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Title: A Practical Handbook on the Distillation of Alcohol from Farm Products
Author: Wright, F. B.
Language: English
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                         A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK

                                ON THE

                        DISTILLATION OF ALCOHOL

                                 FROM

                             FARM PRODUCTS

                               INCLUDING

     The Processes of Malting; Mashing and Mascerating; Fermenting
               and Distilling Alcohol from Grain, Beets,
                Potatoes, Molasses, etc., with Chapters
                       on Alcoholometry and the


                        DE-NATURING OF ALCOHOL

                              FOR USE IN

       Farm Engines, Automobiles, Launch Motors, and in Heating
             and Lighting; with a Synopsis of the New Free
                 Alcohol Law and its Amendment and the
                        Government Regulations.


                           BY F. B. WRIGHT.

             SECOND EDITION, REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED

                               NEW YORK
                SPON & CHAMBERLAIN, 123 LIBERTY STREET

                                LONDON
             E. & F. N. SPON, LIMITED, 57 HAYMARKET, S.W.
                                 1907

                           Copyright, 1906,
                        By SPON & CHAMBERLAIN.

                           Copyright, 1907,
                        By SPON & CHAMBERLAIN.

     McIlroy & Emmet, Printers, 22 Thames St., New York, U. S. A.



                      PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.


Since the passage of the "Free Alcohol Act" there has been a constantly
increasing demand for information as to the manufacture of industrial
alcohol. This, with the favorable reception accorded to the first edition
of this book has lead the publishers to bring out a second edition.

The entire volume has been carefully revised and not only has the
original text been amplified but new chapters have been added explaining
the most modern and approved methods and appliances both as used in
Europe and in this country. Another valuable feature of the present
volume is the collection of U. S. de-naturing formulas covering the
special denaturants necessitated by the various arts and by the
Government requirements. The chapters on modern distilling apparatus
rectifiers and modern plants have been very carefully prepared in order
to give the reader a clear idea of the various types of apparatus in use
to-day and of their general place in a distillery system. The value of
the book has been further increased by numerous additional illustrations.

It would be impossible in the compass of one small volume to describe all
the practical details of alcohol manufacture particularly as these
details vary with every distillery, but it has been the aim of the author
to give sufficient information to enable every reader to understand the
theory and general practice of the art, leading him from the simple
methods and apparatus used until the last ten years to the more
complicated stills and processes which have been lately devised.

Inasmuch as the manufacture of industrial alcohol has been most highly
perfected in France and Germany, use has been made of the best European
authorities and in particular the author begs to acknowledge his
indebtedness to Sa Majeste L'Alcohol by L. Beaudry de Saunier. The
publishers' and author's acknowledgements are also due to the Vulcan
Copper Works Company of Cincinnati, Ohio, and to the Geo. L. Squier
Manufacturing Company, Buffalo, New York, for their kindness in allowing
illustrations to be given of modern American distilling apparatus.

                                                         F. B. WRIGHT.

     New York, Aug. 1, 1907.



                               PREFACE.


To the majority of persons Alcohol connotes liquor. That it is used to
some extent in the arts, that it is a fuel, is also common knowledge, but
Alcohol as a source of power, as a substitute for gasoline, petroleum,
and kindred hydrocarbons was hardly known to the generality of Americans
until the passage of the "De-naturing Act" by the last Congress.

Then Alcohol leaped at once into fame,--not merely as the humble servant
of the pocket lamp, nor as the Demon Rum, but as a substitute for all the
various forms of cheap hydrocarbon fuels, and as a new farm product, a
new means for turning the farmer's grain, fruit, potatoes, etc., into
that greatest of all Powers, _Money_.

That Alcohol was capable of this work was no new discovery accomplished
by the fiat of Congress, but the Act of June 7, 1906, freed de-natured
Alcohol from the disability it had previously labored under,--namely, the
high internal revenue tax, and so cheapened its cost that it could be
economically used for purposes in the arts and manufactures which the
former tax forbade.

This Act then opens the door of a new market to the farmer and the
manufacturer, and it is in answer to the increased desire for
information as to the source of Alcohol and its preparation that this
book has been written. The processes described are thoroughly reliable
and are such as have the approval of experience.

As was stated above, Alcohol is not a natural product, but is formed by
the decomposition of sugar or glucose through fermentation. This leaves
Alcohol mixed with water, and these in turn are separated by
distillation.

The literature treating of the distillation of Alcohol from farm products
is very scant. But due credit is here given to the following foreign
works which have been referred to: Spon's Encyclopædia of the Industrial
Arts, which also contains an article on Wood Alcohol, Mr. Bayley's
excellent Pocketbook for Chemists, and Mr. Noel Deerr's fine work on
Sugar and Sugar Cane.

  NEW YORK,
    Oct. 31, 1906



                               CONTENTS.

                              CHAPTER I.

                ALCOHOL, ITS VARIOUS FORMS AND SOURCES.

  Its chemical structure. How produced. Boiling points. Alcohol
  and water. Alcohol, where found. Produced from decomposition of
  vegetables. Sources. Principal alcohols.                              1


                              CHAPTER II.

             THE PREPARATION OF MASHES, AND FERMENTATION.

  A synopsis of steps. Mashing starchy materials. Gelatinizing
  apparatus and processes. Saccharifying. Cooling the mash.
  Fermentation. Yeast and its preparation. Varieties of
  fermentation:--Alcoholic, acetous, lactic and viscous. Fermenting
  periods. Fermenting apparatus and rooms. Strengthening alcoholic
  liquors.                                                              8


                            CHAPTER III.

                        DISTILLING APPARATUS.

  The simple still. Adams still. Concentrating stills. Compound
  distillation. Dorn's still. Continuous distillation. The
  Cellier-Blumenthal still. Coffey's still. Current stills.
  Regulating distillery fire.                                          33


                             CHAPTER IV.

                    MODERN DISTILLING APPARATUS.

  The principles of modern compound stills. Vapor traps and their
  construction. Steam regulation. Feed regulation. American
  apparatus. The Guillaume inclined column still.                      66


                             CHAPTER V.

                           RECTIFICATION.

  General principles of "fractionation." Old form of rectifying
  still. Simple fractionating apparatus. "Vulcan" rectifier.
  Barbet's twin column rectifier. Guillaume's "Agricultural"
  rectifying apparatus. Rectifying by filtration.                      82


                             CHAPTER VI.

                              MALTING.

  The best barley to use. Washing. Steeping. Germinating. The "wet
  couch." The "floors." "Long malt." Drying. Grinding and crushing.   103


                            CHAPTER VII.

                       ALCOHOL FROM POTATOES.

  Washing. Gelatinizing and saccharifying. Low pressure steaming,
  and apparatus therefor. Crushing the potatoes. High pressure
  steaming and apparatus. The vacuum cooker. The Henze steamer.
  Isolation of starch without steam. English methods. Saccharifying
  the starch.                                                         110


                           CHAPTER VIII.

     ALCOHOL FROM GRAIN, CORN, WHEAT, RICE, AND OTHER CEREALS.

  Relative yields of various cereals. Choice of grain. Proportions
  of starch, etc., in various grains. Grinding. Steeping.
  Preparatory mashing. Saccharifying. Treatment of grain under high
  pressure. Softening grain by acid.                                  126


                            CHAPTER IX.

                        ALCOHOL FROM BEETS.

  Beet cultivation. Composition. Soil and manures. Sowing.
  Harvesting. Storing. Production of alcohol from beets. Cleaning
  and rasping. Extraction by pressure. Extraction by maceration
  and diffusion. The diffusion battery. Fermentation. Direct
  distillation of roots.                                              140


                             CHAPTER X.

               ALCOHOL FROM MOLASSES AND SUGAR CANE.

  The necessary qualities in molasses. Beet sugar. Molasses mixing
  and diluting. Neutralizing the wash. Pitching temperature.
  Distilling. Fermenting raw sugar. Cane sugar molasses. "Dunder."
  Clarifying. Fermenting. Various processes.                          163


                            CHAPTER XI.

                           ALCOHOLOMETRY.

  Hydrometers in general. Proof spirit. Syke's hydrometer.
  Gay-Lussac's hydrometer. Tralles alcoholometer. Hydrometric
  methods. Estimation of alcohol. Field's alcoholometer. Grisler's
  method and apparatus. Estimating sugar in mash. Determination of
  alcoholic fruits. Physical tests. Chemical tests. The Permanganate
  of Potash test.  Results by Barbet.                                 174


                            CHAPTER XII.

    DISTILLING PLANTS, THEIR GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND EQUIPMENT.

  Simple apparatus. Elaborate plants. Steam stills. The fermenting
  room. Ventilation. Fermenting vats. Preparatory vats. Arrangement
  of grain distillery. A small beet distillery. Large beet
  distilling plant. Transporting beets. Potato distillery. Molasses
  distillery. Fermenting house for molasses. Transportation of
  molasses to distillery. Coal consumption.                           189


                           CHAPTER XIII.

            DE-NATURED ALCOHOL, AND DE-NATURING FORMULÆ.

  Uses of alcohol. De-natured spirit:--Its use in Germany, France
  and England. The "De-naturing Act." The uses of de-natured
  alcohol. Methods and Formulæ for de-naturing. De-natured alcohol
  in the industrial world.                                            211


                            CHAPTER XIV.

           DE-NATURING REGULATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES.

  The Free Alcohol Act of 1906, and proposed changes therein. The
  Amendment of 1907. Internal Revenue Regulations.                    224

  Index.                                                              261



                       LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

  No.                                                              PAGE.

   1 Vacuum mash cooker                                     _to face_ 10

   2 Henze steamer                                                    12

   3 Mash cooler, air system                                          15

   4 Mash cooler, water system                                        17

   5 Yeasting and fermenting apparatus                      _to face_ 22

   6 A simple still                                                   34

   7 Simple direct-heated still                                       35

   8 Simple still, with rectifier                                     37

   9 Adam's still                                                     39

  10 Corty's simplified distilling apparatus                          41

  11 Double still                                                     42

  12 Dorn's compound still                                            43

  13 Compound still                                                   46

  14 Compound direct-fire still                                       47

  15 Cellier-Blumenthal still                                         49

  16 Details of rectifier column                                      50

  17 Details of condenser and mash heater                             52

  18 Coffey's rectifying still                                        55

  19, 20 Rotary current still                                     59, 60

  21 Indicator for regulating the distilling fire                     61

  22 Diagrammatic view of column still and accessory
     apparatus                                              _to face_ 64

  23 Distilling plate                                                 64

  24, 25 Barbet traps                                                 68

  26 Steam regulator                                                  70

  27 Gauge glass for regulator                                        72

  28 Continuous distilling apparatus with external tubular
     condenser                                              _to face_ 72

  29 Detail of chamber, continuous still                              73

  30, 31 Details of perforated plate _A_                          75, 76

  32 Continuous distilling apparatus with goose separator   _to face_ 76

  33 Section of Gillaume's inclined column still                      78

  34 Gillaume's inclined column still                                 79

  35 Rectifying still                                                 88

  36 Section of rectifying still                                      89

  37 Fractional distilling apparatus                                  91

  38 Rectifying apparatus with external tubular condenser   _to face_ 94

  39 Twin column Barbet rectifier                                     95

  40 Gillaume's rectifier and inclined still                          97

  41 Steaming vat for potatoes                                       112

  42 Bottom of steaming vat                                          113

  43 Steam generator                                                 114

  44 Potato steamer and crusher                                      116

  45 Bohn's steamer and crusher                                      118

  46 Stack for storing beets                                         148

  47 Storage cellar for beets                                        149

  48 Beet and potato rasp                                            152

  49 Dujardin's roll press                                           155

  50 Defusion battery                                                158

  51 Mixing vat                                                      165

  52 Syke's hydrometer                                               176

  53 Field's alcoholometer                                           182

  54 Geisler's apparatus                                             184

  55 Continuous grain alcohol distillery--Barbet's system            198

  56 Grain distillery, capacity 2500 bushels per day       _to face_ 198

  57 Small beet distillery                                           200

  58 Large beet distillery                                           202

  59 Molasses distillery, capacity 2500 gallons per day    _to face_ 206

  60 Molasses fermenting house                                       207



                             CHAPTER I.

              ALCOHOL, ITS VARIOUS FORMS AND SOURCES.


=Alcohol.= (Fr., _alcool_; Ger., _alkohol_.) Formula, C_{2}H_{6}O.

Pure alcohol is a liquid substance, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and
oxygen, in the following proportions:

                            C     52.17
                            H     13.04
                            O     34.79
                                 ------
                                 100.00

It is the most important member of an important series of organic
compounds, all of which resemble each other closely, and possess many
analogous properties. They are classed by the chemist under the generic
title of "Alcohols."

Alcohol does not occur in nature; it is the product of the decomposition
of sugar, or, more properly, of _glucose_, which, under the influence of
certain organic, nitrogenous substances, called _ferments_ is split up
into alcohol and carbonic anhydride. The latter is evolved in the form of
gas, alcohol remaining behind mixed with water, from which it is
separated by distillation. The necessary purification is effected in a
variety of ways.

     TABLE I.--THE BOILING POINTS OF ALCOHOLIC LIQUORS OF DIFFERENT
   STRENGTHS, AND THE PROPORTIONS OF ALCOHOL IN THE VAPORS GIVEN OFF.

  ===========+===========+===========+===========+===========+===========
   Proportion|           |Proportion |Proportion |           |Proportion
   of alcohol|Temperature|of alcohol |of alcohol |Temperature|of alcohol
     in the  |  of the   |in the     |  in the   |  of the   |  in the
    boiling  |  boiling  |condensed  |  boiling  |  boiling  |condensed
   liquid in |  liquid.  |vapor in   | liquid in |  liquid.  | vapor in
   100 vols. |           |100 vols.  | 100 vols. |           | 100 vols.
  -----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
      92     |  171.0 F. |    93     |     20    |  189.5 F. |    71
      90     |  171.5 F. |    92     |     18    |  191.6 F. |    68
      85     |  172.0 F. |    91.5   |     15    |  194.0 F. |    66
      80     |  172.7 F. |    90.5   |     12    |  196.1 F. |    61
      75     |  173.6 F. |    90     |     10    |  198.5 F. |    55
      70     |  175.0 F. |    89     |      7    |  200.6 F. |    50
      65     |  176.0 F. |    87     |      5    |  203.0 F. |    42
      50     |  178.1 F. |    85     |      3    |  205.1 F. |    36
      40     |  180.5 F. |    82     |      2    |  207.5 F. |    28
      35     |  182.6 F. |    80     |      1    |  209.9 F. |    13
      30     |  185.0 F. |    78     |      0    |  212.0 F. |     0
      25     |  187.1 F. |    76     |           |           |
  ===========+===========+===========+===========+===========+===========

Pure, absolute alcohol is a colorless, mobile, very volatile liquid,
having a hot, burning taste, and a pungent and somewhat agreeable odor.
It is very inflammable, burning in the air with a bluish-yellow flame,
evolving much heat, leaving no residue, and forming vapors of carbonic
anhydride and water. Its specific gravity at 0° C (32° F.) is .8095, and
at 15.5° C. (60° F.) .794; that of its vapor is 1.613. It boils at 78.4°
C. (173° F.). The boiling point of its aqueous mixtures are raised in
proportion to the quantity of water present. Mixtures of alcohol and
water when boiled give off at first a vapor rich in alcohol, and
containing but little aqueous vapor; if the ebullition be continued a
point is ultimately reached when all the alcohol has been driven off and
nothing but pure water remains. Thus, by repeated distillations alcohol
may be obtained from its mixtures with water in an almost anhydrous
state.

Absolute alcohol has a strong affinity for water. It absorbes moisture
from the air rapidly, and thereby becomes gradually weaker; it should
therefore be kept in tightly-stoppered bottles. When brought into contact
with animal tissues, it deprives them of the water necessary for their
constitution, and acts in this way as an energetic poison. Considerable
heat is disengaged when alcohol and water are brought together; if,
however, ice be substituted for water, heat is absorbed, owing to the
immediate and rapid conversion of the ice into the liquid state. When one
part of snow is mixed with two parts of alcohol, a temperature as low as
5.8° F. below zero is reached.

When alcohol and water are mixed together the resulting liquid occupies,
after agitation, a less volume than the sum of the two original liquids.
This contraction is greatest when the mixture is made in the proportion
of 52.3 volumes of alcohol and 47.7 volumes of water, the result being,
instead of 100 volumes, 96.35. A careful examination of the liquid when
it is being agitated reveals a vast number of minute air-bubbles, which
are discharged from every point of the mixture. This is due to the fact
that gases which are held in solution by the alcohol and water separately
are less soluble when the two are brought together; and the contraction
described above is the natural result of the disengagement of such
dissolved gases. The following table represents the contraction undergone
by different mixtures of absolute alcohol and water.

              TABLE II.--100 VOLUMES OF MIXTURE AT 59° F.

  ========+============++========+============++========+============
  Alcohol.|Contraction.||Alcohol.|Contraction.||Alcohol.|Contraction.
  --------+------------++--------+------------++--------+------------
    100   |    0.00    ||   65   |    3.61    ||   30   |    2.72
     95   |    1.18    ||   60   |    3.73    ||   25   |    2.24
     90   |    1.94    ||   55   |    3.77    ||   20   |    1.72
     85   |    2.47    ||   50   |    3.74    ||   15   |    1.20
     80   |    2.87    ||   45   |    3.64    ||   10   |    0.72
     75   |    3.19    ||   40   |    3.44    ||    5   |    0.31
     70   |    3.44    ||   35   |    3.14    ||        |
  ========+============++========+============++========+============

Alcohol is termed "absolute" when it has been deprived of every trace of
water, and when its composition is exactly expressed by its chemical
formula. To obtain it in this state it must be subjected to a series of
delicate operations in the laboratory, which it would be impossible to
perform on an industrial scale. In commerce it is known only in a state
of greater or less dilution.

Alcohol possesses the power of dissolving a large number of substances
insoluble in water and acids, such as many inorganic salts, phosphorus,
sulphur, iodine, resins, essential oils, fats, coloring matters, etc. It
precipitates albumen, gelatine, starch, gum, and other substances from
their solutions. These properties render it an invaluable agent in the
hands of the chemist.

Alcohol is found in, and may be obtained from, all substances--vegetable
or other--which contain sugar. As stated above, it does not exist in
these in the natural state, but is the product of the decomposition by
fermentation of the saccharine principle contained therein; this
decomposition yields the spirit in a very dilute state, but it is readily
separated from the water with which it is mixed by processes of
distillation, which will subsequently be described. The amount of alcohol
which may be obtained from the different unfermented substances which
yield it varies considerably, depending entirely upon the quantity of
sugar which they contain.

Alcohol is produced either from raw materials containing starch, as
potatoes, corn, barley, etc., or raw materials containing sugar, as
grapes, beets, sugar-cane, etc.

The following are some of the most important sources from which alcohol
is obtained: Grapes, apricots, cherries, peaches, currents, gooseberries,
raspberries, strawberries, figs, plums, bananas, and many tropical
fruits, artichokes, potatoes, carrots, turnips, beet-root, sweet corn,
rice and other grains. Sugar-cane refuse, sorgum, molasses, wood, paper,
and by a new French process from acetylene. On a large scale alcohol is
usually obtained from sugar beets, molasses or the starch contained in
potatoes, corn and other grains. The starch is converted into maltose by
mixing with an infusion of malt. The maltose is then fermented by yeast.
Sulphuric acid may be used to convert even woody fibre, paper, linen,
etc., into glucose, which may in turn be converted into alcohol.

                    TABLE III.--PRINCIPAL ALCOHOLS.

  =================+=======================+==============+==============
  Chemical Name.   |        Source.        |   Formula.   |Boiling Point
                                                                 °F.
  -----------------+-----------------------+--------------+--------------
   1 Methyl Alcohol|Distillation of Wood   |CH_{3}OH      |    150.8
   2 Ethyl     "   |Fermentation of sugar  |C_{2}H_{5}OH  |    172.4
   3 Propyl    "   |   "         " grapes  |C_{3}H_{7}OH  |    206.6
   4 Butyl     "   |   "         " beets   |C_{4}H_{9}OH  |    242.6
   5 Amyl      "   |   "         " potatoes|C_{5}H_{11}OH |    278.6
   6 Caproyl   "   |   "         " grapes  |C_{6}H_{13}OH |    314.6
   7 Aenanthyl "   |Distillation castor oil|C_{7}H_{15}OH |    347.
                   |  with potatoes        |              |
   8 Capryl    "   |Essential oil hog weed |C_{8}H_{17}OH |    375.8
   9 Nonyl     "   |Nonane from petroleum  |C_{9}H_{19}OH |
  10 Rutyl     "   |Oil of Rue             |C_{10}H_{21}OH|
  11 Cytyl     "   |Spermaceti             |C_{16}H_{33}OH|
  12 Ceryl     "   |Chinese wax            |C_{26}H_{53}OH|
  13 Melisyl   "   |Bees' wax              |C_{30}H_{61}OH|
  =================+=======================+==============+==============

Among a variety of other substances which have been and are still used
for the production of alcohol in smaller quantities, are roots of many
kinds, such as those of asphodel, madder, etc. Seeds and nuts have been
made to yield it. It will thus be seen that the sources of this
substance are practically innumerable; anything, in fact, which contains
or can be converted into sugar is what is termed "alcoholisable."

Alcohol has become a substance of such prime necessity in the arts and
manufactures, and in one form or another enter so largely into the
composition of the common beverages consumed by all classes of people
that its manufacture must, of necessity, rank among the most important
industries of this and other lands.

Of the alcohols given in the above table only two concern the ordinary
distiller, or producer of alcohol for general use in the arts. Methyl
alcohol, the ordinary "wood alcohol," or wood naphtha, and Ethyl alcohol,
which is produced by the fermentation of sugar and may therefore be made
from anything which contains sugar.

Ethyl alcohol forms the subject of this treatise. Aside from its chemical
use in the arts as a source of energy and as a fuel, alcohol will likely
soon compete with petroleum, gasoline, kerosene, etc., under the Act of
Congress freeing the "de-naturized" spirit from the Internal Revenue tax.
This act and the de-naturing process are covered in the last chapters of
this book.



                              CHAPTER II.

              THE PREPARATION OF MASHES, AND FERMENTATION.


Alcohol may be produced either from, (1) farinacious materials, such as
potatoes or grains, (2), from sacchariferous substances such as grapes,
sugar beets, sugar cane, or the molasses produced in sugar manufacture.


                 THE PREPARATION OF STARCHY MATERIALS.

=Saccharification.= =Preparatory Mashing.= With starchy materials it is
first necessary to convert the starch into a sugar from which alcohol can
be produced by the process of fermentation. This is called
saccharification.

=Gelatinizing.= The first step in this process is gelatinizing the
starch;--that is, forming it into a paste by heating it with water, or
into a liquid mass by steaming it under high pressure. The liquid or
semi-liquid mass is then run into a preparatory mash vat and cooled.

=Saccharifying.= The disintegrated raw materials or gelatinized starch in
the preparatory mash vat is now to be "saccharified" or converted into
sugar. This is effected by allowing malt to act on the starch. This malt
contains a certain chemical "ferment" or enzyme, called "diastase" ("I
separate").

This is able under proper conditions to break up the gelatinized starch
into simpler substances--the dextrins--and later into a fermentable sugar
called maltose.

=Fermentation.=--The maltose or sugar in the "mash" is now to be
converted into alcohol. This is accomplished by fermentation, a process
of decomposition which converts the sugar into carbonic acid and alcohol.
Fermentation is started by yeast, a fungus growth, which in the course of
its life history produces a matter called zymose which chemically acts on
the sugar to split it up into carbonic acid gas and alcohol.

Yeast may be either "wild" or cultivated. If the mash is left to stand
under proper condition the wild yeast spores in the air, will soon settle
in the mash and begin to multiply. This method of fermentation is bad
because other organisms than yeast will also be developed,--organisms
antagonistic to proper fermentation. As a consequence, pure or cultivated
yeast is alone used.

This yeast is cultivated from a mother bed in a special yeast mash and
when ripened is mixed with the mash in the fermenting vat. At a
temperature between 50° F. and 86° F. the yeast induces fermentation,
converting the sugar of the mash into carbon dioxid which escapes, and
alcohol which remains in the decomposed mash, or "beer" as it is termed
in the United States.

It now remains to separate the alcohol from the water of the beer with
which it is mixed. This is accomplished by distillation and
rectification, as will be fully described in the chapters following.


         PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FROM SACCHARIFEROUS SUBSTANCES.

Substances such as grape juice, fruit juice, sugar beets, cane sugar and
molasses already contain fermentable sugar. Saccharification is therefore
not needed and juices or liquids from these matters are either directly
fermented as in the case of sugar cane, or--as in the case of sugar
beets--the sugar in juice is transferred by yeast into a fermentable
sugar.


                       MASHING STARCHY MATERIALS.

We will now consider in more detail the preparation of mashes from
starch-containing substances.

=Gelatinizing Apparatus.= These comprise either ordinary vats, into which
steam at low pressure is admitted (see Fig. 44), cookers and stirrers
such as shown in Fig. 1 and 45 or the Henze steamer (Fig. 2.)

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--Vacuum Mash Cooker. (_To face page 10_)]

An example of a cooking and mashing apparatus and its connections is
shown in Fig. 1. This is the vacuum cooker put on the market by the
Vulcan Copper Works Company, of Cincinnati, Ohio. This consists of a
cylindrical steel vessel the interior of which is fitted with stirrer
arms attached to a shaft making about sixty revolutions per minute. The
steam enters the vessel at the bottom by means of pipes conducting it
from a manifold, or header, in the same manner as is shown in the
apparatus illustrated in Fig. 45. Attached to each pipe at its point of
entrance is a check valve to spray the steam through the mash. A
thermometer for registering the temperature and a water gauge are placed
in the manifold. The grain enters the cooker from the grain hopper by way
of a spout. The cylinder has been previously supplied with hot water and
during the mixing of the meal with the hot water the mass is constantly
stirred. The malt is mixed with water in the small grain tub which is
provided with a stirrer. The malt mash is admitted into the cooker and
the mass thoroughly mixed by the arms. After the mashing, the product
passes off to the drop tub and from thence to the mash coolers where it
is cooled to the proper temperature for fermentation. The gearing for
agitating the malt mash and the grain or potato mash is evident from the
drawing.

The pressure steamers used in mashing are shown in Fig. 2. They comprise
a cylindrical vessel preferably conical or partly conical, provided with
steam entrance pipes, air valves and a manhole. At the bottom of the cone
forming the lower end of the steamer is a grating located in an exit
pipe provided with a valve. One of the steam entrance pipes is so located
that the steam is forced in at the top of the cylinder while the other
allows steam to enter at the bottom of the cylinder. The device is
provided with a pressure gauge and an air cock.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--Henze Steamer.]

In use the body of the apparatus is partly filled with water and the
material to be treated. This is acted upon by a steam pressure of two
atmospheres, which is later increased to three, steam entering by the
lowermost pipe, passing up through the water and potatoes thoroughly
agitating the same and passing away by the steam gauge. After standing at
the last pressure for ten or fifteen minutes the lower steam inlet is
closed; the upper inlet and the blow-out valve are opened. The steam is
then increased to its highest point or about four atmospheres and the
lower valve is opened. The disintegrated material is forced out by the
steam through the grating at the bottom of the cone. This comminutes it
and pulps it before it passes into the preparatory mash tub. Blowing out
requires about 40 to 50 minutes. Steaming and blowing out together cover
a space of two hours. The pressure of the steam before blowing out should
be such that the steam is constantly being blown off through the safety
valve. Thus the mass in the steamer is agitated and the material entirely
disintegrated and gelatinized.

=Process.= Into these apparatuses the potatoes and corn or grain first
ground into mash, or even corn or grain unground, if the pressure is high
enough, are disintegrated and cooked by steam under high pressure. During
this process the starch becomes partially dissolved and partially
gelatinized, which occurs when a pressure of some 65 pounds has been
attained, with a temperature of about 300° F.

=Saccharifying.= It is now necessary to saccharify the gelatinized mass.
This is accomplished by adding to it a certain amount of malt, whereby
maltose or sugar is formed through the action of the diastase. The amount
of maltose so created is in proportion to the amount of malt used, the
length of time it is acting, the dilution of the mash, and the existence
of a proper temperature. The temperature best fitted for this action lies
above 122° F., but in order to entirely dissolve the starch a temperature
of 145° F. should be used. In addition, at this higher temperature, the
bacteria inimical to fermentation are destroyed. A higher temperature
than 145° F. should not be allowed, except in extraordinary cases as it
injures the effectiveness of the diastase.

=Apparatus.= The mixture of the malt with the mash may either take place
in the heater and cooker itself (see Fig. 2) or in a preparatory mash
vat.

In the first instance, the malt is allowed to enter the cooking cylinder
when the temperature of the mash is about 145° F. The mash is stirred
until thoroughly mixed when the product is drawn into a receptacle called
a drop tub and later reduced to a proper fermenting temperature.

When the Henze type of steamer is used, the pulped mass (see Page 121) is
blown into a preparatory mash vat, at the proper temperature. It is left
to stand at this temperature for a period varying from twenty minutes to
an hour and a half.


=Cooling the Mash.= Saccharification takes place at a temperature above
122° F., but the proper fermenting temperature is only about 63° F. to
68° F., and hence some means must be adopted for cooling the hot mash to
this temperature and for so cooling it in a relatively short time.

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--Mash Cooler, Air System.]

=Cooling= may be accomplished by submitting the mash to currents of air;
to contact with cold water coils or by the use of ice. One of the
simplest coolers of the first class is shown in Fig. 3.

This consists of a shallow panlike tank A having means for introducing
and drawing off the mash. Rotating in the center of the tank is a
vertical shaft _C_ carrying radiating stirrer arms _B_. Braces _M_
extend to the middle of these arms and the arms carry a number of blades
or paddles _b_, which extend down into the mash. Above the arms, mounted
loosely on the same shaft, but rotating in the opposite direction, are
fans _H_ supported by arms _J_ which create air currents over the
agitated mash. These fans move at a much faster rate than the stirrers
_B_.

A simple form of driving gear is shown. The main shaft _C_ is rotated by
a large bevel gear _D_, meshing with a small pinion _E_ on the end of a
driving shaft _F_, which is driven by a belt. This shaft also carries a
bevel gear _L_, which meshes with a bevel gear _K_ mounted on a sleeve.
This sleeve surrounds and rotates freely on the central shaft _C_, being
supported at its lower end in ball bearings _m m_, mounted on the shaft.
This combination gives opposite rotation to the faces and stirrer arms
and at different speeds. The driving mechanism can be of course varied.

Another simple method of air cooling would be to let the mash run down a
series of enclosed steps or chutes, the casing being kept cool by an air
blast. Mashes may be even cooled by mere stirring by paddles, but this
takes a long time and much labor.

The preparatory mash vats used to-day are almost all provided with
stirrers formed of hollow blades capable of a rapid stirring movement
through the mash. Through the hollow blades cold water is forced. Mash
vats of this kind should have the following qualities. They should be
strongly built, particularly as regards the stirrers so as to be used
with thick mashes. They should thoroughly and uniformly stir and mix the
mash and they should be capable of cooling the mash within an hour, and
should be so constructed as to be easily cleaned.

By using coils of pipe which may be inserted or withdrawn from the mash
tub, and through which cold water is forced, the mash may be effectively
cooled, but the best plan for quick cooling is to bring a comparatively
thin layer of the mash in contact with the coils. This may be
conveniently done by using a system of comparatively large water pipes
enclosing small pipes for the passage of the mash.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--Mash Cooler, Water System.]

This should be arranged in a stand like the coils of a radiator with an
incline from the inlet end of the top pipe to the outlet end of the
lowermost pipe. As stated, the small pipe carries the mash, the large
pipe the water.

Preferably the mash flows downward while the water is forced upward in a
contrary direction by means of a pump or a high level reservoir. The
cooled mash should flow into the fermenting tank at a temperature of
about 68° F.

There are many varieties of mash cooling apparatuses on the market of
more or less complication suited to the needs of large and expensive
plants.

The form of cooler best to be used depends upon the circumstances of each
case and whether thick or thin mashes are to be distilled. The cooler
should, however, be capable of thorough cleansing so that no portion of
one mashing be carried to another.

=Fermentation= is an obscure and seemingly spontaneous change or
decomposition which takes place in most vegetable and animal substances
when exposed at ordinary temperatures to air and moisture. While
fermentation broadly covers decay or putrifaction, yet it is limited in
ordinary use to the process for producing alcoholic liquors from
sacchariferous mashes.

Fermentation is brought about by certain bodies called ferments--these
are either organized, as vegetable ferments such as yeast, or unorganized
as diastase--the enzyme of germinated malt. The last is used to convert
starch into maltose, the first is used to convert maltose into
fermentable sugar. The organized ferments are either to be found floating
freely in the air under the name of wild yeast or are artificially
produced. If a solution of pure sugar be allowed to stand so that it can
be acted on by the organisms in the air, it will remain unaltered for a
long time, but finally mold will appear upon it and it will become sour
and dark-colored. If, however, a suitable ferment is added to it, such as
yeast, it rapidly passes into a state of active fermentation by which the
sugar is split up into alcohol and carbon dioxid, the process continuing
from 48 hours to several weeks according to the temperature, the amount
of sugar present, and the nature and quantity of the ferment.
Fermentation cannot occur at a temperature much below 40° F., nor above
140° F. The limits of practical temperature, however, are 41° to 86° F.
Brewer's yeast is chiefly employed in spirit manufacture.

The most striking phenomena of fermentation are the turbidity of the
liquid, the rising of gas bubbles to the surface, and the increase in
temperature, the disappearance of the sugar, the appearance of alcohol
and the clearing of the liquid. At the end a slight scum is formed on the
top of the liquid and a light colored deposit at the bottom. This deposit
consists of yeast which is capable of exciting the vinous fermentation in
other solutions of sugar. The lower the temperature the slower the
process, while at a temperature above 86° F. the vinous fermentation is
liable to pass into other forms of fermentation to be hereafter
considered.

There are many theories of fermentation, of which the two most important
are those of Pasteur and Buchner. The first teaches that fermentation is
caused purely by the organic life of the yeast plant and is not a mere
chemical action, whereas the second view most largely held to-day is that
fermentation is a purely chemical change due to certain unorganized
substances called "enzymes" present in the yeast.

The theory need not detain us. It is sufficient that the yeast plant in
some manner acts to decompose the saccharified mash into alcohol and
carbonic acid gas.

=Yeast= is a fungus, a mono-cellular organism, which under proper
conditions propogates itself to an enormous extent. There are many races
or varieties of yeast each having its peculiar method of growth.

For our purposes we may divide the yeast races into two classes, wild
yeast and cultivated yeast. Originally any of the yeast races were
supposed to be good enough to effect fermentation but to-day every effort
is made to procure and use only those races which have the greatest power
to decompose sugar. It was for this reason that the old distiller kept
portions of his yeast over from one fermentation to the next. This was
yeast whose action they understood and whose abilities were proven. This
yeast so kept was open, however, to the chance of contamination and yeast
to-day is as carefully selected and bred as is a strain of horses, or
dogs, or plants.

