By Author [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Title [ A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z |  Other Symbols ]
  By Language
all Classics books content using ISYS

Download this book: [ ASCII | HTML | PDF ]

Look for this book on Amazon

We have new books nearly every day.
If you would like a news letter once a week or once a month
fill out this form and we will give you a summary of the books for that week or month by email.

Title: A Monograph of Odontoglossum
Author: Bateman, James
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Monograph of Odontoglossum" ***

by Biodiversity Heritage Library.)

Transcriber's note: Text enclosed by underscores is in italics (_italics_).

       *       *       *       *       *















Is With Permission Dedicated,


                    JAMES BATEMAN.


At the time (1864) when this Monograph was commenced, the successful
application of the system of cool treatment to Orchids accustomed to a
moderate temperature in their native haunts gave a fresh impulse to the
cultivation of that charming tribe of plants. By its means, what might
almost be regarded as a new Orchid-world, teeming with interest and beauty,
was suddenly brought within our reach. A fresh field was opened to the
enterprise of collectors, the spirits of cultivators revived, and the hopes
of botanists mounted high. Foremost among the spoils that we sought to
secure, stood the various members of the genus ODONTOGLOSSUM, which from
the days of Humboldt[1] and Lexarza, was known to abound in species
pre-eminent for the loveliness and delicacy of their flowers but which had
hitherto mocked the utmost efforts of our most skilful growers. For
although (thanks to the labours of Warczewitz and Lobb) the Horticultural
Society and Messrs. Veitch had more than once received large consignments
of Orchids--among which were many _Odontoglossa_--from the mountain ranges
of New Grenada and Peru, they had invariably succumbed under the stifling
atmosphere to which, in common with the denizens of India, Guiana, or
Madagascar, they were remorselessly consigned. Here and there, indeed, an
accidental success was achieved in a greenhouse, but the hint was turned to
no account, and as a rule--notwithstanding the repeated warnings and
remonstrances of Mr. Skinner, Warczewitz, and others--for thirty years we
persisted in the incredible folly of growing "cool" Orchids in "hot"
stoves; so deeply rooted in the minds of horticulturists was the original
prejudice! But it yielded at last, and no sooner had a few
houses--constructed and managed on the cool-culture system--made it clear
that the Orchids of temperate regions were prepared to submit to the skill
of the cultivator, than a general raid was made upon the more accessible
countries in which they were known to abound--more especially certain
districts in Mexico and New Grenada. To the latter country, collectors were
simultaneously sent off by the Horticultural Society, who despatched Mr.
Weir; by Mr. Linden, of Brussels; and by Messrs. Low, of the Clapton
Nursery; and all these rival envoys, much to their own mortification and
chagrin, found themselves sailing for the same destination in the same
steamer on the same errand!

It was now that the idea occurred to me of devoting a work of adequate
dimensions to the illustration of the particular genus, which from the
dried specimens in our herbaria, the plates in _Pescatorea_, the figures of
Humboldt, and the descriptions of travellers was evidently destined to hold
the first place among all the numerous company of cool Orchids; and thus
began the present Monograph. I had expected that after the work of
importation had fairly commenced, not only would the species described by
Lindley and Reichenbach be easily obtained, but that along with these a
multitude of others entirely new to science would likewise be received. In
this respect, however, the results have scarcely come up to expectations; a
circumstance that is partly to be accounted for by the difficulty attendant
on their importation,[2] but which is owing, I grieve to say, in a far
greater degree to the untimely deaths of those zealous collectors, Bowman
and Pearse, who, when in the very heart of the cool Orchid regions of
Ecuador and Peru, succumbed under the pressure of their arduous labours. In
Mexico, from which much novelty was expected, little has been added to the
number of _Odontoglossa_ previously known, and the same may be said of
Costa Rica, notwithstanding the vigorous exertions of Mr. Endries. But in
these countries it is evident that the genus is not so fully developed as
in the mountain ranges of New Grenada, Quito, and Peru. From the latter
country little indeed has yet been received, although the eastern slopes of
its Andean chain are probably richer in species of unknown or unimported
Orchids than any other portion of the globe. But we must await further
improvements in the navigation of the affluents of the mighty Amazon,
before we can hope to receive any large instalment of these much-coveted

A combination of the various causes referred to above, by limiting the
choice of materials, has seriously delayed the publication of this work,
which I had hoped would by this time have reckoned at least a dozen parts.
But as there seems to be no immediate prospect of these hindrances to more
rapid progress being taken out of the way, and as the sands of my life are
fast running out, I have thought it best in the interests of my
subscribers, to make the present number the last. The six parts now
published will, however, form a volume of convenient size, and one which
may, as I trust, serve to show how rich New Grenada is in the members of
this glorious genus. What wealth of _Odontoglossa_ Peru may possess, I must
leave some future botanist to unfold. He will have a pleasant task, and
will probably have doubled the roll of the genus as now known, before his
work is done.

During the progress of this Monograph a curious incident has occurred,
which may deserve a brief notice. When the publication was commenced, the
introduction of two particular plants--more perhaps than of any others
known to orchidists--was earnestly desired by growers, these two being the
_Odontoglossum crispum_ of Lindley, and the _Cuitlauzina pendula_ of
Lexarza. The finding, or rather the re-finding of the former--so
magnificent were the specimens in the Lindleyan Herbarium--was declared to
be worth a king's ransom; while for the latter--described as a native of
Oaxaca--more than one collector had scoured that province in vain. _Strange
to say, they were already in our grasp_: the _O. crispum_ being none other
than my _O. Alexandræ_, while--as explained under Plate VIII.--the
_Cuitlauzina_ proves to be identical with the long previously introduced
_Odontoglossum citrosmum_ of Lindley. Whether all the botanical pressure
that can be brought to bear upon our cultivators may suffice to convert _O.
Alexandræ_ into _O. crispum_, or change _O. citrosmum_ into _O. pendulum_,
is an extremely doubtful question, so strong is the hold that the erroneous
names have already secured on the public mind. In the parallel case of
_Wellingtonia_, that popular Conifer--though now almost universally
admitted to be a _Sequoia_--remains _Wellingtonia_ still, and seems likely
to do so for all time to come.

The range of the genus _Odontoglossum_, as may be gathered from the
descriptions attached to the various Plates, is of a peculiar character,
being at once restricted and extensive. It is restricted, for it never
leaves the Andes, and it is extensive, for it is found in all parts of that
vast mountain-chain, from the confines of Florida to the frontiers of
Chili. As yet no species has ever been met with at a lower elevation than
2500 feet above the sea-level, nor, with the exception of _O. hastilabium_,
has any _Odontoglossum_ been known to descend so low;--the most usual
altitude being 5-6000 feet, though a higher point is often reached. Like
the humming-birds which frequent the same mountains, and vie with them in
beauty, nearly all the _Odontoglossa_ are exceedingly local, and in this
way two of the most beautiful species, _e.g._, _O. vexillarium_ and _O.
Roezlii_, eluded discovery for many years, even in a region supposed to be
well explored by collectors.

As to the botanical limits of the genus, I must needs confess that they are
exceedingly difficult to fix. It is as true now as when Professor Lindley
first made the observation to me, that "The more we build up the partition
walls between _Odontoglossum_, _Oncidium_, &c., the more the species break
them down." Certainly no one at first sight would suppose _Odontoglossum
cariniferum_ was anything but an _Oncidium_, nor _Oncidium macranthum_
other than an _Odontoglossum_. Indeed, I must own to a suspicion that
ultimately both these genera, together with _Miltonia_, _Mesospinidium_,
_Aspasia_, and possibly one or two others, may come to be regarded merely
as _sub_-genera, But this difficult question is safest left in Professor
Reichenbach's far abler hands. At the same time, it is not to be denied
that there is such a peculiar look about the _Odontoglossa_, that even a
non-scientific observer has seldom any difficulty in at once referring most
of the species to their true position.

One other matter remains to which I must very briefly advert. Mr. Darwin's
fascinating work on the "Fertilization" of Orchids has led many persons to
suppose that this beautiful tribe lends an exceptional amount of support to
the theory with which that ingenious writer's name is so prominently
associated, but there could scarcely be a greater mistake. Not only is the
theory in question utterly rejected by Professor Reichenbach, the _facile
princeps_ of living orchidists, but the greater our knowledge of the order,
the less countenance does it seem to yield to the Darwinian view. We have
now become perfectly well acquainted with all the genera--we might almost
say with all the species--that belong to particular countries, but it is in
these that the limits of variation between the different forms are most
distinctly defined; in these, too, the great principle of unity in
diversity is most conspicuous--the genera holding aloof from each other,
and even the species keeping themselves distinct, although the Orchid mark
is unmistakeably stamped upon all alike. Mr. Gould has remarked, in his
great work on the "_Trochilidæ_," that the Darwinian theory derives no
support from _them_, and the same may be safely affirmed of Orchids,
which--we are now speaking of America--are the humming-birds' constant
associates. Neither, while we contemplate the marvellous and inexhaustible
variety of form by which the order is distinguished above all its fellows,
can any plead that this result is due to its ancient lineage, nor yet to
the vast periods through which endless transformations are assumed to have
been continually taking place, because Orchids--according to geologic
reckoning--are but a thing of yesterday, and have never been found in a
fossil state. Yet their constant companions the Ferns, trace back their
pedigree to the earliest vegetation of the primeval world! To the believer,
however, the problem is not hard to solve.  Ferns and other flowerless
plants came early in the Divine programme, because the coal, into which
they were to be ultimately converted, had need to be long accumulating for
the future comfort and civilization of our race; while the genesis of
Orchids was postponed until the time drew near when Man, who was to be
soothed by the gentle influence of their beauty, or charmed by the
marvellous variety of their structure, was about to appear upon the scene.
There are multitudes who could bear witness how amply, in their own
experience, this gracious purpose has been fulfilled; while the writer--in
whose breast a love of Orchids prevailed from his youth up--can only
exclaim with the Psalmist, "Thou, Oh Lord, hast made me glad through Thy
works, and I will rejoice in giving thanks for the operation of Thy hand."

J. B.

    KNYPERSLEY HALL, _April 24th, 1874_.


   1. O. nebulosum.
   2. O. Uro-Skinneri.
   3. O. phalænopsis.
   4. O. Insleayii.
   5. O. Pescatorei.
   6. O. pendulum.
   7. O. hastilabium.
   8. O. grande.
   9. O. nævium.
  10. O. cariniferum.
  11. O. Lindleyanum.
  12. O. gloriosum.
  13. (Fig. 1.) O. Warnerianum.
  13. (Fig. 2.) O. stellatum.
  14. O. Alexandræ.
  15. O. Reichenheimii.
  16. O. læve.
  17. O. luteo-purpureum.
  18. O. Bictonense.
  19. O. Alexandræ.
  20. O. maculatum.
  21. O. Hallii.
  22. O. roseum.
  23. O. triumphans.
  24. O. Krameri.
  25. O. cordatum.
  26. O. angustatum.
  27. O. coronarium.
  28. O. blandum.
  29. O. vexillarium.
  30. O. Roezlii.





  O. angustatum              Plate 26
    _O. ramosissimum, Lindl._
  O. Bictonense                "   18
    _Cyrtochilum Bictoniense, Bateman._
  O. blandum                   "   20
  O. cariniferum               "   10
  O. cordatum                  "   25
  O. coronarium                "   27
  O. crispum         Plate 14, "   19
    _O. Alexandræ, Bateman._
    _O. Bluntii, Rchb. fil._
  O. gloriosum                 "   12
  O. grande                    "    8
  O. Hallii                    "   21
  O. hastilabium               "    7
  O. Insleayii                 "    4
  O. læve                      "   16
  O. Lindleyanum               "   11
  O. luteo-purpureum           "   17
    _O. hystrix, Bateman._
    _O. radiatum, Rehb. fil._
  O. maculatum                 "   20
  O. nævium                    "    9
  O. nebulosum                 "    1
  O. pendulum                  "    6
    _O. citrosmum, Lindl._
    _Cuitlauzina pendula, La Llave._
  O. Pescatorei                "    5
  O. phalænopsis               "    3
  O. Reichenheimii             "   15
  O. Roezlii                   "   30
  O. roseum                    "   22
  O. stellatum                 "   13
  O. triumphans                "   23
  O. Uro-Skinneri              "    2
  O. vexillarium               "   29
  O. Warnerianum               "   13

Plate I

[Illustration: Odontoglossum nebulosum.]




  O. (LEUCOGLOSSUM, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis ovatis compressis 2-3-phyllis,
  foliis oblongis acutis basi conduplicatis pedunculo radicali erecto
  (apice) nutante 3-7-floro brevioribus, bracteis scariosis amplexicaulibus
  ovario duplo brevioribus, sepalis petalisque latioribus membranaceis
  oblongis undulatis apiculis recurvis, labelli ungue cucullato carnoso,
  lamellis duabus erectis dentibusque totidem anticis, limbo ovato acuto
  dentato subpubescente, columnâ apterâ elongatâ. (_Lindl. quibusdam


  ODONTOGLOSSUM MAXILLARE, _Lemaire (nec Lindley), Illustration Horticole_
  (1859), _t._ 200.

  Habitat in Mexico, prope Oaxaca (_Karwinski_, _Galeotti_, etc.),
  _circiter 5000 ft._


  PSEUDOBULBS _2 to 3 inches long, smooth, ovate, somewhat compressed, 2-
  or 3-leaved_. LEAVES _2 or 3 at the apex of the pseudobulbs, oblong,
  acute, shorter than the_ SCAPE, _which, rising from the base of the
  pseudobulbs, is bent down at its upper extremity by the weight of from 3
  to 7 large and handsome_ FLOWERS. BRACTS _only half the length of the
  ovary, embracing the flower-stem_. SEPALS _1½ inches long_. PETALS _much
  wider than the sepals, and like them of an oblong form, waved at the
  margin, and a little recurved at the end, which is sharply pointed; both
  sepals and petals are of clear membranous white, clouded (as the name
  implies) by a profusion of spots or blotches of a reddish-brown colour,
  which extend to nearly half their length_. LIP _of the same texture and
  colour as the sepals, only that the brown blotches are broader, and that
  there is a patch of yellow on the claw; its upper portion is of an ovate
  form, acute, with the margins very much torn; its fleshy dish is hooded,
  or gathered into 2 erect plates, with a pair of teeth attached in front_.
  COLUMN _very long, destitute of wings_.

It was at Munich, in the year 1835, that I first became acquainted with
this fine _Odontoglossum_ having, through the kindness of Professor Von
Martius, been allowed to examine the rich collection of dried specimens
that Baron Karwinski had then recently brought home with him from Mexico.
Two years afterwards living plants were sent to me from Oaxaca, which
happening to arrive in the midst of that remarkably severe winter 1837-38,
I naturally expected would have been destroyed on their way; so far,
however, from this being the case, they appeared to have sustained little
or no injury from the cold, and on being placed in a stove they soon began
to push both roots and leaves. All went well so long as the temperature of
the house did not exceed 70°, but when the winter had passed away and they
had to face the intense heat at which the Orchid-houses of that period were
ordinarily maintained, they then quickly lost their vigour and before a
twelvemonth had passed were all gone, victims--like a multitude of other
invaluable plants--to our then ignorance of the conditions under which
alone the Orchids of _cool_ countries could be expected to thrive!

