saucepans and all other vessels used
in cooking, or for keeping eatables in, perfectly clean, so that they
may always be ready for use; to wash and keep the pudding-cloths
sweet and clean; to sweep the carpet, and clean the grate, fender,
fire-irons, and hearth, in the breakfast-parlor; to clean the kitchen
candlesticks; to assist the housemaid in making the beds after they
have been laid open to air; to answer the door to the trades-people;
and, if there is no man-servant, nor boy kept, to brush the clothes
and shoes of the gentlemen of the family.

It is of great importance that the cookmaid should be cleanly in
her person, as well as in her cooking; and that she should never be
seen with dirty hands, which may be easily prevented by using thick
gloves, when blacking a stove or doing any other dirty work, and
always washing her hands as soon as she has finished. Nothing can be
more disagreeable than to see the person who prepares one's meals
with dirty hands or apron.


962. _Arrangements for Work in the Kitchen._--The cookmaid should
always be furnished with her own pails, brushes, flannels, and
everything she requires for her own work, and should never use the
housemaid's pails or brushes, nor suffer the housemaid to use hers. A
strict attention to this rule prevents much discomfort and confusion,
and the work is sure to be done with more regularity, and much time
saved.


963. _Work in the Breakfast-room._--Your work in the breakfast-room
generally is to light the fire, clean the stove, fender, fire-irons,
and hearth; take up the ashes, sweep the carpet, shake the
hearth-rug, and lay it down again; but this is sometimes varied in
different families. If you find there are more cinders than you can
use for lighting the fire, you should take them down to burn in the
kitchen.


964. _Of Neatness in the Breakfast-room._--In order to avoid soiling
the carpet in the breakfast-parlor, while you are lighting the fire
and cleaning the stove, you should have a piece of drugget, about a
yard wide and two yards long, or cloth of some kind, to lay down; but
whichever you use, always use it the dirty side upwards. Without this
precaution, the most careful person cannot prevent the carpet from
getting dirty before the fire-place.


965. _Punctuality in Servants._--Punctuality is a very essential
quality in a cookmaid, who ought to regulate her work so that the
dinner should always be ready at the appointed time; and to avoid
any mistake in this particular, she should know precisely the length
of time required to cook each kind of food, according to the taste
of those for whom she cooks, and then she should allow herself about
fifteen to twenty minutes more, to take up the dinner, and for any
little hindrance that may occur, she will be tolerably exact. The
best means of being punctual is to keep everything in its proper
place, and fit for use, so that no time may be lost in looking for
this thing or that, or in having to clean any utensils that may be
wanted for cooking.


966. _Economy in the Kitchen._--Never waste anything, but have places
and purposes for all articles in your keeping. Habits of economy
are easily acquired, and the cookmaid would do well to consider
how much more valuable she must be to her employers, and how much
more she will be respected, if she be careful, and make the most of
the property that is intrusted to her charge, than if she uses it
wastefully.


967. _Cleaning the Hall, &c._--If you are quick with the
breakfast-parlor work, you will, very likely, have time to clean the
door-steps and passage before breakfast, which is much better than
leaving them till afterwards: but this will, of course, depend on the
breakfast-hour, as you must not, on any account, neglect to see that
the water in the kettle is boiling, the urn-iron hot, and everything
ready to take up the moment it is wanted.


968. _Making Breakfast._--If you have toast to make, or bacon to
cook, take care to have a clear fire, so that it may be done quickly,
when wanted, and not before; for both toast and bacon should be hot
from the fire, and not suffered to stand after they are done. Dry
toast should be thin and crisp; to keep it so, set it on its edge in
the toast-rack, directly it is made.

Never boil eggs by guess; if you have no clock in the kitchen, you
should have a sand-glass or egg-boiler, for in guessing at the time,
it is not possible to be quite exact, and half a minute too much
or too little will spoil an egg. It is the duty of the cookmaid to
prepare the breakfast; and that of the housemaid to carry it up to
the breakfast-parlor.


969. _Cold Meats at Breakfast._--In some families, whatever cold meat
or cold poultry may have been left from the previous day, is served
up at breakfast; in which case it is the cookmaid's duty to send it
up, laid out neatly on clean and rather small-sized dishes, with
breakfast plates and small clean knives and forks; sometimes it will
require a little putting to rights, by trimming, and garnishing with
a few sprigs of parsley, which, of course, she will attend to.


970. _To arrange for Children, &c._--If the children of the family
breakfast in the nursery, or require to go to school early, you will,
most probably, be expected to cut their bread and butter, and get
their breakfast ready for them; or, at all events, assist in doing
so. It is your place also to get the kitchen breakfast ready for
yourself and the housemaid, &c.; and it will materially add to the
comfort of your situation, if you take care to keep your table-cloth
clean, and neatly folded, so that it may not have an untidy
appearance when spread upon the table; and let the knives, and all
the things you use for yourself and fellow servants, be clean like
those you send up to the table of the family.


971. _Taking Directions for Dinner._--In most families, it is the
custom of the lady of the house, to go into the kitchen every
morning, to make arrangements with the cook about the dinner, and to
give out from the store-closet such things as may be required for
the day's use, either by the cookmaid or housemaid. You must then
remember to ask for whatever you will want, so that you may not have
to give trouble a second time. Some ladies prefer that the cookmaid
should come into the parlor, to receive directions. Should this be
the custom, you should make it a rule to wash your hands, and put on
a clean apron, before you go in. There are some foolish servants,
who have a mistaken notion that a lady should not trouble herself
much with her kitchen; but every one ought to have the good sense to
know that it is the province and duty of a mistress to superintend
the order and management of every part of her household; and those
servants who are conscious that they waste not, and perform their
duties to the best of their ability, will never feel an objection;
but, on the contrary, will be pleased that their mistress should see
that they do so.


972. _Making Beds, &c._--When you have taken orders about dinner,
you should go up into the bed-rooms, to assist the house-maid in
making the beds--having already washed your hands, and put on your
clean bed-apron. It is very proper to keep a bed-apron entirely for
this purpose, one that will wrap quite round you, and tie together
behind; and to take it off, and fold it up, as soon as the beds are
made. It will serve for a week, with care; therefore, if you make
a rule to put on a clean one every Monday morning, the bed-clothes
and furniture will never get soiled by rubbing against your gown or
clothes. Attention to such little niceties as these is so easy, that
it is surprising any one should neglect them, particularly as they
make all the difference between a good servant and a bad one.


973. _Arrangement of the Dinner-Table._--Always have the salt-cellars
filled with fine clean salt, and the cruets and cruet-stand dusted;
and that each of the cruets are about half-full of vinegar, oil,
pepper, sugar, &c., such as they are intended to hold; and although
this is the housemaid's duty, it is only kind in the cookmaid to
give the housemaid all the information she may require or ask for;
a good dinner will look very unhandsome, unless the housemaid takes
care that the salts and cruets are clean, and sufficiently filled
to accompany it to table. The housemaid should also see that the
mustard-cruet is quite clean, before it is put on the table; for if
the mustard is dried on the edges, or on the spoon, it has a very
disagreeable appearance, and betokens an untidy servant.


974. _The Dinner-Hour, and its Duties._--In order more surely to be
correct to the dinner-hour, allow yourself from fifteen to twenty
minutes for taking up the dinner, and for any hindrances that may
occur; and take care to have the fire made up in proper time for
cooking--regulating the size of it according to what you have to
cook. It should be stirred as little as possible while you are
cooking; indeed, a good cookmaid stirs her fire only once during her
roasting, and that is when she turns the meat, or alters the hanging
of it, at which times she takes the meat and dripping-pan away from
the fire, as stirring creates both dust and smoke; but as dust or
coal may, by accident, fall into the dripping-pan, keep ready a
dish-cloth, to wipe it out directly. Be mindful, also, to keep in the
house a stock of the things that are commonly wanted, such as flour,
salt, pepper, spices, &c.; but always make a point of using up what
you had, before you begin upon the fresh supply; and be sure to put
them away into their proper places, as you receive them--as mustard,
pepper, spices, tea, coffee, &c., will spoil, if kept in the papers
they are sent home in.


975. _Of Re-cooking._--In cities, where the master of the house is
often engaged in business until late in the day, the dinner-hour may
be as late as four or five o'clock; in that case, there is an early
dinner for the children and servants, for whom a pudding is usually
to be made. It is a very material part of your business to know
how to dress over, nicely, anything left from the preceding day's
dinner, so that it may be used in the kitchen, if not required in the
dining-room. For this purpose, you should, when a joint is brought
down from the dining-room, put it on a clean dish, and pour the gravy
into a small basin or jelly-pot, and you will find it very useful in
making nice, savory dishes of cold meat, or to put into hashes and
stews, or warming up for gravy.


976. _Hot Plates for Dinner._--Before sending up dinner, take care
that you have enough hot plates. It is better to heat a few more than
the exact number, lest an extra one may be wanted.


977. _Serving up Dinner._--Whilst the dinner is being served up, the
cook-maid may be required to assist, by taking the dishes to the door
of the dining-parlor; also, in some families, by taking them from the
housemaid, or from the outside of the dining-room door, when they are
done with, that the housemaid, if she waits at dinner, may not have
to leave the room. And the cookmaid will save herself much time and
trouble, if she gets her dish-tub, in the sink, half filled with hot
water, so that she may put the dishes and plates into it the moment
they are brought from the dinner-table.


978. _Washing Dishes._--The dirty dishes and plates should be put
into a dish-tub of warm water, immediately they are taken from the
dinner table; for, by this means, half the trouble of washing-up
will be saved, as it will prevent the gravy, mustard, juice, &c.,
from cooling and drying on the plates and dishes. When you commence
washing them, add sufficient boiling water to make it hot enough to
wash them in, and with a dish-cloth wash them clean on both sides,
one at a time. Rinse them immediately, in a pan full of cold water,
part of which should stand under the tap, which should be turned a
little on to keep it full. The reason for keeping the pan full of
water and running over, is, that any grease, &c., which may rinse
off the plates and dishes, may swim over into the sink in the act of
rinsing, otherwise it would remain on the water, and make those you
rinse, after the first few, look greasy, instead of clean and bright.


979. _Washing Saucepans, Kettles, &c._--When you have washed all the
dishes and plates used at dinner, as above directed, and put them
in the rack to drain, the saucepans and kettles which have been
used for cooking, should next be cleaned. The proper plan is to fill
them with cold water as soon as the food has been taken out of them,
as, by this means, whatever may hang about the sides cannot stick
close, nor dry on hard, and they will clean much more readily. If
the insides are discolored or dirty, a little soda or wood-ash is
the best thing to clean them with; or, if they are very dirty, the
wood-ashes, or some soda, must be boiled up in them. They should
afterwards be well rinsed with boiling-hot water, wiped, and made
perfectly dry, by being placed for some time bottom upwards, before
the kitchen fire. The upper rims of saucepans, and the rims and
insides of the lids, must be kept quite clean. If tin saucepans are
not completely dry, they will soon get rusty, and if copper ones are
not perfectly cleaned and dried, they become poisonous. Never leave
food of any kind in a saucepan to become cold.


980. _Washing Pudding-cloths, &c._--Pudding-cloths should be washed
as soon as possible after the puddings are taken out of them. They
should be washed in clean warm water, without soap, rinsed and
thoroughly dried before being folded and put in the kitchen drawer,
otherwise they will give a musty smell to the puddings that are next
boiled in them. The paste-brush, egg-whisk and sieves must also be
washed, first in cold and then in warm water, and put away clean and
dry, or they will spoil whatever you use them for afterwards. All
things through which eggs are strained, should be washed, first in
cold and then in hot water.


981. _Cleaning the Sink._--First, wipe into one corner and take up
all the little bits of gristle, fat, or vegetables, or whatever else
may have collected in the sink; and, if you live in or near to a
town, throw it on the back part of the top of the kitchen fire; for,
if thrown into the dust-bin, it will either entice rats or other
vermin, or else cause an offensive and unwholesome smell. If forced
down the sink holes, the same unpleasant consequences will follow,
besides stopping-up and destroying the drains. But if you live in the
country where a pig is kept, it may be thrown into the pig tub with
the dish washings.

You must next clean the sink, which, if of stone, is best done with
a hard brush and a little soda; or, if of lead, with the following
mixture:--One pennyworth of pearlash, one pennyworth of soft-soap,
and one pennyworth of fuller's-earth, (the fuller's-earth dried,)
mixed together in a pipkin, or something of the kind, with a quart
of water. About a table-spoonful of this on a piece of flannel will
clean the leaden sink.


982. _Cleaning the Spit, Frying-pan, &c._--The spit, if one is used,
must also be always perfectly cleaned when done with. A little
dripping rubbed on a hot frying-pan or gridiron, after cleaning it,
will greatly remove the smell and taste of fish; but some persons
rub a little salt well about the inside of a hot frying-pan, with a
piece of clean paper, which also removes the taste of fish or onions.
If these things are put away into damp places, they will soon become
unfit for use.


983. _Cabbage-water to be thrown away._--Always remember that green
water, that is, water in which cabbage, or any other vegetable is
boiled, should be thrown down the sink the moment the vegetables are
out of it, while it is quite hot, and then a pailful of cold water
thrown after it, will prevent the unhealthy smell arising from green
water; but if it be left till it is cold, or nearly cold before you
throw it away, twenty pails of water thrown after it will not prevent
the smell.


984. _Scalding Milk vessels._--Be careful to scald every vessel which
has contained milk, having previously let it stand for some time
filled with cold water, and never let any other liquid be put into it
till it has undergone this process; or whatever you put in will be
spoiled.


985. _Cleaning Bread-pans, &c._--Your pan for keeping bread should be
wiped out every day, and scalded once a week; in the same way clean
the cheese-pan, or both your bread and cheese will become mouldy and
musty; and cheese should always be kept standing on its _rind_; and
the rind should be scraped before it is sent to the table.


986. _Keeping Beer._--You should not let beer stand in a pot or
jug; but, if there be any left, put it into a clean bottle, with a
tea-spoonful of sugar, and cork it tightly.


987. Never suffer two things to be put together, which would give
to each other a disagreeable taste or flavor. Never cut bread, or
butter, or meat, with a knife which has been used for cheese or
onions, or the bread, butter, or meat will taste of them. Therefore,
you should put the knife which you have used for these purposes, in
some place separate from the other knives, and never allow it to be
put with them until it has been properly cleaned.


988. _Washing Pickle and Preserve-Jars._--Whenever pickle or
preserve jars are empty, wash them well in cold water--dry them
thoroughly--and put them in a dry place. If you wash pickle or
preserve-jars in hot water, it will crack their glazed surface, and
make them porous, which spoils them for use, as pickles and preserves
require to have the air kept from them.


989. _Cleaning Dish-Covers._--Dish-covers should always be wiped
and polished as soon as they are removed from the table. If this is
done whilst they are warm, it will be but little trouble; but, if
the steam be allowed to dry on them, you will find much difficulty
in getting the tarnish off from the insides. When they are wiped and
polished, hang them up in their places immediately.


990. _Of the Paste-Board, Rolling-Pin, &c._--After making puddings
or pastry, wash your rolling-pin and paste-board, without soap, and
put it away quite dry. Never use, nor allow others to use, any of the
family dinner or tea-service, in the kitchen; as, if one thing be
broken, it would perhaps spoil a valuable set; but, always use for
cooking, the plates, dishes, and cups, provided for that purpose,
which are usually plain, and though of course equally clean, are much
less expensive. Keep the bread, cheese, butter, flour, dripping,
milk, eggs, and every thing else you may require in cooking, in their
distinct and separate places; and be careful to put them away as soon
as you have done with them.


991. _Of keeping Hot Water._--It is highly necessary that you should
keep a plentiful supply of hot water, by constantly filling-up the
boiler whenever water is taken out of it. A self-acting boiler does
not require to be filled, as it fills itself as fast as the water
is drawn out; but you must be very careful in frosty weather, to
watch whether the water continues to run; for if the water in the
pipes becomes frozen, and you allow the boiler to get empty, the
consequence is almost sure to be, that when the frost melts, the cold
water comes suddenly into the hot boiler, and splits it. The damage
can only be repaired by having a new boiler, which costs, perhaps,
from ten to twenty-five dollars; so you may see how important it is
that you should prevent so serious an accident.


992. _Of Ventilating Rooms._--Do not keep your kitchen always hot,
and be sure you let in fresh air. If the attention of every master or
mistress of a family turned to the ventilation of their dwelling, it
would be greatly the means of insuring health. One single ventilator
in the uppermost staircase window, would effect a great deal. Great
attention ought to be paid to letting the chamber-windows down from
the top, frequently through the day, particularly where the family
sits.


993. _Of preparing Tea._--When the tea-time arrives, it is your duty
to cut the bread-and-butter, or make the toast. You should never send
up more than one or two rounds of buttered toast at once, according
to the number to partake of it, that it may be hot and fresh when it
is handed round. You must cut off the crusts as close as you can,
after it is made and buttered. If a tea-urn is used, it will be your
duty to get it ready in time, and put in the boiling water when it
is wanted: you must also remember to make the urn-iron red-hot, by
putting it into the kitchen fire after dinner, or at least for an
hour before tea-time. When you use the tea-urn, be careful to do as
follows:--

Take care that the water boils, and that the urn-heater is red-hot;
then, in the first place, dust the urn, and put the boiling water
into it, before you put in the heater; and, to prevent giving an
unpleasant taste, or spoiling the boiling water by dust, or particles
of the hot iron, (which may rub off the heater as you are putting it
into its place,) be careful to put on the round rim, or ring, before
you put in the red-hot heater; and be sure, also, to avoid pouring
any water into the place where the heater goes; otherwise, when the
iron is put in, the steam may fly up in your face, and scald you
seriously. Taking the urn up into the parlor or drawing-room, is the
housemaid's business; and she should not forget the rug to place it
on, or the heat issuing from it will certainly spoil the polished
table: and it is also the housemaid's business to empty the urn when
done with, which she must be careful to turn upside down, to drain.


994. _Taking care of the Fire._--The cookmaid's last duties of the
day, are--to take great care that the kitchen fire is so nearly out,
as to be quite safe; and that nothing is left hanging before the
fire-place; then she must see that the kitchen windows and shutters
are fastened, and lock and bolt all the doors and windows that have
not been fastened earlier in the evening.


995. _Cleaning Knives, Forks, &c._--If a lad or man-servant is kept,
he cleans the steel knives and forks, as well as the shoes and boots;
and also brushes the gentlemen's clothes: but, in that large number
of families who keep no boy nor man, it becomes the business of the
cookmaid to clean the steel knives and forks. [See the best manner of
preparing the knife-board, &c., in another part of this book.]


996. _Care of Table-Knives._--Be careful to keep a good edge to your
knives, and do your utmost to preserve them from notches, especially
the carving-knife, otherwise a hot joint may get cold while the knife
has to be sent from table to be sharpened. A keen edge may be given
by cleaning alone, if care be taken, in passing the knife from you,
not to let the edge lean on the board, but, in drawing it towards
you, to lean with a little pressure on the edge.

The knives which are not in daily use, should, after being wiped with
a dry cloth, be put into the cases, or wrapped in very dry brown
paper, and so placed as not to touch each other, the same way as
the cutlers keep them. Great care should be taken that the place in
which they are put is perfectly dry--as all articles made of steel
have a tendency to contract rust, that metal having the property of
extracting damp from the atmosphere, or from anything moist near to
it. If the ivory handles of the knives and forks get stained, or
become discolored, mix a table-spoonful of water with a few drops of
spirits of salt--rub it well on with a little bit of clean rag--wash
it off with cold water--and wipe them perfectly dry.


997. _Of cleaning Boots and Shoes._--Where no man-servant is kept,
the cook or housemaid must clean the shoes and boots. First, scrape
the dirt off the shoe with a wooden knife, or piece of firewood, cut
to something of an edge. When the worst of the dirt is thus taken
off, use your hard brush to remove the remainder, or the leather
will never be bright. Stir the blacking with a short fine sponge,
tied round one end of it; and, with this, put some blacking on the
blacking-brush, and black the shoe all over; use the polishing-brush
directly, while it remains damp, and rub it lightly, yet briskly,
till the shoe shines perfectly bright. When boots or shoes are laid
down before a fire to dry, let them be placed at a good distance, or
the leather will harden and shrink, and the shoes get out of shape.


998. _Of cleaning Candlesticks._--It is the duty of the cookmaid
to clean the chamber candlesticks used by the servants, and the
candlesticks belonging to the kitchen (those used by the family
in the parlors, drawing-rooms, and best bed-rooms, belong to the
housemaid's work). Before you commence, have a sheet of thick brown
paper laid on a table, or on whatever else you intend to clean them,
to save making a grease. Then scrape off the grease on to the brown
paper with a piece of firewood, and put all you scrape off into your
kitchen-stuff. The candlesticks should then be put, upside down, in
the deepest candlestick, at a little distance from the fire, so that
all the grease may melt, and drain into one. This grease should also
be put into the kitchen stuff, and the candlesticks wiped perfectly
clean with the candlestick-rag, or with a cloth kept for that
purpose. The polishing should be done with a little dry rotten-stone,
or dry whiting, put on a leather. The cookmaid has usually a
candle-box provided for her, into which she puts all the pieces of
candle, for kitchen use. This box should be lined with white paper,
which should be frequently renewed, or the candles will become very
dirty, and be unpleasant to burn, from bits of the snuff sticking to
them. Always set the candles in the candlesticks in the fore part of
the day, that they be ready when wanted, and that all the dirty work
may be done before cooking commences.


999. _Washing-Day._--If the washing be done at home, the cookmaid
will have to assist; and the changes of linen, and the kitchen
things, usually fall to her share. She generally folds and irons
all but the fine things and the dresses. It is usual also for her
to fill the copper; and for the housemaid to sort the clothes ready
for the wash. Much time as well as labor will be saved by preparing
the clothes for the wash the day before the washing-day; that is by
putting them in soak, the fine things and coarse things in different
tubs, after having examined, and rubbed with soap such places as
are most dirty, such as the collars and wristbands of shirts, the
parts of table-cloths cloths which are most soiled, and any place in
the different articles which would require more than usual rubbing.
Indeed, everything should be prepared the day before; the copper
filled with soft water, the tubs rinsed and wiped, inside and out
(taking care that they do not leak). The best way to prevent the tubs
from leaking, is to turn them bottom upwards after using, and keep
the bottom filled with water, without which they will not only leak
but fall to pieces, in summer weather.


1000. _Care of Clothes-lines, &c._--Clothes-lines, when done with,
should be wiped quite clean, and put away dry in a bag, for future
use, or they will dirty the clothes. A bag should also be kept for
the pegs; and both bags should be kept in a dry place.


1001. _Folding and Mangling._--Before you begin to fold the clothes,
let the board be quite clean and dry, and a clean linen cloth
placed upon it. Separate those things which are to be mangled, and
those which are for rough-drying. Turn shirts, shifts, night-gowns,
pillow-cases, petticoats, &c., the right side outwards; fold them
very smoothly, and sprinkle them to a proper dampness for ironing.
If the collars, wristbands, and frills, or pleated front of a shirt,
be dipped in a little starch, then into water, and rolled up without
squeezing, it will bring the whole of the shirt to a proper dampness,
when it has lain for some time.

The articles usually mangled are, sheets, towels, table-linen,
pillow-cases, and other straight things; but if there be any folds,
they will not look well when mangled. Pearl-buttons will break in the
mangle, and cut the cloth, therefore, all things with buttons, and
even pillow-cases, if they have buttons, should not be mangled.


1002. _Of Ironing._--The ironing-blanket should be made of a thick
kind of flannel, called swan's-skin, and a coarse cloth should be
spread between it and the board. When you are ironing, be careful to
try your iron first upon some coarse article, or one of little value,
for fear of its soiling or singeing the better clothes. Let the heat
be in proportion to the article you are about to iron, and be sure
to make every part perfectly smooth.

After they are ironed, the things should be hung upon the horse
to air. The cookmaid is now done with the washing, as it is the
housemaid's business to air them, and to place them in the drawers,
when aired; but in many families, the putting of them away is done by
the mistress of the house, or by some of the young ladies.

In ironing the skirts of dresses, it is best and most proper to have
a board about thirteen inches wide and four feet long, on which
fasten, with tapes, an ironing-blanket; place one end of it on a
table, and the other end on the dresser, or something that is firm,
of the same height as the table. In using this board, pass it through
the skirt, taking care that the wet part of the dress falls into a
clothes-basket, or a cloth, which you must first put on the floor,
under the middle of the board, to save the skirt from being soiled;
and turn the skirt of the dress round the board, as you iron it.


1003. _Save the Rags._--All rags of cotton or linen should be saved
by the cookmaid; they should never be thrown away because they are
not clean. Mop-rags, lamp-rags, all should be washed, dried and put
in the rag-bag. There is no need of expending soap on them; just boil
them out in the suds after you have done washing.

Linen rags should be carefully saved; for they are extremely useful
in sickness. If they have become dirty and worn by cleaning silver,
&c., wash them, and scrape them into lint.



PART VI.

SOME HINTS ABOUT AGRICULTURE, GARDENING, DOMESTIC ANIMALS, ETC.

  _Of Soil, Hay and the Grains--Of Vegetables--Destroying
  Ferrets, Reptiles, Rats and other Vermin--Flowers, Fruits,
  Trees--Timber--Buildings._


1004. _Advantage of Knowing something about Agriculture._--In a work
designed, chiefly, for women, it may seem odd to find farming treated
of, as though they needed such information. But while far the greater
portion of American men[B] are tillers of the soil, it would be
questioning the good sense as well as affection of their wives and
daughters to suppose them indifferent to such pursuits.

The husband will work with more pleasure, when feeling his wife takes
an interest in his employments. The daughter of a farmer should be
ready to read her father's books and papers on agriculture, whenever
he desires it, and assist in the garden, orchard, and among domestic
animals, when such cases are suitable for her.

So, trusting you have a garden-hoe and pruning-knife for your own
use, and can assist in transplanting flowers and shrubs, I shall give
rules for these, and also a few hints on other matters connected with
country life and the economy of farming. These rules are selected,
chiefly, from British authorities. England is famous for its
agricultural science and modes of gardening, and planting trees. Such
knowledge and taste are much needed in our land. But be careful, fair
girl and comely matron, and do not expose your health or injure your
personal appearance while _helping_ in out-door work. A _sun-bonnet
or broad-brimmed straw hat and thick gloves_ should always be worn,
when engaged in such employments.


1005. _Important Fact in Agriculture._--Whatever may be the nature
of the soil, or of the crop cultivated, it should always be the aim
of the farmer to grow full crops. Partial and sometimes extensive
failures will even then but too often occur; but to neglect making
the best known preparations, or only to prepare for half a crop, has
a direct tendency to unprofitable farming.


1006. _Manure for Clover._--Some farmers make it a rule to spread
about fifty bushels per acre of ashes over their clover in March,
which they find, from long experience, to be a good manure for this
grass. Wood-ashes will be useful on any soil; coal-ashes chiefly on
stiff clays. On the stiff soils of some parts of Buckinghamshire,
ashes of all kinds are much esteemed, and have risen to a high price.


1007. _How to preserve Manure._--Put it in heaps, and cover it with
earth two feet deep. Never leave manure in the barn yard; put it all,
year by year, on your land.


1008. _Dr. Taylor's Easy Method of ascertaining the Qualities
of Marl, Lime Stones, or Quick Lime, for the purposes of
Agriculture._--This was a communication by Dr. Taylor to the
Manchester Agricultural Society; the general use of marl and lime as
manures, having prompted him to point out the importance of an easy
and certain method of determining the qualities of different earths
and stones, and ascertaining the quantity of calcareous earth in
their composition; their value, in agriculture, commonly increasing
in proportion to the greater quantity of it which they contain. The
process recommended is thus described:--The marl or stone being
dried, and reduced to powder, put half an ounce of it into a half
pint glass, pouring in clear water till the glass is half full;
then gradually add a small quantity of strong marine acid, commonly
called spirit of salt, and stir the mixture well together. As soon
as the effervescence thus excited subsides, add a little more marine
acid; thus continuing the operation while any of the earthy matter
appears to dissolve; and till the liquor, after being well stirred
and allowed to stand for half an hour, appears sensibly acid to the
taste. When the mixture has subsided, if the liquor above it be
colorless, that marl or lime-stone is the best which leaves the least
in quantity of sediment or deposit in the bottom of the glass. This
experiment is sufficient to determine which of the samples tried is
the most proper for the uses of agriculture: as pure calcareous earth
or lime, which is the earth useful in agriculture, will be entirely
dissolved; but clay or sand will not be sensibly acted on by the
acid. Where great accuracy is required in determining the experiment,
lay a soft spongy paper, of which the weight is exactly taken,
in an earthen colander--for no metallic vessel, or implement for
stirring, &c., must be used in any part of the process--and, pouring
the saturated mixture of earth and acid on it, let all the liquor
filter through, then pour a little clear water over the earthy matter
remaining on the filter; and, when that water has also filtered
through, dry the paper with the earthy matter on it which remains
undissolved, when the deficiency found, on weighing them, from their
original weight, will discover what portion of the marle or lime has
been dissolved in the acid. What quantity of earthy matter has been
dissolved may be made evident to the sight, by gradually adding,
to the liquor which has been filtered through the paper, a clear
solution of pearl-ashes, or ashes of burnt wood; this will occasion a
precipitation of the contained lime or calcareous earth to the bottom
of the vessel, which precipitate must be dried and weighed.


1009. _To preserve Seeds, when sown, from Vermin._--Steep the grain
or seed three or four hours, or a sufficient time for it to penetrate
the skin, or husk, in a strong solution of liver of sulphur.


1010. _Striped Grass recommended for Hay._--The Indian striped or
riband grass, which is cultivated in gardens, would answer admirably
for hay. In rich grounds plants are frequently four feet high;
what a burden of hay would a field so cropped produce! Cattle are
exceedingly fond of it; the seeds are easily saved, so that a person
might soon have enough for a rood, and from that save again and
again, for as many acres as he might choose. It is probable that the
crop might be much too large to be made on the field where it grew;
but if so, it would be worth while to carry part into another field.


1011. _When to cut Rye-grass for Hay._--Rye-grass, if mown for hay,
should be cut when in blossom, and not green. The hay made from it
does not heat or sweat so much, and is very good for horses, but not
for sheep and cattle. If it is suffered to stand too long before it
is cut, the seeds rob the plants of their juices, and leave it no
better than wheat or rye-straw.


1012. _To prevent the Smut in Wheat._--The means (to prevent smut)
are simple; and no other than immersing the seed in pure water, and
repeatedly scouring it therein, just before it is sown or dibbled
in. Whether well, spring, or river water be used, is indifferent;
but repeated stirring and change of water is essential to remove the
possible particles of infection that may have imperceptibly adhered
to the seed; thus purified, the subsequent crop will be perfect in
itself, and seed successively so likewise, if there be no adjacent
fields from whence this contamination may be wafted.

The addition of any alkaline or earthy salt, by increasing the
specific gravity of the water, is of advantage in floating off the
unsound grains, and after the seed is washed, it should be dried
immediately by rubbing it with newly slaked lime.


1013. _Fertilizing Steeps for Turnips, Wheat, or Barley._--Steep
turnip-seed twelve hours in train oil, which strain through a fine
sieve, and immediately thoroughly mix the quantity of seed you would
wish to sow on an acre, with three bushels of dry loamy earth, finely
sifted, which drill (or sow) as soon as possible; and when the plants
begin to appear, throw a small quantity of soot over them.


1014. _Steep for Wheat, Barley, or other Grain._--Put a peck and a
half of wood-ashes, and a peck of unslaked lime, into a tub that will
hold forty gallons; then add as much water as will slake the lime,
and render the mixture into the consistence of stiff mortar. In this
state it should remain ten or twelve hours; then add as much water as
will reduce the mortar to a pulp, by thorough stirring. In this state
fill the tub with water, and occasionally keep stirring for two or
three days. After which, draw off the clear lye into an open vessel,
and gradually put the grain into it: skim off the light grains; and,
after the corn has been steeped three hours, spread it on a clean
floor to dry, when it will be sufficiently prepared for drilling or
sowing. The lye will retain its full virtue, and may be repeatedly
used.

_Remark._--It has been doubted whether steeps are of any use, except
so far as they facilitate the separation of the light grains, and
wash off the seeds of the parasite plants, which are thought to
occasion _smut_, &c. In the best-cultivated parts of Scotland,
seed-wheat is steeped in stale urine, or in a brine made with common
salt, which, by increasing the specific gravity of the water, floats
the unsound grains. The seed is well washed, and then dried, by
mixing it with fresh slaked lime, and rubbing it briskly with a
wooden shovel. The quick-lime and rubbing is thought to assist in
cleansing the seed; but, independent of that, the mere drying the
seed quickly is convenient.


1015. _To sow Wheat to advantage, without laying on Manure._--It has
been found expedient sometimes to sow wheat without laying on any
manure; and, in the beginning of February, to collect twenty bushels
of lime, unslaked, for every acre, and forty bushels of sand, or the
rubbish of a brick-kiln; then, about the end of the month, to slake
the lime, which doubles the measure, and mix it well with the sand,
and, immediately afterwards, to scatter it by way of top-dressing
over the green wheat. As rain generally succeeds, it is soon washed
down to the roots of the plants, and gives them a vigor and strength,
which, to those who never made the experiment, is astonishing. The
lime, sand, and rubbish, are particularly useful in breaking the
tenacity of stiff clays. In a clay soil, where coal was very cheap,
the clay was slightly burned in the field, and spread over the
surface, as the cheapest way of subduing the coarseness and stiffness
of the soil. The refuse or rubbish from mines in the neighborhood has
been burned, and applied with advantage on the same principle.


1016. _Approved method of sowing Wheat on narrow ridges._--The
seedsman should walk up one side of the bed and down the other side,
always keeping his face, and the hand with which he sows, towards
the bed he is sowing; his eye must be continually on the edge of the
opposite interfurrow, and deliver his seed principally on the side
of the bed next to it: as he returns, the sides will of course be
reversed, and the beds become evenly seeded.


1017. _Great utility of sowing Buckwheat._--In light lands, buckwheat
may be raised to great advantage, as a lucrative crop. When
green, it is a fine feed for milch-kine; and when ploughed, is a
fine preparation for the land. It fattens pigs with great economy,
and, passed through the mill, is, with carrot, a capital feed for
work-horses. The seed is excellent food for poultry, and, when
ground, makes good bread.


1018. _To keep Crows from Corn._--Take a quart of train oil, and as
much turpentine and bruised gunpowder; boil them together, and, when
hot, dip pieces of rags in the mixture, and fix them on sticks in the
field. About four are sufficient for an acre of corn.


1019. _Proper Soil for the Culture of Turnips._--Sandy loams, in good
heart, are most favorable to their growth, though they will thrive
well on strong loams, if they are not wet; but, on clayey, thin, or
wet soils, they are not worth cultivating; for, though a good crop
may be raised on such ground, when well prepared and dunged, more
damage is done by taking off the turnips in winter, in poaching the
soil, than the value of the crop will repay.


1020. _Instructions for raising Potatoes to advantage._--The earth
should be dug twelve inches deep, if the soil will allow it; after
this, a hole should be opened about six inches deep, and horse-dung,
or long-litter, should be put therein, about three inches thick; this
hole should not be more than twelve inches diameter. Upon this dung
or litter, a potato should be planted whole, upon which a little more
dung should be shaken, and then the earth must be put thereon. In
like manner, the whole plot of ground must be planted, taking care
that the potatoes be at least sixteen inches apart. When the young
shoots make their appearance, they should have fresh mould drawn
round them with a hoe; and if the tender shoots are covered, it will
prevent the frost from injuring them: they should again be earthed
when the shoots make a second appearance, but not covered, as, in all
probability, the season will be less severe.

A plentiful supply of mould should be given them; and the person who
performs this business should never tread upon the plant, or the
hillock that is raised round it, as the lighter the earth is, the
more room the potato will have to expand.

A gentleman obtained from a single root, thus planted, very near
forty pounds' weight of large potatoes; and, from almost every other
root upon the same plot of ground, from fifteen to twenty pounds'
weight; and, except the soil be stony or gravelly, ten pounds, or
half a peck, of potatoes, may almost be obtained from each root, by
pursuing the foregoing method.


1021. _Use of the Dandelion._--This is an excellent salad, and a good
green. Where it grows as a weed, cover it early in the spring, with
rotten tan, or decayed leaves; it will soon come up.


1022. _Preparations for Carrots and other winged Seeds._--Take two
bushels of dry loamy earth, finely sifted; to which add one bushel of
bran, and a sufficient quantity of carrot seed, cleaned from stalks,
and well rubbed between the hands; all which thoroughly mix together,
and drill (or sow). The carrot seed will stick to the bran, which,
with the earth, will be regularly discharged.


1023. _To raise a Salad quickly._--Steep lettuce-seed, mustard,
cresses, &c., in aqua vitæ. Mix a little pigeon's dung with some
mould, and powdered slaked lime. In forty-eight hours the salad will
be produced.


1024. _Important Discovery relative to the Preservation of
Grain._--To preserve rye and secure it from insects and rats, nothing
more is necessary than not to winnow it after it is thrashed, but
merely separate it from the straw, and to stow it in the granaries,
mixed with the chaff. In this state it has been kept for more than
three years without experiencing the smallest alteration, and even
without the necessity of being turned to preserve it from humidity
and fermentation. Rats and mice may be prevented from entering the
barn, by putting some wild vine or hedge plants upon the heaps; the
smell of the wood is so offensive to these animals, that they will
not approach it. The experiment has not yet been made with wheat and
other kinds of grain, but they may probably be preserved in the chaff
with equal advantage. It must however be observed, that the husks and
corns of rye are different from most other grain. It has been sown
near houses where many poultry were kept, for the purpose of bringing
up a crop of grass, because the poultry do not destroy it, as they
would have done wheat, oats, or even barley in the same situation.


1025. _To preserve Grain in Sacks._--Provide a reed cane, or other
hollow stick, made so by gluing together two grooved sticks; let
it be about three feet nine inches long; and that it may be easier
thrust down to the bottom of the corn in the sack, its end to be made
to taper to a point, by a wooden plug that is fixed in, and stops the
orifice. About one hundred and fifty small holes, of one-eighth of
an inch in diameter, are to be bored on all sides of the stick, from
its bottom for about two feet ten inches of its length; but no nearer
to the surface of the corn, lest too great a proportion of the air
should escape there. By winding a packthread in a spiral form round
the stick, the boring of the holes may be the better regulated, so
as to have them about half an inch distant towards the bottom, but
gradually at wider distances, so as to be an inch asunder at the
upper part; by which means the lower part of the corn will have its
due proportion of fresh air. To the top of the stick let there be
fixed a leathern pipe ten inches long; which pipe is to be distended
by two yards of spiral wire, coiled up within it. At the upper part
of the pipe is fixed a taper wooden faucet, into which the nose of a
common household bellows is to be put, in order to ventilate the corn.

If wheat, when first put into sacks, be thus aired, every other or
third day, for ten or fifteen minutes, its damp sweats which would
hurt it, will, in a few weeks, be carried off to such a degree, that
it will afterwards keep sweet with very little airing, as has been
found by experience.

By the same means other kinds of seeds, as well as wheat, may be kept
sweet either in sacks or small bins.


1026. _To preserve Oats from being musty._--Richard Fermor, Esq. of
Tusmore, in Oxfordshire, has in his stable a contrivance to let oats
down from a loft out of a vessel, like the hopper of a mill, whence
they fall into a square pipe, let into a wall, about four inches
diagonal, which comes into a cupboard set into a wall, but with its
end so near the bottom, that there shall never be above a desirable
quantity in the cupboard at a time, which being taken away, another
parcel succeeds; by this motion the oats are kept constantly sweet
(the taking away one gallon moving the whole above), which, when laid
up otherwise in great quantities, frequently grow musty.


1027. _Easy Method of destroying Mites or Weevils in Granaries._--A
very sagacious farmer has succeeded in destroying weevils, by a
very easy process. In the month of June, when his granaries were all
empty, he collected great quantities of the largest sized ants, and
scattered them about the places infested with the weevils. The ants
immediately fell upon and devoured every one of them; nor have any
weevils since that time been seen on his premises.

_Remark._--The large, or wood-ant, feeds entirely on animal
substances; of course it would not destroy the corn.


1028. _To preserve Carrots, Parsnips, and Beets, all the Winter._--A
little before the frost sets in, draw your beets or parsnips out
of the ground, and lay them in the house, burying their roots in
sand to the neck of the plant, and ranging them one by another in a
shelving position; then another bed of sand, and another of beets,
and continue this order to the last. By pursuing this method, they
will keep very fresh. When they are wanted for use, draw them, as
they stand, not out of the middle or sides.


1029. _To preserve Turnips from Frost._--The best way is to stack
them up in straw in the following manner:--One load of any sort of
dry straw is sufficient for an acre of fifty tons' weight. Pull up
the turnips, top and tail them, then throw them in a sort of windrow,
and let them lie a few days to dry.

First, lay a layer of straw next the ground, and upon it a layer of
turnips about half a yard thick; then another layer of straw; so go
on alternately with a layer of straw and a layer of turnips; every
layer grows narrower, till it comes to a point at the top, like a
sugar-loaf. The last layer must be straw, which serves to keep all
dry. You must observe always when you have laid a layer of turnips,
to stroke or lap over the ends of the under layer of straw, in order
to keep them close or from tumbling out. The heap should be as large
as a hay-cock; the tops may be given to sheep or cattle as they are
cut off.


1030. _Another._--Turnips placed in layers, though not thick,
have been found, after a few weeks, to rot. In some places the
following method is adopted. Lay the turnips close together in a
single layer, on a grass field, near the farmyard, and scatter some
straw and branches of trees over them; this will preserve them from
sudden alternations of frost and thaw. They keep as well as stored
turnips can do. The bare grass is of no value in winter, and may
rather perhaps receive some benefit from the shelter of the turnip.
An immense quantity may thus be stored on a small extent of grass
ground. It is chiefly useful for small farmers, in soils unfit for
the turnip, but who are forced to raise it for milk-cows, or to
support, in the winter, the sheep they feed in the summer on the
commons, and which they keep, perhaps, principally in the night,
on the fields they have no other means of manuring. But it may be
useful, even on proper turnip soils, to save the latter part of the
crop from the sudden frosts and sunshine in the spring, or in an open
winter, which rot so great a portion of it; perhaps a fourth or third
part of what is then on the ground.


1031. _The good effects of Elder in preserving Plants from Insects
and Flies._--1. For preventing cabbage and cauliflower plants from
being devoured and damaged by caterpillars. 2. For preventing
blights, and their effects on fruit-trees. 3. For preserving corn
from yellow flies and other insects. 4. For securing turnips from the
ravages of flies. The dwarf elder appears to exhale a much more fetid
smell than the common elder, and therefore should be preferred.


1032. _The use of Sulphur in destroying Insects on Plants, and its
Benefit for Vegetation._--Tie up some flower of sulphur in a piece
of muslin or fine linen, and with this the leaves of young shoots of
plants should be dusted; or it may be thrown on them by means of a
common swans'-down puff, or even by a dredging-box.

Fresh assurances have repeatedly been received of the powerful
influence of sulphur against the whole tribe of insects and worms
which infest and prey on vegetables. Sulphur has also been found to
promote the health of plants, on which it was sprinkled; and that
peach-trees, in particular, were remarkably improved by it, and
seemed to absorb it. It has likewise been observed, that the verdure,
and other healthful appearances, were perceptibly increased; for
the quantity of new shoots and leaves formed subsequently to the
operation, and having no sulphur on their surfaces, served as a kind
of comparative index, and pointed out distinctly the accumulation of
health.


1033. _Method of stopping the Ravages of the Caterpillars from
Shrubs, Plants, and Vegetables._--Take a chafing-dish, with lighted
charcoal, and place it under the branches of the tree, or bush,
whereon are the caterpillars; then throw a little brimstone on the
coals. The vapor of the sulphur, which is mortal to these insects,
and the suffocating fixed air arising from the charcoal, will not
only destroy all that are on the tree, but will effectually prevent
the shrubs from being, that season, infested with them. A pound of
sulphur will clear as many trees as grow on several acres.

Another method of driving these insects off fruit-trees, is to boil
together a quantity of rue, wormwood, and common tobacco (of each
equal parts), in common water. The liquor should be very strong.
Sprinkle this on the leaves and young branches every morning and
evening during the time the fruit is ripening.

In the Economical Journal of France, the following method of guarding
cabbages from the depredations of caterpillars is stated to be
infallible, and may, perhaps, be equally serviceable against those
which infest other vegetables. Sow with hemp all the borders of the
ground wherein the cabbage is planted; and, although the neighborhood
be infested with caterpillars, the space inclosed by the hemp will be
perfectly free, and not one of these vermin will approach it.


1034. _To prevent the Increase of Pismires in Grass Lands newly laid
down._--Make a strong decoction of walnut-tree leaves, and after
opening several of the pismires' sandy habitations, pour upon them a
quantity of the liquor, just sufficient to fill the hollow of each
heap: after the middle of it has been scooped, throw in the contents
from the sides, and press down the whole mass with the foot, till
it becomes level with the rest of the field. This, if not found
effectual at first, must be repeated a second or a third time, when
they infallibly will be destroyed.


1035. _To prevent the Fly in Turnips._--From experiments lately
made, it has been ascertained that lime sown by hand, or distributed
by a machine, is an infallible protection to turnips against the
ravages of this destructive insect. It should be applied as soon
as the turnips come up, and in the same daily rotation in which
they were sown. The lime should be slaked immediately before it is
used, if the air be not sufficiently moist to render that operation
unnecessary.


1036. _To prevent Mice from destroying early sown Peas._--The tops of
furze, or whins, chopped and thrown into the drills, and thus covered
up, (by goading them in their attempt to scratch,) is an effectual
preventive. Sea-sand, strewn pretty thick upon the surface, has the
same effect. It gets into their ears, and is troublesome.


1037. _Another._--In the gardens in Devonshire, a simple trap is used
to destroy mice. A common brick, or flat stone, is set on one end,
inclined at an angle of about forty-five degrees. Two strings, tied
to a cracked stick, stuck in the ground, with loops at the ends of
the strings, are brought round to the middle of the under part of the
brick, and one loop being put into the other, a pea or bean, or any
other bait, makes the string fast, so as to support the brick. When
the animal removes the bait, the loops separate, and the brick, by
falling, smothers the animal.


1038. _To Destroy Beetles._--Take some small lumps of unslaked lime,
and put into the chinks or holes from which they issue, it will
effectually destroy them; or it may be scattered on the ground, if
they are more numerous than in their holes.


1039. _Another Method._--The simplest and most effectual way of
destroying beetles is by means of red wafers. As it has become usual
to substitute vermilion for red lead in the composition of wafers, it
will be necessary to ask particularly for such as have been made with
red lead. Strew these in the neighborhood of the crevices from which
these insects issue, and their future incursions will be speedily
prevented. Cockroaches may be destroyed by the same means.


1040. _For Destroying Bugs and Worms in Wood._--An eminent physician
has discovered that by rubbing wood with a solution of vitriol,
insects and bugs are prevented from harboring therein. When the
strength of this remedy is required to be increased, there need only
be boiled some coloquintida apples in water, in which, afterwards,
vitriol is dissolved, and the bedstead, with the wood about them,
and the wainscoting, being anointed with the liquor, will be ever
after clear of worms or bugs. The wall may be likewise rubbed with
the composition, and some of it may be dropped into the holes where
these insects are suspected to be harbored. As to the walls, they
require only to be washed over with the vitriol water.


1041. _To Destroy Insects on Wall Fruit Trees._--Take an old tin
watering-pan, or any similar vessel, and make a charcoal fire in it;
add a tube or pipe, made of either tin, leather, or stiff paper, to
the spout, which may be of any sufficient length; then strew some
brimstone, tobacco-dust, fine shreds of leather, &c., upon the fire,
in the pan, and cover the top; having a pair of bellows ready, hold
the wind-flap over the tube or pipe to receive the smoke, which it
will do very effectually when you use the bellows. By this means the
suffocating vapor may be directed through the bellows to any part
of the tree with the greatest ease and facility, and the tree soon
cleared of all vermin.


1042. _To Destroy the Insect which attacks the Apple Tree, commonly
called the White Blight, or American Blight._--To a strong decoction
of the digitalis or foxglove, add a sufficient quantity of fresh
cow-dung, to give it such a consistence as may enable you to apply it
with a painters' brush to those parts of the bark of the tree, which
afford a harbor for this destructive insect. The insect is generally
destroyed by the first application, though in some instances it may
be necessary to repeat it. It has been remarked that the insect never
returns in future years to those parts of the tree which have been
thus treated.


1043. _For Destroying Caterpillars on Gooseberry Bushes._--Take one
Scots pint (two English quarts) of tobacco liquor (which may be made,
where it cannot be purchased, by infusing any kind of tobacco in
water till all the strength be extracted) which the manufacturers of
tobacco generally sell for destroying bugs, and mix them with about
one ounce of alum; and when the alum is sufficiently dissolved, put
this mixture into a plate, or other vessel, wide and long enough to
admit of a brush, like a weaver's brush, being dipped into it; and as
early in the season as you can perceive the leaves of the bushes to
be in the least eaten, or the eggs upon the leaves (which generally
happens about the end of May), and which will be found in great
numbers on the veins of the leaves on their under side; you are then
to take the preparation, or liquor, and after dipping the brush
into it, and holding the brush towards the under side of the bush,
which is to be raised and supported by the hands of another person;
and by drawing your hand gently over the hairs of the brush, the
above liquid is sprinkled, and falls in small drops on the leaves;
the consequence of which is, if the eggs are there, they never come
forward; and if they have already generated worms, in a minute or two
after the liquor touches them, they either die or sicken, so as to
fall off the bush; at least they do so upon giving it a little shake.
If, upon their thus falling off, they shall not appear completely
dead, the bush should be held up, and either a little boiling water
from a watering-pot thrown over them, or a bruise given them by a
spade or shovel; or the earth, where they lie, turned over with a
hoe. This preparation does not in the least injure the bushes.


1044. _To Preserve Flowers, Leaves, and Fruit, from
Caterpillars._--These depredators are destroyed by oils, which close
the lateral pores by which they breathe. For this purpose it is
advised, that on the approach of spring, a cloth, dipped in train
oil, be laid on such parts of the tree in which there is the least
appearance of them.


1045. _Method to destroy or drive away Earth Worms, and other
Insects, hurtful to Fields and Gardens._--Three parts of quick-lime,
newly made, and two parts of soap-boilers' ley or potash dissolved in
water, will produce a somewhat milky liquor sufficiently caustic, and
highly hostile and poisonous to earth-worms and other small animals;
for as soon as it touches any part of their bodies, it occasions in
them violent symptoms of great uneasiness. If this liquor be poured
into those holes, in which the earth-worms reside under ground, they
immediately throw themselves out as if driven by some force, and,
after various contortions, languish and die. If the leaves of plants
or fruit-trees, frequented by the voracious caterpillars, which are
so destructive to them, be sprinkled over with this liquor, these
insects suddenly contract their bodies and drop to the ground. For,
though nature has defended them tolerably well by their hairy skins,
from any thing that might injure their delicate bodies; yet, as
soon as they touch with their feet or mouths the leaves which have
been moistened by this liquor, they become, as it were, stupefied,
instantly contract themselves, and fall down.


1046. _To destroy Earwigs and Wood Lice._--A very simple way of
ensnaring them, and by which they may be taken alive in great
quantities, is to place four inch-cuts of reeds, bean-haulm, or
strong wheat-straw among the branches, and also lay a number on the
ground, at the bottom of the wall. In these the insects take refuge
at day-break, as they depredate chiefly in the night; and any time
through the day they may be blown into a bottle with a little water
in it, and so be drowned. Or, a cheaper way is to burn the straw, and
scatter fresh on the ground.