After getting a portion of selected pure yeast for breeding purposes, it
may be sowed, that is, propagated very carefully in a yeast mash, in
sterilizing apparatus, where all chance of contamination by bacteria or
wild yeast is avoided. From this bed of mother yeast, or start yeast, the
yeast for the successive yeast mashes is taken.

The preparation of the various varieties of yeast mashes is too lengthy
to be set forth except in special treatises on the subject, but the
ordinary method of yeasting is as follows, reference being made to Fig.
5, which shows the apparatus used in the yeasting and fermenting
departments of a distillery, as installed by the Vulcan Copper Works, of
Cincinnati. The yeast tubs are shown to the left of the illustration.
They are each provided with cooling coils and stirrers.

The yeast mash we will assume is composed of equal parts of barley malt
and rye meal. Hot water at 166° F. is first put into the mash tub. The
rake or stirrers are then rotated and the meal run in slowly. The
stirring is continued for twenty minutes after the meal is all in, during
which the mash has become saccharified.

The mash is then allowed to stand for about twenty hours, and to grow
sour by lactic fermentation. The lactic acid so produced protects the
mother yeast from infection by suppressing wild yeast and bacteria.
During this period great care is taken to prevent the temperature of the
mash falling below 95° F. and consequent butyric and acetous fermentation
following. After it has so stood the sour mash is cooled by circulating
water in the coils and stirring until it is reduced to from 59° to 68° F.
depending on whether the mash is thin or thick. Start yeast during the
cooling of the mash when at above 86° F. is added and stirred in. For the
next twelve hours the yeast ferments and when a temperature of 84° F. has
been attained the mash is cooled to 65° F. at which temperature it is
maintained until allowed to enter the fermenting tubs through the pipe
leading thereto from the yeast tub.

There are four principal kinds of fermentation: alcoholic, acetous,
lactic and viscous.

=Alcoholic Fermentation.= This may be briefly described as follows: The
mash in the fermenting vat having been brought to the proper temperature,
the ferment is thrown in, and the whole is well stirred together.

This is known as pitching.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--Yeasting and Fermenting Apparatus.
(_To face page 22_)]

The proper pitching temperature varies with the method of fermentation
adopted, the length of the fermenting period, the materials of the mash,
its thickness or attenuation. It must always be remembered that there is
a great increase in the temperature of the "beer" during fermentation and
that the temperature at its highest should never under any circumstances,
become greater than 86° F. and with thick mashes that even a less heat is
desirable. Therefore the pitching temperature should be such that the
inevitable rise due to fermentation shall not carry the temperature to or
beyond the maximum point desired for the particular mash being
treated. It is to accurately control the pitching temperature and the
fermenting temperature that the fermenting tanks are provided with
cooling appliances.

In about three hours' time, the commencement of the fermentation is
announced by small bubbles of gas which appear on the surface of the vat,
and collect around the edges. As these increase in number, the whole
contents are gradually thrown into a state of motion, resembling violent
ebullition, by the tumultuous disengagement of carbonic anhydride. The
liquor rises in temperature and becomes covered with froth. At this
point, the vat must be covered tightly, the excess of gas finding an exit
through holes in the lid; care must now be taken to prevent the
temperature from rising too high, and also to prevent the action from
becoming too energetic, thereby causing the contents of the vat to
overflow. In about twenty-four hours the action begins to subside, and
the temperature falls to that of the surrounding atmosphere. An hour or
two later, the process is complete; the bubbles disappear, and the
liquor, which now possesses the characteristic odor and taste of alcohol,
settles out perfectly clear. The whole operation, as here described,
usually occupies from forty-eight to seventy-two hours. The duration of
the process is influenced, of course, by many circumstances, chiefly by
bulk of the liquor, its richness in sugar, the quality of the ferment,
and the temperature.

=Acetous Fermentation.= This perplexing occurrence cannot be too
carefully guarded against. It results when the fermenting liquor is
exposed to the air. When this is the case, the liquor absorbs a portion
of the oxygen, which unites with the alcohol, thus converting it into
acetic acid as rapidly as it is formed. When acetous fermentation begins,
the liquor becomes turbid, and a long, stringy substance appears, which
after a time settles down to the bottom of the vat. It is then found that
all the alcohol has been decomposed, and that an equivalent quantity of
acetous acid remains instead. It has been discovered that the presence of
a ferment and a temperature of 68° to 95° F. are indispensable to acetous
fermentation, as well as contact with the atmosphere. Hence, in order to
prevent its occurrence, it is necessary not only to exclude the air, but
also to guard against too high a temperature and the use of too much
ferment. The latter invariably tends to excite acetous fermentation. It
should also be remarked that it is well to cleanse the vats and utensils
carefully with lime water before using, in order to neutralize any acid
which they may contain; for the least trace of acid in the vat has a
tendency to accelerate the conversion of alcohol into vinegar. A variety
of other circumstances are favorable to acetification, such as the use of
a stagnant or impure water, and the foul odors which arise from the vats;
stormy weather or thunder will also engender it.

=Lactic Fermentation.= Under the influence of lactic fermentation, sugar
and starch are converted into lactic acid. When it has once begun, it
develops rapidly, and soon decomposes a large quantity of glucose; but as
it can proceed only in a neutral liquor, the presence of the acid itself
speedily checks its own formation. Then, however, another ferment is
liable to act upon the lactic acid already formed, converting it into
_butyric acid_, which is easily recognized by its odor of rank butter.
Carbonic anhydride and hydrogen are evolved by this reaction. The latter
gas acts powerfully upon glucose, converting it into a species of gum
called _mannite_, so that lactic fermentation--in itself an intolerable
nuisance--becomes the source of a new and equally objectionable waste of
sugar. It can be avoided only by keeping the vats thoroughly clean; they
should be washed with water acidulated with five per cent of sulphuric
acid. An altered ferment, or the use of too small a quantity, will tend
to bring it about.

The best preventives are _thorough cleanliness_, and the use of good,
fresh yeast in the correct proportion.

=Viscous Fermentation.= This is usually the result of allowing the vats
to stand too long before fermentation begins. It is characterized by the
formation of viscous or mucilaginous matters, which render the liquor
turbid, and by the evolution of carbonic anhydride and hydrogen gases the
latter acting as in the case of lactic fermentation and converting the
glucose into mannite. Viscous fermentation may generally be attributed to
the too feeble action of the ferment. It occurs principally in the
fermentation of white wines, beer, and beet-juice, or of other liquors
containing much nitrogenous matter. It may be avoided by the same
precautions as are indicated for the prevention of lactic fermentation.

=Periods of Fermentation.= The operation of fermentation may be
conveniently divided into three equal periods.

The first or pre-fermentation period is that when the yeast mixed into
the mash is growing; the temperature should then be kept at about 63 to
68° F. during which time the yeast is propagated. The growth of the yeast
is manifested by the development of carbonic acid gas and by a slight
motion of the mash. When alcohol is produced to an extent of say five per
cent. the growth of the yeast stops.

The second period of chief fermentation then begins. Carbonic acid is
freely developed and the sugar is converted into alcohol. The temperature
at this time should not exceed 81.5° F. The second period of fermentation
continues about 12 hours, when the last period commences.

During the third period or after fermentation there is a lessening of the
formation of carbonic acid and a lowering of the temperature. In this
stage the mash is kept at a temperature of 77° to 81° F.

In order to conveniently regulate the temperature of the mash the vat may
be provided with a copper worm at the bottom thereof, through which cold
water is forced. This, however, need only be used for thick mashes. There
are also various kinds of movable coolers used for this purpose.

There are a number of different forms which fermentation may take. The
insoluble constituents of the mash in the process of fermentation are
forced to the surface, and form what may be termed a cover. If the
carbonic acid gas bubbles seldom break this cover it indicates that the
conversion of the sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid is proceeding very
slowly and imperfectly. If, however, the cover is swirling and seething,
and particularly if the cover is rising and falling with every now and
then a discharge of gas, it is an indication that the conversion is
properly proceeding. Foaming of the mash is to be prevented, as the froth
or foam flows over the mash tank and considerable loss is sustained. It
may be prevented by pouring a little hot lard into the vat, or petroleum,
provided its odor will not interfere with the use of the alcohol when
distilled.

Water is added in small quantities near the termination of the second
period of fermentation. This dilutes the alcohol, in the mash and lessens
its percentage, and thus the further growth of the yeast is permitted.

After fermentation the mash takes either the form of a thick diluted pulp
or of a thin liquor. Again the reader is reminded that the mash after
fermentation contains alcohol mixed with water--and that the next step in
the process--distillation is necessary merely to separate the alcohol
from the water.

There is always some loss in the process of fermentation; in other words,
the actual production is below the theoretical amount due. Theoretically
one pound of starch should yield 11.45 fluid ounces of alcohol. With a
good result 88.3 per cent. of this theoretical yield is obtained; with an
average result of 80.2 per cent. and with a bad result only about 72.6
per cent. or less.

=Fermenting Apparatus.= It remains now to describe briefly the vessels or
vats employed in the processes of fermentation. They are made of oak or
cypress, firmly bound together with iron bands, and they should be
somewhat deeper than wide, and slightly conical, so as to present as
small a surface as possible to the action of the air. Their dimensions
vary, of course, with the nature and quantity of the liquor to be
fermented. Circular vats are preferable to square ones, as being better
adapted to retain the heat of their contents. The lid should close
securely, and a portion of it should be made to open without uncovering
the whole. For the purpose of heating or cooling the contents when
necessary, it is of great advantage to have a copper coil at the bottom
of the vat, connected with two pipes, one supplying steam and the other
cold water.

=Iron vats= have also been used, having a jacketed space around them,
into which hot or cold water may be introduced. As wooden vats are porous
and hence uncleanly they have to be constantly scrubbed and disinfected.
It is advisable to cover the interior with linseed oil, varnish or with a
shellac varnish. The diameter of the coil varies according to the size of
the vat.

=The room= in which the vats are placed should be made as free from
draughts as possible by dispensing with superfluous doors and windows; it
should not be too high and should be enclosed by thick walls in order to
keep in the heat. As uniformity of temperature is highly desirable, a
thermometer should be kept in the room, and there should be stoves for
supplying heat in case it be required. The temperature should be kept
between 64° F. and 68° F.

Every precaution must be taken to ensure the most absolute cleanliness;
the floors should be swept or washed with water daily, and the vats, as
pointed out above, must be cleaned out as soon as the contents are
removed. For washing the vats, lime-water should be used when the
fermentation has been too energetic or has shown a tendency to become
acid; water acidulated with sulphuric acid is used when the action has
been feeble and the fermented liquor contains a small quantity of
undecomposed sugar. Care must be taken to get rid of carbonic anhydride
formed during the operation. Buckets of lime-water are sometimes placed
about the room for the purpose of absorbing this gas; but the best way of
getting rid of it is to have a number of holes, three or four inches
square, in the floor, through which the gas escapes by reason of its
weight. The dangerous action of this gas and its effects upon animal life
when unmixed with air are too well know to necessitate any further
enforcement of these precautions.

=The beer= obtained by mashing and fermenting consist essentially of
volatile substances, such as water, alcohol, essential oils and a little
acetic acid, and of non-volatile substances, such as cellulose, dextrine,
unaltered sugar and starch, mineral matters, lactic acid, etc.

=The volatile constituents= of the liquor possess widely different
degrees of volatility; the alcohol has the lowest boiling point, water
the next, then acetic acid, and last the essential oils. It will thus be
seen that the separation of the volatile and non-volatile constituents by
evaporation and condensation of the vapors given off is very easily
effected, and that also by the same process, which is termed
_distillation_, the volatile substances may be separated from one
another. As the acetic acid and essential oils are present only in very
small quantities, they will not require much consideration.

The aim of distillation is to separate as completely as possible the
alcohol from the water which dilutes it. Table I shows the amount of
alcohol contained in the vapors given off from alcoholic liquids of
different strength, and also their boiling points.

A glance at this table shows to what an extent an alcoholic liquor may be
strengthened by distillation, and how the quantity of spirit in the
distillate increases in proportion as that contained in the original
liquor diminishes. It will also be seen that successive distillations of
spirituous liquors will ultimately yield a spirit of very high strength.

As an example, suppose that a liquid containing five per cent, of alcohol
is to be distilled. Its vapor condensed gives a distillate containing 42
per cent. of alcohol which, if re-distilled, affords another containing
82 per cent. This, subjected again to distillation, yields alcohol of
over 90 per cent. in strength. Thus three successive distillations have
strengthened the liquor from five per cent. to 90 per cent.

It will thus be clear that the richness in alcohol of the vapors given
off from boiling alcoholic liquids is not a constant quantity, but that
it necessarily diminishes as the ebullition is continued. For example a
liquor containing seven per cent. of alcohol yields, on boiling a vapor
containing 50 per cent. The first portion of the distillate will,
therefore, be of this strength. But as the vapor is proportionally richer
in alcohol, the boiling liquor must become gradually weaker, and, in
consequence, must yield weaker vapors. Thus, when the proportion of
alcohol in the boiling liquid has sunk to five per cent., the vapors
condensed at that time will contain only 40 per cent.; at two per cent.
of alcohol in the liquor, the vapors yield only 28 per cent., and at one
per cent., they will be found when condensed to contain only 13 per cent.
From this it will be understood that if the distillation be stopped at
any given point before the complete volatilization of all the alcohol the
distillate obtained will be considerably stronger than if the process had
been carried on to the end. Moreover, another advantage derived from
checking the process before the end, and keeping the last portions of the
distillate separate from the rest, besides that of obtaining a stronger
spirit, is that a much purer one is obtained also. The volatile,
essential oils, mentioned above, are soluble only in strong alcohol, and
insoluble in its aqueous solutions. They distill also at a much higher
temperature than alcohol, and so are found only among the last products
of the distillation, which results from raising the temperature of the
boiling liquid. This system of checking the distillation and removing the
products at different points is frequently employed in the practice of
rectification.



                              CHAPTER III.

                         DISTILLING APPARATUS.


=The Apparatus= employed in the process of distillation is called a
_still_, and is of almost infinite variety. A still may be any vessel
which will hold and permit fermentated "wash" or "beer" to be boiled
therein, and which will collect the vapors arising from the surface of
the boiling liquid and transmit them to a condenser. The still may be
either heated by the direct application of fire, or the liquid in the
still raised to the boiling point by the injection of steam. The steam or
vapor rising from the boiling liquid must be cooled and condensed. This
is done by leading it into tubes surrounded by cold water or the "cold
mash."

The very simplest form of still is shown in Fig. 6, and consists of two
essential parts, the still, or boiler _A_, made of tinned copper, the
condenser _C_ which may be made of metal or wood and the worm _B_ made of
a coil of tinned copper pipe.

The liquor is boiled in _A_ and the vapors pass off into the worm _B_,
which is surrounded by the cold water of the condenser, the distillate
being drawn off at _f_.

The heated vapors passing through the worm _B_ will soon heat up the
water in _C_ thereby retarding perfect condensation. To prevent this, a
cold water supply pipe may be connected to the bottom of _C_ making a
connection at the top of _C_ for an over flow of the warmed up water. By
this means the lowest part of the worm will be kept sufficiently cool to
make a rapid condensation of the vapors.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--A Simple Still.]

The boiler _A_ can be made in two parts; the upper part fitting into the
lower part snugly at _d_. The pipe from the upper part fitting the worm
snugly at _e_. This will enable the operator to thoroughly cleanse the
boiler before putting in a new lot of liquor. The joints at _e_ and _d_
should be luted with dough formed by mixing the flour with a small
portion of salt and moistening with water. This is thoroughly packed at
the junctions of the parts to prevent the escape of steam or vapor.

Fig. 7 shows such a Still as manufactured by the Geo. L. Squier Mfg. Co.,
Buffalo, N. Y.

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--Simple Direct-Heated Still.]

In an apparatus of this kind, the vapors of alcohol and water are
condensed together. But if instead of filling the condenser _C_ with cold
water, it is kept at a temperature of 176° F. the greater part of the
water-vapor will be condensed while the alcohol, which boils at 172.4° F.
passes through the coil uncondensed. If therefore the water be condensed
and collected separately in this manner, and the alcoholic vapors be
conducted into another cooler kept at temperature below 172.4° F., the
alcohol will be obtained in a much higher state of concentration than it
would be by a process of simple distillation.

Supposing, again, that vapors containing but a small quantity of alcohol
are brought into contact with an alcoholic liquid of lower temperature
than the vapors themselves, and in very small quantity, the vapor of
water will be partly condensed, so that the remainder will be richer in
alcohol than it was previously. But the water, in condensing, converts
into vapor a portion of the spirit contained in the liquid interposed, so
that the uncondensed vapors passing away are still further enriched by
this means. Here, then, are the results obtained; the alcoholic vapors
are strengthened, firstly, by the removal of a portion of the water
wherewith they were mixed; and then by the admixture with them of the
vaporized spirit placed in the condenser. By the employment of some such
method as this, a very satisfactory yield of spirit may be obtained, both
with regard to quality, as it is extremely concentrated, and to the cost
of production, since the simple condensation of the water is made use of
to convert the spirit into vapor without the necessity of having recourse
to fuel. The construction of every variety of distilling apparatus now in
use is based upon the above principles.

A sectional view of another simple form of still is shown in Fig. 8; _V_
is a wooden vat having a tight fitting cover _a_, through the center of
which a hole has been cut. The wide end of a goose neck of copper pipe
_g_ is securely fitted over this aperture, the smaller end of this pipe
passes through the cover of the retort _R_ extending nearly to the
bottom; _f_ is the steam supply pipe from boiler; _M_ the rectifier
consisting of a cylindrical copper vessel containing a number of small
vertical pipes surrounded by a cold water jacket; _o_ the inlet for the
cold water which circulates around these small pipes, discharging at _n_;
the pipes in _M_ have a common connection to a pipe _p_, which connects
the rectifier with coil in cooler _C_; _s_ is a pipe to the receptacle
for receiving the distillate; _u_ cold water supply pipe to cooler, and
_W_ discharge for warmed-up water, _k_ discharge for refuse wash in vat
_V_.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--Simple Still, with Rectifier.]

The operation is as follows: The vat _V_ is nearly filled with fermented
mash and retort _R_ with weak distillate from a previous operation. Steam
is then turned into the pipe _f_ discharging near the bottom of the vat
_V_ and working up through the mash. This heats up the mash and the
vapors escape up _g_ over into _R_ where they warm up the weak
distillate. The vapors thus enriched rise into _M_, where a good
percentage of the water vapor is distilled, that is, condensed by the
cold water surrounding the small pipes. The vapor then passes over
through _p_ into the coil, where it is liquified and from whence it
passes by pipe _s_ into the receiver. The cold water for cooling both _M_
and _C_ can be turned on as soon as the apparatus has become thoroughly
heated up.

The stills in use to-day in many parts of the South for the production of
whiskey are quite as simple as those above described, and some for the
making of "moonshine" liquor are more so.

The first distilling apparatus for the production of strong alcohol on an
industrial scale was invented by Edward Adam, in the year 1801. The
arrangement is shown in Fig. 9, in which _A_ is a still to contain the
liquor placed over a suitable heater. The vapors were conducted by a tube
into the egg-shaped vessel _B_, the tube reaching nearly to the bottom;
they then passed out by another tube into a second egg _C_; then, in some
cases, into a third, not shown in the figure, and finally into the worm
_D_, and through a cock at _G_ into the receiver. The liquor condensed in
the first egg is stronger than that in the still, while that found in the
second and third is stronger than either. The spirit which is condensed
at the bottom of the worm is of a very high degree of strength. At the
bottom of each of the eggs, there is a tube connected with the still, by
which the concentrated liquors may be run back into _A_ for
redistillation after the refuse liquor from the first distill has been
run off.

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--Adam's Still.]

In the tube is a stop-cock _a_, by regulating which, enough liquor could
be kept in the eggs to cover the lower ends of the entrance pipes, so
that the alcoholic vapors were not only deprived of water by the cooling
which they underwent in passing through the eggs, but were also mixed
with fresh spirit obtained from the vaporization of the liquid remaining
in the bottom of the eggs, in the manner already described.

Adam's arrangement fulfilled, therefore, the two conditions necessary for
the production of strong spirit inexpensively; but unfortunately it had
also serious defects. The temperature of the egg could not be maintained
at a constant standard, and the bubbling of the vapors through the liquor
inside created too high a pressure. It was, however, a source of great
profit to its inventor for a long period, although it gave rise to many
imitations and improvements.

The operation of distilling is often carried on in the apparatus
represented in Fig. 22. It is termed the Patent Simplified Distilling
Apparatus; it was originally invented by Corty, but it has since
undergone much improvement. _A_ is the body of the still, into which the
wash is put; _B_ the head of the still; _c c c_ three copper plates
fitted in the upper part of the three boxes; these are kept cool by a
supply of water from the pipe _E_, which is distributed on the top of the
boxes by means of the pipes _G G G_. The least pure portion of the
ascending vapors is condensed as it reaches the lowest plate, and falls
back, and the next portion as it reaches the second plate, while the
purest and lightest vapors pass over the goose-neck, and are condensed in
the worm. The temperature of the plates is regulated by altering the flow
of water by means of the cock _F_. For the purpose of cleaning the
apparatus, a jet of steam or water may be introduced at _a_. A regulator
is affixed at the screw-joint _H_, at the lower end of the worm, which
addition is considered an important part of the improvement. The part of
the apparatus marked _I_ becomes filled soon after the operation has
commenced; the end of the other pipe _K_ is immersed in water in the
vessel _L_. The advantage claimed for this apparatus is that the
condensation proceeds in a partial vacuum, and that there is therefore a
great saving in fuel. One of these stills, having a capacity of 400
gallons, is said to work off four or five charges during a day of 12
hours, furnishing a spirit 35 per cent. over-proof.

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--Corty's Simplified Distilling Apparatus.]

Fig. 11 represents a double still which was at one time largely employed
in the colonies. It is simply an addition of the common still _A_ to the
patent still _B_. From time to time the contents of _B_ are run off into
_A_, those of _A_ being drawn off as dunder, the spirit from _A_ passing
over into _B_. Both stills are heated by the same fire; and it is said
that much fine spirit can be obtained by their use at the expense of a
very inconsiderable amount of fuel.

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--Double Still.]


=Compound Distillation.= Where stills of the form shown in Figs. 6 and 8
are used the alcohol obtained is weak. Hence it is necessary that the
distillate be again itself distilled, the operation being repeated a
number of times. In the better class of still, however, compound
distillation is performed the mash is heated by the hot vapors rising
from the still and the vapors are condensed and run back into the still
greatly enriched.

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--Dorn's Compound Still.]

The principle of compound distillation is well shown in Dorn's apparatus,
Fig. 12. This consists of a still or boiler _A_ having a large
dome-shaped head, on the interior faces of which the alcoholic vapors
will condense. Thus only enriched vapors will pass up through goose-neck
_B_ to the mash heater _D_. _C_ is a worm the end of which passes out to
a compartment _E_ through an inclined partition _F_. From the compartment
_E_ a pipe _e_ leads into the still _A_. An agitator _H_ is used for
stirring the mash, so that it may be uniformly heated. A pipe _d_
provided with a cock allows the mash to be drawn off into the still _A_.
From the highest point of the compartment _E_ a pipe _M_ leads to
condensing coil _K_ in a tub _J_ of cold water, having a draw-off cock
_I_.

At the exit end of the condensing worm _K_ the tube is bent in a U form
as at _L_, one arm of which has a curved open-ended continuation _n_,
through which the air in the worm is expelled. The other arm opens into
an inverted jar _l_ containing a hydrometer, for indicating the strength
of the spirit. The spirits pass off through _m_ into a receiver.

In operation the mash is admitted into the heater _D_ through _G_ until
the heating tank is nearly filled. A certain amount of mash is then
allowed to run into the still _A_ through the pipe _d_. The cock in _d_
is closed and the fire lighted.

The vapors from the still are condensed in worm _C_ and the condensed
liquid drops down into compartment _E_. Any vapor passing through _B_ and
_C_ so highly heated as to be uncondensed in coils _C_ passes through
the layer of liquid in compartment _E_, collects in the highest portion
of the compartment and passes through pipe _M_ to coil _K_ where it is
entirely liquefied. If the liquid in _E_ rises beyond a certain level it
passes through pipe _e_ back to the still. Any vapors which may collect
in the upper part of _D_ pass into the small bent pipe opening into the
first coil of worm _C_. Water for rinsing the heater _D_ may be drawn
through cock _s_ from the tub _J_ and warm water for rinsing the still,
through pipe _d_ from the heater.

Another form of compound still is shown in Fig. 13. In this the still _S_
is divided into an upper and lower compartment by a concavo-convex
partition _d_, having at its crown an upwardly extending tube _t_ from
which projects side tubes _p_. A pipe _P_ opens above and extends from
tube _t_. _C_ is the mash heater and condenser. Connected to the head of
the still is a pipe _T_ through which the vapors pass to a condensing
coil _f_ formed on the wall of the heater _C_. At its bottom the coil _f_
extends out of the heater, through the water tub _W_ and out to receiver
as at _F_. In the heat of this heater is a valve _V_ whereby any vapors
which may arise from the heated mash are conducted by pipe _U_ to _T_.

The heater _C_ is filled through funnel _Y_ and the mash is admitted to
the still through pipe _b_ having cock _a_. The pipe _P_ extends to the
upper part of the water tub _W_ and then downward to the bottom, where it
again enters the still.

An opening in the partition _d_ is controlled by a valve _G_ which allows
liquid in the upper compartment of the still to flow into the lower.
Spent mash may be drawn off through _c_ and the height of the water in
tub _W_ be regulated by pipe _Z_.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--Compound Still.]

The operation of this still is similar to Dorn's still. Mash is put into
_C_ and a quantity of it is let into the upper compartment of the still
and into the lower compartment by valve _G_. This valve is closed and the
fire started. The vapors pass upward through _t_. If they are quite
highly vaporized they pass onward up _P_, are condensed in their passage
through the cool water tub and return as liquid to the upper compartment
where they are further heated.

The liquid in the upper compartment is thus constantly enriched and the
vapor therefrom passes out through pipe _T_ into condensing coils _f_
where it is condensed into spirit and passes off by _F_.

The funnel tube _Y_ acts also as a means of warning the attendant as to
the condition of the mash. If it is too high in level and the pressure of
vapor in the heater _C_ too great, liquid will be forced out of _Y_; if
on the contrary, the mash sinks below the level of the pipe then vapor
will escape and the heater needs refilling.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--Compound Direct Fire Still.]

Fig. 14 shows a simple form of compound direct fire still as manufactured
by the Geo. L. Squier Mfg. Co., of Buffalo, N. Y.

Cellier-Blumenthal carrying this principle further devised an apparatus
which has become the basis of all subsequent improvements; indeed, every
successive invention has differed from this arrangement merely in detail,
the general principles being in every case the same. The chief defect in
the simple stills was that they were intermittent that is required the
operations to be suspended when they were recharged, while that of
Cellier-Blumenthal is continuous; that is to say, the liquid for
distillation is introduced at one end of the arrangement, and the
alcoholic products are received continuously, and of a constant degree of
concentration, at the other. The saving of time and fuel resulting from
the use of his still is enormous. In the case of the simple stills, the
fuel consumed amounted to a weight nearly three times that of the spirit
yielded by it; whereas, the Cellier-Blumenthal apparatus reduces the
amount to one-quarter of the weight of alcohol produced. Fig. 15 shows
the whole arrangement, and Figs. 16 to 17 represent different parts of it
in detail.

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--Cellier-Blumenthal Still.]

In Fig. 15 _A_ is a boiler, placed over a brick furnace; _B_ is the
still, placed beside it, on a slightly higher level and heated by the
furnace flue which passes underneath it. A pipe _e_ conducts the steam
from the boiler to the bottom of the still. By another pipe _d_, which is
furnished with a stop cock and which reaches to the bottom of the still
_A_, the alcoholic liquors in the still may be run from it into the
boiler; by turning the valve the spent liquor may be run out at _a_. The
glass tubes _b_ and _f_ show the height of liquid in the two vessels. _K_
is the valve for filling the boiler and _c_ the safety valve.

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--Details of Rectifier Column.]

The still is surmounted by a column _C_, shown in section in Fig. 16.
This column contains an enriching arrangement whereby the liquid flowing
down into the still _B_ is brought into intimate contact with the steam
rising from the still. The liquid meets with obstacles in falling and
falls downward in a shower, which thus presents multiplied obstacles to
the ascent of the vapor. The liquid is thus heated almost to the boiling
point before it falls into the still _B_. The construction for effecting
this is shown at _C_, Fig. 16 and consists of an enclosed series of nine
sets of circular copper saucer-shaped capsules, placed one above the
other, and secured to three metallic rods passing through the series so
that they can be all removed as one piece. These capsules are of
different diameters, the larger ones which are, nearly the diameter of
the column, are placed with the rounded side downwards, and are pierced
with small holes; the smaller ones are turned bottom upwards, a stream of
the liquid to be distilled flows down the pipe _h_ from _E_, into the top
capsule of _C_ and then percolating through the small holes, falls into
the smaller capsule beneath, and from the rim of this upon the one next
below, and so throughout the whole of the series until it reaches the
bottom and falls into the still _B_. The vapors rise up into the column
from the still and meeting the stream of liquid convert it partially into
vapor which passes out at the top of _C_ considerably enriched, into the
column _D_.

Fig. 16 shows a sectional view of the column _D_, the "rectifying column"
as it is called. It contains six vessels, placed one above the other, in
an inverted position, so as to form seals. These are so disposed that the
vapors must pass through a thin layer of liquor in each vessel. Some of
the vapor is thus condensed and the condensed liquid flows back into
column _C_, the uncondensed vapor considerably enriched passing up the
pipe _J_, into the coil _S_ in the condenser _E_, Fig. 17, which is
filled with the "wash" to be distilled.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--Details of Condenser and Mash Heater.]

Entering by the pipe _t_, Fig. 15, the undistilled liquid or "wash" is
distributed over a perforated plate _y y_, and falls in drops into the
condenser _E_, where it is heated by contact with the coil _S_ containing
the heated vapors. The condenser is divided into two compartments by a
diaphragm _X_ which is pierced with holes at its lower extremity;
through these holes the wash flows into the second compartment, and
passes out at the top, where it runs through the pipe _h_, into the top
of the column _C_.

The vapors are made to traverse the coil _S_, which is kept at an average
temperature of 122° F., in the right hand compartment, and somewhat
higher in the other. They pass first through _J_ into the hottest part of
the coil, and there give up much of the water with which they are mixed,
and the process of concentration continues as they pass through the coil.
Each spiral is connected at the bottom with a vertical pipe by which the
condensed liquors are run off; these are conducted into the retrograding
pipe _p p_. Those which are condensed in the hottest part of the coil,
and are consequently the weakest, are led by the pipe _L_ into the third
vessel in the column _D_, Fig. 16, while the stronger or more vaporized
portions pass through _L´_ into the fifth vessel. Stop-cocks at _m_, _n_,
_o_ regulate the flow of the liquid into these vessels, and consequently
also the strength of the spirit obtained.

Lastly, as the highly concentrated vapors leave the coil _S_ at _R_, they
are condensed in the vessel _F_, which contains another coil. This is
kept cool by a stream of liquid flowing from the reservoir _H_ into the
smaller cistern _G_ from which a continuous and regular flow is kept up
through the tap _v_ into a funnel _N_ and thence into condenser _F_. It
ultimately flows into condenser _E_ through pipe _t_, there being no
other outlet. The finished products run out by pipe _x_ into suitable
receivers.

It will be seen that the condenser _E_ has two functions. First it
condenses the alcoholic vapors before transmitting them to the final
condenser _F_, rejecting and sending back those vapors which are not
highly enough vaporized. Second it heats the wash intended for distilling
by appropriating the heat of the vapors to be condensed. Thus two birds
are killed with one stone. It will be noticed that the same result is
accomplished in the columns _C_ and _D_. This is the principle of all
modern stills.

Another form of still which is very analogous to that last described is
Coffey's apparatus, shown in Fig. 18, and is the immediate prototype of
the stills used to-day in all but the simplest plants.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--Coffey's Rectifying Still.]

It consists of two columns, _C_ the analyser, and _H_ the rectifier,
placed side by side and above a chamber containing a steam pipe _b_ from
a boiler _A_. This chamber is divided into two compartments by a
horizontal partition _a_ pierced with small holes and furnished with four
safety valves _e e e e_. The column _C_ is divided into twelve small
compartments, by means of horizontal partitions of copper, also pierced
with holes and each provided with two little valves _f_. The spirituous
vapors passing up this column are led by a pipe _i_ to the bottom of the
second column or _rectifier_. This column is also divided into
compartments in precisely the same way, except that there are fifteen
of them, the ten lowest being separated by the partitions, which are
pierced with holes. The remaining five partitions are not perforated, but
have a wide opening as at _w_, for the passage of the vapors, and form a
condenser for the finished spirit. Between each of these partitions
passes one bend of a long zig-zag pipe _m_, beginning at the top of the
column, winding downwards to the bottom, and finally passing upwards
again to the top of the other column, so as to discharge its contents
into the highest compartment. The apparatus works in the following way:
The pump _Q_ is set in motion, and the zig-zag pipe _m_ then fills with
the wash or fermented liquor until it runs over at _n_ into the highest
compartment of column _C_. The pump is then stopped, and steam is
introduced through _b_, passing up through the two bottom chambers and
the short pipe _F_ into the analyzing column, finally reaching the bottom
of the other column by means of the pipe _i_. Here it surrounds the coil
pipe _m_ containing the wash, so that the latter becomes rapidly heated.

When several bends of the pipe have become heated, the pump is again set
to work, and the hot wash is driven rapidly through the coil and into the
analyzer at _n_. Here it takes the course indicated by the arrows,
running down from chamber to chamber through the tubes _h_ until it
reaches the bottom; none of the liquor finds its way through the
perforations in the various partitions, owing to the pressure of the
ascending steam.

As the liquid cannot pass through the holes in the partitions it can only
pass downward through the drop-pipe tubes _h_. By this means the mash is
spread in a thin stratum over each partition to the depth of the seal _g_
and is fully exposed to the steam forcing its way up through the holes,
the alcohol it contains being thus volatilized at every step.

In its course downwards the wash is met by the steam passing up through
the perforations, and the whole of the spirit which it contains is thus
converted into vapor. As soon as the chamber _B_ is nearly full of the
spent wash, its contents are run off into the lower compartment by
opening a valve in the pipe _V_. By means of the cock _E_, they are
finally discharged from the apparatus. This process is continued until
all the wash has been pumped through.

The course taken by the steam will be readily understood by a glance at
the figure. When it has passed through each of the chambers of the
analyzer, the mixed vapors of water and spirit pass through the pipe _i_
into the rectifying column. Ascending again, they heat the coiled pipe
_m_, and are partially deprived of aqueous vapors by condensation. Being
thus gradually concentrated, by the time they reach the opening at _w_
they consist of nearly pure spirit, and are then condensed by the cool
liquid in the pipe, fall upon the partition and are carried away by the
pipe _y_ to a refrigerator _W_. Any uncondensed gases pass out by the
pipe _R_ to the same refrigerator, where they are deprived of any alcohol
they may contain. The weak liquor condensed in the different compartments
of the rectifier descends in the same manner as the wash descends in the
other column; as it always contains a little spirit, it is conveyed by
means of the pipe _S_ to the vessel _L_ in order to be pumped once more
through the apparatus.