I am not aware that this plant ever flowered in this country until within
the last year or two, certainly no figure of it has ever been published in
any English botanical periodical; I have, however, found in a French work
(the _Illustration Horticole_), under the name of _O. maxillare_, what is
obviously the same as the plant represented in the Plate. I should myself
have probably fallen into the same mistake as Professor Lemaire, had I not
enjoyed the opportunity--which he unfortunately had not--of examining the
original specimens in Dr. Lindley's herbarium, and from which that able
botanist drew up his description (in the _Folia Orchidacea_) of the two
species. _O. maxillare_, of which Dr. Lindley only examined a single
flower--though he made a most careful drawing--is shown by a glance at the
latter, to be a totally different thing; it has moreover, I fear, long
since disappeared from our collections. In Dr. Lindley's description the
flower-scape is said to be terminal, which in nature it never is, although
from the way in which Karwinski's wild specimen was glued together, it
certainly presents that appearance in the herbarium. The column moreover,
and the base of the sepals and petals, are said to be pubescent, though
nothing of the kind is visible to the naked eye when the flowers are fresh.
With a powerful magnifying glass pubescence may certainly be seen.

_Odontoglossum nebulosum_ flowers at different seasons of the year, always
sending up its scape at the same time as the young growth. It is of the
easiest culture.[3] The figure was derived from a beautiful specimen that
flowered last November in the collection of J. Day, Esq., of Tottenham, who
grows this and many other _Odontoglossa_ in high perfection.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip, seen in front; 2. Ditto, seen sideways: _both

Plate II

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Uro-Skinneri.]




  O. (LEUCOGLOSSUM, _Lindl_.) pseudobulbis ovato-oblongis ancipitibus
  compressis guttulatis 1-2-phyllis, foliis oblongis acuminatis scapo
  multifloro simplici vel subpaniculato multo brevioribus, bracteis
  membranaceis cymbiformibus acuminatis ovario 3-plo brevioribus, petalis
  sepalisque subæqualibus late-ovatis acuminatis, labelli ungue bilamellato
  limbo cordato maculato acuminato undulato, columnæ alis ovatis deflexis.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM URO-SKINNERI, _Gardeners' Chronicle_, vol. 1859, pp. 708,

  Habitat in GUATEMALA, prope Santa Catarina de los Altos, 5-6000 _ft_.,


  PSEUDOBULBS 3 _or_ 4 _inches long by nearly as many wide, much flattened,
  and very sharp at the edges, always powdered with     minute brown dots,
  which do not appear until the second year_. LEAVES _oblong, broad, and
  stiff, acuminate at their     extremities, much shorter than the scape_.
  SCAPE _generally simple, but sometimes slightly panicled, about a yard
   high, and bearing from_ 10 _to_ 20 _agreeably scented_ FLOWERS. _Bracts_
  _of a delicate texture, boat-shaped, scarcely     more than one-third the
  length of the ovary_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly equal, broadly ovate,
  about an inch long,     of a green colour, covered with rich
  reddish-brown spots_. LIP _broad and spreading, heart-shaped, acuminate,
  and     turned inwards at the apex, its disk white, but covered with
  round blue spots, which cease at the foot of the isthmus     (claw),
  where two upright and nearly parallel lamellæ (plates) are stationed_.
  COLUMN _furnished with ovate, decurved,     round-headed wings_.

This is a robust and stately plant, nearly allied to _O. Bictoniense_ to
which at one time Dr. Lindley was disposed to refer it, but far larger and
handsomer in all its parts. Its broad pseudobulbs which become covered in
their second year with a multitude of small reddish dots, its wide sepals
and petals, the spotting of its lip, and its general resemblance to
_Zygopetalum Mackaii_ will, however, sufficiently distinguish it. Being
found at a higher elevation than _O. Bictoniense_, it requires to be kept
more cool, and as it affects dark and wet banks in its native wilds, it is
better to place it in a north house where it can be more readily protected
from the sun. Treated in this way it grows luxuriantly and flowers
abundantly at Knypersley, whence the specimen figured in the Plate was
derived. Its flowering season seems to vary, for while with me it is now
(May) coming into bloom, about London November is the more usual month.

_O. Uro-Skinneri_ was the latest discovery of my indefatigable friend Mr.
Skinner (after whom it was named by Dr. Lindley), and who, though now
settled in England, is as much devoted to his favourite tribe as when,
while resident in Guatemala, he was wont to delight the Orchidists of
Europe by the multitude of new and beautiful plants that he was constantly
dispatching across the main.

DISSECTION.--1. Side view of lip and column: _magnified_.

Plate III

[Illustration: Odontoglossum phalænopsis.]




  O. (LEUCOGLOSSUM, _Lindl_.) pseudobulbis ovatis obtuse ancipitibus
  1-2-phyllis, foliis linearibus acutissimis racemis bi- vel trifloris
  spithamæis longioribus, sepalis oblongo-ligulatis acutis, petalis
  latioribus obovatis obtusis; labelli ampli pandurati emarginati
  bilamelligeri disco velutino, columnæ alis abbreviatis membranaceis.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM PHALÆNOPSIS, _Rchb. fil. in Seemann Bonplandia_, ii. 278;
  _Pescatorea, Linden et Rchb. fil_. ii. 44.


  Habitat in N. GRANADA, prope Aspasica, alt. 5-6000 ft., _Schlim_.


  _Terrestrial_. PSEUDOBULBS _nearly two inches long, ovate, bearing one,
  or more frequently two, narrow linear, very acute_ LEAVES, _less than a
  foot long, and usually withered at the extremities_. RACEME _nodding,
  shorter than the leaves, furnished with a few small acute_ BRACTS, _and
  bearing two, or occasionally three, very large and handsome flowers,
  which, the markings of the lip excepted, are of a uniform white_. SEPALS
  _oblong, sharp-pointed, about an inch long_. PETALS _broader than the
  sepals, obtuse_. LIP _fiddle-shaped, its front portion deeply emarginate,
  spread out nearly flat, very broad, its side portions much smaller,
  rounded, and with two continuous upright lamellæ on its velvety disk; the
  lip has two large irregular pale-crimson blotches on its anterior
  portion, with concentric lines of the same colour on its lower portion,
  with a small patch of yellow on either side the isthmus_ (i.e. _point of
  junction between the upper and lower divisions of the lip_). COLUMN
  _short, with membranous wings much abbreviated_.

This most charming _Odontoglossum_ was discovered in the year 1850 by M.
Schlim at that time engaged in exploring the higher regions of New Granada
in the service of M. Linden to whose well-known horticultural establishment
at Brussels he had the honour of introducing it. The species was seen in
flower for the first time in the year 1856 when it appeared at some
Horticultural Exhibitions both on the Continent and in London and, as may
readily be conceived, attracted universal admiration. Since that time its
lovely blossoms have been rarely produced, owing no doubt to its
cultivation having been imperfectly understood. It has however, I believe,
bloomed occasionally in the collection of the Lord Chancellor of Ireland,
and more recently in that of E. McMorland, Esq., of Haverstock Hill, with
whom it thrives amazingly, and to whose kindness I am indebted for the
opportunity of figuring it. In its native country it is found in a mild
climate growing on the ground, or upon rocks in moist and shady situations,
and by simply imitating these conditions Mr. McMorland cultivates it with
the most perfect success. His plants are kept in pots, with living moss on
the surface, and their base resting in pans of water the evaporation from
which cannot fail to be highly beneficial. The temperature of the house in
which they are grown is that of an ordinary greenhouse, but the air is
always humid, and water is freely given because, in consequence of the
_open potting_, it can pass as freely away. The plants seem to grow and
flower almost all the year round, though their proper and principal
flowering-season is in May and June.

_O. phalænopsis_ is entirely distinct from any species of the genus yet in
cultivation, but it is allied to a still finer plant detected by Warszewicz
in Costa Rica, and called in honour of its discoverer _O. Warszewiczii_ by
Professor Reichenbach.

  DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip. seen sideways; and 2. Front view of lip: _both

Plate IV

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Insleayii.]




  O. (EUODONTOGLOSSUM, _Lindl_.) pseudobulbis ovatis compressis diphyllis,
  foliis coriaceis oblongo-ensiformibus subundulatis apice recurvis racemo
  5-10-floro erecto rigido brevioribus, sepalis petalisque oblongis
  subæqualibus undulatis infimis connatis, labello angusto obovato retuso
  basi auriculato, disci cristâ apice bilobâ dilatatâ utrinque in medio
  dente refracto auctâ, columnæ alis incurvis cirrhatis. (_Lindl. Fol.

  ONCIDIUM INSLEAYI, _Barker in Bot. Reg._ 1840, _Misc._ 21; _Bateman,
  Orchid. Mex. et Guat. t. 21_; _Van Houtte, Flore des Serres,_ 1848, _t._

  Habitat in MEXICO, _Barker_; OAXACA, _Loddiges_; 5-6000 _ft._


  PSEUDOBULBS _ovate, slightly furrowed, compressed, bearing 2 leathery,
  sword-shaped, sharp-pointed_ LEAVES, _which are less than a foot long,
  and like the rest of the plant of a glaucous hue_. SCAPE _upright, longer
  than the leaves, bearing from 5 to 10 flowers, usually from 2 to 3 inches
  in diameter, but sometimes considerably more_. BRACTS _few, about an inch
  long, occurring at intervals somewhat longer than themselves, and fitting
  tightly to the stem_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly equal, oblong, waved,
  the two lateral ones attached at their base, of a pale yellowish-green
  tint, crossed throughout their entire length by broad bands of
  reddish-brown_. LIP _narrow, obovate, turned a little back, of a bright
  yellow colour, bordered by a belt of red blotches; on its disk are a
  group of tubercles, mounting two teeth on either side, and with cleft
  callus in front_. COLUMN-WINGS _bent inwards, and resembling in form the
  antennæ of an insect_.

This _Odontoglossum_ was originally introduced from Mexico by the late Mr.
Barker, of Birmingham, after whose gardener it was named by Dr. Lindley. It
flowered with Mr. Barker somewhere about the year 1840, when a figure was
prepared for the 'Orchidaceæ of Mexico and Guatemala,' but I had not then
the opportunity of examining the plant, nor indeed did I ever actually see
it in flower until the autumn of last year (1863) when I happened to meet
with the specimen from which the illustration is derived, growing and
blooming vigorously in the collection of Dr. Cauty, of Liverpool. The
species had, in fact, virtually disappeared from collections during an
interregnum of twenty years, and its reappearance is entirely due to the
adoption of the rational system of cool treatment now happily prevailing,
and under which it may be cultivated with the greatest ease.

In habit _O. Insleayi_ is quite indistinguishable from _O. grande_; and
although its flowers are far inferior in beauty to those of that glorious
species, they bear a certain sort of resemblance to them in their colouring
and general arrangement. The structure is however entirely different, for
while _O. grande_ has no bristle-like appendages to its column, and
therefore belongs to the section of the genus which has been called
XANTHOGLOSSUM by Dr. Lindley, the processes in question are clearly present
(see Dissections) in the case of _O. Insleayi_, thereby bringing it under
the preceding section, to which the title of EUODONTOGLOSSUM has been given
by the same authority. The time and mode of flowering are also different in
the two plants, for while in _O. grande_ the flower-scapes appear almost
simultaneously with the leaves, and are usually in perfection in July,
those of _O. Insleayi_ are not produced until long after the pseudobulbs
have been matured, nor do they expand their blossoms until late in the

As is the case with most of its congeners, there are many varieties of _O.
Insleayi_, some of which are much less attractive in their colouring than
the one represented in the Plate, while others have much larger flowers, as
in the example given in the vignette which is copied from an old woodcut in
the Journal of the Horticultural Society. Unfortunately this latter variety
has, I greatly fear, been lost to the country, but collectors should
endeavour to reintroduce it.

I have already referred to Dr. Cauty's success in the treatment of the
subject of the present Plate, but his skill and care are equally
conspicuous in the management of a miscellaneous collection of Orchids,
which he contrives to grow under circumstances such as would have deterred
most men from attempting to grow any plants at all. The house in which he
lives is in the very centre of Liverpool, and has in its rear a small back
court, such as is usually devoted to dustbins and coal-holes, but where Dr.
Cauty has found space for three little Orchid-houses of different
temperatures in which the Orchids of different climes are perfectly at
home. I can really see no reason why in all large towns--in London more
especially--Dr. Cauty's example should not be extensively followed, and the
luxury of an Orchid-house be thus brought within the reach of many who now
consider it quite beyond their grasp.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip, seen sideways; 2. Ditto, seen in front: _both

[Illustration: Flower (_nat. size_) of a large variety of _O. Insleayi_.]

Plate V

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Pescatorei.]




  O. (ISANTHIUM, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis ovatis lævigatis nebulosis
  diphyllis, foliis loratis planis basi angustatis paniculâ amplâ erectâ
  multiflorâ 3-plo brevioribus, bracteis minutis, floribus membranaceis,
  sepalis ovato-oblongis apiculatis leviter undulatis, petalis conformibus
  latioribus, labello cuspidato subpandurato basi denticulato, cristæ
  lamellis lateralibus distantibus cartilagineis laceris lineis duabus
  divergentibus apice denticulatis interjectis, columnæ brevis alis
  brevibus cuneatis laceris. (_Lindl. Fol. Orch., quibusdam mutatis._)

  ODONTOGLOSSUM PESCATOREI, _Lindley, in Paxton's Flower Garden, iii. t.
  90_; _Pescatorea, t. 1_; _Warner's Select Orchidaceous Plants, t. 25._

  ODONTOGLOSSUM NOBILE, _Reichenbach fil. in Linnæa_, 22, 850.

  Habitat in NEW GRANADA, Province of Pamplona, at the height of from 5000
  to 6000 feet, _Funck and Schlim_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _from 2 to 3 inches long, of an ovate form, glossy, and
  mottled with dark brown, usually bearing 2 lorate_ LEAVES, _which are
  from 6 inches to a foot long, narrowed at the base and sharp at the end,
  much shorter than the tall upright branched_ PANICLE, _which sometimes
  rises to the height of 3 feet, and bears from 6 to 60 membranous_ FLOWERS
  _of a peculiarly delicate texture_. BRACTS _very small_. SEPALS
  _ovate-oblong, apiculate, slightly waved at the edges, an inch long,
  white with streaks of rose-colour_. PETALS _similar in form and texture
  to the sepals, but broader and more curled at the edges, of the purest
  white_. LIP _inclining to fiddle-shape, pointed, but with the point
  invisible when looked at in front; towards the base are two short upright
  tubercles that pass forward into plates diverging from each other, and
  toothed in front. On either side are two pseudo-wings, irregularly
  indented, and, like the plates, of a beautiful gold colour, streaked with
  red. The rest of the lip is white, with the exception of a few irregular
  blotches of crimson, the number and size and disposition of which vary
  considerably in different individuals_. COLUMN _short, with short
  wedge-shaped_ WINGS, _a little indented at the edges_.