1047. _To destroy Fleas on Dogs._--Rub the animal, when out of the
house, with the common Scotch snuff, except the nose and eyes. Rub
the powder well into the roots of the hair. Clear lime-water destroys
the whitish flea-worm without injuring the skin or hair. Oil of
turpentine will likewise do so; but if there be any manginess, or the
skin be broken, it will give the animal much pain.


1048. _To clear Gardens of Vermin, by Ducks._--Ducks are excellent
vermin-pickers, whether of caterpillars (such as are within their
reach), slugs, snails, and others, and ought to be turned into the
garden one or two days every week throughout the season. Never keep
them longer in than two or three hours at a time, else they become
indolent. While here, they should have a little water set down to
them, if there be no pond or stream in the garden.

Never turn them into the garden in the time of heavy rains, or in
continued wet weather, as in that case, and particularly if the soil
be stiff, they patter and harden the surface, to the great injury of
small crops and rising seeds.


1049. _The use of Garlic against Moles, Grubs, and Snails._--Moles
are such enemies to the smell of garlic, that, in order to get rid
of these troublesome and destructive guests, it is sufficient to
introduce a few heads of garlic into their subterraneous walks. It is
likewise employed with success against grubs and snails.


1050. _To prevent the destruction of Field Turnips by Slugs._--A few
years since, a considerable farmer, near Bath, observing the turnips
in one of his fields strongly attacked by something, discovered, by
accident, that the enemy was really a slug; and immediately prevented
farther damage by well rolling the whole field, by night, which
killed all the slugs.

N. B. This was the grand secret which was advertised for two thousand
subscribers, at one guinea each, by W. Vagg, _for destroying the fly_
in turnips--which it will _not_ do!


1051. _Method of destroying Insects on Fruit Trees._--Make a strong
decoction of tobacco, and the tender shoots of elder, by pouring
boiling water on them; then sprinkle your trees with the same (cold)
twice a week, for two or three weeks, with a small hearth-brush,
which will effectually destroy the insects, and the leaves will
retain their verdure until the fall of the year.

If used early, as soon as the bud unfolds itself, it will probably
prevent the fly. The effect of tobacco has been long known, and
elder-water frequently sprinkled on honeysuckles and roses, has been
found to prevent insects from lodging on them.

The quantity to be made use of, is one ounce of tobacco to one gallon
of water, with about two handfuls of elder. You may, however, make it
as strong as you please, it being perfectly innocent to the plants.


1052. _To destroy Insects prejudicial to Apple-Trees._--To one
hundred gallons of human urine, and one bushel of lime, add cow-dung
to bring it to the consistence of paint. With this composition anoint
the trees. The month of March is the proper season for applying it.
If the white efflorescence-like substance in which the insects are
lodged, has made its appearance, it should previously be brushed off.


1053. _To destroy wasps on Fruit-Trees._--Wasps, about the month
of July, will begin to swarm about the early fruits; and for their
destruction, phials should be hung about the branches, half-filled
with honey and water, or with sugar and small-beer. These should be
emptied and replaced once in two or three days, otherwise they do not
take so well--these little animals being extremely sagacious, and
disliking the appearance of their own species, when dead.


1054. _Another._--Winter is the proper season to apply the following
solution. The juices are then determined to the root.

Soft soap, two pounds; leaf or roll tobacco, one pound; nux-vomica,
two ounces; and turpentine, half an English gill: boil them in eight
English gallons of soft or river water, to six; and use it milk-warm.

Unnail or untie all the branches from the wall or trellis; brush
every part of the tree clean with a soft brush, such as is used for
painting; then, with a sponge, carefully anoint every branch, root,
and bud; and be sure to rub it well into every joint, hole, and
angle, as it is there the eggs or larvæ of the insects are chiefly
lodged. The rails, spars, &c., of the espalier or trellis, should
also be anointed as above.

This operation should be repeated every winter, some time between
the fall of the leaf and the first of February, as may be most
convenient. The solution is effectually destructive to all kinds of
insects, their eggs or larvæ.


1055. _To kill Reptiles._--Twelve ounces of quick-lime in powder,
two ounces of Scotch snuff, two ounces of basket salt, two ounces of
sulphur vivum, dissolved in ten gallons of water, and thrown on the
insects, either in the liquid or powder, will destroy them.


1056. _To prevent Slugs from getting into Fruit-Trees._--If the trees
are standards, tie a coarse horse-hair rope about them, two or three
feet from the ground. If they are against the wall, nail a narrow
slip of coarse horse-hair cloth against the wall, about half a foot
from the ground, and they will never get over it; for if they attempt
it, it will kill them, as their bellies are soft, and the horse-hair
will wound them.


1057. _To destroy Snails._--Snails are great enemies to wall-fruit;
and any dewy morning you may easily find where they most delight to
breed; but the best way is to find out their haunts in a hard winter,
and then destroy them: they lie much in holes of walls, under thorns,
behind old trees or old and close hedges. If you pluck not the fruit
they have begun to devour, but let it alone, they will finish their
repast on this, before they begin another.


1058. _To destroy the Red Spider, so troublesome in dry
seasons._--The red spider makes its appearance in hot, dry weather,
and is always found on the under sides of the leaves, generally on
roughish leaves, but not always so. It preys on the apple, cherry,
fig, peach, pear, and plum--seldom on the apricot. It is among the
smallest of the acari, and is sometimes not distinguishable without a
microscope. If the back of the leaf be viewed through one, it appears
full of its webs; and if many abound on it, the leaf appears full of
punctures, becomes discolored, and brown on the upper surface, fades,
and falls off.

This insect is more troublesome in dry seasons than in moist ones,
and is wonderfully encouraged by heat--insomuch, that hot-houses of
every description are sadly infested with it. Water, and water only,
is its bane; and the syringe, or the force-pump, the engine of its
destruction. It is not a mere sprinkling that will do; it requires a
forcible dashing to and fro, and that often repeated, to be effectual.


1059. _To destroy Vermin in Granaries and other Outbuildings._--Cover
completely the walls and rafters, above and below, of the granaries,
&c., which are infested with weevils and other vermin, with
quick-lime slaked in water, in which trefoil, wormwood, and hyssop
have been boiled. This composition ought to be applied as hot as
possible.


1060. _To destroy Worms in Gardens._--Water your beds with a strong
decoction of walnut-tree leaves where there are worm casts; the worms
will immediately rise up out of the earth, and you may easily take
and cut them to pieces, and fatten your poultry therewith, or feed
fish in ponds with them.

By laying ashes or lime about any plant, neither snails nor worms
will come near it. As the moisture weakens it, you must, more or
less, continue to renew the lime or ashes.


1061. _To destroy Worms in Gravel Walks, &c._--Pour into the holes a
ley, made of wood ashes and lime; this will also destroy insects, if
trees are sprinkled with it. Salt and water will do as well.


1062. _Usefulness of the Wren in destroying Insects._--As a devourer
of pernicious insects, one of the most useful birds is the house
wren. This little bird seems to be particularly fond of the society
of man, and it must be confessed that it is often protected by his
interested care. It has long been a custom, in many parts of the
country, to fix a small box at the end of a long pole, in gardens,
about houses, &c., as a place for it to build in. In these boxes they
build and hatch their young. When the young are hatched, the parent
bird feeds them with a variety of different insects, particularly
such as are injurious in gardens. An intelligent gentleman was at
the trouble to observe the number of times a pair of these birds
came from their box, and returned with insects for their young. He
found that they did this from 40 to 60 times in an hour, and in one
particular hour, the birds carried food to their young 71 times. In
this business they were engaged the greater part of the day; say
12 hours. Taking the medium therefore of 50 times in an hour, it
appeared that a single pair of these birds took from the cabbage,
salad, beans, peas, and other vegetables in the garden, at least 600
insects in the course of one day. This calculation proceeds upon the
supposition that the two birds took only a single insect each time.
But it is highly probable they often took several at a time.


1063. _To destroy Rats and other Vermin._--Sponge, if cut in small
pieces, fried or dipped in honey, and given to vermin, distends their
intestines, and effectually destroys them. The addition of a little
oil of Rhodium will tempt them to eat.

A better method would be to feed them regularly two or three weeks
in any apartment which they infest. The hole, by which they enter,
being first fitted with a sliding door, to which a long string may be
added; any apartment might thus be turned into a gigantic rat-trap.


1064. _Another Method of Destroying Rats._--Lay bird-lime in their
haunts, for though they are nasty enough in other respects, yet being
very curious of their fur, if it is but daubed with this stuff, it is
so troublesome to them that they will even scratch their skins from
off their own backs to get it off, and will never abide in a place
where they have suffered in this manner.


1065. _To destroy Rats or Mice._--Mix flour of malt with some butter;
add thereto a drop or two of oil of anise-seeds; make it up into
balls, and bait your traps therewith. _If you have thousands_, by
this means you may take them all.


1066. _A Mouse Trap, by which forty or fifty Mice may be caught in
a Night._--Take a plain four-square trencher, and put into the two
contrary ends of it a large pin, or piece of thick knitting-needle;
then take two sticks about a yard long, and lay them on your dresser,
with a notch cut at each end of your sticks, placing the two pins,
stuck on the corner of the trencher, on the notches of the two
sticks, so that one corner of your trencher may lie about an inch
upon your dresser or place that the mice may come to; then let the
corner that lies opposite to this be baited with some butter and
oatmeal, plastered fast on, and when the mice run off the dresser to
the butter, it will tip them into a vessel full of water, which you
must place under the trencher, in which they will be drowned.

That your trencher may not tip over, with a little sealing-wax and
a thread seal the string to the dresser and trencher, and it will
remain in good order for weeks or months.


1067. _New, simple, and effectual Method of destroying Rats._--A
few years ago, the corn-mill at Glossop was very much infested with
rats. A quantity of barley, which lay on the chamber floor was hourly
visited by some of them. The miller one day going to drive them
away as usual, happened to catch one of them under his hat, which
he killed; he then singed all the hair off its body, &c., until
its skin, tail, and legs, became stiff by the operation. In this
condition he set it upon its feet by the side of a heap of barley,
where it stood, with pricked-up ears and tail, for some time; after
this, no rat dared to come near it; and in a short space of time the
mill was cleared of those depredators, and has continued so ever
since.


1068. _To prevent the Burrowing of Rats in Houses._--Rats may be
effectually prevented from burrowing under the foundation of houses,
by making an offset of stone or brick, about two feet in breadth, and
eighteen inches below the surface; and by carrying up a perpendicular
wall from the edge of this offset, to within a few inches of the
ground. The adoption of the same plan _inside_ will prevent the
burrowing of these animals in cellars; for rats always burrow close
to a wall; and finding their perpendicular course impeded, they take
a horizontal direction, as far as the offset continues, when they are
again stopped by the outside wall. Thus baffled, they ascend, and go
off.

Those persons who have suffered in their granaries, ice-houses, and
in the cellars of their dwelling-houses, by the depredations of
rats, will probably deem this one of the most valuable articles of
the present work.


1069. _To keep Ponds and Artificial Pieces of Water free from
Weeds._--At the Marquis of Exeter's seat, near Burghley, there is an
artificial piece of water, about a mile in length, which used to be
so over-run with weeds, that three men were employed constantly, for
six months in every year, to keep them under; in which they never
perfectly succeeded. About seven years ago, two pair of swans were
put on the water: they completely cleared away all the weeds the
first year, and none have appeared since, as the swans constantly eat
them before they rise to the surface.


1070. _Usefulness of Mowing Weeds._--In the month of June weeds are
in their most succulent state; and in this state, especially after
they have lain a few hours to wither, hungry cattle will eat greedily
almost every species. There is scarcely a hedge, border, or nook, but
at this season is valuable, and it must certainly be good management
to embrace the transient opportunity; for in a few weeks they will
become nuisances.


1071. _On the great Increase of Milk from feeding Milch Cows with
Sainfoin._--The quantity of milk produced by cows fed by sainfoin
is nearly double to that of any other food. The milk is also much
richer, and will yield a larger quantity of cream. The butter will
also be better colored and flavored than any other.


1072. _Parsnips productive of Milk in Cows._--Parsnips cause cows
to produce abundance of milk, and they eat them as free as they do
oil-cake. Land, 7_l_. an acre in Guernsey, is sown with parsnips to
feed cattle, and the milk is like cream.--Sheep, when lambing, fed
with them, produce much milk. They are improper food for horses,
subjecting them to blindness.


1073. _Most proper Food for Milch Cows._--Milch cows are infinitely
more profitable kept in the house than out of doors, but they must be
trained to it, otherwise they do not thrive.

The best food for them are clover, lucern, potatoes, yams, turnips,
carrots, cabbages, peas, and beans.

Such cows as those in the neighborhood of London, kept in the house,
and properly fed, ought to yield nine gallons per day, for the first
four months after calving.


1074. _Additional Quantity of Milk to be gained by keeping Milch
Cows in the House._--In the management of cows a warm stable is
highly necessary; and currying them like horses not only affords them
pleasure, but makes them give their milk more freely. They ought
always to be kept clean, laid dry, and have plenty of good sweet
water to drink. Cows treated in this manner have given two gallons of
milk at a time, when within ten days of calving.


1075. _Utility of Carrots as Food for Horses and other stall
Beasts._--Carrots are excellent food for horses, either given alone,
or along with hay, likewise for fattening stall beasts. They make
them eat straw, and very indifferent hay, greedily. If the same be
given to cows, the milk will have a much less offensive taste and
smell than when they are fed on turnips.

_Remark._--It must be noted, however, that carrots, though very
excellent, are a very expensive food. They would not enable a farmer
to pay his rent.


1076. _Excellent Method of rearing Calves, and of preserving the
Cream, and a great Part of the Milk during that Time._--Put some
water on the fire, nearly the quantity that the calf can drink.
When it boils, throw into it one or two handfuls of oatmeal, and
suffer the whole to boil for a minute. Then leave it to cool until
new-milk-warm. Then mix with it one or two quarts of milk, that has
stood twelve hours, and has been skimmed: stir the whole, and give it
the calf to drink. At first it is necessary to make the calf drink
by presenting the fingers to it, but it soon learns to do without
this help, and will grow incomparably faster than by the old method.
This new method is not only a theoretical truth, but its success is
confirmed by experience.

The economical advantages resulting from it are as follows. According
to the old method, a calf intended for slaughter is made to suck for
three weeks, and those intended for agriculture, from six to eight
weeks. Supposing the cow gives only a moderate quantity of milk, the
value of it will amount, in three weeks, to nearly the value of the
calf. If, on the contrary, we rear a calf according to this method,
we consume during the three weeks only three quarts of oatmeal, at
most, and the skimmed milk.

Calves that have been brought up by this method have been always
healthy and strong, and not subject to disease. They are not suffered
to suck at all, but to have the pure milk of the mother to drink
for the first four days, because it has been observed, that the
separation, after four days, is more painful to the mother than when
the calf is taken from her soon after its birth.


1077. _Rules for Milking Cows._--Cows should be milked three times
a day, if fully fed throughout the summer, and great caution should
be exercised by the persons employed, to draw the milk from them
completely, not only to increase the quantity of produce, but to
preserve its quality. Any portion which may be left in the udder
seems gradually absorbed in the system, and no more is formed
than enough to supply the loss of what is taken away, and by the
continuance of the same mode, a yet farther diminution of the
secretion takes place, till at length scarcely any is produced. This
last method of milking is always practised, when it is intended that
a cow should be rendered dry.


1078. _Proper Temperature for a Dairy._--The apartments appropriated
for dairy purposes should, if possible, possess a moderate
temperature throughout the year, and should be kept perfectly
clean and dry. The temperature of about fifty-five degrees is most
favorable for the separation of the cream from the milk. The utensils
of the dairy are best made of wood; lead and copper are soluble in
acid, and highly pernicious; and though iron is not injurious, the
taste of it might render the produce of the dairy unpalatable.


1079. _Method of making excellent Butter from the Milk of Cows
fed upon Turnips._--Let the bowls, either lead or wood, be kept
constantly clean, and well scalded with boiling water, before using.
When the milk is brought into the dairy, to every eight quarts mix
one quart of boiling water; then put up the milk into the bowls to
stand for cream. By keeping strictly to this method, you will have,
during the winter, constantly sweet and well-tasted butter from the
milk of cows fed upon turnips.


1080. _Improved Method of making Butter._--If the dairy consists
of three or four cows, they should be milked in the summer thrice
a day; in the morning, at noon, and in the evening. Each milking
must be kept by itself, in flat wooden vessels, to cool in like
manner; and thus in succession for two or three days, according to
the temperature of the air, the milk thickens, and thence is fit for
churning, soonest in the warmest weather. The quantity of butter will
be generally in the proportion of a pound (twenty-two ounces) for
each ten pints, or five English gallons of milk. In winter, the cows
are to be milked only twice a day, and the milk is to be put into the
churn warm from the cow, where it must stand a day or two longer than
in summer before it becomes sufficiently thick; although to promote
the coagulation, it is sometimes brought near the kitchen fire,
particularly on the preceding night before it is churned; and, in
intense cold, it will be necessary to add a small quantity of boiling
water. The operation of churning is performed with the plunge-churn,
from two to three hours, for thirty or forty pints of milk; and at
the last stage of the process, a little cold water thrown in has the
effect of promoting the separation of the butter from the milk. This
method of making butter has long been practiced in England; it may be
worth trial in America.

N.B.--The dairy-maid must not be disheartened if she does not succeed
perfectly in her first attempt.


1081. _To prevent Cows from contracting bad Habits while
Milking._--Cows should always be treated with great gentleness, and
soothed by mild usage, especially when young and ticklish, or when
the paps are tender, in which case the udder ought to be fomented
with warm water, before milking, and touched with the greatest
gentleness, otherwise the cow will be in danger of contracting bad
habits, becoming stubborn and unruly, and retaining her milk ever
after. A cow never lets down her milk pleasantly to the person she
dreads or dislikes. The udder and paps should always be washed with
clean water before milking; but care should be taken that none of
that water be admitted into the milking pail.


1082. _To mark Sheep, without injury to the Wool._--To thirty
spoonfuls of linseed oil, add two ounces of litharge and one ounce
of lamp-black: unite them together by boiling, and mark the sheep
therewith.


1083. _To improve the Wool of Sheep, by Smearing._--Immediately after
the sheep are shorn, soak the roots of the wool that remain all over
with oil or butter and brimstone; and three or four days afterwards,
wash them with salt and water. The wool of next season will not only
be much finer, but the quantity will be in greater abundance. It
may be depended upon, that the sheep will not be troubled with the
scab or vermin that year. Salt water is a safe and effectual remedy
against maggots.


1084. _To preserve Cattle from Disease in the Winter._--When cattle
are kept out in the winter, it is recommended as an useful practice
to rub some tar at the root of the horn, which prevents the wet from
getting between the root and the skin, and, it is said, contributes
to preserve the health of the animal, and to keep it free from
various diseases to which it may otherwise be liable.


1085. _How to Promote the Health of Farm Animals._--All domestic
animals should be abundantly furnished with salt. A supply kept
within their reach, whenever it can be done, is recommended. Horses
and pigs should occasionally have ashes given them in their food; and
pigs ought at all times, when confined in pens, to be supplied with
charcoal, as, besides being a medicine, it is a cheap and valuable
food.


1086. _Parsley recommended to Farmers to be sown with Rape-seed, as
a preservative against the Resp in Sheep._--A correspondent of the
"Chester Chronicle" recommends to all farmers who sow rape-seed, to
sow with it a small portion of parsley at the same time; this he
pronounces an infallible preservative against the malady well-known
by the name of _resp_, in sheep: he also advises to sow parsley on
turnip land at the time of hoeing turnips. The above correspondent
asserts, that he has pursued this plan upwards of twenty-five years,
and during that time he has never lost one sheep, either in rape or
turnip land.

_Remark._--In some counties, parsley is sown with clover, on the
supposition that it prevents cattle from being bursten, or hoven.


1087. _How to catch Sheep._--Never seize them by the wool on the
back; it hurts them exceedingly, and, in some cases, has been known
to kill them, particularly in hot weather, when they are large and
fat. The best way is to avoid the wool altogether; accustom yourself
to take them by the hind leg, or what is still better, by the neck,
placing one hand under the jaws, and the other at the back of the
ears. By lifting up the head, in this manner, a child may hold almost
any sheep, without danger to the animal or himself.


1088. _Mr. Bakewell's Liquid for the cure of the Foot-rot in
Sheep._--Dissolve four ounces, each, of vitriol and common alum,
three ounces of verdigris, an ounce and a half of white mercury, and
an ounce of white copperas, all finely pulverized, in a quart of
white-wine vinegar.


1089. _Mr. Culley's Red Salve, to cure the Rot in Sheep._--Mix four
ounces of the best honey, two ounces of burnt alum, reduced to
powder, and half a pound of Armenian bole, with as much train or
fish oil as will convert these ingredients into the consistence of a
salve. The honey must first be gradually dissolved, when the Armenian
bole must be stirred in; afterwards the alum and train oil are to be
added.


1090. _A profitable way of fattening Pigs._--Put four pigs in a
sty, for they feed best in company; but if there are too many, they
are apt to quarrel: feed them moderately the first week; and thrice
during the second week, mix with their barley-meal as much antimony
as will lie on a shilling; and the third week, twice give them the
same quantity. I need scarcely observe, it is in powder.

This purifies the blood, gives them an appetite, and makes them
thrive apace.


1091. _New mode of fattening Pigs._--A pig lately gained, by feeding
on Indian corn, in the course of six weeks and three days, the
enormous weight of fifteen stone. This mode of feeding has long been
known to the Neapolitans, whose pigs are so fat, as hardly to be able
to move.


GARDENING.

1092. _Proper situation for a Green-House._--The aspect of a
green-house may be at any point from east to west, following the
course of the sun; or, it may even be a little to the north of east
or west; but only a little, and the less the better, otherwise the
plants will not generally thrive in it, nor will the flowers acquire
their natural colors. A south aspect is to be preferred.


1093. _On preserving Seeds of Plants in a state fit for
Vegetation._--Seeds of plants may be preserved, for many months at
least, by causing them to be packed, either in husks, pods, &c.,
in absorbent paper, with raisins or brown moist sugar; or, a good
way, practised by gardeners, is to wrap the seed in brown paper or
cartridge paper, pasted down, and then varnished over.


1094. _To facilitate the Growth of Foreign Seeds._--Mr. Humboldt has
found, that seeds which do not commonly germinate in our climate,
or in our hot-houses, and which, of course, we cannot raise for
our gardens, or hope to naturalize in our fields, become capable
of germinating, when immersed for some days in a weak, oxygenized
muriatic acid. This interesting discovery has already turned to
advantage in several botanic gardens.


1095. _To plant and make Edgings._--Edgings of daisies, thrift,
violets, gentianella, &c., should be planted in February; but those
of box succeed better, if planted in April or August.


1096. _To train Evergreen and other Hedges._--Evergreen hedges may be
clipt about the beginning, but not later than the middle of April, as
by that time they will begin to grow--and it is proper that this work
should be previously performed. Some content themselves with clipping
but once a year, in which case the end of July, or first of August,
is a better time.

In trimming these, or indeed any hedge intended as a close fence,
they should be dressed up to a thin edge at top, as otherwise they
are apt to get full of gaps below; and the cause is obvious, that the
under part, in square or cut hedges, is too much shaded by the upper
part. Now, by sloping the sides, every part of the hedge is freely
exposed to the air; nor is any part over-dropped by another. A hedge,
intended merely as a fence, need seldom be more than five feet high,
or at most six. Screen hedges may be allowed to run to any height
thought necessary for the purpose; neither is it requisite to trim
them so often as fence-hedges; once a year, or in two years, may be
sufficient.

In the training of any hedge, it should not be topped or shortened,
till it has arrived at a full yard in height; but it may then have
a little taken off the points, in order to make it bush the better,
and shoot afterwards of a more regular height; the sides, however,
should be trimmed from the second or third year of planting, that it
may grow the more complete and close below, for therein consists the
excellence of any fence. It should not in topping, at any time while
in training, be much cut in, as that would make it push the stronger
to the top, to the detriment of the sides. When fence-hedges outgrow
their limits, they must, of course, be cut either wholly or partly
down; but if they be tolerably well kept, it is seldom necessary to
cut them down more than half to the ground.


1097. _How to cut Box Edgings._--Box edgings should be cut about the
beginning of April, or in the end of July. They should, however, be
cut once a year, and should be kept two inches in breadth at bottom;
being tapered up to a thin edge at top; for nothing looks so ill as a
large, bushy edging, especially to a narrow walk. The use of edging
is to separate the earth from the gravel; and the larger they are
allowed to grow, the less effectual they become; getting the more
open below, as they advance in height. Such also harbor snails, and
other troublesome vermin.


1098. _A sure method of curing Gravel-Walks._--Three parts pond-water
to one of brine, from the salting-tub in a family, poured with a
watering-pot upon gravel-walks, will not only kill the moss upon
them, but drive away the worms which make so many holes in them,
and also prevent weeds springing up. This a gentleman lately tried,
who has several gravel-walks in a grove near his house. Since he
moistened his walks with brine--which is now four years ago--they
are incommoded neither by moss, weeds, nor worms. Every autumn he
causes them to be well watered with the brine and pond-water, during
a whole week, to prevent moss; and a week in the spring, to guard
against weeds and worms; besides giving them a sprinkling every now
and then, in the summer-season, when they seem to want it.


1099. _Proper method of laying Carnations._--In summer, towards the
latter-end of June, or any time in July or beginning of August, when
the shoots of the year are advanced to a proper growth, being from
four, five, or six, to seven or eight inches long, which are to be
laid as they grow on the plants, and to remain affixed thereto till
rooted on the ground.

Thus far observed, begin the work by first clearing away all weeds
about the plants, and loosen the earth a little around them, and
if the surface is low, add some mould thereto sufficient to raise
it high enough to receive the layers easily; then begin laying the
shoots one by one; strip off the lower leaves so as to have some
inches of a clear shoot below; and trim the top leaves shorter and
even, and then slit or gash the shoot on the under side; in doing
which, fix on a joint about the middle of the shoot underneath,
and with your sharp knife cut half through the joint, and slanting
upwards; so as to slit the shoot up the middle half an inch, or but
little more; which done, directly lay it, by bending it down to the
earth with the gash or slit part open, making an opening in the
earth, and peg it down with one or two of the small-hooked sticks,
and earth over the body of the layer an inch or two deep, still
keeping the slit open and the top raised gently upright, pressing the
earth moderately upon them; and in this manner proceed with laying
all the shoots on each plant; and when all are laid, give a gentle
watering to settle the earth close about the layers, and repeat it
frequently in dry weather.

They will soon emit roots at the gash or slit part, generally at the
bottom of the tongue, and in five or six weeks will often be rooted
fit for separating and planting off from the parent, so that when
they have been about five, six, or seven weeks laid, you will examine
the progress they have made in rooting, by opening the earth gently
about some of the layers; and as soon as they appear to be tolerably
rooted, let them be cut off from the old plant with a sharp knife, in
order to be timely planted out in nursery beds, that they may root
more abundantly, and get due strength before winter; observing, in
cutting them off from the mother plant, to open the ground so as to
take them up with all the roots they have made, and cut them clean
off beyond the gash; afterwards trim off any naked woody part or
bottom, but preserve all the roots, and trim the long tops a little,
then plant them in nursery rows, six inches asunder, or you may
prick some in small pots, one layer in each, giving water directly
at planting, and repeat it often in dry weather till they take good
root, and grow freely, keeping them clean from weeds.

Those in the nursery beds will, by October, be good strong plants.
The choicest sorts may then be planted in pots, to move under
occasional shelter in time of severe frost, and for which purpose,
either use small pots (32) to contain them all winter, or plant them
in large pots (24 or 16) to remain to flower, observing to take them
up out of the nursery beds for potting, &c., with a garden trowel,
each layer with a good ball of earth about the roots; and having the
pots ready, place a shell over the holes at bottom, and put some
good light rich earth therein; plant one layer with its ball about
the roots entire in each pot, fill up with more earth, and give
some water; you may also at the same time plant some of the more
ordinary or common sorts into flower-borders or beds, to stand the
full weather all the year; but the choicer sorts in the pots may,
in November, be placed close together, either in a garden-frame, to
have occasional protection of the glasses, or mats, in severe frost,
and have the full air in all open weather and mild days, or may be
plunged in a raised bed of any dry compost, raised some inches above
the common level, and arched over with hoop arches, in order to be
protected with occasional covering of garden mats when hard frosts
prevail; but in either method, be sure to expose them fully in all
open weather, as aforesaid.

In the spring, such as have remained all winter in small pots
should, in February or early in March, be turned out with the ball
of earth about the root, and planted into larger pots, to remain for
flowering, giving proper waterings; and those which were potted at
once into larger pots in autumn should now have the earth stirred at
top, taking out some, and fill up with fresh good earth, and give a
little water.

The layers planted in the common borders of the pleasure and flower
garden require no other care than keeping them clean from weeds, and
tying up the flower stalks to sticks when they are advanced long
enough to require support.


1100. _To remove Herbs and Flowers in the Summer._--If you have
occasion to transplant in the summer season, let it be in the evening
after the heat is past; plant and water the same immediately, and
there will be no danger from the heat next day; but be careful, in
digging up the earth, you do not break any of the young shoots, as
the sap will exude out of the same to the great danger of the plants.


1101. _New Method of raising Cucumbers._--From the best seed that can
be got of the common prickly cucumber, raise plants on a moderate
hot-bed, not hurrying them too much in their growth. In May, when
the danger of the frost is nearly over, familiarize the plants, by
degrees, to the air, and towards the latter end of the month plant
them in the open ground against a south wall. Take care not to give
them too much water, as that will injure the fruit. When they have
run up about five feet, they will send forth blossoms, and the fruit
will begin to show itself soon after. The flesh of cucumbers raised
in this manner will be thicker and firmer, and the flavor vastly
more delicious, than those raised from the same seed, but planted in
the ordinary way, and the runners suffered to trail on the ground.
Though a south wall in most gardens, is too much appropriated to
other things, to give room for cucumbers in general, yet in every
garden a few plants may be so trained by way of rarity, and to save
seed, which is found to be greatly improved by this method, so as to
produce much better cucumbers in the common way of raising them. One
or two plants, so raised, will supply a sufficient quantity of seed
for a large garden.

Laying a cucumber or melon-bed with tiles, is also of particular
service in improving the fruit, and giving it a proper flavor.


1102. _To prevent the irregular Growth of Melons._--It is well known
that melons frequently, in certain situations, lose their circular
form, and grow larger on one side than the other, and that those
misshapen fruits are always bad. To remedy this, take a small forked
stick, in proportion to the size of the melon, and thrust it in the
ground as nearly as possible to the tail of the fruit, taking the
precaution to lay a little moss between the two prongs, and suspend
the melon to this fork. In a few days the melon will resume its form,
when the fork may be removed, and the operation is finished. The
quality of the fruit remains unchanged.


1103. _Easy Method of producing Mushrooms._--If the water wherein
mushrooms have been steeped or washed be poured upon an old bed,
or if the broken parts of mushrooms be strewed thereon, there will
speedily arise great numbers.


1104. _To obtain a good Crop of Onions._--In order to obtain a good
crop of onions, it is proper to sow at different seasons, viz., in
light soils, in August, January, or early in February; and in heavy
wet soils, in March, or early in April. Onions, however, should not
be sown in January, unless the ground be in a dry state, which is
not often the case at so early a period of the season; but if so,
advantage should be taken of it.


1105. _The Advantage of sowing Peas in Circles instead of straight
Rows._--It is a great error in those persons who sow the rows of
tall-growing peas close together. It is much better in all those
sorts, which grow six or eight feet high, to have only one row, and
then to leave a bed ten or twelve feet wide for onions, carrots, or
any crops which do not grow tall.

The advantages which will be derived are, that the peas will not be
drawn up so much, be stronger, will flower much nearer to the ground,
and in wet weather can be more easily gathered without wetting you.

But instead of sowing peas in straight rows, if you will form the
ground into circles of three feet diameter, with a space of two feet
between each circle, in a row thirty feet long, you will have six
circles of peas, each nine feet, in all fifty-four feet of peas,
instead of thirty, on the same extent of ground.

If you want more than one row of circles, leave a bed of ten or
twelve feet before you begin another.

For the very tall sorts, four feet circles will afford more room for
the roots to grow in, and care must be taken, by applying some tender
twigs, or strings, to prevent the circles from joining each other.

This method is equally applicable for scarlet-beans.


1106. _To raise Peas in Autumn, and to prevent Mice from eating them
when sown._--The purple-flowered peas are found to answer best for
a late crop in autumn, as they are not so liable to be mildewed as
many of the other sorts, and will continue flowering till the frost
stops them.

Those peas may be sown in July, August, or so late as the first week
in September, if sown in a warm, sheltered situation, and in a soil
inclining to sand.

Soak the peas in warm milk, and after you have drawn the drills,
water them before you sow the peas; it is best to sow them towards
the evening. If the autumn should prove very dry, they will require
frequent watering.

When peas are sown before winter, or early in spring, they are very
apt to be eaten by mice.

To prevent this, soak the peas for a day or two in train oil before
you sow them, which will encourage their vegetation, and render them
so obnoxious to the mice, that they will not eat them.


1107. _Method of cultivating Radishes for Salad, so as to have them
ready at all seasons of the year._--Take seeds of the common radish,
and lay them in rain-water to steep for twenty-four hours; then put
them quite wet into a small linen bag, well tied at the mouth with
packthread. If you have steeped a large quantity of seeds, you may
divide them into several bags. Then expose the bags in a place where
they will receive the greatest heat of the sun, for about twenty-four
hours, at the end of which time the seed will begin to grow, and
you may then sow it in the usual manner, in earth well exposed to
the heat of the sun. Prepare two small tubs to cover each other
exactly. These may be easily provided, by sawing a small cask through
the middle, and they will serve in winter; in summer one will be
sufficient for each kind of earth that has been sown. As soon as you
have sown your seeds you must cover them with your tub, and at the
end of three days you will find radishes of the size and thickness of
young lettuces, having at their extremities two small round leaves,
rising from the earth, of a reddish color. These radishes, cut or
pulled up, will be excellent, if mixed with salad, and they have a
much more delicate taste than the common radishes which are eaten
with salt.

By taking the following precautions, you may have them in the winter,
and even during the hardest frosts: After having steeped the seeds
in warm water, and exposed them to the sun, as already directed, or
in a place sufficiently hot to make them shoot forth, warm the two
tubs; fill one of them with earth well dunged; sow your seeds, thus
prepared, in one of them, and cover it with the other tub; you must
then be careful to sprinkle it with warm water as often as may be
necessary. Then carry the two tubs closely joined, taking care they
cover each other, into a warm vault, or cellar, and at the end of
fifteen days you may gather a fine salad.


1108. _To preserve Strawberry Plants from the Heat of the Sun,
&c._--Sir Joseph Banks, from a variety of experiments, and the
experience of many years, recommends a general revival of the now
almost obsolete practice of laying straw under strawberry-plants,
when the fruit begins to swell; by which means the roots are shaded
from the sun, the waste of moisture by evaporation prevented, the
leaning fruit kept from damage by resting on the ground, particularly
in wet weather, and much labor in watering saved. Twenty trusses of
long straw are sufficient for 1800 feet of plants.


1109. _Directions for managing Strawberries in Summer._--On the
management of strawberries in June and July, the future prosperity of
them greatly depends; and if each plant has not been kept separate,
by cutting off the runners, they will be in a state of confusion, and
you will find three different sorts of plants.

1. Old plants, whose roots are turned black, hard, and woody.

2. Young plants, not strong enough to flower.

3. Flowering plants, which ought only to be there, and perhaps not
many of them.

Before the time of flowering is quite over, examine them, and pull
up every old plant which has not flowered; for, if once they have
omitted to flower, you may depend upon it they never will produce any
after, being too old, and past bearing; but to be fully convinced,
leave two or three, set a stick to them, and observe them the next
year.

If the young plants, runners of last year, be too thick, take some of
them away, and do not leave them nearer than a foot of the scarlet,
alpines, and wood, and fifteen or sixteen inches of all the larger
sorts; and in the first rainy weather in July or August, take them
all up, and make a fresh plantation with them, and they will be very
strong plants for flowering next year.

Old beds, even if the plants be kept single at their proper distance,
examine, and pull all the old plants which have not flowered.

When the fruit is nearly all gathered, examine them again, and cut
off the runners; but if you want to make a fresh plantation, leave
some of the two first, and cut off all the rest. Then stir up the
ground with a trowel, or three-pronged fork, and in August they will
be fit to transplant.

If you have omitted in July, do not fail in August, that the runners
may make good roots, to be transplanted in September; for, if later,
the worms will draw them out of the ground, and the frost afterwards
will prevent them from striking root; the consequence of which is,
their not flowering the next spring; and you will lose a year.


1110. _To cultivate the common Garden Rhubarb._--It is not enough to
give it depth of good soil, but it must be watered in drought; and in
winter must be well covered with straw or dung. If this is attended
to, your rhubarb will be solid when taken out of the ground; and your
kitchen, if a warm one, will soon fit it for use.


1111. _Method of cultivating and curing Turkey Rhubarb from
Seed._--The seed should be sown about the beginning of February, on a
bed of good soil, (if rather sandy, the better) exposed to an east or
west aspect in preference to the south; a full sun being prejudicial
to the vegetation of the seeds, and to the plants whilst young.

The seeds are best sown moderately thick, (broad cast) treading them
regularly in, as is usual with parsnips and other light seeds, and
then raking the ground smooth. When the season is wet, make a bed
for sowing the rhubarb seeds upon, about two feet thick, with new
dung from the stable, covering it near one foot thick with good soil.
The intent of this bed is not for the sake of warmth, but solely
to prevent the rising of earth-worms, which in a moist season will
frequently destroy the young crop.

If the seed is good, the plants often rise too thick; if so, when
they have attained six leaves, they should be taken up carefully,
(where too close), leaving the standing crop eight or ten inches
apart: those taken up may be planted at the same distance in a fresh
spot of ground, in order to furnish other plantations. When the
plants in general are grown to the size that cabbage-plants are
usually set out for a standing crop, they are best planted where they
are to remain, in beds four feet wide, one row along the middle of
the bed, leaving two yards' distance between the plants, allowing an
alley between the beds about a foot wide, for conveniency of weeding
the plants.

In the autumn, when the decayed leaves are removed, if the shoveling
of the alleys is thrown over the crowns of the plants, it will be
found of service.


1112. _Cultivation of Turkey Rhubarb, by offsets._--Slip off several
offsets from the heads of large plants; set them with a dibble about
a foot apart, in order to remove them into other beds; and, in the
autumn, they will be in a thriving state.


1113. _Method of curing Rhubarb._--The plants may be taken up, either
early in the spring or in autumn, when the leaves are decayed, in dry
weather, if possible: when the roots are to be cleared from dirt,
(without washing,) let them be cut into pieces, and, with a sharp
knife, freed from the outer coat, and exposed to the sun and air for
a few days, to render the outside a little dry.

In order to accelerate the curing of the largest pieces, a hole may
be scooped out with a pen-knife; these and the smaller parts are then
to be strung on packthread, and hung up in a warm room, where it is
to remain till perfectly dry. Each piece may be rendered more sightly
by a common file, fixing it in a small vice during that operation;
afterwards rub over it a very fine powder, which the small roots
furnish in beautiful perfection, for this and every other purpose
where rhubarb is required.

An easier and simpler method of drying rhubarb is, after cutting the
root into handsome pieces, to wrap up each separately, in one or more
pieces of whitish-brown paper, and then to place them on the hob of a
common Bath stove. Lemon and orange-peel dry beautifully in this way.


1114. _Proper Soil for the culture of Turnips._--Sandy loams, in good
heart, are most favorable to their growth, though they will thrive
well on strong loams, if they are not wet; but on clayey, thin, or
wet soils, they are not worth cultivating; for though a good crop may
be raised on such ground, when well prepared and dunged, more damage
is done by taking off the turnips in winter, in poaching the soil,
than the value of the crop will repay.


1115. _Preservation of Succulent Plants._--Green succulent plants
are better preserved after a momentary immersion in boiling water,
than otherwise. This practice has been successfully used in the
preservation of cabbage and other plants, dried for keeping; it
destroys the vegetable life at once, and, in a great degree, prevents
that decay which otherwise attends them.


1116. _Various useful properties of Tobacco to Gardeners._--Tobacco
is employed for so many different uses, that there is no person
possessed of a garden but will find both pleasure and profit in the
cultivation of it, especially as it is now at such a high price.
The seed is very cheap, and may be procured of most nurserymen,
and will answer the same end as the foreign for most purposes, and
considerably cheaper.

_Uses to which it may be applied._--1. To florists, for two elegant
annual plants to decorate the borders of the flower-garden; or, on
account of their height, to fill up vacant places in the shrubberies;
or, when put into pots, they will be very ornamental in the
green-house during the winter.

2. Kitchen-gardeners would in a few days lose their crops of melons,
if not immediately fumigated with tobacco-smoke, when attacked by the
red spider; and it is useful to destroy the black flies on cucumbers
in frames.

3. Fruit-gardeners. When peach and nectarine-trees have their leaves
curled up, and the shoots covered with smother-flies; or, the
cherry-trees have the ends of the shoots infested with the black
dolphin-fly; canvas, pack-sheets, or doubled mats, nailed before
them, and frequently fumigated under them, will destroy those insects.

4. Forcing-gardeners, who raise roses and kidney-beans in stoves,
can soon destroy the green flies which cover the stalks and buds of
roses, and the insects which appear like a mildew on kidney-beans, by
the assistance of the fumigating bellows.

5. Nurserymen. When the young shoots of standard cherry-trees, or any
other trees, are covered with the black dolphin-flies, an infusion is
made with the leaves and stalks of tobacco; a quantity is put into an
earthen pan, or small, oblong wooden trough; one person holds this
up, whilst another gently bends the top of each tree, and lets the
branches remain about a minute in the liquor, which destroys them.

6. Graziers, when their sheep are infected with the scab, find relief
from making a sheep-water with an infusion of the leaves and stalks.
Moles, when only a few hills are at first observed, may probably be
soon driven out of the ground, by fumigating their holes.

7. Herb tobacco is also greatly improved by having some of the
leaves, when dried, cut with a pair of scissors, and mixed with the
herbs in any quantity you may think proper, according to the strength
you require, and save you the expense of buying tobacco.

The herbs generally used for this purpose are colt's-foot and wood
betony-leaves; the leaves and flowers of lavender, rosemary, thyme,
and some others of the like nature.


THE ORCHARD.

1117. _To prevent Blossom and Fruit-trees from being damaged by
early Spring Frost._--If a rope (a hempen one, it is presumed) be
introduced among the branches of a fruit-tree in blossom, and the end
of it brought down, so as to terminate in a bucket of water; and,
should a slight frost take place in the night-time, in that case
the tree will not be affected by the frost; but a film of ice, of
considerable thickness, will be formed on the surface of the bucket
in which the rope's-end is immersed, although it has often happened
that another bucket of water, placed beside it for the sake of
experiment, has had no ice at all upon it.


1118. _Chinese mode of propagating Fruit-trees._--The ingenious
people of China have a common method of propagating several kinds
of fruit-trees, which of late years has been practised with success
in Bengal. The method is simply this:--They strip a ring of bark,
about an inch in width, from a bearing branch, surround the place
with a ball of fat earth, or loam, bound fast to the branch with a
piece of matting: over this they suspend a pot or horn, with water,
having a small hole in the bottom just sufficient to let the water
drop, in order to keep the earth constantly moist. The branch throws
new roots into the earth just above the place where the ring of bark
was stripped off. The operation is performed in the spring, and the
branch is sawed off and put into the ground at the fall of the leaf.
The following year it will bear fruit.


1119. _To improve Fruit-trees by attention to the Color of the
Soil._--The color and also the quality of soils have an effect on the
color and flavor of fruits--even on the color of many flowers. The
effects of the color of soils on that of fruits, are most perceptible
on the delicate kinds, such as grapes, peaches, &c.; but to a nice
observer, it extends in a greater or less degree to all fruits. For
instance, if two black Hamburgh grapes, made from the cuttings of the
same plant, shall be planted, the one in a dry, hazelly loam, and the
other in a moist, black earth, the fruit of the one will be brown,
or of a grizzly color, and the other very dark red or black; and the
grape will be more juicy, though better in flavor, than the other
grown in a dryer soil.


1120. _To increase the Growth in Trees._--It may be depended upon
as a fact, that by occasionally washing the stems of trees, their
growth will be greatly increased; for several recent experiments have
proved, that all the ingredients of vegetation united, which are
received from the roots, stem, branches, and leaves of a mossy and
dirty tree, do not produce half the increase either in wood or fruit,
that another gains whose stem is clean. It is clearly obvious, that
proper nourishment cannot be received from rain, for the dirty stem
will retain the moisture longer than when clean; and the moss and
dirt will absorb the finest parts of the dew, and likewise act as a
screen, by depriving the tree of that share of sun and air which it
requires.

A common scrubbing-brush and clean water is all that is necessary,
only care must be observed not to injure the bark.


1121. _To prevent Hares and Rabbits from Barking young
Plantations._--Hares, rabbits, and rats, have a natural antipathy
to tar; but tar, though fluid, contracts, when exposed to the sun
and air for a time, a great dryness and a very binding quality; and
if applied to trees in its natural state, will occasion them to be
bark-bound. To remove this difficulty, tar is of so strong a savor,
that a small quantity mixed with other things, in their nature open
and loose, will give the whole mixture such a degree of its own taste
and smell, as will prevent hares, &c., touching what it is applied
to.

Take any quantity of tar, and six or seven times as much grease,
stirring and mixing them well together; with this composition brush
the stems of young trees, as high as hares, &c., can reach; and it
will effectually prevent their being barked.


1122. _Bad effects of Iron Nails, &c., on Fruit-trees, or
mischievous effects of Iron Nails, in conjunction with Branches
of Fruit-trees._--It often happens that some of the limbs of
fruit-trees, trained against a wall, are blighted and die, while
others remain in a healthy and flourishing state. This has been
hitherto erroneously attributed to the effects of lightning; but,
from closer observation, and from several experiments, it has been
found to arise from the corroding effects of the rust of the nails
and cramps with which trees in this situation are fastened. To avoid
this inconvenience, therefore, it requires only to be careful in
preventing the iron from coming in contact with the bark of the trees.


1123. _To destroy Moss on Trees._--Remove it with a hard
scrubbing-brush, in February and March, and wash the trees with
cow-dung, urine, and soap-suds.


1124. _Necessity of taking off superfluous Suckers from
Shrubs._--Many flowering shrubs put out strong suckers from the root,
such as lilacs, syringa, and some of the kinds of roses, which take
greatly from the strength of the mother-plant; and which, if not
wanted for the purpose of planting next season, should be twisted
off, or otherwise destroyed.


1125. _To cure the Disease in Apple-trees._--Brush off the white
down, clear off the red stain underneath it, and anoint the places
infected with a liquid mixture of train-oil and Scotch-snuff.


1126. _To cure the Canker in Trees._--Cut them off to the quick,
and apply a piece of sound bark from any other tree, and bind it on
with a flannel roller. Cut off the canker, and a new shoot will grow
strong, but in a year or two you will find it cankered.


1127. _A method of curing Fruit-trees infected with an Easterly
Blight._--Where valuable fruit-trees are infected with this blight,
they may, with little trouble and expense be in a short time cured,
by fumigating them with brimstone strewed on lighted charcoal; this
effectually kills it; but the workman must observe to get to windward
of the trees, as the fumes, both of brimstone and charcoal, are very
offensive and pernicious.

Mr. Miller recommends washing and sprinkling the blighted trees from
time to time, with common water, (that is, such as hath not had
anything steeped in it,) and the sooner that is performed, (whenever
we apprehend danger,) the better; and if the young and tender shoots
seem to be much infected, wash them with a woollen cloth, so as
to clear them, if possible, from all glutinous matter, that their
respiration and perspiration may not be obstructed; and if some
broad, flat pans, or tubs, are placed near the trees, it will keep
their tender parts in a ductile state, and greatly help them; but
whenever this operation of washing the trees is performed, it should
be early in the day, that the moisture may be exhaled before the
cold of the night comes on, especially if the nights are frosty; nor
should it be done when the sun shines very hot upon the wall, which
would be subject to scorch up the tender blossom.


1128. _Experienced method of healing Wounds in Trees._--This method
consists in making a varnish of common linseed oil, rendered very
drying, by boiling it, for the space of an hour, with an ounce of
litharge to each pound of oil, mixed with calcined bones, pulverized
and sifted, to the consistence of an almost liquid paste. With this
paste the wounds of trees are to be covered, by means of a brush,
after the bark and other substance have been pared, so as to render
the whole as smooth and even as possible. The varnish must be applied
in dry weather, in order that it may attach itself properly.


1129. _Composition for healing Wounds in Trees._--Take of dry,
pounded chalk, _three_ measures; add of common vegetable tar, _one_
measure; mix them thoroughly, and boil them, with a low heat, till
the composition becomes of the consistency of bees'-wax: it may be
preserved for use, in this state, for any length of time. If chalk
cannot conveniently be got, dry brick-dust may be substituted.

_Application._--After the broken or decayed limb has been sawed off,
the whole of the _saw-cut_ must be very carefully pared away, and the
rough edges of the bark, in particular must be made quite smooth;
the doing of this properly is of great consequence; then lay on the
above composition, hot, about the thickness of half-a-dollar, over
the wounded place, and over the edges of the surrounding bark; it
should be spread with a hot trowel.


1130. _To prune Wall Fruit._--Cut off all fresh shoots, however fair
they may appear to the eye, that will not, without much bending,
be well placed to the wall; for if any branch happen to be twisted
or bruised in the bending or turning (which you may not easily
perceive), although it may grow and prosper for the present, yet it
will decay in time, and the sap or gum will issue from that place.


1131. _To prune Vines to Advantage._--In pruning vines, leave some
new branches every year, and take away (if too many) some of the old,
which will be of great advantage to the tree, and much increase the
quantity of fruit.

When you trim your vine, leave two knots, and cut them off the next
time; for, usually, the two buds yield a bunch of grapes. Vines, thus
pruned, have been known to bear abundantly, whereas others that have
been cut close to please the eye, have been almost barren of fruit.


1132. _The most proper Times when Leaves of Trees ought to be
collected for pharmaceutical and economical Purposes._--It is at that
period when the plant is in full flower, that the leaves possess
their full virtue. They drop off when their particular life has
terminated.


TIMBER.

1133. _To promote the Growth of Forest-trees._--It is highly to
be censured, the neglect of permitting ivy-twines, which grow to
forest-trees, to remain attached to them. Their roots entering into
the bark, rob the trees of much of their nourishment; they in a
manner strangle their supporters, by impeding the circulation of
their juices, and in time destroy the trees. They should be torn up
by the roots, for, if any part of them adhere to the tree, they will
spread, as they obtain nourishment by their adhering roots.


1134. _White-washing the Trunks of Trees, recommended._--Being
one day upon a visit (observes Mr. Northmore, who recommends this
experiment) at my friend's near Yarmouth, in the Isle of Wight, I
remarked that several of the trunks of trees in his orchard had been
covered with whitewash; upon inquiring the reason, he replied, that
he had done it with a view to keep off the hares, and other animals,
and that it was attended not only with that good effect, but several
others, for it made the rind smooth and compact, by closing up the
cracks; it entirely destroyed the moss; and as the rains washed off
the lime, it manured the roots. These several advantages, derived
from so simple a practice, deserve to be more generally known. The
white-wash is made in the usual manner with lime, and may be applied
twice, or oftener, if necessary.


1135. _To cure Wounds in Trees._--Wounds in trees are best cured by
covering them with a coat of common lead paint without turpentine
(for turpentine is poison to vegetation) in the sun, on a fine dry
day.


1136. _Trees for Shade, Nursery Trees, &c._--Forest Trees selected
for shade should be of kinds not liable to be attacked by worms and
insects. The rock or sugar maple is always remarkably free from
worms, and it makes the most dense and beautiful shade of all our
deciduous trees. This is becoming a very popular tree, and we hope to
see it extensively propagated. There is no more risk in transplanting
this than the elm, and the limbs are not liable to be broken by the
winds and snow.