=The condensed spirit= gathered over the plates _v_ passes out through
the pipe _y_ to the condensing worm _T_. If any vapors escape the
condensing plates they pass into _R_ and are condensed in the worm _T_
also. From worm _T_ the spirit flows into a suitable receiver _Z_.

Before the process of distillation commences, it is usual, especially
when the common Scotch stills are employed, to add about one lb. of soap
to the contents of the still for every 100 gallons of wash. This is done
in order to prevent the liquid from boiling over, which object is
effected in the following way: The fermented wash always contains small
quantities of acetic acid; this acts upon the soap, liberating an oily
compound which floats upon the surface. The bubbles of gas as they rise
from the body of the liquid are broken by this layer of oil, and hence
the violence of the ebullition is considerably checked. Butter is
sometimes employed for the same purpose.

Figs. 19 and 20 show a diagrammatic section and a plan of a still used
for thick mashes which are liable to burn. This comprises a circular
chamber _B_ supported over suitable heating means, having on its bottom a
series of concentric partitions _b_ which divide the bottom of the
chamber into shallow channels for the mash. Running diametrically through
the chamber is a partition.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--Rotary Current Still.]

The mash passes from a tank as _A_ by a passage _a_ to an opening on one
side of the central portion and into the outside channel _b_. The current
of liquid passes along the outer channel until it is deflected by the
central partition into the next interior channel _b_ and so on until it
arrives at the center when it passes through the central partition into
the other half of the chamber. Here it passes around back and forth and
gradually outward to the outermost channel from which it passes off
through an adjustable gate in outlet _c_. By adjusting this gate, and a
gate or cock in inlet passage _a_, the passage and consequent depth of
the liquid in the channels may be regulated. The vapor rising from the
mash is carried over to a condenser through pipe _D_. In order to keep
the mash from burning a chain _g_ is rotarily reciprocated along the
channels by means of the bar _G_, the gear _E_ and the crank shaft _e_.
Various modifications of this construction have been devised. The
advantage of the still lies in submitting the mash in a thin current to
the action of the heat, and the consequent rapid vaporization.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--Rotary Current Still.]

Every distillation consists of two operations: The conversion of liquid
into vapor, and the reconversion of the vapor into liquid. Hence perfect
equilibrium should be established between the vaporizing heat and the
condensing cold. The quantity of vapor must not be greater or less than
can be condensed. If fire is too violent the vapors will pass out of the
worm uncondensed. If the fire is too low the pressure of the vapor is
not great enough to prevent the entrance of air, which obstructs
distillation. As a means of indicating the proper regulation of the fire,
the simple little device shown in Fig. 21 may be used.

This consists of a tube of copper or glass having a ball _B_ eight inches
in diameter. The upper end _E_ of the tube is attached to the condensing
worm. The lower end of the tube is bent in U-shape; the length of the two
bends from _b_ to outlet is four feet. The ball has a capacity slightly
greater than the two legs of the bend.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--Indicator for Regulating the Distilling Fire.]

Normally the liquid in the two legs will stand at a level. If, however,
the fire is too brisk the vapor will enter the tube and drive out the
liquor at _d_, and thus the level in the leg _C_ will be less than in the
leg _D_. If, however, the fire is low, the pressure of vapor in the worm
will decrease and the pressure of the outside air will force down the
liquid in leg _D_ and up leg _C_ into the ball.

A more perfected device but operating on the same principle is shown in
Fig. 26.

It is obviously impossible to present in the small compass of this book a
description of all the varieties of stills used, but these which have
been described illustrate the principles on which all stills are
constructed and were chosen for their simplicity of construction and
clearness of their operation. The principle of their operation is exactly
the same as the more modern forms now to be described.



                              CHAPTER IV.

                      MODERN DISTILLING APPARATUS.


In the previous chapter we have given a description of small, simple
stills, such as were used until late years, and which are yet used in
many localities where distilling is carried on on a small scale. We will
now describe the principle features of more complicated and elaborate
apparatus.

All modern distilling apparatus for the production of a high grade of
alcohol is based upon the principle set forth in the description of the
Coffey still; that is, upon using a distilling column and a concentrating
column, wherein the "wash" or mash fermented as described, passes over a
series of plates or other obstructions in contact with an ascending
column of heated vapor. This heated vapor extracts the alcohol from the
wash, or from the low wines of the concentrator, and is continually
strengthened during its journey until it passes off to a condenser as a
vapor very rich in alcohol. The converse of this is true with the wash,
which in its downward course is gradually deprived of its alcohol until
it finally passes off at the bottom of the column.

[Illustration: FIG. 22.--Diagramatic View of Column Still and Accessory
Apparatus. (_To face page 64_)]

Fig. 22 is illustrative of the general form and arrangement of such a
column and its adjuncts; the details, however, will vary with each make
of still. In this the "column" consists of a casing really continuous but
divided into two portions--the distilling portion _A_ and the rectifying
portion _B_. The operation is alike, however, in principle in both
portions.

[Illustration: Cross-Section of Fig. 23.]

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--Distilling Plate.]

The wash by means of a suitable pump is forced into an overhead tank or
concentrator _G_ where it is warmed by the hot vapors as will be later
described. It passes around the interior of the concentrator in a coil
_c_ and then passes off by a pipe _a_ to the uppermost plate of the
distilling portion _A_ of the column.

The plates, as before explained on page 55, are each formed with a
dropping tube _O_ (see Fig. 23), which extends above the plate to an
extent slightly less than the desired thickness of the layer of liquid on
each plate, and with perforations each having an upwardly projecting rim,
and each covered with a cap _A_. This rim and cap form a trap. The
ascending vapors pass up through the perforations, down between the rim
and the edge of the cap and thus out through the layer of wash contained
on the cap. The wash remains constantly level with the top of the tube
_O_, the excess running off through the tube _O_ to the compartment or
plate beneath.

To return to Fig. 22, the wash by the pipe _a_ enters the distilling
portion of the column at the uppermost plate thereof and, as described
above, drops down from plate to plate. A steam pipe _S_ enters the bottom
compartment of the distilling portion of the column and the steam as it
rises through the little traps, bubbles out through the layer of wash and
in each compartment enriches itself with alcohol. Thus the rising column
of vapor is constantly becoming richer and the downward current of wash
constantly weaker until at last it passes away as spent wash at the very
bottom of the column by the pipe _D_.

The hot vapors, as before described, pass upward and enter the rectifying
portion of the column _B_. This consists of a series of compartments
having perforated bottoms and dropping tubes. The vapor passes upward
through these perforations of the plates,--the condensed portion of it
dropping back again on to the lower plates or on to the distilling plates
to be again vaporized and concentrated and the more highly vaporized
portion passing out at the top of the column through the pipe _E_ to the
concentrator _G_.

The concentrator consists of a tank containing water within which is
supported a vessel _F_ having double walls. The interior of this vessel
is likewise filled with water. Between the double walls and surrounding
the coiled pipe _c_ passes the vapors from pipe _E_.

At the bottom of the vessel _F_ is a compartment _f_ connected by a pipe
_F´_ with the upper compartment of the rectifying column. The less highly
heated vapors will be condensed by the passage through the double walls
of the vessel and the condensation will collect in the compartment _f_,
and from there pass off by pipe _F´_ back to the rectifying column, to be
again vaporized and strengthened by the descent from plate to plate of
_B_.

The rich and highly vaporized vapors which have passed the test of this
preliminary concentration, pass out of the compartment _f_ by a pipe _M_.
Here again the water surrounding the pipe tends to condense all but the
most highly charged vapor and send it back to compartment _f_ but the
vapor which succeeds in passing over through pipe _G_ is carried downward
to a condenser _H_ where it is finally condensed and drawn off as at _g_.
It is necessary that the rate of mash feed be regulated so that neither
too much mash shall be pumped into the mash heater _G_, or too little,
and the pipe leading from the pump to the heater is therefore provided
with a tap and an indicating dial.

In these modern stills the following are particularly important points to
be especially brought to the consideration of the distiller.

It cannot be too strongly impressed that effectiveness of the distilling
column depends on the plates dividing it,--that is, upon the
horizontality of the plates and the form of the traps or perforations. If
the plates are not horizontal the wash is not maintained at a uniform
level across the entire extent of the plate and hence some of the
ascending vapor will pass out without contacting with the wash through
uncovered traps, while others of the traps will be so deeply submerged in
wash that the vapor cannot bubble through.

Again the caps should be so made as to divide the vapor into fine streams
and bring it into contact with each part of the wash. Plates simply
perforated and uncapped give excellent results for they molecularize the
vapor ascending through the liquid contained on the plates, but they
require a constant pressure of vapor, and any variations of pressure
tends to discharge them. In addition these perforations gradually enlarge
by the action of acids in the wash or clog up, and the apparatus soon
works badly.

Good forms of capped traps are those shown in Figs. 24, 25 devised by
Barbet. These are provided with an interior upwardly projecting rim.
Extending over the rim and down around it is a copper cap having its
margin slitted.

The wash carried on the plate circulates about the caps and the alcoholic
vapors bubble out through the slits and up through the wash, the vapor
thus being finely divided and coming into intimate contact with each
portion of the wash and thus more thoroughly depriving it of its alcohol.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--Barbet Trap.]

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--Barbet Trap.]

Besides this there is another advantage resident in these caps, namely,
that distillation may be stopped for several hours and then re-started
without trouble for the reason that the wash has been retained on the
plates, whereas were the plates simply perforated the wash would ooze
through and the plates have to be recharged. This form of plate may be
easily repaired and does not necessitate the removal or replacement of
the plate itself. The caps alone need be removed.

For thick washes, which tends to obstruct the slits of the cap, Barbet
has devised the cap shown at the right in Fig. 25. This cap extends down
to the plate itself, and has very narrow slits in its periphery. With
such a cap as shown in Fig. 24, the bran, sediments, etc., would tend to
settle upon the top of the cap, enter beneath it and through the slits.
The cone-shape of the top of this cap prevents the deposit of dregs
thereon and the very narrow slits oppose the entrance of bran or
sediment.

While, for the sake of clearness, an old form of concentrator, _G_, has
been shown, the concentrator, preheater for the wash, and condensers,
to-day, are usually composed of bundles of tubes through which the vapors
pass surrounded by water or the cool wash. These should be of bronze or
copper and made without solder. The tubes should be capable of being
taken out for cleaning or repairing.

In many distilling apparatuses the distilling column and the rectifying
column are in two parts, one beside the other. This overcomes the
objection of having a very high column and also prevents the low wines,
_i.e._, the weak alcoholic liquor after its first concentration, from
passing into the wash as it would do with the continuous column.

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--Steam Regulator.]

In order that the amount of steam entering the column may be regulated,
the column is usually provided with a steam regulator (Fig. 26); whose
principle of operation may be easily under stood by referring to Fig. 22.
It comprises an upper and a lower chamber _Z Z´_ connected by a central
tube _K_ which projects down nearly to the bottom of the lower chamber. A
pipe _W_ communicates with the steam chamber _R_ of the column and enters
the chamber _Z_ above the level of the water contained therein. In the
upper chamber _Z´_, is a float _X_, connected to the differential lever
_T_ of a steam valve _T´_ which controls the inlet of steam passing
through pipe _S_ to the steam chest _R_. The principle of operation is
very simple. When the pressure in the steam chest _R_ becomes too great,
steam in the pipe _W_ and chamber _Z_ forces the water therein up in tube
_K_, thus lifting the float _X_ and closing the steam entrance valve
_T´_. When the pressure of steam is low, the level of the liquid in _Z_
rises and liquid in _Z´_ runs into _Z_, the float _X_ falls opening valve
_T´_ and allowing a greater flow of steam.

As it is often desirable to change the pressure of steam in the column at
various points in the operation, the best regulators are usually provided
with means to that end.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--Gauge Glass for Regulatur.]

In order to measure the output of the still, there is attached thereto a
gauge glass (_J_ in Fig. 22), a diagram of which is shown in Fig. 27.
This consists of a jar _A_ connected at its lower end at _b_ by an
annular passage _B_ to a chamber _E_ from which proceed the taps _F_.
Centrally through the passage _B_ passes a tube _c_ connected at its
lower end to the pipe _C_ leading from the condenser. The tube _C c_
projects upward into the jar _A_ and is open at its upper end.

Now the opening _b_ is of a certain size and it is obvious that it will
carry off a certain amount of liquid when running full or the amount
allowed to flow out by the exit tap _F_. If now, more than that quantity
of alcohol is produced, the alcohol will rise in the jar _A_ until the
rate of inflow and outflow is equal. If, however, the still is producing
less than that quantity then the level of liquid in _A_ will gradually
drop. Hence, by observing the level of the liquid in _A_ and its
constancy or variation in level, it is possible to tell precisely how
much alcohol is running per hour and if the rate is steady. The jar _A_
is provided with a cap _G_ whereby an alcoholometer may be inserted
into tube _c_ for the purpose of testing the strength of the liquor. The
taps _F_ are for the purpose of collecting the first runnings, the pure
alcohol and the last runnings or "feints."

These principles are also embodied in the apparatus designed by the
Vulcan Copper Works Co., of Cincinnati, and illustrated in Fig. 28. The
apparatus comprises the still, a wash heater and a condenser. The still
is composed of a series of chambers from 12 to 24, the internal
construction of which is shown in Fig. 29. Each chamber consists of a
peculiarly perforated plate _A_, a drop pipe _B_, a seal _C_, into which
the drop pipe from the plate above projects, and a central standard _D_.

Returning now to Fig. 28, at the bottom of the column is a manifold _E_,
with pipes _F_ and _G_ whereby either exhaust or live steam may be
admitted. _H_ designates the discharge or slop valve, controlled by a
float _I_ whereby a constant level of slop or spent wash is kept in the
bottom chamber.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--Continuous Distilling Apparatus, with External
Tubular Condenser. (_To face page 72_)]

To the right of the column is seen the slop tester _J_ and hydrometer
_L_, whereby the spent wash may be tested to see if the spirit is being
properly extracted. The steam pressure is indicated by means of a float
_N_ contained within a vessel _M_, a tally weight moving against a scale
_K_, showing the pressure of steam entering through pipe _O_ and acting
against water contained in vessel _M_. Each chamber is provided with a
manhole plate _P_, and a try-cock _Q_, whereby the operation of each
chamber may be tested. _R_ is a gage glass to show the level of the slop
in the bottom chamber.

At the top of the column are three rectifying chambers fitted with
boiling pipes and traps _T_, which distribute the ascending vapor and
boil out the low wines returned from the wash-heater or fore-warmer.

[Illustration: FIG. 29.--Detail of Chamber, Continuous Still.]

The heater consists of a shell enclosing a series of tubes extending into
an upper and lower chamber. The wash or "beer," is pumped into the lower
chamber of the heater, and passes upward through the tubes to the upper
chamber from which is it carried by a pipe to the plate _A_ next below
the rectifying plates.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--Detail of Perforated Plate _A_.]

The vapor from the column passes into the middle compartment of the
heater and surrounds the beer tubes. The vapors give their heat to the
beer and are thus cooled, the low wines being condensed and flowing back
onto the uppermost rectifying plate, while the highly vaporized portions
pass out to the condenser. This is of the same general construction as
the heater, the vapor being cooled and condensed to liquid by the tubes
through which a constant current of cool water is passed. This enters at
_U_ and passes out at _V_. These tubular condensers are particularly good
as they may be easily cleaned. From the condenser the spirit passes to a
discharge box _W_. A portion of the flow passes into a test tube _X_,
provided with a hydrometer. A trap _Y_ and an air pipe _Z_ provide means
for the escape of gas.

As before stated, the form of perforations in the plates of a column
through which the vapor pass upward through the beer or wash is
particularly important. The steam must be thoroughly diffused through the
beer, or else particles of mash are carried up, accumulate around the
perforations, baking there and clogging them up. The clogging and
eventual stoppage of the perforations prevent the agitation of the mash
carried on the plate, and a layer of mash accumulates and bakes on the
head, or plate, above. Thus the operating capacity of the still is
reduced and a larger quantity and greater pressure of steam is necessary
with consequent waste of fuel.

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--Detail of Perforated Plate _A_.]

It is necessary then that the form of perforation or trap through which
the vapor ascends should be such that agitation of the beer shall be
enforced in its movement across the plate, and that the steam shall be
thoroughly diffused through the beer. In the Vulcan still above referred
to, these results are accomplished by forming each perforation with a
tongue, as shown in the fragmentary view of a plate, Figs. 30 and 31, the
tongues of all the holes being directed towards the periphery of the
plate. It is claimed that by this construction the steam is diverted
forward and injected into the beer, throwing the beer into vigorous
motion, completely diffusing the steam and accelerating the motion of the
beer from the seal _C_ to the drop pipe _B_.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--Continuous Distilling Apparatus with Goose
Separator. (_To face page 76_)]

Fig. 32 illustrates another form of distilling apparatus manufactured by
the same company, which is practically the same as the apparatus
previously described except that it is provided with a "goose-necked"
separator, interposed between the wash-heater and the enclosure. This
consists of a series of convoluted tubes contained in a tank of cold
water. The vapor from the heater passes into these convolutions. The
heavier vapors are condensed therein and returned to the heater from
which they descend into the column while the more volatilized vapors pass
over into the final condenser. The _U_-bends at the bottoms of each
convolution act like so many low wine chambers in the still shown in Fig.
9 the highly heated vapor continually bubbling through the condensed
vapor in the _U_ bend and there becoming greatly enriched and
concentrated.

This apparatus, it is claimed, is applicable to the distillation of
grain, molasses or cane juice and will yield 170 or 180 per cent., or the
equivalent to 85-90 G. L. or 34-36 Cartier.

[Illustration: FIG. 33.--Section of Gillaume's Inclined Column Still.]

A distinctly modern type of still, though akin to the still shown in
Figs. 19 and 20, is the inclined column of Gillaume, shown in section in
Fig. 33 and in full view in Fig. 34. Gillaume in devising this form of
apparatus had particularly in mind the distillation of thick washes, and
the necessity of compelling a circulation of the wash.

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--Gillaume's Inclined Column Still.]

The bottom of the inclined column _A_ is divided by lateral extending,
upwardly projecting plates or partitions _a_ forming a continuous
channel through which the wash passes from side to side and from top to
bottom and then out through a regulator. The upper plate of the column
has downwardly projecting partitions _b_ which with the partitions _a_
form a series of traps. The steam enters at the bottom of the column into
a reservoir, and in order to pass upward is forced beneath each partition
_b_ and through the washer contained in the channels of the bottom. When
it reaches the upper end of the column it has passed through a continuous
series of wash-filled compartments containing a constantly moving current
of wash.

The vapors from the top of the column pass off to the wash heater or to a
concentrator.

In Fig. 34 is shown a form of Gillaume still designed to distill all
sorts of liquids whether thin or thick. The wash is supplied from an
overhead tank to a regulating tank _K_ from which a pipe _k_ leads to a
regulating tap _m_. The wash re-ascends into the wash heater _B_ and when
heated descends by pipe _F_ into the uppermost compartments of the column
_A_. The vapor passes to the condenser _B_, by a pipe _H_, and the spent
wash is discharged by a siphon _C_. In addition to the parts above
referred to, _a_ designates entrance of wash into heater, _b_ exhaust
test tube, _d_ steam entrance tap _G_ alcohol test glass, _G´_ exhaust
test glass, _o_ valve for regulating strength of spirit, _O_ steam
regulator, _p_ water entrance tap, _r_ exit tap, and _D_ the spent wash
extractor.

The Gillaume apparatus is particularly valuable for the production of
industrial or agricultural alcohol. It is claimed that it is easily
understood and operated even by unskilled labor, while it produces a
large proportion of alcohol of a high strength.

A view of a complete apparatus on a large scale is shown in the Fig. 40
in the chapter on rectification.



                               CHAPTER V.

                             RECTIFICATION.


The product of the distillation of alcoholic liquors, which is termed
_low wine_, does not usually contain alcohol in sufficient quantity to
admit of its being employed for direct consumption. Besides this it
always contains substances which have the property of distilling over
with the spirit, although their boiling points, when in the pure state,
are much higher than that of alcohol. These are all classed under the
generic title of _fusel-oil_; owing to their very disagreeable taste and
smell, their presence in spirit is extremely objectionable. In order to
remove them, the rough products of distillation are submitted to a
further process of concentration and purification. Besides fusel-oil,
they contain other substances, such as aldehyde, various ethers, etc.,
the boiling points of which are lower than that of alcohol; these must
also be removed, as they impart to the spirit a fiery taste. The whole
process is termed _rectification_, and is carried on in a distillatory
apparatus.

As before stated, the wash as discharged into the still consists of
alcohol mixed with water and a variety of impurities from which the
alcohol must be separated. In order that the process may be better
understood we will assume that a mixture of pure alcohol and water is to
be operated on in place of the wash as above referred to. Distillation in
this case is intended to deprive the water of its alcohol, the operation
theoretically leaving water in one chamber and alcohol in another. This
is accomplished by reason of the differences in the boiling points of
water and alcohol. The alcohol vaporizes at a lower degree (173° F.) than
water (212° F.) Thus the liquid at the end of the operation has been
divided into two parts or _fractions_.

This, however, is not a clean division for the reason that while in the
beginning the vapors contain a large quantity of the more volatile
alcohol, at the end they will contain a large portion of the less
volatile water. The whole of the alcohol will be separated in this
manner, but it will still be mixed with some water and in order to again
divide the alcohol from the water the first distillate would have to be
redistilled until at last the water is reduced to a minimum or entirely
eliminated, if possible.

But as it requires less heat to vaporize alcohol than water, so it also
requires more cold to condense alcoholic-vapor than water-vapor. If then
we pass the mixed vapors into a condensing chamber cooled to a certain
temperature low enough to condense water-vapor but not the alcohol-vapor,
then the water-vapor will fall down as water while the alcohol-vapor
being uncondensed passes on to another chamber where its temperature
falls to a point where it in turn condenses into liquid.

In intermittent distillation, as by the simple still, the vapors of mixed
alcohol and water at first contain a great deal of alcohol and a little
water, then more water and less alcohol, and then a great deal of water
and hardly any alcohol. It may be asked: "Why not take only the runnings
rich in alcohol and leave the others?" The answer to this is that if this
be done then _all_ the alcohol is not extracted from the wash and there
is just that much loss. The solution of the problem is to get all the
alcohol out mixed with the water that is inevitably with it and then
redistill this result thus getting out (sifting away) some of the water,
and again distill this result, and so on until only pure alcohol is left.
This, however, is a very troublesome business and has been abandoned as a
means of removing impurities such as water, the ethers, and fusel oil
except by makers of whiskey, brandy and other beverage spirits, in favor
of continuous distillation and continuous rectification.

It will be seen from what has gone before that there are two means of
separating alcohol and water; one by an initial difference in heating and
by a further difference in cooling or condensing.

It is on this foundation that the whole art of fractional distillation or
rectification rests. While we have for illustration been considering a
mixture of pure alcohol and water, the wash or liquid formed by the
fermentation of grain, etc., contains a variety of ingredients of
different boiling points, some more volatile than alcohol, some less. The
fermented wash consists first of non-volatile or only slightly volatile
matters, such as salts, proteins, glycerin, lactic acid, yeast, etc., and
second, volatile bodies such as alcohol, water, various ethers, etc.,
fusel oils and acetic acid.

When wash is distilled in the ordinary simple or pot still, the first
part to come over consists of the very volatile matters,--more volatile
than alcohol even,--that is, the ethers mixed with some alcohol. This is
known as the fore-shot or first runnings, and is collected separately.
When the spirit coming over possesses no objectionable odor, the second
stage has begun. This running would be of the alcohol proper, getting
weaker and weaker, however, as the running continues and this would be
caught separately as long as it is of sufficient strength. At last would
come the weak spirit containing much fusel oil. It is to be understood,
however, that there is no defined line between these divisions. They
graduate one into the other. The first and last runnings in the old
practice were mixed together and distilled with the next charge. When a
strong spirit was required, rectification would be repeated several
times. It is customary, however, with the improved modern apparatus, to
produce at the outset spirit containing but little fusel oil and at least
80 per cent of alcohol. This is then purified and concentrated in the
above manner and afterwards reduced with water to the required strength.

Another cause of the offensive flavor of the products of distillation is
the presence of various acids, which exist in all fermented liquors; they
are chiefly tartaric, malic, acetic, and lactic acids. The excessive
action of heat upon liquors which have been distilled by an open fire has
also a particularly objectionable influence upon the flavor of the
products.

The first operation in the process of rectification is to neutralize the
above-mentioned acids; this is effected by means of milk of lime, which
is added to the liquor in quantity depending upon its acidity; the point
at which the neutralization is complete is determined by the use of
litmus paper. In the subsequent process of distillation, the
determination of the exact moments at which to begin and to cease
collecting the pure spirit is very difficult to indicate. It must be
regulated by the nature of the spirits; some may be pure 20 or 30 minutes
after they have attained the desired strength; and some only run pure an
hour, or even more, after this point. The product should be tasted
frequently, after being diluted with water, or a few drops may be poured
into the palm of the hand, and after striking the hands together, it will
be known by the odor whether the spirit be of good quality or not; these
two means may be applied simultaneously.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--Rectifying Still.]

The process of rectification may be carried on in the apparatus shown in
Figs. 35 and 36. _A_ is a still which contains the spirit to be
rectified; it should be four-fifths full. The condenser _E_ and the
cooler _G_ are filled with water. After closing the cocks _L_ and _I_,
the contents of the still are heated by steam, which is introduced at
first slowly. The vapors of spirit given off pass, by tubes _b_, above
each plate _a_, of the series in column _B_, and escape through _C_ and
_D_ into the condenser _E_, where they are condensed on reaching the
lentils _d d´_, and return in a liquid state through pipe _f_ and
connections _g g´_ to the upper plates of the column _B_. In these return
pipes the liquid is volatilized, and constantly recharged with alcohol to
be again condensed, until the water in the condenser is hot enough to
permit the lighter alcoholic vapors to pass into the coil _c c c_,
without being reduced to the liquid state. When this is the case, the
vapors pass through _F_ into the cooler _G_, where they undergo complete
condensation. Great care must be taken that the heat is not so great as
to permit any of the vapors to pass over uncondensed or to flow away in a
hot state; and also to keep up a constant supply of water in the cooler
without producing too low a temperature; the alcoholic products should
run out just cold. The highly volatile constituents of the spirit come
over first, that which follows becoming gradually purer until it consists
of well-flavored alcohol; after this comes a product containing the
essential oils. The more impure products are kept apart from the rest
and re-distilled with the next charge. Some hours generally elapse before
alcohol begins to flow from the cooler. The purest alcohol is obtained
while its strength is kept between 92° and 96° Baume, and the operation
is complete when the liquid flowing through the vessel marks not more
than 3° or 4° Baume; it is better, however, to stop the still when the
backing or "faints" indicate 10°, because the product after this point
contains much fusel-oil, and is not worth collecting.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.--Section of Rectifying Still.]

In order to cleanse the apparatus--which should be performed after each
working--the still _A_ is emptied of water by opening the cock _Q_. The
contents of the condenser are then emptied in like manner by opening the
cock _J_, through which they flow upon the plates in the column _B_, and
wash out essential oils which remain in them. These two cocks are then
closed, and the door _U_ in the still head is removed. The water in the
cooler _G_ is then run by means of pipe into the still _A_, so as
partially to cover the steam-coil in the latter. After again securing the
door _U_, a strong heat is applied, and the water in the still is well
boiled, the steam evolved thoroughly cleansing all the different parts of
the apparatus; this is continued for 15 or 20 minutes, when the heat is
withdrawn and the still left to cool gradually.

In the intermittent rectifying still above described the impure products
are distilled with the next charge. In the apparatus as perfected and
used in large distilleries or rectification plants, the division of the
several products composing the phlegm or raw spirit is made at one time
and continuously on the principle now to be described.

It was stated in the beginning of this chapter that the various
impurities in alcohol, the ethers, the water and the fusel oils, have
each their own vaporizing point and each their own condensing point. As
this is so, they may be separated from each other and from the alcohol on
the same principle as we have seen that water is separated from the
mixture of pure alcohol and water; that is, by fractionation, as it is
termed, or by "sifting out" one body from another.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--Fractional Distilling Apparatus.]

Thus in fractional distillation, each condenser or retort in the
apparatus shown in Fig. 37, above acts as a sieve or trap, letting pass
the most volatile substances but retaining those of a less degree of
volatility. By passing the mixed vapor together through a good condensing
medium the temperature of which is lower than the boiling point of the
less volatile, but not so low as the boiling point of the more volatile
the vapors of the less volatile liquid will be condensed, while the more
volatile will retain their gaseous form. Thus by having a number of
condensing mediums each one slightly lower in temperature than the other,
the various vapors with their various points of volatilization will be
successively condensed, allowing the passage of the more volatile vapors
over to the condenser beyond.

If we had mixed gravel and sand and desired to separate the gravel into
assorted sizes and get the sand by itself, we would pass the mass through
a series of sieves of gradually smaller mesh. The first sieve of course
would catch all the largest pebbles, the next in size would let all the
second sized gravel through, and so on until the final sieve would have
separated the coarse sand from the fine. In this figure of illustration,
the coarse pebbles may be taken to represent the water and the fusel oils
which are mixed and partly tend to rise with the alcohol, and the alcohol
may be represented as the gravel larger than the sand, and the fine sand
as the etheric vapors. If this gravel were forced upwardly through a
series of sieves gradually growing finer, it would be analogous
figuratively to the upward passage of the vapors through a distilling
column composed of plates or chambers; the water and fusel oils would be
retained in the lower portion of the column and continually sent back
there; the alcohol would pass into the upper chambers of the column and
the ethers or fore-shots would pass out from the very fine sieve at the
top of the column.

The vertical chambers above each plate of the rectifying column are
to-day used as the separate eliminating chambers referred to above. It
has been found in practice that as before stated, each plate of a column
contained upon it liquid of a certain temperature and above it vapors of
a certain degree of vaporization. That is, in a continuous column fed
regularly by condensation from above and supplied with a constant flow of
phlegm, each plate carries upon it a liquid of constant composition
relative to the boiling point of the fluid on that plate. As many
extractions may thus be made from the various plates as there are
different liquids to be isolated. Thus by tapping different portions of
the column, vapors of different degrees of vaporization are found and may
be carried off and the phlegm be thus fractionated. In the case of one
column the first runnings or fore-shot would be found in the upper
portion of the column to which they would have risen by reason of their
degree of volatility. The last runnings or oils, aldehydes, etc., would
be found in the lower portion of the column still mixed with the spirit,
while upon the plates of the middle portion of the column would be found
the vapor of the alcohol freed from the fusel oils and from the,ethers.

It is understood, of course, throughout this description that the liquid
being treated is not wash but phlegm; that is, the raw spirit containing
the fusel oils, ethers, water and alcohol.

Fig. 38 represents a simple rectifying apparatus designed for small or
medium sized plants, and manufactured by the Vulcan Copper Works Co., of
Cincinnati. The still is upright, with a chambered column above it, of
the usual type. The chambers are fitted with a vapor boiling pipe and cap
and a drop pipe, and each is provided with cocks whereby it may be
drained for cleansing. Above the column is a separator, comprising a
casing containing a series of tubes. The vapor from the column circulates
around the tubes through which passes a current of cool water. The
condenser is of the same construction as the separator and is provided
with a gage glass and a draw-off cock. The operation is the same as in
other simple rectifiers; part of the vapor from the column is condensed
in the separator and passes back on to the upper plates, while the more
highly vaporized portions pass over into the condenser.

[Illustration: FIG. 38.--Rectifying Apparatus with External Tubular
Condenser. (_To face page 94_)]

The diameter of the still is large relatively to its depth so as to yield
an economical and at the same time highly effective distribution of heat
through the charge. This also affords an extended boiling area from which
the vapor rises evenly and regularly, thus ensuring conditions peculiarly
conducive to produce the best fractionating. The floor space required for
this still and others of the same character built by this company is very
compact and excessive weight on the top floor of the building is
dispensed with.

We have shown in Figs. 39 and 40 two forms of rectifying apparatus, one a
twin column Barbet rectifier and the other a rectifier of the Gillaume
type combined with inclined column still.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--Twin Column Barbet Rectifier.]

In the twin column apparatus, Fig. 39, the first column or clarifier _A_
receives the raw phlegm and accomplishes the elimination of ethers. The
clarified phlegm passes then to the second column where the alcohol
is separated from the last runnings or fusel oil. In other words, the
phlegm or impure raw alcohol is only raised to such a temperature in the
first column as to drive off the very volatile constituents such as the
ethers. These therefore pass off at the top of the first column into the
condenser _C_, the retrogradation or condensed alcohol being returned to
_A_, while the boiling phlegm taken from the middle of the column and
still containing the aldehydes, oils, etc., is conducted by a pipe _E_ to
the second column _B_ wherein the last runnings or amylic oils, etc., are
separated from the purified spirits.

The vapors in this column are carried to the condensers _D_ and _F_ and
from there to a refrigerator _G_. The fusel oils are extracted from the
plates slightly below the center of the column and are carried to an oil
concentrating apparatus _H_.

In the most complete forms of apparatus used to-day, there is a variation
of this construction. The first runnings, middle runnings and the last
runnings are each led off from the main column to separate coolers,
condensers, etc., and the purified result from each of these columns is
in turn led to a trunk rectifier common to all where the product is
redistilled and entirely freed from impurities. This gives a very high
grade of alcohol by a process practically continuous. At the same time
the impurities are not returned to the first or main column to
contaminate the vapors therein and add to the amount of fusel oils
contained on the lower plates. In construction of this character there
is a very large saving in the cost of the fuel and the result is much
better in every way.

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--Gillaume's Rectifier and Inclined Still.]

FIG. 40.--GUILLAUME'S DIRECT DISTILLATION-RECTIFICATION APPARATUS FOR
"AGRICULTURAL" DISTILLATIONS.

  _A_  Distilling Column.
  _a_  Tank for Wash to be Distilled.
  _b_  Cold Water Tank.
  _C_  Rectification Column.
  _D_  Final Purification Column.
  _I_  Wash Heater.
  _K_  Condenser.
  _K´_ Refrigerator of Ethers.
  _O_  Refrigerator for high-grade Alcohol and the First Runnings.
  _Q_  Refrigerator for the Products of the Last Runnings.
  _R_  Spent Wash Extractor.
  _r_  Siphon Carrying off Spent Wash.
  _S_  Steam Regulator.
  _s_  Tap and Pipe for Carrying Wash to Distilling Column.
  _U_  Water Regulator.
  _u_  Taps for the Extraction of Intermediate Impurities.
  _V_  Receiver Accumulator.
  _v_  Tap for the Extraction of the Last Runnings.
  _X_  Test Glass for the High-Grade Alcohol.
  _Y_  Test Glass for First Runnings.
  _Y´_ Test Glass for Last Runnings.
  _Z_  Test Glass for Determining Degree of Exhaustion of Spent Wash.