This lovely plant was discovered in the year 1847 by MM. Funck and Schlim
when on a botanical mission to New Granada, in the service of M. Linden.
According to its discoverers, it is not unfrequently met with in the
provinces of Pamplona and Ocaña, at an elevation above the sea-level of
about 5000 feet, inhabiting the oak forests which--where the climate is
mild--clothe the eastern slopes of the glorious Cordillera.

_O. Pescatorei_ flowered with M. Linden for the first time in 1851, and
attracted, as well it might, universal admiration. Nothing indeed, even in
the beautiful family to which it belongs, can surpass the delicacy of its
blossoms, with their charming mixture of rose and white, relieved by a few
deep-crimson stains scattered irregularly over the lip. Its habit too is
good, and its stately panicle of flowers well-proportioned to the size of
the bulbs and leaves. It blooms abundantly in the spring months, and its
blossoms continue at least six weeks in perfection. We need not wonder that
a plant with such a rare combination of good qualities should have been
selected by M. Linden to do honour to his patron the late M. Pescatore,
after whom he named it, and in whose sumptuous work ('Pescatorea') it forms
the first plate.

Although the species, owing to the difficulty of importing it alive, is
still exceedingly rare in this country, it has already flowered in many of
the principal collections, especially in those of Mr. Rucker, Mr. Basset,
Mr. Day, and Mr. Dawson, of Meadow Bank near Edinburgh. With the last-named
gentleman a panicle, with sixty flowers upon it, is now (April, 1864) in
full beauty. Mr. Fitch's drawing was taken from an exquisite variety, of
which Mr. Day is the fortunate possessor, and which he kindly placed at my
disposal for the purpose of being figured in this Work. In the Plate the
flower-spike is represented as panicled because such--as in the case of all
the other varieties--is no doubt its normal state; as yet however racemes
only have been produced.

The treatment recommended for other _Odontoglossa_ (see under Plate I.)
will suit _O. Pescatorei_, which is as easily managed as any of the genus.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip, seen sideways; 2. Lip, front view: _magnified_.


Plate VI

[Illustration: Odontoglossum pendulum.]




  O. (TRYMENIUM) pseudobulbis subrotundis compressis lævibus diphyllis,
  foliis oblongo-ligulatis obtusis racemo pendulo multifloro paulo
  brevioribus, sepalis oblongis obtusis petalisque conformibus
  subæqualibus, labello unguiculato reniformi basi excavato marginibus
  callosis, clinandrii alis lateralibus subtruncatis dorsalique rotundato

  ODONTOGLOSSUM CITROSMUM, _Lindl. Bot. Reg._ 1842, _Misc._ 68; 1843, _t._
  3; _Fol. Orch. n._ 59; _Warner's Select Orchidaceous Plants_, _t._ 28;
  _Lemaire_, _Jard. Fl._ _t._ 90.

  CUITLAUZINA PENDULA, _La Llace et Lexarza_, _Orch. Mex._ 2; _Reichenbach,
  fil._, _Bonplandia_, iii. 15, 16.

  Habitat in MEXICO, _Lexarza_, _Karwinski_, _Barker_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _clustered together, 2 to 4 inches long, compressed, ovate or
  almost round, smooth and glossy, 2-leaved_. LEAVES _6 inches to a foot
  long, leathery, oblong-ligulate, obtuse, rather shorter than the raceme_.
  RACEME _issuing at an early stage from the young growth, pendulous,
  many-flowered, rarely branched, longer than the leaves_. SEPALS _and_
  PETALS _similar in form, pure white, or in some varieties of a faint
  blush or rose-colour, frequently sprinkled with minute red dots, oblong,
  obtuse, about an inch long_. LIP _unguiculate, kidney-shaped, channelled
  (with the solid edges turned up) along its base, on which there is a
  patch of yellow, with a few bright dots in the position where a crest
  (here entirely wanting) is usually placed; the colour of the disk of the
  lip varies in different specimens, being sometimes entirely white and
  sometimes tipped with faint rose-colour or deep-crimson_. COLUMN _with
  upper and lower wings (all of which are toothed), that on the back being
  rounded and the others truncated_.

Early in the present century, two Spaniards--La Llave and Lexarza by
name--settled at the Mexican town of Valladolid, in the fertile province of
Mechoacan. They were both attached to botany, but the younger of the two,
Lexarza, was so attracted by the beauty of the numerous Orchids of the
district that to these he devoted himself with an ardour that would have
done honour even to the Lindleys and Reichenbachs of our own day. As the
result of his labours a little work--'Orchidianum Opusculum' he modestly
styled it--presently made its appearance, wherein about fifty species, all
at that time new to science, were described with remarkable accuracy and
skill. Among the number there was a plant,--_Cuitlauzina pendula_ he called
it,--said to be of surpassing loveliness and to form an undoubtedly new
genus the distinctive characters of which were minutely given. As time went
on and the rage for Orchids developed itself in Europe, a keen desire was
naturally felt by cultivators to add so fine a plant to their lists; but
although many collectors visited Valladolid and laid hands upon nearly all
the other desirable Orchids described by Lexarza, still nothing was heard
of the _Cuitlauzina_, and on the cover of the latest number of Dr.
Lindley's 'Folia Orchidacea' its name may be found in the list of genera
"unknown to the author." About the same time I myself addressed a letter to
the 'Gardeners' Chronicle' urging some adventurous traveller to take ship
for New Spain, mainly with the object of instituting another search for the
tantalizing plant that had hitherto eluded our grasp. Yet all this while
_Cuitlauzina pendula_ was amongst us, and indeed had been an established
favourite for upwards of twenty years! But if so, it may well be asked, how
came it to pass that it was never recognized? For a full reply to this very
natural inquiry I must refer the reader to a most ingenious article in
'Bonplandia' (Jahrg. iii. No. 15, 16), by the younger Reichenbach, to whom
all the credit is due of having solved a great botanical puzzle, and proved
to demonstration that the _Cuitlauzina pendula_ of Lexarza is none other
than the _Odontoglossum citrosmum_ of Lindley.[4]

Under these circumstances, however undesirable the meddling with
established names, I scarcely see how, in common justice to Lexarza, we can
do otherwise than adopt his specific name of _pendula_, more especially as
it happens that the plant to which he originally gave it remains to this
day the only one out of nearly a hundred _Odontoglossa_ that has
flower-stems which are strictly _pendulous_.

Our gardens contain many varieties of _O. pendulum_, of which, though all
are beautiful, some are far superior to others. That represented in the
Plate, and which forms a part of Mr. Rucker's collection, is among the
best. Mr. Rucker keeps it in his coolest house, where it is perfectly at
home, and produces a profusion of its lovely drooping racemes in May and
June. It should always be grown in a pot.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Front view of lip and column; 2. Side view of ditto:

Plate VII

[Illustration: Odontoglossum hastilabium.]




  O. (Isanthium, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis ovatis compressis 1-2-phyllis,
  foliis oblongis coriaceis, paniculæ exaltatæ ramis spicatis, bracteis
  cymbiformibus acuminatis ovario æqualibus, sepalis petalisque
  lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis undulatis, labello apice subrotundo-ovato
  acuto basi auriculis acutis lanceolatis porrectis aucto, lamellis 5
  elevatis, columnæ alis obsolete undulatis, margine versus basin
  membranaceo dilatato.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM HASTILABIUM, _Lindley_, _Orchid. Linden._ _n._ 84;
  _Hooker_, _Bot. Mag._ _t._ 4272; _Pescatorea_, _t._ 11.

  Habitat in NOV. GRANADA: Tesqua, in the province of Pamplona, at the
  elevation of 2500 feet, April, _Linden_; on the road from Santa Martha to
  the Sierra Nevada, _Purdie_; Ocaña, January, 5-6000 feet, _Schlim_,
  _Wagener_, _Blunt_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _compressed, ovate, 3 to 6 inches long, bearing 1 or 2
  oblong, leathery_ LEAVES, _not more than a third the length of the
  scape_. BRACTS _boat-shaped, acuminate, equal in length to the ovary_.
  SCAPE _very robust, from 2 to 6 feet high, panicled, bearing from 20 to
  100 flowers_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _1½ to 2 inches long,
  linear-lanceolate, acuminate, slightly waved at the margin, of a
  pale-green, barred with numerous lines of dark-red or purple_. LIP
  _halbert-shaped, purple at the base, but white in its upper portion,
  which is of a roundish-ovate form, pointed at the extremity; its crest
  consists of 2 outer and 2 interior plates, the taller stretching forward
  beyond the former, with a linear-oval callosity in the centre_. COLUMN
  _expanding at its base on either side into an inflexed membrane_.

As this stately _Odontoglossum_ is met with at a much lower elevation than
any of its congeners, it is constitutionally less impatient of heat, and
has therefore been able to accommodate itself to artificial conditions
under which others of its race in former years have pined and died. But
although in some parts of New Granada it descends as low as 2500 feet, its
more frequent range is 2000 feet higher up the mountains, and it is in such
situations that it attains its greatest luxuriance and beauty. Some
imported specimens that I was fortunate enough to see last year (1864) at
the Clapton Nursery, whither they had been sent by Mr. Blunt, had
flower-stems half an inch thick and fully 6 feet high. These were gathered
at an elevation of at least 4000 feet above the sea-level and, as they
arrived in excellent condition and have been extensively distributed, I
have little doubt we shall ere long see cultivated specimens that may vie
with the wild ones in stature and magnificence. Its flowering season is the
spring or early summer.

The figure was taken in May last from a plant in Mr. Rucker's collection
where it is grown at the coolest end of the Cattleya-house.

DISSECTION.--1. Front view of lip and column; 2. Side view of ditto:

Plate VIII

[Illustration: Odontoglossum grande.]




  O. (XANTHOGLOSSUM) pseudobulbis ovatis compressis diphyllis, foliis
  coriaceis oblongo-ensiformibus scapo simplici brevioribus, sepalis
  lanceolatis lateralibus convexis falcatis petalisque oblongis
  obtusiusculis latioribus subundulatis, labello subrotundo basi auriculato
  sepalis plus duplo breviore, disci cristâ apice truncatâ bituberculatâ
  utrinque in medio dente calloque auctâ, columnæ tomentosæ auriculis
  rotundatis convexis incurvis.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM GRANDE, _Lindl. in Bot. Reg._ 1840, _Misc._ 94; _Bateman_,
  _Orchid. Mex._ _t._ 21; _Morren. Ann. Gand._ i. _t._ 37.

  Habitat in GUATEMALA, _Skinner_, _Hartweg_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _compressed, broadly ovate, 2 or 3 inches long, bearing 1 or
  more frequently_ 2 _leathery, oblong-ensiform_ LEAVES, _which, as well as
  the pseudobulbs, have always more or less of a pale-glaucous hue_. SCAPE
  _twice the length of the leaves, 4-8-flowered_. BRACTS _sheathing, acute,
  half the length of the ovary_. FLOWERS _very large, in some varieties 7
  inches or more from the tip of expanded petals_. SEPALS _lanceolate, the
  lateral ones convex and falcate_. PETALS _wider than the sepals, and,
  like them, of a rich yellow colour, marked with large deep-cinnamon bands
  and blotches, oblong, somewhat obtuse at their extremities, and slightly
  waved at the margin_. LIP _not half the length of the sepals, nearly
  round, whitish, with a few crimson stains near the crest, which is of
  rich orange-yellow, marked with deep-orange spots, and is seated on the
  disk of the lip; it consists of 2 large truncate processes in front, with
  2 or 4 small teeth at its base; its auricles turn their edges down until
  they meet under the disk of the lip, and there grow together_. COLUMN
  _downy, with a rounded, incurved, convex auricle on either side_.

Mr. Skinner was the fortunate discoverer of this noble _Odontoglossum_
which to this day remains unsurpassed, even among all the fine additions
that have of late years been made to the genus. Mr. Skinner found it in a
"barranca" (or dark ravine) in the environs of the city of Guatemala, and
so closely had it lain concealed that even his quick eye failed to detect
it until long after he had, as he thought, exhausted the district of all
its finest Orchids. It was afterwards met with in other localities, but
invariably in a climate of which the ordinary range of temperature lay
between 60° and 70°, and in situations where it was secure of abundant
moisture and constant shade. In these peculiarities of its natural habitat
the conditions of its successful cultivation are clearly pointed out; yet,
strange to say, they were unheeded for twenty years, during which the
plants in our Orchid-houses were always in a feeble and sickly state,
rarely producing more than two or three flowers on a scape, while the
imported specimens showed that at least double that number was the proper
quota. Now, however, the case is different, for with a mild temperature and
moderate shade they are found to be managed with the most perfect ease and
to grow with a vigour that could never have been exceeded in their native
wilds. In proof of this we need only turn to the vignette, which is copied
from a beautiful photograph kindly sent to me by Joshua Saunders, Esq., and
which represents a specimen of _O. grande_ as it appeared when flowering in
his collection at Clifton. As a further evidence of the ease with which the
plant may be grown I may mention that under the care of Major Trevor Clarke
it has been induced to bloom in the open air during the summer months.
This, however, must only be looked upon as an interesting experiment and is
not recommended for imitation. _O. grande_ usually flowers in July or
August, when the season's growth is nearly completed; after this it should
be allowed to rest. Mr. Fitch's drawing was taken from a handsome variety
that flowered last year (1864) in a north house at Knypersley, and which
had been given me by Mr. Skinner.[5]

DISSECTIONS.--1. Front view of column and labellum; 2. Side view of ditto:
_slightly magnified_.

[Illustration: Plant of _Odontoglossum grande_ in the collection of Joshua
Saunders, Esq., copied from a photograph taken by himself.]

Plate IX

[Illustration: Odontoglossum nævium.]




  O. (EUODONTOGLOSSUM) pseudobulbis ovatis compressis, foliis tenuibus
  lanceolatis basi angustatis scapo racemoso vel subpaniculato multifloro
  nutante subæqualibus vel longioribus, sepalis petalisque angustis
  ovato-lanceolatis acuminatis undulatis, labello subconformi pubescente
  vix hastato, cristæ dentibus 2 grossis bi- vel subtrilobis pubescentibus,
  columnæ cirrhis subulatis patulis.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM NÆVIUM, _Lindley in Paxton's Flower Garden_, i. _t._ 18;
  _Flore des Serres_, vi. 594; _Pescatorea_, _t._ 13; _Warner's Select
  Orchidaceous Plants_, _t._ 7; _Reichenbach fil. in Bonplandia_, ii. 278.

  Habitat in VENEZUELA, _Funck and Schlim_ (721), in the province of
  Truxillo, near S. Lazaro and La Peña, 6000 feet; NEW GRANADA, in the
  province of Pamplona, flowering in August, 8000 feet, _Linden_ (146).