We believe it is generally admitted that transplanted trees succeed
best when their early growth has been in soil similar to that for
which they are destined to be placed permanently. If raised in such
a soil, and transplanted to that which is thin and poor, they seem
to receive a shock from which with difficulty they recover. As a
gentleman once remarked, it is like feeding a calf with all the milk
he will take till he is six months old, and then suddenly turning him
off to live on a short pasture.

Large trees may be as successfully planted as small ones. The mode
and result of an experiment made by Messrs. Pomeroy and Dutton, of
Utica, are thus given: Those gentlemen transplanted trees, comprising
maples, elm, beech, &c., some thirty feet in height, which were
transplanted without being shorn of any of their branches. The
process of removal was as follows:--In the fall, before the frost, a
trench was dug around the trees selected, from ten to fifteen feet in
diameter, and the roots severed. In the winter when the ground had
become solid from freezing, the trees were pulled out by the aid of
oxen and levers, with the mass of earth firmly attached to the roots.
They were then transported erect on a strong sled, built for the
purpose, and set out.

These trees grew in open land, a mile and a half from the city. They
put on their foliage last spring, as if wholly unconscious that they
were not still in their native soil, and the enterprising gentlemen
who undertook this unusual course, are rewarded with shade trees
which by the old practice it would have required twenty years to
produce.

Summer pruning is sometimes necessary in order to give form and
proper direction to nursery trees, and standard trees may need
thinning, in order to expose the fruit to light and air; but in
pruning trees thoroughly, particularly if large limbs are to be cut
off, it is best to defer the business till the last of July, August,
or the former part of September.

Late in summer and early in autumn, the bark does not peel as it does
early in the summer, when it often starts from the tree which is
injured by going into trees and stepping on limbs with hard shoes.
The sap will ooze out of some trees early in summer, which not only
injures them generally, but it often causes the wounded part to decay.

But in late pruning, the wood, when the branch is cut off, becomes
sound and well seasoned; and though it may not heal over so readily
as when cut early in summer or spring, it remains in a healthy state.


1137. _To preserve Wood in Damp Situations._--Two coats of the
following preparation are to be applied, after which the wood is
subject to no deterioration whatever from humidity. Twelve pounds of
resin are to be beaten in a mortar, to which three pounds of sulphur
and twelve pints of whale oil are to be added. This mixture is to
be melted over the fire, and stirred during the operation. Ochre,
reduced to an impalpable powder, by triturating it with oil, may then
be combined in the proportion necessary to give either a lighter
or a darker color to the material. The first coat should be put on
lightly, having been previously heated; the second may be applied in
two or three days, and a third after an equal interval, if from the
peculiar dampness of the situation it should be judged expedient.

_Remark._--It is highly probable (though the experiment has not been
tried) that this composition would be improved by adding a small
portion of the liquid leather, which is now commonly sold in London,
being the refuse of the purification of fish oil by tar.

Where the work will bear the expense, and is not exposed to a heat
of more than 130 degrees of Fahrenheit, the best composition is
the following: Equal parts of turpentine (the fluid resin, not the
essential oil), bees'-wax, black resin and maltha, or coal tar,
boiled together till they cease to rise--that is, till the white
cream or scum proceeding from the separation of the essential oil
disappears. Apply it warm with a turpentine brush--two or three
coats, to cover the cracks or pores left by the brush. This lute was
first proposed by Chaptal, without the addition of the coal tar,
which is a great improvement. A piece of wood covered with three
coats of it, and immersed for two years in water, was found to be
quite dry on cutting off the lute.

Take care not to allow water to fall into the pan, as it would make
the hot materials explode. If the composition catch fire, put on the
cover directly, and remove the pan for an instant from the fire.


1138. _Cause and Prevention of the Dry Rot._--The cause of the dry
rot in wood is moisture; and to prevent well-dried timber from
decaying above or under ground, is done by charring it well.


1139. _Cure for the Dry Rot in Timber, so as to make it
indestructible by Water._--Melt twelve ounces of resin in an iron
pot; add three gallons of train oil, and three or four rolls of
brimstone; and when the brimstone and resin are melted and become
thin, add as much Spanish brown, or red and yellow ochre, or any
other color required, first ground fine with the same oil, as will
give the whole a shade of the depth preferred; then lay it on with a
brush as hot and thin as possible; some time after the first coat is
dried, give it a second. This preparation will preserve planks for
ages, and keep the weather from driving through brick work.


1140. _Method of trying the Goodness of Timber for Ship-building,
used in the Arsenal at Vienna._--One person applies his ear to the
centre of one end of the trunk, while another, with a key, hits the
other end with a gentle stroke. If the tree be sound and good, the
stroke will be distinctly heard at the other end, though the tree
should be a hundred feet or more in length.


1141. _To season and render Green Timber immediately fit for
use._--After the timber has been cut down from the stock, take off,
immediately, both the outer bark and also the inner rind, clean to
the wood; cut it up to the different purposes for which it may be
wanted, whether scantlings for roofings, joists, planks, deals, or
the like. After preparing them for their proper use, steep them in
lime-water a few days, or pay them over with a little of the lime,
along with the water. The hotter it is used after the lime is slaked,
so much the better. Lime-water is made by slaking the lime-shells in
water. This will answer equally well for round trees. The author of
this method says, he has been, for a great number of years past, used
to take down and repair both ancient and modern buildings, in which
a good deal of Scots fir had been used, but he never found one inch
either rotten or worm-eaten, where it was in the least connected with
lime, and kept dry; on the contrary, he found it more hard and firm
than when first used.


BUILDING.

1142. _Artificial Stone Floors and Coverings for Houses, as made
in some parts of Russia._--The floors and coverings of houses, in
some parts of South Russia, are made in the following manner:--For
a floor, let the ground be made even, and some stones of any shape
be put on, and, with a heavy wooden rammer, force or beat the stones
into the ground, continuing to beat the floor till it become quite
even, and incapable of receiving any farther impression. Then run
lime, immediately after it has been slaked, through a fine sieve,
as expeditiously as possible, because exposure to the air weakens
the lime. Mix two parts of coarse sand, or washed gravel, (for there
must be no earth in it,) with one part of lime-powder, and wet them
with bullocks' blood; so little moist, however, as merely to prevent
the lime from blowing away in powder; in short, the less moist, the
better. Spread it on the floor, and, without a moment's loss of time,
let several men be ready, with large beetles, to beat the mixture,
which will become more and more moist by the excessive beating
requisite. Then put on it some of the dry sand and lime, mixed, and
beat it till like a stone. If required to be very fine, take for the
next layer finely-sifted lime, with about a tenth part of rye-flour,
and a little ox-blood; beat it till it becomes a very stiff mortar,
and then smooth it with a trowel. The next day, again smooth it with
a trowel; and so continue to do, daily, till it be entirely dry. When
it is quite dry and hard, rub it over with fresh ox-blood, taking off
all which it will not imbibe. No wet will penetrate this composition,
which, however, after some time, is often painted with oil-colors.
The whole floor appears as a single stone, and nothing will affect
it. The drier it is used, the better, provided that, with much
beating, it becomes like a very stiff mortar, and evidently forms a
compact body. On flat tops of houses, the beetle, or rammers' ends,
must be smaller, to prevent the rebounding of the boards and timber,
which would crack the cement; but, when the thickness of a foot is
laid on, it will beat more firmly. A thin coating of ox-blood, flour,
and lime, being beat in large, strong, wooden troughs, or mortar,
till it can be spread with a trowel, may be used without beating
it again on the floor or house-top; but it must be very stiff, and
used most expeditiously. Even frost will not affect it. With this
composition, artificial stone may be made, rammed very hard into
strong wooden frames of the required shape; particularly to turn
arches for buildings of rammed earth. It is well known, that earth
which is not too argillaceous, with only the moisture it has when
fresh dug, on being rammed between frames of wood, till the rammer
will no longer impress it, makes external walls; but a mass as hard as
stone may be made with a little lime added to sand, horse-dung, and
ox-blood. The more the lime is beaten, the moister it becomes; and
it must contain so much moisture as to become, by beating, a solid
mass, adhering in all its parts, and not remain crumbling, that will
properly set as mortar. If there be too little moisture at first,
it will remain a powder; if there be too much, it will become a soft
mortar. Lime is of no use, mixed with clay or vegetable earths;
which, if well beaten, are stronger without it.


1143. _To cure Damp Walls._--Boil two quarts of tar, with two ounces
of kitchen-grease, for a quarter of an hour, in an iron pot. Add
some of this tar to a mixture of slaked lime and powdered glass,
which have passed through a flour-sieve, and been completely dried
over the fire in an iron pot, in the proportion of two parts of lime
and one of glass, till the mixture becomes of the consistence of
thin plaster. The cement must be used immediately after being mixed,
and therefore it is proper not to mix more of it than will coat one
square foot of wall, since it quickly becomes too hard for use; and
care must be taken to prevent any moisture from mixing with the
cement. For a wall merely damp, a coating one-eighth of an inch thick
is sufficient; but if the wall is wet, there must be a second coat.
Plaster made of lime, hair, and plaster of Paris, may afterwards be
laid on as a cement. The cement above described will unite the parts
of Portland stone or marble, so as to make them as durable as they
were prior to the fracture.


1144. _To increase the Durability of Tiles for covering
Buildings._--The following composition has been found to be of
extraordinary durability, as a glazing or varnish for tiles. No sort
of weather, even for a considerable length of time, has had any
effect upon it. It prevents that absorption of water, by which common
tiles are rendered liable to crumble into dust, hinders the shivering
of tiles, and gives to red bricks a soft lustre, by which their
appearance is much improved.

Over a weak fire heat a bottle of linseed oil, with an ounce of
litharge, and a small portion of minium, till such time as a feather,
used in stirring it, shall be burnt to the degree of being easily
rubbed to powder between the fingers. Then take off the varnish, let
it cool, clarify it from any impurities which may have fallen to the
bottom, and heat it again. Having, in the mean time, melted from
three to four ounces of pitch, mix this with the warm varnish. The
specific gravity of the pitch hinders it from mingling thoroughly
with the varnish, though it even remain so long upon the fire as to
be evaporated to considerable thickness. It is not till the varnish
be cooled, nearly to the consistency of common syrup, that this
effect takes place in the requisite degree. If it be too thick, let
hot varnish be added, to bring it to the proper consistency; if it
be too thin, add melted pitch. Next, put in as much brick-dust as
the mixture can receive, without being made too thick for convenient
use. The finer the brick-dust, and the easier it is to be moved with
the point of a pencil, so much the fitter will it be to fill up the
chinks and unevenness of the bricks, and, as it were, to incorporate
itself with their substance. Prepare the brick-dust in the following
manner:--Take a certain number of pieces of good brick, beat them
into dust, and sift the dust in a hair-sieve. Then, to improve its
fineness, rub it on a stone with water, dry it, and mix it with the
varnish in the necessary proportion. If the brick-dust be naturally
of too dark a color, a portion of some that is brighter may be added,
to make the color clear.

It is to be laid on the tiles in the same manner in which oil-colors
in general are put upon the substances on which they are applied. The
composition must be heated from time to time, when it is to be used.


1145. _Economical Method of employing Tiles for the Roofs of
Houses._--A French architect (M. Castala) has invented a new method
of employing tiles for the roofs of houses, so as to save one half of
the quantity usually employed for that purpose. The tiles are made of
a square instead of an oblong form; and the hook that fastens them is
at one of the angles, so that, when fastened to the laths, they hang
down _diagonally_, and every tile is covered one-fifth part on two
sides by the superior row.


1146. _To improve Chimney Fire-places, and increase the Heat, by a
proper attention to the Setting of Stoves, Grates, &c._--The best
materials for setting stoves or grates are fire-stone and common
bricks and mortar. Both materials are fortunately very cheap.
When bricks are used, they should be covered with a thin coating
of plaster, which, when it is dry, should be white-washed. The
fire-stone should likewise be white-washed when that is used; and
every part of the fire-place, which is not exposed to being soiled
and made black by the smoke, should be kept as white and clear as
possible. As _white_ reflects more heat, as well as more light, than
any other color, it ought always to be preferred for the inside of a
chimney fire-place; and _black_, which reflects neither light nor
heat, should be more avoided.


1147. _To cure Smoky Chimneys._--Put on the top of the chimney a box,
in each of whose sides is a door hanging on hinges, and kept open
by a thin iron rod running from one to the other, and fastened by a
ring in each end to a staple. When there is no wind, these doors are
at rest, and each forms an angle of 45 degrees, which is decreased
on the windward side in proportion to the force of the wind, and
increased in the same ratio on the leeward side. If the wind be
very strong, the door opposed to the wind becomes close, while the
opposite one is opened as wide as it can be. If the wind strikes the
corner of the box, it shuts two doors and opens their opposites. This
scheme has been tried with success in a chimney which always filled
the room with smoke, but which, since adopted, has never smoked the
room at all. The expense is trifling, and the apparatus simple.


1148. _A Preparation to preserve Wood from catching Fire, and to
preserve it from Decay._--A member of the Royal Academy at Stockholm
says, in the memoirs of that academy, "Having been within these few
years to visit the alum mines of Loswers, in the province of Calmar,
I took notice of some attempts made to burn the old staves of tubs
and pails that had been used for the alum works. For this purpose
they were thrown into the furnace, but those pieces of wood which had
been penetrated by the alum did not burn, though they remained for a
long time in the fire, where they only became red; however, at last
they were consumed by the intenseness of the heat, but they emitted
no flame."

He concludes, from this experiment, that wood, or timber, for the
purpose of building, may be secured against the action of fire, by
letting it remain for some time in water, wherein vitriol, alum, or
any other salt has been dissolved, which contains no inflammable
parts.

To this experiment it may be added, that wood, which has been
impregnated with water, wherein vitriol has been dissolved, is very
fit for resisting putrefaction, especially if afterwards it is
brushed over with tar, or some kind of paint; in order to this, the
wood must be rubbed with very warm vitriol water, and afterwards left
to dry, before it is painted or tarred. Wood prepared in this manner
will for a long time resist the injuries of the air, and be preserved
in cellars and other low moist places. It is to be observed, that if
a solution of vitriol is poured on such parts of timber where a sort
of champignons are formed by moisture, and rubbed off, none will ever
grow there again.

By boiling, for some hours, the spokes of wheels in vitriol water,
they are not subject to rottenness in the parts where they enter
the stocks. After boiling them in this manner, they are dried as
perfectly as possible, and then, in the accustomed way, painted with
oil color.


1149. _Cheap and excellent Composition for preserving Weather
Boarding, Paling, and all other Works liable to be injured by the
Weather._--Well burnt lime will soon become slaked by exposure in
the open air, or even if confined in a situation not remarkably dry,
so as to crumble of itself into powder. This is called air-slaked
lime, in contradistinction to that which is slaked in the usual way,
by being mixed with water. For the purpose of making the present
composition to preserve all sorts of wood-work exposed to the
vicissitudes of the weather, take three parts of this air-slaked
lime, two of wood-ashes, and one of fine sand; pass them through a
fine sieve, and add as much linseed-oil to the composition as will
bring it to a proper consistence for working with a painter's brush.
As particular care must be taken to mix it perfectly, it should be
ground on a stone slab with a proper muller, in the same manner as
painters grind their white-lead, &c.; but where these conveniences
are not at hand, the ingredients may be mixed in a large pan, and
well beat up with a wooden spatula. Two coats of this composition
being necessary, the first may be rather thin; but the second should
be as thick as it can conveniently be worked. This most excellent
composition for preserving wood, when exposed to the injuries of the
weather, is highly preferable to the customary method of laying on
tar and ochre.


1150. _To make durable Barn-floors._--A durable barn-floor may be
made of well-burnt polished brick on edge, placed in the herring-bone
form, on a pavement of stone three inches and a half in thickness;
or oaken plank two inches and a half in thickness; or even of
well-tempered indurated loam, of a proper substance, not less than
eight inches, and laid upon dry materials or bottom. Any of them
will make a durable barn-floor, provided it is kept free from wet,
wagon-wheels, and horses' feet. The best threshing-floor for small
farms of 150 acres is made of sound plank. In large farms (say 300
acres and upwards) the threshing machine should supersede the flail.


1151. _The Virtues of Poplar Wood for the Flooring of
Granaries._--The Lombard poplar is recommended as a timber adapted
for flooring granaries, which is said to prevent the destruction of
corn by weevils and insects. Poplar wood will not easily take fire.


1152. _Improved Ventilators for Rooms._--Different methods are
adopted for ventilating, or changing the air of rooms.--Thus:

Mr. Tid admitted fresh air into a room by taking out the middle
upper sash pane of glass, and fixing in its place a frame box, with
a round hole in its middle, about six or seven inches diameter, in
which hole is fixed, behind each other, a set of sails, of very thin,
broad copper plates, which spread over and cover the circular hole,
so as to make the air, which enters the room, and turning round
these sails, to spread round in thin sheets sideway, and so not to
incommode persons by blowing directly upon them, as it would do if
it were not hindered by the sails. This well-known contrivance has
generally been employed in public buildings, but is very disagreeable
in good rooms; instead, of it, therefore, the late Mr. Whitehurst
substituted another, which was, to open a small square or rectangular
hole, in the party wall of the room, in the upper part, near the
ceiling, at a corner or part distant from the fire; before it he
placed a thin piece of metal, or pasteboard, &c., attached to the
wall in its lower part, just before the hole, but declining from it
upwards, so as to give the air that enters by the hole a direction
upwards against the ceiling, along which it sweeps, and disperses
itself through the room, without blowing in a current against any
person. This method is very useful to cure smoky chimneys, by thus
admitting, conveniently, fresh air. A picture, placed before the
hole, prevents the sight of it from disfiguring the room.


1153. _Approved Method of removing Bees._--Set the hive where there
is only a glimmering light; turn it up; the queen first makes her
appearance; once in possession of her, you are master of all the
rest; put her into an empty hive, whither she will be followed by the
other bees.


1154. _Useful Method of preserving Bees._--Instead of destroying
whole swarms in their hives, to get the honey when the hives are
full, they clear them out into a fresh hive, while they take the
combs out of the old one; and they prevent their perishing in winter
by putting a great quantity of honey into a very wide earthen vessel,
covering its surface with paper, exactly fitted on, and pricked full
of holes with a large pin; this being pressed by the weight of the
bees, keeps a fresh supply continually arising. Their most fatal
destruction by severe cold they prevent, by taking as many large tubs
as they have hives, and knocking out the heads, they set the other
end in the ground, laying a bed of dry earth or chopped hay in it,
of six inches deep; over this they place the head knocked out, and
then make a small wooden trough for the passage of the bees; this is
transfixed through a hole cut through each side of the tub, at such a
height as to lay on the false bottom, on which is placed the covered
dish of honey for the food of the bees, leaving a proper space over
this, covered with strong matting; they then fill up the tub with
more dry earth, or chopped hay, heaping it up in the form of a cone,
to keep out the rain, and wreathing it over with straw on account of
the warmth.


1155. _Sir Ashton Lever's method of preserving Birds, Beasts, Fishes,
&c._--BEASTS. Large beasts should be carefully skinned, with the
horns, skull, jaws, tail, and feet, left entire; the skins may
then either be put into a vessel of spirit, or else rubbed well in
the inside with the mixture of salt, alum, and pepper, hereafter
mentioned, and hung to dry. Small beasts may be put into a cask of
rum, or any other spirit.

BIRDS. Large birds may be treated as large beasts, but must not
be put in spirits. Small birds may be preserved in the following
manner:--Take out the entrails, open a passage to the brain, which
should be scooped out through the mouth; introduce into the cavities
of the skull, and the whole body, some of the mixture of salt, alum,
and pepper, putting some through the gullet and whole length of the
neck; then hang the bird in a cool, airy place--first by the feet,
that the body may be impregnated by the salts, and afterwards by a
thread through the under mandible of the bill, till it appears to
be sweet; then hang it in the sun, or near a fire: after it is well
dried, clean out what remains loose of the mixture, and fill the
cavity of the body with wool, oakum, or any soft substance, and pack
it smooth in paper.

FISHES, &C. Large fishes should be opened in the belly, the entrails
taken out, and the inside well rubbed with pepper, and stuffed with
oakum. Small fishes put in spirit, as well as reptiles and insects,
except butterflies and moths; and any insects of fine colors, should
be pinned down in a box prepared for that purpose, with their wings
expanded.


1156. _Birds that have been Shot._--When fresh-killed, observe to
put tow into the mouth, and upon any wound they may have received,
to prevent the feathers being soiled; and then wrap it smooth, at
full-length, in paper, and pack it close in a box. If it be sent from
a great distance, the entrails should be extracted, and the cavity
filled with tow dipped in rum or other spirit. The following mixture
is proper for the preservation of animals:--One pound of salt, four
ounces of alum, and two ounces of pepper, powdered together.


1157. _To preserve Game in Hot Weather._--Game or poultry may be
preserved for a long time, by tying a string tight round the neck, so
as to exclude the air, and by putting a piece of charcoal into the
vent.


1158. _Russian method of preserving Fish._--When the Russians desire
to keep fish perfectly fresh, to be carried a long journey in a
hot climate, they dip them into hot bees'-wax, which acts like an
air-tight covering. In this way they are taken to Malta, even sweet
in summer.



PART VII.

MANY THINGS.

  _Choice and Cheap Cookery--New Receipts--Southern Dishes--Gumbo,
  &c.--Home-made Wines, &c.--Dairy--Coloring--Diet--Health, &c._


1159. _To preserve Ginger._--Take green ginger, pare it with a sharp
knife, and then throw it into cold water as pared, to keep it white;
then boil it till tender, in three waters, at each change putting the
ginger into cold water. For seven pounds of ginger, clarify eight
pounds of refined sugar; when cold, drain the ginger, and put it into
a pan, with enough of the syrup to cover it, and let it stand two
days; then pour the syrup to the remainder of the sugar, and boil
it some time; when cold, pour it on the ginger again, and set it by
for three days; then boil the syrup again, and pour it hot over the
ginger. Proceed thus till you find the ginger rich and tender, and
the syrup is highly flavored. If you put the syrup on hot at first,
or if too rich, the ginger will shrink, and not take the sugar.


1160. _Orange Syrup._--Is so easily made, and can be used so
constantly with advantage, that no housekeeper should be without
it. Select ripe and thin-skinned fruit; squeeze the juice through
a sieve; to every pint, add a pound a half of powdered sugar; boil
it slowly, and skim as long as any scum rises; you may then take it
off, let it grow cold, and bottle it off. Be sure to secure the corks
well. Two table-spoonfuls of this syrup, mixed in melted butter, make
an admirable sauce for a plum or butter-pudding; and it imparts a
fine flavor to custards.


1161. _Apple or Quince Jelly._--Pare, quarter, and core the apples;
put them in a sauce-pan, with enough water to cover them only; let
them boil five minutes; put them in a bag, and let them drain until
the next day. To one pint of juice, put one pound of sugar, and boil
it from fifteen to twenty minutes.

[_Cranberry Jelly may be made in the same way._]


1162. _Brandy Cherries._--Take the nicest carnation cherries, and
trim them, leaving a short stem to keep in the juice; wash and wipe
them tenderly, and put them into wide-mouthed bottles. Make a good
syrup, and, when it is nearly done, add a pint and a half of French
brandy to one pint of syrup; mix it thoroughly, and, when cold, pour
it over the cherries. If carefully sealed, the fruit will be good for
years.


1163. _Brandy Peaches._--Drop the peaches in weak, boiling lye; let
them remain till the skin can be wiped off; make a thin syrup, and
let it cover the fruit; boil the fruit till they can be pierced with
a straw; take it out; make a very rich syrup, and add, after it is
taken from the fire, and while it is still hot, an equal quantity of
brandy. Pour this, while it is still warm, over the peaches in the
jar. They must be covered with it.


1164. _Brandied Peaches--an excellent way._--After having removed the
skin in the usual manner, by using _lye_, and throwing them in cold
water, weigh the peaches, and put them in a stone jar--allowing room
at the top for three-quarters of a pound of sugar for each pound of
peaches; then pour over enough white brandy to cover the fruit. Set
the jar in a pot of cold water, and let it remain over the fire till
the _brandy_ comes to a scald. When they are cold, they may either be
put in glass jars, and tied down with bladder, or left in the same
jar.


1165. _Tomato Catchup._--To one gallon of skinned tomatoes, add
four table-spoonfuls of salt; four table-spoonfuls of black pepper,
ground fine; half a table-spoonful of allspice, ground fine; three
table-spoonfuls of mustard; eight pods of red pepper. Simmer it
slowly in sharp vinegar, in a pewter vessel, three or four hours;
then strain it through a wire-sieve, and bottle it up. When cold,
seal up the corks, and it will last for years.


1166. _Green Tomato Pickle._--Cut in thin slices one peck of green
tomatoes; sprinkle them with salt, and let them stand a day or
two. Slice ten or twelve small onions. Mix together one bottle or
small tin box of mustard; half an ounce of mustard-seed; one ounce
of cloves; one ounce of pimento; two ounces of turmeric. Put in
the kettle a layer of tomatoes, then one of onions and spice, till
all are in. Cover it with good vinegar, and let it simmer till the
tomatoes are quite clear.


1167. _French Mustard._--Put on a plate, one ounce of the best
powdered mustard; a salt-spoonful of salt; a few leaves of tarragon;
and a clove of garlic, minced fine. Pour on it, by degrees,
sufficient vinegar to dilute it to the proper consistency; about a
wine-glassful; mix it with a wooden spoon. Do not use it in less than
twenty-four hours.


1168. _India Pickle._ (_E. R._)--Put two hundred gherkins, three
pints of small onions, one quart of nasturtiums, one quart of
radish-pods, 1 quartern of string-beans, six cauliflowers, and two
hard, white cabbages, sliced, into a pan, and sprinkle them with
salt--the onions having been previously peeled, and laid in salt
and water for a week, to take off their strength. Then, after a day
or two, take them out of the pan, and dry them thoroughly in a warm
place, in the shade: they must be spread out separately. To two
gallons of vinegar, put one ounce and a half of allspice, the same of
long pepper and of white, and two ounces of ginger, tied up in muslin
bags. When cold, mix with the vinegar one pound and a half of flour
of mustard, and two table-spoonfuls of Cayenne pepper. Boil it well
together, and pour it on the pickle. The vegetables mentioned, not
being all procurable at the same time, may be added separately, at
different periods, but they must all undergo the salting and drying
process.

In choosing those vegetables, some discrimination may also be used.
When in season, few things add a higher flavor to the pickle than the
buds and flowers of the elder.


1169. _Horse-radish._--Let the horse-radish lie one or two hours in
cold water; then scrape off the skin, grate it, and moisten it with
vinegar. Serve it with roast meat.


1170. _Oyster Gumbo._--Mix well one table-spoonful of flour and one
of lard, and brown the mixture in a frying-pan; take the liquor of
two quarts of oysters, set it on the fire, and when it boils, add
the browned flour with some chopped leeks and parsley; then put in
the oysters, and let the whole simmer for fifteen minutes; next sift
into it a table-spoonful and a half of powdered sassafras, to give
it the fillet; leave it two or three minutes longer on the fire,
and serve it very hot. No spices, but black pepper. This dish will
require more or less time to prepare, according to the ingredients
of which it is to be composed. For chicken or turkey gumbo, the fowl
must first be fricasseed. Any good cook will understand how to make
a piquante and palatable stock, of whatever she may select for her
gumbo.


1171. _Mayonnaise._--Roast a pair of chickens or a turkey, in the
morning, and put them away to settle the juices. Immediately before
serving the dish, carve the fowls, and put them compactly into a
dish; take the yolks of six eggs, and pour, in a very fine and
continued stream upon them, half a bottle of olive oil, and stir the
eggs one way, till they are creamed; then put half a tea-spoonful of
vinegar into this dressing, and having put pepper, salt, and a little
vinegar on the fowl, pour the dressing over it, and arrange all over
it bunches of cool, fresh lettuce. Garnish with hard eggs.


1172. _Jambalaya_--Cut up, and stew till half done, a fowl, brown or
white; then add rice, and a piece of ham well minced; this must be
left on the fire till the rice has taken up the liquid; the roundness
of the grain must be preserved, yet the dish must not be hard and
dry. It is served in a heap, on a flat dish. Pepper and salt the only
seasoning.

Southern children are very fond of this essentially home-dish. It is
said to be of Indian origin. Wholesome as it is palatable, it makes
part of almost every Creole dinner.


1173. _Imitation of Mock Turtle._--Put into a pan a knuckle of veal,
two fine cow-heels or two calf's feet, two onions, a few cloves,
peppers, berries of allspice, mace, and sweet herbs; cover them with
water, then tie a thick paper over the pan, and set it in an oven
for three hours. When cold, take off the fat very nicely; cut the
meat and feet into bits an inch and a half square; remove the bones
and coarse parts, and then put the rest on to warm, with a large
spoonful of walnut and one of mushroom catchup, half a pint of sherry
or Madeira wine, a little mushroom-powder, and the jelly of the meat.
When hot, if it wants any more seasoning, add some; and serve with
hard eggs, forcemeat balls, a squeeze of lemon, and a spoonful of
soy. This is a very easy way, and the dish is excellent.


1174. _Oyster Sausages._--Beard, rinse well in their strained liquor,
and mince, but not finely, three dozen and a half of plump oysters,
and mix them with ten ounces of fine bread-crumbs, and ten of
beef-suet chopped extremely small; add a salt-spoonful of salt, and
one of pepper, or less than half the quantity of cayenne, twice as
much pounded mace, and the third of a small nutmeg grated; moisten
the whole with two unbeaten eggs, or with the yolks only of three,
and a dessert-spoonful of the whites. When these ingredients have
been well worked together, and are perfectly blended, set the mixture
in a cool place for two or three hours before it is used; make it
into the form of small sausages or sausage-cakes, flour and fry them
in butter, of a fine light brown; or throw them into boiling water
for three minutes, drain, and let them become cold; dip them into
egg and bread-crumbs, and broil them gently until they are lightly
colored. A small bit should be cooked and tasted before the whole
is put aside, that the seasoning may be heightened if required. The
sausages thus made are very good.

Small plump oysters, three dozen and a half; bread-crumbs, ten
ounces; beef-suet, ten ounces; seasoning of salt, cayenne, pounded
mace, and nutmeg; unbeaten eggs, two, or yolks of three.

_Obs._--The fingers should be well floured for making up these
sausages.


1175. _New England Chowder._--Have a good haddock, cod, or any other
solid fish, cut it in pieces three inches square, put a pound of fat
salt pork in strips into the pot, set it on hot coals, and fry out
the oil. Take out the pork, and put in a layer of fish, over that a
layer of onions in slices, then a layer of fish with slips of fat
salt pork, then another layer of onions, and so on alternately, until
your fish is consumed. Mix some flour with as much water as will fill
the pot; season with black pepper and salt to your taste, and boil
it for half an hour. Have ready some crackers soaked in water till
they are a little softened; throw them into your chowder five minutes
before you take it up. Serve in a tureen.


1176. _Curing Hams--the Newbold Receipt._--Take seven pounds coarse
salt, five pounds brown sugar, two ounces pearl-ash, 4 gallons of
water. Boil all together, and scum the pickle well when cold. Put it
on the meat. Hams remain in it eight weeks--beef three weeks. The
above is for one hundred and ninety pounds weight.


1177. _A Pickle that will keep for years, for hams, tongues, or beef,
if boiled and skimmed between each parcel of them._--To two gallons
of spring water put two pounds of coarse sugar, two pounds of bay and
two and a half pounds of common salt, and half a pound of saltpetre,
in a deep earthen glazed pan that will hold four gallons, and with
a cover that will fit close. Keep the beef or hams as long as they
will bear before you put them into the pickle; and sprinkle them with
coarse sugar in a pan, from which they must drain. Rub the hams, &c.,
well with the pickle, and pack them in close, putting as much as the
pan will hold, so that the pickle may cover them. The pickle is not
to be boiled at first. A small ham may lie fourteen days, a large
one three weeks; a tongue twelve days, and beef in proportion to its
size. They will eat well out of the pickle without drying. When they
are to be dried, let each piece be drained over the pan; and when it
will drop no longer, take a clean sponge and dry it thoroughly. Six
or eight hours will smoke them, and there should be only a little
sawdust and wet straw burnt to do this; but if put into a baker's
chimney, sew them in a coarse cloth, and hang them a week. Add two
pounds of common salt and two pints of water every time you boil the
liquor.


1178. _To smoke Hams and Fish on a small scale._--Drive the ends out
of an old hogshead or barrel; place this over a heap of sawdust of
green hard wood, in which a bar of red-hot iron is buried; or take
corn-cobs, which make the best smoke; place them in a clean iron
kettle, the bottom of which is covered with burning coals; hang the
hams, tongues, fish, &c., on sticks across the cask, and cover it,
but not closely, that the cobs or sawdust may smoulder slowly, but
not burn.


1179. _Onion Sauce._--Peel the onions, and boil them tender; squeeze
the water from them; chop them; and pour on them butter that has been
carefully incited, together with a little good milk, instead of
water. Boil it up once. A turnip boiled with the onions, makes them
milder.


1180. _Sauce Robert._--Cut into small dice, four or five large
onions, and brown them in a stew-pan, with three ounces of butter,
and a dessert-spoonful of flour. When of a deep yellow-brown, pour
to them half a pint of beef or of veal-gravy, and let them simmer
for fifteen minutes; skim the sauce; add a seasoning of salt and
pepper, and, at the moment of serving, mix in a dessert-spoonful of
made-mustard.

Large onions, four or five; butter, three ounces; flour, a
dessert-spoonful: ten to fifteen minutes. Gravy, half a pint: fifteen
minutes. Mustard, a dessert-spoonful.


1181. _Tomato Sauce._--Crush half a dozen, more or less, of very
ripe, red tomatoes; pick out the seeds, and squeeze the water from
them; put them into a stew-pan, with two or three finely-sliced
shalots, and a little gravy: simmer till nearly dry; when add half a
pint of brown sauce, and simmer twenty minutes longer; then rub it
through a tammy into a clean stew-pan; season with Cayenne pepper
and salt, a little glaze, and lemon-juice; simmer a few minutes, and
serve. Tarragon or Chili vinegar are sometimes added; and sliced
onions may be substituted for the shalots.


1182. _Brown Caper Sauce._--Thicken half a pint of good veal
or beef-gravy, as directed for Sauce-Tournée; and add to it
two table-spoonfuls of capers, and a dessert-spoonful of the
pickle-liquor, or of Chili vinegar, with some Cayenne, if the former
be used, and a proper seasoning of salt.

Thickened veal, or beef-gravy, half a pint; capers, two
table-spoonfuls; caper liquor, or Chili vinegar, one dessert-spoonful.


1183. _Horse-radish Sauce._--Scrape, finely, a stick of horse-radish
into about half a pint of brown sauce and a gravy-spoonful of
vinegar; simmer, and season with salt and sugar. This sauce is eaten
with hot roast beef.


1184. _Sauce for cold Roast Beef._--Mix scraped horse-radish,
made-mustard, and vinegar, and sweeten with white sugar.


1185. _Mint Sauce._--Mix vinegar and brown sugar, and let it stand at
least an hour; then add chopped mint, and stir together. It should be
very sweet.


1186. _Mild Mustard._--Mustard, for instant use, should be mixed with
milk, to which a spoonful or two of very thin cream may be added.


1187. _Mustard, the common way._--The great art of mixing mustard,
is to have it perfectly smooth, and of a proper consistency. The
liquid with which it is moistened, should be added to it in small
quantities, and the mustard should be well rubbed, and beaten with a
spoon. Mix half a tea-spoonful of salt with two ounces of the flour
of mustard, and stir to them, by degrees, sufficient boiling water
to reduce it to the appearance of a thick batter. Do not put it into
the mustard-glass until cold. Some persons like half a tea-spoonful
of sugar, in the finest powder, mixed with it. It ought to be
sufficiently diluted always to drop easily from the spoon.


1188. _Parsley and Butter._--Scald a large handful of parsley in
boiling water that has some salt in it; when tender, chop it fine,
and stir it into some rather thick melted butter. There should be
sufficient parsley to make the sauce green; and the parsley should
not be put to the melted butter until about to be served, otherwise
it will turn brown.


1189. _To make Sage and Onion Stuffing, for Roast Pork, Geese, Ducks,
&c._--To make this stuffing, take two middling-sized onions, peel
them, and boil them for about ten minutes in plenty of water; next
take as much dry sage-leaves, as, when rubbed into powder and sifted
through the top of your flour-dredger, will fill a table-spoon. When
the onion has boiled about ten minutes, squeeze it dry, chop it fine,
and mix it with the crumbled sage; then add to them a tea-cupful of
stale, white bread-crumbs, with a tea-spoonful of black pepper, a
very little pinch of Cayenne, and a salt-spoonful of salt. Mix all
well together, and it is ready.


1190. _Sippets of Bread, for Garnishing._--Cut the crumb of a stale
loaf in slices a quarter of an inch thick: form them into diamonds or
half-diamonds, or in any other way: fry them in fresh butter. Dry
them well, and place them around the dish to be garnished.


1191. _Seasoning for Stuffing._--One pound of salt, dried and sifted;
half an ounce of ground white pepper; two ounces of dried thyme; one
ounce of dried marjoram; and one ounce of nutmeg. When this seasoning
is used, parsley only is required to be chopped in sufficient
quantity to make the stuffing green. The proportions are--half a
pound of bread-crumbs; three eggs; a quarter of a pound of suet; half
an ounce of seasoning; and the peel of half a lemon, grated.


1192. _White Bread-Crumbs._--Put the crumb of very white bread into a
slow oven or screen, and let it dry without color; beat and sift it;
keep it in a close-covered pan in a dry, warm place: everything looks
well, done with it. The crust may be dried, beaten, and sifted, for
frying and garnishing.

When crumbs are not prepared till wanted, the bread is never in a
proper condition; so that the crumbs are not only coarse and vulgar,
but a sponge for fat, which shows bad taste, as well as being
wasteful.


1193. _Panada._--Is indispensable in making good farce of any kind;
it is even better for it than Naples' biscuit, and is made as
follows:--Steep a sufficient quantity of good stale bread-crumb in
cream or stock; set it over the fire in a sauce-pan, and work it with
a wooden spoon till it is as smooth and dry as a stiff paste: let it
cool, and beat it with a yolk or two, according to the quantity, in a
mortar: it is then ready to be put into all kinds of farces.


CAKES, BREAD, PIES, AND PUDDINGS.

1194. _Wine Crust for Cakes or Pastry--a foreign Receipt._--Pour
gradually to the well-beaten yolks of three fresh eggs, cleared from
the specks, a quarter of a pint of light white wine (Marsala will
serve for the purpose well enough), stirring them briskly as it is
added; throw in half a salt-spoonful of salt, and an ounce and a half
of pounded sugar; and when this last is dissolved, or nearly so, add
the mixture to as much flour as will be required to form a smooth,
firm paste: about three-quarters of a pound will be sufficient,
unless the eggs should be of an unusual size. Roll it out, cut it
asunder, and spread one half with eight ounces of butter, cut small;
lay the other half of the paste upon it, and roll them together as
lightly as possible; turn the paste on the board, and fold the two
ends over each other, so as to make the whole of equal thickness;
roll it quite thin, and repeat the folding once or twice, touching
the paste in doing it as little as can be, and rolling it _very_
lightly. It may be used for any kind of sweet pastry; or it may be
served in the form of cakes, either iced or plain; these again may
be adapted to the second course, by spreading the under-sides of one
half with rich preserve, and pressing the others on them.


1195. _Pic-nic Biscuits._--Work, very small, two ounces of fresh
butter into a pound of flour; reduce to the finest powder, and mix,
intimately, half a salt-spoonful of very pure carbonate of soda
(Howard's is the best), with two ounces of sugar; mingle these
thoroughly with the flour, and make up the paste with a few spoonfuls
of milk; it will require scarcely a quarter of a pint. Knead it
very smooth, roll it a quarter of an inch thick, cut it in rounds
about the size of the top of a _small_ wine-glass; roll these out
thin, prick them well, lay them on lightly-floured tins, and bake
them in a gentle oven until they are crisp quite through. As soon as
they are cold put them into dry canisters. The sugar can be omitted
at pleasure. If thin cream be used instead of milk, in making the
paste, it will much enrich the biscuits; but this would often not be
considered an improvement, as plain simple biscuits are generally
most in favor.

Carraway seeds or ginger can be added, to vary these at pleasure. The
proportion of soda used should be too small to be perceptible, even
to the taste: it will be no disadvantage to use milk with it which is
slightly acid.


1196. _A good Soda Cake._--Rub half a pound of good butter into a
pound of fine dry flour, and work it very small; mix well with these
half a pound of sifted sugar, and pour to them first a quarter of
a pint of boiling milk, and next three well-whisked eggs; add some
grated nutmeg, or fresh lemon-rind, and eight ounces of currants;
beat the whole well and lightly together, and the instant before the
cake is moulded and set into the oven, stir to it a tea-spoonful
of carbonate of soda in the finest powder. Bake it from an hour to
an hour and a quarter, or divide it in two, and allow from half to
three-quarters of an hour for each cake.

Flour, one pound; butter, three ounces; sugar, eight ounces, milk,
full quarter-pint; eggs, three; currants, half a pound; carbonate of
soda, one tea-spoonful; one hour to one and a half. Or, divided, a
half to three-quarters of an hour--moderate oven.

_Obs._--This, if well made, resembles a pound-cake, but is much
more wholesome. It is very good with two ounces less of butter, and
with caraway-seeds or candied orange or citron substituted for the
currants.


1197. _To make Fine Pancakes, Fried without Butter or Lard._--Take
a pint of cream and six new-laid eggs; beat them well together; put
in a quarter of a pound of sugar and one nutmeg or a little beaten
mace--which you please, and so much as will thicken--almost as much
as ordinary pancake flour batter; your pan must be heated reasonably
hot, and wiped with a clean cloth; this done, spread your batter thin
over it, and fry.


1198. _To make Loaves of Cheese-curd._--Take a porringer full of
curds, and four eggs, whites and yolks, and as much flour as will
make it stiff; then take a little ginger, nutmeg, and some salt; make
them into loaves, and set them into an oven with a quick heat; when
they begin to change color, take them out, and put melted butter to
them, and some sack, and good store of sugar; and so serve.


1199. _Cheap Ginger Biscuits._--Work into quite small crumbs three
ounces of good butter, with two pounds of flour; then add three
ounces of pounded sugar and two of ginger, in fine powder, and knead
them into a stiff paste, with new milk. Roll it thin, cut out the
biscuits with a cutter, and bake them in a slow oven until they are
crisp quite through, but keep them of a pale color. A couple of eggs
are sometimes mixed with the milk for them, but are no material
improvement; an additional ounce of sugar may be used when a sweeter
biscuit is liked. To make good ginger _cakes_, increase the butter
to six ounces, and the sugar to eight, for each pound of flour, and
wet the ingredients into a paste with eggs; a little lemon-grate will
give it an agreeable flavor.

Biscuits--flour, two pounds; butter, three ounces; pounded sugar,
three ounces; ginger, two ounces.

Cakes--flour, one pound; butter, six ounces; sugar, eight ounces;
ginger, one ounce; three to four eggs; rind of half a lemon.


1200. _Ginger Snaps._--Beat together half a pound of butter, and
half a pound of sugar; mix with them half a pint of molasses, half a
tea-cupful of ginger, and one pound and a half of flour.


1201. _Gingerbread._--Mix together three and a half pounds of flour;
three-quarters of a pound of butter; one pound of sugar; one pint of
molasses; a quarter of a pound of ginger, and some ground orange-peel.


1202. _Raspberry Cakes._--Take any quantity of fruit you please,
weigh and boil it, and when mashed, and the liquor is washed, add as
much sugar as was equal in weight to the raw fruit. Mix it very well
_off_ the fire till the whole is dissolved, then lay it on plates,
and dry it in the sun. When the top part dries, cut it off into small
cakes, and turn them on a fresh plate. When dry, put the whole in
boxes, with layers of paper.


1203. _Rock Cakes._--Mix together one pound of flour; half a pound of
sugar; half a pound of butter; half a pound of currants or cherries,
and four eggs, leaving out the whites of two; a little wine and
candied lemon-peel are a great improvement.


1204. _Cup Cakes._--Mix together five cups of flour; three cups of
sugar; one cup of butter; one cup of milk; three eggs, well beaten;
one wine-glass of wine; one of brandy, and a little cinnamon.


1205. _Jumbles._--Take one pound of loaf-sugar, pounded fine; one
pound and a quarter of flour; three-quarters of a pound of butter;
four eggs, beaten light, and a little rose-water and spice; mix them
well, and roll them in sugar.


1206. _Sponge Cake._--Take the weight of the eggs in sugar; half
their weight in flour, well sifted; to twelve eggs, add the grated
rind of three lemons, and the juice of two. Beat the eggs carefully,
white and yolks separately, before they are used. Stir the materials
thoroughly together, and bake in a quick oven.


1207. _Apple Fritters._--Pare and core some fine large pippins, and
cut them into round slices. Soak them in wine, sugar, and nutmeg,
for two or three hours. Make a batter of four eggs; a table-spoonful
of rose-water; a table-spoonful of wine; a table-spoonful of milk;
thicken with enough flour, stirred in by degrees, to make a batter;
mix it two or three hours before it is wanted, that it may be light.
Heat some butter in a frying pan; dip each slice of apple separately
in the batter, and fry them brown; sift pounded sugar, and grate
nutmeg over them.


1208. _A Charlotte Russe._--It is very difficult to prepare this
delicate dish, and we advise all inexperienced house-keepers not to
undertake it without the superintendence of a professed cook.

Extract the flavor from a vanilla-bean, by boiling it in half a pint
of milk. The milk must then be strained; and, when cold, mix with
it a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar. Beat the yolks of four eggs
very light, and stir them into the mixture. Heat it over the fire for
five minutes, until it becomes a custard, but take great care that it
does not boil. Boil an ounce of isinglass with a pint of water. The
isinglass must be thoroughly dissolved before it is fit for use, and
one-half of the water boiled away. The custard being cold, drain the
isinglass into it, and stir them hard together. Leave them to cool,
while you prepare the rest of the mixture. Whip a quart of cream to
a froth, (the cream should be rich,) and mix it with the custard;
in whipping the cream, great care should be taken to make it quite
light; the safest way is, to remove the froth as fast as it gathers,
with a strainer, until the whole is whipped.

Take two round slices of almond sponge-cake; glaze them with the
beaten white of egg mixed with sugar. Lay one on the bottom of a
circular mould, and reserve the other for the top.

Cut some more sponge-cake into long pieces; glaze them carefully
with the egg, and line the sides of the mould with them. Each piece
should lap a little over the other, or the form will not be perfect.
The custard will by this time be just beginning to congeal; pour
it gently into the mould, and cover the top with the piece of cake
which has already been prepared. The cake around the sides must be
trimmed evenly, so that the upper piece will fit without leaving any
vacancies.

Pound some ice, and throw it into a tub, covering it well with coarse
salt. The mould should then be set into the midst of this ice, and
must remain there an hour. Prepare an icing with powdered sugar and
the beaten white of egg, flavoring it with lemon-juice, or essence of
lemon, orange, or rose-water, according to the taste. The Charlotte
Russe is then turned out upon a handsome dish, and iced over. It
should be moved about as little as possible; and, to ensure success
in preparing it, the utmost care must be taken to follow the above
directions.

At large parties, a Charlotte Russe is as indispensable on the
supper-table as ice-cream.


1209. _Batter Pudding._--Take six ounces of fine flour, a little
salt, and three eggs; beat it up well with a little milk, added by
degrees till the batter is quite smooth: make it the thickness of
cream: put it into a buttered pie-dish, and bake three-quarters of
an hour; or, in a buttered and floured basin, tied over tight with a
cloth: boil one hour and a half or two hours.

Any kind of ripe fruit that you like may be added to the batter--only
you must make the batter a little stiffer. Blueberries, or
finely-chopped apple, are most usually liked.


1210. _French Batter, (for frying Vegetables, and for Apple, Peach,
or Orange Fritters._)--Cut two ounces of good butter into small bits;
pour on it less than a quarter of a pint of boiling water; and, when
it is dissolved, add three-quarters of a pint of cold water, so that
the whole shall not be quite milk-warm: mix it then by degrees, and
very smoothly, with twelve ounces of fine, dry flour, and a _small_
pinch of salt, if the batter be for fruit-fritters, but with more,
if for meat or vegetables. Just before it is used, stir into it
the whites of two eggs beaten to a solid froth; but, previously
to this, add a little water, should it appear too thick, as some
flour requires more liquid than others, to bring it to a proper
consistency.

Butter, two ounces; water, from three-quarters to nearly a pint;
little salt; flour, three-quarters of a pound; whites of two eggs,
beaten to snow.


1211. _Terrines of Rice, sweet and savory._--Wash four ounces of
Carolina rice in several waters, and leave it to soak for ten
minutes; then put it into a common Nottingham jar, with a cover,
and in shape, larger, considerably, in the middle than at the
top--as those of narrower form and proportionably greater height
will not answer so well. This jar may contain one quart or two, as
the stove-oven in which it is to be placed, may permit. The smaller
size has, on compulsion, been used for the present and following
receipts--the iron-plate in the centre of the only oven which the
writer had at command, preventing a larger one from standing in it.
Pour on the rice an exact pint of new milk; add two ounces of pounded
sugar, the slightest pinch of salt, and any flavor which may be
liked. Stir the whole well for a minute or two; put on the cover of
the jar; make a bit of paste with flour and water, sufficient to form
a wide, thick band; moisten the side which is laid on the jar, and
bind the edges of the cover and the jar together securely with it;
tie brown paper over, and set it into the coolest part of the oven of
the kitchen-range. Bake the rice _gently_ for two hours and a quarter
at the least, and turn the jar half-round once or twice while it is
in the oven. Stir it lightly up, heap it on a hot dish, and send it
to table. A _compôte_ of fresh fruit is an admirable accompaniment to
it.


1212. _Nutmeg Pudding._--Pound, fine, two large or three small
nutmegs; melt three pounds of butter, and stir into it half a pound
of loaf-sugar, a little wine, the yolks of five eggs, well beaten,
and the nutmegs. Bake on a puff-paste.


1213. _Wine Jelly._--Soak four ounces of gelatine in one quart of
cold water, for half an hour. In the meantime, mix with two quarts of
cold water, six table-spoonfuls of brandy; one pint of white-wine;
six lemons, cut up with the peel on; the whites and shells of six
eggs, the whites slightly beaten, the shells crushed; three pounds of
white sugar: then mix the gelatine with the other ingredients, and
put them over the fire. Let it boil, without stirring, for twenty
minutes. Strain it through a flannel-bag, without squeezing. Wet the
mould in cold water. Pour the jelly in, and leave it in a cool place
for three hours.


1214. _Economics._--It is often a matter of great convenience as well
as of economy, to give a new and presentable form to the remains of
dishes which have already appeared at table: the following hints may,
therefore, be not unacceptable to some of our readers.

No. 1.--Calf's-feet jelly and good blanc-mange are excellent
when just melted and mixed together, whether in equal or unequal
proportions. They should be heated only sufficient to liquify them,
or the acid of the jelly might curdle the blanc-mange. Pour this
last, when melted, into a deep earthen bowl, and add the jelly to it
in small portions, whisking them briskly together as it is thrown in.
A small quantity of prepared cochineal--which may be procured from a
chemist's--will serve to improve or to vary the color, when required.
Many kinds of creams and custards also may be blended advantageously
with the blanc-mange, after a little additional isinglass has been
dissolved in it, to give sufficient firmness to the whole. It must be
observed, that, though just liquid, either jelly or blanc-mange must
be as nearly cold as it will become without thickening and beginning
to set, before it is used for this receipt.