In this apparatus the still proper is of the form heretofore described on
page 78. The liquid to be distilled enters at the top of the inclined
column _A_ and descends to the base thereof. The alcoholic vapor rises
through the column and passes off from the head thereof into the
rectifying column. At the head of the column _A_ it has a strength of
about 40° to 50° F. The column _C_ is supported upon an accumulating
reservoir _V_ which acts to regulate the flow of the phlegm through the
rectifying column and prevents too great an exhaustion of the plates of
the column. It acts as a reservoir to contain any excess of phlegm or to
supply an additional amount of phlegm to the plates when they have become
nearly exhausted.

The oils or products of the last running accumulate at the base of the
column, and are carried off to their special refrigerator _Q_. The
alcoholic vapors concentrate while rising in the column and quickly
attain a strength of 92° or 94° F. At a height within the column
corresponding to the plates whereon alcohol of that strength is to be
found, there are provided three taps _u_ whereby the middle runnings or
medium grade of alcohol may be drawn off, which have a maximum
concentration of 92° and 94° F. Above these middle plates the alcohol
vapors are completely separated from the products of the "tail" that is
the aldehydes, amylic oils, etc., and at the upper portion of the column
there is found the condenser _K_ which separates the products of the
head; that is the first runnings from the alcohol which has passed over
with such products to the condenser. The alcohol so separated is
completely rectified in the column of final purification _D_ and the
finished alcohol is cooled in the refrigerator _O_ below the column of
final condensation. In this apparatus the gauge glasses which regulate
the exit of the various alcohols and mixtures are controlled by taps
having verniers or scales whereby they may be very carefully adjusted, to
regulate the relative proportion of the various products. This apparatus
is able to produce about 75 or 80 per cent. of first-class alcohol, 10 to
15 per cent. of middle class alcohol, and 5 per cent. of ethers and 5 per
cent. of fusel oils, the alcohol produced being about 96° Cartier.

The alcohol is thus obtained in one single operation and with, it is
asserted, only a very small loss in rectification. The apparatus is
claimed to be so simple that it may be operated even by unskilled farm
labor. It is also claimed that purification by chemical treatment or
filtration is unnecessary with the Guillaume apparatus. It may be stated,
however, that the Guillaume system has many opponents.

The capacity of the rectifying apparatus has a good deal of influence
upon both the quantity and the quality of the spirit obtained. Besides
being much more difficult to manage, a small apparatus will not yield so
large a proportion of spirit as a more capacious one, nor will its
products be of equally good flavor. The proportion of alcohol which may
be obtained from a successful rectification is very variable; it depends
upon the nature of the spirit rectified, the method of extracting the
sugar, and the manner of conducting the distillation; it will also be in
inverse proportion to the quantity of fusel-oil contained in the raw
spirit. The average loss of pure alcohol during the process of
rectification is generally estimated at about five per cent.

In addition to the rectifying as above described, alcohol may be further
purified by filtration through charcoal, by chemical means or by
electrolysis. The last two methods have not so far been successful. The
chemicals used merely act to disguise the disagreeable taste or smell of
the spirit and do not really purify. They but substitute one impurity for
another. The agents used are many--sulphuric and nitrate acids, soaps,
oils and fats soda, lime and potash have each and all been tried, but
with no permanent success. As agents for disguising the taste of new and
raw spirits, alcoholic extracts of fruits have also been used.

Purification and aging by electricity has been tried many times and in
many different forms, but so far has not been commercially practicable.

Filtration still remains the best and simplest adjunct to the rectifier.
In small plants, a filter bed several feet in thickness of bone black
or beachwood or charcoal is used, laid upon a foundation of gravel in a
filtering tank. In the larger plants a series of these vats is used, the
charcoal being used in lumps varying from 1/4 to 1/2 inch in diameter.
Two different views of the purification by charcoal are held--one that
the charcoal purifies by chemical means, the other that it is purely a
physical filtration agent. After filtration the charcoal must be steamed
to recover the spirits retained therein and should be heated to a red
heat every now and then to cleanse and regenerate it.



                              CHAPTER VI.

                                MALTING.


Wheat, oats, rye, potatoes, and other amalyceous or starchy materials
contain starch insoluble in water and to render it soluble, and to change
the starch to maltose they must be mashed with a certain small proportion
of malt,--or grain in which germination has been artificially induced and
then interrupted at a certain stage. This increases the diastase
contained in the grain so germinated, and this diastase is able to
transform starch into soluble form. Hence, malted grain gives lightness
and liquidity to the wash, and prevents the starch falling to the bottom
of the mash tub or "back," and also prevents the starch falling to the
bottom of the still and consequent burning.

While all varieties of grain including rice are suitable for the
preparation of malt, barley is preferred to all others, and is most
commonly used.

=The best barley= for malting is that having the following
characteristics; a thin skin; a mealy interior; grains of a uniform size;
of the greatest weight; which has been stored for three months. Barley on
harvesting has but slight germinating power. The reason for the
uniformity in the grains lies in necessity of a uniform steeping of the
grain so that the period of germination shall be the same for the whole
mass.

Like all materials for distillation, the barley should be thoroughly
cleaned of impurities--not only dust, seeds and weeds, but fungi and
bacteria.

This may be partly accomplished in the ordinary fanning mills, usual on
farms, but a better machine would be a "tumbling box" of wire mesh. This
is inclined, so that grain put in the upper end, will pass downward to
the lower, being thrown about as the box or cylinder is rotated. The
dust, seeds, etc., fall through the meshes of the wire as do the smaller
grains. After this cleaning, the barley should be thoroughly washed. This
may be either done in the steeping vat itself--and the water afterwards
drawn off--or in special machines. If the barley be allowed to soak in
water for a day or two, the later washing will completely cleanse it.
This preliminary cleaning is most important as impurities reduce the
germinating power of the grain, as well as introduce bacteria inimical to
fermentation.

Washing in some instances is done by forcing compressed air into the
steeping tub, thus violently agitating and swirling the water therein,
and washing away the impurities. Another method is by passing the steeped
grains along a trough supplied with moving water, the trough being
provided with rotary agitators. Any fairly ingenious mechanic could
devise a capable cleansing machine. Care being taken that it shall not
injure the grains.

After cleansing, the barley should be steeped. For this purpose tanks of
metal or cement are to be preferred to wood. All vats should be kept
thoroughly cleaned by frequent scrubbing with lime water.

The barley placed therein should at all times be entirely covered with
fresh water to a depth of a few inches, and for the first few hours the
grains should be carefully stirred in order that no grain should escape
wetting. At the end of that time the still floating grains should be
removed.

In 36 or 48 hours the grain will usually be sufficiently steeped,--but
this varies with weather conditions. The warmer the water the quicker the
steeping, and in winter proper steeping may not be accomplished before
four or five days.

A simple test is to rub the grain strongly between the hands, If it is
entirely crushed, and no solid matter is left it has been steeped
sufficiently. Barley should be capable of compression lengthwise and the
hull should become easily detached. It should be easily bitten, and not
crack under the teeth. In order to prevent fermentation in summer, it is
well to renew the water a few times during steeping. Over steeping is
worse than under steeping.

After the barley is in proper condition the vat or tank is opened and the
water drained away. The draining should be complete, and therefore the
grain should be left to drain about 12 hours.

=Germinating.= The grain is now taken to the malting floor. In practice
it is well to locate the steeping vat above the malting floor, so that
the steeped grain may be run down on to the floor without inconvenience.

It is best to first spread the grains out on the floor to a depth of a
few inches in order that it may somewhat dry out. This is not necessary
when it has not been steeped to a great extent.

After 10 or 12 hours of drying, the grain is placed in a heap until warm
to the touch, which may occur in from 12 to 24 hours. It is then disposed
in a layer from eight inches to 20 inches thick. This is called the "wet
couch." The lower the temperature the thicker the couch should be. It
should be turned every six or eight hours in this stage.

The heat so germinated after 25 or 30 hours produces at the end of each
grain a small white rootlet. The grain in the middle of the layer is the
first to sprout, as it is the warmest, hence the couched grain should be
frequently turned so as to give all the grains a uniform heat, and a
uniform germination. At this period the grains beneath the surface are
dampish to the touch.

The height of the couch is now successively lessened to layers of from
six to two inches called "floors," the height of each floor of course
depending on the temperature, as before.

It is to be understood that the growing grain requires both dampness and
air, hence the "floor" should not be thinned so rapidly as to deprive it
of moisture, and the barley should be turned at least twice a day to give
each grain a proper aeration. During this period the small white rootlets
or radicals should be white and shiny. If they begin to fade, it is a
sign that they lack water and the grain should be sprinkled. Germination
usually requires from a week to ten days, or sometimes two weeks,
depending on the previous steeping, the quality of the grain and the
temperature. When the fibers or rootlets of the grain are about equal to
the length of the grain, germination is complete.

It used to be considered that malt was in its best condition in eight or
ten days. To-day, however, "long malt" is used,--requiring a germinating
period of twenty days, being frequently moistened and turned during this
time, and the temperature being kept at 65° F. This malt is very strong
in diastase.

The effect of germination is to produce a change particularly favorable
to mashing. The barley becomes sweetish, the gluten is partially
destroyed and what is left is soluble. Thus the fecula or starch is set
at liberty and free to be acted on by the yeast used in fermenting.

March is the best month in which to malt; and while the malt is best used
immediately, it can not be kept in its green state and must be therefore
dried for future use.

=Drying.= This is accomplished either in the air of a warm, dry room in
hot weather, or by means of a drying kiln. In the first process the malt
is spread in a thin layer and frequently turned. In the second the grain
is spread out in a layer from eight inches to a foot thick on the grain
floor of the kiln.

Beneath the grain floor a fire is maintained. In the beginning the
temperature of the drying floor should be about 85° F., but this is
increased gradually to about 104° F. until most of the moisture has been
removed. The heat is then raised to from 120° F. to 130° F., thus
completely drying the grain.

The germinated green or dried barley is called malt. It is of good
quality when the grain is round and flowery; when it crumbles easily and
when its taste is sweetish and agreeable. Pale malt or that which has
been hardly altered from its original color is the best for distillation.

Before the malt can be used it should be screened so as to remove the
rootlets.

Two hundred and twenty lbs. of barley should yield from 275 to 350 lbs.
of green malt, about 200 lbs. of air dried malt, and from 175 to 190 lbs.
of kiln dried malt.

In large plants malting is now so carried on that the steeping
germination and drying are all accomplished in one vessel or container,
by one continuous operation. This vessel is commonly in the form of a
drum of sheet iron, revolving at a very slow speed. Moist air is
introduced and the carbonic acid laden air withdrawn. After germination
the malt is dried by passing in dry air at the proper temperature.

As these systems are only adopted to large distilleries, using expensive
machinery, further reference to them is not considered necessary in this
volume.

Previous to use the malt must be finely ground or crushed either before
or after mixing with the materials to be mashed. It is not necessary or
advisable that the malt be reduced to flour. The use of malt with other
materials in order to form a fermentible mash, will be considered in the
chapters on specific mashes.



                              CHAPTER VII.

                         ALCOHOL FROM POTATOES.


In certain countries, as for instance Germany and France, potatoes form
the greatest source of alcohol, particularly for industrial purposes.
With the possible exception of corn and beets they will probably be most
used in America.

The best potatoes for distilling are those which are most farinaceous
when boiled. In other words, those which are "mealy" and most appetizing.
These give the largest yield of alcohol per bushel. The best season of
the year in which to use potatoes is from October to March, when they
germinate.

The potatoes should be kept in dry cellars, and at even temperatures,
warm enough to prevent freezing and yet not so warm that they will rot or
sprout. Diseased potatoes may however be used, if they have not been
attacked by dry rot, though they are not so easily worked. Frosted
potatoes may be also used, but they must not have been completely frozen.

Before being steamed, the potatoes should be washed, either by hand or by
a machine, care being taken to remove all stones, clods of earth, and
other foreign substances which might impede the subsequent operations.

There are three main methods of saccharifying the fecula or starch of the
potato. The first and most important by reducing the tubers to a pulp,
and malting the entire mass. The second and third, by rasping the
potatoes and so separating the fecula or starch grains from the mass, and
then making a thin liquor or wash containing this fecula.

Originally, in the first process, the washed potatoes were submitted to
the action of boiling water, but later cooking by steam at a temperature
of 212° F. was used, as being much more convenient to handle and more
effective in action. The object of steaming is to break the coating and
reduce the contents thereof to a pasty condition, wherein the starch is
more effectively acted on by the malt and yeast. Ordinary steaming does
not, however, render the pulp sufficiently pasty; some of the starch
remains undissolved and is lost, hence in the modern practice, steam is
turned into the steaming vat under a pressure of three or four atmosphere
(45 to 60 lbs. to the square inch).

High pressure steaming will be later described but the simple and older
method of mashing and apparatus therefor, used prior to 1870, was as
follows:

Fig. 41 shows a section of a steaming vat. This consists of a conical
wooden tub _H_ provided at its top with a suitable cover _O_ having a
trap or door _P_ for putting in the potatoes. This as shown, consists of
a hinged lid, having a button _p_ or other fastening means. This lid and
cover should be of course steam tight, and it would be better to have it
clamped down by a screw clamp than held by a button.

Somewhat above the bottom of the vat, a steam inlet pipe _I_ enters,
connected at its other end by a coupling _i_ with a suitable steam
generator (see Fig. 43), Preferably the outlet of this pipe is screened
by a perforated plate _M_ so that it may not be clogged by the pulp. It
is also best that a filling piece be placed at the junction of the bottom
with the sides in order that there be no sharp corner from which the pulp
may not be easily cleaned out.

[Illustration: FIG. 41.--Steaming Vat for Potatoes.]

The bottom of the vat may either have a discharge door at the side as in
Fig. 44 or at the bottom, as in Fig. 41.

An under side view of the latter construction is shown in Fig. 42. The
bottom of the vat is made in two parts or doors _J K_. These are held
closed by a transverse bar _L_ inserted at its end into a stirrup _l´_
and supported at its other end by a button _l_, or other means.

While various forms of steam generators may be used, Fig. 43 shows a
simple construction well adapted to the needs of a small distillery. _D_
designates the brick work of a furnace, and _A_ the boiler. This is so
set that an annular space _E_ surrounds the sides of the boiler, through
which the products of combustion must pass.

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--Bottom of Steaming Vat.]

The head of the boiler is connected by a pipe _B_ and collar _b_ to the
steam inlet pipe _I_ of the steaming vat, heretofore described, as by the
collars _b i_.

A filling tube _C_ enters the boiler and projects nearly to the bottom,
and the water outlet-pipe _F_ with cock _f_ leads off from the upper
water line. The tube _C_ forms also a safety valve, for if the steam
pressure becomes too great in the boiler and connected vat, it will force
water up and out through the tube. If, however, the water falls below the
level of the lower end of the tube, steam will issue and warn the
attendant that water is too low. It would be best however, to provide a
steam gauge, whereby the pressure of steam in the boiler and vat could be
accurately indicated.

[Illustration: FIG. 43.--Steam Generator.]

It is to be noted that when steamed the potatoes will swell and occupy
more space and that the steam vat should therefore not be much more than
two-thirds filled with potatoes.

With the steaming vat above shown, the potatoes are delivered mixed with
a considerable quantity of water, but a better plan is to have a
perforated false bottom to the tub, whereby the condensed water may be
carried away, the steamed potatoes remaining behind.

[Illustration: FIG. 44.--Potato Steamer and Crusher.]

Two hours of steaming should reduce the potatoes to proper condition,
which may be tested by introducing a pointed iron rod through a suitable
aperture, normally kept closed. If the rod passes freely inward, the
potatoes are done and may be discharged into the crusher, shown in Fig.
44. In this Fig. the steaming vat _A_ is shown mounted above the crusher.
A pipe _B_ with cock _b_ leads to the steam generator. The steamed
potatoes are shoveled out through the door _a_, which is usually held
closed by means of the clamps or buttons _a´ a´´_.

=The crusher= consists of a hopper _C_ whose bottom fits closely against
two adjacent smooth faced rolls _H I_ of iron. These are driven by gears
_D E_. The shafts of these gears have cranks _d d_ whereby it may be
operated. These gears are unequal so that the rolls shall move at
different speeds, and thus one will have a grinding action against the
face of the other. A counter weighted scraper _e_ bears against the face
of the roll.

The crushed potato pulp passes between the rolls and into a bin beneath,
having adjustable walls made of boards _F_, sliding in suitable guides
_f_, from which the pulp may be shoveled into the mashing tank or "back."
The crusher might, however, be arranged to deliver immediately into the
mashing tank, if the latter is provided with means for stirring the
delivered pulp.

The pulp or paste thus made is now placed in a vat, holding about 650 to
850 gals., in which the saccharification takes place. About 2200 lbs. of
the crushed potatoes and 155 lbs of broken malt are introduced, and
immediately afterwards water is run in at a temperature of about 97° F.
to 104° F., the contents being well stirred with a fork meanwhile. The
vat is then carefully closed for half an hour, after which boiling water
is added until the temperature reaches 140° F., when the whole is left
for three or four hours. The process of fermentation is conducted in the
same vat. Alternate doses of cold and boiling water are run in upon the
mixture, until the quantity is made up to 700 or 775 gallons, according
to the size of the vat, and so as finally to bring the temperature to 75°
F. or 79° F. Five and a half to six gallons of liquid brewer's yeast are
then added, and fermentation speedily sets in. This process complete, the
fermented pulp is distilled in the apparatus devised by
Cellier-Blumenthal (see Fig. 15) for distilling materials of a pasty
nature; the product has a very unpleasant odor and taste.

The process above described is the old method of pulping the potatoes by
using steam. Under the modern method, however, and with modern apparatus,
in preparing potatoes for distillation in large quantities, the steaming
of the material is accomplished at one time and under a high steam
pressure. The apparatus is also used for the preparation of corn,
potatoes and other starch-containing substances.

There are many apparatuses which have been devised for the purpose, but
the principle on which they work is practically the same in all cases.
They comprise a closed tank, fitted with stirrers, agitators, or other
means for mixing and comminuting the contents, means for admitting steam
under pressure, means for cooling the mixture to the proper mashing
temperatures, and means for forcing the steamed material out of the tank.

[Illustration: FIG. 45.--Bohn's Steamer and Crusher.]

=The Steamer.= One of the earliest forms of steamer was that of
Hallefreund devised in 1871, and adapted for working on a large scale. A
modified form of the apparatus known as Bohn's steamer and masher is
illustrated in Fig. 45. This comprises a steaming cylinder _A_, having a
securely closed opening _D_ for the introduction of the potatoes.
Centrally through the cylinder passes a hollow shaft _B_, which is
rotated by the power pulley _K_. Hollow arms _b_ project radially from
the shaft _B_. These act as mixers of the mash and as coolers. The shaft
_B_ at one end is connected to a cold water supply pipe _M_ as by a
coupling _C_, the supply pipe being provided with a cock. _E_ designates
a discharge opening for the mash. A pipe _F_ provides for the entrance of
steam into the cylinder. _G_ is a pipe through which malt is put in to be
mixed with the pulp. _L_ is a steam gauge and _J_ a safety valve. _H_
designates a water pipe. For the relation of the steamer to other
apparatus, see Fig. 1.

In operation the potatoes are placed in the cylinder _A_ and submitted to
the action of steam at about 46 lbs. to the square inch, and at a
temperature of from 266° F. to 275° F.

When disintegrated, the steam is blown off, and the potatoes crushed by
rotating the stirring shaft. As the pulp must be reduced from 275° F. to
149° F., the mashing temperature, cold water is forced into the stirrer
which chills the blades and quickly cools the mass.

In the vacuum mash cooker shown in Fig. 1, the steaming cylinder is
partly filled with hot water at 140° F. to 150° F. The potatoes to be
mashed are fed into the cylinder whole. The steamer is then closed and
steam admitted while the mash is stirred until a pressure of 65 pounds is
reached, when the dissolution of the starch is complete. The steam is
then exhausted and the temperature reduced to 212° F. To reduce this
temperature to the proper saccharifying point of 145° F., the hot air is
exhausted.

Barley malt meal in the proportion of 6 to 10 per cent. is used. This has
been previously mixed with cold water in the small grain masher. The malt
is admitted to the cylinder and thoroughly mixed with the potato, when
the mixture is withdrawn into a drop tub, where it is still further
stirred. It is then cooled as described on page 15 and then fermented.

While the crushed potatoes are being cooled and stirred, a mixture of
green malt with water is prepared in an adjacent vat, and when the pulp
in the cylinder has been reduced to 149° F. the malt mixture is
introduced into the cylinder through the pipe _G_, and thoroughly mixed
with the crushed potatoes. The mass is now left to saccharify; the
stirrer being operated at intervals throughout this period. This machine
might be readily modified so that the steam should enter through the
stirrers, by tubes attached to the arms, then the steam may be shut off
and cold water sent into the arms themselves to cool the mash.

A variety of steamer used in various forms and modifications in all the
larger distilleries, is known as the Henze steamer, Fig. 2. In this,
there are no stirrers. The cylinder is conical, and has steam pipes
leading to the interior. At the end of its cone-shaped bottom it
terminates in a blow-off tube, having in it a grate formed of sharp-edged
bars. In operation, steam is introduced at a pressure of one to two
atmospheres until the potatoes are cooked. More steam is then suddenly
admitted at high pressure and the softened potatoes forced through the
grating at the bottom and into the mashing apparatus in a finely divided
state.

In steaming under pressure it is best that the safety valve be so
regulated that the steam will constantly blow off as this action keeps
the potatoes in motion and facilitates disintegration. Care should also
be taken to see that everything about the apparatus is in good condition,
as in working under the high pressures used in the last apparatus there
is liability of explosion. Rust should be particularly guarded against.

With this apparatus a preparatory mash vat is used into which the
contents of the steamers are blown out, malt and water to form milk
having been previously let into the mash vat. Blowing out is accomplished
in 45 or 50 minutes at 130° F. and about one-sixth of the charge in the
steamer is retained in the steamer. The mash in the vat is stirred and
cooled and the remainder of the mash blown in raising the temperature to
145° F. when the mash is left to stand from half an hour to an hour. With
heavy mashes, rich in sugar, even higher temperatures than 145° F. can be
used for saccharifying.

The processes of crushing and saccharifying, above referred to, which are
almost entirely used to-day, require steam. The following methods provide
for the isolation of the fecula or starch, without steam and the
production of a wash of a more watery consistency, therefore easier to
handle in ordinary stills, and with less liability to burn.

Two operations are necessary by this method: First, rasping, or reducing
the potatoes to a finely crushed and pulpy condition by means of a
machine described in the chapter on Beet Mashing; and second, the
separation of the fecula.

To this latter end the potato pulp is placed on a sieve, having side
walls and net work of horse-hair, which is placed over a suitable tub.
Water is run gradually through the pulp and sieve, while the pulp is
rubbed up by hand. When the water comes through clear, then all the
fecula of the pulp has been washed out, and the refuse left in the sieve
can be thrown aside or used as a food for cattle.

=For a mashing tub= of say about 32 bushels capacity, the fecula from
about 800 lbs. of potatoes is used. This is deposited in the mash tub
with sufficient cold water to form a fairly clear paste. About twice as
much water as fecula will bring the paste to proper consistency. This
mixture should be constantly stirred as otherwise the fecula will sink to
the bottom. About 40 gallons of boiling water are then added gradually.
The mixture has at first a milky appearance, but at the last becomes
entirely clear.

This liquid is mashed with about 45 lbs. of malted barley or Indian corn,
ground into coarse flour. In ten minutes the mixture will be completely
fluidified. It is then left to subside for three or four hours when it
will have acquired a sweetish taste and be what is termed as "sweet
mash." The fluid is then further diluted by the addition of sufficient
water to give about 290 gallons of wash. Two or three pints of good yeast
will bring this mixture to a ferment.

A less laborious method of accomplishing the same result is that at one
time used in English distilleries. In this a double bottom tub is used,
something like that shown in Fig. 41, the upper bottom of which is
perforated, and raised above the solid lower bottom. A draw-off cock
opens out from the space between the two bottoms.

Assuming that the tub is of 220 gallons capacity, then from 2 to 20 lbs.
of chaff are spread over the perforated bottom and pulp from 800 lbs. of
raw potatoes placed on that. This is thoroughly drained for half an hour,
through the draw-off cock. The pulp is then stirred while from 90 to 100
gallons of boiling water are added gradually. The mass then thickens into
a paste. The paste is mashed with about 65 lbs. of well steeped malt,
and the liquid left to subside for three or four hours. It is then
drained off through the perforated bottom into a fermenting back or tub.
For this amount of material the back should be of about 300 gallons
capacity.

=The leavings= left in the preparatory tub still contain considerable
starch, and after they are well drained they should be mixed with from 50
to 55 gallons of boiling water. The mixture is then agitated and drained
off into the fermenting back. The sediment left is again sprinkled with
water, this time cold, which is drained off into the back. This
completely exhausts the husks left on the upper bottom. By this process
200 lbs. of potatoes should produce something over 12-1/2 gallons of
spirit.

The objection to the last method described is that the spirit so obtained
is unpleasant to taste and smell, but this would probably not be an
objection for industrial uses.

The only means of obtaining alcohol of good quality from potatoes is to
extract the starch separately and then convert it into sugar. This
saccharification of the starch may be accomplished by sulphuric acid or
by the action of diastase.

By the first of these methods the potatoes are disintegrated in such an
apparatus as the Bohn steamer described on page 118. A mixture is made of
one-third potatoes, two-thirds water, and onetenth part of sulphuric
acid. The mixture is steamed for six or eight hours under pressure. The
mash is then cooled and the acid neutralized by milk of lime. It is then
fermented.

By the second and preferable method, dry or wet potato starch is used,
which is malted, and the saccharine solution fermented with yeast. The
proportions and method for a vat of say 800 gallons capacity are as
follows:

Two hundred and sixty-five gallons of water are mixed with 1100 lbs. of
dry or 1650 lbs. of moist starch. This mixture is well agitated, and 450
gallons of boiling water run in, together with 165 lbs. of malt. The
whole is then stirred energetically and left to saccharify for three or
four hours. The saccharine solution thus formed must be brought to 6° or
7° Baume, at a temperature of from 71° to 75° F. To this is then added
1-1/100 lbs. of dry yeast for every 220 gallons of "must." Fermentation
is soon established and usually occupies about 36 hours. After remaining
at rest for 24 hours the "must" is distilled. From each 220 lbs. of
starch there should be a yield of about nine gallons of alcohol,
at 90° F.

The fermentation of the potato mash is carried on as described in Chapter
II. For the preparation of malt see Chapter VI.



                             CHAPTER VIII.

       ALCOHOL FROM GRAIN--CORN, WHEAT, RICE, AND OTHER CEREALS.


The different cereals constitute a very important source of alcohol in
all countries, particularly of course for use in the manufacture of
whiskey and gin.

All cereals contain an abundance of starchy substance which under the
influence of diastase,--that is, malt,--is converted into fermentible
sugar. The quantity of sugar and hence the yield of alcohol differs
widely. The following table shows the results obtainable by good
workmanship.

          220 lbs. Wheat         gives 7.0  gallons pure alcohol
           "   "   Rye             "   6.16    "     "      "
           "   "   Barley          "   5.5     "     "      "
           "   "   Oats            "   4.8     "     "      "
           "   "   Buckwheat       "   5.5     "     "      "
           "   "   Corn (Indian)   "   5.5     "     "      "
           "   "   Rice            "   7.7     "     "      "

In addition to these there are other raw materials containing starch
which are sometimes used, as millet (55 per cent starch), chestnuts (28
per cent.), and horse chestnuts (40 per cent.). The last is very
difficult to work however.

Rice, wheat, rye, barley and corn are more frequently employed than other
grains. Wheat gives a malt which is as rich in diastase as barley. Barley
and buckwheat are added to these in some proportions. Oats, owing to
their high price, are rarely used. Rice, of all the grain is the most
productive to the distillers, but on account of its value as a food is
not much used for the production of alcohol, unless damaged. Corn is the
cereal most largely used for the production of industrial alcohol.

Great care should be exercised in making choice of grain for fermentation
where the best results are desired. Wheat should be farinaceous, heavy
and dry. Barley should be free from chaff, quite fresh and in large
uniform grains of a bright color (see Malting, Chapter VI).

Rice should be dull white in color, slightly transparent, without odor,
and of a fresh, farinaceous taste.

The flour or farinaceous part of grain is composed of starch, gluten,
albumen, mucilage, and some sugar. The following table gives the
proportions of these substances in the commonest grains.

Under certain conditions the albumen or gluten in the grain has the power
of converting starch into saccharine matter. This is better effected by
an acid such as sulphuric acid, or by a diastase. This latter substance
is a principle developed during the germination of all cereals but
especially of barley. It has the property of reacting upon starchy
matters, converting them first into a gummy substance called dextrine,
and then into glucose or grape sugar, see Chapter II.

The action of diastase upon starch or flour made into a paste is
remarkable, 50 grains of diastase being sufficient to convert 220 lbs.
(100 kilogrammes) of starch into glucose. The rapidity of this change
depends on the quantity of water employed, and the degree of heat
adopted in the operation.

                               TABLE IV.

       PROPORTIONS OF STARCH, GLUTEN, ETC., IN PRINCIPAL GRAINS.

      Column A = Grains.
      Column B = Starch.
      Column C = Gluten and other Azotized Substances.
      Column D = Detrine, Glucose and similar Substances.
      Column E = Fatty Matter.
      Column F = Cellulose.
      Column G = Inorganic Salts. (Silica, Phosphates &c.)

      -----------+-- ----+--------+-------+-----+---------+------
           A     |   B   |    C   |   D   |  E   |   F    |  G
      -----------+-------+--------+-------+------+--------+------
      Wheat     }| 65.99 |  18.03 |  7.63 | 2.16 | 3.50   | 2.69
      (average  }|       |        |       |      |        |
      of five   }|       |        |       |      |        |
      varieties)}|       |        |       |      |        |
      Rye        | 65.65 |  13.50 | 12.00 | 2.15 | 4.10   | 2.60
      Barley     | 65.43 |  13.96 | 10.00 | 2.76   4.75   | 3.10
      Oats       | 60.59 |  14.39 |  9.25 | 5.50   7.06   | 3.25
      Indian Corn| 67.55 |  12.50 |  4.00 | 8.80 | 5.90   | 1.25
      Rice       | 89.15 |   7.05 |  1.00 | 0.80 | 1.10   | 0.90
      -----------+-------+--------+-------+------+--------+------

Inasmuch as barley germinates very readily, and develops a larger
proportion of diastase than any other grain, except wheat, it is
generally used as a producer of diastase. Barley germinated according to
proper methods is called malt, and its preparation is fully described in
Chapter VI.

There are many methods of preparing grain for fermentation, but all use
at least two of the following operations:--grinding, gelatinizing,
steeping, or steaming, mashing saccharifying.

=Grinding.= Where cookers or the Henze steamers are not used every form
of grain should be crushed or ground into a coarse flour. This is in
order that the starchy interior may be easily acted on by the diastase.
If the grain is not to be mixed with malt later it must be ground more
finely so that it may be thoroughly penetrated by the water. The grains
should not be ground except as required, as ground grain is liable to
heating and consequent loss of fermentability, and is also liable to
become musty, in which condition it loses much of its fermentability.

=Steeping.= This operation is best carried on in vats or tanks of iron or
cement, for the reason that wood absorbs impurities, which are
communicated to the grain, thus lessening its germinative power. Wooden
vats should be thoroughly scrubbed after use, and be kept continually
whitewashed. The steeping tub should hold about two-thirds more than the
amount of ground grain to be steeped.

Steeping is affected by pouring on to the crushed grain hot and cold
water in such quantity that after 10 minutes or so of brewing the mixture
will have a temperature of 75° to 95° F.

This warmth makes the water more penetrating. The water should not be
poured in all at once, but a little at a time, until the grain is covered
to a depth of three or four inches. Care should be taken not to let the
temperature get too high, not above 95° F., as a temperature above that
point kills the germinating power.

The mixture of crushed grain and water is now stirred for 10 minutes and
then left to subside for half an hour. It is then stirred again and the
mixture left to steep for 30 or 40 hours, depending on the temperature of
the atmosphere, the dryness of the grain, and the character of the water.
In very warm weather the water should be changed every few hours by
running it off through a hole in the bottom of the tub and running in
fresh at the top. This prevents fermentation setting in prematurely.

When the grain swells, and yields readily between the fingers it has been
sufficiently steeped, and the water is run off. This is an old method of
gelatinizing grain, but a better is by the use of cookers or high
pressure steamers as described for potatoes.

=Mashing.= This consists in mixing the coarse flour with malt and then by
means of certain operations and mechanisms bringing it to a condition
most favorable to fermentation through the action of yeast. The mixing of
the raw flour with barley or other malt effects the conversion of the
starch of the grain into maltose. The yeast afterwards converts this
maltose into sugar.

=Saccharifying.= To effect the action of the diastase of the malt on the
grain, in the old methods, boiling water must be poured into the vat
until the temperature of the mass reaches about 140° to 168° F., the
whole being well stirred meanwhile; when this temperature has been
reached, the vat is again covered and left to stand for four hours,
during which time the temperature should, if possible, be maintained at
140° F., and on no account suffered to fall below 122° F., in order to
avoid the inevitable loss of alcohol consequent upon the acidity always
produced by so low a temperature. In cold weather the heat should of
course be considerably greater than in hot. It should be also remarked
that the greater the quantity of water employed, the more complete will
be the saccharification, and the shorter the time occupied by the
process.

Having undergone all the above processes, the wash is next drawn from the
mash tub into a cistern, and from this it is pumped into the coolers.
When the wash has acquired the correct temperature, viz., from 68° to 78°
F., according to the bulk operated upon, it is run down again into the
fermenting vats situated on the floor beneath. Ten to twelve pints of
liquid or 5-1/2 to 6-1/2]** fraction] lbs. of dry brewer's yeast are then
added for every 220 lbs. of grain; the vat is securely covered, and the
contents are left to ferment. The process is complete at the end of four
or five days, and if conducted under favorable conditions there should be
a yield of about 6-1/6 gallons of pure alcohol to every 220 lbs. of grain
employed.

There are a number of different methods of mashing, having each its
advantages, and applicable to particular varieties of grain.

We will first consider the mashing of the steeped grain in general by one
of the older and simpler processes.

The grain to be mashed, which has been ground and steeped as before
described, is mixed with malt in the proportion of four to one, or even
eight to one. In addition, three or four pounds of chaff to every hundred
or so pounds of steeped grain should be used.

=Mash.= Water is then run into the mash tub in the proportion of about
600 gallons to each 60 bushels of grain. Its temperature should be
between 120° and 150° F. During the entrance of water, the mass is well
stirred so as to cause the whole of the grain to be thoroughly soaked and
to prevent the formation of lumps. It is best to add the grain to the
water gradually and to stir thoroughly.

To this mass about 400 gallons of boiling water is gradually added to
keep the temperature at about 145° F. During the addition of the boiling
water the mash should be continually stirred so that the action of the
water shall be uniform. This operation should last about two and one half
hours. The vat should be then covered and left to stand from
three-quarters to one hour for saccharification.