  PSEUDOBULBS _ovate, compressed, somewhat bluntly ribbed, bearing 1 or 2
  narrow-oblong_ LEAVES, _tapering at the base, about equal in length to or
  more frequently shorter than the many-flowered flower-scape_. FLOWERS
  _arranged on a nodding raceme (occasionally a panicle is formed), pure
  white, speckled everywhere with rich crimson or brown_. BRACTS _very
  short, scale-like_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _ovate, linear-lanceolate,
  acuminate, spreading equally, much waved, from 1½ to (in some varieties)
  2 or 2½ inches long_. LIP _shorter than the petals, but nearly of the
  same form and colour, except that there is a yellow crest with a large
  crimson blotch in its front; at its base the edges of the claw clasp the
  column_. TEETH _of the crest yellow, small, distinct, with 2 or 3 unequal
  blunt lobes to each, downy_. COLUMN _downy, narrowed to the base, with a
  pair of awl-shaped ears near the summit, below the anther-bed_.

This brilliant _Odontoglossum_ was first discovered by the late Sir Robert
Schomburgk, and having been shipped with his other collections from
Demerara, has long been supposed to be a native of the latter colony. I am,
however, satisfied that, beyond the circumstance alluded to, there is not
the slightest reason for regarding it as a Demerara plant, for no other
collector has ever found it there, nor would its constitution endure so hot
a climate. As Sir Robert, in his memorable expedition into the interior of
Guiana (1835-37), reached an elevation of 7000 feet, on the fourth parallel
of latitude, and among the southern affluents of the Orinoco, I have little
doubt that it was in this region that he discovered _O. nævium,_ along with
_Maxillaria eburnea_, _Diothonea imbricata_, and other treasures that have
never yet found their way to us in a living state.[6]

_O. nævium_ and its varieties appear to be extensively distributed, having
been met with in many localities, both in Venezuela and New Granada,
always, however, at a very considerable elevation, and hence the necessity
of cool treatment. If this be conceded, the plant is of the easiest culture
and will flower abundantly in May or June. The figure was taken from a
splendid specimen in Mr. Rucker's collection.

I do not think it necessary to adhere any longer to Dr. Lindley's
distinction (as noted in the 'Folia Orchidacea') of a "major" variety, for
this is now found to pass insensibly into the ordinary type. The former has
sometimes been confounded with the _O. gloriosum_ of Reichenbach, but this
is a perfectly independent form, and as such will shortly be figured in
this work.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Front view of lip and column; 2. Side view of ditto:


Plate X

[Illustration: Odontoglossum carinatum.]




  O. (XANTHOGLOSSUM) pseudobulbis oblongis 1-2-phyllis, foliis loratis
  scapo paniculato brevioribus, sepalis petalisque oblongis acutiusculis
  basi subcuneatis dorso carinâ crassâ auctis pergameneis, labello
  membranaceo sessili ligulato dimidio anteriori subito in laminam
  reniformem denticulatam medio antice apiculatam extenso, lamellis
  rhombeis extrorsum biquadridentatis supinis utrinque in ligulâ labelli
  basilari, raphi utriusque lamellæ carinatâ antrorsum in tres digitos
  excurrente, columnâ elongatâ, alis elongatis crenulatis hyalinis
  inferioribus 2 utrinque obtusatis, crassioribus columnâ vix marginatâ.
  (_Reichb. fil. in Bot. Zeitung_, 1852, _p._ 638.)


  Habitat in AMERICA CENTRALI, _Reichenbach_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _3 or 4 inches long, oblong, smooth, bearing 2 broadish,
  leathery, sharp-pointed_ LEAVES. SCAPE _longer than the leaf, panicled
  with zigzag branches_. BRACTS _triangular, short_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _1
  inch long, greenish outside, but of a purplish-brown inside, distinctly
  keeled at the back_. LIP _yellowish-white, sessile, ligulate at its base,
  but suddenly changing into a broad reniform plate, which is apiculate in
  front, and at its base adjoins the crest, which consists of 2 nearly
  prostrate, irregularly toothed, rhomboid lobes on either side, with 3
  finger-like processes in front_. COLUMN _elongated, with transparent
  crenulate wings, its anther-bed scarcely margined_.

For the opportunity of figuring this pretty _Odontoglossum_ I am indebted
to the kindness of the Bishop of Winchester, in whose collection at Farnham
Castle it flowered profusely in November last. A fortnight afterwards I
also received specimens from Mr. Rucker, but the flowers of his variety
were scarcely so bright in their colouring as those of the Bishop's plant.

_O. cariniferum_, although now figured for the first time, appears to have
been introduced several years ago to German collections, and from some of
these it has, no doubt, found its way to England. It is a native of Central
America, where it probably affects a high elevation, as it succeeds
perfectly under cool treatment, both at Farnham Castle and at West Hill.
Its flowers continue in perfection for many weeks.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Front view of lip and column; 2. Side view of ditto:

Plate XI

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Lindleyanum.]




  O. (EUODONTOGLOSSUM, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis ovato-oblongis compressis
  diphyllis, foliis lanceolatis subcoriaceis acutis scapo racemoso
  multi-(5-12)floro vix brevioribus, sepalis petalisque lineari-lanceolatis
  acuminatis subæqualibus, labello angusto unguiculato hastato utroque
  latere angulato in disco bifalcigero basi per carinam cum columnâ
  connato. Columna tomentosa, auriculis erectis angustis acuminatis.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM LINDLEYANUM, _Reichenbach fil._: _Warsz. Bonpl._ ii. 69;
  _Reichenbach_, _Xenia Orch._ _t._ 71; _Walpers_, _Annales._ vi. _fasc._

  ODONTOGLOSSUM EPIDENDROIDES, _Lindl. fil._ (_non Hb. Kth. N.G._).

  Habitat in PAMPLONA (in sylvis humidis), 8500 ft., _Linden_; Ocaña, 9000
  ft., _Schlim_; Ocaña (_floribus majoribus_), _Wagener_; Bogotá, _Weir_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _about 3 inches long, ovate-oblong, compressed, 2-leaved,
  sometimes a little spotted_. LEAVES _lanceolate, from a span to a foot
  long, rather leathery, sharp-pointed_. RACEME _rather longer than the
  leaves, bearing from half-a-dozen to a dozen flowers_. BRACTS _oblong,
  acute, about one-third the length of the ovary_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS
  _nearly equal, an inch or more long, linear-lanceolate, acuminate, of a
  yellowish-green, with a few large chestnut blotches, the arrangement of
  which varies in different specimens_. LIP _shorter than the petals,
  narrow, unguiculate, hastate, 3-lobed; the lateral lobes forming two
  blunt angles, the middle lobe longer, linear-lanceolate, deflexed, with
  two large upright slightly-curved horns placed on either side of the
  disk; at its base the lip is keeled and united with the column after the
  fashion of the Trichopilias; its colour is usually a pale yellow or
  yellowish-white with large chestnut bands_. COLUMN _downy, furnished near
  the summit with two narrow erect upright acuminate auricles_.

The name of this plant, associated as it is with the memory of the
distinguished botanist who has lately passed from among us, is to me
suggestive of the most melancholy reflections. Mourn indeed I must, the
loss of one who had been my steady friend for five-and-thirty years, and by
whose labours among the members of my favourite tribe, I have been enabled
to follow a pursuit that has never ceased to be a joy and solace amid all
the cares and vicissitudes of life![7]

_O. Lindleyanum_ was so named by Professor Reichenbach, in honour of the
great Orchidist whose mantle seems now to have fallen upon himself. It is
closely allied to the _O. epidendroides_ of Humboldt and Kunth, from which
indeed Dr. Lindley failed to distinguish it, but if the characters of the
two species, as represented in the 'Xenia,' prove to be constant, no doubt
the German Professor was right in separating them.

Several travellers, including Schlim, Wagener, Warszewicz, and Weir, appear
to have met with the plant in various localities in New Granada, but always
at a great elevation, hence it must of course be classed among the coolest
section of Orchids. It has flowered in the gardens of the Horticultural
Society, to which it was sent by their zealous collector Mr. Weir, and also
in the collection of Mr. Rucker, where Mr. Fitch made his drawing in the
spring of last year (1865).

DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip and column, seen sideways; 2. Ditto seen in front:

Plate XII

[Illustration: Odontoglossum gloriosum.]




  O. (EUODONTOGLOSSUM, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis ovatis confertis diphyllis,
  foliis lato-lanceolatis acutis scapo valido paniculato multifloro
  brevioribus, sepalis petalisque oblongo-ligulatis acuminatis stellatis,
  labello a basi cordatâ ligulato acuminato, basin versus utrinque
  angulato, ceterum hinc illinc denticulato, callo depresso quadrilobulo
  nunc quadridentato ante basin, columnâ clavatâ apice utrinque cirrho
  setaceo medio inferne unidentato.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM GLORIOSUM, _Reichenbach fil._ _Bonpl._ ii. 278; _idem in
  Gardeners' Chronicle_ (_New Plants_, _n._ 293, 1865), _et in Walpers_,
  _Annales_, vi. _fasc._ 6.

  Habitat in N. GRANADA, Soto. 8-9000 p., _Schlim_; Ocaña, 6000 p.,
  _Wagener_; Bogotá, _Weir_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _ovate, 2-leaved, growing closely together, 3 or 4 inches
  long, turning to a dark colour when old_. LEAVES _broadly-lanceolate,
  acute, shorter than the stout much-branched many-flowered panicle_.
  FLOWERS _exceedingly variable in size and form and colour; the example in
  the Plate representing one of the largest varieties, and the vignette one
  of the least. Usually they are about 2 inches across, of a pale ochrish
  or greenish-yellow, blotched, or sometimes minutely spotted, with
  dark-chestnut_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly equal, lanceolate, acute
  (often narrower than in the figure), slightly waved_. LIP _ligulate,
  smooth (not crisp) at the margin, very much attenuated in front, but
  heart-shaped at the base, towards which it is abruptly carinate, and
  furnished with 2 upright large sharp double teeth_. COLUMN _clavate, with
  hairy cirrhi on either side near its apex, and a solitary tooth near the

This remarkable _Odontoglossum_ was long since discovered in New Granada by
Schlim and Wagener, in whose herbaria its stately many-flowered panicles
formed so striking a feature that Professor Reichenbach did not hesitate to
give the plant the name of _gloriosum_; an epithet which--now that we have
the plant amongst us in a living state--may perhaps be thought to be
somewhat beyond its merits. It must indeed be admitted that the fresh
blossoms, which are of a faint yellowish-green, scarcely realize the
expectations which the rich colour and profusion of flowers in the dried
specimens had very naturally raised. Nor are all the varieties of equal
merit, some being much smaller and paler than others.

The species has lately been imported in large quantities, both by Messrs.
H. Low and Co., of Clapton, and by the Horticultural Society, who received
it in 1864 from Mr. Weir, by whom it was gathered in the neighbourhood of
Bogotá. It flowers freely, and at all seasons of the year; nor does it
appear to care so much as many of its congeners for a few degrees more or
less of heat or cold. I believe it has already bloomed in almost every
collection of note; though the spikes, as was of course to be expected, are
as yet far from equal to the wild specimens.[8] The figure was taken from a
plant in Mr. Day's garden, where I saw, in November last, nearly a dozen
distinct varieties in blow, some of them rivalling the example given in the
Plate, while others were as insignificant as that which is shown in the
vignette. The blossoms continue fresh for at least a fortnight, and emit a
pleasant honey-like scent.


DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip (_magnified_), seen sideways; 2. Ditto, seen in front.

Plate XIII

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Warneri.]

[Illustration: Odontoglossum stellatum.]




  O. (LEUCOGLOSSUM, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis subelongatis compressis
  monophyllis, foliis membranaceis oblongis in petiolum canaliculatum
  angustatis scapo 2-6-floro brevioribus, bracteis uncialibus acuminatis,
  sepalis lineari-lanceolatis acutis, petalis latioribus undulatis, labelli
  callo cuneato ovato, antice abrupte trilobo, lobis lateralibus angulatis,
  lobo medio forcipato bicruri, longiori, lateribus calli a basi versus
  apicem involutis, laminâ cordato-triangulâ obtusâ, margine minute
  crispulâ crenulatâ, columnâ gracili clavatâ apterâ.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM WARNERIANUM, _Reichenbach fil. in Mohl and Schl. Bot.
  Zeit._ 1864, 297; _idem in Gardeners' Chronicle_, 1865, _New Plants_,
  _n._ 294.

  Habitat in MEXICO (?).


  PSEUDOBULBS _rather long and narrow, compressed, about 3 inches in
  length_. LEAVES, _one on each pseudobulb, less than a span long,
  membranous, sharp-pointed, narrowed at the base into a channelled
  petiole_. BRACTS _about an inch long, scariose, very acuminate_. SCAPE
  _longer than the leaves, only partially covered by the bracts, bearing
  from 2 to half-a-dozen flowers of a very delicate texture, and of snowy
  whiteness with the exception of the yellow crest on the lip and a few
  brown blotches on the lower half of the sepals and (though in a less
  degree) of the petals also_. SEPALS _rather narrow, oblong, acute_.
  PETALS _broader than the sepals and waved at the margin_. LIP _with a
  heart-shaped crenulate plate (occasionally suffused with a rosy tint),
  and a yellow 3-lobed callus at its base, the front portion of which is
  longer than the lateral ones (which are turned inwards from the base
  upwards), and split into two divergent members_. COLUMN _slender,
  clavate, wingless_.

This pretty species was first described by Professor Reichenbach, from
materials derived from the collection of Mr. Warner, of Broomfield, in
compliment to whom he named it. It also flowered with the late Mr. Cauty,
of Liverpool, who kindly sent me the specimens from which the figure was
prepared, but these were smaller and less rich in their colouring than
those of Mr. Warner.

We have no precise information as to the locality where _O. Warnerianum_
grows wild, but there can be no doubt that it comes from some part of
Mexico, whence we have other species, _e.g._ _O. Rossii_, _O. Ehrenbergii_,
and _O. nebulosum_, to all of which it is nearly allied. It flowers in the
later autumn and winter months, but like most of the other members of its
section (_Leucoglossum_), is of a delicate habit, and requires to be very
carefully handled. It seems to prefer a moderate heat and perhaps a
slightly drier atmosphere than that in which the New Granada and Peruvian
Odontoglossa evidently delight; the compost or materials in which the roots
grow, should on no account be allowed to become sodden.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip and column (_magnified_), seen in front; 2. Ditto,
seen sideways.




  O. (LEUCOGLOSSUM, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis ovalibus compressis, foliis
  solitariis lanceolatis recurvis, scapis erectis 1-2-floris brevioribus,
  bracteis ovarii triquetri medium non attingentibus, sepalis petalisque
  æqualibus linearibus acuminatis herbaceis, labello rhomboideo subrotundo
  grosse dentato appendice unguis truncatâ quadridentatâ apice liberâ.

ODONTOGLOSSUM STELLATUM, _Lindl. in Bot. Reg._ 1841, _Misc._ 25; _Fol.
Orch._ _n._ 18.

