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Title: South Africa and the Transvaal War, Vol. 6 (of 6)
Author: Creswicke, Louis
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "South Africa and the Transvaal War, Vol. 6 (of 6)" ***

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TRANSCRIBERS' NOTE:


In this plan text version, text in italics in the original is surrounded
with _underscores_. Text in bold in the original is surrounded with
=equals signs=. Text in an ornate font (awards of the Victoria Cross)
is surrounded by #hash marks#.

The following publishers' note was bound into the middle of the book.
To simplify reading of that section and allow interested readers to
view it easily, it has been moved here.

Corrections are individually listed at the end of the text.



PUBLISHERS' NOTE.


The prolongation of the War far beyond the calculation of those best able
to form an opinion on the subject has necessarily affected the plan of
Creswicke's "South Africa and Transvaal War," and in consequence the
completion of the work in a manner satisfactory to subscribers, and
worthy of a book now widely recognised as a great History of the
Campaign, has been most carefully considered by both Author and
Publishers. They have decided to adhere closely to the plan of the work
sketched in the original prospectus; that is to say, Volume VI. will
bring to a close the History of the War so far as the annexation of the
Transvaal is concerned. All the important and daring movements that
culminated in the occupation of Lydenburg and the flight of Kruger are
treated in graphic detail. A condensed account is also given of the
subsequent Guerilla Warfare down to March 1901.

At the end of the Volume will be found the valuable Appendix matter
announced in Prospectus:--

(1.) =Gazetteer.= This gives in alphabetical order all the information
that is required as to places in South Africa. =Military terms are also
fully explained.=

(2.) =Biographical Record.= No attempt has been made elsewhere to deal
biographically in one list with the prominent actors connected with the
South African Campaign. This list, which would form in itself a good
sized volume crowded with facts, will be of permanent value.

(3.) =Recipients of the Victoria Cross=: giving details regarding those
who have earned this honour during the War up to the date of publication.

It is evident, however, that the Guerilla operations, spread over so
large an area as they are, would themselves furnish material for an
extensive book. In view, therefore, of the importance of this unique
development of the campaign, the military interest of the story, and the
many heroic deeds which deserve the fullest recognition possible, the
Publishers have decided to issue =an additional and strictly
supplementary Volume= dealing with Lord Kitchener's regime as
Commander-in-Chief and the Guerilla War. This additional volume will be
uniform as regards general style, number of illustrations, price, &c.,
and it is hoped that it will be found possible to include in it some
account of the ultimate settlement and the resources of the new Colonies.
The Publishers are confident that subscribers will find this a valuable
addition to the work.

       *       *       *       *       *

Readers interested in this work are requested to assist the writer of the
narrative by forwarding authentic letters or accounts throwing light on
the military operations subsequent to Lord Roberts's departure from South
Africa. The names of correspondents will not be made public, and their
communications will be returned if desired. All letters should be
addressed, LOUIS CRESWICKE, Esq., c/o Messrs T. C. & E. C. Jack,
Causewayside, Edinburgh.

[Illustration: MUSTER OF THE CAPE TOWN GUARD ON THE PARADE GROUND CAPE
TOWN, FOR INSPECTION BY GENERAL BRABANT, JANUARY 12, 1901.

Photo by Alf. F. Hosking, Cape Town.]



    SOUTH AFRICA
    AND THE
    TRANSVAAL WAR

    BY

    LOUIS CRESWICKE

    AUTHOR OF "ROXANE," ETC.

    WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS

    IN SIX VOLUMES

    VOL. VI.--FROM THE OCCUPATION OF PRETORIA TO
    MR. KRUGER'S DEPARTURE FROM SOUTH AFRICA,
    WITH A SUMMARISED ACCOUNT OF THE
    GUERILLA WAR TO MARCH 1901


    EDINBURGH: T. C. & E. C. JACK
    MANCHESTER: KENNETH MACLENNAN, 75 PICCADILLY
    1901



    Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & CO.
    At the Ballantyne Press



CONTENTS--VOL. VI


                                                                    PAGE

    CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE                                                v

    OFFICIAL TABLE OF CASUALTIES IN SOUTH AFRICA                    viii


    CHAPTER I

    AT PRETORIA, JUNE 5 TO 10                                          1

    THE BATTLE OF DIAMOND HILL, JUNE 11 TO 12                         12

    GUARDING THE COMMUNICATIONS                                       19


    CHAPTER II

    GENERAL BULLER'S OPERATIONS--ROUTING THE BOERS FROM LAING'S NEK,
        MAY 19 TO JUNE 12                                             27

    THE ADVANCE FROM LAING'S NEK TO STANDERTON--JOINING HANDS WITH
        LORD ROBERTS'S FORCE, JUNE 13 TO 22                           32


    CHAPTER III

    IN ORANGE RIVER COLONY (EAST), JUNE                               37

    IN THE WESTERN TRANSVAAL, JUNE TO JULY 9                          40


    CHAPTER IV

    THE BATTLE OF BETHLEHEM--THE SURRENDER OF PRINSLOO                43

    AFFAIRS IN AND AROUND PRETORIA--THE CAPTURE OF MIDDELBURG         54

    PROTECTING THE KRUGERSDORP-POTCHEFSTROOM RAILROAD                 66


    CHAPTER V

    CHASING DE WET IN THE WESTERN TRANSVAAL                           70

    PLOTS AND PROCLAMATIONS, AUGUST                                   81


    CHAPTER VI

    GENERAL BULLER'S MOVEMENTS--CLEARING THE TRANSVAAL BETWEEN
        VOLKSRUST AND BELFAST                                         88


    CHAPTER VII

    THE LYDENBURG CAMPAIGN                                            93

    THE ORANGE RIVER COLONY                                          112

    THE WESTERN TRANSVAAL                                            117

    EXIT MR. KRUGER                                                  120


    CHAPTER VIII

    GUERILLA WARFARE                                                 125

    AFTERWORD                                                        137

    BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD OF NOTABLE PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE SOUTH
        AFRICAN CAMPAIGN                                             152

    RECIPIENTS OF THE VICTORIA CROSS                                 191

    LEXICON OF TERMS AND PLACES CONNECTED WITH THE CAMPAIGN          197

    DEATHS IN ACTION AND FROM DISEASE                                208

    LIST OF CASUALTIES                                               211

    INDEX                                                            213



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS--VOL. VI.


    MAP ILLUSTRATING GENERAL BULLER'S CAMPAIGN IN NATAL,
        MAY-JUNE 1900                                    _At Front_


    1. _COLOURED PLATES_

                                                               PAGE

    MUSTER OF THE CAPE TOWN GUARD                       _Frontispiece_

    THE GRENADIER GUARDS                                         8

    THE HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY                                 56

    THE VICTORIA MOUNTED RIFLES                                 72

    THE ROYAL WELSH FUSILIERS                                  120

    THE 2ND NORTHAMPTON REGIMENT                               140

    MARKET SQUARE, JOHANNESBURG                                148

    COMMANDER AND ABLE-SEAMAN, R.N.                            192


    2. _FULL-PAGE PLATES_

    AUSTRALIAN BUSHMEN ON THE MARCH                             24

    A HISTORIC BATTLEFIELD: MAJUBA                              32

    PRINSLOO'S COMMANDO RETREATING TO THE BRANDWATER BASIN      44

    PRINSLOO'S LAST STAND IN THE VALLEY OF THE LITTLE CALEDON   48

    THE SURRENDER OF PRINSLOO'S FORCE                           52

    ALGOA BAY AND PORT ELIZABETH                                64

    BOERS TAKING THE OATH OF NEUTRALITY                         88

    PRISONERS' CAMP AT NOOITGEDACHT                             96

    THE NIGHT CHARGE OF THE 19TH HUSSARS NEAR LYDENBURG        104

    THE DÉBÂCLE: ON THE TRACK OF A FLEEING COMMANDO            112

    SIMON'S TOWN, CAPE COLONY                                  124

    BURNING THE FARM OF A TREACHEROUS BURGHER                  128

    THE HARBOUR, EAST LONDON                                   132

    THE INSPECTION OF COLONIAL SOLDIERS AT WINDSOR             136

    RETURN OF THE CITY IMPERIAL VOLUNTEERS                     144

    DURBAN, NATAL                                              200


    3. _FULL-PAGE PORTRAITS_

    THE EARL OF AIRLIE                                          16

    MAJOR-GENERAL CLEMENTS, D.S.O.                              40

    DE WET                                                      80

    MAJOR-GENERAL BARTON                                       152

    H.R.H. PRINCE CHRISTIAN                                    160

    SIR FRANCIS CLERY, K.C.B.                                  168

    MAJOR-GENERAL SMITH-DORRIEN, D.S.O.                        176

    LIEUT.-GENERAL TUCKER, C.B.                                184


    4. _MAPS AND ENGRAVINGS IN THE TEXT_

    MAP OF SEAT OF WAR                                           5

    PLANS--BATTLE OF DIAMOND HILL                           14, 16

    LINES TORN UP BY DE WET                                     22

    BATTLE OF ALMOND'S NEK (MAJUBA)                             28

    REPAIRING LAING'S NEK TUNNEL                                31

    RAILWAY MAP--E. AND S.E. OF PRETORIA                        33

       "     "   W. AND S.W. OF PRETORIA                        41

       "     "   E. ORANGE RIVER COLONY AND NATAL               45

    POSITION OF TROOPS ROUND THE BRANDWATER BASIN BEFORE THE
        SURRENDER OF PRINSLOO                                   50

    NITRAL'S NEK                                                58

    MAP ILLUSTRATING THE EASTWARD MOVE FROM EERSTEFABRIEKEN
        TO MIDDELBURG                                           64

    MAP--THE BATTLEFIELDS OF PRETORIA                           73

    COMMANDO'S NEK, MAGALIESBERG                                79

    A CAPITAL ON WHEELS                                         94

    MAP--LYDENBURG CAMPAIGN                                    104

    BARBERTON                                                  107

    HARRISMITH                                                 113

    MAJOR-GENERAL BRABAZON                                     155

    BRIGADIER-GENERAL BROADWOOD                                155

    LIEUT.-COLONEL DALGETY                                     161

    HON. SIR W. HELY-HUTCHINSON                                169

    MAJOR-GENERAL HUTTON, C.B.                                 171

    COLONEL KEKEWICH                                           172

    LIEUTENANT ROBERTS, V.C.                                   182

    LIEUTENANT-COLONEL THORNEYCROFT                            186

    CAPTAIN TOWSE, V.C.                                        186

    SURG.-GENERAL W. D. WILSON                                 189



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE--VOL. VI.


JUNE 1900.

5.--The British flag hoisted in Pretoria.

7.--The 4th Battalion Derbyshire Regiment (Sherwood Foresters) captured
    by the enemy at Roodeval.

9.--Klerksdorp surrendered to General Hunter.

11.--Lord Methuen gained a complete victory over De Wet.

12.--Almond's Nek having been forced the previous day, the Boers
    evacuated Laing's Nek and Majuba at nightfall, and General Buller
    encamped four miles north of Volksrust.

The battle of Diamond Hill. Lord Roberts defeated Botha 15 miles east of
    Pretoria. The Boers retreated in the night farther east.

13.--The Boers continued their aggressions on the Senekal-Ficksburg
    line. The Senekal-Winburg telegraph line was damaged. General
    Lyttelton occupied Wakkerstroom.

14.--Rustenburg occupied by General Baden-Powell.

Botha's rearguard surprised and "thoroughly routed" by General Ian
    Hamilton's Mounted Infantry.

Position on Zand River attacked by 800 Boers with three guns. Enemy
    driven off by General Knox.

15.--Column left Pretoria to meet General Baden-Powell and repair
    telegraph between Pretoria and Rustenburg.

18.--General Baden-Powell arrived at Pretoria.

General Hunter occupied Krugersdorp.

19.--Lord Methuen defeated De Wet at Heilbron.

20.--Extinction of rebellion in Cape Colony. Surrender of De Villiers.

22.--Lord Dundonald occupied Standerton.

24.--General Clements defeated the Boers at Winburg.

General Ian Hamilton occupied Heidelburg.

26.--Boer attack repulsed near Senekal, and enemy's laager burned.

27.--Attack on British at Roodeval Spruit. Boers beaten off.


JULY 1900.

1.--Generals Hunter and MacDonald joined hands at Frankfort.

4.--General Buller's forces and those of the Commander-in-Chief joined
    at Vlakfontein.

Entire railway from Natal to Johannesburg in hands of the British.

General Paget drove the enemy from strong positions towards Bethlehem.

7.--General Buller arrived at Pretoria.

Bethlehem captured by Generals Clements and Paget. De Wet put to flight.

11.--Squadron of Scots Greys, five companies of the Lincolnshire
    Regiment, with two guns of the O Battery of the Royal Horse
    Artillery, captured at Nitral's Nek. General Smith-Dorrien
    successfully engaged the Boers near Krugersdorp.

16.--Determined attacks by Boers on left flank of British posts in the
    Pretoria district. Enemy driven off with loss.

19.--General Little engaged De Wet near Lindley, and broke up his
    forces.

21.--Advance begun from Pretoria east, along Delagoa Bay Railway.

A supply train, with 100 Welsh Fusiliers, captured near Honing Spruit.

23.--The Black Watch capture a hill at Retief's Nek. The Highland Light
    Infantry were compelled to retire from a steep hill above the Nek.

25.--Lord Roberts's force reached Balmoral on the way to Middelburg.
    French's Cavalry and Hutton's Mounted Infantry put Boers to flight
    six miles south of Balmoral.

Boers flee in disorder before Lord Roberts's advance. General French
    crosses Oliphant's River.

26.--Philip de Wet, younger brother of Christian de Wet, surrendered at
    Kroonstad.

General Hunter occupied Fouriesburg.

General MacDonald, after fighting a rearguard action, blocked Naauwpoort
    Nek.

27.--Occupation of Middelburg by advance guard of Lord Roberts without
    opposition.

30.--Surrender of Generals Prinsloo, A. J. Villiers, and Crowther, and
    4000 Boers to General Hunter.


AUGUST 1900.

4.--Surrender of Harrismith to General MacDonald.

10.--Discovery of the plot at Pretoria to kidnap Lord Roberts and the
    British officers.

Pursuit of De Wet continued.

12.--De Wet escaped.

16.--Eland's River garrison relieved.

24.--Lord Roberts left for the front in the Eastern Transvaal to operate
    against General Botha.

25.--Lieutenant Hans Cordua shot in Pretoria for his participation in
    the plot against Lord Roberts.

26.--Great battle near Dalmanutha.

Capture of Commandant Olivier and his two sons at Winburg.

27.--Important positions captured near Dalmanutha.

28.--General Buller's troops occupied Machadodorp.

Bergendal occupied.

29.--Kruger fled to Nelspruit.

The Boers evacuated Helvetia, which was occupied by General Buller.

30.--British occupation of Waterval Boven.

Release of about 2000 British prisoners at Nooitgedacht.


SEPTEMBER 1900.

1.--Lord Roberts annexed to the British Empire the South African
    Republic, which henceforth will be known as the Transvaal Colony.

4.--General Buller and Botha engaged at Lydenburg.

Siege of Ladybrand raised.

6.--British occupied Lydenburg. Botha retreated.

8.--Spitz Kop captured.

11.--Kruger, having fled from the Transvaal, arrived in Portuguese
    territory, and proceeded to Lorenzo Marques.

13.--Lord Roberts issued a proclamation calling upon the Boers to
    surrender.

General French occupied Barberton.

16.--British occupied Nelspruit.

20.--British occupation of Kaap Muiden.

24.--Arrival of the British at the Portuguese frontier. Evacuation of
    all the Boer positions near the frontier.

25.--Lord Roberts telegraphed to the Lord Mayor of London that the City
    Imperial Volunteers might be expected home "before November 5th."

Surrender of Boers to the Portuguese.


OCTOBER 1900.

3.--Return of General Buller to Lydenburg after having marched through
    the whole of the hilly country to the north as far as Pilgrim's
    Rest, and having occupied the principal Boer positions.

9.--Continuous series of engagements in the Transvaal and Orange River
    Colony, and defeat of De Wet, who was driven north, across the Vaal,
    at Venterstroom.

10.--General Buller prepared to return home.

11.--Anniversary of Kruger's insolent ultimatum.

19.--Mr. Kruger left Lorenzo Marques for Europe, and made his exit from
    the political stage.

24.--General Buller left Cape Town for England.

Koffyfontein besieged.

25.--The Transvaal formally annexed.


NOVEMBER 1900

3.--Koffyfontein relieved.

6.--Engagement with De Wet near Bothaville.

16.--Conspirators against Lord Roberts arrested.

18.--Lord Roberts met with an accident at Johannesburg.

23.--Garrison at Dewetsdorp surrendered to De Wet.

27.--General Charles Knox in touch with De Wet at Beyersberg.

29.--Lord Kitchener took over the command in South Africa.


DECEMBER 1900.

5.--De Wet crossed the Caledon with a view to entering Cape Colony.

11.--Lord Roberts left Cape Town for England.

De Wet, after being turned northward by General Knox, moved towards
    Reddersburg.

13.--Reverse to General Clements near the Magaliesberg.

Brabant's Horse mishap near Zastron.

19.--Boers under Delarey routed.

Boer raid into Cape Colony.

21.--War Office arranged for reinforcements.

22.--Boer movement in Cape Colony checked.

26.--General Charles Knox engaged with De Wet near Leeuw Kop.

28.--De Wet, frustrated in his attempt to break through to the south,
    withdrew to Senekal.

Cape raiders driven northward.

29.--British garrison at Helvetia captured.

30.--Preparations made for the frustration of a more ambitious Boer raid
    into Cape Colony.


JANUARY 1901

1.--"Call to arms" at Capetown. Enthusiastic response.

7.--Boers attacked Belfast, Wonderfontein, Nooitgedacht, Widfontein, and
    Pan, and after sharp fighting were dispersed.

10.--Machadodorp attacked by night. Post gallantly defended.

12.--Boers driven eastward from Witwatersberg by General French.

Activities in Cape Colony to frustrate Hertzog's advance.

22.--Death of Queen Victoria. Lamentation throughout the world.

23.--Colonels De Lisle, Scobell, and Collenbrander drove the enemy out
    of Calvinia and Van Rhynsdorp, and pursued him north to Carnarvon.

28.--General French marched eastward, clearing the valley of the Wilge
    River.


FEBRUARY 1901.

6.--General French, after encountering little resistance, entered
    Ermelo. General Smith-Dorrien repulsed 2000 of the enemy. His
    losses were 23 killed and 52 wounded.

9.--Eastern movement continued in deluges of rain, but invasion of Natal
    by Botha eventually frustrated.

10.--De Wet, after many contests with the British forces in Orange River
    Colony, succeeded in crossing the river at Sand Drift.

14.--Animated chases after De Wet.

23.--De Wet succeeded in recrossing the river after losing 200
    prisoners, all his guns, ammunition, and waggons.

27.--Lengthy negotiations for the promotion of peace took place between
    Lord Kitchener and Commandant Botha, which negotiations eventually
    fell to the ground.



OFFICIAL TABLE OF CASUALTIES IN SOUTH AFRICA.

The following is a table of casualties in the Field Force, South Africa,
reported during the month of December 1900, and total casualties reported
since the beginning of the war, up to and including the month:--

[Transcribers' Note: In order to fit the table within the standard
Doctrine Publishing Corporation constraints, column headings have been keyed as
follows:

 D: Died of Wounds in South Africa (included in wounded).
 M: Missing and Prisoners.
 T: Total Killed, Wounded, Missing and Prisoners.
 O: Officers.
 N: N.C.O.'s and Men.]

+---------------------------+--------+-----------+-------+---------+-----------+
|                           | Killed.|  Wounded. |   D   |   M     |     T     |
|   Casualties in Action.   +---+----+----+------+--+----+---+-----+----+------+
|                           | O | N  | O  |  N   |O | N  | O |  N  | O  |  N   |
+---------------------------+---+----+----+------+--+----+---+-----+----+------+
|Nooitgedacht, December 13  |  9|  57|  11|   183|..|  12|[A]|18[A]| 20 |   258|
|Other casualties           |  4| 141|  41|   382| 4|  71|  2| 101 |  47|   624|
|                           +---+----+----+------+--+----+---+-----+----+------+
|Total casualties           |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|  reported during the month| 13| 198|  52|   565| 4|  83|  2| 119 |  67|   882|
|                           +---+----+----+------+--+----+---+-----+----+------+
|Total casualties reported  |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    up to and including the|   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    month--                |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|  Belmont,                 |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    November 23, 1899      |  3|  50|  25|   220| 1|  21|...|  ...|  28|   270|
|  Colenso,                 |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    December 15, 1899      |  7| 134|  43|   719| 2|  20| 21|  206|  71|  1039|
|  Driefontein,             |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    March 10, 1900         |  5|  58|  29|   342| 1|  18|...|    2|  24|   402|
|  Dundee, October 20, 1899 |  8|  43|  21|    84| 3| ...| 25|  305|  44|   432|
|  Elandslaagte,            |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    October 21, 1899       |  5|  50|  30|   169|..|   6|...|    4|  35|   223|
|  Enslin (Graspan),        |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    November 25, 1899      |  3|  14|   6|   162| 1|   4|...|    9|   9|   185|
|  Farquhar's Farm and      |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    Nicholson's Nek,       |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    October 30, 1899       |  6|  56|   9|   244|..|  10| 43|  927|  58|  1227|
|  Johannesburg and         |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    Pretoria, capture of   |  3|  20|  34|   132| 1|   8|  5|   38|  42|   190|
|  Karee, near Brandfort,   |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    March 29, 1900         |  1|  20|   9|   152| 1|  11|...|  ...|  10|   172|
|  Ladysmith, Relief of,    |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    February 19 to 27, 1900| 22| 241|  91|  1530| 3|  80|  1|   11| 114|  1782|
|  Magersfontein,           |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    December 11, 1899      | 23| 167|  45|   645| 3|  35|...|   91|  68|   903|
|  Monte Christo            |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    (Colenso), &c.,        |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    February 15 to 18, 1900|  1|  13|   8|   180|..|   3|...|    4|   9|   197|
|  Modder River,            |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    November 28, 1899      |  4|  66|  20|   393|..|  32|...|    2|  24|   461|
|  Paardeberg,              |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    February 16 to 27, 1900| 18| 245|  74|  1137| 6|  69|  6|   58|  98|  1440|
|  Potgeiter's Drift,       |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    February 5 to 7, 1900  |  2|  23|  18|   326|..|   8|...|    5|  20|   354|
|  Pretoria, east of,       |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    June 11 and 12, 1900   |  8|   6|  16|   128| 1|   4|  1|    3|  25|   137|
|  Reddersburg,             |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    April 3 and 4, 1900    |  2|  10|   2|    33| 1|   1|  8|  397|  12|   440|
|  Rietfontein,             |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    October 24, 1899       |  1|  11|   6|    98|..|   4|...|    2|   7|   111|
|  Sanna's Post,            |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    March 31, 1900         |  3|  15|  16|   122| 2|   7| 18|  408|  37|   545|
|  Senekal, May 29, 1900    |...|  38|   7|   127| 1|   5|...|   12|   7|   177|
|  Spion Kop, &c.,          |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    January 17 to 24, 1900 | 30| 276|  53|  1061| 6|  52|  4|  314|  87|  1651|
|  Stormberg,               |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    December 10, 1899      |...|  31|   7|    51|..|   1| 13|  620|  20|   702|
|  Uitval's Nek,            |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    July 11, 1900          |  3|  16|   3|    53|..|   3|  4|  186|  10|   255|
|  Willow Grange,           |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    November 23, 1899      |...|  11|   1|    66|..|   2|  1|    8|   2|    85|
|  At Ladysmith, during     |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|      Investment--         |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    Battle of January 6,   |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|      1900                 | 14| 164|  33|   287| 4|  25|...|    2|  47|   453|
|    Other casualties       |  6|  60|  36|   280| 3|  29|...|   12|  42|   352|
|  At Kimberley during      |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    Investment             |  2|  36|  15|   124|..|   4|  1|    3|  18|   163|
|  At Mafeking during       |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    Investment             |  5|  64|  10|   152|..|   9|  1|   41|  16|   257|
|  Other casualties         |139|1278| 562|  5434|57| 564|152| 4372| 853|11,084|
|                           +---+----+----+------+--+----+---+-----+----+------+
|  Total casualties in      |   |    |    |      |  |    |   |     |    |      |
|    action reported up to  |324|3216|1209|14,451|97|1035|304| 8042|1837|25,709|
|    December 31            |   |    |    |      |  |    |[B]| [B] |    |      |
+---------------------------+---+----+----+------+--+----+---+-----+----+------+

FOOTNOTES:

[A] In this action 15 officers and 560 men were reported missing. The
great majority of these were captured, but were released on December 16.

[B] Of these, 293 officers and 7052 men have been released or have
escaped, and 4 officers and 92 men have died in captivity.

    +------------------------------------------+---------+----------+
    |             Other Casualties.            |Officers.| N.C.O.'s |
    |                                          |         | and Men  |
    +------------------------------------------+---------+----------+
    |Reported during the month--               |         |          |
    |  Died of disease in South Africa         |     11  |    445   |
    |  Accidental deaths in South Africa       |      1  |     24   |
    |  Invalids sent home                      |     87  |   1437   |
    |                                          +---------+----------+
    |Total up to and including the month--     |         |          |
    |  Died of disease in South Africa         |    174  |   7011   |
    |  Accidental deaths in South Africa       |      5  |    200   |
    |  Invalids sent home--                    |         |          |
    |    Wounded                               | }       | { 5662   |
    |    Sick                                  | } 1638  | {30243   |
    |    Not specified which                   | }       | { 1081   |
    +------------------------------------------+---------+----------+
    |Total reduction of the Field Force, South |         |          |
    |  Africa, due to casualties.              |         |          |
    |                                          |         |          |
    |Reported during the month--               |         |          |
    |  Killed in action                        |     13  |    198   |
    |  Died of wounds in South Africa          |      4  |     83   |
    |  Died of disease in South Africa         |     11  |    445   |
    |  Accidental deaths in South Africa       |      1  |     24   |
    |  Missing and prisoners                   |      2  |    119   |
    |  Sent home as invalids                   |     87  |   1437   |
    |                                          +---------+----------+
    |          Total                           |    118  |   2306   |
    |                                          +---------+----------+
    |Totals reported up to and including the   |         |          |
    |    month--                               |         |          |
    |  Killed in action                        |    324  |   3216   |
    |  Died of wounds                          |     97  |   1035   |
    |  Prisoners who have died in captivity    |      4  |     92   |
    |  Died of disease                         |    174  |   7011   |
    |  Accidental deaths                       |      5  |    200   |
    |                                          +---------+----------+
    |    Total deaths in South Africa          |    604  | 11,554   |
    |  Missing and prisoners (excluding those  |         |          |
    |    who have been recovered or have       |         |          |
    |    died in captivity)                    |      7  |    898[C]|
    |  Sent home as invalids                   |   1638  | 36,986[C]|
    |                                          +---------+----------+
    |    Total, South African Field Force      |   2249    49,438   |
    |                                          |      \    /        |
    |                                          |     51,687[D]      |
    +------------------------------------------+---------+----------+
    |Total reduction of the Military Forces    |         |          |
    |    through war in South Africa--         |         |          |
    |  Deaths in South Africa                  |    604  | 11,554   |
    |  Missing and prisoners                   |      7  |    898[D]|
    |  Invalids sent home who have died        |      4  |    243   |
    |  Invalids sent home who have left the    |         |          |
    |    Service as unfit                      |    ...  |   1570   |
    |                                          +---------+----------+
    |                                          |    615    14,265   |
    |                                          |      \      /      |
    |                                          |     14,380[E]      |
    +------------------------------------------+--------------------+

FOOTNOTES:

[C] Of these, 243 have died, 1570 have been discharged from the Service
as unfit, and 654 are in hospital.

[D] This total includes a number of men reported "missing" who
subsequently rejoined, but whose return has not yet been notified.

[E] The difference between these two numbers is due to the fact that the
great majority of the men invalided home have recovered and rejoined for
duty. (See note B.)

[Illustration: T. C. & E. C. Jack. Edinburgh.

MAP ILLUSTRATING GENERAL BULLER'S CAMPAIGN IN NATAL--MAY-JUNE 1900.]



SOUTH AFRICA AND THE TRANSVAAL WAR



CHAPTER I

TO QUEEN VICTORIA

      "May children of our children say,
    'She wrought her people lasting good;

    'Her court was pure; her life serene;
      God gave her peace; her land reposed;
      A thousand claims to reverence closed
    In her as Mother, Wife, and Queen;

    'And statesmen at her council met
      Who knew the seasons when to take
      Occasion by the hand, and make
    The bounds of freedom wider yet

    'By shaping some august decree,
      Which kept her throne unshaken still,
      Broadbased upon her people's will,
    And compass'd by the inviolate sea.'"

    --TENNYSON.


PRETORIA

Pretoria, like most South African towns, dozes in the lap of the hills,
dozes tranquilly in a haven of generous nature, as dozed her Dutchmen in
the midst of growing civilisation. The place from the distance is fair to
the eye, poplar-groved, verdant, and picturesque, with the glimmer of red
roofs cutting against the green, and veils of gauzy clouds, now grey, now
purple, now azure, interlacing the hills and linking them with the sky.
Its quaint, old, low-storeyed houses--in some cases thatched like
bungalows--and its more modern tenements roofed with zinc, and bounded by
pleasant rose-gardens tangled with flowers, seemed to the new-comers
strangely suburban in contrast with the imposing Government buildings and
shops which were soon alive with all the fluster of nineteenth-century
money-getting.

For the great entry made, the capital was swift to resume its everyday
aspect, and trade grew even brisker than before. Famine prices reigned:
though in some hotels where comforts were many, baths and sanitary
arrangements were primitive. The Boers were busy "making hay while the
sun shone," consequently living became twice as expensive as in England;
and, what was worse, with the enormous and somewhat voracious army to be
fed, supplies threatened at no very remote date to become exhausted.

At first all things seemed to denote that the war was practically over,
that nothing remained but to accept the surrender of the defeated Boers,
and to settle quickly the administration of the conquered Republics. By
degrees, however, disappointment set in--disappointment not unmixed with
alarm. The redoubtable Christian de Wet had theories of his own; he put
on his shoulders the mantle of the deposed Cronje, and set to work to
show his generalship by destroying the railway in the south, cutting the
telegraph wires, and generally harassing the lines of communication.
Indeed, there was every appearance that the late investing forces might
in their turn become invested in the capital. Postal and telegraphic
communications were cut, supplies and reinforcements were menaced, and
gradually the sunny outlook of conquest grew nebulous.

The defeated forces also began to concentrate at Machadodorp, beyond
Middelburg, where Mr. Kruger was actively engaged in conference with his
friends. They were not devoid of funds, for it was found that before
leaving Pretoria the Boer officials had provided themselves with £300,000
from the National Bank, and while this sum lasted and he remained in the
country, it was argued that Mr. Kruger's schemes of bribery and
corruption might be expected to continue, and even develop. Still Lord
Roberts was undismayed! He had foreseen attacks on his communications,
but had hazarded all on the one throw of reaching the capital before the
Boers could gather together their forces for organised resistance,
pushing forward in the only way possible if the conquered were to be left
breathless. Napoleon's advice to one of his marshals, "A
commander-in-chief should never give rest either to the victor or the
vanquished," had been followed to the foot of the letter, as the French
say.

In this notable march the marvellous genius of Lord Roberts had been
shown in many ways, but in courage before all. He had adapted his
fighting dispositions on a system specially suitable to the
idiosyncrasies of the Boers--had observed their natural disinclination to
take the initiative, their failure to act on the offensive rather than
the defensive, and, on this discovery, had invented new tactics which
were exactly appropriate and eminently successful. His infantry had made
the centre of the advancing line to east and west of the rail,
perpetually threatening the enemy with frontal attack, while active and
competent wings of mounted troops unceasingly wheeled round both flanks,
threatening to turn them so soon as opportunity should offer. Thus the
Boers, for fear of being outflanked, were forced to extend their front
till the central position--at the railway line--became too weak for
resistance, and they had of necessity to retreat, and continue to
retreat, till they were too exhausted to do more than run.

At the Chief's masterly combinations, his ingenious synchronal schemes,
his almost prophetic foresight regarding the positions of the enemy, and
the effect of his every move upon those positions, it is impossible not
to marvel--as at the amazing boldness and rapidity of execution with
which was developed a design which brought him with his enormous army in
little more than a month from Bloemfontein to Pretoria.

From the following general order issued on his arrival at his destination
it is possible to understand the magnitude and the daring of the Chief's
plan, which, merely to read of, renders one almost breathless:--

     "PRETORIA, _June 7_.

     "In congratulating the British Army in South Africa on the
     occupation of Johannesburg and Pretoria, the one being the
     principal town and the other the capital of the Transvaal, and
     also on the relief of Mafeking after a heroic defence of over
     200 days, the Field-Marshal Commanding-in-chief desires to
     place on record his high appreciation of the gallantry and
     endurance displayed by the troops, both those who have taken
     part in the advance across the Vaal River and those who have
     been employed in the less arduous duty of protecting the line
     of communication through the Orange River Colony.

     "After the force reached Bloemfontein on March 13, it was
     necessary to halt there for a certain period. Through railway
     communication with Cape Colony had to be restored before
     supplies and necessaries of all kinds could be got up from the
     base. The rapid advance from the Modder River, and the want of
     forage _en route_, had told on the horses of the cavalry,
     artillery, mounted infantry, and the transport mules and oxen,
     and to replace these casualties a considerable number of
     animals had to be provided. Throughout the six weeks the army
     remained halted at Bloemfontein the enemy showed considerable
     activity, especially in the south-eastern portion of the Orange
     River Colony, but by the beginning of May everything was in
     readiness for a further advance into the enemy's country, and
     on the 2nd of that month active operations were again
     commenced.

     "On May 12, Kroonstad, where Mr. Steyn had established the
     so-called government of the Orange Free State, was entered. On
     May 17, Mafeking was relieved. On May 31 Johannesburg was
     occupied, and on June 5 the British flag waved over Pretoria.

     "During these thirty-five days, the main body of the force
     marched 300 miles, including fifteen days' halt, and engaged
     the enemy on six different occasions.

     "The column under Lieutenant-General Ian Hamilton marched 400
     miles in forty-five days, including ten days' halt. It was
     engaged with the enemy twenty-eight times.

     "The flying column under the command of Colonel B. Mahon, which
     relieved Mafeking, marched at the rate of nearly fifteen miles
     a day for fourteen consecutive days, and successfully
     accomplished its object, despite the determined opposition
     offered by the enemy.

     "The newly raised battalion of the City of London Imperial
     Volunteers marched 500 miles in fifty-four days, only once
     having two consecutive days' halt. It took part in twenty-six
     engagements with the enemy.

     "During the recent operations the sudden variations in
     temperature between the warm sun in the daytime and the bitter
     cold at night have been peculiarly trying to the troops, and
     owing to the necessity for rapid movement the soldiers have
     frequently had to bivouac after long and trying marches without
     firewood and with scanty rations.

     "The cheerful spirit in which these difficulties have been
     overcome and hardships disregarded are deserving of the highest
     praise, and in thanking all ranks for the successful efforts to
     obtain the objects in view, Lord Roberts is proud to think that
     the soldiers under his command have worthily upheld the
     traditions of her Majesty's army in fighting, in marching, and
     in the admirable discipline which has been maintained
     throughout a period of no ordinary trial and difficulty.

    (Signed) ROBERTS, Field-Marshal."

As may be imagined, the man who could accomplish so much in so short a
span of time remained unperturbed by a vision of clouds on the horizon.
He knew that though with the fall of Pretoria the campaign nominally
ended, there were many minor passages at arms to be expected in various
parts of the two Republics. There were the remnants of Botha's army to
north and east; there were De Wet and his marauders playing havoc with
lines and telegraph wires, prowling in search of ill-defended convoys,
and inspirited to fresh deeds of aggression by the successful capture of
Colonel Spragge's Yeomanry; there were Potchefstroom and Klerksdorp to be
occupied by Sir Archibald Hunter, and Griqualand to be finally pacified
by Sir Charles Warren.

[Illustration: MAP OF THE SEAT OF WAR.]

Still, it was unpleasant to receive the report that while the main army
had been advancing, an immense force of Boers, through a series of
unfortunate mistakes, had succeeded in capturing in the vicinity of
Vredefort Road, a convoy and an escort of a company and a half of
Highlanders on its way to Heilbron. The outline of the unhappy affair was
painful in the extreme. As the mysterious circumstances attending the
movements of the convoy have not yet been fully sifted, it would be
unfair to accept the numerous criticisms offered on the subject, and
details regarding the capture are so lost in the "fog of war," that it is
difficult to give an account of the series of muddles that brought about
disaster. It appeared that though the enemy were lurking everywhere the
convoy was travelling from Winburg under escort of only a company and a
half "odd" men of the Brigade with orders to pick it up at Kroonstad,
which place was subsequently changed to Heilbron. At Vredefort the party
were to leave the rail and go by road; but shortly it received orders to
await an escort that was being sent from Heilbron. General Hector
MacDonald wired that it should not proceed further till escorted by a
strong force of mounted troops, infantry, and artillery, as he himself,
during his five days' march, had been repeatedly in collision with the
foe. The officer in command laagered up. Next day an orderly reconnoitred
and failed to detect the presence of the enemy. Suspicion had been
aroused, however, by the disappearance of a Colonial conductor, who, it
seems, used the occasion to report to De Wet, who promptly seized the
time and the opportunity. He sent in with a flag of truce a terse
message, "I have 1200 men and five guns. Surrender at once." An hour
earlier Major Haig with 600 men, marching from Vredefort Road, had got to
within two miles of the convoy, but hearing that the railhead was
threatened had turned back. The convoy was therefore at De Wet's mercy,
and he knew it. He refused to give any terms, so the small party
capitulated! General Hector MacDonald, in defence of his Highlanders, who
were evidently not at fault, gave a concise account of the circumstances
attending the misadventure--an account more trustworthy than those of
outsiders--

     "While the Brigade was at Wynberg, a company of the Black Watch
     was sent as escort to a convoy of pom-pom ammunition to
     Smalldeel railway station, and a day or two later half a
     company of Argyle and Sutherland Highlanders with captured arms
     and ammunition, and we were informed that they would join us at
     Kroonstad. The Brigade, however, instead of going to Kroonstad,
     marched by way of Ventersburg and Lindley to Heilbron, while
     the detached companies marched by the railway to Roodeval. As
     we were opposed--practically surrounded--for the last five days
     of our march, a wire was sent to Smalldeel not to send in a
     convoy until it could be escorted by a strong force of mounted
     troops, infantry, and artillery. The Commandant at Smalldeel,
     however, sent away the convoy under escort of the company and a
     half of Highlanders, with the result that it was captured.
     Perhaps the Commandant was acting under orders from the army
     headquarters, and that remains to be seen."

Certain it was that the Highland Brigade, who had already been subsisting
on frugal, one may say starvation, fare was left in a sorry plight, and
fully appreciated the significance of the saying that too many cooks will
spoil the broth. On the shoulders of which of the cooks the blame will
eventually rest remains to be seen.

It was the opinion of some that sufficient precautions were not taken to
insure the expedition's transmission of supplies, and the entrenchment
and strong fortification of small bodies of troops sent to guard the line
of rail; and also that there was an insufficiently co-ordinated system of
intelligence, in consequence of which commanding officers moving with
detached forces were without definite information regarding the movements
and destination of other forces, friendly or inimical, which might have
to be encountered.

The mishaps of Sanna's Post--the capture of the Yeomanry and other
corps--were thought to have been occasioned by the absence of a general
staff--a general staff trained by years of practice to the exigencies of
life in the field. Such a staff of trained and picked officers was
educated by Napoleon for his use under his personal supervision, while
Lord Roberts, with a gigantic army of 200,000 men, had a merely
improvised machine. He had certainly Lord Kitchener at his elbow, but
this officer's duties developed into those of the "handy-man"--now
organiser, now fighter, now administrator in rebellious districts--thus
depriving the Chief of the clockwork apparatus that should be represented
by the General Staff, at a time when generals and troops, like engines
and railway carriages, had to be timed to arrive and depart from stations
on the hard-and-fast principles of Bradshaw.

At this date with Lord Roberts in Pretoria were two and a half infantry
divisions, a cavalry division, and a mounted infantry division, Wavell's
Brigade having been left at Johannesburg, while the other half proceeded
to the Capital.

General Hunter's Division, joined by Colonel Mahon's force, was operating
at Ventersdorp, while Colonel Plumer without opposition occupied Zeerust,
the officials agreeing to take the oath provided they were protected from
their fellow-countrymen. Elsewhere, across the Orange River Colony, the
troops were fairly well expanded. General Colvile with the Highland
Brigade was near Heilbron, and south of him Lord Methuen, while at
Lindley was General Paget. At Senekal and Hammonia were General Clements
and General Rundle respectively. South of these again, Generals Chermside
and Brabant were operating.

It was imagined that the combined vigilance of these officers had
entirely protected the communications in the Orange River Colony, but on
the 7th of June the unquenchable Dutchmen succeeded in cutting line and
telegraph wire north of Kroonstad, and in taking prisoners most of the
4th Battalion of the Derbyshires (Sherwood Foresters), who were guarding
the district. Of the battalion, the Colonel, a lieutenant, and
thirty-four rank and file were killed, five officers and ninety-nine men
were wounded, and the rest, save six, made prisoners!

The story ran thus: At dusk on the 4th, the Derbyshire Militia Regiment
arrived at Roodeval and pitched their camp in the lee of a string of
kopjes that shelved away to the west, and terminated in a high hump
which, jutting out of the plain, commanded rail, camp, and the
surrounding hills. Owing to the darkness it was impossible to do much in
the way of reconnoitring, and though some scouts and natives warned the
commanding officers that Boers had been espied in the vicinity, little
notice was taken. The pickets, which had been posted on a range of
kopjes north of the camp, were strengthened, and some few shots fired at
distant snipers. Then the party laid themselves down to rest, and slept
placidly. Before dawn they were awakened by the furious crackling of
musketry, and even as the men turned out with their rifles, they dropped.
One after another as they left their tents fell victims to the unseen
foe. The fact was, the pickets had been attacked and driven in, and the
enemy occupied the range which commanded the British troops. Presently
the early morning was humming with shot and shell, the Boers now having
brought four big guns and a pom-pom to bear on the unfortunate camp and
the bald plain that surrounded it. Valiantly the militiamen, raw and
unfledged warriors as they were, fought; long, bloody, and disastrous
hours passed, and they, falling thick as autumn leaves, continued to hold
out in a completely defenceless position till the plain was littered with
dead and wounded--more than eighty of them now lying in a trap from which
it was impossible to escape. Colonel Baird-Douglas,[1] wounded in four
places, fought like a lion, encouraging his men, and vowing to shoot the
first who should display a white flag. Then he dropped exhausted and
breathed his last. Finally 420 prisoners were taken, including the
following officers of the 4th Derbyshire Regiment:--

     Captain J. Humber, Captain C. P. Piers, Captain A. M. W.
     Mohun-Harris, Captain E. M. Wilmot, Captain R. C. Fenwick,
     Captain and Adjutant R. Britten, Lieutenant P. C. Shepard,
     Second-Lieutenant A. C. Hewitt, Second-Lieutenant J. L.
     Heymann, Second-Lieutenant H. L. Napier, Second-Lieutenant H.
     M. Milward, Second-Lieutenant J. H. W. Becke, Second-Lieutenant
     J. H. Mathias, Second-Lieutenant H. S. Anderson,
     Second-Lieutenant E. N. T. Collin, Hon. Lieutenant and
     Quartermaster M. M'Guire. Among the killed
     were:--Lieutenant-Colonel Baird-Douglas and Lieutenant Horley.
     Among the wounded:--Colonel Wilkinson, Captain Bailey,
     Second-Lieutenants Hall and Lawder, Lieutenant Blanchard,
     Canadian Infantry (attached to 4th Derbyshire).

It was said that after the capture the commandants, on bringing the
prisoners to the station, were seen cordially shaking hands with a
railway official as though exchanging congratulations. This circumstance
was one of many which bore witness to the innumerable acts of treachery
and duplicity with which commanding officers had to contend.

[Illustration:

Colour-Sergeant. Sergeant-Major.

THE GRENADIER GUARDS.

Photo by Gregory & Co., London.]

On the same day, in the same locality, there was another engagement,
which resulted in the capture of a number of the Railway Pioneer Corps.
According to an account in the _Bloemfontein Post_, the corps was
awakened at 5.26 in the morning by an unusual stir among the sentries. A
moment afterwards a voice was heard asking, "Can any one speak Dutch?" A
man, evidently a burgher, approached Captain Grant McDonnel and
Lieutenants Blanchard and Hayes with a note from the Boer commandant in
the vicinity, stating that he had 1200 men and five guns with him, and
adding that he would give the British force ten minutes in which to
surrender. The bearer, after delivering the note, went back to a large
body of Boers mounted on horses, who had by this time approached so close
as to be plainly visible.

The Pioneer Corps, realising their dangerous position, endeavoured
hastily to improvise a barricade with a number of railway trucks, and
also requisitioned a large quantity of biscuit and meat tins for the
purpose. The orders of Captain Gale were speedily carried out, and soon
his little force, numbering 160, were completely sheltered behind the
barricade. The Boers, after waiting the specified ten minutes, and
perceiving the efforts of the British to offer resistance, immediately
opened fire, pouring volley after volley on the force. Captain Gale and
two pioneers fell from the rifle fire, while shrapnel shells bursting
near killed three men. The enemy then directed their heavy artillery on
the barricades and station buildings, the latter being practically
destroyed. The Boers were now only fourteen hundred yards away, and well
hidden. An endeavour was made to have the wounded conveyed to safety
behind a large tank, but a shell from the Boer guns exploded among the
horses and the animals stampeded.

Firing from heavy guns was afterwards heard coming from the opposite
direction to the Boers. Hopes were high among the gallant force that
relief was at last arriving from Kroonstad. The pioneers, however, soon
became too painfully aware that the firing came from another body of the
enemy, who had surrounded the 4th Derbyshire Regiment the same morning.
Although the firing continued, an outlying patrol attempted to reach the
pioneers. The whole of the Boer guns were now worked with increased
energy, and soon the want of ammunition compelled the British force to
surrender. The report then went on to say that Commandant De Wet, mounted
on an English charger, advanced and asked the number of British killed.
Looking at the dead body of Captain Gale, the Boer commandant remarked
sympathetically, "Poor man. Very sad. Bury him at once." He also
courteously allowed the body to be wrapped in a Union Jack. De Wet is a
tall, heavily built man, with a brown beard. He wore a tweed suit and an
overcoat, and carried a rifle and bandolier. Attached to his gold chain
was a medal, on which was a representation of Kruger's head. De Wet was
very polite to his captives, and kindly expressed his sorrow at having
to destroy two thousand bags of mails. Unless he did so, he added, the
young Boers would open the letters.

The bags were afterwards ripped open, and the Boers looted the baggage.
One burgher found a number of bank notes as part of his spoil, while
others obtained tobacco, cigars, and various medical comforts. Lieutenant
Thurston, Cape Pioneer Railway Regiment, and Lieutenant Staffkett, Cape
Pioneer Railway Regiment, were made prisoners. Some of the prisoners were
called together and made to take off parts of their dress, which the
Boers then donned. The British wounded were well attended to, and were
subsequently removed to the Yeomanry Hospital at Kroonstad.

As a consequence of these attacks De Wet obtained possession of the line,
which became so twisted and uptorn as to resemble unfinished Jacob's
ladders to heaven, while Pretoria found itself minus its longed-for home
letters, and standing hourly in fear of running short of food. Still
affairs were going on as though nothing had happened. The Town Council
temporarily continued its duties. An English Burgomaster was chosen, and
a new Court of Justice was established. Colonel Maxse became the head of
the police, and many Colonials who volunteered for civil employment were
given posts of importance. Owing to the many acts of duplicity practised
by the Boers who had surrendered, more stringent regulations regarding
oath-breakers were promulgated. The publication of malicious and false
reports was forbidden, and a sharp look-out was kept over the movements
of the spies with which the capital was still swarming.

One hundred and forty-eight officers, and 3039 men were released, and
these were rearmed from the 2000 stands of arms which were given up in
Pretoria on and after the British occupation. The list of the officers
who had been suffering imprisonment at the hands of the Boers is a long
one, and dates almost from the outset of the war:--

     18th Hussars--Lieutenant-Colonel B. D. Moller, Major H. A. F.
     Greville, and Captain and Adjutant W. P. M. Pollock. Army
     Veterinary Department--Veterinary Lieutenant F. H. Shore. 1st
     King's Royal Rifles--Lieutenant B. J. Majendie and Lieutenant
     F. M. Crum. 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers--Captain M. P. E.
     Lonsdale, Lieutenant C. Garvice, Lieutenant C. T. W. Grimshaw,
     and Second Lieutenant T. H. C. Frankland. 10th Mountain Battery
     Royal Garrison Artillery--Major G. E. Bryant, Lieutenant G. D.
     Wheeler, Lieutenant G. R. Nugent, Lieutenant W. H. Moore, and
     Second Lieutenant G. T. W. Webb (attached). 1st Gloucester
     Regiment--Major S. Humphery, Major W. R. P. Wallace, Captain S.
     Duncan, Captain Connor, Lieutenant A. Bryant, Lieutenant F. C.
     Nisbet, Lieutenant R. M. M. Davy, Lieutenant F. A. Brent,
     Lieutenant C. S. Knox, Lieutenant W. A. M. Temple, Lieutenant
     A. H. Radice, Lieutenant J. Ingram, Lieutenant P. H. Short,
     Lieutenant R. L. Beasley, Second Lieutenant W. S. Mackenzie,
     Second Lieutenant H. H. Smith, Lieutenant and Adjutant W. L. B.
     Hill, Lieutenant and Quartermaster R. J. Gray. 1st Royal Irish
     Fusiliers--Lieutenant-Colonel F. R. C. Carleton, Major F. H.
     Munn, Captain A. R. Burrowes, Lieutenant A. E. S. Heard,
     Lieutenant C. E. Southey, Lieutenant W. G. B. Phibbs,
     Lieutenant H. B. Holmes, Lieutenant A. H. C. MacGregor,
     Lieutenant A. L. J. M. Kelly, Second Lieutenant R. J. Kentish,
     Second Lieutenant C. E. Kinahan, and Second Lieutenant R. W. R.
     Jeudwine. Rhodesian Horse--Lieutenant A. E. Harenick. Natal
     Carabineers--Lieutenant A. J. Gallwey. 2nd West Yorks
     Regiment--Major H. de T. C. Hobbs. 2nd Northumberland
     Fusiliers--Major W. E. Sturges, Captain E. W. Fletcher, Captain
     F. B. Morley, Second Lieutenant G. R. Wake, and Second
     Lieutenant L. B. Coulson. 2nd Dorsetshire Regiment--Lieutenant
     F. W. Radcliffe. 2nd Royal Irish Rifles--Captain A. V. Weir,
     Lieutenant E. J. Christie, Second Lieutenant L. G. B. Rodney,
     Second Lieutenant P. G. W. Maynard, Captain V. J. Kelly,
     Captain W. J. M'Whinnie, Captain A. C. D. Spencer, Lieutenant
     E. H. Saunders, Second Lieutenant T. L. B. Soutry, and Second
     Lieutenant J. C. Bowen-Colthurst. 1st Suffolk
     Regiment--Lieutenant S. J. B. Barnardiston, Captain W. G.
     Thompson, Captain C. A. H. Brett, and Second Lieutenant F. W.
     Wood-Martin. 2nd Devonshire Regiment--Lieutenant-Colonel G. M.
     Bullock, Major J. M'N. Walter, and Lieutenant G. N. F.
     Smyth-Osbourne. 2nd Essex Regiment--Lieutenant W. F. Bonham.
     Royal Field Artillery--Lieutenant-Colonel H. V. Hunt. 66th
     Battery Royal Field Artillery--Major W. Y. Foster, and
     Lieutenant G. L. Butler (attached). 14th Battery Royal Field
     Artillery--Major A. C. Bailward, Lieutenant A. C. Birch, and
     Second Lieutenant C. F. Holford. Royal Scots Fusiliers--Captain
     D. H. A. Dick, Captain H. H. Northey, Lieutenant E. Christian,
     Lieutenant M. E. M'Conaghey, Lieutenant C. F. H. Rumbold, and
     Lieutenant G. C. Briggs. 1st Connaught Rangers--Captain G. H.
     Ford-Hutchinson, and Second Lieutenant E. V. Jones. Cape
     Mounted Police--Inspector E. W. Blyth, and Sub-Inspector W. A.
     Genllond. South African Light Horse--Captain H. Fitzherbert.
     12th Lancers--Lieutenant N. M. H. Tristram. 2nd Coldstream
     Guards--Lieutenant H. Chandos-Pole-Gell. Reserve of
     Officers--Lieutenant C. M. Grenfell, late 10th Hussars. 6th
     Dragoon Guards--Lieutenant F. E. Till. Royal Horse
     Guards--Captain W. F. Ricardo. 2nd Lancashire
     Fusiliers--Captain W. F. Elmslie and Captain G. H. B. Freeth.
     Royal Lancaster Regiment--Major G. A. Carleton. King's Royal
     Rifles--Major O. S. W. Nugent. 2nd Wiltshire Regiment--Major H.
     A. Stock. Royal Engineers Militia--Lieutenant J. H. Prior
     (attached Suffolk Regiment). 1st Oxfordshire Light
     Infantry--Major F. J. Evelegh. Kitchener's Horse--Captain W.
     Vaughan, Captain A. S. Arnold, Lieutenant Burghuys, Lieutenant
     H. D. Duban, Lieutenant W. J. Horne, Lieutenant J. Sampson,
     Lieutenant L. A. Myburgh, and Lieutenant N. A. N. Black. 6th
     Dragoons--Lieutenant G. K. Ansell. 2nd Bedford
     Regiment--Lieutenant G. D. Jebb. 1st Royal Munster
     Fusiliers--Lieutenant D. Best (? Lieutenant T. A. D. Best.
     Inniskilling Fusiliers). 2nd Lancashire
     Fusiliers--Lieutenant-Colonel C. J. Blomfield. Victoria
     Rifles--Captain T. M. M'Inerney. Scouts--Lieutenant W. Hockley.
     British South Africa Police--Lieutenant H. Chapman. Royal Horse
     Artillery--Major J. C. Wray, Captain H. Rouse, Captain G. H. A.
     White, Lieutenant F. H. G. Stanton, and Lieutenant F. L. C.
     Livingstone-Learmonth. Northumberland Fusiliers--Lieutenant H.
     S. Toppin. Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry--Lieutenant H. T.
     Cantan. 2nd Royal West Kent--Lieutenant R. J. T. Hildyard. Army
     Service Corps--Lieutenant C. J. Croxford. Indian Staff
     Corps--Lieutenant R. J. Stewart (attached Army Service Corps).
     Roberts's Horse--Veterinary Captain P. D. Bray, Lieutenant J.
     F. Hawkins, Lieutenant H. R. Horne, and Lieutenant T. J.
     Truter. King's Royal Rifle Corps--Lieutenant G. H. Martin.
     Welsh Regiment--Lieutenant R. H. Metge. 1st Royal
     Dragoons--Second Lieutenant T. D. Pilkington. Royal Artillery,
     Staff--Captain H. T. Tennant. Durham Light Infantry--Second
     Lieutenant L. J. P. Butler. South African Light Horse--Captain
     J. C. Kirkwood. Cape Police--Captain A. Bates. Brabant's
     Horse--Captain P. M. W. Little, and Lieutenant H. A. Steele.
     9th Lancers--Lieutenant S. R. Theobald. Yorkshire Light
     Infantry--Captain G. G. Ottley. 1st Australian
     Horse--Lieutenant J. W. Wilkinson. 6th Dragoons--Lieutenant N.
     W. Haig. Prince Alfred's Volunteer Guards--Lieutenant W. B.
     Everton. Lumsden's Horse--Lieutenant C. E. Crane. Royal
     Engineers--Lieutenant M. T. Webber. 10th Hussars--Lieutenant
     Anderson Pelham, and Lieutenant Crichton. 2nd East
     Kent--Lieutenant W. G. F. Barnard. Eastern Province
     Horse--Lieutenant J. M. P. Bowker. 16th Lancers--Captain C. J.
     Eccles. Cameron Highlanders--Captain MacEwen. Intelligence
     Department--Captain L. G. Dennison. Police Magistrate--C. H.
     Hilliard. Newspaper Correspondents--Lord Rosslyn, Lord C.
     Manners, and M. H. Donohue.

The following officers, prisoners of war, were found in hospital:--

     Lieutenant the Hon. D. R. H. Anderson-Pelham, and Lieutenant C.
     W. H. Crichton, 10th Hussars (convalescent after enteric
     fever); Lieutenant H. Chapman, British South Africa Police
     (contusion, convalescent); Lieutenant G. H. Martin, King's
     Royal Rifle Corps (tonsillitis, cured); Lieutenant R. H. Metge,
     1st Welsh Regiment (neuralgia, cured); Lieutenant G. C. Briggs,
     1st Royal Scots Fusiliers (doing well); Major F. H. Munn, Royal
     Irish Fusiliers (neuralgia, cured); Major J. C. Wray, Royal
     Horse Artillery (convalescent); Lieutenant N. W. Haig, 6th
     Dragoons (enteric fever, seriously ill, but improving).

Nine hundred and ninety prisoners were removed, however, and, it was
believed, were taken some forty miles from Komati Poort.

On the 8th a curious experience was related by some of the Canadian
Mounted Infantry, who, happening to lose their way and pass,
unchallenged, the Boer lines, found themselves at the little town of
Hebron. The inhabitants imagining them to be the forerunners of a British
force, promptly surrendered arms and ammunition. The Canadians, with a
due sense of humour, engaged in the formalities with becoming gravity,
commandeered an ox-waggon, loaded it with their booty and returned again
through the Boer lines, plus eighty-eight rifles and a big store of
ammunition!


THE BATTLE OF DIAMOND HILL

The outlook was not a cheery one. The enemy, split into small factions,
were bent on playing havoc north and south, and horrible rumours were
afloat which contrived to annoy, perplex, and discourage those who, in
the absence of newspapers and correspondence, gave rein to their
imagination. General Maxwell, who was acting as Governor of Pretoria in
this emergency, inaugurated a system of official bulletins, which served
to distribute what intelligence there might be, and sustain the drooping
spirits of the community. The prolongation of the war, after all seemed
to have been skilfully accomplished, was depressing to even the most
ardent and bellicose mortals. Still more so was it to those who had had
their fill of fighting, and who could not number the list of their
engagements even with the fingers of both hands. It was known that Botha,
after the surrender of the city, had retired with a small force to a
crevice in the hills some fifteen miles east, astride the Delagoa Bay
Railway, and that round him he was gathering a goodly number of burghers,
who assisted him in intimidating other burghers who might have been
willing to tender their submission. As all overtures towards peaceable
negotiations failed, it was necessary to take definite action, and this
on the 11th of June Lord Roberts accordingly did. A great combined
enveloping movement was planned out. General French, with Porter's and
Dickson's Cavalry Brigades, and Hutton's Mounted Infantry, marched out on
the left of the Chief, while General Ian Hamilton with Broadwood and
Gordon's Cavalry Brigades, and Ridley's Mounted Infantry, and General
Bruce Hamilton's Infantry Brigade on his right, prepared to assail the
tremendous frontage of the left of Botha's position. The Dutchman,
perched on a series of steep and irregular hills, and strongly protected
in front, had placed most of his force on his flanks. These he knew by
experience to be his vulnerable points, and against these he divined that
Generals French and Ian Hamilton would be operating. General Pole-Carew,
in the centre, advanced his Division, numbering some 6000 bayonets and
twenty guns, in support of General Ian Hamilton. He moved eastward along
the line and engaged in a duet with the enemy with long-range guns, a
duet which lasted during the whole day. It was found that the enemy's
position extended some sixteen miles, their left, the Diamond Hill, being
so strong and so extended that movement of an enveloping kind was thought
to be almost impossible. Nevertheless, while General French (assisted by
Hutton's Mounted Infantry), through country inimical to cavalry
operations, was perilously and vigorously engaged in making a wide detour
in order to envelop the right flank of the enemy and hold him from
swelling his numbers elsewhere, General Ian Hamilton on the enemy's left
flank (some six miles south of the line), his ambitions centred on
Diamond Hill and the line of rail beyond, operated correspondingly. Far
to right, in a somewhat crab-like fashion, moved the cavalry; Gordon's
Brigade--the outer pincer as it were--wheeled round the almost
impregnable stronghold of the Boers; to left, Ridley's Brigade and De
Lisle's Corps of Mounted Infantry--forming the left or inner
pincer--twisted towards Pienaar's Poort, while Broadwood's Brigade--the
head and front of the creature--endeavoured to spit forth and pierce
through this central gap, and if possible get behind the Boers on Diamond
Hill. Early in the day the southern slopes of Diamond Hill became the
scene of contest between Ridley's Brigade and the enemy, whose rifles
poured their sleet over the advancing mass and whose guns clamoured
loudly in the distance. Broadwood's Brigade, meanwhile, began a bold
advance--across a spruit and over a plain to a passage towards the
railway line--an advance which was hailed more boisterously than
pleasantly by a converging storm from the enemy's heavy guns. Still the
cavalry pushed forward, while Lieutenant Conolly with two horse guns was
set to clear the course. But the Boers, inch by inch, stubbornly
contested the way. The stentorian tones of warring artillery were heard
in an argument that lasted hours, while parties of Boer riflemen
approached with such audacity with a view to the annihilation of the
gunners of Q Battery and the capture of their pieces, that for protection
sake the 12th Lancers were ordered to charge. Unfortunately, at this
critical juncture their commander, the Earl of Airlie, who already had
had his horse shot under him, was seeking a new charger. He joined his
regiment in time to lead to the attack, but taking a more northerly
direction than was intended, he found himself exposed to a murderous
tornado from the southern slopes of Diamond Hill. Nevertheless, the
charge of the valiant band, small though it now was, had a glorious
result. Away scudded the Boers to both sides, scattering over the
distance towards Diamond Hill, while their oppressive propinquity to the
British guns and Broadwood's right flank was brought to an abrupt close.
This done, Lord Airlie decided, as the horses were too jaded and
overworked to engage in effective pursuit, to become no further involved.
He was about to withdraw his regiment when suddenly a bullet caught him,
and, almost instantly, he fell dead. Thus the Empire lost one of its
finest soldiers, one of its most honourable, well-beloved of men.[2] The
charge cost the regiment two officers and seventeen troopers, a
deplorable loss considering its diminished size since the commencement of
operations. At the same hour, while Gordon's Brigade was heavily engaged
on the right, the Boers became so obstreperous that the Household Cavalry
had been ordered to charge. This order was obeyed with zest. The
Dutchmen, numerous as they were, took in at a glance all that was meant
by the approaching whirlwind--a flashing avalanche of naked blades--and
turned tail. Away they fled over their grassy ridges, seized their horses
and made off so quickly that none of the Lifeguardsmen and few of their
chargers were sacrificed to the dashing exploit. It was thought that the
whole body of the foe were on the move, but this was not the case. The
congregating crowds of the enemy amid the scrub-covered ridges around the
main position had yet to be cleared off. Accordingly, soon after noon,
the 21st Brigade (Bruce Hamilton) advanced, cleverly clambering up the
crests, which had previously been scoured by artillery, and finally
succeeded in folding back the formidable wave of Dutchmen which guarded
the line, and forcing them, such as could escape, amid a hurricane of
bullets, to gallop to fresh cover. Dusk set in early, but the troops,
sticking to the ground they had won, covering a front of some 25 miles,
there bivouacked for the night.

[Illustration: _Scale, Diagram is about 16 miles square._

BATTLE OF DIAMOND HILL--POSITION ON 11TH JUNE[3]]

Early the next day (the 12th) the Dutch overture began, the foe operating
vigorously with their long-range guns. They were evidently unappeased,
and meant a dogged resistance. General Ian Hamilton was among the first
to be hit, but not dangerously. The incident caused not a little concern,
for this remarkably energetic officer had become, as it were, almost
hoary with fighting the Boers. From early days when he commanded the
infantry at Elandslaagte to the splendid defence at Wagon Hill he had
been eternally to the fore, brilliant in intellect and unfailing in dash
and daring. After his entry to the Free State he had fought his way from
Israel's Poort, Thabanchu, Houtnek, and on through all the varied phases
of the advance of the right wing of the army towards Pretoria. It was no
marvel that the thought of his even temporary disablement caused
consternation. Fortunately it was discovered that no bones were broken,
and the gallant officer, though in some pain, refused to leave the field.

[Illustration: BATTLE OF DIAMOND HILL--POSITION ON 12TH JUNE]

At midday General Bruce Hamilton's Brigade made a brilliant attack on the
Diamond Hill plateau. The Derbyshires to the right, the City Imperial
Volunteers in the middle, the Sussex on their left, grandly advanced amid
an enfilading fire of considerable warmth, which only ceased its horrible
activity when the 82nd Field Battery, under Major Conolly, by a feat of
herculean energy, was dragged to the rocky heights, and vomited vengeance
at a distance of 1700 yards from the stubborn enemy. But though it
ultimately had the effect of silencing the Boers, it did not accomplish
its arduous task without grievous loss. Gunners were hit on all sides,
and horses dropped in the moment of unlimbering, but the gallant work
never ceased, and, though a scene of carnage reigned around, the guns
with unflinching and heroic persistence continued to pour on the hills
their cleansing fires for two mortal hours. In the late afternoon the
Guards came into action, and more guns, the Boers having rapidly taken up
a position near the railway, and to the drumming of mighty pieces and the
whistling tune of musketry the twilight set in. Face to face the
belligerents grew lost in mist. Preparations were then made for the
complete rout of the Boers on the morrow, but when morning arrived it was
found that the Dutch hordes had made themselves scarce. Pursuit was
attempted, but the horses were too exhausted for more heavy work. The
Westtralians, however--150 of them belonging to Colonel de Lisle's
Corps--were unappeased. They pushed on to a point whence the Boer army, a
crowd of some 4000, with waggons, cattle, and guns, could be seen
crossing Bronkher's Spruit. That place of grievous memories, where
Colonel Anstruther[4] fell victim to Boer perfidy, awoke its own ghosts,
for scarcely had the Dutchmen reached the fatal area than an avenging
sleet from the magazines of the Westtralians brought them to a state of
panic. In an instant Dutchmen, waggons, guns, were scattering in all
directions, while the Colonials, expending 20,000 rounds of ammunition,
coolly plied their rifles in their coign of vantage till the numbers of
the enemy were sensibly thinned by death, wounds, or flight. Thus was
given the finishing touch to a battle which had a double purpose. It
served to clear the way for forty miles to the east and relieve Pretoria
of the too close attentions of the massed enemy, and it engaged many of
the Boers who had fallen back from Laing's Nek on the taking of Pretoria,
thus assisting General Buller's operations at Volksrust, which have yet
to be described. Sir Redvers, in his turn, aided the main scheme by
causing the Boers to feel that their rear would shortly be threatened,
and that even retreat to the east must now have its geographical limits.

[Illustration: LIEUT.-COLONEL THE EARL OF AIRLIE (12th Lancers)

Killed at Battle of Diamond Hill, June 11th

Photo by Bassano, London]

General French was unable to fulfil his part of the programme, firstly,
because the Boers saw through his plan, and secondly, because his
Division was merely the shadow of the goodly Division that had flown to
Kimberley in February, and his operations were entirely handicapped, not
only by the nature of the country, but by the nature of his tools.
General Ian Hamilton was little better off. Broadwood's Brigade, which
once had numbered 1800, was now reduced to 400, while the Household
Cavalry mustered only 63, the 12th Lancers 120, and the 10th Hussars 200.
Not only were the regiments reduced in numbers, but their mounts were now
of the most heterogeneous description, Basuto, Argentine, and Cape ponies
doing duty for chargers, and in many cases utterly unequal to the
exertion expected of them. Without this explanation it would be difficult
to comprehend why so apparently large a force should have been unable to
do more than rout the enemy. But when it is once understood that a
considerable part of Lord Roberts's army was now represented merely _on
paper_, the difficulties of the latter part of the campaign may be better
conceived.

The C.I.V.'s had two days of stiff battle. A private, giving an account
of his experiences, declared that they were the heaviest days' fighting
he had seen. "The C.I.V.'s were in the firing line both days, and our
casualties were about sixty. One of our lieutenants had a very sad death
just in front of my company. I have heard two names given to the action,
but I don't know which is correct; they are Diamond Hill and Donkerskoek.
Our General said it was a second Spion Kop, the Boer position being so
fine, and the firing from the trenches so heavy. Our regiment had got to
within about 400 yards of the position, and had fixed bayonets, but had
to give up the idea of charging, for if we had half the regiment would
have been swept away. One of the Boer doctors was down at our hospital
after the first day's fight, and he told us that the Boers had lost about
600 that day. They must have lost another 600 the next day, as our
artillery was much nearer, and simply poured shells into them all day."

The total losses were about 200, but most deeply deplored by all ranks
was the gallant commander, the Earl of Airlie. He was as brave as he was
popular, and, like all his famous fighting race, was a soldier _born_,
not made. Besides his record of previous service, he had distinguished
himself in the Modder River battle, and was twice mentioned in despatches
by Lord Methuen. On one of these occasions he made himself notable for
the splendid dash with which he dismounted a section of his men and drove
back a party of Boers who were enfilading the British force. In May he
was wounded in the fighting round Welkom, was nursed to health at
Bloemfontein by Lady Airlie, and went again to the front just before the
surrender of Pretoria. Two other distinguished officers fell: Major the
Hon. L. Fortescue, and Lieutenant the Hon. C. Cavendish, 17th Lancers.

Besides those already noted the list of casualties during the various
engagements contained the names of:--

     _Killed_:--12th Lancers--Lieutenant G. C. de C. Wright. 82nd
     Battery Royal Field Artillery--Second Lieutenant W. S. Luce.
     New South Wales Mounted Infantry--Lieutenant Drage. 1st Royal
     Sussex Regiment--Captain C. J. K. Maguire. City Imperial
     Volunteers--Lieutenant W. B. L. Alt. _Wounded_:--12th
     Lancers--Second Lieutenant H. R. Milvain. F Battery Royal Horse
     Artillery--Captain R. England. Royal Lancaster Regiment Mounted
     Infantry--Captain J. M. Graham. Indian Staff Corps--Captain E.
     Barnes. New South Wales Mounted Infantry--Captain W. Holmes,
     Lieutenant W. R. Harrison. Kitchener's Horse--Lieutenant J. S.
     Cape. 1st Royal Sussex Regiment--Second Lieutenant G. C.
     Morphett. 1st Derbyshire--Captain T. H. M. Green, Lieutenant A.
     S. Murray. 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles--Captain A. C.
     Macdonald. 8th Hussars--Captain E. A. S. O'Brien. 1st
     Coldstream Guards--Lieutenant Brett. Royal Army Medical
     Corps--Major H. G. Hathaway. _Missing_:--12th Lancers--Captain
     F. Egerton Green.


GUARDING THE COMMUNICATIONS--LORDS METHUEN AND KITCHENER

While the battle for the Delagoa railway line was being planned, Lord
Kitchener, with a small force, pushed south and joined Lord Methuen
(whose force was at Heilbron) at Vredefort station on the evening of the
10th of June. Together they decided to hunt the marauders.

In passing, it is interesting to note that at this time the following
militia corps were doing unostentatious but valuable and perilous service
on the lines of communication:--

     3rd Royal Scots; 3rd Royal West Surrey; 3rd East Kent; 3rd
     Royal Lancaster; 4th Royal Lancaster; 6th Royal Warwickshire;
     3rd Norfolk; 4th Somerset Light Infantry; 4th West Yorkshire;
     4th Bedfordshire; 3rd Yorkshire; 6th Lancashire Fusiliers; 4th
     Cheshire; 3rd South Wales Borderers; 3rd King's Own Scottish
     Borderers; 4th Scottish Rifles; 3rd East Lancashire; 4th East
     Surrey; 4th South Staffordshire; 3rd South Lancashire; 3rd
     Welsh; 4th Derbyshire; 6th Middlesex; 9th King's Royal Rifles
     (North Cork Militia); 4th North Staffordshire; 3rd Durham Light
     Infantry; 4th Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders; 3rd Leinster;
     5th Royal Munster Fusiliers; 5th Royal Dublin Fusiliers.

On the 11th Lord Methuen proceeded to scour the railway line, and found
the enemy prowling within rifle range on either side of his route.
Whereupon, at Rhenoster River, he overtook and engaged De Wet, over whom
a temporary victory was gained. The British commander succeeded in
capturing camp and etceteras, and scattering the Dutchmen in all
directions, though De Wet himself, with his usual nimbleness,
disappeared. During the day's engagement Lieutenant Erle, 12th Battalion
Imperial Yeomanry, was slightly wounded.

On Tuesday the 12th the force hurriedly advanced towards Kroonstad, owing
to a report that that town, garrisoned by a single battalion of the
Argyll and Sutherland Militia, had fallen a prey to the enemy.
Fortunately it was discovered that the rumour was groundless, and Lord
Methuen continued his southern march. On the 13th and 14th the Boers
pursued their system of annoyance around the railway, and directed a
storm of bullets on a construction train which had arrived under the
personal direction of Colonel Girouard, R.E., for the purpose of
repairing the depredations of the past few days. Luckily, thanks to the
pluck of the construction party (they were short of rifles, owing to many
having been left in the rear train), a very able defence was kept up all
night, until a party of mounted infantry--who at the first sound of
firing started to the rescue--arrived with their guns and routed the foe.
They came none too soon, for the Boers had made a fairly big haul, and
carried off some forty of the construction workers as prisoners. The
mounted infantry scurried after the retiring Dutchmen, but, as usual,
these had knowingly melted into twos and threes and were uncatchable. In
the attack on the train one man was killed and eleven wounded, including
Lieutenant Micklem, Royal Engineers, Second Lieutenant Bigge, Volunteer
Royal Engineers.

Meanwhile, at Virginia the garrison had an exceedingly trying time; but
owing to the energy of Colonels Capper and North and the troops under
them, and the conspicuous coolness and valour of Lieutenant Mitchell, the
Boers were repulsed. At daybreak on the 14th some 800 Boers, with one or
two pom-poms, a Maxim, and a field gun, ensconced themselves in the dense
scrub surrounding the Zand River post. The garrison consisted of four
companies 3rd Battalion Royal Lancasters under Colonel North (about 250
fit for duty), four companies Railway Pioneer Regiment under Major
Seymour (300 fit for duty), and some 25 men of the Royal Irish Regiment
(16 fit for duty) under Lieutenant Davenport. The position was a somewhat
extended one, the left being in advance trenches on broken and jungly
ground. This point the Boers attacked with determination, and were as
determinedly resisted by Lieutenant W. Mitchell and No. 3 Company Railway
Pioneer Regiment. The enemy in the dense bush were practically
surrounding the British party, but these fought doggedly, engaging their
assailants at very close quarters and keeping them at bay till nearly
noon, when the Dutchmen were ultimately driven out of their hiding-places
by an advance through the scrub of a line of reserve Railway Pioneer
Regiment, aided by half a company of Militia. Thus driven forth, they
made haste to retire before the arrival of a body of 170 Yeomanry (under
Lieutenant Crane), which had hastened to the rescue from the south. The
losses were comparatively small, owing to the marvellous grit of young
Mitchell, who, though wounded at the onset in both thighs, continued for
six hours to encourage and direct his men (there were only 22 of them
scattered in several small trenches), ordering them not to waste
ammunition, cheering them, and concealing from them, till the worst was
over, the fact that he himself was seriously wounded. Another gallant
officer, Major Seymour, distinguished himself, but he paid for his valour
with his life. He was killed while advancing with the extended line
through the bush to clear out the snipers. Lieutenant Clement of No. 2
Company of the Railway Pioneer Regiment was mortally wounded.

On the 18th Lord Kitchener, having restored communications, returned to
Pretoria, and Lord Methuen moved to Heilbron. Precautions to avert
further interruptions on the railway had been taken by establishing posts
within communicable distance of each other all along the line, connected
by a continually perambulating military train carrying field and
automatic guns.

A combined movement had again to be planned for the surrounding of De
Wet, who, though defeated on the 13th by Lord Methuen, and subsequently
by Lord Kitchener, was still displaying an elasticity of disposition
greatly to his credit, if discomforting to his pursuers. He and his
followers now rebounded in the direction of Heilbron, where on the 18th
he endeavoured to arrest the entry of Lord Methuen and a large convoy
which he was escorting. A smart engagement ensued, which, it was thought,
would have the effect of clearing the air. But peace was short-lived, as
we shall see.

The war at this time, though full of inspiriting events, was as hard,
perhaps harder, for the soldier than ever. There were the same chances of
being wiped out by shot, shell, or disease, but the honour and glory of
laying down one's life for one's country was bereft of its glamour. Tommy
Atkins now needed all his patience, all his pluck. There are men who can
face hostile artillery, but will squirm before a dentist. In these days
there were many seasoned fighters, who might be excused if they shrunk
from the railway accident or promiscuous sniping from invisible farms,
which was part and parcel of the guerilla form of warfare adopted by the
remnant of the Boer army--the malcontents, who, subversive of discipline
and hating the British race, had decided to fight to the bitter end.
Comments regarding the attitude of some of our troops have been made by
many who lack the large mind to look at the enormous army as a whole, and
who find pleasure in examining only its flaws with the microscope and
holding them up to public contempt. Such comments it is unnecessary to
reproduce. The brilliant British army, like all great and brilliant
things, must necessarily have the defects of its qualities, and it is
with the immense qualities and not the infinitesimal defects of victors
that the faithful recorder has to do. To return, then, to the
nerve-trying ordeals that formed part of the almost daily programme of
the soldier's duty.

At Honing Spruit, situated on the rail twenty-one miles north of
Kroonstad, an exciting affair took place on the 22nd of June, all the
more exciting as those engaged had but a few days previously been rescued
from durance vile in Pretoria prison. On the 14th a party of 16 released
officers from various regiments, with some 400 men, was ordered to
Elandsfontein, the station outside Johannesburg, which had been so
admirably secured by Colonel Henry's force.

On the 21st this party was moved on to Katbosh Camp, a mile or so beyond
Honing Spruit, where were stationed two companies of the Shropshires and
some mounted Canadians under the command of Colonel Evans. The officers
of the composite force were: Colonel Bullock, of the Devonshires,
commanding; Major Stock, of the Wiltshire Regiment; Major Carleton, Royal
Lancasters; Captains Elmslie and Freeth, of the Lancashire Fusiliers;
Lieutenants Bryant, Temple, Radice, Smith, Mackenzie, and Gray, of the
Gloucestershire Regiment; Jones, of the Connaught Rangers; Best, of the
Inniskilling Fusiliers; Prior, Engineer Militia; Colson, of the 5th
Fusiliers; and Wood-Martin, of the Suffolk Regiment. These, all of them,
had had sufficiently horrible experiences, both during the hardly fought
engagements in which they had been taken prisoners, and in the period of
incarceration at the Model School, and vowed never again to be caught
alive in the trap of the Dutchmen. They then hardly realised how near
that trap they were.

[Illustration: LINES TORN UP BY DE WET NEAR KROONSTAD. (Photo by D.
Barnett.)]

The night was unusually cold, and travelling in coal trucks was scarcely
an inspiriting beginning. In the gloom of early dawn the train reached
Honing Spruit Station. Some of the officers alighted and exercised
themselves to restore circulation--they were numb and weary--and in doing
so espied, in the east, the dark outlines of mounted figures approaching.
They promptly gave the alarm. Colonel Bullock proceeded in all haste to
get the men out of the trucks, and speedily they were formed up round the
station. An effort was then made with such picks and shovels as were at
hand to dig trenches. But these were a mere apology for shelter. They
made, however, according to an officer who scraped his little burrow for
himself, a "moral" support. Of other support, it must be owned, they had
little. A few officers were provided with Mausers, carbines, and
bandoliers of ammunition, but the force for the most part were saddled
with Martini-Henry rifles and black powder ammunition--rifles discarded
by the Boers, and left by them in the arsenal at Pretoria. These
venerable weapons were sighted at 1200 yards--the ordinary range of
Lee-Mitford or Mauser may be taken at 1500 to 2000 yards--and were served
out of necessity, owing to the insufficiency of ammunition for Mauser
rifles. Thus handicapped at the outset in the way of weapons of defence,
ragged and tattered, some in boots that were dropping to pieces, some
partly in uniform, partly in mufti, garbed exactly as they had been in
the prison, they found themselves once again in presence of the enemy.
Colonel Bullock, stouthearted and truculent as ever, at once wired for
help to Kroonstad, and with the line cut on both sides of him, and the
Boers blowing up culverts as they came along, prepared to make a stand
against the advancing foe. Meanwhile bang! bang! went a series of
explosions on every side, voicing a vindictive tale and promising
unthinkable horrors to come.

According to their slim tactics, and to find out the strength of the
party most probably, the Boers now sent forward a man with a white flag,
declaring by the messenger, that they had many men and guns, and that if
the force refused to surrender they would be annihilated. But the Boers
had got hold of the wrong man. The officer who had doggedly held firm in
the blood-dyed donga at Colenso till the Dutchmen had threatened to
murder the wounded unless he gave in, was not the man to surrender
without a tussle. Colonel Bullock quickly sent the messenger and his
white flag to the right about, and made preparations for stout resistance
till help should arrive. But it was a sorry piece of "bluff." They were
gunless, the old muskets were of little use, and the black powder was
objectionable, as it would have betrayed their positions and the
smallness of the force. It was therefore necessary to tackle the Boers
with extreme caution. "At first," said an officer who was engaged, "they
were only near the line to the north of us, covering the men who were
destroying the culverts and telegraph lines, but they gradually worked
round to the east, and about 8 or 8.30 down came the first
shell--shrapnel--from about 2000 yards away. The train all this time was
in the station, and I think they wanted to damage the engine, but their
shooting wasn't good enough. The engine went a little way up the line,
but found it cut, and had to return. Shells were pretty frequent now, and
bullets too numerous to be exactly pleasant, but Colonel Bullock and
Major Hobbs, who was second in command, were walking about seeing to
everything in the coolest possible way. No. 1 Company, under Captain
Elmslie, of the Lancashire Fusiliers, had made some small trenches facing
north, but when the Boers worked round to the east we were, of course,
enfiladed, so we got into a ditch running along the side of the line
north and south. They peppered us pretty well while we were getting
there, but only one man was hit in the arm. Previous to this poor Major
Hobbs, who, with the Colonel, had been sitting behind one of our small
shelters which did not anything like cover them, was shot through the
heart and killed." (Major Hobbs, it may be remembered, was the gallant
officer who was taken prisoner while tending a wounded man in the
brilliant engagement at Willow Grange.) "Young Smith, of the Gloucesters,
had been sent down the ditch near the line with seven men to try and get
a bit nearer to the Boers who were damaging the culverts. They had rather
a warm time, and Colonel Bullock sent Freeth, the adjutant, to bring them
back. Poor Smith was shot through the groin, and the bullet went right
through him. Two of his men were wounded and one killed out of the seven.
Smith got back with Freeth's help all right, and I found him afterwards
sitting up in bed smoking cigarettes and as unconcerned as possible."

A small tin house at the station was used as a hospital, and a Red Cross
flag was improvised with difficulty. It was composed of a pillow-case
with red bands made from strips of a Kaffir blanket discovered in the
house. This was mounted on the shaft of an uptilted cart, but the Boers
affected not to comprehend its meaning, and sent in a man under a white
flag to ask an explanation. Here the wounded were tended by Mr. Cheatle
who, by a stroke of luck, happened to occupy a saloon carriage in the
"held up" train. There was no other doctor. This well-known surgeon who
had gone out, _con amore_, as it were, with Sir William MacCormac, was on
his way home, thinking his errand of mercy was over. He came quickly in
action again, bringing his brilliant wits to meet a somewhat desperate
situation. His bandages were made from ladies' under garments found in a
wardrobe, from the bed sheets in the train, and for antiseptic powder he
had recourse to the carbolic tooth-powder in the possession of some of
the officers. When this came to an end he utilised boiled rags, and
persistently attended to the nerve-shaken wounded, who all the time were
torn with bodily agony and horror-stricken by the continual howling of
shells against walls and ground.

[Illustration: AUSTRALIAN BUSHMEN ON THE MARCH

Drawing by Allan Stewart, from details supplied by Surgeon Captain Watt,
New Zealand Roughriders]

Meanwhile the Boers plied their guns, shelling at the same time from
north and east--an antiphonal duet of most appalling description. One
shell broke through the saloon carriage, another buried itself in some
bales of wool which luckily protected the verandah of the hospital. To
this the only return that could be made was a persistent peppering with
the ancient Martinis, a peppering which was carried on for several hours.
The officers worked hard with their Mauser carbines. The one before
quoted said he fired off fifty-five rounds, but did not know with what
result, except that some Boers, exposing themselves on the sky line, very
quickly got down flat on the grass after he had taken a "steady pot" at
them at about 1400 yards' distance. He went on to say: "The Boers must
have known how we were armed, as it is quite against their custom to
expose themselves at all. At last we saw some men coming over the hill to
our right, and thought it was the relief force, but they turned out to be
Boers in khaki, some of whom, I believe, had helmets, probably taken from
the convoy they collared a week or two ago, somewhere in this
neighbourhood."

The telegram for help was despatched to Kroonstad about 7 A.M., but the
reinforcements did not arrive till nearly 3.30 P.M. The Boers early
became aware of their near approach, however, and began cautiously to
remove their four guns, two of which--15-pounders--were part of their
capture at Sanna's Post. Meanwhile the small force, who had been
straining every nerve and muscle for many hours, and meant to die in the
last ditch rather than surrender, were anxiously looking towards the
south for succour. Then, at last, the friendly scouts were seen coming
over the hill. Oh! the relief of it! The welcome rumour of help gave
energy to the men, who, after their long inactivity, had been suddenly
thrown, vilely armed, into vigorous action, and were by now well-nigh
exhausted. Away flew the hostile hordes, but not without having done a
fair day's work of destruction--line, telegraph, and culverts being
wrecked, one officer and three men killed, and one officer and seventeen
men wounded!

While this gang of Boers were worrying the Honing Spruit party, another
had attacked the Shropshires and Canadians at Katbosh Camp, and thus
deterred them from going to the assistance of their brothers in distress.
But it was owing to the splendid fighting of the Canadians that the
Dutchmen had found it impossible to close in round Honing Spruit, and the
party at the railway station were enabled to hold out till the relieving
force arrived. After the Boers left, the troops still remained in the
trenches, and strengthened them as much as possible; but the Argyll and
Sutherland Militia and some Mounted Infantry and a battery arrived from
Kroonstad, and the battery shelled some kopjes three miles away, where
the Boers--some 700 to 1000 of them, with three or four guns--were
collecting. It was said that the Boer loss was six killed, and that they
took away three waggons full of wounded, but this, of course, could not
be verified.

Some circumstances attending the brilliant resistance of the Colonials
are almost heroic. Lieutenant Inglis, with eight men of the Frontier
Police on worn-out ponies, were sent from the Katbosh Camp to
reconnoitre. They were suddenly surrounded by Boers, but fought
furiously, with the result that they made their way through, with the
loss of four, to an embankment which offered shelter. Fifty Boers then
came within short range and fired on them. A response from the British
remnant followed. There were presently only four of them, commanded by
Corporal Morden, who, Lieutenant Inglis being disabled, took his place.
Here, in the face of these terrible odds, the Corporal sent off Private
Miles to inform Colonel Evans of his plight. The messenger executed his
errand, and returned to assist his comrades. He was hit, but still
persisted in "having a go at the enemy." Then Corporal Morden dropped
with a bullet through the brain. Miles, wet with his own
gore--fainting--supported himself against a tussock and continued to
direct the firing of his brother and Private Kerr. Eventually the Boers
made off, but not before Kerr had been killed by a parting shot. Finally
the relief party arrived, and carried the few remaining heroes back to
camp. Among the day's casualties were: Major H. T. de C. Hobbs, West
Yorkshire Regiment, killed; Second Lieutenant H. H. Smith, 1st Gloucester
Regiment, severely wounded; Lieutenant W. M. Inglis, 2nd Canadian Mounted
Infantry, severely wounded. The total casualties amounted to thirty-one.

The programme of surprise parties, trapping of small forces, and abuse of
the white flag, continued with little variety. Owing to the disposition
of the British troops to east of the railway, and the scarcity of
supplies and transport that militated against their mobility, the Boers
were temporarily in the ascendant. It was no easy matter to have and to
hold the arteries of the great army whose head was Pretoria, and yet to
guard the railway lines and send reinforcements at a moment's notice to
points menaced by the agile commandos of the enemy, and consequently
those who were responsible for the safety of the communications lived the
life of Damocles--without that personage's certainty of whence the fatal
blow might be expected!

The maintenance of the safety of the line from Kroonstad to Pretoria was
in the hands of General Smith-Dorrien, who placed at every post two
companies with two or more guns. He himself eternally perambulated the
line, now repairing, now mounting guns, now despatching patrols, in fact,
playing with almost superhuman energy and vigilance the game of fox and
geese--the fox De Wet, the geese the long tail of communications. In
spite, however, of the surprising energy of the General, the dog fox--the
wiliest reynard that ever challenged chase--redoubled his activities.

FOOTNOTES:

[1] Lieutenant-Colonel A. Baird-Douglas was a militia officer whose first
appointment was dated October 1, 1881. His name is to be found among the
list of officers of the reserve, who have held commissions in the Hon.
Artillery Company of London, Militia, Yeomanry, or Volunteers. He had
been Major and Hon. Lieutenant-Colonel of the 3rd Battalion of the
Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders since March 1898; was attached to the 4th
(Militia) Battalion of the Derbyshire Regiment, which was embodied on the
4th of December 1899.

[2] The Earl of Airlie was born in 1856, and was the eldest son of the
seventh Earl, whom he succeeded in 1881. He was educated at Eton, and
entered the army in 1874. He served with the 10th Hussars in the Afghan
War in 1878-79. In that war he distinguished himself on more than one
occasion. He was present at the attack and capture of Ali Musjid, and in
the engagement at Futtehabad. He next saw active service in the Soudan
Expedition in 1884, and was present at the engagement at Temai. Then he
joined the Nile Expedition as brigade-major under Sir Herbert Stewart,
and was slightly wounded at Abu Klea, and in the reconnaissance to
Metemmeh. He was frequently mentioned in despatches for conspicuous
conduct, and for his distinguished services he received many medals,
clasps, and orders. From 1889 to 1895 he was on staff service as an
adjutant of the Hampshire Yeomanry Cavalry, and in 1897 he was appointed
lieutenant-colonel in command of the 12th Lancers, with which regiment he
went out to South Africa last year. He was a Scottish representative
peer, and deputy-lieutenant of the County of Forfar.

[3] This block and that on p. 16 are from "Ian Hamilton's March," by
permission of Mr. Winston Churchill and Messrs. Longmans.

[4] See vol. i. p. 71.



CHAPTER II

GENERAL BULLER'S OPERATIONS--ROUTING THE BOERS FROM LAING'S NEK[5]


The Natal Field Force, after the departure of Sir Charles Warren, was
composed as follows:--

     SECOND DIVISION (Lieutenant-General Sir C. F. Clery).--2nd
     Brigade (Major-General Hamilton)--2nd East Surrey; 2nd West
     Yorks; 2nd Devons; 2nd West Surrey. 4th Brigade (Colonel C. D.
     Cooper)--1st Rifle Brigade; 1st Durham Light Infantry; 3rd
     King's Royal Rifles; 2nd Scottish Rifles (Cameronians), 7th,
     14th, and 66th Field Batteries.

     FOURTH DIVISION (Lieutenant-General Lyttelton).--7th Brigade
     (Brigadier-General F. W. Kitchener)--1st Devon; 1st Gloucester;
     1st Manchester; 2nd Gordon Highlanders. 8th Brigade
     (Major-General F. Howard)--1st Royal Irish Fusiliers; 1st
     Leicester; 1st King's Royal Rifles; 2nd King's Royal Rifles.
     Two Brigade Divisions Royal Artillery--13th, 67th, 69th Field
     Batteries; 21st, 42nd, 53rd Field Batteries.

     FIFTH DIVISION (Lieutenant-General H. J. T. Hildyard).--10th
     Brigade (Major-General J. T. Coke)--2nd Dorset; 2nd Middlesex;
     1st Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. 11th Brigade (Major-General
     A. S. Wynne)--2nd Royal Lancaster; 2nd Lancashire Fusiliers;
     1st South Lancashire; 1st York and Lancaster; 19th, 28th, and
     78th Field Batteries. Corps Troops--1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers;
     2nd Rifle Brigade; 1st King's Liverpool; Imperial Light
     Infantry; 61st Field Battery (Howitzers); Two Nordenfeldts
     (taken from the Boers); Natal Battery 9-pounders; Fourteen
     naval 12-pounder quick-firers; 4th Mountain Battery; 10th
     Mountain Battery, two guns; Four 4.7 naval guns; Naval 6-in.
     gun; Part of Siege Train.

     CAVALRY DIVISION.--1st Brigade (Major-General J. J. F. Burn
     Murdoch). 2nd Brigade (Major-General J. F. Brocklehurst). 3rd
     Brigade (Major-General the Earl of Dundonald)--5th Dragoon
     Guards; 1st Royal Dragoons; 5th Lancers; 13th Hussars; 18th
     Hussars; 19th Hussars; A Battery Royal Horse Artillery; South
     African Light Horse; Thorneycroft's Mounted Infantry; Bethune's
     Mounted Infantry; Natal Carabineers; Natal Mounted Rifles;
     Border Mounted Rifles; Umvoti Mounted Rifles; Natal Police;
     Colt Battery.

At the request of Sir Redvers Buller, on the 2nd of June, Christian
Botha, brother of Commandant Louis Botha, accompanied by Fourie and
Pretorius, met him near Majuba for the purpose of holding a conference
regarding terms of surrender of Laing's Nek. A proposition was made, of
course involving unconditional surrender, and hostilities were suspended
for three days in order that it might be digested by the Dutchmen. It was
found unpalatable and rejected. Whereupon the belligerents resumed their
warlike attitude. The interval had been utilised by the Boers, who had
entrenched themselves for about ten miles from Pogwani east of the
Buffalo, to the fringes of Majuba, and further westward still. The
natural barriers of Natal--the historic barriers that had made the "grave
of reputations"--were now terraced with trenches, and nodulous with
gun-pits. Another Gibraltar, frowning with menace, was prepared to
accommodate 5000 desperate Boers. But they had not calculated that a way
round might be found, and that they in their fastnesses might be "turned"
before they could utilise that cleverly arranged system of self-defence.
Yet the unforeseen occurred, and we shall see.

[Illustration: THE LAST BATTLE OF MAJUBA HILL--THE BATTLE OF ALMOND'S
NEK. (From a Sketch by Lieut. E. B. Knox, R.A.M.C.)]