A sort of marbled or Mosaic mass is sometimes made by shaking
together, in a mould, remnants of various-colored blanc-manges, cut
nearly of the same size, and then filling it up with some clear jelly.

No. 2.--When a small part only of an open tart has been eaten, divide
the remainder equally into triangular slices, place them at regular
intervals round a dish, and then fill the intermediate spaces, and
cover the tart entirely, with slightly-sweetened and well-drained
whipped cream.


1215. _Pumpkin Pie._--Stew the pumpkin dry, and make it like squash
pie, only season rather higher. In the country, where this _real
Yankee pie_ is prepared in perfection, ginger is almost always used
with other spices. There, too, part cream, instead of milk, is mixed
with the pumpkin, which gives it a richer flavor.


1216. _Rhubarb Stalks, or Persian Apple_--Is the earliest ingredient
for pies, which the spring offers. The skin should be carefully
stripped, and the stalks cut into small bits, and stewed very tender.
These are dear pies, for they take an enormous quantity of sugar:
seasoned like apple pies. Gooseberries, currants, &c., are stewed,
sweetened, and seasoned like apple pies, in proportions suited to
the sweetness of the fruit; there is no way to judge but by your own
taste. Always remember, it is more easy to add seasoning, than to
diminish it.


1217. _Superlative Mince-meat, for Pies._--Take four large lemons,
with their weight of golden pippins, pared and cored, of jar-raisins,
currants, candied citron and orange-rind, and the finest suet, and a
fourth-part more of pounded sugar. Boil the lemons tender, chop them
small; but be careful first to extract all the pips; add them to the
other ingredients, after all have been prepared with great nicety,
and mix the whole _well_ with from three to four glasses of good
brandy. Apportion salt and spice by the preceding receipt. We think
that the weight of one lemon, in meat, improves this mixture; or, in
lieu of it, a small quantity of crushed macaroons, added just before
it is baked.


1218. _Rolls._--Rub into a pound of sifted flour, two ounces
of butter; beat the whites of three eggs to a froth, and add a
table-spoonful of good yeast, a little salt, and sufficient warm milk
to make a stiff dough. Cover and put it where it will be kept warm,
and it will rise in an hour. Then make it into rolls, or round cakes;
put them on a floured tin, and bake in a quick oven or stove. They
will be done in ten or fifteen minutes.


1219. _To make Yeast in the Turkish manner._--Take a small tea-cupful
of split or bruised peas, and pour on it a pint of boiling water, and
set it in a vessel all night on the hearth, or any warm place. The
next morning the water will have a froth on it, and be good yeast,
and will make as much bread as two quartern loaves.


1220. _Dyspepsia Bread._--The following receipt for making bread,
has proved highly salutary to persons afflicted with dyspepsia,
viz:--Three quarts unbolted wheat meal; one quart soft water, warm,
but not hot; one gill of fresh yeast; one gill of molasses, or not,
as may suit the taste; one teaspoonful of saleratus.

This will make two loaves, and should remain in the oven at least
one hour; and when taken out, placed where they will cool gradually.
Dyspepsia crackers can be made with unbolted flour, water, and
saleratus.


1221. _Unfermented Bread._--This keeps moist longer than bread made
with yeast, and is more sweet and digestible. The brown bread made
in this way is particularly recommended for dyspeptics. Take four
pounds of flour, half an ounce avoirdupois of muriatic acid; the same
of carbonate of soda; about a quart of water. First mix the soda
and flour well together by rubbing in a pan; pour the acid into the
water, and stir it well together. Mix all together to the required
consistence and bake in a hot oven immediately. If instead of flour,
unbolted meal should be used, take three pounds of meal; half an
ounce avoirdupois of muriatic acid; the same of carbonate of soda;
and water enough to make it of a proper consistence. Mix in the same
way.


1222. _Rice Caudle._--When the water boils, pour into it some ground
rice mixed with a little cold water; when of a proper consistency,
add sugar, lemon-peel, and cinnamon, and a glass of brandy to a
quart. Boil all smooth.

_Or_:--Soak some Carolina rice in water an hour, strain it, and put
two spoonfuls of the rice into a pint and a quarter of milk; simmer
till it will pulp through a sieve, then put the pulp and milk into
the saucepan, with a bruised clove, and a bit of white sugar. Simmer
ten minutes: if too thick, add a spoonful or two of milk, and serve
with thin toast.


1223.--_Johnny Cakes._--Sift a quart of corn meal into a pan; make a
hole in the middle, and pour in a pint of warm water. Mix the meal
and water gradually into a batter, adding a tea-spoonful of salt;
beat it very quickly, and for a long time, till it becomes quite
light; then spread it thick and even on a stout piece of smooth
board; place it upright on the hearth before a clear fire, with
something to support the board behind, and bake it well; cut it into
squares, and split and butter them hot.

They may also be made with a quart of milk, three eggs, one
tea-spoonful of carbonate of soda, and one tea-cupful of wheaten
flour; add Indian corn-meal sufficient to make a batter like that of
pancakes, and either bake it in buttered pans, or upon a griddle, and
eat them with butter.


1224. _Green Corn._--Must be boiled in clear water, with salt, from
twenty minutes to half an hour; if old, it will require a longer
time. It must be sent to table directly it is done, as it loses its
sweetness by either boiling after it is done, or standing when dished.

(A tea-spoonful of saleratus boiled with corn is said to prevent
sickness.)


1225. _Corn Oysters._--One pint of grated green corn, one cup of
flour, one dessert-spoonful of salt, one tea-spoonful of pepper, one
egg.

Mix the ingredients together, drop, and fry them in hot lard. In
taste they resemble fried oysters. They are an excellent relish for
breakfast, and a good side-dish for dinner.


1226. _Sackatash, or Corn and Beans._--Boil three pints of shelled
beans, or a quarter of a peck of string beans, half an hour, pour off
the water. Cut the corn off of four dozen ears--put it in the pot
among the beans, add salt and pepper, and cover them with boiling
water--boil all together twenty minutes. Rub flour into a large piece
of butter and stir it in, then let it boil up once. Pour it into your
tureen and send it to table.


1227. _Winter Sackatash._--As in winter the beans and corn are both
dried, they will have to be soaked over night. Par-boil the beans in
one or two waters, then add the corn, and boil all together until the
beans are boiled to pieces, which will be several hours. Add a small
piece of loaf sugar. Before dishing it for table, mix a large piece
of butter with flour, stir it in and let it boil.


1228. _To make Curry Powders._--Take one ounce of ginger, the same of
coriander-seed, half an ounce of cayenne pepper, and two ounces of
fine pale turmeric; these ingredients to be pounded separately to a
fine powder, and then warmed by the fire, and mixed together. Put the
powder into a wide-mouthed bottle, cork it well down, and put it into
a dry place.

Those who dislike the flavor of turmeric may substitute saffron.


1229. _To prepare a Curry._--The meat should be fresh and free from
bone. Cut it into pieces which can be easily served. To each pound
of meat add a table-spoonful of curry powder, and about half the
quantity of flour, and a little salt; mix these together, and rub
a portion of it upon the meat before it is fried, the remainder
afterwards. Fry the meat in a little butter. Fry onions a light
brown, with a clove of garlic if approved; drain the fat from both
the meat and onions; put them into a stewpan, and cover with boiling
water; stew for twenty minutes, then rub the remainder of the powder
smooth with a little cold water, add it, and let it stew for an hour,
or according to the time necessary for the meat to be well done.
If no other acid is used, stir in a little lemon-juice just before
serving: place it in the centre of the dish, and put carefully boiled
rice round it.


1230. _Lord Clive's Curry._--Slice six onions, one green apple,
and a clove of garlic; stew them in a little good stock until
they will pulp, then add one tea-spoonful of curry-powder, a few
table-spoonfuls of stock, a little salt, and a little cayenne pepper,
half a salt-spoonful of each; stew in this gravy any kind of meat cut
into small pieces, adding a piece of butter, the size of a walnut,
rolled in flour.


1231. _To free Molasses from its sharp taste, and to render it fit
to be used instead of Sugar._--Take twenty-four pounds of molasses,
twenty-four pounds of water, and six pounds of charcoal, coarsely
pulverized: mix them in a kettle, and boil the whole over a slow
wood fire. When the mixture has boiled half an hour, pour it into a
flat vessel, in order that the charcoal may subside to the bottom:
then pour off the liquid, and place it over the fire once more, that
the superfluous water may evaporate, and the molasses be brought to
their former consistence. Twenty-four pounds of molasses will produce
twenty-four pounds of syrup.


1232. _To make Apple Molasses._--Take new sweet cider just from the
press, made from sweet apples, and boil it down as thick as West
India molasses. It should be boiled in brass, and not burned, as that
would injure the flavor. It will keep in the cellar, and is said to
be as good, and for many purposes better than West India molasses.


1233. _To dress Chestnuts for Dessert._--Let them be well roasted,
and the husks taken off. Dissolve a quarter pound of sugar in a
wine-glassful of water, and the juice of a lemon. Put this and the
chestnuts into a saucepan over a slow fire for ten minutes; add
sufficient orange-flower water to flavor the syrup; serve in a deep
dish, and grate sugar over them. To be handed round whilst quite hot.


1234. _To improve Claret Wine when acid._--Place the cask on a stand
for refining, put into it a quarter pound of chalk broken into small
pieces. Let it remain one day, and then refine with the whites of
six eggs, the shells broken, and a handful of salt; all these are to
be mixed with some of the wine, and then thrown into the cask. The
shells are not to be powdered, but simply crushed in the hand. The
wine will be fit for bottling in two weeks. When bottled, it should
be laid on the side. The bungs to be out as short a time as possible.


1235. _To improve Home-made wines._--When there is a tendency to
acidity in wine, add to it sugar-candy in the proportion of a pound
to every four gallons; dissolve it, and put it into the cask,
incorporating it well.

Poor wines may be improved by the addition of bruised raisins. If one
ounce of powdered roche-alum be put into a cask of four gallons of
wine, it will make it fine and brisk in ten days. Ripe medlars, or
bruised mustard-seed, tied in a bag, will remove mustiness, or other
disagreeable taste.

Pricked wines may be improved, if not recovered, by being racked off
into a cask that has contained the same kind of wine. The cask should
be first matched or sulphured; and, to every ten gallons of wine, put
two ounces of oyster-shell powder, and half an ounce of bay-salt;
stir it, and leave it a few days to fine; after which, rack it into
another cask, also matched.

Burn dry walnuts over a charcoal fire, and when they are well lit,
throw them into the wine, and bung up; in forty-eight hours they will
correct the acidity. One walnut will suffice for every gallon of wine.

If bottled wine be _ropy_, shake it for twenty minutes, uncork it,
and pour off the froth or scum, when the rest of the wine will be
drinkable.


1236. _Casking._--The casks should be washed with hot salt and water,
then with hot water, and lastly with a portion of the fermented
liquor made to boil.

After the liquor is removed into the cask, it will slowly ferment,
and some will evaporate. The cask should, however, be kept filled
near the bung-hole, else the scum cannot be thrown out.

When the fret subsides, close the bung-hole, and bore a hole for a
peg, to be withdrawn occasionally, else the cask may burst.

In the following Spring, determine whether you bottle or keep in
wood another year; but wines that have been properly fermented, and
promise well, will be improved by remaining in the cask another year.
Then, if the wine wants rich flavor, add to twenty gallons, five
pounds of sugar-candy.


1237. _Bottling._--Brisk wines should be bottled on the approach of
Spring.

If the wine be not fine enough, draw off a quart, in which dissolve
isinglass in the proportion of half an ounce to twenty gallons, and
pour the solution in at the bung-hole. In about three weeks, the
liquor will be sufficiently clear for bottling.

In drawing off, be careful to tap the cask above the lees. The wine,
to be fit for bottling, should be fine and brilliant, else it will
never brighten after. When bottled, it should be stored in a cool
cellar, and the bottles laid on their sides, and in sawdust; but, on
no account set upright.

In making wines, it is a good plan to use two casks, one a very
small one, from which the larger one may be filled up, during the
fermentation.


1238. _Fining for Wine._--Put an ounce of isinglass into a quart jug,
with one pint of wine; stir it twice or thrice a day, and it will
soon dissolve; when strain it through a sieve. A pint of this fining
will be sufficient for a cask of twenty gallons.

When the fining is put into the cask, stir it up with a stick, taking
care not to touch the bottom, so as to disturb the lees. Fill up the
cask, if necessary, bung it down, and in a week the wine will be fit
for bottling.

For white wine only, add and mix, as above, a quarter of a pint of
milk to every gallon of wine. It may also be fined with the whites of
eggs, beaten up with some wine, in the proportion of four whites to
sixteen gallons of wine.


1239. _To sweeten Casks._--If a cask, after the contents are drunk
out, be well stopped, and the lees be allowed to remain in it till
it is again to be used, it will only be necessary to scald it; taking
care, before you fill it, to see that the hoops are well driven.
Should the air get into the cask, it will become musty, and scalding
will not improve it; the surest way will be then to take out the head
of the cask, to be shaved, then to burn it a little, and scald it for
use. Or, put into the cask some quick lime and cold water, bung it
down, shake it for some time, and then scald it; or, burn a _match_
in it, and scald it.

Or, mix half a pint of the strongest sulphuric acid in an open
vessel, with a quart of water, put it into the cask, and roll it well
about; next day, add one pound of chalk, bung it down, and in three
or four days the cask should be washed out with boiling water.

To prepare a match, melt some brimstone, and dip into it a long
narrow piece of coarse linen cloth, or brown paper; when to be used,
set fire to the match, put it in at the bung-hole of the cask,
fastening one end under the bung, and let it remain, for a few hours.


1240. _A Filtering Bag._--Will be useful in fining wines: it may be
made of a yard of moderately-fine flannel, laid sloping, so as to
have the bottom very narrow, and the top the full breadth; strongly
sew up the side, and fold and sew the upper part of the bag about a
broad wooden hoop, to be suspended by a cord fastened in three or
four places.


1241. _Coloring Wines._--In the coloring of wines, many substances
have been used, and it is desirable to select such as may also
communicate an agreeable flavor. Red colors are easily obtained from
beet-root, logwood, or the berries of the elder; and every variety of
yellow may be produced by the use of burnt sugar, which also gives an
agreeable bitterness.

There is no end to the materials which have been used to give a
flavor to wine. The flowers of elder, cowslips, clove-pinks, and
mignonette, are well known. The shavings of _orris-root_, in the
proportion of half an ounce to twenty gallons, will be found to
communicate an agreeable perfume. The shavings should be tied in
a linen bag, and suspended in the cask by a string, so as to be
removable at pleasure, if, upon trial, it is found that the flavor is
likely to be too predominant.


1242. _To check Fermentation._--_Sulphate of potash_ will stop
fermentation. _One dram_ is sufficient for a pipe of liquor. It
will be useful to the _confectioner_ to know, that by the use of
the same salt, the fermentation of syrups and preserves may also be
effectually prevented.


1243. _Currant Shrub; easily made._--To every quart of juice, add one
pound of sugar, and one gill of brandy. Bottle and cork it tight. Do
not put it over the fire.


1244. _Damson Wine._--To four gallons of boiling water, add a peck
of damsons; stir this liquor twice every day. Let it stand for three
days, and then strain the whole through a lawn sieve. Add nine pounds
of loaf sugar, and three spoonsful of yeast; after it has worked in
a tub for three days, turn it into a cask, and add three quarts of
elder syrup. Rack the wine in a fortnight. Put in two lemons, sliced,
a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar, rubbed on the peel, and two
pounds of raisins, chopped. Stop it close till March, and then bottle
it.


1245. _Red Cherry Wine._--Strip, when full ripe, any quantity of the
finest red, or Kentish cherries, from their stalks, and stamp them,
in the same manner as apples for cider, till the stones are broken.
Put the whole into a tub, and cover it up closely for three days and
nights; then press it in a cider-press; put the liquor again into a
tub, and let it stand, covered as before, two days longer. Carefully
take off the scum, without in the smallest degree disturbing the
liquor, which is to be poured off the lees, into a different tub.
After it has thus stood to clear another two days, it must again be
cautiously skimmed, and the clear liquid poured off as before. If the
cherries are, as they ought to be, quite ripe and sweet, a pound and
a half of good sugar will be sufficient for each gallon of juice,
which is to be well stirred in, and the liquor again closely covered
up, without being any more disturbed till the next day; then pour
it carefully from the lees, as before, put it to stand, in the same
manner, another day; and then, with the like care, pour it off into
the cask, or casks, in which it is intended to be kept. The above
process must be often repeated, should the lees appear gross and
likely to make the liquor fret. When entirely settled, stop it up,
for at least seven or eight months; then, if perfectly fine, put it
in bottles; if not, drain it off into another vessel, and stop it up
for six months longer, before you venture to bottle it, when it will
want only age to equal, if not exceed, all foreign wines. It will,
however, be best not to drink it till at least ten or twelve months
old.


1246. _Rich Morella Cherry Wine._--Having picked off from their
stalks the ripest and soundest morella cherries, bruise them well,
without breaking the stones, and let the whole stand twenty-four
hours in an open vessel. Then press out all the juice, and for every
gallon, add two pounds of fine loaf sugar. Put this wine into a cask,
and when the fermentation ceases, stop it close. Let it stand three
or four months, then bottle it, and in two months more it will be
fit to drink. Some crack the stones, and hang them, with the bruised
kernels, in a bag, from the bung, while the wine remains in the cask.


1247. _Incomparable Apricot Wine._--Take eight pounds of ripe
apricots, slice them into two gallons of spring water, and add five
pounds of powdered loaf sugar. Boil them together for some time,
without taking off the scum; then skim it off as it continues to
rise, and put it in a clean sieve, over a pan, to save the liquor
which comes from it. When the boiling liquor is as clear as it can
be made from the dross of the sugar, pour it, with the drainings of
the sieve, hot on the kernels of the apricots, which must be put
with the stones into the pan, where it is intended the wine should
be left to cool. Stir all well together, cover it up closely till it
grows quite cool, and then work it with a toast and yeast. In two or
three days, when it is found to be settled, fine it off into a cask,
leaving it to ferment as long as it will. After it has done working,
pour in a bottle of old hock, mountain, or sherry, and stop it up for
six months; then, if very fine, bottle it, and keep it twelve months.
This is indeed a most delicious wine.


1248. _To detect Sugar of Lead in Wines._--The tincture of orpiment
converts wine so adulterated to a black color.


1249. _Orange Wine._--To ten gallons of water put twenty-eight
pounds of loaf sugar, and the whites of six eggs. Boil them together
for three-quarters of an hour, keeping the liquor well skimmed all
the time, and then pour it hot into a tub, or large pan, over the
peels of fifty Seville oranges. When it is nearly cold, take three
spoonsful of yeast, spread on a piece of toasted bread, and put in
the liquor to make it ferment. After it has stood two or three days,
pour it from the peels into the cask, with a gallon of orange juice,
which takes about a hundred and twenty oranges. Let it remain in
the cask till it has done hissing, when the fermentation will have
ceased. Endeavor to proportion the size of the cask to the quantity,
as it must be kept filled, so as to work out at the bung-hole. When
the fermentation is over, draw off as much of the wine as will admit
one quart of brandy for every five gallons of wine. It will be fit to
bottle, or drink from the cask, in four or five months. This wine, if
carefully made, according to these plain directions, will be found
exquisitely delicious; and were it kept four or five years, would far
surpass most of the best foreign wines, as they are usually sold in
England.


1250. _Red Currant Wine._--To eight gallons of water add twenty-four
pounds of loaf sugar; boil the syrup and skim it, till the scum
disappears. Have ready, picked from the stalks, two gallons of red
currants, taking care not to bruise them. Pour the syrup, boiling
hot, on the currants. Let it all stand till nearly cold; then add
a teacupful of yeast. Let it ferment for two days; then strain it
through a sieve, into the cask, and when the fermentation entirely
ceases, bung it tight. It will be ready to bottle at the end of two
months. Into each bottle put a small lump of sugar.


1251. _Raisin Wine._--To every gallon of water weigh seven pounds of
raisins; pick them from the stalks, and put them into a tub; pour
the water on the fruit, and let it stand a fortnight or three weeks,
stirring it several times a day. Strain it, and press the fruit very
dry through hair bags, then put it into a barrel, but do not stop
it close. In about four months rack it, and then put a little fresh
fruit, and some brandy, into the barrel. A quart of brandy, and eight
or ten pounds of fruit, are sufficient for twenty-five or thirty
gallons of wine. When the wine is racked, draw it off into a tub,
and pass the sediment that remains through a flannel bag; the head
of the barrel must then be taken out, and the barrel rinsed with a
little of the wine. After the head is again put in, add the brandy
and fruit. Put the bung in for a little time, but not very tight. It
will be necessary to refine the wine with isinglass, about three
weeks before it is bottled, which should not be in less than a year.
One ounce of isinglass, dissolved in half a pint of wine, and stirred
into the barrel, will be sufficient.

Before the water is poured on the fruit, it should be boiled with the
stalks, and with hops; the latter in the proportion of a quarter of
a pound to every thirty gallons of water. Strain the liquor, let it
grow cold, and then add it to the fruit.


1252. _Spruce Wine._--To every gallon of water take a pound and a
half of honey, and half a pound of fine starch. Before the starch
is mixed with the honey-syrup, it must be reduced to a transparent
jelly, by boiling it with part of the water purposely reserved;--a
quarter of a pound of essence of spruce must be used to five gallons
of water, and when sufficiently stirred and incorporated, pour the
wine into the cask. Then add a quarter of a pint of good ale-yeast,
shake the cask well, and let it work for three or four days, after
which, bung it. It may be bottled in a few days, and in ten days
afterwards, will be fit to drink. When this wine is bunged, a quarter
of an ounce of isinglass, first dissolved in a little of the warmed
liquor, may be stirred in by way of fining it. In cold weather, the
quantity of yeast should be increased: in warm weather, very little
ferment is requisite.


1253. _American Currant Wine._--To one gallon of currant juice add
two of water; to each gallon of this mixture add three pounds and
a quarter of sugar, a gill of brandy, and a quarter of an ounce of
powdered alum: put the whole into a clean cask, in March draw off,
and add another gill of brandy to each gallon.


1254. _Rich Mead._--Mix well the whites of six eggs in twelve gallons
of water; and to this mixture, when it has boiled half an hour and
been well skimmed, add thirty-six pounds of the finest honey, with
the rinds of two dozen lemons. Let them boil together some little
time, and on the liquor's becoming sufficiently cool, work it with a
little ale-yeast. Put it with the lemon peel into a seasoned barrel,
which must be filled up as it flows over with some of the reserved
liquor; and when the hissing ceases, drive the bung close. After the
wine has stood five or six months, bottle it for use. If intended to
be kept several years, put in a pound more honey for every gallon of
water.


1255. _Red and White Mead with Raspberries and Currants._--For every
gallon of wine to be made, take one pound and a half of honey,
half an ounce of tartar, or Bologna argol, and three-quarters of a
pound of fruit. If for white wine, white argol should be used with
white currants; if for red wine, red argol with red currants or
raspberries. Prepare the honey by mixing it with as much water as
will, when added to the juice of the fruit (allowing for diminution
by boiling, &c.), make the proposed quantity of wine. This being well
boiled and clarified, infuse in it a moderate quantity of rosemary
leaves, lavender, and sweet-brier, and when they have remained for
two days, strain the liquor, and add it to the expressed juice of
the fruit, put in the dissolved argol, stir the whole well together,
and leave it to ferment. In two or three days, put it in a seasoned
barrel; keep filling it up, as the liquor flows over; and on its
ceasing to work, sink in it a muslin bag of Seville orange and lemon
peel, with cinnamon, cloves and nutmegs, and closely bung the cask.
If kept for six months or more in the wood, and at least nine in
bottles, this wine will be excellent, whether red or white. In a
similar way may be made all sorts of fruit wines, thus substituting
honey for sugar.


1256. _Nectar._--Take half a pound of raisins of the sun, chopped,
one pound of powdered loaf sugar, two lemons, sliced, and the peel
of one. Put them into an earthen vessel with two gallons of water,
the water having been boiled half an hour; and put them in while the
water is boiling. Let the whole stand three or four days, stirring it
twice a day; then strain it, and in a fortnight it will be ready for
use.


1257. _Syrup of Cloves, Cinnamon, or Mace._--All these syrups are
made exactly on the same plan.--Take two ounces of either cloves,
cinnamon, or mace, well pounded, and put it into a pint of boiling
water in a small stewpan. Let it boil half an hour, pass the liquor
through a hair sieve, dissolve in it a pound and a half of powdered
loaf sugar, clear it over the fire, with the white of an egg beaten
to a froth, and a little rose or orange-flower water, and let it
simmer gently till the syrup is formed and clear. When quite cold,
put it in bottles, which must be closely corked.


1258. _Syrup of Ginger._--Steep an ounce and a half of beaten ginger
in a quart of boiling water, closely covered up for twenty-four
hours; then, straining off the infusion, make it into a syrup, by
adding at least two pounds of fine loaf sugar, dissolved, and boiled
up in a hot water bath.


1259. _French Rossolis, perfumed with Flowers._--Boil two quarts
of spring water, to take off the hardness; then take it off the
fire, and when it is only lukewarm, throw in a pinch of the most
odoriferous flowers, and let them infuse till the liquid is cold,
and the fragrance all extracted. Then take away the flowers with a
skimmer, strain the liquid, and add to it a pint of clarified syrup,
and half a pint of spirits of wine, and a rossolis, or sun-dew, will
be produced.


1260. _Bergamot Water._--Make a pint of syrup; and when cold, press
into it half a dozen fine lemons, with, or without, a Seville orange,
or two China oranges, adding as much water as may be necessary; then
putting in a tea-spoonful of genuine essence of bergamot, run the
whole through a lawn sieve, and it is immediately ready for drinking.


1261. _Peach and Apricot Waters._--Both these waters, as well as
those of other fruits, are readily made by mixing two or three
table-spoonfuls of the respective jams with a few blanched and
pounded bitter almonds, lemon-juice, and cold spring water, with
powdered loaf sugar to your taste. On being run through a lawn sieve,
these waters are immediately fit to drink.


1262. _Persian and Turkish Sherbet._--The method pursued by the
Persians, Turks, &c., is to extract the fragrant, rich, and
acidulated juices of the finest flowers and fruits, and make them,
with the addition of sugar, into what we call fruit jellies or
lozenges, which are dissolved in the purest spring water, and thus
form the agreeable beverage denominated sherbet. For example, they
evaporate the purified juice of citrons in a water bath with a slow
fire, till it becomes of nearly the consistence of honey, melting,
in the mean time, some finely powdered loaf sugar in a silver dish,
and continually stirring it with a flat wooden spoon; when the sugar
is very dry, they sprinkle over it, a little at a time, the prepared
juice of citron; continuing to stir it till the whole has sufficient
moisture to form a paste, which they make into lozenges, and keep
in a dry, and rather warm situation; in this way, they prepare all
the acid juices, such as barberries, lemons, gooseberries, &c.: with
the less acid and more delicately flavored fruits, they proceed
differently, only well heating the sugar in a silver dish, adding
to it by degrees the fresh juice, and stirring it constantly till a
paste is formed. This must not be made into lozenges till perfectly
dry, and they must be put into a box lined with paper, and kept
in a dry place. They are variously prepared with orange-flowers,
roses, &c. The Persians and Turks are said to prepare a favorite
sherbet with violet vinegar, pomegranate-juice, and sugar formed into
lozenges.


1263. _Hypocras, as made at Paris._--Put into a quart of the best
and strongest red wine half a pound of powdered loaf sugar, half a
dram of cinnamon, a pinch of coriander seeds, two white pepper-corns,
a little Seville orange peel, a blade of mace, a small quantity of
lemon-juice, and four cloves; the spices, &c., being all previously
beaten in a mortar. When the whole has infused three or four hours,
add a table-spoonful of milk; and filtering the liquid through a
flannel bag, it will prove excellent for present or future use.


1264. _Strawberry Sherbet._--On half a pound of sugar of the best
quality, broken into lumps, pour a quart of spring water. Let it
stand until nearly dissolved; give it a stir, and boil it for about
ten minutes. Take off the scum, and throw into the syrup a pint and
a half of sound ripe strawberries, measured without their stalks.
Let these simmer gently until they shrink much and begin to break,
and keep them well skimmed, or the sherbet will not be clear. Before
it is taken from the fire, add the strained juice of a sound fresh
lemon, then turn the preparation into a jelly-bag, or let it stand
for a quarter of an hour, and then strain it through a muslin folded
in four. This latter method is generally quite sufficient to render
any liquid not thickened by the _over_-boiled pulp of fruit, quite
transparent. When strawberries abound, a quart, or even more, may be
used for this preparation; and the proportion of sugar can always be
increased or diminished to the taste. To give the sherbet an Oriental
character, boil in it the petals of six or eight orange, lemon, or
citron blossoms; or orange-flower water may be used.


1265. _Lemonade_ (_Italian_).--Two dozen lemons must be pared and
pressed; the juice should be poured on the peels, and remain on them
all night; in the morning add two pounds of loaf sugar, a quart
of good white wine, and three quarts of boiling water. When these
ingredients are blended, add a quart of boiling milk. Strain the
whole through a jelly-bag till it becomes quite clear.


1266. _Lemonade._--One of the best methods of making lemonade is to
prepare a syrup of sugar and water, over a clear fire, skimming it
quite clean; to this add the juice of any number of lemons, according
to the quantity you wish to make; also some of the rinds.


1267. _Rich Orangeade._--Steep the yellow rinds of six China, and
two Seville oranges in a quart of boiling water, closely covered up
for five or six hours; then make a syrup with a pound of sugar, and
three pints of water, mix the infusion and syrup together, press in
the juice of a dozen China oranges, and the two Seville oranges from
which the rind was taken, stir the whole well together, and run it
through a jelly-bag; afterwards, if agreeable, a little orange-flower
water, with some capillaire syrup, may be added, should sweetness be
wanted. Two lemons may be used, as well as the two Seville oranges;
but care should be taken that the flavor of the lemons does not
predominate.


1268. _Orgeat Paste._--This paste, which will keep twelve months,
is nearly as soon made into orgeat as the orgeat syrup. The mode of
preparing it in Paris, is by well pounding blanched almonds with a
little water, to prevent their turning to oil; then adding half the
weight of the almonds in pounded sugar, and mixing both together into
a paste.

Of this paste, when wanted, mix a small portion, about the size of
an egg, in a pint of spring water, and strain it through a napkin.
The usual English mode of making orgeat paste is, by pounding in the
same manner, half an ounce of bitter, to a pound of sweet, almonds;
and boiling a quart of common syrup, till it becomes what is called
blow; mixing the almonds with it over the fire, well stirred all the
time, to prevent burning, till it becomes a stiff paste; then, on its
getting quite cold, putting it in pots, to be used in the same manner
as the other.


1269. _To cork, and preserve Cider in Bottles._--Good corks are
highly necessary, and if soaked before used in scalding water, they
will be more the pliant and serviceable; and by laying the bottles so
that the liquor may always keep the cork wet and swelled, will much
preserve it.


1270. _Soda Water and Ginger Beer Powders._--Carbonate of soda and
tartaric acid, of each two ounces; fine loaf sugar rolled and sifted,
six ounces; pure essence of lemon, twenty-five or thirty drops. To be
well mixed in a marble mortar, kept in a bottle closely corked, and
_in a very dry place_. When required for use, two tea-spoonfuls to
less than a half pint of water, to be mixed in a glass that will hold
twice that quantity, and drunk while in a state of effervescence. If
half an ounce or one ounce (according as it may be liked more or less
hot), of best ground ginger be mixed with the above quantity, it will
be "ginger-beer powder."


1271. _Spruce Beer._--For _white_ spruce, pour ten gallons of boiling
water upon six pounds of good raw or lump sugar, and four ounces of
essence of spruce; ferment with half a pint of good yeast, put into
stone bottles, cork and tie them over. For _brown_ spruce use treacle
instead of sugar.

Essence of spruce is a remedy for colds, rheumatisms, &c., if drunk
warm at bed-time.


1272. _An Irish Cordial._--To every pound of white currants stripped
from the stalks and bruised, put the very thin rind of a large
fresh lemon, and a quarter of an ounce of ginger, well pounded and
sifted. Pour on these one quart of good old whiskey; mix the whole
up thoroughly, and let it stand for twenty-four hours in a new
well-scalded stone pitcher, or deep pan (_crock_), covered closely
from the air. Strain it off; stir in it, until dissolved, a pound and
a quarter of pounded sugar, and strain it again and bottle it. This
is an Irish receipt, and is given without variation from the original.


1273. _To prevent Beer from growing flat._--In a cask containing
eighteen gallons of beer, becoming vapid, put a pint of ground malt,
suspended in a bag, and close the bung perfectly; the beer will be
improved during the whole time of drawing it for use.


1274. _To recover sour Beer._--When beer has become sour, put into
the barrel some oyster-shells, calcined to whiteness, or a little
fine chalk or whiting. Any of these will correct the acidity, and
make the beer brisk and sparkling; but it cannot be kept long after
these additions are made.


1275. _Rose Vinegar for Salads or the Toilette._--To one quarter of a
pound of rose-leaves put two quarts of good vinegar; cover it firmly;
leave it to infuse till a fine tincture is obtained; then strain it.


1276. _Raspberry Vinegar._--Pour one quart of vinegar on two pounds
of fresh raspberries, and let it stand twenty-four hours. Then strain
them through a hair-sieve without breaking the fruit; put the liquor
on two pounds more fruit, and, after straining it in the same manner,
add to each pint of juice half a pound of loaf sugar; put it in a
stone vessel, and let it stand in boiling water until the sugar is
dissolved; when cold, take off the scum, and bottle it.


1277. _Cheap and easy method of Brewing._--One bushel of malt and
three-quarters of a pound of hops will, on an average, brew twenty
gallons of good beer.

For this quantity of malt, boil twenty-four gallons of water; and,
having dashed it in the copper with cold water to stop the boiling,
steep the malt (properly covered up) for three hours; then tie up
the hops in a hair-cloth, and boil malt, hops, and wort, altogether,
for three-quarters of an hour, which will reduce it to about twenty
gallons. Strain it off, and set it to work when lukewarm.

In large brewings, this process perhaps would not answer, but in
small ones, where the waste is not so great, and where the malt can
be boiled, the essence is sure to be extracted.


1278. _To make excellent and wholesome Table Beer._--To eight quarts
of boiling water put a pound of treacle, a quarter of an ounce of
ginger, and two bay leaves; let this boil for a quarter of an hour,
then cool, and work it with yeast, the same as other beer.


1279. _How the Chinese make Tea._--The art of making tea consists in
pouring the water on and off immediately, so as to get the flavor.


1280. _Tea, economically._--Young Hyson is supposed to be a more
profitable tea than Hyson; but though the _quantity_ to a pound
is greater, it has not so much _strength_. In point of economy,
therefore, there is not much difference between them. Hyson tea and
Souchong mixed together, half and half, is a pleasant beverage, and
is more healthy than green tea alone. Be sure that water boils before
it is poured upon tea. A tea-spoonful to each person, and one extra
thrown in, is a good rule. Steep a few minutes.


1281. _Turkish method of making Coffee._--The coffee must be slowly
roasted, not burnt, and brought only to an amber brown: it must
be roasted day by day. The flavor dissipates in a few hours; it
must be reduced by pounding to an impalpable powder. In making
it, two opposite and, apparently, incompatible ends are to be
secured--strength and flavor. To obtain the first, it must be boiled;
by boiling, the second is lost. The difficulty is surmounted by a
double process--one thorough cooking, one slight one; by the first
a strong infusion is obtained; by the second, that infusion is
flavored. Thus a large pot with coffee-lees stands simmering by the
fire; this is the sherbet. When a cup is wanted, the pounded coffee
is put in the little tin or copper pan, and placed on the embers; it
fumes for a moment, then the sherbet is poured on; in a few seconds
the froth (caïmah) rises; presently an indication that it is about to
boil is made manifest, when the coffee is instantly taken from the
fire, carried into the apartment, turned into the cup, and drank.


1282. _Cheap and valuable substitute for Coffee._--The flour of rye,
and yellow potatoes, are found an excellent substitute for coffee.
Boil, peel, and mash the potatoes, and then mix with the meal into
a cake, which is to be dried in an oven, and afterwards reduced
to a powder, which will make a beverage very similar to coffee in
its taste, as well as in other properties, and not in the least
detrimental to health.


1283. _Substitute for Cream._--If you have not cream for coffee, it
is a very great improvement to boil your milk, and use it while hot.


1284. _Cocoa_ is the foundation of chocolate; it may be pounded, and
either boiled as milk, or boiling water may be poured on it. It is
very digestible, and of a fattening nature.


1285. _Racahout des Arabes; a pleasant beverage for Invalids._--Mix
thoroughly one pound of ground rice; one pound of arrow-root; half
pound of fine chocolate. Put the mixture into a jar for use. When it
is wanted, make a tablespoonful of the Racahout into a paste with
cold water or milk; then stir it into half a pint of boiling milk,
and let it boil up for a minute or two; add sugar, if agreeable, and
drink it as you would chocolate.


1286. _How to judge the Properties of Nutmegs._--The largest,
heaviest, and most unctuous of nutmegs are to be chosen, such as are
the shape of an olive, and of the most fragrant smell.


1287. _To keep Grapes._--Gather the grapes in the afternoon of a dry
day, before they are perfectly ripe. Have ready a clean dry barrel
and wheat bran. Proceed then with alternate layers of bran and
grapes, till the barrel is full, taking care that the grapes do not
touch each other, and to let the last layer be of bran; then close
the barrel, so that the air may not be able to penetrate, which is an
essential point. Grapes, thus packed, will keep nine or even twelve
months. To restore them to their freshness, cut the end of the stalk
of each bunch of grapes, and put that of white grapes into white
wine, and that of the black grapes into red wine, as you would put
flowers into water, to revive or keep them fresh.


1288. _To keep Oranges and Lemons._--Take small sand and make it very
dry; after it is cold, put a quantity of it into a clean vessel;
then take your oranges, and set a laying of them in the same, the
stalk-end downwards, so that they do not touch each other, and strew
in some of the sand, as much as will cover them two inches deep; then
set your vessel in a cold place, and you will find your fruit in high
preservation at the end of several months.


1289. _Another Method._--Freeze the oranges, and keep them in an
ice-house. When to be used, put them into a vessel of cold water till
they are thawed. By this means they may be had in perfection at any
season of the year.


1290. _Keeping Apples._--Apples should be placed on a dry floor three
weeks before they are packed away in barrels. They should be kept in
a cool place; if inclosed in a water-tight cask, they may be kept all
winter in a loft or garret without further care, and will come out
sound and fresh in the spring.


1291. _To keep Onions._--Onions should be kept very dry, and never
carried into the cellar except in severe weather, when there is
danger of their freezing. By no means let them be in the cellar after
March; they will sprout and spoil.


1292. _A good way of cooking onions._--It is a good plan to boil
onions in milk and water; it diminishes the strong taste of that
vegetable. It is an excellent way of serving up onions, to chop them
after they are boiled, and put them in a stewpan, with a little milk,
butter, salt, and pepper, and let them stew about fifteen minutes.
This gives them a fine flavor, and they can be served up very hot.


1293. _To keep Parsnips._--Parsnips should be kept down cellar,
covered up in sand, entirely excluded from the air. They are good
only in the Spring.


1294. _To keep Cabbages._--Cabbages put into a hole in the ground
will keep well during the winter, and be hard, fresh, and sweet in
the Spring. Many farmers keep potatoes in the same way.


1295. _To keep Potatoes._--The cellar is the best place for them,
because they are injured by wilting; but sprout them carefully, if
you want to keep them. They never sprout but three times; therefore,
after you have sprouted them three times, they will trouble you no
more.

_Note._--Boiled potatoes are said to cleanse the hands as well as
common soap; they prevent _chaps_ in the winter season, and keep the
skin soft and healthy.


1290. _Boiling Potatoes._--The following method of dressing potatoes
will be found of great use at the season of the year, when skins are
tough and potatoes are watery. Score the skin of the potato with a
knife, lengthwise and across, quite around, and then boil the potato
in plenty of water and salt, with the skin on. The skin readily
cracks when it is scored, and lets out the moisture, which otherwise
renders the potato soapy and wet. The improvement to bad potatoes by
this method of boiling them is very great, and all who have tried
it find a great advantage in it, now that good potatoes are very
difficult to be obtained.


1297. _To keep Celery._--Celery should be kept in the cellar, the
roots covered with tan, to keep them moist.


1298. _To keep Lettuce._--If the tops of lettuce be cut off when it
is becoming too old for use, it will grow up again fresh and tender,
and may thus be kept good through the summer.


1299. _Good Squashes._--Green squashes that are turning yellow, and
striped squashes, are more uniformly sweet and mealy than any other
kind.


1300. _To dry Pumpkin._--Cut it round horizontally in tolerably
thin slices, peel them and hang them on a line in a warm room. When
perfectly dry, put them away for use. When you wish to use it, put it
to soak over night; next day pour off the water, put on fresh water,
stew and use it as usual, &c.

Another and, as some think, a much better way, is to boil and sift
the pumpkin, then spread it out thin in tin plates, and dry hard in a
warm oven. It will keep good all the year round, and a little piece
boiled up in milk will make a batch of pies.


1301. _To pickle large Mushrooms._--Pick them carefully, and take
out the stalks; put them into a jar, and pour on them boiling spiced
vinegar, with a little salt in it.


1302. _To preserve Green Currants._--Currants may be kept fresh for
a year or more, if they are gathered when green, separated from the
stems, put into dry, clean junk bottles, and corked very carefully,
so as to exclude the air. They should be kept in a cool place in the
cellar.


1303. _Walnut Ketchup._--Take half a bushel of green walnuts, before
the shell is formed, and grind them in a crab mill, or beat them in a
marble mortar; then squeeze out the juices through a coarse cloth,
and wring the cloth well to get all the juice out, and to every
gallon of juice put a quart of red wine, a quarter of a pound of
anchovies, the same of bay salt, one ounce of allspice, two of long
or black pepper, half an ounce of cloves and mace, a little ginger
and horse-radish, cut in slices; boil all together till reduced to
half the quantity; pour into a pan; when it is cold bottle it, cork
it tight, and it will be fit to use in three months. If you have any
pickle left in the jar after your walnuts are used, to every gallon
of pickle put in two heads of garlic, a quart of red wine, an ounce
each of cloves and mace, long, black, and Jamaica pepper, and boil
them all together, till it is reduced to half the quantity, pour it
into a pan, and the next day bottle it for use, and cork it tight.


1304. _To discover if Bread is adulterated with Alum._--Make a
solution of lime in aquafortis, and put a little of this solution
into water, in which you have steeped the bread suspected to contain
alum. If such should be the case, the acid, which was combined with
the alum, will form a precipitate or chalky concretion at the bottom
of the vessel.


1305. _To preserve Biscuit from Putrefaction._--To preserve biscuit a
long time sweet and good, no other art is necessary than stowing it,
well baked, in casks exactly caulked, and carefully lined with tin,
so as to exclude the air; at the same time the biscuit must be so
placed as to leave as little vacant room as possible in the cask; and
when the same is opened through necessity, it must be speedily closed
again with great care.


1306. _A good Yeast._--Put into one gallon of water a double-handful
of hops;--boil them fifteen or twenty minutes, then strain off the
water while it is scalding hot; stir in wheat flour or meal till it
becomes a thick batter, so that it will hardly pour;--let it stand
till it becomes about blood-warm, then add a pint of good lively
yeast, and stir it well; and then let it stand in a place where it
will be kept at a temperature of about seventy degrees Fahrenheit,
till it becomes perfectly light, whether more or less time is
required; and then it is fit for use;--or if it is desired to keep
a portion of it, let it stand several hours and become cool; and
then put it into a clean jug and cork it tight, and place it in the
cellar, where it will keep cool; and it may be preserved good, ten
or twelve days, and even longer.


1307. _The Dairy._--Dairymen will find a great advantage in cheese
making, by putting their milk, which is to stand over night, into
small air-tight vessels. They will also find it an advantage, when it
thunders, to suspend the vessels by a cord or chain, as the jarring
of the shocks, which sour the milk, will, in a great measure, be
prevented. We may prevent the commencement of sourness, which takes
place in milk standing in large quantities, by a wooden follower
being fitted to the vat, and pressed on the milk. If any one doubt
the utility of this, let him try the experiment for himself. Cover
the bottom of your cheese-vat to the depth of half an inch with milk,
and let it stand through the night, and then try to make a breakfast
of it in the morning. You could relish tallow as well, or a piece
of bread and butter that had lain in the sun an hour. Neither milk,
butter, nor cheese will do to stand in the light of the sun, though
it be reflected, as it will produce rancidity.


1308. _Butter._--Keep your pails, churn, and pans sweet. In winter
warm the pans and churns with hot water, in summer cool them with
cold. Keep your milk in summer where it is cool and airy, in winter
where it is warm. In warm weather skim your milk as soon as it is
thick; in colder weather skim as soon as there is a good thick cream,
and be careful not to let it remain too long, as it will acquire a
bad taste. Churn as often as you have cream enough, never less than
once a week. If the cream is of the right temperature when commenced,
it will not froth, and if it does, put in a little salt. Use no
salt but the best ground salt; work out all the butter-milk with a
ladle in summer, in winter use clean hands. If you wish to keep it
some time, put it down in a jar or firkin, or pickle in layers, as
clean and free from butter-milk as it is possible, leaving a space
for pickle over it, in the following proportions. Half a pail of
water, one quart of fine salt, two ounces of loaf-sugar, one ounce of
saltpetre, well boiled and skimmed. When cold, cover with this, and
it will keep good and sweet, the year round.


1309. _Cream._--The quantity of cream on milk may be greatly
increased by the following process: Have two pans ready in boiling
hot water, and when the new milk is brought in, put it into one of
these hot pans and cover it with the other. The quality as well as
the thickness of the cream is improved.


1310. _Method of curing bad Tub Butter._--A quantity of tub butter
was brought to market in the West Indies, which, on opening, was
found to be very bad, and almost stinking. A native of Pennsylvania
undertook to cure it, which he did, in the following manner:--

He started the tubs of butter in a large quantity of hot water, which
soon melted the butter; he then skimmed it off as clean as possible,
and worked it over again in a churn, and with the addition of salt
and fine sugar, the butter was sweet and good.


1311. _Method of taking the Rankness and disagreeable Taste from
Irish Salt Butter._--The quantity proposed to be made use of, either
for toasts or melting, must be put into a bowl filled with boiling
water, and when the butter is melted, skim it quite off; by this
method it is so separated from any gross particles, that it may
require a small addition of salt, which may be put into the cold
water that is made use of in melting butter for sauce; and though the
butter is oiled by hot water, it becomes a fine cream in the boiling
for sauce.


1312. _To remove the Taste of Turnips from Milk or Butter._--The
taste of the turnip is easily taken off milk and butter, by
dissolving a little nitre in spring water, which being kept in a
bottle, and a small tea-cupful put into eight gallons of milk, when
warm from the cow, entirely removes any taste or flavor of the turnip.


1313. _To make Salt Butter fresh._--Put four pounds of salt butter
into a churn, with four quarts of new milk, and a small portion of
arnotto. Churn them together, and, in about an hour, take out the
butter, and treat it exactly as fresh butter, by washing it in water,
and adding the customary quantity of salt.

This is a singular experiment. The butter gains about three ounces
in each pound, and is in every particular equal to fresh butter. It
would be greatly improved by the addition of two or three ounces
of fine sugar, in powder. A common earthen churn answers the same
purpose as a wooden one, and may be purchased at any pot shop.


1314. _Method of making Stilton Cheese._--Take the night's cream,
and put it to the morning's new milk, with the rennet; when the curd
is come it is not to be broken, as is done with other cheeses, but
take it out with a soil dish all together, and place it on a sieve to
drain gradually, and, as it drains, keep gradually pressing it, till
it becomes firm and dry; then place it in a wooden hoop; afterwards
to be kept dry on boards, turned frequently, with cloth-binders round
it, which are to be tightened as occasion requires.

In some dairies the cheeses, after being taken out of the wooden
hoop, are bound tight round with a cloth, which cloth is changed
every day until the cheese becomes firm enough to support itself;
after the cloth is taken away, they are rubbed every day all over,
for two or three months, with a brush; and if the weather is damp or
moist, twice a day; and even before the cloth is taken off, the top
and bottom are well rubbed every day.


1315. _Coloring for Cheese._--The coloring for cheese is, or at least
should be, Spanish arnotto; but as soon as coloring became general
in this country, a color of an adulterated kind was exposed for sale
in almost every shop; the weight of a guinea and a half of real
Spanish arnotto is sufficient for a cheese of fifty pounds' weight.
If a considerable part of the cream of the night's milk be taken for
butter, more coloring will be requisite. The leaner the cheese is,
the more coloring it requires. The manner of using arnotto is to tie
up, in a linen rag, the quantity deemed sufficient, and put it into
half a pint of warm water over night. This infusion is put into the
tub of milk, in the morning, with the rennet infusion; dipping the
rag into the milk, and rubbing it against the palm of the hand as
long as any color runs out.


1316. _To make Cement for Bottles or Preserve Jars._--Take one-third
bees'-wax and two-thirds rosin, according to the quantity of cement
required. Pound the rosin fine, and put it with the wax to melt in
any old vessel fit for the purpose. When it is melted, take it off
the fire, and add powdered brick-dust till it is as thick as melted
sealing-wax. Then dip the bottle necks into the cement, and in a few
minutes the mixture will be dry.


1317. _Blue Wash for Walls._--Take one pound of lump blue vitriol;
pound it in a stone mortar as fine as possible; dissolve it in a
quart or two of hot water. Slake about a quarter of a peck, or
perhaps a little more of lime, and when _cold_ pour in the blue water
by degrees, and make it whatever shade you desire.

The lime must be slaked and the vitriol dissolved in earthen or stone
ware, and the whole mixture stirred with a metal spoon. If wood is
used for any of the above purposes, the color will be changed. A
new brush should also be used to put it on the walls, and they must
first have a coat or two of whitewash, to destroy all smoke and other
impurities.


1318. _Yellow Wash for Walls._--One quarter of a pound of chrome
yellow, one quarter of a pound of gum senegal, two pounds of whiting.


EASY AND CHEAP MODE OF COLORING CLOTHING, &c.

1319. "_Blue Composition_," a compound of vitriol and indigo, is
usually kept by hatters and apothecaries. It colors a good and
durable blue. An ounce vial, that may be bought for a trifle, will
color a large number of articles. It is an economical plan to use
it for old silk linings, ribbons, &c. The original color should be
boiled out, and the material thoroughly rinsed in soft water, so
that no soap may remain in it; for soap ruins the dye. Twelve or
sixteen drops of the blue composition, poured into a quart bowl full
of warm soft water, stirred, (and strained, if any settlings are
perceptible,) will color a great many articles. If you wish a deep
blue, pour in more of the compound. Cotton must not be colored; the
vitriol destroys it; if the material you wish to color has cotton
threads in it, it will be ruined. After the things are thoroughly
dried, they should be washed in cool suds, and dried again; this
prevents any bad effects from the vitriol; if shut up from the air,
without being washed, there is danger of the texture being destroyed.


1320. _How to color Green._--If you wish to color green, have your
cloth free as possible from the old color, clean and rinsed, and, in
the first place, color it a deep yellow. Fustic boiled in soft water
makes the strongest and brightest yellow dye; but saffron, barberry
bush, peach leaves, or onion skins, will answer pretty well. Next
take a bowl full of strong yellow dye, and pour in a great spoonful
or more of the blue composition. Stir it up well with a clean stick,
and dip the articles you have already colored yellow into it, and
they will take a lively grass-green. This is a good plan for old
bombazet curtains, dessert cloths, old flannel for desk coverings, &c.


1321. _Slate Color._--Tea-grounds boiled in iron, and set with
copperas, make a very good slate color.