ODONTOGLOSSUM EROSUM, _Reichenbach fil. Bonpl._ ii. 99; _A. Rich. Gal. in
Ann. Sc. Nat._ Jan. 1845.

Habitat in GUATEMALA, _Skinner_; MEXICO, _Hartweg_; VERAGUAS, _Warszewicz_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _oval, compressed, about an inch long, glossy, bearing
  solitary lanceolate somewhat recurved_ LEAVES, _which are shorter than
  the upright 1-(rarely 2-)flowered_ SCAPES. BRACTS _not half so long as
  the three-cornered ovary_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _equal, linear, acuminate,
  of a dull olive-green, with a few faint transverse streaks of brown on
  their inner side_. LIP _white, rhomboidal, subrotund, with its edges
  eroded, and its unguis, or claw, hollow, truncate, free, and divided at
  top into two, or rather into four lobes, the two foremost of which
  resemble teeth_. COLUMN _slender, wingless_.

There is an air of quaintness about this little _Odontoglossum_ which,
insignificant though it be, is spread over a range of territory far more
extensive than is occupied by any other member of the genus; for it has
been found in Mexico by Hartweg, in Guatemala (on the Volcan del Fuego) by
Skinner, and in Veraguas by Warszewicz!

At Knypersley, where the figure was taken, the species flowers freely in
the winter and spring, and is managed (in a cool house) without the
slightest difficulty.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Column and lip (_magnified_), seen sideways; 2. Ditto,
ditto, in front.

Plate XIV

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Alexandræ.]




  O. (ISANTHIUM, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis ovatis compressis 1- vel 2-phyllis,
  racemo simplici multifloro foliis subæquali, bracteis minoribus
  cochleatis acutis, floribus membranaceis pedicellis æquantibus, sepalis
  petalisque sæpius subæqualibus (interdum petalis multo latioribus),
  sepalis lanceolatis acuminatis petalis ovato-lanceolatis acutis
  undulato-laceris, labello breviore unguiculato formâ diversissimâ, nunc
  sepalis conformi nunc subpanduriformi, apice emarginato (sæpius mucrone
  adjecto) margine undulato integro vel sæpius dentato acuto apice recurvo,
  disco maculato, cristâ simplici bilamellatâ. Columna arcuata clavata,
  alata, alis laceris.

ODONTOGLOSSUM ALEXANDRÆ, _Bateman in Gardeners' Chronicle_, 1864; _et in
Proceedings R. Hort. Soc._ _p._ 186 (1864).


Habitat in NOV. GRANADA, prope Pacho, 7-8000 p., _Weir_, _Blunt_.


  _An Epiphyte._ PSEUDOBULBS _smooth, slightly compressed, sometimes
  broadly ovate, but occasionally tapering, 2 to 3 inches long, and bearing
  1 or 2 linear lanceolate-pointed_ LEAVES, _which are from a few inches to
  a foot long, and frequently of rather lax character; a reddish tint is
  also sometimes met with both in the leaves and pseudobulbs_. RACEMES
  _always simple, about the length of--sometimes longer than--the leaves,
  and carrying from two or three to a dozen or more large membranous and
  beautiful_ FLOWERS, _which vary exceedingly both in size, form, and
  colouring. Usually they are from 2 to 3 inches in diameter, and about
  equal to the pedicels_. BRACTS _about half an inch long, pointed, fitting
  close to the stem_. SEPALS _lanceolate acuminate, white or rosy-white,
  with sometimes one or more brown or purple spots on each_. PETALS
  _usually--though not invariably--wider than the sepals, and resembling
  them in form and colour, but destitute of spots; both in the sepals and
  petals the edges are usually more or less curled or waved_. LIP _recurved
  at the apex, exceedingly variable in its outline; in some examples almost
  exactly resembling the sepals, in others taking more or less a
  panduriform shape (in which case the apex, instead of pointed, is round,
  emarginate, with a point or mucro); the edges too, which are sometimes
  entire, are much more frequently jagged or toothed; the short unguis, or
  claw, is longitudinally callose; and where it expands into the disk, ends
  in two straight pointed and diverging teeth, which, like the claw, are
  yellow, the rest of the lip being white, with or without spots of the
  same character as those found in the sepals; there are a few red or brown
  lines which radiate or spread out like a fan on either side of the teeth
  composing the crest, but they do not, as in_ O. PESCATOREI, _form a
  detached flap_. COLUMN _short, arched, club-shaped, with broad truncate
  wings that are more or less jagged or fringed_.

This most charming _Odontoglossum_ was discovered in 1863 by Mr. Weir, at
an elevation of from 7000 to 8000 feet, in the gloomy forests that clothe
the slopes of the lofty mountain-ranges at the rear of the City of Santa Fé
de Bogotá. As the wild specimens of the flowers that he sent home to the
Horticultural Society indicated not only a new species, but one of
surpassing beauty, I did not hesitate at once to dedicate it to the
illustrious Princess whose name it will henceforth bear. Since the first
description of the plant appeared in the 'Gardeners' Chronicle' many living
plants have been received both by the Royal Horticultural Society and by
Messrs. Hugh Low and Co., of Clapton, several of which have bloomed and,
even in their first feeble attempts to flower, have more than justified the
very high expectations formed of the plant which, as it gathers strength,
cannot fail to become an established favourite with all Orchid-lovers.

It proves to be a most variable species, and I am not surprised that my
accomplished friend Professor Reichenbach should have considered the first
examples sent to him from Clapton to differ so materially from those of _O.
Alexandræ_, as described by myself, as to justify his regarding them as a
distinct form, to which, in honour of Messrs. Low's very zealous collector,
he gave the designation of _Bluntii_. Since then, however, so many
intermediate varieties have made their appearance that it is clearly
impossible to regard the two supposed species as really distinct.

Specimens of the plant have been sent to me by Messrs. Low, Mr. W. W.
Buller, Mr. Rucker, Mr. Day, and Mr. Paterson; it has also flowered at
Knypersley, but as yet no two specimens have been alike for, while some
were beautifully spotted on the lip and petals with brown or crimson,
others, with the exception of the golden crest on the labellum, were of the
purest white. To the last-named class belonged the specimens grown by Mr.
Buller and Mr. Paterson, the latter of which were so eminently lovely that
they will form the subject of a separate Plate. Mr. Blunt's name may very
properly be associated with the spotted variety now figured, and which was
taken from a plant that he sent to his employers at Clapton.

_O. Alexandræ_ is nearly allied to _O. crispum_ and _O. Pescatorei_; but,
independently of the structure of its flowers, differs from both in its
invariably producing simple racemes instead of branched panicles. It
flowers freely in the winter and spring months, and may apparently be
cultivated with the greatest ease. Of course, coming as it does from a
great elevation, it must not be kept too warm.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip and column (_magnified_), seen in front. 2. Ditto,
ditto, seen sideways.

Plate XV

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Reichenheimii.]




  O. (ISANTHIUM, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis oblongis aggregatis diphyllis vix
  sulcatis, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis acutis scapo maculato laxe
  paniculato 3-plo brevioribus, bracteis brevibus membranaceis, sepalis
  petalisque subæqualibus oblongo-lanceolatis apiculatis, labello oblongo
  basi cordato apice obtusato lobulato, callo tumido utrinque ante basin,
  carinâ geminâ in imâ basi.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM REICHENHEIMII, _Reichenbach fil. in Bonpl._ iii. 214; _idem
  in Pescatorea_, _sub t._ 19; _Walpers_, _Annales_, vi. _fasc._ 6.
  _Lemaire in Illustr. Hortic. pl._ 213.

  Habitat in MEXICO, _Ghiesbreght_.


  _An epiphyte._ PSEUDOBULBS _oblong, slightly furrowed, from 2 to 4 inches
  long, clustered together_. LEAVES _2 on each pseudobulb, shining and
  leathery, oblong-lanceolate, pointed, about a foot long, much shorter
  than the scape_. SCAPE _upright or nodding, from 2 feet to a yard high,
  spotted, loosely panicled, bearing from 10 to sometimes probably 50
  flowers_. BRACTS _few, short, and membranous, fitting close to the stem_.
  SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly equal, oblong-lanceolate, apiculate, about an
  inch long, greenish-yellow, barred with dark purplish-brown_. LIP _purple
  in some varieties, in others white, with a horseshoe-shaped band of
  purple on its disk, oblong, rather blunt, and slightly lobed at the apex,
  somewhat heart-shaped at the base, where there is a callosity on either
  side, and a double carina_. COLUMN _very slightly winged_.

This pretty species is well figured in 'Pescatorea,' where it is stated to
be a native of Mexico, whence it was introduced by M. Linden, of Brussels.
It was from his establishment that I derived the plant that is represented
on the other side, and which flowered at Knypersley in May last (1865). It
appears to be very easily managed, requiring the same temperature and
treatment as _O. læve_, to which it is nearly allied, and which forms the
subject of the following Plate. It is also very closely related to _O.
Karwinskii_; and I do not feel certain that the two may not eventually have
to be united. At present, however, so few plants of either kind exist in
the collections of this country, that the materials necessary for an
extensive comparison are not forthcoming.

The specific name was given by Professor Reichenbach in honour of M.
Reichenheim, of Berlin, whose collection of Orchids and other plants has
long been celebrated.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Side view (_magnified_) of lip and column; 2. Front view
of ditto.


Plate XVI

[Illustration: Odontoglossum læve.]




  O. (ISANTHIUM) pseudobulbis subcompressis sulcatis diphyllis, foliis
  oblongo-ensiformibus obtuse acutis apice obliquis, scapis multifloris
  brevioribus, floribus laxe racemoso-paniculatis, bracteis brevibus
  membranaceis, sepalis petalisque oblongo-linearibus acutis planis,
  labelli limbo panduriformi apiculato ungui lævi obsoletissime bidentato,
  columnæ alis apice rotundatis crispis basi planis. _Lindl._

ODONTOGLOSSUM LÆVE, _Lindl. in Bot. Reg._ (1844), _t._ 39; _L. Fol. Orch._
_n._ 52.

Habitat in GUATEMALA, _Skinner_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _from 3 to 5 inches long, ovate, subcompressed, furrowed,
  2-leaved_. LEAVES _sword-shaped, obtuse, or obtusely-acute, sometimes
  slightly oblique at their extremities, a foot or more long, shorter than
  the many-flowered flower-stems_. FLOWER-STEMS _loosely branched, 2 to 3
  feet long, rather drooping, bearing from 20 to (sometimes) 100_ FLOWERS.
  BRACTS _from half an inch to an inch long, sharp-pointed, clipping
  tightly hold of the stem_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly equal,
  oblong-linear, acute, plane at the edges, usually about an inch long,
  light green, transversely banded with brown_. LIP _with a fiddle-shaped,
  apiculate limb doubled back on its unguis or claw, white, changing into
  purple at its base, where it is sometimes very obscurely bidentate_.
  WINGS _of_ COLUMN _crisp at the edges, plane at the base_.

This is not one of the most attractive species, but its stately appearance,
the profuseness with which its flowers are produced and their pleasant
aroma, will secure it a place in most collections. It is common in
Guatemala, where Mr. Skinner originally discovered it, and it probably
extends as far as Mexico, where the nearly allied species (_O.
Reichenheimii_), figured in the preceding Plate, is found. As it is only
met with at a great elevation, it must be treated as a very "cool" Orchid,
under which _régime_ it will flower abundantly in the spring months. The
chief danger to be guarded against is that of its exhausting itself--like
many species of _Phalænopsis_--by over-much flowering, and to prevent which
it is of course only necessary to break off some of the scapes.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip, seen in front; 2. Lip and column, seen sideways:

Plate XVII

[Illustration: Odontoglossum atropurpureum.]




  O. (EUODONTOGLOSSUM) pseudobulbis ovatis subcompressis diphyllis, foliis
  ensiformibus racemis multifloris nutantibus subæqualibus, bracteis ovatis
  acutis squamæformibus, pedicellis internodiis æquantibus, sepalis
  petalisque subæqualibus oblongo-lanceolatis acuminatis, labelli breviter
  unguiculati lateribus planis, limbo subpanduriformi antice
  lacero-serrulato, cristâ ad basin multidigitatâ, columnæ petalis triplo
  brevioris vix arcuatæ alis multifidis crinitis.

ODONTOGLOSSUM LUTEO-PURPUREUM, _Lindl. Orch. Linden._ _n._ 85; _Fol. Orch._
_n._ 7.

ODONTOGLOSSUM RADIATUM, _Rchb. Gard. Chron._ (1864, _New Plants_, _n._

ODONTOGLOSSOM HYSTRIX, _Bateman in Gard. Chron._ 1864, _New Plants_, _n._

Habitat in N. GRANADA, prope Quindiu, alt. 8000 p., _Linden_; prope Santa
Fé de Bogotá, _Weir_, _Blunt_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _about 3 or 4 inches long, somewhat compressed, ovale,
  2-leaved_. LEAVES _sword-shaped, sharp-pointed, a foot or more long,
  about the same length as the many-flowered nodding_ RACEMES. BRACTS
  _ovate, acute, scaly_. PEDICELS _equalling in length the average spaces
  between the_ FLOWERS. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly equal,
  oblong-lanceolate (the petals sometimes unguiculate), acuminate, of a
  rich chocolate-brown inside, with edges and tips of a greenish-yellow_.
  LIP _with a very short claw, fiddle-shaped, at its side-edges plane, its
  centre-lobe minutely serrate and apiculate, with a multitude of
  finger-like processes (varying in different individuals) seated on the
  claw, and with their bristles all more or less inclining forwards. The
  upper portion of the lip is white, with a brown base, which again is
  banded with white beneath the series of bristles, which are of a rich
  golden-yellow_. COLUMN _only one-third the length of the petals, slightly
  arched, with lacerated, hairy wings nearly concealing the anther_.

The vicissitudes which the name of this species has had to undergo within
the last three years are full of instruction both to botanists and the
public. It was first described by Lindley from wild specimens gathered by
Linden in the neighbourhood of Quindiu. Mr. Weir was the next to meet with
it, and he succeeded in sending to the Horticultural Society several living
plants that had been obtained about 100 miles to the south of Bogotá. He
also sent wild specimens in admirable condition which, not agreeing with
Lindley's description, and being profusely furnished both at the base of
the lip and in the apex of the column with long bristle-like appendages,
led to my calling it _O. hystrix_ (_i. e._ the Porcupine Odontoglossum).
Messrs. Low also received the plant, through their collector Mr. Blunt,
from the same locality as that where Weir met with it, and one of their
plants produced flowers which--neither agreeing with Lindley's _O.
luteo-purpureum_ nor with my _O. hystrix_--received from Professor
Reichenbach the name of _O. radiatum_. Subsequently many specimens
flowered, no two of which were alike, though they all maintained a sort of
distant family resemblance to _O. luteo-purpureum_ of which--as the
Professor himself was the first to point out--there can now be no doubt
that they are all varieties.