Another method of saccharifying is to turn boiling water gradually into
the mash tank until the mixture has acquired a temperature of from 140°
to 180° F. The mass is thoroughly stirred and the tub is covered and left
to subside for from two to four hours, during which time the temperature
should not be allowed to fall below 120° F. A small tub needs more heat
than a larger tub, and more heat is required in winter than in summer.

A convenient method of regulating the temperature of the mash tank, would
be by a coil of pipes on the bottom. This would be connected by a two-way
cock to a steam boiler and to a source of cold water. Heat should never
be carried over 180° F., and the best temperature is from 145° to 165° F.

The greatest effect of the diastase of the malt upon the gelatinized
starch is at 131° F. For ungelatinized starch this is not great enough,
hence the greater part of the mashing is carried on at the lower
temperature and only towards the end should the temperature be raised to
the maximum 150° F.

Every distiller uses his own judgment as to the amount of the mashing
water used, its temperature, the length of time during which the mash
rests, and the length of time for saccharification.

Saccharification may be recognized by the following signs: The mash loses
its first white mealy look, and changes to dark brown. It also becomes
thin and easily stirred. The taste is sweet and its odor is like that of
fresh bread.

Corn and other grain may be mashed conveniently in such an apparatus as
that described on page 10, as used for potatoes the steam being
introduced under pressure.

The water is first placed in the steamer. Steam is introduced into the
water and it is brought to a boil. The corn is then introduced gradually,
the steam pressure increased to its maximum, and the mass blown out as
described in Chapter VII. Hellefreund's apparatus (see page 118) may also
be used with ground corn.

The corn or grain not previously crushed or ground is introduced into a
steamer in the proportion of 200 lbs. of corn to 40 gallons of water. The
steamer should have about 100 gallons of steam space for this amount.

The mashes described above are thick, more or less troublesome to distil,
and only simple stills can be used. By the following method a clear
saccharine fluid or wort can be obtained.

=A mash vat= is used having a double bottom. The upper bottom is
perforated and between the two bottoms is a draw-off pipe and a pipe for
the inlet of water.

Upon the upper perforated bottom is first placed a layer of between two
and three pounds of chaff. Upon this is turned in a mixture of 400 lbs.
corn and malt in the proportions of 1/5 malt to 4/5 grain. Eighty-seven
gallons of water at a temperature of from 85° to 105° F. is then let in
to the bottom, while the mixture is thoroughly agitated for 10 minutes.
It is then left to subside for half an hour.

After this steeping process, the mass is again agitated while 175 gallons
of water at 190° F. are let into the tub while the mass is continually
and thoroughly stirred by mechanical stirrers. Brewing lasts for half an
hour, and the liquid is then left to stand for seven hours.

At the end of this period the grain is covered by clear liquid which is
drained off through the draw-off cock into the fermenting back.

To the contents left in the steeping tank 135 gallons of boiling water
are added as before and the liquid therefrom drawn into the fermenting
back.

It usually requires three infusions to extract the whole of the
saccharine and fermentiscible matters contained in the grain. In some
places, it is customary to boil down the liquors from the three mashings
until they have acquired a specific gravity of about 1.05, the liquor
from a fourth mashing being used to bring the whole to the correct degree
for fermentation, the liquors from the third and fourth being boiled down
to the same density and then added to the rest. In a large Glasgow
distillery, the charge for the mash tubs is 29,120 lbs. of grain together
with the proper proportion of malt. Two mashings are employed, about
28,300 gallons of water being required; the first mashing has a
temperature of 140° F., and the second that of 176° F. In Dublin the
proportion of malt employed is only about one-eighth of the entire
charge. One mashing is employed, and the temperature of the water is kept
at about 143° F. The subsequent mashings are kept for the next day's
brewing.

By this process the grain is entirely deprived of all fermentible
substances which have been carried away in a state of liquid sugar.

The whole operation of preparing and saccharifying grain is to-day
carried on in steamers, such as described on page 11, and cooking
apparatus such as shown in Fig. 1, or in the Henze high pressure steamers
and preparatory mash vats described in Chapter II.

In steaming grain without pressure, the finely crushed grain is poured
slowly into a vat previously nearly filled with water at a temperature of
about 140 degrees F. A little less than half a gallon of water is used
for each pound of grain. Care must be taken to stir the mass constantly
to prevent lumping. When all the corn is mixed in, steam is allowed to
enter and the temperature raised to about 200 degrees F. It should be
left at this temperature for an hour, or an hour and a half, when the
temperature is reduced to 140° F. when about 10 per cent. of crushed malt
is added and the temperature reduced to 68° F. by means of suitable
cooling devices.

When steam cookers are used, the cylindrical boiler is first filled to
the proper degree with water at a temperature of 140° F. The meal is then
let in gradually being constantly stirred the while. The boiler is then
closed and steam gradually let in while the mass is stirred until a
pressure of 60 pounds and a temperature of 300° F. has been reached. The
starch then becomes entirely gelatinized, the pressure is relieved, and
the temperature reduced to 212° F. and then rapidly brought to 145° F.
The malt is added mixed with cold water, at such a stage before the
saccharifying temperature is reached that the cold malt and water will
bring it to 145° F. The malt is stirred and mixed with the mash for five
or ten minutes and the mixed mass let into a drop tub when
saccharification is completed. It is then cooled as described.

When the Henze steamers are used the grain may be treated in either the
whole grain or crushed, as the high pressure to which it is subjected and
the "blowing out" act to entirely disintegrate it. In this mode of
operation, water is first let into the steamer and brought to a boil by
the admission of steam. The grain is then slowly let into the apparatus.
The water and grain should fill the steamer about two thirds full. The
steamer is left open and steam circulated through the grain and water
for about an hour, but without any raising of pressure. This acts to
thoroughly cook and soften the grain.

When sufficiently softened the steam escape cock in the upper part of the
steamer (see Fig. 2) is regulated to allow a partial flow of steam
through it and a greater flow of steam is admitted through the lower
inlet. This keeps the grain in constant ebullition under a pressure of 30
lbs. or so. After another period of an hour the pressure in the steamer
is raised to 60 lbs. at which point it is kept for half an hour, when the
maximum steam pressure is applied, and the greater portion of the
disintegrated mass blown out into a preparatory mass tub, into which malt
has been placed mixed with water. The blowing out should be so performed
that the temperature in the mass in the tubs shall not exceed 130° F. The
mass is stirred and cooled and then the remainder of the mass in the
steamer admitted to the tub which should bring the temperature of the
mass up to 145° F. It is kept at this temperature for a period varying
from half an hour to one and one-half hours and is then cooled to the
proper fermenting temperature.

Another method of softening corn so that its starch is easily acted upon
by the diastase of the malt is to steep it in a sulphurous acid solution
at a temperature of about 120° F. for from fifteen to twenty hours. The
mass is then diluted to form a semi-liquid pulp and heated to about 190°
F. for an hour or two during which the mass is constantly stirred. The
malt is then added, the mass is saccharified, cooled and then fermented.

Another method is to place mixed grain and hot water in a cooker of the
Bohn variety (Fig. 45). After half an hour of stirring and cooking under
ordinary pressure, the steam pressure is raised to 45 lbs. This is kept
up for from two to three hours when the grain is reduced to a paste.
Concentrated muriatic acid equal to 2-1/2 per cent of the weight of
grain is then forced in, under steam pressure. In half an hour the grain
will be entirely saccharified and ready for fermenting.



                              CHAPTER IX.

                          ALCOHOL FROM BEETS.


=Cultivation.= The beetroot (_Beta vulgaris_), indigenous to Europe, is
cultivated in France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Scandinavia, Austria,
Russia, and to a very small extent in England and New Zealand, and to a
very large extent in the United States and Canada. There are many
varieties. The most important to the sugar-maker is the white Silesian,
sometimes regarded as a distinct species (_B. alba_); it shows very
little above ground, and penetrates about 12 in.; it has a white flesh,
the two chief forms being distinguished by one having a rose-colored skin
and purple-ribbed leaves, the other a white skin and green leaves. Both
are frequently grown together, and exhibit no marked difference in
sugar-yielding qualities.

Good sugar-beets possess the following broad characteristics: (1) Regular
pear-shaped form and smooth skin; long, tapering, carrot-like roots are
considered inferior; (2) white and firm flesh, delicate and uniform
structure, and clean sugary flavor; thick-skinned roots are spongy and
watery; those with large leaves are generally richer; (3) average weight
1-1/2 to 2-1/2 lbs., neither very large nor very small roots being
profitable to the sugar-manufacturer; as a rule, beets weighing more than
3-1/2 lbs. are watery, and poor in sugar; and roots weighing less than
3/4 lb. are either unripe or too woody, and in either case yield
comparatively little sugar; the sp. gr. of the expressed juice, usually
1.06 to 1.07, even reaching 1.078 in English-grown roots, indicating over
14 per cent. of crystallizable sugar, is the best proof of quality; juice
poor in sugar has a density below 1.060; (4) in well-cultivated soil, the
roots grow entirely in the ground, and throw up leaves of moderate size.

=Composition of the Roots.= Internally the root is built up of small
cells, each filled with a juice consisting of a watery solution of many
bodies besides sugar. These include several crystallized salts (mostly of
which are present in minute traces only), such as the phosphates,
oxalates, malates, and chlorides of potassium, sodium, and calcium, the
salts of potash being by far the most important; and several colloid
bodies (albuminous [nitrogenous] and pectinous compounds); as well as a
substance which rapidly blackens on exposure to the air. The greater part
of the sugar in ripe beets is crystallizable, and, when perfectly pure,
is identical in composition and properties with crystallized cane-sugar;
but it is more difficult to refine this sugar so as to free it from the
potash salts, and commercial samples have not nearly so great sweetening
power as ordinary cane-sugar. Beets contain no uncrystallizable sugar;
the molasses produced in beet-sugar manufactories is the result of
changes which cannot be entirely avoided in extracting the crystallizable
sugar.

=Soil.= The best soil for beets contains a fair proportion of organic
matter, is neither too stiff nor too light, and crumbles down into a nice
friable loam; it must be capable of being cultivated to a depth of at
least 16 in. The subsoil should be thoroughly well drained, and rendered
friable by autumn-cultivation and free admission of air. A deep friable
turnip-loam, containing fair proportions of clay and lime, appears to be
the most eligible land for sugar-beets. Lime is a very desirable element.
Well-worked clay-soils, especially calcareous clays, are well adapted, if
properly drained and of sufficient depth. Peaty soils and moorlands are
quite unsuitable, as well as lands which are too dry, like the thin
gravelly soils resting on siliceous gravel sub-soils, or too wet and
cold, like many of the thin soils above impervious chalk marl.

Speaking generally, the best soils for sugar-beet are precisely those on
which other root-crops can be grown to perfection, that is, land which is
neither too heavy nor too light, which has a good depth, is readily
penetrated by the roots, and naturally contains lime, potash, clay, and
sand, as well as organic matter, is such proportions as in good friable
clay-loams. An analysis of the soil should be made previous to planting
it with the sugar-beet, as the salts presented in solution in the soil
will pass into the juice, and greatly interfere with the processes of
sugar manufacture. Certain soils may be at once indicated as unsuitable;
they are clover-land, recent sheep-pastures, forest-land grubbed during
the preceding 15 years, the neighborhood of salt works, volcanic and
saline soils of all kinds. The beet requires a certain supply of potash
and soda salts in the soil, but if these are present in excess, as in
recent forest-land, the juice does not work well, nor give its proper
yield of sugar.

=Manures.= Sugar-beets should be grown with as little farmyard manure as
possible; when dung has to be used, as in the case of very poor soils, it
should be applied in autumn, or as early as possible during the winter
months. The effect of heavy dressings of animal nitrogenous matters or
ammoniacal salts, is to produce abundance of leaves, and big watery
roots; the latter are comparatively poor in sugar, and contain potash
salts derived from the animal matters, which greatly interfere with the
extraction of sugar in a crystallized state. Common salt, and saline
manures in general, though useful in moderate doses (224 lbs. to 336 lbs.
per acre on light soils), should be avoided on the majority of soils, for
sugar-beets grown on soils highly manured with common salt produce juice
largely impregnated with salt, which is dreaded by the manufacturer even
more than albuminous impurities, and nearly as much as excess of potash
salts.

If the land is in good condition, containing sufficient available
nitrogen to meet the requirements of the crop, neither guano nor sulphate
of ammonia should be used. They largely increase the weight of the
produce per acre; but heavy crops are generally poor in sugar, and
furnish a juice that presents much difficulty to the manufacturer. If the
land is very poor, and if farmyard manure cannot be obtained and be
applied in autumn, 336 to 448 lbs. of Peruvian guano, or 224 lbs. of
sulphate of ammonia, mixed with 224 lbs. of superphosphate of lime, per
acre, may be sown broadcast in autumn, and 224 lbs. more of
superphosphate may be drilled in with the seed in spring. Superphosphate
of lime and bones are excellent for sugar-beets, and never injure the
quality of the crop, like the indiscriminate use of ammoniacal manures.
On light soils, in which potash is often deficient, the judicious use of
potash salts has been found serviceable, but only in conjunction with
superphosphate and phosphatic guanos.

=Sowing.= The best time for sowing beetroot is the beginning or middle of
April. If sown too early, the young plants may be partially injured by
frost; if later than the first week in May, the crop may require to be
taken up in autumn, before it has had time to get ripe. About 10 to 12
lbs. of seed is required per acre. As regards the width between the
plants, generally speaking, the distance between the rows and from plant
to plant should not be less than 12 nor greater than 18 in. Should the
young plants be caught by a night's frost, and suffer ever so little, it
is best to plough them up at once and re-sow, for they are certain to run
to seed, and are then practically useless for the manufacture of sugar.
Sugar-beets require to be frequently horse- and hand-hoed. As long as the
young plants are not injured, the application of the hoe from time to
time is attended with great benefit to the crop. It is advisable to
gather up the soil round each plant, in order that the head may be
completely covered with soil. Champonnois' researches point to the
advantage of planting in ridges, by which the supply of air to the roots
is greatly facilitated.

The conditions best calculated to ensure the roots possessing the
characters most desirable from a sugar-maker's point of view are chiefly
as follows: (1) Not to sow on freshly-manured land; it is eminently
preferable not to manure for the beet crop, but to manure heavily for
wheat in the preceding year; (2) not to employ forcing manures, nor to
apply manure during growth; (3) to use seed from a variety rich in sugar;
(4) to sow early, in lines 16 in. apart, at most, the plants being 10 to
11 in. from each other; there will then be 38,000 beets on an acre,
weighing 21 to 28 ounces each, or 52,800 to 70,400 lbs. per acre; (5) to
weed the fields as soon as the plants are above ground, to thin out as
early as possible, and to weed and hoe often, till the soil is covered
with the leaves of the plants; (6) never to remove the leaves during
growth; (7) finally, not to take up the roots, if it can be avoided,
before they are ripe, the period of which will depend upon the season.

Good seed may be raised by the following means: The best roots, which
show least above ground, are taken up, replanted in good soil, and
allowed to run to seed. This seed is already good; but it may be further
improved by sowing it in a well-prepared plot possessing all the most
favorable conditions; the resulting plants are sorted, set out in autumn,
put into a cellar, and in the spring, before transplanting, those of the
greatest density, and which will give seeds of the best quality, are
separated. These are transplanted at 20 in. between the rows and 13 in.
between the feet, which are covered with about 1-1/2 in. of earth.
Finally they are watered with water containing molasses and
superphosphate of lime, as recommended by Corenwinder.

=Harvesting.= Sugar-beets must be taken up before frost sets in. When the
leaves begin to turn yellow and flabby, they have arrived at maturity,
and the crop should be watched, that it may not get over-ripe. If the
autumn is cold and dry, the crop may be safely left in the ground for
seven to ten days longer than is needful, but should the autumn be mild
and wet, if the roots are left in the soil, they are apt to throw up
fresh leaves, and nothing does so much injury. In watching the ripening
of the crop, a good plan is to test the sp. gr. of the expressed juice. A
root or two may be taken up at intervals, and reduced to pulp on an
ordinary hand-grater, the juice obtained by pressing the pulp through
calico, and the density observed by a hydrometer. As long as the gravity
of the juice continues to increase, the crop should be left in the land.
Good sugar-yielding juice has a sp. gr. of about 1.065, rising to about
1.070. Immature roots, cut across, rapidly change color on the exposed
surface, turning red, then brown, and finally almost black. If newly-cut
slices turn color on exposure, the ripening is not complete; but if they
remain some time unaltered, or turn only slightly reddish, they are
sufficiently ripe to be taken up. The crop should be harvested in fine,
dry weather. In order that the roots may part with as much moisture as
possible, they are left exposed to the air on the ground before being
stacked, but not for longer than a few days, and they need to be guarded
against direct sunlight. Perhaps the best plan is to cover them loosely
with their tops in the field for a couple of days, then trim them, and at
once stack them.

=Storing.= For storing roots, especial care should be taken to prevent
their germinating and throwing out fresh tops, which is best done by
selecting a dry place for the storage ground. They may be piled in
pyramidal stacks, about six feet broad at base, and seven feet high. At
first, the stacks should be thinly covered with earth, that the moisture
may readily evaporate; subsequently, when frosty weather sets in, another
layer of earth, not exceeding one foot in thickness, may be added. This
is essentially the method generally adopted for storing potatoes and
beets.

[Illustration: FIG. 46.--Stack for Storing Beets.]

In continental Europe and Canada, extra precaution is necessitated by the
rigorous climate. In S. Russia, the plan shown in Fig. 46 is sometimes
used. The beets are disposed completely below the surface of the soil, in
a trench dug with sharply sloping sides. At about 15 in. from the bottom,
is an openwork floor of reeds, on which the beets are piled to within a
few inches of the level of the exterior soil. On the top, and following
the apex of the heap, is laid a triangular ridge-piece _a_, for the
purpose of facilitating evaporation. The whole is covered with a layer
_b_ of straw and fine earth, the thickness of which is varied according
to the indications of the thermometer _c_ placed in the center of the
mass. Between the floor of the trench and the openwork floor is a space
_d_, communicating with two vertical channels leading to the outer air,
thus providing ventilation. The outlets of the channels can be opened and
closed at will. The Russians also often employ regular cellars, as shown
in Fig. 47. The structure consists of two stories, covered with a bed of
earth, each furnished with a floor of hurdles or open planking, on which
the beets are piled to the depth of about one yard. Lateral passages
facilitate ventilation, and openings in the roof permit the heated air to
escape. The cost of erecting these cellars is heavy, but there is great
saving of labor in storing the beets, as it suffices to simply pile them
up on the floors. Moreover, the arrangement permits the examination of
the contents beyond the indications of a thermometer; and enables any
portion to be removed, even during snowy weather.

[Illustration: FIG. 47.--Storage Cellar for Beets.]

=Alcohol from Beets.= Beets contain 85 per cent. of water, and about 10
per cent. of cane sugar, the remainder being woody fibre and albumen;
cane sugar not being in itself fermentible,--as is grape sugar,--it has
to be converted into "inverted sugar" by a ferment as yeast. Either the
sugar beets may be mashed or the molasses which remains from the
manufacture of beet sugar (as described in Chapter X). The conversion of
the sugar into alcohol is effected in several different ways, of which
the following are the principal:

By rasping the roots and submitting them to pressure, and fermenting the
expressed juice.

By maceration with water and heat.

By direct distillation of the roots.

The first two methods are the best as by them the woody fibre of the
plant which is non-fermentible is separated from the fermentible juice.
In both the first and second processes the beets must first be entirely
cleaned of adhering dirt, trash and clods of earth, and then rasped,
pulped or sliced by certain machinery.

=Cleaning.= Care must be taken in this operation that the beets shall be
freed from small stones and adhering hard lumps of earth which would
otherwise get into the rasping machinery to the damage and stoppage of
the mechanism.

There are many forms of cleaners but all are alike in this,--that the
beets shall be subjected to the action of water while traveling through
or over a perforated casing. The simplest machine, and one easily
constructed by any carpenter, comprises an elongated cylinder formed of
lathes or strips spaced apart such distance as will allow dirt and stones
to pass between them. This is mounted on a central shaft and revolves in
a tank of water. It should be slightly inclined so that the potatoes or
beets to be washed may feed downward from the open upper end-disk or
wheel, to the lower end where they are thrown out. At the upper end is a
hopper and at the lower, the end disk has inwardly projecting lips, which
as the cylinder revolves lifts the beets up and tumbles them out on to an
incline which carries them to the rasping machine.

Another form of machine comprises a perforated cylinder of sheet iron,
revolving in a tank of water. A better form of cleaner than either of
those consists of an inclined trough in which a spiral feeding screw of
sheet iron rotates. The beets are fed into the trough at its lower end
and are carried upward, slowly, by the feeding screw. Above the trough is
a water pipe having a number of outlets by which water may fall on to the
beets and into the trough. The water rushing down the inclined trough
carries with it all dirt and stones, and by the time the beets have
reached the upper end they are entirely cleaned and ready for slicing or
rasping.

For pressing out the juice, the beets are mashed into a pulp, while for
diffusion the beets are sliced.

=Rasping.= Fig. 48 shows one form of rasping machine. On a suitable
supporting frame is mounted a cylinder _a_ having a diameter of about 24
inches. The cylinder is formed of alternate saw blades and wooden washers
holding them a slight distance apart. The saws or teeth are so set on the
cylinder as not to slice the beets but to shred them up into a fine pulp.
The cylinder rotates at a speed of 800 to 1000 revolutions a minute in
front of an inclined table, having a jigger whereby the beets are fed
downward against the toothed cylinder. The teeth carry the pulp downward
and it falls into a receptacle beneath.

[Illustration: FIG. 48.--Beet and Potato Rasp.]

It is best to add to this pulp a small portion of sulphuric acid, say
two-tenths of one per cent. This prevents by-fermentations.

=Pressing.= The pulp obtained from the raspers has now to be expressed.
This is either done by platen presses or by roller presses. With platen
presses the first pressing may be done by screws, but the final pressing
should be accomplished by hydraulic presses.

For the hydraulic press, the pulp is placed in woolen sacks, containing
10 to 12 lbs., superposed in the press with their mouths doubled under,
and separated by iron plates; about 25 are collected, and the pile is put
into a screw-press, called a "preparatory" press, which extracts about 45
to 50 per cent. of the juice. These pressed sacks are piled anew on the
movable plate of a powerful hydraulic press, which takes 50 at a charge.
Each preparatory press can supply four hydraulic presses, which are
ranged around it, so that of the four presses, there will be one
charging, one commencing to press, one in full pressure, and one
discharging, at the same moment. Motion is communicated to the four
hydraulic presses by four pumps mounted on the same bed, and tended by
the same workman who directs the pressing. An improvement upon the
general form of hydraulic press is that devised by Lalouette, which
enables two workmen and one boy to work five presses. These presses turn
out about 34,200 lbs. per 24 hours in the first pressing, and 68,400 lbs.
in the second. Hydraulic presses are rapidly falling into disuse in the
beet-sugar industry, by reason of the superior merits of continuous
presses, and the extended adoption of the diffusion system.

Continuous presses for beet were suggested by the roller-mills used in
the cane-sugar industry. But the conditions in the two cases are widely
different; the begass of the cane is solid, and readily parts from the
juice; whereas the pulp and juice of the beet have a strong tendency to
combine, and the roller-surface must therefore be permeable only by the
juice. In Poizot et Druelle's press, the pulp passes between two
cylinders, carried by endless cloths. The object is to unite the best
features of the hydraulic press. To this end, a first gentle pressing is
produced against the first cylinder by the elasticity of the principal
cloth on which it is borne. Then, encountering a series of four little
rollers, performing the functions of the preparatory press, it is next
seized between the second and first cylinders, and deprived of the
maximum quantity of juice.

[Illustration: FIG. 49.--Dujardin's Roll Press.]

Dujardin's roll press is shown in Fig. 49, which is a vertical section of
the machine, the side plate being removed. The pulp is forced upward
through a pipe _C_ under high pressure. This has a regulating slide valve
_D_. The rolls _B B_ revolve towards and nearly in contact with each
other, and they are perforated so that the expressed juice may run off
through the rolls. These perforations are conical in form with the apex
of the cone outward. The cylinders are also covered with a webbing of
cloth or horse hair. Below the rolls is block _C´_, which with the outer
walls of the chamber, form diverging passages which extend upward, as
shown, on either side of the rolls and then downward along the lower
faces of the rolls to the point when they contact. The pulp is compressed
with great force against and between the rolls, the juice is forced
through the perforations and the residue passes upward and outward under
the presser bar _E_ in the form of a ribbon which is guided away by the
trough _F_. The pressure of the bar _E_ is regulated by screws and the
tighter said bar is pressed against the rolls the greater will be the
pressure of the pulp behind the bar and against the rolls, and the
greater the juice expressed.

The rolls revolve very slowly only about seven or eight times a minute
but the capacity of the machine is very great, it being capable of
pressing the pulp of from 85,000 to 175,000 lbs. of beets daily. The
residue from the first pressing should be submitted to a further pressing
after being macerated with spent wash. This residue may be fed to cattle.
The utmost cleanliness is essential to these processes; all the utensils
employed should be washed daily with lime-water to counteract acidity.

=Extraction by Maceration and Diffusion.= The object of this process is
to extract from the beets by means of water or spent liquor all the sugar
which they contain, without the aid of rasping or pressure. Spirit is
thus produced at considerably less expense, although it is not of so high
a quality as that yielded by the former process. The operation consists
in slicing up the beets in a specially constructed slicing machine, into
slices of regular thickness, and then allowing the slices to macerate in
a series of vats at stated temperatures. It is essential that the knives
by which the roots are cut should be so arranged that the roots are
divided into slices having a width of 4/10 of an inch and a thickness of
4/100 of an inch, and a variable length; the roots are, of course, well
washed before being placed in the hopper of the cutter.

When cut, the beets are covered with boiling water in a macerator of wood
or iron for one hour, the water should contain 4.4 of sulphuric acid to
every 2200 lbs. of beets. After this, the water is drawn off into a
second vat in which are placed more beets, and allowed to macerate again
for an hour. This is repeated a third time in another vat, and the juice,
which has now acquired a density equal to that obtained by rasping, is
run off into the fermenting vat. When the first vat is empty it is
immediately refilled with boiling water and fresh beets; the juice from
this operation is run into the second vat, when the contents of that one
are run into the third. To continue the operation, the beets are
completely exhausted by being macerated for an hour with a third charge
of boiling water (acidulated as in the former case). The exhausted pulp
is removed to make room for fresh slices; and the first vat is then
charged with juice which has already passed through the second and third
vats. After macerating the fresh beets for one hour, the charge is ready
for fermentation. In ordinary weather, the juice should now be at the
right heat for this process, viz., about 71.1° or 75.2° F., but in very
cold weather it may require some re-heating.

In Fig. 50 is shown a series of vats for the extraction of the sugar from
beets such as is termed a "diffusion battery."

[Illustration: FIG. 50.--Diffusion Battery.]

The vessels, 1, 2, 3 and 4 are of wood or sheet iron. Each vessel has a
bottom sieve and a top sieve between which the beet slices are to be
placed. From the bottom of each vessel below the sieve a pipe _D_ runs to
the top of the vessel next in order. From the bottom of the last vessel 4
of the series a pipe _C_ runs back to the top of the one first used.
Pipes _A_ and _B_ are connected to each vessel for the admission of water
and spent wash respectively. A discharge pipe _E_ leads from each vessel
to a collecting vat 5.

Maceration and diffusion is accomplished as follows: The sliced beets are
placed between the sieves in vessel 1 and water or spent wash at a
temperature of 185° F. is let in and the beets allowed to macerate for
three-quarters of an hour, meanwhile tub 2 is charged with sliced beets.
The cock or pipe _D_ between the vessels is opened when the time, three
quarters of an hour, has elapsed; hot water or spent wash is admitted by
pipes _A_ or _B_ to the vessel 1, which forces the sugar solution therein
into vessel 2. When the required amount of fluid has been passed into 2
from 1, the inlet of water into 1 is stopped, and the vessel heated to
185° F.

Vessel 3 is charged with beet slices and in three-quarters of an hour
vessels 1, 2 and 3 are connected and water or wash admitted into 1, which
forces the solution in 1 into 2 and that in 2 into 3 when it is again
raised to 185° F.

The same operation is repeated as to vessel 4 and in three-quarters of an
hour all the vessels are connected, hot water or spent wash is admitted
to 1 and the sugar solution drawn off from 4 into the vat.

The beets in tub 1 having now been exhausted, the fluid in that vessel is
drawn off and the exhausted beets thrown away. 1 is now recharged with
beets and the pipe between it and 4 opened. The former operation is
repeated except that now vessel 4 becomes 1, and 1 becomes 4. These
successive chargings and dischargings are continued; vessel 3 becomes 1
in its turn and so on.

=Fermentation.= Before fermentation the juice procured as has been
described is brought to about 82° F.; at this temperature it is run off
into the fermenting vats. Here it is necessary, as before noted, to add
to the juice a small quantity of concentrated sulphuric acid, for the
purpose of neutralizing the alkaline salts which it contains, and of
rendering it slightly acid in order to hasten the process; this quantity
must not exceed 5-1/2 lbs. to every 1220 gallons of juice, or the
establishment of fermentation would be hindered instead of promoted. The
addition of this acid tends also to prevent the viscous fermentation
to which the juice obtained by rasping and pressure is so liable.
Although the beet contains albumen, which is in itself a ferment, it
is necessary, in order to develop the process, to have recourse to
artificial means. A small quantity of brewer's yeast--about 1-3/4
oz. per 22 gallons of juice--is sufficient for this; the yeast must
previously be mixed with a little water. An external temperature of
about 68° to 78° F. must be carefully maintained. Fermentation lasts for
from four to five hours.

The fermentation of acidulated beet-juice sets in speedily. The chief
obstacle to the process is the mass of thick scum which forms upon the
surface of the liquor. This difficulty is sometimes obviated by using
several vats and mixing the juice, while in full fermentation, with a
fresh quantity. Thus, when three vats are employed, one is set to
ferment; at the end of four or six hours, half its contents are run into
the second vat and here mixed with fresh juice. The process is arrested,
but soon starts again in both vats simultaneously; the first is now
allowed to ferment completely, which is effected with much less
difficulty than would have been the case had the vat not been divided.
Meanwhile the second vat, as soon as the action is at its height, is
divided in the same manner, one-half its contents being run into the
third. When this method is employed, it is necessary to add a little
yeast from time to time when the action becomes sluggish.

=Direct Distillation of the Roots.= This process, commonly called
"Leplay's method," consists in fermenting the sugar in the slices
themselves. The operation is conducted in huge vats, holding as large a
quantity of matter as possible, in order that the fermentation may be
established more easily. They usually contain about 750 gallons, and a
single charge consists of 2200 lbs. of the sliced roots. The slices are
placed in porous bags in the vats, containing already about 440 gallons
of water acidulated with a little sulphuric acid; and they are kept
submerged by means of a perforated cover, which permits the passage of
the liquor and of the carbonic acid evolved; the temperature of the
mixture should be maintained at about 77° or 80° F. A little yeast is
added, and fermentation speedily sets in; it is complete in about 24
hours or more, when the bags are taken out and replaced by fresh ones;
fermentation declares itself again almost immediately, and without any
addition of yeast. New bags may, indeed, be placed in the same liquor for
three or four successive fermentations without adding further yeast or
juice.

The slices of beets charged with alcohol are now placed in a distilling
apparatus of a very simple nature. It consists of a cylindrical column of
wood or iron, fitted with a tight cover, which is connected with a coil
or worm, kept cool in a vessel of cold water. Inside this column are
arranged a row of perforated diaphragms or partitions. The space between
the lowest one and the bottom of the cylinder is kept empty to receive
the condensed water formed by the steam, which is blown into the bottom
of the cylinder in order to heat the contents. Vapors of alcohol are thus
disengaged from the undermost slices, and these vapors as they rise
through the cylinder vaporize the remaining alcohol, and finally pass out
of the top at a considerable strength and are condensed in the worm. When
all the contents of the still have been completely exhausted of spirit,
the remainder consists of a cooked pulp, which contains all the nutritive
constituents of the beet except the sugar.



                               CHAPTER X.

                 ALCOHOL FROM MOLASSES AND SUGAR CANE.


Another common source of alcohol is molasses. Molasses is the
uncrystallizable syrup which constitutes the residiuum of the manufacture
and refining of cane and beet sugar. It is a dense, viscous liquid,
varying in color from light yellow to almost black, according to the
source from which it is obtained; it tests usually about 40° by Baume's
hydrometer. The molasses employed as a source of alcohol must be
carefully chosen; the lightest in color is the best, containing most
uncrystallized sugar. The manufacture is extensively carried on in
France, where the molasses from the beet sugar refineries is chiefly used
on account of its low price, that obtained from the cane sugar factories
being considerably dearer. The latter is, however, much to be preferred
to the former variety as it contains more sugar. Molasses from the beet
sugar refineries yields a larger quantity and better quality of spirit
than that which comes from the factories. Molasses contains about 50 per
cent. of saccharine matter, 24 per cent. of other organic matter, and
about 10 per cent. of inorganic salts, chiefly of potash. It is thus a
substance rich in matters favorable to fermentation. When the density of
molasses has been lowered by dilution with water, fermentation sets in
rapidly, more especially if it has been previously rendered acid. As,
however, molasses from beet generally exhibits an alkaline reaction, it
is found necessary to acidify it after dilution; for this purpose
sulphuric acid is employed, in the proportion of about 4-1/2 lbs. of
the concentrated acid to 22 gallons of molasses, previously diluted
with eight or ten volumes of water. Three processes are thus employed
in obtaining alcohol from molasses; dilution, acidification, and
fermentation. The latter is hastened by the addition of a natural
ferment, such as brewer's yeast. It begins in about eight or ten hours,
and lasts upwards of 60.

About three gallons of Alcohol may be obtained from one hundred pounds of
molasses.

=Beet Sugar Molasses.= The first step in the process of rendering the
molasses fermentable is to mix the molasses with water, to a certain
dilution, in the proportion of two parts of water to one of molasses.
This may be done by hand, but preferably it is performed in a vat
provided with stirring or agitating mechanism, such as will effectually
mix the water with the viscid syrup, and whereby also the wash may be
thoroughly agitated and aerated.

There are numerous forms of mixing vats, all working however, on the
principle shown in Fig. 51. In this, the vat _A_ is provided with a
central shaft _C_ carrying radial mixing blades _E_. This shaft is
driven by bevel gears _D_, _F_. As the rotation of these blades would
merely tend to create a rotary current of molasses and water, and not to
mix them, some means should be used for impeding and breaking up this
current. To that end the cover is provided with downwardly projecting
rods _I_ which create counter currents, and thoroughly intermingle the
two liquids. Another and even better form of mixer consists of a tank
into the lower portion of which enters a perforated pipe of relatively
large diameter. This is provided at the end with an air entrance and a
steam injector. The injected steam draws in air and the steam and air are
forced under pressure into the vat, thus diluting the contained molasses,
agitating it and thoroughly aerating it.

[Illustration: FIG. 51.--Mixing Vat.]