On the 6th of June Sir Redvers Buller began his new move. General Talbot
Coke and the 10th Brigade and South African Light Horse, after some brisk
skirmishing with the enemy, seized Van Wyk's Hill, whereupon, during that
day, and the following day, the 7th, two 4.7-in. guns and two 12-pounder
naval guns were mounted on the eminence, while two 5-in. guns were
perched on the south-western spur of Inkwelo. General Hildyard, who
during the armistice had moved across from Utrecht to Ingogo,
concentrated his Division for advance over Botha's Pass, while General
Clery kept an eye on Laing's Nek, and beyond him General Lyttelton,
co-operating, brushed the enemy away from the right flank, and kept clear
the country between Utrecht and Wakkerstroom. Thus was prepared the way
for General Hildyard's brilliantly planned and admirably executed
assault of the spur of the Berg between Botha's Pass and Inkwelo, which
took place on the 8th, with the result that the enemy, some 2000 strong,
were outflanked and routed from their mountain strongholds, and the pass
was captured without serious loss.

The 9th was spent in a general halt on the summit of the pass, getting
the transport through the Drakensberg, hauling baggage up the steeps, and
skirmishing with Boers who hovered on the outskirts of the hills. The
labour entailed was prodigious, as the roads to the pass were intensely
precipitous, the hill being over a mile long, and many of the transport
waggons had to be double-spanned before they could make appreciable
advance. The troops, too, were sorely tried, for at night they shivered
in the crisp, frosty atmosphere, which appeared additionally numbing
after the warm sunlight of midday. Still, with unquenchable zeal, they
pursued their labours, climbing and clambering over boulder and slab, and
looking down on the chasms below with genuine satisfaction at the thought
of obstacles surmounted and decisive work to be accomplished. They had
now secured a commanding position, which in a very short space of time
they hoped to make unchallengeable.

On the 10th General Buller's force, marching over the wide veldt, reached
the junction of Gans Vlei, some ten miles north, while General Hildyard's
crossed the pass and concentrated on Klip River, situated some fifteen
miles due west of Laing's Nek, and in face of some rugged country on the
way to Volksrust. The Dutchmen were there congregating, and preparing in
the Almond's Nek region to intercept the passage. The South African Light
Horse, before the arrival of the main column, had captured a useful
kopje, and they, and some squadrons of the Irregulars, made a dashing
attack on the mass of Dutchmen who were barring the main road. A most
animated engagement was fought, which cost the South African Light Horse
six killed and eight wounded. The enemy after the encounter slowly
retired, harassed by the 2nd Cavalry Brigade. The main column,
frost-bitten and weary, bivouacked in the shadow of the captured kopje,
the 11th Brigade immediately below, and further down, the 10th Brigade,
while still lower down came the 2nd Brigade, commanded now by General
Hamilton in place of General Hildyard, who, as we know, was raised to
divisional rank.

On the 11th the advance was continued in the direction of Volksrust, and
General Hildyard (Fifth Division) made a brilliant frontal attack against
the Boers, who were now holding a formidable position with several guns
at the east of Almond's Nek, which place stands about seven miles north
of Gans Vlei. After the artillery had been pounding a dangerous hoop of
ridges for a considerable time, filling the whole atmosphere with
reverberating roars, the 10th Brigade, the Dorsets in the firing line,
the Middlesex in support, advanced on the right of the ridge beyond which
were the Mounted Infantry, while the 2nd Brigade, the East Surreys and
Queen's leading, treading the open, made a bold dash for the foe. These,
concealed among the steep boulders, proceeded to pour a thunderous and
fiery welcome on all who approached. The stertorous rampage continued for
hours. But, fortunately, in their fastnesses our big guns--two 4.7-in.
monsters and six little "handy" 12-pounders--eventually searched them
out, and subsequently a gallant charge--one of the most brilliant in the
campaign--the charge of the Dorsets who, in a blizzard of lead, swarmed
upon the position with fixed bayonets, decided the fortunes of the day.
The superb manner in which those seasoned warriors launched themselves at
miles and miles of entrenched positions--a veritable phalanx of church
steeples--was beyond praise. Their great assault cost the valiant
regiment ten killed and forty wounded. Some Boer prisoners were taken,
and five or six Dutchmen bit the dust. But most of them had bolted before
the gleam of the bayonets, and in their flight had set fire to the grass
so as to render pursuit impossible. Simultaneously with the charge of the
Dorsets, the 2nd Brigade was doing identical work, and doing it
splendidly. They succeeded in capturing the whole of the position, in
clearing the enemy entirely off the scene, and in rendering the
formidable galleries of doom, the rows of trenches on Laing's Nek, "full
of emptiness." The Irregulars under Colonel Gough, brave as ever and cool
as cucumbers, had been also vigorously engaged on the right, so
vigorously, so dauntlessly that two officers, Captain Mann
(Thorneycroft's Mounted Infantry), and Captain O'Brien (Composite
Regiment) were mortally wounded. But, losses apart, the day's work was in
every way effective, as the Boers by evacuating Laing's Nek left open the
Volksrust Road, and virtually ceased from defacing British soil.

Thus in two marches Sir Redvers Buller had succeeded in effectively
sweeping Northern Natal, a feat of which his army was very justly proud.
There was no doubt that the Chief had now made himself master both of the
tactics of the enemy and the peculiarities of the country over which he
had to travel. He had bought his experience in a hard school, but in this
march he applied it brilliantly, and exacted from all the applause that
was his due. Through broken country and steep he had made a flank march
of fifty miles with an immense force and tremendous transport, clearing
the way before him with the loss of about 30 killed and 150 wounded. His
strategy had been ingenious as masterly, for while he made a
demonstration on their left and kept the Boers in expectation of attack
in that quarter, he had wheeled his force to their right, and surprised
them before they had time to gather themselves together sufficiently to
frustrate the tactics of the advancing force.

[Illustration: REPAIRING LAING'S NEK TUNNEL BLOWN UP BY THE BOERS.
(Drawing by J. J. Waugh, from a photo by Captain P. U. Vigors.)]

The triumphant issue of the movement was a source of intense satisfaction
to all concerned in it. The Natal Field Force had hitherto scarcely been
fortunate, and there were many among its members who were inclined to
envy those who, to use a popular word, had "processed" up the Free State
figuratively to the tune of "See the Conquering Hero comes." The Natal
Force had had a prodigious number of kicks, and knew what hard fighting
meant, and had felt sore to find themselves, so to speak, "on the
unfashionable side." It became a question with these much battered
warriors whether the kicks would be productive of halfpence, and whether,
when honours were ladled out, those who so richly deserved it would come
in for a bare spoonful. The splendid "little battle that did a big
thing"--that, on the 11th of June, left Almond's Nek purged of Boers and
enabled General Clery and his Division to occupy Laing's Nek--settled all
misgivings. Sir Redvers Buller's flanking movement was full not only of
political but sentimental importance, for the reconquest of Majuba and
Laing's Nek meant the sponging out of humiliating memories which had
grown more painful with the passage of years.

In these operations the total casualties amounted to 153.

On the 7th Second Lieutenant Andrews, 6th Company Western Division Royal
Garrison Artillery, was severely injured on the head, and on the
following day Second Lieutenant E. F. Grant-Dalton, 2nd West Yorkshire
Regiment, was wounded.

On the 11th, the casualties among officers were: Lieutenant Stafford,
East Surrey Regiment, severely wounded; Captain Mansel, Second Lieutenant
Herbert, 2nd Dorsets, slightly wounded; Lieut.-Colonel Mills, Lieutenant
Seppings, 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers, slightly wounded; Lieutenant
Johnstone, 11th Hussars, killed; Captain Northey, 2nd Cameronians,
slightly wounded; Captain O'Brien mortally wounded (since dead).


GENERAL BULLER'S ADVANCE FROM LAING'S NEK TO STANDERTON

The next stage in the proceedings was begun on the 20th, when Sir Redvers
Buller moved to Paarde Kop, and from thence proceeded to Standerton, when
he opened up communications with Lord Roberts. On the 15th of the month
Lord Roberts, telegraphing to the War Office, said, "Buller, I hope, is
at Standerton." But this was not the case, the Natal Force being delayed
at Laing's Nek for various reasons connected with transport and the
rearrangement and recuperation of the troops and the repair of the
Laing's Nek tunnel. Doubtless the inability of the General to proceed,
had considerable effect upon the main war programme, and many imagine
that if the force had been able to occupy Standerton, which lies directly
between Machadodorp, where President Kruger had fled, and Reitz, where
President Steyn had located himself, concerted action between the two
Presidents might have been nipped in the bud. As it was, the Dutchmen
continued to use the telegraph till the 22nd of June, when Sir Redvers
Buller's troops threw a formidable barrier between them, and spoilt the
hatching of further elaborate plots for the continuance of organised
warfare. Meanwhile, General Hildyard occupied Wakkerstroom, but marched
thence to join General Buller on the 19th.

[Illustration: A HISTORIC BATTLEFIELD: JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1881, AND MAY
1900

From a Sketch by Major-General Coke, Commanding the 10th Brigade]

On the 20th General Buller's headquarters arrived at Sandspruit Station
beyond Volksrust, and pitched camp two miles further on, to west of the
rail. Many surrenders took place, and some blowing up of culverts by
those who were retreating in disgust at the defeat at Almond's Nek, a
defeat which they considered the worst disaster to their arms that had
yet occurred. The Natal Volunteers were now about to be disbanded, and
left for Dundee. They were highly praised by all, and the Chief issued an
order expressing his keen appreciation of the services rendered by
Brigadier-General Dartnell and his stalwart followers in the arduous
task which has resulted in the expulsion of the enemy from Natal
territory. General Lyttelton now moved from Coetzes Drift to Laing's Nek
to protect the line from Newcastle to Volksrust, while General Coke's
Brigade mounted guard over the latter place.

The next day, the 21st, the advance column reached Paardekop, situated
some thirty miles from their destination. Standerton was neared by Lord
Dundonald's mounted force on the 22nd, while the infantry followed some
eight miles behind, the 10th Brigade only being left at Paardekop. As
Major Gough and a squadron of the Composite Regiment entered Standerton a
party of Boers made off, leaving the place to be occupied without
resistance. The railway bridge was found to be injured, as also were some
engine trucks and engines. The Hollander railway officials, for whose
idle hands the devil had invented this mischief, were imprisoned.

[Illustration: RAILWAY MAP SHOWING LINES FROM PRETORIA TO E. AND S.E.
(Scale, 1 inch = 64 miles. By permission of the Publishers of "South
Africa.")]

While these activities were taking place, and General Buller was slowly
making his way into the Transvaal from the east (guarding every inch of
the rail in his rear, so that when he should reach Heidelberg the Natal
Field Force would be extended all along the line), General Ian Hamilton,
in order to join hands with him, was moving with a mobile force _viâ_
Springs to Heidelberg, which was occupied on the 23rd. Both armies thus
approaching were now capable of frustrating concerted and combined action
between the hostile bands of the Transvaal and those still lingering in
Orange River Colony. Lord Dundonald's Brigade, meanwhile, had been joined
by Strathcona's Horse, a picked body of sporting men who were tingling
for fight.[6] This experience they soon enjoyed, as in the course of the
march towards Heidelberg they came on a gang of Boers and had an animated
encounter which cost them a man killed and two missing, including the
officer who was in command of the party. Four Boer victims were left on
the scene of the fray.

The Boers, though many were surrendering, were sustained in their dogged
determination to fight by the exquisite inventiveness of Mr. Kruger, who,
undoubtedly, is a Defoe or a De Rougemont lost to the world. He caused a
proclamation to be issued, stating that the Russians had declared war on
Japan, and that Great Britain was bound by treaty to support the
Japanese, and must therefore withdraw her troops from South Africa. The
proclamation also stated that Lord Roberts had no supplies, and implored
the burghers to keep up their courage. About a thousand burghers
accordingly collected in the neighbourhood of Sandspruit with the wily
ambition of severing the lines of communication. The Komati Poort Bridge
had been threatened, and the cauldron of Boer machination was simmering
portentously in the neighbourhood of Machadodorp.

With Buller's force on the east, Rundle's on the south, Hunter's to the
west, it was hoped that the animated De Wet might be trapped as Cronje
had been trapped. Still the wily one--slim by instinct, slimmer now by
experience--contrived to become slippery as an eel whenever the fingers
of the enveloping British hand began to curve in his direction. There was
no doubt about it that this sometime butcher of Barberton, this late
speculator in potatoes, who, it is stated, "went bankrupt in an
unsuccessful attempt to establish a potato corner on the Johannesburg
market," was a born genius in the art of war. He was aware of his own
potentialities, and is reported to have said that he gave Lord
Kitchener--if he put his mind to it--ten days to catch him in, while to
Lord Roberts he allowed three weeks, and to Lord Methuen the rest of a
lifetime! And the statement was not all Boer bounce, as time proved.

General Hamilton from the west approached Heidelberg on the 22nd, and
exchanged shots with the Boer patrols; but during the night the enemy
disappeared and the troops occupied the town. The force consisted of
General Gordon's and General Broadwood's Cavalry Brigades (the 9th, 16th,
17th Lancers, and Household Cavalry, 10th Hussars, and 12th Lancers
respectively), two batteries Royal Horse Artillery, two batteries Field
Artillery, two 5-inch guns, a brigade of Mounted Infantry under General
Ridley, and the 21st Brigade (City Imperial Volunteers, Camerons, Sussex,
and Derbys) under General Bruce Hamilton. It was found that the Boers had
retreated to a crescent of hills turning south-east of the town, and from
here they fired on patrols of the New South Wales Contingent. General
Hamilton advanced on the Dutchman's haunts, while General Broadwood, with
a pom-pom and Field Battery, Roberts's Horse, the Ceylon Mounted
Infantry, and Marshall's Horse, made a vigorous flank attack which sent
the enemy scudding into space. The casualties were few. Among the wounded
were Captain F. Whittaker, Roberts's Horse, since dead; Captain H.
Carrington Smith, Royal Dublin Fusiliers; Captain M. Browne, Roberts's
Horse; Lieutenant C. Livingstone Learmonth, Roberts's Horse; Lieutenant
E. Rex King, Roberts's Horse. General Ian Hamilton unluckily fell from
his horse and sustained a fracture of the collar-bone.

Generals Hunter and Hart, therefore, hurriedly joined General Ian
Hamilton on the 25th at Heidelberg, the former replacing the latter in
command there, as General Hamilton's injury temporarily incapacitated him
from resuming his duties. How General Hunter managed so opportunely to
arrive on the scene must be described.

General Hunter, after taking Christiana, moved _viâ_ Vryburg,
Lichtenburg, Potchefstroom, and Krugersdorp to Johannesburg. With Colonel
Mahon--who had joined him and was in command of the Cavalry Brigade--he
had been engaged in the task of pacifying the Wolmaranstad and
Potchefstroom districts. Klerksdorp surrendered on the 9th of June
(uselessly, as it afterwards appeared). A few days later Colonel Mahon's
Cavalry Brigade entered Potchefstroom after a bitterly cold night march.
On the 15th General Hunter moved _viâ_ Krugersdorp (which surrendered on
the 18th), towards Johannesburg (Colonel Mahon preceding him and moving
to Pretoria) and went to Springs in support of General Hamilton's advance
to Heidelberg.

General Hunter's reduced force now consisted of the Dublin Fusiliers,
part of the Somersetshire Light Infantry, and a small number of the
Yeomanry. By the 25th he had taken over the command of General Hamilton's
column and at once proceeded to engage himself with the work that that
officer was intending to accomplish. General Hart before this time had
been at Frederickstad, some fifteen miles north of Potchefstroom on the
rail and best road to Johannesburg, but speedily moved on to assist. The
plan was to arrange for the permanent garrisoning of Frankfort in the
Orange River Colony, Heilbron, Lindley, and Senekal, the taking of
Bethlehem, and, if possible, the cornering of De Wet.

General Hunter marched from Heidelberg towards Frankfort with a view to
finding out the haunts of the malcontents, but encountered no
opposition, and reached his destination on the 1st of July. Two days
later he was joined by the troops from Heilbron under General Macdonald.
General Hart, with a battalion and a half of infantry, remained in
Heidelberg and engaged in the repair of the railway bridge, which had
been wrecked by the Boers.

Here for the nonce we must leave them while the operations in other parts
of the disturbed Colonies are investigated. General Buller had
accomplished his work of clearing Natal, and had joined hands with Lord
Roberts's force, and thus interposed a strong British barrier between
Botha at Middelburg and De Wet in Orange River Colony. These two
adventurous spirits had now to be tackled separately, and the cornering
of De Wet came first in Lord Roberts's programme. The commando of the
astute Free Stater was to be pushed eastward towards Bethlehem and
surrounded, and for this purpose General Hunter was to co-operate with
Generals Rundle, Clements, and Paget, while Lord Methuen in the
neighbourhood of Paardekraal (ten miles south-west of Heilbron on the
Kroonstad Road), was to mount guard over the rail between Kroonstad and
the Vaal River and prevent De Wet from breaking out westward.

FOOTNOTES:

[5] See Map at front.

[6] See vol. iii. p. 146.



CHAPTER III

IN ORANGE RIVER COLONY, EAST. JUNE


General Rundle's activities had never relaxed. In June he was vigilantly
guarding the Senekal-Ficksburg region, posting strong forces at intervals
along the road, and fixing his headquarters at Scheepers Nek. Here he was
strengthened by the arrival of General Campbell's Brigade (16th), while
General Brabant's Force moved along the line in order to keep a wary eye
on the guerilla bands that were intent on ravage and destruction. In a
day or two he returned to Hammonia, however, as swarms of the enemy were
circling about sniping, forcing Boers who had retired to their farms to
rejoin the rebels, destroying telegraph wires, attempting to cut off
parties of troops and to press their way towards the south, and, in fact,
making themselves generally offensive.

In consequence of Lord Roberts's proclamation, Free Staters remaining in
the field now became rebels. But Mr. Steyn issued a counterblast--warned
burghers to take no notice of the proclamation at their peril, and
declared the country was still an International Sovereign State, with a
President and properly constituted Government. The unfortunate burghers,
therefore, found themselves between two fires, and their sentiments must
have resembled those of the man who, torn between rival fair ones, cried,
"How happy could I be with either, were t'other dear charmer away!"
Botha, it was said, desired to surrender, but from sense of loyalty to De
Wet was prevented from so doing, both Dutchmen having agreed to hold out
so long as one remained uncaptured. De Wet was reported to be still
keeping together some 6000 men in the Orange River Colony, Botha with
some 5000 more, broken into marauding bands, was guarding the east of the
Transvaal, while Mr. Kruger and his allies between Machadodorp and
Nelspruit resided in a railway carriage, awaiting the whistle that should
warn them to steam off.

On the 19th General Rundle, accompanied by his staff, Colonel Maxwell and
Captain George Farrar of General Brabant's Division, made a careful
examination of Ficksburg and its fortifications, and afterwards, during a
reconnaissance, it was discovered that a hornet's nest was concealed in a
series of sinister kopjes near by. The desperadoes had guns, and without
doubt intended to use them should the British be caught in the open, but
they were playing a waiting game, at which pastime General Rundle
decided to show himself equally proficient. Further investigations proved
that the Boer lines between Ficksburg and Bethlehem were of great
strength, and that the Dutchmen numbered some 5000. Besides these bands,
other roving commandos flitted about mosquito-wise, seeking to draw
British blood.

On the 20th Colonel Dalgety at Hibernia reported that he had been
surrounded. He stated that some 200 Dutchmen were ensconced on Doorn Kop
near his camp, and asked for help in order to effect their capture. Off
went General Rundle, with Scots Guards, Cavalry and Artillery, marching
nimbly, in the fond hope of making a "bag," through the pitchy blackness
of the night, and reaching the destination at dawn. When the troops
arrived, however, it was found that Colonel Dalgety had retired, and the
Boers in dispersed gangs were again a prowling danger to the vicinity.
Meanwhile General Paget, who was holding Lindley, was attacked by De Wet,
who brought five pieces to bear on him, but the guerilla chief was
successfully repulsed by the 2nd Yorkshire Light Infantry, assisted later
on by a battery of the City Imperial Volunteers which gave a splendid
account of itself.

General Rundle's march was continued on the 23rd towards Senekal,
whereupon the Dutch hordes, seizing their opportunity, pounced on the
rear of the transport. Under cover of a fiercely-flaring veldt fire they
poured a volley on the rear guard--the Scots Guards and Hampshire
Yeomanry under Captain Seely--who instantly jumped to action, giving the
oncoming Boers so keen a dose from rifles and a Maxim, that they bolted
to their main position at Tafelberg. Sundry of their party, seeking
safety at the farm of some supposed neutral, were luckily captured and
their harbour of refuge razed to the ground. (It was impossible longer to
shut our eyes to the fact that the farms had become half-way houses for
rebels, and there was no other means of disposing of these death traps.)
In this engagement many of the Boers bit the dust, for the British troops
actively pursued the enemy in their flight, and succeeded in thinning
their numbers without casualties on their own side.

The dogged determination of the Boers was to break through to the south,
and it took all the ingenuity of Generals Rundle and Brabant to create a
linked chain from Winburg to the Basutoland border, through which the
slim ones could not squeeze. Owing to the nature of the country--in some
places a replica of Switzerland, with snow-capped peaks, enormous gorges,
and treacherous passes--it was difficult to assume the offensive, and Sir
Leslie Rundle had to content himself with the task of keeping the Boers
in check while help came from the north. General Clements, on the 24th,
engaged a body of fierce ruffians near Winburg, where he had gone to
gather guns and supplies prior to combining his force with those at
Lindley, Heilbron, and Heidelberg. He succeeded in driving the rebels
north of the Zand River without great loss, though Captain G. E. F.
Fitzgerald, 2nd Bedfordshire Regiment, was severely wounded, and Second
Lieutenant R. H. Lascelles, 8th Battery Royal Field Artillery, was
slightly injured.

At Bloemfontein, at this time, there was deep regret at the loss of
Captain Lord Kensington,[7] 2nd Life Guards, who had died of his wounds.

Meanwhile, near Ficksburg, on the 25th, General Boyes' Brigade also
encountered the Dutchmen. Two valuable officers were killed--Captain E.
B. Grogan and Lieutenant G. L. D. Brancker, 1st South Staffordshire
Regiment--and five men were wounded and missing.

A convoy returning with General Clements to Senekal from Winburg was also
attacked some seven miles from Senekal. Hearing of the fray, Colonel
Grenfell and his Colonials set out from Senekal, attacked the enemy's
left flank, and became so hotly engaged that General Brabant, with all
the available troops, rushed to the succour of the party. Of the combined
forces three men were killed and twenty-three wounded.

General Paget was also desperately engaged at Lindley on the 26th, when a
convoy of stores moving towards that place was attacked by the marauding
bands, but after a heavy rearguard action succeeded in getting to their
destination in safety. Ten men were killed and four officers and fifty
men wounded.

On the following day the Roodival Spruit post was attacked, but the
detachment of the Shropshire Light Infantry and West Australian Mounted
Infantry, who were there, briskly sent the enemy flying.

General Methuen, too, was not inactive. On the 28th the Boer laagers near
Vach Kop and Spitz Kop were found to be hastily removing in the direction
of Lindley, whereupon the General gave chase, pursued the enemy for
twelve miles, and eventually wrested from them some 8000 sheep and 500
head of cattle they had appropriated during their freebooting excursions
in the neighbourhood. Lieutenant G. C. W. G. Hall and Lieutenant L.
Simpson, 2nd Yorkshire Light Infantry, and four men were wounded, but
otherwise the operations were highly satisfactory, as the Boer larder, if
not the Boer person, had been made to pay heavily at a time when both
belligerents were none too fully fed! The enemy once hemmed in, and once
devoid of supplies, it was hoped the end of the war would be reached.

On the 2nd of July General Clements joined hands with General Paget, and
the combined force began their advance on Bethlehem, of which anon.


IN THE WESTERN TRANSVAAL. JUNE

Early in the month came a report from General Baden-Powell, from camp
forty miles west-south-west of Rustenburg, that the railway to Mafeking
had been repaired, and that over a hundred arrested rebels were awaiting
their trial. The General was working his systematic way through the
districts of Manrico, West Lichtenburg, and Rustenburg, carrying out a
mission of pacification, re-establishing order, and collecting arms and
supplies. It must be explained that in recognition of his splendid
services he had been promoted to the rank of major-general, after which
he was appointed a lieutenant-general on the staff while employed with
her Majesty's forces in South Africa. Lord Edward Cecil now filled the
post of Administrator of the Rustenburg district, and had already
accepted surrenders and collected rifles innumerable.

Rustenburg was occupied on the 14th of June by General Baden-Powell, and
a column from Pretoria was sent out to meet this officer, to repair the
telegraph between the two places, and thus provide a second line of
telegraph between the Chief and Cape Town. This, with the opening of the
railway line from Durban to Pretoria (shortly to be accomplished by Sir
Redvers Buller's operations), made important advance in the work of
occupation.

On the 18th General Baden-Powell arrived at Pretoria, where he had an
enthusiastic reception. He stayed but two days, and was off again on his
return journey towards Rustenburg. This town at the time was garrisoned
by a very small force and one gun, whose occupation it was to continue
the work of pacification, and accept the surrender of arms--most of which
appeared to be of obsolete type.

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL R. A. P. CLEMENTS, D.S.O., A.D.C.

Photo by Elliott & Fry, London]

At this date, between Rustenburg and Pretoria, a body of the enemy under
Commandant Du Plessis were roaming about, and these were met on the 19th
by Hutton's Mounted Infantry, who came out of the fray with two guns to
their credit. It was not often in the history of the war that Boer guns
were seized, and the little British force was justifiably pleased with
their prowess. There was no end to the activity of Hutton's Mounted
Infantry, and skirmishes with wandering tribes of the enemy were of
almost daily occurrence. On the 24th Captain Anley had a smart "set-to"
with Boer patrols south of Pretoria, in which Lieutenant Crispin and
one man of the Northumberland Fusiliers were wounded.

[Illustration: RAILWAY MAP SHOWING LINES TO W. AND S.W. OF PRETORIA.
(Scale, 1 inch=64 miles. By permission of the Publishers of "South
Africa.")]

About this period an informal armistice was in operation; Botha having
been given time to consider the philosophy of fighting against the
inevitable. Lord Roberts made the suggestion that the Boer commandant
should disarm his forces, and thus avert unnecessary bloodshed, but the
Dutchman doggedly refused to surrender without the consent of his
Government, and demanded further respite to obtain the same. This being
probably another ruse to enable the Dutch rebels, mercenaries, and
others--who were gathering round the standard of the commandant--to gain
breathing time, the request was refused, and hostilities were resumed. An
official warning was given to the effect that any further activities in
the form of the destruction of railway lines, &c., would be met with
prompt punishment, and involve the demolition of all farms within five
miles of the point molested. Colonel Girouard was also authorised to
compel leading residents to accompany trains--a wise precaution,
reminiscent of the policy of the East, which forces the Grand Vizier to
taste of every dish prepared for his sovereign!

When the cat is away the mice may play, and the opportunity for a game
was not lost on the Boers. During General Baden-Powell's absence from
Rustenburg a party of Dutchmen under Commandant Limmer made an effort to
lodge themselves on the heights commanding the town, and demanded its
surrender. Major Hanbury Tracy, who with 120 men was in charge of the
place, replied that he held Rustenburg for her Majesty's Government, and
intended so to do. Thereupon hostile artillery began its thunderous
detonations, and things grew frowning. But Colonel Holdsworth (7th
Hussars) from the region of Zeerust, forty-eight miles off, scenting
fight from afar, made a brilliant march, and assisted by Colonel Airey
and his mettlesome Bushmen drove back the enemy. Two Bushmen were slain,
and Captain Machattie and three men were wounded. This was the state of
affairs when General Baden-Powell returned on the 9th of July. By the
10th the Boers had betaken themselves to Olifant's Nek in the
Magaliesberg range, and so as to secure the other pass--Magato Nek--the
Rustenburg party seized it. Unfortunately, nearer Pretoria was another
nek, the Commando Nek, and here, as we shall see anon, the Boers, on the
11th of July, managed cunningly to locate themselves, thus cutting off
General Baden-Powell from Pretoria.

FOOTNOTES:

[7] Lord Kensington, of the 2nd Life Guards, succeeded his father in
1896. He was educated at Eton, and entered the army as second lieutenant
on June 22, 1892; he was promoted to lieutenant on April 5, 1893, and
obtained his company on February 3, 1900. He was J.P. for Pembrokeshire
and for Haverfordwest.



CHAPTER IV

JULY

THE BATTLE OF BETHLEHEM AND THE SURRENDER OF PRINSLOO


The drama in Natal having been concluded, the curtain rose on the last
act of the drama in Orange River Colony, the final scenes of which went
"on greased wheels," as it were, owing to the tremendous energy and
talent in the field of, first, General Sir Leslie Rundle, who had had all
the hard preliminary work to do; second, Generals Clements and Paget, and
finally of the greatest martial performer of all--General Sir Archibald
Hunter. It will be remembered that this officer, after the accident to
General Ian Hamilton, had taken over his command, but July found him
released from the eastern Transvaal and in act of assisting in the
concluding operations in the Orange River Colony. His force now consisted
of the 2nd and 3rd Brigades of Mounted Infantry, Kitchener's Horse,
Lovat's Scouts, the Composite Regiment of Cavalry from the Transvaal, the
Highland Brigade (minus the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders guarding
Heilbron), the Munsters, the Yorkshire Light Infantry, the Scottish
Rifles (Militia), and South Staffordshire (Militia), under the command of
General Arthur Paget, the 38th Battery Royal Field Artillery and Battery
of the City Imperial Volunteers, the Scottish Yeomanry, under Colonel
Burn, the 14th and 15th Imperial Yeomanry, and the Imperial Australian
Regiment. In conjunction with General Brabant and General Rundle, who
were in or around Senekal and Hammonia respectively, he moved steadily to
the south-east, the main object of the operations being to dislodge the
Boers from Bethlehem and sweep them off from the rich grain country on
the eastern side of the Orange River Colony, and prevent them from
penetrating lower and disturbing already pacified districts.

Near Lindley, as we are aware, as a commencement of the combined closing
in movement, Generals Clements and Paget had effected a junction. The
Boers clustering in the neighbourhood of Winburg and Senekal were known
to be yet active, though many of their number came in at times and
surrendered, while others, longing to do likewise, were caught sneaking
forth and were sjamboked by their compatriots. In fact, strong guards had
to be posted round the laagers to prevent the desertion of Boers of
pacific tendencies. Still, when they fought, they fought well and
tenaciously, and managed to give a vast amount of trouble at every turn
of the road.

General Paget, on the 3rd, attacked the Dutchmen in their strong position
at Pleisirfontein, driving them off across Leeuw Kop to Broncrifontein.
He bivouacked for the night in the position he had secured, not without
some fierce fighting, an account of which was given by one of the
Imperial Yeomanry:--

     "We moved from Lindley on the morning of July 2, and by midday
     were in touch with the enemy, who had taken up a position on
     some kopjes overlooking the road on which we had to pass. We
     opened fire with the 38th Battery Field Artillery 15-pounder,
     and also with the C.I.V. 12-pounder quick-firing guns. The
     Boers replied with two 15-pounders, but we were too much for
     them, and by 2 P.M. we had driven them off and our Mounted
     Infantry and Yeomanry had taken the position. It was a
     miserably cold day with drizzling rain, so you may imagine it
     was anything but pleasant.

     "We camped that night at a farm which the enemy had occupied
     all day. They retired some distance, and continued shelling our
     camp till dark, and though some of their shells fell into our
     camp and among the waggons no harm was done. Our casualties
     were two of our men wounded. After we had pitched our camp it
     came on to rain, so we had to lie down in our wet blankets on
     the damp veldt. We were, however, able to get plenty of wood
     from the farmhouse, so we made a large fire which, with some
     warm tea, was a comfort. Next day we moved camp at 8 A.M. and
     proceeded, after the Boers had dropped a few shells into us.
     Our artillery went on ahead, and took up a position on a kopje,
     and shortly after we located the Boer guns on another kopje.
     To-day we found they had a large gun, a Creusot, which
     outranged ours. The artillery duel lasted all day till 4 P.M.
     when a general attack was made by the Infantry and Yeomanry on
     the kopje. While this was going on a force of Boers dressed in
     khaki and helmets, the same as those used at Lindley, managed
     to creep up on the 38th Battery, who had run short of
     ammunition, and shot the men down at the guns. The captain and
     lieutenant were killed, and Major Oldfield was mortally
     wounded."

[Illustration: PRINSLOO'S COMMANDO RETREATING TO THE BRANDWATER BASIN
AFTER THE FIGHT AT RETIEF'S NEK

From a Sketch by M. F. R.]

As may be imagined the situation was now verging on disaster. Major
Oldfield had received his death-blow, Captain Fitzgerald was helpless
with a bullet in the thigh, Lieutenant Belcher was shot at his guns. The
gunners and drivers of the guns had nearly all dropped dead or were
disabled--their horses in death agonies strewing the ground. It was
impossible, therefore, to remove the guns. The Bushmen had been forced to
retire at a critical moment, and it seemed as though the day were lost.
Then up came the C.I.V. Battery, and with the assistance of Captain
Budworth--whose wits and gallantry were never better displayed--fired
their two guns trail to trail over the heads of the 38th, battered the
triumphantly advancing foe on the left front and, in a word, saved the
situation. Off scudded the Boers, after them went the Bushmen,
Budworth riding at the head, and finally with the assistance of the
Infantry--the Yorkshire Light Infantry, the Munster Fusiliers, and the
Imperial Yeomanry who had rushed up the hills and scattered the remaining
Dutchmen at the point of the bayonet--they succeeded in getting the guns
limbered up and away! The dashing work cost forty killed and wounded,
besides Captain Dill, 2nd Yorkshire Light Infantry, wounded, and
Lieutenant and Adjutant A. F. C. Williams, Indian Staff Corps (Attached
Brabant's Horse), dangerously wounded.

[Illustration: RAILWAY MAP OF EASTERN PORTION OF ORANGE RIVER COLONY AND
NATAL. (Scale, 1 inch=64 miles. By permission of the Publishers of "South
Africa.")]

On the following day, 4th, the enemy was pursued as far as Blaauw Kop,
fifteen miles north-west of Bethlehem, where Mr. Steyn's seat of
government was now supposed to be. Mr. Steyn had cautiously betaken
himself to Fouriesburg (between Bethlehem and Ficksburg), leaving De Wet
and some 3000 men to await the attack of the British forces. Meanwhile
round Ficksburg fierce fighting was taking place, the Boers making a
midnight attack with the despairing idea of reoccupying that town. Their
furious effort lasted but an hour, when they found themselves beaten.

On the 5th the position at Doornberg, on the Winburg-Senekal road, which
the Dutchman had evacuated, was promptly taken possession of by General
Brabant, who thereby ousted them from a vantage-point whence they could
pounce on convoys proceeding to and from the base at Winburg, and secured
the line of rail in the vicinity of Zand River, round which hovering
gangs of wreckers had persistently congregated.

To return to the Dutchmen inside Bethlehem. The town, like many other
South African towns, is dominated by cliffs or kopjes, two of these being
on the north-west, while another (Wolhunter Kop) rises in the south in a
high and solitary peak above the plain, and descends steeply towards the
side of the town. Naturally these obstructive eminences were chosen as
the stronghold of the foe, and as naturally the object of the British was
now to clear the Boers from them, and to this end General Arthur Paget
marched his force to within two miles of his objective, and encamped near
the northerly spurs of the north-western kopjes.

General Clements's column, consisting of the Royal Irish, Worcesters,
Wiltshires, a battery of Field Artillery, and two 5-inch guns moved about
six miles on the left rear of General Paget's force towards the east of
the town; where, on all the available ridges and cliffs were Boer
trenches and gun emplacements, some of these knowingly and skilfully
arranged at a right angle with the cliffs and with their backs to the
town, in order that any approaching force could be swept from all
directions as they neared the position. General Clements sent to De Wet a
flag of truce demanding the surrender of the place, and on receipt of a
refusal the hammer-and-tong process of warfare began.

Both Generals simultaneously attacked from different points, but owing to
the crusted and gibbose nature of the ground in this part of the Orange
Colony it was impossible for the Cavalry to attempt any very wide turning
movement. The result was that on the dash and daring of the Infantry much
was found to depend and that eventually carried all before it. The
Cavalry, the 14th and 15th Imperial Yeomanry, and Imperial Australian
Regiment operated on the right, and made themselves masters of a position
on a kopje at the northerly ridge of the eminences held by the Boers.
General Clements engaged the foe in his eastern fastnesses, capturing
them on the following day through the gallantry of the Royal Irish
Regiment, while the Infantry with General Paget fought with splendid
persistence, till their ammunition being exhausted they finally charged
with the bayonet so gallantly, so effectively, that the Boers were
routed, and General Paget at nightfall found himself in possession of a
kopje which faced and was the key to the terrific steeps leading to the
precipitous peak of Wolhunter's Kop. This charge of the Munsters,
supported by the Yorkshire Light Infantry, was described by one of the
officers of the former splendid regiment in glowing terms: "The Royal
Munster Fusiliers had to storm a kopje at the point of the bayonet. For
the last 800 yards my men had not a round of ammunition left. We kept
advancing, cheering as we went on, with bayonets fixed. We got within
fifty yards, when the Boers fired their last volley and bolted. The
position was won. The G.O.C., in his despatch to Lord Roberts, said the
gallantry displayed by the Munsters was beyond all praise.... My men
behaved excellently. I never want finer fellows to be with in an attack."

Mr. Blundell, of the _Morning Post_, related a characteristic anecdote
which served to show the debonnair spirit, the coolness and aplomb of
some of the doughty band: "In the midst of the rush past some Kaffir
kraals a goose waddled out through the line, and a man, not too
preoccupied to forget the future, lowered his bayonet, swung the bird
over his shoulder in his stride, and took possession of the captured
position with his dinner on his back." The goose was eaten in face of the
frowning Wolhunter's Kop, which next day, the 7th, fell into the hands of
the British through a series of ingenious martial manoeuvres, assisted
by the brilliant execution of the 38th Battery R.F.A. and the C.I.V.
Battery under Major M'Micking. The decisive move in the operations was
brought about by the splendid persistence of the Royal Irish, who,
extended in three lines, stormed a formidable kopje amidst cascades of
fire, dropping, and sweating, and shouting, yet never halting till they
had reached the crest, captured it, and in addition to it a prize--a gun,
one of our own lost in the fatal affair at Stormberg. By midday the enemy
was in full retreat, and the town was occupied by the combined forces.

The casualty list on the first day, considering the magnitude of the
operations and the strength of the positions assailed, was not large:
Thirty-two men of the Munster Fusiliers were wounded and one man missing;
seven men of the Yorkshire Light Infantry wounded; one man of the 58th
Company Imperial Yeomanry was killed, and two men wounded. The wounded
officers were: Lieutenant A. H. D. West, 8th Battery Royal Field
Artillery; Captain T. W. Williams, 5th Volunteer Battalion Liverpool
Regiment (attached Royal Irish Regiment); Captain G. D. M'Pherson, 1st
Munster Fusiliers; Captain W. C. Oates, 1st Munster Fusiliers; Lieutenant
Conway, 1st Munster Fusiliers; Second Lieutenant Boyd Rochford, 4th
Scottish Rifles. The following casualty occurred on the 7th: Captain J.
B. H. Alderson, 1st Royal Irish Rifles, wounded (since dead).

On the morrow, Broadwood's Brigade, preceding General Hunter, arrived.

After this, by systematic and strategic pressure, the Free Staters were
being pushed off their impregnable heights to a mountainous place called
the Brandwater Basin, some fifteen miles square, in the region of the
Caledon River, leaving us in possession of practically the last of their
towns--Lindley, Bethlehem, Biddulph's Berg, and Senekal. Bethlehem was
occupied by General Paget, Biddulph's Berg by General Clements, Senekal
by General Rundle, and thus a cordon was supposed to be drawn round the
wily enemy. Unluckily, on the 15th, between Bethlehem and Ficksburg, a
small gap existed--a gap which but for delay in regard to his supplies
would have been held by General Paget--and through this loophole,
Stabbert's Nek, that very slippery fish De Wet contrived to slide, taking
with him 1500 men and five guns. This was unfortunate, as the escaped
enemy threatened to become a serious diversion from the business in hand,
particularly as no general advance could be made till the necessary
convoys had arrived for the enormous amount of troops forming the cordon.

Nevertheless while General Hunter, on one side, actively engaged in
reconnoitring the positions held by the remainder of De Wet's forces
between Bethlehem, Ficksburg, Fouriesburg, Retief's and Stabbert's Neks,
General Little (temporarily commanding the 3rd Brigade) pursued De Wet
himself, and the force that had recently broken through the cordon was
found to be hovering between Bethlehem and Lindley. A smart contest
ensued, which lasted till dusk, when the Boers broke up into two parties
and again vanished, leaving several dead and two wounded upon the field.

On the same day, 19th, General Broadwood, commanding 2nd Cavalry Brigade,
who had been following up the fleeing Boers since the 16th, spent some
hours in an animated engagement near Palmietfontein, between Ventersburg
and Lindley. The enemy, with swelled numbers, and said to be accompanied
by Steyn and one of the De Wets, had been wheeling round the railway
communications as moths circle around a chandelier. Having caught them
here General Broadwood made a brisk fight of it, but the Boers under
cover of darkness evaded pursuit. On the following morning it was found
that they had doubled back to Paardekraal during the night. The line on
the north of Honing Spruit showed signs of their depredations, and on the
western side the telegraph wires to Pretoria _viâ_ Potchefstroom were
cut. During the fight Major Moore, West Australian Mounted Infantry, was
killed, and Lieutenant the Hon. F. Stanley, 10th Hussars, Lieutenant
Tooth, Australian Contingent, and fourteen men were wounded. General
Broadwood proceeded to Vaal Krantz, which place was reached on the 22nd.

[Illustration: PRINSLOO'S LAST STAND IN THE VALLEY OF THE LITTLE CALEDON:
THE BOERS' POSITION ON THE HEIGHTS

From a Sketch by M. F. R.]

Meanwhile the desperadoes, routed on all sides, made a rush upon the
line near Roodeval, tore up the rails, and succeeded in capturing on the
night of the 21st, between Kroonstad and the Vaal, a supply train with
two officers and a hundred men of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers. De Wet's
force, doubtless well pleased with itself, then moved _viâ_ Vredefort in
a north-easterly direction, quickly pursued by General Broadwood, who, in
his turn, was followed by General Little. The former officer succeeded on
the 23rd in capturing some of De Wet's waggons at Vredefort, at which
place he halted till joined by General Little. On the 25th De Wet,
ubiquitous, was found posted on some comfortable heights at Reitzburg,
some seven miles south of the Vaal, while General Broadwood, like a cat
watching a bird, was preparing to spring. But the bird was too wary, and
kept his wings flapping for flight at the first provocation. Indeed, he
had dodges at his fingers' end, and tried a new variety every time he was
warned of the British approach. One of these was at a certain place to
keep a dozen or so Boer hats, which had previously been strung on a line,
continually bobbing over a certain entrenched spot in order to impress
the British and lead them astray, while he and his horde took an opposite
direction.

While the chase was going forward some fighting took place, in which the
Berkshire Yeomanry, the Imperial Bushmen, and the 38th Field Battery took
part. They disputed the possession of a high hill to west of Bethlehem,
but as possession makes nine points of the law, the Boers, posted in
strength upon the hill, caused the small force to retire. During the
retirement one officer and nine men were lost. General Bruce Hamilton
also engaged in some active work, which cost him three of the Cameron
Highlanders, whose regiment, assisted by 500 Mounted Infantry and the
82nd Battery, succeeded in securing a strong position on Spitzray.
Captain Keith Hamilton, Oxford Light Infantry, was wounded severely, and
Captain Brown, Captain A. C. M'Lean, and Lieutenant Stewart, Cameron
Highlanders, Captain E. S. C. Hobson, Mounted Infantry Worcester
Regiment, and thirteen Cameron Highlanders were all more or less severely
injured.

Of the terribly hard work done by the 21st Brigade it has been impossible
to take due note. Since the 28th of April they had covered on foot some
1200 miles, and had done more fighting and marching than any brigade at
the front. They could count as many as forty-three engagements to their
credit, and as one of the Sussex men said, "We have been in several tight
corners, but have always come out on top." The Irish, Scottish, and
Colonial Corps had all received their meed of praise, but certain English
regiments, notably the Sussex, the Wiltshire, and the Liverpool
Regiments, owing to the fact of their not being prominently engaged in
the "historic" battles, got less than their share of appreciation,
though no better and braver and more enduring regiments could be found
in the British army.

[Illustration: POSITION OF TROOPS ROUND THE BRANDWATER BASIN BEFORE THE
SURRENDER OF PRINSLOO.]

Operations were now carried forward with additional vigour, for it was
known that Boers, some 6000 of them, led by Roux and Prinsloo, who had
not bolted with De Wet, must still be in the neighbourhood of the Caledon
Valley, the river behind them, the only passes available among the
snow-capped mountains, Commando Nek below Fouriesburg, Stabbert's and
Retief's Neks near Bethlehem, and Golden Gate, leading out of the valley.
But these, it must be remembered, were fairly far apart, and loopholes of
necessity were many. At all these points the British, lynx-eyed, furious
at being given the slip by De Wet, crouched. General Hunter himself
observed Retief's Nek, while General Bruce Hamilton barred Golden Gate,
and Generals Paget and Rundle took up positions watching Stabbert's and
Commando Neks respectively.

To appreciate the nicety of the movement a glance at the map is
necessary. The geographical nature of the situation in which the Boers
found themselves after the battle of Bethlehem was thus concisely
sketched by Mr. Spenser Wilkinson:--

     "The Boers were holding a great mountain horse-shoe, of which
     the curved end is at the north, and the open end or back is on
     the Caledon River, the inside of the shoe being the basin of
     the Brandwater. On the right-hand limb of the shoe at the
     second nail from the end is Fouriesburg, and Retief's Nek is at
     the top right-hand nail, the road from Ficksburg to Bethlehem
     going up the Brandwater valley and over Retief's Nek.

     "Outside the horse-shoe to the right, the east, the road from
     Fouriesburg to Harrismith goes by the Little Caledon River,
     which is separated by a long east and west range of hills from
     the hilly plain of Bethlehem. North of this range is
     Naauwpoort, and from the Caledon Valley to Naauwpoort the road
     crosses over Naauwpoort's Nek and goes on to Harrismith on the
     north side of the range."

Having blocked the passes to the best of his ability, General Hunter
hoped for the best. He knew the Boers might evaporate--as they seemed so
magically to do--over the mountains, but he guessed, and guessed rightly,
that it would be too much of a wrench to tear themselves from their
effects--horses, oxen, carts, and waggons--and these could never be
dragged over the barring acclivities.

The first attack on Retief's Nek was made on the 23rd by General
MacDonald, the Highland Brigade, Lovat's Scouts, Remington's Guides, and
a battery and two 5-inch "cow"-guns. The Boers had previously been thrown
off the scent owing to the British troops having taken a wide detour, and
they were somewhat surprised in their rocky caves to find themselves in
the thick of lyddite, which growled and crashed and fumed at them. Then
the Highland Light Infantry, with the Sussex to help them, deployed, the
former bearing to left, the latter, with the 81st Battery of Field
Artillery, to right, the Infantry making brilliant rushes towards the
impregnable lair of the enemy, despite the murderous jets from the rifles
of the Dutchmen, which spouted disaster the nearer they approached. Each
battalion lost thirty men or so, but brilliant and inexhaustible as they
were, found themselves unable, on the initial day, to push the attack.
The Black Watch were more fortunate, however, and gallantly carving their
passage with the bayonet, managed before nightfall to secure a foothold
on the summit of the hills whence they could now await the morrow. At
that time General Clements's Yeomanry were attempting to force the
passage of Stabbert's Nek, gaining ground with difficulty, but clinging
to it all night in a perilous position; while on the south-western fringe
General Rundle demonstrated in the region of Commando Nek. The morning
brought success all round. Stabbert's Nek was forced by the renewed and
sturdy efforts of the Yeomanry and the Royal Irish, and the afternoon of
the 24th found the combined columns camped inside the Nek. The Boers,
quickly recognising the inconvenience of their position, by noon had
stampeded towards the east, hoping to cut through Naauwpoort's Nek and
gain the Harrismith Road, galloping off, however, with the sagacity of
purpose for which at all times they had made themselves notable.

The losses so far were sufficiently large, but considering the importance
of the position gained they were looked upon as insignificant, and
General Hunter formally expressed the opinion that it was owing to the
excellent work done by Lovat's Scouts, who for days in advance had
scouted, stalked, and "spied" over the country, that so few losses were
recorded.

The casualties at Stabbert's Nek were:--

     _Killed_:--1st Royal Irish Regiment--Captain W. Gloster.
     _Wounded_:--Royal Field Artillery--Captain H. E. T. Kelly. 2nd
     Wiltshire Regiment--Captain E. Evans. 6th Company Imperial
     Yeomanry--Lieutenant G. A. Clay. 1st Royal Irish
     Regiment--Captain E. F. Milner.

Those at Retief's Nek were:--

     _Wounded_:--Royal Sussex--Captain E. L. M'Kenzie, Second
     Lieutenant J. C. W. Anderson, Second Lieutenant H. G.
     Montgomerie, Second Lieutenant G. E. Leachman. 2nd Royal
     Highlanders--Major E. M. Wiltshire (since dead), Lieutenant H.
     K. Smith. Captain Sir W. G. Barttelot, 2nd Volunteer Battalion,
     Royal Sussex Regiment, was killed.

The 25th found Generals Hunter, Clements, and Paget in possession of
Brandwater Basin, while Generals MacDonald and Bruce Hamilton were
blocking Inguwooni and Golden Gate. Fouriesburg was occupied by the
Eighth Division, and there they found a number of British prisoners and
Mrs. Steyn, who was left in charge of the chief of the Commissariat
Department. Generals Hunter and Rundle paid the lady a complimentary
visit. On the following day General MacDonald, who had kept an eye on
Naauwpoort's Nek and Golden Gate, had a hard day's fighting outside
Naauwpoort in the Bethlehem Hills, but the effect of this doughty
rearguard action was the blocking of Naauwpoort's Nek for the Boer waggon
traffic, and without their precious carts the Boers were "winged."

Among the wounded were Lieutenant A. M. Brodie, Lovat's Scouts, and
Lieutenant W. E. Campion, Mounted Infantry Company, East Yorkshire
Regiment.

On the 28th, Hunter, with Clements's and Paget's Brigades, attacked the
Boers, who were posted on two neks. The first nek, after a vigorous
fight, was secured by the Royal Irish, Wiltshire, and Leicester
Regiments; the final position, Slaapkrantz, later on and under cover of
the dusk, by the brilliant dash of the Scots Guards. During the
operations Lieutenant Hon. R. B. F. Robertson, 1st Battalion
Imperial Yeomanry (Machine Gun Section), and Second Lieutenant F. G.
Alston, 2nd Scots Guards, were wounded.

[Illustration: THE SURRENDER OF PRINSLOO'S FORCE AT THE CALEDON RIVER

Drawing by Ernest Prater, from a Sketch by Major Romilly, D.S.O.,
Commanding 2nd Scots Guards]

The net result of all the combined blockage of the passes was a demand on
Sunday morning, 29th, from Prinsloo, under a flag of truce, for a four
days' armistice in order to enter into peace negotiations. As this demand
was tantamount to saying, "Hold on while I get wind for another bout,"
General Hunter sent a message refusing to enter into any negotiations,
and saying that the only terms he could accept was unconditional
surrender. Until these were complied with, hostilities could not cease.
This settled the matter. Prinsloo, knowing it was impossible to get his
guns and waggons over the mountains, forthwith handed himself over--arms,
ammunition, and the rest of his warlike impedimenta--to the conqueror.
With him were Villiers and Crowther and about 1000 men, but other Boer
leaders, Olivier among them, who had succeeded in slipping to the farther
side of the hills, refused to abide their chief's ruling, and declined to
submit. Hostilities in respect to these malcontents had consequently to
be resumed, but the surrender of Prinsloo, and with him the Ficksburg
commando of some 550 men and the Ladybrand commando, about 450 strong,
together with 1500 horses, three guns, two of which were our own, lost at
Koorn Spruit, 50 waggons and 50 carts, may be considered as the closing
scene of the Free Stater's resistance.

The finale at Fouriesburg was an impressive affair. The Generals, their
staffs, Sir Godfrey and Lady Lagden from Basutoland, grouped on
horseback, were surrounded by the troops drawn up in two lines on the
hills overlooking the valley. Between the lines thus made rode Prinsloo,
tall, fair--even prepossessing. He handed up his rifle to the General,
setting the example to his followers, an agriculturalist rabble, motley
of mien as of habit, who, on their small, nimble ponies, galloped up,
throwing down rifle and bandolier with a certain effort at swagger,
though seemingly nothing loth to finish their fighting career. In cart
and waggon they came, too, with all their curious nomadic luggage and
blankets, cook-pots and the like, some laughing, and some chaffing as
they gave up arms and ammunition, and then moved on to the camp of
Brabant's Colonials, with whom they soon got on the best of terms. The
formalities occupied three days, the haul of cattle that were hidden in
the neighbouring gorges being enormous. The condition of the captured
Boer horses contrasted strangely with that of the dilapidated hacks which
now remained to the British force, and, as may be imagined, remounts were
more than acceptable.

July ended with a triumphant flourish of trumpets in honour of the united
labours of, first, General Sir Leslie Rundle, who may claim the east of
the Orange Colony as his military perquisite, and finally General Sir
Archibald Hunter. Prinsloo's surrender was followed by that of 1200 more
Free Staters, and the Commandants Roux and Fonternel. To General Bruce
Hamilton came Commandants Deploy, Potgieter, and Joubert, and Lieutenant
Alderson, a Danish officer of Staats Artillery, and with them 1200
rifles, 650 ponies, and an Armstrong gun.

The Free State army was therefore only represented by De Wet and his
followers--some 1500--who were hovering in the neighbourhood of the Vaal,
and Olivier, who, having refused to consider himself bound by Prinsloo's
actions, had taken up a position in the direction of Harrismith, where he
was being tracked by General Rundle.


AFFAIRS IN AND AROUND PRETORIA--THE CAPTURE OF MIDDELBURG

Late in June, at the time of the armistice before-mentioned, there seemed
to have been some hesitation on the part of Botha and Kruger whether they
should unconditionally surrender, but they were incapable of decisive
action while Steyn, who now had nothing to lose and everything to gain,
kept the field. The position was best described by Mr. Spenser Wilkinson
when he likened Kruger and Steyn to Hannibal and Hasdrubal: "the
strongest proof that his cause was lost that could be given to Hannibal
was Hasdrubal's head sent into his camp." Another important consideration
influenced the President in his hesitation; he bargained, or wished to
bargain, that he might remain in the country, a condition which of course
could not be entertained.

Both Mrs. Kruger and Mrs. Botha exerted themselves to bring about the
termination of the useless struggle. One went to her husband's camp in
hope to influence him, while the other wrote imploring her better half to
come to terms. But their efforts were of no avail. According to some
accounts, the President was in the hands of his generals, who, declaring
he had played his cards and played them badly, arrogated to themselves
the right to judge when hostilities should cease. He was, moreover, in
bad odour even with his own burghers, and many of them were openly
denouncing him for his conduct in feathering his own nest, and leaving
his compatriots alone to face ruin and extricate themselves from the
hurly-burly into which he had inveigled them. His foreign mercenaries,
too, were furious. They had been calculating on magnificent rewards for
their championship of the Boer cause, and now found it hard to digest the
philosophic maxim, "Blessed are they who expect nothing, for they shall
not be disappointed!"

On the 24th, 25th, and 26th of June, efforts were made to surround the
enemy in the hills some fifteen miles to the east beyond Silverton.
General French on the left, General Ian Hamilton on the right, and the
Eleventh Division in the centre engaged in the enveloping movement; but,
by the night of Tuesday the 26th, there was nothing to envelop--the Boers
had vanished along the Delagoa Bay Railway. The operation caused a loss
of about 150.

Stringent measures had now to be adopted to frustrate the wily efforts of
the Boer generals to obtain news of the military movements of the
British. The town was teeming with spies, who actively communicated to
the foe the secret doings of the authorities, and diffused intelligence
in relation to the intentions of the Boer forces, which was both alarming
and paralysing to the inhabitants. It was reported that a combination
existed between the Boer leader without the town and the burghers who had
surrendered within it, to join forces and attack the place, and in
consequence of these rumours extensive precautions were adopted, the
number of guards around the capital were increased, and armoured trains
patrolled the line daily. Nevertheless, in other ways the town was
assuming a more business-like and settled aspect. Some of the Dutch
women, knowing themselves safe in the hands of the British, continued to
flaunt their national colours, while others flung insulting epithets at
the officers, thus unintentionally and subtly complimenting them, as such
demeanour demonstrated a firm conviction on the part of the ladies that
those whom they insulted were too chivalrous to retaliate.

Revelations respecting the intrigues of the late Transvaal Government
came gradually to hand, and documents found in Pretoria divulged some
unpleasant secrets. First, that large bribes had been paid to sundry
prominent foreigners who had visited the Transvaal during the war and
promised intervention; second, that letters of dubious complexion had
been sent by certain members of the British House of Commons to the
Boers--letters which those who were apt to dub a spade a spade called
traitorous, and others who talked of "implement of agriculture" styled
unpatriotic!

The enemy, who had succeeded in capturing Lieutenant Rundle (6th Dragoon
Guards) and some men of his patrol, continued to engage himself in
mischief around the right flank, so much so that Lord Roberts decided
that he must make a clean sweep towards the east of Bronker's Spruit. It
must be remembered that after the battle of Diamond Hill the Boers had
moved off, only to widen, if to thin, their half-circle round the
neighbourhood of Pretoria. Botha remained astride the Delagoa Railway
line toward the east, threatening with his left, so far as he dared, the
south-east of the town. Grobler gathered his force on the north, while
beyond him, to north-west, went Delarey and his hovering hordes, bent on
menacing the road to Rustenburg. It was impossible as yet to engage in
very decisive operations owing to lack of remounts, but some action was
necessary.

Accordingly, General Hutton's Mounted Infantry was despatched to
reinforce Colonel Mahon, who on the 6th of July was attacked at
Rietfontein by some 3000 Boers with six guns and two Vickers-Maxims.
Fighting fierce and sustained was continued for two days, when the
desired object was achieved, and the Boers cleared from the immediate
neighbourhood. The Imperial Light Horse, brilliant as ever, unhappily
lost two officers--Captain Currie and Lieutenant Kirk--and thirteen men,
their unusual loss being occasioned by the gallantry of B Squadron in
pressing to the assistance of a wounded comrade in the teeth of a host of
the enemy.

Poor young Kirk was a volunteer in the highest sense of the term. His
career was typical of the careers of many of the gallant Colonials who
rushed to the aid of their country. He had served in the Matabele War,
and jumped to arms at the outbreak of the present campaign. He was
conspicuous among the heroes of the heroic regiment during the siege of
Ladysmith, and was wounded while binding up the injuries of a comrade. He
received his commission, and afterwards took part in the famous relief of
Mafeking, and later, was again wounded, and severely, while out on patrol
with Colonel Baden-Powell. Nevertheless he managed to rejoin the Imperial
Light Horse in the great advance _viâ_ Lichtenburg and Potchefstroom to
Johannesburg and Pretoria. Among others wounded was Captain and Adjutant
Nelles, 1st Battalion Canadian Mounted Rifles.

General Hutton on the following day was attacked by 5000 of the enemy
near Rietfontein, but he succeeded in routing his assailants, capturing a
French officer and inflicting considerable loss, the enemy leaving their
injured upon the field. Lieutenant Young, 1st Canadian Mounted Rifles,
was slightly wounded.

[Illustration: OFFICERS OF THE HIGHLAND LIGHT INFANTRY.

Photo by Gregory & Co., London.]

Meanwhile Sir Redvers Buller had arrived in Pretoria, looking remarkably
well in spite of the tremendous strain of the work of the relief of
Ladysmith and the more brilliant achievements that had secured the whole
of Natal. Report came in from Ladysmith that some 800 prisoners--Yeomanry
and Derbyshire Militia--without officers, had been put over the Natal
border from Reitz, and were making their way towards Acton Homes. The
plight of these unhappy fellows, without food, tattered, torn, and
limping, with only a poor acquaintanceship with the country through which
they plodded, was deplorable. Waggons and food were sent out by the O.C.
of the Drakensberg Defence Force, and the wretched men were encountered
and brought in. Having been marched about for over a month with De Wet,
they were so footsore and exhausted that some could barely crawl. The
Boers had treated them well, but they had too many mouths of their own to
feed, and had been forced by the pressure of circumstance to turn them
adrift.

[Illustration: NITRAL'S NEK.]

On the 11th Botha decided there should be fighting all along the line,
and so cleverly were things managed that the British suffered
considerably. At dawn the Boers under Delarey, having failed in getting
round the right rear of the British, collected on the hills surrounding
Nitral's Nek with a view to attacking the left flank. Nitral's Nek, a
position some eighteen miles west of Pretoria, near where the road
crosses the Crocodile River, was held in order to maintain telegraphic
and road communication with Rustenburg. Garrisoning this place were one
squadron of Scots Greys, two guns of O Battery Royal Horse Artillery, and
five companies of the Lincolnshire Regiment. The Dutchmen were in great
force, and admirably disposed, evidently by a preconcerted arrangement,
and succeeded in directing a converging fire on the small garrison and on
the various portions of it occupying the plain some distance off. As
early as possible the news of the attack was sent to Pretoria, whereupon
the King's Own Scottish Borderers, under Colonel Godfrey, were despatched
to the rescue. It took some hours to reach the scene of the fray, and by
the time the reinforcements arrived the small garrison, who had been
fighting all day, and had expended their ammunition, were overpowered. It
appeared that about this time the Scots Greys had been ordered to proceed
to Crocodile Bridge to relieve General Baden-Powell. They followed the
same route they had taken when marching to relieve the prisoners at
Watervall, a route with only one attraction--it passed through one of the
most golden orange groves of the Transvaal, and jaded and depressed as
they were, they felt thankful that their ways were cast among the
refreshing fruit. A squadron was left at Tulikat's or Nitral's Nek, while
the rest of the party, cold, worn, and famishing, reached camp at 10 P.M.
on the 7th. On Sunday, the 8th, the force still further divided, one
squadron, under Captain Maude, going to Commando Nek, while the remainder
recrossed the river and took up a position on a kopje between the two
neks guarded by the squadrons mentioned.

"To understand the position," said one who was present, and whose
description is so interesting and so pathetic that it must be quoted at
length, "imagine a kopje in the hollow of your hand, the spaces between
your thumb and forefinger, and between your little finger and third
finger, Tulikat's Nek and Commando Nek respectively. At your wrist,
twenty miles eastward, lay Pretoria. On our front the hills were very
steep and high, but on the far side they sloped and were covered with
brushwood. It was through this brushwood that the Boers cunningly crept
on Tuesday night to make their attack at dawn.

"This attack was a bit of first-class generalship. It was made at five
different points against five separate forces, and at exactly the same
hour, and, when the day was over, the Boers had by far the best of it. On
Tuesday afternoon five companies of the Lincolns, under Colonel Roberts,
arrived to relieve our squadron at the Nek, who were on the fatal morning
to join the other squadrons and march to reinforce General Smith-Dorrien.
About 5.30 on Wednesday morning I was awakened by the crackle of rifles.
I thought they were just behind the kopje. I jumped up, and picking up my
glass, I made for the top. I was soon joined by other officers, and,
while we could see nothing, we listened with serious and solemn awe,
owing to the continuous rattle of many Mausers. We knew what it meant to
our comrades in the gully, and worst of all, we could not help them very
much. About eight o'clock a galloper came from Major Scobell to bring
over all the guns. This was done, and soon our shells were dropping on
the ridges where we could see some Boers. We could not fire into the
hollow for fear of killing our own men. The fire became fiercer and
fiercer. We now knew the Boers had secured both sides of the valley, and
that our poor comrades were at their mercy. Were it not for the many
boulders, nooks, and crevices which were taken for cover, few should have
come out alive. The situation was critical in the extreme. What was to be
done? Colonel Alexander asked me if I would ride into Pretoria, see Lord
Roberts, explain the situation, and urge out reinforcements. I went off
at full gallop. After riding ten miles I noticed a gentleman on a
bicycle. Something said to me, secure this bike. I gave my horse to the
cyclist, told him to wait for me and I would return his bike, and then
mounted and scorched to headquarters. I sketched and explained the whole
situation to Lords Roberts and Kitchener, and by this time strong
reinforcements were despatched. After a much needed and kindly provided
lunch in Lord Roberts's dining-room, I, with his despatch to our Colonel,
cycled back, anxious to see what was what, and hoping that something had
been done to help our comrades in their dire straits.

"There was scarcely a soldier left to guard Pretoria, so the order I
carried was to run no risks and return to Pretoria as soon as possible.
Oh, it was hard when I overtook them and found they could do nothing for
these poor fellows who had held out against the tremendous odds
throughout that fatal day, and who were now either dead, wounded, or in
the hands of the enemy. We all retired, reaching our camp outside
Pretoria about 1 A.M. Oh, the sadness and gloom at our mess that night!
Few words were spoken. Some of us hoped against hope. We earnestly
cherished the hope that Major Scobell would find some way out of this
gorge of death. At 5.30 we were up and ready to march. About eight a war
correspondent informed us that Major Scobell had escaped, two officers
had been killed, and one wounded, and the squadron prisoners. This was a
terrible blow to us all. We rejoiced at the escape of our popular and
gallant Major, but we mourned deeply the loss of the others. There was
brave Lieutenant Conolly, a dashing, ready-for-anything young soldier, a
great favourite in our midst. He, poor fellow, had fallen, shot through
the brain. His death was instantaneous. There was young Lieutenant
Pilkington, one of the most gentle and sweet-tempered fellows I ever met.
He had been five months a prisoner in Pretoria, and on being liberated
got his desire gratified by being attached to us. We all loved him, and
he, too, was among the dead, shot in several places while leading his men
against the foe. He had five months before been taken prisoner because he
refused to abandon a wounded comrade. Poor fellow! Black indeed was the
brief page of this fine young soldier's campaign. May his friends be
comforted by the assurance that we all loved him, and that he died as a
true and brave soldier at his terrible post. Captain Maxwell was
seriously wounded. I rode by his side for a long bit on our march to
that fatal death-trap, and had a very pleasant conversation together. He
didn't like the idea of being left in the Nek. He was, as we all
were--for we were all so happy together--dejected at the regiment being
divided. I'll never forget how, with a clap on the back, he said, 'Good
night, Padre.' Little I thought the next time I would see him would be
prostrated by the Boer bullet. When we heard the news, I was anxious to
get to the battle-field to lend what hand I could to the wounded and bury
our dead."

On the way the Samaritan, to his intense joy and relief, encountered
Major Scobell, who had been captured by the Boers and had escaped by a
marvel. From him he learnt the sad story of the battle, and the splendid
resistance of the troops till ammunition had been exhausted. He then
proceeded to visit Captain Maxwell, who was lying wounded in the hands of
the Boers, and afterwards engaged in carrying in the wounded on
stretchers, consoling the dying and tending the injured. Finally, after
Herculean labours, such sick as remained alive were carried off to
Pretoria. All, on this memorable day, behaved like heroes, but prominent
among them was Sergeant Rawdon, who worked a Maxim which was supporting
the D and F Companies of the Lincolns. While the others retired he stuck
to his gun under a concentrated fire from the enemy. As ill-luck would
have it his gun jammed, but the gallant fellow, undefeatable, dissected
the weapon, recoupled the parts, and resumed firing till the Maxim,
pocked with bullet marks, could be removed by volunteers of the D
Company!

An officer serving with General French described the sad events of the
day: "The Scots Greys were detached from their brigade, and one squadron
was sent to accompany a column under Colonel Roberts of the Lincoln
Regiment, which proceeded towards Commando Poort on the Crocodile River,
north-west of Pretoria.

"The fate of this column was briefly as follows. It encamped in a pass
with a poort on its front, consisting of high hills. The tops of these
hills were not occupied by our outposts, and at daybreak it was found
that the enemy had established himself there. The detachment of Greys and
Lincolns, with two guns, found themselves under a heavy fire, which
continued throughout the day. Our guns were unable to reply, as the Boers
were on high ground close on their front. The guns were abandoned, and
the fight was continued till evening, when our force surrendered. Major
Scobell, the squadron leader, escaped after having been taken prisoner,
and about fifty horses of the Greys were cut loose by the sergeant-major
and found their way back to our lines."

Simultaneously an attack was made by a commando under Grobler on the
outposts at Deerdepoort, about 8000 yards north of Wonderboom Fort. The
7th Dragoon Guards were briskly engaged, and Colonel Lowe with great
skill tackled the enemy, keeping the Dutchmen in check, and preventing
them from making a turning movement towards the extreme left of General
Pole-Carew's position. Some seventeen losses were sustained, however,
owing to the fact that the scouts mistook a party of Boers dressed in
khaki for the 14th Hussars, and were fired on at a range of 100 yards.
Few escaped, but these had managed to warn the regiment of the approach
of the enemy.

General Hutton in the meantime was opposing the southern detachment of
Boers near Lewpoort. He had four days' fighting, and finding that he was
being outflanked, asked for reinforcements. The 1st Cavalry Brigade left
Kameeldrift on the 9th of July, the 8th Hussars taking the place of the
Greys. On the 11th the Brigade carried Lewpoort Hill at the gallop--the
position for which General Hutton had been fighting before. Only one man
was lost in this operation. The Cavalry Brigade then went into camp at
Olifantsfontein, on the right of General Hutton's position at Reitvlei.
(The whole force continued to draw its supplies from Springs Station, the
terminus of a short mineral line from Johannesburg, where, at the end of
June, the Boers had been routed by the Canadians who garrisoned the
place.) The Dutchmen moved to some kopjes, and infested the high ground
on the east of Bronkhers Spruit. The outposts of the two forces were
continually in contact, and sniping was part of the daily programme.

The Cavalry remained at Olifantsfontein till after the 21st of July,
while preparing for a general advance towards Middelburg.

The list of casualties on that fatal 11th was a long one:--

     Near Deerdepoort: _Killed_:--7th Dragoon Guards--Second
     Lieutenant K. K. Mackellar. _Wounded_--Captain B. E. Church;
     Lieutenant H. A. Chomeley.

     At Nitral's Nek: _Killed_:--Royal Scots Greys--Lieutenant
     Conolly. Royal Dragoons--Second Lieutenant Pilkington. 2nd
     Lincoln--Lieutenant G. F. Prichard. _Wounded:_--Lincolnshire
     Regiment--Captain J. J. Howley, Lieutenant C. J. Rennie, Major
     E. Herapath.

     _Made Prisoners_:--Lincolnshire Regiment--Colonel H. R.
     Roberts, wounded; Lieutenant C. G. Lyall, unwounded.

     At Kaalboschfontein: Royal Scots Greys--Captain C. J. Mitchell,
     severely wounded.

Owing to the disaster at Nitral's Nek, it now became evident that all the
British movements within the capital were reported to the Boers--that, in
fact, they had organised an elaborate intelligence department, some of
their spies attending the markets as innocent farmers, while others
figured in khaki in the guise of British officers. Steps were taken to
identify _soi-disant_ soldiers attempting to pass through the lines, and
to clear out the natives who, either from fear or for pecuniary
advantage, were assisting in the transmission of information. Things in
Johannesburg were no better. It needed all the acumen of Colonel
Mackenzie, Director of Military Intelligence, to cope with the
duplicities of the rogues and vagabonds of all nationalities that spent
their time in hatching conspiracies. Three hundred and eighty of these
were put in prison, while their respective Consuls were communicated with
and held responsible for their good behaviour. In the course of these
proceedings the whole of a dramatic plot came to light, and the following
despatch, concisely describing the nature of the conspiracy, was
forwarded by Lord Roberts to the Secretary of State for War:--

     "The police and the Military Governor received information
     that, on the 14th July, the anniversary of the taking of
     Bastille, an attempt would be made to overpower garrison and
     murder British officers.

     "A race meeting was to take place on that day, and it was
     assumed that a large proportion of officers would attend it
     unarmed.

     "Bolder spirits among plotters were to go to the races armed,
     and murder officers, while an ostensibly French national
     gathering was to be the rallying point for the low class who
     were to murder all the police, and then take possession of the
     Government Offices, &c.

     "A Boer commander at Zwart Kop, to the north of the town, was
     in direct communication with the plotters.

     "By the 13th July the police were in possession of sufficient
     evidence to justify numerous arrests, which were accordingly
     carried out during the night of 13th to 14th.

     "At noon, 14th July, the Consuls of Germany, France, Sweden,
     and America, of which nations some subjects had been arrested,
     met the Commissioner of Police and discussed the question.

     "Each Consul concerned was furnished with a statement of the
     facts of the case.

     "The interview passed off most satisfactorily, and the Consuls
     expressed entire concurrence with action taken, and promised to
     render every assistance.

     "Between four hundred and five hundred arrests were made, but
     of these seventy-five were subsequently released on being
     vouched for by their respective Consuls."

The rest were deported, and none too soon, as will be seen.

On the 16th a new brigade, consisting of the Border Regiment, the King's
Own Scottish Borderers, the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, and the
Berkshires, under Colonel Cunningham, together with Colonel Hickman's
force of 1800 Mounted Infantry, various details, an Elswick battery, and
a Canadian battery attached to Colonel Cunningham's force, the whole
under General Ian Hamilton, was despatched to clear out the Boers from a
chain of hills on the north and north-west, in which they were
congregating. But their discretion prompted them, on receiving
information of the movement, to evacuate their position, and General
Hamilton moved unchallenged to Watervall, and from thence, on the 17th,
to Hamanskraal. Thus far the sweeping back of the northern portion of
the Boer crescent was satisfactorily accomplished, and the Boers were
forced towards their original position in the east, where Lord Roberts
eventually intended to drive them before him.

The fact was the Dutchmen, having found the right flank well guarded on
the 16th, had made a ferocious lunge at the left of General Pole-Carew's
position, and simultaneously all along the left. A tremendous day's
fighting followed, during which the posts held by the Royal Irish
Fusiliers, under Major Munn, the New Zealanders under Captain Vaughan,
the Canadians under Colonel Alderson, were defended with amazing valour
and persistence. So many officers distinguished themselves that it was
almost impossible to record their names. Colonel Clowes, who temporarily
commanded the 1st Cavalry Brigade on the extreme right of the line, was
commended by the Chief for his handling of his men. The gallantry of
Captain Barnes (R. A.), Major Hill, Lieutenants Knight and Hughes, Royal
Irish Fusiliers, was especially remarkable, the Irish officers having
defended their post against an onslaught at so close quarters that it was
possible to hear the raucous shouts of the enemy inviting the Fusiliers
to surrender! Heroic qualities were also displayed by two young Canadian
officers, Lieutenants Borden and Birch, 1st Canadian Mounted Rifles, who
were killed while leading their men in a counter-attack on the enemy's
flank at a critical juncture of the attack on the position. The loss of
young Borden was especially deplored. A soldier to the marrow, he had
been twice mentioned in despatches "for gallant and intrepid conduct." He
was the only son of the Canadian Minister of Militia, and was popular as
he was plucky. Among the wounded were Lieutenant C. Battye, Shropshire
Light Infantry; Civil Surgeon J. C. Willes, who was detained by the
Boers; Lieutenant J. Findlay, New Zealand Mounted Rifles; Captain Bourn
and Lieutenant J. Cameron, New Zealand Contingent (third), were missing.
Of the rank and file five men were killed (one Shropshire Light Infantry,
and four Royal Irish Fusiliers), twenty-six wounded and twenty-one
missing.

General Ian Hamilton and Colonel Mahon from Hamanskraal continued to
march eastward over country that was full of ruggedness, presenting
obstacles at every turn. The enemy, however, offered no opposition. Their
destination was Eerstefabrieken Station, where they joined hands with
General Pole-Carew's Division.

[Illustration: MAP ILLUSTRATING THE EASTWARD MOVE FROM EERSTEFABRIEKEN TO
MIDDELBURG.]

Lord Roberts now decided to advance, with a view to pushing back the
enemy, taking possession of the line to the Portuguese frontier, and
occupying the towns fringing thereon, thus diminishing the Boer
resources, breaking up their commandos, and reducing them rather to
guerilla bands than organised armies. The move was fraught with
difficulties, for every step gained implied so much loss to the bulk of
the main army, every point of the railway demanded its special guard--the
result being that, large as was Lord Roberts's force in theory, in action
it was daily thinning to an almost attenuated degree. It was impossible
to remain stationary, however. In the advance the same principles were
adopted as in the march from Bloemfontein to Pretoria, only now, while
General Pole-Carew continued to proceed along the railway, Generals
French and Hutton were to co-operate on his _right_, and General Ian
Hamilton to form the _left_ wing, and menace such Boers as hoped to
retreat to the north.

[Illustration: ALGOA BAY AND PORT ELIZABETH, FROM THE LIGHTHOUSE

Photo by Wilson, Aberdeen]

On the 23rd General Ian Hamilton took possession of Doornkraal (while
General Stephenson's Brigade occupied Elands River), and proceeded due
north of Bronkhers Spruit, thus so completely threatening the enemy's
line of retreat that they were forced to abandon the strong position
which they had hitherto been holding in face of General Pole-Carew's
Division. It was possible now to make an appreciable advance to the east.
The right was protected by the 1st and 4th Brigades of Cavalry (French)
and Hutton's Mounted Infantry, the former crossing to east of Wilge
River. There they came upon a huge body of the enemy, and succeeded in
driving them still farther back, and in taking many prisoners. One
officer, Lieutenant Ebsworth, 1st Australian Horse, was mortally wounded
during the encounter. The Boers, seeing the trend of affairs, quickly
scudded towards Lydenburg, whither Mr. Kruger was said to be travelling.
A certain number of the burly gang remained ensconced in the bush veldt,
where they hoped a few bridges might yet be destroyable, and unguarded
gaps of the line would offer invitation for the exercise of mischievous
ingenuity. Neither their position nor that of their hunters was to be
envied, for the rainy season had set in with roar and rampage, the wind,
blowing through the poorts that clave the ridges with which the landscape
was studded, roared like a giant through a fog-horn. At night the
freezing atmosphere nipped nose, toes, and eyelids, rain deluged, and
converted the whole surroundings into a vast universe of slime, till the
duties of the camp had to be executed in a series of ploughings and
plungings which were exhausting to man and beast.

On the 24th the Boers engaged French's Cavalry and Hutton's Mounted
Infantry about six miles south of Balmoral. Alderson's Mounted Infantry
attacked their right, while French made a wide turning movement to their
left, which proved entirely discomfiting, for the enemy rapidly "broke
and fled," followed by both forces. One officer, Lieutenant Wilson of the
Imperial Yeomanry, was wounded.

On the 25th Generals French and Hutton continued their pursuit of the
Dutchmen, and the former, having crossed Olifant's River, could view,
from the east bank, the enemy about seven miles off retiring in disorder
towards Middelburg. Violent efforts were made to be even with them, but
morass and sludge and temperature were in favour of the Boers. Finally
the pursuit had to be abandoned. Rain descended in torrents; the east
wind blustered, and the Mounted Infantry spent an ever-memorable night of
anguish on the west of the river where they bivouacked. One man died of
exposure, while the mules and oxen, uttering sounds that added horror to
the already horrific night, suffered so exceedingly that many were dead
by the dawn.

Owing to the exertions of the right and left wings of the advance, the
main army, without seeing a vestige of the Dutchmen, marched to Balmoral
where Generals Pole-Carew and Ian Hamilton concentrated, while General
French untiringly scoured more distant tracks towards the east.

By the 28th the Cavalry commander, having by his wide turning movement
driven the Dutchmen from the Wilge River beyond Middelburg, occupied the
latter place. He was now eighty miles east of Pretoria and within sixty
of Machadodorp, whither the Boers were trekking. Reinforced by Hutton's
Mounted Infantry and two regiments of Infantry, General French held the
line of the Klein Olifant's River. General Pole-Carew with the Guards
Brigade followed to Brug Spruit, twenty miles to west of Middelburg, but
Lord Roberts himself returned to Pretoria. The closing month found the
British firmly posted some ten miles west of Machadodorp, where they were
temporarily checked by the enemy, while General Ian Hamilton's column,
"looking very fit and workmanlike," were once more moved back to
Pretoria.


PROTECTING THE KRUGERSDORP-POTCHEFSTROOM RAILROAD[8]

Lord Methuen continued his task of diligently patrolling the district
from Heilbron to Kroonstad, and succeeded in capturing at Paardekraal,
half-way between the two places, the commandant of De Wet's Scouts, and
also Andries Wessels, a person of some magnitude in relation to the
Africander Bond.

Just before the tragic 11th of July, General Smith-Dorrien sent out
orders that the 19th Brigade, consisting of the Shropshire Light
Infantry, Gordon Highlanders, Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, and the
Royal Canadians, were to proceed by train to Krugersdorp, and marching
northwards were to co-operate with the Scots Greys, who were supposed to
be marching, on the said 11th of July, to meet them. On this day, the
Gordon Highlanders moved out in skirmishing order, protected on their
flanks by the Scottish Yeomanry under Sir James Miller, and two guns
under Lieutenant Turner, 78th Battery Royal Field Artillery. At
Dolverkranz they came in for a heavy fire from the two long low hills
where the enemy had posted themselves, to which a response was made by
the British guns, which had galloped up between the kopjes. Promptly the
Highlanders made for a kopje on the left which the Dutchmen naturally
coveted, and these scurried from their main position and poured vengeance
on the advance. Then, nearer approaching, they attacked the British guns
and their gunners, and the tornado on both sides was waxing both warm and
exhilarating when from the rear, to the dismay and horror of all, there
opened a volcano--spouts of death within 200 yards, bowling over the
horse of the brigade major, and trying to make matchwood of ambulance
waggons and baggage guard. Very soon fifteen out of seventeen British
gunners were hit, and at last Lieutenant Turner was seen serving his own
gun till wounded in three places. In the midst of the rampage, horror
followed horror. Just as the troops, thinking themselves surrounded, were
preparing to rush and capture the ridges of the main position, which
might shortly be remanned by the enemy, Lord Roberts sent a message
reporting the discomfiture of the Scots Greys at Nitral's Nek, and
commanding the cancelling of operations! Here was a situation! Colonel
MacBean hesitated. Was he to retire his Gordons and leave the guns in the
enemy's hands? Never! He called for volunteers to bring in the pieces,
and his Scotsmen leapt to the word. All could not be accepted--too large
a number must not be risked. Captains Gordon, Younger, and Allen, leading
a band of ten men, pushed forward in a blizzard from the Mausers of the
foe. Captain Younger, hit in three places, dropped, the others gloriously
struggled on, but in vain, to rescue the prized weapons of war. Still
undaunted, the Colonel asked permission to effect his object after dark,
and biding his time, held his fire-beaten ground till, in the gloom of
the evening, he could bring his team alongside of the guns and drag them
off into a place of safety. This was eventually accomplished. Meanwhile
Captain Younger--helpless, dying--had been borne out of the fray on the
back of a glorious fellow, M'Kay by name, who was no new hand at deeds of
valour, and had repeatedly faced death in order to tend the suffering.
Among others who were wounded was Captain Higginson, 2nd Shropshire Light
Infantry.

This hard day's work, the day of many heroes, set a brilliant seal on the
wonderful record of the 19th Brigade, which had been engaged in nearly
all the momentous actions in the Free State and Transvaal. Since its
formation on 12th of February it had marched 620 miles, often on half
rations and seldom on full. It had taken part in the capture of ten
towns, fought in ten general actions, and on twenty-seven other
occasions. Within a period of thirty days it had fought twenty-one times
and marched 327 miles. The casualties had been between four and five
hundred, the defeats nil!

The enemy continued active. Some of them, flitting about in the
neighbourhood of the line between Potchefstroom and Krugersdorp,
succeeded, on the 19th, in wrecking a train near Bank Station which was
carrying two officers and twenty-one sick men to the latter place. The
officers were Lieutenant Harris, Welsh Fusiliers, and Lieutenant
French-Brewster, Royal Fusiliers. Luckily no one was injured, for most of
the men were fairly convalescent.

Lord Methuen, who was clearing the country between Krugersdorp and
Rustenburg, occupied with little opposition the town of Heckpoort, which
lies on the road to Rustenburg, some fifteen miles north-west of
Krugersdorp. He then continued his march, and engaged the enemy's
rearguard near Zandfontein on the 20th, during which engagement one man
was killed and another wounded. Early on the 21st he was up and doing,
caught the enemy again at Olifant's Nek, and left him dilapidated and
retreating, thus, as he thought, saving Rustenburg from the overpowering
attentions which were at this time being lavished on General
Baden-Powell.

On the 22nd Colonels Airey and Lushington drove off 1000 Boers from a
strong position west of Pretoria, inflicting considerable loss and
sustaining some. Captain Robinson, Royal Marines, was killed, and five
men; nineteen men were wounded. Unluckily, as before said, the operations
in this region merely resembled the process of fanning off flies, which
were whisked from one corner to congregate in another.

About the same time the civilians who represented British authority had
some nasty experiences in Klerksdorp, where another commando threatened
them. The place was protected by some 120 armed men, and these, finding
themselves surrounded, had to take their choice between surrender or
stout defence. Many of the party belonged to the Kimberley Mounted Corps,
who at once made preparations to protect the town and hold it till their
last breath. But the gallant fellows received orders to surrender, and
had the humiliation of seeing the British flag torn to tatters and
trampled on by the burghers, who were only too glad to revenge themselves
for being thrust out of Klerksdorp some weeks before. The following were
taken prisoners: Lieutenant Blagden, Lieutenant Shepherd, Lieutenant
Purvis, Lieutenant W. A. White, all of the Kimberley Mounted Corps.

At Krugersdorp General Barton reconnoitered along the line to the station
where the train was wrecked on the 19th, and replenished the supplies of
Lord Methuen, who was moving on Potchefstroom, which place was reached at
the end of the month. On the eighteen miles' march from Frederickstad,
though the troops were engaged with the enemy the greater part of the
day, the casualties were few; but the Dutchmen, revenging themselves,
took up some of the rails on the Krugersdorp-Potchefstroom Railway, and
threw a supply train escorted by a detachment of the Shropshire Light
Infantry off the line, killing thirteen persons, including the
engine-driver, and causing injuries to thirty-nine more. This made a bad
termination for July, particularly disappointing, as General
Smith-Dorrien had told off special patrols to prevent trains from passing
over damaged parts of the rail, and a reason for the accidents was not
forthcoming.

The troops encamped near Frederickstad were set upon by Commandant
Lieseberg and his hordes, who, having requested the commanding officer to
surrender, had received the usual reply. The Dutchman was gallantly
routed by Colonel M'Kinnon and his dashing C.I.V., assisted by the
Suffolk and Bucks Yeomanry, before the arrival of Methuen's force, which
had been signalled for. In the course of the fray Captain A. V. Poynter,
10th Battalion Imperial Yeomanry, was dangerously wounded.

This somewhat inexplicable forward and backward march on the part of Lord
Methuen was due to the necessity of acting in co-operation with the
movement of troops on the north-west of Pretoria, and thus saving any
particular portion of the position from affording loopholes for the
junction of Boer commandos.

FOOTNOTES:

[8] See Map at p. 41.



CHAPTER V

IN THE WESTERN TRANSVAAL--CHASING DE WET--THE SIEGES OF RUSTENBURG AND
ELANDS RIVER


Before entering on the complications which occurred in the Western
Transvaal immediately after the return of Lord Roberts and General Ian
Hamilton from the Middelburg Campaign, it is necessary to remember that,
while the Chief's back was turned and most of the army was moving to the
east, and a certain portion was forced to guard Pretoria, Delarey's gang
had been mustering round the Magaliesberg range. Here, as we know, the
passes were but poorly, if at all, protected, owing to the disasters at
Deerdepoort and Nitral's Nek, which thinned the already thin British
forces. Therefore the direct road from Pretoria to Mafeking, the road
past Rustenburg, Elands River, and Ottoshoop, which it was imperative to
guard--and which was guarded by Colonel Hore at Elands River, General
Baden-Powell at Rustenburg, and Sir Frederick Carrington further on--was
seriously menaced by the hovering hordes of the enemy.

Indeed the Boers, after their petty triumphs at Nitral's and Commando
Neks, had continued so to cluster around Rustenburg, that towards the end
of July General Baden-Powell was in danger of enduring the miseries of a
second siege. The General prepared himself for all emergencies, and
investigated all the Boer arrangements for bombardment which were in
course of completion. Meanwhile he was aware that to his support Methuen,
with a force of 6000 men, was approaching Olifant's Nek, and Colonel
Plumer prepared himself to co-operate. Unluckily the synchronal
arrangements were imperfect, and the result was that the passes which
should have been blocked to the Boers were open, and their several forces
succeeded in effecting a junction, and menacing not only Rustenburg and
the Elands River Station, but the Krugersdorp-Potchefstroom railway line.
Therefore Lord Methuen promptly retraced his steps, and by the 23rd of
July, as we have seen, had moved back to Krugersdorp, leaving General
Baden-Powell to rely on the wits that had hitherto stood him in such good
stead.

At this time Colonel Airey sent information to Rustenburg which promised
to bring about the capture of Boers who were threatening a convoy that
was expected from Mafeking, and accordingly reinforcements were sent out,
but only to find that Colonel Airey's Australians had got into
difficulties, and that the enemy, having killed six, wounded nineteen,
and shot down their horses, were very much in the ascendant. The
Colonials were fairly trapped, and surrender stared them in the face.
Fortunately, at this juncture, Captain FitzClarence and the Protectorate
Regiment galloped up, threatening the rear of the assailants, and forced
them to make off with all possible speed. But from this date until at the
beginning of August, when relief was sent from Pretoria, Rustenburg
remained cut off from the outer world.

General Ian Hamilton with the opening of August started towards the west
on his way to Rustenburg to the rescue of General Baden-Powell's
garrison. Near Vitbaal Nek he encountered some opposition, but skilfully
brushed away the Dutchmen, losing in the fray two officers and five men
wounded. He succeeded in turning the enemy entirely off the Magaliesberg
Range, a feat which was mainly accomplished by the gallantry of the
Berkshires and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. The officers
wounded were Lieutenant-Colonel Rhodes, Berkshire Regiment, and Major G.
D. Williams. Thirty-nine men, twenty-six of whom belonged to the
Berkshires, were also injured. Their wounds were mostly of a serious
nature, as the seventeen prisoners who were taken, owned to the fact that
they had had soft-nosed bullets served out to them and used them.

The General reached Rustenburg on the 5th, and scattered the investing
Boers. He then heard the sound of firing in the direction of Elands
River, and soon it became known that the small force mounting guard there
was also in trouble. The fact was that at dawn on the morning of the 4th,
the garrison at Elands River--they arrived there on the day before to
guard the line between Zeerust and Rustenburg--was attacked by the Boers.
The force, which was commanded by Colonel Hore of Mafeking fame,
consisted of 140 Bushmen, 80 Rhodesians, and 80 Rhodesian Volunteers. Sir
Frederick Carrington, with a smart force of Yeomanry (Paget's Horse) and
Bushmen, about 700 rifles, and a 15-pounder battery manned by New
Zealanders, who was on his way to that region, being warned of the
trouble, had instantly hurried to the succour of the garrison. His troops
had reached Zeerust on the 1st, the Boers who were there decamping before
them in the direction of Elands River. The force followed them up and
fought them, but more Dutchmen--those pushed off from the neighbourhood
of Rustenburg--had added to the already large mass of the enemy, and made
further advance impracticable. General Carrington had barely realised the
impossibility of proceeding, when the report came in that Elands River
garrison had surrendered. He therefore decided to go no farther, but fall
back on Mafeking. This he did on the 9th, moving afterwards to Ottoshoop
with supplies for Lord Methuen, and engaging the enemy _en route_. His
casualties were somewhat large, but the fighting was of a desperate kind,
and the mettlesome New Zealanders were as usual to the fore. Captain J.
A. Harvey, New Zealand Mounted Infantry, and Lieutenant Gilpin, Victoria
Bushmen, were killed. Captain H. F. Fulton and Lieutenant R. W. Rollins,
New Zealand Rough Riders, were wounded. Captain R. Arbuthnot, Royal Irish
Regiment, was dangerously wounded. In the engagements prior to the return
to Mafeking, Major Paget, 20th Battalion Imperial Yeomanry, and
Lieutenant Webb were among the twelve wounded.

To return to General Hamilton. Having accomplished his mission, and freed
General Baden-Powell, and being advised that Colonel Hore had
surrendered, he was returning with General Baden-Powell and Colonel
Plumer to Commando Nek, when in came contradictory yet joyful news that
Elands River garrison was still holding out. Off went his mounted troops
to the rescue, while the unfortunates who had had to leave their homes in
Rustenburg, and the prisoners, among whom was a son of Kruger, were sent
on to Pretoria in charge of General Baden-Powell.

Meanwhile the small garrison at Brakfontein (Elands River), to whose aid
two forces had been moving, were fighting like demons, and making one of
the most magnificent stands of the war. Very little is known of their
pluck, their dexterity, and their heroism, but what little we do know
goes to prove that these Australians and Rhodesians were made of the
stuff that supplies the conquerors of the world. No sooner had they
comfortably settled down than they became aware of the close proximity of
Boers. Their camp was on a flat plain near a boulder-strewn kopje,
enclosed by a girdle of menacing hills which commanded not only them but
the nearest point of the river half a mile off. The Colonials looked and
saw, and came to their conclusion with rapidity: they were in a trap as
close as Cronje's, a trap which must be kept open as long as possible.
There were Boers already in the hills, but it was only on the morning of
the 4th that they knew the Boers had big guns--six of them--in position,
and meant to use them!

[Illustration: OFFICER OF THE VICTORIA MOUNTED RIFLES.

Photo by Gregory & Co., London.]

With dawn the overture had begun, an overture to a murderous opera, for
shells, 1500 in number, during that dismal day, were hurled over the
little British band. But these were not the fellows to be bombarded with
impunity. They examined their resources, looked ruefully at their one
gun, a muzzle-loader, which before long jammed, and became more of a
danger than a defence. The Boers' fire was too hot and snipers too
numerous to allow of remedy to the damage, so nothing could be done but
wait--wait for the kindly cloak of night. Then, the besieged set to work
with a will, brawny arms and knowing heads helping to construct trenches
and shelters, splinter proofs and tunnels, which should defy the
snorting weapons of the Dutchmen. But these, despite the darkness,
continued to snort and to shriek, and went on persistently till daybreak.
Then the besiegers varied the entertainment by directing at the
defenceless ones a pom-pom. This was as the last straw that breaks the
camel's back. Off rushed gallant young Aanat with twenty-five dashing
dare-devils, creeping, rifles in hand, into the bush, and then--the
pom-pom was silent! The Boers, chastened, were too cautious again to
approach it. But alas! at night this remarkable young Queenslander, so
full of grit and gallantry, dropped dead, a victim to the shells that
still poured intermittently into the camp. But his good work was done,
and the valiant Lieutenant, though he knew it not, had struck the keynote
of victory. His comrades swore with a tremendous oath that they would die
rather than give in, that the white flag should never float over those
five acres that were then the melancholy and diminutive symbol of British
Empire.