The figure is taken from a plant that flowered in Mr. Day's collection in
the autumn of 1865, the flowers of which were twice the size of those of a
plant that flowered with me,--but still larger varieties have since
appeared in the collections of Lord Egerton of Tatton and Mr. Wentworth

The species, being found at an elevation of 8000 feet or more, requires
very "cool" treatment, and should be referred to what--for reasons stated
under Plate XX.--I propose to call the "Peruvian house." In this it is very
easily grown, and flowers freely.

The markings in the dried specimens being much deeper than in the fresh
flowers, led Dr. Lindley to give it a name (_O. luteo-purpureum_) which is
scarcely applicable to any variety that has yet appeared,--no _purple_
tints having been observed.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Front view of lip and column; 2. Side view of ditto:


[Illustration: Odontoglossum Bictoniense.]





  O. (LEUCOGLOSSUM) pseudobulbis oblongis compressis 2-3-phyllis, foliis
  ensiformibus undulatis patentibus scapo racemoso duplo brevioribus,
  bracteis herbaceis lanceolatis acuminatis ovario duplo brevioribus,
  sepalis petalisque subæqualibus lineari-lanceolatis maculatis, labelli
  ungue bilamellato limbo cordato acuminato undulato, columnæ alis
  transverse oblongis integris.

CYRTOCHILUM BICTONIENSE, _Bateman_, _Orch. Mex. et Gua._ _t._ 6.

ZYGOPETALUM AFRICANUM, _Bot. Mag._ _t._ 3812.

Habitat in GUATEMALA, _Skinner_; circa 6-7000 ped. alt.


  PSEUDOBULBS _oblong, 3 to 6 inches long, somewhat compressed, bearing 2
  or 3_ LEAVES, _which are sword-shaped, spread open, much shorter than the
  upright purple many-flowered_ SCAPE. _The latter, in its normal state, is
  unbranched, and destitute of leaves, but in the variety represented in
  the Plate has numerous branches, and is leafy at the extremities_. BRACTS
  _herbaceous, lanceolate, acuminate, not half the length of the ovary_.
  SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly equal, linear-lanceolate, light-green
  spotted, or banded with brown_. LIP _with a bilamellate claw and a
  heart-shaped, acuminate limb, waved at the margin. In most cases the lip
  is white or nearly so, in others it has more or less of a rosy or
  purplish tint_. COLUMN-WINGS _transversely oblong, entire_.

The Plate represents a remarkable state of this now well-known plant, which
I have observed only in the collection of Mr. Aspinall Turner, of
Pendlebury House, near Manchester. In its normal or ordinary condition _O.
Bictoniense_ produces--in the winter months--simple, upright flower-stems,
but in Mr. Turner's plant the stems are branched, and, what is still more
extraordinary, are _leafy_ at their extremities! Nor was this peculiarity
confined to the growth of a single season, for it has already reappeared at
least three years in succession! It produces a very singular effect, though
it can hardly be said to add to the beauty of the plant.

_O. Bictoniense_, so called after Lady Rolle, of Bicton, in Devonshire, was
the earliest species of this popular genus that ever reached England alive.
It also formed a portion of the first box of Orchids that I ever received
from Guatemala, whence they were sent to me in 1835 by my invaluable friend
George Ure Skinner, now (1867) alas!--most suddenly and
unexpectedly--numbered with the dead!

This is not the place for a memoir of that generous and enthusiastic
spirit;--let it suffice to state that Mr. Skinner was on his way to
Guatemala for a final visit, when he was attacked by yellow-fever early in
February last on the Isthmus of Panama, and carried off after three days'
illness! He was collecting plants on the Saturday before his death, and on
the Wednesday he was a corpse! He was in his 63rd year, and had he but been
permitted to return to England, would have crossed the Atlantic exactly
forty times! He was the discoverer of _O. grande_ and _O. Uro-Skinneri_,
already figured in this work, and of at least fifty other Orchids,
including the well-known _Lycaste Skinneri_ perhaps the most useful and
popular of its tribe.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip and column, seen sideways; 2. Ditto ditto, seen in
front: _magnified_.

Plate XIX

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Alexandræ. (_Weirs variety_)]





Of this charming Odontoglossum, which I had the honour to dedicate to
H.R.H. the Princess of Wales, there appear to be innumerable varieties. Of
these some--like the one figured at Plate XIV.--have crimson spots, others
again are spotted with brown, while a third section--like the one
represented in the Plate--have flowers of the purest white, relieved only
by the rich golden crest of the lip. An excellent example of the latter
variety was sent to me nearly two years ago by Mr. Paterson, of Ashville,
Partrickhill, near Glasgow, and from this Mr. Fitch's drawing was obtained.
Since then, other specimens of the same kind have been communicated to me,
especially by Mr. Wentworth Buller, Mr. Jones, of Whalley Range, near
Manchester, Mr. Bull, and Mr. Dawson of Meadow Bank. The last was an
admirable specimen bearing as it did on a curved stalk about a dozen
perfect flowers, all of which faced the same way, so as to form a sort of
natural tiara exactly suited to a lady's head and which--especially when
worn on dark hair--could not fail to produce a most beautiful effect.

This variety has also flowered at the Royal Gardens, Kew, a fact that is
not a little creditable to Mr. Smith's (the Curator's) energy and skill, he
being compelled to grow his Orchids in houses that are very ill adapted to
such a purpose. Surely the Government of this wealthy country might afford
to devote a few hundred pounds to the construction of houses in which these
most popular and marvellous plants might be worthily grown!

As the first specimens of the _white_ variety of _O. Alexandræ_ were
collected by Mr. Weir, it is only fitting that his name should be
associated with it, just as the name of his rival Mr. Blunt has been
connected with the variety distinguished by its crimson spots. Plants of
both frequently acquire a reddish tint both in their bulbs and leaves, a
tint which, wherever it occurs, is a sure criterion by which _O. Alexandræ_
may be distinguished from other Odontoglossa that closely resemble it in

_O. Alexandræ_ proves to be a slow grower, and to require the coolest
compartment of the Peruvian house. If this condition be attended to, it
gives no trouble whatever, and produces its exceedingly durable flowers
very freely indeed.

Dr. Triana met with it on the trunks of very large trees with dense
foliage, ten leagues from Bogotá, and also at Pacho.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip and column, seen in front; 2. Ditto, seen sideways:

Plate XX

[Illustration: Odontoglossum maculatum.]




  O. (XANTHOGLOSSUM) pseudobulbis oblongis compressis monophyllis, foliis
  oblongis nervosis acutiusculis, racemis subpendulis multifloris
  brevioribus, bracteis navicularibus herbaceis ovario brevioribus, sepalis
  lineari-lanceolatis acuminatis discoloribus, petalis oblongis undulatis
  acuminatis, labello cordato acuminato subcrenato, appendice unguis
  bivalvi concavâ cochleari apice liberâ bidentatâ per medium argute
  serrulatâ, columnâ pubescente subapterâ. _Lindl._

  ODONTOGLOSSUM MACULATUM, _Llave_, _Orch. Mex._ 2, 35; _Bot. Reg._ 1840,
  _t._ 30; _Pescatorea_, _t._ 28; _Lindl. Fol. Orch._

  Habitat in MEXICO, _Lexarza_, _Barker_, _Karwinski_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _narrow, oblong, much compressed, from 2 to 4 inches long,
  1-leaved_. LEAVES _lanceolate-oblong, nervose, more or less
  sharp-pointed, shorter than the flower-scapes_. BRACTS _boat-shaped,
  acuminate, the lower ones shorter than the upper ones, nearly as long as
  the ovary_. RACEMES _nodding, sometimes pendulous, 5- to 12-flowered,
  about a foot long_. FLOWERS _variable in size and colour, which is
  sometimes a brightish at other times only a greenish-yellow, spotted with
  brown_. SEPALS _brown inside, linear-lanceolate, acuminate_. PETALS
  _rather wide, oblong, waved, acuminate_. LIP _heart-shaped, acuminate,
  slightly crenate, with a two-cleft process forming a pair of blunt teeth
  at the upper end of the claw_. COLUMN _pubescent, clavate, wingless_.

This plant is common in many parts of Mexico, especially on the Irapæan
mountains in the neighbourhood of Valladolid, where it was originally
discovered and described by Lexarza, that earliest of Orchid-devotees! It
was also one of the earliest species of the extensive genus to which it
belongs that ever produced flowers in England. The credit of introducing it
belongs to the late Mr. Barker, of Birmingham, with whom it bloomed about
the year 1839, but it soon disappeared, like nearly the whole of the
invaluable collection of Mexican Orchids that I remember having seen in the
most splendid condition, shortly after their arrival, in his stoves.
Fifteen years afterwards it was reintroduced by M. Linden, from whose
establishment the figure in _'Pescatorea'_ was obtained, but it seems to
have again been lost. Last spring (1866) I had the pleasure of seeing the
species in the best possible health in Mr. Dawson's rich and
admirably-managed collection at Meadow Bank near Glasgow, and from his
plant, which flowered in April, Mr. Fitch's drawing was prepared. I also
received specimens about the same time from Mr. Turner. Still more
recently, Messrs. Hugh Low and Co. have imported it in large quantities and
excellent condition, and many good varieties have already appeared, though
none that I have yet seen are so fine or so richly coloured as that of Mr.
Dawson. One that is now flowering at Knypersley is a dull yellowish-green.

In its native country it flowers in March, which is about the time of its
flowering with us. As to treatment it will naturally be found more at home
in the Mexican house, where a cool and comparatively dry atmosphere should
be maintained, than in the Peruvian house, which should be suited to the
species that are accustomed to a damper and--not unfrequently--still cooler
climate. I have no doubt that this distinction will be found of much
practical utility, for although "cool treatment" as opposed to "warm" marks
a very important division still, just as among "warm" plants it is
necessary to separate the East Indian Aerides from the Brazilian Cattleyas,
so among "cool" plants it will be advisable to separate the Mexican Lælias
from the Peruvian Odontoglossa. Nay, I apprehend that what I call the
"Peruvian house" will itself have to be subdivided into two portions, one
of which, _i. e._ the warm portion, will contain such plants as the
Trichopilias, the Anguloas, and such Odontoglossa as are met with below
6500 feet, while the other or cooler portion will be suited to an
innumerable multitude of glorious Orchids that are met with at a still
higher elevation. Already cultivators have discovered that _O. Phalænopsis_
and _O. nævium_ cannot be made to thrive in the same house, for though both
are "cool" plants the former--coming as it does from a lower
level--requires a decidedly warmer climate than the latter, and so it will
be in many other cases which are not yet so distinctly understood.

DISSECTIONS.--1. Lip and column, seen sideways; 2. Front view of ditto:

Plate 21

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Hallii.]




  O. (EUODONTOGLOSSUM, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis ovatis, ancipitibus
  1-2-phyllis, foliis ensiformibus in basin angustatis, racemo multifloro
  (raro sub-paniculato), sepalis petalisque ovato-lanceolatis unguiculatis
  labello oblongo acuminato lacero, cristâ baseos lamellatâ multifidâ,
  columnæ alis dente superiore aristato.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM HALLII, _Lindl. in Bot. Reg. sub t._ 1992, _et Folia
  Orchid._; _Reichenbach fil._ Xenia, i. 63; _Walpers Annales_, vi. p. 828.

  Habitat in PERU (western declivity of Pichincha), _Hartweg_; Valley of
  LLOA, at elevation of 8000 ft., _Col. Hall_; N. GRENADA in forests of
  Pamplona, 8500 ft., _Linden_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _ovate, 2 to 4 inches long, compressed, 2-edged, bearing
  generally one, occasionally two, lanceolate_ LEAVES, _a foot or more
  long_. RACEME _many (10-20) flowered, occasionally though rarely
  branched, 2 to 3 feet long_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly equal,
  ovate-lanceolate, exceedingly unguiculate, from an inch to (in some
  varieties) an inch and a half or even 2 inches long, yellow with large,
  often very dark, blotches of purplish-brown_. LIP _white, with a few rich
  spots, oblong-acuminate, jagged at the edges, with a large and handsome
  yellow_ CREST, _consisting of a multitude of flattened but sharp-pointed
  teeth, pointing sideways and downwards_. COLUMN _white, winged, the wings
  broken into teeth or cirrhi, of which the uppermost is much the largest_.

This fine _Odontoglossum_ was one of the earliest known though one of the
latest to reach us alive. It is now (1873) plentiful enough, and forms a
most attractive object in our spring Orchid-shows. There are many varieties
differing greatly in the size and marking of their flowers, but all
maintaining the unguiculate sepals and petals which chiefly distinguish it
from _O. luteo-purpureum_ (Pl. 17), to which it is indeed very nearly
allied. _O. Hallii_ is abundant in New Grenada and Peru, but is seldom met
with at a lower elevation than 8000 feet, hence it is quite at home in the
coolest part of the "cool Orchid-house," in which it grows and flowers very
freely indeed.

In the woodcut, a solitary flower of a larger variety of the species is
represented, natural size.


Plate 22

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Roseum.]




  O. pseudobulbis ovatis ancipitibus 1-phyllis, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis
  racemo gracili multifloro duplo brevioribus, bracteis ovatis concavis
  subangulatis pedicellis duplo brevioribus, sepalis petalisque
  lanceolatis, labello trilobo basi bilamellato: lobis lateralibus nanis
  rotundatis intermedio obcuneato acuto, columnâ elongatâ apice alis 3
  membranaceis integris auctâ.

ODONTOGLOSSUM ROSEUM, _Lindl. in Bentham Plant. Hartweg_, p. 251.
_Reichenbach fil. in Garden. Chron. April 20, 1867._

Habitat in PERU, _Backhouse_, Nuebrada de los Juntas, _Hartweg_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _ovate, two-edged, much compressed, dark-coloured, from one
  to two inches long, carrying a short solitary oblong-lanceolate leaf_.
  LEAVES _very sharp-pointed linear-lanceolate, not half the length of the
  slender nodding graceful many-flowered_ RACEMES. BRACTS _ovate, slightly
  angular, much shorter than the_ PEDICELS. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly
  equal, lanceolate, acuminate, linear, two-thirds of an inch long, of a
  beautiful bright rose colour_. LIP _about same length as the petals, pale
  whitish rose, three-lobed, bilamellate at the base, side-lobes rounded,
  very small, intermediate lobe sharp-pointed, obcuneate_. COLUMN _standing
  forward, rounded, provided at its apex with three membranous wings_.

A charming little species long known by the specimens in the Lindleyan
Herbarium. It was introduced--though in very limited quantities--by the
Messrs. Backhouse several years ago, since which time it has always
continued scarce. In Lindley's Herbarium the racemes are about the length
of those represented in the figure, but in a specimen exhibited in 1872 by
Mr. Linden the pseudobulbs, leaves, and racemes were nearly twice as large
and as long as those in the Plate. The precise treatment that it affects
has not yet been distinctly ascertained, but there can be no doubt that,
being a denizen of high places on the mountain ranges in Peru, it prefers
the coldest house.

Plate 23

[Illustration: Odontoglossum triumphans.]