The molasses as it comes from the sugar house may contain anywhere from
30 to 45 per cent of sugar, and this should be diluted with water to a
concentration of 16 to 18 per cent of sugar.

The density of the wash after "setting up" is 1.060. It is to be noted
that though with improved apparatus a wash as concentrated at 12° or 15°
Baume may be worked; yet where simple apparatus is used six degrees or
eight degrees is better and much more favorable to rapid and complete
fermentation.

After setting up, one gallon of strong sulphuric acid and 10 lbs. of
sulphate of ammonia are added for each 1000 gallons of wash. This
neutralizes the alkaline carbonates in the beet juice which would
otherwise retard fermentation, and it assists the yeast to invert the
cane sugar as formerly described. The addition of ammonia is in order to
give food to the yeast and obtain a vigorous fermentation.

The yeast used for fermenting molasses is prepared either from malt or
grain and is used as concentrated as possible, and in the proportion of
about 2 per cent.

The "pitching" temperature of a molasses wash varies with the
concentration of the wash, being higher for strongly concentrated
solutions than for weak ones. When the wash tests as high as 12° Baume,
fermentation begins at about 77° F. and is raised during fermentation to
85° or 90° F. A temperature around 82° F. is best on the average as this
is most conducive to the growth of yeast.

Where the vats are large and the syrup considerably diluted the
temperature rises very quickly and must be moderated by passing a current
of cold water through a coil of pipe on the bottom of the vat.

In the making of molasses mashes it must be remembered that every gallon
of molasses will be diluted with about five gallons of water or other
fermented liquid matter, and therefore 50 gallons of molasses wash will
require a still capable of working up about 300 gallons. It is possible
to distill four or five charges during the day of 12 hours and hence a
still of 60 gallons will be capable of distilling the beer or wash made
with 50 gallons of molasses. A still with a capacity of 100 gallons
operating on wash having a strength of one gallon of molasses to five of
water, will produce about 10 gallons of proof spirit from each charge;
thus a 100 gallon still will make from 40 to 80 gallons of spirit in a
day. With unskilled labor, however, it is impossible to get this rate of
production and the best that can be done will be about four charges a
day.

It may be suggested that in getting estimates on stills it is best to
accompany the request with a statement of the character of the mash
intended to be treated, the amount of raw materials intended to be used
up, the charging capacity required, number of gallons of mash desired to
be worked up every 12 hours.

=Fermenting Raw Sugar.= This is accomplished by dissolving the sugar in
hot water, then diluting it, and then adding a ferment,--fermentation
being aided by adding sulphuric acid to the diluted molasses, in the
proportion of one-half to one pound of acid to every hundred pounds of
pure sugar used.

The wash is pitched with compressed yeast in the proportion of 2-1/2[**
fraction] to 8 per cent of the weight of the sugar used. The pitching
temperature is from 77° to 79° F., and the period of fermentation is 48
hours.

=Cane Sugar Molasses.= Besides the molasses of the French beet sugar
refineries, large quantities result from the manufacture of cane sugar in
Jamaica and the West Indies. This is entirely employed for the
distillation of _rum_. As the pure spirit of Jamaica is never made from
sugar, but always from molasses and skimmings, it is advisable to notice
these two products, and, together with them, the exhausted wash commonly
called _dunder_.

The molasses proceeding from the West Indian cane sugar contains
crystallizable and uncrystallizable sugar, gluten, or albumen, and other
organic matters which have escaped separation during the process of
defecation and evaporation, together with saline matters and water. It
therefore contains in itself all the elements necessary for fermentation,
_i.e._, sugar, water, and gluten, which latter substance, acting the part
of a ferment, speedily establishes the process under certain conditions.
_Skimmings_ comprise the matters separated from the cane juice during
the processes of defecation and evaporation. The scum of the clarifiers,
precipitators, and evaporators, and the precipitates in both clarifiers
and precipitators, together with a proportion of cane sugar mixed with
the various scums and precipitates, and the "sweet-liquor" resulting from
the washing of the boiling-pans, etc., all become mixed together in the
skimming-receiver and are fermented under the name of "skimmings." They
also contain the elements necessary for fermentation, and accordingly
they very rapidly pass into a state of fermentation when left to
themselves; but, in consequence of the glutinous matters being in excess
of the sugar, this latter is speedily decomposed, and the second, or
acetous fermentation, commences very frequently before the first is far
advanced. _Dunder_ is the fermented wash after it has undergone
distillation, by which it has been deprived of the alcohol it contained.
To be good, it should be light, clear, and slightly bitter; it should be
quite free from acidity, and is always best when fresh. As it is
discharged from the still, it runs into receivers placed on a lower
level, from which it is pumped up when cool into the upper receivers,
where it clarifies, and is then drawn down into the fermenting cisterns
as required. Well-clarified dunder will keep for six weeks without any
injury. Good dunder may be considered to be the liquor, or "wash," as it
is termed, deprived by distillation of its alcohol, and much concentrated
by the boiling it has been subjected to; whereby the substances it
contains, as gluten, gum, oils, etc., have become, from repeated
boilings, so concentrated as to render the liquid mass a highly aromatic
compound. In this state it contains at least two of the elements
necessary for fermentation, so that, on the addition of the third, viz.,
sugar, that process speedily commences.

The first operation is to clarify the mixture of molasses and skimmings
previous to fermenting it. This is performed in a leaden receiver holding
about 300 or 400 gallons. When the clarification is complete, the clear
liquor is run into the fermenting vat, and there mixed with 100 or 200
gallons of water (hot, if possible), and well stirred. The mixture is
then left to ferment. The great object that the distiller has in view in
conducting the fermentation is to obtain the largest possible amount of
spirit that the sugar employed will yield, and to take care that the loss
by evaporation or acetification is reduced to a minimum. In order to
ensure this, the following course should be adopted. The room in which
the process is carried on must be kept as cool as it is possible in a
tropical climate; say, 75° to 80° F.

Supposing that the fermenting vat has a capacity of 1000 gallons, the
proportions of the different liquors run in would be 200 gallons of
well-clarified skimmings, 50 gallons of molasses, and 100 gallons of
clear dunder; they should be well mixed together. Fermentation speedily
sets in, and 50 more gallons of molasses are then to be added, together
with 200 gallons of water. When fermentation is thoroughly established, a
further 400 gallons of dunder may be run in, and the whole well stirred
up. Any scum thrown up during the process is immediately skimmed off. The
temperature of the mass rises gradually until about 4° or 5° above that
of the room itself. Should it rise too high, the next vat must be set up
with more dunder and less water; if it keeps very low, and the action is
sluggish, less must be used next time. No fermenting principle besides
the gluten contained in the wash is required. The process usually
occupies eight or ten days, but it may last much longer. The liquid now
becomes clear, and should be immediately subjected to distillation to
prevent acetous fermentation.

Sugar planters are accustomed to expect one gallon of proof rum for every
gallon of molasses employed. On the supposition that ordinary molasses
contains 65 parts of sugar, 32 parts of water, and three parts of organic
matter and salts, and that, by careful fermentation and distillation, 33
parts of absolute alcohol may be obtained, we may then reckon upon 33
lbs. of spirit, or about four gallons, which is a yield of about 5-2/3[**
fraction] gallons of rum, 30 per cent. over-proof, from 100 lbs. of such
molasses.

The following process is described in Deerr's work on "Sugar and Sugar
Cane."

"In Mauritius a more complicated process is used; a barrel of about 50
gallons capacity is partly filled with molasses and water of density 1.10
and allowed to spontaneously ferment; sometimes a handful of oats or rice
is placed in this preliminary fermentation. When attenuation is nearly
complete more molasses is added until the contents of the cask are again
of density 1.10 and again allowed to ferment. This process is repeated a
third time; the contents of the barrel are then distributed between three
or four tanks holding each about 500 gallons of wash of density 1.10 and
12 hours after fermentation has started here, one of these is used to
pitch a tank of about 8,000 gallons capacity; a few gallons are left in
the pitching tanks which are again filled up with wash of density 1.10
and the process repeated until the attenuations fall off, when a fresh
start is made. This process is very similar to what obtains in modern
distilleries save that the initial fermentation is adventitious.

"In Java and the East generally, a very different procedure is followed.
In the first place a material known as Java, or Chinese, yeast is
prepared from native formulæ; in Java, pieces of sugar cane are crushed
along with certain aromatic herbs, amongst which galanga and garlic are
always present, and the resulting extract made into a paste with rice
meal; the paste is formed into strips, allowed to dry in the sun and then
macerated with water and lemon juice; the pulpy mass obtained after
standing for three days is separated from the water and made into small
balls, rolled in rice straw and allowed to dry; these balls are known as
Raggi or Java yeast. In the next step rice is boiled and spread out in a
layer on plantain leaves and sprinkled over with Raggi, then packed in
earthenware pots and left to stand for two days, at the end of which
period the rice is converted into a semi-liquid mass; this material is
termed Tapej and is used to excite fermentation in molasses wash. The
wash is set up at a density of 25° Balling and afterwards the process is
as usual. In this proceeding the starch in the rice is converted by means
of certain micro-organisms _Chlamydomucor oryzae_ into sugar and then
forms a suitable habitat for the reproduction of yeasts which are
probably present in the Raggi but may find their way into the Tapej from
other sources. About 100 lbs. of rice are used to pitch 1,000 gallons of
wash."



                              CHAPTER XI.

                             ALCOHOLOMETRY.


Alcoholmetry is the name given to a variety of methods of determining the
quantity of absolute alcohol contained in spirituous liquors. It will
readily be seen that a quick and accurate method of making such
determinations is of the very utmost importance to those who are engaged
in the liquor traffic, since the value of spirit depends entirely upon
the percentage of alcohol which it contains. When alcoholic liquors
consist of simple mixtures of alcohol and water, the test is a simple
one, the exact percentage being readily deducible from the specific
gravity of the liquor, because to a definite specific gravity belongs a
definite content of alcohol; this is obtained either by means of the
_specific gravity bottle_, or of hydrometers of various kinds, specially
constructed.

All hydrometers comprise essentially a graduated stem of uniform
diameter, a bulb forming a float and a counterpoise or ballast. The
hydrometers may either be provided with a scale indicated on the neck or
else with weights added to sink the hydrometer to a certain mark. The
first instruments are called hydrometers of "constant immersion," the
others, of "variable immersion."

At the latter end of the last century, a series of arduous experiments
were conducted by Sir C. Blagden, at the instance of the British
government, with a view to establishing a fixed proportion between the
specific gravity of spirituous liquors and the quantity of absolute
alcohol contained in them. The result of these experiments, after being
carefully verified, led to the construction of a series of tables,
reference to which gives at once the percentage of alcohol for any given
number of degrees registered by the hydrometer; these tables are
invariably sold with the instrument. They are also constructed to show
the number of degrees over-or under-proof, corresponding to the
hydrometric degrees. Other tables are obtainable which give the specific
gravity corresponding to these numbers.

The measurement of the percentage of absolute alcohol in spirituous
liquors is almost invariably expressed in volume rather than weight,
owing to the fact that such liquors are always sold by volume.
Nevertheless, the tables referred to above show the percentage of spirit
both by volume and weight.

[Illustration: FIG. 52.--Syke's Hydrometer.]

In the United States the standard liquor, known as _proof spirit_,
contains 92.3 per cent. by weight and 94.9 per cent. by volume, of
absolute alcohol; it has a specific gravity of .9186 at 60° F. A proof
gallon contains by measurement 100 parts of alcohol and 81.5 parts of
water. The strength and therefore the value of spirituous liquors is
estimated according to the quantity by volume of anhydrous spirit
contained in the liquor with reference to this standard. Thus the
expression "20 _per cent. overproof_," "20 _per cent. underproof_," means
that the liquor contain 20 volumes of water for every 100 volumes over
or under this fixed quantity, and that in order to reduce the spirit to
_proof_, 20 per cent. of water by volume, must be subtracted or added, as
the case may be. Any hydrometer constructed for the measurement of
liquids of less density than water may be employed. That known as
"Syke's" is most commonly used for alcoholometric purposes. It is shown
in Fig. 52 and consists of a spherical brass ball _A_, to which is fixed
two stems; the upper one _B_ is also of brass, flat, and about 3-1/2[**
fraction] in. in length; it is divided into ten parts, each being
subdivided into five, and the whole being numbered as shown in the
figure. The lower stem _C_ is conical, and slightly more than an inch
long; it terminates in a weighted bulb _D_. A series of circular weights,
of the form shown in the figure, accompany the instrument; these are
slipped upon the top of the lower stem _C_, and allowed to slip down
until they rest upon the bulb _D_. The instrument is used in the
following way: It is submerged in the liquor to be tested until the whole
of the upper stem is under the surface, and an idea is thus gained of the
weight that will be required to _partly_ submerge the stem. This weight
is added, and the hydrometer again placed in the liquor. The figure on
the scale to which the instrument has sunk when at rest is now observed,
and added to the number on the weight used, the sum giving, by reference
to the tables, the percentage by volume of absolute alcohol above or
below the standard quantity.

In exact estimations, the temperature of the liquor tested must be
carefully registered, and the necessary corrections made. In Jones's
hydrometer, which is an improvement upon Syke's, a small spirit
thermometer is attached to the bulb, and by noting the temperature of the
liquor at the time of the experiment, and referring to the tables
accompanying the instrument, the strength is found at once without the
need of calculation.

Dica's hydrometer is very similar to Jones's instrument above described.
It is of copper, has a stem fitted to receive brass poises, a
thermometer, a graduated scale, etc.

In Europe, Gay-Lussac's hydrometer and tables are chiefly used for
alcoholometric testing. This instrument is precisely similar in
construction to those of Twaddle and Baume. On the scale, zero is
obtained by placing it in pure distilled water at 59° F., and the highest
mark, or 100, by placing it in pure alcohol at the same temperature, the
intermediate space being divided into 100 equal divisions, each
representing one per cent. of absolute alcohol. The correction for
temperature, as in the above cases, is included in the reference tables.

Another hydrometer, used in France for alcoholometric determinations, is
Cartier's. In form it is precisely similar to Baume's hydrometer. Zero is
the same in both instruments, but the point marked 30° in Cartier's is
marked 32° in Baume's, the degrees of the latter being thus diminished in
the proportion of 15 or 16. Cartier's hydrometer is only used for liquids
lighter than water.

The alcoholmeter of Tralles is the official instrument for testing
alcoholic liquors in the U. S. but the instrument which is most generally
used both here and abroad is that of Beaumé. There are two instruments
bearing Beaumé's name, one for liquids lighter than water, the other for
those which are heavier. All hydrometers, alcoholmeters and
saccharometers work on the same principle, though they are each
differently graduated for the particular work to be done and the details
of the measuring process are slightly different. All these instruments
are provided with tables whereby their readings may be corrected and the
specific gravity of the liquid determined.

The above hydrometric methods can be safely employed only when the spirit
tested contains a very small amount of solid matter, since, when such
matter is contained in the liquor in quantity, the density alone cannot
possibly afford a correct indication of its richness in alcohol. Many
methods have been proposed for the estimation of alcohol in liquor,
containing saccharine coloring and extractive matters, either in solution
or suspension. Undoubtedly the most accurate of these, though at the same
time the most tedious, is to subject the liquor to a process of
distillation by which a mixture of pure alcohol and water is obtained as
the distillate. This mixture is carefully tested with the hydrometer, and
the percentage of alcohol in it determined by reference to the tables as
above described; from this quantity and the volume of the original liquor
employed the percentage by volume of alcohol in that liquor is readily
found. The condensing arrangement must be kept perfectly cool, if
possible in a refrigerator, as the alcohol in the distillate is very
liable to be lost by re-evaporation. When great accuracy is desired, and
time is at the operator's disposal, the above method is preferable to all
others.

It is performed in the following manner: Three hundred parts of the
liquor to be examined are placed in a small still, or retort, and exactly
one-third of this quantity is distilled over. A graduated glass tube is
used as the receiver, in order that the correct volume may be drawn over
without error. The alcoholic richness of the distillate is then
determined by any of the above methods, and the result is divided by
three, which gives at once the percentage of alcohol in the original
liquor. The strength at proof may be calculated from this in the ordinary
way.

If the liquor be acid, it must be neutralized with carbonate of soda
before being submitted to distillation. From eight to ten per cent. of
common salt must be added, in order to raise the boiling point, so that
the whole of the spirit may pass over before it has reached the required
measure. In the case of the stronger wines it is advisable to distil over
150 parts and divide by two instead of three. If the liquor be stronger
than 25 per cent. by volume of alcohol, or above 52 to 54 per cent.
under-proof, an equal volume of water should be added to the liquid in
the still, and a quantity distilled over equal to that of the sample
tested, when the alcoholic strength of the distillate gives, without
calculation, the correct strength required. If the liquor be stronger
than 48 to 50 per cent. under-proof, three times its volume of water must
be added, and the process must be continued until the volume of the
distillate is twice that of the sample originally taken. In each case the
proportionate quantity of common salt must be added.

For the estimation of alcohol in wines, liquors, etc., the following
method may be employed: A measuring flask is filled up to a mark on its
neck with the liquor under examination, which is then transferred to a
retort; the flask must be carefully rinsed out with distilled water, and
the rinsings added to the liquor in the retort. About two-thirds are then
drawn over into the same measuring flask, and made up to its previous
bulk with distilled water, at the same temperature as that of the sample
before distillation. The strength is then determined by means of Syke's
hydrometer, and this, if under-proof, deducted from 100, gives the true
percentage of proof-spirit in the wine.

[Illustration: FIG. 53.--Field's Alcoholometer.]

A quick, if not always very exact, method consists in determining the
point at which the liquor boils. The boiling point of absolute alcohol
being once determined, it is obvious that the more it is diluted with
water the nearer will the boiling point of the mixture approach that of
water; moreover, it has been proved that the presence of saccharine and
other solid matters has but an almost inappreciable effect upon this
point. Field's alcoholometer, since improved by Ure, is based upon this
principle. It is shown in Fig. 53, and consists, roughly speaking, of a
cylindrical vessel _A_, to contain the spirit; this vessel is heated from
beneath by a spirit lamp, which fits into the case _B_. A delicate
thermometer _C_, the bulb of which is introduced into the spirit, is
attached to a scale divided into 100 divisions, of which each represents
one degree over-or under-proof. This method is liable to several small
sources of error, but when a great many determinations have to be made,
and speed is an object rather than extreme accuracy, this instrument
becomes exceedingly useful. It does not answer well with spirits _above_
proof, because the variation in their boiling points are so slight as not
to be easily observed with accuracy. But for liquors under-proof, and
especially for wines, beer, and other fermented liquors, it gives results
closely approximating to those obtained by distillation, and quite
accurate enough for all ordinary purposes. Strong liquors should
therefore be tested with twice their bulk, and commercial spirits with an
equal bulk, of water, the result obtained being multiplied by two or
three, as the case may be.

Another very expeditious, but somewhat rough, method was invented by
Geisler. It consists in measuring the tension of the vapor of the spirit,
by causing it to raise a column of mercury in a closed tube. The very
simple apparatus is shown in Fig. 54. _A_ is a small glass bulb, fitted
with a narrow tube and stop-cock. This vessel is completely filled with
the spirit, and is then screwed upon a long, narrow tube _B_, bent at one
end and containing mercury. This tube is attached to a graduated scale
showing the percentage of absolute alcohol above or below proof. To make
the test the cock is opened, and the bulb, together with the lower part
of the tube, is immersed in boiling water, which gradually raises the
spirit to its boiling-point. When this is reached, the vapor forces the
mercury up the tube, and, when stationary, the degree on the scale to
which it has ascended gives directly the percentage of alcohol.

[Illustration: FIG. 54.--Geisler's Apparatus.]

Another method, which is not to be relied on for very weak liquors, but
which answers well for cordials, wines, and strong ales, is that known as
Brande's method. The liquor is poured into a long, narrow glass tube,
graduated centesimally, until it is half-filled. About 12 or 15 per cent.
of subacetate of lead, or finely powdered litharge, is then added, and
the whole is shaken until all the color is destroyed. Powdered anhydrous
carbonate of potash is next added until it sinks undissolved in the tube,
even after prolonged agitation. The tube is then allowed to rest, when
the alcohol is observed to float upon the surface of the water in a
well-defined layer. The quantity read off on the scale of the tube and
doubled, gives the percentage by volume of alcohol in the original
liquid. The whole operation may be performed in about five minutes, and
furnishes reliable approximative results. In many cases it is necessary
to add the lead salt for the purpose of decolorizing the liquid.

For the investigation of the amount of sugar in, or the concentration of
the mash, or beer, a specially scaled hydrometer is used which is termed
a saccharometer. Sugar possesses a higher degree of specific gravity than
water, and hence it follows that the greater the amount of sugar in the
mash the higher will be the specific gravity. The less the hydrometer
sinks into the fluid the greater the amount of sugar present.
Saccharometers are provided with thermometers whereby the reading may be
corrected to a standard temperature, usually 59° F. The saccharometer is
correct for solutions containing sugar alone but it is only approximately
correct for mash liquor which contains a variety of other matters in
variable quantities.

It is a prime necessity that the distiller should be able to determine if
the mash has been completely saccharified by the malt. For this purpose a
solution of iodine is used. Iodine gives to starch a blue color. If the
starch however, has been completely changed into sugar there will either
be no discoloration or the filtered mash liquid which is at first a
yellowish red becomes blue, then violet, and at last red.

=Determination of the Purity of Alcohols.= While the knowledge of the
amount of alcohol contained in a liquid is of great practical utility,
this does not give any idea of the impurities present.

An alcohol of 100 degrees or an absolute alcohol, may contain numerous
impurities which may greatly affect its quality. It is therefore
necessary in addition to analyze the purity of the alcohol.

In commercial practice there are certain simple processes which will give
a basis by which to determine the impurities left after distillation and
rectification. These processes are largely empirical. They are based on
the perception of the senses and are consequently of an entirely relative
degree of precision. Nevertheless, when made by a practical expert, the
operation may give very useful preliminary indications.

This test is made in a glass of special shape broad at the bottom and
narrowing at the top in order to concentrate the aroma of the product.
Ordinary brandies are tested undiluted. Commercial alcohols, of about 95
degrees must be diluted with water to a maximum of 30 degrees. Otherwise
the burning tang of the alcohol would preclude any delicacy of perception
and allow impurities to pass unnoticed.

The operation is begun by examination by sense of smell. The glass is
half filled with the liquid diluted with one half of pure water. The
glass is covered with one hand and shaken violently for a few seconds.
Immediately upon uncovering it, the quality of the alcoholic vapors may
be ascertained by their odor.

For the examination by sense of taste, the operator rinses his mouth for
a moment with the liquid itself. The taste of ethyl alcohol is fairly
transient;--it disappears quickly allowing the taste of the accompanying
foreign matter to be perceived almost immediately afterward. With a
little practice this test enables one to distinguish by their flavor the
primal origin of alcohols and to judge of their purity. Some
professionals succeed by training in arriving at high degree of skill in
the art of tasting alcohol as it should be done.

In order to determine the purity of alcohol there are besides chemical
tests used by the trade. These tests, which consist in characterizing and
measuring separately the impurities which alcohol may contain, such as
acids, ethers, aldehydes, bases, etc., belong exclusively to analytical
chemistry; they are extremely delicate and complicated. We will not
venture to touch upon them here.

One of the simplest tests for purity is that of Barbet. This is based
upon the time taken to discolor a solution of permanganate of potash
under the action of the tested alcohol. It is not only very rapid but in
general more practical than other tests. It allows the aggregate of the
impurities contained in an alcohol to be ascertained in a single
operation.

The permanganate solution used is very weak (0. gr. 200 of salt), and of
a violet-red color. The technique of the proceeding is as follows: 50
cubic centimeters of the alcohol to be tested are placed in a glass
vessel the temperature of which is maintained at 64.40°F. 2 cubic
centimeters of the permanganate solution are abruptly added and the time
noted to within a second. Discoloration is awaited and as soon as it
takes place the time is again noted. The total discoloration of the
permanganate is not very marked and passes through intermediate stages;
therefore it is preferable not to await complete discoloration but to
stop at a pale salmon tint, which tint may be comparatively fixed by a
sample of colored liquid (say a solution of fuchsine and chromate of
potash).

The comparative times of discoloration obtained by M. Barbet with various
commercial alcohols, are as follows:

         Pure alcohol                           43 min. 30 sec.
         Extra fine alcohol                      5  "   30  "
         Semi fine alcohol                       5  "   10  "
         Medium flavor alcohol (first running)   5  "    5  "
         Mediocre alcohol                        5  "   11  "
         Medium flavor alcohol (last running)    2  "   12  "



                              CHAPTER XII.

      DISTILLING PLANTS: THEIR GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND EQUIPMENT.


When we look at the manufactories of to-day with their complicated
machinery, their extensive equipment, their great boilers, and engines
and their hundreds of employees, we are liable to forget that good work
was turned out by our ancestors, with equipment of extreme simplicity and
that to-day while there are, for instance, thousands of wood-working
mills, complete in every detail and covering under a multitude of roofs
every variety of complicated and perfected wood-working machinery, yet
there are many more thousands of small plants, comprising a portable
boiler, fed with refuse, a small engine and a few saws which are making
money for the owners and doing the work of the world.

The reader therefore, must be warned against any feeling of
discouragement because of the cost and complicated perfection of
elaborate distilling plants. Where the business is to be entered into on
a large scale, to take the products from a considerable section of
country and turn them into alcohol to compete in the great markets, the
best of apparatus and equipment is not too good, but the person
contemplating the mere manufacture of alcohol on a small scale, to serve
only a small section, must remember that distillation is really a very
simple matter, for years practiced with a most rudimentary apparatus and
still so practiced in the country districts particularly in the South.

This is well illustrated by the fact that an illicit distiller confined
in one of the North Carolina penitentiaries for transgressing the revenue
laws, was able while in durance, to continue his operations unknown to
the prison authorities, his plant consisting of a few buckets, and a
still whose body was a tin kettle, a few pieces of pipe and a worm which
he had bent himself. This example is not given as encouragement to
illicit or "blockade" distilling but merely to show vividly how simple
the rudimentary apparatus really is.

The simplest regular plants, those of the South for instance, comprise a
building of rough lumber some thirty feet by twelve wide, with a wooden
floor on which the fermenting vats rest and an earthern floor immediately
in front of the still and furnace. This is to permit the fires being
drawn when the charge has been exhausted in the boiler. The still is of
the fire-heated, intermittent variety, such as described on page 35. It
consists of a brick furnace or oven, large enough to burn ordinary cord
wood and supporting a copper boiler of fifteen or twenty gallons
capacity. On top of this is a copper "head" with the usual goose neck,
from which a copper pipe leads to a closed and locked barrel containing
raw spirits, this barrel acting on the principle of the condensing
chamber shown in the still in Fig. 8. From the upper part of this barrel,
which acts as a concentrator, the vapors pass to a copper worm immersed
in a tub of cold water. Here the vapors are condensed and pass by a pipe
to a small room, containing a locked receiving tank. This room is kept
locked and is under the immediate charge of the Government officer in
charge of the still, or, in the case of alcohol intended for de-naturing,
the alcohol would pass to a locked tank from whence it would be taken and
de-natured under the charge of the proper Government officer.

The fermenting vats may be six or more in number so as to allow the mash
in each tank to be at a different stage of fermentation. A hand pump is
used for pumping the contents of any of the tanks into the boiler or the
still. A hand pump is also provided for supplying water to the vats and
condensers.

In connection with the distilling and fermenting building there are small
buildings for storing the grain, malt, etc., for the storage of the
alcohol and for the keeping of the various books, records, and stamps
required by law. Such plants as these are located adjacent to a good
clear spring or even a small brook, and preferably in a position
convenient to the carriage of materials and the transportation of the
whiskey or other liquor produced.

The buildings are of the cheapest construction and arranged in the
manner which compels the least labor in filling the mash vats and turning
the contents into spirits. There are no special mash coolers, no
complicated stirrers. The "beer" as the fermented mash is called is
stirred by a paddle in the hands of a strong negro and the mash is mixed
and fermented by rule of thumb, without the use of any scientific
appliances. Primitive, as it is, however, those small plants in certain
sections of the country make money for their proprietors and serve a
large number of customers. The spirits so produced are low grade, fiery
and rough in taste, but the point is that alcohol may be and is so
produced.

Between these simple beginnings and the elaborate plants of big
distilleries there is a wide range, so wide that it is impossible within
the limits of this book to go into detail. The makers of distilling
apparatus furnish all grades of stills and to those contemplating
erecting a plant it is suggested that their best course is to communicate
with such manufacturers, giving the circumstances of the case, the
particular product to be worked and the capacity desired. The object of
this book is to give an understanding of the processes of distillation
and of this chapter to give a general idea of the arrangement of a number
of typical distilling plants, suitable for various kinds of work.

That the simple, direct-heated pot still such as referred to above, used
for fifteen hundred years and over, is still used is largely due to the
simplicity of its construction and operation, but its capacity is small,
and its operating expense relatively heavy. It is still used for making
liquors, but for industrial purposes it has been entirely superceded by
concentrating and rectifying stills. A simple form of the latter is found
in the still shown in Fig. 11 and in the distilling apparatus of Adam
(Fig. 9).

Originally all stills were heated by direct contact with fire. This was
open to a serious objection, namely, that the mash if thick was liable to
be scorched. Stirring devices were used by Pistorious but these required
constant attention. As a consequence, direct firing gave place to heating
by steam, by which not only was scorching of the wash avoided but much
greater certainty of operation was attained.

The steam may be used to simply heat the boiler, thus taking the place of
the direct heat of the fire, but it is far better in every way to admit
the steam directly to the mash as in the Coffey still, Fig. 18, and all
modern stills. It is possible to apply this principle to all compound
stills, but the best results with greatest economy of fuel are, of
course, gotten from the plate or column stills especially constructed for
steam. In order to get the best results it is necessary that the entry of
steam be regulated so that there may be absolute uniformity of flow. A
convenient form of regulator is that invented by Savalle, and described
on page 70, hut there are a number of other forms on the market each one
having its special advantages.

It will be seen then that while the simple pot still, fire-heated, may be
used, the practical plant for the fermentation of industrial alcohol
should have a modern continuous still and rectifier and a boiler for
generating the necessary steam for it and for the operations of mashing
and fermenting.


                          THE FERMENTING ROOM.

The fermenting room has three main requirements for successful commercial
distillation. It must allow a uniform temperature to be maintained in the
vats; it must have thorough ventilation without any draftiness, and it
must be absolutely clean. It should have also plenty of light so that it
may be thoroughly inspected. It is true that in the primitive plants all
these requisites were violated, but there is no reason for this. The
first cost is but little added to by building with these requisites in
mind and it is far more profitable in the long run; and it is only by the
elimination of the bacteria which are inimical to proper fermentation
that the fermenting operation can be performed with any certainty.

For the regulation of the temperature reliance may be had on stoves or
heaters, or on special mash heaters and coolers by which the temperature
of the mash in the tubs may itself be controlled without reference to
the temperature of the fermenting room. When, however, no special and
adequate-heating means is provided, the walls should be double with an
air space between and the doors and windows should either be also double
or limited in number.

To ensure good ventilation and plenty of space above the vats wherein to
work or install suitable vatting machinery, the walls should be at least
twelve feet in height. Outlet openings should be formed around the base
of the room leading to the outer air and closed by controllable shutters.
These are to allow the escape of the carbonic acid gas evolved during
fermentation. These should be most carefully constructed, however, to
prevent drafts.

The walls and floor of the fermenting rooms should be so made that they
may be easily washed down and kept clean. Concrete floors are excellent
for this purpose and the walls also may be faced with concrete or cement
covered with a coating composed of a mixture of asphalt and coal tar.
This mixture may be also applied to plaster walls with good results.

The fermenting vats, as before stated, are made of wood for small plants,
and of iron for larger plants, and are usually from three and a half to
four and a half feet in height. After the chief fermenting period, it is
necessary that the temperature of the mash be prevented from rising
beyond 86° F. and to that end movable cooling tubes, coils and stirrers
are used. These consist of parallel frames made up of tubes, preferably
of copper, through which cold water is passed and which are moved about
in the vat, either vertically or rotatively. There must be space above
the vats, therefore, for the introduction and removal of these cooling
frames, and for the gearing whereby they are driven.

As previously stated, mashes to-day are mostly prepared by steaming and
disintegrating in a mash cooker of the type shown in Figs. 1 and 41 or in
Henze steamers, from which the mash is blown into the preparatory mash
vat, where it is stirred and brought to the proper temperature for
fermentation. A convenient arrangement of mash cooker, coolers, pump and
vats is shown in Fig. 1. Where Henze steamers are used they are arranged
in batteries, the blow-off pipes being connected to the preparatory mash
vats. These are preferably provided with water cooled stirrers consisting
of a frame of straight and vertical tubes mounted on a tubular arm
projecting from a tubular shaft, and rotated in a horizontal plane within
the closed mash vats, by suitable gears. The rotation of the arm stirs
and automatically mixes the mash while cooling it. Another form of cooler
is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 4.

Whatever form of cooling apparatus is used, attention should be paid to
the ease with which the stirrers or tubes can be kept clean, and to the
strength of the apparatus, gears, etc. Concentrated or thick mashes
require that the stirrers be of massive construction, capable of being
rapidly rotated in the liquid.

In preparatory mash vats for use with concentrated mashes, means must
also be provided for clearing the mash. These mash cleaners and husk
removers usually form part of, or are attached to the vat itself and are
driven by gearing from the main shaft carrying power to the mashing room.

A good idea of the general arrangement and correlation of the various
apparatus of a plant may be gathered from the sectional view of a grain
distillery shown in Fig. 55. It will be seen from this that the mashing
apparatus, steamers and mixers are located on the several floors of one
building and in such relation to each other that the several operations
of saccharifying are carried on in a continuous movement of mash towards
the fermenting vats.

[Illustration: FIG. 55.--Continuous Grain Alcohol Distillery--Barbet's
System.]

Adjoining the fermenting vat room is a section of the plant given up to
the manufacture of pure yeast and this and the fermenting rooms are level
with the ground, have solid walls whereby a uniform temperature is
obtained, and plenty of space for proper ventilation of the vats. A
gallery traverses the room about midway the height of the vats so that
convenient access may be had to them. The distilling room is high enough
to allow for the setting of the various columns, separators and
condensers at their proper heights relative to each other, and should
be so arranged as to its several floors or stages that access to the
various pipes and apparatus may be easily had. The steam generator for
the column is located in an adjacent room.

In addition to this there should be a malt house for the preparation of
malt, located conveniently to the saccharifying building; an engine and
boiler room so placed that power may be conveniently transferred to the
mixers, stirrers and pumps and to generate steam for the Henze boilers;
while adjacent to the distilling building should be the storage tanks and
de-naturing department.

[Illustration: FIG. 56.--Grain Distillery. Capacity 2,500 Bushels per
day. (_To face page 198_)]

Another arrangement of apparatus for a grain distillery with a capacity
of 2500 bushels per day is illustrated in Fig. 56. This plant was erected
by the Vulcan Copper Works Co., and includes separate stills for gin,
alcohol, and rye whiskey, as well as a spirit rectifying column.