1322. _Purple Slate Color._--The purple paper, which comes on loaf
sugar, boiled in cider, or vinegar, with a small bit of alum, makes a
fine purple slate color. Done in iron.

White maple bark makes a good light-brown slate color. This should
be boiled in water, set with alum. The color is reckoned better when
boiled in brass, instead of iron.

The purple slate and the brown slate are suitable colors for
stockings; and it is an economical plan, after they have been mended
and cut down, so that they will no longer look decent, to color old
stockings, and make them up for children.


1323. _To make Nankin Color._--A pailful of lye, with a piece of
copperas half as big as a hen's egg boiled in it, will color a fine
nankin color, which will never wash out. This is very useful for the
linings of bed-quilts, comforters, &c. Old faded gowns, colored in
this way, may be made into good petticoats. Cheap cotton cloth may be
colored to advantage for petticoats, and pelisses for little girls.


1324. _Nankin Color, another way._--The common _birch-bark_ makes a
very beautiful nankin dye. Cover the bark with water, and boil it
thoroughly in a brass or tin kettle. Bark stripped from the trees in
autumn is best. Set the color with alum. A piece as large as a hen's
egg is sufficient for two pailsful of dye. Dip the articles, wet
thoroughly in clean water, into the alum water, then into the dye.


1325. _To make Straw-color and Yellow._--Saffron, steeped in earthen
and strained, colors a fine straw color. It makes a delicate or deep
shade, according to the strength of the tea. The dry outside skins of
onions, steeped in scalding water and strained, color a yellow very
much like the "bird of paradise" color. Peach leaves, or bark scraped
from the barberry bush, color a common bright yellow. In all these
cases, a little bit of alum does no harm, and may help to fix the
color. Ribbons, gauze handkerchiefs, &c., are colored well in this
way, especially if they be stiffened by a bit of gum-arabic, dropped
in while the stuff is steeping.


1326. _To make Rose-color._--Balm blossoms, steeped in water, color
a pretty rose-color. This answers very well for the linings of
children's bonnets, for ribbons, &c. It fades in the course of one
season, but it is very little trouble to re-color with it. It merely
requires to be steeped and strained. Perhaps a small piece of alum
might serve to set the color, in some degree. In earthen or tin.


1327. _To color Black._--Logwood and cider, boiled together, in
iron--add water for the evaporation--makes a good and durable black.
Rusty nails, or any bits of rusty iron, boiled in vinegar, with a
small piece of copperas, will also dye black; so will ink-powder, if
boiled with vinegar. In all cases, black must be set with copperas.


1328. _General Rules for Coloring._--The materials should be
perfectly clean; soap should be rinsed out in soft water; the article
should be entirely wetted, or it will spot; light colors should be
steeped in brass, tin, or earthen; and if set at all, should be
set with alum. Dark colors should be boiled in iron, and set with
copperas. Too much copperas rots the thread.


1329. _To Wash Carpets._--Put the carpets down on a perfectly clean
floor; wash them first with warm and weak soap-suds, wringing the
wash-cloth almost dry; rinse them with clear water. Open the windows,
that they may dry quickly.

It is obvious that the above directions are only applicable to the
lighter sorts of carpets, Scotch, Kidderminster, and Venetian. If
it be desired to cleanse a carpet which has an under-texture of
thread, as Brussels, tapestry, or velvet, the carpet having been well
beaten or shaken, and washed, should be spread out, and scrubbed with
a scrubbing brush and ox-gall. A pint of gall and three gallons of
water will clean a large carpet.

After the use of the gall, the carpet must be thoroughly rinsed, and
dried in the open air.


1330. _To Wash Clothes, on a small scale._--For a wash for three
persons put three-quarters of an ounce of soda in soap and water over
the fire. Wash the clothes first in soap and water; rub soap on the
soiled or greasy places, and throw them in the mixture. Let them boil
an hour; rinse them in clear, cold water; rinse them again in water
with a little bluing in it. If the clothes are much soiled, put them
to soak over night.


1331. _Washing of Woollen Articles; an excellent way._--It is a
common complaint that woollen articles thicken, shrink, and become
discolored in washing. The complaint applies both to the lighter
articles of knitted wool, such as shawls, &c., and to thicker and
heavier materials--table baizes, carpets, and men's woollen garments.
The difficulty in either case may be obviated by strict attention to
the method about to be explained. To clear the way, it may be well
first to point out some things which _never_ ought to be done, but
which frequently, perhaps generally, are done:--

1. Woollen articles are never to be washed in hard water, nor in
water softened by soda, potash, or anything of that kind. Soap even
should never touch them.

2. They are never to be rubbed at all.

3. They are never to be put in lukewarm water for washing, nor in
cold water for rinsing.

4. They are never to remain lying still in the water a single minute.

5. They are never to be wrung.

6. When taken out of the water, they must not be laid down at all,
before the process of drying is commenced, nor at any time afterwards
until they are perfectly dry.

These things are to be avoided:--Now what is to be done?

1. Let the things to be washed be first well brushed and shaken, to
get rid of the dust.

2. Before the woollen things are wetted at all, take care to have
everything that will be required, ready and within reach.

3. If several things are to be done, let each be begun and finished
separately. This makes no difference in expense or trouble. A smaller
vessel and smaller quantity of lather will suffice, and the stuff in
which one article has been washed, would do no good, but harm, to
others; it is, in fact, good for nothing.

4. Use only fresh rain water, or very clear river water; rain is
preferable.

5. With a piece of sponge or old flannel, rub up a very strong
lather of either soft soap or best yellow soap. For very large,
greasy things, the lather may be made of ox-gall, half a pint to
six quarts of water, whisked up with a handful of birch twigs (like
that old-fashioned thing, a rod). In either case, the lather may be
prepared with a small quantity of water, and the remainder added,
boiling hot, the moment before using it. The whole should be as hot
as the hand can bear it; the hotter the better. If the articles are
very dirty, two lathers will be required in succession; and unless
a second person is at hand, to rub up the second while the first is
being used, both had better be prepared in separate vessels before
the wools are wetted, leaving only the boiling water to be added.

6. Take the article to be washed, and without leaving hold of it,
keep on dipping and raising, dipping and raising, for two or three
minutes. By that time the lather will be absorbed by the wool, and
the liquor will resemble slimy suds.

7. Squeeze the article as dry as may be, without wringing it.

8. The second lather having been brought to the same heat as the
first, proceed in the same manner, dipping and raising. N. B.--If the
article was very little soiled, and after the first washing appears
quite clear and clean, the second washing may be in hot water without
soap. Whether lather or water only, a blue-bag may be slightly drawn
through before the second washing. When gall has been used, a third
washing in hot water only, will be required to take off the smell.

9. Having again squeezed the article as dry as may be, for the
lighter things, such as shawls, &c., spread it on a coarse dry cloth,
pulling it out to its proper shape; lay over it another coarse dry
cloth, roll the whole up tightly, and let it remain half an hour.
This rule does not apply to large, heavy things; they must be hung
out at once.


1332. _To make Soft Soap._--Bore some holes in your lye-barrel; put
some straw in the bottom; lay some unslaked lime on it, and fill your
barrel with good hard-wood ashes; wet it, and pound it down as you
put it in. When full, make a basin in the ashes and pour in water;
keep filling it as it sinks in the ashes. In the course of a few
hours the lye will begin to run. When you have a sufficient quantity
to begin with, put your grease in a large iron pot, let it heat, pour
in the lye, let it boil, &c. Three pounds of clean grease are allowed
for two gallons of soap.


1333.--_Of Fish as Food._--As food, fish is easier of digestion
than meats are, with the exception of salmon; this kind of fish is
extremely hearty food, and should be given sparingly to children, and
used cautiously by those who have weak stomachs, or who take little
exercise.

The small trout, found in rivers, are the most delicate and
suitable for invalids; lake fish are also excellent, and any kind
of fresh-water fish, if cooked immediately after being caught, are
always healthful.

But the ocean is the chief dependence for the fish-market, and there
is little danger (if we except salmon and lobsters) that its kind
of aliment will, in our country, be eaten to excess. It would be
better for the health of those who do not labor, if they would use
more fish and less flesh for food. But then fish cannot be rendered
so palatable, because it does not admit the variety of cooking and
flavors that other animal food does.

Fish is much less nutritious than flesh. The white kinds of fish,
cod, haddock, flounders, white fish, &c., are the least nutritious;
the oily kinds, salmon, eels, herrings, &c., are more difficult to
digest.

Shell fish have long held a high rank as restorative food; but a
well-dressed chop or steak is much better to recruit the strength and
spirits.

_Cod_, _whiting_, and _haddock_, are better for being a little
salted, and kept one day before cooking.


1334.--_Of Beef as Food._--Ox beef is considered the best; heifer
beef is excellent where well fed, and is most suitable for small
families. If you want the best, choose that which has a fine smooth
grain--the lean of a bright red; the fat white or nearly so.

The best roasting-piece is the sirloin; then the first three ribs--if
kept till they are quite tender, and boned, they are nearly equal to
the sirloin, and better for a family dinner.

The round is used for _alamode_ beef, and is the best piece for
corning.

The best beef steak is cut from the inner part of the sirloin. Good
steak may be cut from the ribs.

If you wish to practise economy, buy the chuck, or piece between
the shoulder and the neck; it makes a good roast or steak, and is
excellent for stewing or baking. The thick part of the flank is also
a profitable piece; good to bake or boil, or even roast.

The leg and shin of beef make the best soup--the heart is profitable
meat, and good broiled or roasted. The leg rand is used for mince
pies--it needs to be boiled till it is very tender. The tongue, when
fresh, is a rich part for mince pies. If eaten by itself, it should
be pickled and smoked.


1335.--_Of Pork as Food._--Pork, that is fed from the dairy, and
fattened on corn, is the best--potatoes do very well for part of the
feeding. But pork fattened from the still-house is all but poisonous;
it should never be eaten by those who wish to preserve their health.

The offals, &c., with which pork in the vicinity of a city is
fattened, make it unsavory and unwholesome. Such stuff should be used
for manure, and never given as food to animals, whose flesh is to be
eaten by man.

When pork is good, the flesh looks very white and smooth, and the fat
white and fine. Hogs two years old make the best--older than that,
their flesh is apt to be rank. Measly pork is very unwholesome, and
never should be eaten. It may be known, as the fat is filled with
small kernels.

When the rind is thick and tough, and cannot easily be impressed with
the finger, the pork is old, and will require more cooking.

If pork is not cooked enough, it is disagreeable and almost
indigestible; it should never be eaten unless it is thoroughly done.

The fat parts of pork are not very healthy food. Those who labor hard
may feel no inconvenience from this diet; but children should never
eat it; nor is it healthy for the delicate and sedentary. Fat pork
seems more proper as material for frying fish and other meats, and
as a garnish, than to be cooked and eaten by itself. It is best and
least apt to prove injurious during the cold weather.


1336. _Of Mutton._--Mutton is best from August till January. It is
nutritious, and often agrees better than any other meat with weak
stomachs. To have it tender, it must be kept as long as possible
without injury. Be sure and cook it till it is _done_; the gravy that
runs when the meat is cut, should _never show the least tinge of
blood_.


1337. _Of using Gravies._--Make it a general rule never to pour gravy
over any thing that is roasted; by so doing, the dredging, &c., is
washed off and it eats insipid.


SOME HINTS ON DIET, EXERCISE, AND ECONOMY.

1338. _Meat for Children._--Lamb, veal, and fowls are delicate and
healthy diet for the young and sedentary; and for all who find fat
meats and those of coarse fibre do not agree with them.


1339. _Economicals of Cooking Meats._--The most economical way of
cooking meat is to _boil_ it, if the liquid be used for soup or
broth, as it always ought to be.

Baking is one of the cheapest ways of dressing a dinner in small
families, and several kinds of meat are excellent, done in this way.
Legs and loins of pork, legs of mutton, and fillets of veal will bake
to much advantage; especially if they be fat. Never bake a lean,
thin piece; it will all shrivel away. Such pieces should always be
boiled or made into soup. Pigs, geese, and the buttock of beef are
all excellent baked. Meat always loses in weight by being cooked.--In
roasting, the loss is the greatest. It also costs more in fuel to
roast than to boil--still there are many pieces of meat which seem
made for roasting; and it would be almost wrong to cook them in
any other way. Those who cannot afford to roast their meat, should
not purchase the sirloin of beef. Stewing meat is an excellent and
economical mode of cookery.


1340. _Butter as Diet._--Butter, when new and sweet, is nutritious,
and, in our climate, generally healthy; during the winter, when made
very salt, it is not a good article of diet for some people.


1341. _Condiments._--Pepper, ginger, and most of the condiments, are
best during summer; they are productions of hot climates, which shows
them to be most appropriate for the hot season. On the other hand,
fat beef, bacon, and those kinds of food we denominate "hearty,"
should be most freely used during cold weather.


1342. _Eat Slowly._--Eat slowly. One of the most usual causes of
dyspepsia among our business men, arises from the haste in which they
swallow their food without sufficiently chewing it, and then hurry
away to their active pursuits. In England very little business is
transacted after dinner. There ought to be, at least, one hour of
quiet after a full meal, from those pursuits which tax the brain, as
well as those which exercise the muscles.


1343. _Of Breakfast._--Persons of a delicate constitution should
never exercise much before breakfast.

If exposure of any kind is to be incurred in the morning, breakfast
should always be taken previously. The system is more susceptible of
infection and of the influence of cold, miasma, &c., in the morning
before eating, than at any other time.

Those who walk early will find great benefit from taking a cracker or
some little nourishment before going out.

Never go into a room of a morning, where a person is sick with a
fever, before you have taken nourishment of some kind--a cup of
coffee, at least.

In setting out early to travel, a light breakfast before starting
should always be taken; it is a great protection against cold,
fatigue and exhaustion.

In boarding schools for the young and growing, early breakfast is
an indispensable condition to health. Children should not be kept
without food in the morning till they are faint and weary.


1344. _Of Supper._--Never eat a hearty supper just before retiring to
rest.

Food should never be eaten when it is hot--bread is very unhealthy,
eaten in this way.


1345. _Of Dinner._--It is injurious to eat when greatly heated or
fatigued. It would very much conduce to the health of laboring men,
if they could rest fifteen or twenty minutes before dinner.

The diet should always be more spare, with a larger proportion of
vegetables and ripe fruits, during summer. Fruits are most wholesome
in their appropriate season. The skins, stones, and seeds, are
indigestible.

Rich soups are injurious to the dyspeptic. Much liquid food is rarely
beneficial for adults; but a small quantity of plain, nourishing soup
is an economical and healthy beginning of a family dinner.

Meats should always be sufficiently cooked. It is a savage custom to
eat meat in a half-raw-half-roasted state, and only a very strong
stomach can digest it.

Rich gravies should be avoided, especially in the summer season.


1346.--_Of Drinks._--Most people drink too much, because they drink
too fast. A wine-glass of water, sipped slowly, will quench the
thirst as effectually as a pint swallowed at a draught. When too much
is taken at meals, especially at dinner, it hinders digestion. Better
drink little during the meal, and then, if thirsty an hour or two
afterwards, more. The practice of taking a cup of tea or coffee soon
after dinner is a good one, if the beverage be not drank too strong
or too hot.

Dyspeptic people should be careful to take but a small quantity
of drink. Children require more, in proportion to their food,
than adults. But it is very injurious to them to allow a habit of
continual drinking as you find in some children. It greatly weakens
the stomach, and renders them irritable and peevish.

The morning meal requires to be lighter and of a more fluid nature
than any other. Children should always, if possible to be obtained,
take milk--as a substitute, during the winter, good gruel with bread,
or water, sweetened with molasses, is healthy. Never give children
tea, coffee, or chocolate with their meals.

Coffee affords very little nourishment, and is apt, if drank strong,
to occasion tremors of the nerves. It is very bad for bilious
constitutions. The calm, phlegmatic temperament can bear it. With
a good supply of cream and sugar, drank in moderation, by those
who exercise much and take considerable solid food, it may be used
without much danger.

Strong green tea relaxes the tone of the stomach, and excites the
nervous system. Persons of delicate constitution are almost sure to
be injured by it. Black tea is much less deleterious. If used with
milk and sugar, it may be considered healthy for most people.

Chocolate, when it agrees with the constitution, is very nutritious
and healthy. But it seldom can be used steadily except by aged
persons who are very active. It agrees best with persons of
phlegmatic temperament; and is more healthy in the winter season than
during warm weather.

No kind of beverage should be taken hot--it injures the teeth and
impairs digestion.


1347. _A few Rules for Health._--Rise early. Eat simple food. Take
plenty of exercise. Never fear a little fatigue. Let not children be
dressed in tight clothes; it is necessary their limbs and muscles
should have full play, if you wish for either health or beauty. Wash
very often, and rub the skin thoroughly with a coarse towel.

Wash the eyes in cold water every morning. Do not read or sew at
twilight, or by too dazzling a light. If far-sighted, read with
rather less light, and with the book somewhat nearer to the eye, than
you desire. If near-sighted, read with a book as far off as possible.
Both these imperfections may be diminished in this way.

Clean teeth in pure water two or three times a day; but, above all,
be sure to have them clean before you go to bed.

Have your bed-chamber well aired; and have fresh bed linen every
week. Never have the wind blowing directly upon you from open windows
during the night. It is _not_ healthy to sleep in heated rooms.

Wear shoes that are large enough. It not only produces corns, but
makes the feet misshapen to cramp them.

Avoid the necessity of a physician, if you can, by careful attention
to your diet. Eat what best agrees with your system, and resolutely
abstain from what hurts you, however well you may like it. A few
days' abstinence, and cold water for a beverage, with cold or warm
bathing, as the case may require, have driven off many an approaching
disease.

If you find yourself really ill, send for a good physician. Have
nothing to do with quacks; and do not tamper with quack medicines.
You do not know what they are; and what security have you that they
know what they are?


1348. _A few Remedies for Sickness._--The _ague_ may be rendered
milder by the timely use of an emetic, given one hour before the fit
is expected to return. For this purpose, one scruple of ipecacuanha
may be given in an ounce of water. After each return of vomiting,
give half a pint of tepid chamomile tea, which may be repeated three
or four times, but not oftener. When the disease has continued for
some days, and the force of the fever is weakened by emetics, give to
an adult the following preparation of bark:--

Take of Peruvian bark, in fine-powder, one ounce; port wine, one
quart; mix them, and let them stand together for twelve hours. Shake
the bottle, and give four large spoonsful immediately after the hot
stage of the disorder, repeating it every second hour till the whole
be taken; unless the coming on of the next ague-fit should require
its suspension.


1349. _Hysteric Affections._--So numerous and various are the
symptoms said to belong to this disease, that it becomes difficult
to mark its peculiar character. It is frequently described by the
patient, as a round body moving in the bowels, ascending to the
stomach, and from thence affecting the throat with a sense of
stricture, threatening suffocation. The patient also complains of
palpitation, a costive habit, cold feet and legs, &c. To counteract
the force of these attacks, the bowels should be kept open by the
following aperient mixture:--

Take of infusion of senna, one ounce and a half; tincture of senna,
tincture of cardamoms, of each half an ounce. Three large spoonsful
to be taken occasionally.

The feet and legs should be kept warm, the head cool; the diet should
consist chiefly of animal food of easy digestion, as beef or mutton;
avoiding vegetables and malt liquor, indeed everything that has a
tendency to generate flatulency. As a beverage, weak brandy and
water, toast and water, tea or coffee, whichever suits the palate of
the patient, may be freely used. Much depends on the cause--as that
varies, so must the treatment. _A dash of cold water on the face will
frequently put an end to the paroxysm._


1350. _Mumps_ are sometimes epidemic and manifestly contagious;
they come on with shivering and a sense of coldness, followed by an
increased heat, and a considerable enlargement of the glands on each
side the neck, below the ear, near to the angle of the jaw bone. This
swelling continues to increase until the fourth or fifth day, when
it gradually subsides; but before it entirely disappears, it often
happens that other tumors take place in the breasts of women, to
which the male sex are also subject in different parts of the body.

They are more or less painful, but commonly run their course without
any alarming symptoms, and therefore scarcely require any remedies.
This entirely depends on good nursing; care should be taken to avoid
exposure to cold air, and no application should be used except a
slight additional covering. Fomentations, liniments, blisters, and
whatever may have a tendency to check the regular process of this
disease, may occasion a sudden determination to the brain, and prove
fatal to the patient.

A spare diet, gentle laxative medicines, and a free use of weak
diluting liquors, are the best means to be employed; these, with a
well-regulated temperature, will generally guard off the secondary
tumors. But when the disease has been improperly managed, and a
determination to any vital part brought on, send for the physician.


1351. _Measles_ frequently assume an alarming character, too much so
to entitle them to a place in the list of common casualties. They
are at all times too serious to be left, with safety, in the hands
of the domestic practitioner. Medical aid, therefore, should be
instantly sought for, as much depends on proper management during
the first stage of the fever. The approach of this disease may be
known, by attending to the symptoms which precede the eruption, in
the following order: First, the patient complains of shivering,
with a sense of coldness, a thin watery discharge from the nose,
hoarseness, cough, and a continued flow of tears from the eyes,
which appear red and inflamed. These symptoms continue to increase
in violence, until the eruption is completed, when they gradually
subside. As this disorder has frequently a putrid tendency, which can
only be counteracted by the scientific skill of the physician, and
which, if neglected, or improperly treated, proves fatal, there can
be no excuse for not calling for his aid at the commencement of the
attack. But that no time may be lost, should there be no physician
present, an emetic of some gentle kind may be given and repeated
every half hour till vomiting be excited. If it should not act on
the bowels, take mild aperient medicine every fourth hour; but this
is not to be repeated after a motion has been procured. The patient
should be kept in an equal temperature, near sixty-four degrees of
Fahrenheit; if exposed to a higher degree of heat, the fever might
be increased; if to a lower temperature, the cough and hoarseness
would be aggravated. Wine, or wine and water, and all other fermented
liquors must be avoided. Toast and water, barley water, apple-water,
rennet whey, tamarind tea, coffee, tea, or any other weak diluting
beverage, may be freely used, provided they are of an equal warmth to
milk when drawn from the cow; also, weak lemonade.


1352. _Soothing Beverage for a Cough, after Measles._--Two ounces of
figs, two ounces of raisins, two ounces of pearl barley, and half an
ounce of liquorice-root. Boil them together in a pint and a half of
water, and strain off the liquor. A tea-cupful to be taken night and
morning.


1353. _Costiveness_ may be relieved by a change of diet, exercise on
horseback, or any other exercise in the open air, or by taking one of
the following pills an hour before dinner:--

Take of Socotrine aloes, thirty grains; gum mastic, ten grains; oil
of wormwood, one drop; tincture of aloes, a sufficient quantity to
form the ingredients into a mass, which must be divided into twelve
pills.

_This is an excellent dyspeptic pill, and will afford great relief in
all cases of weak digestion._


1354. _Remedies for Dysentery._--Black or green tea, steeped in
boiling milk, seasoned with nutmeg, and best of loaf-sugar, is
excellent for the dysentery. Cork burnt to charcoal, about as big as
a hazel-nut, macerated, and put in a tea-spoonful of brandy, with
a little loaf sugar and nutmeg, is very efficacious in cases of
dysentery and cholera-morbus. If nutmeg be wanting, peppermint-water
may be used. Flannel wet with brandy, powdered with Cayenne pepper,
and laid upon the bowels, affords great relief in cases of extreme
distress.


1355. _Another Remedy._--Dissolve as much table-salt in keen vinegar
as will ferment and work clear. When the foam is discharged, cork it
up in a bottle, and put it away for use. A large spoonful of this, in
a gill of boiling water, is very efficacious in cases of dysentery
and colic.


1356. _Loss of Appetite._--This is generally symptomatic, and varies
according to the occasional cause. The continued use of warm tea, of
wine, or other spirituous liquors, diluted with warm water, or the
use of warm water alone, if long continued, will occasion a relaxed
state of the muscular coat of the stomach. This organ also suffers
from anxiety of mind, a sedentary life, or a costive habit; from
these and other causes it becomes weakened, irritable, and incapable
of digesting the most simple food. To restore the tone of the
stomach, first give this emetic:--

Take of ipecacuanha, in fine powder, one scruple; horse-radish tea,
two ounces. Mix them together. Between the times of the operation,
half a pint of horse-radish tea should be drank, but not repeated
oftener than twice or thrice. Afterwards keep the bowels regular by
the following aperient pills:--

Take, rhubarb, in fine powder, carbonated kali, of each thirty
grains; ginger, in fine powder, one scruple; balsam of Peru, a
sufficient quantity to form a mass; divide it into twenty-four pills.
Dose, three or four every other night, at bed-time.

At the same time, to restore the tone of the digestive organs, the
following decoction should be taken:--

Take of Peruvian bark, six drachms; Cascarilla bark, two drachms.
Bruise them in a mortar, and boil them in a pint and a half of water
for a few minutes; strain off the liquor while hot, then add tincture
of bark, two ounces; diluted nitric acid, a drachm and a half. Dose,
four large spoonsful, three times a day.


1357. _Cramp and Spasm._--It frequently happens that persons are
extremely annoyed by cramp during the night, which may be relieved by
the following tincture:--

Take of tincture of opium, two drachms; ether, half an ounce. Mix
them together, and take thirty or forty drops every night, at
bed-time.


1358. _How to apply Blisters._--A considerable degree of pain and
inflammation often follows the application of blisters, which may
be obviated, by covering the blister-plaster with very thin muslin,
which will prevent any part of it remaining on the skin, after the
removal of the blister. The muslin should be pressed down, and rubbed
with the finger upon the surface of the blister-plaster.


1359. _Mustard Plasters_--Should be covered with muslin, or the
poultice put in a cloth bag, before being applied to the skin.


1360. _To prevent Lock-jaw._--Immerse the part injured in strong lye,
as warm as can be borne. But first, as in all cases of wounds, apply
spirits of turpentine on lint.


1361. _For a Stiff Joint._--An ointment made from the common
ground-worms, which boys dig to bait fishes, rubbed on with the hand,
is said to be excellent, when the sinews are drawn up by disease or
from a sprain.


1362. _Easy Method of curing the Scurvy._--The root of the garden
carrot abounds in a nutritious saccharine juice, and is slightly
aromatic. These are desirable properties against the scurvy. To
experience the good effects of these properties, _the roots must be
eaten raw_. There is nothing unpleasant in this; on the contrary,
it is what the common people often do by choice. These roots would
keep well during the longest voyage, packed up in casks, having the
interstices filled with sand. Each sailor might be allowed to eat one
root every day, or every other day, according to the state of their
health, and the quantity of roots on board.


1363. _To make Cliver, or Goose-grass Ointment; remarkable for its
salutary effects in cases of inveterate Scurvy._--To a pound of
hog's-lard melted, without spice or salt, put as much clivers as
the lard will moisten, and boil them together over a slow fire;
after stirring it till it becomes a little brown, strain it through
a cloth; and when cold, take the ointment from the water that will
remain at the bottom, and it will be fit for use.


1364. _Easy Method of attracting Ear-wigs from the Ear._--A person
lately having an earwig crept into his ear, and knowing the peculiar
fondness that insect has to apples, immediately applied a piece
of apple to the ear, which enticed the creature out, and thereby
prevented the alarming consequences which might have otherwise ensued.


1365. _Simple remedies for Scarlet Fever._--"Open the bowels
regularly every day, with some mild aperient medicine, such as castor
oil, senna, etc., and keep the patient at rest, and comfortably warm;
sponge the surface with tepid water, two or three times a day; while
it is hotter than natural, admit fresh air; live on a bland diet,
such as a cup full of arrow-root, several times a day; toast-water
for common drink. Gargle made of strong sage tea, honey and alum,
or borax, may be used from the commencement, if the throat is
affected."--_Dr. T. P. Hereford._


1366. _The French Method of making Whey._--Mix together equal parts
of best vinegar and cold water; a table-spoonful of each will suffice
for a pint of milk. It is not, however, all to be put in, whether
necessary or not; but when the milk just boils, pour in just as
much of the acid as will turn it, and no more. Beat up together
the white and shell of one egg, which boil up in the whey. Then
set it aside till quite clear. Pour it off very steadily through a
muslin strainer. Sweeten to taste with loaf-sugar. This whey is very
pleasant, and answers every good purpose of white wine whey, while
it is not liable to the objection of being heating, and is also very
much less expensive.


1367. _Calves'-feet Jelly._--Take two calves' feet, and add to them
one gallon of water; which reduce, by boiling, to one quart. Strain
it, and when cold skim the fat entirely off. Add to this the white of
six or eight eggs, well beaten, half a pint of wine, half a pound of
loaf-sugar, and the juice of four lemons, and let them be well mixed.
Boil the whole for a few minutes, stirring it constantly, and then
pass it through a flannel strainer.

This forms a very nutritious article of diet for the sick and
convalescent. When it is desired, the wine can be omitted.--_Ellis._


1368. _Chicken Water._--Take half a chicken, divested of all fat, and
break the bones; add to this half a gallon of water, and boil for
fifteen or twenty minutes. Season with salt.

This was freely employed by the late Dr. Parrish in cholera at its
commencement. Taken warm, it produces vomiting, and washes out the
stomach.


1369. _Essence of Beef._--Put into a porter bottle a sufficient
quantity of lean beef, sliced, to fill up its body, cork it with a
paper stopple, and place it in a pot of cold water, attaching the
neck, by means of a string, to the handle of the vessel. Boil this
for three-quarters of an hour, then pour off the liquor, and skim it.
To this preparation may be added spices and salt.


1370. _A very reviving Odor._--Fill with recently gathered, and dried
lavender-flowers, stripped from their stalks, small wide-necked
scent-bottles, and just cover them with _strong_ acetic acid. A
morsel of camphor, the size of a hazel-nut, may be added, with
advantage, to the lavender, in each bottle. Sound, new, and closely
fitting corks should be used, to secure the mixture from the air. It
is exceedingly refreshing and wholesome, and has often proved very
acceptable to invalids. The lavender should be gathered for it before
it is quite fully blown.


1371. _Easy Method of obtaining Water in almost any situation._--The
ground must be perforated by a borer. In the perforation is placed
a wooden pipe, which is driven down with a mallet, after which the
boring is continued, that the pipe may be driven still farther. In
proportion as the cavity of the borer becomes loaded, it is drawn up
and emptied; and in time, by the addition of new portions of wooden
pipe, the boring is carried to any depth, and water is generally
obtained.


1372. _Method of Draining Ponds in Level Grounds._--At a certain
distance below the surface of the earth, there sometimes is a stratum
of loose sand, which freely admits the passage of water. This
stratum is at various depths, in different elevations; but it will
be generally found, that lands most subject to stagnant ponds have
but a shallow stratum of clay over the sand. All that is necessary,
therefore, is to dig a pit in the bottom of the pond, till you arrive
at this stratum of sand, when the water will be immediately absorbed,
and the pond emptied.


1373. _To preserve Fishing-rods._--Oil your rods, in summer, with
linseed oil, drying them in the sun, and taking care the parts lie
flat: they should be often turned, to prevent them from warping. This
will render them tough, and prevent their being worm-eaten; in time
they will acquire a beautiful brown color. Should they get wet, which
swells the wood, and makes it fast in the sockets, turn the part
round over the flame of a candle a short time, and it will be easily
set at liberty.


1374. _To gild Letters on Vellum or Paper._--Letters written on
vellum or paper are gilded in three ways; in the first, a little size
is mixed with the ink, and the letters are written as usual; when
they are dry, a slight degree of stickiness is produced by breathing
on them, upon which the gold leaf is immediately applied, and by
a little pressure may be made to adhere with sufficient firmness.
In the second method, some white-lead or chalk is ground up with
strong size, and the letters are made with this by means of a brush;
when the mixture is almost dry, the gold leaf may be laid on, and
afterwards burnished. The last method is to mix up some gold powder
with size, and make the letters of this by means of a brush.


1375. _To make Pounce._--Gum-sandarac, powdered and sifted very fine,
will produce an excellent preventive to keep ink from sinking in the
paper after you have had occasion to scratch out any part of the
writing.


1376. _Another Method._--Cuttle-fish bone, properly dried, one
ounce; best rosin, one ounce; and the same quantity of burnt alum,
well incorporated together, will make very good pounce equal, if not
superior, to any bought at the shops.


1377. _To cut Glass._--Take a red-hot shank of a tobacco-pipe, lay it
on the edge of your glass, which will then begin to crack; then draw
the shank end a little gently before, and it will follow any way you
draw your hand.


1378. _Mrs. Hooker's Method of preparing and applying a Composition
for Painting in Imitation of the Ancient Grecian Manner._--Put into
a glazed earthen vessel four ounces and a half of gum arabic, and
eight ounces, or half a pint (wine measure) of cold spring water;
when the gum is dissolved, stir in seven ounces of gum-mastic, which
has been washed, dried, picked, and beaten fine. Set the earthen
vessel containing the gum-water and gum-mastic over a slow fire,
continually stirring and beating them hard with a spoon, in order
to dissolve the gum-mastic; when sufficiently boiled, it will no
longer appear transparent, but will become opaque and stiff, like
a paste. As soon as this is the case, and the gum-water and mastic
are quite boiling, without taking them off the fire, add five ounces
of white wax, broken into small pieces, stirring and heating the
different ingredients together, till the wax is perfectly melted,
and has boiled. Then take the composition off the fire, as boiling
it longer than necessary would only harden the wax, and prevent its
mixing so well afterwards with water. When the composition is taken
off the fire, and in the glazed earthen vessel, it should be beaten
hard, and whilst hot (but not boiling) mix with it, by degrees, a
pint (wine measure) or sixteen ounces more of cold spring water;
then strain the composition, as some dirt will boil out of the
gum-mastic, and put it into bottles. The composition, if properly
made, should be like a cream, and the colors when mixed with it
as smooth as with oil. The method of using it, is to mix with the
composition, upon an earthen pallet, such colors in powder, as are
used in painting with oil, and such a quantity of the composition to
be mixed with the colors as to render them of the usual consistency
of oil colors; then paint with fair water. The colors, when mixed
with the composition, may be laid on either thick or thin, as may
best suit your subject; on which account, this composition is very
advantageous, where any particular transparency of coloring is
required; but in most cases it answers best if the colors be laid
on thick, and they require the same use of the brush as if painting
with body colors, and the same brushes as used in oil painting. The
colors, if ground dry, when mixed with the composition, may be used
by putting a little fair water over them; but it is less trouble to
put some water when the colors are observed to be growing dry. In
painting with this composition, the colors blend without difficulty
when wet, and even when dry the tints may easily be united by means
of a brush and a very small quantity of fair water. When the painting
is finished, put some white wax into a glazed earthen vessel over
a slow fire, and when melted, but not boiling, with a hard brush
cover the painting with the wax, and when cold take a moderately
hot iron, such as is used for ironing linen, and so cold as not to
hiss, if touched with anything wet, and draw it lightly over the
wax. The painting will appear as if under a cloud till the wax is
perfectly cold, as also whatever the picture is painted upon is quite
cold; but if, when so, the painting should not appear sufficiently
clear, it may be held before the fire, so far from it as to melt the
wax but slowly; or the wax may be melted by holding a hot poker at
such a distance as to melt it gently, especially such parts of the
picture as should not appear sufficiently transparent or brilliant;
for the oftener heat is applied to the picture, the greater will be
the transparency and brilliancy of coloring; but the contrary effect
would be produced if too sudden or too great a degree of heat was
applied, or for too long a time, as it would draw the wax too much to
the surface, and might likewise crack the paint. Should the coat of
wax put over the painting, when finished, appear in any part uneven,
it may be remedied by drawing a moderately hot iron over it again,
as before-mentioned, or even by scraping the wax with a knife; and
should the wax, by too great or too long application of heat, form
into bubbles at particular places, by applying a poker heated, or
even a tobacco-pipe made hot, the bubbles would subside; or such
defects may be removed by drawing anything hard over the wax, which
would close any small cavities.

When the picture is cold, rub it with a fine linen cloth. Paintings
may be executed in this manner upon wood (having first pieces of
wood let in behind, across the grain of the wood, to prevent its
warping), canvas, card, or plaster of Paris. The plaster of Paris
would require no other preparation than mixing some fine plaster of
Paris, in powder, with cold water, the thickness of a cream; then put
it on a looking-glass, having first made a frame of bees'-wax on the
looking-glass, the form and thickness you would wish the plaster of
Paris to be of, and when dry take it off, and there will be a very
smooth surface to paint upon. Wood and canvas are best covered with
some gray tint, mixed with the same composition of gum-arabic, gum
mastic, and wax, and of the same sort of colors as before-mentioned,
before the design is begun, in order to cover the grain of the wood
or the threads of the canvas. Paintings may also be done in the
same manner, with only gum-water and gum-mastic, prepared the same
way as the mastic and wax; but instead of putting seven ounces of
mastic, and, when boiling, adding five ounces of wax, mix twelve
ounces of gum-mastic with the gum-water, prepared as mentioned in
the first part of this receipt; before it is put on the fire, and
when sufficiently boiled and beaten, and is a little cold, stir in,
by degrees, twelve ounces, or three-quarters of a pint (wine measure)
of cold spring water, and afterwards strain it. It would be equally
practicable painting with wax alone, dissolved in gum-water in the
following manner: Take twelve ounces, or three-quarters of a pint
(wine measure) of cold spring water, and four ounces and a half of
gum-arabic, put them into a glazed earthen vessel, and when the
gum is dissolved, add eight ounces of white wax. Put the earthen
vessel, with the gum-water and wax, upon a slow fire, and stir them
till the wax is dissolved, and has boiled a few minutes; then take
them off the fire, and throw them into a basin, as by remaining in
the hot earthen vessel the wax would become rather hard; beat the
gum-water and wax till quite cold. As there is but a small proportion
of water in comparison to the quantity of gum and wax, it would be
necessary, in mixing this composition with the colors, to put also
some fair water. Should the composition be so made as to occasion
the ingredients to separate in the bottle, it will become equally
serviceable, if shaken before used, to mix with the colors.


1379. _The Best Season for Painting Houses._--The outside of
buildings should be painted during autumn or winter. Hot weather
injures the paint by drying in the oil too quickly; then the paint
will easily rub off. But when the paint is laid on during cold
weather, it hardens in drying, and is firmly set.


1380. _A cheap and simple Process for Painting on Glass, sufficient
for the purpose of making a Magic Lanthorn._--Take good clear
resin, any quantity, melt it in an iron pot; when melted entirely,
let it cool a little, and before it begins to harden, pour in oil
of turpentine sufficient to keep it liquid when cold. In order to
paint with it, let it be used with colors ground in oil, such as are
commonly sold in color shops.


1381. _To make Phosphorus._--Two-third parts of quick-lime (_i.e._
calcined oyster-shells), and one-third of flour of brimstone, put
into a crucible for an hour, and exposed to the air for an hour,
become phosphorus.


1382. _To make an Illuminated or Phosphoric Bottle, which will
preserve its Light for several months._--By putting a piece of
phosphorus, the size of a pea, into a phial, and adding boiling oil
until the bottle is a third full, a luminous bottle is formed; for,
on taking out the cork, to admit atmospheric air, the empty space in
the phial will become luminous.

Whenever the stopper is taken out in the night, sufficient light will
be evolved to show the hour upon a watch; and if care be taken to
keep it, in general, well closed, it will preserve its illuminative
power for several months.


1383. _To Marble Books or Paper._--Marbling of books or paper is
performed thus:--Dissolve four ounces of gum arabic in two quarts of
fair water; then provide several colors mixed with water in pots or
shells, and with pencils peculiar to each color; sprinkle them by way
of intermixture upon the gum-water, which must be put into a trough,
or some broad vessel; then, with a stick, curl them, or draw them out
in streaks to as much variety as may be done. Having done this, hold
your book, or books, close together, and only dip the edges in, on
the top of the water and colors, very lightly; which done, take them
off, and the plain impression of the colors in mixture will be upon
the leaves; doing as well the ends as the front of the book in like
manner, and afterwards glazing the colors.


1384. _To Write Secretly on a Pocket Handkerchief._--Dissolve alum
in pure water, and write upon a fine white handkerchief, which, when
dry, will not be seen at all; but when you would have the letters
visible, dip the handkerchief in pure water, and it will be of a wet
appearance all over, except where it was written on with the alum
water.

You may also write with alum water upon writing paper, which will not
be visible till dipped in water.


1385. _To keep Insects out of Bird-Cages._--Tie up a little sulphur
in a silk bag, and suspend it in the cage. For mocking-birds this is
essential to their health; and the sulphur will keep all the red ants
and other insects from cages of all kinds of birds. Red ants will
never be found in a closet or drawer, if a small bag of sulphur is
kept constantly in these places.


1386. _Of Books, Mental Cultivation, &c._--Our work would be
incomplete, without some reference to mental as well as material
improvement. In truth, we have aimed, throughout this and a former
book,[C] to make the connection between the cultivation of the mental
faculties and true household economy apparent. To work properly, we
must think rightly. Science is as necessary in the kitchen as in
the laboratory. The reason why men cooks are preferred above women
cooks, and better paid, is, the former study their art as a science.
Knowledge is power, in domestic life as well as in the political
arena. Let the woman elevate her position by her learning; let
her understand the nature and influence of her daily employments,
cultivating her taste and refining her manners by the true standard
of moral excellence; thus making her home-pursuits conduce to the
harmony and happiness of the general plan of life in which she, the
wife and mother, is the centre of attraction and volition, and how
important for humanity her sphere becomes.


1387. _Choice of Reading._--Never keep house without books. Life
is not life to any great purpose where books are not. The BIBLE is
indispensable. Out of its treasures of Divine wisdom all best human
wisdom is derived or directed. Then have other books, as your means
permit. If these are rightly chosen, every volume will be a teacher,
a friend--a fountain, from whence may be drawn sweet streams of
pleasure and profit. Poetry, story, biography, history, essays, and
religious works--I name these in the order a child chooses books--all
are needed. American literature--that is, books on subjects connected
with our own country, should be first in our reading. Bancroft's
"History of the United States," Sparkes' "American Biographies,"
Lippincott's "Cabinet Histories of the States," Mrs. Ellet's "Women
of the Revolution"--these should be accessible to every family in the
Union. Read on every subject connected with your own pursuits and
employments. Knowledge will aid you even in hand labor; and a good
book is a safe refuge in idle hours.


1388. _Of Periodicals and Newspapers._--Every family should take a
newspaper; this, the lady of the house should insist upon--kindly,
to be sure; for a pleasant request is as powerful as "a soft answer"
in "turning away wrath." Men, usually, are willing to subscribe for
a paper, though some are indifferent to this great source of family
instruction as well as pleasure; but they forget, when the year comes
round, to _renew_ their subscription in the right way. So the women
of the family should be sure to remember the printer.

Another important source of family improvement is the periodicals or
monthly magazines. These are now, thanks to the cheap postage system,
accessible to the dwellers in the most remote places of our wide
land. As a work for our own sex, Godey's Lady's Book is the best that
can be taken in a family, because it furnishes information on every
branch of home duties and pursuits; and moreover, upholds that pure
standard of morals in its lightest fiction, which renders it a safe
enjoyment for the young.

Many other periodicals might be named, all excellent of their kind,
and where the expense can be afforded, each household should obtain
one or more of these. A better way would be for a neighborhood to
unite and take a half dozen different publications, securing the
inestimable advantage of reading every month the best religious,
medical, agricultural, scientific, literary, and illustrated
magazines--thus keeping up with the progress of art, the march of
mind, the material advancement, and the moral improvement of the
world.


1389. _How can we Pay for the Magazines?_--Is the question with many
families. Very easily, if you have the will--one half of the money
spent on tobacco would, if laid out in books, soon give every family
a library. And, young ladies, if you cannot persuade your brothers to
throw aside their cigars, and subscribe, why, look over this book,
and see, if from its economical hints you cannot devise some plan of
earning or saving, whereby you may be able to pay for the magazines.
Do this one year; husband or brother will then be ready to aid. Woman
has everything to gain from Christian civilization; she should lead
the way.



PART VIII.

ELEGANT AND INGENIOUS ARTS, ETC.

  _Water-Colors--Potichomanie--Grecian Painting--Diaphanic
  Feather Flowers--Sea-Weeds--Botanical
  Specimens--Leaves--Plants--Fungi--Transferring--Etching--Staining
  --Leather-work--Games, etc._


1390. _Home Pursuits, etc._--See Part III., page 151.


1391. _Accomplishments._--These are very desirable for the household,
because the inmates are made happier by refined and ingenious arts
and pursuits, and are fitted to improve the taste of others.


1392. Children and young persons, of both sexes, should learn as
many of these arts as they possibly can without neglecting duties.
Pleasant modes of employing leisure hours save people from many
temptations, and add much to the happiness of life.


WATER-COLORS USED IN DRAWING.

1393. _Indian Ink._--The best is stamped with Chinese characters,
breaks with a glossy fracture, and feels smooth when rubbed on the
plate.


1394. _Hair Pencils_ are made of camel's-hair; if they come to a
point, when moistened, without splitting, they are good.


1395. _Drawing Paper._--That made without any wire marks, and called
wove paper, is the best; it is made of various sizes and thicknesses.


1396. _To make a good White._--Clarify white lead with white-wine
vinegar. After the powder has settled, pour off the vinegar, put
the powder into a glass of water, stir it, and pour the water off
while it is white into another glass; when it is settled, pour off
the water, and an excellent white will be obtained. To this add gum
enough to give it a gloss.


DIRECTIONS FOR MIXED COLORS.

1397. _Ash Color._--Ceruse white, Keating's black and white, shaded
with cherry-stone black.


1398. _Bay._--Lake and flake white, shaded with carmine; bistre and
vermilion shaded with black.


1399. _Changeable Silk._--Red lead and masticot water, shaded with
sap-green and verdigris.


1400. _Another._--Lake and yellow, shaded with lake and Prussian blue.


1401. _Cloud Color._--Light masticot, or lake and white, shaded with
blue verditer.


1402. _Another._--Constant white and Indian ink, and a little
vermilion.


1403. _Another._--White, with a little lake and blue verditer, make a
good cloud color for that part next the horizon.


1404. _Crimson._--Lake and white, with a little vermilion, shaded
with lake and carmine.


1405. _Flame Color._--Vermilion and orpiment, heightened with white.


1406. _Another._--Gamboge, shaded with minium and red lead.


1407. _Flesh Color._--Ceruse, red lead, and lake, for a swarthy
complexion, and yellow ochre.


1408. _Another._--Constant white and a little carmine, shaded with
Spanish liquorice washed with carmine.


1409. _French Green._--Light pink and Dutch bice, shaded with green
pink.


1410. _Glass Grey._--Ceruse, with a little blue of any kind.


1411. _Hair Color._--Musticot, ochre, umber, ceruse, and cherry-stone
black.


1412. _Lead Color._--Indigo and white.


1413. _Light Blue._--Blue bice, heightened with flake white.


1414. _Another._--Blue verditer, and white of any sort, well ground.


1415. _Light Green._--Pink, smalt, and white.


1416. _Another._--Blue verditer and gamboge.


1417. _Another._--Gamboge and verdigris. This is chiefly used for the
ground colors of trees, fields, &c.


1418. _Lion Tawny._--Red lead and masticot, shaded with umber.


1419. _Murrey._--Lake and white lead.


1420. _Orange._--Red lead and a little masticot, shaded with umber.


1421. _Orange Tawny._--Lake, light pink, a little masticot, shaded
with gall-stone and lake.


1422. _Pearl Color._--Carmine, a little white, shaded with lake.


1423. _Popinjay Green._--Green and masticot; or pink and a little
indigo, shaded with indigo.


1424. _Purple._--Indigo, Spanish brown, and white; or blue bice, red
and white lead; or blue bice and lake.


1425. _Russet._--Cherry-stone black and white.


1426. _Scarlet._--Red lead and lake, with or without vermilion.


1427. _Sea Green._--Bice, pink and white, shaded with pink.


1428. _Sky Color._--Light masticot and white, for the lowest and
lightest parts; second, red ink and white; third, blue bice and
white; fourth, blue bice alone. These are all to be softened into one
another at the edges, so as not to appear harsh.


1429. _Sky Color for Drapery._--Blue bice and ceruse, or ultramarine
and white, shaded with indigo.


1430. _Straw Color._--Masticot and a very little lake, shaded with
Dutch pink.


1431. _Yellow Color._--Indigo, white, and lake; or fine Dutch bice
and lake, shaded with indigo; or litmus smalt and bice, the latter
predominant.


1432. _Water._--Blue and white, shaded with blue, and heightened with
white.


1433. _Another._--Blue verdigris, shaded with indigo, and heightened
with white.


1434. _To prevent Colors from Cracking._--Boil two ounces of the best
and clearest glue, with one pint of clear water, and a half an ounce
of alum, till dissolved. With this temper those colors intended for
the sky.


1435. _To make a Solution of Gum._--Dissolve an ounce of white gum
arabic, and half an ounce of double refined sugar, in a quart of
spring water; strain it through a piece of muslin, and bottle it to
keep it free from dust.


1436. _To keep Flies from the Work._--Having prepared the gum water
for the colors, add a little coloquintida.


1437. _To prepare Alum Water._--Take four ounces of alum, and a pint
of spring water; boil it till the alum is thoroughly dissolved, and
then filter it through blotting-paper.


1438. _To use Alum Water._--Before laying on the colors, take some of
this water, hot, and with a sponge wet the back of the paper, which,
if not good, must be wet three or four times, letting the paper dry
each time before wetting it again. This will prevent the sinking of
the colors, and give them additional lustre.


1439. _To make Lime Water._--Put unslaked lime in a well-glazed pan;
cover it with pure water, and let it remain for one day. Then strain
off the water. This water will change sap-green into blue.


TO PREPARE WASH COLORS FOR MAPS.

1440. _Blue._--Dilute Saxon blue with water; or to the solution of
litmus add distilled vinegar.


1441. _Green._--Dissolve verdigris in distilled water and add gum
arabic.


1442. Or, dissolve sap-green in water and add gum.


1443. _Red._--Steep Brazil dust in vinegar, with alum. Or, dissolve
litmus in water and add spirit of wine.


1444. Or, steep cochineal in water, strain, and add gum.


1445. _Yellow._--Dissolve gamboge in water; or French berries steeped
in water the liquor strained, and gum arabic added.


TO MIX WATER-COLORS FOR ANIMALS.

1446. _Horses, Black._--Black lightly laid on, shaded with Keating's
black and bistre, heightened with masticot.


1447. _Horses, Chestnut Brown._--Red ochre and black mixed together,
shaded with black, heightened with red ochre and white.


1448. _Horses, Gray._--Black and white mixed, shaded with black,
white, and bistre; heightened with pure water.


1449. _Lions._--Color much in the same manner as horses, adding lake
in the ground color.


1450. _Bears._--Brown ochre, red ochre, and black, mixed; shaded with
bistre and ivory black.


1451. _Wolves._--Spanish liquorice and black, shaded with black.


1452. _Asses._--Black and white mixed; or, add a little brown ochre,
shaded with black.


1453. _Elephants._--Black, white, and Spanish liquorice, mixed;
shaded with black and bistre; the inner part of the nose, vermilion
and white, shaded with black.


1454. _Monkeys._--Dutch pink and black, heightened with masticot and
white: the face, black and bistre mixed, as also their feet; their
bodies, shaded underneath with black and pink mixed with a little
brown ochre.


FRUIT IN WATER COLORS.

1455. _Apples._--Thin masticot mixed with verdigris, shaded with
brown ochre.


1456. _Cherries._--Vermilion and lake, shaded with carmine,
heightened with vermilion and white.


1457. _Grapes, Blue._--Dark purple shaded with blue; the bloom, bice.


1458. _Grapes, White._--Verdigris and masticot mixed, shaded with
thin verdigris heightened with masticot and white.


1459. _Peaches._--Thin masticot shaded with brown ochre; the bloom,
lake heightened with white.


1460. _Pears._--Masticot deepened and mellowed with brown ochre.