  O. (XANTHOGLOSSUM, _Lindl._) pseudobulbis ovatis 1-2-phyllis foliis lato
  lanceolatis acutis, basi attenuatis, racemo multifloro, bracteis
  triangularibus ovario pedicellato 4-5plo brevioribus, sepalis
  oblongo-acutis basi bene attenuatis, petalis subæqualibus latioribus,
  magis acuminatis, utrinque hinc illinc lobulatis, labello unguiculato
  basi bifalci, utrinque bicalloso laminâ panduratâ apiculatâ, columnæ alis
  rhombeis ascendentibus margine externo erosulis.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM TRIUMPHANS, _Reichenbach fil. Bonpl._ ii. 99; _Walpers
  Annales_, vi. p. 831; _Pescatorea_, _t._ 46.

  Habitat in N. GRENADA, _Warscewicz_. OCANA, 6000-8000 feet, _Schlim_,


  PSEUDOBULBS _ovate, very similar to those of_ O. Hallii, _bearing
  generally two stout sharp-pointed_ LEAVES _a foot or more long_. RACEME
  _many-(6-18) flowered, half a yard or 2 feet long, rather drooping_.
  BRACTS _small and triangular, 4 or 5 times shorter than the ovary_.
  SEPALS _1½ to 2 inches long, oblong-acute, narrowed at the base_. PETALS
  _about the same size as the sepals, but broader and more acuminate,
  sometimes diversely lobed on either side like the sepals, nearly covered
  with rich chestnut blotches on a bright yellow ground_. LIP _white with
  deep reddish blotches at apex, shorter than petals, unguiculate,
  pandurate, partially connate with the column, toothed at the edges,
  bicarinate at base, provided with_ CREST _consisting of two sets of
  falcate teeth, extending about one-third of its own length_. COLUMN
  _white, half the length of the lip, furnished with upright rhomb-like
  wings the edges of which are indented_.

This is a very fine species indeed, although it scarcely realizes the
expectations excited by the figure in _Pescatorea_, whether as regards the
size of the individual blossoms or their colour. In the fresh flowers the
prevailing tone is a bright yellow, which serves as a foil to the rich
brown or chestnut marking with which the sepals and petals are profusely
covered, and which, though to a lesser degree, cover also the lip. But in
_Pescatorea_ the lip is represented as white, and as bearing at its upper
extremity a rich blotch of bright purple which affords a beautiful contrast
to the yellow and brown tints of the other parts of the flower. Probably
the figure referred to may have been prepared from dried specimens and
hence the mistake as to the colouring.

There are many varieties of this species, some of the best of which were
exhibited by Mr. Marshall of Enfield at a meeting of the Royal
Horticultural Society as early as April, 1869.

_O. triumphans_ does not appear to be so plentiful in its native habitats
as _O. Hallii_, _O. luteo-purpureum_, and many other N. Grenada kinds that
now swarm in our collections. The range of elevation within which it grows
is nearly identical with that of _O. Hallii_, hence the same treatment is
suitable to both. It is easily grown and flowers freely.

[Illustration: 1. Front view of lip and column; 2. Side view of ditto:

Plate 24

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Krameri.]




  O. pseudobulbis suborbicularibus valde compressis ancipitibus 1-phyllis,
  foliis oblongo-lanceolatis, scapis ascendentibus vel sub-pendulis foliis
  brevioribus pauci-(2-5) floris, sepalis petalisque oblongis acutis
  subæqualibus, labelli ungue 2-calloso laminâ subquadratâ 2-lobâ
  pallide-roseo-violaceâ plagâ basi utrinque semilunari albâ aureo et
  purpureo maculatâ.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM KRAMERI, _Reichenbach fil. in Gard. Chron._ 1868, p. 98.
  _Floral Mag._ _t._ 406 (_sub O. Krameri_). _Hooker in Bot. Mag._ _t._

  Habitat in COSTA-RICA.


  PSEUDOBULBS _nearly round, flattened, 2-edged, 1-leaved_; LEAVES
  _oblong-lanceolate, leas than a foot long, by about an inch wide, longer
  than the_ SCAPES _which bear from 2 to 5 flowers_. PEDUNCLES _with the
  ovary one to one and a half inches long_. FLOWERS _one to one and a half
  inches in diameter_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _subequal oblong-acute, pale
  violet-red in the centre with broad white margins_. LIP _one-third of an
  inch wide, neck short, broad, deeply hollowed in front with two erect
  calli; limb subquadrate, two-lobed at the apex, angles rounded, the basal
  lateral lobes small, reflexed, pale violet-red with two confluent
  semilunar white patches at the base, on each of which is a concentric
  red-brown band, and a few spots of the same colour on a golden yellow
  ground_. COLUMN _short, thick, without wings or appendages_. (Hooker, l.

This though not a striking is a very distinct plant. It is a native of
Costa-Rica, where it seems to be plentiful enough though it long eluded
detection. It was first exhibited in 1868 by Mr. Veitch at one of the shows
at S. Kensington, but appeared almost simultaneously in the collection of
Mr. Day, by whose direction a careful drawing was prepared. Like other
Costa-Rica plants, though not requiring a high temperature, it is scarcely
content with the small amount of heat that is now allotted to the great
majority of cool Orchids. Its proper place would be in the Mexican House.
It is a free bloomer.

Plate 25

[Illustration: Odontoglossum cordatum.]




  O. (EUODONTOGLOSSUM) pseudobulbis oblongis compressis monophyllis, foliis
  lato-oblongis planis acutis scapo squamis carinatis vaginato brevioribus,
  racemo simplici vel paniculato, bracteis navicularibus acuminatis
  membranaceis, ovario multo brevioribus, sepalis petalisque
  lineari-lanceolatis acuminatissimis, labello cordato acuminatissimo
  integerrimo, appendice unguis carnosâ apice bilobâ basi utrinque dente
  unico auctâ, columnâ pubescente clavatâ subapterâ.

  ODONTOGLOSSUM CORDATUM, _Lindl. in Bot. Reg._, 1838, _misc._ 90; _Knowles
  and Westcott_, _Floral Cabinet_, _t._ 100; _Paxton's Mag._, xiii. 147;
  _Regel. Garten-flora_, 1862, 356; _Pescatorea_, i. 26.

  Habitat in MEXICO, _Barker_. GUATEMALA, _Hartweg_, _Skinner_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _oblong, very much compressed and very sharp at the edges, 1½
  to 2 inches long_. LEAVES _one (rarely if ever two) on each pseudobulb
  and broadly-oblong acute shorter than the scape_. SCAPE _and_ RACEME
  _sheathed at intervals with long keel-shaped membranaceous_ BRACTS, _few
  or many flowered, simple or (more rarely) branched, from one to two feet
  high_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly equal, linear-lanceolate, extremely
  acuminate, an inch or more long, greenish-yellow richly blotched with
  brown_. LIP _shorter than the sepals heart-shaped, with a very acuminate
  slightly recurved apex, white with dark brown spots and a purplish
  2-lobed callus at the base_. COLUMN _pubescent, club-shaped, almost

Though scarcely to be classed among the more attractive species, _O.
cordatum_ is occasionally seen at our Shows with branching scapes 2 feet
high and flowers much more richly coloured than those in the Plate. It is
found both in Mexico and Guatemala (whence plants were sent to me by my
lamented friend Skinner), but always at high elevations.

It flowers in the early summer without any special treatment, except that
it is perhaps more impatient of water than some of its congeners.

Plate XXVI

[Illustration: Odontoglossum angustatum.]




  O. (ISANTHIUM) pseudobulbis ovato-oblongis compressis, foliis longis
  lato-lanceolatis erectis acutis paniculâ ramosâ elatâ brevioribus,
  bracteis carinatis acutis ovario multò brevioribus, sepalis petalisque
  subæqualibus undulatis unguiculatis, labello ovato-lanceolato acuminato
  reflexo, cristæ lamellis lateralibus membranaceis trifidis, digitis
  anterioribus majoribus, callo obtuso interposito, columnâ apterâ.

ODONTOGLOSSUM ANGUSTATUM, _Lindl. in Bot. Reg._ _sub_ t. 1992, _Folia
Orchid._, 48; _Rchb. fil._; _Walper's Annales_, vi. p. 841.

Habitat in PERU, (alt. 8000 ft.,) _Hall_, _Hartweg_, _Linden_.


  _A very stately plant._ PSEUDOBULBS _ovate-oblong compressed, 2 or 3
  inches long, 1 (or ? 2) leaved_. LEAVES _one to one and a half feet long,
  linear-lanceolate acute, shorter than the upright branching zigzag
  many-flowered_ PANICLES. BRACTS _keeled, acute, much shorter than the
  ovaries_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _nearly equal, unguiculate, acuminate,
  undulated, white with beautiful purple spots on their lower portions_.
  LIP _white, or nearly so, shorter than the petals, ovate-lanceolate, the
  apex acuminate and exceedingly recurved, having at its sides two
  membranous lamellæ, divided into three unequal parts, those in front the
  larger and projecting forwards like horns or fingers with a blunt callus
  lying between them_. COLUMN _not half the length of the lip, and
  destitute of wings_.

This is a very distinct species, as remarkable among _Odontoglossa_ with
its white and purple flowers, as is _Oncidium incurvum_, with blossoms of
similar hues, among the innumerable members of that still more extensive
genus. Although originally discovered by Colonel Hall more than a quarter
of a century ago, no genuine plants--there have been impostors in
plenty--seem to have reached Europe alive before the year 1871, when it was
introduced by M. Linden; by whom also, in the following spring, flowering
specimens were exhibited at South Kensington and universally admired.
According to Lindley, the species is nearly allied to his _O.
ramosissimum_, from which, indeed, he at one time failed to distinguish it.
M. Linden's plant, which is faithfully rendered in Mr. Fitch's drawing,
does not exactly answer to the descriptions in the Folia Orchidacea either
of _O. angustatum_ or _O. ramosissimum_, but is apparently a connecting
link between the two, whence I infer the probability that both the above
supposed species will eventually be found to be one and the same.

The plant is still exceedingly scarce, and as it is indistinguishable in
habit from many other _Odontoglossa_ derived from the same rich country
(Peru), I would warn cultivators against purchasing any specimens that have
not actually proved themselves to be true. It belongs to the cooler
sections of its race, and must be treated accordingly.


[Illustration: Odontoglossum coronarium.]




  O. (TRYMENIUM) rhizomate caulescente, pseudobulbis brunneis ovalibus
  compressis monophyllis, foliis rigidis coriaceis basi canaliculatis
  acutis racemo multifloro dense racemoso subæqualibus vel longioribus,
  bracteis linearibus canaliculatis ovario triplô brevioribus, sepalis
  petalisque subrotundis unguiculatis planis margine crispis, labello longê
  cuneato retuso basi auriculis unidentatis subfalcatis obtusis subtus in
  unam connatis acuto, inter auriculas tuberculis duobus hoc didymo illo
  inferiore simplici; clinandrio subserrato lobis rotundatis (_Lindl._)

  ODONTOGLOSSUM CORONARIUM, _Lindl. Folia Orchid._; _Linden_, _Pescatorea_,
  t. 47.

  Habitat in N. GRENADA, _propè_ La Baja, Pamplona, (alt. 7000 ft.,)


  _A stout and rigid plant._ PSEUDOBULBS _oval, compressed, 3 or more
  inches long, of a brownish hue, placed at intervals on a stiff
  caulescent_ RHIZOME. LEAVES _one on each pseudobulb, leathery,
  sharp-pointed, channelled near the base, a foot or more long, equal to or
  longer than the flower-scapes_. BRACTS _linear channelled, only one third
  the length of the ovary_. RACEMES _about a foot high, upright, bearing
  from a dozen to twenty flowers in a dense mass_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS
  _equal, subrotund, unguiculate, smooth, with their margins crisp or
  curled, about an inch long, of a rich reddish coppery brown on the upper
  surface, shining as if they had been varnished, yellowish underneath_.
  LIP _yellow, retuse, about same length as the petals, obovate, rounded at
  apex, narrowed and wedge-shaped at the base, where the sides arrange
  themselves into two narrow blunt falcate horns which are united on the
  under side_. CREST _consisting of three processes_. COLUMN _slightly
  curved with two truncate rounded wings_.

This species has been long known, but it was slow in making its appearance,
and slow likewise in flowering after it had reached us. During the last
four years both Messrs. Veitch and M. Linden have succeeded in importing it
alive, but it has only produced flowers in two or three instances; the
finest specimens I have seen being those exhibited by Lord Londesborough
during the present spring (1874). Even in its native country it seems to be
a shy flowerer. As it is never met with lower than 7000 feet on the
mountains of Pamplona, it of course requires a cooler treatment than many
of its congeners which affect a lower level. The shining surface of the
sepals and petals is very remarkable, and has the appearance of being due
to a coat of the best varnish. Another species, _O. brevifolium_, found in
lofty mountains in Peru, is closely allied to this, if indeed, which I
greatly doubt, it be anything more than a very high-level variety of it.


[Illustration: Odontoglossum blandum.]




  O. (EUODONTOGLOSSUM) pseudobulbis ovatis 1-2-phyllis, foliis
  lineari-lanceolatis acutis racemis multifloris subæqualibus, sepalis
  petalisque cuneato-lanceis acuminatis; labelli ungue bilamellato,
  lamellis oblongis antice obtusangulis, laminâ ab ungue cuneato velutino
  ampliato ovatâ acuminatâ crispulâ, cornubus brevibus geminis ante
  lamellas, antepositis falcibus geminis, tumore parvo interjecto; cirrhis
  columnæ basi angulatæ bifidis setaceis.

ODONTOGLOSSUM BLANDUM, _Rchb. fil. in Gardeners' Chronicle_, p. 1342

Habitat in OCAÑA, _Blunt_, _Roezl_.


  PLANT _about a span across, in a compact mass_.

  PSEUDOBULBS _ovate, somewhat compressed, about an inch long, bearing 1
  (rarely 2) narrow lanceolate_ LEAVES _of about the same length as the
  slender nodding many-flowered_ RACEMES. _The_ FLOWERS, _of which there
  are from six to twelve (or more) crowded together on the racemes, are all
  expanded at the same time, and emit a pleasant honey-like smell_. SEPALS
  _and_ PETALS _nearly equal, less than an inch long, lanceolate,
  acuminate, of a creamy white sprinkled over with numerous crimson dots_.
  LIP _about the same length as the sepals, and of the same hue, but
  destitute of spots except at the apex, the central portion bearing a
  large crimson mark nearly in the form of the letter_ W; _the lip's base
  is formed of two parallel blunt lamellæ out of which springs the main
  limb which is broadly ovate, curled and jagged at the edges and recurved
  and acuminate at its extremity; at the point of junction with the unguis
  or claw occur two horned falcate processes, between which a small tumour
  is interposed, at foot of which are two short and blunt horns_. COLUMN
  _short, bifid, angular with three or four straggling cirrhi or filaments
  on either side_.