[Illustration: THE BATTLEFIELDS OF PRETORIA. (From a personal survey).
Scale 17 miles to an inch.]

The next day Delarey sent in to say that Rustenburg and Zeerust were
occupied by Boers, that they presently would be in possession of the
whole country, and he further mildly suggested that if they refused to
surrender, his 94-pounder "would blow them off the face of the earth."
Colonel Hore's reply stated that he was in command of Imperial troops who
would not surrender, and the ultimatum was met with renewed bombardment.
All day long the tempest of artillery raged. Then, to their joy, and also
to their anxiety, they heard the guns of Carrington coming to their
relief--the echo of them in the distant hills--and hope grew and grew,
and--waned. Carrington, as we know, had heard the report of their
surrender, and having given battle to an overwhelming force of Boers for
what he thought no purpose, had retired!

So, the 3000 Republicans in their hills laughed together, and trained
their guns on to the spot where, at night, they knew the gallant men who
defied them must water their horses and refresh themselves after their
long day's burrowing in the bowels of the earth. But these, emerging
parched and sinking from their subterranean holes, were still equal to
the ruses of their tormentors. Some took one way--the way towards the
longed-for river--while others took another, and went forth on sniping
operations which subdued, if they did not vanquish, their enemies, and
protected those who had to run through fire to reach the longed-for
draught. And so for eleven days the contest between Boer obstinacy and
British determination continued, till at last on the horizon the dust
rose and a rumour of the approach of Broadwood's Cavalry brought gladness
into a scene of desperation. But the little garrison by now was sadly
thinned, and the nature of the warlike activities may be guessed by the
casualty list. Five were killed, seven were mortally struck down, eleven
were wounded, and twenty-seven, though slightly injured, remained
combatants to the end! What the losses might have been had not the
ingenious Colonials applied their pluck and their wits to the scientific
construction of trenches, which defied the six big guns of the enemy,
cannot be discussed, for surrender would have been inevitable.

However, on the 16th, Colonel Hore and his doughty warriors were still
holding out when, to his intense relief, and that of his emaciated band
of heroes, the Boers were routed. Lord Kitchener had pressed to their
succour from the south-east. How Lord Kitchener contrived to push up and
arrive on the scene, may be told in a few words; but, to make the
movement intelligible, it is necessary to go back several days.

       *       *       *       *       *

On the 5th of August Lord Kitchener, who was operating south of the Vaal,
was joined by a strong detachment of what was familiarly known as
"Brabanditti," and also by the Canadian Regiment. The late Sirdar was
personally superintending the hunt after the wiliest of foxes, De Wet,
whose nimbleness since his rush from Stabbert's Nek was a matter for
marvel and admiration even to his opponents. On the one side of the
quarry was Lord Kitchener, with cavalry and mounted infantry; while on
the right bank of the Vaal was Lord Methuen, preparing to pounce on the
Dutchman's advance guard, which was known to have crossed the river.

Early on the 7th, Lord Methuen engaged a portion of De Wet's force, which
was occupying a strong position on a succession of kopjes near
Venterskroon. In brilliant style the Scots and the Welsh Fusiliers
charged hill after hill, driving the Boers therefrom, but without
frustrating the designs of De Wet, who had succeeded in getting across.
The fighting was costly, for seven men were killed, and among the wounded
officers were Major F. C. Meyrick and Lieutenant H. Gurney, both 5th
Battalion Imperial Yeomanry; Major A. P. G. Gough, Captain G. F.
Barttelot, Second Lieutenant E. A. T. Bayly, all Royal Welsh Fusiliers;
and also Lieutenant E. S. St. Quintin, 10th Battalion Imperial Yeomanry.

On the 9th, Lord Methuen fought a rearguard action near Buffel's Hoek,
captured six waggons, two ambulances, but--no De Wet. Lieutenant Knowles
was killed, and Colonel Younghusband was wounded. The fugitive, fleeing
before the forces of Kitchener at Gatsrand (south of the
Krugersdorp-Potchefstroom Railway) and those of Methuen still further to
the south-west, now strove to cross the rail at Welverdiend Station, and
in so doing dropped almost into the jaws of Smith-Dorrien, who promptly
engaged him. Into the plan for frustrating the Dutchman's design the City
Imperial Volunteers and the 2nd Shropshires flung themselves with zeal,
the former regiment marching thirty miles in seventeen hours, the latter
forty-three in thirty-two hours, in order, as they hoped, to be "in at
the finish." But De Wet accomplished his purpose and eluded all. Later
Lord Methuen, after a forced march of thirty-two miles, came in contact
with the Boer convoy, fought vigorously a whole day, recaptured one of
our guns lost at Stormberg, sixteen waggons of stores and ammunition, but
again--no De Wet. Still the troops were full of hopes, and telegrams home
said, "His capture is only a matter of hours."

But the Dutchman was more than their match. He blew up three waggons
rather than be impeded by them--(he always attributed Cronje's downfall
to the tenacity with which he clung to his waggons)--and let loose from
his camp sixty British prisoners and an officer, left behind thirty
wrecks of horses at Schoolplats, and even flung away ammunition. Having
thus thrown out ballast, as it were, he soared into the unknown. The
disappointment on all sides was extreme, for sometimes the troops had
been so close on the track that they had even boiled their kettles on the
camp fires left by their quarry. "Collisions, but no cornering," was the
terse telegram home of a youthful officer who had been keen in the hunt.
Colonel Ricardo (10th Battalion Imperial Yeomanry) whose gallant men had
displayed first-rate cavalry qualifications, had gone so far as to offer
£50 for the prize, dead or alive! Yet the _ignis fatuus_ danced gaily
ahead, but never within clutch! Still, clever as he showed himself to be,
it must be remembered he had everything in his favour. His spies were in
every farmhouse, and no inch of the country was strange to him; he could
burrow, circle, or climb by day or by night, while his pursuers, though
their waggons had double teams of picked animals, were forced to
relinquish their vigilance at sundown. So both Lords Methuen and
Kitchener found themselves outmarched, and De Wet (who had gone off
through Olifant's Nek in the Magaliesberg range, while Methuen was
blocking Magato Pass, some twelve miles further westward) doubtless
plumed himself on his ingenuity. The reason for his success lay in the
fact that, owing to some synchronal accident, General Baden-Powell on
vacating Olifant's Nek had not been immediately relieved by General Ian
Hamilton, who was due on the 13th. Lord Methuen, unaware of this hitch,
thought that by veering towards Magato Pass De Wet must effectually be
cornered, and discovered too late that his mighty marches and spirited
efforts had been thrown away. Thus in following De Wet's evolutions we
learnt not so much a lesson in strategy as a lesson in quick-wittedness.
Moral maxims teach us to catch time on the wing; De Wet taught us
more--to leap to the back of opportunity, and fly with it where it may
lead. As at Koorn Spruit so elsewhere. He jumped to his decisions and
acted on them at one and the same moment. At Koorn Spruit it was a matter
of minutes that made him master of the situation. At Stabbert's Nek it
was little more. He was informed that there must be some hours' delay in
the clicking of the padlock round the Brandwater basin, and he used those
hours, exactly as he had now used the synchronal hitch that left a gap at
Olifant's Nek between the evacuation of General Baden-Powell and the
arrival of General Ian Hamilton. Deliberation in all three cases would
have been fatal. He did not deliberate but acted, and in getting across
from the south of Orange River Colony to the north of Pretoria he showed
himself a born genius in the art of war. Lord Methuen, knowing further
pursuit to be useless, moved afterwards to Mafeking, where he could
recoup his force, and allow it to recuperate after having fought fourteen
engagements besides skirmishes innumerable since his march from Boshof in
May.

Lord Kitchener, saving his strength, diverted his course and rushed to
the rescue of Colonel Hore. He arrived, as we know, on the 16th, and
scattered the enemy with small loss to himself. Unluckily in the
collision one of the most active and brilliant of the heroes of the
campaign, Colonel De Lisle (Durham Light Infantry), was seriously
wounded.[9]

To resume. General Carrington, as we know, was at Ottoshoop, and General
Ian Hamilton, freed from the necessity to relieve Colonel Hore, was now
able to occupy Olifant's Nek in the Magaliesberg, which he did on the
17th, meeting with considerable opposition from the enemy. His advance
troops (under Colonel Mahon) having reached Roode Kopjes on the west bank
of the Crocodile River, came in for a full share of fighting, but the
operations were crowned with success, and finally General Hamilton
crossed the Crocodile River in a north-easterly direction, plus two Krupp
guns, some transport and ammunition waggons, and seven Boer prisoners.
The losses on our side were small, but unhappily Lieutenant Henry
Bradburn succumbed to his injuries.

[Illustration: COMMANDO'S NEK, MAGALIESBERG]

An interesting case of diamond cut diamond took place elsewhere, which
resulted in the temporary tracing of De Wet. General Baden-Powell, who
was now holding Commando Nek, received a messenger with a flag of truce
from the Boer commandant requiring him to surrender, his real purpose
being to discover the strength of the garrison. The General, with his
usual "slimness," replied demanding what terms he was prepared to offer,
his demand being formulated with the object of ascertaining whether De
Wet himself was conducting the operations! Each of the "slim" ones having
obtained the information he required--having crossed the swords of
intellect, as it were--De Wet proceeded on his way to the north, probably
to effect a junction with Delarey, and General Baden-Powell, chuckling,
"shadowed" him.

The 20th found an animated chase taking place on the north-west of
Pretoria. De Wet was scurrying north-eastwards from Hebron--which is
nineteen miles north-west of the capital, with Colonel Mahon at his
heels, General Paget menacing his right rear, and General
Baden-Powell--who was now encamped at Waterval, and whose soldierly
defenders of Mafeking had there been inspected and complimented by the
Chief--in readiness to assist. Both the latter officer and General
Paget, while moving up the Pietersburg railway between Haman's Kraal and
Pienaars River Station, became engaged with some of the roving commandos,
and unfortunately a gallant young fellow, Lieutenant Fordham Flowers,
Warwickshire Yeomanry, was killed. Lieutenant Kirkby (49th Company
Imperial Yeomanry) was severely wounded, and six men of various corps
were also injured.

The whole of the 21st was spent in warm contest with Grobler's forces,
with the result that the enemy was driven off, prevented from going west,
and the railway station was occupied by General Baden-Powell's forces.
But these hard marching days in the bush veldt, groping after the enemy,
involved lamentable sacrifice. The splendid Rhodesian Regiment lost many
of its fine fighters, but most notably Colonel Spreckley,[10] whose
services throughout Colonel Plumer's operations had been invaluable.
Lieutenant Irvine and six men were wounded, as also was Captain Kinsman
(Dublin Fusiliers). Captain Bolton, 1st Wiltshire Regiment, was also
wounded during General Paget's operations.

De Wet, finding himself cornered towards the east, had now whisked back
in the direction of the Magaliesberg with the intention of again trying
his success in Orange River Colony. His excursion from Bethlehem had been
costly. Starting, he had some 1500 men and six or eight guns, while
behind him in the hills were Prinsloo and some 5000 Dutchmen. He now was
returning to find the Bethlehem band on its way to Ceylon and his own
force thinned to attenuation. Poor De Wet! At this juncture his display
of talent in the field had bred a feeling of pity which was "akin to
love," and those who were most interested in his capture were those
loudest in appreciation of his sporting proclivities, and pronounced him
"a first-class fighting man." He certainly seemed never at a loss, and
even now, in making his way back to Orange Colony, chased and jaded as he
was, he pursued the mosquito tactics which worried, annoyed, and wore out
those who were subjected to them. To cover his crossing of the rail near
Bank Station on the Potchefstroom line, his ally Delarey with a large
force summoned the garrison (the City Imperial Volunteers, under Lord
Albemarle) to surrender. Of course, the summons was declined, but the
little interlude served De Wet's purpose and gave him the time he needed
to save his skin and gather himself together. Still, as he was fairly
crippled, and the recuperative period promised to be a long one, the main
operations against Botha on the east, which had been gradually planned
out, could now be begun.

[Illustration: DE WET From a Photograph]


PLOTS AND PROCLAMATIONS. AUGUST.--THE TRIAL OF CORDUA

Affairs in Pretoria and Johannesburg that preceded the warlike movements
connected with the Lydenburg campaign must now be briefly discussed. On
the 1st of August the Railway Pioneer Regiment arrived at Johannesburg,
and entered on its new duties, that of policing the mines. The Transvaal
constabulary, under Colonel Maxse, continued to increase in size--by this
time 700 Colonials had joined--and in the Court of Justice many actions
which, owing to lack of faith in Transvaal administration, had been set
aside during the war, were now brought up for adjudication. Things seemed
to be shaping themselves fairly well, notwithstanding the rumour that the
Boers intended to maintain guerilla warfare till the presidential
election in America in November was over, when intervention was promised
them. America was scarcely propitiated by the conduct of Theron's Scouts,
however, for a day later a train flying the stars and stripes, and
containing the American Consul-General, Colonel Stowe, was thrown off the
rails and burned at Honing Spruit. To be awakened at 1 A.M. by the hail
of bullets and the hurly-burly of derailed waggons is scarcely pleasing,
and Theron's mode of ingratiating himself with the Americans, if not
happy, was original. Seventeen bullets penetrated the carriage in which
the Consul was travelling, one of which struck a friend who was occupying
the compartment. Colonel Lord Algernon Gordon Lennox, who was journeying
south, was taken prisoner, together with forty men, but all were
liberated at the request of Colonel Stowe. Two, however, were killed by
the overturning of the waggons.

The next day a force of Mounted Infantry chased the Boers, but these,
later on, continued to hover in the neighbourhood of the line. Though
General Knox was operating north of Kroonstad, and had attacked them at
Rhenoster Kop, and driven them off with the loss of their cattle and
waggons, these operations, and others which were going forward in all
parts of the line, remained similar to the action of fanning away
gnats--the pests receded merely to buzz elsewhere! As an instance of
this, it was found that owing to the withdrawal of the garrison at
Springs (an important coal centre on the East Rand) the Boers had buzzed
back there, seized railway rolling stock, threatened the destruction of
the mines, and generally made themselves offensive. A regiment was sent
to retake the place. Meanwhile, at Waterval, they were giving trouble by
treachery. A party having notified to the officer commanding there their
intention to surrender, seized the occasion to attempt ambush and
assassination. Fifteen of Strathcona's Horse approached the place of
rendezvous--fortunately in extended order--and when within fifty yards of
the house three native scouts were shot--two wounded, and one killed.
That done, the sergeant was called on to surrender. "Never!" he shouted,
and before he could gallop off a bullet had pierced his heart. A trooper
was also wounded, and only discovered a day later by a patrol.

Examples of Boer treachery were continually being reported, and one
incident described by Reuter's correspondent served to show how
regardless were the enemy of the sacred oath of neutrality, and what a
farce was the administration of it.

     "A Boer ambulance sometime ago marched into our lines by error,
     thinking they were their own. The waggon was searched, and was
     found to contain a number of boxes of ammunition and seven
     burghers carrying arms. When the latter were searched, each was
     found to be carrying on him the oath of neutrality which he had
     subscribed in Bloemfontein."

But little else could be expected of a nation fed on deceit. Lies hot
from the Boer factory had continually been served out to the simple
farmers, and were still being foisted on them with a view to stimulating
their interest in further hostilities. At one time it was announced that
Lord Roberts had committed suicide, at another that the plague was
ravaging the British. Fabrications regarding American sympathy and
intervention were many, and they asserted that both the commandants, De
Wet and Botha, had indignantly refused the offer of bribes to surrender.
Among the lesser and wilder tarradiddles was the statement that the first
batch of Dublin Fusiliers who had been taken prisoners, had offered to
join the Boers, but their sympathetic overtures had been declined! These
fictions were swallowed greedily, and thus the "neutrals" were inveigled
into having a new lunge at the British, which lunge they firmly believed
might yet be effective.

Still the western districts of Cape Colony were becoming pacified, so
much so that Sir Charles Warren was able to leave for England, and the
command of the troops in the Colony was given over to Sir F. Forestier
Walker. On the 13th a sad discovery was made by Colonel Hickman. He came
on the body of Colonel Helyar,[11] who had been reported missing since
the end of July. The gallant officer, who had so nobly rendered his
services in the hour of the nation's distress, was deeply regretted. He
was buried with military honours, and Lord Roberts attended the
impressive ceremony.

General Paget's Brigade, which returned to Pretoria on the 14th, was
followed on the 23rd by Colonel Mackinnon and a wing of his sturdy
battalion of C.I.V. after a 224 mile march, accomplished in fourteen
days, of which one was a halt. In telegrams home the Chief expatiated on
the excellent and workmanlike appearance of the force and of the gallant
2nd Yorkshire Light Infantry and Munster Fusiliers, who had so
distinguished themselves in operations around Bethlehem.

While the military routine continued as usual, Pretoria was seething with
inordinate emotion and excitement. Early in August an alarming conspiracy
had been suddenly brought to light. The main feature of the plot was
simultaneously to assassinate the British officers in Pretoria, and to
carry off the Chief. The idea was to set fire to some big buildings on
the west of the town, in the hope of drawing thither the troops for the
purpose of extinguishing the flames. While this excitement distracted the
attention of the British force, the Boers and their allies in the town,
headed by the ringleader Cordua, were to combine and kidnap Lord Roberts,
posting off with him, on fleet horses kept ready for the purpose, to join
the nearest commando. The conspirators, about fifteen in number, ten of
whom were immediately arrested, had taken the oath of neutrality, which
especially stated that any contravention was liable to punishment under
martial law. This diabolical development in the tactics of a supposed
civilised belligerent naturally caused consternation not unmixed with
rage, and there was a general outcry against the leniency which had made
an abuse of trust possible, and a universal demand for more drastic
measures in dealing with an enemy who had descended from the level of
fine fighters to that of marauders and assassins. The trial of the
ringleader, Hans Cordua, a youth of twenty-three, formerly lieutenant of
the Staats Artillery, was opened on the 16th. The prisoner was charged
with having broken his parole, and attempted to abduct British officers,
to which charges he pleaded guilty. Evidence was then brought forward to
prove the extent and ramifications of the plot, the complicity of Botha
and others therein. The prisoner was ably defended by Mr. Berrange, who
endeavoured to show the complicity of the witness, Detective Gano, a
clever Mexican, who was accused by Cordua of having been instigator of
the plot. This imputation was denied by Gano, who declared that the plot
was already hatched when he was sounded on the subject. The accused, on
the other hand, declared his own unwillingness to join in the plot, and
pretended that he had been overpersuaded by the detective, who
represented that he was a pro-Boer in British employ, who, tired of his
position, desired to help the Boers. The detective gave evidence
rebutting these assertions, stating on oath that he had been employed to
carry out inquiries in regard to a suspected plot to injure persons and
property connected with the British troops. He obtained close
acquaintance with the prisoner for the purpose of discovering, in his
capacity as secret-service agent, the nature of the plot, and his actions
in relation to Cordua were conducted with a view to that end. With this
object he affected a desire to join the enemy, and had purposely behaved
so as to arouse suspicion and cause his own arrest, and with it that of
the prisoner. The trial was conducted with the utmost impartiality, and
at the close of the address for the defence the prisoner's counsel
thanked the court for all the facilities which he had been afforded for
the conduct of that defence. The prisoner was found guilty on all
charges, and was condemned to death. On the 24th he met his fate like a
brave man within the precincts of the gaol, General Maxwell, Colonel
Maxse, the chaplain, the doctor, and the firing squad being the only
persons present at the execution.

So ended one of the most remarkable episodes of the campaign, and the
career of a young enthusiast, whose curious ambition renders more
convincing the old aphorism that every blackguard is a hero spoilt.

Regarding the clever capture which averted a crime calculated to "stagger
humanity," the _Bloemfontein Post_ reproduced some details. These were
given to an interviewer by Gano himself:--

     "When the plot seemed to be nearly ripe," said Mr. Gano,
     "Cordua and I rode out of Pretoria one night to communicate
     with Botha, a fire burning on a kopje being the signal that his
     commando had arrived. Of course the authorities knew of
     Cordua's move, so I was ordered to accompany him to see what
     was really going to take place. Cordua was going to obtain for
     me a billet on Botha's staff, and that was the ostensible
     reason of my travelling with him. When we were some distance
     out in the direction of Silverton, I hinted to Cordua that it
     would be advisable for me to return to Pretoria with him, but
     he did not think it necessary.

     "This put me into rather a difficult position, but fortunately
     the commando was not at the kopje, and after riding round for
     hours we had to return. I knew he had some papers on him, but
     how to get at them was the difficulty. We both entered a
     farmhouse, and then I purposely so aroused the farmer's
     suspicions without giving myself away to Cordua that he sent
     for the English picket, and the farmhouse was surrounded. We
     were arrested and taken to a tent.

     "I wanted the officer to search us, but this he neglected to
     do, and Cordua still held the indispensable papers to prove the
     plot. Then I turned to Cordua suddenly and said: 'Quick, hand
     me your papers, they are going to search us.' He handed me some
     letters, and as I hastily put them in my pocket, I noticed him
     chewing, and later swallowing, a piece of paper. The letters
     were in cypher, and he had swallowed the key. But I had the
     letters, and that was something. My next move was to find out
     who were actively implicated in the plot. As we jolted along to
     Pretoria in an ox-waggon, I told Cordua it was a serious
     business for me; who would protect me should I escape? He gave
     me the names of several persons in Pretoria who would shelter
     me. When we reached the city I prevailed on the picket to take
     two cabs, and we were driven as prisoners to the
     Provost-Marshal's office. That is the story of how Cordua was
     captured, but my experiences were by no means ended there.

     "Cordua was still under the impression that I was a prisoner,
     an impression I wanted maintained, in order that I might lay
     hold of the other conspirators. When we were taken into the
     office, I therefore darted through a back door, and escaped
     into the street, the officer recognising me. I was instructed
     to continue my investigations, and went as an escaped prisoner
     to the house to which I was directed by Cordua, where I was
     concealed. The police, of course, kept searching for me, and
     soon after I was settled they came along. I was changed from
     one house to another with great rapidity. Sometimes there were
     shots fired during the operations, sometimes not; sometimes I
     even fired myself. I became quite expert at jumping out of back
     windows and over fences, but it was necessary in the interests
     of the service. After a short experience of this kind I was
     allowed to relinquish my rôle of escaped prisoner, and return
     to my ordinary duties."

It was now admitted that the Boers had misunderstood the principle of
leniency. They had used it as a cloak for further resistance, with the
result that precious lives were sacrificed, owing to the impossibility of
distinguishing between combatants and non-combatants, between supposed
neutrals and intending guerillas. Lord Roberts, therefore, found it
necessary to revoke his former proclamation--except in regard to those
who had already taken the oath--and promulgate a new set of rules of a
more stringent nature. In future all persons who had taken the oath and
broken it would be punished with death, imprisonment, or fine. All
burghers in districts occupied by British forces, except those who had
sworn the oath, would be regarded as prisoners of war and transported;
and all buildings, structures, and farms where the enemy's scouts were
harboured would be liable to be razed to the ground. All fines under the
former proclamation would be rigorously exacted, and prisoners were
warned to acquaint her Majesty's forces of the presence of the enemy on
their farms, otherwise they would be regarded as aiding and abetting the
enemy.

This new move afforded general satisfaction to those who had suffered
from the duplicity of the foe, and it was felt that the time was ripe for
the formal annexation of the country, whose capital was in our hands, and
for the intimation to Mr. Kruger that no longer could his scattered knots
of burghers be viewed in the light of belligerents, but merely as
irresponsible marauders.

In reference to Lord Roberts's proclamations, it is of interest to read
the following letter, which was addressed by "the envoys of the South
African Republic and of the Orange Free State to the Right Honourable the
Marquis of Salisbury, K.G.," by the "Consul-General temporarily in charge
of the interests of the South African Republic":--

     "ST. PETERSBURG, _August 18, 1900_.

     "EXCELLENCY,--According to a publication issued at Pretoria on
     June 25, 1900, under the designation, 'Government Gazette
     Extraordinary, vol. i. No. 7,' some proclamations have been
     addressed to inhabitants of the South African Republic by Lord
     Roberts, Field-Marshal, Commander-in-Chief of her Britannic
     Majesty's troops in South Africa.

     "By the first of those proclamations, dated Johannesburg, May
     31, 1900, it is, _inter alia_, announced to all burghers 'who
     have not taken a prominent part in the policy which has led to
     the war between her Majesty and the South African Republic,'
     &c., 'and who are willing to lay down their arms at once, to
     bind themselves by an oath to abstain from further
     participation in the war,' that they would be allowed, after
     taking the oath, to return to their homes (section 2 of the
     proclamation).

     "By the second proclamation, dated at Pretoria, June 6, 1900,
     it is, _inter alia_, notified that, in the event of any burgher
     being granted a pass under paragraph 2 of the above
     proclamation, he would be allowed to retain possession of his
     stock; or should any or all of this stock be required for the
     use of her Majesty's troops, he would receive current market
     value for the same in cash.

     "The undersigned, in the name of the Government of the South
     African Republic and the Government of the Orange Free State,
     feel themselves obliged most strenuously to protest against the
     intent of both these proclamations.

     "Because from these proclamations, taken in their mutual
     relation to each other, there appears to be no other deduction
     than that the burghers are only guaranteed retention of their
     property if they shall first have taken the oath referred to in
     paragraph 2 of the first-named proclamation clearly. The
     declaration set forth in the proclamation of June 6, 1900, only
     has sense if it is assumed that in the judgment of
     Field-Marshal Roberts the property of burghers (even of those
     who have taken no 'prominent part' in the policy which led to
     the war) may be taken away from them by him solely on the
     ground of there being war between England and the South African
     Republic.

     "This now is in direct conflict with principles of
     international law in force for ages already, according to which
     private property, not being contraband of war, must be
     respected in war with the country, and which have been once
     more expressly acknowledged by Article 46 (being a part of the
     3rd Section, entitled 'De l'autorité militaire en le territoire
     de l'état ennemi') of the declaration annexed to the
     'Convention concernant les lois et coutumes de la guerre sur
     terre,' which was also signed on behalf of her Britannic
     Majesty. Said article reads as follows:--

     "'L'honneur et les droits de la famille, la vie des individus,
     et la propriété privée, ainsi que les convictions religieuses
     et l'exercice des cultes, doivent être respectés. La propriété
     privée ne peut pas être confisquée.'

     "Although the South African Republics are not included amongst
     the contracting Powers, the principles enunciated in the
     article quoted may none the less be invoked by them, because
     that article does nothing more than formulate what during ages
     has been common right in war between civilised nations.

     "By further proclamations of June 16, marked A 1 and A 2, the
     threat is made in case of damage occasioned to railways and
     telegraph lines that the principal inhabitants of the villages
     and districts affected would be held jointly and severally
     responsible for such damage; moreover, a heavy fine would be
     imposed, and nothing be paid for goods delivered; also that
     houses and farms in the neighbourhood would be devastated, and
     that one or more of the inhabitants would be taken along in
     trains used for purposes of war.

     "By these proclamations punishments are threatened for actions
     whereto a belligerent party has every right, and the infliction
     of those punishments are by anticipation provided for even for
     cases wherein no proof whatever of guilt is furnished, private
     property is confiscated and destroyed, and an attempt is made
     to make burghers appear against one another.

     "Against the intent also of both these proclamations, which
     violate every sense of right, the undersigned desire to record
     their most strenuous protest.

    "The Envoys,
    "W. J. LEYDS.
    "A. FISCHER.
    "C. H. WESSELS.
    "A. D. W. WOLMARANS.

     "His Excellency the Right Hon. the Marquis of Salisbury, Prime
     Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs, &c., London."

Elsewhere the Dutchmen continued to make themselves obnoxious. On the
morning of the 27th Major Brooke, R.E., commanding at Kraai Railway
Station, had come in for his share of annoyance, some Boers having lodged
themselves in a kopje preparatory to pouncing on the rail. The Major with
a hundred men promptly went forth to tackle the conspirators, and with
the assistance of this small but plucky crew, notable among them the
brave fellows, Lieutenant Maurice Griffith and Sergeant Hannam (Volunteer
Company Royal Welsh Fusiliers) and Sergeant Southrood (Cape Garrison
Artillery), he succeeded in completely routing the Dutchmen, who left
five dead on the field.

FOOTNOTES:

[9] In order to fully appreciate the excitement of the De Wet chase, it
is interesting to read the account, contributed by the editors of _St.
Paul's School Magazine_, of a British prisoner who perforce was with the
hunted: "On the seventh day of our captivity we joined De Wet's commandos
as they were crossing the Vaal, going north to Lindique. As we arrived at
the Vaal a battle was in progress with Lord Methuen's force, which had
come down from Potchefstroom. We were hurried across Schoeman's Drift,
and barely cleared the drift when British infantry appeared, lining the
ridges commanding the drift, and we came under a heavy rifle fire. We
joined up with De Wet's waggons, who were trekking as fast as they could
towards Wolve Nek. A very steep ridge of hills runs from Schoeman's Drift
in a north-easterly direction, parallel with the Vaal River. De Wet held
a very strong position here. Lord Methuen's force was on the west and
north-west, and Lord Kitchener's cavalry and mounted infantry column was
on the southern bank of the Vaal. We remained here twenty-four hours, and
could see the British columns closing in on De Wet's laagers. It was here
the Boer general did a smart thing. Seeing that his only plan was to
break up his laagers, directly night came he moved his waggons out and
spread them in a long line along the roads that led out of the hills in
horse-shoe shape, commanding both western and eastern ridges. This gave
him two alternate routes to escape by, and commanded the narrow neks
where the three ridges of hills running in a north-east direction met at
an apex. Theron's force, with whom we still remained, were camped a mile
south of the front bend of the horse-shoe laagers, and nearest to the
British lines. At daybreak the following morning the Boers were caught
napping; a tremendous commotion was observable, and our inquiry elicited
the two words, 'Khaki's coming!' And no mistake, for during the night the
British had occupied a ridge on the west, flanking and commanding the
western end of the horse-shoe, and with the first grey streaks of dawn
bang came their shells into the waggons. The Boers scattered, abandoned
eight waggons, took half their convoy by the main road to the north, and
the balance, with their main column, the road to the north-east, Theron's
crowd and De Wet's burghers covering their rear. I saw at a glance we
were in an awkward fix, with two alternatives--either blown to pieces
where we stood, or run the gauntlet of a direct flank fire. De Wet soon
settled it, and ran the gauntlet. Away we went helter-skelter up the
steep slopes of the hills, aiming for an almost impossible-looking pass,
strewn with gigantic boulders and small stones. We had just reached the
pass when three waggons toppled over and fell down the gorge, and every
moment we expected the same fate. The pass selected was an inconceivable
place for vehicles to get through, but the Boer has a happy knack of
negotiating difficult country. Over through the nek we went bumping and
thumping on the boulders, and directly we showed on the other side we
were greeted with shell, as British artillery had gained a position
covering our exit. Shell after shell came whizzing over our heads; one
struck ten yards on the right of our cart, another shaved our left, a
third whizzed close by my head, causing a deafening sensation in my ears,
and a fourth plumped right down in front of our leading horses, killing
both. A crash, and over went the cart, flinging us through the air in
company with mailbags, Mausers, and cushions, landing amongst a pile of
boulders. With great difficulty the Boers righted the cart, pulled the
hood down, as being too conspicuous a mark, and putting in two horses we
dashed off. Fortunately, when we toppled over the British stopped
shelling, but directly we started, whiz! bang! came the shells, until we
reached a dip in the road, which shielded us from view, and, dashing on,
we caught up their main body, a mass of Cape carts and guns, yelling and
shrieking drivers, flogging their oxen and urging them on, while the
rattle of Mausers and boom of guns showed that a fierce rearguard action
was in progress. Again we were doomed to disappointment. Shelled by our
comrades, within an ace of being killed, we had the mortification of
being dragged away from the scene of what might have been our
deliverance. All through the broiling hot day we pushed on, never halting
until 6 P.M., to enable the rearguard to close up. We were on the move
again at 10 P.M. to midnight; then on at 2 A.M., climbing the Gatsrand,
and halting at 7 in the morning. Again on the march at 8 to 10 A.M.;
twenty hours' continuous trekking out of the twenty-four, covering a
distance of close upon 40 miles. Here we rested until 2 P.M., then
inspanned, and crossed a high ridge of the Gatsrand near Wolvaardt. As we
reached the top of this ridge we heard the boom of British artillery,
showing that we were being closely followed up. This welcome sound to us
caused the Boers to redouble their efforts, and we went scrambling,
tumbling, and slipping down the slopes of the Gatsrand at breakneck
speed, halting at 7 P.M. a few miles from the Potchefstroom-Krugersdorp
railway. At 8 P.M. we crossed this railway near Welverdiend, the Boers
blowing up the line in half-a-dozen places. Pushing on to 1 A.M., De Wet
thought he had outdistanced his pursuers, and felt safe, especially as he
was reinforced here by 1500 burghers and some guns. Our position now was
near to Bosman's Kop and Rietfontein, and we had covered about 95 miles
from Schoeman's Drift in 46 hours, fighting a rearguard action the whole
time. I here learnt our objective was the fastness of the Magaliesberg
mountains, to effect a junction with Delarey's commandos. At 8 P.M., to
De Wet's consternation, artillery fire was heard close to his left rear
flank, which turned out to be either Lord Kitchener's, Smith-Dorrien's,
or Lord Methuen's force shelling the Boer left rearguard, posted in some
kopjes near Klerkskraal, while the British field battery of horse
artillery were paying attention to his convoy. A shell burst on the
waggon containing British prisoners, wounding three men. The Boer guard
fled, and sixty out of eighty British soldiers made a rush in the
confusion for the British lines. De Wet was so closely pressed here that
he abandoned a gun and hastily left his position, trekking night and day
to reach the bush veldt of the Magaliesberg, where he knew kopjes or
ridges offered excellent positions to hold and detain the British from
following him up too closely. We pushed on the following day, climbing
the Magaliesberg, while a stiff rearguard action was being fought with
Lord Kitchener's combined forces, and, dropping into the Hox River
valley, pushed on till we reached the Olifant's Nek. De Wet was now
comparatively safe, having the mountains behind and between him and the
British force. A day or so after reaching Olifant's Nek all the British
prisoners taken at Klerksdorp, Potchefstroom, and ourselves were
collected and placed in four ox waggons, with an escort of 100 burghers,
and proceeded through Rustenburg, our ultimate destination being
Nooitgedacht."

[10] Lieutenant-Colonel Spreckley was the son of the late Mr. George
Spreckley of Derby, and was born in 1865. After spending four years on an
ostrich farm, he joined the British Bechuanaland Police in 1885, and
remained two years. He was quartermaster in the South Africa Company's
pioneer expedition to Mashonaland in 1890, and a Mining Commissioner in
Rhodesia from 1891 to 1894. He served with the Salisbury Horse against
the Matabele in 1893 and 1894, for which he was awarded a medal, and on
the outbreak of the Matabele rebellion in 1896 he was appointed
lieutenant-colonel of the volunteer force which fought against the
rebels. He greatly distinguished himself during that campaign, and Sir
Frederick Carrington spoke highly of him in his despatches. He did good
service in the conduct of a successful engagement at Umquasa, and
commanded an important patrol to Shiloh and Inyati. His services were
rewarded with a C.M.G. He was manager of the Willoughby Consolidated
Company at Buluwayo. He, with Colonel Plumer, had fought during the
various engagements on the Transvaal border, and was present at the
relief of Mafeking.

[11] Colonel Helyar obtained his commission on February 2, 1864; he was
promoted to lieutenant on December 1, 1868, obtained his company on
October 31, 1871, was gazetted major on October 15, 1881, was promoted to
lieutenant-colonel on April 15, 1891, and became a colonel on April 15,
1895. He retired on half-pay on October 26, 1895, but volunteered his
service for South Africa, where he was given the command of a battalion
of Imperial Yeomanry.



CHAPTER VI

GENERAL BULLER IN JULY AND AUGUST--CLEARING THE COUNTRY FROM VOLKSRUST TO
BELFAST[12]


Before narrating the events which concluded the month of August, it is
necessary to return to General Buller and follow his sweeping operations
on the Natal frontier, which operations allowed him to penetrate further
into the Transvaal and eventually to scour the country from the Natal
railway line to that of the Delagoa Bay railway. By glancing at the map
it is possible to draw a straight line from Volksrust and Amersfoort
_viâ_ Ermelo to Wonderfontein near Belfast, and having drawn it to
understand the object of the movements which occupied the end of July and
the beginning of August. Before that straight line (which represents Sir
Redvers Buller's march to join hands with Lord Roberts's force) could be
followed, it was imperative to secure the whole railway line from
Volksrust to Johannesburg, and that being guarded behind him it was
possible for the General to march straight across country, brushing back,
as he went, the Boers who gradually were being heaped like a wave to
north-east of him, and further on, astride the Delagoa Bay line.

First, then, to watch the securing of the Natal and Johannesburg line.
General Clery occupied Greylingstad (midway between Standerton and
Heidelberg) on the 2nd of July, and though there was some sniping and
several men were wounded, very little serious opposition was offered.
Meanwhile General Talbot Coke with the 10th Brigade was reconnoitring the
ground towards Amersfoort, situated between Volksrust and Ermelo, where
the enemy in some force made himself known, killing two and wounding six
men. After having retaliated with his guns the General retired. On the
3rd General Hart, who, as we know, had joined General Hunter after
General Ian Hamilton's accident, received the surrender of many
respectable Boers in Heidelberg, and the Soldiers' Home was opened, the
inhabitants assisting in the initial outlay to the tune of £40. On the
4th Generals Clery and Hart joined hands at Vlakfontein, thus securing
the line. Progress was slow and sure. Trains were now able to run from
Natal to Greylingstad, though beyond that place there were still damaged
culverts and ruined rails. But these were immediately taken in hand and
the line to Heidelberg restored, thereby rendering the railway
communication between Natal, Johannesburg, and Pretoria complete.

[Illustration: BOERS TAKING THE OATH OF NEUTRALITY AT GREYLINGSTAD

Drawing by H. M. Paget, from a Sketch by Lieut. E. B. Knox, R.A.M.C.]

Thus ended the first stage of the new campaign. But the Boers were by no
means inactive, and Botha kept a hungry eye on the improving
communications. A convoy on its way to Vlakfontein was vigorously shelled
by the Dutchmen from a formidable position among the hills. Their nearest
shell fell within twenty yards of the waggons. The bombardment continued
for an uncomfortable period, until the Boer duet became a quartette by
the prompt action of a section of the Chestnut Battery under Lieutenant
Eden, whose two guns in the open finally outvoiced those of the Boers on
the hills. One brave gunner was killed and one wounded, six horses were
disabled, and an ammunition waggon overturned, but the valuable convoy
was saved. To check the activity of the Boers, General Clery on the 12th
moved east from Greylingstad to a point on the road between Standerton
and Heidelberg, while Lord Dundonald and his invaluable South African
Light Horse routed the Boers and captured a camp belonging to them in the
region of Vlaklaagte Station. Thorneycroft's Horse and Strathcona's
gallant corps were also playing a rival game of indefatigability with the
Boers.

On the 21st Major English (Royal Dublin Fusiliers), who was commanding a
post at Railhead, thirteen miles east of Heidelberg, was attacked at
daybreak by Botha, who was evidently anxious to imitate the tactics of
Delarey at Nitral's Nek. The position was garrisoned by two companies of
the Dublin Fusiliers, 110 Royal Engineers, and ten Yeomanry. Fortunately
Major English had skilfully fortified his post and prepared himself for
such surprises. He instantly telegraphed for assistance to Heidelberg,
whereupon General Hart started to his succour with two guns, a "pom-pom,"
and 140 Marshall's Horse and Yeomanry. The Boers meanwhile had begun to
pound the garrison with three guns and a pom-pom, and they having
entirely surrounded it, the position at noon was scarcely enviable. But
owing to the first-class fighting quality of the Irishmen, and the
military prescience of their commander, the Boers were worsted. Major
English himself was slightly wounded by a shell.

General Clery's troops arrived at Grootspruit on the 23rd, and finding no
trace of the enemy afterwards returned to Greylingstad. General Hildyard
meanwhile operated in the neighbourhood of Volksrust hunting the foe from
the rail and clearing the surrounding region.

On the night of the 26th the post guarding the railway station at
Vlaklaagte was twice attacked, but without success. General Clery on the
following day reached Sugarbush Spruit, ten miles east of Heidelberg,
near where the Boers were so valorously repulsed on the 21st. At the end
of the month he had completed the disposition of his forces along the
railway as far as Heidelberg, where General Cooper now replaced General
Hart.


FROM AMERSFOORT TO VAN WYKS VLEI

August brought a renewal of activities. Major Gough, with four companies
of Mounted Infantry, two pom-poms, and four field-pieces, accomplished a
clever piece of work after the smartest Boer pattern. Moving from
Standerton by night, he came before dawn on a Boer laager, opened a heavy
shell fire by way of reveillé, broke up the camp, sent some 300 Dutchmen
scampering into space, captured 150 of Delange's cattle, burnt his house,
and returned to camp, having effectually cleared the air on the right
flank! And all this without a single casualty.

Through the defeat of Prinsloo in the Orange Colony, Sir Redvers Buller
was now freed from the task of dividing the southern from the northern
Boer forces, and was able to plan a move from Paardekop which should cut
due north over the open veldt towards the Delagoa Bay railway, and enable
him to assist the movement already begun by Lord Roberts, but at that
time somewhat checked in consequence of lack of horses and supplies.

On the 7th the General began the cross-country march in the direction of
Ermelo, squeezing back his adversaries towards Machadodorp as he went.
Before him he drove from one frowning and well-entrenched kopje to
another, some 2000 Dutchmen under Christian Botha, with six pieces of
cannon and four pom-poms, reaching and occupying Amersfoort on the same
night. As usual, General Dundonald's brilliant warrior, Gough, had been
to the fore, both he and Steward having scoured and scouted in advance
with such dash and enterprise that the Infantry--1st King's Royal Rifles,
Liverpools, Gordons, and their gallant Volunteer Company--were enabled to
push their way, climbing hill after hill to find it deserted, and
covering eighteen miles in the course of the day. The advance was made on
a front as wide as twenty miles, on account of the extent of hidden
country to be scoured. During the day's actions, Captain L. B. Cumberland
and Second Lieutenant F. L. Pardoe, 1st King's Royal Rifle Corps, were
wounded.

Sir Redvers Buller continued his march northward, and reached Rietspruit,
eight miles north of Amersfoort, crossing the Vaal at Beginderlyn. The
force marched into Ermelo on the 11th, having met with little opposition,
and on the following day Dr. Everett, who was in charge of the ambulance,
handed over the keys of the public offices. One bag of mails was secured.
On the safes, according to Reuter's correspondent, a Boer official had
chalked, "No blooming oof"--a truthful and terse statement which was,
however, characteristic of the blossoming Briton.

On went the troops--the cavalry to Carolina--meeting with no opposition,
owing to the fact that in the interval some 182 burghers of the
Standerton commando had surrendered to General Clery, while others were
evidently oscillating between discretion and valour. General Buller
himself halted at Twyfelaar till the 21st, in order to replenish his
supplies and establish communication with Pretoria. His scouts came in
touch with those of General French, who was operating round
Wonderfontein.

Meanwhile, on the 14th of August, General Clery had continued his
activities. Captain Reynolds and twenty-two non-commissioned officers and
men of the 5th Dragoon Guards completely surprised the Boers near Dornkop
and caused them considerable loss, though Captain Reynolds was himself
wounded in the spirited encounter. The Boers were still gathered some ten
miles beyond Carolina, peeping in there occasionally with caution, but
soon making off in fear of a surprise. Between Carolina and Machadodorp
where the Boer leaders, Botha, Meyer, Schalk-Burger, Fourie, and
Smuts--the last wounded seriously--were said to be, there were many
laagers, all of which were carefully located by Strathcona's Scouts.

On the 21st General Buller moved to Van Wyks Vlei, fifteen miles due
south of Belfast. Near here a British detached party encountering the
enemy, who seemed to be in force, had a very rough time. The Gordons were
forced to return to camp under cover of dusk, while the Lancers, who were
acting as scouts, remained for some hours dodging the heavy fusilades of
the enemy, who had contrived to spring up on three sides of them.
Lieutenant Field (18th Hussars) and Captain Ellershaw (Royal Artillery)
were wounded, seven of the Gordon Highlanders were slain and twenty men
were wounded, while five were missing.

An exciting episode also took place on the 22nd at Newcastle, where were
stationed the 13th Hussars. A portion of this regiment came into
collision with some of the enemy, and during the encounter Major W. C.
Smithson and Second Lieutenant C. E. Jenkins were wounded. One man was
killed and another wounded. Young Jenkins was taken prisoner under
somewhat heroic circumstances. While he was lying helpless, a trooper
came to his aid and insisted on giving up his own horse in order that the
young officer might escape. "It won't matter if they collar me," argued
the brave fellow. But Mr. Jenkins sturdily refused to accept the
sacrifice, and thus fell into the hands of the Boers.

The enemy made a desperate effort on the 23rd to prevent General Buller
from reaching Belfast. They endeavoured to lay a trap for the cavalry,
opening on them at fairly short range with a long-range 15-pounder and
pom-poms. A section of the 21st Battery, under Lieutenant Rainsford,
promptly set to work to silence them, and the ruse failed. But at night,
when the turmoil of the day was thought to be over, through an accident,
two companies of the Liverpools, who had advanced into a hollow out of
sight of the main body, were surrounded and suffered severely. The
casualties, morning and evening, made a long total. South African Light
Horse: wounded, Captain A. Savory (since dead) and two men. Royal
Artillery: killed, one man; wounded, Lieutenant F. Rainsford-Hannay and
two men. Army Veterinary Department: wounded, Lieutenant J. Steele. 1st
Liverpool Regiment: killed, ten men; wounded, Captain Plomer, who was
taken prisoner, and forty-five men; missing, thirty-two. Leicester
Regiment: killed, one man; wounded, six; missing, one. 1st Royal
Inniskilling Fusiliers: wounded, one man.

On the following day some more fighting took place, prior to the
General's arrival at Belfast, Lieutenant Tarbet, 1st Yorkshire Mounted
Infantry, and thirteen men being wounded.

On the 25th, General Buller reached his destination, and met Lord Roberts
in order to discuss at a council of war the operations which made the
closing act of the drama.

FOOTNOTES:

[12] See Map, p. 33.



CHAPTER VII

THE LYDENBURG CAMPAIGN


Lord Roberts moved, _viâ_ Wonderfontein, to Belfast, which had been
previously occupied by General Pole-Carew. The Chief arrived on the 25th
of August, and immediately proceeded to order a reconnaissance of the
Boer position between Belfast and Dalmanutha, south-west of which place,
about six miles off, were the forces of Generals Buller and French. The
Boers were ensconced in a perfect chain of ridges--a frowning rampart of
menace, thirty miles in extent--some 8000 yards east of the station,
where they evidently intended to dispute possession of every inch of the
ground to Machadodorp, and whence it was the intention of the
Commander-in-Chief to sweep them.

The Field-Marshal called together his generals--Sir Redvers Buller, and
Generals French and Pole-Carew--and their several rôles in the
forthcoming operations were discussed. General Buller was to advance on
the right flank, General Pole-Carew as usual to maintain a central
position, while General French's Cavalry Brigades would fly well to left,
scouring again the terrible country towards Machadodorp and beyond it.

Almost immediately General Buller's force was shelled by the Boers, and
so also was General Stephenson's Brigade on the extreme left, the General
himself having a narrow escape from a hostile pom-pom. The town was also
liberally attacked, and the enemy, with long-range guns from Dalmanutha,
made a stubborn defence of their ground, even trying to squeeze a small
force to the rear of General French, a manoeuvre which was quickly
frustrated. General Buller continued to push steadily forward, with
General French on his flank, driving back Boers as he went, and
bivouacking on the ground he had gained.

The whole of the 26th was spent in furious fighting over the whole
thirty-mile radius, the bellowing of guns multifarious continuing from
dawn till sunset. Lyttelton's Division (General Buller directing), with
two brigades of cavalry, operated south-west of Dalmanutha; while
French's cavalry, moving north by the west of Belfast, crumpled back the
foe towards a place on the Belfast-Lydenburg road, called Lekenvlei.
General Buller was supported by the Guards Brigade, who advanced steadily
from Belfast in spite of an enfilading fire, contesting their way against
a clamorous tornado of Dutch artillery--Long Toms, pom-poms, and many
other formidable weapons, accompanied by Mausers, which persistently
continued their flute-like concert--till both belligerents were enveloped
in the eerie shadows of night. The cavalry operated over uncongenial
ground, well suited to the tactics of the Boers and consequently
hazardous to themselves; but only one officer, Captain Harrison (Scots
Greys), was seriously wounded.

[Illustration: A CAPITAL ON WHEELS: MR. KRUGER'S SEAT OF GOVERNMENT AT
MACHADODORP]

On the 27th came the grand attack which may be said to have broken the
back of the Boer army. General Buller, having found it impossible on the
previous day to find an artillery position whence the infantry could be
assisted in an attack, sent forward on the morning of the 27th the 2nd
Cavalry Brigade (General Brocklehurst), "A" Battery R.H.A. (Major
Burrows), 53rd Battery R.F.A. (Major Gordon), two pom-poms, and the 4th
Division Mounted Infantry (Major Stewart), towards a commanding ridge
which ran from Belfast on the south side of the railway towards
Dalmanutha. Here the Boers occupied about a mile or two of frontage, the
centre being a picturesque homestead called Bergandal Farm, the kopjes on
the left being thickly peopled with the enemy. Having obtained excellent
artillery positions, the General directed the fire of all the British
guns on this farm. Quickly the gunners got to work, and a fierce
bombardment commenced and continued to grow heavier and heavier as the
moments wore on, till at last the roar and rampage sounded as though
Vulcan were holding festival in the bosom of the hills.

The place was described by General Buller as a "natural fortress
surrounded by a glacis of about 1500 yards absolutely without cover."
Others who saw it looked upon it in the light of another Spion Kop, yet
this the infantry were ordered to assault. General Kitchener directed
Colonel Metcalfe to move the 1st Battalion Rifle Brigade under cover of
the ridge from which the guns were firing, and place his battalion across
the main east and west ridge, on which the farm stood, and assault it
frontally from the west. Colonel Payne was at the same time to move the
Inniskilling Fusiliers down the face of the gun ridge, and assault the
flank of the position from the south, the 1st Devons supporting the left
centre, the 2nd Gordons the right attack. At the moment of starting the
leading companies of Inniskillings were assailed by an accurate and
deadly fire from the Boer pom-pom, which was somewhat staggering, but
nevertheless without loss of time they reformed themselves, and,
"admirably led by their commanding officers," pressed on and on against
the stubborn foe. These only gave way when the troops were absolutely in
among them, many continuing to fire till actually made prisoners.

General Buller described the attack made without the assistance of any
cover as a most gallant one. "The moment the kopje was carried the Rifle
Brigade, although they lost their Colonel (who, to our great regret, was
wounded while gallantly leading the advance), at once reformed, and swept
on their own initiative up the plateau, carrying all before them,
supported by the Devons, who had got up on the left, and the Gordons and
Inniskillings who joined in on the right." He went on to say, "The
honours of the assault belong to the Rifle Brigade, as they had to attack
that part of the kopje which had been most protected from our artillery
fire, but all the troops did splendidly, and the carrying of such a
position, held as it was by resolute men, will always remain present to
the minds of those who witnessed it as a most gallant feat of arms."

The gunners had a terrific day's work, but on this occasion they seemed
to have surpassed themselves, for though the Dutchmen had stubbornly
decided to contest the principal heights, by noon the whole of the
Johannesburg police, by whom this vantage-point was defended, had fallen
victims to the excellence of their execution. A noticeable incident in
the attack was the great tactical skill with which the Maxims of the
Gordons, Inniskillings, Rifle Brigade, and Devons were handled by their
respective detachments. The fire of these guns contributed materially to
the successful result of the assault. An eye-witness describing the
operations said: "It was a sight never to be forgotten. It was truly
grand--the shells from some sixty guns or more all bursting within a
circle of 200 yards diameter, shrapnel with its white puff of smoke in
the air, lyddite raising a dirty brown cloud as it struck. It was awful.
I must say one could not but admire the courage of the defenders. They
were the Zarps, Johannesburg Police, 130 of them, and 113 were killed or
wounded in that one spot. Then Buller advanced his infantry across the
open, the Rifle Brigade bearing the brunt of it. It was splendid, and the
Boers gave way all along the line. Lord Roberts rode out to meet Buller
on the kopje, and on his way back told our men the news, and they cheered
him."

The casualties were chiefly among the Rifle Brigade, whose stiff work has
been described. Captain G. L. Lysley and thirteen men were killed, and
the following were wounded: Lieutenant-Colonel C. Metcalfe, Captain R.
Alexander, Captain J. D. Heriot-Maitland, Captain Ernest G. Campbell
(since dead), Captain W. H. W. Steward (since dead), Lieutenant B. A.
Turner, Second Lieutenant W. F. Bassett, and fifty-seven non-commissioned
officers and men. Nineteen prisoners and a pom-pom were captured from the
foe.

Captain O'Neill, R.A.M.C., met a tragic fate. When the heat of the battle
was over and night had fallen he went forth with an ambulance to grope
for wounded and dead. While performing this merciful act, lantern in
hand, he approached a Boer picket and was at once shot dead!

In the moment of warfare it is impossible to stop to eulogise the
splendid heroism of the doctors and chaplains who, deprived of the
intoxication of contest, have yet risked their lives in the service of
their fellow-creatures. The coolness and daring of these noncombatant,
death-defying men has often passed unnoted, and will need to find a
memorial in the hearts of those at home, whose dear ones have enjoyed
safety and skill and consolation at their hands.

On the following day (28th) the enemy, chased over difficult country by
Lord Dundonald's force, was retiring northward, while Buller's advance
troops occupied Machadodorp, whither Mr. Kruger had fled to Nelspruit.
Beyond them, General French, arriving at Elandsfontein, removed the enemy
with such scant ceremony that they left their dinners behind them. He now
got into signalling communication with General Buller, while General
Pole-Carew marched towards Waterval Onder. Lord Dundonald's Cavalry
pushed forward as far as Helvetia, beyond which his mounted force could
not proceed owing to the strong position taken by the Dutchmen in the
crusted and gibbose country, which was growing more and more alpine as
the troops advanced. A few officers were wounded in General Buller's
force: Major W. R. Birdwood, 11th Bengal Lancers; Captain F. R. Ewart,
1st Liverpool Regiment; Second Lieutenant H. Wadlow, 16th Company
Southern Division Royal Garrison Artillery.

[Illustration: BRITISH PRISONERS WAITING FOR RELEASE: THE CAMP AT
NOOITGEDACHT

Drawing by Frank Dadd, R.I., from a Sketch by Lieut. Essex Capell, one of
the Prisoners]

The Boers, owing to their crushing defeats at Bergendal and Dalmanutha,
were now forced to let loose most of their captives, and, to the great
delight of their comrades, over 1700 of our countrymen trickled into camp
and were sent to Pretoria.

The following officers were kept as prisoners and moved to Barberton:
Lieutenant-Colonels Spragge and Holland, Captain Robinson, Lieutenants
Lord Ennismore, Rutledge, Craig, Dupre, Lane, Wright, Woodhouse, and
Mitchell, all of the Yeomanry; Lieutenants Mowbray, Black Watch; Capel,
Bethune's Horse; Bentnat, Eastern Province Horse; Birble, Brabant's
Horse; Boyes, Border Horse; and Captain Howard, Strathcona's Horse.

Others belonging to the Yeomanry were also sent to Barberton as
prisoners, the Boers saying that though they were not officers they must
be in the position of officers, as they were able to pay for any extra
food they required: Sergeant-Major Pringle, Sergeant Robb, Corporal
Woodeness, Sergeant Milner Brown, Lance-Corporal Hodgson, Troopers
Walker, Footner, K. Elphinstone, Bonham, Garrett, Boultbee, Lubbock,
Curtis, P. Gold, Young, Soames, Kinyon, Rickitt, Billhille, Darby,
Campbell, L. Elphinstone, Eyre, Thomas, Clarke, Pomeroy, Hill, Dale,
Wells, G. Gold, Sweats, Evelyn, O'Gorman, Hughes, Holden.

The 1st of September was a red-letter day in the annals of the campaign,
for Lord Roberts took the occasion to issue from the army headquarters,
Belfast, proclamations formally announcing the fact that "The Transvaal
will henceforth form part of her Majesty's dominions." The campaign was
now developing into little more than guerilla warfare, for Mr. Kruger's
days in the Transvaal were numbered, while he had practically abdicated
the functions of government. Certainly he had gone through the form of
appointing Mr. Schalk Burger to take his place, but the action was a mere
figure of speech, this Dutchman being nicknamed "flighting general" by
his own burghers, and his nomination was of no account in regard to the
proceedings which were expressly made public to bring home to the minds
of the burghers the real facts of the situation and the futility of
flying longer in the face of the inevitable. This definite move afforded
considerable satisfaction even among the supposed "irreconcilables," as
the inconvenience of serving two masters had rendered their situation
almost unbearable.

The 2nd of September found Lord Dundonald's mounted troops at
Nooitgedacht, and General French's Cavalry at Waterval Onder, while
General Buller was engaged in making a reconnaissance of the Boer
position towards Lydenburg, the dispersed parties having so disposed
themselves that the complete scouring of the surrounding country became
necessary. (It must be noted that the Natal Field Force at this time was
divided, part of it being occupied in guarding the line of
communications. General Wolfe Murray protected the district between
Ladysmith and Newcastle; General Hildyard that between Newcastle and
Platrand; and General Clery that between Platrand and Heidelburg.) In the
passes of the impenetrable mountains overlooking the town of Lydenburg,
Botha, with 2000 burghers, was found to have fortified himself. He took
care on the advent of the South African Light Horse to give the dashing
Colonists a reception with three Long Toms and a high-velocity gun, which
put to the test their admirable courage and that of the Composite
Regiment which occupied the right of the basin into which murderous
missiles poured the whole day without stint. The Boers in their
precipitous cliffs and their forbidding ravines were too strong to be
turned, and fortunately there was no necessity now for the frontal
attacks which had been forced upon General Buller in the early days of
the war when he had been left to fling himself against living mountains
with the thinnest of "thin red (or khaki) lines." He forthwith called for
reinforcements, and quickly got them. General Ian Hamilton (who had
arrived with a strong force at Belfast) pushed along the direct
Belfast-Dulstroom road to his succour. Assisted by Brocklehurst's brigade
of cavalry, amidst passes, and gorges, and acclivities, he endeavoured to
work round by Helvetia to turn the Boer right flank, while Buller
thundered on their left; the Leicester Regiment and King's Royal Rifles
dragging a battery of artillery up the steeps with herculean vigour. The
foe were ensconced in bush, and scrub, and tangle, and were protected by
the creeks into which they had burrowed, but nevertheless, by Ian
Hamilton's turning movement, the way was cleared for Buller's force, and
on the 6th, Lydenburg was occupied.

An officer of the Royal Scots gave some interesting details of the
stupendous undertaking. "On the 2nd September, General Smith-Dorrien, to
whose brigade we had been posted, inspected us with a similar result.
That night we got orders to move next day. At 6.30 A.M. on the 3rd we
moved off. We were with the advanced guard, besides C.I.V., Mounted
Infantry, two pom-poms, and a battery Royal Artillery. At about noon, as
we neared Zwarteskopjes, our advanced mounted men came in contact with
the enemy. We pushed on, and presently--and I must confess to every one's
surprise--'bang,' and a Long Tom 6-inch shell burst 200 yards from us--a
bad shot. The Boers were in position on our right front. We at once
opened out the companies, and moved to the left behind the brow of a
spur, changing front so as to face the Boers. The men did this
splendidly, and though we were shelled throughout the movement, at a
range of about 5000 yards, never a man was hit. Two were knocked down by
a shell that burst between them, and another had his helmet plugged, and
a shell fell in the middle of the band, but no skin was broken. Our guns
came into action; four of our companies attacked in front, two to the
left to seize some kopjes. The Boers decamped, and we bivouacked on the
position won. Next morning we were off again, found our friends, the Long
Toms, which greeted us, but our "cow" guns (5-inch naval guns) were up,
and the Long Toms made off, we after them. We were in the mountains now.
The scenery was magnificent, quite Himalayan; but it was awful work for
men and animals. We passed through Dullstroom that day, where we found
the remains of a large Boer laager. On the 5th we reached Palmietfontein,
rifle firing daily.

"That evening at five o'clock, our commanding officer got a message that
the General wanted to see him. Going off, he found Generals Ian Hamilton
and Smith-Dorrien in close consultation, and looking at a mountain at the
exit of a gorge, through which the column had to pass next day. (After
passing through it, General Hamilton told me that it was just like the
Khyber, but shorter.) Our commandant was told that the General wanted
this mountain seized that night. It is called Zwaggershoch, and was about
five miles from our bivouac. Its possession would give us complete
control of that side of the pass, and we should be behind the right of
the Boer position, where they were holding Buller at Klipspruit. He had
selected us to undertake this task. With 500 men and half-a-dozen mounted
men we started off at 8 P.M. by moonlight. The men were splendid--not a
sound. We sounded up three farms on the way, lest they concealed Boers,
and we had no idea of being cut off. We reached the foot of the hill all
right. The companies then advanced at attack formation, so as to envelop
the top of the hill. Then commenced a most awful climb. What Boers there
were there I cannot tell you. It was very misty. We 'put up' seven, and
they bolted. It is impossible to say what they had behind them. We
reached the summit at 12.30 A.M., drenched through and through with
perspiration. We set to and made sangars, and then lay down in biting
cold at about 2 A.M., one blanket apiece. In spite of the cold I should
have slept had it not been for a man alongside me who snored vigorously
all night. We were lying on flat rocks--none too soft. Our commanding
officer was up before dawn looking out for our friends, the Boers,
opposing Buller, for we were now in rear of their right, and if they had
waited till daylight we should have gone for them; but our friends the
seven must have warned them, for they had retired during the night.

"Thus he relieved Sir Redvers from what he told Ian Hamilton was the most
difficult position he had found himself in since the beginning of the
campaign. Besides that, we effectually stopped all sniping from our side
of the pass, whilst the column marched through, though there was plenty
on the other side, out of range from us. We climbed precipitous hilltops
all that day as we pushed men on and on, so as to get command up to the
very exit. I was a bit done when I got into bivouac. I hadn't really had
a meal since 6 P.M. the day before, and had been hard at work night and
day. We were off again on the 6th--Buller level with us now on the other
road--and we marched into Lydenburg."

The Boers, turned back from their grand emplacements and cleverly
constructed trenches, were forced to follow their plan of splitting into
two forces, one taking the direction of Kruger's Post, the other going to
Pilgrim's Rest, where the President was said to have gone. But still,
though retiring, other marauding bands had found leisure to prowl in the
region of the railway, for on the 5th, both morn and eve were made
hideous by their murderous ingenuity.

At dawn they attempted to cut the line between Pan and Wonderfontein, but
the Canadian Mounted Rifles briskly blazed on the raiders, and though
there were but 125 of the British against a horde of Dutchmen with two
guns and a pom-pom, they contrived to rout the enemy without needing the
assistance of Colonel Mahon, who was promptly sent to their succour. "A
very creditable performance," telegraphed the Chief, who was well pleased
with the smartness of Major Sanders and his men. The Major and Lieutenant
Moodie were slightly wounded, and several men were injured and taken
prisoners. At night a train between Belfast and Pretoria was derailed
owing to the engine being blown up with dynamite, but nevertheless the
"Tommies" who were in the train gathered themselves together with amazing
rapidity, and drove off the Boers who were hovering like expectant
vultures round what they hoped would be a scene of blood.

To return to Lydenburg. The town lies within the hollow of a gigantic
mountainous range, which frowns some 1500 feet above it. Its aspect,
foliaged and green, with running brooks rippling in every direction,
delighted the hearts of the wayworn troops. Grateful to every eye, after
the monotonous drab of sun-dried veldt, was the sight of its blue
gum-trees and verdurous gardens; refreshing to the long parched and
heated senses, the babble of many pellucid streams! Here at last, they
thought, was a haven of rest, and here on the 7th, when Generals Buller
and Ian Hamilton had joined hands, the Union Jack was hoisted with
resonant cheers. But the joy was of short duration. Scarcely had the
strains of "God Save the Queen" died away than the Boers from the region
of Spitz Kop, a formidable hill some twenty-five miles east, to which
Botha with all his big guns had retreated, celebrated the occasion by
firing into the town, and that despite the fact that it contained some
thirty burghers' families!

Now it became evident that the troops must face the prodigious task of
clearing the Boer positions--natural fortresses they may be
called--above Lydenburg and beyond it--a task for which the heroes of
Pieter's and Laing's Nek were well fitted. It was a curious fact that to
the share of these warriors fell the opening and the closing scenes of an
arduous campaign, a dramatic fact like the working of a stage play, which
takes care that all the prominent characters of the piece shall say their
last say before the falling of the curtain.

The plan of attack was simple to read of but complex to execute. North of
the road, towards the lair of the enemy, Lyttelton with Kitchener's
Brigade was to march; south of it, Hamilton with Smith-Dorrien's Brigade
and three batteries of artillery were to clear the course.

Early the next morning, the 8th, the troops, as described, proceeded to
attack the foe--who at once began to thunder at them from the serpentine
sweeps round Spitz Kop--while part of the forces crossed the Mauchberg
ridge, so as to give battle to another hostile section which was perched
on a commanding ridge some 1500 feet high. The whole series of eminences,
cleft asunder in different parts, forming deep and treacherous ravines,
was forbidding in the extreme to infantry; yet undaunted, the Devons,
Royal Irish, and Royal Scots, marching steadily on and on like a vast
machine, swept towards both sides of the position, and gradually
converged as they neared the hill. The 20th and 53rd Batteries raked the
summit, and finally, with a mighty roar, the combined infantry carried
the crest and sent the enemy scuttling to a narrow causeway, which,
sheltering them in a dense fog, allowed them unpunished to disappear with
their guns.

The experiences of the officer before quoted were exhilarating. He
said:--

"At 3 A.M. on the 8th September an order reached us, which proved to be
Sir Redvers' order for attack that morning. We breakfasted at 5.30 A.M.,
marched off at 6.30 A.M., forded a stream, and got under cover at the
rendezvous, about four to five miles from the Boer position on Paarde
Kraal. It looked quite impregnable--indeed, some of the ground between it
and us seemed impassable. At 7.30 A.M. the plan of attack was explained
to us. We were to be on the right (not left as the newspapers had it) in
the first line, the Gordons behind us in the second line, the Royal Irish
(half battalion) on our left, and on the left of them again the Devons,
supported by more of Buller's force. The battalion, nearly 1200 strong,
covered an enormous front. The men extended to ten paces. We had twelve
lines at first, but absorbed four very quickly, to prolong the right.
After a severe trudge we reached the ravine. The near side was some 1500
yards from the Boer trenches, the far side about 1200 yards. It had
precipitous sides of rock, with two small rocky gullies, down which the
men climbed. Its depth was from 300 to 400 feet. At the bottom was a
fast running stream, nowhere less than 2 feet in depth, with very
slippery, round black rocks at the bottom.

"The men went splendidly, and when Buller saw us appear at the top of the
other side and open fire he turned to General Smith-Dorrien and said, 'By
Jove! those Royal Scots are devils to go. I never saw a regiment cross
such ground so quickly.' He also mentioned the regiment specially in
orders that night. The scene inside the ravine was grand. The precipitous
rocky sides, the tropical vegetation, the running stream, with thickly
wooded banks, together with the incessant roar of guns, bursting shells,
the 'knock-knock' of the pom-poms, and rattle of rifles, combined to make
it a weird and splendid experience. We fired by volleys and independently
from the edge of the ravine for some time, whilst our artillery supported
us nobly. It is impossible to overrate the value of their support. They
placed their shells exactly in the right places. Between us and the
trenches was a plateau of 1200 yards, without any cover at all, flat,
with thin and short grass. At first we advanced by rushes, then in
general lines. A grand feeling of elation carried us on regardless of
anything. We got to within 200 yards and fixed bayonets. The men, full of
excitement, yelled and charged, the guns ceasing exactly at the right
moment--one more shell would have hit us--but it was of no use, the Boers
had bolted before we reached the trenches, delayed as we were by boulders
and steepness. What, however, was worst of all was the fog that now fell
on the mountains. It spoilt our bag. We were right round the Boer left,
but could see nothing, and except for a few caught at 200 yards by case
from our guns, they slipped away."

Of the British forces thirteen were killed, twenty-five wounded, sixteen
of whom belonged to the Volunteer Company of the Gordons. This company,
while marching in column about seven miles from the enemy, were caught by
a shrapnel shell, which burst among them, but it was noted that they
"continued to march steadily forward as if nothing had happened." It was
not the first time these fine fellows had shown surprising grit in
awkward situations.

       *       *       *       *       *

General French, who for the time had been halting at Carolina, now
continued his march towards Barberton, fighting as he went. With him were
Dickson's and Gordon's brigades of cavalry, the Suffolks and Shropshires,
and the 4.7 naval guns under Captain Bearcroft. From one fortified
position to another they pushed back the enemy, the Suffolks
distinguishing themselves by their gallantry in clearing a formidable
peak and escaping with few casualties owing to the skilfulness of their
leading.

General Hutton's Mounted Infantry marched east from Belfast _viâ_
Rietvlei to Tafel Kop, and beyond it to Kaapsche Hoop, one of the most
beautiful and formidable heights of the Drakensberg, which places command
the railway valley to north and west. The view thence towards Barberton
is unique. From a precipitous height you gaze over rank on rank of
irregular spurs seamed with gullies of sand, russet, and orange, the
cradles of alluvial gold. The object of the operation was to clear these
districts of Boers and secure General French's left flank, and also
enable the Eleventh Division to advance and take possession of the
railway route to Godwan Station. General Hutton's force consisted of
Colonel Alderson's command, Brabant's Horse, with one 15-pounder and one
Hotchkiss gun, 300 men of 1st Mounted Infantry Corps, and two pom-poms.
Colonel Henry's command consisted of 400 men of the 4th Mounted Infantry
Corps, with two pom-poms; Brigade troops consisting of J Battery Royal
Horse Artillery, New South Wales Field Hospital, under Major Fiaschi, and
New South Wales Bearer Company, under Major Eames; the Mounted Pioneers,
under Lieutenant Earle, Royal Engineers, Corps of Scouts, and Telegraph
Section. In a thick fog impenetrable as an iced blanket--the same that
gathered around the gorges of the Spitz Kop and helped the flying
Boers--the troops moved to the place of rendezvous on the Dalmanutha
Road, passing the field of the battle of the previous week and the graves
of many gallant fellows of the Rifle Brigade who had fallen on that
occasion. The troops proceeded according to orders, marching over rough,
mountainous, and capricious country, that caused so much inconvenience
with the transport that as many as seven waggons upset within the space
of a mile. Some waggons, though double-spanned, could not surmount
several of the steep ascents; one was at an angle of 45 degrees, and had
finally to be sent back some fifteen miles to Machadodorp. In fact, the
road was gradually becoming so steep and unnegotiable that nearly all
vehicles had to be sent back, nevertheless the top of Kaapsche Kop was
reached and found to be vacated by Boers, who had taken to their heels
two hours before. This gigantic march enabled the Eleventh Division to
march on, and finally, to the Guards Brigade was handed over the
possession of the mountain.

General Buller proceeded to occupy the region of the Mauchberg range on
the 9th, in spite of some resistance from the enemy, who were at last
dislodged by the King's Royal Rifles. Among the wounded were Second
Lieutenant G. Lumley Johnstone, 53rd Battery Royal Field Artillery.
Regardless of infamous roads and execrable weather, the troops moved on
and on towards the frowning heights of Spitz Kop. But it was a tremendous
ten miles along narrow passes among mountains, some of them 6000 feet
high, skirting deep gorges, and in the very teeth of the enemy, who ever
and anon launched at them fire from pom-poms and musketry, yet failed to
arrest the steady onward progress of men and guns. On the 10th they were
at Kipgat, midway between Mauchberg and Spitz Kop, the Boers, a
demoralised rabble, hurrying before them in such panic that they were
unable to prevent the capture of tons of food stores, the gun tackle of a
heavy gun, and some ammunition. The rest, rather than it should fall into
British hands, they flung over the crags--thirteen waggons being
sacrificed to the necessity for speedy flight.

[Illustration: MAP TO ILLUSTRATE THE MOVEMENTS FOR THE CAPTURE OF
LYDENBURG.]

Meanwhile the rest of the army was creeping east--creeping indeed, owing
to the difficult nature of the country, that grew more and more
obstructive and confounding with every mile. The Guards Brigade, with
General Pole-Carew, moved from Nooitgedacht to Godwan Station on the
12th, protected on the right flank by General Hutton, who was in
signalling communication with General French. This officer having crossed
the Komati River on the 10th, was making his way against considerable
opposition towards the hills west of Barberton, while General Ian
Hamilton, having completed his task for the relief of General Buller,
was leaving Helvetia for Waterval Onder.

[Illustration: THE NIGHT CHARGE OF THE 19th HUSSARS NEAR LYDENBURG ON
NOV. 7th, 1900

Drawing by R. Caton Woodville]

"On the 11th," said one who was with him, "we marched to Helvetia, and
here we halted for one day--our first and only halt from the time we left
Belfast until we reached Komati Poort _viâ_ Lydenburg. On the 13th we
descended 3000 feet sheer to Watervalonder--scenery quite lovely. We were
then in the fever valley of the Elandspruit. Our daily marches now
involved throwing forward piquets to hold the tops of the mountains on
either side till the tail of the column had passed through. Advanced and
flank guards were useless. On the 14th we reached Nooitgedacht, and on
the 15th we passed Godwan, and bivouacked on the lowest slope of Kaapsche
Hoop--a charming site for a camp, amongst a natural rockery. On the 16th
we had a heavy day. We had to get to the summit of the Kaapsche Hoop, the
loftiest mountain in the neighbourhood. It is also called the Devil's
Kantoor, and is covered with alluvial gold diggings. The whole of the
infantry moved off at 3.30 A.M. in darkness. That meant rising at 1.45,
and breakfast at 2.30, but early breakfast in the dark was a common
occurrence, and not a pleasant one when the fare consisted of trek ox and
dry biscuit, as it generally did. It was difficult to get down; yet we
had to force ourselves to it, for there was no chance of food until we
reached our next bivouac. All the infantry left in the dark, and was
split up along the road at the worst bits, where drag-ropes were
distributed, and the men took off their equipment, and each waggon was
helped up the steeps. It would have been impossible to have got them up
without. The men worked splendidly, the Royal Scots putting their backs
into it in a way which elicited the admiration of the General."

At this juncture Mr. Kruger, preceded by a great portion of his worldly
goods, made off to Lorenço Marques. To the great relief of every one this
misguided old man now disappeared from the political platform, and left
his country to be lifted, by those he had been pleased to call his
enemies, from the ruin he had brought about. As that notable socialist,
Mr. Bernard Shaw, expressed it, he had had a chance "to play the
statesman," but had "played the Mahdi,"--now, like Mahdism, Krugerism was
extinct.

It was therefore Lord Roberts's turn to take up the tangled skein of law
and order in the Transvaal. To this end he ordered the following
proclamation to be printed and widely circulated in English and Dutch:--

     "MACHADODORP, _September 13_.

     "The late President Kruger, with Reitz and the archives of the
     South African Republic, crossed the Portuguese frontier, and
     arrived at Lorenço Marques, with a view of sailing for Europe
     at an early date.

     "Mr. Kruger has formally resigned the position he held as
     President of the South African Republic, thus severing his
     official connection with the Transvaal.

     "Mr. Kruger's action shows how hopeless, in his opinion, is the
     war which has now been carried on for nearly a year, and his
     desertion of the Boer cause should make it clear to his
     fellow-burghers that it is useless for them to continue the
     struggle any longer.

     "It is probably unknown to the inhabitants of the Transvaal and
     Orange River Colony that nearly fifteen thousand of their
     fellow-subjects are now prisoners of war, not one of whom will
     be released until those now in arms against us surrender
     unconditionally.

     "The burghers must by this time be cognisant of the fact that
     no intervention on their behalf can come from any of the Great
     Powers, and, further, that the British Empire is determined to
     complete the work which has already cost so many valuable
     lives, and to carry to its conclusion the war declared against
     her by the late Governments of the Transvaal and Orange Free
     State--a war to which there can be but one ending.

     "If any further doubts remain in the minds of the burghers as
     to her Britannic Majesty's intentions, they should be dispelled
     by the permanent manner in which the country is gradually being
     occupied by her Majesty's forces, and by the issue of the
     proclamations signed by me on the 24th May and 1st September
     1900, annexing the Orange Free State and the South African
     Republic respectively in the name of her Majesty.

     "I take this opportunity of pointing out that, except in the
     small area occupied by the Boer army under the personal command
     of Commandant-General Botha, the war is degenerating, and has
     degenerated into operations carried on in an irregular and
     irresponsible manner, and in very many cases by insignificant
     bodies of men.

     "I should be failing in my duty to her Majesty's Government and
     to her Majesty's army in South Africa if I neglected to use
     every means in my power to bring such irregular warfare to an
     early conclusion.

     "The means which I am compelled to adopt are those which the
     customs of war prescribe as being applicable to such cases:
     they are ruinous to the country, entail endless suffering on
     the burghers and their families; and the longer this guerilla
     warfare continues the more vigorously must they be enforced."

From the Hague Messrs. Fischer, Wessels, and Wolmarans, the Boer
delegates, now issued an appeal addressed to all nations in favour of
intervention. After expressing the conviction that the only object of the
annexation of the Transvaal which had been proclaimed by Great Britain
was to enable the British to continue the war in an inhuman manner, and
contrary to the principles of International Law, the appeal said--

     "The British generals wish to treat as rebels the people of the
     South African Republics, previously recognised as belligerents,
     and mercilessly to pursue to the bitter end the exhausted
     combatants. With the help of God this object will not be
     attained. The citizens of the Republics will continue the
     struggle to their last breath. Have they not shown themselves
     worthy of their liberty and their fatherland? Will the world
     allow them to be crushed? The Powers have not intervened up to
     the present, perhaps abstaining from so doing as long as the
     war was regular; but will the restoration of peace never be
     pronounced, not even now when Great Britain tramples under foot
     by her theoretical annexations all the principles of
     International Law, and thus endeavours to acquire freedom of
     action in order to exercise her powers, and if possible
     annihilate completely the existence of a free people? In the
     name of justice and humanity we appeal to all peoples who
     sympathise with us to come to our aid even in this critical and
     supreme moment, and to save our country. We commit ourselves to
     God, trusting that our prayers will be heard."

[Illustration: BARBERTON.]

It may here be mentioned that Messrs. Fischer, Wessels, and Wolmarans had
been sent in May as delegates to Holland and to America in the effort to
enlist the sympathy of outsiders in the great quarrel. They went first to
The Hague, where they hoped to secure the application of the resolution
adopted by the Acts of the Peace Conference to the Transvaal question.
Messrs. Fischer, Wessels, and Wolmarans were cordially welcomed, and
expressed their satisfaction with the kindly reception accorded them by a
people united to them by bonds of race and religion. (As an aside, it may
be stated that not very long since, the Hollanders were wont to dub the
Boers "White Hottentots," and disdain any connection with them. This on
the word of a Dutchman.) The delegates then proceeded to America with the
avowed object of securing the aid of the Americans. "We are going," said
Mr. Fischer, "to a sister Republic, the people of which a century ago
fought the same fight as our people are now fighting. We are going to a
great free people, pre-eminent for their sentiments of liberty and
justice. We go to rectify erroneous opinions and to make known the truth.
Our enemies have said much that they cannot prove, and have thus misled
many. We are certain that, once the truth is known, no civilised nation
will refuse us support. The chief charge against us is that we desired or
sought war. We shall try to dispel this error. We only desire peace and
tranquil possession of what is as dear to us as it is to the American
people--namely, our independence, without impairing the rights of other
peoples. We do not appeal to one or the other political party, but to the
American people, hoping that all parties will unite on a common platform,
since the greatness of a great nation like the United States will be
still more enhanced if it aid a small nation in a struggle for its rights
and freedom. Our aim is to put an end to this cruel bloodshed on both
sides, but especially the destruction of our own fellow-citizens, who are
indispensable to our continued existence as a people. We hope this appeal
to the Government and people of America will not be in vain, and that our
manner of conducting the war will have shown that we have the right to
demand the independent existence of our people as an independent State in
South Africa." Their errand was fruitless, as the conclusion of the
Secretary of State's reply serves to show.

"The President sympathises heartily with the sincere desire of all the
people of the United States that the war which is now afflicting South
Africa may, for the sake of both parties engaged, come to a speedy close,
but having done his full duty in preserving a strictly neutral position
between them, and in seizing the first opportunity that presented itself
for tendering his good offices in the interest of peace, he feels that in
the present circumstances no course is open to him except to persist in
his policy of impartial neutrality. To deviate from this would be
contrary to all our traditions, and all our national interests, and would
lead to consequences which neither the people nor the President of the
United States could regard with favour." The same attitude was taken up
by other Powers who were appealed to by the still optimistic Dutchmen.

General Buller by this time had located himself on Spitz Kop, which
stands some 7100 feet high and commands an enormous expanse of country.
Here fifty-eight burghers surrendered, and he captured trophies--300,000
bales of supplies, and 300 boxes of ammunition. But the Boers were
luckier elsewhere. An engineer convoy under Lieutenant Meyrick, Royal
Engineers, with an escort of nineteen Hussars, in act of repairing
telegraph line, was attacked near where the road crosses the Crocodile
River. The young officer was wounded and the escort was missing.

Generals Pole-Carew and Hamilton meanwhile pushed on, the Boers
retreating as they saw themselves in danger. General French surprised the
enemy and occupied Barberton on the 13th. He came on sufficient supplies
to last three weeks, and made a splendid haul of prisoners, ammunition,
and waggons, together with forty-five locomotives, which latter came in
handy at a moment when engines were much needed. On the 17th fifty more
locomotives were captured by French's Cavalry at Avoca Station, while six
more on the arrival of the 18th Brigade (Stephenson's) were found at Nel
Spruit. At the same time Generals Pole-Carew and Hamilton were moving
towards Kaap Muiden Station.

A word about General Hildyard. While the fighting had been going on round
Lydenburg the General had been keeping his eye on Natal, chasing bands of
Boers, fighting, dispersing them, and establishing fortified posts and
restoring telegraphic communication at different points. On the 9th at
Groen Vlei Lieutenant Watson, 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers, and Captain
Cracroft, 1st Royal Irish Fusiliers, were wounded. On the 10th the Boers
were driven from Langwacht Pass, and the hills scoured in the direction
of Utrecht. This quaint little Dutch town, containing a very big church,
and some very small houses rendered picturesque by gardens full of
blossoming fruit-trees, was soon reoccupied. The Royal Dragoons and 13th
Hussars arrived there in advance of General Hildyard, and spread
consternation among the Boers. Colonel Blagrove deposed the Llandrost,
seized his effects, and let loose some British prisoners who had been in
Boer clutches.

The Dutchmen a few days later revenged themselves by committing an act of
treachery. Some women in a farm floating a white flag invited a party of
the 13th Hussars, who were patrolling some ten miles to the west, to
enter and partake of refreshment. This they did. As they were riding from
the house, they were fired on from within. These barbarities were far
from infrequent, and the only method of dealing with the assassins was to
destroy the homesteads which had harboured them. Vryheid was occupied on
the 19th, the Boer position being turned by the Mounted Infantry, the
Dutchmen in the neighbourhood causing a comparatively small amount of
trouble. Most of the Boers had foreseen the trend of the British
operations, and commenced to trek on the taking of Utrecht. Here we must
leave the Natal defence force and return to the Chief.

The 19th found Lord Roberts at Nel Spruit, all events having progressed,
notwithstanding the mountainous nature of the country, with the rapidity
and success which usually characterised the Field-Marshal's movements.
Upwards of 3000 Boers had retreated towards Komati Poort, and of these
many had dispersed into broken gangs, while more than 700 had crossed the
Portuguese border. Thus the field operations were coming to an end, for,
as the Commander-in-Chief put it, there were now left of the Boer army
"only marauding bands."

General Pole-Carew, with Henry's Mounted Infantry and the Guards Brigade,
hewing the roads as they went through a jungle forked with ravines,
arrived dust-choked at Kaap Muiden, capturing at the station 114
truck-loads of goods more or less valuable. One march behind the Guards,
came General Ian Hamilton's column.

On the 22nd the "marauding bands" made themselves obnoxious in three
places on the line. At dawn, a commando under Erasmus, with a 15-pounder
and two pom-poms, attacked Elands River Station. (It must be noted that
Elands River runs both east and west of Pretoria.) B Company, under
Captain Cass, with about 120 Infantry and Cavalry details, succeeded
admirably in defending their position, and after three hours' smart
fighting drove off the enemy with eleven men disabled. The British party
had only one casualty.

This was a curious military rendering of the popular rhyme, "Taffy was a
Welshman," which runs:--

    "I went to Taffy's house, Taffy wasn't at home;
    Taffy came to my house and stole a marrow bone."

Taffy, the filcher, in this case was the Briton; the filchee was the
Boer. When Erasmus and his commando knocked with big guns at the door of
Elands River Station, "Not at home," was so definitely expressed that the
visitor was forced to turn on his haunches. Unfortunately, during his
absence Taffy had called at his house and helped himself, not merely to a
marrow bone, but to a good deal more. In other words, General Paget, the
"slim" hero of the exploit, with the West Riding Regiment, two companies
of the Wiltshires, two companies of the Munster Fusiliers, the City
Imperial Volunteer Battery and two 5-in. guns, had made a forced night
march of twenty-six miles, seized Erasmus's vacant camp, and with it 2500
cattle, 6000 sheep, 50 horses, 12 prisoners, 20 rifles, and some
ammunition! Erasmus will be cautious when he goes a-visiting in future.

At the same hour, a smaller commando attempted mischief at Bronker's
Spruit, and was dispersed by Colonel Donald, with five companies of Royal
Fusiliers, while at noon some other "snipers" pelted a train, which was
conveying Generals Wood and Marshall from the front, between Brug Spruit
and Balmoral. The enemy's sole success, after surprising activity, was
the cutting of the line between Elands River and Skie Poort.

On the 24th, General Pole-Carew, after one of the hardest and most
fatiguing marches on record over nineteen miles of waterless jungle,
occupied Komati Poort. Here he found the bridge, though prepared for
destruction, still intact. Fourteen Long Toms and an enormous number of
other guns, including two of the lost 12-pounders belonging to Q Battery
Royal Horse Artillery, were found by the Guards, while General Ian
Hamilton discovered more trophies in the Crocodile River near Hector
Spruit. Rifles, small arm ammunition, boxes of Long Tom and other shells
innumerable, formed the prizes of a memorable march, which was another
feather in the cap of the Guards, whose endurance and cheerfulness under
toil and privation was little less than heroic.

General Buller, who was clearing the country north of Lydenburg,
continuing his operations, moved from Spitz Kop. The gallant Devons,
under Captain Jacson, drove the enemy from the Burghers Pass, and on the
26th the General took up a position on the Machlac River. On the
following day he reached Pilgrim's Rest without casualties. The enemy
were ensconced on the top of Pilgrim's Hill, and from here, marching by
night on the 28th, Colonel Byng decided to turn them. This was
brilliantly accomplished by the, now veteran, South African Light Horse,
who caused the enemy to vacate his lair with much precipitation. Two
prisoners, forty oxen, and 4000 sheep were the prize of this dashing
exploit. More work of the hardest fell to the lot of the troops on the
29th, the long steep road to the top of Pilgrim's Hill making terrible
demands on man and beast. But nevertheless the men worked "like niggers,"
dragging the waggons up the obstinate country, eventually reaching
Kruger's Post on the 1st of October. To this date the enemy had lain
"doggo," as the phrase is, but no sooner was General Buller in possession
of Kruger's Post, than they brought long-range guns to bear on him. The
position from which the Dutchmen fired was situated at about 9000 yards
from the British bivouac, and towards this point Major Henderson (Argyll
and Sutherland Highlanders) with some men of the 6th Lancers, 18th and
19th Hussars, at once proceeded. Owing to the nature of the country to be
traversed, they reached their destination about four in the morning, and
then to their disappointment found that they were not in time to prevent
the Boers from disappearing with their guns. These, meanwhile, had done a
good deal of damage. Second Lieutenant H. W. Cuming, 1st Devon Regiment,
was killed, and one man of the South African Light Horse. Among the
wounded were Captain N. Luxmore, 1st Devonshire Regiment, dangerously;
seven men of South African Light Horse; and one man of Strathcona's
Horse.

On the 2nd General Buller's force returned to Lydenburg, bringing with it
600 head of cattle, 4000 sheep, and 150 waggon-loads of supplies. Sir
Redvers had also the satisfaction of reporting the surrender of 109
burghers as the result of his very successful expedition.

In honour of the birthday of the King of Portugal, the British troops,
under General Pole-Carew, paraded at Komati Poort, and presented arms to
the Portuguese flag. With this martial _tableau vivant_ closed the main
operations. The Eleventh Division subsequently returned to Pretoria, Lord
Kitchener remaining at Komati Poort with Lieutenant Legget, Assistant
Director of Railways. Repairing of lines and bridges was continued with
unabated zeal, and the line to Johannesburg was speedily cleared.
Unfortunately, in the work of destroying Boer ammunition, a Gordon
Highlander was killed, Lieutenant Doris and eighteen men were wounded,
also a Royal Engineer.


ORANGE RIVER COLONY

On 4th August Harrismith surrendered to General MacDonald, and
simultaneously a squadron of the 5th Lancers from Besters and one of the
13th Hussars from Ladysmith arrived there, after having captured Van
Reenen's Pass and secured it for General MacDonald's advance. The people
of the town, mostly Scottish, were jubilant at the return of the "good
old times." They had expected to be relieved soon after the relief of
Ladysmith, and had possessed their souls in patience through many weary
weeks, made doubly weary by the fact that, the railway being broken and
the wires cut, no news from friends was forthcoming, and supplies were
not to be had.

[Illustration: THE DÉBÂCLE: ON THE TRACK OF A FLEEING COMMANDO

Drawing by H. C. Seppings Wright]

A most interesting account of the arrival of the British troops was given
by a smart Yeoman--a hoary veteran of twenty-two!--who had been present
at engagements innumerable, and still cheerily endured all the varieties
of hardship--cold, famine, and fatigue included--which had fallen to the
share of the Yeomanry since the early days of June. This Yeoman, Sergeant
H. T. Mackenzie (Yorks Imperial Yeomanry), was actually the first of the
troops to enter the town, and thus he described his experiences: "We
arrived in sight of the town at 9 A.M., and I was sent on with the
advanced guard of twenty-five men under Major Coptam, and we had to make
arrangements for the formal entry of the General. We posted sentries on
the principal buildings, such as the Bank, Post-Office, &c. We had an
awfully good time; the inhabitants crowded round us and insisted on
shaking hands, and also brought us tea, cake, and bread and butter, which
was much more to the point. I was treated to three lunches and
half-a-dozen teas. There are three fine hotels, and I had excellent
lunches!" The young trooper's relish of these treats may be imagined when
we remember that all the gallant fellows had been roughing it since the
1st of June, spending every day under fire, and living on three-quarter
rations most of the time. Mr. Mackenzie went on to say: "By about ten
o'clock the people had all put on their best clothes, and had raised
several flags. Soon after, the procession entered, headed, of course, by
the Highland Brigade. The General stopped at the Court-house and hoisted
the Union Jack, while the band played 'God Save the Queen,' and we
presented arms and tried to look imposing. This is rather difficult when
you have not washed for a week and your uniform is in rags. However, the
inhabitants seemed satisfied. The General then took up his stand under
the flag, and we all marched by. We went through the principal street of
the town, and then marched into camp, about three miles the other side of
the town. I was left behind with the guard, and had a very good time....
The ladies brought us out afternoon tea on the verandah of the Bank,
where we had a guard stationed." The hoisting of the flag did not take
place without a somewhat exciting scene, which was described in the
letter before quoted. "The Llandrost, or Chief Magistrate, refused to
take off his hat while 'God Save the Queen' was being played, so one of
the doctors in Harrismith gently knocked it off. The Llandrost's son then
hit the doctor in the mouth, whereupon the doctor, being a Scotsman,
promptly stretched him out. We then interfered, and MacDonald made them
shake hands all round."

[Illustration: HARRISMITH. (Photo by Mr. Kemp.)]

To insure the safety of General MacDonald's advance, a simultaneous move,
as we know, had been taken from the Ladysmith direction. The 13th Hussars
received sudden orders to start minus baggage or tents and meet the 5th
Lancers at the foot of the Drakensberg and secure Van Reenen's Pass. They
reached their destination in the drear dead of midnight. Shivering in
every limb, and rolled only in the fur rugs from their saddles, the small
band awaited the daylight; then a few men being left to guard the Pass
they pressed on hot-foot to Harrismith, which was reached at 5 P.M., just
twenty-four hours after leaving Ladysmith--a distance of fifty-four
miles. Thanksgiving services were held on the 5th at both church and
town-hall in honour of the arrival of the British troops, and the general
joy in spite of the cold (Harrismith, about 5000 feet above the sea
level, was in a state of mid-winter) was inspiriting to the least
patriotic heart.

In other places the surrendering of Boers continued, as many as 130
having come into Bethlehem during the 8th and 9th of August. On the 15th,
General Hunter in his northward march encountered the enemy south of
Heilbron, where the Boers with six guns were strongly posted at Spitz
Kop. (This must not be confounded with the kop of the same name captured
by General Buller.) After some ferocious fighting the position was
turned, but not before three men of the Highland Light Infantry were
killed, and thirty-three were wounded. The wounded officers were:
Lieutenant-Colonel Kelham, Highland Light Infantry; Second Lieutenant L.
H. Gibson, Highland Light Infantry (since dead).

On the 24th, Colonel Ridley with 250 mounted men and twenty-five infantry
of the Imperial Yeomanry, while reconnoitring found himself confronted by
a huge force of the enemy. He took up a position in a farm, and there
defied 1000 Boers with two guns. The situation was critical, but General
Bruce Hamilton's Brigade was despatched to the rescue, and arrived and
dispersed the raiders. Colonel White, R.A., had also been despatched by
General Kelly-Kenny, and had flung his small column into the fray, losing
five men missing, one killed, while Lieutenant Jones (Yeomanry) was
slightly wounded. The Boers proceeded to attack Winburg on the 26th, and
General Bruce Hamilton had the satisfaction of beating them off minus
their presiding genius, Olivier (who, it will be remembered, had refused
to surrender with Prinsloo), and his three sons, all of whom were
captured. Commandants Haasbrook, Roux, and Fourie, were the only
prominent Boers now flitting about the Orange Colony, and one of these
caused the wire between Winburg and Ladybrand to be cut, and made signs
of attacking the latter place. This was on the 29th.