The milling and grain mixing departments, the yeast room and the
fermenting room are arranged on the several floors of one building, in
the basement of which is located the vacuum cooker and drop tub and
coolers described on page 11 from which the mash is pumped into the
fermenting tubs.

The second section of the building contains the distilling apparatus,
storage tanks, charcoal rectifiers and spirit rectifying apparatus, while
the third section of the building comprises the boiler house and engine
room.

[Illustration: FIG. 57--Small Beet Distillery.]

In Fig. 57 is shown a view of a small plant for the distillation of
beets, the figure giving a good idea of the arrangement of the
diffusion battery in relation to the still and rectifier. The juice from
the diffusion battery is pumped into the overhead tanks from which it
descends into a dephlegmator and from thence into the still, the vapors
from the still passing into the rectifier. The still is a direct,
fire-heated still and adjacent to the still is a water heater from which
the water passes to the hot water reservoir located above and to one side
of the diffusion vats.

[Illustration: FIG. 58.--Large Beet Distillery.]

A large plant for the distillation of beets is shown in the Section Fig.
58. The beets from the beet silos are carried to suitable washing
machines, _A_, see Chapter VII, in which they are thoroughly cleaned of
dirt and gravel. From the washers they are lifted by a conveyor _B_ to a
distributor _C_ by which they are conveyed to the cutters or slicers.
These consist of horizontal apertured plates revolving at a high speed,
and carry knives which plane off slices from the beets. These drop
through the apertures of the plate and are conveyed to the diffusion
batteries, as by a movable chute _D_ oscillated with a jigging motion
through suitable gearing.

The diffusers _F_ should be arranged so that small trucks may be driven
beneath them to receive the spent slices and carry them to the spent beet
silos. _U_ indicates a gauging tank into which the juice runs from the
diffusers. From thence it passes to coolers (not seen) and thence to the
fermentation tanks _G_. _R_ indicates a small engine for driving the
beet slicers and _S_ a battery of pumps whereby the wash may be forced up
into the reservoir _I_ from which the wash descends into the still _K_.
_H_ and _J_ are reservoirs for hot and cold water respectively.

From the distilling column _K_ the phlegm or raw spirit passes to the
phlegm tank _L_ from which it is drawn as desired into the rectifying
column _M_, thence into the coolers and condensers and thence into the
alcohol tanks _N_.

On the other side of the building as indicated by the chimney is the
boiler for generating the motive power for the plant and for supplying
the steam necessary for the distilling and rectifying columns and the hot
water for the diffusion batteries. The boiler should be very capacious
and it would be well to have two, one in reserve.

If possible, advantage should be taken of the natural slope of the ground
so that the trucks bringing beets from the silo to the washer and
carrying the spent beets away may roll downward by their own weight. The
silos for the spent beets should be excavated from the ground and the
trucks be constructed to tip their contents into these pits. The natural
slope of the bottom of these pits should drain away the water and means
be provided whereby carts can load with the spent beets to carry them
away.

The spent liquors should flow off into ponds from which they may be drawn
away to fertilize land.

A very convenient method of carrying beets from the silos to the washing
machine is by means of a narrow canal of rapidly flowing water, flowing
between the silos and entering the washing machines. Beets pitched into
this stream are carried along by the current to the washers and at the
same time undergo a preliminary washing. By laying out a system of
channels throughout the beet yard the labor of handling is reduced to a
minimum. These channels may be covered by boards on which the beets may
be piled. These may be lifted and the beets thereon dumped into the
stream.

A plant for the distillation of potatoes would be arranged very much
after the plan of the grain distillery heretofore described except that
it would have to be provided with apparatus for washing the potatoes and
removing stones and adhering clods of earth. These washers, as put on the
market, comprise a slotted rotating drum, which tumbles the potatoes
about and loosens the dirt. When they escape from the drum they enter a
washing trough where they are stirred about by revolving blades and acted
upon by a swift current of water. The trough should be about two feet
long to properly wash the potatoes. They are then lifted by an elevator
to the mouth of the Henze pulpers (see Fig. 2) or the vacuum cookers see
Fig. 1).

It is of advantage that the washing apparatus be so located that the
potatoes as they are received may be shoveled into it immediately. The
scale for weighing the potatoes as they are brought in should be so
located that the manager may attend to the weighing without having to
leave the distillery. This and other like details may seem of small
moment but it is care in such details which conduces to the success of a
plant. As before stated in describing a beet distillery, advantage should
be taken of the lay of the land in laying out the plant so that the spent
pulp may be easily disposed of, the spent wash carried away, and the
finished product conveniently handled.

[Illustration: FIG. 59.--Molasses Distillery. Capacity 2,500 gallons per
day.]

In Fig. 59, is shown a plant for distilling molasses, designed by the
Vulcan Copper Works, before referred to, and erected for the Rio Tamposo
Sugar Co., of Tamposo, S. L. P., Mexico.

The molasses as before explained at page 164 being too concentrated, is
first pumped into the steam mixing tank on the ground floor of the
distilling building. Here it is diluted and heated, mixed with sulphuric
acid and pumped into the long ranges of cooling pipes, located along the
fermenting room and built on the principle shown in Fig. 4. Here it is
further diluted and yeast is added. From the fermenting tubs the molasses
beer is pumped into the beer heater and thence into such a still as is
shown in Fig. 32.

In addition to this the plant contains a rectifying apparatus for the
high wines produced by the beer still, comprising a spirit still, charged
from a high wine tank, a rectifying column, separator, and tubular
condenser from which the rectified spirit is carried to the storage
tanks.

Cane sugar distilleries are practically arranged the same as the molasses
distillery above described. The cane is crushed between the rolls of cane
crushers on the receiving floor and is then strained to remove the
"begasse." The clarified juice is then pumped up to the mixing tanks. In
these the molasses is mixed with spent wash from other fermentations or
with water, after which it is acidified and flows to the fermenting vats.
The fermenting house should be provided with means for forcing in
filtered air and for ventilating, as molasses wash is very sensitive to
change in temperature and very liable to become contaminated by injurious
ferments. (See Fig. 60).

[Illustration: FIG. 60.--Molasses Fermenting House.]

Above each vat should be a cooling coil capable of being lowered into the
vat and a water spraying pipe, whereby the mash may be diluted when
desired. From the vats, the wash is pumped to the distilling and
rectifying columns. In Jamaica the still shown in Fig. 37, is largely
used, as also the Coffey still, Fig. 18.

It is very often not profitable to distill spirit from molasses or sugar
cane directly at the sugar factories, there being no market on the spot
and transportation of the spirit in casks being very costly and
difficult, not only because of the lack of transporting means but because
the tropical climate tends to warp the empty casks. Transportation of the
molasses in casks to a distillery is likewise open to objections of cost
and the action of the hot sun in fermenting the molasses and bursting the
cask.

Barbet has suggested a way out of the difficulty. This consists in
boiling the molasses in vacuo, and then running it into molds lined with
sheets of paper. These are set by dipping in cold water. When set the
loaves wrapped in their paper coverings are as easily handled as sugar
loaves. There is no dead weight nor any "empties" to be returned as in
the case of casks. The molasses is in a most concentrated form and this
makes for economy in freight. There is no risk of deterioration and the
loaves may be stored in an ordinary warehouse. This method allows the
distillery to be located at centers of transportation or at seaports,
while the sugar factories are on the plantation.

Care should be taken in selecting the site for a distillery that an
abundance of pure water may be supplied. The purer the water the better,
and where water is not pure, purifying apparatus should be provided. The
coolness of the water is a factor which must be taken into consideration.
The greater amount of water will be used for cooling, and it follows then
that the cooler the water the less of it will have to be used.

The horse-power of the engines used in driving the distilling apparatus
varies, of course, with the capacity of the still, the average being
between 6 H.P. and 30 H.P., for plants having fermenting vats of
capacities ranging between two hundred and fifty, and twelve hundred
gallons.

It must not be forgotten that the coal consumption of a plant depends
upon the economy of heating means in the distilling apparatus, the
perfection with which the heat of the vapors is used to heat the wash,
the perfection of the boiler grates and the method of firing. These
latter matters should be obvious to any distiller, but it is in economy
in little things that the successful operation of a plant resides.

Nothing is more surprising than the difference in the coal consumption of
different distilleries. Some use a third more than others. This is caused
by poor coal, by poor firing, by poor boilers, by hard water, or by poor
distilling equipment. With regard to the latter this word of advice may
be given: The greater the number of plates in the distilling column, the
less the coal consumed per gallon of alcohol produced. It must, however,
be taken into account that a large number of plates in a column means a
column of considerable height and that in turn means a correspondingly
tall still house and increased first cost. Hence it is more economical to
use the best forms of traps on the plates and fewer plates, and the best
forms of these traps as pointed out in Chapter III, are those wherein the
largest quantity of vapor in a finely divided state may come into contact
with the greatest number of liquid particles.

In conclusion it may be said that dirt, neglect, carelessness and a too
great desire for economy in first cost are all factors in lowering the
economical productiveness as well in a distillery as in other
manufacturing plants.



                             CHAPTER XIII.

               DE-NATURED ALCOHOL AND DE-NATURING FORMULÆ


The uses of alcohol are very numerous and varied, the principal being, of
course, for the production of all alcoholic liquors such as brandy, gin,
rum, whiskey, liquors, etc.; that distilled from grain is almost entirely
consumed in the manufacture of whiskey, gin, and British brandy. In the
arts, strong alcohol is employed by the perfumers and makers of essences
for dissolving essential oils, soaps, etc., and for extracting the odor
of flowers and plants; by the varnish-makers for dissolving resins; by
photographers in the preparation of collodion; by the pharmaceutists in
the preparation of tinctures and other valuable medicaments; by chemists
in many analytical operations, and in the manufacture of numerous
preparations; by instrument makers in the manufacture of delicate
thermometers; by the anatomist and naturalist as an antiseptic; and in
medicine, both in a concentrated form (rectified spirit), and diluted
(proof spirit, brandy, etc.), as a stimulant, tonic, or irritant, and for
various applications as a remedy. It is largely consumed in the
manufacture of vinegar; and in the form of methylated spirit it is used
in lamps for producing heat. It has, in fact, been employed for a
multitude of purposes which it is almost impossible to enumerate.

The common form of alcohol known as "de-natured spirit" consists of
alcohol to which one tenth of its volume of wood alcohol, or other
de-naturizing agents has been added, for the purpose of rendering the
mixture undrinkable through its offensive odor and taste. Methylated
spirit being sold tax free, may be applied by chemical manufacturers,
varnish makers, and many others, to a variety of uses, to which, from its
greater cost, duty-paid spirit is commercially inapplicable. Its use,
however, in the preparation of tinctures, sweet spirits of nitre, etc.,
has been prohibited by law. It has often been attempted to separate the
wood spirit from the alcohol, and thus to obtain pure alcohol from the
mixture, but always unsuccessfully, as, although the former boils at a
lower temperature than the latter, when boiled they both distil over
together, owing probably to the difference of their vapor densities.

It is Germany which has led the way in the manufacture and use of
"de-natured" alcohol or "spiritus," as it is there known. Germany has no
natural gas or oil wells, and gasoline and kerosene are not produced
there, hence the necessity of using some other form of liquid fuel. This
fuel--in many ways better than any petroleum product--was found in
alcohol. The sandy plains of northern Germany, and indeed any
agricultural district of that empire, produce abundant crops of potatoes
and beets.

From the first, alcohol can be so easily manufactured that the processes
are within the understanding and ability of any farmer. The second is
used in the manufacture of beet sugar,--one of the great German
industries, and the crude molasses, from a refuse product,--still
contains from 40 to 50 per cent. of sugar, from which alcohol can be
made. Under these circumstances and the great demand for liquid fuel for
motor carriages and gas engines, alcohol for "de-naturing" came rapidly
to the front as one of the most important of agricultural products, as
one of the most valuable "crops" which a farmer could raise. Potatoes are
chiefly raised. The potatoes are grown by the farmers and manufactured
into alcohol in individual farm distilleries and in cooperative
distilleries.

While England and France were somewhat behind Germany in fostering this
industry--yet they both were far ahead of the United States in this
matter. De-natured alcohol could be readily gotten in these countries,
for industrial purposes, while the United States continued to charge a
high internal revenue tax on all but wood alcohol. This prevented the use
of alcohol in competition with gasoline or kerosene, and limited its use
in arts and manufactures.

On June 7, 1906, however, Congress passed the "De-naturing Act," as it is
called, which provided in brief that alcohol, which had been mixed with
a certain proportion of de-naturing materials sufficient to prevent its
use as a beverage should not be taxed.

The passage of this Act was alcohol's new day, and is destined to have a
wide influence upon the agricultural pursuits of the country.

In the matter of small engines and motors alone one estimate places the
farm use of these at three hundred thousand with an annual increase of
one hundred thousand. This means an economical displacing of horse and
muscle power in farm work almost beyond comprehension. If now the farmer
can make from surplus or cheaply grown crops the very alcohol which is to
furnish the cheaper fuel for his motors, he is placed in a still more
independent and commanding position in the industrial race.

As an illuminant the untaxed alcohol is bound to introduce some
interesting as well as novel conditions. The general estimate of the
value of alcohol for lighting gives it about double the power of
kerosene, a gallon of alcohol lasting as two gallons of the oil. In
Germany, where the use of alcohol in lamps is most fully developed, a
mantle is used. Thus in a short time it may be expected that an entirely
new industry will spring up to meet the demand for the illuminating lamps
embodying the latest approved form of mantle. The adapting of the
gasoline motors of automobiles to alcohol fuel will in itself create a
vast new manufacturing undertaking. When this is accomplished it is
believed that we shall no more be troubled with the malodorous gasoline
"auto" and "cycle" burners on our public streets and parkways.

De-natured alcohol is simply alcohol which has been so treated, as to
spoil it for use as a beverage or medicine, and prevent its use in any
manner except for industrial purposes.

De-naturing may be accomplished in many ways.

In England a mixture suitable for industrial purposes, but unfit for any
other use, is made by mixing 90 per cent. of ethyl alcohol (alcohol made
from grain, potatoes, beets, etc.), with 10 per cent. of methyl or "wood
alcohol." Under the new law the proportion of wood alcohol is cut to five
per cent.

In Canada "methylated spirits," as it is known, is composed of from 25
per cent. to 50 per cent. of wood alcohol mixed with ethyl alcohol. This
proportion of wood alcohol is far more than is required in any other
country.

In Germany, the de-naturing law passed in 1887 was so framed as to
maintain the high revenue tax on alcohol intended for drinking, but to
exempt from taxation such as should be de-naturized and used for
industrial purposes. De-naturing is accomplished by mixing with the
spirit a small proportion of some foreign substance, which, while not
injuring its efficiency for technical uses, renders it unfit for
consumption as a beverage. The de-naturing substances employed depend
upon the use to which the alcohol is to be subsequently applied. They
include pyridin, picolin, benzol, toluol, and xylol, wood vinegar, and
several other similar products. As a result of this system Germany
produced and used last year 100,000,000 gallons of de-natured spirits, as
compared with 10,302,630 gallons used in 1886, the last year before the
enactment of the present law.

The following are some of the other de-naturants used in Germany:
Camphor, oil of turpentine, sulphuric ether, animal oil, chloroform,
iodoform, ethyl bromide, benzine, castor oil, lye.

                   *       *       *       *       *

              In France the standard mixture consists of:

                      150 liters of Ethyl alcohol,
                       15 liters of wood alcohol,
                      1/2 liter of heavy benzine,
                        1 gram. Malachite green.

An illustration of de-naturing on a large scale is given by the methods
and operations of a large London establishment. On the ground floor are
four large iron tanks holding about 2500 gallons each. On the next floor
are casks of spirit brought under seal from the bonded warehouse. On the
third floor are the wood alcohol tanks, and on the fourth floor cans of
methylating materials. On the fourth floor the covers to the wood alcohol
tanks were removed (these tank covers were flush with that floor) and the
contents gauged and tested. The quantity to be put into the tanks on the
first floor was run off through pipes connecting with the first-floor
tanks and the upper tanks relocked. Then going to the second floor, each
cask of the grain spirit was gauged and tested and the tank covers, which
were flush with the floor, were removed and the casks of the grain spirit
were run into the tanks below. The mixture was then stirred with
long-handled wooden paddles and the tank covers replaced, and the
material was ready for sale free of tax. The mixture was 10 per cent.
wood alcohol and 90 per cent. ethyl alcohol made from molasses, and was
what is known as the ordinary methylating spirit used for manufacturing
purposes only and used under bond. The completely de-natured spirit is
made by adding to the foregoing three-eighths of one per cent. of
benzine.

This benzine prevents re-distillation.

In the United States there are at present two general formulas for
de-natured alcohol in use, either one of which may be used by any
manufacturer, who can use de-natured alcohol.

The first and most common one is made up as follows:

                       Ethyl Alcohol 100 gallons.
                       Methyl  "      10     "
                       Benzine       1/2     "

Where such a formula as this is required in an aqueous solution the
benzine is of course thrown out, giving the solution a milky appearance.
In this case the other general formula may be used.

                      Ethyl Alcohol  100 gallons.
                      Methyl  "        2   "
                      Pyridine Bases 1/2   "

In addition to these two general formulas for de-natured alcohol a number
of special formulas have been authorized to be used in the manufacture of
certain classes of goods. In order to buy these specially de-natured
alcohols it is necessary, of course, to obtain a permit first from your
Collector of Internal Revenue, a simple permit to use de-natured alcohol
will not suffice. Some of the special formulas are as follows:

For use in the manufacture of sulphonmethane.

                      Ethyl Alcohol   100 gallons.
                      Pyridin Bases     1 gallon.
                      Coal Tar Benzol   1      "

For use in the manufacture of transparent soap.

              Ethyl Alcohol                  100 gallons.
              Methyl  "                        5     "
              Castor Oil                       1     "
              36° Be. Caustic Soda Solution  1/2     "

For the manufacture of shellac varnishes.

                Ethyl Alcohol       100 parts by volume
                Methyl     "          5   "   "     "

For the manufacture of smoking and chewing tobacco.

   Ethyl Alcohol                                        100 gallons.
   A mixture made as follows:                             1  "
   Aqueous Solution containing 40% Nicotine 12 gallons
   Acid Yellow Dye 0.4 lb.
   Tetrazo Brilliant Blue 12 B Conct. 0.4 lb.
   Water to make 100 gallons.

For the manufacture of photo-engravings.

                    Ethyl Alcohol       100 gallons.
                    Sulphuric Ether      65 lbs.
                    Cadmium Iodide        3  "
                    Ammonium  "           3  "

For the manufacture of fulminate of mercury.

                    Ethyl Alcohol      100 gallons.
                    Methyl  "            3  "
                    Pyridine Bases     1/2  "

The next formula may be used for the following purposes:

In the manufacture of photographic dry plates.

In the manufacture of embalming fluid.

In the manufacture of heliotropin.

In the manufacture of resin of podophyllum and similar products.

In the manufacture of lacquers from soluble cotton.

In the manufacture of thermometer and barometer tubes.

                      Ethyl Alcohol  100 gallons.
                      Methyl   "       5    "

For use in the manufacture of photographic collodian.

                     Ethyl  Alcohol   100 gallons.
                     Sulphuric Ether   10 lbs.
                     Cadmium Iodine    10  "

For use in the manufacture of pastes and varnishes from soluble cotton.

                      Ethyl Alcohol   100 gallons.
                      Methyl    "       2    "
                      Benzol            2    "

For use in the purification of rubber.

                     Ethyl Alcohol    100 gallons.
                     Acetone           10  "
                     Petroleum naptha   2  "

Petroleum naptha must have a specific gravity of not less than ·650 nor
more than ·720 at 60°F.

For use in the manufacture of watches.

Ethyl Alcohol        100 gallons.
Methyl     "           5    "
Cyanide of Potassium   1-1/2 lbs.
Patened Blue B           1/8 oz.

(Acid calcium, magnesium, or sodium salt of the disulpho-acids of
meta-oxytetraethyldiamidotri-phenyl-carbidrids.)

The methyl alcohol must have a specific gravity of not more than ·810
at 60° F.

The de-naturing mixture is best prepared by dissolving the cyanide of
potassium in a small quantity of water, and then adding this solution to
the alcohol, with which the methyl alcohol, containing the dissolved
color, has been previously mixed.

For the manufacture of celluloid, pyralin and similar products.

                   Ethyl Alcohol 100 parts by volume
                   Methyl    "     5  "    "    "
                   Camphor         7 lbs.

Alternative special de-naturant for the manufacture of celluloid, pyralin
and similar products.

                       Ethyl Alcohol 100 gallons.
                       Methyl    "     2    "
                       Benzol          2    "

The strongest alcohol of commerce in the United States is usually 95 per
cent. alcohol, and the price varies from $2.30 to $2.50 per gallon,
showing that the greater part of the cost is due to the revenue levied by
the government. The greater part of the 60,000,000 gallons of alcohol
consumed in the United States is used in the manufacture of whiskey and
other beverages. The revenue tax prevents the use of alcohol to any great
extent in the industries of the country. The bill passed by Congress in
1906, designed to promote the use of untaxed alcohol in the arts and as
fuel, took effect January 1, 1907. The first effect of free alcohol
would, it was said, supplant the 12,000,000 gallons of wood alcohol which
are used in the manufacture of paint, varnishes, shellacs, and other
purposes. Another use that is expected of de-natured alcohol is in the
manufacture of certain products, such as dyestuffs and chemicals, which
can not now be manufactured commercially in this country because of the
high cost of alcohol, and which are imported largely from Europe. A very
rapid development of the industry of manufacturing chemicals as a result
of free alcohol is looked for. In the production of alcohol there is
always formed as a by-product a certain amount of fusel oil, which is
very useful in manufacturing lacquers which are used on metallic
substances, fine hardware, gas fixtures, and similar articles. The
industries manufacturing these wares will undoubtedly receive a great
stimulus as a result of cheaper fusel oil caused by the increased
production of alcohol.

=A Safe Fuel.= The use of de-natured alcohol as a fuel has yet to be
fully developed. Although alcohol has only about half the heating power
of kerosene or gasoline, gallon for gallon, yet it has many valuable
properties which may enable it to compete successfully in spite of its
lower fuel value. In the first place it is very much safer. Alcohol has a
tendency to simply heat the surrounding vapors and produce currents of
hot gases which are not usually brought to high enough temperature to
inflame articles at a distance. It can be easily diluted with water, and
when it is diluted to more than one-half it ceases to be inflammable.
Hence it may be readily extinguished; while burning gasoline, by floating
on the water, simply spreads its flame when water is applied to it.
Although alcohol has far less heating capacity than gasoline, the best
experts believe that it will develop a much higher percentage of
efficiency in motors than does gasoline. Since gasoline represents only
about two per cent. of the petroleum which is refined, its supply is
limited and its price must constantly rise in view of the enormous demand
made for it for automobiles and gasoline engines in general. This will
open a new opportunity for de-natured alcohol. Industrial alcohol is now
used in Germany in small portable lamps, which give it all the effects of
a mantel burner heated by gas. The expense for alcohol is only about
two-thirds as much per candle-power as is the cost of kerosene. Even at
25 or 30 cents a gallon, de-natured alcohol can successfully compete with
kerosene as a means of lighting.

Objection has been made to the use of alcohol in automobiles and other
internal-explosive engines, that it resulted in a corrosion of the metal.
This is vigorously denied by the advocate of alcohol fuel and the denial
is backed by proofs of the use of alcohol in German engines for a number
of years without any bad results.

A recent exhibition in Germany gave a good illustration of the broad
field in which de-natured alcohol may be used.

Here were shown alcohol engines of a large number of different makes,
alcohol boat motors as devised for the Russian navy, and motors for
threshing, grinding, wood-cutting, and other agricultural purposes.

The department of lighting apparatus included a large and varied display
of lamps, chandeliers, and street and corridor lights, in which alcohol
vapor is burned like gas in a hooded flame covered by a Welsbach mantle.
Under such conditions alcohol vapor burns with an incandescent flame
which rivals the arc light in brilliancy and requires to be shaded to
adopt it to the endurance of the human eye. There has been each year a
great improvement in the artistic models and finish of lamps and
chandeliers for alcohol lighting. At the beginning they were simple and
of rather ordinary appearance, but now they are up to the best standard
of modern fixtures for gas and electricity, with which alcohol lighting
is now competing with increasing success in that country.

Similarly attractive and interesting was the large display of alcohol
heating stoves, which, for warming corridors, sleeping rooms, and certain
other locations, are highly esteemed. They are made of japanned-iron
plate in decorative forms, with concave copper reflectors, are readily
portable, and, when provided with chimney connections for the escape of
the gases of combustion, furnish a clean, odorless, and convenient
heating apparatus.

Cooking stoves of all sizes, forms, and capacities, from the complete
range, with baking and roasting ovens, broilers, etc., to the simple tea
and coffee lamp, were also displayed in endless variety.

Enough has been said to give an idea of the capabilities and values of
this new form of fuel,--at least, and as far as the United States is
concerned.

With its advent not only will American genius perfect the machinery for
its use, but the American farmer is given a new market for his crops.

Distilleries, big and little, are likely to be set up all over the
country, and the time is not far distant when the farmer will be able to
carry his corn to his local distillery, and either return with the money
in his pocket, or with fuel for farm engines, machinery, and perchance
his automobile.

When our government shall have become as far-sighted as the German
government in this matter, every farmer will be able to manufacture his
own de-natured spirits. The wisdom of the German system established by
the law of 1887 has long ceased to be a question of debate. For every
reichsmark of revenue sacrificed by exempting de-natured spirits from
taxation the empire and its people have profited ten-fold by the stimulus
which has been thereby given to agriculture and the industrial arts.



                              CHAPTER XIV.

THE FREE ALCOHOL ACT OF 1906, THE AMENDMENT OF 1907 AND INTERNAL REVENUE
                              REGULATIONS.


                            PUBLIC--NO. 201.

An Act for the withdrawal from bond, tax free, of domestic alcohol when
rendered unfit for beverage or liquid medicinal uses by mixture with
suitable de-naturing materials.

_Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled_, That from and after January
first, nineteen hundred and seven, domestic alcohol of such degree of
proof as may be prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, and
approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, may be withdrawn from bond
without the payment of internal-revenue tax, for use in the arts and
industries, and for fuel, light, and power, provided said alcohol shall
have been mixed in the presence and under the direction of an authorized
Government officer, after withdrawal from the distillery warehouse, With
methyl alcohol or other de-naturing material or materials, or admixture
of the same, suitable to the use for which the alcohol is withdrawn, but
which destroys its character as a beverage and renders it unfit for
liquid medicinal purposes; such de-naturing to be done upon the
application of any registered distillery in de-naturing bonded warehouses
specially designated or set apart for de-naturing purposes only, and
under conditions prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue with
the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.

The character and quantity of the said de-naturing material and the
conditions upon which said alcohol may be withdrawn free of tax shall be
prescribed by the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, who shall, with the
approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, make all necessary regulations
for carrying into effect the provisions of this Act.

Distillers, manufacturers, dealers and all other persons furnishing,
handling or using alcohol withdrawn from bond under the provisions of
this Act shall keep such books and records, execute such bonds and render
such returns as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval
of the Secretary of the Treasury, may by regulation require. Such books
and records shall be open at all times to the inspection of any
internal-revenue officer or agent.

SEC. 2. That any person who withdraws alcohol free of tax under the
provisions of this Act and regulations made in pursuance thereof, and who
removes or conceals same, or is concerned in removing, deposting or
concealing same for the purpose of preventing the same from being
de-natured under governmental supervision, and any person who uses
alcohol withdrawn from bond under the provision of section one of this
Act for manufacturing any beverage or liquid medicinal preparation, or
knowingly sells any beverage or liquid medicinal preparation made in
whole or in part from such alcohol, or knowingly violates any of the
provisions of this Act, or who shall recover or attempt to recover by
redistillation or by any other process or means, any alcohol rendered
unfit for beverage or liquid medicinal purposes under the provisions of
this Act, or who knowingly uses, sells, conceals, or otherwise disposes
of alcohol so recovered or redistilled, shall on conviction of each
offense be fined not more than five thousand dollars, or be imprisoned
not more than five years, or both, and shall, in addition, forfeit to the
United States all personal property used in connection with his business,
together with the buildings and lots or parcels of ground constituting
the premises on which said unlawful acts are performed or permitted to be
performed: _Provided_, That manufacturers employing processes in which
alcohol, used free of tax under the provisions of this Act, is expressed
or evaporated from the articles manufactured, shall be permitted to
recover such alcohol and to have such alcohol restored to a condition
suitable solely for reuse in manufacturing processes under such
regulations as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval
of the Secretary of the Treasury, shall prescribe.

SEC. 3. That for the employment of such additional force of chemists,
internal-revenue agents, inspectors, deputy collectors, clerks, laborers,
and other assistants as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the
approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, may deem proper and necessary
to the prompt and efficient operation and enforcement of this law, and
for the purchase of locks, seals, weighing beams, gauging instruments,
and for all necessary expenses incident to the proper execution of this
law, the sum of two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, or so much
thereof as may be required, is hereby appropriated out of any money in
the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, said appropriation to be
immediately available.

For a period of two years from and after the passage of this Act the
force authorized by this section of this Act shall be appointed by the
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of
the Treasury, and without compliance with the conditions prescribed by
the Act entitled "An Act to regulate and improve the civil service,"
approved January sixteenth, eighteen hundred and eighty-three, and
amendments thereof and with such compensation as the Commissioner of
Internal Revenue may fix, with the approval of the Secretary of the
Treasury.

SEC. 4. That the Secretary of the Treasury shall make full report to
Congress at its next session of all appointments made under the
provisions of this Act, and the compensation paid thereunder, and of all
regulations prescribed under the provisions hereof, and shall further
report what, if any, additional legislation is necessary, in his opinion,
to fully safeguard the revenue and to secure a proper enforcement of this
Act.

  Approved June 7, 1906.


                        DE-NATURING REGULATIONS

                     UNDER THE ACT OF JUNE 7, 1906.

Under the Act quoted above, the Commissioner of Internal Revenue was
empowered to make regulations whereby the law might be carried into
effect.

In the first place it may be said that those who are permitted by this
Act to manufacture de-natured alcohol must be distillers; in other words,
those who have regularly licensed and registered distilleries. This does
not mean that the plant must be large or costly--as witness the numerous
little "stills" to be found throughout the South; but that the still,
whatever its size, must be under constant supervision, and regularly
licensed to manufacture alcohol. The requirements to this end can be had
from the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Treasury Department,
Washington.

Pursuant to the law regarding de-naturing, rules and regulations have
been drawn up of which the following is a synopsis with extracts where
deemed advisable.


                     DE-NATURING BONDED WAREHOUSES.

"SEC. 2. The proprietor of any registered distillery may withdraw from
his distillery warehouse, free of tax, alcohol of not less than 180
degrees proof or strength, to be de-natured in the manner hereinafter
prescribed.

A distiller desiring to withdraw alcohol from bond for de-naturing
purposes under the provisions of this act shall, at his own expense,
provide a de-naturing bonded warehouse, to be situated on and
constituting a part of the distillery premises. It shall be separated
from the distillery and the distillery bonded warehouse and all other
buildings, and no windows or doors or other openings shall be permitted
in the walls of the de-naturing bonded warehouse leading into the
distillery, the distillery bonded warehouse or other room or building,
except as hereinafter provided. It must be constructed in the same manner
as distillery bonded warehouses are now constructed, with view to the
safe and secure storage of the alcohol removed thereto for de-naturing
purposes and the de-naturing agents to be stored therein. It must be
approved by the Commission of Internal Revenue. It shall be provided with
closed mixing tanks of sufficient capacity. The capacity in wine gallons
of each tank must be ascertained and marked thereon in legible letters,
and each tank must be supplied with a graduated glass gauge whereon the
contents will be at all times correctly indicated. All openings must be
so arranged that they can be securely locked. Suitable office
accommodation for the officer on duty must be provided.

SEC. 3. The de-naturing bonded warehouse shall be used for de-naturing
alcohol, and for no other purpose, and nothing shall be stored or kept
therein except the alcohol to be de-natured, the materials used as
de-naturants, the de-natured product, and the weighing and gauging
instruments and other appliances necessary in the work of de-naturing,
measuring, and gauging the alcohol and de-naturing materials.

These bonded warehouses must be numbered serially in each collection
district, and the words "De-naturing bonded warehouse No.--, district
of--," must be in plain letters in a conspicuous place on the outside of
the building.

In case the distiller's bond has been executed before the erection of
such warehouse the consent of the sureties to the establishment of the
de-naturing warehouse must be secured and entry duly signed made on the
bond."


                       DE-NATURING MATERIAL ROOM.

"SEC. 4. There shall be provided within the de-naturing bonded warehouse
a room to be designated as the de-naturing material room. This room is to
be used alone for the storage of de-naturing materials prior to the
de-naturing process. It must be perfectly secure, and must be so
constructed as to render it impossible for anyone to enter during the
absence of the officer in charge without the same being detected.

The ceiling, inside walls, and floor of said room must be constructed of
brick, stone, or tongue-and-groove planks. If there are windows in the
room the same must be secured by gratings or iron bars, and to each
window must be affixed solid shutters of wood or iron, constructed in
such manner that they may be securely barred and fastened on the inside.
The door must be substantial, and must be so constructed that it can be
securely locked and fastened.

SEC. 5. At least two sets of tanks or receptacles for storing de-naturing
material must be provided, and each set of tanks must be of sufficient
capacity in the aggregate to hold the de-naturing material which it is
estimated the distiller will use for thirty days. A set of tanks shall
consist of one or more tanks for storing methyl alcohol, and one or more
tanks of smaller capacity for storing other de-naturing materials. The
capacity of each tank must be ascertained and marked in legible figures
on the outside.

The tanks must not be connected with each other, and must be so
constructed as to leave at least 18 inches of open space between the top
of the tank and ceiling, the bottom of the tank and the floor, and the
sides of the tank and walls of the de-naturing material room. Each tank
shall be given a number,and this number must be marked upon it. There
shall be no opening at the top except such as may be necessary for
dumping the de-naturing material into the tank and thoroughly plunging or
mixing the same. Said opening must be covered so that it may be locked.
Likewise the faucet through which the de-naturing material is drawn must
be so arranged that it can be locked. Each tank must be supplied with a
graduated glass gauge whereby the contents of the tank will always be
shown."


                CUSTODY OF DE-NATURING BONDED WAREHOUSE.

"SEC. 6. The de-naturing bonded warehouse shall be under the control of
the collector of the district and shall be in the joint custody of a
storekeeper, storekeeper-gauger, or other designated official and the
distiller.

No one shall be permitted to enter the warehouse except in the presence
of said officer, and the warehouse and room shall be kept closed and the
doors, exterior and interior, securely locked except when some work
incidental to the process of de-naturing and storing material is being
carried on. Standard Sleight locks shall be used for locking the
de-naturing bonded ware-house and the de-naturing material room, and they
shall be sealed in the same manner and with the same kind of seals as
distillery bonded warehouses and cistern rooms are now sealed. Miller
locks shall be used in securing the faucets and openings of the mixing
tanks and the de-naturing material tanks.