This pretty little _Odontoglossum_ comes from Ocaña, where it was first
discovered by Mr. Low's collector many years ago. At that time none of the
plants reached England alive, but some dried specimens that found their way
to Professor Reichenbach, enabled the great German Orchidist to name and
describe the species; which turns out to be nearly allied to _O. nævium_.
It has been met with by M. Roezl and other collectors, but is still a rare
plant, as its constitution is apt to succumb under a long journey by sea
and land. The specimens from which Mr. Fitch prepared his drawing, flowered
in the spring of 1871, in the collection of the Royal Horticultural
Society;--the plants having been purchased at one of Stevens' sales, among
a "miscellaneous lot" of doubtful things. The species is a free-flowerer,
and sends out an agreeable honey-like odour, but in point of beauty is
scarcely a rival for _O. nævium_. It seems to require rather more heat than
the latter species, which is one of the coolest of cool Orchids.

Plate XXIX

[Illustration: Odontoglossum vexillarium.]




  O. (PHALÆNOPSIDEA) pseudobulbis ovato-oblongis compressis 1-2-phyllis;
  foliis pedalibus subglaucescentibus carinatis lanceolatis acutis
  pedunculis gracilibus 2-6-floris subæqualibus; bracteis triangulis
  minutis; floribus maximis roseo suffusis; sepalis oblongo-ligulatis
  apiculatis; petalis conformibus vel paulò latioribus subacutis vel
  obtusis; labello maximio flabellato orbiculari bilobo, in unguem brevem
  hastatum contracto, carinis quinis abruptis in basi; columnâ brevissimâ

  ODONTOGLOSSUM VEXILLARIUM, _Rchb. fil. in Gard. Chron._ 1867, 901;
  _ibid._ 1872, p. 667, _cum Xylo_; 1873, p. 580, 644, _cum Xylo_, 885;
  _Hooker in Bot. Mag._ t. 6037; _Illustration Horticole_, 1873, Pl. cxiii.

  Habitat in N. GRENADA, _Bowman_, _Wallis_, _Roezl_, _Chesterton_.


  PSEUDOBULBS _flattened, ovate-oblong, an inch or inch and a half long,
  bearing one or two keeled sharp-ended lanceolate_ LEAVES _from six inches
  to a foot long, by an inch or more wide, with a glaucous tint, especially
  on their upper surface_. SCAPES _slender, nodding, about the same length
  as the leaves, two to six-flowered, clasped at intervals by small
  triangular_ BRACTS. FLOWERS _flat, the largest in the genus, tinted more
  or less deeply with lovely rose_. SEPALS _and_ PETALS _somewhat variable
  in their relative forms, in most cases nearly the same size, oblong or
  obovate apiculate or obtuse, about an inch long, the former nearly white,
  the latter of the same hue as the lip_. LIP _generally of a rich rosy
  tint, expanding from a narrow sagittate claw into a round and ample,
  2-lobed disk, more than double the size of the petals, with five dwarf
  calli and some yellow streaks at its base_. COLUMN _very short with
  rarely a trace of wings_.

This is the handsomest of known _Odontoglossa_. In the year 1867 Mr. Low
showed me a solitary flower, which had been sent to him by his collector
(Bowman, I believe), but a discreet silence was observed as to the locality
where the prodigy had been found, nor, alas, did living plants ever make
their way to the Clapton Nursery. Subsequently the species was met with by
Wallis--when collecting for Mr. Linden--and later still by Roezl; but
although in each case a large number of specimens were packed up and
despatched to Europe, they either died on the passage, or shortly after
their arrival. Indeed, cultivators were almost beginning to despair, when,
early in the spring of last year (1873), the arrival was announced of a
small cargo of the beauteous novelty in most excellent condition at the
establishment of Messrs. Veitch; to whom it had been forwarded by Mr. Henry
Chesterton. Once safe in the Chelsea collection, it did not put the
patience of Orchid-growers to any severe strain, for within little more
than three months of its arrival vigorous flower-spikes were produced, and
the plant itself exhibited--both in Regent's Park and at South
Kensington--to the envy and admiration of all beholders. It seems to be
very easy to manage, and produces its flower-scapes with the utmost
profusion. Like all its congeners, it must be relegated to the cool
Orchid-house, though probably it will be found to prefer the warmest end.

Professor Reichenbach has written several articles in the _Gardeners'
Chronicle_ about this plant, in one of which he deplores, and most justly,
the wanton waste and havoc committed by collectors; who, instead of
contenting themselves with a moderate number of specimens, gather them by
hundreds, or even by thousands, thus imperilling the very existence of
species which, like the present, are believed to possess only a very
restricted habitat. Nor does this recklessness often benefit their
employers, for in most cases, the larger the consignment, the smaller the
chance of its prospering on its way.

The woodcut is copied from a photograph of a small specimen of _O.
vexillarium_, taken in New Grenada, in the act of flowering.


Plate XXX

[Illustration: Odontoglossum Roezlii.]




  O. (PHALÆNOPSIDEA) affine O. vexillario, pseudobulbis ovato-oblongis
  ancipitibus compressis 1-2-phyllis, foliis lineari-ligulatis inferne
  striatis pedunculis 1-3-floris longioribus; sepalis oblongo-ligulatis
  acutis, petalis sublatioribus; labello a basi angustâ sagittatâ cuneato
  flabellato obtuse bilobo; carinis ternis in imâ basi; prepositâ lamellâ
  transversâ seu callis parvis geminis; columnâ apterâ.

ODONTOGLOSSUM ROEZLII, _Rchb. fil. Xenia Orchidacea_, ii.; _idem in Gard.
Chron._ p. 1302, (_cum Xylo_) 1873.

Habitat in N. GRENADA, _Roezl_; _Backhouse in Gard. Chron._ p. 1334,


  _A compact plant, of which the_ PSEUDOBULBS _are ovate-oblong, 1-2 inches
  long and much compressed; these bear one or two bright green linear
  acute_ LEAVES, _which are remarkable for their parallel streaks--nine in
  number--on the under side, and are from six to ten inches long, and about
  ½ inch wide. The_ SCAPES _or_ PEDUNCLES _are shorter than the leaves, and
  bear from one to three (possibly more) large and beautiful flowers, which
  with the exception of some markings at the base of the petals and on the
  lip are of snowy whiteness_. SEPALS _oblong-ligulate pointed at the
  extremity, fully an inch long_. PETALS _rather wider than the sepals and
  with a rich crimson blotch at their base_. LIP _wedge-shaped, expanding
  from a narrow sagittate base into a broad two-lobed disk, an inch and a
  half wide, white with some bright yellow markings near the foot and in
  the region of the_ CREST; _the latter being formed by three slightly
  raised "carinæ" or ridges near the base on either side, traversed by two
  moderate sized calli placed in front_. COLUMN _wingless_.

This is a most charming _Odontoglossum_, allied to the preceding and to _O.
phalænopsis_, but perfectly distinct from either. Its bright green narrow
leaves--streaked like those of _Saccolabium Blumei_, at once distinguish
the plant, even when out of flower, from its fascinating rival _O.
vexillarium_; which always bears a glaucous hue, and which has larger and
broader foliage, and produces double the number of flowers on a scape. The
first rumours that reached us of the plant led to a suspicion that it
might, after all, be only a variety of _O. vexillarium_, but these unworthy
fears were at once dispelled by the flowering of the plant itself at Mr.
Bull's nursery in the early part of last September, when Mr. Fitch prepared
his drawing, and Professor Reichenbach obtained materials for the
description which appeared in the _Gardeners' Chronicle_ of September 27,
1873. The Professor has also given, in his _Xenia_, a characteristic
representation of the wild plant constructed from the specimens supplied to
him by its fortunate discoverer, Mr. Roezl; in whose honour the species is
very properly named. It is a native of New Grenada, and, like _O.
vexillarium_, appears to be exceedingly rare; we must not, therefore,
murmur if the precise locality--of which the knowledge is a fortune in
itself--should be for awhile withheld. But there would have been no harm in
telling us the approximate elevation of the native habitat, as the same is
always important as a clue to culture; especially in the case of plants
with a limited range. In this instance I apprehend that both _O. Roezlii_
and _O. vexillarium_ are not found at a _very_ high level and that
therefore--though happily entitled to rank among "cool" Orchids--they must
be placed in the warmer division of the "cool" Orchid-house.

The woodcut represents, for purposes of comparison, two nearly allied
_Odontoglossa_, viz., _O. pulchellum_ and _O. Egertonianum_; they both come
from the same country (Guatemala) and closely resemble each other in
habit--only that the pseudobulbs of the latter have much the sharper
edges--but the flowers are very different. The spikes of _O. Egertonianum_
(2) are a sort of Orchid-imitation of the racemes of the "Lily of the
Valley," though unfortunately they have no perfume, while those of _O.
pulchellum_ (1) emit a delicious, almond-like odour, not very unlike that
of _Gardenia radicans_; they are, moreover, very chaste and beautiful, and
are freely produced during the winter months. Under these circumstances the
species has long since become, what it well deserved to be, an established
popular favourite. Yet on its introduction some five-and-thirty years
ago--I had then just received the plant from my lamented friend Mr. G. U.
Skinner--its first feeble attempts to flower left such an impression of its
insignificance upon my mind, that I churlishly refused it a place among the
magnates of its family in "The Orchidaceæ of Mexico and Guatemala" on which
I was then engaged! But greater discrimination in the treatment of our
plants--in other words the recognition of the system of
"Cool-Orchid-growing"--has led to a more just appreciation of its merits.



[1] The mention of the illustrious traveller's name reminds me of the
    obligations under which he laid me when I first visited Berlin, in the
    spring of 1836; for, young as I was, he deigned to pour into my
    delighted ears all the stores of Orchid-lore collected during his
    memorable wanderings among the Andes of New Grenada and Peru. Here, he
    said, the greatest store of beauteous Orchids was to be found, and we
    are now beginning to realize the truth of his remark.

[2] Cool Orchids from the interior of South America, have either to be
    carried across the Andes, where the intense cold of the passes is often
    fatal to them, or to be conveyed by a tedious voyage down the great
    rivers, where the heat is greater than their constitution--often
    delicate--can endure. In this way whole importations have been lost,
    including, I am sorry to say, one or two cargoes of the exquisite
    _Odontoglossum Warczewitzii_ (figured in Reichenbach's "Xenia") which
    still unhappily remains a desideratum.

[3] As most of the _Odontoglossa_ require to be treated in the same way, I
    transcribe, from the 'Guide to Cool-Orchid Growing' (Reeve, 1864), the
    following instructions for the culture of the genus:--"They will all
    succeed perfectly in a low lean-to house facing the north, the mean
    temperature of which need not exceed 60°. They should stand on a shelf
    of slate or stone, near the glass, but should always be protected from
    the direct rays of the sun. Constant humidity should be maintained by
    damping the shelves and floors, but the plants themselves will only
    require water in moderation, and what is given to them should pass away
    freely, for if it stagnates, or if the compost in which they grow
    becomes sodden, the roots will immediately decay. A gentle evaporation
    is greatly assisted by placing layers of moss--to be kept damp of
    course--on the shelves whereon the plants stand. _Odontoglossa_ cannot
    endure wooden blocks, but will thrive in a compost of which one-half
    consists of small broken potsherds, the remainder being a mixture of
    shredded sphagnum (dusted with fine sand) and fibrous peat. About
    one-third of the entire depth of the pots may be filled with this
    mixture, the other two-thirds containing nothing but large pieces of
    broken pots, so as to admit as much air as possible to the roots. The
    pots in which the plants are grown should stand on other pots
    (inverted) placed in saucers of water, in order to secure humidity and
    protect them from wood-lice. Nearly all the species flower during the
    winter or spring months, a circumstance that greatly enhances their
    value. Many, _e. g._ _O. pulchellum_, are deliciously fragrant, and the
    flowers of nearly all the species remain in perfection for weeks,
    whether left on the plants or cut for bouquets. In so vast a genus we
    shall, no doubt, meet with many idiosyncrasies, but nine-tenths of the
    species will flourish under the treatment indicated above, and which
    may be regarded as suitable to the majority of cool Orchids. Most
    _Odontoglossa_ are, like the _Masdevallias_, very impatient of the
    knife, and cannot therefore be rapidly multiplied. They have also a
    peculiar aversion to fumigation by tobacco, which causes their leaves
    to fall off."

[4] The idea that _Cuitlauzina pendula_ might possibly be identical with
    _Odontoglossum citrosmum_ had more than once occurred to myself, but
    Lexarza's character of the flower-scape,--which he described as
    "_bracteis destitutus_,"--had always proved an insuperable difficulty.
    It seems, however, that the scapes of the other _Odontoglossa_ that he
    met with happened to be entirely clothed with large inflated bracts;
    our present plant therefore, in which they occur only at long intervals
    and are exceedingly minute, may in comparison be said to be almost
    "destitute" of them.

[5] Mr. Skinner has lately received from Guatemala some magnificent
    specimens of _O. grande_, which are incorporated with _masses of Fern_
    and other shade-loving plants. Cultivators might make a good practical
    use of the well-known maxim "_noscitur a sociis_" in this case.

[6] I copy Sir Robert's description of the locality in which these plants
    were found, in the hope that some collector may be induced to visit so
    interesting a region:--"The _Diothonea_ was met with on the high
    mountain-chain between the sixty-fifth and sixty-sixth meridian and the
    fourth parallel of latitude, at an elevation of 6-7000 feet above the
    sea-level. The summits of those elevations are thickly covered with two
    species of Lichen, the white colour of which conveys the supposition
    that the ground is covered with snow. The thermometer stood frequently
    in the morning at 57° F., which, connected with the snow-white Lichens,
    powerfully reminded us of a winter landscape. Indeed, the stunted
    trees, with grey tortuous branches, would have assisted to make the
    picture complete, if numerous _Orchidaceæ_, conjointly with green
    Mosses, had not clothed them. Indeed, it was the _Orchidaceæ_ alone
    that gave the vegetation a tropical aspect.... We discovered the
    _Maxillaria_ near Mount Maravaca."--_Lindl. Sert. Orch._ _sub t._ xl.

[7] I allude of course to those remarkable works of Dr. Lindley, the
    _Orchidearum Genera et Species_ and the _Folia Orchidacea_ (the latter
    of which he was not destined to complete), with which the science of
    Orchidology may be said to have arisen, and which will continue its
    text-books for all time to come.

[8] It may be well, once for all, to state that in the case of species that
    have not been long imported, and which have therefore not had time to
    acquire their full strength, the number and arrangement of flowers in
    the figures is taken from native specimens where such are available. It
    sometimes happens that the "wild" standard is never reached in
    cultivation, but it is more frequently exceeded.

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A Monograph of Odontoglossum" ***

Doctrine Publishing Corporation provides digitized public domain materials.
Public domain books belong to the public and we are merely their custodians.
This effort is time consuming and expensive, so in order to keep providing
this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties,
including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files. We designed Doctrine Publishing
Corporation's search system for use by individuals, and we request that you
use these files for personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort
to Doctrine Publishing's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a
large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the use of
public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Keep it legal -  Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for
ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just because
we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States,
that the work is also in the public domain for users in other countries.
Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we
can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is
allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Doctrine Publishing
means it can be used in any manner anywhere in the world.
Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.