For some time, as we know, Ladybrand had been a centre of attraction for
the enemy. It is situated in the heart of their grain country, and now,
they, being what is vulgarly known as out at elbows, naturally made plans
to capture the place. It is some seventy-two miles due east of
Bloemfontein, near to Thabanchu, and within a cart drive of Maseru, and
in the shadow of the purple mountains of Basutoland.

On Sunday the 2nd of September, Commandant Fourie, with some 3000 Boers,
nine guns, and a pom-pom, invited Major White, Royal Marine Light
Infantry, and his gallant band of 150 men to surrender. A refusal caused
the hostile artillery to open fire, while the enemy approached on both
flanks, surrounding the garrison. The Boers on one side had made for
Lilleyhoek, those on the other for Vandermuelen's Farm, adjoining the
town, which they viciously bombarded. The British force, consisting of
one company of the Worcester Regiment, with Lieutenant Moss and Second
Lieutenant Dorman, and forty-three rank and file of the Wiltshire
Yeomanry with Lieutenants Awdry and Henderson, was entrenched on the
mountain, and in the caves below it opposite the town, but within rifle
range of it. They had a good supply of food, plenty of water, and had
fortified several houses in the town, and therefore had a firm conviction
that they could and would hold out till reinforcements should arrive from
Thabanchu.

On the following day the Boers, their numbers swelled by others on
parole, drew closer, and during the whole day a duelling with small arms
was maintained. Meanwhile the foe placed a big gun at a point in the
church square, and from thence attacked the garrison. They also fired
from windows, walls, and every available shelter; but fortunately both
Dutch and English inhabitants had sought refuge in Maseru. The garrison
meanwhile held on doggedly, and repulsed the Boers in two attempts to
charge.

These, it was imagined, "put their backs into it," because, disgusted at
the loss of their Commandant, Olivier, they proposed to secure
supplies--clothing, groceries, and stock--before returning to their farms
to recuperate. Any way, they worked with a will, determining to make hay
while the sun shone, for report said that Bruce Hamilton with a relief
column was marching in ten-league boots to the rescue. (The infantry
covered eighty miles in four days and a half!)

Early the next morning the foe plied guns and small arms, and the noble
little garrison, puny in size but large in spirit, replied with intense
vigour and activity. Finally the big gun of the opposition stopped,
whether from lack of ammunition or other causes, none knew. The fighting
continued, however, and was viewed with interest, yet not without
anxiety, by Sir Godfrey Lagden and the Basuto Chief, Lerothodi, from a
point of vantage on an opposite mountain. Efforts were made to obtain
news by heliograph, but these were unsuccessful, and the tug-of-war
dragged on. But soon there were evidences that the Boers lay in fear of
the arrival of the relief column, and were becoming concerned whence
would come the attack. This concern increased, and by nightfall of the
4th, after looting stores and appropriating horses in the town, the Boers
retreated in the direction of Clocolan with the loss of twenty-four
killed and thirty-five wounded. The British casualties were few.
Lieutenant Dorman, Worcester Regiment, was slightly wounded, but the
injuries of Sergeant-Major Clifford, Wiltshire Yeomanry, were severe. All
the officers behaved heroically, and the gallantry of Lieutenant Moss was
especially remarkable.

The routed Boers soon betook themselves to the railway line in the region
of Brandfort. As it was evident some mischief was brewing, General
Kelly-Kenny communicated with General MacDonald, who brought the Highland
Brigade from Winburg, whither he had gone to co-operate with General
Hunter's scheme for enclosing the raiders. On the 13th the gallant Scot,
assisted by Lovat's dashing Scouts, caught the enemy, drove them across
the Vet River, and pursued them north of the Winburg-Smaaldeel Railway,
the scattered rabble fleeing before the braw men of the north in such
haste and panic that their track was marked with the trail of their
effects. A magnificent "bag" was the Highland Brigade's reward: 7
prisoners, 31 waggons, 270 trek-oxen, 6 cases of dynamite, gun and rifle
ammunition, groceries, blankets, clothing, besides useful odds and ends
of all kinds. The British casualties were nil.

On the 14th and 15th two notable lieutenants, in different parts of the
Orange Colony, decided to maintain the high traditions of the British
Army. The first, Lieutenant Power, 8th Company Derbyshire Yeomanry, and
his patrol, was attacked some six miles out of Bethlehem. Field-Cornet
Froeman, in command of the Boers, sent a letter calling on the young
officer to surrender, and threatening, if he refused, to attack him in a
quarter of an hour, adding that he would guarantee no quarter, no lives
would be spared. The note was promptly returned by the bearer with two
words scrawled on the back, "No surrender." Fortunately in the nick of
time reinforcements appeared, and Froeman vanished. In the second case,
at Bulfontein in the west, the garrison, consisting of sixteen Police and
Yeomanry under Lieutenant Slater, Imperial Yeomanry, was attacked by a
hundred Boers. Undaunted by the superior number of the foe, the doughty
sixteen held out until the following day, when relief arrived. The
warlike proceedings at this date were degenerating into acts of
brigandage, raids, and marauding excursions, and these continued through
October and on.


THE WESTERN TRANSVAAL

The district round Krugersdorp was greatly disaffected, and contests
between British and Boers occurred almost daily. On the 29th of August a
smart tussle took place near Modderfontein between a column under Colonel
Bradley (North Staffordshire Regiment) and a band of desperadoes, who
were driven off with some loss. Three men of the North Staffordshire
Regiment were killed, and among the wounded were Lieutenant Wyatt and
five men. Meanwhile the Colonial Division--a portion of it--with the 3rd
Cavalry Brigade, was marching and fighting from Zeerust _viâ_ Krugersdorp
to Kroonstad, losing in all sixty of their number. General Little,
commanding the Brigade, was wounded, and was succeeded by Colonel
Dalgety. Nearer Pretoria, at a place called Rooikop, Colonel Plumer had a
brush with the enemy, resulting in the discomfiture of the latter, who
dispersed, minus 100 rifles, 40,000 rounds of ammunition, 350 head of
cattle, some waggon-loads of supplies, and seven of their number, who
were taken prisoners. Captain Brooke, R.A.M.C., was wounded, as was
Lieutenant Wylly and three Tasmanians.

The history of captures and surrenders, of marauding excursions and
surprises, of sniping and derailing of trains, of Boer treachery and Boer
shiftiness continued. The exciting episodes it would be impossible to
chronicle in detail, but a fair idea of the strain on the already
hard-worn troops may be gauged by looking at a table of guerilla
incidents which followed at each other's heels in the course of the first
week in September. On the 1st the rails were torn up near the Klip River;
a supply train was overturned and captured, and the engine wrecked by
dynamite. On the following day the line below Kroonstad was wrecked and a
train containing stores captured, while another portion of the line--at
America Siding--was cut. South of Heidelberg the line was cut on the 3rd,
and injuries to the Heidelberg rails occasioned the upset of a train. On
the 4th the line was cut near Honing Spruit, on the 5th near Krugersdorp,
on the 6th near Balmoral, when an engine was blown up and five trucks
were derailed. To finish the seven days' work the enemy on the 7th blew
up the rail near Roodeval.

At this time strong columns under Generals Clements and Hart had set to
work to scour the country between Krugersdorp and Johannesburg, and clear
it of bands of marauders. The former skirmished near Kekepoort and
elsewhere with Delarey, the latter operated south-west of Krugersdorp.
Small parties of Boers were being driven hither and thither, and were
usually hurried off with such rapidity that they left supplies and
waggons behind them. General Knox, sweeping north-west of Kroonstad, had
the satisfaction of capturing two of De Wet's despatch riders, bearing
interesting letters for that officer, and thus returning a suitable _quid
pro quo_ for the attack on the British mails made by the Dutchman in
June. Lord Methuen's force, which had been halting at Mafeking, completed
its re-equipment and started for Lichtenburg. Some little opposition was
met with _en route_. On the 11th the Boers, who had assembled near the
Malopo, were dispersed. Thirty prisoners were captured, twenty-two
waggons, and forty thousand rounds of ammunition. In the fray Captain
Bryce (Australian Bushmen) was severely wounded. On the 12th there was
more fighting, near Ottoshoof. Captain S. G. Hubbe (South Australian
Bushmen) was killed; Lieutenant White (6th Imperial Bushmen) was severely
wounded and taken prisoner.

While these engagements were taking place, General Clements gave battle
to Delarey's band and drove them from two positions, with the loss of two
men killed and fourteen wounded. Later, on the 16th, he caught the
raiders again near Hexpoort and again fought them, losing a gallant young
fellow, Lieutenant Stanley of the Imperial Yeomanry, and one or two men
wounded. Elsewhere the clearing process continued, and tussles were part
of the daily programme. General Paget was operating around the north-west
of Pretoria, at Warmbaths and Pienaar's River; and General Barton,
outside the Krugersdorp line, protected the west flank of Johannesburg.
General Hart was actively employed in the neighbourhood of Potchefstroom,
which place he occupied on the 11th, in the smartest manner possible. He
was getting tired of cannonadings and fusilladings, futile and fatiguing,
which resulted only in the dispersion of the enemy, who had a knack of
reappearing on the warpath directly his back was turned. There had been
many days of hopeful advance; "Little Bobs," the naval gun, had searched
kopjes innumerable; Marshall's Horse and the Imperials and others had
boldly assaulted them, but at the end of it all, they had arrived only to
find--a vacuum! This was depressing and wearisome, so the General gave
rein to his _penchant_ for night attacks, and reaped the reward of what
looked like temerity.

The force, leaving Welverdiend Station on the 8th, made forced marches of
thirty-six and thirty-eight miles in fifteen hours for the infantry, and
forty-four for cavalry, and surprised the Boers so completely that the
town was captured, and also some eighty prisoners, with comparatively
little fighting. Unfortunately young Maddocks, a most promising and
popular officer of the 2nd Somersetshire Light Infantry, lost his life.

Incessant attacks on the railway lines, too numerous to be recorded,
continued, of course throwing an enormous strain on the staff of the
military railways, who had verily to sleep with one eye open, unknowing
when and where the Boer would perpetrate fresh outrages. On the 12th, the
guerillas destroyed a bridge on the Krugersdorp line, and elsewhere they
made futile but annoying efforts to dislocate traffic. Lord Methuen at
this time was moving steadily on across the Western Transvaal,
occasionally varying his route by animated chases after Boer convoys. In
one of these he was splendidly successful, and his booty included a
15-pounder lost at Colenso, 26 waggons, 8000 cattle, 4000 sheep, and
about 20,000 rounds of small arm ammunition. Thus enriched he moved on
the following day, the 20th, to Rietpan, forty-five miles east of Vryburg
station. Here he chased more Boers, and increased his "bag" by 634
cattle, 3000 sheep, 29 horses, and 24 donkeys.

On the 26th Rustenburg was reoccupied by General Broadwood without loss.
With Generals Clements and Ridley he spent his time in clearing the
surrounding country, capturing waggons, rifles, and small arm ammunition,
and occasionally--Boers. These, as a rule, dispersed like a flock of
rooks at the sound of British pursuit, but twenty-four Dutchmen were
captured and sent into Rustenburg. There, on the 4th of October, arrived
Lord Methuen, who had fought two engagements on the 28th of
September--one commanded by himself, the other by General
Douglas--routing Lemmers's force and taking fourteen of them prisoners.
Seven were killed. Two of the British were also lost, and among the
wounded were Captain Lord Loch (Grenadier Guards), Lieutenant Parker
(R.A.M.C.), and Lieutenant Noel Money (Imperial Yeomanry).

General Hart meanwhile continued to spend his energies in identical
activities in the districts of Potchefstroom and Krugersdorp, to which
latter place he returned on the last day of September. He came not
empty-handed. His "bag," like those of Generals Paget and Methuen, was
big almost to inconvenience. His prizes ran as follows: 2720 head of
cattle, 3281 sheep and goats, and large quantities of mealies, potatoes,
oats, bran, and hay, 90 horses, 28 ponies, 11 mules, and 67 carts and
waggons. Of prisoners there were ninety-six. This was the result of a
thirty-three days' march, during which the column had covered 310 miles
and skirmished or fought on twenty-nine occasions. Of the British
"braves" only three were killed. Twenty-four were wounded and three
missing.

General Barton had his share of fighting, and on the 11th of October, in
a somewhat serious contest with the enemy, the Welsh Fusiliers, led by
Sir Robert Colleton, greatly distinguished themselves. Unhappily they
lost Second Lieutenant Williams-Ellis, a gallant boy of only twenty years
of age. Captain Gabbett was dangerously wounded, and Second Lieutenant
Kyrke sustained a severe injury to the head. Captain Trenchard (Royal
Scots Fusiliers) was also seriously wounded, as were eleven men of the
Welsh Fusiliers.


EXIT MR. KRUGER

With Lord Roberts's return to Pretoria on the 21st of September commenced
the general winding-up of affairs. At Schweizer Reneke the Boers had been
giving trouble, and General Settle, with a force of 7000 men, went to the
relief of the garrison and drove off the Boers, who lost heavily.

On the 25th General Baden-Powell returned from the Cape to Pretoria to
take up his post as head of the Transvaal Police, and was promptly beset
by upwards of 17,000 applications for appointments in his new force.
Seventeen officers and 319 men of the Royal Canadian Regiment left on
their return to Canada, while the City Imperial Volunteers prepared to
follow in order to reach home before the 5th of November. These were in
high feather: declared that they had acquired marvellous digestions from
the practice of eating oxen that must have taken part in the Great Trek,
and vaunted their ability to kill, clean, and cook anything from a
chicken to a pig, and make chupatties fit for the Lord Mayor! They were
still more exuberant when, early in October, they were reviewed, prior to
departure, by the Chief, who commented on the fine performances of the
gallant body of men, the conduct of the infantry under the Earl of
Albemarle (who was at Cape Town invalided), and the excellent work done
by Colonel Mackinnon. He spoke of their cheerful and ungrudging services,
of their long marches, the privations and hardships, the fever and
fighting they had endured, and he also alluded to the coolness and
utility of the mounted branch under Colonel Cholmondeley. He wished them
success on the resumption of their ordinary professions, and God-speed
upon their journey.

The Volunteers had great cause to be proud of themselves, for on all
occasions they had acquitted themselves admirably. On their entry into
Pretoria their "soldierly bearing" had been remarked on by the Chief, in
the subsequent battle of Diamond Hill, where young Alt lost his life,
they had "greatly distinguished" themselves, and besides fighting
twenty-six engagements had done some record marching, which has been
noted elsewhere.

On the 31st of July some of the C.I.V. came into action at Frederickstad,
losing one man killed and four wounded. Later they engaged in the chase
after De Wet, throwing themselves with zeal into the pursuit,
particularly on one occasion when they marched thirty miles in seventeen
hours. Altogether, from first to last, the Volunteers had nobly thrown
off the civic character for the honour of fighting for their country, had
"put their backs into it," and showed that clerk or shopkeeper, gardener
or groom, "A man's a man for a' that!"

[Illustration: (Pioneer). (Private).

THE ROYAL WELSH FUSILIERS.

Photo by Gregory & Co., London.]

The C.I.V. Battery under the command of Major M'Micking, H.A.C. (late
R.H.A.) and Captain Budworth, R.A., Adjutant of the H.A.C., acting as
Captain of the Battery, had been invaluable. They moved to Bloemfontein
in June, proceeded along the Kroonstad line to suppress the activities of
De Wet, and from thence came into action at Lindley. The Battery did
excellent work, and finally silenced the Boer guns with their rapid and
accurate fire. At Bethlehem they comported themselves gloriously, averted
disaster, saving the guns and the situation. Afterwards, on the 22nd of
September, again under Paget, they assisted in the surprise of Erasmus
and capture of his camp.

Their official record of casualties to the end of August was: killed in
action, 6; wounded, 65; died of wounds received in action, 3; died of
disease, 44; taken prisoners and missing, 12; invalided home, 121.[13]

On the 27th, at Pienaar's River Station, forty miles north of Pretoria,
the force under the command of Colonel Lionel Chapman was attacked by the
enemy, who had crept up within 200 yards either side, through the thick
scrub surrounding the district. Three hours' fierce fighting ensued, in
which a Bushman was killed and three Munster Fusiliers were taken
prisoners. These succeeded in escaping, owing to the number of the Boer
wounded. Many of the foe, in addition to those slain in the fray, were
killed owing to the explosion of a mine of whose existence they were
unaware, and so great was the number of the wounded that ambulances had
to be twice sent out to collect the Boer sufferers.

In the region of Groot Vlei Railway the marauders were surprised by a
Mounted Infantry Patrol of the South Wales Borderers, under Lieutenants
Dickinson and Gross, who themselves were surprised, on taking six
prisoners, to find that their prizes were not Boers but Frenchmen!

September closed with the anniversary of the birthday of the beloved
Chief, who was born at Cawnpore in 1832. Moltke did his great work at the
age of seventy; Wellington accomplished his at the age of forty-six; and
Roberts put the finishing touch to his crown of laurels at sixty-eight.
Most appropriately, the day was chosen to announce the appointment of the
gallant Field-Marshal to the post of Commander-in-Chief of the British
army--an appointment which was looked upon both in England and abroad as
an auspicious omen for the thorough reform of the British military
system, and as a guarantee for the future defence of the Empire. The
whole British world united in wishes--one may almost say prayers--for the
long life and welfare of its grandest soldier.

On the 2nd of October, Colonel Rochfort, with the Dublin Fusiliers
Mounted Infantry, attacked a Boer laager between Johannesburg and
Pretoria, the Fusiliers charging into the midst of the enemy with the
bayonet, and capturing some nine marauders who had been actively engaged
in the district for some time. The Boers, too, had their innings, for on
the evening of the same day they succeeded in derailing, near Pan
Station, a train containing three companies of the 2nd Coldstream Guards.
On the unfortunate men they poured a vigorous fire with their Mausers,
with the result that five were killed. Thirteen were injured, among them
Second Lieutenant C. Heywood. Five men of other regiments were wounded.

An effort was made to surprise some of the Boer bandits at Bulfontein on
the 4th, but Captain Henty (16th Middlesex Volunteers) found the party
far stronger than his own small force, and was compelled to retire, which
he did after three hours' fighting. Six of his men were wounded,
including Lieutenant Slater (57th Company Imperial Yeomanry). Lieutenant
Thomas (Ceylon Mounted Infantry) was reported missing but believed to be
dead.

During the early days of October the Boers made more despairing efforts
to be aggressive. The engine of a train conveying some men of the Naval
Brigade and Coldstream Guardsmen was derailed on night of 5th near
Balmoral by the explosion of a dynamite cartridge, but fortunately no
casualties occurred.

Signs were not wanting that the Boers were sickening of the war, for
General Kelly-Kenny reported that an armed Boer was brought in a prisoner
by two of his former countrymen who were wise enough to see the futility
of kicking against the pricks. Commandant Dirksen, who had been
commanding a Boer band opposed to General Paget, also surrendered. He had
been kept in ignorance of the real state of the political outlook, and
was allowed to proceed to Komati Poort to learn the truth regarding
Kruger's flight for himself. He returned satisfied, and gave up his arms.
Thus very slowly affairs were moving on, the Boer belligerents thinning,
the work of pacification growing gradually less troublesome.

General Buller took his departure for home on the 6th, leaving General
Lyttelton in command at Lydenburg. The farewell meeting between the Chief
and the troops who for nearly a year had followed him confidently through
blood and fire, disaster and success, was remarkably touching, a
demonstration which--leaving the formula of red-tape and blue-books--may
almost be termed affectionate. Certainly, whatever may have been the
opinion of the arm-chair critics at home, that of the "do or die"
soldiers of Natal was expressed in a lusty and spontaneous burst of
enthusiasm, which left no room for doubt.

On the 7th Captain Bearcroft and the Naval Brigade left, having first
received the thanks of the Chief for the able assistance they had
afforded during the war. The Natal Volunteers had also left for their
homes, with many compliments on the excellent services they had rendered.
On the 8th Lord Roberts visited the camp of the Australians and
Rhodesians at Daspoort, and thanked the men for their devotion and
bravery, especially for their fine defence of Elands River.

A chapter of accidents took place on the 9th. During the night a train
conveying men and animals was upset near Kaap Muiden; three men were
killed and fifteen injured--Lieutenant Hawkes sustaining a fracture of
the leg--while over forty animals were killed or maimed. In the morning,
to inquire into the mischief, Captain Paget, with Lieutenants Stubbs and
Sewell and eighteen men of the Vlakfontein Garrison, went on an engine
and truck to the scene of the disaster. The Boers, of course, were
waiting their happy chance, and promptly assailed the party. The fighting
at this time was fast and furious. On hearing of the attack Captain
Stewart (Rifle Brigade) with forty men hastened to the rescue, and there,
fighting, fell. A private in the Rifle Brigade was also killed, and among
the injured were Captain Paget and Lieutenant J. H. Stubbs. Five men
attached to the Royal Engineers were also wounded. Lieutenant Sewell,
Royal Engineers, and ten men of the Rifle Brigade were captured.

At this period there was a good deal of enteric fever in Pretoria, and
among the invalids, whose condition caused considerable anxiety, was
Major Prince Christian Victor of Schleswig-Holstein.[14] Not that his
state at the time was in the least critical, but interest hung around him
because he was, first, the grandson of the Sovereign; second, because he
was a gallant officer and a prince; and lastly, because he was before all
things a delightful comrade, as popular as he was genial. His death,
which did not occur till fighting had developed into guerilla warfare,
was deplored by all who were acquainted with him; and also by the nation
at large, who knew how to appreciate the devotion to duty of one who,
though born in the purple, preferred to take his share of the country's
work, and fight shoulder to shoulder with her defenders. His last wish
was characteristic of his noble nature--he desired no royal
resting-place, but elected to be buried "by the side of his comrades."

On the 19th, in the grey of the dawn, Mr. Kruger slunk from South Africa
on board the Dutch man-of-war _Gelderland_. With the utmost secrecy he
was smuggled to sea to evade, not his foes the British, but his dupes the
Boers, the luckless refugees who lusted for revenge on the man who had
ruined their country, deceived, robbed, and deserted themselves. When he
departed his moneybags were full! Theirs--his beloved people's--were
empty! Rich, he fled to escape the consequence of his own inflated
obstinancy; beggared, they remained to endure the brunt of it! Round the
debased fugitive it was impossible to cast the smallest glamour of
sentiment. The absence of all sense of honour and truth, the sordid
ambition and personal greed of the man, exposed now to the full, deprived
him of the sympathy of those who had formerly watched his remarkable
career with interest and admiration. Hitherto, most people had been prone
to believe that the President of the Transvaal was, as the patriarchs of
old, narrow-minded and obstinate no doubt, but saved by a simplicity that
was picturesque as it was primitive. The romantic were even wont to look
on him as another Cromwell of the English--a new Hofer of the Tyrolese--a
brawny moral giant, to wonder at and revere. But, gradually, the massive
peasant became transformed into the pinchbeck potentate, a despot with
never an inkling of statesmanship to redeem the unctious sophistries and
hypocritical cant with which he attempted to blind the world and himself.
Now, it was impossible for his admirers to ignore the clay feet of their
idol, and his compatriots, many of them, were forced to realise that his
character, like the bar gold he paid to his creditors, was little more
than a delusive show of amalgam. His last evasion declared that he had
received "six months' leave of absence for the benefit of his health." So
let it remain--a crumbling rung on the long ladder of his duplicity.
There was more truth in the fabrication than he recked of. He had gone
from his native land for six months--and as many more as he cared to
take--and, if his flight were not for the benefit of his personal health,
it was assuredly for the health of the great mass of human beings whose
lives in the Transvaal had hitherto been asphyxiated by the narrowness of
his prejudices and the autocracy of his rule! So, good-bye to him!

[Illustration: SIMON'S TOWN, CAPE COLONY

Photo by Wilson, Aberdeen]

FOOTNOTES:

[13] All the prisoners have since been released or returned to camp. Five
poor fellows died on their voyage home.

[14] Prince Christian Victor Albert Ludwig Ernest Anton was the eldest
son of Prince and Princess Christian. He was born on April 14, 1867, and
died at Pretoria on October 29, 1900. He was educated at Wellington
College and Magdalen College, Oxford, and subsequently entered the Royal
Military College at Sandhurst. He received his commission in 1888, and
was appointed second lieutenant in the King's Royal Rifle Corps. Two
years later he was promoted to be lieutenant, and in 1896 became captain,
with the brevet rank of major.

He served with the Hazara Expedition in 1891 as orderly officer to
Major-General Elles, commanding the forces. He was mentioned in
despatches, and received the medal and clasp. He was in the Miranzai
Expedition of the same year, and was present at the engagements at Sangar
and Mastan. The next year he accompanied the Isazai Expedition.

When it was found necessary to despatch a force to Ashanti against King
Prempeh in 1895 his Highness volunteered his services, and was made
aide-de-camp to Major-General Sir Francis Scott, who commanded the
expedition. For his share in the Ashanti Expedition Prince Christian
Victor received the star and promotion to the brevet rank of major. He
also served with the Soudan Expedition under Sir Herbert (now Lord)
Kitchener in 1898 as staff officer to the troops on board the gunboat
flotilla. He took part in the bombardment of the forts of Omdurman, and
was present at the battle of Khartoum. He was mentioned in despatches,
and given the Fourth Class of the Osmanieh, the British medal, and the
Khedive's medal with clasp. Prince Christian Victor was gazetted in
October 1899 for special service in South Africa. He took part in many
engagements before the occupation of Pretoria, and was appointed an extra
aide-de-camp to Lord Roberts in August.



CHAPTER VIII

GUERILLA WARFARE


With the ceremony of the formal annexation of the Transvaal, under title
of the Transvaal Colony, which took place at Pretoria on the 25th of
October, a recrudescence of hostility on the part of the enemy became
apparent. A violent attack was made on Jacobsdaal (near Kimberley), the
Boers having succeeded in secreting themselves in the houses surrounding
the British camp, and this through the treachery of the women whom we
were protecting! The attack was repulsed after some hours of hard
fighting by the energy of the garrison (composed mainly of Cape Town
Highlanders), and by the dash of Finlayson in charge of the Cape Mounted
Police who came to the rescue, routed the Boers, and killed Bosman their
Commandant. Fourteen of the garrison were slain and thirteen wounded, and
the sole punishment which could be meted out to the dastardly inhabitants
who had been "accessories" of the assault was the burning of their
houses. In three of these were found large stores of soft-nosed bullets.

General Paget, who was becoming quite a master in the cunning of the
guerillas, made himself notable for defeating a huge gang of Dutchmen
with a convoy, taking--together with twenty-six prisoners--some 25,000
head of cattle--"the biggest haul of the campaign." The Boers had been
driven out of the region of Bethlehem, which was occupied by Colonel
Oakes with the Worcesters, 62nd Middlesex Yeomanry, and two guns of the
79th Battery. The marauders were further routed from a valuable well some
miles off by Colonel Golightly, Imperial Yeomanry, with Hants and
Gloucester companies, and two companies of Grenadier Guards, and half a
battalion of Scots Guards. During the operations young Lord G. R.
Grosvenor (Scots Guards) while gallantly leading his company, was wounded
in the thigh. Meanwhile Lord Methuen, with General Douglas and Lord
Erroll, by a skilfully combined movement, dislodged and dispersed the
enemy from his settling-place near Zeerust, and possessed himself of more
cattle and more prisoners. General Barton, too, with Scots and Welsh
Fusiliers, did smart work near Frederickstad, at close quarters and at
bayonets' point; but in the brush with De Wet lost thirteen killed and
forty-five wounded. The Boers suffered correspondingly, and twenty-six of
them were captured. Of the Scots Fusiliers Captain Baillie fell, while
Lieutenant Elliott was dangerously wounded. Captain Dick's injuries were
also severe, and Lieutenant Bruce was slightly wounded. Among the Welsh
Fusiliers' officers wounded were Captain Delmé Radcliffe and Lieutenants
Best and Nangle.

The plucky little garrison of Phillipolis, which for some days had been
withstanding the assault of the Boers, were relieved on the 24th, by the
Imperial Yeomanry acting in conjunction with two other columns, and two
days later, General Kitchener attacked by night the Boers around
Krugerspoort, and captured their laager. General French, ever active,
swept his way from Bethel to Heidelberg, fighting continuously, and
gathering up prisoners and stores; while General C. Knox on the 27th
harassed De Wet's force in its retreat from Barton's stalwart Fusiliers,
and succeeded in depriving the Dutchmen of two guns and three waggons,
while U Battery R.H.A. blew up another ammunition waggon by a shell. The
engagement was another feather in the cap of De Lisle, whose handling of
the troops was excellent. Of the two guns taken from De Wet one was a
Krupp. It was captured by the New South Wales Mounted Infantry. The other
belonged to U Battery, and was captured by Le Gallais's mounted troops,
assisted, much to the satisfaction of the officers and men, by U Battery.
General Hunter engaged in operations for the purpose of driving the Boers
from the line near Ventersburg, where they had been intent on mischief
for some time, and in the fighting on the 30th a gallant officer of
Artillery, Major Hanwell, commanding the 39th Battery, received such
serious injuries that he succumbed. A company of the 3rd Battalion of the
Buffs became hotly engaged, and behaved "with conspicuous steadiness,"
while the Surrey Regiment, charging grandly, sent the Boers scudding into
space.

To those at home who ignore the truth of the German's dictum that
"invading armies melt away like snow," it was a matter of wonder what
became of the enormous force of some 200,000 men which was reported to be
in South Africa, and how it happened that, with so many troops engaged,
the proportionately small number of Boers attacking them achieved any
success whatever. A glance at the map of the main railway routes will
serve to show the melting-away process. At every bridge and at every
culvert were camps; at every village and at every town were posted
portions of the army. From Cape Town to Komati, from Durban to
Potchefstroom, from De Aar to Mafeking, from Mafeking to Pretoria, and
from Mafeking to Rhodesia the British forces were distributed, and far
from wondering why the regiments thus trickling along the country failed
to annihilate the Boers, those who knew were inclined to marvel that
there were any regiments to spare for giving chase to the marauders in
their desultory schemes of annoyance. The British duty of sticking fast
was infinitely more arduous than the Boer one of slipping away.

On the 28th a Boer commando captured near Kroonstad an outpost of ninety
volunteers, and proceeded to loot a mail train, but later General Paget
at Magato Pass drove the enemy from two positions. Night expeditions to
surprise the Dutchmen were engaged in by Lord Kitchener and General
Smith-Dorrien, the former near Lydenburg attacking two Boer laagers, one
under Schalk Burger, and driving the Dutchmen north, the latter moving
towards Witkop and surrounding the enemy, but failing to do the damage
intended owing to inclement weather. A more awful night than that of the
1st of November the unhappy troops could scarcely recollect, but as the
two small columns, one under General Smith-Dorrien and the other under
Colonel Spens (Shropshire Light Infantry), were operating in support of
each other and some miles apart, neither could turn back. Only after
surrounding and surprising the Boers at daybreak were they able to
retire, and no sooner was the retirement commenced than the Boers boldly
dashed after them, one of their number being slain within fifty yards of
the Gordons. Our losses were Captain Chalmers, Canadian Mounted Rifles,
killed, and Major Saunders, of the same corps, wounded. Captain Gardyne
of the Gordons sustained slight injuries.

The circumstances attending the death of Captain Chalmers were most
pathetic. Major Saunders, in the thick of a blizzard of fire, was riding
back with a sergeant who had lost his horse, and to whose rescue he had
bravely galloped. At this moment the Major's horse, which was cumbered
with the two riders, was killed, and the Major himself wounded. To his
assistance rushed Chalmers, who, though begged to save himself, refused,
and promptly fell a sacrifice to his own gallantry.

Such deeds of heroism were occurring daily. Though at home public
interest in the war began to wane, and certain notoriety hunters
endeavoured to hint that the British troops were not as smart as they
might be, the gallant men at the front fought and toiled and suffered
nobly. Besides actual warfare, pillage and the wrecking and burning of
trains formed part of the normal programme, and daily deeds of devotion
and courage were enacted. But these deeds, as a rule, found none to
record them, and only now and then some special instance of heroism was
wafted home on the wires. In one case the _Pall Mall Gazette_ gave
publicity to a story that makes one glory in the name of Briton. About
this time a train to the south of Standerton, on the Natal line, was
"stuck up" and fired upon. The driver and stoker were both wounded, the
former being hit eight times and having both his arms smashed. Nothing
daunted, however, he butted the lever of his engine with his head, and
drove it full speed into Standerton, working the lever the whole way with
his head alone!

The Boers, some said, were growing disheartened for want of food and
ammunition, but others found that as the want grew stronger they became
emboldened. Success of any serious kind was impossible, but their
capacity for annoyance was considerable, and Boer marauding bands
continued to raid the neighbourhoods of Cradock, Aliwal North, Ladybrand,
causing alarm to the British farmers and also to those Boer ones who were
pacifically inclined. The hopes of the guerillas were mainly stayed by
the inventive fertility of Mr. Steyn, who stimulated them to the struggle
by false accounts of their successes. He assured them also that 5000
Dutchmen had risen in Cape Colony, and that Mr. Kruger had gone to Europe
to obtain intervention, and, failing it, meant to sell the Transvaal to
the highest bidder. This the sturdy fellows believed, and continued to
fight on, not with the valour of despair, but the persistence of
anticipation.

       *       *       *       *       *

Meanwhile at home, on the 25th of September, Parliament had been
dissolved, and a general election had taken place, with the result that
Lord Salisbury's Government triumphantly returned to power. Thus the
hopes of the Boers--that with a Radical Government might come a
repetition of the climb-down policy of '81--were defeated. To vent his
disgust, and as a sequel to his letter of a year ago,[15] the
correspondent signing himself P. S. sent another highly educational
letter to the London journals, a letter which is quoted to serve, as did
the former one, to allay the doubt of any who may have questioned the
original aggressiveness of the Boers, or doubted the justice of the war
sentiment among the British:--

     "SIR,--I beg you to give expression to the immense surprise and
     satisfaction with which my colleagues on the Continent and
     myself have learnt the results of the election. We fully
     expected that in consequence of British intoxication with the
     partial success your Government has achieved in North and South
     Africa, that the Anti-Boer Party would have obtained a majority
     of at least two hundred and twenty votes in the new Parliament.
     Now we know that there will be a strong Opposition of about two
     hundred and seventy members in the new House, our hopes of the
     future independence of South Africa have risen high. We are
     sorry for the loss of some old friends, but we rejoice in
     having some new and more discreet allies in the House of
     Commons. Not only that, but we see also good grounds for hope
     for vengeance. In China, India, and Morocco trouble is brewing,
     and will overtake you before you can reorganise your little
     military forces or form a decent army to protect your own land
     from the invasion of the trained millions of the Continental
     Powers. Soon there will be such a conflagration in Europe that
     all your energies will be needed to try to defend your own
     island, but you will be too late in your preparations, and then
     our chance will come.

     "You seek to settle matters quickly in Africa by your leniency
     and conceding the use of the Dutch language to us. See 'British
     Leniency,' in _Morning Post_, Saturday 13th inst. But I tell
     you that your leniency in general and your kindness to our men,
     now prisoners in your hands, are regarded by us only as bribes,
     offered to us to be faithless to our land and our independence.
     We will accept your bribes, but we will not be seduced by them
     to accept your friendship and to cease from working for our
     independence and the downfall of your Empire. But as my
     Continental colleagues truly say, your destruction at an early
     date is assured. The present election shows that at the first
     sign of invasion fully one-third of the population of the
     island of Great Britain will rise against the Government and
     welcome the invaders, as their forefathers would have done in
     the days of the first Napoleon.

     "We have not studied the domestic history of the English people
     and the present feelings of the great working class for
     nothing. We are not so blind as your statesmen. Moreover, we
     can pay for the services that we shall receive from our
     friends. Thanks to our previous arrangements we shall still be
     able to obtain in Europe the sinews of war from our
     inexhaustible gold mines in the Transvaal, and we know that
     European politicians as well as the European press can always
     be bought at a moderate price, and that they will faithfully
     render good service therefor.--Yours, &c.

    "P. S."

In this frank epistle we were given the programme of future guerilla
warfare, of Boer hopes, and Boer ambition. Whether the European
politicians and press would continue to be purchasable at "a moderate
price" remained to be seen, but this honest avowal revealed the secret of
Pro-Boerism in its nakedness, and served to account most appositely for
many curious and unjustifiable assertions which have been made regarding
British actions in the course of the war. While Boer gold existed, Europe
and even Great Britain would find Judases ready to do business.

The Dutchmen, their political prospects in Great Britain blighted, now
hung all their expectations on the chance that in America the
Presidential election of 6th of November would bring about a change in
their favour. Mr. M'Kinley, the President, in a private interview with
the Boer delegates on the 2nd of May, had informed them of his intention
to persist in a policy of impartial neutrality between Great Britain and
the Boer Republics, and from that moment they looked to the
Opposition--to Mr. Bryan and Democrat sympathisers--for the intervention
that they still eagerly sought. But in America they met with even less
luck than in England. The election resulted in an overwhelming victory
for the Republicans. Mr. M'Kinley secured 292 electoral votes, while Mr.
Bryan had to content himself with 155.

[Illustration: BURNING THE FARM OF A TREACHEROUS BURGHER

Drawing by R. Caton Woodville, from a Sketch by Melton Prior, War Artist]

In France the Boer cause met with sympathy, and the late President of the
Transvaal on arrival there was fêted. He was the lion of the moment--but
political activity went no further than lionising. In Holland the gentle
young Queen extended hospitality to a distinguished fellow-countryman; in
Germany a straightforward line was taken, the Emperor refused an
interview which might mar the hue of his neutrality; while in Russia the
Tzar, though seriously ill, maintained his determination not to be lured
into the imbroglio. But of these matters the burghers in the Transvaal
were kept in ignorance, and they doggedly fought on--wearing themselves
out and losing and taking life for a now hopeless cause.

On the 3rd of November Koffyfontein, which had been besieged since the
24th of October, was relieved by Sir Charles Parsons and some of General
Settle's Mounted troops. The dogged way in which a garrison of but fifty
miners under a volunteer officer, Captain Robertson of the Kimberley
Light Horse, withstood the persistence of the foe, excited the admiration
of friends and enemies. The miners in the débris heaps contrived so
cleverly to render their position impregnable that all the efforts of the
enemy were frustrated. Captain Robertson escaped with his life by a
miracle. He, with four natives, made a midnight raid on a Boer hot-bed--a
farmhouse a mile and a half from the village. He was met by a man with a
Mauser, who fortunately missed him, but in so doing extinguished the
light. A hand-to-hand encounter followed, and in complete darkness some
thrilling moments were passed--the officer firing ineffectual shots, the
Boer being assisted by another of his tribe, who succeeded in disarming
Captain Robertson and wounding him, almost stunning him with the butt of
a rifle. This gallant officer, with some of his wits still about him,
regained his pistol, and transferring it from one hand to the other, shot
his assailant dead!

While all this was going forward, Steyn and De Wet became more actively
aggressive, and consequently Colonel Le Gallais's force was sent from
Honing Spruit, while De Lisle, with the Colonial Division, marched from
Koppies, the first station north of Rhenoster, for the purpose of
executing a wide turning movement, and if possible cutting off the
retreat of De Wet across the Vaal. Le Gallais, after some disappointments
and heavy marching, got at last on the track of the fugitive in the
region of Bothaville. Early on the 6th the chase was continued with
considerable animation, the 5th Mounted Infantry leading, followed by the
8th Corps under Colonel Ross. Three guns of U Battery, under escort of
the 5th, 17th, and 18th Companies of Imperial Yeomanry, moved with the
force, while one gun of U Battery, with the 7th Mounted Infantry under
Major Welsh, remained to protect the baggage in crossing the drifts.
Major Lean, with some sixty of the 5th Mounted Infantry in advance, came
to a rise, whence suddenly they viewed the enemy's laager. Quickly they
surprised the Boers with some volleys, and caused a stampede. Hot-foot
flew De Wet and Steyn to their Cape cart, mounted it, and were off. The
rest flung themselves into their stirrups. It was a case of _sauve qui
peut_, for everything, guns, waggons, and ammunition, were left behind.
But soon the Dutchmen found a harbour--a strong position in the
neighbourhood of a farmhouse, and from the adjacent dams, a stone-walled
enclosure, and even a pigsty, they began to return the fire of the
British party. By this time Colonels Le Gallais and Ross had galloped to
the fray, and dismounting, took up a position in a farmhouse, whence they
could survey the proceedings. This central position was held by some men
of the Oxford Light Infantry, while on their right were some Buffs and
Royal Irish Mounted Infantry under gallant Engelbach, who was slain, and
beyond them came Captain Holland and some Worcester Mounted Infantry,
skirted by the Royal Irish under Captain Brush. To left of the farmhouse,
near a Kaffir kraal, were the 8th Mounted Infantry and some men of the
Oxford Light Infantry under Captain Maurice. Later on, as the Boers were
seen to be making an effort to wheel round both flanks, Major Welsh was
ordered to place his baggage in safety and to push forwards to the
rescue with every available man. Meanwhile the situation was growing more
and more serious, as the Boers had got the range of the farmhouse to a
nicety, and fired through doors and windows, so that within it now
dropped Le Gallais, and Ross, and young Lieutenant Percy-Smith, and
several men. Lieutenant Williams fell dead at once, and Captain Colvile
had been hit while leading the Oxford Light Infantry earlier in the day.
Nevertheless the splendid party holding the front clung tenaciously to
their position, though one after another dropped, and groaning and dying
littered the ground, already too thinly defended against the 200 active
Mausers of the foe. For four long hours of the morning the battle pursued
its course, Major Taylor, with U Battery, paying with interest the debts
incurred at Koorn Spruit. Gradually--both flanks becoming stronger with
the arrival of Major Welsh and his party--an adequate defence against the
encroachments of the Boers was attempted, and their attempts at flanking
operations repulsed. Then with considerable skill the troops to right and
left were manoeuvred by De Lisle, so that, while relieving the pressure
on the front, the Boer laager was practically enclosed on three sides and
finally rendered untenable. The white flag then fluttered within the
Dutchman's stronghold; but it was not to be trusted now, and the Boers
were shouted to to leave cover and surrender, which, sulkily, they did.
During the persistent fighting Le Gallais, mortally wounded though he
was, continued his inquiries as to the progress of the battle. The noble
fellow's last words serve better than all else to show the heroic mould
of his dauntless mind: "If I die, tell my mother that I died happy, as we
got the guns!"[16] Happily he lived to know that, dearly bought as they
were, we were in possession of seven guns lost by the 14th Battery at
Colenso, a 12-pounder taken from Q Battery at Sanna's Post, three Krupp
75 mm., one "pom-pom," and one 37 mm. quick-firer--not to speak of stores
of gun and small-arm ammunition, black powder, dynamite, and other camp
supplies, and a "bag" of 100 prisoners. In addition to those already
mentioned, Major Welsh, Captains Harris and Mair, and Lieutenant Peebles
were wounded.

At the same time tussles innumerable were going forward in various
regions. Lord Methuen, near Ottoshoop, was harassing Snyman with success,
and the 3rd Royal Rifle corps near Heidelberg repulsed a party of raiders
without loss. Phillipolis was occupied by Major MacIntosh (Seaforth
Highlanders) with loss in wounded of several gallant Scotsmen and Surgeon
Hartley of Lovat's Scouts, and in the neighbourhood of Lydenburg a party
of the 19th Hussars and Manchester Mounted Infantry distinguished
themselves mightily, the troopers under Captain Chetwode charging by
moonlight into the midst of the enemy, who were finally routed by the
artillery and mounted infantry. The redoubtable Plumer also repulsed an
attack of 400 men under Delarey, and elsewhere--at Vrede, Reitz,
Harrismith, Pienaar's River--parties of guerillas, driven desperate by
famine, were beaten off with more or less ease. While the affair at
Bothaville was demonstrating the cool courage and tenacity of our troops,
General Smith-Dorrien's much-embattled braves were again displaying
devoted gallantry in the country between Belfast and Komati River. The
force consisted of 250 mounted men from the 5th Lancers, Canadian
Dragoons, and Mounted Rifles, two guns of the Canadian Royal Horse
Artillery, and four of the 84th Battery. With them were 900 of the
Suffolks and Shropshires. The Boers hung upon the front, flanks, and rear
of the troops from Belfast to Komati River, but here they established
themselves in a species of stronghold whence they thought they could not
be dislodged. Nevertheless the Suffolks and Canadian Rifles, creeping
round their flank, showed them their mistake, and caused them to retire.
The next day, reinforced, the Dutchmen returned and endeavoured again to
seize their lost ground, but Colonel Evans, with the Canadians and two
guns of the 84th Battery, had the legs of them, and after a two-mile race
disappointed the nimble ones and established themselves at the goal.

But all this activity was no child's play. On the 6th the smart force
lost six killed and twenty wounded, mostly gallant Shropshires, and on
the following day two were killed and twelve wounded of the Royal
Canadian Dragoons, whose splendid energy in keeping the enemy off the
infantry and convoys was highly extolled by the general. The fighting at
one time took place at extremely close quarters, for the Boers, contrary
to custom, charged the rearguard to within seventy yards, and were only
repulsed by the magnificent dash of the Canadian Dragoons, sixteen of
whom fell into the hands of the Boers. These were afterwards released.
Three plucky Canadian subalterns were among the wounded--Lieutenants
Elmsley, Turner, and Cockburn. Desultory fighting went on in various
directions, the Boers near Wepener, Standerton, and elsewhere maintaining
persistent activity, which did credit to their tenacity if not to their
common sense.

Notwithstanding the failure of the Cordua plot, the towns of Johannesburg
and Pretoria continued to seethe with disaffection and intrigue.
Anarchists and ruffians of all nations were known to be in league against
the authorities, and a strict watch was kept over their movements, with
the result that five Italians, four Greeks, and a Frenchman were arrested
on the 16th of November. They had prepared a diabolical plot against the
life of the Commander-in-Chief--their intention having been to explode a
mine in the church to be attended by him on the 18th--a plot which was
fortunately discovered before any ill consequences could arise. Minor
engagements took place near Frankfort, and Dainsfontein, fine hauls of
stock were made at Klersdorp and Heidelberg, near which regions were
nests of marauders.

A serious disaster occurred at Dewetsdorp on the 23rd of November, when
the garrison, some 400, consisting of 68th Field Battery, detachments of
Gloucesters, Highland Light Infantry, and Irish Rifles, the whole under
Major Massy, after losing fifteen killed and forty-two wounded,
surrendered to the enemy, who numbered about 2500. The Dutchmen, under De
Wet, had invested the place on the 18th, and poured a heavy fire on the
position occupied by the Highlanders, creeping nightly nearer and nearer,
and ceasing neither day nor night in their attack. The water supply was
cut off, and the wretched men were scorched by sun and torn by raging
thirst. By the 22nd their position was rendered untenable, but through
the gallantry of their comrades, the men were able to retire on their
main position. But the occupation of their trenches rendered the
situation hopeless, and ammunitionless and waterless, surrender was
inevitable.[17] A column, 1400, had been sent to the relief but failed to
arrive in time. General C. Knox joined this force and entered the town,
which he found evacuated, seventy-five sick and wounded being left
behind. He promptly pursued the Dutchmen, and caught Steyn and De Wet and
their followers near Vaalbank on the 27th, and handled them somewhat
roughly, scattering them west and north-west, and capturing two waggons
and stampeding 300 horses.

Engagements also took place between Plumer and some 500 malcontents near
De Wagen Drift, with the result that the enemy retired in confusion. At
Tiger Kloof on the 23rd, when the Scots Guards routed the foe from a
strong position, the Imperial Yeomanry did excellent work. Unfortunately
Lieutenant Southey, while gallantly leading his men, was shot dead, and
Major Hanbury was hit in three places. Near Springs in the Transvaal, on
the 25th, General Bruce Hamilton surprised a Boer laager, and on the
27th, at Bullfontein, Colonel White achieved a success, and drove the
enemy across the river, mainly through the dash and gallantry of the
troops under Colonel Forbes, and the skilful handling of them by the
commanding officer. General Settle, a day later, occupied Luckhoff, after
fighting for five hours and defeating Herzog's commando at Kloof.

General Paget, with Colonels Plumer and Hickman, with Queenslanders, New
Zealanders, and Tasmanian Bushmen, York, Warwick, and Montgomery
Yeomanry, some companies of West Riding and Munster Regiments, the 7th
and 38th Batteries, two "pom-poms," one Colt, one Maxim, and two naval
quick-firing 12-pounders, moved from the region north-east of Bronker's
Spruit on the 29th with a view to giving battle to the enemy, the plan
being for General Lyttelton to co-operate by sweeping up from Middelburg
on the enemy's rear. The synchronal arrangements were imperfect, and the
projected attacks did not proceed as intended. The enemy's lines were
longer than those of the British, and General Paget's attempt to turn
them was a failure, the enemy, some 2000 of them, being screened by
boulders as big as houses, behind which they were completely safe. To
left and right went Plumer and Hickman respectively, pushing on in a
leaden blast from the hidden foe, while on Hickman's right the gallant
West Ridings, led by their splendid Colonel--Colonel Lloyd--pressed to
the attack.

So close they came that the voices of the Dutchmen were to be heard in
conversation, but these with Mausers and four guns and friendly boulders
made themselves unassailable. Over seventeen hours of fighting cost the
West Riding their colonel, and the brilliant New Zealanders some thirty
killed and wounded, all the officers save one being hit. The wounded
officers were: Lieutenants Townsend and Oakes, Captain Acworth and
Lieutenant Harman, all of West Riding Regiment; Lieutenant Challis, Royal
Army Medical Corps, severely, being hit in three places while gallantly
attending wounded men under a heavy fire; Captain Crawshaw and
Lieutenants Montgomerie, Somerville, and Tucker, and Surgeon-Captain
Godfray, all of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles. The total loss was
eighteen killed and fifty-eight wounded. At night the guns of General
Lyttelton came to work, and by morning the Boers had disappeared.

[Illustration: THE HARBOUR, BUFFALO RIVER, EAST LONDON

Photo by Wilson, Aberdeen]

By this time Lord Kitchener, with the local rank of General, had assumed
command of the troops in South Africa, Lord Roberts having started for
England in complete confidence that his successor would accomplish the
pacification of the country in due time. His work was most complicated,
for besides being impoverished by the scarcity of troops (the Volunteers
and Colonials having many of them left on the expiration of their year of
service), the lack of horses put a perpetual stopper on the flow of
military operations. Clausewitz has said that when cavalry is deficient,
"La riche moisson de la victoire ne se coupe pas plus alors à la faux,
mais à la faucille" (The rich harvest of victory is not cut with scythe
but with the sickle.) And never was the truth of his aphorism more keenly
felt than at this moment. The harvest of splendid victories that had been
achieved was being reaped with the sickle, and the reaping operations
were taking months, which, had mounts been available, would have taken
moments!

December opened with animation. General C. Knox, near the
Bethulie-Smithfield Road, on the 2nd harassed the Boers with a convoy and
succeeded in capturing seven prisoners. General Paget's mounted men
skirmished successfully around Lieufontein, and near Utrecht some of the
garrison engaged 200 of the foe for two and a half hours and put them to
flight, leaving six Dutchmen _hors de combat_.

In the Cape Colony the members of the Bond were preparing for a Congress,
and sundry chameleon complexioned gentlemen indulged in speeches
regarding the question of loyalty and future settlement, which were
sufficiently ambiguous to have served as examples in the art of blowing
hot and cold with the same mouth, but fortunately the eagle eye of
Kitchener was upon them and the result of their verbosity was a careful
readjustment of such forces as were at the Commander-in-Chief's disposal,
to advert any general rising among those who had previously been
pacified.

The Congress eventually took place at Worcester, and the freedom of
speech indulged in at the meeting was said to be responsible for the
aggressions of the Boers which subsequently took place. Mr. Cronwright
Schreiner declared that the British people had grossly failed in their
duty toward the people of Cape Colony, their attitude since the Raid
being one of dishonesty and cowardice. "British statesmen," he said, "had
been the tools of Capitalists. Their attitude had been to force war on
South Africa. Great Britain is now forcing British soldiers to wage war
with an inhumanity and barbarism that is astonishing the civilised
world." He dilated on the alleged wrong done to women and children
(already disproved to the satisfaction of every one), and proceeded to
harrow his audience by describing details. In conclusion he stormed, "We
Africanders will never acquiesce in Britain taking away the independence
of the Republics." In the end it was decided that an African mission to
Great Britain should demand: First, the termination of the war raging
with untold misery and sorrow--such as the burning of houses and the
devastation of the country, the extermination of the white nationality,
and the treatment to which women and children were subjected which would
leave a lasting heritage of bitterness and hatred, while endangering
further relations between civilisation and barbarism in South Africa.
Second, the retention by the Republics of their independence, whereby the
peace of South Africa can be maintained.

Meanwhile, Great Britain was taking her own steps for the maintenance of
lasting peace in South Africa. Parliament reassembled to vote a
continuance of the current of men, horses, weapons, and supplies, without
which the generals who were striving to bring guerilla-raiding to a
summary conclusion, would remain paralysed and resourceless.

The Boers achieved something of a success on the 3rd as they came across
a convoy of 140 waggons three miles long, proceeding in two sections from
Pretoria to Rustenburg, and succeeded in destroying the first section
(escorted by two companies of West Yorks, and two squadrons of the
Victoria Mounted Rifles, with two guns of the 75th Battery). Delarey,
hiding in a donga with 700 of his gang, waited till the convoy and men
got within effective range, and sent a shower of bullets into their
midst. The troops made a grand defence, set the guns trail to trail, and
blazed back at the approaching hordes who were now endeavouring to
surround them, with the result that the marauders failing to capture the
convoy satisfied themselves by setting fire to the waggons and retiring,
thus leaving the second section (escorted by two companies of the Argyll
and Sutherland Highlanders) unharmed. Our loss was fifteen killed and
twenty-three wounded, among the latter Lieutenant Baker, R.F.A.

On the 5th De Wet made an audacious attempt upon Cape Colony, which, in
spite of his marvellous acuteness and activity, proved a failure. He
crossed the Caledon and moved towards Odendaal, which was held by the 1st
Coldstreams. (It must here be noted that the Guards after their march to
Komati Poort, and a brief rest in the Transvaal, were moved to their old
hunting grounds on the Orange River, all the drifts of which they
assiduously guarded.) At Commassie Bridge he was completely worsted by
our troops and forced to trek to the north-east, and back over the
Caledon, leaving behind him 500 horses, many Cape carts, and a long
stream of dying and dead cattle. He was continually pursued and harassed
by General C. Knox, who captured a Krupp gun and a waggon-load of
ammunition, and kept up a running fight in the direction of Reddersburg;
which was said to be one of the most exciting episodes in the whole war.

On the 8th a Boer gang near Barberton made a violent and indeed valiant
lunge at the troops guarding the place. Though once repulsed by the
Mounted Infantry they again returned to the attack, and succeeded in
getting to very close quarters. The British lost three and had five
wounded and thirteen taken prisoners. These, as too troublesome to feed,
were afterwards released.

On 13th of December a grievous affair took place at Nooitgedacht on the
Magaliesberg, where General Clements with his force of 500 mounted men
and 400 Northumberland Fusiliers, while holding the tops of some kopjes
was attacked by 2500 kharki-clad Boers under Delarey. The foe crept up
without being recognised and seized vantage-points on the ridges, first
overpowering the Northumberland Fusiliers (who fought for hours till
ammunition was exhausted), and thereby rendering the position of the camp
untenable. Under a heavy fire guns and transport were moved, and a
second position one mile and a half to south-east taken, where till
afternoon the troops remained. Then they retired on Rietfontein, sixty of
the 12th Brigade of Mounted Infantry keeping the Boers at bay while the
movement was accomplished. The fighting was very severe, and five
officers and nine men were killed; eighteen officers and 555 men, most of
them Northumberland Fusiliers, were missing. As the natives bolted, a
considerable amount of transport was lost, though the Army Service Corps
vigorously defended the waggons. A most popular officer, Colonel Legge,
20th Hussars, was hit by three bullets, but was seen to shoot five Boers
with his revolver before he dropped. The other officers killed were
Captain Macbean, Dublin Fusiliers; Captain Murdoch, Cameron Highlanders;
and Captain Atkins, Wiltshire Regiment.

On the same day Colonel Blomfield (at this time in command of the
Lancashire Brigade) achieved a great success in the neighbourhood of
Vryheid. There, three days previously, the Boers had attacked and had
been driven off with a loss of about 100 killed and wounded, to our six
killed, nineteen wounded, and thirty missing. Unfortunately two gallant
officers of the Royal Lancaster Regiment were killed, Colonel Gawne and
Lieutenant Woodgate. Now the avenging Colonel swooped down on the
Dutchmen at Scheepers Nek, and drove them off in confusion, securing a
quantity of arms and stock, and inflicting heavy punishment. Two Naval
Volunteers, whose corps behaved splendidly, were killed. Lord Methuen at
the same time was helping to balance the Nooitgedacht account by
attacking two Boer positions in the region of Ottoshoop, and taking unto
himself fifteen ox waggons and Cape carts, 15,000 rounds of ammunition,
1460 head of cattle, and 2000 sheep. Unfortunately the roll of prisoners
was small; for the art of running away is simpler than the art of holding
on, and the chase ended, as chases usually ended, by the capture of a
handful of prisoners and a prodigious haul of waggons and cattle.

In the Zastron district a party of the 2nd Division of Brabant's
Horse--mostly raw recruits--got into difficulties on the 13th. They
became detached from the main body, were caught in a defile, and 120 of
them were taken prisoners. The captain in command was wounded in several
places, and the Colonials lost eight killed and eighteen wounded, three
of whom since died. At this time De Wet was retreating north, flying
towards the Thabanchu region from the pursuit of Knox, and struggling to
break through the British cordon. After delivering several ineffectual
assaults on the various British positions, on the 14th, he in person led
a gallant attack--charged through the British lines, and, with the loss
of thirty men killed and wounded, twelve prisoners, some waggons of
ammunition, a 15-pounder gun (taken at Dewetsdorp), a "pom-pom," and many
horses and mules, succeeded once more in making his escape!

Parties of his dispersed force at different points had crossed the Orange
River and commenced cutting railway lines, threatening communications
between Cape Town and Buluwayo, their object being to possess themselves
of De Aar Junction. But their movements were circumscribed. Burghersdorp,
Stormberg, Rosmead, and Naauwpoort were all strongly held by the British,
while the Orange River, as though vengefully, had risen at the back of
the marauders and pressed them close to the British forces, hemming them
round. Still, some 2000 of them on mischief bent caused considerable
alarm and annoyance, holding up trains, capturing convoys, and calling on
small garrisons to surrender, and fighting, till, on the approach of
reinforcements, they deemed it advisable to decamp to fresh fields of
diversion. Lord Kitchener promptly arrived at De Aar and adopted
measures to quell the invasion and allay the apprehensions of those who
found themselves at the mercy of the bandits. But the work was not to be
accomplished without infinite patience, for, as one of the gay Colonials
remarked, "Sport in these districts is no longer fox-hunting, but
rat-catching!"

A new proclamation, dated 20th December, was issued by the
Commander-in-Chief. It ran thus: "It is hereby notified to all burghers
that if, after this date, they voluntarily surrender, they will be
allowed to live with their families in Government laagers until such time
as the guerilla warfare now being carried on will admit of their
returning safely to their homes.

"All stock and property brought in at the time of surrender of such
burghers will be respected and paid for if requisitioned by the military
authorities."

To ensure a more speedy termination of hostilities, active steps were
taken to make up for the loss of the Colonial and other troops which had
returned to their homes. The recruiting of Colonial Police to the number
of 10,000 was being carried forward, 800 mounted infantry and two cavalry
regiments from England were under orders to leave as soon as possible,
and a sixth New Zealand Contingent consisting of 200 men (one-half
Maoris) was preparing to sail.

A second band of marauders had now got across by Zandsdrift, the object
of the Boer leaders being to run all over Cape Colony and there gather
around them as many Dutch sympathisers as they could manage to stimulate
with a belief in their ultimate success, and, if possible, to get access
to the sea coast. A Gazette Extraordinary was therefore issued on the
20th proclaiming martial law in twelve additional districts of Cape
Colony, and warning all persons of the risks incurred by those who had
previously assisted the enemy and had been released. It was subsequently
arranged that owing to the state of affairs the loyal inhabitants should
be called upon to form a Colonial Defence Force in order to resist the
invasion, protect communications, and preserve order in the disturbed
districts. The term of service named was three months. The operations in
the Colony were to be conducted by Generals Little, Jones, and MacDonald.

On the 19th and 20th General Clements, in conjunction with General
French, fought a continuous series of engagements with Delarey's men, and
eventually drove them from the Magaliesberg region. But these took their
revenge on the 29th by capturing Helvetia, on the Machadodorp-Lydenburg
Railway. This position, a very strong one, was held by a detachment of
the Liverpool Regiment, who were surprised by the enemy at 2.30 A.M., the
Dutchmen having first "rushed" the 4.7 gun. The officer commanding the
post at Swarzkopjes sent out a post, shelled away the enemy, and forced
them to temporarily abandon their prize; but the Boers eventually secured
the trophy by knowingly forming an ægis of British prisoners around it.
Major Cotton was severely wounded, and four other officers; eleven men
were killed and twenty-two wounded, and two hundred taken prisoners. It
was a sorry finale for the year, yet those who could appreciate the
complexities of the work of subjugation now engaging Lord Kitchener,
possessed their souls in patience, and looked to 1901 for the dawn of
better things.

LONDON, _December 1900_.

[Illustration: THE INSPECTION OF COLONIAL SOLDIERS AT WINDSOR CASTLE BY
QUEEN VICTORIA, NOV. 16, 1900

Drawing by R. Caton Woodville]

FOOTNOTES:

[15] See vol. i. p. 186.

[16] Colonel Philip Walter Jules Le Gallais was born on August 17, 1861.
He entered the army, from the Militia, as a second lieutenant in the 8th
Hussars on April 23, 1881, obtaining his lieutenancy in the following
July and his troop in March 1888. He served on the staff as aide-de-camp
to the Commander-in-Chief in Bombay from July 1891 to March 1893, and was
adjutant of his regiment from July 1893 to May 1896. From November 1896
until he went out to South Africa he was serving with the Egyptian Army,
obtaining his majority in April 1897. He was actively engaged in the Nile
Expedition in 1897 (for which he received the medal with clasp), and also
in the expedition of the following year, when he took part in the cavalry
reconnaissance on April 4, and the battles of the Atbara and Khartoum,
obtaining mention in despatches, published in the _London Gazette_ of May
24 and September 30, and being rewarded with the brevet of
lieutenant-colonel (November 16, 1898) and the 4th class of the Osmanieh
and two clasps to his Egyptian medal. Colonel Le Gallais was an officer
qualified as an interpreter in French. He had been on the staff of the
army in South Africa as a cavalry leader, graded as an assistant
adjutant-general, since April 7 last. A correspondent, writing to the
_Times_, said: "His death is especially to be deplored, as he stood in
the front rank of the few cavalry officers who have proved exceptional
abilities during the recent war.... It is interesting to note that the
three junior cavalry officers who have been given independent commands in
South Africa upon merit were serving together in the last Nile campaign.
These are Brigadier-General Broadwood and Colonels Le Gallais and Mahon.
At Bloemfontein, where the Mounted Infantry Division was formed, Colonel
Le Gallais was appointed Assistant Adjutant-General to General Ian
Hamilton, and he accompanied that officer in his flank march to Pretoria
and Heidelberg. After the breaking up of the Division, Colonel Le Gallais
was given a detached mounted infantry command, and his force has since
been operating with the many flying columns on the heels of De Wet, with
the final result reported on Friday. Besides being a brilliant soldier,
Colonel Le Gallais was well known as a polo player and an expert
steeple-chase rider."

[17] The following were taken prisoners: Gloucestershire Regiment, Major
H. R. Tufnell, Second Lieutenant A. K. Ford, Captain B. O. Fyffe, Captain
A. J. Menzies, Captain W. H. Walshe, and all non-commissioned officers
and men of "A," "B," and "F" Companies; 68th Battery R.F.A., Major Massy
and one section; Highland Light Infantry, Second Lieutenant Alston and
one Company; Army Service Corps, Second Lieutenant M'Nally; Orange River
Colony Police, Lieutenant Boyle; Royal Irish Rifles, detachment, strength
unknown. The total taken prisoners numbered 451 of all ranks.



AFTERWORD

JANUARY 1


Lord Kitchener, on the departure of Lord Roberts from the scene of his
triumphs, had found himself confronted with a tangled skein of military
affairs. The army, through loss by disease and death in the field, was a
phantom of the army that was, and in consequence of the prodigious work
that had been going forward, a proportionate amount of wastage and
disorganisation had set in. The troops were here, there, and everywhere,
just where fate had landed them after their chases of De Wet and their
scurries to protect threatened posts on the lines of communication. At
one point were knots of mounted men and guns in plenty, while at another
there was found a mere handful of troops to maintain some important
strategic position; here, remote and useless, were gathered batteries of
artillery; there, where Boers threatened to pounce at any moment, a
scarcely protected gun or two offered invitation to the clustering foe.
In fact there had been a species of general post, and, as a natural
consequence, brigades loosened from their original positions were often
hovering perilously in mid-country with an uncertainty of purpose which
was far from reassuring. For this reason it was but possible to act on
the defensive till affairs should be righted; though Lord Kitchener's
giant brain bent itself to the load, and in a comparatively short time--a
little over two months--things began to get once again into working
order. Reinforcements had been demanded from England, and these, together
with the force of newly raised Colonials, brought the number of troops
about to operate in South Africa to over 500,000 men, half of whom
consisted of field artillery, cavalry, and mounted infantry. Arrangements
were made on a revised principle to meet the newer form that warfare had
assumed. Owing to the necessity to dot bunches of troops in every
direction, the old divisional commands were broken up, and brigades,
grouped under the central command of a general of division, were fixed in
definite positions, each working over a special area to a point where
they would overlap or get in touch with other brigades who, working again
under their special divisional commander, operated in like manner within
their special radius. Thus the country was divided, as in a chess-board,
into squares, but still more geometrically subdivided in order that,
should necessity require it, the angles forming squares could point
together on emergency and form a solid concentration at any place, their
action being much as that of a kaleidoscope, which at one time breaks
into particles of colour, or at another groups into masses of it, at
will. As may be imagined, with this possibility of diverse movement, the
position of the enemy, astute and slippery as they were, was hardly
enviable. For one turn of the military kaleidoscope might bring them
against the hard teeth of the converging brigades, while another might
find them inextricably harassed by an army in their rear.

The towns were being garrisoned and stored to act as bases of supply for
mounted troops scouring the country, and supply depots were so arranged
as to be within two days' journey of brigades, and thus enable these, if
despoiled by the Boers, to hold on till provisions from another depot
should reach them. Thus a sense of security began to prevail, while a
corresponding sense of doubt and diffidence influenced the conduct of the
Dutchmen. Nevertheless they continued active in their attacks on trains,
convoys, and isolated posts, the nature of the attacks being invariably
of the nature of a surprise. The operations, though involving great loss
to the troops, and retarding the settlement of the country, produced no
effect on the strategical position, and the position of the British
troops in the important towns occupied by them remained impregnable.
Ventersdorp, a central point of the Western Transvaal, which for some
months had been in the hands of the Boers, was captured by General
French, with small loss to himself. The garrisons of Jagersfontein and
Fauresmith being withdrawn, the inhabitants seeking protection were
removed to Edenburg. Ficksburg and Senekal were in the hands of the
British, but in the northern part of the Cape Colony a commando, which
was supposed to be surrounded by the British, had succeeded in slipping
through the cordon and escaping into the Middelburg district. They
captured a small patrol of Nesbitt's Horse, and held up a train near
Sherborne. Finding the town of Middelburg was held by the British, they
dispersed and turned west in the direction of Hanover and Richmond, while
the main body marched south, bent on a colossal loot and the recruiting
of rebels. Engagements, with slight loss on either side, took place on
the 1st and 2nd of January west and south of Middelburg. Meanwhile a
western commando made for Carnarvon and tore on to Fraserburgh, with De
Lisle and Thorneycroft's columns thundering at their heels, losing horses
in the heat of their rush, and living from hand to mouth, as it were, on
the country they were harassing, but still succeeding admirably in
evading the skill of their pursuers. Fortunately this rolling stone of a
commando gathered little moss in the form of rebels, for though they
received help in stores and supplies, and the British gained no
information, the number of the enemy was little augmented by the
invasion. Still, there was no knowing how much more to the south the
Boers would penetrate, and how many sympathisers they would enlist, and
how much damage they would do, and precautions for moral and material
reasons were set on foot to frustrate their machinations.

Therefore the new year opened with a surprise for Cape Town in the form
of the following call to arms:--

     PRIME MINISTER'S OFFICE, CAPE TOWN, _31st December 1900_.

     In view of the fact that armed forces of the enemy have invaded
     this Colony, and that parties of them have penetrated south of
     Carnarvon in one direction and south of the town of Middelburg
     in another, and in view of the necessity for repelling such
     invasion as promptly as possible, the Government of this Colony
     has decided to call upon the loyal inhabitants, more especially
     of certain districts thereof mentioned in the annexed schedule,
     to aid the efforts which the military forces of her Majesty are
     making in that direction.

     It is contemplated to raise a special force, to be called the
     Colonial Defence Force, to be utilised for the sole and
     exclusive purpose of repelling the present invasion, guarding
     railways and other lines of communication, and maintaining
     order and tranquillity in districts in which such measures are
     necessary.

     Volunteers are called for to give in their names with a view to
     enrolment in this force to the Civil Commissioner of the
     division in which they reside, or to any officer specially
     appointed for that purpose, and whose appointment has been
     publicly notified.

     Applicants should state:

     (_a_) Whether they can ride and shoot.

     (_b_) Whether they are prepared to serve as mounted men, and if
     so, whether they can provide their own horses, saddles, and
     bridles.

     (_c_) Whether they are prepared to serve only in their own
     district or in any part of the Colony, it being clearly
     understood that the services of this force will not be utilised
     anywhere outside the boundaries of this Colony.

     Persons whose services are accepted by the Government will
     receive pay at the rate of 5s. a day, with 2s. 6d. extra to
     those supplying their own horses, saddles, and bridles.
     Rations, forage, and arms will be provided.

     Pay of officers and non-commissioned officers in proportion.

     It is not expected that the term of service will be longer than
     three months.

     The force will be under military control, but officers under
     the rank of Major will, as far as possible, be elected by the
     members of the force.

    J. GORDON SPRIGG.


     SCHEDULE.

     _List of Districts to which this Notice is Specially
     Applicable._

    Cape Town and Cape Division
    Paarl
    Stellenbosch
    Worcester
    Prince Albert
    Beaufort West
    Port Elizabeth
    Uitenhage
    Jansenville
    Aberdeen
    Graaf-Reinet
    Cradock
    Somerset East
    Bedford
    Fort Beaufort
    Albany
    Bathurst
    Victoria East
    Queen's Town
    Cathcart
    Stutterheim
    King William's Town
    Komgha
    East London
    Peddie

     Any person resident in any other district and desirous of
     joining the force may send in his name to the nearest Civil
     Commissioner.

     (Government Notice No. 8, 1901.)

    PRIME MINISTER'S OFFICE,
    CAPE TOWN, _4th January 1901_.


     COLONIAL DEFENCE FORCE.

     With reference to the enrolment of men of the above-mentioned
     force, the following orders are published for general
     information.

    SYDNEY COWPER, _Secretary_.


     I.--ARTILLERY.

     An Artillery Contingent is being formed in connection with the
     above force of men who have already had training in Artillery
     Corps.

     Application should be made to Kitchener Anderson, Esq., late
     Lieutenant, P.A.O.C.A., Artillery Quarters, Drill Hall, Darling
     Street.


     II.--TOWN GUARD.

     Enrolment will take place for

    (1) Cape Town, at the Town House, Greenmarket Square,
    (2) Green and Sea Point,
    (3) Woodstock,
    (4) Mowbray,
    (5) Rondebosch,

     --at the respective Municipal Offices.

    (6) Claremont,
    (7) Newlands,
    (8) Kenilworth,
    (9) Wynberg,

     --at the Office of the Resident Magistrate, Wynberg.

    (10) Muizenberg and Kalk Bay, at the Municipal Office.
    (11) Simons Town, at the Office of the Resident Magistrate.


     III.--GENERAL CONDITIONS.

     The force raised will be organised in companies of 100 strong,
     under the orders of the Colonel Commanding Base.

     The officers will be in proportion of one subaltern to every
     twenty-five men, and one captain to every 100. Officers will
     be elected by the men. N.C.O.'s will be appointed by the
     captains of companies. Only one-fourth of the effective
     strength of the corps will be called out at a time for service,
     except in case of emergency.

     In the event of men being called out for active service, pay
     and allowances will be in accordance with the provisions of
     Government Notice No. 943, of the 31st December.

     Men called out for drilling purposes only will be allowed five
     shillings per week, conditionally on their attending not less
     than two drills per week, of not less than one hour's duration
     each.

     As far as possible all drills will be held outside of office
     hours.

The character, formation, and duties of the Town Guard may be judged from
the following rules, which enabled every loyal citizen to come forward
for the protection of hearth and home:--

(1) Employers may enrol their own men, and obtain enrolment cards from
the Town House.

(2) Members of every company are empowered to elect their own officers.

(3) Employers or captains of companies will be empowered to arrange their
own times for drills.

(4) Captains will be empowered to detail the rotation for duty.

(5) In case of the Commandant finding it necessary to call out the Town
Guard, he will make a levy upon all companies in equal proportions, that
is to say, every company will be required to furnish an equal percentage
of men.

(6) Volunteers of one company will be allowed to make arrangements with
another company for drill.

(7) Several employers of a small number of men may join together to form
a company.

(8) The duties of the Town Guard will consist in guarding positions,
picket and patrol duty usually undertaken by the regular forces now being
withdrawn for service further afield. The area of service of the Town
Guard will be the limit of the Municipality.

(9) No member of the Town Guard will be employed for more than
twenty-four hours at a stretch.

(10) The duration of service will not exceed three months; if, as all
hope will prove to be the case, the danger to the peace of the Western
Province be removed earlier, the Town Guard will be disbanded before the
three months have expired.

These conditions applied equally to town and suburb.

In response to the "call" came a spontaneous, remarkable, almost mad rush
of recruits. No such scene of martial ardour had taken place since the
outbreak of the war. The excitement was intense. The Drill Hall, where
Colonels Girouard, R.E., and Southey, and Captain Chester-Master were
presiding, became a pandemonium, every man anxious to know how best he
could assist, either by his personal efforts or by allowing those in his
employ to "sign on," and the streets, and clubs, and public conveyances
literally buzzed with enthusiastic volunteers, who were itching to be
"each of them doing his country's work."

It appeared that no section of the public would consent to be left out in
the cold. Streaming to the banner came numbers of prominent townsmen,
among them Messrs. R. M. Maxwell, Cecil Jones, L. Cloete, J. Rawbone
(Somerset West), T. Bromley, Abe Bailey, G. Kilgour, C.E., A. Myburgh, E.
Field, Colonel Coates, W. Duffus, and W. G. Rattray. Mr. R. Stuart
Solomon was busily engaged as recruiting officer of the Defence Force,
and was beset by volunteers Colonial born, who, when asked where they
would like to serve--town districts or Colony--replied unanimously,
"Anywhere!"

[Illustration: (Corporal). (Private).

THE 2nd NORTHAMPTON REGIMENT.

The Uniform, with the exception of the Badge and Buckle, is the same for
the Middlesex, Lincolnshire and Devon Regiments.

Photo by Gregory & Co., London.]

The spirit with which the Town Guard proposition was taken up was
altogether without precedent, a striking demonstration of the solidarity
of sentiment in the city, and within a few days the number of those eager
to come forward in defence of home and district had reached 4000. As an
instance of the practical zeal of the community, it may be mentioned that
the Civil Service Company of the Town Guards (under Captain Callcott
Stevens, who had previously seen active service with the D.E.O.V.R. in
the Basuto War) was raised in the course of an afternoon! There was
little martial glory to be attained in spending dreary nights on picket
work or in sentry-go, therefore the enthusiasm with which these civilians
threw themselves into the drudgery of battle for duty's sake was as
amazing as it was honourable. Naturally the partisans of Dutch
independence looked on with dumb consternation, and in the face of this
ardent multitude their hopes gradually trickled away.

The force was given in charge of General Brabant, while Colonel Cooper,
the Base Commandant, took control of the arrangements of the Town Guards,
and put the enrolling in the hands of the Major of each municipality,
thus relieving the pressure on the Drill Hall Staff. Recruiting went
merrily, and soon the first drafts for the Western Province Mounted
Rifles, commanded by Captain Chester-Master, were equipped and despatched
to Piquetberg Road, where their mounts awaited them--and where Colonel Du
Cane expressed his approval of the expedition with which the admirable
corps had been despatched. These were followed by others without loss of
time. The crack infantry regiment of the Colony, the Duke's, under the
auspices of Colonel Goold Adams, was permitted to form a second
battalion; a Cyclist Corps was raised, which included a number of
well-known cyclists--Messrs. Donald Menzies, T. Denham, G. Roberts, A. M.
Carroll, W. E. Tyler--with Captain J. G. Rose in command, and Lieutenants
Brunton and Walker as subalterns; and the Cape Medical Staff Corps was
augmented, in order that a medical company should be attached to every
regiment of 800 men. Additional recruits were secured for the C. G.
Artillery and the C. T. Highlanders, forces which had already
distinguished themselves in the field; a Jewish Corps was originated
under the direction of Mr. L. Waldman, assisted by a recruiting
committee: Messrs. Harry Solomon, H. Goodman, S. Bebro, and J. H.
Goldreich; while a Caledonian, a Legal, and a Cricketers' Corps were also
started.

Mr. Abe Bailey showed practical appreciation of the Cricketers, by giving
a donation of £100 to the troop for the purpose of transport equipment,
and the first troop, commanded by Lieutenant Feltham (late Protectorate
Regiment)--and among whom were the well-known players: M. Bisset
(sergeant), T. W. Bell, E. Yates, G. Macfarlane, J. Rushton, D. Home, C.
Bartlett, E. Warren, E. Gill, H. Wrensch, C. M. Neustetel, J. Graham, K.
Hunter, F. R. Brooke, L. H. Fripp, W. Reid, H. Stidolph, S. Horwood, A.
Baker, W. Marshant, J. Fehrsen, R. Solomon, I. Difford, H. Reid, and L.
J. Tancred--was soon under way.

Arrangements for forming a second troop were in course of completion. The
Volunteer Veterans' Association, by means of their Vice-President, Major
J. Scott, introduced themselves to the favourable consideration of
Colonel Southey; and the Scotsmen--so many were already in the
field--rallied bravely round Messrs. Parker, M'Leod, Bowie, Collie, and
Ramage, the energetic committee in charge of the formation of the
Caledonian Corps.

Colonel Warren (late Kitchener's Horse) was now appointed to the command
of a regiment to be styled Warren's Mounted Infantry--and a grand reunion
of veterans of Prince Alfred's Own Cape Artillery took place in order
that old gunners might form a company. When it is explained that at this
time 6500 South African Irregulars had already been recruited, 2500 of
whom had been contributed by Cape Town, the wonderful zeal of the
community may be appreciated. Indeed, space does not admit of a detailed
account of the further warlike preparations, but sufficient has been said
to prove that this demonstration of loyalty was unparalleled in the
history of the Cape.

All these exertions were due to the fact that De Wet and Botha had
secretly arranged a combined system of attack which would keep our troops
on tenterhooks while the Boers gathered together recruits, arms, and
ammunition. Hertzog was to skirmish his way down the Colony, fan the
smouldering disloyalty of Africanders, and gradually steer his course to
the coast. De Wet, with more men, was to join him, and together they were
to fight their way to a point of St. Helena's Bay, where a vessel bearing
a fresh consignment of arms and ammunition forwarded by sympathisers in
Europe, or from their own party in Holland, would be awaiting them. While
they were thus carrying out their movements, Botha was to assist them by
creating a diversion, and invading Natal with all the commandos at his
disposal. The most important and alarming scheme--the parent scheme as it
were--was De Wet's. That needed to be strangled in its birth, and to this
end various complicated military movements were set on foot; firstly, to
prevent Hertzog from advancing farther into British territory; secondly,
to frustrate his efforts to gain recruits either by intimidation or
inflated promises of success; thirdly, and chiefly, to arrest the rush to
his assistance of De Wet and the concentration of the scattered commandos
at any given point. So much for the arrangements to meet the parent
scheme.

In regard to Botha's tactics, Lord Kitchener's plans for meeting them
were of that complex nature which makes for simplicity. A crescent shaped
rake of troops was to work eastwards towards the low country of Piet
Retief, sweeping Botha's hordes--they numbered from five to eight
thousand still--before it till the Boer chief should find himself wedged
against the Swaziland border, and confronted with four equally uninviting
alternatives.

1st. He might elect to fly into the arms of the loyal Swazis (who cherish
an old-time hatred for their hereditary oppressors); 2nd, into those of
the Zulus (who may be said to be equally antagonistic to Boer ways); 3rd,
he might trek north-east into regions redolent of fever, and more deadly
than the most bullet-laden battlefield; or, 4th, he might surrender and
come to really easy terms with conquerors who were ready and anxious to
hold out to him the hand of fellowship. But to return to Scheme No. 1.

At Cape Town the City Guard was armed, and musketry practice went on
apace. The enrolment of the Johannesburg Mine Guard continued, and other
regiments, the Western Province Horse and the Prince of Wales' Horse,
were moved to strong positions, while Colonel Owen Thomas took command of
a growing corps of smartly mounted men to replace troops that had worn
themselves out with repeated combats with the enemy. The Marquis of
Tullibardine, in command of the first regiment of Scottish Horse,
prepared to take up his quarters at Johannesburg, _viâ_ Natal.

In a brisk encounter by a detachment of General C. Knox's force, 120
strong, with an overwhelming herd of Boers near Lindley, the British had
the misfortune to lose three officers--Lieutenant-Colonel D. T. Laing,
Lieutenants S. W. King and Vonschade--and fifteen men, while two
officers--Lieutenants Sampson and Perrin--and twenty men were wounded.
The facts were these. On the morning of the 3rd, the Commander-in-Chief's
Body-guard, under Colonel Laing, were ordered to get in touch with the
town of Reitz. In so doing, they found themselves assailed by Boers to
right and to left of them--Boers carefully concealed in kopjes some 600
yards distant. The colonel fell, and an effort was made to retire, but
the Dutchmen placed a wedge of some 500 of their number between the
bodyguard and Colonel White's column. An appalling scene ensued. The
British at bay fought ferociously, determining never to surrender, while
young Bateson of the gallant number charged through the mass of Boers to
inform Colonel White of the desperate drama that was going forward; but
in spite of this noble effort, by the time reinforcements and guns
appeared on the scene, the bodyguard was surrounded. Some even then
refused to cease firing, but finally the Boer general threatened to shoot
every man who continued, and they were eventually made prisoners.

On the 5th, General Babington drove back from Naauwpoort, a place north
of Potchefstroom, the commandos of Delarey and Steenkamp, and captured a
prisoner in the form of Commandant Duprez. The Dutchmen had secured an
excellent and almost impregnable position in the Witwatersrand, but when
the mounted infantry of Babington at Naauwpoort and Gordon at Zandfontein
launched themselves at the offensive strongholds, the enemy fled to the
north-west, pursued for fifteen miles by the Imperial Light Horse, who
had lost heavily through their gallantry in the affair.

In the neighbourhood of the Delagoa line the Boers still buzzed, and on
the night of the 7th, in a dense fog, which served as a curtain to their
machinations, they simultaneously crept up to all the British posts--at
Belfast, Wonderfontein, Nooitgedacht, Widfontein, and Pan.

The movement was most astutely managed, and not till about 4 A.M., after
ferocious firing, were the swarming Dutchmen driven off and dispersed.
Captain Fosbery was killed and twenty of the men, and three officers and
fifty-nine men were wounded. The Boers left twenty-four of their number
on the field.

On the 9th, Lieutenant Spedding, with sixty dashing men of the Royal
Irish Rifles, proceeded by night from Ventersburg road, surprised the
enemy at the romantically named kopje, Alleen, and returned plus three
prisoners, 300 horses, and a quantity of cattle. A few days later the
Victorians, under Captain Umpleby, made a fine haul of sixty fat cattle
near Rustenburg, but unfortunately, starvation only made the Boers more
daring and more rabid in their animosity.

Lord Kitchener now decided to evacuate all towns lying outside the line
of communications, thus clearing the Boers' happy hunting-grounds of
lootable convoys. Large camps of Boer families under British protection
were formed at Brandfort and Kroonstad, and elsewhere near the railway
lines.

De Wet, driven hither and thither, now developed symptoms of unusual
ferocity, which seemed to prove that such civilised habits as have been
accredited to him owed their origin rather to the desire to obtain the
respect and sympathy of Europe than to humanitarian motives. Now that
intervention was out of the question, the commandant decided to "gang his
ain gait," and gave rein to his bitterness. Three agents of the Peace
Committee were taken as prisoners to De Wet's laager; the burghers were
flogged by his orders, and a British subject, one Morgendaal, was flogged
and afterwards shot. Piet De Wet endeavoured to mediate, to point out the
futility of further bloodshed, and sent an appeal which was both pathetic
and practical, an appeal which passed unheeded.

An attack was made by night on Machadodorp, but before dawn on the 10th,
the marauders had been routed, though a gallant young fellow, Lieutenant
E. M. Harris, Royal Irish Fusiliers, lost his life in defending the
post.

At Zeerust, Durban, in the region of Krugersdorp and the stations
Zuurfontein and Kaalfontein, the Boers made themselves offensive, and
from all places, after brisk fighting, retired with loss. At Zuurfontein,
on the 12th, owing to the enemy being clothed in kharki, they were able
to deceive the sentry and capture him, but the detachments of the
Lincolns under Lieutenant Cordeaux, and the detachments of the Norfolks
under Lieutenant Atkinson, soon routed their assailants and shot their
commandant, who was within seven yards of the trenches.

While these subalterns were distinguishing themselves at Zuurfontein,
another--Williams-Freeman of the Cheshires--was having a warm time at
Kaalfontein; but he, with the small garrison of 120, after fighting for
six hours in a blizzard from the Mausers of the foe, succeeded in driving
them off without sustaining a single casualty.

About this period Sir A. Milner was appointed Governor of the Transvaal
and Orange River Colony, retaining the High Commissionership; Sir W.
Hely-Hutchinson, Governor of the Cape Colony; Sir Henry McCallum,
Governor of Natal; and Major Goold Adams, Lieutenant-Governor of the
Orange River Colony. The Secretary of State for War now authorised the
enlistment of 5000 Imperial Yeomen to make up for the wastage which had
occurred in that force at the front, and further contributions of troops
were also invited from the colonies. The invitations, it is almost
needless to say, were accepted with alacrity bordering on enthusiasm.

A few words must now be said on what may be called the Hospitals
question. In consequence of grave allegations made by Mr. Burdett-Coutts
(M.P. for Westminster) regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded in
South Africa, the Government, on the 5th of July, decided to appoint a
small Commission of three persons, afterwards increased to five, to
report on the arrangements for the care and treatment of the sick and
wounded during the campaign. The Commission, which consisted of Dr.
Church, President of the College of Physicians; President Cunningham, of
Trinity College, Dublin; Sir David Richmond (ex-Lord Provost of Glasgow);
and Mr. Harrison, General Manager of the London and North-Western
Railway, with Lord Justice Romer, went to South Africa, returned late in
October, and concluded taking its evidence on the 5th of November.

Into the particulars of the inquiry it is impossible to enter; the sorry
state of the mass of sufferers in Bloemfontein at the time of the
epidemic has been described.[18] The utter impossibility of instantly
remedying the evils and relieving the distress, while the bare life of
the force depended on the supplies coming by train along a railway some
900 miles long, of which every bridge for the last 128 miles had been
destroyed, was recognised by all who gave the matter practical thought.
Still, in view of the charges made, which unrefuted, may live after those
concerned have passed away and the good they have done has been "interred
with their bones," it may be as well to state that after pointing out
defects, &c., in the care of the sick and wounded, the commissioners came
to the following conclusion:--"Reviewing the campaign as a whole," they
said, "it has not been one where it can properly be said that the medical
and hospital arrangements have broken down. There has been nothing in the
nature of a scandal with regard to the care of the sick and wounded; no
general or widespread neglect of patients, or indifference to their
suffering." All witnesses of experience in other wars were, the
commissioners declared, "practically unanimous in the view that, taking
it all in all, in no campaign have the sick and wounded been so well
looked after as they have been in this."

The report of the commissioners merely corroborated the views of all
experienced men. The military and medical authorities could not have
anticipated that the war would attain the proportions it did, and the
Royal Army Medical Corps was insufficient in staff and equipment for the
magnitude of the conflict. It was so constituted that the staff could not
be suddenly enlarged or deficiencies instantly rectified. The deficiency
in the staff of the corps before the war was, it was pointed out, not the
fault of the Director-General and the staff of officers associated with
him. They had, it is said, for a considerable time before the outbreak
"urged on the military authorities the necessity for an increase of the
corps, but for the most part without avail."

[Illustration: RETURN OF THE CITY IMPERIAL VOLUNTEERS: ARRIVAL AT ST.
PAUL'S CATHEDRAL

Drawing by Frank Dadd, R.I., and S. T. Dadd]

The commissioners, while suggesting for future guidance various
improvements and the correction of defects, declared in regard to the
officers of the Royal Army Medical Corps that, as a whole, their "conduct
and capacity deserve great praise"; while the civil surgeons as a body
did their duty "extremely well."

Taking in special consideration the state of affairs in hospital in
Bloemfontein, respecting which most of the serious charges had been made,
the commissioners, in stating where the conditions were unsatisfactory,
pointed out that "there is nothing in them to justify any charge of
inhumanity or of gross or wilful neglect, or of disregard for the
sufferings of sick and wounded." They went on to state:--

"There were some special allegations made by certain witnesses which we
ought to refer to before we leave the subject of Bloemfontein. It is said
that on one occasion twenty typhoid patients were improperly removed to
the Portland Hospital. We have inquired into this allegation, and as a
result we have to state that in our own opinion the removal was necessary
in the interests of the patients. A gruesome story of a corpse being
stuffed into a lavatory was mentioned by Mr. Burdett-Coutts, M.P., but he
states that he only spoke of the matter from information given to him.
Inquiry has been made in all quarters to find out whether there is any
foundation for this allegation. No such case can be found to have
occurred, either at Bloemfontein or elsewhere in South Africa, and we are
satisfied that Mr. Burdett-Coutts was misled by his informant. Some
observations have also been made with reference to the dead at
Bloemfontein, as if the corpses, owing to their great number, were dealt
with in a hurried or neglectful way. This is not the fact. In the first
place the numbers of men dying in Bloemfontein have been overstated by
some witnesses. There were not fifty deaths a day, the maximum was forty,
and that only for one day. Each body was buried separately and with every
respect and care, and each grave was numbered, and the number and name of
the dead man registered."

Certain other complaints and statements were not attended to by the
commissioners, who explained their silence as indicating that they
regarded them as not well founded.

       *       *       *       *       *

And now comes the most painful duty of the chronicler. In writing of the
end of the war and the triumph of British arms in the cause of
civilisation, it is a grievous necessity to speak of the close of a great
and glorious life. Queen Victoria, to the inexpressible grief of her
large family and her devoted subjects, passed away at 6.30 P.M. on the
22nd January. On Friday, the 18th, the British public was shocked to hear
that their hitherto hale, though venerable, Sovereign was stricken in
health. On the following day her condition was found to be grave. On
Sunday the Empire lived in suspense. The members of the Royal Family were
called together, the German Emperor--as the Queen's grandson, not as a
reigning monarch--hurried to these shores. Monday was a day of
tribulation, for all knew there was no hope, and the world figurately
watched with bated breath around that august bedside where the glorious
Queen, a good and gracious lady, was slowly throwing aside the weight of
years and sovereignty which she had so nobly borne. On Tuesday the end
came, and the Empire was plunged in gloom. Victoria, the greatest queen
the world has ever known, the purest ideal of womanhood, strong of brain
and gentle of heart, had breathed her last. But she left behind her an
undying fame, an influence which will be felt not for one but for many
generations--a light to lighten the feet of men and women of the future
whether in State or home.

       *       *       *       *       *

To return to the Cape. About the middle of the month the situation stood
thus. Colonel de Lisle's column, consisting of the 6th Mounted Infantry,
the New South Wales Mounted Infantry, the Irish Yeomanry, a section of R
Battery Royal Horse Artillery, and a "pom-pom," arrived at Piquetsberg,
to assist in routing the guerillas, who, in clusters varying from 120 to
2000 strong, were reported to be marching towards Clanwilliam, Calvinia,
Worcester, Piquetsberg, and the Beaufort West district.

A concerted movement against the invaders was being rapidly organised,
and quantities of separate columns under General Settle, each in touch
with the other and moving simultaneously, were to sweep clear the country
and wipe off the Boers from the neighbourhood of Matjesfontein and
Calvinia, whither Hertzog's commando had penetrated. At Matjesfontein
Colonel Henniker's troops formed the centre of a semicircle, travelling
left in the direction where Thorneycroft's and Bethune's forces operated,
and bending coastwards were De Lisle and his nimble men who kept guard
over the loopholes to the sea whence supplies might be drawn. The passes
in the hills, of this the most difficult and mountainous country, were
held by the Cape Town Cyclist Corps, together with the Western Province,
Scottish and Welsh Horse, while the Australians patrolled around Lamberts
and Bast, Clanwilliam and the coast, and took care the enemy found no
means of squeezing to the left. There was little chance of a complete
cessation of hostilities for a good time to come, for the Dutchmen were
cunning, and having discovered that their wives and children were so
humanely provided for, considered themselves free to keep the field with
increased persistence. That they were not unsuccessful in their
machinations was due to the fact that they carefully eluded the British
troops, and were fed and cared for at the expense of the country people
who kept them well informed as to the manoeuvres of their pursuers.
Meanwhile Hertzog was beating up recruits and scouring districts known to
be disaffected for hale and hearty bachelors who would share the life of
the marauders. But martial law having been proclaimed there was no great
rush to his banner, though from the attitude, laudatory and almost
reverential, of the farmers towards De Wet and his exploits, it was plain
that, should he succeed in eluding Knox and breaking south, he might end
by fizzing comet-wise through the Colony with a trail of rebels at his
heels.

In the Transvaal Botha's followers, to the strength of 3000, were
concentrated near Carolina, while others of the gang hovered round
Johannesburg and Standerton. On the 17th, from this latter place, they
were driven off with loss by Colonel Colville's mobile column, and their
discomfiture was completed by the seizure by the Johannesburg Mounted
Rifles of a Boer outpost near Springs. They scored, however, by capturing
a train with mine materials near Balmoral, and also by damaging, on the
22nd, the electric light work near Johannesburg. Lord Methuen, meanwhile,
was clearing the Boers out of Kuruman and Griqualand.