1461. _Strawberries._--White; draw it over with vermilion and lake,
shaded with fine lake, heightened with red lead and masticot mixed,
and then with white; stipple them with white and thin lead.


TO PAINT FLOWERS.

1462. _Anemones._--A thin wash of gamboge shaded with bistre; or
carmine and sap-green blended together. The stripes carmine, shaded
with the same; indigo in the darkest parts, or stipple with it.


1463. _Leaves._--Sap green, shaded with indigo and French berries;
the stalk brown.


1464. _Honeysuckles._--Inside of the petals, white shaded with
sap-green, or gamboge and bistre.


1465. The _insides_ are to be shown by curling the leaves back at the
ends, or by splitting them.


1466. The _outsides_, a thin wash of carmine and lake mixed, shaded
with carmine--indigo for the darkest shades.


1467. _Stalks._--Sap-green and carmine.


1468. _Leaves._--Sap-green, shaded with indigo and French berries.


1469. _Roses._--A light tint of pure carmine, over which another
equally light of Peruvian blue; proceed with the darker shades of
carmine of the best sort.


1470. In the darkest part of the flower add a little indigo to give
a roundness. If the _seeds_ are seen lay on gamboge, shaded with
gall-stone.


1471. _Leaves._--Upper side, sap-green, shaded with indigo and French
berries mixed; under-side, white indigo and sap green mixed, shaded
with the same.


1472. _Stalks._--Sap-green and carmine, shaded with indigo.


1473. _Rose-buds._--A pale wash of carmine, shaded with a stronger
wash of the same.


1474. _Stalks_ and _leaves_, sap green with a slight wash of carmine.


BIRDS IN WATER-COLORS.

1475. _Eagles._--Black and brown, shaded with indigo; feathers
heightened by brown ochre and white; beak and claws saffron, shaded
with bistre; eyes vermilion, heightened with masticot or saffron,
shaded with vermilion.


1476. _Geese._--Ceruse shaded with black; legs, black; bill, red.


1477. _Owls._--Ochre mixed with white, in different shades; legs,
yellow ochre.


1478. _Pheasants._--White and black mixed; legs, Dutch pink, shaded
with black.


1479. _Swans._--White shaded with black; the legs and bills black;
eyes yellow; a ball in the midst.


1480. _Turkeys._--Back, black and white mixed, shaded off to a white
underneath; sprinkled and shaded with black.


LANDSCAPES IN WATER-COLORS.

1481. Sketch the outlines faintly with a black-lead pencil. Then
color.


1482. _Colors._--The most useful are: lake, burnt ochre, gamboge,
indigo, light red, sepia, Prussian blue, sienna, and burnt umber.


1483. _The gray color_ is made of burnt umber, indigo, and lake; each
rubbed separately in a saucer, and then so mixed in a fourth saucer
as to produce the exact color--a warm gray. This is thinned for the
light tints, as sky and distances.

Deeper is to be used for the shadows and near parts, softening with
water till the exact effect is produced.


1484. _Buildings_ are sometimes tinted with a mixture of lake and
gamboge. Burnt ochre is also used. The shadows have an excess of lake.


1485. _Breadths of Light_ are obtained by destroying the scattered
lights with grays.


1486. _Clouds_ are produced by a thin mixture of indigo and lake.
They should be tinted with sepia. The lower or horizontal clouds are
tinged with ultramarine.


1487. _Figures_ are touched with lake and indigo.


1488. _Force_ is acquired by adding sepia to indigo, in the cold
parts, and sepia with lake to the glowing parts.


1489. _Grass_ is washed with a mixture of burnt sienna, indigo, and
gamboge; that in shadow has more indigo. Grass and bushes may be
brought out by a tint of gamboge; distances may be heightened by lake.


1490. _Hills, retiring._--Tint the whole with weak blue; then the
nearer ones with indigo and lake; add a little gamboge to the next,
keeping one subordinate to the other; the most distant being lost in
the aerial tints.


1491. _Land, distant._--Ultramarine and lake. Ground near is tinted
with ochre.


1492. _Road and Paths._--A mixture of lake, burnt umber, and burnt
sienna. It may be tinted with ochre.


1493. _Smoke._--Lake and indigo.


1494. _Trees, distant._--Ultramarine, with a wash of indigo,
gamboge, and burnt sienna, tinted with gray. The middle distance
trees have a thin wash of burnt sienna and gamboge. Nearer trees a
wash of burnt sienna, indigo, and gamboge. In the shadows more indigo
is used.


1495. _Opposing masses of trees_ are tinted with sepia and indigo.


1496. _Windows._--Indigo and burnt umber.


POTICHOMANIE.

1497. This elegant accomplishment, which has become so extremely
popular and fashionable, promises not only to supercede altogether
many of those meretricious accomplishments which have hitherto
absorbed the attention of our fair countrywomen, but to rank among
the fine arts.


1498. _Advantages of this Art._--It possesses many advantages: and
the process is simple and easily acquired.


1499. It is an exceedingly pleasing and interesting employment,
requiring no previous knowledge of drawing, yet affording abundant
space for the exercise of the most exquisite taste.


1500. The time employed is richly repaid; the results produced are
of actual value; articles of ornament and domestic utility being
produced, in perfect imitation of the most beautiful Chinese and
Japanese porcelain, of Sèvres and Dresden china, and of every form
that is usual in the productions of the Ceramic Art.


1501. It furnishes an inexhaustible and inexpensive source for the
production of useful and elegant presents, which will be carefully
preserved as tokens of friendship, and as proofs of the taste and
talent of the giver.


1502. _Articles necessary in the Art of Potichomanie._--Glass vases
(_Potiches en verre_,) of shapes suitable to the different orders of
Chinese, Japanese, Etruscan, and French porcelain, Alumettes, &c.;
cups, plates, &c., &c., of Sèvres and Dresden design.


1503. Sheets of colored drawings or prints, characteristic
representations of the designs or decorations suitable to every kind
of porcelain and china.


1504. A bottle of liquid gum, and three or four hog-hair brushes.


1505. A bottle of varnish, and very fine pointed scissors for cutting
out.


1506. An assortment of colors for the foundation, in bottles.


1507. A packet of gold powder, and a glass vessel for diluting the
colors.


1508. _Directions._--We will suppose the object selected for
imitation to be a Chinese vase.


1509. After providing yourself with a plain glass vase, of the proper
shape, you take your sheets of colored prints on which are depicted
subjects characteristic of that peculiar style.


1510. From these sheets you can select a great variety of designs, of
the most varied character, on the arrangement and grouping of which
you can exercise your own taste.


1511. After you have fully decided upon the arrangement of your
drawings, cut them out accurately with a pair of scissors, then apply
some liquid gum carefully over the colored side of the drawings, and
stick them on the inside of the vase, according to your own previous
arrangement--pressing them down till they adhere closely, without any
bubbles of air appearing between the glass and the drawings.


1512. When the drawings have had sufficient time to dry, take a fine
brush and cover every part of them (without touching the glass) with
a coat of parchment size or liquid gum, which prevents the oil color
(which is next applied) from sinking into or becoming absorbed by the
paper.


1513. When the interior of the vase is perfectly dry, and any
particles of gum size that may have been left on the glass have been
removed, your vase is ready for the final and most important process.


1514. You have now to tint the whole of the vase with a proper color
to give it the appearance of porcelain; for up to this time, you will
recollect, it is but a glass vase, with a few colored prints stuck
thereon.


1515. Select from your stock of prepared colors, in bottles, the tint
most appropriate to the kind of china you are imitating (as we are
now supposed to be making a Chinese vase, it will be of a greenish
hue), mix fully sufficient color in a glass vessel, then pour the
whole into the vase.


1516. Take now your vase in both hands, and turn it round continually
in the same direction, until the color is equally spread over the
whole of the interior: when this is satisfactorily accomplished, pour
back the remainder. If the prepared color is too thick, add a little
varnish to the mixture before applying it.


1517. If preferred, the color may be laid on with a soft brush.
Should the vase be intended to hold water, the interior must be well
varnished after the above operations, or lined with zinc or tin foil.


1518. If the Potichomanist wishes to decorate the mouth of his vase
with a gold border, he can do so by mixing some gold powder in a
few drops of the essence of lavender and some varnish, applying
it on the vase with a fine brush; or he can purchase gold bands,
already prepared for application, in varied sheets, suitable to the
Potichomanie designs.


1519. Potichomanists have found the art capable of greater results
than the mere imitation of porcelain vases, by the introduction of
glass panels (previously decorated with beautiful flowers on a white
ground) into drawing-room doors, and also into walls which, being
panel papered, offer opportunities of introducing centre pieces of
the same character as the doors; elegant chess and work-tables,
folding and cheval-screens, panels for cabinets, chiffoniers and
book-cases, slabs for pier and console-tables, glove-boxes, covers
for books, music, albums, &c.


1520. The most common cause of failure is, that the drawings inside
are not thoroughly pressed down.


GRECIAN PAINTING.

1521. _Grecian Painting_ is the art of imitating _oil_ paintings.


1522. This truly beautiful imitation, if well done, is so perfect
that none save connoisseurs can discern, at sight, the difference.


1523. _Engravings_ best suited to this style of painting are
mezzotint or aquatint, though fine lithographs are used.


1524. _Rule First._--Procure a frame one inch longer than the
engraved part of the print.


1525. _Second._--Cut the engraving the size of the frame, then make a
stiff paste, and spread it thickly on the frame.


1526. _Third._--Place the engraving face down and sponge it gently
with water; then press the frame firmly and evenly down on; leave
it till entirely dry (not by the fire), and it will become even and
tight.


1527. _To make the Grecian Varnish._--Take one part turpentine, two
parts alcohol (90 proof), three parts balsam of fir, and mix.


1528. _To use the Varnish._--Pour sufficient spirits of turpentine on
the back of the picture to moisten it well, then put on the varnish
and rub it _thoroughly_ with a stiff brush, and continue to apply it
until the picture is perfectly transparent.


1529. _Spots._--Leave the picture for twenty-four hours, after
which if white spots appear, showing that the varnish has not been
effectual, repeat the process. Sometimes it has to be done several
times.


1530. _Drying._--Place the picture, face downward, where it will be
free from dust, and leave it three or four days.


1531. _Paints._--These are put on the back of the engraving.


1532. _Eyes._--For blue eyes, permanent blue and white; for hazel
eyes, yellow ochre and Van Dyke brown.


1533. _Flesh Tints._--Flake white, with a very little vermilion and
Naples yellow.


1534. _Foliages._--Chrome yellow and Prussian blue, with any of the
browns.


1535. _Sky._--Clouds touched in with white; the rest permanent blue
and white.


1536. _Water._--The light parts with white, the rest the same as the
sky. If a bright scene, and with trees, of a greenish brown.


1537. _Hair and Eyebrows._--Yellow ochre and Van Dyke brown, or raw
sienna.


1538. _Backgrounds._--The most agreeable tint is a greenish brown.


1539. _White Background._--Flake and silver white.


1540. _Buff Background._--Naples yellow.


1541. _Orange Background._--Chrome yellow, with vermilion.


1542. _Blue Background._--Flake white and Prussian blue.


1543. _Gray Background._--White, Prussian blue, and vermilion.


1544. _Pink Background._--White and vermilion.


1545. _Crimson Background._--Vermilion and white, with carmine.


1546. _Green Background._--Chrome yellow and Prussian blue.


1547. _Paints for the Front of the Picture._--Drying oil must be used
with all the colors on the front.


1548. _Shading for the Flesh on the Front._--Carmine and Van Dyke
brown laid on lightly, and the edges touched off with the finger.


1549. _Cheeks._--Carmine; soften the edges carefully.


1550. _Lips._--Carmine, with a touch of vermilion.


1551. _Hair and Eyebrows._--Yellow lake and Van Dyke brown.


1552. _Draperies._--These are always painted on the back, and shaded
on the front with Van Dyke brown.


1553. _Backgrounds._--If plain, glaze with yellow lake.


1554. _Foliages._--Yellow lake and Van Dyke brown.


1555. _General Directions._--_First_--Lay the paint thickly on the
back, and be careful to cover every part, but not to go over the
edges.


1556. _Second_--When the painting is finished let it dry four days,
and then cover the front with a coat of mastic varnish.


1557. _Materials required_, are a palette, palette-knife, flat
varnish brush, three sizes of bristle brushes, three sizes of table
brushes, drying oil, mastic varnish, spirits of turpentine, Grecian
varnish.


1558. _Colors used_ are oil colors in tubes. Those generally needed
are silver white, Naples yellow, yellow ochre, brilliant yellow,
vermilion, Prussian blue, raw sienna, ivory black, carmine, yellow
lake, Van Dyke brown.


1559. _If economy_ is an object, some of the above-mentioned
materials can be dispensed with.


DIAPHANIE.

1560. This is a beautiful, useful, and inexpensive art, easily
acquired, and producing imitations of the richest and rarest stained
glass; and also of making blinds, screens, skylights, Chinese
lanterns, &c., in every variety of color and design.


1561. In decorating his house, an American spends as much money as
he can conveniently spare; the elegancies and refinements of modern
taste demand something more than mere comfort: yet though his walls
are hung with pictures, his drawing-room filled with bijouterie, how
is it that the windows of his hall, his library, his staircase, are
neglected?


1562. The reason is obvious. The magnificent historical old stained
glass might be envied, but could not be brought within the compass of
ordinary means. Recent improvements in printing in colors led the way
to this beautiful invention, by which economy is combined with the
most perfect results.


1563. A peculiar kind of paper is rendered perfectly transparent,
upon which designs are printed in glass colors (_vitre de couleurs_),
which will not change with the light.


1564. The paper is applied to the glass with a clear white varnish,
and when dry, a preparation is finally applied, which increases the
transparency, and adds tenfold brilliancy to the effect.


1565. There is another design, printed in imitation of the half-light
(_abat-jour_); this is used principally for a ground, covering the
whole surface of the glass, within which (the necessary spaces
having been previously cut out before it is stuck on the glass), are
placed medallion centres of Watteau figures, perfectly transparent,
which derive increased brilliancy from the semi-transparency of the
surrounding ground.


1566. To ascertain the quantity of designs required, measure your
glass carefully, and then calculate how many sheets it will take. The
sheets are arranged so that they can be joined together continuously,
or cut to any size or shape.


1567. _Practical Instructions._--Choose a fine day for the operation,
as the glass should be perfectly dry and unaffected by the humidity
of the atmosphere.


1568. Of course, if you have a choice, it is more _convenient_ to
work on your glass before it is fixed in the frame. If you are
working on a piece of unattached glass, lay it on a _flat_ table (a
marble slab is preferable), over which you must previously lay a
piece of baize or cloth to keep the glass steady.


1569. The glass being thus fixed, clean and polish the side on which
you intend to operate (in windows this is the inner side), then
with your brush lay on it very equably a good coat of the prepared
varnish; let this dry for _an hour_, more or less, according to the
dryness of the atmosphere and the thickness of the coat of varnish.


1570. Meantime cut and trim your designs carefully to fit the glass
(if it is one entire transparent sheet you will find it little
trouble); then lay them on a piece of paper, face downwards, and damp
the back of them with a sponge, applied several times, to equalize
the moisture.


1571. After this operation, arrange your time so that your designs
may now be finally left to dry for fifteen minutes before application
to the glass, the varnish on which has now become tacky or sticky,
and in a proper state to receive them.


1572. Apply the printed side next to the glass without pressure;
endeavor to let your sheet fall perfectly level and smooth on your
glass so that you may avoid leaving creases, which would be fatal.


1573. Take now your palette, lay it flat on the design, and press
out all the air bubbles, commencing in the centre, and working them
out from the sides; an ivory stick will be found useful in removing
creases; you now leave this to dry, and after twenty-four hours apply
a slight coat of the liqueur diaphane, leaving it another day, when
if dry, apply a second coat of the same kind, which must be left
several days: finally, apply a coat of varnish over all.


1574. If these directions are carefully followed, your glass will
never be affected by time or by any variations in the weather: it
will defy hail, rain, frost and dust, and can be washed the same as
any ordinary stained glass, to which, in some respects, it is even
superior.


1575. It is impossible to enumerate the variety of articles to the
manufacture of which Diaphanie may be successfully applied, as it is
not confined to glass, but can be done on silk, parchment, paper,
linen, &c., _after they have been made transparent_, which may be
accomplished in the following manner:--


1576. Stretch your paper, or whatever it may be, on a frame or
drawing board, then apply two successive coats (a day between each,)
of diaphanous liquor, and after leaving it to dry for _several_ days,
cover it with a thin layer of very clear size, and when dry it will
be in a fit state to receive the coat of varnish and the designs.


1577. Silk, linen, or other stuffs, should be more carefully
stretched, and receive a thicker coat of size than paper or
parchment; the latter may be strained on a drawing or any other
smooth board, by damping the sheet, and after pasting the edges,
stretching it down while damp. Silk, linen, and other stuffs require
to be carefully stretched on a knitting or other suitable frame.


1578. Take great care to allow, _whatever you use_, time to dry
before applying the liqueur diaphane.


1579. All kinds of screens, lamp-shades, and glasses, lanterns, &c.,
&c., may be made in this way, as heat will produce no effect upon
them.


1580. The transparent pictures are successful, because they may be
hung on a window frame or removed at will, and the window blinds are
far superior to any thing of that kind that have yet been seen.


1581. Instead of steeping the designs in the transparent liquor at
the time of printing them, which was previously done _in order to
show their transparency to the purchaser_, but which was practically
objectionable, as the paper in that state was brittle, and devoid of
pliancy, necessitating also the use of a peculiarly difficult vehicle
to manage (varnish) in applying it to the glass, the manufacturer
now prepares his paper differently, in order to allow the use of
parchment size in sticking them on the glass.


1582. The liqueur diaphane, which is finally applied, renders them
perfectly transparent. In this mode of operation, no delay is
requisite, the designs being applied to the glass immediately after
laying on the size, _taking care to press out all the air bubbles_,
for which purpose a roller will be found indispensable.


1583. The designs should be damped before the size is applied
to them. We are of opinion that this art may be applied to the
production of magic-lantern slides, dissolving views, and dioramic
effects; though we are not aware whether such experiments have been
tried.


FEATHER FLOWERS.

1584. The art of making feather flowers, though a very easy and
inexpensive accomplishment, and yielding pretty ornaments for the
mantel-piece or the chiffonier, is but little pursued.


1585. Many persons are under the impression that they can only
be made from the feathers of exotic birds, and that these are
expensive. But the following instructions will dispel this
misconception, and remove the difficulty.


1586. Procure the best white geese or swans' feathers, have them
plucked off the fowl with care not to break the web, free them from
down, except a small quantity on the shaft of the feather.


1587. Having procured two good specimens of the flower you wish to
imitate, carefully pull off the petals of one, and, with a piece of
tissue paper, cut out the shape of each size, taking care to leave
the shaft of the feather at least half an inch longer than the petal
of the flower.


1588. Carefully bend the feather with the thumb and finger to the
proper shape; mind not to break the web.


1589. _To make the Stem and Heart of a Flower._--Take a piece of wire
six inches long: across the top lay a small piece of cotton wool,
turn the wire over it, and wind it round until it is the size of the
heart or centre of the flower you are going to imitate.


1590. If a single flower, cover it with paste or velvet of the proper
color, and round it must be arranged the stamens; these are made of
fine India silk, or feathers may be used for this purpose.


1591. After the petals have been attached, the silk or feather is
dipped into gum, and then into the farina. Place the petals round,
one at a time, and wind them on with Moravian cotton, No. 4; arrange
them as nearly like the flower you have for a copy as possible.


1592. Cut the stems of the feathers even, and then make the calix
of feathers, cut like the pattern or natural flower. For the small
flowers, the calix is made with paste. Cover the stems with paper or
silk the same as the flowers; the paper must be cut in narrow strips,
about a quarter of an inch wide.


1593. _To make the Pastes of the Calix, Hearts, and Buds of
Flowers._--Take common white starch, and mix it with gum water until
it is the substance of thick treacle; color it with the dyes used for
the feathers, and keep it from the air.


1594. _To make the Farina._--Use common ground rice, mixed into a
stiff paste with any dye; dry it before the fire, and when quite
hard, pound it to a fine powder.


1595. The buds, berries, and hearts of some double flowers are made
with cotton wool, wound around wire, moulded to the shape with thumb
and finger.


1596. Smooth it over with gum water, and when dry cover the buds,
berries, or calix with the proper colored pastes; they will require
one or two coats, and may be shaded with a little paint, and then
gummed and left to dry.


1597. Flowers of two or more shades or colors are variegated with
water-colors, mixed with lemon-juice, ultra-marine and chrome for
blue, and gold may also be used in powder, mixed with lemon-juice and
gum water.


1598. The materials required are some good white goose or swan's
feathers; a little fine wire, different sizes; a few skeins of
fine floss silk, some good cotton wool or wadding, a reel of No.
4 Moravian cotton, a skein of India silk, the starch and gum for
pastes, and a pair of small sharp scissors, a few sheets of colored
silk paper, and some water-colors, with the following dyes:--


1599. _To Dye Feathers Blue._--Into two pennyworths of oil of
vitriol, mix two pennyworths of the best indigo in powder; let it
stand a day or two; when wanted shake it well, and into a quart of
boiling water put one tablespoonful of the liquid.


1600. Stir it well, put the feathers in, and let them simmer a few
minutes.


1601. _Yellow._--Put a tablespoonful of the best turmeric into a
quart of boiling water; when well mixed, put in the feathers.


1602. More or less of the turmeric will give them different shades,
and a very small quantity of soda will give them an orange hue.


1603. _Green._--Mix the indigo liquor with turmeric, and pour boiling
water over it; let the feathers simmer in the dye until they have
acquired the shade you want them. (See 289.)


1604. _Pink._--Three good pink saucers in a quart of boiling
water, with a small quantity of cream of tartar. If a deep color
is required, use four saucers. Let the feathers remain in the dye
several hours.


1605. _Red._--Into a quart of boiling water dissolve a teaspoonful of
cream of tartar, put in one tablespoonful of prepared cochineal, and
then a few drops of muriate of tin.


1606. This dye is expensive, and scarlet flowers are best made
with the plumage of the red Ibis, which can generally be had of a
bird-fancier or bird-stuffer, who will give directions how it may be
applied.


1607. _Lilac._--About two teaspoonfuls of cudbear, into about a quart
of boiling water; let it simmer a few minutes before you put in the
feathers. A small quantity of cream of tartar turns the color from
lilac to amethyst.


1608. _Black._--Use the same as for cloth.


1609. _Crimson._--Dip in acetate of alumina mordant, then in a
boiling-hot decoction of Brazil wood--and, last of all, pass through
a bath of cudbear.


1610. _Before the feathers_ are dyed they must be put into hot water,
and let them drain before they are put into the dyes.


1611. _After the feathers_ are taken out of the dye, rinse them two
or three times in clear cold water (except the red), which must only
be done once. Then lay them on a tray, over which a cloth has been
spread, before a good fire; when they begin to dry and unfold, draw
each feather gently between your thumb and finger, until it regains
its proper shape.


1612. _The leaves of the flowers_ are made of green feathers, cut
like those of the natural flower, and serrated at the edge with a
very small pair of scissors.


1613. For the calix of a moss-rose the down is left on the feather,
and is a very good representation of the moss on the natural flower.


1614. _To Preserve Sea-Weed._--This is a delicate process, and may be
made like beautiful pictures.


1615. _First Process._--Wash the sea-weed in fresh water, then take
a plate or dish (the larger the better), cut your paper to the size
required, place it on the plate with fresh water, and spread out the
plant with a good sized camel-hair pencil in a natural form. Picking
out with the pin gives the sea-weed an unnatural appearance, and
destroys the characteristic fall of the branches, which should be
carefully avoided.


1616. Then gently raise the paper with the specimen out of the water,
placing it in a slanting position for a few moments, so as to allow
the superabundant water to run off: after which place it in the press.


1617. _The Press._--The press is made with either three pieces
of board or pasteboard. Lay on the first board two sheets of
blotting-paper; on that lay your specimens; place straight and smooth
over them a piece of old muslin, fine cambric, or linen: then some
more blotting-paper, and place another board on the top of that, and
continue in the same way.


1618. _The Finishing._--The blotting-paper and the muslin should be
carefully removed and dried every day, and then replaced: at the same
time, those specimens that are sufficiently dried may be taken away.
Nothing now remains but to write on each the name, date, and locality.


1619. _The Specimens._--You can either gum the specimens in a
scrap-book, or fix them in, as drawings are often fastened, by making
four slits in the page, and inserting each corner.


1620. This is by far the best plan, as it admits of their removal,
without injury to the page, at any future period, if it be required
either to insert better specimens, or intermediate species. Some
of the larger Algæ will not adhere to the paper, and consequently
require gumming.


1621. _Another Way._--After well cleaning and pressing, brush the
coarser kinds of Algæ over with spirits of turpentine, in which two
or three small lumps of gum mastic have been dissolved, by shaking in
a warm place; two-thirds of a small phial is the proper proportion,
and this will make the specimens retain a fresh appearance.


BOTANICAL SPECIMENS, LEAF IMPRESSIONS, ETC.

1622. The plants you wish to preserve should be gathered when the
weather is dry, and after placing the ends in water, let them remain
in a cool place till the next day.


1623. When about to be submitted to the process of drying, place each
plant between several sheets of blotting-paper, and iron it with a
large smooth heater, pretty strongly warmed, till all the moisture is
dissipated.


1624. Colors may thus be fixed, which otherwise become pale, or
nearly white.


1625. Some plants require more moderate heat than others, and
herein consists the nicety of the experiment; but I have generally
found, that if the iron be not too hot, and is passed rapidly, yet
carefully, over the surface of the blotting-paper, it answers the
purpose equally well with plants of almost every variety of hue and
thickness.


1626. In compound flowers, with those also of a stubborn and solid
form as the Centaurea, some little art is required in cutting away
the under part, by which means the profile and forms of the flowers
will be more distinctly exhibited.


1627. This is especially necessary, when the method employed by Major
Velley is adopted: viz., to fix the flowers and fructification down
with gum upon the paper previous to ironing, by which means they
become almost incorporated with the surface.


1628. When this very delicate process is attempted, blotting-paper
should be laid under every part excepting the blossoms, in order to
prevent staining the white paper. Great care must be taken to keep
preserved specimens in a dry place.


1629. _Skeleton leaves_ may be made by steeping leaves in rain
water, in an open vessel, exposed to the air and sun. Water must
occasionally be added to compensate loss by evaporation.


1630. The leaves will putrefy, and then their membranes will begin to
open; then lay them on a clean white plate, filled with clean water,
and with gentle touches take off the external membranes, separating
them cautiously near the middle rib. When there is an opening toward
the latter the whole membrane separates easily.


1631. The process requires a great deal of patience, as ample time
must be given for the vegetable tissues to decay, and separate.


1632. _A more Expeditious Method._--A tablespoonful of chlorid of
lime in a liquid state, mixed with a quart of pure spring water.


1633. Leaves or seed-vessels of plants to be soaked in the mixture
for about four hours, then taken out and well washed in a large basin
filled with water, after which they should be left to dry with free
exposure to light and air.


1634. Some of the largest species of forest leaves, or such as have
strong ribs, will require to be left rather more than four hours in
the liquid.


1635. _Dwarf Plants._--Take a cutting of the plant you wish to dwarf,
say a myrtle, for instance, and having set it in a pot, wait until
you are satisfied that it has taken root; then take a cutting from
it, and place it in a miniature flower-pot, taking care to fill it
more than three parts with fine sand, the remainder with mould.


1636. Put it under a glass on the chimney-piece, or in any warm
place, and give it very small quantities of water.


1637. _Preserve Fungi._--Receipt of the celebrated botanist, William
Withering, Esq., by which specimens of fungi may be beautifully
preserved.


1638. Take two ounces of sulphate of copper, or blue vitriol, and
reduce it to powder, and pour upon it a pint of boiling water, and
when cold, add half a pint of spirits of wine; cork it well, and call
it "the pickle."


1639. To eight pints of water add one pint and a-half of spirits of
wine, and call it "the liquor."


1640. Be provided with a number of wide-mouthed bottles of different
sizes, all well fitted with corks. The fungi should be left on the
table as long as possible to allow the moisture to evaporate.


1641. They should then be placed in the pickle for three hours, or
longer, if necessary; then place them in the bottles intended for
their reception, and fill with the liquor.


1642. They should then be well corked and sealed, and arranged in
order with their names in front of the bottles.


1643. _Leaf Impressions._--Hold oiled paper in the smoke of a lamp,
or of pitch, until it becomes coated with the smoke; to this paper
apply the leaf of which you wish an impression, having previously
warmed it between your hands, that it may be pliable.


1644. Place the lower surface of the leaf upon the blackened surface
of the oil paper, that the numerous veins that are so prominent on
this side may receive from the paper a portion of the smoke.


1645. Lay a paper over the leaf, and then press it gently upon the
smoked paper, with the fingers, or with a small roller, (covered with
woolen cloth, or some like soft material), so that every part of the
leaf may come in contact with the sooted oil-paper.


1646. A coating of the smoke will adhere to the leaf.


1647. Then remove the leaf carefully, and place the blackened surface
on a sheet of white paper, not ruled, or in a book prepared for the
purpose, covering the leaf with a clean slip of paper, and pressing
upon it with the fingers, or roller, as before.


1648. Thus may be obtained the impression of a leaf, showing the
perfect outlines, together with an accurate exhibition of the veins
which extend in every direction through it, more correctly than the
finest drawing.


1649. This process is so simple, and the material so easily obtained,
that any person, with a little practice to enable him to apply
the right quantity of smoke to the oil-paper, and give the leaf a
proper pressure, can prepare beautiful leaf impressions, such as a
naturalist would be proud to possess.


1650. There is another, and we think, a better method of taking _leaf
impressions_ than the preceding one.


1651. _Leaf Impressions in Ink._--After warming the leaf between
the hands, apply printing ink, by means of a small leather ball
containing cotton, or some soft substance, or with the end of the
finger.


1652. The leather ball (and the finger when used for that purpose),
after the ink is applied to it, should be pressed several times on a
piece of leather, or some smooth surface, before each application to
the leaf, that the ink may be smoothly and evenly applied.


1653. After the under surface of the leaf has been sufficiently
inked, apply it to the paper, where you wish the impression; and
after covering it with a slip of paper, use the hand or roller to
press upon it, as described in the former process. (See 711, page
176.)


1654. _Impressions from Coins._--Melt a little isinglass glue with
brandy, and pour it thinly over the medal, &c., so as to cover
its whole surface; let it remain on for a day or two, till it has
thoroughly dried and hardened, and then take it off, when it will be
fine, clear, and as hard as a piece of Muscovy glass, and will have a
very elegant impression of the coin. It will also resist the effects
of damp air, which occasions all other kinds of glue to soften and
bend, if not prepared in this way.


TRANSFERRING TO GLASS, WOOD, ETC.

1655. The process of transferring consists in causing the ink of a
print, engraving, mezzotint, or lithograph, to adhere to the surface
of glass, wood, cardboard, ivory, or earthenware, which is effected
by cementing the face of the prints to their surface by means of
some varnish or glutinous transparent body that will not dissolve in
water, and then destroying the texture of the paper, so as to leave
the ink upon the varnish and material operated on, in the same manner
as if the original impression had been there, but of course reversed.


1656. _Materials._--The body to which the print is to be transferred.


1657. Spirits and oil of turpentine; oil and varnish colors;
seed-lac, white and transfer varnishes; oil of almonds; spirit of
wine; a flat and a round brush, and a towel.

_The Varnishes._--The _seed-lac_ and _white varnishes_.


1658. _The Transfer Varnish._--Take five ounces of the best spirit
of wine, add four ounces of the purified Venice turpentine to it,
and an ounce of picked mastic tears; put them into a bottle, shake
constantly until the mastic and turpentine dissolve, and in a few
hours it will be fit for use, but improves by keeping.


1659. _To Transfer to Glass._--Procure a piece of the best
crown-glass, as near as possible in size and shape to the print to be
transferred, varnish it over with a mixture of equal parts of spirits
and oil of turpentine, and lay the print on the glass, beginning at
one end, and pressing it gently down with a towel in every part in
proceeding to the other.


1660. If this is not done carefully, vesicles of air will be admitted
between the paper and glass, and mar the effect. After pressing the
print down with the towel, it is to be set aside to dry, which will
take some time, varying according to the state of the atmosphere.


1661. When the turpentine has become perfectly hard, the paper must
be moistened with water till it is thoroughly saturated, and the
paper entirely removed by rubbing very gently with the forefinger in
a circular direction, and then set aside to dry, when the impression
will be found perfectly transferred, but reversed.


1662. If it is wished to preserve only the appearance of an
engraving, a sheet of white paper or Bristol-board must be placed
behind the glass; but if required to be colored, the operation must
be completed with oil or varnish colors, in such a manner as may
impart to it the semblance of a painting.


1663. _To Transfer to Wood._--Procure a piece of wood of the required
form and size; if flat, it should be newly planed, and rubbed down
with pumice-stone and fine sand-paper to make it perfectly smooth and
free from grease; if rounded or any other shape, it should be scraped
with a piece of glass, then pumiced and sand-papered.


1664. Give the wood a coat of transfer varnish previous to
transferring, and set aside for twenty-four hours to dry.


1665. This promotes adhesion of the print to the wood, and secures
the latter from being soiled.


1666. Cut off the white margin of the print, then damp it by placing
it face upward on the surface of some water in a shallow vessel,
taking care to keep the face or printed side dry; when properly
soaked, pass a sponge over the back, spread a coat of varnish over
the whole of the face, and apply immediately to the wood.


1667. Rub down the whole gently with a towel, in the same manner as
directed for glass, so that it may adhere properly. When this has
been done, and while the back is yet moist, rub it carefully with the
forefinger until half the thickness of the paper is removed, then
leave it to dry.


1668. Then wet the finger only, and keep rubbing until the remainder
of the paper is removed, and there is a thin white film over all,
allowing the print to appear clean through; then let it dry, and
bring out with a little oil of almonds; after which apply a coat of
carriage-varnish, or the seed-lac and animi varnish used for white
japan grounds, though we prefer the transfer-varnish ourselves.


1669. Great care and patience must be exercised during the process of
rubbing off, to avoid scratching or tearing the print; if, however,
any part is destroyed, it must be repaired with the same color.


1670. In this manner plain or colored prints may be transferred from
paper to wood.


1671. When colored prints are transferred, they should be laid on
vinegar and water (two-thirds of the former and one of the latter),
to destroy the size which is in the paper, and remain twice as long
as plain prints; then removed and placed between blotting-paper, and
when the superfluous moisture has been removed, treated the same as
the other prints.


1672. _To Clean the Brushes_ and your hands after using the
varnishes, rub with spirit of wine.


1673. _To Transfer to Ivory._--Rub well with pumice-stone, and then
transfer in the same manner as directed above.


1674. _To Transfer to Card-board._--Remove the sizing on the surface
by immersing in the vinegar and water mentioned above, then transfer
as usual.


1675. _To Transfer to Earthenware._--Give the article a thin coating
of varnish, then transfer as directed above.


1676. _Etching on Glass._--Mix in a gallipot a little sulphuric acid
and lampblack to a thin smooth paste, and spread a layer of it on a
piece of glass; upon which trace with a sharp-pointed instrument,
(penetrating to the glass,) any design which may suggest itself.


1677. Then dissolve a little fluor-spar, coarsely powdered, in spirit
of turpentine, and with a camel's-hair brush lay some of the solution
upon the parts so traced; let it remain an hour or two; and you will
find, on scraping off the paste, that the glass will be etched with
whatever forms you have traced.


1678. Very pleasing drawings may thus be etched upon glass; and they
may be rendered more effective by dusting the outline with a little
vermilion.


EMBLEMATIC STONES.

1679. _The Jewels of the Months._--In Poland, according to a
superstitious belief, each month of the year is under the influence
of some precious stone, which influence is attached to the destiny of
persons born during the course of the month.


1680. It is, in consequence, customary amongst friends, and more
particularly between lovers, to make, on birthdays, reciprocal
presents, consisting of some jewel ornamented with the tutelar stone.
It is generally believed that this prediction of happiness, or rather
of the future destiny, will be realized according to the wishes
expressed on the occasion.


1681. _January._--The stone of January is the Jacinth, or Garnet,
which denotes constancy and fidelity in any sort of engagement.


1682. _February._--The Amethyst, a preservative against violent
passions, and an assurance of peace of mind and sincerity.


1683. _March._--The Bloodstone is the stone of courage and wisdom in
perilous undertakings, and firmness in affection.


1684. _April._--The Sapphire, or Diamond, is the stone of repentance,
innocence, and kindliness of disposition.


1685. _May._--The Emerald. This stone signifies happiness in love,
and domestic felicity.


1686. _June._--The Agate is the stone of long life, health, and
prosperity.


1687. _July._--The Ruby, or Cornelian, denotes forgetfulness of, and
exemption from, the vexations caused by friendship and love.


1688. _August._--The Sardonyx. This stone denotes conjugal felicity.


1689. _September._--The Chrysolite is the stone which preserves and
cures madness and despair.


1690. _October._--The Aqua-Marine, or Opal, signifies distress and
hope.


1691. _November._--The Topaz signifies fidelity and friendship.


1692. _December._--The Turquoise is the stone which expresses great
sureness and prosperity in love, and in all the circumstances of life.


STAINING.

1693. _General Observations._--When _alabaster_, _marble_, and
other _stones_, are colored, and the stain is required to be deep,
it should be poured on boiling-hot, and brushed equally over every
part if made with water; if with spirit, it should be applied cold,
otherwise the evaporation, being too rapid, would leave the coloring
matter on the surface, without any, or very little, being able to
penetrate.


1694. In grayish or brownish stones, the stain will be wanting in
brightness, because the natural color combines with the stain;
therefore, if the stone be of a pure color, the result will be a
combination of the color and stain.


1695. _Bone or Ivory._--In staining bone or ivory, the colors will
take better before than after polishing; and if any dark spots
appear, they should be rubbed with chalk, and the article dyed again
to produce uniformity of shade. On removal from the boiling-hot
dye-bath, the bone should be immediately plunged into cold water, to
prevent cracks from the heat.


1696. _Paper or Parchment_ is stained; a broad varnish brush should
be employed to lay the coloring on evenly.


1697. _Wood._--When the stains for wood are required to be very
strong, it is better to soak and _not_ brush them; therefore if for
inlaying or fine work, the wood should be previously split or sawn
into proper thicknesses, and when directed to be brushed several
times over with the stains, it should be allowed to dry between each
coating.


1698. _To Varnish._--When it is wished to render any of the stains
more durable and beautiful, the work should be well rubbed with
Dutch or common rushes after it is colored, and then varnished with
seed-lac varnish, or if a better appearance is desired, with three
coats of the same, or shellac varnish.


1699. _Common Work_ only requires frequent rubbing with linseed oil
and woolen rags. The remainder, with the exception of _glass_, will
be treated of in this paper.


1700. _Alabaster, Marble and Stone_, may be stained of a yellow, red,
green, blue, purple, black, or any of the compound colors, by the
stains used for wood.


1701. _Bone and Ivory._--_Black._--Lay the articles for several hours
in a strong solution of nitrate of silver, and expose to the light.


1702. Boil the article for some time in a strained decoction of
logwood, and then steep it in a solution of per-sulphate or acetate
of iron.


1703. Immerse frequently in ink, until of sufficient depth of color.


1704. _Blue._--1. Immerse for some time in a dilute solution of
sulphate of indigo--partly saturated with potash--and it will be
fully stained. 2. Steep in a strong solution of sulphate of copper.


1705. _Green._--1. Dip blue-stained articles for a short time in
nitro-hydrochlorate of tin, and then in a hot decoction of fustic. 2.
Boil in a solution of verdigris in vinegar until the desired color is
obtained.


1706. _Red._--Dip the articles first in the tin mordant used in
dyeing, and then plunge into a hot decoction of Brazil wood--half a
pound to a gallon of water--or cochineal.


1707. Steep in red ink until sufficiently stained.


1708. _Scarlet._--Use lac-dye instead of the preceding.


1709. _Violet._--Dip in the tin mordant, and then immerse in a
decoction of logwood.


1710. _Yellow._--Impregnate with nitro-hydrochlorate of tin, and then
digest with heat in a strained decoction of fustic.


1711. _Second._--Steep for twenty-four hours in a strong solution of
the neutral chromate of potash, and then plunge for some time in a
boiling solution of acetate of lead.


1712. _Third._--Boil the articles in a solution of alum--a pound to
half a gallon--and then immerse for half an hour in the following
mixture.


1713. Take half a pound of turmeric, and a quarter of a pound of
pearlash; boil in a gallon of water. When taken from this, the bone
must be again dipped in the alum solution.


1714. _Horn_ must be treated in the same manner as bone and ivory for
the various colors given under that heading.


1715. _In Imitation of Tortoise-Shell._--First steam and then press
the horn into proper shapes, and afterward lay the following mixture
on with a small brush, in imitation of the mottle of tortoise-shell.


1716. _Second._--Take equal parts of quick lime and litharge, and mix
with strong soap-lees; let this remain until it is thoroughly dry,
brush off, and repeat two or three times, if necessary.


1717. Such parts as are required to be of a reddish brown, should be
covered with a mixture of whiting and the stain.


1718. _Iron._--_Black, for Ship's Guns, Shot, etc._--To one gallon
of vinegar add a quarter of a pound of iron rust, let it stand for
a week; then add a pound of dry lamp-black, and three-quarters of a
pound of copperas; stir it up for a couple of days.


1719. Lay five or six coats on the gun, &c., with a sponge, allowing
it to dry well between each. Polish with linseed oil and soft woolen
rag, and it will look like ebony.


1720. _Paper and Parchment._--_Blue._--Stain it green with the
verdigris stain given below, and brush over with a solution of
pearlash--two ounces to the pint--till it becomes blue.


1721. Use the blue stain for wood.


1722. _Green and Red._--The same as for wood. (See 717, page 178.)


1723. _Orange._--Brush over with a tincture of turmeric, formed by
infusing an ounce of the root in a pint of spirits of wine; let this
dry, and give another coat of pearlash solution, made by dissolving
two ounces of the salt in a quart of water.


1724. _Purple._--Brush over with the expressed juice of ripe privet
berries. The same as for wood.


1725. _Yellow._--Brush over with tincture of turmeric.


1726. Add anatto or dragon's blood to the tincture of turmeric, and
brush over as usual. (See 716, page 178.)


1727. _Wood._--_Black._--Drop a little sulphuric acid into a small
quantity of water, brush over the wood and hold it to the fire; it
will be a fine black, and receive a good polish.


1728. _Second._--Take half a gallon of vinegar, an ounce of bruised
nut-galls, of logwood chips and copperas each half a pound--boil
well; add half an ounce of the tincture of sesquichlorid of iron,
formerly called the muriated tincture, and brush on hot.


1729. _Third._--Use the stain given for ships' guns.


1730. _Fourth._--Take half a gallon of vinegar, half a pound of dry
lamp-black, and three pounds of iron rust sifted. Mix, and let stand
for a week. Lay three coats of this on hot, and then rub with linseed
oil, and you will have a fine deep black.


1731. _Fifth._--Add to the above stain an ounce of nut-galls, half
a pound of logwood chips, and a quarter of a pound of copperas; lay
on three coats, oil well, and you will have a black stain that will
stand any kind of weather, and one that is well suited for ships'
combings, &c.


1732. _Sixth._--Take a pound of logwood chips, a quarter of a pound
of Brazil wood, and boil for an hour and a half in a gallon of water.
Brush the wood several times with this decoction while hot. Make a
decoction of nut-galls by simmering gently for three or four days a
quarter of a pound of the galls in two quarts of water; give the wood
three coats of this, and while wet lay on a solution of sulphate of
iron (two ounces to a quart), and when dry oil or varnish.


1733. _Seventh._--Give three coats with a solution of copper filings
in aquafortis, and repeatedly brush over with the logwood decoction,
until the greenness of the copper is destroyed.


1734. _Eighth._--Boil half a pound of logwood chips in two quarts
of water, add an ounce of pearlash, and apply hot with a brush.
Then take two quarts of the logwood decoction, and half an ounce of
verdigris, and the same of copperas; strain and throw in half a pound
of iron rust. Brush the work well with this, and oil.


1735. _Blue._--Dissolve copper filings in aquafortis, brush the wood
with it, and then go over the work with a hot solution of pearlash
(two ounces to a pint of water), till it assumes a perfectly blue
color.


1736. Boil a pound of indigo, two pounds of woad, and three ounces of
alum in a gallon of water; brush well over until thoroughly stained.


1737. _Green._--Dissolve verdigris in vinegar, and brush over with
the hot solution until of a proper color.


1738. _Mahogany Color._--_Dark._--1. Boil half a pound of madder and
two ounces of logwood chips in a gallon of water, and brush well over
while hot; when dry, go over the whole with pearlash solution, two
drachms to the quart.


1739. _Second._--Put two ounces of dragon's blood, bruised, into a
quart of oil of turpentine; let the bottle stand in a warm place,
shake frequently, and, when dissolved, steep the work in the mixture.


1740. _Light Red Brown._--Boil half a pound of madder and a quarter
of a pound of fustic in a gallon of water; brush over the work when
boiling-hot, until properly stained.


1741. _Second._--The surface of the work being quite smooth, brush
over with a weak solution of aquafortis, half an ounce to the pint,
and then finish with the following:--Put four ounces and a half of
dragons blood and an ounce of soda, both well bruised, to three pints
of spirit of wine; let it stand in a warm place, shake frequently,
strain, and lay it on with a soft brush, repeating until of a proper
color; polish with linseed oil or varnish.


1742. _Purple._--Brush the work several times with the logwood
decoction used for No. 6 _Black_, and when dry give a coat of
pearlash solution, one drachm to a quart, taking care to lay it on
evenly.


1743. _Red._--1. Boil a pound of Brazil wood and an ounce of pearlash
in a gallon of water, and while hot brush over the work until of a
proper color. Dissolve two ounces of alum in a quart of water, and
brush the solution over the work before it dries.


1744. _Second._--Take a gallon of the above stain, add two more
ounces of pearl ash; use hot, and brush often with the alum solution.


1745. _Third._--Use a cold infusion of archil, and brush over with
the pearlash solution used for No. 1 _dark mahogany_.


1746. _In imitation of Rosewood._--1. Boil half a pound of logwood in
three pints of water till it is of a very dark red, add half an ounce
of salt of tartar; stain the work with the liquor while boiling hot,
giving three coats; then with a painter's graining-brush form streaks
with No. 8 _black stain_; let dry, and varnish.


1747. _Second._--Brush over with the logwood decoction used for No. 6
_black_, three or four times; put half a pound of iron filings into
two quarts of vinegar; then with a graining-brush or cane, bruised
at the end, apply the iron filing solution in the form required, and
polish with beeswax and turpentine when dry, or varnish.


ORNAMENTED LEATHER WORK.

1748. An excellent imitation of carved oak, suitable for frames,
boxes, vases, and ornaments in endless variety, may be made of a
description of leather called Basil.


1749. The art consists in simply cutting out this material in
imitation of natural objects, and in impressing upon it by simple
tools, either with or without the aid of heat, such marks and
characteristics as are necessary to the imitation.


1750. The rules given with regard to the imitation of leaves and
flowers (1887) apply to Ornamental Leather Work.


1751. Begin with a simple object, and proceed by degrees to those
that are more complicated.


1752. The tools required are ivory or steel points of various sizes,
punches, and tin shapes, such as are used for confectionary. The
points may be made out of the handles of old tooth-brushes.


1753. Before cutting out the leaves, the leather should be well
soaked in water, until it is quite pliable. When dry, it will retain
the artistic shape.


1754. Cut out an ivy or an oak leaf, and impress the veins upon it;
then arrange these in groups, and affix them to frames, or otherwise.


1755. Leaves and stems are fastened together by means of liquid glue,
and varnished with any of the drying varnishes, or with sealing-wax
dissolved to a suitable consistency in spirits of wine.


1756. Wire, cork, gutta-percha, bits or stems of trees, &c., may
severally be used to aid in the formation of groups of buds, flowers,
seed-vessels, &c.


DYEING.

(SEE PAGES 74, 75, 76.)

1757. _Dye Hair and Feathers Green._--Take of verdigris or verditer,
of each one ounce: gum water, one pint; mix them well, and dip the
hair or feathers into the mixture, shaking them well about.


1759. _Cleansing Feathers of their Animal Oil._--The following
receipt gained a premium from the Society of Arts:


1760. Take for every gallon of clean water one pound of quicklime,
mix them well together, and when the undissolved lime is precipitated
in fine powder, pour off the clean lime-water for use.


1761. Put the feathers to be cleaned in another tub, and add to them
a quantity of the clean lime-water, sufficient to cover them about
three inches, when well immersed and stirred about therein.


1762. The feathers, when thoroughly moistened, will sink down, and
should remain in the lime-water three or four days; after which the
foul liquor should be separated from them, by laying them in a sieve.


1763. The feathers should be afterward well washed in clean water,
and dried upon nets, the meshes of which may be about the fineness of
cabbage-nets.


1764. The feathers must be, from time to time, shaken on the nets,
and as they get dry will fall through the meshes, and are to be
collected for use. The admission of air will be serviceable in drying.


1765. The process will be completed in three weeks; and after being
thus prepared, the feathers will only require to be beaten to get rid
of the dust.


1766. _Dyeing Eggs._--Wrap the egg in _crimson silk ribbon_ (taking
care that no part is uncovered), tack it on and boil it five minutes,
and when it is divested of the ribbon the shell will be of a pretty
mottled red; any colored ribbon may be used with a very pretty effect.


1767. _Crystallization upon Cinders._--Saturate water, kept boiling,
with alum; then set the solution in a cool place, suspending a cinder
in it, by a hair or fine silk thread; as the solution cools, a
beautiful crystallization will take place upon the cinder, which will
resemble a specimen of mineralogical spar.


1768. _Staining Grasses and Mosses._--Take some common powder-blue,
mix with water, rather thin; take dry moss and dip it in, and let it
soak a few minutes, take out and squeeze it--you will have a blue
moss. Take _light_ chrome yellow (as there are two sorts), mix with
water, as before: with the same process you will have a yellow moss.
Take some of the blue and some of the yellow, mix with water, as
before, and you will have a green moss. You may have a variety of
shades by adding or diminishing the yellow.


THE GAME OF DRAUGHTS.

1769. _Rules of the Game._--The nine laws for regulating the game of
draughts are as follows.


1770. Each player takes the first move alternately, whether the last
game be won or drawn.


1771. Any action which prevents the adversary from having a full view
of the men is not allowed.


1772. The player who touches a man must play him.


1773. In case of standing the huff ten minutes, the other may call
upon him to play; and if, after that, he delay above five minutes
longer, then he loses the game.


1775. In the losing game, the player can insist upon his adversary
taking all the men, in case opportunities should present themselves
for their being so taken.


1776. To prevent unnecessary delay, if one color have no pieces, but
two kings on the board, and the other no piece but one king, the
latter can call upon the former to win the game in twenty moves; if
he does not finish it within that number of moves, the game to be
relinquished as drawn.


1777. If there are three kings to two on the board, the subsequent
moves are not to exceed forty.


LAWS OF CHESS.

1778. The rules given below are based upon the code published in
"_Walker's Art of Chess Play_." The word _piece_ frequently includes
the _pawn_.


1779. If the board or pieces be improperly placed, or are deficient
in number (except in the case of odds), the game must be
recommenced, if the error is discovered before the fourth move on
each side (the eighth move of the game.) If not discovered before
this stage, the game must proceed.


1780. If the player gives odds, and yet omits to remove the odds from
the board at the commencement, he may recommence the game, and remove
the odds given, provided he discover his error before playing his
fourth move.


1781. But if he has made his fourth move, the game must be played
out; and should the player who agreed to give the odds win the game,
it shall nevertheless be considered drawn.