On the 25th a goods train, with cattle and provisions for the far north
of Kimberley, was captured at Slipklip by the marauders, who had
previously captured an outpost of twenty Dublin Fusiliers. The Dutchman
would have succeeded in seizing a second train which was following, but
for the presence of mind of the driver of the first train, who directly
he found himself pelted by bullets rolled off the engine, made a detour
of several miles, and reached the line near Kimberley in time to arrest
the progress of the second train.

General Smith-Dorrien, marching from Wonderfontein to Carolina, came on a
mass of the enemy who had been tampering with the line, and were now
strongly ensconced round the river. He gave battle to them--five hours
the engagement lasted--and eventually succeeded in dispersing them, but
with the loss of one officer and four men killed and three officers and
thirteen men wounded. He afterwards returned to Pretoria. The scattered
horde, after sniping at him to the best of their ability, gathered round
a train with a view to creating damage, but the driver, a smart fellow,
shot down the ringleader, one Commandant Liebrant (who was tampering with
the vacuum brake), with the result that his comrades fled, leaving his
body behind.

On the 29th the ubiquitous Knox engaged De Wet's force about forty miles
north of Thabanchu. De Wet had been "loafing about" in the region between
Ladybrand and Winburg, waiting, it was believed, for more of his
followers (who were enjoying furlough), prior to making the grand
invasion of Cape Colony. Fighting was fierce and sustained, but at last
the Dutchmen made off, leaving behind them five dead Boers and three
others who were taken prisoners. Our losses included Lieutenant Way,
Durham Light Infantry, and one man, while among the wounded was Major
Copeman, Essex Regiment.

De Wet himself, with a gang of some 2500 guerillas, came into contact
with Major Crewe's composite column on the 31st of January near
Tabaksberg, a rectangular slab of mountain, which was held by a force
five times superior to the British in number, who poured a terribly
severe rifle fire on the British party. A brilliant retirement was
effected in the dusk and the convoy saved, though a pom-pom, after
desperate efforts to remove it, had to be abandoned. Meanwhile, disaster
had overtaken us in the eastern Transvaal.

On the 30th, during a storm of rain, a post at Moddersfontein was
"rushed" by night by some 1400 Dutchmen with a gun and a pom-pom. A
relief column sent out from Krugersdorp failed to avert the fall of the
post, who had had their water supply cut off, and had no resource but to
surrender. They however disabled their Maxim before so doing.

The casualties were:--Two officers, Lieutenant Green, 59th Company
Imperial Yeomanry, and Civil Surgeon Walker, killed; Captain Magniac,
59th Company Imperial Yeomanry, and Lieutenant Crawley, South Wales
Borderers, wounded.

To the south of Middelburg General Campbell's column was engaged with
some 500 Boers, who were driven back with loss. Lieutenant Cawston, 18th
Hussars, was dangerously wounded (since dead); Lieutenant Reade, King's
Royal Rifles, severely wounded. Eighteen men were killed and wounded.

Of the situation at the close of January and the beginning of February it
is impossible to give more than a rough outline. Four main movements had
been organised against the cliques of the enemy. Towards the east of the
Transvaal, in order to make a complete clearance of the Boers from
Delagoa line of communications, the following columns, each in touch with
the other, had started on the 27th of January:--

General Smith-Dorrien's from Wonderfontein, General Campbell's from
Middelburg, General Alderson's from Eerstefabrieken, General Knox's from
Kaalfontein, Colonel Allanby's (?) from Zuurfontein, General Dartnell's
from Springs, and Colonel Colville's from Greylingstad. The southern
columns were commanded by General French; those sweeping from the north
by General Lyttelton.

In the Potchefstroom, Rand, and Krugersdorp districts, General Cunningham
was operating against some 2000 of Delarey's followers, while Generals
Knox, Plumer, Bruce-Hamilton, and Maxwell, with Colonels White and
Pilcher and Major Crewe, were all engaged in hunting De Wet in hope of
forcing him into the arms of one or other of the corps concentrated on
the Orange River. This irrepressible one was marching hot-foot with a
force of 3000 men south of Thabanchu, and the excitement among the
various British regiments preparing to intercept his plan of crossing the
Orange River was intense.

The fourth movement for the clearance of Cape Colony was being developed
by General Brabant and Colonel Girouard (chief of staff). These two were
on the watch to prevent De Wet and his followers, two 15-pounders, a
Maxim and a pom-pom (captured from Major Crewe's column while crossing
the rail between Edenburg and Springfontein), from co-operating with
Hertzog's band in the Cape Colony, and carrying out his threat to "give
the farmers there a taste of what we ourselves have suffered through this
war."

The volunteers and town-guards in the districts of Oudtshoorn,
Clanwilliam, Somerset East, and other parts of the Colony had exciting
times, as the enemy, broken into mere marauding bands, looted and
destroyed or damaged farms and property at every turn; but they bore
these ills with spirit, and prepared themselves by night or day to give
the aggressors a fitting reception. The marauders' tactics were
everywhere the same--they lived on the country, and worked east, avoiding
contact with the mounted troops, and speedily dispersing before places
which offered resistance to their attacks.

Ermelo was occupied by General French on the 6th, when fifty Boers
surrendered. Botha and his tribe of 7000 had retired eastward, and in the
dusk before dawn attacked General Smith-Dorrien at Bothwell. After fierce
fighting the Dutchman was repulsed with considerable loss to himself, for
General Spruit was killed and two field cornets, while General Raademeger
was wounded. Many other Boers were seriously wounded, and twenty were
left on the ground. Of the British party twenty-four were slain and
fifty-three wounded.

At Petrusburg a column brought in some 3500 horses and cattle without
sustaining any casualty. More captures were made at Lillefontein, east of
Vryburg; 12 waggons and 200 cattle formed the bag, and the enemy was
dispersed.

On the 11th, General French made a magnificent haul, a convoy being
captured--50 waggons, 15 carts, and 45 prisoners--and this with the loss
of one man only.

[Illustration: MARKET SQUARE, JOHANNESBURG, TRANSVAAL COLONY.

Photo by G. W. Wilson & Co., Aberdeen.]

Indeed day after day, before French and his hard-worked warriors in the
neighbourhood of Piet Retief, Botha was suffering severely, and some
5000 Dutchmen were dispersing in disorganised gangs, having lost
already over 280 in killed and wounded. Of their number 183 had
surrendered, while 56 were made prisoners. They had lost a 15-pounder
gun, 462 rifles, 160,000 rounds of small-arm ammunition, 3600 horses, 70
mules, 3530 trek oxen, 18,700 cattle, 155,400 sheep, and 1070 waggons and
carts! But this was not all. A few days later, on the 25th, came
additional captures in the form of a 19-pounder Krupp gun, a howitzer, a
Maxim, 20,000 rounds of small-arm ammunition, 153 rifles, 388 horses, 52
mules, 834 trek oxen, 5600 cattle, 9800 sheep, and 287 waggons and carts!
Three hundred of the enemy now surrendered, while their losses in killed
and wounded were about nine. No British casualties were reported. Further
operations were delayed by torrents of rain, which converted the country
into a swamp; but Boers surrendered daily, and Botha's whole force was
now represented only by scattered bands of malcontents.

The plight of the Dutchmen was equally sorry elsewhere. Lord Methuen, who
was marching from Taungs to Klerksdorp with the object of clearing the
Masakani Range at Haartbeestfontein, engaged De Villiers and Liebenberg
with a band of 400 and defeated them, losing in the encounter 16 killed
(among them 3 officers) and 34 wounded, while 18 Dutchmen bit the dust.
The 10th Yeomanry, Victoria Bushmen, and the Loyal North Lancashire
Regiment came out of the fray with flying colours. De Wet also, after a
really magnificent venture south, was forced back to his old haunts
discomfited.

The tale of his audacious invasion of Cape Colony can but be outlined
here. Briefly, the Dutchman with his force succeeded, despite the
resistance of the troops before-mentioned, in getting across the Orange
River by Zand Drift on the 11th, with a view to following in the track of
Hertzog, and fulfilling the programme already described. Ever active, he
sped on, made a lunge at the garrison of Philipstown on the 14th, and,
after a three hours' tussle, was repulsed, and bolted (followed closely
by General Plumer) in the direction of Hout Kraal. Here he arrived on the
15th, with the intention of pushing on to De Aar, but he was frustrated
by the timely arrival there of Lord Kitchener, who bore down on the scene
from Pretoria and made dispositions which finally forced the foe into
more northerly hunting-grounds. Meanwhile, Colonel Crabbe, thundering in
rear of the Dutchman, caught up his convoy, seized twenty waggons, a
score of Boer tatterdemalions, a Maxim, and over 200 horses. Still De Wet
continued to flee, his aim being to cross the Brak River and reach
Britstown; but Nature frustrated him, for the swollen river had become
impassable, and there was nothing left but to turn tail and scurry
northwards and escape the hunters Knox and Plumer, who were still in full
chase. Dividing his forces, De Wet steered them between the Brak River
and the rail, pounding on from the keen pursuit of the converging columns
as fast as floods and quagmires would permit. His sole object now was to
recross the Orange River with a whole skin, and rushing breathlessly
first to Read's Drift, then to Mark's Drift (near Douglas), both of which
were impassable, he found himself again frustrated and forced to twist
downwards--clinging ever to the river bank, with the indomitable Plumer
hanging to his coat-tails.

At last, near Hopetown, on the 23rd, he was overtaken by Colonel Owen,
one of Plumer's lieutenants, who relieved him of fifty of his gang, some
carts full of ammunition, a gun and a pom-pom. The wily one himself
veered off in the direction of Petrusville with a following of some 400
men, the rest having dispersed before the avenging K.D.G.'s, Victorians,
and Imperial Light Horse, according to custom, like the fragments of a
bursting shell, leaving behind them steaming cooking-pots and horses
ready saddled. The affair was another plume in the cap of the man who so
unostentatiously had harried and fought and skirmished around Mafeking
for the relief of Colonel Baden-Powell, but he had to pay for his hard
work in persistently chasing and eventually turning the foe, by a spell
of complete exhaustion. The pursuit was then carried forward by Colonels
Henniker and Crabbe. General Plumer entrained and moved to Springfontein
in order to await developments and be ready on the north of the river
should De Wet succeed in evading the pursuit and in getting across. The
fugitive at this time (24th) was in no enviable position. Chased by
Henniker and Crabbe, worn, weary, and dropping shattered horses as he
went, he found himself again within the same square hunting-ground he had
left, bounded on the north by the Orange, on the south by the De
Aar-to-Naauwpoort line, on the east by the line connecting Naauwpoort
with Norval's Pont, on the west by that leading from De Aar up to Orange
River Station.

But there were now stern limitations. Coming down from Hopetown towards
Petrusville he was conscious of his cramped position and of his danger,
for he had fled into a ring which was growing smaller and smaller as he
rushed across country for an outlet. At the back of him was a half hoop,
like an incoming wave, created by the troops of Henniker and Crabbe,
supported by those of Thorneycroft, who guarded the region from Krankuil
to the bank of the river. Coming up from Hanover Road on the south (to
prevent him doubling back) were Colonels Hickman, Haig, and Williams; and
waiting for him towards the east, with his arms open as it were, was
Colonel Byng, moving from Colesberg. Thus all along the line of the
Zeekoe River was guarded, or supposed to be. As De Wet's luck would have
it, Colonel Byng, under orders, made a temporary move to Hamilfontein,
causing a gap, of which the slim Dutchman was not slow to avail himself.
He tore along towards the bank of the river, found the loophole at
Lilliefontein (some four miles west of Colesberg Road bridge), and was
over the river like a rocket! Space does not admit of a detailed account
of this exciting chase, of Captain Dallimore's prodigious haul of
twenty-seven Boers by fifteen Victorians, and of the part taken by all
the splendid troops, that knew no rest night nor day for over a
fortnight. Disappointment was great at the loss of the quarry, but there
was at least the consolation of knowing that the projected invasion was a
disastrous failure from beginning to end, and the brilliant guerilla
chief was crippled for a good time to come.

On the 27th, a meeting took place at Middelburg between Lord Kitchener
and Botha, with the object of making terms which would induce the
Dutchman and his allies to surrender. A most liberal offer was made, but
the Boers clamouring only for "independence," the one thing which it was
impossible they could have, failed to come to terms, and after a lengthy
correspondence of some weeks' duration, the proceedings fell through, and
it was understood, both at home and abroad, that the enemy had decided to
fight to the finish.

This decision was received by many with unfeigned thanksgiving. Though
all were weary of war, of the ruin and sacrifice involved, they yet
preferred to suffer and endure rather than run the risk of a magnanimous
compromise which would "shame the living and cheat the dead," which must
assuredly be regarded by the Boers as a demonstration of weakness, and
might eventually bring about a recurrence of the terrible war drama that
is now drawing to a close. Patience and pluck and determination are
needed--they will be required for some months to come--but the end is in
view. The bold, dogged, and doughty enemy will have to learn the lesson
that the British are equally bold, dogged, and doughty--that they mean
not only to have, but to hold, that which they have earned by a vast
expenditure of blood and treasure; to maintain the avowed policy of the
British nation, to establish British suzerainty from the Cape to the
Zambesi, and make South Africa "indisputably and for ever one country
under one flag, with one system of Government, and that system the
British." The lesson once taught, the vista will grow clear. Into the
newly acquired territory will be introduced the true meaning of the word
Justice; of the phrase "liberty and equality for all white men." Then,
slowly--by infinitesimal degrees, perhaps--but surely, will liberty and
equality develop into fraternity, and the stalwarts who, like ourselves,
have passed bravely through the fiercest ordeal of Manhood, will, with
us, work shoulder to shoulder to bring about an era of prosperous peace
and abiding amity.

    LONDON, _March 1901_.

FOOTNOTES:

[18] See vol. iv. p. 177.



BIOGRAPHICAL RECORD OF NOTABLE PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN
CAMPAIGN[19]


ABBREVIATIONS

        K.G. Knight of the Garter.
        K.T. Knight of the Thistle.
        K.P. Knight of St. Patrick.
      G.C.B. Knight Grand Cross }
      K.C.B. Knight Commander   } of the Bath.
        C.B. Companion          }
    G.C.S.I. Knight Grand Commander }
    K.C.S.I. Knight Commander       } of the Star of
      C.S.I. Companion              } India.
    G.C.M.G. Knight Grand Cross }
    K.C.M.G. Knight Commander   } of St. Michael and St.
      C.M.G. Companion          } George.
    G.C.I.E. Knight Grand Commander }
    K.C.I.E. Knight Commander       } of the Indian
      C.I.E. Companion              } Empire.
    G.C.V.O. Knight Grand Cross      }
    K.C.V.O. Knight Commander        } of the Royal Victorian
      C.V.O. Commander               }  Order.
      M.V.O. Member 4th or 5th Class }
      D.S.O. Companion of the Distinguished Service Order.
      A.D.C. Aide-de-Camp.
        V.C. Victoria Cross.

=Abinger= (4th Baron).--James Yorke Macgregor Scarlett. Late Captain 3rd
Battalion Queen's Own (Cameron Highlanders).

=Acheson= (Viscount).--Archibald Charles Montagu Brabazon, D.L. for
County Armagh. Lieutenant 2nd Battalion Coldstream Guards.

=À Court.=--Lieut.-Col. C. À Court. Entered Rifle Brigade, 1878; Brev.
Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Staff Capt. (Intell.) Headquarters of
Army, 1890-93; D.A.A.G. (Intell.) Headquarters of Army, 1893-95;
D.A.A.G., Egypt, 1897-98; Brig.-Maj. Soudan Ex. Force, 1898; Mil. Attaché
(temp.) Brussels and the Hague, 1899; D.A.A.G., S. Africa, 1899-1900.
_War Service_--Afghan War, 1878 (medal with clasp); Nile Ex., 1898
(Despatches, May and Sept. 1898; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; Egyptian medal
with clasp; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; with Ladysmith Relief
Force; Spion Kop (Despatches).

=Airey.=--Lieut.-Col. H. P. Airey, D.S.O. This dashing officer commanded
the New South Wales Imperial Bushmen.

=Airlie= (8th Earl of).--David William Stanley Ogilvy, Baron Ogilvy of
Airlie (_see_ vol. vi. p. 15).

=Albemarle= (8th Earl of).--Arnold Allan Cecil Keppel, Baron Ashford,
Viscount Bury. Colonel, C.I.V.; late Dorset Militia; late Scots Guards.

=Alderson.=--Lieut.-Col. E. A. H. Alderson, Royal West Kent Regt. Entered
1878; Brev. Lieut.-Col., 1897. _Staff Service_--Spec. Serv. S. Africa,
1896-97; D.A.A.G., Aldershot, 1897-99; Comdg. Mounted Inf. Cav., 1st
Brig., S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--S. African War, 1881; Egyptian
Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (2
clasps); Op. in S. Africa, 1896 (Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); S.
African War, 1899-1900; Comdg. Corps of Mounted Inf.

=Aldworth.=--Lieutenant-Colonel W. Aldworth, D.S.O. Commanding 2nd
Battalion Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry. For career, _see_ vol. iv.
p. 60.

=Alexander.=--Lieut.-Col. H. Alexander, 10th Hussars. Entered 1880;
Lieut.-Col., Aug. 1900. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Yeomanry Cavalry, 1890-95.
_War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; twice wounded (once severely).

=Alexander.=--Lieut.-Col. Hon. W. P. Alexander, Royal Scots Greys. Cor.
2nd Dragoons, 1869; Brev.-Col., July 1900. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux.
Forces, 1884-89. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Allen.=--Major-General Ralph Edward Allen, J.P., A.A.G. South African
Field Force. Entered 1865; Colonel, 1896. _Staff Service_--Brigade Major,
Belfast, 1884; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., South Africa, 1884-85; Brigade Major,
Eastern District, 1886-87; D.A.A.G., Chatham, 1887; A.A.G., Curragh,
1896-97; A.A.G., South Africa, 1899-1900. _War Service_--Bechuanaland
Expedition, 1884-85 (honourably mentioned; Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel);
South African War, 1899-1900; on Staff. Major-General Allen, born in
1846, is the son of the late Major R. Shuttleworth Allen, J.P., D.L., and
the daughter of Sir Samuel Cunard, Bart.

=Allin.=--Lieut.-Col. W. B. Allin, A.M.S., P.M.O., Natal Field Force;
Lieut.-Col. R.A.M.C., 1893. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-1880 (medal);
Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches, 1885; medal with clasp; bronze star;
promoted Surg.-Maj.); Isazai Ex., 1892; S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Appelbe.=--Col. E. B. Appelbe. Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff
Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1887-93; Ord. Officer 3rd class,
1896-98; Ord. Officer 2nd class, 1898. _War Service_--S. African War,
1879-81 (medal with clasp); Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (medal with 2 clasps;
bronze star); Soudan, 1888-89 (3rd class Medjidie); S. African War,
1899-1900; Chief Ord. Officer, Lines of Communication.

=Armstrong.=--Lieut.-Col. F. W. Armstrong. This officer rendered valuable
service with the East Griqualand Mounted Volunteers.

=Arthur.=--Sir George Compton Archibald Arthur, 3rd Battalion Herts
Yeomanry Cavalry; Lieutenant, 2nd Life Guards, 1880-86. _War
Service_--Egyptian Campaign, 1882; Nile Expedition, 1885. Born 1860.

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL BARTON, C.B.

Photo, Debenham & Smith, Southampton]

=Ava= (Earl of).--Archibald James Leofric Temple Blackwood (late 17th
Lancers), son of 1st Marquis of Dufferin and Ava. For career, see vol
iii. p. 90.


=Babington.=--Major-General J. M. Babington. Entered 1873; Colonel, 1896.
_Staff Service_--A.A.G., Punjab, 1896-99. _War Service_--Bechuanaland
Expedition, 1884-85 (Despatches); S. African War, 1899-1901; A.A.G.,
afterwards Commanding 1st Cavalry Brigade.

=Babtie.=--Major W. Babtie, #V.C.#, C.M.G., R.A.M.C. (_See_ Recipients of
the V.C.) Entered 1881. This notable medical officer, the first of the
Scottish heroes to earn the V.C. in South Africa, was born in 1859, and
is the son of Mr. J. Babtie, J.P., of Dumbarton. He served with
distinction in India, Malta, and Crete, and was decorated for services
rendered during the international occupation of that island. His action
at Colenso is described elsewhere.

=Bacon.=--Maj. W. Bacon. This officer rendered notable service with the
Queensland Mounted Infantry.

=Baden-Powell.=--Lieutenant-General Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell.
Special Service, Mafeking. Entered 13th Hussars, 1876; Major-General,
23rd May 1900. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to G.O.C. Cape of Good Hope, 1888;
A.M.S. and A.D.C. to G.O.C. Cape of Good Hope, 1888-90; A.M.S. and A.D.C.
to Governor of Malta, 1890-93. Special Service, Ashanti, 1895-96; South
Africa, 1899-1900. _War Service_--Operations in Zululand, 1888
(honourably mentioned); Ashanti Expedition, 1895-96 (honourably
mentioned; Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel, Star); Operations in South
Africa, 1896 (Despatches; Brevet of Colonel); South African War,
1899-1900; Mafeking. Afterwards on Staff. Promoted Major-General for
distinguished services in the field. The heroic defender of Mafeking is
the son of the late Prof. Baden-Powell, who married the eldest daughter
of Admiral W. H. Smyth, F.R.S., a descendant of the gallant Captain John
Smith of Elizabethan age. Their son, Robert Stephenson Smyth
Baden-Powell, was born on the 22nd February 1857. He was a godson of
Robert Stephenson, the celebrated engineer. He is a keen soldier, a smart
scholar, a fine actor, and a born wit, and to these qualities, combined
with his amazing versatility and excellent spirits, he owes his
popularity and success. In 1870 he was nominated by the Duke of
Marlborough for Charterhouse, where he distinguished himself not only by
his mental but moral qualities, while his irrepressible spirits caused
him to be looked upon as the life of the school. In addition to his other
accomplishments he is a first-rate polo-player and pig-sticker, a capital
shot, and an ambidextrous artist. His favourite mottoes are: "Don't
flurry; patience gains the day!" and "A smile and a stick will carry you
through any difficulty in the world."

=Bagot.=--J. F. Bagot, J.P., D.L., M.P. for South Westmorland since 1892,
County Councillor for Westmorland, Parliamentary Private Secretary to
Financial Secretary to Treasury. This gallant officer (serving with
Yeomanry Cavalry) retired as Captain in Grenadier Guards in 1886. Prior
to that date he acted as A.D.C. to the Governor-General of Canada in
1882-83 and 1888-89. He is the eldest son of Colonel Charles Bagot,
Grenadier Guards; was born in 1854, and married in 1885 to the daughter
of Sir John Leslie, Bart.

=Bainbridge.=--Brev.-Maj. E. G. T. Bainbridge, The Buffs. Entered 1888;
Brev.-Maj., 1898. _Staff Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1896-98;
D.A.A.G., S. Africa, 1899-1900. _War Service_--Ex. to Dongola, 1896
(Despatches, Nov. 1896); Nile Ex., 1897 (Despatches, Jan. 1898; clasp to
Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches, Sept. and Dec., 1898; Brev.
of Maj.; clasp to Egyptian medal; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on
Staff; Commanding Corps of Mounted Inf.

=Ball.=--Maj. J. W. Ball. This officer rendered valuable service with the
Queenstown Rifle Volunteers.

=Banfield.=--Lieut.-Col. R. J. F. Banfield, The Welsh Regiment. Entered
1871; Lieut.-Col., 1896. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G. for Inst. W. Dist.,
1887-92. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; Op. at Paardeberg;
severely wounded, 18th Feb. 1900.

=Bartlett.=--Sir Ellis Ashmead Bartlett, M.P., Lieutenant, 4th Battalion
Bedfordshire Regiment. Sir Ellis was born in 1849, and married in 1874
the daughter of Mr. Walsh of Philadelphia. He was M.P. for Suffolk from
1880-85, for Ecclesall Division, Sheffield, since 1885, and Civil Lord of
the Admiralty from 1885-86, 1886-92.

=Barton.=--Major-General G. Barton, C.B. Commanding 6th Brigade Natal
Field Force. Entered 1862; Major-General, 1898. _Staff Service_--Special
Service, Ashanti Expedition, 1873-74; A.D.C. to Brigadier-General,
Aldershot, 1874-77; Special Service, South Africa, 1878-79; D.A.A. and
Q.M.G. (commandant Foot Police); Expeditionary Force, Egypt, 1882;
Assistant Military Secretary, China, 1884-85; Assistant Military
Secretary to Lieutenant-General, Expeditionary Force, Suakim, 1885;
A.A.G. Thames District, 1895-97, North-West District, 1897-98;
Major-General Infantry Brigade, South Africa, 1899. _War
Service_--Ashanti, 1873-74, wounded (Despatches; medal with clasp;
promoted Captain); South African War, 1879 (Despatches; medal with clasp;
Brevet of Major); Egyptian Expedition, 1882 (Despatches; medal with
clasp; bronze star; Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel, 4th class, Osmanieh);
Soudan Expedition, 1885 (clasp); South African War, 1899-1900; on Staff;
wounded February 27, 1900.

=Basing= (2nd Baron).--George Limbrey Sclater-Booth. Entered 1st
Dragoons, 1882; Major 1898. _War Service_--S. African War (Despatches).
Lord Basing was born in 1860, and married, in 1889, the daughter of Mr.
John Hargreaves, Maiden Erleigh, Berks, and Whalley Abbey, Lancs.

=Bayly.=--Lieut.-Col. A. W. L. Bayly, D.S.O., I.S.C. Entered 108th Foot,
1874; Lieut.-Col., June 1900. _Staff Service_--D.A.A. and Q.M.G. Burmese
Ex., 1886-87; D.A.Q.M.G. Dist. Staff Officer, 2nd class; D.A.A.G.,
Bombay, 1887-92; A.A.G., India, 1896; D.A.A.G., S. Africa, March 1900.
_War Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80 (medal with clasp); Soudan Ex., 1885
(medal with clasp; bronze star); Burmese Ex., 1886-87 (Despatches, Sept.
1887; medal with 2 clasps; D.S.O.); S. African War, with Ladysmith Relief
Force; wounded 24th Jan.

=Beale.=--Col. Beale. This officer rendered valuable service with the
Rhodesian Regt., British S. Africa Company.

=Bearcroft.=--Capt. J. Bearcroft, Royal Navy. Entered R.N. 1864; Capt.,
1895. _War Service_--Commanded _Philomel_, and landed in command of Naval
Brigade, S. African War, 1899-1900; C.B., Oct. 1900.

=Beckett.=--Colonel C. E. Beckett, C.B., 3rd Hussars. Entered 1869;
Colonel, 1898. _Staff Service_--D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1882;
Brigadier-Major Cavalry Brigade, Egypt, 1882-83; Assistant Military
Secretary to G.O.C. Forces, Ireland, 1886-88; D.A.A.G., Headquarters,
Ireland, 1888-91; Assistant-Inspector General of Ordnance, Headquarters
of Army, 1898-99; A.A.G., Natal, 1899; A.Q.M.G., Headquarters of Army,
1900. _War Service_--Egyptian Expedition, 1882 (Despatches; medal with
clasp; bronze star; Brevet of Major, 4th class Medjidie); Soudan, 1884-85
(clasp); South African War, Dundee, severely wounded.

=Belcher.=--Maj. R. Belcher acted as second in command of the splendid
corps known as Strathcona's Horse. See vol. iii. p. 147.

=Belfield.=--Col. H. E. Belfield. Entered 1876; Col., 1899. _Staff
Service_--Brig.-Maj., Aldershot, 1890-93; D.A.A.G. (and also for Inst.),
Aldershot, 1893-95; Spec. Serv., Ashanti, 1895-96; A.A.G., S. Africa,
1899. _War Service_--Ashanti Ex., 1895-96 (hon. mentioned; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.; star); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Bell-Irving.=--Lieut.-Col. A. Bell-Irving, R.A. Entered 1875;
Lieut.-Col., 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80 (Despatches; medal
with clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Benson.=--Colonel F. W. Benson. Joined 21st Hussars, 1869; Colonel,
1898. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Lieutenant-Governor North-West
Provinces, India, 1877; employed with Egyptian Army, 1893-94; D.A.A.G.
for Inst., Dublin, 1895-98; A.A.G. South-East District, 1898-99; Special
Service, South Africa, 1899-1900; A.A.G. South Africa, 1900. _War
Service_--Fenian Raid, Canada (medal with clasp); South African War,
1899-1900; on Staff.

=Bentinck.=--Lord Charles Cavendish Cavendish Bentinck, Lieutenant 9th
Lancers. Special Service, S. Africa, 1900.

=Bentinck.=--Lord Henry Cavendish Bentinck, M.P., Yeomanry Cavalry. Lord
Henry, born in 1863, is the son of General Bentinck. He married in 1892
Lady Olivia, daughter of the late Earl of Bective.

=Bethell.=--Lieut.-Col. E. H. Bethell, R.E. Entered 1873; Lieut.-Col.,
Jan. 1900. _Staff Service_--Brig.-Maj. Royal Engineers, Headquarters,
Ireland, 1890-95; Staff Off. Royal Engineers, S. Africa, 1899. _War
Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80 (Despatches; medal). S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff.

=Bethune.=--Lieutenant-Colonel E. C. Bethune. Entered 1875;
Lieutenant-Colonel, 1900. _Staff Service_--Garrison Instructor, D.A.A.G.,
Madras, 1887-94; D.A.A.G., India, 1898-99; A.A.G., India, 1899; D.A.A.G.,
South Africa, 1899; Special Service, South Africa, 1899. _War
Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80 (medal with clasp); South African War,
1881; South African War, 1900; on Staff; raised and commanded Bethune's
Mounted Infantry.

=Bewicke-Copley.=--Lieut.-Col. R. C. A. B. Bewicke-Copley, 3rd Batt.
King's Royal Rifle Corps. Entered 1876; Lieut.-Col., March 1900. _Staff
Service_--A.D.C. to Lieut.-Gov., Bengal, 1880; D.A.A.G., Barbadoes,
1890-92; Headquarters, Ireland, 1892-95; A.M.S. and A.D.C. to
Lieut.-Gen., India, 1896-98. _War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (medal
with clasp; bronze star); Op. in Chitral, 1895 (medal with clasp); N.W.
Frontier of India, 1897-98 (Despatches; Feb. 1898; 2 clasps); Tirah,
1897-98 (Despatches; April 1900; clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Bingham.=--Maj. Hon. C. E. Bingham, 1st Life Guards, A.D.C. Entered 3rd
Hussars 1882; Major, 1st Life Guards, 1898. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to
Maj.-Gen. Cav. Brig., S. Africa, 1899-1900; A.D.C. to Lieut.-Gen. Cav.
Brig., S. Africa, Feb. 1900; D.A.A.G., S. Africa, May 1900. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Blagrove.=--Colonel H. J. Blagrove. Commanding 13th Hussars. Entered
13th Hussars 1875; Brevet-Colonel, July 1900. _Staff Service_--Staff
Captain Remount Establishment, 1887-92. _War Service_--Egyptian
Expedition, 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star); South African War,
1899-1900.

=Blomfield.=--Lieutenant-Colonel C. J. Blomfield, D.S.O. Commanding 2nd
Lancashire Fusiliers. Entered 1875; Lieutenant-Colonel, 1898. _Staff
Service_--Adjutant, Auxiliary Forces, 1884-89; D.A.A.G., Bombay, 1892-97;
A.A.G., India, 1897. _War Service_--Nile Expedition, 1898 (Despatches;
D.S.O. Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); South African War, 1899-1900.
Colonel Blomfield, born in 1855, is the son of the late Rev. G. Blomfield
and the daughter of the late Bishop of London. He married the daughter of
the late Major E. Bristoe. The gallant Colonel, whose splendid regiment
distinguished itself at Spion Kop, had the misfortune to be taken
prisoner on that occasion (see vol. iii. p. 111).

=Bodle.=--Lieut.-Col. Bodle. This officer rendered valuable service with
the British S. Africa Police.

=Bowles.=--Lieut.-Col. H. Bowles, Yorkshire Regt. Entered 1876; Brev.
Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Staff Capt., Egypt, 1884-85; D.A.A.,
and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1885-86. _War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1884-85
(Despatches; Brev. of Maj.); Op. on N.W. Frontier of India (Despatches;
Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; medal with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900
(Despatches, May 1900); Paardeberg, wounded.

=Boyes.=--Major-General T. E. Boyes. Commanding 17th Brigade. Entered
1861; Major-General, 1899. _Staff Service_--Brigade-Major, Straits
Settlements, 1869-70; Major-General Infantry, Aldershot, January 1900 to
March 1900; South Africa, March 1900. _War Service_--Egyptian Expedition,
1882-84; (Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star; Brevet of
Lieutenant-Colonel, 4th class Osmanieh); Soudan (2 clasps); Soudan
Expedition, 1884-85 (clasp); South African War, 1900.

=Brabant.=--Brigadier-General E. Y. Brabant, M.L.D., C.M.G. (Brabant's
Horse). Entered 2nd Derby Militia, 1855; joined Cape Mounted Rifles,
1856, and retired in 1870. Commandant of Colonial Forces, 1878; C.M.G.,
1880; Commanding Colonial Division in South Africa, 1900.

[Illustration: MAJ.-GEN. BRABAZON

_Photo by H. W. Barrett, London_]

=Brabazon.=--Major-General J. P. Brabazon, C.B., A.D.C. to the Queen.
Commanding Imperial Yeomanry, South Africa. Entered 1862; Colonel, January
1899. _Staff Service_--Acting as Volunteer with rank of Captain, Ashanti
Expedition, 1873-74; A.D.C. (extra to Viceroy of India), 1877-79;
Brigade-Major, Afghan Campaign, 1870-80; A.D.C. to the Queen, 1889;
Colonel on Staff; Commanding Cavalry Brigade, South-East District, 1899;
Major-General, Cavalry Brigade, South Africa, 1899-1900. _War
Service_--Ashanti, 1874 (medal with clasp); Afghan War 1878-80
(Despatches; March, November, 1879; January, May, December, 1880; Medal
with 4 clasps; bronze star; Brevet of Major); Egyptian Expedition, 1884
(Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star; Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel);
Soudan, 1884-85 (clasp); South African War, 1899-1900 (Despatches).
General Brabazon, born in 1843, is the son of the late Major Brabazon
(late 15th Hussars), and the daughter of the late Sir W. H. Palmer, Bart.

=Bradley.=--Lieut.-Col. C. E. Bradley, North Stafford Regiment. Entered
1874; Lieut-Col., 1899. _War Service_--Op. in Zululand, 1888; S. African
War, 1890-1900.

=Brassey.=--Captain Hon. T. Allnutt Brassey, B.A., J.P., West Kent
Yeomanry Cavalry. Captain Brassey is the son of the 1st Baron Brassey and
the daughter of 1st Marquis of Abergavenny.

=Bridge.=--Col. C. H. Bridge, C.B., A.S.C. Brev.-Col., 1898. _Staff
Service_--D.A.Q.M.G., Headquarters of Army, 1888-91; D.A.A.G., S. Africa,
1896-97; E. Dist., 1897-99; D.A.G. for Transport, S. Africa, 1899. _War
Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal; bronze star); Op. in S. Africa, 1896
(Despatches; C.B.); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

[Illustration: BRIG.-GEN. ROBERT GEORGE BROADWOOD _Photo by T. Fall,
London_]

=Broadwood.=--Brigadier-General R. G. Broadwood. Entered 12th Lancers
1881; Brevet of Colonel, 1898. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to G.O.C. Belfast
District, 1892; employed with Egyptian Army, 1892-99; Brigadier-General,
Cavalry Brigade, South Africa, February 1900. _War Service_--Expedition
to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel; Egyptian
medal with 2 clasps; medal); Nile Expedition, 1897 (2 clasps to Egyptian
medal, 4th class Osmanieh); Nile Expedition, 1898 (Despatches, May and
September 1898; Brevet of Colonel; 2 clasps to Egyptian medal; medal);
South African War, 1899-1900.

=Brocklehurst.=--Major-General J. F. Brocklehurst, M.V.O. Commanding 13th
Cavalry Brigade. Entered 1874; Colonel, 1899. _Staff Service_--D.A.A. and
Q.M.G., Egypt, 1884-85; Equerry to the Queen, 1899; Major-General,
Cavalry Brigade, Natal, 1899. _War Service_--Egyptian Expedition, 1882
(medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan Expedition, 1884-85 (Despatches;
clasp; Brevet of Major); South African War, 1899-1900.

=Bromley Davenport.=--W. J. P. Bromley Davenport, M.P., Yeomanry Cavalry.
Born 1863. Son of late Lieutenant-Colonel W. Bromley Davenport, M.P.

=Brooke.=--Col. L. G. Brooke, 1st Batt. Connaught Rangers. Entered 1869;
Brev.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces, 1881-86. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1879; Ulundi, slightly wounded (Despatches;
medal with clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900; Ladysmith Relief Force;
Colenso, dangerously wounded.

=Brooke.=--Captain R. G. Brooke, D.S.O., A.D.C. to Sir George White.
Entered 1885; Captain, 7th Hussars, 1896. _War Service_--Operations in
Chitral, 1895 (Despatches; medal with clasp); Operations on North-Western
Frontier of India, 1897-98 (2 clasps); Nile Expedition, 1898 (Despatches,
May and September 1898; D.S.O. Egyptian medal with 2 clasps); South
African War, 1899-1900; Elandslaagte, severely wounded. Captain Brooke is
the son of Sir Victor Brooke and the daughter of Sir Alan Bellingham.

=Browne.=--Maj. R. S. Browne. This officer rendered valuable service with
the Queensland Mounted Infantry.

=Bryan.=--Major Hon. G. L. Bryan, Imperial Yeomanry. This officer, born
in 1857, is a son of the 3rd Baron Bellew. He spent some years in the
10th Hussars, and served in the Nile Expedition.

=Buchan.=--Lieut.-Col. L. Buchan. This officer served with distinction
with the Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry.

=Buchanan-Riddell.=--Lieut.-Col. R. G. Buchanan-Riddell, 3rd Batt. King's
Royal Rifle Corps. For particulars see vol. iii. p. 111.

=Buller.=--General Sir Redvers Henry Buller, #V.C.#, P.C., G.C.B., K.C.M.G.
Commander-in-Chief of Forces, Natal. Entered 1858; Colonel, 1879;
General, 1896. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G., Ashanti Expedition, 1873-74;
D.A.A.G., Headquarters of Army, 1874-78; Special Service, Cape of Good
Hope, 1878-79; A.D.C. to the Queen, 1879-84; A.A. and Q.M.G., North
Britain; Aldershot, 1880-81; D.A. and Q.M.G., South Africa, 1881;
Brigadier-General, South Africa, 1881; D.A. and Q.M.G., Intelligence
Department, Expeditionary Force, Egypt, 1882; A.A.G., Headquarters of
Army, 1883-84; Major-General (Chief of Staff), Egypt, 1884-85; D.A.G. to
the Forces, Headquarters of Army, 1885-86; Special Service, 1886-87;
Q.M.G. to the Forces, Headquarters of Army, 1887-90; Adjutant-General to
the Forces, Headquarters of Army, 1890-97; Lieutenant-General commanding
troops, Aldershot, 1898-99; General Commanding-in-Chief, South Africa,
October 1899 to January 1900; General Officer Commanding Natal, January
1900. _War Service_--China War, 1860 (medal with clasp); Red River
Expedition, 1870; Ashanti, 1873-74; wounded (Despatches, November 1873,
March 1874; medal with clasp; Brevet of Major; C.B.); South African War,
1878-79 (thanked in General Orders; Despatches, 11th, 18th June 1878;
5th, 15th, 28th March; 7th May, 21st August 1879; medal with clasp;
Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel; A.D.C. to Queen; #V.C.#, C.M.G.); Egyptian
Campaign, 1882-84 (Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star, 3rd class
Osmanieh; K.C.M.G.); Soudan, 1884 (Despatches, March, April, May, 1884; 2
clasps; promoted Major-General for distinguished service); Soudan,
1884-85 (Despatches, March, August, 1885; clasp; K.C.B.); South African
War, 1899-1900. Sir Redvers Buller, born in 1839, is the son of the late
Mr. J. W. Buller and the daughter of the late Lord H. M. Howard. He
married in 1882 the daughter of the 4th Marquis Townshend and widow of
the Hon. G. T. Howard. The General's character has been much discussed,
and it is universally allowed that for pluck, obstinacy, and bluntness he
cannot find his match. The deeds that won him the Victoria Cross are now
world-famous (_see_ vol. i. p. 60), but the public is less acquainted
with the story of his gallantry at El-Teb, and the way he saved the
situation at the desperate little battle of Tamai. Of this Mr. Charles
Lowe, in his interesting book of "Our Greatest Living Soldiers," says:
"Buller's square, composed of the 'Gay Gordons,' the Royal Irish, and the
60th Rifles, amongst the ranks of whom he had first won his spurs, had
been assailed in the same furious manner as that of Davis, but had blown
away all opposition to its advance, about five hundred yards on the right
rear of its fellow-brigade, to whose support it now moved up, steady and
machine-like, as if on parade. Encouraged by the splendid steadfastness
of Buller's embattled men, Davis's disrupted square was quick to rally,
and then the two brigades began to rain such an infernal fire of bullets
on their savage foe that the latter were forced to break, and the day was
won." Of his obstinacy an amusing anecdote is told. While he and Lord
Charles Beresford were serving together in Egypt, an argument arose as to
the direction to be taken by the river steamer. Each doggedly defended
his own opinion, but finally, on gaining the day, Sir Redvers triumphed.
"I was right after all!" he cried, when his programme had been fulfilled.
"And so was I," replied Lord Charles. "I merely recommended the other
because I knew you would go against anything I said!"

=Bullock.=--Lieut.-Col. G. M. Bullock, 2nd Batt. Devonshire Regt. Entered
1872; Lieut.-Col., 1897. _Staff Service_--Brig. Maj. S.E. Dist., 1882-87;
Station Staff Off., 1st class, Bengal, 1889-91; D.A.A.G., Bengal,
1891-94. War Service--S. African War, 1899-1900; with Ladysmith Relief
Force; Action at Colenso (Despatches); wounded.

=Burdett-Coutts.=--W. Ashmead Bartlett Burdett-Coutts, J.P., M.P. This
gentleman, whose dissatisfaction with the hospital arrangements in South
Africa caused considerable stir in the country, acted as Correspondent of
the _Times_. Mr. Burdett-Coutts, born in America in 1851, is mainly
notable in consequence of his marriage with the Baroness Burdett-Coutts,
one of the most benevolent and esteemed ladies of the Victorian Era.

=Burger.=--Schalk Burger, the reported "Acting President" of the
Transvaal, _vice_ Mr. Kruger, was born at Lydenburg in the year in which
the Sand River Convention was signed. His grandfather, one of the
original Voortrekkers, had the distinction of having the price of £300
set on his head by the British Government, in consequence of his share in
a Natal rebellion. His grandson is more of a politician than a soldier.
Enlightened and shrewd, but--progressive though he was inclined to be--he
could never have rivalled Mr. Kruger in his influence over his
countrymen.

=Burnham.=--F. R. Burnham. This marvellous Canadian scout and tracker was
invited by Lord Roberts to join his Staff. He was formerly a cow-boy, and
has had unlimited experience of warfare. His hairbreadth 'scapes would
form the nucleus of a library of adventure. His services have been
invaluable.

=Burn-Murdoch.=--Brigadier-General J. F. Burn-Murdoch, J.P. Entered 1878;
Brevet-Colonel, 1st Dragoons, 1898. _Staff Service_--Brigade-Major of
Cavalry, 1890-91; Brigade-Major Cavalry Brigade, Aldershot, 1891-94;
employed with Egyptian Army, 1894-95; Brigadier-General Cavalry Brigade,
South Africa, February 1900. _War Service_--Soudan Expedition, 1884-85
(medal with clasps; bronze star); Expedition to Dongola, 1896
(Despatches, Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel, Egyptian Medal with 2 clasps);
South African War, 1899-1900; on Staff. Colonel Burn-Murdoch, born 1859,
is the son of the Rev. Canon Burn-Murdoch.

=Buston.=--Lieut.-Col. P. T. Buston, R.E. Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col.,
1899. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79-80 (Despatches; medal with 2
clasps); Hazara Ex., 1888 (Despatches; medal with clasp; Brev. of Maj.);
Hazara Ex., 1891 (Despatches; clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Butcher.=--Lieut.-Col. G. J. Butcher, Army Ordnance Dept. Entered 1880;
Lieut.-Col., 1900. _Staff Service_--Dep.-Assist. Com. Gen. Ord. Store
Dept., 1885-95; Assist. Com. Gen. Ord. Store Dept., 1895-96; Ord. Off.,
3rd class, 1896-1900; Ord. Off., 2nd class, April 1900. _War Service_--S.
African War, 1899-1900.

=Byng.=--Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon. J. Hedworth G. Byng, 10th Hussars.
Entered 1883; Colonel, 1898. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G., Aldershot,
1897-99; Provost-Marshal, South Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Egyptian
Expedition, 1884 (medal with clasp; bronze star); South African War,
1899-1900, Commanding South African Light Horse. Colonel Byng, born 1862,
is a son of the 2nd Earl of Strafford.

=Byron.=--Lieutenant-Colonel J. J. Byron, Royal Australian Artillery.
A.D.C. to Lord Roberts. Wounded at Majesfontein.


=Cameron.=--Maj. C. Cameron. Maj. Cameron served with distinction with
the Tasmanian Mounted Infantry.

=Campbell.=--Major-General B. B. D. Campbell, M.V.O. Commanding 16th
Brigade. Entered 1864; Major-General, 1898. _War Service_--Egyptian
Expedition, 1882; (medal with clasp; bronze star); South African War,
1899-1900.

=Campbell.=--Lieut.-Col. W. P. Campbell, 2nd Batt. King's Royal Rifle
Corps. Entered 1875; Lieut.-Col., Jan. 1900. _Staff Service_--Adjt.
Volunteers, 1889-94; Dist. Insp. of Musk., N.W. Dist., 1896-98. _War
Service_--Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (medal with 2 clasps; bronze star); S.
African War, 1899-1900; wounded.

=Capper.=--Lieut.-Col. J. E. Capper, R.E. Entered 1880; Major, 1899.
_Staff Service_--Dep. Assist. Dir. of Rlys., S. Africa, 1899. War
Service--Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1898 (medal with clasp); S.
African War, 1899-1900; on Staff; Commanding Railway Pioneer Regt.

=Carleton.=--Capt. F. M. Carleton, D.S.O., Royal Lancs. Regt., A.D.C.
Entered 1888; Capt. W. African Regt., 1898. _Staff Service_--Employed
with Egyptian Army, 1896-97; A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., S. Africa,
1899-1900. _War Service_--Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches); Nile Ex.,
1897 (medal); Op. in Sierra Leone, 1898-99 (Despatches; D.S.O.; medal
with clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900; Ladysmith Relief Force; Spion
Kop, slightly wounded.

=Carr.=--Lieut.-Col. E. E. Carr, 2nd Batt. Royal Scots Fusiliers. Entered
1873; Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces, 1885-90;
Dist. Insp. of Musk., N.E. Dist., 1893-96. War Service--Op. on N.W.
Frontier of India, 1897-98 (medal with 2 clasps); S. African War,
1899-1900; Ladysmith Relief Force; severely wounded, 27th Feb.

=Carrington.=--Major-General Sir Frederick Carrington, K.C.M.G., K.C.B.,
1897. Entered the 24th Foot as Ensign. Promoted Lieutenant 1867.
Commanded Mounted Infantry in the Griqualand Expedition, 1875; and
"Carrington's" Horse in the Kaffir War, 1877-81 (Despatches); Commandant
of the Transvaal and Volunteer Force (Despatches; Brevet of Major and
Lieutenant-Colonel, also C.M.G.); Commanded Cape Mounted Rifles in
Basutoland Campaign, 1880-81; promoted to Colonel; Commanded 2nd Mounted
Rifles, Bechuanaland Expedition, 1884; promoted Major-General 1893.
Commanded Native Levies in the operations in Zululand, 1888. Commanded
Infantry Brigade at Gibraltar, 1895. Sir Frederick is the son of Mr. E.
Carrington, and was born in 1844. He married the daughter of Mr. Elmes,
Colesbourne.

=Carter.=--Lieut.-Col. H. M. Carter, Wilts Regiment. Entered 1868;
Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G., Bengal, 1879-81. War
Service--Afghan War, 1879 (medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; severely
wounded.

=Carter.=--Lieut.-Col. S. H. Carter. Lieut.-Col. R.A.M.C., Sept. 1894.
_War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80 (medal with clasp); Egyptian Ex., 1882
(medal with clasp; bronze star); Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98
(medal with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900; Sen. Med. Officer Inf.
Div., Natal Field Force.

=Carthew-Yorstoun.=--Lieut.-Col. A. M. Carthew-Yorstoun, The Black Watch.
Entered 1875; Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Volunteers,
1890-95. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; Paardeberg; wounded.

=Castletown of Upper Ossory= (2nd Baron).--B. E. Barnaby Fitzpatrick,
B.A., Lieutenant-Colonel 4th Leinster Regiment. Retired from the army in
1875. South African War Special Service Officer, including Service under
Base Commandant, Cape Town; afterwards A.A.G.

=Cecil.=--Major Lord E. H. Cecil, D.S.O. Entered 1887; Brevet-Major,
1898. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to G.O.C. Forces, Ireland, 1891-92; Special
Service, Egypt, 1896; employed with Egyptian Army, 1898; South Africa,
1899; A.A.G. South Africa, 1900. _War Service_--Expedition to Dongola,
1896 (Despatches; 4th class Medjidie, Egyptian medal with 2 clasps;
Brevet of Major); Nile Expedition, 1898 (Despatches, May and Sept. 1898;
D.S.O.); South African War, 1899-1900. Lord Edward Cecil, whose splendid
ability and services in Mafeking have made him world famous, is a son of
the Marquis of Salisbury. He was born in 1867. He married the daughter of
Admiral Maxse. Lord Edward's tact, patience, and good sense smoothed over
many a perilous situation.

=Chamberlain.=--Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, J.P., M.P., Secretary of
State for Colonies, 1895, M.P. for Birmingham, 1876-85, and thrice Mayor;
President of Board of Trade, 1880-85; President of Local Government
Board, 1886. Mr. Chamberlain, the foremost man in the drama of the
Transvaal, the originator of the great Colonial movement which has made a
united family of the Empire, began life as an advanced Radical. On the
principle that extremes meet, he became at last the chief of the Tory
Cabinet. That he is well hated as he is well loved, is the natural
consequence of his staunchness in friendship as in antagonism. He has
iron nerves, iron will, and an iron constitution with which to wield
them. He has supreme confidence in himself, and thus maintains a youthful
and cheery optimism even in the face of the vilest abuse which the
members of his sometime party take a delight in hurling at him. Mr.
Chamberlain, who was born in 1836, has been thrice married: first, to the
daughter of Mr. A. Kenrick (mother of Mr. T. Austen Chamberlain, Civil
Lord of the Admiralty, M.P.); second, to the daughter of Mr. T. Kenrick;
third, to the daughter of Mr. W. Endicott, Secretary for War, U.S., late
Judge Supreme Court, U.S., New York, 1888.

=Chamberlain.=--Col. N. F. Fitzgerald, I.S.C. Entered 11th Foot 1873;
Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Lieut.-Gen., Afghan Campaign,
1878; A.D.C. to Com.-in-Chief, Madras, 1881-85; Persian Interpreter to
Com.-in-Chief in India, 1885-89 (D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Burmese Ex.,
1886-87); Col. on Staff, India, 1899; Priv. Sec. to Field-Marshal
Commanding-in-Chief the Forces, S. Africa, 1899-1900. _War
Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80, wounded (Despatches, Feb., Jan., May,
1880; medal with 4 clasps; bronze star); Burmese Ex., 1886-87
(Despatches; medal with clasp; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff.

=Chauncey.=--Maj. H. Chauncey. This officer rendered valuable service
with Lumsden's Horse.

=Chauvel.=--Maj. H. G. Chauvel. This officer distinguished himself with
the 1st Contingent of the Queensland Mounted Infantry.

=Cheatle.=--G. L. Cheatle, F.R.C.S.; Prizeman in Surgery, King's Coll.;
Assist.-Surg. W. Lond. Hosp. and King's Coll. Hosp.; Teacher of Practical
Surgery, King's Coll.; late House Surg. and Assist. House Surg., King's
Coll. Hosp.; Demonstrator of Surgery and Assistant Demonstrator of
Anatomy, King's Coll. Mr. Cheatle rendered service of incalculable value
at a time of abnormal pressure on the Army Med. Dept.

=Chermside.=--Major-General Sir H. C. Chermside, G.C.M.G., C.B.
Commanding Third Division on the departure of General Gatacre. Entered
1870; Major-General, 1898. _Staff Service_--Vice-Consul, Anatolia,
1879-82; D.A.A.G. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1882-83; A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt,
1884; Governor-General, Red Sea Littoral, 1884-86; Consul, Koordistan,
1888-89; Military Attaché, Constantinople, 1889-96; Commissioner, Crete,
Colonel on Staff, Crete, 1896-99; Major-General, Curragh, 1899;
Major-General Infantry Brigade, South Africa, 1899-1900;
Lieutenant-General Infantry Division, April 1900. _War Service_--Military
Attaché with Turkish troops, Russo-Turkish War, 1876-78 (Turkish medal);
Egyptian Expedition, 1882-84 (medal, bronze star, clasp); Soudan
Expedition, 1885 (Despatches; clasp, Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel);
Soudan, 1887 (Brevet of Colonel); South African War, 1899-1900.

=Chesham= (3rd Baron).--C. C. W. Cavendish, J.P., D.L., Honorary Colonel
Bucks Yeomanry Cavalry. Commanding Brigade Imperial Yeomanry. Entered
Coldstream Guards 1870. Lord Chesham, born 1850, retired as Captain from
the 16th Lancers in 1879. He married a daughter of the Duke of
Westminster.

=Cheyne.=--Watson Cheyne, M.B., F.R.S., Consulting Surgeon. This notable
man of science rendered valuable advice and assistance to the medical
officers, and worked incessantly to promote the comfort and save the
lives of sick and wounded.

=Chichester.=--Capt. Sir E. Chichester, Bart., Royal Navy, C.M.G. Entered
Navy 1863; Capt., 1889. _War Service_--Lieut. of _Thalia_ during war in
Egypt, 1882; Principal Transport Officer, 1884-85; served on various
committees connected with North Sea fisheries; commanded _Immortalité_ in
China during Spanish and American War; A.D.C. to Queen, 1899; S. African
War, 1899-1900; Naval Transport Officer at Cape Town.

=Chiene.=--J. Chiene, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.R.S. (Edin.), Prof. of Surg.
Edin. Univ. since 1882; Member of the Royal Med. and Surg. Soc., Edin.;
Hon. Fellow Surg. Association, America; Educated Edin. and Paris; late
President of Roy. Med. Soc., Edin. Rendered valuable service at a time of
extreme pressure on the Army Med. Dept.

=Cholmondeley.=--Lieut.-Col. H. C. Cholmondeley, London Rifle Brig., City
of London Imperial Volunteers Mounted Inf. Lieut.-Col., Aug. 1889 (late
Capt. Rifle Brig.). _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900
(Despatches).

=Churchill.=--W. L. Spencer Churchill, M.P., War Correspondent to
_Morning Post_, afterwards joined South African Light Horse. Entered the
army 1895; retired 1898. This well-known young soldier, writer, and
politician is a son of the late Lord Randolph Churchill. Though he was
but three years in the army, he contrived to see more service than many
officers have done in their whole lives. With the Spanish forces in Cuba,
with the Malakand Field Force, with the Tirah Expeditionary Force, with
the Nile Expeditionary Force, he was always in the forefront, fighting
and writing, until the authorities determined to disassociate the two
occupations, whereupon Mr. Churchill exchanged the sword for the pen, and
decided to fight for the cause of Imperialism in the House of Commons.

=Clarke.=--Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Marshall Clarke, K.C.M.G., late R.A.
Resident Commissioner in Southern Rhodesia. Sir Marshall, who retired
from the army in 1882, has had considerable experience--both civil and
military--of South Africa. He served in the first Boer War of 1881-82
(Despatches), and commanded the Turkish regiment of Egyptian Gendarmerie
in 1882 (Order of Medjidie, 3rd class). Before the Boer War, he had acted
as Resident Magistrate at Pietermaritzburg, as A.D.C. to Sir Theophilus
Shepstone, as Special Commissioner, South Africa, and as Political
Officer and Special Commissioner, Lydenburg. Later on he became
Commissioner of Cape Police, then Resident Commissioner in Basutoland,
and from 1893 to 1898 was Acting Administrator in Zululand.

=Clarke.=--Colonel R. F. Noel Clarke. _War Service_--Soudan Expedition,
1884-85 (medal with clasp; bronze star); South African War, 1899-1900,
Chief Ordnance Officer.

=Clements.=--Major-General R. A. P. Clements, D.S.O. Commanding 12th
Brigade; A.D.C. to the Queen. Entered 1874; Colonel, 1899. _Staff
Service_--Brigade-Major, Burmese Expedition, 1885; Assistant
Provost-Marshal, Burmese Expedition, 1885-86; A.D.C. to Queen, 1896;
Major-General Infantry Brigade, Aldershot, 1899; Major-General Infantry
Brigade, South Africa, 1899. _War Service_--South African War,
1877-78-79; (Despatches; medal with clasp); Burmese Expedition, 1885-89,
severely and slightly wounded (Despatches; medal with 2 clasps; Brevet of
Lieutenant-Colonel); South African War, 1899-1900; (Despatches).

=Clery.=--Lieutenant-General C. Francis Clery, K.C.B. Entered 1858;
Major-General, 1894. _Staff Service_--Instructor Royal Military College,
1871-72; Professor, Tactics, 1872-75; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Headquarters,
Ireland, 1875-77; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Aldershot, 1877-78; Special Service,
Cape of Good Hope, 1878-79; Brigade-Major, Expeditionary Force, Egypt,
1882; A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt; D.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1882-85;
Brigade-General Chief of Staff, Egypt, 1886-87; Command Staff College,
1888-93; Major-General, Infantry Brigade, Aldershot, 1895-96; D.A.G. to
the Forces, Headquarters of Army, 1896-99; Lieutenant-General, Infantry
Division, South Africa, 1899. _War Service_--South African War, 1879
(Despatches, March and August 1879; medal with clasp; Brevet of
Lieutenant-Colonel); Egyptian Expedition, 1884 (Despatches, March and May
1884; medal with 2 clasps; bronze star; promoted Colonel, C.B.); Soudan
Expedition, 1884-85 (clasp); South African War, 1899-1900. General Clery,
who is renowned in the class-room as in the field, was born in 1838. In
the art of war he has long been the recognised authority, and his "Clery
on Tactics," has passed through several editions, and become a text-book
in Germany, Russia, America, and Italy. In addition to this work, his
influence has made itself felt at the War Office on behalf of the British
soldier, to whom he has always been a sincere and practical friend. He is
popular in all ranks of society, save perhaps with the Cadets at
examination times!

=Clery.=--Col. J. A. Clery, M.B. Col. R.A.M.C., 1899; Principal Medical
Officer of the Lines of Communication. _War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1884-85
(medal with clasp; bronze star); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; Egyptian
medal; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900 (Despatches).

=Clowes.=--Lieut.-Col. P. L. Clowes, 8th Hussars. Entered 1875;
Lieut.-Col., 1897. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Com.-in-Chief, Bombay,
1890-91. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80 (medal); S. African War,
1899-1900.

=Cochrane.=--Hon. T. H. A. E. Cochrane, D.L., J.P., M.P., late of 93rd
Highlanders and Scots Guards, is a son of the 11th Earl of Dundonald. He
married the daughter of the 6th Earl of Glasgow.

=Coke.=--Major-General J. Talbot Coke. Entered 1859; Colonel, 1898.
_Staff Service_--Adjutant, Auxiliary Forces, 1875-81; A.A.G.,
Headquarters Ireland, 1891-94; Curragh, 1894-96; A.A.G., Aldershot, 1896;
D.A.G., Aldershot, 1896-98; Colonel on Staff, Mauritius, 1898-99;
Major-General Infantry Brigade, South Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Fenian
Raid, Canada, 1866 (medal); Soudan, 1888 (Despatches; medal with clasp;
bronze star; 3rd class Medjidie); Operations on Nile, 1889; South African
War, 1899-1900; Ladysmith Relief Force.

=Colleton.=--Lieut.-Col. Sir R. A. W. Colleton, Royal Welsh Fusiliers.
Entered 1874; Lieut.-Col., May 1900. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Nagpur
R.V.C., 1885-86; D.A.A.G. (Musk.) Bengal, 1886-91. _War Service_--Hazara,
1891 (Despatches); Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98 (medal with 2
clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Colvile.=--Major-General Sir H. E. Colvile, K.C.M.G., C.B. Commanding
Ninth Division till June 1900. Entered 1870; Major-General, 1898. _Staff
Service_--A.D.C. to G.O.C. Cape of Good Hope, 1880-83; D.A.A. and Q.M.G.,
Nile Expedition, 1884-85; A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1885-98; employed,
Uganda Protectorate, 1893-95; Major-General Infantry Brigade, Gibraltar,
1899; Major-General Infantry Brigade, South Africa; Lieutenant-General
Infantry Brigade, South Africa, 1899-1900; Major-General, Gibraltar. _War
Service_--Egyptian Expedition, 1884 (Despatches, March and May 1884;
medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan Expedition, 1884-85 (Despatches;
clasp; C.B.); Soudan, 1885-86 (Despatches; promoted Colonel); Unyora
Expedition, 1894 (medal; C.M.G.); South African War, 1899-1900; Kimberley
Relief Force (Despatches, January and March 1900). General Colvile, like
many keen soldiers and honourable men before him, has discovered that
South Africa is "the grave of reputations." Nevertheless, it must not be
forgotten, that even in the present war his services during the long and
trying time prior to the relief of Kimberley, and the capture of Cronje,
were notable, though perhaps his most distinguished service was rendered
in the Soudan in 1885 with the Frontier Field Force. Sir H. Colvile was
born in 1852, and is the son of the late Colonel C. R. Colvile of
Lullington and the daughter of the 23rd Baroness de Clifford of Kirkby
Hall. He married, firstly, the daughter of the Hon. R. Daly, and after
her death was united in 1886 to the daughter of M. de Préville, Château
des Mondraus, Basses Pyrénées.

=Colville.=--Lieut.-Col. A. E. W. Colville, 1st Batt. Rifle Brigade.
Entered 1875; Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G. for Inst.,
Curragh Dist., 1891-96; Comdt. Naauwpoort, S. Africa, 22nd Jan. 1900 to
10th Feb. 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79 (medal); Mahsood
Wuzeeree Ex., 1881; Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897 (medal with
clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Compton.=--Lord Alwyne F. Compton, M.P., Bedfordshire Yeomanry
(Compton's Horse). This officer, born in 1855, is a son of the Marquis of
Northampton and the daughter of the late Hon. Sir G. Elliot, K.C.B. He
served both in the Grenadier Guards and the 10th Hussars, and was present
in the Soudan Campaign of 1884-85.

=Congreve.=--Captain W. R. Congreve, Rifle Brigade. Entered 1885;
Captain, 1893. _See_ list of V.C.'s.

=Coningham.=--Lieutenant-Colonel C. Coningham. For career of this gallant
officer, who was mortally wounded at Rensburg, _see_ vol. iv. p. 166.

=Cooke.=--Lieut.-Col. E. Cooke. Entered 1876; Lieut.-Col., Scottish
Rifles, 1899. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Cooper.=--Maj.-Gen. C. D. Cooper. Entered 103rd Foot 1868; Brev.-Col.,
Royal Dublin Fusiliers, 1899. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces,
1884-89; Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., S. Africa, March 1900. _War Service_--S.
African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Cooper.=--Colonel Harry Cooper. Entered 1865; Colonel, 1896. _Staff
Service_--Special Service, Ashanti Expedition, 1873-74; Vice-Consul in
Bosnia, 1877-78; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Headquarters, Ireland, 1878-79;
Vice-Consul, Asia Minor, 1879-80; D.A.A. and Q.M.G. Headquarters,
Ireland, 1882-84; A.D.C. to Viceroy, India, 1884-88; D.A.A.G., Jamaica,
1892-93; D.A.A.G., Dublin, 1893-95; A.A.G. Egypt, 1896-99; A.D.C. to the
Queen, 1898; A.A.G., Western District, 1899; Colonel on Staff, Commandant
Base, South Africa, April 1900. _War Service_--Ashanti War, 1874 (medal);
South African War, 1881-82; Burmese Expedition, 1886 (medal with clasp);
Expedition to Dongola, 1896 (Egyptian medal; medal); South African War,
1899-1900.

=Cowan.=--Colonel H. V. Cowan. Entered R.A. 1873; Lieutenant-Colonel,
1899. _Staff Service_--Brigade-Major, R.A., Woolwich, 1897-99;
Assistant-Military Secretary to G.O.C. the Forces, Ireland, 1899;
Assistant-Military Secretary to Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief the
Forces, South Africa, 1899-1900; Military Secretary to Field-Marshal
Commanding-in-Chief the Forces, South Africa, February 1900. _War
Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79-80 (Despatches; medal with 3 clasps);
Egyptian Expedition, 1882; severely wounded at Tel-el-Kebir (Despatches;
medal with clasp; bronze star; 5th class Medjidie; Brevet of Major);
South African War, 1900.

=Cowley= (3rd Earl).--H. A. Mornington, J.P., Imperial Yeomanry. Lord
Cowley, born in 1866, was Captain in the 3rd Battalion Wiltshire
Regiment. He succeeded his father in 1895. The first Lord Cowley was the
brother of the 1st Duke of Wellington.

=Coxhead.=--Lieut.-Col. J. A. Coxhead, R.A. Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col.,
1898. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Capt.-Gen. and Gov.-in-Chief, Jamaica,
1883-87. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; Comdg. Brig. Div.
R.A., Elandslaagte and Reitfontein; Siege of Ladysmith, slightly wounded.

=Cradock.=--Maj. M. Cradock. This dashing officer commanded the 2nd
Contingent of the New Zealand Mounted Rifles.

=Cranborne.=--Viscount, J. E. H. G. Cecil, Q.C., M.A., M.P., Hon.
Colonel, 1st Volunteer Battalion Essex Regiment. Lord Cranborne, born in
1861, is the eldest son of the 3rd Marquis of Salisbury. He married the
daughter of the 5th Earl of Arran.

=Crawley.=--Col. Crawley, 8th Batt. Imperial Yeomanry. This officer with
his corps performed excellent service at the action at Faber's Put.

=Crichton.=--Viscount H. W. Crichton, Royal Horse Guards. Lord Crichton,
born in 1872, is the eldest son of the 4th Earl of Erne. He has been
acting as A.D.C. to General Brocklehurst.

=Cronje.=--Pietrus Arnoldus Cronje. The Commandant of the Boer Army to
whom the Jameson Raiders surrendered at Doornkop. He was responsible for
withholding from Colonel Winslow, at the Siege of Potchefstroom in 1881,
the fact that an armistice existed, thereby causing unnecessary anguish
and distress. In spite of his tricks and tyrannies, he has shown himself
a first-class fighter, and a remarkable leader of men. He profoundly
detests the British, but the British, while returning the compliment,
have a generous appreciation of his abilities.

=Cuming.=--Lieut.-Col. H. B. Cuming. This officer rendered valuable
service with the Kaffrarian Rifles.

[Illustration: H.H. PRINCE CHRISTIAN

Photo, Russell & Sons, Windsor]

=Cunningham.=--Brigadier-General Glencairn Cunningham, D.S.O., Derbyshire
Regiment. Entered 1881; Brevet-Colonel, 1900. _Staff Service_--Employed
with Egyptian Army, 1886-94; Civil employment, Uganda, 1891-96;
Special Extra Regimental Employ, 1896-97; Brig.-General, Mounted Infantry
Brigade, South Africa, 1900. _War Service_--Egyptian Expedition, 1882;
twice wounded (Despatches, September, November, 1882; medal; bronze star;
5th class Medjidie; Brevet of Major); Soudan Expedition, 1884-85 (clasp);
Soudan, 1887-89; wounded (Despatches; clasp); Unyaro Expedition, 1895;
wounded (Despatches; medal); Nandi Expedition, 1895-96 (Despatches,
D.S.O.); Operations on the Niger, 1897 (Despatches; Brevet of
Lieutenant-Colonel; medal with clasp); Operations in Sierra Leone,
1898-99 (Despatches; Brevet of Colonel; clasp); South African War,
1899-1900; on Staff.

=Cunyngham.=--Lieutenant-Colonel W. H. Dick-Cunyngham, #V.C.# Commanding
2nd Battalion Gordon Highlanders till 6th January 1900 (see vol. iii. p.
89).

=Cure.=--Major H. Capel Cure, D.S.O. 1st Battalion Gloucester Regiment.
Entered 1878; Major, 1895. _Staff Service_--Special Service, Burmese
Expedition, 1887-88. _War Service_--Burmese Expedition, 1886-87
(Despatches; medal with clasp, D.S.O.); South African War, 1899-1900.

=Curran.=--Lieut.-Col. A. E. R. Curran, 1st Batt. Manchester Regt.
Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces,
1884-99. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; Elandslaagte, wounded.


[Illustration: LIEUT.-COLONEL DALGETY _Photo by Healey, Queenstown,
S.A._]

=Dalgety.=--Lieut.-Col. E. H. Dalgety, The gallant defender of Wepener.
_See_ vol. v. p. 54.

=Dalrymple-Hamilton.=--Lieut.-Col. Hon. N. de C. Dalrymple-Hamilton,
Scots Guards. Entered 1871; Lieut.-Col., March 1900. _Staff
Service_--Brig.-Maj. Home Dist., 1883-85; Brig.-Maj. Guards Brigade Ex.
Force, Suakin, 1885; Brig.-Maj. Home Dist., 1890; A.D.C. to G.O.C., S.
Dist., 1891-93; A.D.C. to G.O.C., Aldershot, 1893-94. _War
Service_--Egyptian Ex. (medal with clasp; bronze star; 5th class
Medjidie); Soudan Ex. 1885, wounded (clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900;
with Kimberley Relief Force; Belmont, seriously wounded.

=Dalrymple-Hay.=--Brev. Lieut.-Col. J. R. M. Dalrymple-Hay, West India
Regt., Comdt. at Volksrust. Entered 21st Foot 1879; Brev. Lieut.-Col.,
1899. _Staff Service_--Garr. Adjt., Cape Coast Castle, 1889-90; Adjt.
Volunteers 1891-96; Special Service, S. Africa. _War Service_--S. African
War, 1881 (Despatches); W. Africa, 1897-98 (Despatches; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.); Op. in Sierra Leone, 1898-99 (medal with clasp); S. African
War, 1899-1900; Special Service Officer; afterwards Station Comdt. and
Dist. Commissioner.

=Dalzell.=--Lieut.-Col. Hon. A. E. Dalzell, 1st Batt. Oxfordshire Light
Infantry. Entered 12th Foot 1870; Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff
Service_--A.D.C. to G.O.C. Brig., Malta, 1884-85; Insp. of Gymnasia,
Bengal and Punjab, 1892-96. _War Service_--Burma, 1889-92; S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Dartnell.=--Colonel J. G. D. Dartnell, C.M.G. Colonel commanding Natal
Volunteers and Mounted Police (_see_ vol. iii. p. 167). Entered 1855;
Retired 1864. This gallant officer, born in 1838, was severely wounded
while serving with the Central India Field Force in 1857 (medal and
clasp; Brevet-Major). He acted as A.D.C. to General Tombs in the Bhootan
Expedition, and served at Isandhlwana under Lord Chelmsford.

=Davidson.=--Lieut.-Col. W. L. Davidson, R.H.A. Entered 1869; Col., 1900.
_Staff Service_--A.D.C. (extra) to Com.-in-Chief in India, 1875-76;
A.D.C. to Gov. and Com.-in-Chief, Gibraltar, 1881-82; Col. on Staff for
R.A., S. Africa, April 1900. _War Service_--S. African War, 1879; Ulundi,
slightly wounded (Despatches; medal with clasp); Afghan War, 1880
(medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Davies.=--Maj. R. H. Davies. Major Davies rendered excellent service
with the 4th Contingent New Zealand Mounted Rifles.

=Dawson.=--Lieut.-Col. H. L. Dawson, 9th Bengal Lancers. Entered 2nd Foot
1873; Lieut.-Col. I.S.C., 1899. _War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1885 (medal
with clasp; bronze star); Op. in Chitral, 1895 (medal with clasp); Tirah,
1897-98 (2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900; Commanding Mounted Inf.
Corps.

=De la Warr= (8th Earl).--G. T. R. Sackville, D.L., J.P. Lord de la Warr,
born 1869, is the second son of the 7th Earl and the daughter of the 1st
Lord Lamington. He married the daughter of Lord Brassey. He joined
Bethune's Horse, and was present at the unlucky affair near Vryheid
(_see_ vol. v. p. 177).

=De Lisle.=--Lieutenant-Colonel H. de B. de Lisle, D.S.O., Durham Light
Infantry. Entered 1883; Captain (Adjutant, Durham Light Infantry,
1892-96). _War Service_--Soudan, 1885-86 (Despatches; medal; D.S.O.);
South African War, 1899-1900, severely wounded; Commanding Mounted
Infantry Corps (Despatches). This dashing officer, who has made himself
remarkable for his talent in the field during this war, has long been
associated with polo, and sport of all kinds. He was born in 1864, and is
the son of the late Mr. R. de Lisle, Guernsey.

=De Montmorency.=--Hon. R. H. de Montmorency, #V.C.# For distinguished
career _see_ vol. iv. p. 167.

=Denison.=--Major S. J. A. Denison, The Royal Canadian Regt. of Infantry.
This officer performed valuable service as A.D.C. to the Field-Marshal
Commanding-in-Chief.

=Denman= (3rd Baron).--T. Denman. Lord Denman, who was formerly in the
Royal Scots, served with the Imperial Yeomanry.

=De Villiers.=--Right Hon. Sir John Henry de Villiers, K.C.M.G.
Chief-Justice, Cape of Good Hope.

=Dewar.=--Lieut.-Col. G. Dewar, Army Pay Dept. Entered 1880; Lieut.-Col.,
1898. _War Service_--S. African War, 1879 (medal with clasp); Soudan,
1885-86 (medal; bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=De Wet.=--Sir Jacobus Albertus de Wet, K.C.M.G. Formerly Member of
Legislative Council of Cape Colony, and then British Agent in the
Transvaal.

=De Wet.=--Christian de Wet, Commandant of Boer Forces. This brilliant
Dutchman, who clasped about him the mantle of Cronje, was said to have
been a butcher at Barberton, and a potato dealer in Johannesburg.
Whatever his past, he certainly missed his vocation, for he is
undoubtedly a born warrior and keen sportsman. Though he can scarcely be
described as a great general, he may be called a bold and cunning
Guerilla chief; a man whose powerful and dominating personality is
endowed with both the magnetism and the passion of a leader. He displays
withal a sense of soldierly chivalry, and has striven to contend against
the treacherous and cruel instincts of his rude followers.[20]

=Dickson.=--Major-General J. B. B. Dickson, C.B., commanding 4th Cavalry
Brigade. Entered 1860; Colonel (Staff employ), 1897. _Staff
Service_--Special Service, Cape of Good Hope, 1879; D.A.A. and Q.M.G.
Nile Expedition, 1884-85; Colonel on Staff (commanding Cavalry Brigade),
Eastern District, 1897-99; Colonel on Staff, Straits Settlements,
1899-1900; Major-General, Cavalry Brigade, South Africa, February 1900.
_War Service_--South African War, 1879 (Despatches; medal with clasp);
Soudan Expedition, 1884-85, severely wounded (medal with 2 clasps; bronze
star); South African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Dickson-Poynder= (6th Bart.).--Captain Sir J. Poynder Dickson-Poynder,
J.P., M.P. (Wilts Yeomanry), born in 1866, was formerly in the 3rd
Battalion Royal Scots.

=Donald.=--Lieut.-Col. C. G. Donald. Entered 1874; Lieut.-Col. Royal
Fusiliers, 1898. Staff Service--A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Madras, May 1883 to
Dec. 1884, and Dec. 1884 to Jan. 1886. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79
(medal); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Donne.=--Lieut.-Col. B. D. A. Donne, Royal Sussex Regiment. Entered
1875; Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army,
1883-93. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal; bronze star); Soudan
Ex., 1884-85 (clasp); Soudan, 1888-89 (Despatches; clasp; Brev. of
Major); Actions of Arghiri and Toski (Despatches; clasp; 3rd class
Medjidie); Tirah, 1897-98 (medal with 2 clasps); S. African War,
1899-1900.

=Donovan.=--Lieutenant-Colonel W. Donovan, R.A.M.C. Principal Medical
Officer Staff, Cavalry Division. Entered 1872; Lieutenant-Colonel, 1896.
_War Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80 (medal); Boer War, 1881; Chitral
Relief Force, 1895 (Despatches; medal with clasp).

=Douglas.=--Major-General C. W. H. Douglas. Commanding 9th Brigade.
Entered 1869; Colonel, 1898. _Staff Service_--Special Service
Expeditionary Force, Suakim, 1885; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1885;
Adjutant Volunteers, 1886-91; Brigade-Major, Aldershot, and D.A.A.G.,
1893-98; A.A.G., Aldershot, 1898-99; A.D.C. to the Queen, 1898; A.A.G.,
South Africa, 1899-1900; Major-General Infantry Brigade, South Africa,
1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80 (Despatches, July and December
1880; medal with 3 clasps; bronze star; Brevet of Major); South African
War, 1881; Soudan Expedition, 1884-85 (Despatches; medal with clasp;
bronze star); South African War, 1899-1900; Kimberley Relief Force
(Despatches).

=Douglas.=--Lieut.-Col. W. Douglas, Royal Scots. Entered 1st Foot, 1878;
Major, 1895. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Militia, 1888-93. War
Service--Bechuanaland Ex., 1884-85; S. African War, 1899-1900; Comdt. De
Wet's Dorp.

=Douglas-Pennant.=--Hon. E. Sholto Douglas-Pennant, M.P., J.P., D.L., was
born in 1864, and married in 1887 to the daughter of Lord Southampton.
From 1885 to 1891 he served in the 1st Life Guards.

=Downe= (8th Viscount).--Colonel Sir Hugh R. Dawnay, C.I.E., M.A., Bart.
Entered 1865; Colonel, 1897. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Major-General
Cavalry Brigade, Cape of Good Hope, 1879-82; A.D.C. to Major-General,
Bengal, 1883-85; A.D.C. to Commander-in-Chief, 1892-95; Colonel on Staff
Commanding Cavalry Brigade, Curragh, 1897-99; A.D.C. to Field-Marshal
Commanding-in-Chief the Forces, South Africa, 1899; Staff Officer for
Military Attachés, February to July 1900. _War Service_--South African
War, 1879 (Despatches; medal with clasp; Brevet of Major); South African
War, 1899-1900.

=Downing.=--Maj.-Gen. C. M. H. Downing, R.A. Entered 1866; Col., 1899.
_Staff Service_--Chief Inst. Sch. of Gunnery, 1897-99; Col. on Staff for
R.A., Natal, 1899; Col. on Staff for R.A., S. Africa, 1899-1900;
Maj.-Gen. for R.A., S. Africa, March 1900. _War Service_--Abyssinian Ex.,
1867-68 (medal); Afghan War, 1878-79 (medal); S. African War, 1899-1900;
Ladysmith; O.C. Corps Artillery; afterwards O.C. R.A.

=Drury.=--Col. C. W. Drury, A.D.C. This notable officer commanded the
Royal Canadian Artillery.

=Dudley= (2nd Earl).--W. Humble Ward, Major Worcester Yeomanry Cavalry.
_War Service_--South African War, 1899-1900; D.A.A.G. Imperial Yeomanry.

=Duff.=--Colonel Beauchamp Duff, C.I.E. Entered, Royal Artillery, 1874;
Major, Indian Staff Corps, 1894; Colonel, 1898. Staff Service--D.A.A.G.,
Bengal, 1891-95; Military Secretary to Commander-in-Chief, India,
1895-99; Assistant Military Secretary for Indian Affairs; Headquarters of
Army, 1899; Assistant Military Secretary to Lieutenant-General of Natal,
1899-1900; A.A.G. South African War, 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War,
1878-80 (medal); Isazai Expedition, 1892; Waziristan Expedition, 1894-95
(Despatches, June and July 1895; medal with clasp; Brevet of
Lieutenant-Colonel); South African War, 1899-1900.

=Dundonald= (12th Earl).--Major-General Douglas Mackinnon Baillie
Hamilton Cochrane, Bart., M.V.O. Entered, 2nd Life Guards, 1870; Colonel,
1889. _Staff Service_--Colonel on Staff Irregular Mounted Brigade, South
Africa, 1899-1900; Major-General Cavalry Brigade, South Africa, March
1900. _War Service_--Soudan Expedition, 1884-85 (Despatches; medal with 2
clasps; bronze star; Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel); South African War,
1899-1900. Lord Dundonald, who took so prominent a part in the relief of
Ladysmith and the subsequent sweeping of Natal and the Eastern Transvaal,
was born in 1852. He is the son of the 11th Earl and the daughter of the
late Mr. W. A. Mackinnon, of Mackinnon, M.P. He comes of a fine fighting
race, the 10th Earl (Lord Cochrane) having distinguished himself not only
in destroying Napoleon's fleet in 1809, but subsequently during the wars
for the independence of Chili and Peru, and in Brazil. His kinsman
promises to make as great a mark in history.


=Earle.=--Major Sir H. Earle, Bart., D.S.O. Entered 1876; Major, York.
Light Infantry, 1894. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Brigadier-General,
Expeditionary Force, Egypt, 1882; Adjutant, Volunteers, 1891-96. _War
Service_--Jowaki Expedition, 1877 (medal with clasp); Afghan War,
1878-79-80 (medal); Egyptian Expedition, 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze
star; 5th class Medjidie); Burmese Expedition, 1886-89 (Despatches; 2
clasps, D.S.O.); Operations on North-West Frontier of India, severely
wounded (medal with 2 clasps); South African War, 1899-1900, severely
wounded (Despatches).

=Eddy.=--Maj. Eddy. This gallant officer, who did splendid service with
the Victorian Mounted Rifles, was killed in action.

=Edge.=--Lieutenant-Colonel J. D. Edge, R.A.M.C. Principal Medical
Officer, Staff, Third Division. Entered 1871; Lieutenant-Colonel, 1896.
_War Service_--Engagement Orange Walk, B. Honduras, 1872 (Promoted Staff
Surgeon); South African War, 1879 (medal with clasp); Afghan War, 1879-80
(thanked by Government of India; medal with clasp); Egyptian Expedition,
1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star; 4th class Osmanieh); Burmese
Expedition, 1887-89 (medal with 2 clasps); South African War, 1899-1900,
Stormberg.

=Edwards.=--Lieut.-Col. A. H. M. Edwards (5th Dragoon Guards), Commanding
Imperial Light Horse. Entered 1883; Major, 1897. _Staff Service_--A.A.G.,
S. Africa, May 1900. _War Service_--Hazara Ex., 1888 (Despatches); S.
African War, 1899-1900; Ladysmith, wounded 6th Jan.

=Elliot.=--C. Bletterman Elliott LL.B., C.M.G. General Manager of Cape
Government Railways.

=Elliot.=--Maj. Sir Henry George Elliot, K.C.M.G., created 1899; Chief
Magistrate, Tembuland, Cape of Good Hope. Born 1826; son of the late Maj.
J. F. Elliot. Married, first, 1865, a daughter of Mr. J. Drummond;
second, 1879, a daughter of Mr. W. Gardner. Entered the Army, Royal
Marines, 1841; retired (Major), 1870; served in the Crimea, 1854-55,
including Sebastopol and Balaclava (Despatches; medal with clasp; Turkish
medal; 5th class Medjidie); S. Africa, 1877-78 (C.M.G.).

=Eloff.=--Grandson of President Kruger. This young man, some years ago,
made himself obnoxious in consequence of his disrespectful reference to
her Majesty the Queen. He would otherwise have earned the esteem of even
his enemies for the enterprise of his assault on Mafeking (_see_ vol. v.
p. 109).

=Ennismore= (Viscount).--R. Granville Hare. Captain 4th Battalion Royal
Munster Fusiliers. Lord Ennismore, born 1866, is the son of the 3rd Earl
of Listowel, and was formerly in the 1st Life Guards.

=Erasmus.=--Boer Commandant, son of the sometime Acting President of the
South African Republic.

=Erroll.=--(19th Earl of).--Brigadier-General Charles Gore, LL.D., D.L.
Entered R.H.G., 1869; Colonel, 1898. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to
Commander-in-Chief; A.A.G., under I.G. of Cavalry, 1898-99; Special
Service, South Africa, 1899-1900; A.A.G., South Africa. January, 1900;
March 1900; Brigadier-General, Imperial Yeomanry Brigade, South Africa,
March, 1900. _War Service_--South African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Escombe.=--Right Hon. Harry Escombe, P.C., LL.D. Commandant of Naval
Natal Volunteers, and late Prime Minister and Attorney-General of Natal.
Sir Harry Escombe, who died at the close of 1899, was intimately
associated with affairs connected with Natal, and universally esteemed.

=Essex= (7th Earl of).--G. Devereux de Vere Capell, J.P. Lord Essex was
formerly in the Grenadier Guards. He retired in 1882, but instantly
offered his services when the need for them arose.

=Eustace.=--Lieut.-Col. F. J. W. Eustace, R.H.A. Entered 1870; Col., Feb.
1900. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Lieut.-Gen. Comg. Afghan Campaign, 1880;
A.D.C. (prov.) to Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies, 1881-82; A.D.C. to
Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies, 1883-84; A.A.G., S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _War
Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79 (medal); S. African War, 1899-1900
(Despatches, May 1900).

=Evans.=--Lieut.-Col. E. S. Evans, Royal Munster Fusiliers. Entered 1874;
Lieut.-Col., 1896. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Evans.=--Maj. R. W. Evans. Commanded Natal Mounted Rifles, Ladysmith.

=Evans.=--Lieut.-Col. T. D. B. Evans. This dashing officer rendered
valuable service with the Royal Canadian Dragoons.

=Ewart.=--Lieut.-Col. J. S. Ewart, Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders,
A.A.G. Entered 1881; Brev. Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Garr.
Adjt., Egypt, 1885-86; A.D.C. to G.O.C. Scottish Dist., 1893-94; A.M.S.
to Gov. and Com.-in-Chief, Malta, 1894-98; D.A.A.G., W. Dist., 1898-99;
Special Service, Natal, 1899; Brig. Maj. Inf. Brig., S. Africa,
1899-1900; A.A.G., S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex.,
1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (clasp);
Soudan, 1885-86 (Despatches; 5th class Medjidie); Nile Ex., 1898
(Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); S.
African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Exham.=--Colonel R. Exham, R.A.M.C., P.M.O., Natal Field Force. Entered
1871; Colonel, 1899.


=Fairholme.=--Major W. E. Fairholme, C.M.G., R.A. Entered 1879; Major,
1897. _Staff Service_--Staff Captain (Intelligence), Headquarters of
Army, 1893-94; D.A.A.G. (Intelligence), Headquarters of Army, 1894-98;
employed with Turco-Greek Boundary Commission, 1898;
Assistant-Commissioner, Crete, 1898-99; Special Service, South Africa,
1899-1900; A.A.G., South Africa, 1899-1900; Assistant-Military Secretary
to Governor and Commander-in-Chief, Gibraltar, July 1900. _War
Service_--South African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Festing.=--Major A. H. Festing, D.S.O. (Royal Irish Rifles). Entered
1888; Brevet-Major, 1898. _Staff Service_--Special Extra Regimental
Employ, 1895-98; employed with West African Frontier Force, 1898-1900;
Special Service, Rhodesian Field Force, 1900. _War Service_--Operations
on Niger, 1896-97 (Despatches; medal with clasp; Brevet of Major); West
Africa, 1896-97-98 (Despatches, D.S.O.); South African War, 1899-1900.

=Fetherstonhaugh.=--Major-General R. S. R. Fetherstonhaugh. Entered 1867;
Colonel, August 1900. _Staff Service_--Station Commandant, South Africa,
1899; Infantry Brigade, South Africa, Nov. 1899, Feb. 1900;
Major-General, Infantry Brigade, Aldershot, August 1900. _War
Service_--South African War, 1879; Soudan Expedition, 1885 (Despatches;
medal with 2 clasps; bronze star; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); S. African War,
1899-1900, wounded Belmont (Despatches).

=Fiaschi.=--Maj. J. H. Fiaschi, New South Wales Medical Staff Corps. This
officer has made himself notable for the zeal and skill with which his
humane duties were carried out, and the efficient condition in which he
kept the ambulance under his command.

=Fincastle= (Viscount).--A. E. Murray, #V.C.#, Captain 16th Lancers.
Entered 1891; Captain, 1899. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Viceroy, India,
1895 and 1897; Special Service, Egypt, 1896; A.D.C. to
Lieutenant-General, Infantry Division, South Africa, April 1900; _War
Service_--Operations on North-West Frontier of India, 1897-98
(Despatches; November 1897, January and April 1898, #V.C.#); Dongola
Expedition, 1896 (medal); South African War, 1899-1900. This notable
officer, born 1871, is the eldest son of the 7th Earl of Dunmore.

=Finlayson.=--Lieut.-Col. R. A. Finlayson. This officer commanded with
distinction the Kimberley Regiment, composed of the Diamond Fields Horse
and Kaffrarian Rifles.

=Fisher.=--Lieut.-Col. R. B. W. Fisher, 10th Hussars. Entered 1874;
Brev.-Col., Aug. 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79-80 (Despatches,
May and Dec. 1880; medal with 3 clasps; bronze star); Mahsood Wuzeeree
Ex., 1881 (Despatches); S. African War, 1899-1900 (Despatches, May 1900).

=Fitton.=--Major H. G. Fitton, D.S.O. Entered Royal Berks Regiment 1884;
Brevet-Major, 1898. _Staff Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army,
1894-99; D.A.A.G., South Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Soudan Expedition,
1885; Suakim (medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan, 1885-86; Expedition
to Dongola, 1896, wounded (Despatches; D.S.O.; Egyptian medal with 2
clasps); Nile Expedition, 1897 (Despatches; 4th class Medjidie; clasp to
Egyptian medal); Nile Expedition, 1898 (Despatches; Brevet of Major, 2
clasps to Egyptian medal; medal); South African War, 1899-1900.

=Fitz Clarence.=--Captain C. Fitz Clarence, Royal Fusiliers; Special
Service, Mafeking, twice wounded. _See_ V.C. list.

=Fitzgerald.=--Sir T. N. Fitzgerald, L.R.C.S., Ireland, 1857; F.R.C.S.,
1884; Senior Surg., Melbourne Hosp.; Consulting Surg., St. Vincent Hosp.,
Melbourne. Born Ireland, 1838; late President Inter-Colonial Medical
Congress of Australasia; President of Medical Society of Victoria,
1883-89. Sir T. Fitzgerald rendered valuable service at a time of
abnormal pressure on the Army Medical Dept.

=Flint.=--Lieut.-Col. E. M. Flint, R.A. Entered 1871; Lieut.-Col., 1897.
_Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces, 1883-88. _War Service_--S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Folkestone= (Viscount).--J. Pleydell Bouverie, M.P. Major, 1st Wilts
Rifle Volunteers. Eldest son of the 5th Earl of Radnor.

=Ford-Hutchinson.=--Captain J. H. Ford-Hutchinson, D.S.O., Connaught
Rangers. Entered 1885; Captain, 1891. _Staff Service_--Special Service,
Egypt, 1896-97; employed with Egyptian Army, 1897-99; Railway Staff
Officer, South Africa, June 1900. _War Service_--Expedition to Dongola,
1896 (Egyptian medal); Nile Expedition, 1897 (clasp to Egyptian medal);
Nile Expedition, 1898 (Despatches, May and September 1898; D.S.O; 2
clasps to Egyptian medal; medal); South African War, 1899-1900.

=Forestier-Walker.=--Lieutenant-General Sir T. W. E. F. Forestier-Walker,
K.C.B., C.M.G. Entered, S. F. Guards, 1862; Lieutenant-General, 1895.
_Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Major-General, Mauritius, 1866-67; Assistant
Military Secretary to G.O.C. Cape of Good Hope, 1873-78; Military
Secretary to Governor, Cape of Good Hope, 1878; Special Service, Cape of
Good Hope, 1878-79; A.A. and Q.M.G., Home District, 1882; A.A. and
Q.M.G., South Africa, 1884-85; Brigadier-General, Aldershot, 1889-90;
Major-General, Egypt, 1890-93; Lieutenant-General, Western District,
1895-99; Lieutenant-General, South Africa, 1899. _War
Service_--Expedition to Griqualand West, 1875; South African War, 1878-79
(Despatches, March and May 1879; medal with clasp; C.B.); Bechuanaland
Expedition, 1884-85 (honourably mentioned; C.M.G.); South African War,
1899-1900.

=Fortescue.=--Lieutenant-Colonel Hon. C. G. Fortescue, C.M.G., Rifle
Brigade. Entered 1881; Brevet-Colonel, 1899. _Staff Service_--Employed
Gold Coast, 1897-99; Private Secretary to Secretary of State for War,
1899; Brigade-Major, Natal, 1899. _War Service_--Burmese Expedition,
1888-89 (medal with clasp); West Africa, 1897-98 (Despatches; C.M.G.;
Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel); South African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Fortescue.=--Commander Hon. Seymour J. Fortescue, M.V.O., Naval A.D.C.
to Commander-in-Chief. Entered Navy, 1869; Commander, 1890. This
distinguished officer, lately Equerry-in-Waiting to the Prince of Wales,
served in 1882 in the bombardment of Alexandria in the Egyptian War
(medal; clasp; Khedive's Star); in the Soudan (Suakim clasp). He is a son
of the 3rd Earl Fortescue.

=Foster.=--Colonel W. H. Foster, M.P. Commanding Yeomanry Cavalry. This
gallant officer, who for many years has been associated with the 2nd West
Yorks. Yeomanry Cavalry, volunteered immediately he found the country had
need of his services. Like many other wealthy and notable volunteers, he
had everything to lose and nothing to gain in fighting his country's
battles save the esteem of a grateful nation.

=Fowler.=--Captain J. S. Fowler, R.E., D.S.O. Entered 1886; Captain,
1895. _Staff Service_--Director of Telegraphs, Orange River Colony, 1900.
_War Service_--Isazai Expedition, 1892; Operations in Chitral, 1895;
wounded (Despatches; D.S.O.; medal with clasp); Operations on North-West
Frontier of India, 1897-98 (Despatches; 2 clasps); South African War,
1899-1900.

=Fowler.=--Sir Thomas Fowler, Bart., Lieut. 2nd Battalion Royal Wilts
Yeomanry Cavalry.

=Franks.=--Mr. Kendal Franks, M.B., F.R.C.S.I., Consulting Surgeon. Mr.
Franks rendered untiring service by using his skill for the benefit of
the sick and wounded, and thus saving many valuable lives.

=French.=--Lieutenant-General John Denton Pinkstone French. Commanding
Cavalry Division. Entered 1874; Major-General, 21st February 1900. _Staff
Service_--Adjutant, Auxiliary Forces, 1881-84; A.A.G., Headquarters of
Army, 1895-97; Colonel on Staff, Commanding Cavalry Brigade, S.E.
District, 1897-99; Major-General, Cavalry Division, Aldershot, 1899;
Major-General, Cavalry, Natal, 1899; Lieutenant-General, Cavalry
Division, South Africa, October 1899. _War Service_--Soudan Expedition,
1884-85 (Despatches; medal with 2 clasps; bronze star); South African
War, 1899-1900; Elandslaagte; Relief of Kimberley (promoted Major-General
for distinguished service; Despatches). General French, who is now world
famous, was born in 1852. He is a brother of the well-known Commandant of
Colonial Forces, New South Wales, who himself volunteered for service in
South Africa, and was informed that his services were too valuable to be
spared.


=Gallwey.=--Lieut.-Col. E. J. Gallwey, 2nd Batt. Somersetshire Light
Infantry. Entered 1870; Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux.
Forces, 1885-90; Comdt. Sch. of Inst. for Mil. and Vols., Aldershot,
1891. _War Service_--S. African War, 1878-79; Sekukuni and Zulu
Campaigns; Ulundi (medal with clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Gallwey.=--Colonel T. J. Gallwey, C.B., M.D., R.A.M.C., P.M.O., Second
Division. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1879 (medal with clasp); Egyptian
Expedition, 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan Expedition,
1884-85 (Despatches; clasp; promoted Surgeon-Major); Expedition to
Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; C.B.; Egyptian medal with clasp); Nile
Expedition, 1897; Nile Expedition, 1898 (Despatches, May and September
1898; promoted Colonel; 2 clasps, Egyptian medal); South African War,
1899-1900.

=Garstin.=--Col. A. A. Garstin, A.A.G. Entered 1871; Col., 1898. _Staff
Service_--D.A.A. and Q.M.G. Ex. Force, Suakin, 1885; Spec. Serv., South
Africa, Feb. to April 1900; A.A.G., S. Africa, April 1900. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1879 (medal with clasp); Soudan Ex., 1885
(medal with clasp; bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900; Spec. Serv.
Officer, and on Staff.

=Gascoigne.=--Captain E. F. O. Gascoigne, D.S.O. Entered Grenadier
Guards, 1892. _Staff Service_--Brigade-Major, Aldershot, January 1900;
South Africa, March 1900. _War Service_--Nile Expedition, 1898
(Despatches; D.S.O; Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); South African War,
1899-1900; on Staff.

=Gatacre.=--Lieutenant-General Sir W. F. Gatacre, K.C.B., D.S.O.
Commanding Third Division till May 1900. Entered, 77th Foot, 1862;
Major-General, 1898. _Staff Service_--Instructor in Surv. Royal Military
College, 1875-79; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Aldershot, 1879-80; A.A.G., Madras,
1880-81; D.Q.M.G., India, 1885-90; Adjutant-General, Bombay, 1890-94;
Brigade-General, India, 1894-97; Major-General, Infantry Brigade,
Aldershot, 1897-98; Major-General commanding Brigade, Egypt, 1898;
Major-General commanding Division, Soudan Expedition Force, 1898;
Major-General, E. District, 1898-99; Lieutenant-General, Infantry
Division, S. Africa, 1899-1900; Major-General, E. District, June 1900.
_War Service_--Hazara Expedition, 1888 (Despatches; medal with clasp;
D.S.O); Burma, 1889-90 (clasp); Operations in Chitral, 1895 (Despatches;
C.B.); Nile Expedition, 1898 (Despatches, May and September 1898;
K.C.B., 2nd class Medjidie; thanked by both Houses of Parliament;
Egyptian medal with 2 clasps; medal); South African War, 1899-1900; on
Staff.

=Gawne.=--Lieutenant-Colonel J. M. Gawne, R. Lanc. Regt. Entered 1874;
Colonel, February 1900. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G., Egypt, 1895-97. _War
Service_--South African War, 1879 (medal with clasp); Bechuanaland
Expedition, 1884-85; South African War; died of wounds received in
action, December 1900.

=Gerard.=--Col. Lord W. C. Gerard, Hon. Col. Lancs. Hussars Yeomanry
Cavalry. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; A.D.C. to G.O.C.
Natal.

=Gifford.=--Hon. Maurice R. Gifford, C.M.G. This remarkable officer, now
associated with the Rhodesian Horse, is the son of 2nd Baron Gifford. He
has seen an immense amount of fighting in various parts of the world. He
served in the Egyptian Campaign, 1882; as scout in Canada (medal and
clasp); and again in the Matabele Campaign of 1893 (medal). He raised
"Gifford's Horse" in the Matabele Rebellion, 1896, when he lost an arm.
His services were rewarded with the C.M.G.

=Girouard.=--Lieutenant-Colonel E. P. C. Girouard, D.S.O., R.E. Entered,
Royal Engineers, 1888; Brevet-Major, 1899. _Staff Service_--Railway
Traffic Manager, Royal Arsenal, 1890-95; employed with Egyptian Army,
1896-98; Special Extra Regimental Employ, 1898-99; Director of Railways,
South Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Expedition to Dongola, 1896
(Despatches, D.S.O.; Egyptian medal with clasp); Nile Expedition, 1897
(Despatches; clasp to Egyptian medal; Brevet of Major); South African
War; on Staff. Colonel Girouard is generally recognised as one of the
foremost organisers and engineers of his day, and it has been said that
what he does not know of his craft "is not knowledge." He was born at
Montreal in 1867, and educated at the Royal Military College, Kingston.

=Gleichen.=--Count Albert Edward W. Gleichen, C.M.G., Major. Entered
Grenadier Guards, 1881; Major, 1898. _Staff Service_--Equerry to H.R.H.
the Prince of Wales, 1892; Extra Equerry to H.M. the Queen, 1892; Staff
Captain, Headquarters of Army, 1895-98; D.A.A.G., Headquarters of Army,
1898-99; Special Service, South Africa, and D.A.A.G., 1900. _War
Service_--Soudan Expedition, 1884-85 (medal with 2 clasps; bronze star);
Expedition to Dongola, 1896 (Egyptian medal); South African War,
1899-1900; Kimberley Relief Force; severely wounded (Despatches, January
1900).

=Godfray.=--Lieut.-Col. J. W. Godfray, King's Own Scottish Borderers.
Entered 1871; Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces,
1881-82; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Jersey, 1882-87; D.A.A.G., Cyprus, 1893-94.
_War Service_--Op. in Chitral, 1895 (Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.;
medal with clasp); Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98 (2 clasps); S.
African War, 1899-1900.

=Goggin.=--Lieut.-Col. G. T. Goggin, R.A.M.C., Lieut.-Col., March 1900.
_War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; Sen. Med. Officer Inf. Div.

=Goold-Adams.=--Major H. J. Goold-Adams C.M.G., C.B., Resident
Commissioner in Bechuanaland. Entered 1878; Major, 1895. _Staff
Service_--Employed with Bechuanaland Border Police Force, 1895;
Delimitation Duties, Bechuanaland, 1895-96; Delimitation Duties,
Barotseland, 1896-97; Resident Commissioner, Bechuanaland Protectorate,
1897; Special Service, South Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Bechuanaland
Expedition, 1884-85; Commanded in Matabeleland, 1893.

=Gordon.=--Brig.-Gen. J. R. P. Gordon, Commanding 3rd Cav. Brig. Entered
1879; Lieut.-Col., Feb. 1897. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Maj. Gen.,
Madras, 1887-89; Adjt., Yeom. Cav., 1889-91; Spec. Serv., Lagos, 1892;
Recruiting Staff Officer, 2nd class, Dublin, 1892-94, London, 1894-96
(Spec. Serv., Ashanti, 1895-96). Brig.-Gen. Cav. Brig., S. Africa, Feb.
1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1880 (medal); S. African War, 1881;
Bechuanaland Ex., 1884-85; Burmese Ex., 1887 (Despatches; G.G.O. 864 of
'87; medal with clasp); Ex. against the Yebus Lagos, 1892 (Despatches;
medal with clasp); Ashanti Ex., 1895-96 (hon. mentioned; star); S.
African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Gordon.=--Col. J. M. Gordon. This gallant officer commanded the South
Australian Bushmen.

=Gore.=--Lieut.-Col. St. J. C. Gore, Commanding 5th Dragoon Guards.
Entered 1879; Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--A.M.S. and A.D.C. to
Lieut.-Gov., Bengal, July to Oct. 1898. _War Service_--Soudan Ex.,
1884-85 (medal with clasp; bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900;
Elandslaagte.

=Gorringe.=--Lieutenant-Colonel G. F. Gorringe, D.S.O., R.E. Entered,
Royal Engineers, 1888; Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel, March 1900. _Staff
Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1893-99; A.D.C. to Major-General
(Chief of Staff), South Africa, 1899-1900; D.A.A.G., South Africa,
February 1900. _War Service_--Expedition to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches,
D.S.O.); Nile Expedition, 1897 (Despatches; Brevet of Major); Nile
Expedition, 1898 (Despatches, May and September 1898; 4th class Medjidie;
clasps to Egyptian medal; medal); Nile Expedition, 1899 (Despatches;
Brevet of Lieutenant-Colonel); South African War; on Staff.

=Gough.=--Maj. H. de la P. Gough, 16th Lancers. Entered 1889; Capt.,
1894. _Staff Service_--S. Africa. _War Service_--Op. on N.W. Frontier of
India, 1897-98 (medal with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900; Special
Service Officer. This excellent Cavalry officer distinguished himself as
a leader of the Composite Regiment, Mounted Infantry, during the
operations for the relief of Ladysmith.

=Graham.=--Lieut.-Col. E. R. C. Graham, Cheshire Regiment. Entered 1878;
Lieut.-Col., 1900. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G., Headquarters Madras, 1895;
A.A.G. India, 1895-99; Assist. Prov.-Marshal, S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Graham.=--Major H. W. G. Graham, D.S.O. Entered 1884; Major, 5th
Lancers, 1899. _Staff Service_--Employed with Gold Coast Constabulary,
1888-90; employed with Egyptian Army, 1891-93; Special Service, Ashanti,
1895-96; D.A.A.G., Natal, 1898-99; A.A.G., South Africa, 1899. _War
Service_--Operations on West Coast of Africa, 1889 (Despatches; D.S.O.);
Ashanti Expedition, 1895-96 (honourably mentioned; star); North-West
Frontier of India, 1897-98 (Despatches; medal with clasp); Tirah, 1897-98
(clasp); South African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Grant.=--Captain P. G. Grant, R.E. Entered 1888; Captain, 1899. _War
Service_--Operations in Chitral, 1895 (medal with clasp); South African
War, 1899-1900; A.D.C. to G.O.C. Infantry Division.

=Greene.=--Lieut.-Col. E. M. Greene, Commanding Natal Carabineers.

=Greer.=--Lieut.-Col. J. Greer, Dir. of Mil. Postal Services. S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Grenfell.=--Lieut.-Col. H. M. Grenfell. Entered 1st Life Guards 1892;
Brev.-Maj., 1898. _Staff Service_--Spec. Extra Regimental Employment,
1895-96; A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Egypt, 1897-98; A.D.C., and afterwards
A.M.S., to Gov. and Com.-in-Chief, Malta, 1899; Spec. Serv., S. Africa,
1899. _War Service_--Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches, 1898; Brev. of Maj.;
Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; Commanding
Regt. Brabant's Horse.

=Grierson.=--Lieut.-Col. J. M. Grierson, R.A., M.V.O. Entered 1877;
Brev.-Col., 1900. _Staff Service_--D.A.Q.M.G., Indian Cont. Exped. Force,
Egypt, 1882; Spec. Serv. Exped. Force, Suakim, 1885; D.A.A. and Q.M.G.,
Egypt, 1885; Station Staff Officer, Bengal, 1889; D.A.A.G., Headquarters
of Army, 1890-94; Brig.-Maj. R. A., Aldershot, 1895-96; Mil. Attaché,
Berlin, 1896-1900; Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1900; Staff Officer; D.A.G.,
China. _War Service_--Egyptian Exped., 1882 (Despatches; medal with
clasp; bronze star; 5th class Medjidie); Soudan Exped., 1885 (Despatches;
clasp); Hazara Exped. (Despatches; medal with clasp; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Grove.=--Lieut.-Col. A. W. S. Grove, Royal West Kent Regiment. Entered
1873; Brev. Lieut.-Col., Aug. 1900. _Staff Service_--Garr. Inst., Egypt,
1884; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1884-85; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Canada,
1885-87; D.A.A.G., E. Dist., 1887-88. _War Service_--S. African War,
1881; Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star; Brev. of Maj.);
Soudan Ex., 1884-85; S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Guest.=--Hon. Ivor Guest, M.P. Imperial Yeomanry. Mr. Guest, who is the
eldest son of Lord Wimborne, was born in 1873. He volunteered with other
patriotic politicians in England's "dark hour."

=Guinness.=--Lieut.-Col. H. W. N. Guinness, Royal Irish Regt. _War
Service_--Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star;
Brev. of Maj.); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Guinness.=--Hon. Rupert E. C. L. Guinness. Mr. Guinness, a notable
oarsman, is another patriotic nobleman who placed his services at the
disposal of his country. He is the eldest son of Lord Iveagh, and was
born in 1874.


=Haig.=--Major Douglas Haig. Entered 1885; Major, 1899. _Staff
Service_--A.D.C. to Insp. Gen. of Cavalry, 1894-95; Employed with
Egyptian Army, 1898; Brig.-Maj. Cav. Brig., Aldershot, 1899; D.A.A.G.,
Natal, 1899; D.A.A.G., S. Africa, 1899-1900; A.A.G., S. Africa, Feb.
1900. _War Service_--Nile Exped., 1898 (Despatches; Brev. of Maj.; E.
medal with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff (Despatches).

=Hall.=--Lieut.-Col. R. H. Hall, Commanded 1st Batt. South Lancashire
Regt. on death of Col. M'Carthy O'Leary. Entered 1873; Lieut.-Col., Feb.
1900. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Halliwell.=--Maj. H. L. Halliwell (late Royal Scots). This officer
rendered valuable service with the Queenstown Rifle Volunteers.

=Hamilton.=--Maj.-Gen. Bruce M. Hamilton. Entered 1877; Brev.-Col., 1897.
_Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Gov., Bombay, 1883-85 and 1885-89; D.A.A.G.,
S. Dist., 1894-97; Special Service, Ashanti, 1895-96 (Employed with Niger
Coast Protectorate, 1897); A.A.G. S. Africa, 1899-1900; Maj.-Gen., Inf.
Brig., S. Africa, April 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80 (medal);
S. African War, 1881 (Despatches); Burmese Ex., 1885 (medal with clasp);
Ashanti Ex., 1895-96 (hon. mentioned; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; star); Benin
Ex., 1897 (Despatches; Brev. of Col.; medal with clasp); S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff; with Ladysmith Relief Force; Colenso; Operations
17th to 24th Jan.; wounded.

=Hamilton.=--Lieut. Hon. G. G. Hamilton. This officer, serving in
Compton's Horse, was formerly in the Scots Guards. He is the eldest son
of Baron Hamilton of Dalzell.

=Hamilton.=--Major H. I. W. Hamilton, D.S.O. Entered 1880; Major R. W.
Surr. Reg., 1898. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Gen. 3rd Inf. Brig.,
Aldershot, 1896-97; employed with Egyptian Army, 1897-99; A.D.C. to
Lieut.-Gen. Inf. Div., S. Africa, 1899-1900; D.A.A.G., S. Africa, 1900.
_War Service_--Burmese Exped., 1886-88 (medal with clasp); Nile Exped.,
1897; Nile Exped., 1898 (Despatches, May and Sept., 1898, D.S.O.); Nile
Exped., 1899; S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Hamilton.=--Lieut.-Gen. Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton, C.B., D.S.O.
Entered 1872. Col., Gordon Highlanders, 1898. _Staff Services_--A.D.C. to
Com.-in-Chief, Madras, 1882-85; A.D.C. to Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies,
1886-90; A.A.G., Bengal, 1890-93; Mil. Sec. to Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies,
1893-95; D.Q.M.G. in India, 1895-98; Comdt., Sch. of Musk., 1898-99;
A.A.G., Natal, 1899; Maj.-Gen., S. Africa, 1899-1900; Lieut.-Gen.,
Mounted Inf. Div., S. Africa, 10th April 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War,
1879-80 (Despatches; medal with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1881, severely
wounded (Despatches); Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; medal with 2
clasps; bronze star); Burmese Ex., 1886-87 (Despatches; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.); Op. in Chitral, 1895 (Despatches; C.B.); Op. on N.W. Front.
of India, 1898 (Despatches); S. African War, 1899-1900; Elandslaagte;
Siege of Ladysmith. This distinguished officer, born in 1853, is the son
of Col. C. M. Hamilton and the daughter of the 3rd Viscount Gort. He
married in 1877 the daughter of Sir John Muir, Bart. No better idea of
his remarkable personality can be obtained than that suggested by the
graphic pen of Mr. Winston Churchill in his unique record of the
campaign: "A man of more than middle height, spare, keen-eyed, and of
commanding aspect. His highly nervous temperament, animating what appears
a frail body, imparts to all his movements a kind of feverish energy. Two
qualities of his mind stand forward prominently from the rest. He is a
singularly good and rapid judge of character. He takes a very independent
view on all subjects, sometimes with a slight bias towards or affection
for their Radical and Democratic aspects, but never, or hardly ever,
influenced by the set of people with whom he lives. To his strong
personal charm as a companion, to his temper, never ruffled or vexed
either by internal irritation or the stir and contrariness of events, his
friends and those who have served under him will bear witness. He has a
most happy gift of expression, a fine taste in words, and an acute
perception of the curious, which he has preserved from his literary days.
But it is as a whole that we should judge. His mind is built upon a big
scale, being broad and strong, capable of thinking in army corps, and, if
necessary, in continents, and working always with serene smoothness,
undisturbed alike by responsibility or danger. Add to all this a long
experience in war, high military renown both for courage and conduct, the
entire confidence and affection of the future Com.-in-Chief, the luck
that has carried him through so many dangers, and the crowning advantage
of being comparatively young, and it is evident that here is a man who in
the years that are to come will have much to do with the administration
of the British Army in times of peace and its direction in the field."

=Hanbury-Tracy.=--Maj. the Hon. A. H. C. Hanbury-Tracy, R. Horse Guards.
Entered 1892; Brev.-Maj., March 1900. _Staff Service_--Employed in Brit.
E. Africa Protectorate, 1897; Special Service, S. Africa, 1899; D.A.A.G.,
S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Uganda, 1897-98 (Despatches; 3rd class
brilliant star of Zanzibar; medal with clasp; Brev. of Maj.); S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Hannay.=--Col. O. S. Hannay. Commanding 1st Brigade Mounted Infantry.
For career of this much esteemed and regretted officer, _see_ vol. iv. p.
60.

=Harley.=--Col. G. E. Harley, C.B. Entered 1864; Col., 1897. _Staff
Service_--Capt. Inst. of Sch. of Musk., Hythe, 1882-85; D.A.A.G., N.
Brit. and N. Dist., 1886-89; D.A.A.G., Sch. of Musk., 1889-91; A.A.G.,
Belfast Dist., 1897-1900; A.A.G., Aldershot, 1900; A.A.G., S. Africa,
March 1900. _War Service_--Op. in Chitral, 1895 (Despatches; C.B.; medal
with clasp); S. African War.

=Harris.=--Rear-Admiral Sir R. H. Harris, Royal Navy. Entered Navy 1856;
Capt., 1879; Rear-Admiral, 1895. This gallant officer commanded Training
Squadron from 1893 to 1895; was Rear-Admiral, Mediterranean Fleet,
1896-98; and Commander-in-Chief, Cape of Good Hope and West Coast of
Africa, 1898-1900; K.C.B.

=Harris.=--Lieut.-Col. R. H. W. H. Harris. Entered 1870; Lieut.-Col. East
Surrey Regt., Dec. 1896. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces, 1884-89.
_War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80 (medal); Mahsood Wuzeeree Ex., 1881
(Despatches); S. African War, 1899-1900; Willow Grange; Ladysmith Relief
Force, wounded, 22nd Feb.

=Harris.=--Lieut.-Col. V. D. Harris. This officer rendered valuable
service in command of the Kimberley Town Guard.

=Harrison.=--Lieut.-Col. C. E. C. B. Harrison, Lieut.-Col., Royal West
Kent Regt. Entered 1876; Lieut.-Col., March 1900. _War Service_--S.
African War, 1881; Transvaal Campaign; Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal; bronze
star); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Harrison.=--Lieut.-Col. R. A. G. Harrison, R.F.A. Entered 1874;
Lieut.-Col., April 1900. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Volunteers, 1886-91. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Hart.=--Maj.-Gen. A. Fitz-Roy Hart, C.B. Entered 1864; Maj.-Gen., 1898.
_Staff Service_--Spec. Serv., Ashanti Ex., 1873-74; Brig.-Maj.,
Aldershot, 1876-78; Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1878-79, 1881-82; Special
Employment, Egypt, 1882; A.A.G., Belfast Dist., 1896-97; Maj.-Gen.,
Aldershot, 1897-99; Maj.-Gen., Inf. Brig., S. Africa, October 1899. _War
Service_--Ashanti War, 1873-74, wounded (Despatches, Feb. and March 1874;
medal with clasp); S. African War, 1879-81 (Despatches, 2nd March and 7th
May 1879; medal with clasp; Brev. of Maj.); Egyptian Ex., 1882
(Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star; Brev. of Lieut.-Col., 4th
class Osmanieh); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff; Ladysmith Relief
Force. This notable officer, who represents the backbone of "Ould
Oireland," was born in 1844. He is the son of the late Gen. H. G. Hart,
and married in 1868 the daughter of the late Mr. M. S. Synnot, D.L.,
J.P., Ballymoyer, co. Armagh.

=Hartley.=--Surg. Lieut.-Col. E. B. Hartley, #V.C.#, Cape Medical Staff
Corps. This already distinguished officer, as P.M.O. of the Colonial
Forces, worked with untiring energy and skill both from a military and a
medical point of view.

=Heath.=--Lieut.-Col. H. N. C. Heath, Yorkshire Light Infantry, A.A.G.
Entered 1881; Maj., 1898. _Staff Service_--Staff Capt. (Intell.)
Headquarters of Army, 1898-99; Spec. Serv., S. Africa, Oct. to Nov. 1899;
A.A.G., S. Africa, Nov. 1899. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal;
bronze star); Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; 2 clasps; Brev. of Maj.);
S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

[Illustration: LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR FRANCIS CLERY, K.C.B.

Photo, J. & S. Cumming, Aldershot]

=Hegan.=--Col. E. Hegan. Entered 1876; Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff
Service_--Comdt., Sch. of Aux. Cav., Aldershot, 1882-84; A.D.C. to G.O.C.
W. Dist., 1889-90; D.A.A.G., Cork Dist., 1890-93; Spec. Serv., S. Africa,
1899-1900; A.A.G., S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _War Service_--S. African War,
1881; Tirah, 1897-98 (Despatches; medal with 2 clasps); S. African War,
1899-1900.

=Hely-Hutchinson.=--The Hon. Sir Walter Francis Hely-Hutchinson, G.C.M.G.
Governor of Natal and Zululand, and Special Commissioner for Amatongaland
since 189 ; Barrister of the Inner Temple, 1877; Private Secretary to Sir
Hercules Robinson, Governor of New South Wales; for Fiji Affairs, 1874;
for New South Wales, 1875; Colonial Secretary of Barbadoes, 1877; Chief
Secretary to the Government of Malta, 1883; Lieut.-Governor of Malta,
1884; Governor of Windward Islands, 1889; Governor of Natal and Zululand,
1893. Sir Walter is the second son of the 4th Earl of Donoughmore and the
daughter of Mr. W. Steele, and was born in 1849. He married in 1881 the
daughter of General W. C. Justice, C.M.G. (commanding the troops in
Ceylon). He inaugurated the system of Responsible Government in Natal,
and completed the annexation of the Trans-Pongola Territories, which form
an integral part of Zululand.

[Illustration: HON. SIR W. HELY-HUTCHINSON

_Photo by Elliott & Fry, London_]

=Henderson.=--Col. G. F. R. Henderson. Entered 1878; Lieut.-Col., 1899.
_Staff Service_--Dep.-Assist. Com.-Gen. Ord. Store Dept., 1885-89; Inst.
R. Mil. Coll., 1890-92; Prof. Staff Coll., 1892-96, and 1897-99; Spec.
Serv. S. Africa, 1899-1900; Dir. of Intelligence, S. Africa, Jan. 1900;
Specially Employed, Headquarters of Army, Aug. 1900. _War
Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star; 5th class
Medjidie; Brev. of Maj.); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Henniker-Major.=--Lieut.-Col. Hon. A. Henniker-Major. Entered C. Guards,
1875; Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Comdt. Sch. of Inst. for Aux.
Forces, Wellington Bks., 1886; Assist. Priv. Sec. to Sec. of State for
War, 1888-91; D.A.A.G., S. Dist., 1891-94; D.A.A.G. for Inst., Home
Dist., 1896-98; D.A.A.G., Headquarters of Army, 1898. _War
Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal; bronze star); S. African War,
1899-1900; Belmont (Despatches).

=Henry.=--Col. St. G. C. Henry, Northumberland Fusiliers. Entered 1880;
Brev.-Col., March 1900. _Staff Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army.
_War Service_--Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; Egyptian medal with 2
clasps); Nile Ex., 1897 (clasp to Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898
(Despatches, Sept. and Dec. 1898; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; clasp to Egyptian
medal; medal); Nile Ex., 1899 (Despatches; Brev. of Col.); S. African
War, 1899-1900; commanded 4th Corps Mounted Infantry.

=Herbert.=--Col. I. J. C. Herbert, C.B., C.M.G. Entered, G. Guards, 1870;
Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Brig.-Maj., Home Dist., 1882; Brig.-Maj.,
Ex. Force, Egypt, 1882; Brig.-Maj., Home Dist., 1882-83; Comdt. Sch. of
Inst. for Aux. Forces, Wellington Bks., 1885-86; Mil. Attaché, St.
Petersburg, 1886; G.O.C., Mila. Domin. Canada, 1890-95; A.A.G., Home
Dist., 1898-99; Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1899-1900; A.A.G., S. Africa,
Feb. 1900. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (Despatches; medal with
clasp; bronze star; Brev. of Maj.; 4th class Medjidie); Soudan Ex.,
1884-85 (2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Hicks.=--Lieut.-Col. H. T. Hicks, Royal Dublin Fusiliers. Entered 1872;
Lieut.-Col., March 1900. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Militia, 1886-91. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Hickson.=--Lieut.-Col. R. A. Hickson, 2nd Batt. The Buffs (East Kent
Regt.). Entered 1867; Brev.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to
Brig.-Gen., Aldershot, 1883-84; A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Gibraltar, 1884-88.
_War Service_--Op. in Chitral, 1895 (medal with clasp); S. African War,
1899-1900; Driefontein, severely wounded.

=Hildyard.=--Lieut.-Gen. H. J. T. Hildyard, C.B., Commanding Fifth Div.
Entered R. Navy, 1859; Army, 1864; Maj.-Gen., 1899. _Staff
Service_--Brig.-Maj., Cyprus, 1878; Brig.-Maj., Gibraltar, 1878-82;
D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Ex. Force, Egypt, 1882; Brig.-Maj., Gibraltar,
1882-83; D.A.A.G., Headquarters of Army, 1883-89; A.A.G., Aldershot,
1889-91; A.A.G., Headquarters of Army, 1891-93; Comdt. Staff Coll.,
1893-98; Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., Aldershot, 1898-99; Maj.-Gen., Inf. Brig.,
S. Africa, 1899-1900; Lieut.-Gen. Inf. Div., S. Africa, April 1900. _War
Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star;
Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; 4th class Osmanieh); S. African War, 1899-1900;
Willow Grange; Ladysmith Relief Force; Colenso (Despatches). This
brilliant officer, who has vastly increased his reputation in the present
war, is the son of the late Mr. T. B. T. Hildyard, M.P., of Flintham
Hall, Newark. Like many other able commanders, distinguished alike for
valour and versatility, he began life in the Royal Navy, afterwards
electing to join the sister service. He is a strict disciplinarian, and a
recognised authority on military tactics and strategy.

=Hill.=--Capt. A. Hill, M.P., 5th Batt. R. Irish Rifles. Eldest son of
Rt. Hon. Lord Arthur Hill.

=Hime.=--Col. Hon. Sir A. Hime, K.C.M.G., Royal Engineers. Prime Minister
of Natal. Rendered valuable service throughout the Natal Campaign.

=Hinde.=--Col. J. H. E. Hinde, 1st Batt. Border Regt. Entered 1867;
Brev.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces, 1883-88. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; Willow Grange.

=Hippisley.=--Lieut.-Col. R. L. Hippisley. Entered 1873; Lieut.-Col.
1898. _Staff Service_--Assist. Inst. Sch. of Mil. Eng., 1886-88; Inst.
Sch. of Mil. Eng., 1889-91; Dir. of Telegraphs, S. Africa. _War
Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal; bronze star); S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff. This indefatigable officer, who rendered such
valuable service in keeping the Commander-in-Chief in touch with his
large force, was born in 1853.

=Hoad.=--Col. J. C. Hoad. This officer served with distinction with the
Victorian Mounted Infantry.

=Hobart.=--Capt. C. Vere Cavendish Hobart, D.S.O., G. Guards. Entered
1890; Capt., 1899. _Staff Service_--Employed in Uganda Protectorate,
1897-99; Staff Off. to Station Comdt., S. Africa, 1899-1900; Staff Off.
to Assist. Insp. Gen., L. of C., S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _War
Service_--Uganda, 1897-98 (Despatches, D.S.O.; medal with clasp); S.
African War, 1899-1900.

=Hobbs.=--Lieut.-Col. G. R. Hobbs. Entered Army Ord. Dept. 1880;
Lieut.-Col., 1896. _Staff Service_--Ord. Off., 3rd class, April to July
1896; Ord. Off., 2nd class, July 1896. _War Service_--S. African War,
1879 (medal); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Hofmeyr.=--Hon. J. H. Hofmeyr. This gentleman for some years has been a
prominent figure in S. African affairs, and intimately associated with
many leading men. With Sir Henry de Villiers and Sir Charles Mills, he
represented S. Africa at the Ottawa Conference, and in the same capacity
was present at London (Salisbury-Knutsford) Conference, with Sir T.
Uppington, K.C.M.G., Q.C., and Sir John Robinson. K.C.M.G.

=Hope.=--Lieut.-Col. L. A. Hope, C.B., A.S.C. Lieut.-Col., 1892. _Staff
Service_--D.A.A.G., Curragh Dist., 1892-95; Egypt, 1897-1900; Spec.
Serv., S. Africa, Jan. 1900. _War Service_--S. African War, 1879 (medal
with clasp); Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Nile
Ex., 1898 (Despatches; C.B.; Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); S.
African War, 1899-1900; Spec. Serv. Off.

=Hore.=--Lieut.-Col. C. O. Hore. Entered 1878; Brev. Lieut.-Col. 1898.
_Staff Service_--Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Egyptian
Ex. (medal with clasp; bronze star; 5th class Medjidie); Soudan Ex.,
1884-85 (2 clasps); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.;
Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Hoskier.=--Lieut.-Col. Hoskier. For particulars regarding this patriotic
Volunteer officer _see_ vol. iv. p. 168.

=Houdin.=--Maj. Houdin. This officer rendered energetic service with the
Royal Canadian Artillery.

=Howard.=--Maj.-Gen. F. Howard, C.B., C.M.G. Entered 1866; Col. 1899.
_Staff Service_--A.D.C. to the Queen, 1895; Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., Natal,
1899. _War Service_--Jowaki Ex., 1877-78 (medal with clasp); Afghan War,
1878-79 (medal with clasp); Burmese Ex., 1888-89 (Despatches; clasp;
Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; Good Service Reward;
Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Hughes.=--Lieut.-Col. S. Hughes. Lieut.-Col. Canadian Local Forces;
Spec. Serv. Officer, including service as Railway Staff Officer.

=Hughes-Hallett.=--Lieut.-Col. J. W. Hughes-Hallett, D.S.O. Entered 1872;
Lieut.-Col. Seaforth Highlanders, 1897. _War Service_--Afghan War,
1878-79 (Despatches; medal with clasp); Egyptian Ex., 1882 (Despatches;
medal with clasp; bronze star); Op. in Chitral, 1895 (Despatches, D.S.O.;
medal with clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900; wounded with Kimberley
Relief Force.

=Hunter.=--Lieut.-Gen. Sir Archibald Hunter, K.C.B., D.S.O. Entered 1874;
Brev.-Col., 1894. _Staff Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1884-87;
Gov. of Red Sea Littoral and Comdt. Suakim, 1892-94; Gov. of Frontier and
Comdt. F. F. Force, Egypt, 1894-96; Gov. of Dongola and Comdt. F. F.
Egypt, 1896-99; Maj.-Gen., India, 1899; Maj.-Gen. (Chf. of Staff), Natal,
1899; S. Africa, 1899-1900; Maj.-Gen., Chief of Staff, Natal, Jan. 1900;
Lieut.-Gen. Inf. Div., March 1900. _War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1884-85
(Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star; Brev. of Maj.; 4th class
Osmanieh); Soudan, 1885-86-89; severely wounded (Despatches; D.S.O.; 3rd
class Medjidie); Toski, wounded (Despatches; clasp; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.); Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; promoted to Lieut.-Gen.;
medal; Egyptian medal with 2 clasps); Nile Ex., 1897 (Despatches; 2nd
class Osmanieh, 2 clasps to Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches,
May and Sept. 1898; K.C.B; thanked by both Houses of Parliament; 2 clasps
to Egyptian medal); S. African War; on Staff; Natal, Ladysmith; G.O.C.
Inf. Div. This remarkable officer, whose services have been so invaluable
in the present war that he has run the risk of being overworked, not long
ago enjoyed the distinction of being the youngest Maj.-Gen. in the
British Army. The Boer Campaign has carried him still farther on the road
of honour, and his almost magical success is to be attributed to his
marvellous gift of observation, his ready grasp of character and
situation, and the keen foresight which enables him so to organise as to
suit the deed to the word. Like Lord Kitchener and Sir Leslie Rundle, he
has a profound knowledge of Oriental languages and character. He was born
in 1856, and is the son of the late Mr. A. Hunter and the daughter of
Maj. Duncan Grahame of Perthshire.

=Hunter-Weston.=--Maj. A. G. Hunter-Weston, R.E. Entered 1884; Brev.
Maj., 1895. _Staff Service_--Spec. Serv., Egypt, 1896; D.A.A.G., S.
Africa, July 1900. _War Service_--Miranzai Ex., 1891; Waziristan Ex.,
1894-95; wounded (Despatches, June and July, 1895; Brev. of Maj.); Ex. to
Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; Egyptian medal with clasp; 4th class Medjidie;
medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff. Maj. Hunter-Weston, who is
associated with many daring acts during this campaign, comes of an
ancient Scottish family. His father, Col. Hunter-Weston of Ayrshire,
served in the Indian Mutiny, and commanded one of the outposts during the
Siege of Lucknow.

=Hutton.=--Maj.-Gen. E. T. H. Hutton, C.B. Entered 1867; Col., March
1900. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen. Ex. Force, Egypt, 1882;
Assist. Mil. Sec. to G.O.C., Egypt, 1882-83; Brig.-Maj., Aldershot,
1883-84; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1884-85; D.A.A.G. Aldershot, 1887-89,
1889-92; A.D.C. to the Queen, 1892; Comdt. Col. Forces, N.S.W., 1893-96;
A.A.G., Dublin, 1896-97; Curragh, 1897-98; G.O.C. Mila., Domin. of
Canada, 1898-1900; Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1900; Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., S.
Africa, March 1900. _War Service_--S. Africa War, 1879-81 (Despatches;
medal with clasp); Egyptian Ex., 1882 (Despatches; medal with clasp;
bronze star; Brev. of Maj.; 4th class Medjidie); Soudan Ex., 1885
(clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff. This gallant officer, who
has energetically interested himself in the Colonial patriotic movement
from its inception, is the son of Mr. E. T. Hutton of Beverley, Yorks. He
was born in 1848, and married in 1889 the daughter of Lord Charles
Paulet.

[Illustration: MAJ.-GEN. E. T. H. HUTTON, C.B., A.D.C.

_Photo by Freeman & Co., Sydney_]


=Inglefield.=--Lieut.-Col. F. S. Inglefield, East Yorkshire Regiment.
Entered 1874; Lieut.-Col., April 1900. _Staff Service_--Brig.-Maj.,
Gibraltar, 1888-92; Inst. R. Mil. Coll., 1892-96; Spec. Serv., S. Africa,
1899-1900; Brig.-Maj. Inf. Brig., S. Africa, Feb. 1900; A.A.G., S.
Africa, June 1900. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Innes.=--Hon. James Rose Innes, LL.B., Member for Cape Division in the
House of Assembly. This well-known politician, who is "distinguished by
his great ability and volubility," is the son of Mr. J. Rose Innes, Under
Secretary for Native Affairs. He entered the Cape Parliament in 1884 as
Member for Victoria East; joined the Rhodes' Ministry as Attorney-General
in 1890, and helped to break it up in 1893. He married the niece of Sir
Gordon Sprigg.

=Ireland.=--Lieut.-Col. R. Ireland. Col., 1899. _War Service_--S. African
War, 1899-1900.


=Jameson.=--Leander Starr Jameson, C.B. This notable Scotsman, born in
1853, who has played such a prominent rôle in S. African affairs, gave up
his medical duties to become Administrator of Rhodesia from 1891 to 1895.
(For story of the Raid _see_ vol. i. p. 156.) Dr. Jameson lately assisted
the defenders in the Siege of Ladysmith.

=Jarvis.=--Maj. A. M. Jarvis. This officer made himself notable for
excellent work with Strathcona's Horse.

=Jenner.=--Sir Walter K. W. Jenner, 2nd Bart., Maj. 9th Lancers. Entered,
9th Lancers, 1880; Maj., 1898. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G. for Inst.,
Curragh, 1896.

=Jennings.=--Capt. J. W. Jennings, D.S.O., R.A.M.C. Capt. 1891. _War
Service_--Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Egyptian medal), Nile Ex., 1897 (clasp to
Egyptian medal), Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; D.S.O.; 4th class of the
Medjidie; clasp to Egyptian medal; medal).

=Jervis.=--Maj. Sir J. H. H. Jervis-White-Jervis, 4th Bart. Entered R.A.
1877; Maj. 1895. _War Service_--S. African War, 1879; Zulu Campaign
(medal with clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900 (Despatches).

=Johnston.=--Lieut.-Col. P. H. Johnston, R.A.M.C. Lieut., R.A.M.C., 1897.
_War Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80 (medal); Hazara Ex., 1888; S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Jones.=--Capt. Edward P. Jones, C.B. Naval Cadet, Sept. 1863; Capt.,
Jan. 1, 1895; is serving as Captain on the _Victory_ at Portsmouth. He
was Lieutenant of the _Carysfort_ during the Egyptian War of 1882
(Egyptian medal; Khedive's bronze star); also during the naval and
military operations near Suakin in the Eastern Soudan, 1884 (Suakin
clasp); highly commended by Gen. Buller in his despatches for the manner
in which he fought his guns and silenced every one of the enemy's guns
that could be located at Colenso on Dec. 15, 1899; also for the smart
manner in which the heavy guns of the brigade were brought into action on
Sunday, June 10, 1900, when the troops concentrated on Klip River at the
junction with Gans Vlei Stream; C.B. October, 1900, for services during
the war.

=Jones.=--Maj.-Gen. I. R. Jones, Scots Guards. Entered 1866; Col., 1890.
_Staff Service_--Maj.-Gen. Guards Brigade, S. Africa, April 1900. _War
Service_--Soudan Ex., 1885 (medal with clasp; bronze star); S. African
War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Jones.=--Lieut.-Col. M. Q. Jones, C.B., 2nd Batt. the Royal Warwickshire
Regiment. Entered 1873; Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux.
Forces, 1886-91; Comdt. Sch. of Inst. for Mil. and Vols., Aldershot,
1891-94. _War Service_--Bechuanaland Ex., 1884-85; Nile Ex., 1898
(Despatches; C.B.; Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); S. African War,
1899-1900.

=Joubert.=--Gen. Pietrus Jacobus Joubert, Vice-President of the Transvaal
Republic. Com.-in-Chief of the Boer Army. Born in Cango, Cape Colony,
1831. Defeated Sir George Colley at Laing's Nek and Majuba Hill in 1881.
Suppressed the Swazis in 1895, and captured the Jameson Raiders in 1897.
_See_ vol. iv. p. 191. He was of Huguenot descent, which may have
accounted for his civilised attitude as statesman and politician, and the
wide views which some of his countrymen failed to appreciate. The General
was an inveterate smoker and a shrewd thinker. He had been to England
several times, and knew better than his compatriots the risk of
embroiling himself with a mighty nation. Nevertheless he went into the
field as a brave man, determined to meet the inevitable--fighting.

=Jousey.=--Maj. T. Jousey. This dashing officer commanded the 3rd
Contingent New Zealand Mounted Rifles.


=Kekewich.=--Brev.-Col. R. G. Kekewich, N. Lancashire Regiment. _Staff
Service_--D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1884-85; Brig. Maj., Egypt, 1885-87;
Mil. Sec. to Com.-in-Chief, Madras, 1891-93; A.M.S. and A.D.C. to
Lieut.-Gen., Madras, 1893-97. _War Service_--Perak Ex., 1875-76 (medal
with clasp); Soudan Ex. (Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star; Brev.
of Maj.), Soudan, 1888 (Despatches; 4th class Medjidie); S. African War,
1899-1900 (Brev. of Col.; Despatches); Siege of Kimberley.

[Illustration: COLONEL KEKEWICH

_Photo by Browning, Exeter_]

=Kelham.=--Lieut.-Col. H. R. Kelham, Highland Light Infantry. Entered
1873; Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Fort Adjt., Hong-Kong, 1878-79;
Brig.-Maj. (Act.), Straits Settlements, 1879. _War Service_--Egyptian
Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900;
with Kimberley Relief Force; Majesfontein, slightly wounded, also
severely Aug. 1900.

=Kelly.=--Lieut.-Col. N. W. Kelly. This dashing officer served with the
Victorian Imperial Bushmen.

=Kelly.=--Maj.-Gen. W. Freeman Kelly. Entered 1867; Maj.-Gen., 1900.
_Staff Service_--Brig. Maj., Egypt, 1884-87; A.M.S. and A.D.C. to G.O.C.,
Cape of Good Hope, 1888; D.A.A., Cape of Good Hope, 1888-90; A.A.G., S.
Africa, 1890-93; D.A.G., Headquarters, Ireland, 1894-99; Spec. Serv., S.
Africa, 1899-1900; D.A.G. (Brig.-Gen. on Staff) S. Africa, 1900. _War
Service_--N.W. Frontier, India, 1876; Egyptian Campaign, 1882-84 (medal;
bronze star); Soudan, 1884 (Despatches; 2 clasps; 4th class Medjidie;
Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); Soudan, 1885 (Despatches; 2 clasps); S. African
War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Kelly-Kenny.=--Lieut.-Gen. T. Kelly-Kenny, C.B. Commanding Sixth
Division. Entered 1858; Maj.-Gen. 1897. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to
G.O.C., Cape of Good Hope, 1859-60; D.A.Q.M.G., Bombay, 1869-70; A.A.G.,
N. Dist., 1887-89; A.A.G., N.E. Dist., 1889-92; A.A.G., Headquarters of
Army, 1893; A.A.G., Aldershot Dist., 1893-96; Maj.-Gen., Aldershot,
1896-97; Insp. Gen. Aux. Forces and Recg. Headquarters of Army, 1897-99;
Lieut.-Gen. Commanding Troops, Aldershot, 1899; Lieut.-Gen., S. Africa,
1899. _War Service_--China War, 1860 (Despatches; medal with clasp);
Abyssinian Ex., 1867-68 (Despatches; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900;
on Staff; also commanding portion of Lines of Communication.

=Kemp.=--G. Kemp, M.P. (Yeomanry Cavalry). This patriotic officer, Capt.
Duke of Lancaster's Own (Y.C.), born in 1866, is the son of the late Mr.
G. Tawke Kemp. He married the third daughter of the 3rd Earl of
Ellesmere.

=Kenna.=--Capt. P. Aloysius Kenna, #V.C.#, 21st Lancers. Entered 1886;
Capt., 1895. _Staff Service_--Assist. Prov.-Marshal, S. Africa, 1899.
_War Service_--Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; #V.C.#; Egyptian medal with
clasp; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900 (Despatches).

=Kenney.=--Lieut.-Col. A. H. Kenney, C.M.G., R.E. Entered 1873;
Lieut.-Col., 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80 (medal with clasp);
Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; medal with 2 clasps).

=Kerr.=--Capt. F. W. Kerr, D.S.O. Entered 1886; Capt., 1896. _War
Service_--Op. in Chitral, 1895 (Despatches; D.S.O.; medal with clasp);
Op. N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98; Dargai (2 clasps); S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff.

=Kerry= (Earl of).--H. W. Edmund Petty-Fitzmaurice, Lieut. Irish Guards;
A.D.C. (extra) to Field-Marshal Com.-in-Chief the Forces, S. Africa, Feb.
1900.

=Kirkpatrick.=--Lieut.-Col. W. J. Kirkpatrick, 1st Batt. York and
Lancashire Regiment. Entered 1874; Lieut.-Col., 1897. _Staff
Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882
(Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star; Brev. of Maj.).

=Kitchener of Khartoum.=--Maj.-Gen. Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, R.E.,
G.C.B., K.C.M.G. Entered 1871; Maj.-Gen., 1896. _Staff Service_--Employed
with Egyptian Army, 1883-85; D.A.A.G. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1884-85;
employed with Egyptian Army, 1886; Gov.-Gen. Red Sea Littoral and Comdt.,
Suakim, 1886-88; A.D.C. to the Queen, 1888-96; Maj.-Gen. (Chief of
Staff), S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches;
medal with clasp; bronze star; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); Op. round Suakim,
1888, severely wounded; Soudan, 1888-89 (Despatches, Jan. 1889;
Despatches, Sept. 1889; 2 clasps; C.B.); Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Maj.-Gen.
for distinguished service; K.C.B.; 1st class Osmanieh; Egyptian medal
with 2 clasps); Nile Ex., 1897 (Despatches; clasp to Egyptian medal);
Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches, May and Sept. 1898; raised to Peerage;
G.C.B., and thanked by both Houses of Parliament; clasps to Egyptian
medal; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.[21]

=Kitchener.=--Brig.-Gen. F. W. Kitchener. Entered 1876; Brev.-Col., 1898.
_Staff Service_--D.A.A.G. for Inst., Bombay, 1891-96; Spec. Serv., Egypt,
1896; Specially employed with Egyptian Army, 1897-99; Brig.-Gen., Inf.
Brig., S. Africa, 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79-80
(Despatches; medal with clasp); Ex. to Dongola (Despatches; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.; 4th Class Osmanieh; Egyptian medal with 2 clasps); Nile Ex.,
1897; Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; Brev. of Col.; 3rd class Medjidie; 3
clasps to Egyptian medal; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900 (Despatches);
on Staff.

=Knox.=--Maj.-Gen. Charles E. Knox. Commanding 13th Brig. Entered 1865;
Col., 1889. _Staff Service_--Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., Aldershot, 1899;
Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Bechuanaland Ex.,
1884-85 (honourably mentioned; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff; severely wounded at Paardeberg.

=Knox.=-Lieut.--Col. E. C. Knox, 18th Hussars. In ranks three years;
Lieut., 18th Hussars, 1882; Lieut.-Col., 1900. _War Service_--Soudan Ex.,
1884-85 (medal with clasp; bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900;
Ladysmith Relief Force (Despatches).

=Knox.=--Maj.-Gen. W. G. Knox, C.B., R.A. Entered 1867; Col., 1899.
_Staff Service_--A.M.S. and A.D.C. to G.O.C., Bermuda, 1892-94; Col. on
Staff, Natal, 1899-1900; Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., S. Africa, 1900. _War
Service_--Abyssinian Ex., 1887-88 (medal); Ashanti War, 1873-74 (medal
with clasp); Afghan War, 1878-79 (Despatches; medal with clasp); S.
African War, 1879; Zulu Campaign (Despatches; medal with clasp; Brev. of
Maj.); S. African War, 1899-1900; Col. on Staff; Advance Depôt,
Ladysmith; Lines of Communication; afterwards G.O.C. Inf. Brig.

=Kruger.=--Stephen J. Paul Kruger, President of the Transvaal Republic
from 1882 to 1900. Born at Colesberg, Cape Colony, 1825. For character
sketch _see_ vol. i. p. 110.


=Lagden.=--Sir Godfrey Yeatman Lagden, K.C.M.G., C.M.G. Commissioner of
Basutoland; Clerk to Secretary of Government of the Transvaal under
British Administration, 1878; Private Secretary to Sir O. Lawson, Sir W.
Bellairs, and Sir Evelyn Wood, while administering the Government;
Secretary to the Transvaal Royal Commission for Compensation Claims,
1881; War Correspondent in Egypt, 1882; Colonial Secretary of Sierra
Leone, 1883; Secretary and Accountant in Basutoland, 1884; Assistant
Commissioner, 1885; Acting Commissioner of Swaziland, 1892; Resident
Commissioner of Basutoland, 1893. Sir Godfrey, whose splendid diplomacy
and tact have kept the Basuto Chief and his tribe from launching
themselves into the South African complication, is the son of the late
Rev. R. Dowse Lagden, and was born in 1851. Lady Lagden, whom he married
in 1881, is the daughter of Bishop Bousfield of Pretoria.

=Lambton.=--Lieut.-Col. Hon. C. Lambton, D.S.O., 5th Fusiliers. Entered,
5th Foot, 1876; Lieut.-Col. Northumberland Fusiliers, 1900. _Staff
Service_--A.D.C. to Lieut.-Gen. and Gen. Gov. Ireland, 1886-89. _War
Service_--Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; D.S.O.; Egyptian medal with clasp;
medal); South African War, 1899-1900 (Despatches, 26th Jan. 1900).

=Lambton.=--Capt. Hon. Hedworth Lambton, R.N., C.B., H.M.S. _Powerful_.
Entered the Navy 1870; Capt., 1889. _War Service_--Egyptian War, 1882
(medal with 2 clasps; 2nd class Medjidie; bronze star). This gallant
officer, who performed such excellent service at Ladysmith and was
decorated for his bravery, was born in 1856. He is a son of the 2nd Earl
of Durham, and brother of the present earl. He acted as Private Secretary
to the First Lord of the Admiralty in 1894-97.

=Law.=--Lieut.-Col. C. H. Law, 2nd Batt. Dorset Regiment. Entered 1869;
Lieut.-Col., 1897. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Volunteers, 1887-92. _War
Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79 (medal); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Lawley.=--The Hon. Arthur Lawley, Administrator of Matabeleland since
1898. Born Nov. 12, 1860; fourth son of the 2nd Baron Wenlock; married a
daughter of Sir Edward Cunard, 2nd Bart., 1885; formerly Captain 10th
Hussars; Private Secretary to the Duke of Westminster, 1892-96.

=Lawson.=--Brev. Lieut.-Col. H. M. Lawson, R.E. Entered 1877; Brev.
Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G., Dublin Dist., 1889-92;
D.A.Q.M.G. Headquarters of Army, 1893-98; Specially employed with
Egyptian Army, 1898-99; A.A.G., S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Egyptian
Ex., 1884 (medal with clasp; bronze star; 5th class Medjidie); Soudan
Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; 2 clasps; Brev. of Maj.); Nile Ex., 1898,
dangerously wounded; (Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; Egyptian medal
with clasp; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff; Ladysmith.

=Leary.=--Lieut.-Col. T. G. Leary. This officer served with distinction
with the Transkei Territories Contingent.

=Le Gallais.=--Lieut.-Col. P. W. J. Le Gallais, 8th Hussars. Entered
1881; Brev.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Bengal,
1890-92; Employed with Egyptian Army, 1897-98; Mil.-Sec. to Viceroy,
India, 1899; Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1899; A.A.G., S. Africa, 1900. _War
Service_--Nile Ex., 1897 (Egyptian medal with clasp); Nile Ex., 1898
(Despatches, May and Sept., 1898; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; 4th class
Osmanieh; 2 clasps for Egyptian medal; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900,
Commanding mixed force. This distinguished officer was killed in the
engagement at Bothaville on the 5th of November.

=Legge.=--Lieut.-Col. Norton Legge, D.S.O., 20th Hussars. Killed in
action on 13th Dec. 1900. Entered 1882; Major, 1898. _Staff
Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1894-96 and 1898. _War
Service_--Soudan Ex., 1885 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan,
1885-86 (Despatches); Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; D.S.O.; Egyptian
medal with 2 clasps); Nile Ex., 1897 (clasp to Egyptian medal); Nile Ex.,
1898 (Despatches, 1898; clasp to Egyptian medal; medal); S. African War,
1899-1900, Comdg. Mtd. Inf. Corps.

=Lessard.=--Lieut.-Col. F. L. Lessard. This gallant officer served with
the Royal Canadian Dragoons.

=Leuchars.=--Lieut.-Col. G. Leuchars. This officer commanded the Umvoti
Mounted Rifles with distinction.

=Lewis.=--Brev. Maj. Vernon Lewis, 2nd Batt. Royal Scots Fusiliers. This
promising young officer, who lost his life at Pieters Hill at the age of
twenty-eight, had seen a considerable amount of service, both with the
Chitral Relief Force and with the West African Frontier Force. He took
part in operations on the Niger; was mentioned in Despatches, and
honourably mentioned by the Colonial Office; he was awarded the medal
with clasp, and the Brevet of Major, dated October 10, 1899, his
commission as Captain bearing date of the preceding day. Throughout Gen.
Buller's operations he greatly distinguished himself by his intelligence
and daring, and through his exertions the passage of the Tugela, which
ultimately proved to be the key to Ladysmith, was discovered.

=Leyds.=--Willem Johannes Leyds, Doctor at Law, Plenipotentiary
Extraordinary of the S. African Republic, Attorney-General S. African
Republic, 1884. Dr. Leyds, who has been the principal wirepuller in the
political intrigues of Mr. Kruger, was born at Java in 1859. He was
recommended to Mr. Kruger in 1884 by Professor Moltzer of Amsterdam
University as a young man of promise. His abilities are undoubted--the
use he has made of them open to question. He is said to be Mr. Kruger's
_alter ego_, and he has certainly worked hard in the cause of the
Krugerites.

=Lloyd.=--Lieut.-Col. F. Lloyd, D.S.O., Grenadier Guards. Entered 1874;
Commanding Guards' Depôt, Aug. 1896; Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff
Service_-Comdt. Schools of Inst. for Mil. and Vols., London, 1894-96.
_War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1885 (Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze
star); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; D.S.O.; Egyptian medal with clasp;
medal); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Lloyd.=--Col. G. E. Lloyd, D.S.O., West Riding Regiment. Entered 1876;
Col., 1897. _Staff Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1884-96; Gov.
of Red Sea Littoral and Comdt., Suakim, 1894-96. _War Service_--Jowaki
Ex., 1877 (medal with clasp); Afghan War, 1878-79 (medal with clasp);
Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star; Brev. of
Maj.); Soudan, 1885-86-87, 1888-89; (Despatches, 1886; D.S.O.;
Despatches, 1887; 3rd class Medjidie; Despatches, Jan. 1889; Despatches,
Sept. 1889; 2 clasps); Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; promoted
Lieut.-Col.; medal). This distinguished officer, born in 1855, lost his
life while gallantly leading his men in the fight of 29th of Nov. 1900.

=Loch.=--Capt. Lord Edward D. Loch, D.S.O., Grenadier Guards. Entered,
Grenadier Guards, 1893; Capt., 1899. _Staff Service_--Div. Signalling
Officer, S. Africa. _War Service_--Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; D.S.O.;
Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); S. African War; on Staff.

=Longford= (5th Earl).--Thomas Pakenham, Capt. 2nd Life Guards. Lord
Longford, who has been serving with Yeomanry Cavalry, was born in 1864.
He is the son of the 4th Earl and the daughter of Lord Dynevor, and was
married in 1899 to the daughter of the 7th Earl of Jersey.

=Lonsdale= (5th Earl).--Hugh Cecil Lowther. This patriotic peer, now
serving as A.A.G. with Imperial Yeomanry, has occupied the positions of
Hon. Col. of 1st Cumberland Volunteer Artillery since 1884, and Hon. Col.
3rd Batt. Border Regiment since 1891. He was born in 1857, and married in
1878 the daughter of the 10th Marquis of Huntly.

=Lowe.=--Lieut.-Col. W. H. M. Lowe, 7th Dragoon Guards. Entered 1881;
Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Spec. Serv., Burmese Ex., 1886-87.
_War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star);
Burmese Ex., 1886-89 (medal with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Lumsden.=--Col. Dougall Lumsden. This patriotic volunteer, through whose
exertions "Lumsden's Horse" came into being, has passed much of his life
in tea-planting in India, but nevertheless has perpetually interested
himself in the Volunteer movement. When the demand for extra troops for
the Transvaal arose, he cabled an offer to provide a corps, and soon
after Lumsden's Horse with its gallant promoter (who had spent over £3000
in his dashing work), took ship for S. Africa! _See_ vol. iii. p. 159.

=Lysaght.=--Lieut.-Col. J. D. Lysaght. Entered Army Pay Dept. 1881;
Lieut.-Col., 1899. _War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1885 (medal with clasp;
bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Lyttelton.=--Maj. Gen. Hon. Neville G. Lyttelton, C.B., Commanding 4th
Brigade. _War Service_--Jowaki Ex., 1877 (medal with clasp); Egyptian
Ex., 1882 (Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.; 4th class Osmanieh); Nile Ex. (Despatches; promoted Maj.
Gen. for distinguished service; thanked by both Houses of Parliament;
Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.
Gen. Lyttelton is not only a remarkably fine soldier, but an excellent
cricketer. He is the son of 4th Baron Lyttelton, was born in 1845, and
married a daughter of the Rt. Hon. J. Stuart Wortley.


=Macbean.=--Capt. J. A. E. Macbean, D.S.O., 1st Batt. Royal Dublin
Fusiliers. _War Service_--Nile Ex., 1897 (Despatches; 2 clasps to
Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; D.S.O.; 2 clasps to Egyptian
medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; Brig.-Maj. Inf. Brig. Killed in
action, 13th of December 1900.

=MacCartie.=--C. F. MacCartie, C.I.E. A retired Indian civilian attached
to Kitchener's Horse. The son of a Yorkshire parson, he was well known in
hunting, sporting, and steeple-chasing circles in India. He served as
Private Secretary to Lord Wenlock, Gov. of Madras, and also joined the
mounted infantry in the Burmese War, and hunted dacoits with Sir Penn
Symons. At the outbreak of the S. African War he volunteered, and at
Driefontein achieved the dearest wish of his heart, "to die in his
boots!"

=M'Calmont.=--H. L. B. M'Calmont, M.P. Major M'Calmont was among the
first who volunteered to go to the front. He was formerly in the Scots
Guards, and for some years has been associated with the 4th Batt. Royal
Warwickshire Regiment. Like many other wealthy men of this marvellous
period, he left the lap of luxury for the risks and hardships of the
fight rather than neglect the duties of a Briton.

=Mac Cormac.=--Sir William Mac Cormac, 1st Baronet. Created, 1897; Kt.,
1881; K.C.V.O., 1898. Consulting Surgeon to the Forces in S. Africa;
President of Royal College of Surgeons of England and Member of the Court
of Examiners, Royal College of Surgeons, and Examiner of H.M. Naval
Medical Service. Sir William is covered with medical honours acquired in
England, France, Italy, Prussia, Sweden, Portugal, Bavaria, Spain, and
Turkey. He was created a baronet on the occasion of the Queen's Jubilee
in 1897. He is the eldest son of Dr. Henry Mac Cormac, M.D., and was born
at Belfast in 1836. He has performed signal services in the cause of
science and humanity during the present war.

=MacDonald.=--Brig.-Gen. Hector A. MacDonald, C.B., D.S.O. Became Lieut.
Gordon Highlanders, 1881; Col., 1900. _Staff Service_--Employed with
Egyptian Constabulary, 1885-88; employed with Egyptian Army, 1898-99;
A.D.C. to the Queen, 1898; Brig.-Gen., India, 1899-1900; Brig.-Gen. Inf.
Brig., S. Africa, Jan. 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80
(Despatches; medal with 3 clasps; bronze star; promoted to Second
Lieut.); S. African War, 1881; Majuba (Despatches); Soudan Ex., 1885;
Soudan, 1888-89 (Despatches, Jan. 1889; 3rd class Medjidie; Despatches,
Sept. 1889; medal with 2 clasps; bronze star; D.S.O.); Capture of Tokar
(3rd class Osmanieh; clasp to bronze star); Ex. to Dongola, 1896
(Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; Egyptian medal with 2 clasps); Nile
Ex., 1897 (Despatches, 1898; 2 clasps to Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898;
battles of Atbara and Khartoum (Despatches, May and Sept. 1898; A.D.C. to
the Queen; Brev. of Col.; thanked by both Houses of Parliament; 2 clasps
to Egyptian medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff; wounded at
Paardeberg. This remarkable officer, the hero of exploits too numerous to
mention, well has earned for himself the title of "Fighting Mac." For ten
years he served in the ranks, and then was offered his choice between a
V.C. and a commission. Wisely for himself, and luckily for the British
Army, he chose the latter, and was able at once to make his rapid way to
the foremost rank among the warriors of the age.

=Macdonald.=--Maj. R. P. Macdonald, D.S.O. (Reserve of Off.) Joined
Hampshire Regt., 1878; Maj., 1892; retired, 1897. _War Service_--Afghan
War, 1879-80 (medal); Burmese Ex., 1885-89 (Despatches, 1887-89; medal
with 2 clasps; D.S.O.); S. African War, Spec. Serv.

=M'Donnell.=--Lieut.-Col. J. M'Donnell, R.A. Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col.,
1897. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80 (medal); S. African War,
1899-1900; Klip Kraal, severely wounded.

=M'Donnell.=--Hon. Schomberg Kerr M'Donnell, C.B. Mr. Schomberg
M'Donnell, who is numbered among our noble citizen-soldiers, was born in
1861. He is the fifth son of the 5th Earl of Antrim, and till the war
acted as Principal Private Secretary to the Marquis of Salisbury.

=Mackay.=--Col. Hon. J. A. K. Mackay. This valuable officer commanded the
New South Wales Mounted Infantry.

=Mackenzie.=--Col. Colin John Mackenzie, Seaforth Highlanders. Entered
1881; Brev.-Maj., 1899. _Staff Service_--Spec. Serv., Burmese Ex., 1887;
A.D.C. to Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies, 1890-92; D.A.A.G. in Bengal and
Bombay, 1892-96; Dir. of Mil. Intell., S. Africa, and Mil. Gov.,
Johannesburg, 1900. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp;
bronze star); Burmese Ex., 1886-88 (medal with 2 clasps); Hazara Ex.,
1888 (Despatches; clasp); Hunza-Nagar Ex., 1891-92 (Despatches; Brev. of
Maj.; clasp); Waziristan Ex., 1894-95 (Despatches; clasp); Nile Ex.,
1898; Khartoum; S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Mackenzie.=--Lieut.-Col. G. F. C. Mackenzie, Suffolk Regiment. Entered
1876; Lieut.-Col., 1900. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Volunteers, 1890-95. _War
Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80 (medal); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=M'Kenzie.=--Maj. D. M. M'Kenzie. This officer served with distinction
with the Natal Carabineers.

=Mackinnon.=--Col. W. H. Mackinnon. Entered Grenadier Guards, 1870; Col.,
1889. _Staff Service_--Assist. Mil. Sec. to Gov. and Com.-in-Chief,
Malta, 1884-85; Priv. Sec. to Gov., Madras, 1885-86; A.A.G., Home Dist.,
1893-98; A.A.G., Home Dist. (temp.), 1899. This officer commanded C.I.V.
troops, and held a unique position "hitherto unprecedented in the annals
of our military history."

=MacMunn.=--Captain G. F. MacMunn, D.S.O., R.A. Entered 1888; Capt.,
1898. _Staff Service_--Station Staff Off. (graded Staff Capt.), S.
Africa, 1900; Assist. Prov.-Marshal, S. Africa, May 1900. _War
Service_--Burma, 1892 (Despatches; medal with clasp; D.S.O.); Burma,
1893; Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98 (medal with 3 clasps); S.
African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=MacNeece.=--Lieut.-Col. J. G. MacNeece. Lieut.-Col. R.A.M.C., August
1898. _War Service_--Nile Ex., 1898 (medal with clasp; medal); S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Mahon.=--Brig.-Gen. Bryan Mahon, D.S.O. Entered 1883; Brev.-Col., March
1900. _Staff Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1893-1900; Spec.
Serv., S. Africa; Commanding Colonial Mounted Troops, Kimberley Column,
S. Africa; Brig.-Gen., S. Africa, May 1900. _War Service_--Ex. to
Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; D.S.O.; Egyptian medal with 2 clasps); Nile
Ex., 1897 (clasp to Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col., 2 clasps to Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1899 (Despatches;
Brev. of Col.); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff. This dashing
officer, whose name will ever be associated with the relief of Mafeking,
was born in 1862. He is the son of the late Mr. H. Mahon, of Belleville,
Co. Galway, and the daughter of Col. Seymour, Ballymore Castle, Co.
Galway.

=Mainwaring.=--Col. R. B. Mainwaring, C.M.G. Entered 1871; Col., 1899.
_Staff Service_--A.A.G. S. Dist., 1899; A.A.G. S. Africa, 1899-1900. _War
Service_--Ashanti War, 1873-74 (medal); Burmese Ex., 1885-86 (medal with
clasp); Hazara Ex., 1891; S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Makins.=--G. H. Makins. Mr. Makins acted as Consulting Surgeon to the
Forces in S. Africa.

=Mapleton.=--Lieut.-Col. R. W. Mapleton, M.B., R.A.M.C. Lieut.-Col.,
1893. _War Service_--S. African War, 1881; Soudan Ex., 1885 (medal with
clasp; bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900; Sen. Med. Officer Lines
of Communication.

=March= (Earl of).--C. H. Gordon-Lennox, eldest son of 6th Duke of
Richmond. Col. 3rd R. Sussex Regt.

=Marlborough= (9th Duke).--C. R. J. Spencer-Churchill. The Duke of
Marlborough, who was the first of the British to greet our prisoners in
Pretoria, has been serving with the Yeomanry Cavalry. As was natural to
one of his glorious martial line, he volunteered at the first sniff of
battle. He is as yet a very young man, having been born in 1871, but he
has already shown wonderful zeal and activity in the affairs, political
and military, of the nation. He owes not a little to America, where, in
1895, he married the daughter of Mr. William Vanderbilt of New York. The
Duke is staunch Conservative, a keen sportsman and dashing polo-player.

=Marling.=--Maj. P. S. Marling, #V.C.#, 18th Hussars. Entered 1880; Maj.,
1896. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Yeomanry Cavalry. _War Service_--S. African
War, 1881; Egyptian Ex., 1882-84 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan,
Battles of Teb and Tamai (Despatches; 6th May 1884; 2 clasps; #V.C.#);
Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Marshall.=--Maj. G. Marshall. This officer commanded the gallant
regiment known as Marshall's Horse, which was composed of the Grahamstown
Volunteers and the Witenhage Volunteer Rifles.

=Marshall.=--Maj.-Gen. G. H. Marshall, Commanding R.A. Entered 1861;
Col., 1897. _Staff Service_--Chief Inst. Sch. of Gunnery, 1893-97;
Brig.-Gen. Commanding R.A., Aldershot Dist., 1897-99; Maj.-Gen.
Commanding R.A., S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--S. African War,
1899-1900.

=Marshall.=--Capt. W. T. Marshall, #V.C.#, 19th Hussars. Served for ten
years in ranks; became Hon. Capt. 20th Jan. 1895. _War Service_--Egyptian
Ex., 1882-84 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan, 1884; Battle of Teb
and Tamai (Despatches; 2 clasps; #V.C.#); S. African War, 1899-1900. This
dashing officer received the Victoria Cross for his conspicuous bravery
during the cavalry charge at El-Teb in bringing Lieut.-Col. P. H. S.
Barrow, 19th Hussars, out of action. That officer, having been severely
wounded and his horse killed, was on the ground surrounded by the enemy,
when Quartermaster-Sergeant W. T. Marshall, who stayed behind with him,
seized his hand and dragged him through the enemy back to the regiment.
Had Lieut.-Col. Barrow been left behind he must have been killed.

=Martin.=--Lieut.-Col. H. Martin, M.B., Lieut.-Col. R.A.M.C., March 1900.
_War Service_--Zhob Valley Ex., 1884; S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Martyr.=--Lieut.-Col. Cyril G. Martyr, D.S.O. Entered 1880; Brev.
Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1886-96;
Spec. Serv., Egypt, 1896; employed in Uganda Protectorate, 1897-99; Spec.
Serv., S. Africa, 1899-1900; Brig.-Maj. S. Africa, April 1900. _War
Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan Ex.,
1884-85 (2 clasps); Soudan, 1888-91 (clasp; 4th class Medjidie); Toski
(clasp); Capture of Tokar, 1891 (4th class Osmanieh; clasp to bronze
star); Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; D.S.O.; Egyptian medal with 2
clasps; 2 clasps); Uganda, 1898 (Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.;
medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

[Illustration: MAJOR-GENERAL H. L. SMITH-DORRIEN, D.S.O.

Photo by Bassano, London]

=Maxse.=--Lieut.-Col. F. I. Maxse, D.S.O. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to
G.O.C. Scottish Dist., 1893-94; A.D.C. to Gov. and Com.-in-Chief, Malta,
1894; employed with Egyptian Army, 1897-99; Spec. Serv., S. Africa,
1899. _War Service_--Nile Ex., 1897 (Despatches; Egyptian medal with 2
clasps); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches, May and Sept, 1898; D.S.O.; 2 clasps
to Egyptian medal; medal); Nile Ex., 1890 (Despatches; Brev.
Lieut.-Col.); S. African War, 1899-1900; Transport Officer Mounted Inf.;
Assist. to Mil. Gov., Pretoria.

=Maxwell.=--Maj.-Gen. J. G. Maxwell, D.S.O. Entered 1881; Brev.
Lieut.-Col., 1900. _Staff Service_--Staff Capt. Mil. Police, Egypt,
1883-85; employed with Egyptian Army, 1886-97, and 1897-1900; Spec.
Serv., S. Africa, Feb. 1900 to April 1900; Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., S.
Africa, April 1900. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp;
bronze star); Soudan Ex., 1854-85 (Despatches; clasp); Soudan,
1885-86-88-89 (Despatches; D.S.O.); Action at Gamaizah (Despatches; 4th
class Osmanieh; clasp); Action at Toski (Despatches; Brev. of Maj.;
clasp); Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col., Egyptian
medal with 2 clasps); Nile Ex., 1897 (Despatches; Gaz. Jan. 1898; clasp
to Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; Brev. of Col.; thanked by
both Houses of Parliament; 2 clasps to Egyptian medal); S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff.

=May.=--Lieut.-Col. E. S. May, R.F.A. Entered 1875; Maj., Nov. 1891.
_Staff Service_--Inst. in Mil. Topog., R. Mil. Acad., 1885-91; Prof. R.
Mil. Acad., 1891-95. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; Ladysmith.

=Mellor.=--Lieut.-Col. L. S. Mellor, Liverpool Regt. Entered 1873;
Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces, 1886-91. _War
Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79 (medal with clasp); S. African War,
1899-1900; Ladysmith.

=Menzies.=--Maj. M. Menzies. This dashing officer served with the Ceylon
Mounted Infantry.

=Merriman.=--Hon. John Xavier Merriman. Mr. Merriman is the son of Bishop
N. J. Merriman, of Grahamstown. He entered the Cape Parliament as Member
for Aliwal North in 1869; strongly opposed Responsible Government; joined
Mr. Molteno's administration in 1875 as Commissioner of Crown Lands and
Public Works. He was dismissed by Sir Bartle Frere, February 1878, and
returned to office as Commissioner under Sir Thomas Scanlen in 1881. He
retired in 1884; sat for Namaqualand since 1878; turned Transvaaler and
manager of the Langlaagte Estate in 1889; a few months later he became
once more a colonist; joined the Rhodes' Ministry as Treasurer-General in
1890, and helped to smash it in 1893.

=Metcalfe.=--Lieut.-Col. C. T. E. Metcalfe, Rifle Brigade. Entered 1874;
Lieut.-Col., 1898. _War Service_--Burmese Ex., 1886-87 (medal with
clasp); Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98 (medal with clasp); S.
African War, 1889-1900; severely wounded.

=Methuen= (3rd Baron).--Lieut.-Gen. Paul Sanford Methuen, K.C.V.O., C.B.,
C.M.G. Entered S. F. Guards, 1864; Col., 1888; Lieut.-Gen., 1898. _Staff
Service_--Brig.-Maj. Home Dist., 1871-76; Spec. Serv., Ashanti Ex.,
1873-74; Assist. Mil. Sec., Headquarters, Ireland, 1877; Mil. Attaché,
Berlin, 1878-81; A.A. and Q.M.G. Home Dist., 1881-82; Comdt. at
Headquarters, (A.A. and Q.M.G.), Ex. Forces, Egypt, 1882; A.A. and
Q.M.G., Home Dist., 1882-84; D.A.G., S. Africa, 1888-90; Maj.-Gen. Home
Dist., 1892-97; Lieut.-Gen., Inf. Div., S. Africa, 1899. _War
Service_--Ashanti War, 1873-74 (medal); Egyptian Ex., 1882 (Despatches;
medal with clasp; bronze star; 3rd class Osmanieh; C.B.); Bechuanaland
Ex., 1884-85 (hon. mentioned; C.M.G.); Op. on N.W. Frontier of India,
1897-98 (Despatches; medal with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900.
Lord Methuen, born 1845, is the son of the 2nd Baron, and was married in
1879 to the daughter of Sir F. H. Hervey-Bathurst, Bart., and after her
death to the daughter of Mr. D. A. Sanford. This officer, at the
commencement of the war, enjoyed the distinction of being the youngest
Lieut.-Gen. in the Army. He had hitherto taken a prominent part in
promoting the efficiency of the Metropolitan Volunteer Corps, which
services cannot be too highly estimated. Owing to his remarkable and
increasing activity during the present war, he has proved himself one of
the chief mainstays of Lord Roberts's operations.

=Meyer.=--General Lucas Meyer. Boer commandant, who got into bad odour
with his compatriots for his precipitancy at the battle of Glencoe.

=Micklem.=--Lieut. H. A. Micklem, D.S.O., R.E. Entered 1891. _Staff
Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1897-99; Rail. Staff Officer, S.
Africa, 1900. _War Service_--Nile Ex., 1897 (Egyptian medal with clasp);
Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; D.S.O.; 4th class Medjidie; clasp to Egyptian
medal; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900. Severely wounded.
Superintendent of Works, and on Staff.

=Mildmay.=--F. B. Mildmay, M.P. This patriotic politician and notable
polo player and sportsman, born in 1864, is the son of Mr. H. B. Mildmay,
Shoreham, Kent, and Flete, Devon. He was originally a Liberal, but after
1886 became a Liberal Unionist.

=Miles.=--Col. H. S. G. Miles, M.V.O., A.A.G. Entered 1869. _Staff
Service_--Garr. Inst., Aldershot, 1881-87; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., D.A.A.G.
for Inst., Aldershot, 1887-88; D.A.Q.M.G., Headquarters of Army, 1889-93;
A.A.G., Aldershot, 1893-98; Comdt. Staff Coll., 1898-99; A.A.G., S.
Africa, 1899-1900; Chief Staff Officer, 1900; Col. on Staff, Natal, 1900.
_War Service_--S. Africa, 1899-1900, on Staff (Despatches).

=Miller.=--Sir James P. Miller, 2nd Batt. Yeomanry Cavalry. Sir James,
born 1864, was formerly in the 14th Hussars. He retired in 1892, but
promptly got into harness when his services were required. He is Master
of the Berwickshire Hunt, and won the Derby with "Sainfoin" in 1890. In
1893 he married the daughter of 4th Baron Scarsdale.

=Mills.=--Lieut.-Col. G. A. Mills, 1st Batt. Royal Dublin Fusiliers;
Commandant at Estcourt. Entered 1873; Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff
Service_--A.D.C. to G.O.C., Ceylon, 1879-82; employed with Egyptian
Constabulary, 1885-87. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; slightly
wounded.

=Milner.=--Sir Alfred Milner, G.C.M.G., 1897; K.C.B., 1895; Governor of
Cape Colony and High Commissioner of S. Africa since 1895; Private
Secretary to Mr. Goschen (Chancellor of the Exchequer), 1887-89;
Under-Secretary for Finance in Egypt, 1889-92; Chairman Board of Inland
Revenue, 1892-97. Sir Alfred Milner, the only man who has been a match
for Mr. Kruger, was born in 1854. He is the only son of Dr. C. Milner,
M.D., and the daughter of General Ready (Governor of the Isle of Man). He
had a distinguished scholastic career, and was alluded to by Dean Church
as the "finest flower of culture that the University of Oxford has
produced in our time." His masterly handling of affairs in South Africa
has earned the admiration of a grateful nation. He is popular both as an
individual and as a statesman, and Lord Rosebery's opinion that he has
that "union of intellect with fascination which makes men mount high," is
very generally endorsed.

=Milton= (Viscount).--W. Charles de Meuron Wentworth Fitzwilliam, M.P.,
is among the gallant volunteers who have served with the Imperial
Yeomanry. He is the son of the late Viscount Milton, M.P., and a daughter
of the late Lord Charles Beauclerk. He was born in 1872, and married in
1896 the daughter of the Marquis of Zetland.

=Money.=--Lieut.-Col. C. G. C. Money, C.B., 1st Batt. Northumberland
Fusiliers. Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col., 1897. _Staff Service_--Employed
with Army Pay Dept., 1885-89; Adjt. Volunteers, 1889-94. _War
Service_--Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; C.B.; Egyptian medal with clasp;
medal); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Morris.=--Col. W. G. Morris, C.M.G., Col. on the Staff., Commanding
Royal Engineers. Entered R.E. 1867; Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Assist.
Inst. in Surv., Sch. of Mil. Eng., 1877-82; Assist. Comdt., Sch. of Mil.
Eng., 1895-98; Col. on Staff, S. Africa, 1898. Col. Morris, born in 1847,
is the son of the late Lieut.-Col. W. J. Morris, H.E.I.C.S.

=Mortimer.=--Col. W. H. Mortimer. Col., 1899. _War Service_--Egyptian
Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900;
Chief Paymaster (Maritzburg).

=Munro.=--Sir Hector Munro, 11th Bart., Hon. Lieut.-Col. 3rd Batt.
Seaforth Highlanders; embodied Dec. 1899.

=Murray.=--Brig.-Gen. J. Wolfe Murray. Entered R.A. 1872; Col., 1899.
_Staff Service_--D.A.A. and Q.M.G. N. Brit. Dist., 1884; D.A.Q.M.G.
(Intell. Br.) Headquarters of Army, 1884-87; D.A.A.G., 1887-90; Spec.
Serv., Off. Headquarters of Army, 1892-94; D.A.A.G. for Inst., Aldershot,
and D.A.A.G. for Aldershot, 1894-97; Spec. Serv., Ashanti, 1895-96;
A.A.G., India, 1898-99; A.Q.M.G. (Intell. Headquarters), India, 1899;
Col. on Staff, S. Africa, 1899; Brig.-Gen. on Staff, S. Africa, 1899.
_War Service_--Ashanti Ex., 1895-96 (hon. mentioned; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.; star); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff; commanding Lines
of Communication, Natal.


=Napier.=--Col. Hon. J. S. Napier. Entered 1867; Brev. Col., 1899. _Staff
Service_--A.D.C. to Gov. of Madras, 1869-72; A.D.C. to Viceroy of India,
1872; A.D.C. to Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies, 1872-73; Adjt. Aux. Forces,
1881-86; Insp. of Gymnasia, Aldershot, 1897-1900; Spec. Serv., S. Africa,
1899-1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79-80 (Despatches, May, July,
and Dec. 1880; Brev. of Maj.; medal with 3 clasps; bronze star); S.
African War, 1881; S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Nash.=--Lieut.-Col. W. F. Nash. Entered 1881; Lieut.-Col., S. Africa,
1899. _War Service_--Burmese Ex., 1889-90; S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Nesbitt.=--Lieut.-Col. R. A. Nesbitt. This dashing officer commanded the
splendid volunteer corps known as Nesbitt's Horse.

=Nesbitt.=--Capt. R. C. Nesbitt, #V.C.# Mashonaland Mounted Police. This
gallant officer, who was taken prisoner early in the war (_see_ vol. ii.
p. 58), has seen a considerable amount of irregular service in
Mashonaland and Gazaland. He was decorated for rescuing a party at the
beginning of the Mashonaland rebellion in 1896.

=Newall.=--Lieut.-Col. S. Newall. This gallant officer commanded the 5th
Contingent New Zealand Mounted Infantry.

=Nicholson.=--Maj. J. S. Nicholson, D.S.O., 7th Hussars. Entered 1874;
Maj., 1899. _Staff Service_--Spec. Extra Regimental Employment, 1896-98;
Comdt.-Gen. B.S.A. Police, 1898. _War Service_--Op. in S. Africa, 1896
(Despatches; D.S.O.); S. African War, 1899-1900, Commanding 1st Brig.
Rhodesian Field Force.

=Nicholson.=--Maj.-Gen. Sir W. G. Nicholson, K.C.B. Entered R.E. 1878;
Col., 1891. _Staff Service_--A.A.G. for R.E., Bengal, 1885-90; Mil. Sec.
to Com.-in-Chief in India, 1890-93; employed in Mil. Works Dept., India,
1893-95; D.A.G., Punjab, 1895-98; Adjt.-Gen. in India, 1898-99; Mil. Sec.
to Field-Marshal Com.-in-Chief, S. Africa, 1899-1900; Dir. of Transport
Maj.-Gen. S. Africa, 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79
(Despatches); 1879-80 (Despatches; medal with 3 clasps; bronze star;
Brev. of Maj.); Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star; 4th
class Osmanieh); Burmese Ex., 1886-87 (Despatches; medal with clasp;
Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); Tirah, 1897-98 (Despatches; K.C.B.; medal with 2
clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Norcott.=--Col. C. H. B. Norcott, 1st Batt. Rifle Brigade. Entered 1867;
Brev.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Bengal, 1884-88.
_War Service_--Burmese Ex., 1888-89 (Despatches); S. African War,
1899-1900.

=Norreys= (Lord).--Montague Charles Townley-Bertie, Imperial Yeomanry.
Lord Norreys, born in 1860, is the eldest son of the 7th Earl of
Abingdon. He married the daughter of the 4th Lord Wolverton.

=Nugent.=--Maj. O. S. W. Nugent, D.S.O., King's Royal Rifle Corps.
Entered 1882; Maj., 1899. _War Service_--Hazara Ex., 1891 (medal with
clasp); Miranzai Ex., 1891 (Despatches; clasp); Isazai Ex., 1892; Op. in
Chitral, 1895 (Despatches; medal with clasp; D.S.O.); S. African War,
1899-1900; seriously wounded at Dundee.


=O'Dell.=--Lieut.-Col. T. J. O'Dell, A.M.S., A.A.G. Entered 1878;
Lieut.-Col., A.S. Corps, Aug. 1900. _Staff service_--Dep. Assist. Com.
Gen., Com. and Trans. Staff, 1886-88; D.A.A.G. S. Dist., 1894-97. _War
service_--Egyptian Ex., 1884 (medal with clasp; bronze star); S. African
War, 1889-1900.

=Ogilvie.=--Maj. G. H. Ogilvie. This officer rendered valuable service
with the Royal Canadian Artillery.

=O'Leary.=--Col. W. M'Carthy O'Leary, 1st Batt. S. Lancs. Fusiliers. For
career _see_ vol. iv. p. 150.

=Orr-Ewing.=--Maj. J. A. Orr-Ewing, Imp. Yeomanry. This distinguished
officer, born 1857, was the son of the late Sir A. Orr-Ewing, and married
in 1898 the daughter of the 7th Duke of Roxburghe. He lost his life while
gallantly fighting at Kheis on 28th of May 1900.

=Otter.=--Col. W. C. Otter, A.D.C. This officer distinguished himself in
command of the Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry.


=Paget.=--Maj.-Gen A. H. Paget. Scots Guards. Entered 1869; Col., 1893.
_Staff Service_--Spec. Serv., Ashanti Ex., 1873-74; Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig.,
S. Africa, April 1900. _War Service_--Ashanti War, 1873 (medal); Soudan
Ex. 1885 (medal with clasp; bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900
(Despatches); on Staff.

=Park.=--Lieut.-Col. C. W. Park, 1st Devon Regiment. Entered 1875;
Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff service_--D.A.A.G. Madras, 1892-93; A.A.G.,
Madras, 1893-97. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80 (medal); S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Parsons.=--Col. Sir C. S. B. Parsons, K.C.M.G. Entered R.A. 1874; Col.,
1899. _Staff service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1883-84; A.D.C. to
Gov. and Com.-in-Chief, Malta, 1884-85; A.D.C. to G.O.C. E. Dist.,
1887-88; A.D.C. to G.O.C., Aldershot, 1889-92; employed with Egyptian
Army, 1892-99; Gov. of Red Sea Littoral, and Comdt. Suakin, 1896-99;
A.A.G. Woolwich Dist., 1899; Col. on Staff, Com. R.A. Curragh Dist.,
1899-1900; Col. on Staff (R.A.) S. Africa, Jan. 1900, Feb. 1900; Col. on
Staff (Assist. Insp. Gen. L. of C.) S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _War
service_--S. African War, 1877-80; (Despatches, 1879; medal with clasp;
Despatches, 1881); Egyptian Ex., 1882 (Despatches; medal with clasp;
bronze star; 5th class Medjidie; Brev. of Maj.); Ex. to Dongola, 1896
(Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; Egyptian medal with clasp); Nile Ex.,
1897; Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; Brev. of Col.; clasp to Egyptian medal;
K.C.M.G.); S. African War, 1899-1900; Deputy Mil. Gov. of Northern Cape
Colony and Comdt. W. Kimberley Dist.

=Parsons.=--Col. L. W. Parsons. Entered 1870; Col., 1900. _Staff
service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces, 1881-86; Col. on Staff (R.A.), S. Africa,
April 1900. _War service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; (Despatches).

=Peakman.=--Maj. T. C. Peakman. This dashing officer's unflagging energy
in command of the Kimberley Light Horse is already well known.

=Pennell.=--Capt. H. S. Pennell, #V.C.#, Derby Regt. Entered 1893. _War
service_--Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98 (Despatches; #V.C.#; medal
with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900; Ladysmith Relief Force;
wounded 27th Feb.

=Phipps-Hornby.=--Maj. E. J. Phipps-Hornby, #V.C.#, R.A. Entered 1877;
Maj., 1895. _War service_--Bechuanaland Ex., 1884-85; S. African War,
1899-1900 (#V.C.#, _see_ V.C. list). This notable officer and splendid polo
player, born 1857, is a son of the late Admiral Phipps-Hornby.

=Pickwoad.=--Col. E. H. Pickwoad, R.A. Entered 1873; Col., 1898. _Staff
service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces, 1885-89. _War service_--Afghan War, 1878-79
(medal); S. African War, 1899-1900, Commanding Brig. Div. R.A.; Siege of
Ladysmith; severely wounded.

=Pilcher.=--Lieut.-Col. T. D. Pilcher, Bedfordshire Regiment. Entered
1879; Brev. Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff service_--D.A.A.G., Dublin Dist.,
1895-97; Employed with W. African Frontier Force, 1897-99; Spec. Serv.,
S. Africa, 1899. _War service_--W. Africa, 1897-98 (Despatches; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.); S. African War, 1899-1900. Commanding Corps Mounted
Infantry.

=Pilkington.=--Lieut.-Col. H. L. Pilkington (Reserve of Officers). Col.
Pilkington rendered conspicuous service with the 2nd West Australian
Mounted Infantry.

=Pilson.=--Maj. A. F. Pilson, Royal Dublin Fusiliers. Entered 1888; Brev.
Maj., 1897. _Staff service_--Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1899. _War
Service_--Op. in S. Africa, 1896 (Despatches; Brev. of Maj.); S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Pink.=--Lieut.-Col. F. J. Pink, D.S.O., R. W. Surrey Regiment. Entered
1878; Brev. Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff service_--D.A.A. and Q.M.G. Burmese
Ex., 1887-89; employed with Egyptian Army, 1895-99. _War service_--Afghan
War, 1879-80 (medal); Burmese Ex., 1886-89 (Despatches, Sept. 1887, Nov.
1889; medal with 2 clasps; D.S.O.); Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches;
Egyptian medal with 2 clasps); Nile Ex., 1897 (Despatches; clasp to
Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches, May and Sept. 1898; Brev.
Lieut.-Col.; 2 clasps to Egyptian medal; medal).

=Pirie.=--Duncan Vernon Pirie, M.P. This gallant officer retired from the
army in 1898, after having acted as A.D.C. to Sir G. Graham in Egypt, and
A.D.C. to the Governor of Ceylon, in which capacities he greatly
distinguished himself. He is the eldest son of Mr. G. Pirie, was born in
1858, and married, in 1894, the daughter of 17th Baron Sempill.

=Plumer.=--Lieut.-Col. H. C. O. Plumer, York and Lancaster Regiment.
Entered 1876; Brev. Lieut.-Col., 1897. _Staff service_--D.A.A.G., Jersey,
1890-93; D.A.A.G., Aldershot, 1897-99; Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1899. _War
service_--Egyptian Ex., 1884 (Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star;
4th class Medjidie); Op. S. Africa, 1896 (Despatches; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.); S. African War, 1899-1900; Spec. Serv.; wounded.

=Pole-Carew.=--Lieut.-Gen. R. Pole-Carew, C.B. Entered, Coldstream
Guards, 1869. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Viceroy of India, 1879; A.D.C.
to Maj.-Gen., Afghan Campaign, 1879-80; Mil. Sec. to Com.-in-Chief,
Madras, 1884-85; Mil. Sec. to Prov. Com.-in-Chief, Madras, 1885; Mil.
Sec. to Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies, 1885-90; Comdt. Headquarters Staff, S.
Africa, 1899; Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., S. Africa, 1899-1900; Lieut.-Gen.
Inf. Div., S. Africa, 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80
(Despatches, Jan., May, and Dec., 1880); Egyptian Campaign, 1882 (medal
with clasp; bronze star); Burmese Ex., 1886-87 (Despatches; C.B.); S.
African War, 1899-1900; on Staff (Despatches).

=Poore.=--Maj. R. M. Poore, 7th Hussars. Entered 1886; Brev.-Maj., 1898.
_Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Gov. of Bombay, 1894-95; employed with Mil.
Mounted Police, S. Africa, 1899; Prov.-Marshal, S. Africa, Nov. 1899.
_War Service_--Op. in S. Africa, 1896-97 (Despatches; Brev. of Maj.); S.
African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Pratt.=--Lieut.-Col. A. S. Pratt, R.A. Entered 1874; Lieut.-Col., 1900.
_Staff Service_--Inst. Sch. of Gunnery, 1886-91, 1891-95. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Pretyman.=--Maj.-Gen. G. T. Pretyman, C.B., R.A. Entered 1865;
Maj.-Gen., 1897; _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Afghan Campaign,
1878-79; and to Lieut.-Gen., Afghan Campaign, 1879-80; Mil. Sec., Madras,
1881-84; A.A.G. for R.A., Bengal, 1887-89; Brig.-Gen., Bengal, 1889-94;
Comdt. Headquarters, S. Africa, 1899-1900; Maj.-Gen., Mil. Gov.,
Bloemfontein, March 1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79-80
(Despatches; medal with 3 clasps; bronze star; Brev. of Maj. and
Lieut.-Col.); Isazai Ex., 1892; S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Price.=--Col. T. Price. This officer rendered conspicuous service with
the Victorian Mounted Infantry.

=Pritchard.=--Lieut. Harry Lionel Pritchard, D.S.O. Entered R.E., 1891.
_Staff Service_--Spec. Serv., Ashanti, 1895-96; Spec. Serv., Egypt, 1896;
employed with Egyptian Army, 1896-98; Specially employed, Cyprus,
1898-99; Staff Off. to Assist. Dir. of Railways., S. Africa, 1900. _War
Service_--Ashanti Ex., 1895-96 (hon. mentioned; star); Ex. to Dongola
(Despatches; 4th class Medjidie; Egyptian medal with clasp); Nile Ex.,
1897 (clasp to Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; D.S.O.; clasp
to Egyptian medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.


=Quill.=--Lieut.-Col. B. C. Quill. Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col., Feb. 1900.
_Staff Service_--Assist. Insp. of Gymnasia, Aldershot, 1888-92; Spec.
Serv., S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal
with clasp; bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900; Spec. Serv. Officer.


=Rawlinson.=--Lieut.-Col. Sir H. S. Rawlinson, 2nd Bart., D.S.O.,
Coldstream Guards. Entered 1884; Brev. Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff
Service_--A.D.C. to Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies, 1885-86, and 1886-87;
A.D.C. (Extra) to Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies, 1887; A.D.C. to
Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies, 1887-88, and 1889-90; Brig.-Maj., Aldershot,
1895-98; D.A.A.G., Egypt, 1898; D.A.A.G., Natal, 1899-1900; A.A.G., S.
Africa, March 1900. _War Service_--Burmese Ex., 1886-87 (Despatches);
Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; medal); S. African War,
1899-1900; Siege of Ladysmith. This well-known officer, born in 1864, is
the son of the late General Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Bart., the
distinguished Orientalist. He married in 1890 the daughter of Mr.
Coleridge Kennard.

=Rawson.=--Lieut.-Col. H. E. Rawson. Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col., 1899.
_Staff Service_--Sec. R.E. Committee, 1890-94. _War Service_--S. African
War, 1899-1900; Commanding R.E. Lines of Communication.

=Reade.=--Maj. C. Y. Reade. This officer rendered valuable service with
the South Australian Mounted Rifles.

=Reed.=--Capt. H. L. Reed, R.A. _See_ V.C. list. Entered 1888; Capt.,
1898. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900 (Despatches; #V.C.#)

=Reeves.=--Col. J. Reeves, 2nd Batt. Royal Irish Fusiliers. Entered 1874;
Brev.-Col., 1899. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1884 (medal with clasp;
bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900; with Ladysmith Relief Force;
Colenso, wounded, 21st Feb.

=Rethman.=--Maj. F. J. Rethman. Commanded Border Mounted Rifles,
Ladysmith.

=Rhodes.=--The Rt. Hon. Cecil John Rhodes, D.C.L., M.A. For career _see_
vol. i. p. 118.