1782. When parties play even, they draw lots for the first move
of the first game. The first move is afterward taken alternately
throughout the sitting, except when a game is drawn, when he who had
the first move in that game still claims it, a drawn game being of no
account.


1783. He who gains the move has also the choice of color. Each player
uses the same color throughout the sitting. When a match is made for
a given number of games, the move passes alternately throughout the
match. A player giving odds has the choice of men, and takes the move
in every game, unless agreed to the contrary.


1784. A player who gives the odds of a piece, may give it each game
from the king's or queen's side, at his option. If he gives the odds
of a pawn, he must give the king's bishop's pawn, unless otherwise
stipulated.


1785. The player who receives the odds of a certain number of moves
at the commencement, must not with those moves cross from his own
half of the board.


1786. If a player, in his turn to play, touch one of his men, he
must move that piece, if it can legally move, unless, when he first
touches it, he says aloud, "_J'adoube_." No penalty is attached to
touching a piece, unless it is your turn to move.


1787. If the player touch his king, with the intention of moving
him, and then finds that he cannot do so without placing the king
in check, no penalty can be inflicted on his replacing his king and
moving elsewhere.


1788. [Otherwise?] If the player should touch a man which cannot
be moved without placing his king in check, he must move his king
instead.


1789. If a player about to move touch one of his adversary's men,
without saying "_J'adoube_" when he first touches it, he must take
that piece, if it can be lawfully taken.


1790. Should it not be taken, he must, as a penalty, move his king;
but should the king be unable to play without going into check,
no penalty can be enforced. It is not allowed to castle upon a
compulsory move of the king.


1791. While you hold your piece you may move it anywhere allowed by
the rules; but when you quit your hold the move is completed, and
must be abided by.


1792. If you inadvertently move one of your adversary's pieces
instead of your own, he may compel you to take the piece you have
touched, should it be _en prise_; or to replace it and move your
king, or to leave it on the square to which you have moved it, and
forego any other move at that time.


1793. Should you capture one of the adverse pieces with another,
instead of one of your own, the capture holds good, if your opponent
so decides.


1794. If the player takes a piece through a false move, his adversary
may compel him to take such piece with one that can lawfully take it,
or to move the piece that has been touched, if such move does not
expose the king to check, or he may be directed to move his king.


1795. If you take one of your own men, instead of one of your
adversary's, you may be compelled to move one of the two pieces
touched, at the option of your opponent.


1796. Mr. Walker thinks that the penalty should be to lose the man
you have improperly taken off.


1797. An opponent has the option of punishing a false move, by
claiming the false move as your move, by compelling you to move the
piece touched, as you may think fit, or to replace the piece and move
your king.


1798. The king must never be exposed to check by any penalty enforced.


1799. If you move twice running, you may be compelled to abide by
both moves, or to retract the second.


1800. Unlimited time is allowed for the moves [unless otherwise
agreed.] If one player insists upon the postponement of the
termination of a game, against the will of his opponent, the game is
forfeited by him who will not play on.


1801. When a pawn is moved two squares, it is liable to be taken, _en
passant_, by a pawn, but not by a piece.


1802. If you touch both king and rook, intending to castle, you must
move one of the two pieces, at the option of your adversary; or he
may compel you to complete the castling.


1803. You cannot take a piece and castle at the same time; nor does
the rook check as it passes to its new position; but it may check on
its position after castling.


1804. False castling is liable to the same penalties as a false move.


1805. When a player gives the odds of a rook, he does not relinquish
the right of castling on the side from which the rook has been taken,
all other conditions being lawful, as if the rook were in its place.


1806. When you give check you must say so aloud.


1807. If check is not called on either side, but subsequently
discovered, you must endeavor to recall all the moves back to the
period when the check first occurred.


1808. You are not compelled to cry check when you attack the queen.


1809. If you cry check, and afterward alter your determination, you
are not compelled to abide by the intention, provided you have not
touched the piece.


1810. When a pawn reaches the opposite side of the board it may be
replaced by any piece, at the option of the owner, and irrespective
of the pieces already owned by him.


1811. Stale-mate is a drawn game.


1812. Drawn games count for nothing; and he who moved first in the
drawn game moves first in the following.


1813. If you declare to win a game, or position, and only draw it,
you are accounted the loser.


1814. When you have either of the following advantages of force,
you are compelled to give check-mate in fifty moves, or the game is
considered drawn:


1815. King and queen against king.

King and rook against king.

King and two bishops against king.

King, bishop, and knight, against king.

King and queen against king and rook.

King and rook against king and minor piece.

King and pawn against king.

King and two pawns against king and pawn.


1816. If you move after your adversary has made a false move, or
committed other irregularity, you cannot claim the penalties.


1817. Spectators are forbidden to make remarks.


1818. Disputes to be referred to a third party.


EVENING PASTIME.

1819. Among the innocent recreations of the fireside, there are few
more commendable and practicable than those afforded by what are
severally termed Anagrams, Charades, Conundrums, Enigmas, Puzzles,
Rebuses, Riddles, Transpositions, &c.


1820. Of these there are such a variety, that they are suited to
every capacity; and they present this additional attraction, that
ingenuity may be exercised in the _invention_ of them, as well as in
their solution.


1821. Many persons who have become noted for their literary
compositions may date the origin of their success to the time when
they attempted the composition of a trifling enigma or charade.


1822. _Anagrams_ are formed by the transposition of the letters of
words or sentences, or names of persons, so as to produce a word,
sentence, or verse of pertinent, or of widely different meaning.


1823. They are very difficult to discover, but are exceedingly
striking when good. The following are some of the most remarkable.


1824. _Transposed Forms_--Astronomers--No more stars; Catalogues--Got
as a clue; Elegant--Neat leg; Impatient--Tim in a pet; Immediately--I
met my Delia; Masquerade--Queen as mad; Parishioners--I hire
parsons; Parliament--Partial men; Penitentiary--Nay I repent;
Presbyterians--Best in prayer; Sweetheart--There we sat;
Telegraphs--Great helps.


1825. _Conundrums._--These are simple catches, in which the sense is
playfully cheated, and are generally founded upon words capable of
double meaning. The following are examples.


1826. If a person were looking at a conflagration by the names of
what three great British writers, could he express his emotions?

1827. _Dickens, How-itt Burns!_


1828. The name of what class of persons, in Rome, might a bear be
supposed to say when he was licking his paws after having eaten a
little girl?

1829. _Gladiator--Glad I ate her._


1830. Who first introduced salt provisions into the navy?

1831. _Noah, when he took Ham into the ark._


1832. Why need a person never be hungry in the desert?

1833. _Because of the sand which is there.--Sandwiches!_


1834. Why is a clock the most modest thing in the world?

1835. _Because it always keeps its hands before its face, and no
matter how good its works are, it will run itself down._



PART IX.

WORK IN DOORS AND OUT.

  _Home Comforts--Household Receipts--Wise Economy--Fuel--Things to
  Know--Cleanliness--Accidents--Agriculture--Gardening--Etc., Etc._


HOUSEHOLD MAXIMS.

1836. A short needle makes the most expedition in plain sewing.


1837. When you are particular in wishing to have precisely what you
want from a butcher's, go and purchase it yourself.


1838. One flannel petticoat will wear nearly as long as two, if
turned behind-part before, when the front begins to wear thin.


1839. People in general are not aware how very essential to the
health of their inmates is the free admission of light into their
houses.


1840. A leather strap, with a buckle to fasten, is much more
commodious than a cord for a box in general use for short distances;
cording and uncording is a disagreeable job.


1841. There is not any real economy in purchasing cheap cottons for
gentlemen's night shirts. The cloth cuts in holes, and soon becomes
bad colored in washing.


1842. Sitting to sew by candle-light by a table with a dark cloth
on it is injurious to the eye-sight. When no other remedy presents
itself, put a sheet of white paper before you.


1843. People very commonly complain of indigestion: how it be
wondered at, when they seem by their habit of swallowing their food
wholesale, to forget for what purpose they are provided with teeth.


1844. Eat slowly and you will not over-eat.


1845. Keeping the feet warm will prevent headaches.


1846. Late at breakfast--hurried for dinner--cross at tea.


1847. Between husband and wife little attentions beget much love.


1848. Always lay your table neatly, whether you have company or not.


1849. Put your balls or reels of cotton into little bags, leaving the
ends out.


1850. Whatever you may choose to give away, always be sure to _keep
your temper_.


1851. Feather beds should be opened every third year, the ticking
well dusted, soaped and waxed, the feathers dressed and returned.


1852. _Bed-rooms_ heated are pernicious to health.


1853. _Beds_, instead of being made up as soon as people rise out of
them, ought to be turned down, and exposed to the fresh air from the
open windows through the day.


1854. _Feather beds_, especially in youth and in warm weather,
enervate the system, destroying its vigor and health. Neither should
beds be too hard. Sleeping with the head under the clothes is
pernicious; so, also, confined air caused by curtains.


1855. _The floor_ is the unhealthiest part of a room, from the
tendency of impure air to descend.


1856. _Charcoal_, when burning, should have an uncovered vessel
of boiling water over it, the vapor of which will counteract the
deleterious fumes.


1857. _Powdered charcoal_ will remove smells, impurities, &c., from
old glass vessels, after the grosser parts have been scoured off with
sand and potash.


1858. A _perfume_ for linen, &c., is made of rose leaves dried in the
shade, mixed with powdered cloves, scraped mace, and put in little
bags.


1859. Persons of defective sight, when threading a needle, should
hold it over something white, by which the sight will be assisted.


1860. In mending sheets and shirts, put the pieces sufficiently
large, or in the first washing the thin parts give way, and the work
is all undone.


1861. Reading by candle-light, place the candle behind you, that the
rays may pass over your shoulder on to the book. This will relieve
the eyes.


1862. A wire fire-guard, for each fire-place in a house, costs
little, and greatly diminishes the risk to life and property. Fix
them before going to bed.


1863. In winter, get the work forward by daylight, to prevent running
about at night with candles. Thus you escape grease spots and risks
of fire.


1864. Matches, out of the reach of children, should be kept in every
bedroom. They are cheap enough.


1865. Apple and suet dumplings are lighter when boiled in a net than
a cloth. Scum the pot well.


1866. When chamber towels get thin in the middle, cut them in two,
sew the selvages together, and hem the sides.


1867. When you dry salt for the table, do not place it in the
salt-cells until it is cold, otherwise it will harden into a lump.


1868. Never put away plate, knives and forks, &c., uncleaned, or sad
inconvenience will arise when the articles are wanted.


1869. After washing, overlook linen, and stitch on buttons, hooks and
eyes, &c.; for this purpose, keep a "housewife's friend," full of
miscellaneous threads, cottons, buttons, hooks, &c.


1870. For ventilation, open your windows both at top and bottom. The
fresh air rushes in one way, while the foul makes its exit the other.
This is letting in your friend and expelling your enemy.


1871. Never allow your servants to put wiped knives on your table;
for, generally speaking, you may see that they have been wiped with a
dirty cloth.


1872. There is not any thing gained in economy by having very young
and inexperienced servants at low wages.


1873. Dirty windows speak to the passer-by of the negligence of the
inmates.


1874. _Carpets._--If the corner of a carpet gets loose and prevents
the door opening, or trips every one up that enters the room, nail it
down at once. A dog's-eared carpet marks the sloven as well as the
dog's-eared book.


1875. _Cravats_ or stocks should not be worn so tight as to compress
the many large blood-vessels of the neck, which connect with the
brain.


1876. _Impure air_ of theatres, ball-rooms, and other crowded and
badly-ventilated buildings and sleeping-rooms, is poison to the lungs.


1877. _Eye-sight_ is best preserved by a moderate light--too little,
strains--too much, dazzles and injures. Bathing in cold water is of
service.


1878. _Consumption._--Remedies.--Vigorous, daily, but not violent,
exercise, and free exposure to the air, are important. As the great
difficulty in medicine is in reaching the seat of this disease,
frequently inhaling certain fumes may be a means of healing the
lungs. Sitting and sleeping in a room through which the fumes of
resin, turpentine, or other similar gums are moderately diffused, may
be of service.


1879. _Small Pox_ is prevented by vaccination, if well done. Never
neglect vaccination.


1880. _Water_ is purified by--1, filtration through gravel, sand,
or soft porous stone and charcoal. Or, 2, it may be sweetened and
improved by charcoal, coarsely pulverized and thrown into a vessel of
water. 3, by boiling and distillation. Water is greatly improved in
wells or pumps that are frequently used.


1881. _Distilled Water_, after being exposed to the air, is the
most salubrious of all drinks, and its daily use is of the greatest
importance in dyspepsia and similar diseases.


1882. _Wet Clothes_ should not be worn near a fire, or so as to
occasion sudden heat. Keep in motion till dry can be had, then change
at once, and give the feet a long heating.


1883. _Black Silks_ wash in warm small beer and milk.


HOUSEHOLD RECEIPTS FOR MANY THINGS.

1884. _To Extract Grease from Clothes._--Scrape off all the grease
that you can with a knife; then lay over the spot a thick brown
paper, and press it with a warm iron; if the grease comes through
the paper, take another piece, and so on until it does not soil the
paper.


1885. If not all out, wrap a bit of cloth or flannel round the
finger, dip it in spirits of wine, and rub the grease spot; this will
take it out. Be careful not to have the iron too hot. Try it on white
paper; if it scorches this, it is too hot.


1886. _To Extract Paint from Woolen._--Rub the spot with a piece of
flannel saturated with turpentine, or spirit of wine.


1887. _To Preserve Hats._--Brush them always with a soft brush. Keep
them in a hat box if not in constant use, as air and dust soon turn
them brown. Have a stick for each hat.


1888.--_Hats when wet_ should be handled lightly, wiped dry with a
cloth or silk handkerchief, and brushed. If the fur sticks, dampen it
with a sponge dipped in vinegar, and brush it dry.


1889. _When heated by exercise_ avoid drinking cold water. Rinse the
mouth with cold water before drinking.


1890. _To Procure Sleep._--On going to bed take a warm or cold bath.


1891. _Another Way._--Rub the body well with rough towels or the
flesh-brush for a quarter of an hour.


1892. _To Relieve Headache in Bed._--Wash the head in cold water, and
lay aside the night-cap, but see that the feet are kept warm.


1893. _The air bath_ is very healthful. Children especially should
resort to this method of enjoying the salubrious influence of the
atmosphere.


1894. _Dr. Franklin's_ plan was to rise at day-break, and pass half
an hour in his chamber undressed, reading or writing.


1895. _Close Closets_ that have become infested with moths should
be well rubbed with a strong decoction of tobacco, and repeatedly
sprinkled with spirits of camphor.


1896. _The Sting of a Nettle_ may be cured by rubbing the part with
rosemary, mint, or sage leaves.


1897. _Charcoal Fumes._--The usual remedies for persons overcome
with the fumes of charcoal in a close apartment are, to throw cold
water on the head and to bleed immediately; also apply mustard or
hartshorne to the soles of the feet.


1898. _An Ever-Dirty Hearth_, and a grate always choked with cinders
and ashes, are infallible evidences of bad house-keeping.


1899. _Effects of Charcoal_, in stopping putrefaction, are now well
ascertained; fish or meat may be restored by boiling charcoal with
them.


1900. _Moths--to get rid of them._--Procure shavings of cedar-wood,
and enclose in muslin bags, which should be distributed freely among
the clothes.


1901. _Second._--Sprinkle pimento (allspice) berries among the
clothes. Sprinkle the clothes with the seeds of the musk plant.


1902. _To Destroy the Eggs._--When deposited in woolen cloth, &c.,
use a solution of acetate of potash in spirits of rosemary, fifteen
grains to the pint.


1903. _To Drive away Moths_ from clothes, wrap up some yellow or
turpentine soap in paper; or place an open bottle containing spirits
of turpentine in the wardrobe.


1904. _Cold Green Tea_, very strong, and sweetened with sugar, when
set about in saucers, attracts flies and destroys them.


1905. _For Keeping a Door open_, place a large brick, covered neatly
with a piece of carpeting, against the door.


1906. _A Stair-Carpet_ should never be swept down with a long broom,
but always with a short-handled brush, and a dust pan held closely
under each step of the stairs.


1907. _A Hat_ should be brushed every day with a hat-brush, and twice
a-day in dusty weather.


1908. _Rings_ that have stones in them should always be taken off the
finger when the hands are washed, else they become discolored.


1909. _Reading in Bed_ at night should be avoided, as besides the
danger of an accident, it never fails to injure the eyes.


1910. _In Escaping from a Fire_, creep or crawl along the room with
your face close to the ground. Children should be early taught how
to press out a spark when it happens to reach any part of their
dress, and also that running into the air will cause it to blaze
immediately. (See page 204.)


1911. _Bronzed Chandeliers, Lamps, &c._, should be merely dusted with
a feather brush, or with a soft cloth, as washing them will take off
the bronzing.


1912. _Iron Wipers._--Old soft towels, or pieces of old sheets or
tablecloths, make excellent iron wipers.


1913. _To Clean Looking-Glasses._--First wash the glass all over
with lukewarm soap-suds and a sponge. When dry, rub it bright with a
buckskin and a little prepared chalk, finely powdered.


1914. _Flowers and Shrubs_ should be excluded from a bed-chamber.


1915. _Water_ of every kind, except rain water, will speedily cover
the inside of a tea-kettle with an unpleasant crust; this may easily
be guarded against by placing a clean oyster-shell in the tea-kettle,
which will always keep it in good order, by attracting the particles
of earth or of stone.


1916. _Paper Fire-Screens_ should be coated with transparent varnish;
otherwise they will soon become soiled and discolored.


1917. _The best Lamp-Oil_ is that which is clear and nearly
colorless, like water.


1918. _Oil-Grease_ may be removed from a hearth by covering it
immediately with thick hot ashes, or with burning coals.


1919. _Candles_ improve by keeping a few months.


1920. _Glass Vessels_, and other utensils, may be purified and
cleaned by rinsing them out with powdered charcoal.


1921. _Family Clocks_ ought only to be oiled with the very purest
oil, purified by a quart of lime-water to a gallon of oil, in which
it has been well shaken, and suffered to stand for three or four
days, when it may be drawn off.


1922. _To Heat a Bed_ at a moment's notice, throw a little salt into
the warming-pan, and suffer it to burn for a minute previous to use.
(See page 17.)


1923. _To Destroy Flies_ in a room, take half a teaspoonful of
black pepper in powder, one teaspoonful of brown sugar, and one
tablespoonful of cream, mix them well together, and place them in the
room on a plate, where the flies are troublesome.


1924. _Feet, to Keep Warm in a Carriage or Cold Room._--Use a stone
or glass bottle filled with boiling water and wrapped in flannel.


1925. _To Prevent Cold Feet at Night._--Rub the ankles and feet with
the hand as hard as can be borne for five or ten minutes before
retiring. This will be found an effectual remedy.


1926. _Another Way._--Frequent washing, and rubbing them thoroughly
dry, with a linen cloth, or flannel, is useful.


1927. _To Warm Beds._--Take all the black or blazing coals out of the
pan, and scatter a little salt over the remainder. This will prevent
the smell of sulphur.


1928. _To Explore Unventilated Places._--Light sheets of brown paper
and throw into the well or cavern. Or, fix a long pipe to a pair of
bellows, and blow into the place for some time.


1929. _To Destroy Crickets._--Put Scotch snuff upon the holes where
they come out.


1930. _To Brush Clothes._--Have a wooden horse to put the clothes on,
and a small cane to beat the dust out of them; also a board or table
long enough for them to be put their whole length while brushing them.


1931. Have two brushes, one hard and the other soft. Use the hard
brush for the great coats; the soft for the fine cloth garments.
These should never be brushed with too hard a brush, as this will
take off the nap.


1932. _The Cane for the Clothes_ should not be too large. A small
hand-whip is the best to beat with. Be careful not to strike the
buttons.


1933. If the coat be wet and spotted with mud, let it be quite dry
before brushing it. Then rub off the mud with the hands; put the coat
at its full length on the board, and brush the cloth the same way the
nap goes, which is toward the skirt of the coat.


1934. _Chimneys, Smoky, to Cure._--A northern aspect often produces a
smoky chimney.


1935. _Stacks of Chimneys_ are less apt to smoke than single ones.


1936. _Straight Funnels_ seldom draw well.


1937. _Large Fire-Places_ are apt to smoke. When they do so, the
lower aperture should be diminished.


1938. If the _chimney_ smokes only when the fire is first lighted,
lay any inflammable substance, as shavings, on the top of the grate;
the rapid combustion of which will warm the air of the chimney, and
give it a tendency upward before any smoke is produced.


1939. A _chimney so incorrigible_ as to require the constant
admission of fresh air, should have a pipe introduced, one of whose
apertures is under the grate, and the other in the open air. Or
openings may be made for ventilation near the top of the apartment.


1940. _To prevent unpleasant odor in Clothes laid up for a time_,
place recently-made charcoal between the folds of the garments. Even
when the odor has taken place, the charcoal will absorb it.


1941. _To Purify Stagnant Water._--One part of chalk and two of alum
will speedily purify stagnant water, and four parts of animal carbon
and one of alum are sufficient to purify a thousand parts of muddy
river water.


1942. _To Prevent the Smoking of a Lamp._--Soak the wick in strong
vinegar, and well dry it before you use it.


1943. _To Clean Cane Chairs._--Sponge them, until soaked, with soap
and hot water.


1944. _Clean White Vails._--Put the vail in a solution of white soap,
and let it simmer a quarter of an hour; squeeze it in some warm water
and soap till quite clean. Rinse it from soap, and then in clean cold
water, in which is a drop of liquid blue; then pour boiling water on
a teaspoonful of starch, run the vail through this, and clear it well
by clapping it. Afterward pin it out, keeping the edges straight and
even.


1945. _Restoring Color to Silk._--When the color has been taken from
silk by acids, it may be restored by applying to the spot a little
hartshorne, or sal-volatile.


1946. _Clean White Ostrich Feathers._--Four ounces of white soap,
cut small, dissolved in four pints of water, rather hot, in a
large basin; make the solution into a lather, by beating it with
birch-rods, or wires.


1947. Introduce the feathers, and rub well with the hands for five or
six minutes. After this soaping, wash in clean water, as hot as the
hand can bear. Shake until dry.


1948. _Cure for a Burn._--Wheat flour and cold water mixed to the
consistency of soft paste, is an almost instantaneous cure for a
burn, whether large or small. Renew before the first gets so dry as
to stick.


1949. _Slippery Elm_ bark powdered makes an excellent healing
poultice for burns, sores, &c., boiled with milk and about one-third
bread.


1950. _Cod-Liver Oil._--This is a nauseating medicine, but the
following receipt is said to remedy the bad taste.


1951. To a pint of cod-liver oil add an ounce of fine salt; shake
them well together, till they amalgamate.


1952. _To Dress Squirrel and other Skins._--Take a handful of common
salt, and half the quantity of alum; boil it in half a gallon of
water till dissolved. When cold, the skins may be put in to steep,
and allowed to remain for a fortnight, occasionally turning them;
they may then be taken out, stretched on a board (skin side outward)
till dry; they will then be found perfectly soft and pliable.


1953. _Another Method._--Stretch the fresh skin on a board, and dress
it with water in which salt and alum have been dissolved--applying
the solution with a brush. This does not injure the glossiness of the
fur, which is apt to be affected when the skin is immersed.


1954. _To Clean Furs._--Strip the fur articles of their stuffing and
binding, and lay them as much as possible in a flat position.


1955. They must then be subjected to a very brisk brushing, with a
stiff clothes-brush; after this, any moth-eaten parts must be cut
out, and be neatly replaced by new bits of fur to match.


1956. _Sable, Chinchilla, Squirrel, Fitch_, &c., should be treated as
follows: Warm a quantity of new bran in a pan, taking care that it
does not burn, to prevent which it must be actively stirred.


1957. When well warmed, rub it thoroughly into the fur with the hand.
Repeat this two or three times; then shake the fur, and give it
another sharp brushing until free from dust.


1958. _White Furs, Ermine, &c._, may be cleaned as follows: Lay the
fur on the table, and rub it well with bran made moist with warm
water; rub until quite dry, and afterward with dry bran. The wet
bran should be put on with flannel, and the dry with a piece of
book-muslin.


1959. _The Light Furs_, in addition to the above, should be well
rubbed with magnesia, or a piece of book-muslin, after the bran
process.


1960. _Stretching Furs._--Furs are usually much improved by
stretching, which may be managed as follows: To a pint of soft water
add three ounces of salt, dissolve; with this solution sponge the
inside of the skin (taking care not to wet the fur), until it becomes
thoroughly saturated; then lay it carefully on a board with the fur
side downward, in its natural disposition; then stretch, as much as
it will bear, to the required shape, and fasten with small tacks. The
drying may be quickened by placing the skin a little distance from
the fire or stove.


1961. _To Preserve Furs from Moths._--Warm water, one pint; corrosive
sublimate, twelve grains. If washed with this, and afterward dried,
furs are safe from moth. Care should be taken to label the liquid
"poison."


1962. _To Keep away Flies._--No fly will enter a room in which a
wreath of walnut leaves has been hung up. The experiment is worth
trying.


1963. _Washing._--The most important department of domestic economy
naturally includes the washhouse, into which philosophy has found its
way for the application of many useful principles, and much useful
practice. (See p. 262.)


1964. _To Clean Morocco Shoes._--Dissolve gum arabic in water, and
mix with it a little white sugar. If it is to be kept any time, put
in a little spirits of wine. Brush the shoes with it.


1965. _Cheap Door-Mats._--Cut old broadcloth or any woolen articles
into long strips from one to two inches broad. Braid three of these
together, and sew the braid round in gradually increasing circles
till large enough.


WISE ECONOMY.

1966. If you have a strip of land, do not throw away soap-suds. Both
ashes and soap-suds are good manure for bushes and young plants.


1967. _Woolen Clothes_ should be washed in very hot suds, and not
rinsed. Lukewarm water shrinks them.


1968. Do not let coffee and tea stand in tin.


1969. Scald your wooden-ware often, and keep your tin-ware dry.


1970. Preserve the backs of old letters to write upon.


1971. If you have children who are learning to write, buy coarse
white paper by the quantity, and keep it locked up, ready to be made
into writing-books. It does not cost half so much as it does to buy
them at the stationer's.


1972. See that nothing is thrown away which might have served to
nourish your own family or a poorer one.


1973. As far as possible, have bits of bread eaten up before they
become hard; spread those that are not eaten, and let them dry, to be
pounded for puddings, or soaked for brewis.


1974. _Brewis_ is made of crusts and dry pieces of bread, soaked a
good while in hot milk, mashed up, and eaten with salt.


1975. Above all, do not let crusts accumulate in such quantities that
they cannot be used. With proper care, there is no need of losing a
particle of bread.


1976. All the mending in the house should be done once a week, if
possible.


1977. Never put out sewing. If it be not possible to do it in your
own family, hire some one into the house, and work with them.


1978. Do not let knives be dropped into hot dish-water. It is a good
plan to have a large tin pot to wash them in, just high enough to
wash the blades _without wetting_ the handles.


1979. It is better to accomplish perfectly a very small amount of
work, than to half do ten times as much.


1980. _Charcoal Powder_ will be found a very good thing to give
knives a first-rate polish.


1981. _A Bonnet_ and trimmings may be worn a much longer time, if the
dust be brushed well off after walking.


1982. Much knowledge may be obtained by the good housewife observing
how things are managed in well-regulated families.


1983. _Apples_ intended for dumplings should not have the core taken
out of them, as the pips impart a delicious flavor to the dumpling.


1984. _A Rice Pudding_ is most excellent without either eggs or
sugar, if baked gently; it keeps better without eggs.


1985. "Wilful waste makes woful want." Do not cook a fresh joint
whilst any of the last remains uneaten--hash it up, and with gravy
and a little management eke out another day's dinner.


1986. A warming-pan full of coals, or a shovel of coals, held over
varnished furniture, will take out white spots. Care should be taken
not to hold the coals near enough to scorch; and the place should be
rubbed with a flannel while warm.


1987. _Sal-volatile_ or hartshorne will restore colors taken out by
acid. It may be dropped upon any garment without doing harm.


1988. _New Iron_ should be very gradually heated at first. After it
has become inured to the heat, it is not so likely to crack.


1989. The shanks of mutton make a good stock for nearly any kind
of gravy--and they are very cheap--a dozen may be had for a penny,
enough to make a quart of delicious soup.


1990. Thick curtains, closely drawn around the bed, are very
injurious, because they not only confine the effluvia thrown off from
our bodies whilst in bed, but interrupt the current of pure air.


1991. Regularity in the payment of accounts is essential to
housekeeping. All tradesmen's bills should be paid weekly, for then
any errors can be detected whilst the transactions are fresh in the
memory.


1992. _Linen Rags_ should be carefully saved, for they are extremely
useful in sickness. If they have become dirty and worn by cleaning
silver, &c., wash them and scrape them into lint.


1993. If you are troubled to get soft water for washing, fill a tub
or barrel half full of wood ashes, and fill it up with water, so that
you may have ley whenever you may want it. A gallon of strong ley
put into a great kettle of hard water, will make it as soft as rain
water.


1994. "_Morning's Milk_," says an eminent German philosopher,
"commonly yields some hundredths more cream than the evening's at the
same temperature. That milked at noon furnishes the least; it would
therefore be of advantage, in making butter and cheese, to employ the
morning's milk, and to keep the evening's for domestic use."


1995. _Scouring Drops for Removing Grease._--There are several
preparations of this name; one of the best is made as follows:
Camphene, or spirits of turpentine, three ounces; essence of lemon,
one ounce; mix.


1996. _Sweeping Carpets._--Persons who are accustomed to use
tea-leaves for sweeping their carpets, and find that they leave
stains, will do well to employ fresh cut grass instead. It is better
than tea-leaves for preventing dust, and gives the carpets a very
bright, fresh look.


1997. _Economy of Fuel._--There is no part of domestic economy which
everybody professes to understand better than the management of a
fire, and yet there is no branch in the household arrangements where
there is a greater proportional and unnecessary waste, than arises
from ignorance and mismanagement in this article.


1998. It is an old adage that we must stir no man's fire until we
have known him seven years; but we might find it equally prudent if
we were careful as to the stirring of our own.


1999. Anybody, indeed, can take up a poker and toss the coals about;
but that is not stirring a fire!


2000. If the consumer, instead of ordering a large supply of coal at
once, will at first content himself with a sample, he may, with very
little trouble, ascertain who will deal fairly with him; and, if he
wisely pays ready money, he will be independent of his coal merchant;
a situation which few families, even in genteel life, can boast of.


2001. Indeed, we cannot too often repeat the truth, that to deal for
ready money only, in all the departments of domestic arrangement, is
the truest economy.


2002. Ready money will always command the best and cheapest of every
article of consumption, if expended with judgment; and the dealer,
who intends to act fairly, will always prefer it.


2003. Trust not him who seems more anxious to give credit than to
receive cash.


2004. The former hopes to secure custom by having a hold upon you in
his books; and continues always to make up for his advance, either
by an advance price, or an inferior article; whilst the latter knows
that your custom can only be secured by fair dealing.


2005. There is, likewise, another consideration, as far as economy is
concerned, which is, not only to buy with ready money, but to buy at
proper seasons; for there is with every article a cheap season and a
dear one.


2006. The master of a family who fills his coal cellar in the middle
of the summer, rather than the beginning of the winter, will save
one-fourth which it would otherwise cost him; and will be enabled
to see December's snows falling without feeling his enjoyment of
his fireside lessened by the consideration that the cheerful blaze
is supplied at twice the rate that it need have done, if he had
exercised more foresight.


2007. We must now call to the recollection of our readers that
chimneys often smoke, and that coal is often wasted by throwing too
much fuel at once upon a fire.


2008. To prove this observation, it is only necessary to remove
the superfluous coal from the top of the grate, when the smoking
instantly ceases.


2009. As to the waste, that evidently proceeds from the frequent,
intemperate and injudicious use of the poker, which not only throws
a great portion of the small coals among the cinders, but often
extinguishes the fire it was intended to foster.


2010. _Economy in Carpets._--In buying a carpet, as in every thing
else, those of the best quality are cheapest in the end. As it is
extremely desirable that they should look as clean as possible, avoid
buying carpet that has any white in it. Even a very small portion of
white interspersed through the pattern will in a short time give a
dirty appearance to the whole; and certainly no carpet can be worse
for use than one with a white ground.


2011. A carpet in which all the colors are light, never has a clean,
bright effect, from the want of dark tints to contrast and set off
the light ones.


2012. For a similar reason, carpets whose colors are all of what
artists call middle tint (neither dark nor light), cannot fail to
look dull and dingy, even when quite new.


2013. The caprices of fashion at times bring these ill-colored
carpets into vogue; but in apartments where elegance is desirable,
they always have a bad effect.


2014. For a carpet to be really beautiful and in good taste, there
should be, as in a picture, a judicious disposal of light and shadow,
with a gradation of very bright and of very dark tints; some almost
white, and others almost or quite black.


2015. _Red Carpets._--The most truly chaste, rich and elegant
carpets, are those where the pattern is formed by one color only,
but arranged in every variety of shade. For instance, we have seen a
Brussels carpet entirely red; the pattern formed by shades or tints,
varying from the deepest crimson (almost a black), to the palest pink
(almost a white).


2016. _Green Carpets._--Also one of green only, shaded from the
darkest bottle-green, in some parts of the figure, to the lightest
pea-green in others.


2017. _Brown Carpets._--Another, in which there was no color but
brown, in all its various gradation, some of the shades being nearly
black, others of a light buff. All these carpets had much the look of
rich cut velvet.


2018. _The Curtains, Sofas, &c._, of course, were of corresponding
colors, and the effect of the whole was noble and elegant.


2019. Carpets of many gaudy colors are much less in demand than
formerly. Two colors only, with the dark and light shade of each,
will make a very handsome carpet.


2020. A very light blue ground, with the figure of shaded crimson or
purple, looks extremely well; so does a salmon-color or buff ground,
with a deep green figure; or a light yellow ground, with a shaded
blue figure.


2021. _Rugs._--If you cannot obtain a hearth-rug that exactly
corresponds with the carpet, get one entirely different; for a
decided contrast looks better than a bad match.


2022. We have seen very handsome hearth-rugs with a rich, black,
velvet-looking ground, and the figure of shaded blue, or of various
tints of yellow and orange.


2023. A carpet decidedly light-colored throughout, has a good effect
on the floor, or continues long to look clean.


THINGS TO KNOW.

2024. Why do candles and lamps "spirt," when rain is at hand?

2025. Because the air is filled with vapor, and the humidity
penetrates the wick, where (being formed into steam) it expands
suddenly, and produces a little explosion.


2026. Why does a drop of water sometimes roll along a piece of hot
iron without leaving the least trace?

2027. Because (when the iron is very hot indeed) the bottom of the
drop is turned into vapor, which buoys the drop up, without allowing
it to touch the iron.


2028. Why does a laundress put a little saliva on a flat-iron, to
know if it be hot enough?

2029. Because, when the saliva sticks to the box, and is evaporated,
she knows it is _not_ sufficiently hot: but when it runs along the
iron, it is.


2030. Why is the flat-iron hotter, if the saliva runs along it, than
if it adheres till it is evaporated?

2031. Because, when the saliva runs along the iron, the heat is
sufficient to convert the bottom of the drop into vapor; but if the
saliva will not roll, the iron is not sufficiently hot to convert the
bottom of the drop into vapor.


2032. Why do wet feet or clothes give us "cold"?

2033. Because the evaporation absorbs the heat so abundantly from
the surface of our body, that its temperature is lowered below its
natural standard; in consequence of which health is injured. [This
also explains why it is dangerous to sleep in a damp bed.]


2034. Why is the health injured when the temperature of the body is
reduced below its natural standard?

2035. Because the balance of the circulation is destroyed, blood is
driven away from the external surface by the chill, and thrown upon
the internal organs, which are oppressed by this increased load of
blood.


2036. Why do not sailors get cold, who are frequently wet all day
with sea-water?

2037. Because the salt of the sea retards evaporation; and (as the
heat of their bodies is drawn off gradually) the sensation of cold is
prevented. Also, the salt of the sea acts as a stimulant, and keeps
the blood circulating in the skin.


2038. What is the cause of snow?

2039. When the air is nearly saturated with vapor, and condensed by a
current of air below freezing-point, some of the vapor is condensed,
and frozen into snow. A few years ago, some fishermen (who wintered
at Nova Zembla), after they had been shut up in a hut for several
days, opened the window; and the cold external air rushing in,
instantly condensed the air of the hut, and its vapor fell on the
floor in a shower of snow.


2040. What is the cause of sleet?

2041. When flakes of snow (in their descent) pass through a bed of
air above freezing point, they partially melt, and fall to the earth
as half-melted snow.


2042. What is hail?

2043. Rain which has passed in its descent through some cold bed of
air, and has been frozen into drops of ice.


2044. What is rain?

2045. The vapor of the clouds or air condensed, and precipitated to
the earth.


2046. Why are rain-drops sometimes much larger than at other times?

2047. When the rain-cloud is floating near the earth, the drops
are larger, because such a cloud is much more dense than one more
elevated. The size of the rain-drop is also increased according to
the rapidity with which the vapors are condensed.


2048. Why does the Bible say that God "giveth snow like wool"?

2049. Because snow (being a very bad conductor of heat) protects
vegetables and seeds from the frost and cold.


2050. How does the non-conducting power of snow protect vegetables
from the frost and cold?

2051. It prevents the heat of the earth from being drawn off by the
cold air which rests upon it.


2052. Why are woolens and furs used for clothing in cold weather?

2053. Because they are very bad conductors of heat, and therefore
prevent the warmth of the body from being drawn off by the cold air.


2054. Do not woolens and furs actually impart heat to the body?

2055. No; they merely prevent the heat of the body from escaping.


2056. Where would the heat escape to, if the body were not wrapped in
wool or fur?

2057. The heat of the body would fly off into the air: for the cold
air, coming in contact with our body, would gradually draw away its
heat, till it was as cold as the air itself.


2058. What then is the principal use of clothing in winter time?

2059. To prevent the animal heat from escaping too freely; and to
protect the body from the external air (or wind), which would carry
away its heat too rapidly.


2060. Why are March winds dry?

2061. Because they generally blow from the east or north-east, and
therefore sweep over the continent of America.


2062. What is the use of March winds?

2063. They dry the soil (which is saturated by the floods of
February), break up the heavy clods, and fit the land for the seeds
which are committed to it.


2064. Why is it said that "March comes in like a lion?"

2065. Because it comes in with blustering east winds, so essential to
dry the soil, which would otherwise rot the seed committed to it.


2066. Why does "March go out like a lamb?"

2067. Because the water, evaporated by the high winds, falls again in
showers to fertilize the earth, and breaks the violence of the winds.


2068. Why is it said that "March flowers make no summer bowers?"

2069. Because, if the spring be very mild, vegetation gets too
forward, and is pinched by the nightly frosts, so as to produce
neither fruits nor flowers.


2070. Why is it said that "April showers bring May flowers?"

2071. Because April showers supply the principal nourishment on which
the seeds depend for their development.


2072. Why does a polished metal teapot make better tea than a black
earthen one?

2073. As polished metal is a very bad radiator of heat, it keeps the
water hot much longer; and the hotter the water is, the better it
draws the tea.


2074. Why will not a dull black teapot make good tea?

2075. Because the heat of the water flies off so quickly, through
the dull black surface of the teapot, that the water is very rapidly
cooled, and cannot "draw" the tea.


2076. Do not pensioners, and aged cottagers, generally prefer the
black earthen teapot to the bright metal one?

2077. Yes, because they set it on the hob to "draw;" in which case,
the little black teapot will make the best tea.


2078. Why will a black teapot make a better tea than a bright metal
one, if it is set on the hob to draw?

2079. Because the black teapot will absorb heat plentifully from the
fire, and keep the water hot; whereas a bright metal teapot (set upon
the hob) would throw off the heat by reflection.


2080. Then sometimes a black earthen teapot is the best, and
sometimes a bright metal one?

2081. Yes; when the teapot is set on the hob to "draw," the black
earth is the best, because it absorbs heat; but when the teapot is
not set on the hob the bright metal is the best, because it radiates
heat very slowly, and therefore keeps the water hot.


2082. Why does a saucepan which has been used boil in a shorter time
than a new one?

2083. Because the bottom and back are covered with soot, and the
black soot rapidly absorbs the heat of the glowing coals.


2084. Why should the front and lid of a saucepan be clean and bright?

2085. As they do not come in contact with the fire, they cannot
absorb heat, and (being bright) they will not suffer the heat to
escape by radiation.


2086. Why should not the bottom and back of a kettle be cleaned and
polished?

2087. Because they come in contact with the fire, and (while they are
covered with black soot) absorb heat freely from the burning coals.


2088. Why are dinner-covers made of bright tin or silver?

2089. Because light-colored and highly-polished metal is a very bad
radiator of heat; and, therefore, bright tin or silver will not allow
the heat of the cooked food to escape through the cover by radiation.


2090. Why should a meat-cover be very brightly polished?

2091. If the cover be dull or scratched, it will absorb heat from the
food; and instead of keeping it hot, it will make it cold.


2092. Why should a silver meat-cover be plain, and not chased?

2093. Because, if the cover be chased, it will absorb heat from the
food; and instead of making it hot, will make it cold.


2094. What is the smoke of a candle?

2095. Solid particles of carbon, separated from the wick and tallow,
but not consumed.


2096. Why are some particles consumed and not others?

2097. The combustion of the carbon depends upon its combining with
the oxygen of the air. Now, as the outer surface of the flame
prevents the access of air to the interior parts, much of the carbon
of those parts passes off in smoke.


2098. Why do lamps smoke?

2099. Either because the wick is cut unevenly, or else because it is
turned up too high.


2100. Why does a lamp smoke, when the wick is cut unevenly?

2101. Because the points of the jagged edge (being very easily
separated from the wick) load the flame with more carbon than it can
consume; and as the heat of the flame is greatly diminished by these
little bits of wicks, it is unable to consume even the usual quantity
of smoke. The same applies when the wick is turned up too high.


2102. Why does a lamp-glass diminish the smoke of a wick?

2103. Because it increases the supply of oxygen to the flame, by
producing a draught; and it concentrates and reflects the heat of the
flame; in consequence of which the combustion of the carbon is more
perfect, and very little escapes unconsumed.


2104. _Hints about Making Butter_ (See page 287).--Milk should
never be set for butter in a dark, damp cellar--as in the case with
butter-makers in this section--as the cream is thereby moulded before
it has had time to rise, which gives the butter a mouldy taste.


2105. The milk is allowed to stand too long before being skimmed,
which gives it a cheesy taste.


2106. The cream is kept too long before it is churned, after it is
skimmed, which gives it the taste of the other two; and also a sour
taste.


2107. The butter should never be washed in water, because it takes
away that beautiful aroma so essential in good butter.


2108. It should never be taken in a person's warm hands, as the heat
melts a certain portion of the globules, which gives it an oily
taste, and makes it become rancid very soon.


2109. The milk should be set in good clean tin or earthen pans, in a
dry, open, airy and shady place, above ground, if possible, although
a cellar may be so built, and ventilated, as to answer the purpose.


2110. It should never be set over twenty-four hours in warm weather;
and for a dairy of three cows or over, the cream should be churned
every morning, and never be kept over forty-eight hours, in warm
weather; in cold weather it may be kept longer.


CLEANLINESS.

2111. The want of cleanliness is a fault which admits of no excuse.
Where water can be had for nothing, it is surely in the power of
every person to be clean.


2112. The discharge from our bodies, by perspiration, renders
frequent changes of apparel necessary.


2113. Change of apparel greatly promotes the secretion from the skin,
so necessary to health.


2114. When that matter which ought to be carried off by perspiration
is either retained in the body, or reabsorbed by dirty clothes, it is
apt to occasion fevers and other diseases.


2115. Most diseases of the skin proceed from want of cleanliness.
These indeed may be caught by infection, but they will seldom
continue long where cleanliness prevails.


2116. To the same cause must we impute the various kinds of vermin
that infest the human body, houses, &c. These may generally be
banished by cleanliness alone.


2117. Perhaps the intention of Nature, in permitting such vermin to
annoy mankind, is to induce them to the practice of this virtue.


2118. One common cause of putrid and malignant fevers is the want of
cleanliness.


2119. These fevers commonly begin among the inhabitants of close,
dirty houses, who breathe bad air, take little exercise, use
unwholesome food, and wear dirty clothes. There the infection is
generally hatched, which spreads far and wide to the destruction of
many. Hence cleanliness may be considered as an object of the public
attention.


2120. It is not sufficient that I be clean myself, while the want of
it in my neighbor affects my health as well as his own.


2121. If dirty people cannot be removed as a common nuisance, they
ought at least to be avoided as infectious. All who regard their
health, should keep at a distance, even from their habitations.


2122. In places where great numbers of people are collected,
cleanliness becomes of the utmost importance.


2123. It is well known, that infectious diseases are caused by
tainted air. Every thing, therefore, which tends to pollute the air,
or spread the infection, ought with the utmost care to be avoided.


2124. For this reason, in great towns, no filth of any kind should
be permitted to lie upon the streets. We are sorry to say, that
the importance of general cleanliness does by no means seem to be
sufficiently understood.


2125. It were well if the lower classes of the inhabitants of the
United States would imitate the Dutch, in the cleanliness of their
streets, houses, &c.


2126. Water, indeed, is easily obtained in Holland; but the situation
of most towns in the United States is more favorable to cleanliness.


2127. Nothing can be more agreeable to the senses, more to the honor
of the inhabitants, or conducive to their health, than a clean town;
nor does any thing impress a stranger sooner with a disrespectful
idea of any people than its opposite.


2128. It is remarkable, that, in most eastern countries, cleanliness
makes a great part of their religion. The Mahometan, as well as
the Jewish religion, enjoins various bathings, washings, and
purifications.


2129. No doubt these were designed to represent inward purity; but
they are at the same time calculated for the preservation of health.


2130. However whimsical these washings may appear to some, few things
would appear more to prevent diseases than a proper attention to many
of them.


2131. Were every person, for example, after handling a dead body,
visiting the sick, &c., to wash and to change his clothes before he
went into company, or sat down to meat, he would run less hazard
either of catching the infection himself, or communicating it to
others.


2132. Frequent washing not only removes the filth which adheres to
the skin, but likewise promotes the perspiration, braces the body,
and enlivens the spirits.


2133. Even washing the feet tends greatly to preserve health. The
sweat and dirt with which these parts are frequently covered, cannot
fail to obstruct their perspiration. This piece of cleanliness would
often prevent colds and fevers.


2134. Were people to bathe their feet and hands in warm water at
night, after being exposed to cold or wet through the day, they would
seldom experience any of the fatal effects which often proceed from
these causes.


2135. In places where great numbers of sick people are kept,
cleanliness ought most religiously to be observed. The very smell
in such places is often sufficient to make one sick. It is easy to
imagine what effect that is likely to have upon the disease.


2136. A person in health has a greater chance to become sick, than
a sick person has to get well, in an hospital or infirmary where
cleanliness is neglected.


2137. The brutes themselves set us an example of cleanliness. Most of
them seem uneasy, and thrive ill, if they be not kept clean.


2138. A horse that is kept thoroughly clean, will thrive better on a
smaller quantity of food, than with a greater, where cleanliness is
neglected.


2139. Even our own feelings are sufficient proof of the necessity of
cleanliness. How refreshed, how cheerful and agreeable does one feel
on being shaved, washed and dressed; especially when these have been
long neglected.


2140. Most people esteem cleanliness; and even those who do not
practice it themselves, often admire it in others.


2141. Superior cleanliness sooner attracts our regard than even
finery itself, and often gains esteem where the other fails.


2142. A clean, fresh, and well-ordered house exercises over its
inmates a moral no less than a physical influence, and has a direct
tendency to make the members of a family sober, peaceable, and
considerate of the feelings and happiness of each other; nor is it
difficult to trace a connection between habitual feeling of this sort
and the formation of habits of respect for property, for the laws
in general, and even for those higher duties and obligations the
observance of which no laws can enforce.


PREVENTION OF ACCIDENTS.

2143. The following regulations should be engraved on the memories of
all:--


2144. As most sudden deaths come by water, particular caution is
therefore necessary in its vicinity.


2145. Stand not near a tree, or any leaden spout, iron gate, or
palisade, in time of lightning.


2146. Lay loaded guns in safe places, and never imitate firing a gun
in jest.


2147. Never sleep near charcoal; if drowsy at any work where charcoal
fires are used, take the fresh air.


2148. Carefully rope trees before they are cut down, that when they
fall they may do no injury.


2149. When benumbed with cold, beware of sleeping out of doors; rub
yourself, if you have it in your power, with snow, and do not hastily
approach the fire.


2150. Beware of damps.


2151. Air vaults, by letting them remain open some time before you
enter, or scattering powdered lime in them.


2152. Where a lighted candle will not burn, animal life can not
exist; it will be an excellent caution, therefore, before entering
damp and confined places, to try this simple experiment.


2153. Never leave saddle or draught horses, while in use, by
themselves, nor go immediately behind a led horse as he is apt to
kick.


2154. Ride not on foot-ways.


2155. Be wary of children, whether they are up or in bed; and
particularly when they are near the fire, an element with which they
are very apt to amuse themselves.


2156. Leave nothing poisonous open or accessible; and never omit to
write the word "Poison" in large letters upon it, wherever it may be
placed.


2157. In walking the streets, keep out of the line of the cellars;
and never look one way and walk another.


2158. Never throw pieces of orange-peel, or broken glass bottles,
into the streets.


2159. Never meddle with gunpowder by candle-light.


2160. In trimming a lamp with naphtha, never fill it. Leave space for
the spirit to expand with warmth.


2161. Never quit a room, leaving the poker in the fire.


2162. When the brass rod of the stair-carpet becomes loose, fasten it
immediately.


2163. In opening effervescing drinks, such as soda-water, hold the
cork in your hand.


2164. Quit your house with care on a frosty morning.


2165. Have your horses' shoes roughed directly there are indications
of frost.


2166. Keep lucifer matches in their cases, and never let them be
strewed about.


ADDITIONAL DOMESTIC HINTS.

2167. _Easy method of Breaking Glass to any required Figure._--Make a
small notch by means of a file on the edge of a piece of glass, then
make the end of a tobacco-pipe, or of a rod of iron of the same size,
red hot in the fire, apply the hot iron to the notch, and draw it
slowly along the surface of the glass in any direction you please: a
crack will follow the direction of the iron.


2168. _Cleansing of Furniture._--The cleaning of furniture forms an
important part of domestic economy, not only in regard to neatness,
but also in point of expense.


2169. The readiest mode indeed consists in good manual rubbing, or
the "essence of elbows," as it is whimsically termed; but our finest
cabinet-work requires something more, where brilliancy of polish is
of importance.


2170. _China and Glass Ware._--For the best way of cleaning, see page
31.


2171. Much of the red now used in China is actually produced by the
_anotto_ extracted from the cuttings of scarlet cloth, which have
long formed an article of exportation to Canton.


2172. It ought to be taken for granted that all china or glassware is
well tempered; yet a little careful attention may not be misplaced,
even on that point.


2173. Ornamental china or glassware are not exposed to the action of
hot water in common domestic use.


2174. It will be proper never to apply water to them beyond a tepid
temperature.


2175. An ingenious and simple mode of annealing glass has been some
time in use by chemists. It consists in immersing the vessel in cold
water, gradually heated to the boiling point, and suffered to remain
till cold, when it will be fit for use.


2176. Soap and labor may be saved by dissolving alum and chalk in
bran-water, in which the linen ought to be boiled, then well rinsed
out, and exposed to the usual process of bleaching.


2177. Soap may be disused, or nearly so, in the getting up of
muslins and chintzes, which should always be treated agreeably to
the oriental manner; that is to wash them in plain water, and then
boil them in congee or rice-water: after which they ought not to be
submitted to the operation of the smoothing iron, but rubbed smooth
with a polished stone.