=Rhodes.=--Maj. E. Rhodes, D.S.O. Entered 1878; Maj., 1893. _Staff
Service_--Assist. Insp. of Signalling, Aldershot, 1895-97; and 1898-99;
D.A.A.G. for Signalling, 1899; Dir. of Signalling, S. Africa, 1899-1900.
_War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal; bronze star); Soudan Ex., 1885
(Despatches; 2 clasps); Soudan, 1885-86 (Despatches; D.S.O.); S. African
War; on Staff (Despatches).

=Rhodes.=--Col. F. W. Rhodes, D.S.O. Entered 1873; Col., 1889. _Staff
Service_--A.D.C. to Brig.-Gen. Force on the Nile, 1884-85; A.D.C. to
Maj.-Gen., Egypt, 1885; A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Dublin Dist., 1886-87;
A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Egypt., 1888-89; Mil. Sec. to Gov., Bombay, 1890-92;
Civil Employment, Uganda, 1892-93. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1884
(Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan Ex., 1884-85
(Despatches; 2 clasps; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); Soudan, 1888 (Despatches;
clasp; 3rd class Medjidie); S. African War, 1899-1900; Attached to
Headquarters Staff.

=Ricardo.=--Lieut.-Col. P. R. Ricardo. Col. Ricardo commanded with
distinction the 1st Contingent Queensland Mounted Infantry.

=Rice.=--Maj. D. R. Rice, R.E. Entered 1877; Maj., 1896. _Staff
Service_--Adjt. Sch. of Mil. Eng., 1892-95. _War Service_--S. African
War, 1899-1900. This officer, commanding R.E. in Ladysmith, was
"indefatigable in his exertions both day and night."

=Richardson.=--Col. W. D. Richardson, C.B., A.S.C. Col., 1897. _Staff
Service_--D.A.A.G., Aldershot, 1883-87; Egypt, 1889-96; Dublin, 1894-97;
A.A.G., W. Dist.; D.A.G. for Supplies, S. Africa, 1899. _War
Service_--Ashanti War, 1873-74 (medal); S. African War, 1877-78-79
(Despatches; medal with clasp; promoted Dep. Commissary); Egyptian Ex.,
1882 (medal; bronze star); Bechuanaland Ex., 1884-85 (hon. mentioned;
hon. and rel. rank, Lieut.-Col.); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.
This remarkable officer, whose labours have been as the labours of
Hercules, and to whom much of the success of Lord Roberts's great marches
has been due, was born in 1854. He married the daughter of the Rev. J.
Ewing.

=Ridley.=--Brig.-Gen. C. P. Ridley. Entered 1873; Brev. Col., 1899.
_Staff Service_--Station Comdt., S. Africa, 1899; A.A.G. (Assist.
Insp.-Gen. L. of C.), S. Africa, 1899-1900; Brig. Gen. Mounted Inf.
Brig., S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal;
bronze star); Miranzai Ex., 1891 (medal with clasp); S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff.

=Rimington.=--Lieut.-Col. M. F. Rimington, Rimington's Horse. Entered,
6th Dragoons, 1881; Col., Sept. 1900. _Staff Service_--Staff Capt.
Remount Establishment, 1897-99; Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1899. _War
Service_--Op. in Zululand, 1888; S. African War, 1899-1900 (Despatches,
May 1900).

=Rivett-Carnac.=--Lieut.-Col. P. T. Rivett-Carnac, West Riding Regiment.
Entered 1873; Brev. Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Employed with
Army Pay Dept., 1884-89; Spec. Extra Regt. Employ., 1896-98; Station
Comdt., S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1884 (medal; bronze
star); Op. in S. Africa, 1896-97 (Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; medal
with clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Roberts of Kandahar and Waterford.=--Rt. Hon. Frederick Sleigh, Lord
Roberts, K.P., G.C.B., G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E. Entered 1851; Field-Marshal,
25th May 1895. _Staff Service_--D.A.Q.M.G., Indian Mutiny, 1857-58;
D.A.Q.M.G. in charge of the Viceroy's Camp, 1859-60; D.A.Q.M.G., Army
Headquarters, India, 1860-65; A.Q.M.G., Bengal, 1866-67; A.Q.M.G. 2nd
Div., Abyssinian Ex., 1867-68; A.Q.M.G. Army Headquarters, India,
1869-71; A.Q.M.G. Looshai Ex., India, 1871-72; D.Q.M.G., Bengal, 1872-75;
Q.M.G., Bengal, 1875-78; Maj.-Gen. Afghan Campaign, 1878-79; Lieut.-Gen.
(local) Afghan Campaign, 1879-80; Lieut.-Gen. Madras, 1881-85;
Com.-in-Chief E. Indies, 1885-93; Gen. Commanding the Forces, Ireland,
1895-99; Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief the Forces, S. Africa, 1899.
_War Service_--Indian Mutiny, 1857-58 (Despatches, 15th Dec. 1857; 16th
Jan., 29th Jan., 22nd Feb., 25th May, 31st May, and 8th June, 1858;
received the thanks of the Gov.-Gen. of India; medal with 3 clasps; Brev.
of Maj.; #V.C.#); N.W. Frontier of India Ex., 1863 (medal with clasp);
Abyssinian Ex., 1868 (Despatches; 30th June, 3rd July, 10th July 1868;
medal; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); Looshai Ex., 1871-72 (Despatches); Afghan
War, 1878-79-80 (Despatches, 4th Feb., 21st Feb., 21st March, 13th May,
and 7th Nov., 1879; 16th Jan., 4th May, and 3rd Dec., 1880; received
thanks of both Houses of Parliament, 4th Aug. 1879 and 5th May 1881, and
created a Baronet; thanked by Government of India and Gov.-Gen. in
Council; medal with 4 clasps; bronze star; K.C.B., G.C.B.); Burmese Ex.,
1886 (thanked by Government of India; Despatches; clasp); S. African War,
1899-1900; Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief the Forces in S. Africa.
This wonderful officer, "the idol of the army and of the nation, and the
greatest commander of modern times," was born in 1832. He is the son of
Gen. Sir Abraham Roberts, G.C.B., and the daughter of Maj. Bunbury of
Kilfeacle, co. Tipperary. He married in 1859 the daughter of Capt. Bews,
73rd Foot. He was created a Baron in 1892, in connection with his famous
services in Afghanistan. Owing to the popularity of his famous work,
"Forty-One Years in India," the facts of his marvellous career are well
known, but the book being the output of the most modest of men, it fails
to do justice to the personal qualities which have made this great leader
so deservedly celebrated and beloved. A few lines from Mr. Maclaren
Cobban's "Life and Deeds of Earl Roberts" express so ably the view of the
multitude that it is a temptation to quote them. "His successes as a
general have not been merely warlike--could not be merely warlike; for he
has an understanding and an imagination which compel him to look 'before
and after'--to note how the necessity for war has arisen, and to consider
how war may promote a more secure and perfect peace. He has exhibited the
mind of a statesman and an administrator, as well as of a soldier; and in
the highest sense he has ever been an 'Empire-builder'; for he has not
only made strong the borders of her Majesty's dominions in India and S.
Africa, but he has also consistently maintained and strengthened the
ancient and inalienable British reputation for justice and truth,
kindness and mercy--the intangible bonds, light as air but tougher than
steel, which bind our widespread Empire together.... And so we come to
the fascination of his personality. The Commander-in-Chief is a great
soldier, but he is a greater man. It is in his character as a man rather
than as a soldier that he has won the unrestrained affections even of the
army. Since the 'little corporal,' no great commander has held so
entirely the confidence and devotion of all sorts and conditions of
soldiers; but, while Napoleon imposed himself upon his embattled hosts as
a kind of demigod, he who is most widely known as 'little Bobs' has
impressed his soldiers as a man of men, as the best, the most
sympathetic, the cleverest and dearest of comrades. His regard for the
soldier is so well known, that such a saying would be incredible of him
as that which is recorded of the Duke of Wellington, who described the
men who won his battles as 'the greatest scoundrels in Europe.' It is,
indeed, one of the rarities of history to find a successful leader of
armies distinguished by such sweetness and such gentleness of temper,
such kindness and such tact of conduct and of speech. These qualities are
commonly regarded as marking the ideal character of a domestic person,
of a man of peace, and in bringing them into complete accord with the
triumphant practice of war he who has been so widely known as Lord
Roberts shows himself our 'own ideal knight.'"

=Roberts.=--Hon. F. H. S. Roberts, Lieut. King's Royal Rifles. _See_ vol.
ii. p. 193; also V.C. list.

[Illustration: LIEUTENANT ROBERTS, V.C.

Killed at Colenso

_Photo by Chancellor & Son, Dublin_]

=Robertson.=--Maj. W. R. Robertson, D.S.O. In ranks over ten years;
Lieut., 3rd Dragoon Guards, 1888; Maj., March 1900. _Staff
Service_--Staff Lieut. Intell. Br. Q.M.G. Dept., India, 1892-95; Staff
Capt. Q.M.G. Dept., India, 1895-96; Staff Capt. Intell. Dept.
Headquarters of Army, 1899; D.A.A.G. Headquarters of Army, 1899-1900;
D.A.A.G., S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _War Service_--Op. in Chitral, 1895
(Despatches; medal with clasp; D.S.O.); S. African War, 1899-1900; on
Staff.

=Robin.=--Maj. A. W. Robin distinguished himself in command of the 1st
New Zealand Contingent.

=Roche.=--Lieut.-Col. Hon. U. de R. B. Roche, S. Wales Borderers. Entered
1876; Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G., Bengal, 1890-95. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1877-78 (medal with clasp); Burmese Ex.,
1886-89 (medal with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Romilly.=--Maj. F. W. Romilly, D.S.O. Entered 1873; Brev.-Maj. Scots
Guards, 1894. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Lieut.-Gen., Egypt, 1883-84, and
1885-87; D.A.A.G., Malta, 1890-93; Mil. Sec. to Gov. Madras, 1896-98.
_War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882-84 (medal with clasp; bronze star;
Despatches; 2 clasps); Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (2 clasps); Soudan, 1885-86
(Despatches; D.S.O.) S. African War, 1899-1900; wounded.

=Ross.=--Maj. W. C. Ross, Durham Light Infantry. Entered 1877;
Lieut.-Col., S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _Staff Service_--Insp. and Adjt. Gt.
Indian Penin. Rly. V.C., 1890-95; A.M.S. and A.D.C. to Lieut.-Gov.,
Punjab, 1898-1900. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80 (medal); S. African
War, 1899-1900; Commanded 8th Corps Mounted Infantry till severely
wounded.

=Rowell.=--Lieut.-Col. J. Rowell. This officer commanded the 4th
Contingent South Australian Bushmen.

=Roxburghe= (8th Duke).--H. John Innes-Ker, Lieut. Royal Horse Guards.
This young nobleman, born in 1876, son of 7th Duke of Roxburghe and the
daughter of the 7th Duke of Marlborough, was originally in the 4th Batt.
Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. He has now been serving in the
Household Cavalry Composite Regiment.

=Royston.=--Col. W. Royston. Commanding Natal Volunteer Force. _See_ vol.
iv. p. 134. This officer and his force reflected "the highest credit on
the Colony of Natal."

=Rundle.=--Lieut.-Gen. Sir H. M. Leslie Rundle, K.C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O.
Entered R.A. 1876; Brev. Col., 1894. _Staff Service_--Employed with
Egyptian Army, 1883-98; Maj.-Gen. E. Dist., 1898-99; D.A.G. Headquarters
of Army, 1899-1900; Lieut.-Gen. Commanding Div., Aldershot, Jan. 1900,
March 1900; Lieut.-Gen. Inf. Div., S. Africa, March 1900. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1879-81 (Despatches; medal with clasp; wounded
in defence of Potchefstroom; Despatches); Egyptian Ex. (medal with clasp;
bronze star); Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; clasp; Brev. of Maj.);
Soudan, 1885-86-87-89-91 (Despatches; D.S.O.; 3rd class Osmanieh); Action
of Toski (Despatches; clasp; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); Capture of Tokai
(clasp to bronze star); Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; promoted to
Maj.-Gen.; Egyptian medal with 2 clasps); Nile Ex., 1897 (Despatches;
clasp to Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches, May and Sept. 1898;
K.C.B.; thanked by both Houses of Parliament; clasp to Egyptian medal;
medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.


=Samut.=--Lieut.-Col. A. Samut, Army Ord. Dept. Entered 1878;
Lieut.-Col., 1900. _Staff Service_--Dep.-Assist. Com. Gen. Ord. Store
Dept., 1885-94-95; Assist. Com. Gen. Ord. Store Dept., 1895-96; Ord.
Off., 3rd class, 1896-1900; Ord. Off., 2nd class, 1900. _War Service_--S.
African War, 1899-1900.

=Sandbach.=--Lieut.-Col. A. E. Sandbach, R.E. Entered 1879; Brev.
Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Bengal, 1890-92;
employed with Egyptian Army, 1897-98; Mil. Sec. to Viceroy, India, 1899;
Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1899; A.A.G., S. Africa, Dec. 1899. _War
Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan Ex.,
1885 (clasp); Burmese Ex., 1886-87 (medal with clasp); Sikkim Ex., 1888
(clasp); Hazara Ex., 1891 (Despatches; clasp); Nile Ex., 1898
(Despatches; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); S.
African War, 1899-1900; Spec. Serv.; on Staff.

=Sandwith.=--Lieut.-Col. R. L. Sandwith, Leicestershire Regt. Entered
1880; Lieut.-Col., S. Africa, March 1900. _War Service_--S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff.

=Sauer.=--Hon. J. W. Sauer. Son of a Free State Landdrost; was five times
Member for Aliwal North, Cape House of Assembly; was Secretary for Native
Affairs in Scanlen Ministry, 1881-84; Colonial Secretary in the Rhodes
Ministry, 1890. He was one of "the three" who broke it up in 1893. He
calls himself a philosophic radical, and is sufficiently consistent to
have declined a knighthood.

=Schermbrucker.=--Hon. Frederick Schermbrucker, Senior Member King
William's Town, Cape House of Assembly. Son of the Hon. Christopher
Schermbrucker; was born at Frankfurt-on-the-Maine; entered ranks of
Bavarian Army as a private, with the privileges of a gentleman cadet, and
fought among the Royalists during the disturbances in 1850-52, and gained
his commission. Since this time, he settled at King William's Town as
German interpreter to the Resident Magistrate; subsequently, after many
adventures, became editor of _Bloemfontein Express_, and, according to
the Cape "Parliamentary Companion," he left Bloemfontein in a hurry, and
was burned in effigy; he returned to King William's Town; volunteered for
service in the Frontier War; appointed Commandant of the Amatola
division; volunteered for service against the Zulus; commanded at
Luneberg; was present at the battles of Zlobane and Kambula;
distinguished himself on the Pemvani River; in 1880 accompanied Mr.
Sprigg to Basutoland to raise a police force; retired with that Sprigg
Government; elected Member Legislative Council for the Eastern Province,
1882; re-elected 1884; became Commissioner Crown Lands and Public Works,
Upington Ministry, 1884; successfully contested King William's Town
general election, 1888. He succeeded in raising several companies of
German Colonists to go to the front in 1901.

=Schleswig-Holstein.=--Maj. H. H. Prince Christian Victor of
Schleswig-Holstein. _See_ vol. vi. p. 123.

=Schofield.=--Maj. H. N. Schofield, R.A. Entered 1884; Maj., Feb. 1900.
_Staff Service_--A.D.C. to G.O.C., Aldershot, 1898-99; A.D.C. to Gen.
Com.-in-Chief, S. Africa, 1899-1900; A.D.C. to G.O.C., Natal, Jan. 1900.
_War Service_--S. Africa, 1899-1900; Colenso. This distinguished officer,
who saved two guns at Colenso and by his gallantry should have earned a
#V.C.#, was only debarred from receiving the coveted honour owing to the
fact that being a gunner officer his actions were done in pursuance of
his duty. It is a distinction without a difference which many have failed
to see, in view of the decoration having been given to other artillery
officers while also in pursuance of their duty.

=Schreiner.=--Hon. W. P. Schreiner, Q.C., C.M.G., Premier of Cape
Parliament, 1898. Mr. Schreiner, son of a Lutheran missionary and an
English lady, was born in 1859. He is the brother of Miss Olive Schreiner
(Mrs. Cronwright) the authoress whose anti-British proclivities are well
known. Mr. Schreiner was educated in England, was called to the Bar at
the Inner Temple in 1882, and on his return to the Cape engaged in
politics and became Mr. Rhodes' Attorney-General. In 1898 he became
Premier, but his sympathies were not with the British, and his attitude
caused him to be described as "the pro-Boer Premier of an Africander
Government." He was married to the sister of Mr. Reitz, formerly
President of the Orange Free State.

=Scott.=--Capt. P. M. Scott, C.B., Royal Navy, H.M.S. _Terrible_. This
notable officer and clever inventor of the now celebrated gun-carriages
(_see_ vol. ii. p. 53) has seen a considerable amount of service. He took
part in the Ashanti War, the Congo Expedition, and the Egyptian War. He
has been twice mentioned in despatches, and, in addition to his British
medals, has the Khedive's star. He was promoted from the 4th to the 3rd
class Medjidie in 1890.

=Scott.=--Maj. R. G. Scott. This officer rendered valuable service with
the Kimberley Light Horse.

=Scott= (6th Bart.).--Sir Samuel E. Scott, M.P. Imperial Yeomanry.

=Scott.=--Lieut.-Col. W. A. Scott, 2nd Batt. Gordon Highlanders. Entered
1874; Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Volunteers, 1891-96;
Comdt. Sch. of Inst. for Mil. and Vols., Aldershot, 1897. _War
Service._--S. African War; Ladysmith.

=Scott-Chisholme.=--Col. J. J. Scott-Chisholme, Imperial Light Horse.
_See_ vol. ii. p. 27.

=Selheim.=--Maj. V. C. M. Selheim rendered valuable service with the
Queensland Mounted Infantry.

=Settle.=--Brig.-Gen. H. H. Settle, R.E., C.B., D.S.O. Entered 1867;
Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1885; Employed
with Egyptian Army, 1886-92; Insp.-Gen. of Egyptian Police, 1892-94;
Assist. Insp.-Gen. of Fortifications, Headquarters of Army, 1895-99; Col.
on Staff (Commanding R.E.), Malta, 1899; Col. on Staff, S. Africa, 1899;
Col. on Staff (Insp.-Gen. Lines of Communication), S. Africa, 1899. _War
Service._--Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze
star; Brev. of Maj.); Soudan, 1888-99 (Despatches; clasp; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.); Action of Toski (Despatches; clasp; 2nd class Medjidie);
Capture of Tokar, 1891 (clasp to bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900;
on Staff.

=Settrington= (Lord).--Charles H. Gordon-Lennox, Second Lieut. Life
Guards; Extra A.D.C. to Lord Roberts. This officer is eldest son of the
Earl of March, who is heir to the 6th Duke of Richmond.

=Sharpe.=--Lieut.-Col. J. B. Sharpe, R.E. Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col.,
1899. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G. for Inst., Curragh Brig., 1886-91. _War
Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80 (Despatches; medal); S. African War,
1899-1900; with Kimberley Relief Force; Belmont; Enslin; Modder River;
and Majesfontein.

=Sim.=--Lieut.-Col. G. H. Sim, R.E. Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col., 1899.
_Staff Service_--Inst. Sch. of Mil. Eng., 1893-98. _War Service_--Afghan
War, 1878-80 (medal); Soudan Ex., 1885 (medal with clasp; bronze star);
S. African War, 1899-1900; with Ladysmith Relief Force; Spion Kop.

=Sitwell.=--Col. C. G. H. Sitwell, D.S.O., 2nd Batt. Royal Dublin
Fusiliers. For career _see_ vol. iv. p. 141.

=Sitwell.=--Col. W. H. Sitwell. Entered 1880; Brev. Lieut.-Col., 1898.
_Staff Service_--Employed with Bechuanaland Border Police, 1891-93;
D.A.A.G., Guernsey, 1895-97; Spec. Serv., Ashanti, 1895-96; Employed with
Egyptian Army, 1897-99. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1880 (medal); Ashanti
Ex., 1895-96 (star); Nile Ex., 1897; Nile Ex., 1898, wounded (Despatches;
Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; Egyptian medal with 2 clasps; medal); S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Smith-Dorrien.=--Brig.-Gen. H. L. Smith-Dorrien, D.S.O. Entered 1876;
Brev. Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Spec. Serv., Cape of Good Hope,
1878-79; employed with Egyptian Army, 1884-87; Station Staff Off., 1st
class, Bengal, 1892-93; D.A.A.G., Bengal, 1893-94; A.A.G., Bengal and
Punjab, 1894-96; Maj.-Gen., Inf. Brig., S. Africa, Feb. 1900. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1879 (Despatches; medal with clasp); Egyptian
Ex., 1882 (medal; bronze star); Soudan Ex., 1885 (clasp); Soudan, 1885-86
(Despatches; D.S.O.); Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98 (Despatches;
Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; medal with 2 clasps); Nile Ex., 1878 (Despatches;
Brev. of Col.; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Sondes= (2nd Earl).--George E. Milles, D.L., J.P., Imperial Yeomanry.
Lord Sondes, who is one of the gallant many who hastened to volunteer for
the front, was born in 1861. He is the son of the 1st Earl and the
daughter of Sir Henry Stracey, Bart.

=Southey.=--Lieut.-Col. R. G. Southey. This energetic officer, formerly
in H.M. Foot, has been commanding Colonial Volunteers, and is now Acting
Staff Officer for Colonial Forces in S. Africa.

=Spence.=--Col. W. A. Spence, Commanding Duke of Edinburgh's Own
Volunteer Rifles. A "most gallant and efficient commanding officer."
Killed in action at Faber's Spruit. _See_ vol. v. p. 169.

=Spens.=--Lieut.-Col. J. Spens, 2nd Batt. King's Shropshire Light
Infantry. Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col., 1898. _Staff Service_--Insp. R. Mil.
Coll., 1886-98. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1879-80 (medal); S. African
War, 1899-1900 (Despatches).

=Spragge.=--Maj. B. E. Spragge, D.S.O., Col. Imperial Yeomanry. This
officer, though he retired as a Major in 1894, has seen a considerable
amount of service. In the Jowaki Ex. (medal with clasps); in the first
Afghan War; the second Afghan War (Despatches; medal with clasp); as
D.A.A.G. in the Burmah War (Despatches twice; medal with 2 clasps;
Brev.-Maj.; D.S.O.), he has done notable military work.

=Spreckley.=--Col. Spreckley, Rhodesian Regt. For career, _see_ vol. vi.
p. 80.

=Sprenger.=--Maj. C. F. Sprenger. This gallant officer of the Cape
Mounted Rifles lost his life during the Siege of Wepener. _See_ vol. v.
p. 67.

=Sprigg.=--Rt. Hon. Sir J. G. Sprigg, K.C.M.G. This well-known politician
has spent most of his life at the Cape, where he settled in 1858 at the
age of twenty-eight. He has filled a series of posts from 1878 to 1898.
As Prime Minister and Colonial Secretary, 1878-81; as Treasurer, 1884-86;
as Prime Minister and Treasurer, 1886-90; Treasurer, 1893-96; Prime
Minister and Treasurer, 1896-98, he has laboured zealously in the
interests of the Cape Colony.

=Stanford.=--Lieut.-Col. W. E. M. Stanford, C.M.G. This officer commanded
the East Griqualand Mounted Rifle Volunteers, and rendered valuable
service.

=Stanley= (Lord).--Edward George Villiers Stanley, M.P. Lord Stanley, who
was formerly in the Grenadier Guards, and has acted as Press Censor and
Priv. Sec. to Lord Roberts. He was born in 1865, and is the son of the
16th Earl of Derby and the daughter of the late Earl of Clarendon. He
married in 1889 the daughter of the 7th Duke of Manchester.

=St. Clair.=--Col. J. L. C. St. Clair. Entered 1871; Col., 1899. _Staff
Service_--A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen. Ex. Force, Egypt, 1882-83; Brig.-Maj.,
Aldershot, 1884-87; D.A.A.G., W. Dist., 1887-89; Guernsey, 1892-95; Dep.
Judge Adv., London, 1896-99; Dep. Judge Adv., S. Africa, 1899-1900; Dep.
Judge Adv.-Gen., S. Africa, Feb. 1900.

[Illustration: LIEUTENANT-GENERAL TUCKER, C.B.

Photo, Raja Deen Dajal & Sons, Bombay]

=Steele.=--Lieut.-Col. S. B. Steele, Strathcona's Horse. This gallant
officer of the N.W. Mounted Police is a native Canadian, born at Ontario,
but his father was a Capt. in the Royal Navy. In 1866 he entered the 35th
Batt. "Simcoe Foresters." He served in the Red River Ex. under Lord
Wolseley, and on the formation of the N.W. Mounted Police in 1873 he
joined as Troop Serg.-Maj. He was promoted in 1885 for his share in the
pursuit of Big Bear's band in the Rebellion, and was mentioned in
despatches. His courage, intrepidity, and keen sense of duty have won him
the esteem of all with whom he has served.

=Stephenson.=--Col. T. E. Stephenson, Essex Regiment. Commanded 18th
Brigade. Entered 1874; Brev.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G. for
Inst., Gibraltar, 1883-86; N. Dist., 1886-89; N.E. Dist., 1889-90. _War
Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff (Despatches, May 1900).

=Stevenson.=--Lieut. A. G. Stevenson, R.E., D.S.O. Entered 1891. _Staff
Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army, 1895-99; Railway Staff Off., S.
Africa, Jan. 1900. _War Service_--Ex. to Dongola 1896 (Despatches; 4th
class Medjidie); Nile Ex., 1897 (clasp; clasp to Egyptian medal); Nile
Ex., 1898 (Despatches; D.S.O.; clasp to Egyptian medal; medal); S.
African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Stevenson.=--Col. R. Stevenson. Entered 1864; Col., 1899. _Staff
Service_--Adjt. Aux. Forces, 1879-82; Recg. Staff Off., 1st class, Leeds
Recg. Dist., 1892-97; Assist.-Insp. of Remounts, 1899; Remount Dept., S.
Africa, Oct. 1899. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Steyn.=--M. T. Steyn, President of the Orange Free State till 1900.
Advocate, 1883-89; State Attorney, 1889-93; Second Puisne Judge, 1889-93;
First, 1893-96. Mr. Steyn, born at Winburg in 1857, is the son of Mr. M.
Steyn and the daughter of Comdt. Wessels. In 1897 a Joint-Federal Council
was appointed (consisting of five members from each Republic) to discuss
questions of mutual importance, and it was then arranged that the
franchise should be granted indiscriminately to burghers of both States,
both States agreeing to stand by each other in the event of war. As a
result of this agreement Mr. Steyn played a prominent part in the
Conference at Bloemfontein in 1899. He married a lady of Scottish
descent, the daughter of the Rev. Colin Fraser. Like "Oom Paul" he stands
six feet high in his stockings, but unlike him, is well educated and
civilised in his customs, having inherited from his father (who was
called "Shiny Shoes" on account of his neatness) habits of greater
cleanliness and refinement than those of Mr. Kruger.

=Stokes.=--Sir William Stokes. This eminent surgeon devoted himself to
the wounded, and by his skill saved many lives and mitigated much
suffering.

=Stoneman.=--Lieut.-Col. J. Stoneman, A.S.C.; Lieut.-Col., 1894; D.A.A.G.
Ladysmith, 1899. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal; bronze star);
S. African War, 1899-1900; D.A.A.G. Lines of Communication.

=Stopford.=--Col. Hon. Frederick W. Stopford, C.B. Entered Grenadier
Guards 1871; Col., 1897. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Chief of Staff Ex.
Force, Egypt, 1882; A.D.C. to. Brig.-Gen., Egypt, 1884-85; A.D.C. to
Maj.-Gen. Ex. Force, Suakin, 1885; Brig.-Maj. Guards Brigade, Egypt and
Cyprus, 1885; Brig.-Maj., Aldershot, 1886-89; D.A.A.G., Headquarters of
Army, 1892-94; D.A.A.G., Aldershot, 1894-97; Spec. Serv., Ashanti,
1895-96; A.A.G., Headquarters of Army, 1897-99; Mil. Sec. to Gen.
Com.-in-Chief, 1899-1900; S. Africa Mil. Sec. to G.O.C., Natal, Jan.
1900. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882 (Despatches; medal with clasp;
bronze star; 5th class Medjidie); Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; clasp;
Brev. of Maj.); Ashanti Ex., 1895-96 (hon. mentioned; Brev. of Col.;
star); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff. Col. Stopford, born 1854, is
the son of the 4th Earl of Courtown.

=Streatfield.=--Maj. H. Streatfield. Entered 1876; Maj., Grenadier
Guards, 1893. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Gov. Gen., Canada, 1883-85; Mil.
Sec. to Gov. Gen., Canada, 1886-88; A.D.C. to Viceroy, India, 1888-91;
A.D.C. to Lieut.-Gov. and Gen.-Gov., Ireland, 1892-94; Assist. Mil. Sec.
to G.O.C. the Forces, Ireland, 1895-99; A.D.C. to Lieut.-Gen. Inf. Div.,
S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff; with
Kimberley Relief Force (Despatches; Jan. 1900).

=Stuart= (7th Bart.).--Sir Simeon H. L. Stuart, Capt. Suffolk Yeomanry
Cavalry; Commanding Imperial Yeomanry. Sir Simeon Stuart was formerly in
the 5th Dragoon Guards. He was born in 1864, and married in 1891 the
daughter of Mr. H. Gudge, Sec. to the Austrian Legation.

=Symons.=--Sir William Penn Symons, K.C.B. _See_ vol. ii. p. 35.


=Talbot.=--Lieut.-Col. Lord Edmund Bernard Talbot, M.P. Entered, 11th
Hussars, 1875; Lieut.-Col., Sept. 1900. _Staff Service_--Spec. Service,
S. Africa, 1899-1900; D.A.A.G., S. Africa, Feb. 1900. Lord Edmund Talbot,
born in 1855, is the brother of the Duke of Norfolk. He married in 1879
the daughter of the 7th Earl of Abingdon.

=Teck= (Duke of).--H.S.H. Adolphus C. A. Albert Edward George Philip
Louis Ladislaus of Teck, K.C.V.O.; Capt. 1st Life Guards. Entered 1888;
Capt., 1895. The Duke, born 1868, is the son of the late Duke and the
late H.R.H. Princess Mary of Cambridge, and the brother of the Duchess of
York. He married the daughter of the 1st Duke of Westminster.

=Teck.=--H.S.H. Prince Alexander A. F. W. A. G. of Teck, K.C.V.O., Capt.
7th Hussars. Entered 1894; Capt., April 1900. _War Service_--Op. in S.
Africa 1896-97 (Despatches); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Teck.=--H.S.H. Prince Francis J. L. F. of Teck, K.C.V.O., D.S.O., Capt.
1st Dragoons. Entered, 9th Lancers, 1889. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to
Maj.-Gen., India, 1896-97; Spec. Serv., Egypt, 1897; A.D.C. to G.O.C.,
S.E. Dist., 1899; Staff Capt. Remount Estab., 1899-1900; Remount Dept.,
S. Africa, May 1900. _War Service_--Nile Ex., 1897 (medal); Nile Ex.,
1898 (Despatches; D.S.O.; 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Thackeray.=--Col. T. M. G. Thackeray, 1st Batt. Royal Inniskilling
Fusiliers. For career _see_ vol. iv. p. 149.

=Theron.=--T. P. Theron, Member of Cape House of Assembly. A sheep
farmer, an ardent Bondsman, and "much envied by his fellow Africanders
for his townsman's aptitudes." He was born in 1839 at Tulbagh, elected
Member for Richmond in 1884, and re-elected in 1888.

=Thomas.=--Major A. H. Thomas, D.S.O., A.S.C. Entered 1880; Maj., 1895.
_War Service_--Op. in Sierra Leone, 1898 (Despatches; D.S.O.; medal with
clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Thomas.=--Lieut.-Col. Sir G. V. Thomas, Bart., R.A. Entered 1875; Maj.,
R.A., 1892. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-9 (medal); Egyptian Ex.,
1882-84 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Soudan, 1884 (2 clasps; 4th
class Medjidie).

=Thorneycroft.=--Lieut.-Col. A. W. Thorneycroft. Entered from Militia,
1879; Maj., Royal Scots Fusiliers, 1899. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G. Natal,
1899; Spec. Serv., S. Africa, Oct. 1899. _War Service_--S. African War,
1879-81 (medal with clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900. This officer, a
giant in every sense of the word, who raised and commanded Thorneycroft's
Mounted Infantry, has made himself noted for gallantry and ability. He is
the son of Colonel Thorneycroft of Tettenhall Towers; every inch a
soldier like his father; an enthusiastic sportsman, and distinguished in
social as in military accomplishments.

[Illustration: LIEUTENANT-COLONEL THORNEYCROFT

_Photo by Mayall & Co., London_]

=Thorold.=--Col. Thorold, Royal Welsh Fusiliers. For career _see_ vol.
iv. p. 150.

=Tickell.=--Maj. E. J. Tickell, D.S.O. Entered 1885; Maj., 14th Hussars,
1899. _Staff Service_--Employed in Uganda Protectorate, 1898-1900; Spec.
Serv., Rhodesian Field Force, Feb. 1900. _War Service_--Uganda, 1898
(Despatches; D.S.O.; medal with clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Todd.=--Lieut.-Col. O. Todd, M.B., R.A.M.C. Lieut.-Col., March 1900.
_War Service_--S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Townsend.=--Col. E. Townsend. Col. R.A.M.C., 1897. _War
Service_--Abyssinian Ex., 1867-68 (medal); Perak Ex., 1875-76, severely
wounded (medal with clasp); S. African War, 1879 (Despatches; medal with
clasp); Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Burmese Ex.,
1885-86 (medal with clasp); Ashanti Ex., 1895-96 (hon. mentioned; star);
N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98 (Despatches; medal with clasp); Tirah,
1897-98 (Despatches; C.B.; clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900
(Despatches).

=Townshend.=--Lieut.-Col. C. V. F. Townshend, C.B., D.S.O. Entered 1881;
Brev. Lieut.-Col., 1896. _Staff Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army,
1896-98; Spec. Serv., S Africa; Staff Mil. Gov., Bloemfontein, March,
1900. _War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; medal with 2
clasps; bronze star); Hunza Nagar Ex., 1891-92 (Despatches; medal with
clasp); Op. in Chitral, 1895 (thanked by Govt. of India; Despatches;
Brev. of Maj.; C.B.); Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches, May and Sept. 1898; D.S.O.); S.
African War; on Staff.

=Towse.=--Capt. E. B. Towse, #V.C.# Entered from Militia, Wiltshire
Regiment, 1885; Capt. Gordon Highlanders, 1896. _War Service_--Op. in
Chitral, 1895 (medal with clasp); Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1898 (2
clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900 (Despatches; #V.C.#; severely wounded).
_See_ V.C. list.

[Illustration: CAPTAIN TOWSE

_Photo by Winter, Derby_]

=Trench.=--Lieut.-Col. F. A. Le P. Trench, A.S.C. Lieut.-Col., Feb. 1895.
_Staff Service_--D.A.A.G. Scottish Dist., 1899. _War Service_--S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Treves.=--Frederick Treves, F.R.C.S. Consulting Surgeon to the Forces in
S. Africa; Member of Court of Examiners of the Royal College of Surgeons;
Examiner in Surgery at the University of Cambridge and in Anatomy at the
Universities of Aberdeen and Durham. Mr. Treves was born in 1843, and
married in 1877 to the daughter of Mr. Mason of Dorchester. He has
written innumerable scientific works, and won the Jacksonian Prize Essay
at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1884. Officers and men are deeply
grateful for the skill and devotion he has expended on their behalf
during the present war.

=Trotter.=--Lieut.-Col. J. K. Trotter, C.M.G. Entered R.A. 1870; Col.,
1899. _Staff Service_--Spec. Serv., Bechuanaland, 1884-85; Brig.-Maj.
(Cork Dist.) R.A. and Malta, 1886-90; Staff Capt. (Intell.) Headquarters
of Army, 1890-91; D.A.A.G. (Intell.) Headquarters of Army, 1892-95;
employed on Sierra Leone Boundary Commission, 1895-96; A.A.G. S. Africa,
1899; D.A.G. S. Africa, Jan. 1900. _War Service_--Bechuanaland Ex.,
1884-85 (hon. mentioned); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Tucker.=--Lieut.-Gen. Charles Tucker, C.B. Entered 1855; Maj.-Gen.,
1893. _Staff Service_--Col. on Staff, Natal, 1891-93; Brig.-Gen., Natal,
1893-95; Maj.-Gen., India, 1895-99; Lieut.-Gen. Inf. Div., S. Africa,
1899. _War Service_--Bhootan Ex., 1865-66 (medal with clasp); S. African
War, 1878-79 (Despatches, April and Aug. 1879; medal with clasp; C.B.);
S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff. Gen. Tucker, born in 1838, is a son
of Mr. Tucker of Ashburton and a daughter of Mr. Hayter,
Painter-in-Ordinary to Queen Victoria. As a practical, resourceful, and
rough-and-ready soldier, he has no equal. He was rewarded in 1896 for
"distinguished and meritorious" service with a "good-service" pension.

=Tullibardine.=--Capt. the Marquis of Tullibardine, D.S.O., Royal Horse
Guards. Entered 1892; Capt., 1899. _Staff Service_--Specially employed
with Egyptian Army, 1898. _War Service_--Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches, May
and Sept. 1898; D.S.O.; Egyptian medal with 2 clasps); S. African War,
1899-1900.

=Tunbridge.=--Maj. W. H. Tunbridge rendered valuable service with the 3rd
Contingent Queensland Mounted Infantry.


=Umphelby.=--Lieut.-Col. C. E. E. Umphelby. For career _see_ vol. iv. p.
104.


=Valentia= (11th Viscount).--Arthur Annesley, M.P. Lieut.-Col. Oxford
Yeomanry Cavalry; Assist. Adjt. Gen. Imp. Yeomanry. Lord Valentia, born
in 1843, succeeded his grandfather in 1863. He retired from the 10th
Hussars in 1872, and in 1878 married the widow of Sir Algernon Peyton.

=Vandeleur.=--Maj. C. F. Seymour Vandeleur, D.S.O. Entered 1889; Brev.
Maj., 1899. _Staff Service_--Employed in Uganda Protectorate, 1894-96;
Spec. Extra Regt. Employ, 1896-97; employed with Egyptian Army, 1897-99;
Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Unyoro Ex., 1895
(Despatches; medal); Nandi Ex., 1895-96 (Despatches; D.S.O.); Op. on the
Niger, 1897 (Despatches; Brev. of Maj.; medal with clasp); Nile Ex.,
1898, wounded (Despatches; 4th class Medjidie; 2 clasps to Egyptian
medal); S. African War 1899-1900.

=Verner.=--Lieut.-Col. W. Willoughby Cole Verner. Entered 1873;
Lieut.-Col., 1896. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Gibraltar,
1877-78; D.A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1885; D.A.A.G. for Inst. S.E. Dist.,
1885-92; Prof. R. Mil. Coll., 1896-99; D.A.A.G. (Topog.); S. Africa,
1899. _War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches; medal with 2
clasps; bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Vernon.=--Capt. H. E. Vernon, D.S.O. Entered 1888; Capt. Rifle Brig.,
1897. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Maj.-Gen., Inf. Brig., Natal, 1899. _War
Service_--Op. in S. Africa, 1896 (Despatches; D.S.O.); S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff.

=Vialls.=--Maj. H. G. Vialls. A notable member of the West Australian
Bushman's Corps.

=Vincent.=--Sir Charles E. Howard Vincent, K.T., K.C.M.G., C.B., M.P.,
Lieut.-Col. 13th Middlesex V.R.C. Sir Charles Howard Vincent who, in
spite of his numerous duties, so patriotically hurried to the front with
the rest of the gallant volunteers, has always kept in touch with
military affairs. He was born in 1849, and spent the years from 1868 to
1873 in the Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Later, he joined the Berks Militia,
and afterwards became Lieut.-Colonel of the Central London Rangers. He
has filled with distinction many important posts. He was Director of
Criminal Investigations, Metropolitan Police, 1878-84; Member of
Metropolitan Board of Works, 1888; Founder of United Empire Trade League,
1891; Chairman of National Union Conservative Associations, 1895; Member
of London County Council, 1889-96. He has been M.P. for Central Sheffield
since 1885.


=Waldron.=--Lieut.-Col. F. Waldron, R.A. Entered 1873; Lieut.-Col., 1899.
_Staff Service_--D.A.A.G., Canada, 1890-95. _War Service_--S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Walford.=--Col. Walford. This officer rendered meritorious service with
the British S. Africa Police.

=Wallack.=--Col. T. E. Wallack. This officer rendered splendid service
with the Tasmanian Corps of Imperial Bushmen.

=Wallnutt.=--Maj. Claude C. M. Wallnutt, D.S.O. This gallant officer
entered the army in 1881, and became a Major in 1898. He had
distinguished himself in the Soudan, in the Chitral Relief Force, and on
the N.W. Frontier of India, including Dargai and the Operations in the
Maidan. He was killed in the Boer attack on Waggon Hill, Ladysmith, on
the 6th of Jan.

=Ward.=--Col. E. W. D. Ward, C.B., A.A.G., Natal. _Staff
Service_--D.A.A.G., Headquarters, Ireland, 1892-95; D.A.A.G., Home Dist.;
Spec. Serv., Ashanti, 1895-96; A.A.G., Natal, 1899. _War Service_--Soudan
Ex., 1885 (Despatches; medal with 2 clasps; bronze star; promoted Assist.
Comdt.-Gen.); Ashanti Ex., 1895-96 (hon. mentioned; star); S. African
War, 1899-1900; on Staff. This remarkable officer, born in 1853, who was
one of the prime actors in the gallant defence of Ladysmith, is the son
of the late Capt. J. Ward, R.N.

=Warren.=--Lieut.-Gen. Sir Charles Warren, R.E., G.C.M.G., K.C.B. Entered
1857; Lieut.-Gen., 1897. _Staff Service_--Inst. in Surveying School of
Mil. Eng., 1880-84; Maj.-Gen. (local), S. Africa, 1884-85; Maj.-Gen.
(local), Egypt, 1886; Col. on Staff, Straits Settlements, 1889-93;
Brig.-Gen., Straits Settlements, 1893-94; Maj.-Gen., Thames Dist.,
1895-98; Lieut.-Gen., Inf. Div., S. Africa, 1899-1900. _War Service_--S.
African War, 1877-79 (Despatches; medal with clasp; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.); Egyptian Ex., 1882 (medal; bronze star; K.C.M.G.; 3rd class
Medjidie); Bechuanaland Ex., 1884-85 (G.C.M.G.); S. African War,
1899-1900; afterwards Mil. Gov., N. Cape Colony. Sir Charles, who was
born in 1840, is the son of the late Gen. Sir Charles Warren, K.C.B. He
married in 1864 the daughter of Mr. Haydon, Guildford.

=Watermeyer.=--Capt. Watermeyer, Cape Town Highlanders; A.D.C. to
Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief.

=Watson.=--Maj. J. K. Watson, D.S.O., A.D.C. to Lord Kitchener. Entered
1885; Brev.-Maj., 1898. _Staff Service_--Employed with Egyptian Army,
1894-99. _War Service_--Burma, 1891-92; Ex. to Dongola, 1896 (Despatches;
D.S.O.; Egyptian medal with 2 clasps); Nile Ex., 1897 (4th class
Medjidie; clasp to Egyptian medal); Nile Ex., 1898 (Despatches; Brev. of
Maj.; 2 clasps Egyptian medal; medal); Nile Ex., 1899 (Despatches); S.
African War, 1899-1900. This distinguished officer, who, in S. Africa as
in the Soudan, has performed a vast amount of valuable service with
little display, is the son of Gen. J. K. Watson (late 60th Rifles). He
was born in 1865.

=Wauchope.=--Maj.-Gen. A. G. Wauchope, C.B., C.M.G. For career _see_ vol.
ii. p. 184.

=Wavell.=--Maj.-Gen. Archibald G. Wavell. Entered 1863; Brev. Col., 1894;
Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., S. Africa, 1900. _Staff Service_--Fort Adjt., King
William's Town, 1868-70; Spec. Serv., S. Africa, 1879; Staff Officer
Volunteers, Cape of Good Hope, 1880-81; D.A.A.G. and D.A.A.G. for Inst.,
Scottish Dist., 1894-95; A.A.G. for Recg., Headquarters of Army,
1898-1900. _War Service_--S. African War, 1879 (medal with clasp); S.
African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Wells-Cole.=--Capt. H. Wells-Cole, D.S.O., York Light Infantry. Entered
1884; Capt., 1892. _War Service_--Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98
(Despatches; D.S.O.; medal with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Western.=--Col. C. M. Western. Entered Royal Artillery, 1869;
Brev.-Col., 1899. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79 (medal); S. African
War, 1881.

=Westminster= (2nd Duke of).--Hugh R. A. Grosvenor. The Duke of
Westminster, born in 1879, joined the Royal Horse Guards in Aug. 1900. He
has acted in the capacity of A.D.C. (extra) to Lord Roberts.

=White.=--Gen. Sir George Stewart White, #V.C.#, G.C.B., G.C.S.I.,
G.C.I.E., G.C.V.O., Col. Gordon Highlanders. Entered 1853. Lieut.-Gen.,
1895. _Staff Service_--Mil. Sec. to Viceroy, India, 1880-81; Spec. Serv.,
Egypt, 1885; A.A. and Q.M.G., Egypt, 1885; Brig.-Gen., Madras, 1885;
Commanding Brig., Burmese Ex., 1885-86; Commanding Upper Burmah Field
Force, 1886-89; Maj.-Gen., Bengal, 1889-93; Com.-in-Chief, E. Indies,
1893-98; Q.M.G. Headquarters of Army, 1898-99; Lieut.-Gen., Natal,
1899-1900; Gov. and Com.-in-Chief, Gibraltar, July 1900. _War
Service_--Indian Mutiny (medal); Afghan War, 1879-80 (Despatches; medal
with 3 clasps; bronze star; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.; #V.C.#; C.B.); Soudan Ex.
1884-85 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Burmese Ex., 1885-89 (thanked by
Govt. of India; Despatches; K.C.B.; promoted Maj.-Gen.); Op. of Zhob
Field Force, 1890 (Despatches); Op. N.W. Frontier of India (Despatches);
S. African War, 1899-1900; G.O.C. Natal Field Force. Sir George White,
born in 1835, is the son of Mr. J. R. White and the daughter of Mr. G.
Steuart. He married in 1874 Miss Bayley, daughter of the Archdeacon of
Calcutta. Before the Afghan War General White was comparatively unknown,
but after that date honours rained thickly upon him. From the outset Lord
Roberts had noted his splendid ability, and in "Forty-one Years in India"
he showed his readiness to recognise how much of the success of the
victory of Charasiah he owed to his gallant subordinate. The following
passage serves to show the generosity of the one, and the gallantry of
the other: "Major White explained to me his part in the victory of the
previous day. From my inspection of the ground I had no difficulty in
coming to the conclusion that much of the success which attended the
operations on this side was due to White's military instincts, and, at
one supreme moment, his extreme personal gallantry. It afforded me very
great pleasure, therefore, to recommend this officer for the Victoria
Cross, an honour of which more than one incident in his subsequent career
proved him to be well worthy." In the prosaic language of the London
_Gazette_ the "supreme moment" is thus described: "Finding that the
artillery and rifle fire failed to dislodge the enemy from a fortified
hill, which it was necessary to capture, Major White led an attack upon
it in person. Advancing with two companies of his regiment, and climbing
from one steep ledge to another, he came upon a body of the enemy,
strongly posted, and outnumbering his force by about eight to one. His
men being much exhausted, and immediate action being necessary, Major
White took a rifle and, going on by himself, shot the leader of the
enemy. This act so intimidated the rest that they fled round the side of
the hill, and the position was won." The "gallant and ever-foremost Major
White" was again eulogised by the conqueror of Kandahar, who wrote
inspiritingly of the intrepidity with which he and the dauntless Gordons
dashed themselves against the one remaining entrenched position: "It now
became necessary to take this position by storm, and recognising the fact
with true soldierly instinct, Major White, who was leading the advanced
companies of the 92nd, called upon the men for just one charge more, 'to
close the business.' The battery of screw guns had been shelling the
position, and under cover of its fire, and supported by a portion of the
2nd Gurkhas and 23rd Pioneers, the Highlanders, responding with alacrity
to their leader's call, dashed forward and drove the enemy from their
entrenchments at the point of the bayonet. Major White was the first to
reach the guns, being closely followed by Sepoy Inderbir Lama, who,
placing his rifle on one of them, exclaimed, 'Captured in the name of the
2nd (Prince of Wales's Own) Gurkhas!'"

=White.=--Lieut.-Col. H. White. This officer rendered conspicuous service
with the British S. Africa Police.

=Williams.=--Col. W. D. C. Williams. This officer rendered meritorious
service with the New South Wales Army Medical Corps.

=Williams.=--Capt. W. de L. Williams, D.S.O., Hampshire Regiment. Entered
1891; Capt., 1898. _Staff Service_--Spec. Extra Regimental Employ,
1898-99. _War Service_--Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98, severely
wounded (medal with 2 clasps); W. Africa, 1898, wounded (Despatches;
D.S.O.); S. African War, 1899-1900, severely wounded.

=Wilson.=--Surgeon Gen. W. D. Wilson, R.A.M.C. Col. R.A.M.C., 1894; Army
Medical Staff, 1898. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-79-80 (medal);
Egyptian Ex., 1882-84 (medal; bronze star); Soudan, 1884 (Despatches; 2
clasps; pro. Surg.-Maj., ranking with Lieut.-Col.), S. African War;
P.M.O.

[Illustration: SURGEON-GENERAL W. D. WILSON

_Photo by Heath, Plymouth_]

=Winchester= (15th Marquis).--Augustus J. H. B. Paulet. For career _see_
vol. ii. p. 186.

=Wolseley-Jenkins.=--Lieut.-Col. C. B. H. Wolseley-Jenkins, 19th Hussars.
Entered 1874; Lieut.-Col., 1897. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882-84
(medal with clasp; bronze star); wounded (Despatches; 2 clasps; 4th class
Medjidie; Brev. of Maj.); S. African War, 1899-1900; Commanding Cavalry,
Ladysmith.

=Wood.=--Col. C. K. Wood, R.E. Entered 1872; Col., S. Africa, April 1900.
_Staff Service_--Adjt. Volunteers, 1889-94; Col. on Staff (Chf. Eng.),
Natal, April 1900. _War Service_--Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (medal with clasp;
bronze star); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Wood.=--Lieut.-Col. C. Wood, Essex Regiment. Entered 1872; Lieut.-Col.,
1900. _Staff Service_--Adjt. Militia, 1887-92. _War Service_--S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Wood.=--Maj.-Gen. Elliot Wood, C.B. Entered R.E. 1864; Col., 1889.
_Staff Service_--A.D.C. to Inspector-General of Fortifications, War
Office, 1880; Spec. Serv., Egypt, 1884; A.A.G., Royal Engineers,
Headquarters of Army, 1889-94; Col. on Staff (Commanding R.E.), Malta,
1894-99; Col. on Staff (Commanding R.E.), Aldershot, 1899; Maj.-Gen.
(Chief Eng.), S. Africa, 1899. _War Service_--Egyptian Ex., 1882-84
(Despatches; medal with clasp; bronze star; Brev. of Maj.; 4th class
Medjidie; Despatches, March, 2nd and 6th May, 1884; 2 clasps; Brev. of
Lieut.-Col.); Soudan Ex., 1885 (Despatches; 2 clasps; C.B.); S. African
War, 1899-1900.

=Woodgate.=--Maj.-Gen. Sir E. Robert Prevost Woodgate, K.C.M.G., C.B.,
C.M.G. For career _see_ vol. iii. p. 116.

=Woodland.=--Lieut.-Col. A. L. Woodland, 1st Batt. Durham Light Infantry.
Entered 1867; Lieut.-Col., 1896. _War Service_--S. African War,
1899-1900.

=Wools Sampson.=--Lieut.-Col. Wools Sampson. This dashing officer
commanded the splendid regiment of S. African Colonials, the Imperial
Light Horse.

=Wright.-=-Lieut.-Col. A. J. A. Wright, East Lancashire Regiment. Entered
1870; Lieut.-Col., 1899. _Staff Service_--D.A.A.G. (Musk.) Bengal,
1883-95; Adjt. Militia, 1890-98. _War Service_--Op. in Chitral, 1895
(medal with clasp); S. African War, 1899-1900.

=Wyndham-Quin.=--Maj. W. H. Wyndham-Quin, M.P. Major Wyndham-Quin, who
was formerly in the 16th Lancers, is another of the patriotic number who
went to the front with the Imperial Yeomanry. He was born in 1857, served
in the Boer War of 1881, and married in 1885 the daughter of the 6th Earl
of Mayo.

=Wynne.=--Maj.-Gen. A. S. Wynne, C.B. Entered 1863; Col., 1891. _Staff
Service_--Spec., S. Africa, 1881; employed with Egyptian Army, 1883-85;
D.A.A.G., Headquarters of Army, 1886-88; A.A.G., Curragh, 1891-94;
D.A.G., Malta, 1894-98; Aldershot, 1898-99; Assist. Mil. Sec.,
Headquarters of Army, 1899; D.A.G., S. Africa, 1899-1900; Maj.-Gen. Inf.
Brig., S. Africa, Jan. 1900. _War Service_--Jowaki Ex., 1877 (Despatches;
medal with clasp); Afghan War, 1878-79 (Despatches; medal with clasp;
Brev. of Maj.); S. African War, 1881; Soudan Ex., 1884-85 (Despatches;
medal with clasp; bronze star; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.); S. African War,
1899-1900; on Staff; with Ladysmith Relief Force (wounded, Feb. 22).

=Wynyard.=--Capt. E. G. Wynyard, D.S.O., Welsh Regiment. Entered 1883.
_Staff Service_--Adjt. Volunteers, 1899; Inst. R. Mil. Coll., 1899. _War
Service_--Burmese Ex., 1885-87 (Despatches; medal with clasp; D.S.O.).


=Yarde-Buller.=--Capt. Hon. H. Yarde-Buller, Rifle Brigade, A.D.C.
Entered 1884; Capt., 1893. _Staff Service_--A.D.C. (extra) to Gov.,
Bombay, 1887-88; A.D.C. (extra) to G.O.C., Aldershot, 1896-97; A.D.C. to
Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., S. Africa, 1899; A.D.C. to Lieut.-Gen. Inf. Div.,
S. Africa. _War Service_--Waziristan Ex., 1894-95; Nile Ex., 1898
(Egyptian medal with clasp; medal); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff.

=Younghusband.=--Maj. G. J. Younghusband, I.S.C. Entered 1878; Major,
I.S.C., 1898. _War Service_--Afghan War, 1878-80 (medal with clasp);
Soudan Ex., 1885 (medal with clasp; bronze star); Burmese Ex., 1886-87
(medal with clasp); Op. in Chitral, 1895 (Despatches; Brev. of Maj.); S.
African War, 1899-1900; severely wounded; Commanded 3rd Battalion
Imperial Yeomanry throughout Lord Methuen's operations.

=Yule.=--Col. J. H. Yule. Entered 1865; Col., 1899. _Staff
Service_--Maj.-Gen. Inf. Brig., Natal, 1899. _War Service_--Afghan War,
1879-80 (medal); Burma, 1889-92 (medal with clasp; Brev. of Lieut.-Col.);
Op. on N.W. Frontier of India, 1897-98 (Despatches; Brev. of Col.; medal
with 2 clasps); S. African War, 1899-1900; on Staff; action at Dundee.

FOOTNOTES:

[19] The military details do not extend beyond the information contained
in the Official Army Lists of 1900.

[20] This was written prior to the display of brutality towards the Peace
Envoys.

[21] Now Commander-in-Chief in S. Africa.



RECIPIENTS OF THE VICTORIA CROSS

     Queen Victoria was pleased to confer the decoration of the
     Victoria Cross on the following officers, non-commissioned
     officers, and men, whose claims were submitted to her Majesty's
     approval, for their conspicuous bravery in South Africa, as
     stated against their  names[22]:--


=Captain Matthew Fontaine Maury Meiklejohn= of the Gordon
Highlanders.--At the battle of Elandslaagte, on October 21, 1899, after
the main Boer position had been captured, some men of the Gordon
Highlanders, when about to assault a kopje in advance, were exposed to a
heavy cross-fire, and, having lost their leaders, commenced to waver.
Seeing this, Captain Meiklejohn rushed to the front and called on the
Gordons to follow him. By his conspicuous bravery and fearless example,
he rallied the men and led them against the enemy's position, where he
fell, desperately wounded in four places.

=Captains C. H. Mullins and R. Johnstone=, Imperial Light Horse.--On the
21st October 1899, at Elandslaagte, at a most critical moment, the
advance being momentarily checked by a very severe fire at point-blank
range, these two officers very gallantly rushed forward under this heavy
fire and rallied the men, thus enabling the flanking movement which
decided the day to be carried out. On this occasion Captain Mullins was
wounded.

=Sergeant-Major (now Quartermaster and Hon. Lieutenant) William
Robertson= of the Gordon Highlanders.--At the battle of Elandslaagte, on
October 21, 1899, during the final advance on the enemy's position,
Sergt.-Major Robertson led each successive rush, exposing himself
fearlessly to the enemy's artillery and rifle fire to encourage the men.
After the main position had been captured, he led a small party to seize
the Boer camp. Though exposed to a deadly cross-fire from the enemy's
rifles, he gallantly held on to the position captured, and continued to
encourage the men until he was dangerously wounded in two places.

=Second Lieutenant John Norwood=, 5th Dragoon Guards.--On October 30,
1899, Second Lieutenant Norwood went out from Ladysmith in charge of a
small patrol of the 5th Dragoon Guards. They came under a heavy fire from
the enemy, who were posted on a ridge in great force. The patrol, which
had arrived within about 600 yards of the ridge, then retired at full
speed. One man dropped, and Second Lieutenant Norwood galloped back about
300 yards through heavy fire, dismounted, and picking up the fallen
trooper, carried him out of fire on his back, at the same time leading
his horse with one hand. The enemy kept up an incessant fire during the
whole time that Second Lieutenant Norwood was carrying the man until he
was quite out of range.

*=Lieutenant H. E. M. Douglas=, Royal Army Medical Corps.--On December
11, 1899, during the action at Majesfontein, Lieutenant Douglas showed
great gallantry and devotion under a very severe fire in advancing in the
open and attending to Captain Gordon, Gordon Highlanders, who was
wounded, and also attending to Major Robinson and other wounded men under
a fearful fire. Many similar acts of devotion and gallantry were
performed by Lieutenant Douglas on the same day.

=Corporal J. Shaul=, the Highland Light Infantry.--On December 11, 1899,
during the battle of Majesfontein, Corporal Shaul was observed (not only
by the officers of his own battalion but by several officers of other
regiments) to perform several specific acts of bravery. Corporal Shaul
was in charge of stretcher-bearers; but at one period of the battle he
was seen encouraging men to advance across the open. He was most
conspicuous during the day in dressing men's wounds, and in one case he
came, under a heavy fire, to a man who was lying wounded in the back,
and, with the utmost coolness and deliberation, sat down beside the
wounded man and proceeded to dress his wound. Having done this, he got up
and went quietly to another part of the field. This act of gallantry was
performed under a continuous and heavy fire as coolly and quietly as if
there had been no enemy near.

=Captain W. N. Congreve=, the Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's
Own).--At Colenso, on December 15, 1899, the detachments serving the guns
of the 14th and 66th Batteries, Royal Field Artillery, had all been
either killed, wounded, or driven from their guns by infantry fire at
close range, and the guns were deserted. About 500 yards behind the guns
was a donga in which some of the few horses and drivers left alive were
sheltered. The intervening space was swept with shell and rifle fire.
Captain Congreve, Rifle Brigade, who was in the donga, assisted to hook a
team into a limber, went out, and assisted to limber up a gun. Being
wounded, he took shelter; but seeing Lieutenant Roberts fall, badly
wounded, he went out again and brought him in. Captain Congreve was shot
through the leg, through the toe of his boot, grazed on the elbow and the
shoulder, and his horse shot in three places.

=Lieutenant the Hon. F. H. S. Roberts= (since deceased), the King's Royal
Rifle Corps.--Lieutenant Roberts assisted Captain Congreve. He was
wounded in three places.

=Corporal G. E. Nurse=, 66th Battery, Royal Field Artillery.--Corporal
Nurse also assisted.

=Captain H. L. Reed=, 7th Battery, Royal Field Artillery.--Captain Reed,
who had heard of the difficulty, shortly afterwards brought down three
teams from his battery to see if he could be of any use. He was wounded,
as were five of the thirteen men who rode with him; one was killed; and
thirteen out of twenty-one horses were killed before he got half-way to
the guns, and he was obliged to retire.

=Major William Babtie, C.M.G.=, of the Royal Army Medical Corps.--In the
engagement the wounded of the 14th and 66th Batteries, Royal Field
Artillery, were lying in an advanced donga close in the rear of the guns
without any medical officer to attend to them, and when a message was
sent back asking for assistance, Major Babtie rode up under a heavy rifle
fire, his pony being hit three times. When he arrived at the donga, where
the wounded were lying in sheltered corners, he attended to them all,
going from place to place exposed to the heavy rifle fire which greeted
any one who showed himself. Late in the day Major Babtie went out with
Captain Congreve to bring in Lieutenant Roberts, who was lying wounded on
the veldt. This also was under a heavy fire.

=Captain Charles FitzClarence=, the Royal Fusiliers (City of London
Regiment).--On the 14th October 1899, Captain FitzClarence went with his
squadron of the Protectorate Regiment, consisting of only partially
trained men, who had never been in action, to the assistance of an
armoured train which had gone out from Mafeking. The enemy were in
greatly superior numbers, and the squadron was for a time surrounded, and
it looked as if nothing could save them from being shot down. Captain
FitzClarence, however, by his personal coolness and courage, inspired the
greatest confidence in his men, and by his bold and efficient handling of
them, not only succeeded in relieving the armoured train, but inflicted a
heavy defeat on the Boers, who lost fifty killed and a large number
wounded, his own losses being two killed and fifteen wounded. The moral
effect of this blow had a very important bearing on subsequent encounters
with the Boers.

On the 27th October 1899, Captain FitzClarence led his squadron from
Mafeking across the open, and made a night attack with the bayonet on one
of the enemy's trenches. A hand-to-hand fight took place in the trench,
while a heavy fire was concentrated on it from the rear. The enemy was
driven out with heavy loss. Captain FitzClarence was the first man into
the position, and accounted for four of the enemy with his sword. The
British lost six killed and nine wounded. Captain FitzClarence was
himself slightly wounded. With reference to these two actions,
Major-General Baden-Powell states that, had this officer not shown an
extraordinary spirit and fearlessness, the attacks would have been
failures, and we should have suffered heavy loss both in men and
prestige. On the 26th December 1899, during the action at Game Tree, near
Mafeking, Captain FitzClarence again distinguished himself by his
coolness and courage, and was again wounded (severely through both legs).

=Sergeant H. R. Martineau=, Protectorate Regiment.--On the 26th December
1899, during the fight at Game Tree, near Mafeking, when the order to
retire had been given, Sergeant Martineau stopped and picked up Corporal
Le Camp, who had been struck down about ten yards from the Boer trenches,
and half dragged, half carried him towards a bush about 150 yards from
the trenches. In doing this Sergeant Martineau was wounded in the side,
but paid no attention to it, and proceeded to staunch and bandage the
wounds of his comrade, whom he afterwards assisted to retire. The firing
while they were retiring was very heavy, and Sergeant Martineau was again
wounded. When shot the second time he was absolutely exhausted from
supporting his comrade, and sank down unable to proceed further. He
received three wounds, one of which necessitated the amputation of his
arm near the shoulder.

=Trooper H. E. Ramsden=, Protectorate Regiment.--On the 26th December
1899, during the fight at Game Tree, near Mafeking, after the order to
retire was given, Trooper H. E. Ramsden picked up his brother, Trooper A.
E. Ramsden, who had been shot through both legs and was lying about ten
yards from the Boer trenches, and carried him about 600 or 800 yards
under a heavy fire (putting him down from time to time for a rest) till
they met some men who helped to carry him to a place of safety.

=Lieutenant (now Captain) Sir John P. Milbanke, Bart.=, 10th Hussars.--On
the 5th January 1900, during a reconnaissance near Colesberg, Sir John
Milbanke, when retiring under fire with a small patrol of the 10th
Hussars, notwithstanding the fact that he had just been severely wounded
in the thigh, rode back to the assistance of one of the men whose pony
was exhausted, and who was under fire from some Boers who had dismounted.
Sir John Milbanke took the man up on his own horse under a most galling
fire and brought him safely back to camp.

[Illustration: COMMANDER AND ABLE-SEAMAN, R. N.

Photo by Gregory & Co., London.]

=Lieutenant Francis Newton Parsons= (since deceased), Essex Regiment.--On
the morning of the 18th of February 1900, at Paardeberg, on the south
bank of the river Modder, Private Ferguson, 1st Battalion Essex Regiment,
was wounded and fell in a place devoid of cover. While trying to crawl
under cover he was again wounded in the stomach. Lieutenant Parsons at
once went to his assistance, dressed his wound under heavy fire, went
down twice (still under heavy fire) to the bank of the river to get water
for Private Ferguson, and subsequently carried him to a place of safety.
This officer was recommended for the Victoria Cross by Lieutenant-General
Kelly-Kenny, C.B., on the 3rd of March last. Lieutenant Parsons was
killed on the 10th of March in the engagement at Driefontein, on which
occasion he again displayed conspicuous gallantry.

=Private (now Corporal) A. E. Curtis=, 2nd Battalion East Surrey
Regiment.--On the 23rd February 1900, Colonel Harris lay all day long in
a perfectly open space under close fire of a Boer breastwork. The Boers
fired all day at any man who moved, and Colonel Harris was wounded eight
or nine times. Private Curtis, after several attempts, succeeded in
reaching the Colonel, bound his wounded arm, and gave him his flask--all
under heavy fire. He then tried to carry him away, but was unable, on
which he called for assistance and Private Morton came out at once.
Fearing that the men would be killed, Colonel Harris told them to leave
him, but they declined, and after trying to carry the Colonel on their
rifles they made a chair with their hands and so carried him out of fire.

=Lieutenant E. T. Inkson=, Royal Army Medical Corps.--On the 24th
February 1900, Lieutenant Inkson carried Second Lieutenant Devenish (who
was severely wounded and unable to walk) for three or four hundred yards
under a very heavy fire to a place of safety. The ground over which
Lieutenant Inkson had to move was much exposed, there being no cover
available.

=Captain Conwyn Mansel-Jones=, the West Yorkshire Regiment.--On February
27, 1900, during the assault on Terrace Hill, north of the Tugela, in
Natal, the companies of the West Yorkshire Regiment on the northern slope
of the hill met with a severe shell, Vickers-Maxim, and rifle fire, and
their advance was for a few moments checked. Captain C. Mansel-Jones,
however, by his strong initiative, restored confidence, and, in spite of
his falling very seriously wounded, the men took the whole ridge without
further check, this officer's self-sacrificing devotion to duty at a
critical moment having averted what might have proved a serious check to
the whole assault.

=Sergeant H. Engleheart=, 10th Hussars.--At dawn on March 13, 1900, the
party that had destroyed the railway north of Bloemfontein had to charge
through a Boer piquet and get over four deep spruits in order to make
their way back through the Boer lines. At the fourth spruit Sapper Webb's
horse failed to get up the bank, and he was left in a very dangerous
position. In face of a very heavy rifle and shell fire, and
notwithstanding the great chance of being cut off, Sergeant Engleheart
returned to Sapper Webb's assistance. It took some time to get the man
and his horse out of the sluit, and the position became momentarily more
critical owing to the advance of the Boers. He was, however, at last
successful, and retiring slowly, to cover Webb's retreat, was able to get
him safely back to the party. Shortly before this, Sergeant Engleheart
had shown great gallantry in dashing into the first spruit, which could
only be reached in single file, and was still full of Boers hesitating
whether to fly or fire. Had they been given time to rally they must have
destroyed the small party of British, as they outnumbered them by four to
one.

=Major Phipps-Hornby, Sergeant Charles Parker, Gunner Isaac Lodge, Driver
Horace Harry Glasock=, Q Battery, R.H.A.--Four Victoria Crosses were
awarded to members of Q Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, for gallantry
displayed at Koorn Spruit. As every man of the battery had displayed
equally conspicuous courage, Lord Roberts decided to deal with the case
under Rule 13 of the Warrant of the Order, and allotted four badges--one
for officers, one for non-commissioned officers, and two for gunners and
drivers. The circumstances in which Major Phipps-Hornby was selected for
the honour in the first class mentioned are set forth in the following
extract from the London _Gazette_: "On the occasion of the action at
Koorn Spruit on March 31, 1900, a British force, including two batteries
of the Royal Horse Artillery, was retiring from Thabanchu towards
Bloemfontein. The enemy had formed an ambush at Koorn Spruit, and, before
their presence was discovered by the main body, had captured the greater
portion of the baggage column and five out of the six guns of the leading
battery. When the alarm was given Q Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, was
within 300 yards of the spruit. Major Phipps-Hornby, who commanded it, at
once wheeled about and moved off at a gallop under a very heavy fire. One
gun upset when a wheel-horse was shot, and had to be abandoned, together
with a waggon, the horses of which were killed. The remainder of the
battery reached a position close to some unfinished railway buildings,
and came into action 1150 yards from the spruit, remaining in action
until ordered to retire. When the order to retire was received, Major
Phipps-Hornby ordered the guns and their limbers to be run back by hand
to where the teams of uninjured horses stood behind the unfinished
buildings. The few remaining gunners, assisted by a number of officers
and men of a party of mounted infantry, and directed by Major
Phipps-Hornby and Captain Humphreys, the only remaining officers of the
battery, succeeded in running back four of the guns under shelter. One or
two of the limbers were similarly withdrawn by hand, but the work was
most severe and the distance considerable. In consequence, all concerned
were so exhausted that they were unable to drag in the remaining limbers
or the fifth gun. It now became necessary to risk the horses, and
volunteers were called for from among the drivers, who readily responded.
Several horses were killed, and men wounded, but at length only one gun
and one limber were left exposed. Four separate attempts were made to
rescue these, but when no more horses were available the attempt had to
be given up, and the gun and limber were abandoned. Meanwhile the other
guns had been sent on, one at a time, and, after passing within 700 or
800 yards of the enemy, in rounding the head of a donga and crossing two
spruits, they eventually reached a place of safety, where the battery was
reformed. After full consideration of the circumstances of the case, the
Field-Marshal Commanding-in-Chief in South Africa formed the opinion that
the conduct of all ranks of Q Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, was
conspicuously gallant and daring, but that all were equally brave and
devoted in their behaviour. He therefore decided to treat the case of the
battery as one of collective gallantry under Rule 13 of the Victoria
Cross Warrant, and directed that one officer should be selected for the
decoration of the Victoria Cross by the officers, one non-commissioned
officer by the non-commissioned officers, and two gunners or drivers by
the gunners and drivers. A difficulty arose with regard to the officer,
owing to the fact that there were only two unwounded officers--Major
Phipps-Hornby and Captain Humphreys--available for the work of saving the
guns, and both of these had been conspicuous by their gallantry and by
the fearless manner in which they exposed themselves, and each of them
nominated the other for the decoration. It was ultimately decided in
favour of Major Phipps-Hornby, as having been the senior concerned."

Sergeant Charles Parker was chosen by the non-commissioned officers as
the one among them most deserving the distinction.

Gunner Isaac Lodge and Driver Horace Harry Glasock were selected in the
like manner by the vote of their comrades.

*=Lieutenant F. A. Maxwell=, D.S.O., Indian Staff Corps, attached to
Roberts's Light Horse.--Lieutenant Maxwell was one of three officers not
belonging to Q Battery, Royal Horse Artillery, specially mentioned by
Lord Roberts as having shown the greatest gallantry and disregard of
danger in carrying out the self-imposed duty of saving the guns of that
battery during the affair at Koorn Spruit on March 31, 1900. This officer
went out on five different occasions and assisted to bring in two guns
and three limbers, one of which he, Captain Humphreys, and some gunners,
dragged in by hand. He also went out with Captain Humphreys and
Lieutenant Stirling to try to get the last gun in, and remained there
till the attempt was abandoned. During a previous campaign (the Chitral
Expedition of 1895) Lieutenant Maxwell displayed gallantry in the removal
of the body of Lieutenant-Colonel F. D. Battye, Corps of Guides, under
fire, for which, though recommended, he received no reward.[23]

=Lieutenant W. H. S. Nickerson=, Royal Army Medical Corps, attached to
Mounted Infantry.--At Wakkerstroom, on the evening of the 20th April
1900, during the advance of the Infantry to support the mounted troops,
Lieutenant Nickerson went, in the most gallant manner, under a heavy
rifle and shell fire, to attend a wounded man, dressed his wounds, and
remained with him till he had him conveyed to a place of safety.

=Corporal H. Beet=, 1st Battalion Derbyshire Regiment Mounted
Infantry.--At Wakkerstroom, on the 22nd April 1900, No. 2 Mounted
Infantry Company 1st Battalion Derbyshire Regiment, with two squadrons
Imperial Yeomanry, had to retire from near a farm, under a ridge held by
Boers. Corporal Burnett, Imperial Yeomanry, was left on the ground
wounded, and Corporal Beet, on seeing him, remained behind, and placed
him under cover, bound up his wounds, and by firing prevented the Boers
from coming down to the farm till dark, when Dr. Wilson, Imperial
Yeomanry, came to the wounded man's assistance. The retirement was
carried out under a very heavy fire, and Corporal Beet was exposed to
fire during the whole afternoon.

=Captain Ernest Beckwith Towse=, the Gordon Highlanders.--On the 11th
December, 1899, at the action of Majesfontein, Captain Towse was brought
to notice by his commanding officer for his gallantry and devotion in
assisting the late Colonel Downman, when mortally wounded, in the
retirement, and endeavouring, when close up to the front of the firing
line, to carry Colonel Downman on his back, but finding this not possible
Captain Towse supported him till joined by Colour-Sergeant Nelson and
Lance-Corporal Hodgson. On the 30th of April, 1900, Captain Towse, with
12 men, took up a position on the top of Mount Thaba, far away from
support. A force of about 150 Boers attempted to seize the same plateau,
neither party appearing to see the other until they were but 100 yards
apart. Some of the Boers then got within 40 yards of Captain Towse and
his party, and called on him to surrender. He at once caused his men to
open fire, and remained firing himself until severely wounded (both eyes
shattered), succeeding in driving off the Boers. The gallantry of this
officer in vigorously attacking the enemy (for he not only fired, but
charged forward) saved the situation, notwithstanding the numerical
superiority of the Boers.

=Corporal F. M'Kay=, the Gordon Highlanders.--On the 29th of May 1900,
during the action on Crow's Nest Hill, near Johannesburg, Corporal M'Kay
repeatedly rushed forward, under a withering fire at short ranges, to
attend to wounded comrades, dressing their wounds, while he himself was
without shelter, and in one instance carrying a wounded man from the
open, under a heavy fire, to the shelter of a boulder.

=Corporal F. Kirby=, Royal Engineers.--On the morning of June 2, 1900, a
party sent to try to cut the Delagoa Bay Railway were retiring, hotly
pressed by very superior numbers. During one of the successive
retirements of the rearguard a man, whose horse had been shot, was seen
running after his comrades. He was a long way behind the rest of his
troop, and was under a brisk fire. From among the retiring troop,
Corporal Kirby turned and rode back to the man's assistance. Although by
the time he reached him they were under a heavy fire at close range,
Corporal Kirby managed to get the dismounted man up behind him, and to
take him clear off over the next rise held by our rearguard. This is the
third occasion on which Corporal Kirby has displayed gallantry in the
face of the enemy.

=Private C. Ward=, 2nd Battalion the King's Own (Yorkshire Light
Infantry).--On June 26, 1900, at Lindley, a picket of the Yorkshire Light
Infantry was surrounded on three sides by about 500 Boers at close
quarters. The two officers were wounded, and all but six of their men
were killed or wounded. Private Ward then volunteered to take a message
asking for reinforcements to the signalling station about 150 yards in
the rear of the post. His offer was at first refused, owing to the
practical certainty of his being shot; but, on his insisting, he was
allowed to go. He got across untouched through a storm of shots from each
flank, and, having delivered his message, he voluntarily returned from a
place of absolute safety and recrossed the fire-swept ground to assure
his commanding-officer that the message had been sent. On this occasion
he was severely wounded. But for this gallant action the post would
certainly have been captured.

=Sergeant Arthur Herbert Lindsey Richardson= of Lord Strathcona's
Corps.--On July 5, at Wolve Spruit, about fifteen miles north of
Standerton, a party of Lord Strathcona's Corps, only thirty-eight in
number, came into contact and was engaged at close quarters with a force
of eighty of the enemy. When the order to retire had been given, Sergeant
Richardson rode back under a very heavy cross-fire and picked up a
trooper whose horse had been shot, and who was wounded in two places, and
rode with him out of fire. At the time when this act of gallantry was
performed, Sergeant Richardson was within 300 yards of the enemy, and was
himself riding a wounded horse.

=Captain William Engleson Gordon=, the Gordon Highlanders.--On July 11,
1900, during the action near Leehoehoek (or Doornbosch Fontein), near
Krugersdorp, a party of men, accompanied by Captains Younger and Allan,
having succeeded in dragging an artillery waggon under cover when its
horses were unable to do so by reason of the heavy and accurate fire of
the enemy, Captain Gordon called for volunteers to go out with him to try
to bring in one of the guns. He went out alone to the nearest gun under a
heavy fire, and with the greatest coolness fastened a drag-rope to the
gun and then beckoned to the men, who immediately doubled out to join him
in accordance with his previous instructions. While moving the gun,
Captain Younger and three men were hit. Seeing that further attempts
would only result in further casualties, Captain Gordon ordered the
remainder of the party under cover of the kopje again, and, having seen
the wounded safely away, himself retired. Captain Gordon's conduct, under
a particularly heavy and most accurate fire at only 850 yards' range, was
most admirable, and his manner of handling his men most masterly; his
devotion on every occasion that his battalion has been under fire has
been remarkable.

=Captain David Reginald Younger=, the Gordon Highlanders, in recognition
of the conspicuous bravery displayed by him on July 11, 1900, as
described above, would have received the Victoria Cross had he survived
his gallant action.

=Sergeant T. Lawrence=, 17th Lancers.--On the 7th August 1900, when on
patrol duty near Essenbosch Farm, Sergeant Lawrence and a Private Hayman
were attacked by twelve or fourteen Boers. Private Hayman's horse was
shot and the man was thrown, dislocating his shoulder. Sergeant Lawrence
at once came to his assistance, extricated him from under the horse, put
him on his own horse, and sent him on to the picket. Sergeant Lawrence
took the soldier's carbine, and, with his own carbine as well, kept the
Boers off until Private Hayman was safely out of range. He then retired
for some two miles on foot, followed by the Boers, and keeping them off
till assistance arrived.

=Corporal H. J. Knight=, 1st Battalion Liverpool Regiment, No. 1 Company,
Fourth Division Mounted Infantry.--On the 21st August 1900, during the
operations near Van Wyk's Vlei, Corporal Knight was posted in some rocks
with four men covering the right rear of a detachment of the same company
who, under Captain Ewart, were holding the right of the line. The enemy,
about fifty strong, attacked Captain Ewart's right and almost surrounded,
at short range, Corporal Knight's small party. That non-commissioned
officer held his ground, directing his party to retire one by one to
better cover, where he maintained his position for nearly an hour,
covering the withdrawal of Captain Ewart's force, and losing two of his
four men. He then retired, bringing with him two wounded men. One of
these he left in a place of safety, the other he carried himself for
nearly two miles. The party were hotly engaged during the whole time.

=Private William Heaton=, 1st Battalion the King's (Liverpool
Regiment).--On the 23rd August 1900, the company to which Private Heaton
belonged, advancing in front of the general line held by the troops,
became surrounded by the enemy and was suffering severely. At the request
of the officer commanding Private Heaton volunteered to take a message
back to explain the position of the company. He was successful, though at
the imminent risk of his own life. Had it not been for Private Heaton's
courage there can be little doubt that the remainder of the company,
which suffered very severely, would have had to surrender.

=Lieutenant Guy G. E. Wylly=, Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen.--On the 1st of
September 1900, near Warm Bad, Lieutenant Wylly was with the advanced
scouts of a foraging party. They were passing through a narrow gorge,
very rocky and thickly wooded, when the enemy in force suddenly opened
fire at short range from hidden cover, wounding six out of the party of
eight, including Lieutenant Wylly. That officer, seeing that one of his
men was badly wounded in the leg, and that his horse was shot, went back
to the man's assistance, made him take his (Lieutenant Wylly's) horse,
and opened fire from behind a rock to cover the retreat of the others, at
the imminent risk of being cut off himself. Colonel T. E. Hickman,
D.S.O., considers that the gallant conduct of Lieutenant Wylly saved
Corporal Brown from being killed or captured, and that his subsequent
action in firing to cover the retreat was "instrumental in saving others
of his men from death or capture."

=Private J. H. Bisbee=, Tasmanian Imperial Bushmen. Act of courage for
which recommended.--On September 1, 1900, Private Bisbee was one of an
advanced scouting party passing through a rocky defile near Warm Bad,
Transvaal. The enemy, who were in ambuscade, opened a sudden fire at
close range, and six out of the party of eight were hit, including two
officers. The horse of one of the wounded officers broke away and bolted.
Private Bisbee gave the officer his stirrup leather to help him out of
action; but, finding that the officer was too badly wounded to go on,
Private Bisbee dismounted, placed him on his horse, mounted behind him,
and conveyed him out of range. This act was performed under a very hot
fire and in a very exposed place.

=Major E. D. Brown=, 14th Hussars.--On the 13th October 1900, at Geluk,
when the enemy were within four hundred yards, and bringing a heavy fire
to bear, Major Brown, seeing that Sergeant Hersey's horse was shot,
stopped behind the last squadron as it was retiring, and helped Sergeant
Hersey to mount behind him, carrying him for about three-quarters of a
mile to a place of safety. He did this under a heavy fire. Major Brown
afterwards enabled Lieutenant Browne, 14th Hussars, to mount, by holding
his horse, which was very restive under the heavy fire. Lieutenant Browne
could not otherwise have mounted. Subsequently Major Brown carried
Lance-Corporal Trumpeter Leigh out of action.

=Lieutenant A. C. Doxat=, 3rd Battalion Imperial Yeomanry.--On the 20th
October 1900, near Zeerust, Lieutenant Doxat proceeded with a party of
Mounted Infantry to reconnoitre a position held by one hundred Boers on a
ridge of kopjes. When within three hundred yards of the position the
enemy opened a heavy fire on Lieutenant Doxat's party, which then
retired, leaving one of their number who had lost his horse. Lieutenant
Doxat, seeing the dangerous position in which the man was placed,
galloped back under a very heavy fire and brought him on his horse to a
place of safety.

*=Lieutenant H. Z. C. Cockburn=, Royal Canadian Dragoons.--During the
action at Komati River on the 7th of November, Lieutenant Cockburn, with
a handful of men, at a most critical moment held off the Boers to allow
the guns to get away; to do so he had to sacrifice himself and his party,
all of whom were killed, wounded, or taken prisoners, he himself being
slightly wounded.

*=Lieutenant R. E. W. Turner=, Royal Canadian Dragoons.--Later in the
day, when the Boers again seriously threatened to capture the guns,
Lieutenant Turner, though twice previously wounded, dismounted and
deployed his men at close quarters and drove off the Boers, thus saving
the guns.

*=Sergeant E. Holland=, Royal Canadian Dragoons.--Sergeant Holland did
splendid work with his Colt gun, and kept the Boers off the two
twelve-pounders by its fire at close range. When he saw the enemy were
too near for him to escape with the carriage, as the horse was blown, he
calmly lifted the gun off and galloped away with it under his arm.

=Sergeant Farmer=, Cameron Highlanders.--During the attack on General
Clements' camp at Nooitgedacht on December 13, 1900, Lieutenant
Sandilands, Cameron Highlanders, with fifteen men, went to the assistance
of a picquet which was heavily engaged, most of the men having been
killed or wounded. The enemy, who were hidden by trees, opened fire on
the party at a range of about twenty yards, killing two and wounding
five, including Lieutenant Sandilands. Sergeant Farmer at once went to
the officer, who was perfectly helpless, and carried him away under a
very heavy and close fire to a place of comparative safety, after which
he returned to the firing line, and was eventually taken prisoner.

FOOTNOTES:

[22] The names are arranged according to the dates on which were
performed the deeds that earned the distinction. An asterisk denotes the
V.C.'s conferred by King Edward VII.

[23] This decoration was the first Victoria Cross conferred by King
Edward VII., on March 8, 1901.



LEXICON OF TERMS AND PLACES CONNECTED WITH THE CAMPAIGN


=Accoutrements.=--The belts which support the arms, pouch, or pouches of
a soldier. These belts are usually made of "buff" leather in the English
Army, and are marked inside, as are also the pouches, &c., with the
number of the regiment to which they belong.

=Adjutant.=--An officer not above the rank of Major, appointed to assist
the commanding officer in all the details of duty and discipline;
receives and issues that officer's orders to the regiment in general, and
is bound to bring to his notice all infraction of rules and orders. He is
responsible for the correctness of the regimental books; he prosecutes on
all court-martials; supervises the sergeants' mess; has charge of the
orderly-room (Colonel's office); inspects all escorts and guards; has
charge of the official correspondence; and has to spend much of his time
in drilling recruits, and in all duties tending to discipline and the
smartness and efficiency of the regiment.

=Adjutant-General.=--One of the chief staff officers of the army,
through whom all orders are promulgated, and to whom all reports are
sent for the information of the Commander-in-Chief. In time of peace
all official correspondence passes through his office, and he is
responsible for the general efficiency of the army. On a campaign, in
subordination to the Chief of the Staff, he regulates the daily duties
of the force. He keeps an exact account of each division and brigade,
with a roll of the general and field officers. He issues the orders of
the day, and communications on the field are made to him in the
absence of a Chief of the Staff. To his department are attached
Deputy-Adjutant-Generals, Assistant-Adjutant-Generals, and
Deputy-Assistant-Adjutant-Generals.

=Advanced Posts.=--A term applied to picquets, and any fortified position
in country or village in advance of the main line of battle. Their object
is to prevent the enemy surprising the main body of the army, and to give
it time to form up; this being done, the advanced posts fall back upon
their supports and join the main force.

=Africander.=--A white man born of European parents in South Africa.

=Africander Bond.=--An association to protect the interests of the
Africanders in Africa; now known as the "Dutch party" in Cape Colony, who
were certainly not wholly loyal.

=Aide-de-camp.=--An officer attached to the personal staff of a general
officer in garrison or in the field. He carries all orders given him by
the general. These he must deliver most distinctly, so as to avoid all
chance of mistake, and it is understood his orders must be implicitly
obeyed. Thus only officers of intelligence and smartness are appointed.
In times of peace, the aide-de-camp assists his chief in official
correspondence, in introducing officers, and in dispensing the courtesies
of the general's house. An officer cannot be appointed until he has
served two years with his regiment, and passed the prescribed
examination. The number of aide-de-camps allotted to general officers in
the field are: Commander-in-Chief, four; Generals of Division, two;
General of Brigade, one. In time of peace a general has three only.
Aide-de-camps receive extra pay in addition to the pay of their
regimental rank, which rank is seldom above that of captain.
Aide-de-camps are attached to the sovereign, the appointment carrying
with it the rank of Colonel in the army. Governors of provinces also have
them.

=Aliwal North.=--A town on the Orange River, on the border between the
Free State and Cape Colony, where the Frere Bridge (860 ft. in length)
crosses the river. It had a population a little over 2000; and with its
park, racecourse, golf links, and sulphur springs, acted as the
Leamington of Cape Colony.

=Ambulance.=--A four-wheeled, covered waggon for the conveyance of sick
and wounded soldiers. Two stretchers, the legs of which have small iron
wheels, can be run into it, three men can sit on the tailboard, which
lets down to serve as a foot-rest, and three others on a like seat in
front. Buckets hang below the waggon; a barrel of water is fastened to
the splinter-bar, and from the high canvas roof depends a basket for the
men's arms and valises. This roof is marked with the Geneva Cross.

=Amnesty.=--An act of forgiveness for offences committed against the
State, these offences being usually of a political nature.

=Ammunition.=--A term applied to charges of powder for ordnance and small
arms; also to all kinds of projectiles, and to various appliances for
igniting the charges, &c. During a campaign the reserve ammunition for
small arms is carried in carts, each containing 9600 rounds, under the
charge of the officers commanding battalions; three carts to each
battalion. The remainder of the reserve ammunition, gun and small arm, is
with the ammunition column.

=Ambush= or =Ambuscade=.--Troops, in small or large bodies, placed in
concealment in order to surprise and attack an enemy.

=Approaches.=--All works are generally so called that are carried on
towards a besieged place, such as trenches, saps, galleries, redoubts,
lodgments, and places of arms.

=Armistice.=--A truce or suspension of hostilities between two armies, a
stated time being given for its duration, at the expiration of which, if
the contending nations do not come to an agreement, hostilities begin
again.

=Armoured-Train.=--A train, the carriages of which are externally plated
with metal, and loop-holed to admit of soldiers firing, while they
themselves are protected.

=Arms.=--Weapons of different forms for attack and defence in the various
branches of the army.

=Army Corps.=--A small army, under the command of a general, composed of
all arms of the service, and furnished with every requisite for active
service. Its war strength in the British army is about 40,000 officers
and men, 12,846 horses, 122 guns, 25 machine-guns, and 1573 carts and
waggons.

=Army Ordnance Corps.=--Its duties consist in issuing stores and
munitions of war, and are most onerous.

=Army Reserve.=--A force composed of men who have enlisted for twelve
years, a portion of which service, viz. seven or eight and not less than
three years, must be passed with the colours, the residue being spent in
the reserve. These are known as "short service men." Other soldiers
eligible to enter the reserve force are those who have exceeded their
first term of service, men of say thirteen or fourteen years' service,
and are yet under thirty-four years of age.

=Artillery.=--Horse artillery consists of men mounted on horses or on the
limbers of the guns. They are armed with 12-pounders, and manoeuvre
with cavalry. Field artillery moves more slowly, the men being carried on
guns and waggons. Garrison or siege artillery furnishes gunners and heavy
guns of position drawn by horses, bullocks, and in India, elephants.
There are now 28 Horse batteries, 151 Field batteries, and 10 of the
Mountain division of garrison artillery.


=Badge.=--An honorary distinction worn on the colours of a regiment.
According to the Queen's Regulations, all regimental badges granted under
special authority to different corps are to be strictly preserved.

=Baggage.=--In a military sense, includes clothes, camp-equipage, and
cooking apparatus of a regiment or army. The baggage of troops, if
proceeding by sea, is divided into "light" and "heavy" baggage.

=Balloon.=--Useful in warfare for purposes of reconnoitring, also in
cases of a beleaguered city of keeping up communications with the outside
world. The Prussians reconnoitred the French position before Metz, in
1870, by means of a balloon with telegraph attached, and thus the survey
of the position of the French army was instantaneously conveyed to
General Von Moltke.

=Bandoliers.=--Belts of leather or canvas to hold small-arm cartridges,
worn over the shoulder.

=Base of Operations.=--In military language represents the original line
on which an offensive army forms, whether it be the frontier of a
country, river, or safe position, whence it takes the field to invade an
enemy's country. The base of operations in case of retreat is always kept
open to fall back upon.

=Battalion=--An infantry unit. A British battalion is composed of 1010 of
all ranks and one machine-gun. It is usually constituted thus:
Lieutenant-colonel in command, majors 4, captains 5, lieutenants (first
and second) 16.

=Battery.=--Signifies, first, generally guns grouped and in position for
action; second, the unit of an artillery command, as a battalion of
infantry or a squadron of cavalry; thirdly, any work, permanent or
temporary, considered as a position for a group of guns.

=Bayonet.=--A short sword or triangular-shaped dagger, fixed on to the
muzzle of a rifle, which, in this position, gives the soldier increased
means of offence and defence. The name is derived from Bayonne in France,
where it was supposed to have been first invented. Originally the bayonet
was a blade of steel attached to a helve of wood, which was thrust into
the barrel, but this arrangement interfered with the loading and firing
of the weapon, and to remedy this defect, an elbow and socket were
constructed, and the result was the present mode of attaching the
bayonet. This improvement took place about the seventeenth century. The
first regiment which appears to have had the bayonet attached to its
musket was the Grenadier Guards in 1693. Macaulay attributes the loss by
the English of the battle of Killiecrankie to the then awkward mode of
attaching the bayonet, as the Highlanders were upon the troops before
they could convert their firelocks into pikes. The older form of bayonet
was 22 inches long, and weighed nearly a pound. The modern bayonet is
about 12 inches in length, and weighs 15 ounces.

=Beaconsfield.=--A suburb of Kimberley, containing several hotels,
municipal offices, court-house, tramways, &c. Population about 10,000,
half of whom are whites.

=Bearer Company.=--Company of Royal Army Medical Corps for the removal of
the wounded from the field of action to the dressing station or hospital.

=Bechuanaland.=--A protectorate containing the territories of various
native chiefs. The Crown Colony of British Bechuanaland was annexed to
Cape Colony, November 1895. It is bounded on the north by the Motopo
River, beyond which is the country known as the British Protectorate.

=Belmont.=--A station on the railway from Cape Town to Kimberley, 591
miles from the former and about 54 miles from the latter.

=Berg.=--A mountain or high hill.

=Biltong.=--Strips of meat dried in the sun. It is much used by the Boers
in war-time, as it is very portable and can be kept for an almost
unlimited period.

=Bivouac.=--From _bis_, "double," and the German word _wache_, "a guard."
An army is said to bivouac when it does not encamp at night and sleeps in
the open. This form of resting has the advantage over tents, as it does
not enable the enemy to form any conception of the strength of his
adversary.

=Black Watch.=--The 42nd Regiment of the line, known as one of the most
distinguished corps in the British army. In Chambers's "Encyclopedia" is
found the following: "'Black Watch,' the appellation given to certain
armed companies employed to watch the Highlands of Scotland. The term
'black' arose from the dress of this species of militia being composed of
tartans of dark colours. Some Highlanders had been armed by Government as
early as 1725, when General Wade was appointed Commander-in-Chief in
Scotland, but it was not till about 1729 or 1730 that the companies
assumed a regular form." They were stationed originally in different
parts of the Highlands, and, acting independently of each other, were
styled "the Independent Companies of the Black Watch." Subsequently,
after being of great use for local purposes, the companies, united, were
formed into the 42nd Regiment under the command of the Earl of Crawford,
in 1739.

=Bloemfontein.=--The capital of the Orange Free State, on the railway
line between Cape Town and Pretoria, 750 miles from the former and 290
from the latter town. Population about 7000 white, 3000 black
inhabitants. It is a picturesque, cleanly, and prosperous town. Three
English newspapers are published there, and it is much frequented by the
English, by whom the fine climate is much esteemed.