2178. The economy which must result from these processes renders
their consideration important to every private family, in addition to
which we must state that the improvements in philosophy extend to the
laundry as well as to the wash-house.


AGRICULTURE--MORE HINTS.

(SEE PAGES 198 AND 264.)

2179. _Small Farms._--Never have more land in culture than can be
_well cultivated_.


2180. _Be a Farmer_, not a mere earth-scraper, lazily scratching up
sufficient earth to destroy the face of the soil, and throw seed
away, or you will always have to scratch hard for a living. But make
your farm a source of pride, and it will surely become a source of
profit. Make the object to be not to have _many_, but _rich_ acres.


2181. _Turnip Fly_ may be expelled by the use of fish-oil, one or two
gallons to the acre.


2182. _Bone Dust._--An English proverb says, "One ton of bone-dust
saves the importation of ten tons of grain."


2183. _Corn._--Sprinkling with salt and water will check the weevil.
Of all the grains, corn is the most valuable, taking into view
quantity and price. Soaking the seed in a solution of saltpetre keeps
off the worm, and largely increases the crop.


2184. _Rye_ is more thrifty on soil of a dry, sandy, or gravely
texture, if well manured, and winters best when sown early.


2185. _Lime_, as manure for wheat, is of great importance Use about
three bushels to the acre.


2186. _Fields._--As a general rule, with but few exceptions, square
large fields are more advantageous than small irregular ones,
requiring less fence, and being more easily watered, manured, plowed,
and harvested.


2187. _Musty Grain_ is made sweet by putting it in boiling water,
(double the quantity of grain), letting it cool in the water, and
then drying it well. Skim the water.


2188. _A Single Weed_ may draw out the nourishment that would have
given fullness to half-a-dozen ears. To be free from taxes is far
less important than to be free from weeds.


2189. _Fences._--Around each post hill the earth, to carry off the
water, and char the end a few inches above the surface. Cedar fences
last about 15 years, which should lead owners to inquire where the
fences are to come from hereafter.


2190. _Manure._--Every farmer can double the quantity of his domestic
or yard manure, with scarcely any additional expense. At least fifty
per cent. of the nutritive properties of yard manure are lost by
drenching of rains, excessive fermentation, and injurious application
to soil.


2191. _Plow deep._--Let a farmer examine the extent and depth to
which the roots of grain, in a loose and favorable soil, will spread,
and he will cease to wonder at the failure of a crop where the
subsoil has never been stirred by the plow.


2192. _Green vegetables_, when put under the soil and submitted to
the process of decomposition, are efficacious in restoring exhausted
soils.


2193. _Fertilizing._--Buckwheat and clover are striking instances
of this power in green crops to fertilize soils, and both have been
extensively used for this purpose.


2194. _Agriculture_ is worthy the most liberal patronage of our
governments, state and national; it ought to be enlightened by a
better (and thorough) education of the agricultural class.


2195. _Three Pillars of the State._--Agriculture, manufactures,
commerce, stand together; but they stand together like pillars in a
cluster, the largest in the centre, and that largest is agriculture.


2196. _The Civilizer._--Let us never forget that the cultivation
of the earth is the most important labor of man. Man, without the
cultivation of the earth, is in all countries a savage. When tillage
begins, other arts follow. The farmers, therefore, are the founders
of human civilization.


2197. _Independence of Farmers._--We live in a country of small
farms; a country, in which men cultivate with their own hands, their
own fee-simple acres; drawing not only their subsistence, but also
their spirit of independence, and manly freedom from the ground they
plow.


2198. _The Glory of Agriculture._--"The task of working improvements
on the earth is much more delightful than all the vain glory which
can be acquired by ravaging it with the most uninterrupted career of
conquests."--_Washington._


CATTLE.

(SEE PAGE 289.)

2199.--_Treat Domestic Animals kindly and tenderly._--Domestic
animals of all kinds from a horse down to a chicken, should be
treated with gentleness and mildness; men or boys who are rash and
bad-tempered, ought not to be permitted to have charge of them or to
interfere with their management. Animals that are kept in constant
fear of suffering never thrive well, and they often become vicious
and intractable by unkind and cruel treatment.


2200. _Keep Stock in good condition._--An animal may be kept short of
food in the latter part of the fall or first of winter, at a small
saving of food but at a loss in the condition of the animal.


2201. _Stables and Food._--Provide comfortable sheds and stables.
Remember that a _want of comfort is always a waste of flesh_. Give
a sufficiency of food and drink, with great regularity. A meal ten
minutes later than the usual time, causes the animal to fret, and
fretting lessens flesh.


2202. _Drink and Litter._--Most animals will drink several times a
day, and should therefore have it as often as they want it. They
should have plenty of clean litter as often as needed. With such
management, there will be an almost incredible saving of food.

_Tight Stables_ should always be ventilated. The breath and manure
from animals always causes impure air.


2203. _Oxen._--Being well-mated, oxen are more easily trained; and
the more easily to effect this, much self-denial on the part of the
driver, much coolness of temper, more training by motion and less by
voice, may be highly advantageous to man and beast.


2204. _To Select._--Adopt the practice of selecting best lambs every
year, for stock. In a few years you have first-rate sheep. The same
course will produce the same effects in every kind of animal.


2205. _Hogs._--_Food._--If pumpkins, roots, apples, or any of them be
fed to fattening hogs with corn, the advantage will be salutary. Most
of the food for swine should be cooked. Swine fatten much faster on
fermented, than on unfermented food. Salt, charcoal, and once in a
while sulphur, are excellent for hogs under all circumstances.

_Good Medicine._--When your hogs get sick, you know not of what, give
them ears of corn, first dipped in tar, and then rolled in sulphur.


2206. _Bees._--(See p. 176).--Every farmer should keep bees; a few
swarms to furnish honey for his own use, if no more. They toil with
unremitting industry, asking but a full sweep of the wing, and no
monopoly. Every man, in either town or country, can keep bees to
advantage.


2207. _Care of Bees in Winter._--A cold, dry, dark room, is the best
winter-quarters for bees. They will consume less honey than if left
on their summer stands, and will not be weakened by the loss of
thousands, which, tempted out by the premature warmth, are caught by
the cold winds, fall to the ground, and never rise again.


2208. "_Never kill a bee._"--The smoke of the _fungus maximus_, or
common puff ball, when dried so as to hold fire, has a stupefying
effect on the bees, and renders them as harmless as brimstone does,
without any of its deadly effects.


2209. _Mignonette, Sweet._--Is especially mentioned as easily
cultivated by drills in a garden, and is one of the finest and
richest flowers in the world from which the honey-bee can extract its
food.


2210. _Horses._--See page 199.


2211. _To cure Scratches on a Horse._--Wash the legs with warm strong
soap-suds, and then with beef brine. Two applications will cure the
worst case.


2212. _Bite of a Spider._--Catnip bruised and applied to the wound,
is said to be a cure for the bite of a spider.


2213. _To preserve a Granary from Insects and Weasels._--Make the
floor of Lombardy poplars.


2214. _To prevent the Creaking of a Door._--Rub a bit of soap on the
hinges.


2215. _Sulphur_ is valuable in preserving grapes, plants, &c., from
insects.


2216. _Salt_ is really necessary to horses, cattle, and sheep,
and they should be supplied with it at regular stated intervals
throughout all seasons of the year.


2217. _Manure_, on a wet soil, produces but half its effect; and
gypsum, that grand stimulant of dry soils, on a wet one is useless.


2218. _Hen-House_ should be warm in winter, well-ventilated,
white-washed, and kept clean. For the floor, use slaked lime, fine
gravel or ashes, or burnt oyster shells. (See page 200.)


2219. _A single dozen_ fowls, properly attended, will furnish a
family with more than 2,000 eggs in a year, and 100 full-grown
chickens for fall and winter stores.


2220. _Expense._--The expense of feeding the dozen fowls will not
amount to 18 bushels of Indian corn. They may be kept in cities as
well as in the country, and will do as well shut up the year round as
to run at large, with proper care.


2221. _A Fact._--Eggs the nearest to roundness produce females, and
those pointed at one end always produce males.


2222. _For Fattening._--_Boiled_ Indian, wheat and barley, is better
than oats, rye, or buckwheat. One-third is gained by _boiling_.


2223. _Eggs_, little boiled or poached, in small quantity, convey
much nourishment; the yolk only should be eaten by invalids.


2224. _Salt for Poultry._--Salt is good for water-fowls, but death to
land fowls and birds.


2225. _Salt for Pigeons._--Pigeons are fond of salt, and it keeps
them in health. Lay a large heap of clay near the house, and let the
salt-brine that may be done with in the family be poured upon it.


2226. _To Fatten Fowls in a short time._--Mix together ground rice
well scalded with milk, and add some coarse sugar. Feed them with
this in the day-time, but not too much at once; let it be pretty
thick.


2227. _Pork cured._--Soon as cool enough to cut, and before it
freezes, pack a clean cask full, with plenty of salt on all sides
of each piece. Fill up with water, taking care, by means of a large
stone, to keep the pork under the pickle, and covered from flies, in
a cellar. Never boil pickle.


2228. _Pork Feeding._--It is a well-ascertained fact, that more meat
will be made on half the weight of corn, if ground and made into mush
instead of being fed whole.


2229. _In Smoking Hams_, &c., be careful not to have the fire too
high, or the smoke-house top tight. It is best done in an upper
story, to which the smoke is conveyed in tubes, from oak or maple
chips in the cellar. (See p. 324.)


2230. _Hollow Horn._--Where supposed to exist, feed half-peck
potatoes twice a week, and treat your cattle kindly in food and
shelter.


2231. _Sheep_ must be fed well, kept dry, have salt often, and pure
air, and be grazed in hilly stony pastures.


2232. _Cows._--Those who wish their cows to give large messes of milk
in the winter season, should give them warm drink. The extra trouble
will be more than repaid in the increased quantity of milk. (See pp.
285-6.)


2233. _Wild Onion_ may be destroyed by cultivating corn, plowing and
leaving the field in its plowed state all winter.


2234. _Remember._--The great rule in relation to animals holds
perfect in its application to vegetables; breed only from the best
animals; _defects and imperfections have always a tendency to
propagate themselves, and are always, in a greater or less degree,
transmitted_.


2235. _Wheat_ shoots strongest when there is an interval between the
time of plowing and sowing, but _barley_ is most vegetative when sown
immediately after the plow.


2236. _Grease Wheels._--Fifty parts, by weight, of pulverized black
lead, 50 of lard, 50 of soap, and 5 of quicksilver. Rub the lard and
mercury first together, then the lead and soap. If well mixed, it is
invaluable.


2237. _Plants_, when drooping, are revived by a few grains of camphor.


2238. _Flowers_ beginning to fade, can be restored by putting the
stems in scalding water.


2239. _Bacon Hams in Summer._--Pack in a barrel, in clean dry ashes
or charcoal; head up the barrel and put it where it is dry, and as
cool as possible.


2240. _Timber_ cut in the spring and exposed to the weather _with the
bark on_, decays much sooner than that _cut in the fall_.


2241. _In Feeding_ with corn, 60 lbs. ground goes as far as 100 lbs.
in the kernel.


2242. _Apples._--Experiments show apples to be equal to potatoes to
improve hogs, and decidedly profitable for fattening cattle.


2243. _Pears_ are greatly improved by grafting on the mountain ash.


2244. _Rats_ and other vermin are kept away from grain by a
sprinkling of garlic when packing the sheaves.


2245. _Wet Land._--Money skillfully expended in drying land, by
draining or otherwise, will be returned with ample interest.


2246. _Grass._--Sweet and nutritious grass gives a richness and
flavor to milk, attainable from no other source.


2247. _Curing Fodder._--Bundles may be so placed around centre-poles
as to form a hollow-stack, having a foundation of brush, sticks, &c.,
admitting a circulation of air that will thoroughly cure fodder in
the shade.


2248. _Turnips_ of small size have double the nutritious matter that
large ones have.


2249. _Ruta Baga_ is the only root that increases in nutritious
qualities as it increases in size.


2250. _In transplanting_ trees, the hole should not be proportioned
to the extent of the roots _as they are_, but to their extent as they
_may be_ and _should be_.


2251. _Toads_ are the very best protection of cabbages against lice.


2252. _Peach Trees_ are protected from hard winters by covering the
roots a foot deep with straw, in _January_, after the ground has
become thoroughly frozen, which keeps the frost in the ground, and so
prevents the sap from starting until the Spring is fairly opened.


2253. _Save your Fire Wood._--Mr. Madison, in his Notes of
Agriculture, says, "Of all the errors in our rural economy, none
perhaps is to be so much regretted, because none so difficult to be
repaired, as the excessive and injudicious destruction of fire-wood."


2254. _Sorrel_ may be killed out by lime, while ashes have no effect
on it.


2255. _Shumac_ or _Sumac_, a poisonous shrub or plant, which grows
wild in abundance, and frequently where nothing else will, is used
for dyeing in England, at the rate of thirteen thousand tons per
annum. It might be made a source of profit to our farmers.


GARDENING

(SEE PAGE 291.)

2256. _Kitchen Garden._--This is one of the most important parts of
general domestic economy, whenever the situation of a house will
permit a family to avail themselves of its assistance, in aid of
butcher's bills.


2257. It is, indeed, much to be regretted that small plots of ground,
in the immediate vicinity of the metropolis more especially, are too
often frittered away into shrubberies and baby gardens, when they
might more usefully be employed in raising vegetables for the family,
during the week-day residence in town, than wasting their sweetness
on the smoky air in all the pride of lilac, hollyhock, and bachelors'
buttons, to be merely smelled to, by the whole immigrating household
on the day of rest.


2258. With a little care and attention, a kitchen-garden, though
small, might be rendered not only useful, but in fact, as ornamental
as a modern grass carpet; and the same expense incurred to make the
ground a labyrinth of sweets, might suffice to render it agreeable to
the palate, as well as to the olfactory nerves, and that even without
offending the most delicate optics.


2259. It is only in accordance with our plan to give the hint, and to
record such novel points as may facilitate the proposed arrangement.


2260. It is one objection to the adoption of a kitchen garden in
front of the dwelling, or in sight of the family apartments, that its
very nature makes it rather an eye-sore than otherwise at all seasons.


2261. This, however, is an objection that may be readily got over
by a little attention to neatness and good order, whilst the plants
themselves, if judiciously attended to, and the borders sown or
planted with ranunculus, polyanthus, mignionette, &c., in succession,
will really be ornamental.


2262. But then, in cutting the plants for use, the business must be
done neatly, all useless leaves cleared from the ground, the roots
no longer wanted taken up, and the ravages of insects to be guarded
against by sedulous extirpation. It will also be found a great
improvement, where space will admit of it, to surround the beds with
neat espaliers, with fruit trees, or even gooseberry and currant
bushes trained along them, instead of these being suffered to grow in
a state of ragged wildness.


DRYING HERBS.

2263. Fresh herbs are preferable to dried ones, but as they cannot
always be obtained, it is most important to dry herbs at the proper
seasons:--


2264. _Basil_ is in a fit state for drying about the middle of August.


2265. _Burret_ in June, July, and August.


2266. _Chervil_ in May, June, and July.


2267. _Elder Flowers_ in May, June, and July.


2268. _Fennel_ in May, June, and July.


2269. _Knotted Marjoram_ during July.


2270. _Lemon Thyme_ end of July, and through August.


2271. _Mint_ end of June and July.


2272. _Orange Flowers_ May, June, and July.


2273. _Orange Thyme_ (a delicious herb), June and July.


2274. _Parsley_ May, June, and July.


2275. _Sage_, August and September.


2276. _Summer Savory_, end of July and August.


2277. _Tarragon_, June, July, and August.


2278. _Thyme_, end of July and August.


2279. _Winter Savory_, end of July and August.


2280. These herbs always at hand will be a great aid to the cook.


2281. Herbs should be gathered on a dry day; they should be
immediately well cleansed, and dried by the heat of a stove, or Dutch
oven.


2282. The leaves should then be picked off, pounded and sifted, and
put away for use.


PROPERTIES AND USES OF VEGETABLES.

2283. _Parsley_ is very cooling and softening.


2284. _Catnip_ is a warm herb, of a diaphoretic or sweating nature.


2285. _Pennyroyal_ is much the same, only more powerful. It retains a
very powerful pungent oil.


2286. _Spearmint_ is pungent and hot, but of an astringent nature.


2287. _Calamint_ is much the same, but not so strong.


2288. _Hoarhound_ is very strengthening to the lungs, and is somewhat
of a pectoral. It is excellent in a cough, or stopage in the stomach.


2289. _Everlasting_, or _Indian Posey_, is a very balsamic
herb--healing and cooling, and excellent in salves or ointment.


2290. _Johnswort_ is much the same.


2291. _Pea Balm_ is a cooling and sweating herb, and is good in
fevers and inflammations.


2292. _Chamomile_ is a great restorative to the lungs, and promotes
perspiration. It is good in salves and ointments to take away
swellings.


2293. _Mayweed_ is of a pectoral nature, and is good for a pain in
the side.


2294. _Garden Coltsfoot_ is a great restorative to the lungs, and is
good in syrups for coughs.


2295. _Melilot_ is good in salves and ointments for swellings and
inflammations. It is mollifying and cooling.


2296. _Sage_ is the greatest restorative to human nature of any herb
that grows.


2297. _Bloodroot_ is a very powerful emetic or purge: steeped in
spirits, it will serve for an emetic; and boiled in fair water it
serves as a purge.


2298. _Mandrake_ root is an excellent physic, dried and pounded.


2299. _Cumfrey_ and _Spikenard_ are so well known that they need no
describing.


2300. _Elecampane_ is good in coughs, yet it is an astringent.


2301. _Cranesbill_ is an astringent, and excellent in cankers.


2302. _Whiteroot_ is of a physical nature, and is good to remove wind
pent in the stomach, or part of the bowels.


2303. _Sassafras_ root is good for the blood.


2304. So also are _Sarsaparilla, Horse Radish, Burdock roots, Elder
roots_.


2305. _Hop roots_, and _Wild Coltsfoot_ are good as pectorals.


2306. _White_ and _Yellow Pond Lily roots_, the same.


2307. _Winter's Bark._--This is the product of one of the largest
trees on Terra del Fuego. It is good in dropsy and scurvy.


2308. _Wild Jenton_ is a strong cathartic, when boiled.


VEGETABLES TO CULTIVATE.

2309. _Artichoke._--Sow early in the Spring, in rows three inches
apart, or plant suckers.


2310. _Asparagus._--Sow in April, in good rich soil.


2311. _Beans._ _English Dwarfs._--Plant as early in the Spring as the
ground will work.


2312. _Kidney Dwarfs._--Plant from end of April to about 20th August.


2313. _Pole or Running._--Plant beginning of May, and at intervals
through the season.


2314. _Beets._--Sow in drills, from early in the Spring till the
middle of Summer. Leave the plants 6 to 8 inches apart in the drills.


2315. _Borecole_ is an excellent green. Sow in Fall, either broadcast
or in drills, as for Winter Spinach.


2316. _Brussels Sprouts_ are cultivated for the small heads, which
are attached to the stem. Sow in the middle of Spring, and treat as
Winter Cabbage.


2317. _Brocoli_ produces heads like cauliflower. Sow in seed bed
about the middle of Spring. Transplant in rich ground when 8 or 12
inches high, and treat as Winter Cabbage.


2318. _Cabbage._--For early cabbage, sow in Autumn, in seed beds.
Protect during Winter; transplant early in the Spring. For late
Cabbage, sow in seed bed, middle of Spring. Transplant early in
Summer.


2319. _Cardoon_ is much used for salads, soups, and stews. Treated
much like Celery.


2320. _Cauliflower._--Sow, for early, in seed beds, in Autumn;
protect from frost, in cold frames, and transplant in rich ground
after frost ceases. For late, manage as Brocoli.


2321. _Carrots_ should be sown early in the Spring, in deep-dug and
well-manured ground, in drills twelve or eighteen inches apart.


2322. _Celery_ should be sown early in the Spring, in light rich
moist soil. Transplant in trenches, highly manured, when about six
inches high. Blanch by earthing up as they advance in growth.


2323. _Chervil._--A small salad. Sow early in the Spring, and after
heat of Summer.


2324. _Cress._--Used as a salad. Sow very thick, in shallow drills,
at intervals through the season.


2325. _Corn Salad._--Used as a salad during the Winter and Spring.
Sow thick, in drills, about 1st of September, and cover with straw on
the approach of cold.


2326. _Cucumbers_ should be planted first week in May, in hills four
feet apart; prepare the ground by incorporating a shovelful of rotten
dung in each hill.


2327. _Endive._--Sow last of Spring to middle of Summer, in shallow
drills.


2328. _Egg-Plant._--Sow in hot-beds early in the Spring; transplant
in rich warm ground late in the Spring, about 30 inches apart.
Egg-plant seed will not vegetate freely without a substantial heat.


2329. _Lettuce_ should be sown in seed bed, in the middle of
September; protect the plants through the Winter, and early in the
Spring transplant in rich ground; or sow in hot-beds, in March, and
at intervals throughout the season.


2330. _Melon._--Plant in hills, in light sandy earth, about the first
week in May.


2331. _Mushroom Spawn_ should be planted in hot-beds of dung, covered
with earth.


2332. _Mustard._--Sown like Cress, and used for a salad.


2333. _Nasturtium._--Sow in May. The flowers and young leaves are
used as a salad; the seed-pods, with foot-stalk, are gathered whilst
green, and pickled as a substitute for capers.


2334. _Okra_, or _Gombo_, is one of the best of vegetables. Plant in
May. The seed should be sown thick, as it is liable to rot in the
ground. Very rich ground is required.


2335. _Onions_ should be sown in drills, early in the Spring, in rich
ground, thin, to stand two or three inches apart.


2336. _Parsley_ should be sown early in the Spring. Soak in warm
water before sowing.


2337. _Parsnip._--Sow in drills 18 inches apart, in good and deep-dug
ground, early in the Spring.


2338. _Peas._--The best soil for Peas is a light loam. The early
sorts require rich ground. Sow in drills as early in the Spring as
the ground will work.


2339. _Pepper._--Sow late in Spring, in drills, on a warm border; or
in a frame or hot-bed, in March; set out plants eighteen inches apart.


2340. _Pumpkin._--The Mammoth Pumpkin has been grown to the enormous
weight of 225 pounds. Plant early in May, in rich soil, in hills,
eight to ten feet apart each way.


2341. _Radish._--The early kinds should be sown as soon as the ground
can be worked, in a sheltered situation.


2342. _Rhubarb_ should be sown in Autumn or early in the Spring; when
in the latter, transplant in the ensuing Spring to desired situation.
The stems are used for tarts, and are fit for use before green fruit
can be obtained, being a very desirable substitute.


2343. _Salsify_, or _Vegetable Oyster_, should be sown during April.
The roots boiled, made into cakes with paste, and fried like oysters,
much resembles them.


2344. _Spinach_ should be sown as soon as the ground can be worked.
The soil cannot be too rich for Spinach.


2345. _Squash._--Cultivate same as Cucumber.


2346. _Tomato._--Sow in hills three feet apart, on a warm border,
early in the Spring. As the plants advance in growth, give them
support.


2347. _Turnip._--For summer use, sow early in the Spring. For main
crop, sow close of Summer. The Ruta Baga requires more time to
mature, and should be sown at midsummer.


2348. _Aromatic and Sweet Herbs._--Anise, Brazil, (sweet), Caraway,
Coriander, *Fennel, *Lavender, Marygold, Pot, Marjorum, (sweet),
*Sage, Summer Savory, *Winter Savory, *Thyme, *Mint, *Rosemary, Dill.


2349. Those marked with a * are perennial, and when once obtained,
may be preserved for years. The others are annual.


FRUIT TREES AND FRUIT.

2350. _Fruits_, in a ripe and perfect state, are beneficial to
health, if not eaten to excess.


2351. _Stunted_ trees never become vigorous, nor when too long
crowded in nurseries.


2352. In _Grafting_, 25 well placed are better than 100 grafts placed
at random, and ten placed injudiciously will change the whole top of
a tree in a few years, when 200 grafts may be so scattered as not
materially to change the top of the tree or its fruit. Graft only on
such as are sound and vigorous.


2353. _Haggling_ off limbs and branches and leaving stumps on the
trees, which rot off and let the water into the trunk, soon destroys
the tree; therefore, always cut or saw off smooth, when the wound
will heal and the bark grow over.


2354. _Sound_, vigorous trees, and no other, should be set out, as
they take no more trouble or space than the worthless ones.


2355. _Budding_ should only be done with fresh buds, on very small
stocks of vigorous growth. Begin after sap starts, until 1st June.
Later will do. Make incision like a T; raise the corners and insert
the bud with as little of the wood as possible, and bandage, not too
tight, for three weeks.


2356. _Scions_ may be cut in February or March, before or at the
time the buds begin to swell; or take grafts size of a pipe-stem,
from bearing branches, not from side shoots nor the rank growth of
the top. Put in earth one-third their length, keep from frost, and
occasionally sprinkle, to prevent shriveling, but not so wet as to
sprout them.


2357. _Composition._--Resin 8 oz., beeswax, 3 oz.; melt up with lard,
and work it like shoemaker's wax; for wounds made in pruning or
grafting.


2358. _Split_ the stock, drive in a wedge six or eight inches long,
open the split so as to admit the graft freely; sharpen end of graft
and insert, matching the wood of graft and wood of the stock; remove
the wedge carefully, and cover smooth over with composition, tight,
to exclude air, and the sap will force its way to the graft.


2359. _Seed._--Select from healthy trees, sound, ripe and fair fruit,
and place in sand, in a cellar or other cool, damp place, until
time to plant. If kept too dry, they seldom vegetate. Let the soil
be good, well worked, not too wet; cover up and press the ground
moderately over. Plant in Fall, before the ground is frozen, or in
Spring, soon as the ground can be worked.


2360. _Soil._--Low, wet or marshy ground is not suitable. Soil
appropriate for crops of grain, is also adapted to the cultivation
of fruit trees, shrubs or vines. Occasional digging, mellowing
the ground, keeping down underbrush and weeds, and manuring, are
beneficial.


2361. _Cleanliness_ is essential. Destroy all caterpillars, noxious
worms and insects, and prune off all affected parts. Scrape off all
rough, ragged bark and moss, and wash well with soap-suds or cover
with a coat of limewash. Remove all suckers from the roots, side
branches and excrescences.


2362. _Grubs_, which occasion disease, may be prevented by coating
the roots and lower trunk, about July 1, with tar, train oil, or
whitewash, and sprinkling a little lime, ashes, or soap-suds, on the
ground around the tree. When seriously affected, dig the earth from
the roots near the surface, and search thoroughly in the bark for the
grub; cleanse off the gum, &c., wash with ley or soap-suds, or rub
dry ashes over them, and close up with good fresh earth. Doing this
as occasion requires, will ensure health and vigor.


2363. _Slugs and Snails_ are great enemies to every kind of
garden-plant, whether flower or vegetable; they wander in the night
to feed, and return at daylight to their haunts; the shortest and
surest direction is, "Rise early, catch them, and kill them."--(See
p. 281.)


2364. _Another way._--Lay cabbage leaves about the ground, especially
on the beds which they frequent. Every morning examine these leaves,
and you will find a great many taking refuge beneath.


2365. _Caterpillars and Aphides._--A garden syringe or engine, with
a cap on the pipe full of very minute holes, will wash away these
disagreeable visitors very quickly. You must bring the pipe close
to the plant, and pump hard, so as to have considerable force on,
and the plant, however badly infested, will soon be cleared without
receiving any injury.--(See p. 277.)


2366. _Rake the Earth._--Every time that you use the syringe or
garden-engine, you must immediately rake the earth under the trees,
and kill the insects you have dislodged, or many will recover and
climb up the stems of the plants.


2367. _Grubs on Orchard Trees._--Make a bonfire with dry sticks and
weeds on the windward side of the orchard, so that the smoke may
blow among the trees; you will destroy thousands; for the grubs have
such an objection to smoke, that very little of it makes them roll
themselves up and fall off; they must be swept up afterward.


2368. _Wasps_ destroy a good deal of fruit, but every pair of wasps
killed in spring saves the trouble and annoyance of a swarm in autumn.


2369. _Butterflies and Moths_, however pretty, are the worst enemies
one can have in a garden; a single insect of this kind may deposit
eggs enough to overrun a tree with caterpillars, therefore they
should be destroyed at any cost of trouble.


2370. The only moth that you must spare, is the common black and
red one; the grubs of this feed exclusively on grounsel, and are
therefore a valuable ally of the gardener.


2371. _Earwigs_ are very destructive insects; their favorite food is
the petals of roses, pinks, dahlias, and other flowers.


2372. _To kill Earwigs._--They may be caught by driving stakes into
the ground, and placing on each an inverted flower-pot; the earwigs
will climb up and take refuge under it, when they may be taken out
and killed.--(See p. 279.)


2373. Or very deep holes may be made in the ground with a crowbar,
into these they will fall, and may be destroyed by boiling water.


2374. _Toads_ are among the best friends the gardener has; for they
live almost exclusively on the most destructive kinds of vermin.


2375. _The Rose Slug._--A new and sure mode to destroy these
insects, either when as a fly laying its eggs, or as a slug, is the
following:--


2376. _Whale Oil Soap_, dissolved at the rate of two pounds to
fifteen gallons of water.


2377. _Mode of Preparation._--Take whatever quantity of soap you wish
to prepare, and dissolve it in boiling water, about one quart to a
pound; in this way strain it through a fine wire or hair sieve, which
takes out the dirt, prevents its stopping the valves of the engine,
or the nose of the syringe; then add cold water to make it the proper
strength.


2378. _How to use it._--Apply it to the rose-bush with a hand engine
or syringe, with as much force as practicable, and be sure that every
part of the leaves is well saturated with the liquid. What falls to
the ground in application, will do good in destroying the worms and
enriching the soil, and from its trifling cost, it can be used with
profusion.


2379. _The cost._--A hogshead of 136 gallons costs forty-five
cents--not quite four mills per gallon. Early in the morning, or in
the evening, is the proper time to apply it to the plants.


2380. _Mildew_ on the Gooseberry, Peach, Grape-vine, &c., is checked
and entirely destroyed by a weak dressing of the solution.


2381. _The Canker Worm._--Laying soap oil on the trunk and branches
of the tree, at the consistency of thick paint, destroys the brown,
scaly insect on the bark, and gives the tree a smooth, glossy, and
healthy appearance.


2382. _To free Plants from Leaf-Lice._--Mix one ounce of flowers of
sulphur with one bushel of sawdust; scatter this over the plants
infected with these insects, and they will soon be freed, though a
second application may possibly be necessary.


2383. _Keeping Fruits._--The three best of eight different modes
fairly tried, are, 1, covering in pure dry sand; 2, in dry fern; 3,
in a deal box buried in the earth. In all cases to be kept cool.


2384. _Sunflower_ yields 140 bushels per acre, and each bushel one
gallon of good oil. Its leaves furnish provender; its seeds, food for
poultry and hogs. It thrives on poor soils.


2385. _To prepare a cheap Hortus Siccus._--All the small plants
should be expanded under water, in a plate, on a piece of
writing-paper. In this state they will assume their natural form
and position. Then withdraw the paper with the plant gently from
the water, and place them between sheets of blotting-paper, and
press them with a book or flat board. When dry, it may be placed on
writing-paper.



PART X.

PERSONAL MATTERS.

  _Dress of Ladies--Dress of Gentlemen--Manners--Etiquette of
  Society--Dinner Parties--Courtship--Marriage--The Ceremony--After
  Marriage--Social Intercourse--"Our House," etc._


2386. _Importance of Dress._--Attention to personal appearance is a
human duty as well as a required observance in civilized society.


2387. The following rules will be found useful in guiding the
judgment and taste of those who desire to dress well.


DRESS OF LADIES.

2388. A young lady should always be neatly attired. A fresh-looking
and well-fitting dress is more important than rich materials or showy
ornaments.


2389. Never furbish up old finery, if you wish to appear really the
lady. A clean, soft, white muslin gown is far more genteel than a
tarnished brocade.


2390. _Colors and Complexions._--The great art, as regards colors of
dress, is to enhance the tints of the complexion, care being taken to
let the flesh appear of a healthy natural hue, and to avoid wearing
those colors which heighten or destroy either the red, yellow, or
white, in the natural flesh tints.


2391. _Primitive Colors._--Out of three primitive colors, red,
blue, and yellow, there are endless mixtures and variations, and
some of these can skillfully be adapted to any complexion; but to
do so, these two rules must be observed: the rule of Harmony and of
judicious Contrast.


2392. _Decided Colors_, or colors without mixture, are very
unbecoming. A lady all _blue_ in dress would be more disagreeable
than a real _bleu_.


2393. _Red_, and its dark variations, may be worn by dark persons,
and will harmonize with their complexion.


2394. _Crimson and brilliant red_ are vulgar and unsuitable, but
purple and dark maroon, worn by brunettes, and persons of a dark
complexion, are both becoming and genteel, either in evening or
winter dresses.


2395. _Blue_ is a becoming color to fair faces and blue eyes. It also
looks well worn by brunettes, when the wearer is youthful.


2396. _Light blue_ is a beautiful color for spring dresses; dark
blues look better in the autumn and winter.


2397. _Red Colors._--_Light red and pink_, approaching flesh tints,
are becoming both to dark and to fair; to the former especially,
because they, by contrast, set off the complexion.


2398. Fair persons venturing upon such dresses or trimmings by
daylight, should have clear and excellent complexions, or the
brightness of the color, from a similarity of tint, will make their
faces appear dirty and clouded.


2399. _Chocolate colors_, and warm browns partaking of red, may be
worn by either fair or dark persons, provided they be not too pale,
in which case the contrast will render the face chalky or death-like.


2400. _Yellow_ in dress, as well as orange, is also more becoming to
dark than to fair persons.


2401. _Primrose_ is becoming to fair persons. The trimmings of this
color, the flowers and ribbons, should be violet, such contrast being
agreeable to art and nature.


2402. _Maize_ color is becoming to all complexions, especially to
those which are brilliant.


2403. _Grain_ is more becoming to fair than to dark persons, because
in the fair complexion, brilliancy and depth of color are more
frequently found.


2404. _Pale green_ should never be worn by the dark, it rendering
them sickly and cadaverous in look. To those of a fair and brilliant
complexion it is most becoming.


2405. _Trimmings._--For trimmings and flowers ladies cannot do better
than to study nature, there being in the leaves of flowers every
imaginable tint of green, whilst the flowers themselves are various
in their hue.


2406. _Artificials_ should be few, and perfectly arranged. A load of
flowers is a burden, not a beauty.


2407. The most elegant dresses are black or white.


2408. A vulgar girl wears bright and glaring colors, fantastically
made, a large flaring, red, yellow, or sky-blue hat, covered with a
rainbow of ribbons, and all the rings and trinkets she can load upon
her.


2409. In any assemblage, the most plainly-dressed woman is sure to be
the most lady-like and attractive. Neatness is better than richness,
and plainness better than display.


2410. It is a general rule, applicable to both sexes, that persons
are the best dressed when you cannot remember how they were dressed.
Avoid every thing out of the way, uncommon, or grotesque.


2411. Single ladies dress less in fashionable society than married
ones; and all more plainly and substantially for walking or
traveling, than on other occasions.


2412. Common modesty should prevent indecent exposure of the
shoulders and bosom.


2413. _Tight Lacing._--No woman who laces tight can have good
shoulders, a straight spine, good lungs, sweet breath, or is fit to
be a wife and mother.


2414. Can it be a pleasant sight to behold a woman cut in two in the
middle, as it were, like a wasp? On the contrary, it is as shocking
to the eye as it is painful to the imagination.


2415. Every thing that confines and lays nature under a restraint is
an instance of bad taste. This is as true in regard to the ornaments
of the body as to the embellishments of the mind.


2416. Life, health, reason, and convenience, ought to be taken first
into consideration.


2417. Gracefulness cannot subsist without ease; delicacy is not
debility; nor must a woman be sick in order to please.


2418. The distinction of the sexes, notwithstanding that it is so
prominent and marked, still requires a distinctive dress. This has
generally, by all nations, civilized or savage, been conceded.


2419. This difference has been so permanent, that any attempt to
lessen it--and there have been many--has failed, and must fail
whenever attempted.


2420. _Robes._--The outer garment of woman is, and has been for
centuries, the robe or gown, and upon the proper choice, make, and
disposition of this, and its concomitants, depends the elegance or
inelegance of the wearer.


2421. The gown should fall gracefully from the hips, as free as
possible from the odious "bustle" or "hoop." It should fall in long
full folds, and expand gradually to the feet, which it should touch,
but not entirely cover.


2422. _Flounces_ should only be worn by those of a tall, graceful
figure, and then they should be made of a light material, gauze,
muslin, or of stuff akin to it, so that they fall in gracefully with
the outline of the dress. When made of any rich stuff, which stands
out stiffly, they break the graceful flow of the dress.


2423. Flounces, by marking the height, at regular intervals, take
away from it, and make a short figure look shorter. For this reason,
short persons should not wear stripes running in parallel rings round
the dress. Perpendicular stripes upon a dress make the wearer look
taller, like the flutes in a composite.


2424. The rules which we have given for the color of the dress, must
of course apply to the covering for the head; the colors must, to
look well, contrast or harmonize with the complexion.


2425. Texture, material, and pattern, should suit, not only the
taste, but also the purse. There are few greater evils in this
country than an inordinate passion for dress.


2426. No one looks so well dressed as those who are dressed properly,
neatly, and whose attire sets them at their ease. A lady who is so
over-dressed as to be constantly afraid of spoiling her gown, can
never be graceful, since she cannot be at her ease.


2427. _The hair_ should always be neatly brushed and arranged.


2428. _Ringlets_ make round faces look longer, and more oval; plain
bands make the face which is too long, lose part of that length. This
should be studied. It is manifestly absurd to render oneself hideous
merely to follow the fashion.


2429. The dress of the foot is important both for beauty and health.


2430. Thus, a thin shoe in winter would be vulgar, because useless
and dangerous to the wearer's health, and a thick boot in summer
would be _gauche_ and vulgar.


2431. _Boots and shoes_ should be well, nay, scientifically made. The
foot should be fitted well, but not compressed.


2432. Modern boots and shoes are therefore often made narrow, just
where they should be wide; and the foot, instead of being beautiful
in shape, and graceful in its action, becomes long, narrow,
distorted, and ungraceful when used.


2433. _Gloves_ must be fresh and well-fitting to make the dress
perfect.


2434. Ladies' dresses should be chosen so as to produce an agreeable
harmony.


2435. Never put on a dark-colored bonnet with a light spring costume.


2436. Avoid uniting colors which will suggest an epigram; such as a
straw-colored dress with a green bonnet.


2437. The arrangement of the hair is most important.


2438. Bands are becoming to faces of a Grecian caste.


2439. Ringlets better suit lively and expressive heads.


2440. Whatever be your style of face, avoid an excess of lace, and
let flowers be few and choice.


2441. In a married woman, a richer style of ornament is admissible.


2442. Costly elegance for the married--for the young girl, a style of
modest simplicity.


2443. The most elegant dress loses its character if it is not worn
with grace.


2444. Young girls have often an air of constraint, and their dress
seems to partake of their want of ease.


2445. In speaking of her toilet, a woman should not convey the idea
that her whole skill consists in adjusting tastefully some trifling
ornaments.


2446. A simple style of dress is an indication of modesty.


2447. _Neatness._--The hands should receive special attention. They
are the outward signs of general cleanliness. The same may be said of
the face, the neck, the ears, and the teeth.


2448. The cleanliness of the system generally, and of bodily apparel,
pertains to Health, and will be treated of under this head.


2449. _The Handkerchief._--There is considerable art in using this
accessory of dress and comfort.


2450. Avoid extreme patterns, styles, and colors.


2451. Never be without a handkerchief.


2452. Hold it freely in the hand, and do not roll it into a ball.
Hold it by the centre, and let the corners form a fan-like expansion.


2453. Avoid using it too much. With some persons the habit becomes
troublesome and unpleasant.


2454. _A word to Young Ladies._--If you have blue eyes, you need not
languish.


2455. If black eyes, you need not stare.


2456. If you have pretty feet, there is no occasion to wear short
petticoats.


2457. If you are doubtful as to that point, there can be no harm in
letting them be long.


2458. If you have good teeth, do not laugh for the purpose of showing
them.


2459. If you have bad ones, do not laugh less than the occasion may
justify.


2460. If you have pretty hands and arms, there can be no objection to
your playing on the harp, if you play well.


2461. If they are disposed to be clumsy, work tapestry.


2462. If you have a bad voice, speak in a rather low tone.


2463. If you have the finest voice in the world, never speak in a
high tone.


2464. If you dance well, dance but seldom.


2465. If you dance ill, never dance at all.


2466. If you sing well, make no previous excuses.


2467. If you sing indifferently, hesitate not a moment when you
are asked, for few people are judges of singing, but every one is
sensible of a desire to please.


2468. If you would preserve beauty, rise early.


2469. If you would preserve esteem, be gentle.


2470. If you would obtain power, be condescending.


2471. If you would live happy, endeavor to promote the happiness of
others.


DRESS OF A GENTLEMAN.

2472. Since dress is, with the world, the outward sign of both
character and condition: and since it costs no more to dress well
than ill, and is not very troublesome, every one should endeavor to
do the best that his circumstances will allow.


2473. _The Shirt._--A clean, unrumpled shirt, coarse or fine, cotton
or linen, as you can afford, is of the first importance. If the
choice is between a fine shirt or a fine coat, have the shirt by all
means.


2474. _Fine Linen_, and a good hat, gloves and boots are evidences of
the highest taste in dress.


2475. A gentleman walking should always wear gloves, this being one
of the characteristics of good breeding.


2476. Upon public and State occasions, officers should appear in
uniform.


2478. A black coat and trowsers are indispensable for a visit of
ceremony, an entertainment, or a ball.


2479. The white or black waistcoat is equally proper in these cases.


2480. Yellow or white gloves are worn in the ball-room.


2481. A neat exterior, equally free from extravagance and poverty,
almost always proclaims a right-minded man.


2482. To dress appropriately, and with good taste, is to respect
yourself and others.


2483. _Neatness._--A well-bred man may be ever so reduced in his
wardrobe--his clothes may be coarse and threadbare, but he seldom
wears a coarse, and never a dirty shirt.


2484. _The Boots._--Boots are now men's common wear on all occasions,
varying in elegance for different purposes. They should always be
clean, and invariably well blackened and polished.


2485. _The Hat._--Make a point of buying a good hat. One proper
fur hat, worth four or five dollars, when a year old, looks more
respectable than a silk one bought yesterday.


2486. Of the trowsers little need be said. When full at the bottom
they serve to hide a large foot. If colored trowsers are worn, those
patterns should be chosen which conform to the rules of taste. Bars
running across the legs should be avoided, and also all large staring
patterns.


2487. _The Vest_ allows of some fancy, but beware of being too
fanciful. A black satin is proper for any person or any occasion.
Nothing is more elegant than pure white. Some quiet colors may be
worn for variety, but beware of every thing staring or glaring, in
materials or trimmings.


2488. Avoid all singularity in dress; never wear gaudy waistcoats,
out-of-the-way hats, or coats of the extreme of "sporting fashion:"
such things are positively odious.


2489. We may add a few general maxims, applied to both sexes.


2490. "All affectation in dress," says Chesterfield, "implies a flaw
in the understanding." One should therefore avoid being singular, or
eccentric.


2491. Never dress against any one. Choose those garments which suit
you, and look well upon you, perfectly irrespective of the fact that
a lady or gentleman in the same village or street may excel you.


2492. When dressed for company, strive to appear as easy and natural
as if you were in undress.


2493. Dress according to your age. It is both painful and ridiculous
to see an old lady dressed as a belle of four-and-twenty; or an old
fellow, old enough for a grandfather, affecting the costume and the
manners of a _beau_.


2494. Young men should be _well_ dressed. Not foppishly, but neatly
and well. An untidy person at five-and-twenty, degenerates, very
frequently, into a sloven and a boor at fifty.


2495. Be not too negligent, nor too studied, in your attire.


2496. Let your behavior and conversation suit the clothes you wear,
so that those who know you may feel that, after all, dress and
external appearance is the least portion of a LADY OR GENTLEMAN.


MANNERS.

2497. It is sometimes objected to books upon etiquette, that they
cause those who consult them to act with mechanical restraint, and
to show in society that they are governed by arbitrary rules, rather
than by an intuitive perception of what is graceful and polite.


2498. This objection is unsound, because it supposes that people who
study the theory of etiquette, do not also exercise their powers of
observation in society, and obtain, by their intercourse with others,
that freedom and ease of deportment, which society alone can impart.


2499. Books upon etiquette are useful, inasmuch as that they expound
the laws of polite society. Experience alone, however, can give
effect to the precise _manner_ in which those laws are required to be
observed.


2500. Whatever objections may be raised to the teachings of works
upon etiquette, there can be no sound argument against a series of
simple and brief hints, which shall operate as precautions against
mistakes in personal conduct.


2501. Avoid intermeddling with the affairs of others. This is a most
common fault.


2502. A number of people seldom meet but they begin discussing the
affairs of some one who is absent. This is not only uncharitable but
positively unjust. It is equivalent to trying a _cause in the absence
of the person implicated_.


2503. Even in the criminal code, a prisoner is presumed to be
innocent until he is found guilty. Society, however, is less just,
and passes judgment without hearing the defense.


2504. Depend upon it, as a certain rule, _that the people who unite
with you in discussing the affairs of others, will proceed to
scandalize you the moment that you depart_.


2505. Be consistent in the avowal of principles. Do not deny to-day,
that which you asserted yesterday. You may fancy that you gain favor
by subserviency; but so far from gaining favor, you lose respect.


2506. Avoid falsehood. There can be found no higher virtue than that
of truth.


2507. Be honest. Not only because "honesty is the best policy," but
because it is a duty to God and to man.


2508. Avoid idleness--it is the parent of many evils. Can you pray,
"Give us this day our daily bread," and not hear the reply, "Do thou
this day thy daily duty?"


2509. Avoid telling idle tales, which is like firing arrows in the
dark; you know not into whose heart they may fall.


2510. Avoid talking about yourself; praising your own works; and
proclaiming your own deeds. If they are good, they will proclaim
themselves; if bad, the less you say of them the better.


2511. Be kind in little things.


2512. The true generosity of the heart is more displayed by deeds of
minor kindness, than by acts which may partake of ostentation.


2513. Reason is given for man's guidance. Passion is the tempest by
which reason is overthrown. Under the effects of passion, man's mind
becomes disordered, his face disfigured, his body deformed.


2514. A moment's passion has frequently cut off a life's friendship,
destroyed a life's hope, imbittered a life's peace, and brought
unending sorrow and disgrace.


2515. Avoid pride. If you are handsome, God made you so; if you are
learned, some one instructed you; if you are rich, God gave you what
you own.


2516. The best men throughout all history, have been the most humble.


2517. Affectation is a form of pride. It is, in fact, pride made
ridiculous and contemptible. Affectation is usually the fault of weak
people.


2518. Avoid swearing. An oath is but the wrath of a perturbed spirit.


2519. It is _mean_. A man of high moral standing would rather treat
an offense with contempt, than show his indignation by an oath.


2520. It is _vulgar_: altogether too low for a decent man.


2521. It is _cowardly_: implying a fear of either not being believed
or obeyed.


2522. It is _ungentlemanly_. A gentleman, according to Webster, is a
_genteel man_--well-bred, refined.


2523. It is _indecent_: offensive to delicacy, and extremely unfit
for human ears.


2524. It is _foolish_. "Want of decency is want of sense."


2525. It is _abusive_--to the mind which conceives the oath, to the
tongue which utters it, and to the person at whom it is aimed.


2526. It is _venomous_, showing a man's heart to be as a nest of
vipers; and every time he swears, one of them starts out from his
head.


2527. It is _contemptible_--forfeiting the respect of all the wise
and good.


2528. It is _wicked_: violating the Divine law, and provoking the
displeasure of Him who will not hold him guiltless who takes his name
in vain.


2529. Be a gentleman. Swear not at all.


2530. Moderation, decorum, and neatness, distinguish the gentleman;
he is at all times affable, diffident, and studious to please.
Intelligent and polite, his behavior is pleasant and graceful.


2531. Appear only to be a gentleman, and its shadow will bring upon
you contempt; be a gentleman, and its honors will remain even after
you are dead.


2532. The foregoing remarks may be said to apply to the moral
conduct, rather than to the details of personal manners.


2533. Great principles, however, suggest minor ones; and hence from
the principles laid down, many hints upon personal behavior may be
gathered.


2534. Be hearty in your salutations.


2535. Be true in your professions.


2536. Discreet and sincere in your friendships.


2537. Like to listen rather than to talk.


2538. Behave, even in the presence of your relations, as though you
felt respect to be due to them.


2539. In society never forget that you are but one of many.


2540. Visiting a friend, conform to the rules of his home.


2541. Lean not upon his tables, nor rub your feet against his chairs.


2542. Pry not into letters that are not your own.


2543. Pay unmistakable respect to ladies everywhere.


2544. Beware of foppery and of silly flirtation.


2545. In public places, be not pertinacious of your rights.


2546. Find pleasure in making concessions.


2547. Speak distinctly.


2548. Look at the person to whom you speak.


2549. When you have spoken, give him an opportunity to reply.


2550. Avoid drunkenness as you would a curse; and modify all
appetites, especially those that are acquired.


2551. Dress well, but not superfluously.


2552. Be neither like a sloven, nor like a stuffed model.


2553. Keep away all uncleanly appearances from the person. Let the
nails, the teeth, and in fact, the whole system receive _salutary_
rather than _studied_ care. But let these things receive attention at
the toilet--not elsewhere.


2554. Avoid displaying excess of jewelry. Nothing looks more
effeminate upon a man.


2555. Every one of these suggestions may be regarded as the centre of
many others, which the earnest mind can not fail to discover.


2556. Avoid envy, for it can not benefit you, nor can it injure those
against whom it is cherished.


2557. Avoid disputation, for the mere sake of argument.


2558. Be sociable; avoid reserve in society.


2559. Remember that the social elements, like the air we breathe, are
purified by motion. Thought illumines thought, and smiles win smiles.


2560. Be punctual. One minute too late has lost many a golden
opportunity. Besides which, the want of punctuality is an affront
offered to the person to whom your presence is due.


2561. Be polite. Politeness is the poetry of conduct--and like poetry
it has many qualities.


2562. Let not your politeness be too florid, but of that gentle kind
which indicates refined nature.


2563. It is true, indeed, that we should not dissemble and flatter in
company; but a man may be very agreeable, strictly consistent with
truth and sincerity, by a prudent silence where he can not concur,
and a pleasing assent where he can.


2564. Now and then you meet with a person so exactly formed to
please, that he will gain upon every one that hears or beholds him;
this disposition is not merely the gift of nature, but frequently
the effect of much knowledge of the world, and a command over the
passions.


2565. _Ceremonies._--All ceremonies are in themselves very silly
things; but, yet a man of the world should know them. They are the
outworks of manners and decency, which would be too often broken in
upon, if it were not for that defense which keeps the enemy at a
proper distance.


2566. _Therefore_ always treat fools and coxcombs with great
ceremony, true good-breeding not being a sufficient barrier against
them.


2567. _Agreeableness._--The true art of being agreeable is to
appear well-pleased with all the company, and rather to seem well
entertained with them than to bring entertainment to them.


2568. Eschew personalities and personal adventures; nothing is more
tedious than one who is addicted to talk prodigiously about himself.


2569. Never, in a mixed company, speak disrespectfully of woman.


2570. Treat your parents with the greatest possible respect. Restrain
yourself even from smiling at their foibles, or their weaknesses.
Obey them, even should you yourself be of mature age.


2571. To restrain your desire for indulgences is not only well bred,
but it is heroic; much good results from it. Watch well the little
sins, and you will escape those which are more gross. This applies,
not only to morals, bu