=Boers.=--The Dutch word for farmers. For early history and character
_see_ vol. i.

=Bombproof Buildings.=--Buildings formed so as to withstand the shock of
heavy shot or shell falling on them.

=Boschveld.=--Plain covered with bush or scrub.

=Boshof= is seventy-two miles north-west of Bloemfontein, and about forty
north-east of Kimberley. From Boshof to the nearest point of the Vaal
River--near Warrenton, or Fourteen Streams--is about twenty-five miles.

=Brigade.=--A body of troops, the unit of a division. An infantry brigade
is composed of four battalions. The term brigade is given to the Brigade
of Guards, which consists of four regiments of Foot Guards; to the
Household Cavalry, composed of two regiments of Life Guards, and the
Royal Horse Guards.

=Brigade-Major.=--Takes the same place in relation to a brigade as an
adjutant in relation to a regiment.

=Brigadier.=--A military officer whose rank is next above a Colonel. He
exercises the command of a brigade of troops, with the rank, on active
service, of Major-General.

=Bulawayo= (the place of killing).--The capital of Rhodesia. White
population 4000. A thriving, well-built town, with every modern
convenience. It boasts many large hotels and churches, two theatres, a
racecourse, and several schools. Electric light, newspapers, and a
splendid avenue of trees, 2540 yards long and 130 feet broad, speak of
the march of civilisation and bear the impress of the finger of Mr.
Rhodes. A statue, characteristically colossal, of the empire-maker has
been executed by Mr. John Tweed for erection on the scene of his life
labours. _See_ vol. i. p. 124.

=Burg.=--A town.

=Burgher.=--European male inhabitant of the Republics, who may have
obtained the franchise. For particulars regarding the Uitlanders and the
franchise _see_ Mr. Loveday's speech, 1895, vol. i. p. 146.


=Camp.=--The extent of ground occupied by an army either in huts or under
canvas. They are placed, as a general rule, where wood and water are
easily accessible. In standing camps the regulated interval is ten paces
between each tent.

=Campaign.=--The period during which an army keeps the field and carries
on a series of operations.

=Canteen.=--A regulated establishment (otherwise a store), managed for
the benefit of the men by a committee of officers, for the purpose of
supplying liquor, groceries, &c., to the soldier at reasonable prices.

=Cape Boys.=--Coloured people, the offspring of intermarriage between
mixed races and negroes.

=Cape Colony.=--Bounded by the Orange River and Orange Colony on the
north, by Natal on the north-east; and by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans
on the west, south, and south-east. Area about 277,150 miles. Population
in 1896 (exclusive of Pondoland and British Bechuanaland) about
1,822,000--one-fifth of whom are whites. The climate is highly esteemed
and is said by some to have upon the constitution the effect of
champagne. It is highly recommended for those suffering from pulmonary
complaints, and as the seasons are exactly the reverse of those in
England, health travellers to South Africa can escape the rigours of the
British winter entirely. The defence of the Cape Colony has hitherto been
maintained by a small British fleet, and by a small British garrison
supplemented by the admirable corps of volunteers whose services in the
present need have been so zealously placed at the service of the Empire.
For details _see_ vol. iii. p. 161. The imports in 1898 stood thus: Cape
Town, £5,128,292; Port Elizabeth, £6,246,429; East London, £3,519,697.
The exports were: Cape Town, £15,881,952; Port Elizabeth, £2,103,351;
East London, £954,654.

=Cape Town.=--Population over 50,000 before the war. Distance from
Southampton 5978 miles. A flourishing, well built and ordered town,
boasting eighteen miles of tramway lines. The water supply is good, but
owing to bad drainage the death rate in hot weather is about 27 per 1000.

=Captain.=--In the army an officer who commands a troop of horse or a
company of infantry. The badges of rank are two stars on each
shoulder-strap. In the navy a captain commands a cruiser or a
battleship. He ranks with a lieutenant-colonel in the army, and after
three years' service with a full colonel.

=Carbine.=--A small-arm rifle used by the cavalry, shorter and lighter
than that of the infantry.

=Cavalry.=--Mounted branch of the army--divided into _heavy_ and _light_.
The duties of cavalry are extensive, and comprise the care of
reconnoitring parties, outpost duties, feelers in advance of an army.
Cavalry is classed as heavy, medium, and light. The Household Cavalry and
two regiments of Dragoons are _heavy_, all other dragoons and dragoon
guards are _medium_, and Hussar regiments _light_. The whole carry
carbines and swords, or carbines and swords and lances. Every regiment is
divided into three or four squadrons, which are each divided into two
troops. General de Brack, in remarking on the qualifications of the
cavalry officer, said, "To be a good officer of advance guard, it is not
enough to be brave and to command well under fire; it is necessary to
have brought there the greatest possible number of men, and in the best
condition to act with effect.... The habit of judging of the health of
men and horses; a knowledge of prompt remedies applicable in particular
cases, the daily and minute inspection of appointments; understanding the
necessary and judicious modes of repairing the same; the providing of all
that can be useful to the soldier and his horse without overloading the
latter; the equipment well arranged; regularity of pace in the line of
march; good situation for the bivouacs; with constant attention to
everything which can contribute to a horse's ability even to dispense for
a time with the farrier; a notion of the method of using the utensils
contained in a soldier's case; understanding the occasions favourable to
refreshment and repose; the moral acquaintance with men under his
command; discipline preserved when the dragoons have no longer before
their eyes the dread of the guard-room or jail; that foresight which ever
watches to prevent useless distress to the horses; personal example
offered upon every occasion, and afforded the more readily in proportion
as those occasions may be trying or difficult; confidence; unbounded
devotion; the power of exciting enthusiasm among his followers: these are
capabilities the theories of peace cannot teach, these are what, in
addition to courage, military _coup d'oeil_, and a ready judgment on
the field of battle, form the officer of real distinction." This
quotation serves to enhance our appreciation of the "real distinction" of
the British cavalry leaders who relieved Kimberley and Mafeking.

=Charlestown.=--Situated north of Natal, a few miles from Majuba Hill.

=Colenso.=--Small village in Natal near the Tugela River.

=Colesberg.=--Small town 37 miles beyond Naauwpoort. Population, 1830.

=Colonel.=--Highest rank in the army below that of general. Their rank is
denoted by two stars and a crown on each shoulder-strap. A
lieutenant-colonel wears a crown and one star.

=Colonel of a Regiment.=--A general officer placed at the head of a
regiment as reward of long and meritorious services. An honorary
distinction merely. The Prince of Wales is Colonel of the 10th Hussars.

=Column.=--Formation of troops several ranks in depth and of any length
of front, disposed so as to move in regular succession. Sometimes the
name _column_ is given to a body of troops which is in effect a small
army.

=Combatant.=--As distinct from noncombatant officers such as chaplains
and surgeons.

=Commandant.=--The chief of the Boer commando.

=Commandeer.=--To call out on service.

=Commander.=--Naval officer ranking next below a captain. He receives the
title of captain socially, and ranks with a colonel in the army.

=Commander-in-Chief.=--Highest Staff appointment in the army. He acts in
conjunction with the Secretary of War. There is a _local_
Commander-in-Chief over the Indian forces, and also over those in
Ireland. All these officers in their different posts supervise the
training, discipline, and appointments, &c., of the army.

=Commando.=--An irregular regiment of mounted Boers.

=Commissariat.=--An organisation responsible for collecting food, forage,
and necessaries for troops in cantonments or in the field. The duties,
divided into (1) transport, (2) supply, are carried out by the Army
Service Corps. The difficulties of securing and carrying food in an
enemy's country are very great. Owing to this difficulty the First
Crusade never got beyond Hungary. In the Ashantee War the Fantees were so
afraid of the Ashantees that they refused to carry the food or baggage of
the army, and the duty devolved on the West India Regiments.

=Commission.=--Warrant signed by the sovereign authorising the officer to
exercise command in the army. The purchase of commissions was abolished
in 1871. They are now given to candidates after passing the prescribed
examination before the Civil Service examiners, when they are sent to
Sandhurst or Woolwich Academies for further instruction, chiefly of
military nature. Quantities of "irregulars" and volunteers have now been
given commissions as reward for practical service in the field.

=Communications.=--The lines by which an army communicates with its base
from any point to which it has advanced, and by which it must retreat in
the event of disaster. They are the arteries that vitalise the mechanism
and allow it to work.

=Company.=--A body of men commanded by a captain, and forming the first
unit of an infantry battalion. The number of a company may be reckoned as
about 100. About eight companies make a battalion.

[Illustration: DURBAN, NATAL

Photo by Wilson, Aberdeen]

=Contraband of War.=--Arms, ammunition, coal, food, &c., which a neutral
power is prohibited by the Law of Nations from carrying to countries
in a state of war.

=Cordite.=--Smokeless powder resembling cords, which defies the best
efforts to locate the enemy. Invented by Sir F. Abel and Professor Dewar.

=Corporal.=--Next grade below that of sergeant.

=Creusot Gun.=--The famous "Long Toms" of the Boers are Creusot guns.
They were originally named after the place of Le Creuzot, where the firm
of Schneider & Co. manufacture these weapons. But the term is now applied
to other guns made by the same firm.


=De Aar.=--Important junction of the Cape Town and Port Elizabeth
Railways.

=Division.=--First unit of a _corps d'armée_, and commanded by a general
officer. Consists of two or more brigades, and is composed of three arms
of the service, infantry, cavalry, and artillery.

=Donga.=--River bed with high banks on either side. Generally dry, save
in the rainy season.

=Dorp.=--A hamlet.

=Dundee.=--Town in Natal, north of Ladysmith. Noted for its coal-fields,
which are the best in S. Africa. They produced about 1000 tons a day
before the war. The locality is rich in iron, and the future of this now
historic region promises to be commercially rosy.

=Durban.=--Flourishing port of Natal. Population about 39,245, of which
over 17,700 are whites. It is twenty-nine hours' journey by rail from
Pretoria, and 6800 miles by sea from Southampton. It has several good
hotels, restaurants, and clubs; and two daily newspapers are published
there. Trams and electric lights form part of the attractions of the
town.


=Earthworks.=--In fortification, all works thrown up for attack or
defence in which earth enters chiefly into the construction. It is a
question whether--in the defence of a place--earth be preferable to
masonry. In the latter case, the defenders are liable to be injured by
splinters, while in the former, repairs are more readily effected. The
reason why the capture of the Mamelon during the Crimean War was so hard
a task, is attributed to the fact that repairs were very easily
accomplished during the night.

=Elandslaagte= (The Glen of the Eland).--Small and now ever memorable
village near Ladysmith. _See_ vol. ii. p. 20.

=Engineers.=--The duties of this branch are so numerous, it is almost
impossible to define them. They are required to be jack-of-all-trades,
and masters of each. The construction of works and bridges, and of
military buildings--the planning and direction of the attack and defence
of a fortification, and a thousand and one other duties fall to their
lot. The following lines by Rudyard Kipling form a summary of the
Sappers' accomplishments:--

    "We lay down their sidings an' help 'em entrain,
    An' we sweep up their mess through the bloomin' campaign.
    They send us in front with a fuse an' a mine,
    To blow up the gates that are rushed by the Line;
    They send us behind with a pick an' a spade,
    To dig for the guns of a bullock-brigade....
    Now the Line's but a man with a gun in his hand,
    An' Cavalry's only what horses can stand.
    Artillery moves by the leave o' the ground;
    But _we_ are the men that do something all round:
    For _we_ are her Majesty's Royal Engineers,
    With the rank and pay of a Sapper!"

=Epaulment.=--An earthwork thrown up to conceal and protect guns and
gunners from the fire of the enemy.

=Esprit de Corps.=--It is described in James' "Military Dictionary" as
the "feeling of attachment a soldier has for his regiment, even to the
point of thinking it the best in the army. It fosters goodwill and
fellowship among officers and soldiers. It produces an emulous thirst
after military glory. In fact, true _esprit-de-corps_ creates such a
feeling of enthusiasm and love for all that is honourable and noble, that
an officer or soldier will be careful in his conduct to do nothing which
would bring dishonour or reproach on his regiment."

=Estcourt.=--Important trading town in Natal, situated near the junction
of the Bushman's and the Little Bushman's River. It is the seat of
Magistracy for Weenen County. Population 300. It possesses two hotels, a
church, and a library. The climate is considered one of the finest in
Natal.


=Facings.=--Regiments are distinguished by the colour of their facings,
otherwise by the colour of the cuffs and collar of their regimentals.

=Feint.=--A mock attack to deceive the enemy as to the real direction of
the assault.

=Field-Cornet.=--A Boer sub-magistrate of a district.

=Field-Marshal.=--Highest military rank a General can obtain.

=Field Officer.=--One below the rank of general and above that of
captain. Majors, lieut.-colonels, or colonels of brevet or regimental
rank, are field officers.

=Flag of Truce.=--Flag--generally a white handkerchief attached to a
staff and carried by an officer sent to communicate with the enemy.

=Flank Attack.=--One of the modes of attack whereby the side or flank of
an army is attacked.

=Flank Movement.=--A change of march in course of a battle, with a view
to turning either one or both wings of the enemy.


=General.=--The name designates his command as having the general or
highest orders to give in battle. There are three grades: General,
Lieut.-General, and Major-General. Brigadier-General is the title given
to an officer while in command of a brigade.

=Glencoe= (Talana Hill).--A now notable little town, N.E. of Ladysmith.

=Guards.=--The Guards compose the Household Brigade. This consists of 1st
and 2nd Life Guards--red, the Royal Horse Guards--blue, the Grenadier
Guards, the Coldstream Guards, the Scots Guards, and the Irish Guards.
The Life Guards greatly distinguished themselves at Waterloo. The Horse
Guards (Oxford Blues) took part in the campaigns of both Marlborough and
Wellington. The Grenadier Guards is the senior regiment of infantry in
the army. The devoted royalists clinging to Charles II. in 1656 formed
the first nucleus of this gallant regiment. The Coldstreams were raised
in 1660, by General Monk, when Parliament consented to give a brigade of
guards to Charles II. The splendid work done by the Guards in the present
war speaks for itself.

=Gun.=--The modern word for cannon of all kinds.

=Gunner.=--A private in the Royal Artillery. The duties of the gunner are
manifold--he has to be instructed in drill and in the services of the
various natures of ordnance, heavy and light, to be acquainted with
ammunition, mode of using it, and caution required in dealing with it. In
other days few gunners were attached to either train or battery, only one
per gun, assisted by a matross. The duties of a matross were only in some
ways similar to those of the present gunner. The men belonged to a class
termed artificers, and were engaged more for the usefulness of their
trade than for the knowledge of artillery. With the increase of guns came
the increase of gunners, and the mere artificer was superseded, and the
gunner became the handy, well-instructed, yet dashing man he has proved
himself to be.


=Harrismith.=--Situated near the Natal border in the Orange Free State,
an important trading centre and a highly approved health resort.
Population--mostly British--1700.

=Heidelburg.=--Town on the rail 50 miles south of Pretoria. Population
about 2500.

=Heliograph.=--An apparatus invented by Mr. H. C. Mance, for telegraphing
by means of the sun's rays reflected from mirrors. The mirror, generally
of steel, mounted on a stand, is movable, so that its reflections flash
in given figures across the sky. The process has been adapted to the
Morse system of dots and dashes, and messages have been successfully
carried over a distance of 150 miles. The signal can be read in ordinary
weather without telescopes up to 50 miles.

=Helmet.=--A head-dress of light cork or wicker generally covered with
kharki, to protect the troops from the sun. It is the universal
head-dress for officers and men in India.

=Honourable Artillery Company.=--A volunteer force--the oldest military
body in England.

=Horse Artillery.=--Mounted branch of the British Service. On account of
its mobility, it acts with cavalry. Field Artillery is also a mounted
branch.

=Hospital= (Military).--They are of three kinds, general, field, and
convalescent. Cases of infectious nature are sent to a general hospital
specially appointed for their reception. Field hospitals are temporary
establishments for the care of sick and wounded in the vicinity of the
field of battle. Serious cases, when practicable, are sent off to the
nearest general hospital in the rear. Convalescent hospitals describe
themselves.

=Hospital Ships.=--They serve either as stationary hospitals, or, if sick
accumulate, can sail home or to the nearest station, discharge, and
return to fill again. One of these, the _Maine_, was organised by Lady
Randolph Churchill, and proved invaluable.

=Howitzer.=--Short siege gun throwing lyddite shells at a high angle, so
that they can descend upon a fortress or besieged town. They have a range
of over 8000 yards. There are also field howitzers.

=Hussars.=--Light cavalry. Derived from the Hungarian (_huss_) twenty and
(_ar_) pay, because every twenty houses had to provide one horse soldier.


=Imperial Light Horse.=--_See_ vol. iii. p. 165.

=Infantry.=--Foot soldiers. The words derived from the Spanish soldiery
of the _infanta_, and the term _infanteria_ was applied to them, in
consequence of their being the troops of the Infanta of Spain. The
British infantry was declared by Marshal Soult "the finest in the world."
There are 109 infantry regiments in the British army. The oldest of
these, formed between 1660 and 1662, are the Guards, the 2nd Queen's
(raised for the defence of Tangiers), and the 3rd Buffs (the old London
train-bands).

=Intelligence Department.=--A branch of the Quartermaster-General's
Department, which has for its object the collecting and sifting and
arranging information useful to Government or army in peace or war.

=Intrench= or =Entrench=.--To secure a position or body of men against
the attack of the enemy by digging a ditch or trench.

=Invest.=--To surround a place and prevent all communication with the
outer country.

=Irregular Troops.=--Troops which do not belong to the regular forces.
Until lately there were no such troops in the British Army, now it is
almost impossible to enumerate them. In India there are several irregular
forces of cavalry and infantry for the protection of Native States.


=Jack.=--The nation's "pet" name for a sailor, as "Tommy" is the "pet"
name for a soldier.

=Jacobsdaal.=--Small town in the Orange Free State.

=Jagersfontein.=--Small town sixty miles south-west of Bloemfontein. In
its valuable diamond mine have been found both the largest and the most
perfect stones yet discovered. The largest specimen was brought to light
in 1893, the most flawless one in 1895.

=Johannesburg.=--This important city extends over an area of six miles,
its parks alone occupying an area of 84 acres. Rural population in 1896
was 48,331, of which 38,868 were whites. District population, 102,078, of
which 50,907 were whites. Johannesburg was declared a Municipality in
1896. Fine hotels, public buildings, churches, clubs, and theatres
abound. There are 126 miles of road, and most of the streets are
regularly laid out with several open squares at intervals. Cabs, trams,
jim rickshaws, and omnibuses ply for hire; electric lights brighten the
streets, while public-houses and low canteens innumerable, where the
vilest and most poisonous liquor is sold, deface them. These, together
with gambling hells, &c., contrive to make the place a sink of
abomination equal to Chicago. The cost of living in Johannesburg is
enormous. The board and lodging of a bachelor is estimated at about £8
per month. Clothing and food are said to be nearly 50 per cent. dearer
than in Europe. Seven newspapers exist, two of which are published in
Dutch. Johannesburg in 1886 was represented by some straggling shanties
dotting the line of reef now forming the Wemmer and Ferreira Company's
ground. When the existence of the reef, till then unknown, was
discovered, steps were taken to secure a more convenient locality, and as
a result the present township was laid out in the December of that year.
The spot chosen was one of the bleakest and highest in the Transvaal, and
land was of so small value for agricultural purposes, that farms were
known to change hands for the price of a team of oxen. In 1895, however,
two stands in Commissioner Street sold for £22,000, and in 1897, one in
Pritchard Street fetched £40,000. The reefs that have brought about the
transformation run east and west of the city, a distance of about 130
miles, and all around the country is dotted with battery houses, and
other buildings connected with the working of the mines. Regarding the
output, _see_ vol. i. p. 129.


=Karoo.=--Hottentot name for a dry place, but now denoting certain
districts.

=Kharki.=--A dust-coloured material in wool or calico used for the
uniforms of soldiers, in order to make them less distinguishable from a
distance. Indian troops are always clothed in kharki. Of late, every
article used on service has been painted or dyed the same colour, from
guns, carriages, and scabbards, to horses, and the attire of the Naval
Brigade.

=Kilt.=--A dress worn by Highlanders, consisting of a loose petticoat,
extending from waist to knees. It dates from the seventh century, when
the kilt was made of skins.

=Kit.=--A military term expressing the regimental necessaries of a
soldier.

=Kimberley.=--A flourishing town whose existence dates from the year
1870, when diamonds were discovered on two farms--Du Joits Pan and
Bulsfontein (_see_ vol. i. p. 133). Since that date the place has widened
with astounding rapidity, growing gradually from a mining camp into a
large somewhat irregularly planned town full of corrugated iron
buildings, dotted at intervals with edifices of more substantial nature.
The principal public buildings are the High Court of Griqualand West,
with its imposing clock tower, the adjacent Post and Telegraph Offices in
the market-square, the Public Library, said to contain the best
collection of books in South Africa, the Kimberley Club, the Masonic
Temple, the Hospital, and the Sanatorium on the Beaconsfield Road. There
are hotels in plenty, and churches of all denominations; also, a fine
park with recreation grounds, and two pavilions. The climate is
splendid--an ideal one for invalids. The population is about 28,718, of
whom 12,658 are of European extraction.

=Krupp Gun.=--A breech-loading rifled gun, taking its name from the
inventor.

=Kuruman.=--Though the surrounding country is scarcely attractive, land
is said to yield good pasturage, and water can be obtained by digging
from five to thirty feet. The price of Crown lands in Kuruman in 1896 was
at the rate of 2-3-1/2 per morgen.

=Kloof.=--A ravine.

=Kop.=--A hill.

=Kopje.=--The diminutive of kop.

=Kraal.=--Cattle fold.

=Kroonstad.=--An active little town situated 877 miles from Cape Town.
Population about 2000. It has several hotels, a charming climate, good
fishing on the Valsch River, golf links, a club, and several churches. A
railway connecting the place with the coal mines at Groenfontein is
shortly to be made. Superior coal has also been found some forty-five
miles off at Vierfontein, and near the town is the Lace Diamond Mine,
which (in 1899) produced about 1500 carats a month.

=Krugersdorp.=--A small town, situated twenty-two miles from
Johannesburg, where, on the 15th of December, a species of national
pilgrimage to celebrate the victory over the Kaffirs in 1836, and over
the British at Majuba in 1881, was made by the Boers. It is also notable
as the place where Dr. Jameson and his band surrendered in 1896. It
contains a monument to those who have fallen in the service of their
country.


=Laager.=--A fortification usually formed by placing waggons lashed
together in a circle, and covering them with tangled thorn and scrub. It
now signifies a camp.

=Ladysmith.=--This now historic town lies in a basin of the hills some
thirty miles from the Drakensberg range. Its population is about 4500,
exclusive of military. The climate is dry and bracing, and highly
recommended to those suffering from affection of the lungs. There are
many churches, a Public Library, a Town Hall, Court House, Jail, and
School. The town, which claims to be the third in importance in Natal,
derived its name from the wife of Sir Harry or Henry Smith, Governor of
Cape Colony. _See_ vol. i. p. 11.

=Lancers.=--A regiment of cavalry armed with lances. This nature of
cavalry was much appreciated by the great Napoleon, who placed great
reliance on some Polish lancer regiments.

=Landdrost.=--Stipendiary magistrate to collect the revenues of a
district.

=Lee-Metford.=--Magazine rifle bearing the name of its inventors, Mr. Lee
and Mr. Metford.

=Lieutenant.=--Ranks next below a captain. The senior lieutenant takes
command of a company in the event of accident to the captain.

=Lieutenant-Colonel.=--Ranks next below a colonel in the army.

=Lieutenant-General.=--Ranks next below a general.

=Life Guards.=--Mounted bodyguard of the sovereign. These regiments
distinguished themselves in the Peninsula, at Waterloo, and in Egypt.
They seldom leave this country, save on special occasions.

=Lourenço Marques.=--A Portuguese township in Delagoa Bay, situated 7090
miles from Southampton, with which it is connected by a service of
steamers _viâ_ Durban. Boats returning to Europe _viâ_ the Suez Canal
call here. The importance of Delagoa as a trading station and as a base
of railway to the interior has long been recognised, and in 1887 Colonel
M'Murdo (having obtained a concession from the Portuguese Government in
1883) formed a company to connect Lourenço Marques with Komati Poort on
the Transvaal frontier. This railway was confiscated by the Portuguese in
June 24, 1889, compensation to the shareholders (as a result of
arbitration which was placed in the hands of three Swiss jurists) having
only recently been awarded.

=Lyddite.=--A very powerful explosive, the exact composition of which is
a secret. The early experiments of lyddite were made at Lydd, a small
town in Kent, from which it derives its name. Its effects are so deadly
that the mere concussion of the displaced air particles serves to kill
any one who may be within fifty yards of the shell.


=Mafeking.=--This small but world-famous town, 870 miles from Cape Town,
was considered as a gateway to Rhodesia, and standing as it does on the
route to Mashonaland, between Bechuanaland and the Transvaal, its
importance as a centre for distribution is evident. The Molopo River and
the Ramathlabama Spruit, a few miles north of the town, form the southern
boundary of the Bechuanaland Protectorate.

=Major.=--The lowest rank of field officer. Being a field officer he is
mounted on all parades and going into action. To every infantry battalion
there are four, and to every squadron of cavalry one.

=Major-General.=--The lowest grade of general officers. A brigade in the
army is properly a major-general's command.

=Majuba Hill.=--Scene of the Boer triumph over Sir George Colley in 1881.
Near this spot is the grave of the gallant general, and not far off are
the burial places of Colonel Deane at Laing's Nek and the men who fell in
their country's cause. It is four miles distant from Charlestown.

=Marines.=--A body of men under the control of the Admiralty--for service
in the navy or on shore. They have been described as "amphibious
animals," because they are equally at home on land or at sea. They form
part of naval brigades landed for service on shore, and co-operate with
the sailors. The force consists of two branches, Royal Marine Artillery
and the Royal Marine Light Infantry. They were first raised in 1664. A
finer and more serviceable set of men it is difficult to find.

=Martial law.=--Martial law means no law at all. According to the Duke of
Wellington it represents the will of the general who commands the army.
Proclamation of martial law cautions the inhabitants of the district
concerned, that in consequence of rebellion or other rising, the
responsibility of superseding the jurisdiction of the ordinary tribunals
for the protection of property and persons rests with the military
authorities, who will act as they think expedient for the public safety.

=Mauser.=--A rifle sighted up to 2200 yards, but capable of much longer
range, of which the bullet leaves the muzzle at a speed of 2300 feet per
second. It weighs three quarters of a pound less than the Lee-Metford,
and is much neater in appearance. The Mauser is a favourite rifle with
the Boers though its magazine is only capable of holding five cartridges,
while that of the Lee-Metford will accommodate ten.

=Maxim Guns.=--Guns of small bore weighing 59 lbs., sighted up to 2500
yards.

=Mobilisation.=--Fitting an army for the field--bringing the units to war
strength and calling out the reserves. The success of a war depends
largely on the rapidity with which armies can be got ready previous to
their being concentrated on the threatened points, and thus enabled to
take the aggressive. In the Swiss army the whole organisation is so
completely carried forward in time of peace that at the outbreak of
hostilities the headquarters staff need do no more than telegraph the one
word--mobilise. The rapidity with which foreign armies can be mobilised
has been gradually increasing. In 1866 the Prussian armies, 220,000
strong, reached the frontiers of Saxony and Silesia in a fortnight. In
1870 Germany took nine days to mobilise, and eight days more to send an
army of 400,000 men and 1200 guns to the French frontier.

=Mounted Infantry.=--Good shots of the infantry mounted and joined into
separate companies. The Boers have taught us the value of mounted
infantry, and in the near future they will probably become a permanent
arm of the British forces.


=Naauwpoort.=--Situated at the junction of the branch line to De Aar and
the main line to Pietersburg, _viâ_ Bloemfontein and Pretoria. It is
about 270 miles distant from Port Elizabeth.

=Nachtmaal.=--The Communion Service. Held quarterly by the Boers, who
congregate from different parts to partake of it together.

=Natal.=--_Terra Natalis_, or Christmas land, was so named by its
discoverer, Vasco da Gama, on the 25th of December 1497. Population
900,000, a tenth of whom are whites. Natal became a British Colony in
1843, and in 1856 was made independent of Cape Colony. The total area of
New Natal is 35,000 square miles. Pietermaritzburg is the capital, and
its most flourishing seaport is Durban. The climate is excellent, and has
been likened to that of "Kashmir with a dash of English South Down
thrown in." It is called the Garden of South Africa, and its
picturesqueness is generally commented on. Some declare the scenery to be
reminiscent of Scotland, though on a larger scale. Perhaps this very
likeness to their native land may have influenced the early British
explorers to settle in the place, which from then till now has been
everywhere redolent of the Scotsman. The names of Glencoe and Dundee bear
witness to his early enterprise, and the railway system, so admirably
managed, serves to show how energetically he has continued to make this
region entirely his own. The revenue for 1898 was £2,121,034; the
expenditure £1,923,978. The Postal Telegraph Service acquired a profit of
£36,767. Since 1897 Natal has supplied free of cost 12,000 tons of coal
to the British Navy.

=Naval Brigade.=--A detachment of seamen, marines, and guns landed from
men-of-war to assist the army ashore. A Naval Brigade did signal service
in the siege of Sebastopol, and earned twelve out of sixty-two Victoria
Crosses presented to the British forces. In the Indian Mutiny and in the
Zulu War they were again active, and several times in African campaigns
the bluejacket has shown the desperate valour, fertility of resource, and
versatility of accomplishments that have earned for him the nickname of
"The Handy Man."

=Nek.=--Junction between two hills.

=Newcastle.=--Population 1746. This small town, eighty miles north of
Ladysmith, is noted for its coal. The place, situated at the foot of the
Drakensberg range, was used as the base of military operations in 1881.

=Non-Commissioned Officer.=--The title includes staff-clerks, sergeants,
corporals, and bombardiers. Above them in rank are sergeant-majors and
bandmasters, who are warrant officers. "Non-coms." are described as "the
backbone of the army," many of them, when their officers have been
stricken down, having led the men to victory. _See_ vol. iv. p. 104.

=Nordenfeldt Gun.=--Modern gun named after its maker.

=Nullah.=--An Indian term. The dry bed of a stream. Like donga.


=Objective.=--A technical military term signifying the aim or object of
the military combinations and movements in the theatre of war.

=Occupation= (Army of).--An army that remains in possession of a newly
acquired country, retaining it as a kind of hostage till peace is signed
and the war indemnity paid. Armies of occupation are usually fed at the
expense of the defeated nation.

=Operations Military.=--General movements of armies in the field. They
are of two kinds, strategical and tactical; the former undertaken before
being within reach of the enemy, the latter being developed during the
battle.

=Orange Free State.=--Area about 50,000 square miles, bounded on the
north by the Transvaal, the east by Natal and Basutoland, and on the
south and west by Cape Colony. Population in 1898, 400,000, two-thirds of
whom were blacks. Revenue, £799,757. Expenditure, £956,752. Postal
service profit, £2510. Telegraph service, £3140. The place is rich in
diamonds, gold, iron, saltpetre, and various other metals and minerals of
less valuable description.

=Organisation.=--The organisation of an army is the duty of a general
staff in time of peace, and should be so perfect in detail as not to
break down in the eventuality of war. Owing to the unpreparedness and
inferiority of France in the matter of organisation, she was beaten by
Germany in 1870 and 1871.


=Parole.=--An officer in the hands of the enemy may be permitted to
proceed to his country on _parole_, having promised not to take up arms
against his captors till the war is over.

=Patrol.=--A party of men moving between the line of posts, to keep one
informed of the state of the other. Also a body of men told off for
purposes of quelling disturbances, picking up stragglers, &c.

=Pickets.=--The real outposts of any body of troops are the pickets with
their dependent small bodies, patrols, and vedettes. As a rule twenty to
thirty men is a reasonable strength for a picket.

=Pietermaritzburg.=--Capital of Natal. Population 20,155, consisting of
11,309 whites, 2692 Indians, 6151 natives. It possesses some fine
buildings, hotels and churches, a theatre, a museum, and a library. It
boasts three newspapers and a lunatic asylum.

=Pietersburg.=--A gold-producing locality 240 miles north-east of
Pretoria.

=Pigeons= (Carrier).--Birds known as homing pigeons that supply the most
simple and practical means of transmitting orders to a distance during
military operations. Carrier pigeons are said to have been used by the
ancient Roman navigators as a species of pigeon telegraph before the time
of the Cæsars.

=Pont.=--Ferry over a river.

=Pontoon.=--Flat-bottomed open boat like a punt, used by Royal Engineers
for supporting temporary bridges by which troops can cross a river.

=Poort.=--Funnel-shaped gap between mountains.

=Port Elizabeth=, 839 miles by rail from Cape Town, is the second city of
importance in Cape Colony. Population 25,325, of which 13,000 are of
European origin. The town was named after the wife of Sir Rufane Donkin,
who there erected a pyramid to her memory. There are many hotels,
churches, and libraries, and the general appearance of prosperity and
modernity that pervades the place has caused it to be called the
Liverpool of South Africa.

=Potchefstroom.=--The most ancient town of the Transvaal, situated
eighty-eight miles from Johannesburg. Population 5000. It was the
original seat of the Boer Government, and later in 1881 became the scene
of Colonel Winslow's resistance to the Boers. After stoutly holding out,
starving and fighting, and losing one-third of his men, he surrendered to
Cronje, only to find that ten days previously an armistice had been
proclaimed.

=Pretoria.=--The capital of the Transvaal, lies thirty-two miles north of
Johannesburg. Population 12,000. It has many fine public buildings, the
chiefest being the splendid Government Buildings, which were erected at a
cost of £200,000. The newly completed Courts of Justice are also
immensely imposing. There is an English Cathedral, and many churches of
all denominations, a public library, a public hospital, a museum, some
large hotels, and several clubs, notably the Pretoria Club. The
President's house is at the western extremity of Church Street, the main
business thoroughfare. The new market buildings on Market Square were
erected at a cost of £35,000.


=Rand.=--Short of Witwatersrand.

=Reconnaissance.=--The art of reconnoitring--examining a portion of the
country with a view to ascertaining its resources for movements and
subsistence of the army.

=Regiment.=--Consists of two or more battalions of infantry. A cavalry
regiment is composed of three or four squadrons.

=Rooinek.=--Boer name for the British, signifying red neck.

=Rustenberg.=--Population 500. Situated east of Pretoria, near the
Magaliesberg range.


=Shell.=--A hollow projectile filled with explosive so arranged as to act
by means of a fuse, and, at a certain point and time, spread destruction
by the forcible dispersion of its fragments. The common shell, which is
used for destroying earth-works, fortifications, and solid matters, is
filled with powder which forms the bursting charge, and is fitted with
either a time or a percussion fuse according to the nature of ordnance
from which it is fired. The Shrapnel shell is similar in external form,
but is filled with bullets (sand shot), cemented together with rosin. It
was invented by Colonel Shrapnel, R.A., in 1808. The object in using
Shrapnel shell is to give the projectile at long distances the power and
efficacy of case shot, and to cover a large space of ground with its
effects. Against artillery it has the effect of placing men and horses
_hors de combat_, which is the most efficacious way of silencing the fire
of a battery.

=Shelter Trenches.=--Trenches constructed in the presence of the enemy as
cover for troops from the action of shot and shell.

=Siege.=--A regular organised attack on a fortified position by means
chiefly of artillery. Sir John Jones, the author of "Peninsula Sieges,"
says "the most celebrated commanders and best engineers are agreed that
as a general principle the besieging army should vary in proportion to
the strength of the garrison according to the numbers of the garrison;
and as an approximation have fixed that proportion at 5 to 1 when the
garrison consists of 15,000 men, 6 to 1 when of 10,000 men, 7 to 1 when
of 5000, 8 to 1 when of 3000, and in still greater proportion when it
consists of a less number." This curious computation is explained by the
fact that the more numerous the garrison the smaller the besieging army
need be in proportion to it, since the attack of a similar front or
fronts of fortification is little different. If the garrison contain 5000
or 10,000 men, the guards of the trenches and other duties increase
proportionately, but the work does not.

=Spruit.=--A stream.

=Spy.=--Persons sent into the enemy's camp to gain information regarding
the intentions of the enemy. There are two classes of spy: the spies who
betray their own people to the enemy, and those who go to the enemy in
the interests of their own party. In both cases martial law orders the
death of a detected spy.

=Squadron.=--A fourth division of a cavalry regiment, divided in two
troops each, commanded by a captain.

=Stad.=--A town.

=Staff.=--A body of officers appointed to assist a general in command, to
form a link between him and the various branches of the army, and thus
give coherence to all its parts.

=Subaltern.=--A term applied to a commissioned officer in the army, under
the rank of captain.

=Succour.=--Assistance in men, stores, or ammunition.

=Sword.=--Offensive weapon in use throughout the world. One of the arms
of the British cavalry. During the Anglo-Saxon period swords were made of
iron, two-edged, long, and straight.


=Team.=--Two or more horses or animals harnessed together.

=Trek.=--A journey.

=Troop.=--Two troops form a cavalry squadron. Each troop is commanded by
a captain and two lieutenants.

=Tugela River.=--River dividing Zululand from Natal.

=Tuli.=--Town, 340 miles from Pretoria. The junction of several roads
radiating towards Victoria, Bulawayo, Mangwe, Mafeking, and Pretoria. The
direct road from Tuli to Bulawayo, cut in 1874 for the Zeederberg Service
of coaches (now discontinued), reduced the distance from Pretoria to
Bulawayo to 500 miles.


=Uitlander.=--A resident in the Transvaal not entitled to the Franchise.
The term is generally applied to Europeans resident in or around
Johannesburg, of which before the war there were some 50,000, mostly
British. _See_ vol. i. p. 146.

=Uitspan.=--To unharness and halt. The reverse of inspan.

=Uniform.=--Dress of officer or soldier. So-called because men of same
rank and duties are clothed in a uniform manner.

=Union Jack.=--National flag of Great Britain. The original English flag
was the banner of St. George. On the union of Scotland with England the
banner of St. Andrew was added, and on the union of Ireland, that of St.
Patrick. It now consists of a red and white diagonal cross (the last two
being side by side), on a blue ground.

=Unit.=--Euclid describes number to be a collection of units. In military
organisation the term unit is applied to a single portion upon which any
part of an army, regiment, &c., is formed. A company is the unit of a
regiment; a battery, that of a brigade of artillery.

=Unlimber, to.=--To disconnect the limber from the gun or carriage.


=Veldt.=--An open plain.

=Victoria Cross.=--A decoration in form of a bronze Maltese Cross,
conferred on members of the Army, Navy, or Volunteers who have
distinguished themselves in face of the enemy by abnormal deeds of valour
at risk of their lives. The V.C. was instituted in 1856 at the conclusion
of the Crimean War, when sixty-two were earned. The cross was then made
from the cannon captured at Sebastopol with the Royal Crest in the
centre, and underneath, the words "For Valour." It is worn with a red
ribbon in the Army--a blue one in the Navy.

=Vierkleur.=--Four-coloured Boer flag. The colours are red, white, and
blue in horizontal lines, with a perpendicular line of green near the
staff.

=Volunteers.=--Citizen soldiers who voluntarily fight in defence of their
country. The oldest Volunteer Corps is the Hon. Artillery Company,
instituted in 1485. The Volunteer movement gained ground in 1793-94, when
invasion was threatened by France. The force enrolled numbered 70,000, of
which 41,000 were Irish.

=Voortrekker.=--One of the early trekkers.


=War.=--The present war is the fortieth war that has taken place during
the reign of Queen Victoria. In 1854 there was the Crimea; in 1838, 1849,
and 1878 came wars against Afghanistan; four wars against China in the
years 1841, 1856, 1849, and 1860; two against the Sikhs in 1845 and 1848;
three against the Kaffirs in 1846, 1854, and 1877; three against Burma,
1850, 1852, and 1885; nine in India, in 1857, 1860, 1863, 1864, 1868,
1869, 1890, 1895, and 1897; three in Ashantee, 1864, 1873, and 1896; a
war against Abyssinia, 1867; a war against Persia, 1852; a war against
the Zulus, 1878; a war against the Basutos, 1878; a war in Egypt, 1882;
three in the Soudan, 1894, 1896, and 1899; a war with Zanzibar, 1890; a
war against the Matabele, 1894; and finally two wars against the
Transvaal, 1881 and 1899-1900.

=Waterworks.=--The Waterworks at Sanna's Post, on the Modder River, are
situated twenty miles from Bloemfontein. By means of powerful pumps the
water is raised from the level of the river to the top of Bushman's Kop,
nearly half-way to the town. From that point it flows into Bloemfontein
by the force of gravitation. The works are capable of delivering 250,000
gallons of water daily. There are thirty-four miles of pipes, laid down
at a cost of £80,000.


=Yeomanry.=--The Yeomanry Cavalry of Great Britain is chosen from among
the gentlemen and yeomen of each county. They are liable to be called out
in aid of the civil power, and in case of invasion would have to assemble
for actual service. For Imperial Yeomanry, _see_ vol. iii. p. 168.


=Zululand.=--Situated north-east of Natal, east of the Transvaal, and
south of Amatongaland. Area, about 10,456 miles; population 170,000,
including only 1200 whites. It became part of Natal in 1897. Gold and
various minerals have been found there in appreciable quantities.



DEATHS IN ACTION AND FROM DISEASE

The following is a list of the officers who have died in South Africa
from June 5th to December 19th, 1900:--


JUNE 1900

=6.=--Fever at Bloemfontein: Capt. G. Murrell. Fever at Johannesburg:
Capt. the Hon. L. R. D. Gray. Fever at Kroonstad: Sec. Lieut. R.
Forrester.

=7.=--In action at Roodeval: Lieut.-Col. B. Douglas, and Sec. Lieut. B.
J. Horley. In action at Rhenoster: Capt. Gale. Fever at Kroonstad: Capt.
G. P. Ellison. Wounds at Pretoria: Lieut. A. J. G. Meek.

=8.=--Fever at Kroonstad: Lieut. Kerans. Dysentery at Bloemfontein: Maj.
Power.

=9.=--Suddenly at Pretoria: Capt. W. G. Thomson. Fever at Wynberg: Capt.
E. F. Harrison. Fever at Newcastle: Lieut. S. F. Brooks and Vet. Lieut.
E. T. C. Ensor.

=10.=--Fever at Bloemfontein: Lieut. A. Byrne. Pneumonia at Johannesburg:
Lieut. W. J. Berry.

=11.=--In action at Diamond Hill: Lieut.-Col. the Earl of Airlie, Maj.
the Hon. L. H. D. Fortescue, Lieut. the Hon. C. W. H. Cavendish, and
Lieut. W. B. L. Alt. In action at Almonds Nek: Capt. W. D. O'Brien, Capt.
H. Mann, and Lieut. N. M. Johnson. Fever at Bloemfontein: Capt. T. S.
Hichens. In action at Zand River: Maj. L. J. Seymour.

=12.=--In action at Diamond Hill: Capt. C. J. K. Maguire, Lieut. P. W. C.
Drage, and Sec. Lieut. W. S. Luce.

=13.=--Fever at Newcastle: Capt. F. Hunnard, D.S.O.

=14.=--Wounds received at Zand River: Lieut. W. Harrison.

=15.=--Wounds received at Bappisfontein: Lieut. Hon. C. M. E. Freke.
Wounds at Kroonstad: Lieut. Blanchard and Sec. Lieut. R. H. Hall.

=17.=--In action near Kwisa: Capt. M. Wilson.

=19.=--Fever at Cape Town: Surg. Lieut.-Col. J. S. Forrester.

=20.=--Fever at Bloemfontein: Lieut. B. B. Waddell-Dudley.

=21.=--Wounds at Pretoria: Lieut. Kortwright.

=22.=--In action at Honing Spruit: Maj. H. T. de C. Hobbs. Fever at
Wynberg: Sec. Lieut. W. G. Rait.

=23.=--Fever at Johannesburg: Capt. J. B. T. Pratt. Poisoning at
Volksrust: Lieut. N. M'Lean.

=24.=--Wounds at Bloemfontein: Capt. Lord Kensington. Wounds at
Heidelberg: Capt. F. J. Whittaker.

=25.=--In action at Ficksburg: Capt. E. B. Grogan and Lieut. G. L. D.
Brancker.

=27.=--Fever at Dewetsdorp: Sec. Lieut. J. S. Preston.

=28.=--Fever at Kroonstad: Surg. Lieut.-Col. J. Creagh.

=30.=--Fever at Heilbron: Lieut. J. Hunter.


JULY 1900

=1.=--Fever at Bloemfontein: Lieut. G. P. Rayner.

=3.=--In action near Lindley: Sec. Lieut. W. G. Belcher.

=6.=--Wounds at Pleiserfontein: Maj. H. E. Oldfield. Dysentery at
Johannesburg: Lieut. J. B. Grylls.

=7.=--Wounds received at Bethlehem: Capt. J. B. S. Alderson. In action at
Rustenburg: Capt. Machattie. In action at Rietfontein: Capt. Currie and
Lieut. Kirk.

=11.=--Fever at Durban: Lieut. P. W. Tindal-Atkinson, R.N. In action near
Krugersdorp: Capt. D. R. Younger. In action at Nitral's Nek: Lieut. T.
Conolly, Lieut. G. F. Prichard, and Sec. Lieut. T. D. Pilkington. In
action at Derdepoort: Sec. Lieut. K. K. Mackiller.

=12.=--Dysentery at Marrandellas: Capt. H. C. W. Hamilton.

=16.=--In action near Pretoria: Lieut. H. L. Borden and Lieut. G. B.
Burch. Fever at Vrede: Vet. Lieut. Fenner.

=19.=--In action at Palmietfontein: Maj. Moore. Wounds at Pretoria: Capt.
B. B. Church.

=20.=--Fever at Newcastle: Lieut. W. H. Kenyon.

=22.=--In action at Majate Pass: Capt. C. W. Robertson.

=23.=--In action at Retief's Nek: Capt. Sir W. G. Barttelot. In action at
Stabbert's Nek: Capt. W. Gloster. Pneumonia at Pretoria: Capt. F. S.
Kent.

=24.=--In action at Bronkhorst Spruit: Lieut. A. Ebsworth.

=25.=--Murdered at Pretoria: Col. C. W. H. Helyar. Wounds at Retief's
Nek: Maj. E. M. Wiltshire.

=26.=--Syncope at Pretoria: Sec. Lieut. W. V. St. C. M'Laren.

=28.=--Wounds at Potchefstroom: Lieut. Drew. Fever at Winburg: Sec.
Lieut. H. B. D. Bird.

=29.=--In action at Stephanusdrai: Capt. E. Q. Robertson.


AUGUST 1900

=5.=--Wounds at Paardekop: Capt. M. S. Wellby.

=6.=--In action at Elands River: Lieut. J. W. Annat.

=7.=--Wounds at Durban: Capt. E. Lucas.

=9.=--In action at Rietfontein: Lieut. A. M. Knowles.

=14.=--At Naauwpoort: Lieut. and Quartermaster P. J. Gleeson. Wounds:
Sec. Lieut. Gibson.

=18.=--At Pietermaritzburg: Sir W. Stokes, Consulting Surgeon to the
Forces.

=19.=--Wounds at Crocodile Drift: Lieut. H. Bradburn.

=20.=--In action at Klip Drift: Lieut.-Col. Spreckley. In action at
Haman's Kraal: Lieut. R. F. Flowers. Wounds at Pretoria: Lieut. J. Leash.

=21.=--In action at Ottoshoop: Lieut. A. G. Gilpin.

=23.=--In action at Geluk: Capt. A. Savory.

=25.=--At Durban: Lieut.-Col. A. G. S. Wade-Gregory. In action: Lieut. J.
H. Robbins.

=26.=--In action near Brandwater Basin: Capt. W. S. Clarke.

=27.=--In action at Bergendal: Capt. G. L. Lysley and Lieut. Abbot.
Wounds at Nylstroom: Lieut. D. M. M. Oliver.

=28.=--Sunstroke: Capt. W. B. Norwood.

=29.=--Wounds: Capt. E. G. Campbell. Wounds at Nooitgedacht: Capt. A. D.
Plomer.

=30.=--Wounds received at Bergendal: Capt. W. H. W. Steward. Wounds at
Waterval Onder: Lieut. J. L. Lawlor.


SEPTEMBER 1900

=3.=--Wounds at Mafeking: Capt. R. Arbuthnot. Wounds received at Belfast:
Lieut. J. C. Harrison.

=7.=--Wounds received at Newcastle: Maj. Hilliard.

=10.=--In action at Welverdiend: Lieut. T. B. Maddocks.

=12.=--In action at Wonderfontein: Lieut. R. J. L. White.

=16.=--In action at Hekpoort: Lieut. H. T. Stanley.

=19.=--From blood poisoning contracted at the Tugela: Lieut. J. T. Lowry.

=24.=--Fever at Barberton: Lieut. L. H. Gilliat.


OCTOBER 1900

=1.=--In action at Kruger's Post: Sec. Lieut. H. W. Cuming.

=4.=--In action near Lindley: Capt. H. Wiltshire.

=6.=--In action near Bultfontein: Lieut. A. H. Thomas.

=9.=--Wounds received at Kaap Muiden: Capt. G. L. Paget. In action at
Kaap Muiden: Capt. A. D. Stewart. In action at Dwarsvlei: Sec. Lieut. J.
R. Williams-Ellis. Fever at Pretoria: Sec. Lieut. P. A. M'Cutchan.

=13.=--In action at Machadodorp: Capt. H. W. Taylor. In action at
Dalmanutha: Lieut. F. W. Wylam and Lieut. P. A. T. Jones. In action at
Jagersfontein: Lieut. E. M. Hanbury.

=14.=--In action at Ventersburg Road Station: Lieut. H. K. Attfield.

=16.=--In action near Bethel: Sec. Lieut. A. W. Swanston.

=17.=--Tuberculosis at Pretoria: Capt. E. St. A. Pearse.

=19.=--In action near Bethel: Sec. Lieut. N. Calvert.

=20.=--In action at Weltevreden: Capt. G. E. B. Wood.

=21.=--In action near Frederikstad: Lieut. E. H. Finch.

=25.=--In action at Frederikstad: Capt. W. L. Baillie. In action at
Vrede: Lieut. J. C. Browne.

=29.=--Fever at Pretoria: Prince Christian Victor.

=30.=--In action at Ventersburg: Maj. J. Hanwell.


NOVEMBER 1900

=1.=--Wounds received at Syferfontein: Capt. W. B. Chappell-Hodge.

=2.=--In action at Witkop: Capt. Chalmers. Of hepatitis at Wynberg: Capt.
J. Loughlin.

=5.=--In action near Bothaville: Lieut.-Col. P. W. J. Le Gallais, Capt.
F. Engelbach, and Lieut. W. A. G. Williams, D.S.O.

=9.=--Wounds at Vrede: Sec. Lieut. H. G. W. Woodhouse.

=10.=--Wounds received at Bothaville: Maj. N. C. Welsh.

=12.=--Fever at Standerton: Lieut. H. P. Pigott.

=13.=--Fever at Mooi River: Capt. N. M. Lynch. At Barberton: Capt. L. H.
Hawkes. Wounds at Kimberley: Lieut. W. Rolfe.

=16.=--In action at Thabanchu: Sec. Lieut. L. Paxton.

=21.=--Disease at Daniel's Kriel: Capt. M. K. Crozier.

=23.=--In action at Tiger's Kloof: Lieut. A. M. Southey.

=28.=--Disease at Prieska: Capt. H. Masterman.

=29.=--In action at Rhenoster Kop: Lieut.-Col. G. E. Lloyd, D.S.O. Wounds
at Krugersdorp: Lieut. H. G. Berghuys.

=30.=--Wounds near Ladybrand: Lieut. W. H. Dobbie.


DECEMBER 1900

=3.=--Fever at Pretoria: Col. L. J. A. Chapman. Fever at
Pietermaritzburg: Capt. H. D. Marshall.

=5.=--Concussion of the brain at Germiston: Lieut. H. C. Ingram.

=7.=--Fever at Pretoria: Vet. Lieut. D. C. Barningham.

=9.=--Wounds at Lichtenburg: Lieut. F. Arbuthnot.

=10.=--Fever at Pietermaritzburg: Lieut.-Col. Stoneman.

=11.=--Lightning at Dundee: Lieut. J. F. Thompson-Pegge. In action at
Vryheid: Lieut. W. A. D. Lippert.

=12.=--Wounds at Vryheid: Lieut.-Col. J. M. Gawne and Lieut. W. E. S.
Woodgate.

=13.=--In action at Nooitgedacht: Lieut.-Col. N. Legge, D.S.O., Capt. J.
A. E. MacBean, Capt. A. J. C. Murdoch, Capt. W. Atkins, Lieut. J. C. C.
Reid, Capt. H. de C. Moody, Lieut. W. Skene, Lieut. A. C. Campbell. Fever
at Springfontein: Lieut. Lord O'Hagan. Fever at Pretoria: C. W. P.
Dalyell.

=19.=--Disease at Cape Town: Maj. E. G. Giles.



LIST OF CASUALTIES

As it has been found impossible to mention the number of casualties that
occurred during the numerous desultory engagements which followed the
occupation of Pretoria, lists of some of the wounded are here appended:--


JULY 1900

At Kruisfontein, on the 1st: Lieut. Horace Cole, Imperial Yeomanry.

At Waterval: Capt. Donald M'Lean-Howard, Lord Strathcona's Corps
(missing).

At Bakenkop, on the 3rd: Maj. Rae, New Zealand Bushmen (slightly); Lieut.
J. C. Collins, Roberts's Horse (dangerously).

At Paardeplatt, on the 19th: Capt. H. I. Nicholl, Mounted Infantry,
Bedfordshire Regiment; Lieut. Sir F. Burdett, 17th Lancers.

At Zinkerbosch, on the 21st: Lieut. R. H. Greig, Royal Engineers.

Among officers wounded in action near Kosk's River were: Lieut. A.
Eckford, New South Wales Contingent; Lieut. L. Leask, Lieut. R. H. Walsh,
Queensland Mounted Infantry; Capt. F. J. Ingolby, Lieut. John Davis,
Capt. C. Hall, West Australian Contingent.

At Spitz Kop, on the 22nd: Lieut. C. C. Wilson, Westmoreland and
Cumberland Yeomanry, attached to 8th Hussars (severely).

Near Stinkhoutboom, on the 24th: Capt. C. H. M. Doughty, 1st Royal Welsh
Fusiliers; Lieut. B. C. Dwyer, 2nd Leicester Regiment; Lieut, A. A. C.
Taylor, 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers; Capt. R. L. Adlereron, Lieut. A. J.
C. Murdoch, 1st Cameron Highlanders.

At Rooi Koppies: Capt. Rogers, Volunteer Company Gordon Highlanders.

At Stephanusdrai, on the 29th: Capt. W. R. Marshall, Derbyshire Regiment.


AUGUST 1900

At Paardekop, on the 3rd: Capt. M. S. Wellby, 18th Hussars (died from
wounds).

Near Ottoshoop, on the 6th: Lieut. Collins, South Australian Bushmen.

At Derdepoort, on the 9th: Lieut. Howell, Somerset Yeomanry (attached for
duty to Transvaal Constabulary).

At Rietfontein: Col. G. J. Younghusband, 3rd Batt. Imperial Yeomanry.

On the 12th: Lieut. F. G. Newton, Queensland Mounted Infantry.

At Zilicats Nek, on the 20th: Capt. Bonham Christie, Reserve of Officers,
attached for duty to 1st Mounted Infantry.

On the 25th: Brig.-Gen. M. O. Little (severely).

At Doornhoek, on the 26th: Maj. Robinson, Natal Border Mounted Rifles.

At Jachtfontein, on the 29th: Lieut. L. J. Wyatt, 2nd North Staffordshire
Regiment.

At Kwaggasfontein, on the 31st: Capt. J. P. Farrar, Lieut. J. H. Beswick,
Capt. A. Rose-Innes, Capt. J. M. Fairweather, Capt. and Adjt. (temp.
Maj.) R. H. Price, Capt. J. Donovan, Kaffrarian Rifles.

At Welverdiend: Lieut. G. H. J. S. Smyth, 9th Lancers.


SEPTEMBER 1900

Near Warmbaths, on the 1st: Capt. E. W. Brooke, Army Service Corps.

At Waterval Onder, on the 3rd: Lieut. F. Darling, West Australian Mounted
Infantry.

At Boschfontein, on the 11th: Lieut. Lang, 2nd Worcester Regiment.

At Bethlehem, on the 12th: Lieut. Power, 8th Imperial Yeomanry.

At Witpoort, on the 20th: Lieut. the Hon. W. E. Guinness, 12th Batt.
Imperial Yeomanry.

At Kail Vlei: Lieut. Clifford, 1st Batt. Imperial Yeomanry

At Zandfontein, on the 25th: Capt. G. M. H. Stirling, Essex Regiment;
Lieut. J. Higson, Queensland Bushmen.

At Doornkop, on the 28th: Lieut. Sherrard, R.E. (dangerously).


OCTOBER, NOVEMBER, AND DECEMBER

Among the wounded in various engagements were: Lieut. Richardson, Natal
Mounted Rifles; Capt. E. Molyneux, 12th Bengal Lancers (severely); Lieut.
Stubbs; Capt. N. Luxmoore, 1st Devonshire (dangerously); Lieut. S. A.
Slater, 57th Co. Imperial Yeomanry; Capt. G. M. H. Stirling, Essex
Regiment (slightly); Lieut. J. Higson, Queensland Bushmen (severely);
Capt. Lord Loch, Grenadier Guards (severely): Lieut. L. E. L. Parker,
R.A.M.C. (slightly); Lieut. Noel Money, 5th Batt. Imperial Yeomanry
(slightly); Major C. E. Duff, 8th Hussars; Second Lieut. H. Gilmour, 16th
Lancers; Lieut. W. S. Brancker, R.H.A.; Lieut. H. T. Pomfret, Imperial
Yeomanry; Lieut. O. Humphrey, Cape Mounted Rifles; Capt. H. M. Trenchard,
Royal Scots Fusiliers; Capt. R. E. P. Gabbett, Second Lieut. H. V. Kyrke,
Royal Welsh Fusiliers; Major A. E. Cavendish, Argyll and Sutherland
Highlanders; Col. F. G. Blair, Imperial Yeomanry (slightly wounded);
Lieut. R. B. B. England, 14th Batt., Lieut. J. Crocker, 3rd Batt., and
Capt. P. Davidson, 5th Batt. Imperial Yeomanry; Sec. Lieut. A. Cameron,
1st Gordon Highlanders; Major Broke, R.E.; Lieut. H. J. Hall, Lieut. P.
G. Anstruther, 2nd Seaforth Highlanders; Capt. J. W. Yardley, Lieut. E.
Paterson, Lieut. J. Harris, 6th Dragoons; Capt. H. Delmé-Radcliffe,
Lieut. W. Best, Lieut. F. H. Nangle, Royal Welsh Fusiliers; Capt. D. H.
A. Dick; Sec. Lieut. A. G. Bruce, Sec. Lieut. J. Elliott, Royal Scots
Fusiliers; Capt. H. M. Brown, N.S.W. Bushmen; Lieut. W. Rolfe, Cape
Mounted Rifles; Lieut. C. H. Mullins, Marshall's Horse; Capt. D. J.
Glasford, 1st Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, Sec. Lieut. Lord G. R.
Grosvenor, 2nd Scots Guards (slightly); Lieut. J. H. Elmsley, Lieut. L.
E. W. Turner, Lieut. H. Z. C. Cockburn, 1st Canadian Mounted Rifles;
Capt. G. H. Reynolds, Capt. T. R. Stannus, Lieut. Viscount Ennismore,
Imperial Yeomanry (slightly); Lieut. J. G. Craik, 2nd Seaforth
Highlanders (slightly); Surg. Hartley, Lovat's Scouts (slightly); Capt.
G. T. Mair, R.H.A. (severely); Lieut.-Col. W. C. Ross, Durham Light
Infantry (dangerously); Capt. G. N. Colvile, Oxford Mounted Infantry
(severely); Lieut. A. S. Peebles, Suffolk Mounted Infantry (severely);
Lieut. C. Percy Smith, Middlesex Mounted Infantry (slightly); Capt. O.
Harris, West Riding Mounted Infantry (slightly); Maj. N. C. Welch,
Hampshire Mounted Infantry (severely); Lieut. J. D. Lyons, 13th Hussars;
Lieut. E. M. Baker, 2nd Manchester Regiment; Lieut. Hawke, R.F.A.
(accidentally injured); Maj. A. R. Austen, 2nd Shropshire Light Infantry
(slightly); Lieut. H. A. H. Stepney, 2nd Coldstream Guards (slightly);
Lieut. W. R. K. Mainwaring, Imperial Yeomanry (severely); Maj. E. E.
Hanbury, 2nd Scots Guards (severely); Lieut. Hon. H. Baring (severely),
Lieut. C. H. Gresson (slightly), Roberts's Horse; Lieut. F. C. Grey,
Imperial Yeomanry (severely); Lieut. Roos, Thorneycroft's Mounted
Infantry (severely); Capt. Wingfield-Digby, Gloucester Regiment
(slightly); Lieut. H. W. T. Elam, R.F.A. (slightly); Lieut. M. Home,
Highland Light Infantry (dangerously); Sec. Lieut. Cooke-Collis, Royal
Irish Rifles (slightly); Lieut. E. A. B. Clive, 2nd Seaforth Highlanders
(severely); Major Taylor, R.H.A.; Sec. Lieut. Moffat, 2nd South Wales
Borderers (slightly); Lieut. G. Conder, Veterinary Dept. (slightly);
Lieut. J. N. S. Stott, 3rd Norfolk (slightly); Capt. E. G. Elger, 2nd
Somerset Light Infantry (slightly); Lieut. E. N. Townsend, Lieut. H. J.
L. Oakes (severely), Capt. L. R. Acworth (slightly), 1st West Riding
Regiment; Lieut. O. Challis, R.A.M.C. (severely); Lieut. J. E.
Montgomerie, Lieut. C. L. Somerville (severely), Capt. G. Crawshaw, Capt.
S. C. Godfray, and Lieut. F. G. Tucker, New Zealand Mounted Infantry;
Lieut. F. Arbuthnot, Imperial Yeomanry (dangerously); Lieut. E. J. M.
Hanley, Queensland Mounted Infantry (severely); Lieut. S. R. Theobald,
9th Lancers (slightly); Capt. C. Warner, 17th Lancers (slightly); Lieut.
H. W. Compton, 5th Royal Fusiliers (severely); Capt. Dennison, Dennison's
Scouts (slightly); Capt. Bolitho, 27th Co. (slightly), Capt. R. W.
Purvis, 20th Co. Imperial Yeomanry (severely); Capt. Stevenson,
Kitchener's Horse (severely); Sec. Lieut. L. W. Gordon, 2nd Bedfordshire
(slightly); Lieut. A. Friedlander, Brabant's Horse; Maj. E. D. Cropper
(dangerously), Lieut. B. Napier, Imperial Yeomanry (since dead); Lieut.
D. F. Miller, New South Wales Bushmen (severely); Lieut. G. R. Taylour,
Royal Warwickshire Regiment (slightly); Capt. H. Cholmondeley, Brabant's
Horse (severely); Lieut. M. B. White (slightly), Capt. C. E. Radclyffe,
Rifle Brigade (slightly); Capt. H. H. Harvest R.F.A. (very severely),
Lieut. H. E. S. Wynne, R.F.A. (dangerously); Lord F. Blackwood, 9th
Lancers (severely); Lieut. C. J. Thackwell, 18th Hussars (severely);
Lieut. E. N. Kelly, Nesbitt's Horse.



INDEX


    Africander Bond, origin and nature of, i. 115

    Alice, Mount, iii. 94

    Aliwal North occupied, iv. 170

    Almond's Nek, battle of, vi. 29

    Armoured train, ii. 59, 121, 125

    Arundel, _see_ Colesberg


    Baden-Powell, Colonel, at Mafeking, ii. 55;
      his clever ruses and energy, iii. 32;
      remarkable letter to the Boers, 38;
      private letter home, 39;
      his "Manual on Scouting," 53;
      despatch to Colonel Nicholson, iv. 91;
      correspondence with Snyman, v. 47;
      receives a message from the Queen, 49;
      sends a message to Lord Roberts, 51;
      attacked by Eloff, 110;
      relief, 131, 134;
      further operations, vi. 40;
      arrives at Pretoria, 40;
      at Rustenburg, 70;
      guerilla war, 125.
      _See_ Mafeking

    Balloon, range of country visible from Mount Alice, iii. 98

    Barberton, vi. 108

    Barton, Maj.-General, at Colenso, ii. 190

    Bastion Hill, capture of, iii. 101

    Basutoland, i. 12

    Beacon Hill, fight at, ii. 132

    Beaconsfield, i. 44

    Bechuanaland, i. 114

    Belfast attacked, vi. 93

    Belmont, engagement near, ii. 81;
      battle of, 86;
      casualties, 92;
      colonial forces at, iii. 60

    Bethlehem, battle of, vi. 42

    Bethulie, saving the bridge at, iv. 171;
      capturing the station, 173

    Biddulph's Berg, battle of, v. 161-68

    Bloemfontein, i. 11;
      conference, 182;
      surrender of, iv. 107-11;
      fever, 177;
      army at, 185;
      preparations for the advance northwards, v. 32;
      life in, 38;
      on the eve of the great advance, 87

    Bloomplaats, battle of, i. 12

    Boer brutality outside Kimberley, iii. 43;
      at Spion Kop, 115

    Boers, origin and early history of, i. 1;
      their character, 15

    Bonaparte, Louis Napoleon, the Prince Imperial, i. 51

    Boshof, battle of, v. 38;
      casualties, 45

    Botha, General, conference at Kroonstadt, iv. 180;
      conference with General Buller near Majuba, vi. 27;
      great activity along Delagoa line, 55;
      guerilla tactics, 142;
      conference with Kitchener, 150

    Brabant, General, and the relief of Wepener, v. 64-68, 75-81;
      further operations, vi. 38, 42;
      guerilla war, 125

    Brandfort occupied, v. 91

    British South Africa Company, origin of, i. 122

    Bronker's Spruit, massacre of, i. 71

    Buller, General, ii. 6;
      arrives at the Cape, 73;
      at Pietermaritzburg, 139;
      Colenso, 188;
      his despatch, 199;
      his second advance, iii. 92;
      his force, 92;
      at Spearman's Farm, 96;
      his plan, 97;
      at Spion Kop, 115 and appendix;
      Vaal Krantz, 117;
      plans for another attempt, iv. 121;
      forces as reorganised, 123 (_see_ Pieters Hill, Ladysmith, &c.);
      advance to Newcastle, v. 171;
      his forces, 171, vi. 27;
      routing the Boers from Laing's Nek, vi. 27;
      conference with Botha, 27;
      Majuba, 29;
      to Standerton, 32;
      arrives in Pretoria, 56;
      Lydenburg campaign, 93;
      clearing the country from Volksrust to Belfast, 88;
      returns home, 122

    Buluwayo, i. 120, 124

    Bushmen's corps, iii. 158


    Cæsar's Camp, attack on, iii. 81;
      casualties, 90

    Campbell-Bannerman, his views on the war, iii. 15

    Canadian contingents, iii. 138-148

    Cape Colony, early history of, i. 2;
      invaded by the Boers, ii. 76;
      loyalty of, 156;
      volunteers, 159, iii. 161;
      invaded by De Wet, vi. 134;
      the call to arms, 138

    Cape Town, enthusiasm at, ii. 156;
      the call to arms, vi. 138

    Carrington, General, his force arrives at Beira, v. 53;
      plans, 127;
      in the Western Transvaal, vi. 70

    Cetchwayo, i. 30, 34, 57

    Chamberlain, Mr., i. 148;
      and the Jameson Raid, 174;
      speech, Feb. 5, 1900, iv. 11

    Chelmsford, Lord, i. 40 _et seq._

    Chermside, General, operations in Free State, v. 71, 78

    Chieveley, armoured train disaster at, ii. 121, 153, 187; iii. 93;
      army returns to, iv. 121

    Christian, Prince, vi. 123

    Christmas day in the field, iii. 15

    Churchill, Mr. Winston, ii. 36, 73;
      captured, 122;
      story of his escape, iii. 11;
      his letter to Mr. de Sousa quoted, 97;
      marvellous escape near Dewetsdorp, v. 72

    Clements, General, vi. 42 _et passim_;
      guerilla war, 134

    Clery, Sir C. F., his force, iii. 92

    Clery, General, details of his force, ii. 160;
      general order at Colenso, 189

    City Imperial Volunteers, iii. 171

    Coke, Major-General, iii. appendix

    Colenso evacuated, ii. 54;
      advance towards from Estcourt, 141;
      bridge destroyed, 144-45;
      battle of, 154;
      casualties, 197

    Colesberg, ii. 73, 85;
      operations near, iii. 52;
      disaster to the Suffolks, 175;
      remarkable operations, 176;
      the Australians at, iv. 164

    Colley, Sir George, i. 70, 78 _et seq._

    Colonies, the, response of, ii. 2, iii. 136

    Colvile, General, and the Lindley affair, v. 161-168

    Congreve, Captain, his account of battle of Colenso, ii. 200

    Conventions: Sand River, i. 12;
      of 1881, 106 and appendix;
      of 1884, 110 and appendix

    Cronje, General, i. 70;
      treachery, 106;
      and the Jameson Raid, 166, 172-73;
      invests Mafeking, ii. 55 _et passim_;
      leaves Mafeking in disgust, iii. 32;
      his position at Majesfontein, iv. 31;
      his position turned, 30-79;
      flight, 40;
      Paardeberg, 54;
      trapped, 62;
      surrenders, 70;
      a prisoner, 74


    Dalgety, Captain, the hero of Wepener, v. 54

    De Aar, ii. 77 _et passim_

    Deaths in action and from disease, January to June 1900, v. 195 _et passim_

    Delarey, the guerilla war, vi. 125

    De Wet attempts to relieve Cronje at Paardeberg, iv. 66;
      conference at Kroonstadt, 100;
      his great activity, vi. 21;
      chased in the Eastern Transvaal, 70;
      near Bethlehem, 45;
      guerilla war, 125;
      invades Cape Colony, 134

    Diamonds discovered, i. 30;
      effects, 132;
      statistics, 135

    Diamond Hill, battle of, vi. 12;
      casualties, 18

    Dick-Cunyngham, Colonel, death of, iii. 89, 90

    Doornkop, _see_ Jameson Raid

    Doornkop, battle of, v. 147;
      casualties, 148

    Douglas, the relief of and exodus from, iii. 66

    Driefontein, fight at, iv. 101;
      casualties, 104

    Dundee, ii. 7 (_see_ Glencoe);
      retreat from, 32, 37;
      occupied by Boers, 38, 98;
      wounded sent to Estcourt, 120;
      occupied by the British, v. 174

    Dundonald, Lord, ii. 151;
      at Colenso, 190, 194; iii. 94, 100 _et passim_;
      Ladysmith, iv. 153;
      advance to Newcastle, v. 176

    Durban, military occupation of, i. 10;
      bank seized, ii. 70

    Dutch disloyalty at the Cape, ii. 76, 143 _et passim_


    Elandslaagte, ii. 14;
      battle, 20;
      casualties, 27

    Elands River, operations at, vi. 70

    Election, General, October 1900, vi. 127

    Elliot, Captain, fate of, i. 73

    Eloff, Commandant, attack on Mafeking, v. 109

    Enslin, _see_ Graspan

    Estcourt, ii. 116, 117;
      the situation at, 119, 126, 131, 139, 143

    Europe and the war, vi. 128


    Farms, Dutch, description of, iii. 74

    Fever at Bloemfontein, iv. 177

    Fitzpatrick's "Transvaal from Within," i. 178

    Force, total in the field, Dec. 1899, iii. 15

    Forestier-Walker, General, ii. 79 _et passim_

    Fort Wylie, _see_ Colenso

    Franchise question, the, i. 141, 146, 179; ii. 5

    French, General, at Elandslaagte, ii. 21;
      Lombard's Kop, 43;
      gets out of Ladysmith, 114;
      his force, 159;
      operations in Colesberg district, iii. 52, 174;
      his famous ride to Kimberley, iv. 30;
      back again on the track of Cronje, 49;
      at Paardeberg, 65;
      movements in Free State, v. 73 _et seq._;
      moves northward towards Pretoria, 91, 96;
      fighting near the Zand River, 104;
      casualties, 105;
      Doornkop, 147;
      advance to Pretoria, 187;
      battle of Diamond Hill, vi. 12;
      capture of Middelburg, 54;
      Lydenburg campaign, 93;
      guerilla war, 125

    Frere, ii. 139;
      great activity at the camp, 151;
      life in camp, 152

    Frere, Sir Bartle, i. 33, 37 _et seq._


    Gatacre, General, details of his force, ii. 160;
      operations, 160;
      Stormberg, 163;
      operations, 18th Dec. to 20th Jan., iii. 47-52;
      occupies Burgersdorp, iv. 169;
      oath administered to rebels, 170;
      at Reddersburg, v. 17;
      recalled to England, 34

    Geneva Convention, iv. 22

    German tactics adopted by the Boers, iii. 3

    Germany in South Africa, i. 114

    Gladstone, Mr., his policy, i. 66

    Glencoe, troops at, ii. 3, 7, 11;
      battle of, 14;
      casualties, 18;
      occupied by the British, v. 174

    Gold discovered, i. 30, 116;
      the goldfields, 127, 137

    Graspan, battle of, ii. 92;
      casualties, 96

    Griqualand, i. 11

    Griqualand West, i. 132

    Grondwet, the, i. 26

    Guerilla war, vi. 125


    Haldane, Captain, and Lieutenant Mesurier escape from Pretoria, v. 21

    Hamilton, General Ian, ii. 5, 22;
      at Lombard's Kop, 41;
      composition of his division for advance on Pretoria, v. 35;
      moves north from Bloemfontein, 74, 95;
      crosses the Zand River, 102;
      casualties, 104;
      Doornkop, 148;
      advance to Pretoria, 187;
      battle of Diamond Hill, vi. 12;
      capture of Middelburg, 54;
      approaches Heidelberg, 34, 42;
      Lydenburg campaign, 93

    Harrismith occupied, vi. 112

    Hart, Major-General, at Colenso, ii. 190;
      his force, iii. 92, 94;
      at Spion Kop, 100 _et seq._;
      Vaal Krantz, 117;
      at Pieters Hill, iv. 138

    Heilbron occupied by Colvile, v. 156;
      Highlanders captured near, vi. 6

    Heliograph, humours of the, ii. 151

    Highland Brigade at Koodoesberg, iii. 186;
      at Paardeberg, iv. 56;
      march to Heilbron, v. 156

    Highlanders' devotion to their dress, iii. 77

    Hildyard, Major-General, at Colenso, ii. 190; iii. 104, 117

    Hlangwane Hill, ii. 194;
      taken, iv. 128

    Hollanders, Sir Bartle Frere's opinion of, i. 77

    Hospitals question, the, vi. 144

    Hunter, General, brilliant exploit at Ladysmith, ii. 146;
      scheme to relieve Mafeking, v. 117;
      occupies Christiana, 132;
      moves to Johannesburg, vi. 35;
      surrender of Prinsloo, 42


    Imperial Yeomanry, iii. 167;
      distinguish themselves at Boshof, v. 39, 41

    India contingents, iii. 159

    Ingogo, engagement, i. 85

    Irish troops, matchless bravery of, iv. 140-144

    Isandlwana, battle of, i. 40


    Jacobsdaal, iii. 72, 73;
      entered by Lord Roberts, iv. 47

    Jameson, Dr., i. 122.
      _See_ Jameson Raid

    Jameson Raid, i. 149;
      report to War Office, 157;
      after Doornkop, 172;
      fate of raiders and reformers, 177

    Johannesburg (_see_ Gold, Jameson Raid, Reform Movement, &c.);
      the mines threatened, v. 145;
      Germiston occupied by Roberts, 149;
      yields, 151;
      entered by the British, 152;
      the road to Pretoria, 185

    Joubert, General, i. 70, 73, 79, 109; ii. 10, 14;
      opinions on causes of the war (_see_ Ladysmith, 40);
      conference at Kroonstadt, iv. 180;
      death, 191;
      remarks, 191


    Karee, battle of, iv. 192;
      casualties, 193

    Karee Siding, incident at, iv. 189

    Kekewich, Colonel, defends Kimberley, ii. 66 _et passim_;
      his plan for defence of Kimberley, iv. 15

    Kelly-Kenny, General, leaves England, iii. 14;
      his part in the great turning movement, iv. 34-79

    Kharki dress adopted, iii. 17

    Kimberley (_see_ Diamonds), i. 133; ii. 3, 6;
      description of, 64;
      the garrison, 65;
      early incidents of the siege, 66;
      the opposing forces, 110;
      engagement at, Nov. 4, iii. 39;
      opposing forces, 41;
      bombardment, 41;
      humours, 41;
      another engagement, Nov. 17, 42;
      hopes of the besieged, 42;
      strong reconnaissance, 25th Nov., 44;
      again, 28th, 45;
      death of Colonel Scott-Innes, 45;
      further details of the siege, Nov.-Feb., iv. 14-30;
      relief, 30, 36-79;
      casualties, 63

    Kimberley, Lord, i. 48, 100

    Kipling, Mr. Rudyard, poem, in facsimile, ii. 203

    Kitchener, Lord, leaves for the Cape, iii. 14;
      his part in the great turning movement, iv. 32-79;
      detects the flight of Cronje, 40, 51;
      his organising genius, 42-44, 179;
      at Paardeberg, 62;
      guarding the communications, vi. 19;
      in the Western Transvaal, 75;
      succeeds Lord Roberts, 133;
      conference with Botha, 151;
      proclamation, 136

    Knox, General, and the guerilla war, vi. 132 _et seq._

    Komati Poort, vi. 110

    Koodoesberg, battle of, iii. 186;
      casualties, 189

    Koorn Spruit, disaster at, v. 1;
      casualties, 13

    Kroonstadt, Lord Roberts enters, v. 106

    Kruger, Mr., his father, i. 12;
      becomes Commandant-General, 28, 108;
      becomes President, 109;
      visits England, 109;
      his character, &c., 110;
      and the Uitlanders, 138;
      closes the drifts, 148;
      Jameson Raid, 155;
      Bloemfontein Conference, 183;
      telegram to _New York World_, ii. 3;
      proclamation, 4;
      despatch to Lord Roberts, Feb. 3, 1900;
      despatch, iv. 96;
      at Poplar Grove, 100;
      at Kroonstadt with Steyn, 180;
      leaves South Africa, vi. 124

    Kruger, Mrs., i. 178

    Krugersdorp, i. 70.
      _See_ Jameson Raid

    Krugersdorp-Potchefstroom railroad, protecting the, vi. 66

    Kuruman, story of, iii. 25;
      gallant defence of, 215


    Ladysmith, ii. 3;
      the position at, 38;
      Lombard's Kop, 41;
      invested, 50;
      the opposing forces, 110;
      early days of the siege, 112, 126;
      the siege, 136;
      hospital fired on, 137, 140;
      surprises at, 145;
      communication established by heliograph, 151;
      composition of the relief force, 152;
      Christmas at, iii. 79;
      activities, 80;
      attack on Wagon Hill, 81;
      privations, 125;
      great sufferings, iv. 129;
      relief, 153;
      effect at home, 155;
      formal entry, 156

    Laing's Nek, i. 77;
      routing the Boers from, vi. 27.

    Languages, i. 116

    Leyds, Dr., i. 117

    Lindley, capture of the Yeomanry at, v. 161-68

    Lobengula, i. 120, 121-23

    Lombard's Kop, battle of, ii. 41;
      casualties, 45;
      General Hunter's night attack on, 146

    Lydenburg Campaign, the, vi. 93

    Lyttelton, Major-General, at Colenso, ii. 190;
      crosses the Tugela, iii. 95;
      at Spion Kop, 100 _et seq._;
      at Vaal Krantz, 117 and appendix;
      succeeds General Buller, vi. 122


    MacDonald, General Hector, arrives at Modder, iii. 76;
      his career, Majuba, Omdurman, 76;
      at Koodoesberg, 186;
      wounded at Paardeberg, iv. 56;
      occupies Harrismith, vi. 112

    Mafeking, becomes British, i. 116;
      Dr. Jameson at, 151; ii. 3, 6;
      besieged, 55;
      the garrison, 56;
      armoured train attacked, 57, 59;
      night sortie, 63;
      heavy fighting, 63;
      the opposing forces, 110;
      further incidents, iii. 19;
      _Daily Chronicle_ correspondent shot, 20;
      the _Mafeking Mail_, 21;
      the opposing forces in November, 25;
      no surrender thought of, 31;
      another sortie, 33;
      dynamite mines, 33;
      _Punch_ in Mafeking, 34;
      sniping, 34;
      humours of the siege, 36;
      Lady Sarah Wilson, 36;
      Baden-Powell's remarkable letter to the Boers, 38;
      attack on Game Tree fort, iv. 80;
      Cronje again, 83;
      siege life, 84-94;
      a magnificent defence, 93;
      must hold out till May, 113;
      events in February, 112;
      in March, 194;
      during April, v. 46;
      May, in extremities, 109;
      great attack by Eloff, 109;
      casualties, 115;
      relief (and casualties), 131, 134;
      extraordinary enthusiasm throughout the Empire, 140

    Mahon, Colonel, his dash for Mafeking, v. 117, 131, 134

    Majesfontein, battle of, ii. 172;
      casualties, 184

    Majuba day at Paardeberg, iv. 69;
      Buller's victory at, vi. 29

    Majuba Hill, battle of, i. 86

    Matabeleland, i. 113, 120

    Matabele War, i. 122

    Methuen, General, at De Aar, ii. 83, 86
      (_see_ Belmont, Graspan, Modder River, &c.);
      details of his force, 160 and 171;
      Majesfontein, 172;
      at Boshof, v. 38;
      at Kroonstadt, 159;
      guarding the communications, vi. 19;
      further operations, 39;
      protecting Krugersdorp railway, 66;
      at Rustenburg, &c., 70;
      guerilla war, 131

    Middelburg, capture of, vi. 54

    Militia, permitted to volunteer, iii. 3

    Milner, Sir Alfred, i. 125, 182;
      Sir Alfred issues proclamation, Oct. 11th, 1899, ii. 5;
      again Oct. 28th, and letter to Mr. Chamberlain, 70;
      telegram to the same, Nov., 155;
      proclamation, Nov., 156;
      congratulates Colonial troops, iii. 58;
      appointed Governor of the Transvaal, &c., vi. 144

    Modder River, battle of, ii. 97;
      casualties, 107;
      town occupied, 169;
      situation at, iii. 73;
      demonstration against Boer left, 76;
      locusts, 77

    Molteno, ii. 165

    Monte Christo Hill taken, iv. 126


    Naauwpoort. _See_ Colesberg

    Natal Volunteers, iii. 166

    Natal, early history, i. 7

    Natal's splendid loyalty, ii. 71

    Naval Brigade, at Ladysmith, ii. 44, 75, 83;
      at Graspan, 95-96, 113, 141;
      at Colenso, 190;
      on Mount Alice, iii. 98

    Newcastle, abandoned, 6, 8, 9

    New Republic, origin of, i. 115

    New South Wales contingents, iii. 148

    New Zealand contingents, iii. 151

    Nicholson's Nek, disaster at, ii. 45;
      casualties, 45

    Nitral's Nek, disaster at, vi. 57;
      casualties, 61


    Oliver, General, curious controversy with General Gatacre, iii. 50

    Orange Free State, origin of, i. 10;
      early history, 24;
      sides with the Transvaal, ii. 4;
      measures for control of, v. 37;
      complicated movements in, before the advance to Pretoria, 70

    Osfontein, battle of, iv. 97;
      Kruger and Steyn try to rally the Boers, 100


    Paardeberg, battle of, iv. 54;
      casualties, 60, 67, 79;
      feat by Canadians, 69;
      the surrender and after, 71-79

    Paget, General, vi. 42 _et passim_, 125, 132

    Parliament, vote of censure, iv. 1;
      M.P.'s at the front, 13

    Peers at the front, iv. 13

    Pieter's Hill, battle of, iv. 134;
      casualties, 149

    Pilcher's, Colonel, expedition to Sunnyside and Douglas, iii. 61;
      itinerary, 67;
      further adventures, 68

    Pitsani, i. 150, 156 _et seq._

    Plumer, Colonel, in Rhodesia, ii. 61;
      his force, 110;
      account of operations, iii. 27;
      guarding the drift, 35;
      operations for relief of Mafeking, iv. 204;
      further efforts (April), v. 49, 53;
      co-operates with Mahon and relieves Mafeking, 124, 131, 134;
      the guerilla war, vi. 132

    Pole-Carew, General, ii. 177;
      operations in Free State, v. 73, 75, 77, 84;
      battle of Diamond Hill, vi. 12;
      capture of Middelburg, 65;
      Lydenburg campaign, 93

    Potchefstroom, i. 96, 106

    Potgeiter's Drift, iii. 95;
      pontoon captured, 95

    Pretoria, siege of, i. 95;
      British resident in, 108;
      changed to diplomatic agent, 110;
      fortifications, 179;
      Mr. Kruger leaves, v. 179;
      forts fired on, 180;
      prisoners liberated, some removed, 181;
      occupied by the British, 184;
      escape of prisoners, v. 21;
      list of officers imprisoned at, vi. 10;
      affairs in and around, 54;
      plot, 62;
      further events, 81;
      the Cordua plot, 85

    Pretorius, i. 6, 12

    Prieska occupied, iii. 78

    Prinsloo, his surrender, vi. 42


    Queensland contingents, iii. 153


    Raad. _See_ Volksraad.

    Railways in South Africa, i. 129;
      Transvaal monopoly, 143; ii. 168

    Reddersburg, mishap at, v. 16;
      casualties, 20

    Reform movement, the, i. 148 _et seq._

    Reitfontein, battle of, ii. 36;
      casualties, 38

    Rensburg. _See_ Colesberg

    Reverses, reason for, iii. 1;
      criticism, 7

    Rhodes, Mr. Cecil, i. 116;
      his early career, 118;
      and General Gordon, 118;
      premier, 119;
      and Rhodesia, 120;
      his connection with the Jameson Raid, 150;
      goes to Kimberley, ii. 65;
      his devotion to the cause of the town, iii. 44;
      his various activities, iv. 14-30;
      heliograph message to Roberts, 28

    Rhodesia, i. 118;
      uncivilised, 119;
      civilised, 124;
      operations in, ii. 61, 110;
      Northern, state of affairs in November, iii. 26;
      Southern, state of affairs in, 31

    Roberts, Lieutenant, his death at Colenso, ii. 193;
      burial, iii. 8

    Roberts, Lord, i. 101;
      leaves England, iii. 7;
      arrives, 131;
      and the Colonial troops, 133;
      correspondence with Kruger, 134;
      arrives at the Modder, 185;
      his despatch regarding Spion Kop, appendix;
      his message to Rhodes, iv. 28;
      his great plan to relieve Kimberley, 30;
      his force as reorganised, 38;
      issues "Notes for Guidance," 43;
      enters Jacobsdaal, 47;
      Proclamation, 48;
      Paardeberg, 62;
      receives Cronje's submission, 70;
      march to Bloemfontein, 108-11;
      characteristics, 178;
      plans and changes, 185;
      letter to Kruger, 192;
      preparations for advance to Pretoria, v. 32;
      distribution of force for subjection of Free State, 68;
      his plan for advance northward, 89;
      forces, 89;
      advance begins, 91;
      enters Kroonstadt, 106;
      enters Johannesburg, 152;
      enters Pretoria, 157;
      issues a General Order, vi. 3;
      plot in Pretoria, 62;
      Lydenburg campaign, 93;
      proclamation, 105;
      appointed Commander-in-Chief, 121;
      leaves for England, 133

    Robinson, Sir Hercules and the Jameson Raid, i. 170, 172, 174

    Roodeval, militia captured, vi. 8

    Rorke's Drift, i. 42

    Rosebery, Lord, his attack on the Government, iv. 3

    Rundle, General, operations in Free State, v. 71, 77, 84;
      march to Senekal, 154;
      the Lindley affair, 161-68;
      movements in East Orange State, vi. 37, 42

    Rustenburg occupied by Baden-Powell, vi. 40;
      siege of, 70


    St. Helena, stranding of the _Esmore_, ii. 158

    Salisbury, Lord, i. 45;
      reply to criticisms, iv. 3;
      reply to Kruger's despatch, 97;
      letter from the Envoys to, vi. 86

    Sanna's Post, _see_ Koorn Spruit

    Schreiner, Mr., ii. 5

    Scott, Captain Percy, R.N., ii. 53, 75, 141, 151

    Scott-Chisholme, Colonel, tribute to, ii. 27

    Scott-Turner, Colonel, death of, iii. 45, 46.
      _See_ Kimberley

    Shepstone, Sir T., i. 31, 33, 37

    Smith-Dorrien, General, and the guerilla war, vi. 126

    South African Republic, name taken, i. 109.
      _See_ Transvaal

    South and West Australian Contingents, iii. 154

    Spion Kop, engagement at, iii. 95, 96, 98, 100 _et seq._;
      casualties, 116 and appendix

    Springfield, concentration at, iii. 94

    Staff appointments (Chart), ii. _front._; iii. 199; iv. 213; v. 193

    Steyn, Mr., becomes President, i. 182;
      issues proclamation October 1899, ii. 4;
      leaves Bloemfontein for Kroonstadt, iv. 106;
      leaves Kroonstadt for Lindley, v. 106;
      still keeps the field after Kruger's flight, vi. 54;
      guerilla war, 129

    Stormberg, ii. 73, 84;
      reverse to General Gatacre's force at, 163;
      casualties, 167;
      explanations, 166-68;
      reconnaissance at, iv. 167

    Strathcona's Horse, iii. 146

    Sunnyside, action at, iii. 62

    Swartz Kop, iii. 95, 101, 120

    Swaziland, i. 145

    Symons, General, ii. 8;
      at Glencoe, 14-20;
      death and career, 34


    Talana Hill, _see_ Glencoe

    Tasmania contingents, iii. 157

    Thabanchu occupied, v. 83

    Thorneycroft, Colonel, iii. 114 _et passim_, and appendix

    _Times'_ report on Nicholson's Nek, ii. 47;
      the remarkable letter to, i. 186;
      another letter to, vi. 127

    _Toronto Globe_, description of Colonel Pilcher's raid, iii. 64

    Transport in the field, iii. 93

    Transvaal, origin and early history of (_see_ Appendix), i. _et seq._ 4, 23;
      nature of, 14;
      dissensions, 29;
      annexed, 1876, 34;
      rebellion, 69;
      retrocession and its effects, 100;
      gold discovered, 127;
      of to-day, i. 136;
      corruption, 142;
      Jameson raid, 150;
      annexed to British Empire, vi. 97

    Trichardt's Drift, crossing at, iii. 96

    Truce flag, abuse of by Boers, ii. 89, 111, 116; iii. 10

    Tugela River, _see_ Colenso; iii. 95;
      final crossing, iv. 128, 134, 142, 145;
      casualties, 136

    Tuli, expedition from, iii. 35


    "Uitlanders," i. 116;
      their treatment, 138;
      and the Jameson raid, 149;
      their treatment after, 179;
      complaints to the Queen, 180

    Ultimatum, the, of 1899, i. 178-89

    Ulundi, battle of, i. 49


    Vaal, British army crosses, v. 145

    Vaal Krantz, battle of, iii. 117;
      casualties, 125

    Venter's Spruit casualties, iii. 104

    Victoria, Queen, death of, vi. 145

    Victoria contingents, iii. 150

    Viljeon, General, ii. 3, 5, 10, 14

    Villebois-Mareuil, de, Colonel, v. 41;
      his plan of campaign, 42

    Volksraad, i. 8, 27, 108, 117, 140, 145, 179 _et seq._
      _See_ Appendix

    Volunteers offer themselves for foreign service, iii. 5

    Vryburg, v. 121, 133


    Wagon Hill, attack on, iii. 81;
      casualties, 90

    Warren, Sir C., Bechuanaland expedition, i. 115; iii. 7;
      his force, 92;
      crosses the Tugela, 96;
      at Spion Kop, 100 _et seq._ and Appendix;
      engagement near Douglas, v. 169

    Wauchope, General, ii. 84;
      at Majesfontein, 173;
      his death, 175, 183;
      his career, 184

    Wepener, siege of, v. 54;
      casualties, 67;
      operations for relief, 70-82

    White, Sir George, ii. 11;
      Reitfontein, 37;
      Ladysmith, 38;
      Lombard's Kop, 41;
      defends Ladysmith, 50 _et passim_.
      _See_ Ladysmith

    Willoughby's, Sir J., report to War Office on the Jameson raid, i. 157

    Willow Grange, ii. 128.
      _See_ Beacon Hill

    Winburg, v. 97;
      occupied, 100

    Wolseley, Sir Garnet, i. 62;
      his declaration, 65

    Wood, Colonel Evelyn, i. 43 _et seq._;
      Sir Evelyn, i. 100

    Wood, General, occupies Zoutpansdrift, iii. 74

    Woodgate, General, iii. 104, 105, 109, 116.

    Worcester Congress, vi. 133


    Yeomanry volunteer for foreign service, iii. 3

    Yule, General, ii. 16;
      famous retreat, 32, 37


    Zand River crossed, v. 101

    Zulus, conflicts with the Boers and British, 1836-38;
      origin of the war in 1879, i. 30, 36;
      the war, 38


    Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON & CO.
    Edinburgh & London



TRANSCRIBERS' NOTE


The following amendments have been made to the original text:

 General: Corrections to punctuation have not been individually noted.
 Page 17: Volkrust standardised to Volksrust.
 Page 27: Nordenfelts standardised to Nordenfeldts.
 Page 42: Colonel Airie corrected to Colonel Airey.
 Page 45: Fouriesberg standardised to Fouriesburg.
 Page 53: consesequently corrected to consequently.
 Page 103: unnegociable corrected to unnegotiable.
 Page 105: Lydenberg standardised to Lydenburg.
 Page 124: asphixiated corrected to asphyxiated.
 Page 133: Lieufontien standardised to Lieufontein.
 Page 142: via standardised to viâ.
 Page 148: maurauding corrected to marauding.
 Page 157: politican corrected to politician; Buchuanaland standardised
           to Bechuanaland.
 Page 169: In the entry for Hely-Hutchinson, the blank after 189 is as in
           the original.
 Page 202, 214: Jacobsdal standardised to Jacobsdaal.
 Page 203, 205: Drakensburg standardised to Drakensberg.
 Page 204: Jerra corrected to Terra in the entry for Natal.
 Page 206: Pattrick corrected to Patrick in the entry for Union Jack;
           Magaliesburg standardised to Magaliesberg.
 Page 207: Sannah's standardised to Sanna's.
 Page 209: hepititis corrected to hepatitis.
 Page 215: Krugerdorp standardised to Krugersdorp.





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