The officer in charge of the de-naturing bonded warehouse, material room,
and tanks shall carry the keys to same, and under no circumstances are
said keys to be intrusted to anyone except another officer who is duly
authorized to receive them."


       APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL OF DE-NATURING BONDED WAREHOUSE.

"SEC. 7. Whenever a distiller wishes to commence the business of
de-naturing alcohol he must make written application to the collector of
the district in which the distillery is located for the approval of a
de-naturing bonded warehouse.

Such application must give the name or names of the person, firm, or
corporation operating the distillery, the number of the distillery, the
location of the same, the material of which the warehouse is constructed,
the size of same, width, length and height, the size of the de-naturing
material room therein, and the manner of its construction, the capacity
in gallons of each tank to be used for de-naturing alcohol or for holding
the de-naturing agents, and the material of which said tanks are
constructed.

Such application must be accompanied by a diagram correctly representing
the warehouse, the mixing tanks, de-naturing material room, and
de-naturing material tanks, with all openings and surroundings. It must
show the distillery and all the distillery bonded warehouses on the
premises, with dimensions of each."

Sections 9 and 10 of the regulations deal with the examination and
approval of the de-naturing warehouse and plant by the Internal Revenue
officers.


                DE-NATURING WAREHOUSE BOND TO BE GIVEN.

"SEC. 11. After receipt of notice of the approval of said warehouse the
distiller may withdraw from his distillery warehouse, free of tax,
alcohol of not less than 180 degrees proof or strength, and may de-nature
same in said de-naturing warehouse in the manner hereinafter indicated,
provided he shall first execute a bond in the form prescribed by the
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with at least two sureties, Unless,
under the authority contained in an act approved August 13, 1894, a
corporation, duly authorized by the Attorney-General of the United States
to become a surety on such bond, shall be offered as a sole surety
thereon. The bond shall be for a penal sum of not less than double the
tax on the alcohol it is estimated the distiller will de-nature during a
period of 30 days, and in no case is the distiller to withdraw from bond
for de-naturing purposes and have in his de-naturing warehouse in process
of de-naturation a quantity of alcohol the tax upon which is in excess of
the penal sum of the bond.

SEC. 12. If at any time, it should develop that the de-naturing warehouse
bond is insufficient the distiller must give additional bond.

SEC. 13. The bond herein provided for must be executed before the
distiller can withdraw from distillery bonded warehouse, free of tax,
alcohol to be de-natured, and if he desires to continue in the business
of de-naturing alcohol, said bond must be renewed on the first day of May
of each year or before any alcohol is withdrawn from bond for de-naturing
purposes. It must be executed in duplicate in accordance with
instructions printed thereon. One copy is to be retained by the collector
and one copy is to be transmitted to the Commissioner of Internal
Revenue."


              CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH ALCOHOL IS WITHDRAWN.

"SEC. 15. Not less than three hundred (300) wine gallons of alcohol can
be withdrawn at one time for de-naturing purposes.

When a distiller, who is a producer of alcohol of not less than 180
degrees proof and who has given the de-naturing warehouse bond as
aforesaid desires to remove alcohol from the distillery bonded warehouse
for the purpose of de-naturing, he will himself, or by his duly
authorized agent, file with the collector of internal revenue of the
district in which the distillery is located, notice to that effect."

Upon the receipt of this notice (the form for which is given in the
Regulations) the collector for the district will order a gauger to
inspect the alcohol so withdrawn, and to gauge the same, and to make
report; and directions are given to the official "storekeeper" to permit
the transferral of the spirits to the de-naturing warehouse.


                   SPIRITS TRANSFERRED TO BE MARKED.

"Upon receipt of the permit by the storekeeper the packages of distilled
spirits described in notice of intention to withdraw may be withdrawn
from distillery bonded warehouse without the payment of the tax, and may
be transferred to the de-naturing bonded warehouse on the distillery
premises; but before the removal of said spirits from the distillery
bonded warehouse, the gauger, in addition to marking, cutting, and
branding the marks usually required on withdrawal of spirits from
warehouse, will legibly and durably mark on the head of each package, in
letters and figures not less than one-half an inch in length, the number
of _proof_ gallons then ascertained, the date of the collector's permit,
the object for which the spirits were withdrawn, and his name, title, and
district.

Such additional marks may be as follows:

             Withdrawn under permit issued Jan'y. 10, 1907
                        For De-naturing Purposes
                           Proof gallons, 84
                    William Williams, U. S. Gauger,
                             5th Dist. Ky."


          SPIRITS TRANSFERRED TO DE-NATURING BONDED WAREHOUSE.

"SEC. 20. When the packages of spirits are marked and branded in the
manner above indicated they shall at once, in the presence and under the
supervision of the storekeeper, be transferred to the de-naturing bonded
warehouse."


      RECORD OF SPIRITS RECEIVED IN DE-NATURING BONDED WAREHOUSE.

"SEC. 21. The officer in charge of the de-naturing bonded warehouse shall
keep a record of the spirits received in said de-naturing bonded
warehouse from the distillery bonded warehouse and the spirits delivered
to the distiller for de-naturing purposes.

Upon the _debit_ side of said record, in columns prepared for the
purpose, there shall be entered the date when any distilled spirits were
received in de-naturing bonded warehouse, the date of the collector's
permit, the date of withdrawal from distillery bonded warehouse, the
number of packages received, the serial numbers of the packages, the
serial numbers of the distillery warehouse stamps, and the wine and proof
gallons.

Upon the _credit_ side of said record shall be entered the date when any
spirits were delivered to the distiller for de-naturing purposes, the
date of the collector's permit for withdrawal, the date of withdrawal
from distillery bonded warehouse, the number of packages so delivered,
the serial numbers of the packages, the serial numbers of the distillery
warehouse stamps, and the wine and proof gallons.

Immediately upon the receipt of any distilled spirits in the de-naturing
bonded warehouse, and on the same day upon which they are received, the
officer must enter said spirits in said record.

Likewise, on the same date upon which any spirits are delivered to the
distiller for de-naturing purposes, said spirits must be entered on said
record.

SEC. 22. A balance must be struck in the record described in above
section at the end of the month showing the number of packages and
quantity in wine and proof gallons of spirits on hand in packages on the
first day of the month, the number of packages and quantity in wine and
proof gallons received during the month, the number of packages and
quantity in wine and proof gallons delivered to the distiller during the
month, and the balance on hand in packages and wine and proof gallons at
the close of the month."

Sections 23 to 25 of the Rules relate to the duties of the Internal
Revenue officers in making reports and returns.


           DE-NATURING AGENTS. COMPLETELY DE-NATURED ALCOHOL.

"SEC. 26. Unless otherwise specially provided, the agents used for
de-naturing alcohol withdrawn from bond for de-naturing purposes shall
consist of methyl alcohol and benzine in the following proportions: To
every 100 parts by volume of ethyl alcohol of the desired proof (not less
than 180°) there shall be added 10 parts by volume of approved methyl
alcohol and one-half of one part by volume of approved benzine; for
example, to every 100 gallons of ethyl alcohol (of not less than 180
degrees proof) there shall be added 10 gallons of approved methyl alcohol
and one-half gallon of approved benzine. Alcohol thus de-natured shall be
classed as completely de-natured alcohol.

Methyl alcohol and benzine intended for use as de-naturants must be
submitted for chemical test and must conform to the specifications which
shall be hereafter duly prescribed."


                  DE-NATURANTS DEPOSITED IN WAREHOUSE.

"SEC. 27. As the distiller's business demands, he may bring into the
de-naturing bonded warehouse, in such receptacles as he may wish, any
authorized de-naturant. Such de-naturants shall at once be deposited in
the material room; thereafter they shall be in the custody and under the
control of the officer in charge of the warehouse. Before any de-naturant
is used it must be dumped into the appropriate tank and after the
contents have been thoroughly mixed, a sample of one pint taken
therefrom. This sample must be forwarded to the proper officer for
analysis. The officer will then securely close and seal the tank.

No part of the contents of the tank can be used until the sample has been
officially tested and approved, and report of such test made to the
officer in charge of the warehouse.

If the sample is approved the contents of the tank shall upon the receipt
of the report, become an approved de-naturant and the officer shall at
once remove the seals and place the tank under Government locks.

If the sample does not meet the requirements of the specifications, the
officer shall, upon the receipt of the report of non-approval, permit the
distiller, provided he desires, to treat or manipulate the proposed
de-naturant so as to render it a competent de-naturant. In such case
another sample must be submitted for approval. If the distiller does not
desire to further treat the de-naturant the officer shall require him
immediately to remove the contents of the tank from the premises."


                    RECORD OF DE-NATURANTS RECEIVED.

"SEC. 28. The officer shall keep a de-naturing material room record. This
record shall show all material entered into and removed from the
de-naturing material room.

There shall be proper columns on the _debit_ side in which are to be
entered the date when any material is received, the name and residence of
the person from whom received, the kind of material, the quantity in wine
gallons, and, if methyl alcohol, in proof gallons, the date upon which
the material was dumped into the tank, the number of the tank, the date
upon which sample was forwarded, and the number of the sample, and the
result of the official test.

On the _credit_ side of said record shall be entered in proper columns
the date upon which any material was removed from the de-naturing
material room for de-naturing purposes, the kind of material, the number
of the tank from which taken, the number of the sample representing the
tank and sent for official test, the number of wine gallons, and, if
methyl alcohol, the number of proof gallons."


               MONTHLY RETURNS OF DE-NATURANTS RECEIVED.

"SEC. 29. A balance shall be struck in this record at the end of each
month whereby shall be shown the quantity of material of each kind on
hand in the de-naturing material room on the first day of the month, the
quantity received during the month, the quantity rejected and removed
from the premises during the month, and the quantity delivered to the
distiller for de-naturing purposes during the month, and the quantity on
hand at the end of the month.

The officer shall, at the end of each month, prepare in duplicate, sign,
and forward to the collector of internal revenue a report which shall be
a transcript of said record."


               DISTILLER TO KEEP RECORD OF DE-NATURANTS.

"SEC. 30. The distiller shall also keep a record, in which he shall enter
the date upon which he deposits any material in the tanks of the
de-naturing material room, the name and address of the person from whom
said material was received, and the kind and quantity of the material so
deposited; also he shall enter in said record the date upon which he
receives any material from the de-naturing material room, the kind and
quantity of such material so received, and the disposition made of same."


               NOTICE OF INTENTION TO DE-NATURE SPIRITS.

"SEC. 31. The distiller shall, before dumping any spirits or de-naturants
into the mixing tank, give notice to the officer in charge of the
de-naturing warehouse in proper form in duplicate, and enter in the
proper place thereon (in the case of distilled spirits) and in the proper
column the number of the packages, the serial numbers of same, the serial
number of the warehouse stamps, the contents in wine and proof gallons
and the proof as shown by the marks, the date of the withdrawal gauge,
and by whom gauged.

In case of de-naturing agents he shall enter in the proper place and in
the proper columns the number of gallons, the kind of material, and the
number of the de-naturing material tank from which same is to be drawn.

The contents of the several packages of alcohol, as shown by the
withdrawal gauge, shall be accepted as the contents of said packages when
dumped for de-naturing purposes unless it should appear from a special
showing made by the distiller that there has been an accidental loss
since withdrawal from distillery bonded warehouse.

Upon receipt of this notice the officer in charge of the de-naturing
warehouse shall, in case of the packages of alcohol, inspect same
carefully to ascertain whether or not they are the packages described in
the distiller's notice. He will then cut out that portion of the
warehouse stamp upon which is shown the serial number of the stamp, the
name of the distiller, the proof gallons, and the serial number of the
package. These slips must be securely fastened to the form whereon the
gauging is reported and sent by the officer with his return to the
collector."


               TRANSFER OF DE-NATURANTS TO MIXING TANKS.

"SEC. 32. The distiller, unless pipes are used, as herein provided, shall
provide suitable gauged receptacles, metal drums being preferred, with
which to transfer the de-naturing agents from the material tanks to the
mixing tanks. These receptacles must be numbered serially and the number,
the capacity in gallons and fractions of a gallon, the name of the
distiller, and the number of the de-naturing bonded warehouse marked
thereon in durable letters and figures. They shall be used for
transferring de-naturing material from the material tanks to the mixing
tanks and for no other purpose. The distiller must also provide suitable
approved sealed measures of smaller capacity. The gauged receptacles are
to be used where the quantity to be transferred amounts to as much as the
capacity of the smallest gauged receptacle in the warehouse. The measures
are to be used only when the quantity of material to be transferred is
less than the capacity of the smallest gauged receptacle.

SEC. 33. The distiller may provide metal pipes connecting the material
tanks and the mixing tanks and the de-naturant may be transferred to the
mixing tanks through these pipes. Such pipes must be supplied with
valves, cocks, or faucets, other proper means of controlling the flow of
the liquid, and such valves, cocks, or faucets must be so arranged that
they can be securely locked, and the locks attached thereto must be kept
fastened; the keys to be retained by the officer in charge, except when
the de-naturing material is being transferred to the mixing tanks.

In the event pipes are used as above provided, the glass gauges affixed
to the material tanks must be so graduated that tenths of a gallon will
be indicated.

Before any material is transferred from a material tank to a mixing tank
the officer must note the contents of the material tank as indicated by
the glass gauge. He will then permit the de-naturant to flow into the
mixing tank until the exact quantity necessary to de-nature the alcohol,
as provided by the regulations, has been transferred. This he will
ascertain by reading the gauge on the material tank before the liquid has
begun to flow and after the flow has been stopped. He should verify the
quantity transferred by reading the gauge on the mixing tank before and
after the transfer.

SEC. 34. The distiller must provide all scales, weighing beams, and other
appliances necessary for transferring the de-naturing materials gauging
or handling the alcohol, or testing any of the measures, receptacles or
gauges used in the warehouse, and also a sufficient number of competent
employees for the work."


                 CONTENTS OF MIXING TANK TO BE PLUNGED.

"SEC. 35. The exact quantity of distilled spirits contained in the
packages covered by the distiller's notice having been ascertained by the
officer and the spirits having been dumped into the mixing tank, and the
quantities of the several de-naturants prescribed by the regulations
having been ascertained by calculation and added as above provided to the
alcohol in the mixing tank to be thoroughly and completely plunged and
mixed by the distiller or his employees."


              DRAWING OFF AND GAUGING DE-NATURED PRODUCT.

"SEC. 37. The distiller may from time to time as he wishes, in the
presence of the officer, draw off from the tank or tanks the de-natured
product in quantities of not less than 50 gallons at one time, and the
same must at once be gauged, stamped, and branded by the officer and
removed from the premises by the distiller."


                  KIND AND CAPACITY OF PACKAGES USED.

"SEC. 38. He may use packages of a capacity of not less than five gallons
or not more than one hundred and thirty-five (135) gallons, and each
package must be filled to its full capacity, such wantage being allowed
as may be necessary for expansion.

All packages used to contain completely de-natured alcohol must be
painted a _light green_, and in no case is a package of any other color
to be used."


                 ALCOHOL TO BE IMMEDIATELY DE-NATURED.

"SEC. 39. No alcohol withdrawn from distillery warehouse for de-naturing
purposes shall be permitted to remain in the de-naturing bonded warehouse
until after the close of business on the second day after the said
alcohol is withdrawn, but all alcohol so withdrawn must be transferred,
dumped, and de-natured before the close of business on said second day."


              APPLICATION FOR GAUGE OF DE-NATURED ALCOHOL.

"SEC. 40. When the process of de-naturing has been completed and the
distiller desires to have the de-natured alcohol drawn off into packages
and gauged, he shall prepare a request for such gauge on the proper form.
The request shall state as accurately as practicable the number of
packages to be drawn off and the number of wine and proof gallons
contents thereof.

This notice shall be directed to the collector of internal revenue, but
shall be handed to the officer on duty at the de-naturing bonded
warehouse.

SEC. 41. If the officer shall find upon examination of the proper record
that there should be on hand the quantity of de-natured alcohol covered
by said notice, he shall proceed to gauge and stamp the several packages
of de-natured alcohol in the manner herein prescribed, and shall make
report thereof on the proper form.

In no case will the officer gauge and stamp de-natured alcohol the total
quantity in wine gallons of which taken together with any remnant that
may be left in the de-naturing tank exceeds in wine gallons the sum of
the quantity of distilled spirits and de-naturants dumped on that day and
any remnant brought over from previous day."


                HOW DE-NATURED ALCOHOL SHALL BE GAUGED.

"SEC. 42. The gauging of de-natured alcohol shall, where it is
practicable, be by weight. The officer shall ascertain the tare by
actually weighing each package when empty. Then, after each package has
been filled in his presence, he shall ascertain the gross weight, and,
by applying the tare, the net weight.

He shall then ascertain the proof in the usual manner, and by applying
the proof to the wine gallons content the proof gallons shall be
ascertained.

The regulations relating to the gauging of rectified spirits, so far as
they apply to apparent proof and apparent proof gallons, shall apply to
de-natured spirits. Where it is for any reason not practicable to gauge
de-natured alcohol by weight, using the tables that apply in the case of
the gauging of distilled spirits, the gauging shall be by rod."

Sections 43 to 45 provide for the returns to be made by the Government
officials, and the proper marking of the packages containing de-natured
alcohol; and Sections 46 to 48 lay down the form of the Government stamps
and their use.

Section 49 places the mixing tank absolutely in the control of the
warehouse officer, and requires if he leaves the warehouse he must close
and lock the same.

Section 50 deals with records to be kept by warehouse officer.


            DE-NATURED ALCOHOL TO BE REMOVED FROM WAREHOUSE.

"SEC. 51. Not later than the close of business on the day following that
upon which the work of drawing off and gauging the de-natured spirits is
completed, the distiller must remove said de-natured alcohol from the
de-naturing bonded warehouse. He may either remove the alcohol to a
building off the distillery premises, where he can dispose of it as the
demands of the trade require, or he may dispose of it in stamped packages
direct to the trade from the de-naturing bonded warehouse."

Sections 52 and 53 relate to records to be kept by the distiller showing
de-natured alcohol received and disposed of by him, and the parties to
whom the same was sold or delivered. Sections 54 to 57 cover reports and
records to be made by officers and collector.

Part II of the Regulations relates to dealers in de-natured alcohol, and
manufacturers using the same.

"SEC. 58. Alcohol de-natured by use of methyl alcohol and benzine as
provided in section 26 of these regulations is to be classed as
_completely de-natured alcohol_. Alcohol de-natured in any other manner
will be classed as _specially de-natured alcohol_."


  DE-NATURED ALCOHOL NOT TO BE STORED ON CERTAIN PREMISES, AND NOT TO BE
                       USED FOR CERTAIN PURPOSES.

"SEC. 59. Neither completely nor specially de-natured alcohol shall be
kept or stored on the premises of the following classes of persons, to
wit: dealers in wines, fermented liquors or distilled spirits,
rectifiers of spirits, manufacturers of and dealers in beverages of any
kind, manufacturers of liquid medicinal preparations, or distillers
(except as to such de-natured alcohol in stamped packages as is
manufactured by themselves), manufacturers of vinegar by the vaporizing
process and the use of a still and mash, wort, or wash, and persons who,
in the course of business, have or keep distilled spirits, wines, or malt
liquors, or other beverages stored on their premises. _Provided_, That
druggists are exempt from the above provisions."


            CAN NOT BE USED IN MANUFACTURING BEVERAGES, ETC.

"SEC. 60. Anyone using de-natured alcohol for the manufacture of any
beverage or liquid medicinal preparation, or who knowingly sells any
beverage or liquid medicinal preparation made in whole or in part from
such alcohol, becomes subject to the penalties prescribed in section 2 of
the Act of June 7, 1906."

Under the language of this law it is held that de-natured alcohol can not
be used in the preparation of any article to be used as a component part
in the preparation of any beverage or liquid medicinal preparation.

A person, firm, or corporation desiring to sell de-natured alcohol, must
make application, in proper form, to the district collector on or before
the first of July each year, and if the provisions of the law have been
violated the permit may be withdrawn (Sections 61 to 65).

Sections 66 to 71 relate to the keeping of records by collector, and
wholesale and retail dealers.


                     RETAIL DEALERS TO KEEP RECORD.

"SEC. 72. Retail dealers in de-natured alcohol shall keep a record, in
which they shall enter the date upon which they receive any package or
packages of de-natured alcohol, the person from whom received, the serial
numbers of the packages, the serial numbers of the de-natured alcohol
stamps the wine and proof gallons, and the date upon which packages are
opened for retail.

The transcript for each month's business as shown by this record must be
prepared, signed, and sworn to and forwarded to the collector of internal
revenue of the district in which the dealer is located before the 10th of
the following month. This transcript must be signed and sworn to by the
dealer himself or by his duly authorized agent."


                LABELS TO BE PLACED ON RETAIL PACKAGES.

"SEC. 73. Retail dealers in de-natured alcohol must provide themselves
with labels upon which the words "De-Natured Alcohol" have been printed
in plain, legible letters. The printing shall be red on white. A label of
this character must be affixed by the dealer to the container, whatever
it may be, in the case of each sale of de-natured alcohol made by him."


             STAMPS TO BE DESTROYED WHEN PACKAGE IS EMPTY.

"SEC. 74. As soon as the stamped packages of de-natured alcohol are empty
the dealer or manufacturer, as the case may be, must thoroughly
obliterate and completely destroy all marks, stamps, and brands on the
packages.

The stamps shall under no circumstances be re-used, and the packages
shall not be refilled until _all_ the marks, stamps, and brands shall
have been removed and destroyed."


  MANUFACTURERS USING COMPLETELY DE-NATURED ALCOHOL TO SECURE PERMIT.

"SEC. 75. Manufacturers desiring to use completely de-natured alcohol,
such as is put upon the market for sale generally, may use such alcohol
in their business subject to the following restrictions:

A manufacturer using less than an average of 50 gallons of de-natured
alcohol per month will not be required to secure permit from the
collector or to keep records or make returns showing the alcohol received
and used.

Manufacturers who use as much as 50 gallons of completely de-natured
alcohol a month must procure such alcohol in stamped packages, and before
beginning business the manufacturer must make application to the
collector of the proper district for permit, in which application he will
state the exact location of his place of business, describing the lot or
tract of land upon which the plant is located, and must keep the alcohol
in a locked room until used.

"SEC. 79. As the agents adapted to and adopted for use in complete
de-naturation render the alcohol de-natured unfit for use in many
industries in which ethyl alcohol, withdrawn free of tax, can be
profitably employed, therefore in order to give full scope to the
operation of the law, special de-naturants will be authorized when
absolutely necessary. Yet the strictest surveillance must be exercised in
the handling of alcohol incompletely or specially de-natured."


  FORMULA FOR SPECIAL DE-NATURANTS TO BE SUBMITTED TO THE COMMISSIONER.

"SEC. 80. The Commissioner of Internal Revenue will consider any formula
for special de-naturation that may be submitted by any manufacturer in
any art or industry and will determine (1) whether or not the manufacture
in which it is proposed to use the alcohol belongs to a class in which
tax-free alcohol withdrawn under the provisions of this act can be used.
(2) whether or not it is practicable to permit the use of the proposed
de-naturant and at the same time properly safeguard the revenue. But one
special de-naturant will be authorized for the same class of industries,
unless it shall be shown that there is good reason for additional special
de-naturants."

The Commissioner will announce from time to time the formulas of
de-naturants that will be permitted in the several classes of industries
in which tax-free alcohol can be used.

The specially or incompletely de-natured alcohol can only be used by
special permission, for which the manufacturer must apply, at the same
time giving full details as to business, plant, premises, the special
de-naturants desired to be used, and the reason therefor, etc. (Section
81).

Section 82 recites the necessary requirements as to storerooms, etc., and
Sections 83 to 87 relate to the form of application and the inspection of
the plant. Section 88 recites the form of bond necessary to be given by
the manufacturer, and Sections 89 to 104 relate to the general
requirements as to records, books, affidavits, etc.

Sections 105 and 106 rule that the alcohol must be used just as received,
and as called for in the permit, and that a manufacturer quitting
business may dispose of his specially de-natured alcohol to other
manufacturers.


    PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO MANUFACTURERS USING EITHER SPECIALLY OR
                     GENERALLY DE-NATURED ALCOHOL.

"SEC. 107. Under no circumstances will de-naturers, manufacturers, or
dealers, or any other persons, in any manner treat either specially or
completely de-natured alcohol by adding anything to it or taking anything
from it until it is ready for the use for which it is to be employed. It
must go into manufacture or consumption in exactly the same condition
that it was when it left the de-naturer. Diluting completely de-natured
alcohol will be held to be such manipulation as is forbidden by law.

"SEC. 108. Manufacturers using either specially or completely de-natured
alcohol must store it in the storeroom set apart for that purpose, the
place for deposit named in the bond and application, and nowhere else.
Likewise they must deposit recovered alcohol in said storeroom as fast as
it is recovered. It will be held to be a breach of the bond and a
violation of the law if any alcohol of any kind, character, or
description should be found stored at any other place on the premises."

The question of special de-naturants is one of great importance to the
manufacturer, and should be carefully studied. The distiller who succeeds
on a large scale will be he who is most expert in preparing alcohol
specially de-natured to suit the requirements of the various arts.
Germany has done most in this line, and the German practice should be
carefully studied.

Parts IV and V of the Rules relate to that portion of the De-Naturing
Act, referred to in Section 2 thereof--the recovering, restoring and
re-de-naturing of alcohol used by manufacturers employing processes in
which the formerly de-natured spirits are? expressed, or evaporated. This
not being within the plan of this book, the rules relating thereto are
not quoted.

Those desirous of acquiring full information as to the rules regulating
the operation of distilleries for the manufacture of alcohol and
de-natured spirits can procure the same by applying either to the
collectors of Internal Revenue for their respective districts or to the
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Washington, D. C.


                PROPOSED CHANGES IN THE DE-NATURING ACT.

The De-naturing Act as passed and the regulations thereunder are
undoubtedly too complicated in their character to remain very long in the
Statute Books. There has already arisen a cry for simpler regulations
which shall place the manufacture of de-natured alcohol on a plane with
the practice in Germany, France and other countries which have carried
the manufacture and use of alcohol, for industrial purposes to a very
high plane. Both in England and America the Excise and Internal Revenue
regulations have been of very troublesome character, and the production
of spirits has been so carefully guarded, watched and checked that the
distiller aside from the high tax he has had to pay has been greatly
hampered. In Germany and France, however, things are different. There the
manufacture of Industrial Alcohol from farm products has been encouraged
and as a consequence the regulations are of very much simpler character.
In Germany the number of agricultural or co-operative stills is very
large and these stills are practically free from the constant
supervision of internal revenue officials.

Until the wash passes into the still there is practically no Governmental
supervision except as to the proper gauging of the vats and to the proper
sealing of all joints or pipes leading from the vats to the still. From
that point onward, however, to the final receiver every vessel is locked
and sealed and no access to the spirit can be obtained by the distiller.
The quantity of spirit distilled and its quality is ascertained by the
Revenue Officer from this final receiver and on this spirit so found is
computed the vat tax and the distillery tax which have to be paid by the
distiller. There are none of the cumbersome regulations regarding the
warehouses, storehouses, storekeepers, etc., which are found in our own
revenue laws. To provide security against abstraction of wash in the
fermenting tanks, reliance is placed upon frequent but uncertain
visitations.

There is no question but that in the fulness of time our own laws and
regulations will be very much simplified for all industrial plants. An
attempt has been made to so simplify the laws by Act of Congress No. 230,
approved March 2, 1907 and taking effect on September 1, 1907, the text
of which is appended, and undoubtedly other acts will follow as the
country becomes more and more sensible of the benefits to be derived from
free industrial alcohol. The text of the act is as follows:

                           [PUBLIC--NO. 230.]

     An Act to amend an Act entitled "An Act for the withdrawal from
     bond tax free of domestic alcohol when rendered unfit for beverage
     or liquid medicinal uses by mixture with suitable denaturing
     materials," approved June seventh, nineteen hundred and six.

_Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress Assembled_, That notwithstanding anything
contained in the Act entitled "An Act for the withdrawal from bond tax
free of domestic alcohol when rendered unfit for beverage or liquid
medicinal uses by mixture with suitable de-naturing materials," approved
June seventh, nineteen hundred and six, domestic alcohol when suitably
denatured may be withdrawn from bond without the payment of
internal-revenue tax and used in the manufacture of ether and chloroform
and other definite chemical substances where said alcohol is changed into
some other chemical substance and does not appear in the finished product
as alcohol: _Provided_, That rum of not less than one hundred and fifty
degrees proof, may be withdrawn, for de-naturation only, in accordance
with the provisions of said Act of June seventh, nineteen hundred and
six, and in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

SEC. 2. That the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval of
the Secretary of the Treasury, may authorize the establishment of central
de-naturing bonded warehouses, other than those at distilleries, to
which alcohol of the required proof may be transferred from distilleries
or distillery bonded warehouses without the payment of internal-revenue
tax, and in which such alcohol may be stored and de-natured. The
establishment, operation, and custody of such warehouses shall be under
such regulations and upon the execution of such bonds as the Commissioner
of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury,
may prescribe.

SEC. 3. That alcohol of the required proof may be drawn off, for
de-naturation only, from receiving cisterns in the cistern room of any
distillery for transfer by pipes direct to any de-naturing bonded
warehouse on the distillery premises or to closed metal storage tanks
situated in the distillery bonded warehouse, or from such storage tanks
to any denaturing bonded warehouse on the distillery premises, and
de-natured alcohol may also be transported from the de-naturing bonded
warehouse, in such manner and by means of such packages, tanks or tank
cars, and on the execution of such bonds, and under such regulations as
the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary
of the Treasury, may prescribe. And further, alcohol to be de-natured may
be withdrawn without the payment of internal-revenue tax from the
distillery bonded warehouse for shipment to central de-naturing plants in
such packages, tanks and tank cars, under such regulations, and on the
execution of such bonds as may be prescribed by the Commissioner of
Internal Revenue, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.

SEC. 4. That at distilleries producing alcohol from any substance what
ever, for de-naturation only, and having a daily spirit-producing
capacity of not exceeding one hundred proof gallons, the use of cisterns
or tanks of such size and construction as may be deemed expedient may be
permitted in lieu of distillery bonded warehouses, and the production,
storage, the manner and process of de-naturing on the distillery premises
the alcohol produced, and transportation of such alcohol, and the
operation of such distilleries shall be upon the execution of such bonds
and under such regulations as the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, with
the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, may prescribe, and such
distilleries may by such regulations be exempted from such provisions of
the existing laws relating to distilleries as may be deemed expedient by
said officials.

SEC. 5. That the provisions of this Act shall take effect on September
first, nineteen hundred and seven.

  Approved, March 2, 1907.



                                 INDEX.


  Adam's Still, 38
    faults of, 39
    operation of, 38

  Air necessary to fermentation, 18
    cooling for mashes, 15

  Alcohol, absolute, 2
    as fuel, 221
    boiling point of, 2
      points of mixture, 2
    composition of, 1, 6
    contraction in mixtures of, 4
    de-natured, 143
    determination of purity, 186, 188
    estimation of, 179
    estimating by Geisler's method, 183
      Brand's method, 184
      sugar in "Beer", 185
    ethyl, 7
    methyl, 7
    measuring in mixtures, 174, 179
      by hydrometers, 176, 178
    proof, 175
    rectification of, 82, 92
    relative amounts in different grains, 126
    specific gravity of, 2, 174
    strengthening, 31
    under proof, 176
    wood, 7

  Alcoholometer, Cartier's, 178
    Field's, 182
    Tralle's, 179

  Alcoholometry, 174

  Alcohols, principal, 6
    boiling points of principal, 6
    composition of principal, 6


  Barbet's still, 93
    traps, 68
    test for alcoholic purity, 187

  Barley best for malting, 103
    cleaning, 104
    draining after steeping, 105
    drying malt from, 108
    effect of germination on, 107
    germination of, 106
    steeping, 105
    test of sufficient steeping, 105
    washing, 104

  Beet-cleaners, 151
    -juice, extraction of by maceration and diffusion, 157, 158
    pulp, addition of sulphuric acid to, 153, 156, 160
    presses, 154, 156
    rasp, 152

  Beets, alcohol from, 150
    cellars for storing, 149
    cultivation of, 140
    characteristics of good, 140
    cleaning, 151
    composition of, 141
    conditions for cultivating, 142, 144, 145
    diffusion battery for, 158
    direct distillation of, 161
    distilling apparatus for, 162, 200, 201
    distilling plant for, 199, 201

  Beets, fermenting juice of, 160
    harvesting, 146
    how to tell when ripe, 147
    hydraulic presses for, 153
    macerating, 156, 159
    manures for, 143
    roll press for, 154
    soil for growing, 142
    sowing, 144, 146
    stack for storing, 148
    storing in winter, 149
    scum forming during fermentation of, 160
    transportation of, 203

  Boiling over, to prevent in still, 58
    points of alcoholic liquors, 2


  Carbonic anhydride, to get rid of, 25

  Cellar for beets, 149

  Cellier-Blumenthal still, 48

  Cleaning barley, 103
    beets, 150
    grain, 104
    potatoes, 110, 204
      apparatus for, 151

  Coal consumption, 208

  Coffey's still, 54

  Column distillery, 64, 66
    rectifying, 51, 87, 94

  Condenser, Cellier-Blumenthal's, 48
    Coffey's still, 54
    and mash heater, 41, 43, 46, 52, 64, 74

  Concentration of alcohol by distillation, 31

  Continuous distillation, 50

  Cooling mashes by air, 15
    by water, 17, 133, 196

  Corn, mashing, (see Grain).

  Couch, wet, 106

  Covered fermentation, 27

  Current still, 59


  De-Naturants, formulas for, 211, 214, 216, 219, 254
    prescribed in U. S., 211, 220

  De-natured alcohol in Canada, 214
    England, 214
    France, 215
    Germany, 211, 214
    uses of, 210, 213, 217
      in Germany, 217, 222

  De-naturing in London establishment, 215
    in U. S., Acts regulating, 212, 219, 225, 259
    regulations, 229
    with benzine, 216

  Diastase, 14
    proper temperature for action of, 14, 133

  Distilling apparatus, 33, 63, 189
    Adams', 8
    beet, 162
    Cellier-Blumenthal's, 48
    Coffey's, 54
    continuous, 50, 68
    current, 59
    compound still, 46, 47
      fire heated, 47
    Corty's, 40
    double, 41
    Dorn's, 43
    Gillaume's, 78
    simple, 38, 36, 190
    with enricher, 37

  Distilling column, 64, 73
    plants, 189, 199, 205

  Distillation, checking 32
    compound, 42, 50
    multiple to strengthen alcohol, 31

  Dough, luting still with, 34

  Dujardin's roll press for beets, 154

  Drying, barley, 108
    kiln for, 108

  Drying rooms, temperature of, 108

  Dunder from molasses, 168


  Flavor in alcohol, cause of bad, 86

  Ferment, too much, 24

  Fermentation in general, 9, 18, 27
    alcoholic, 22, 23
    acetous, 24
    foaming, 27
    heat necessary for, 19
    lactic, 25
    loss in, 28
    phenomena of, 27
    periods of, 26
    under cover, 27
    viscous, 25

  Fermenting apparatus, 28, 194
    room, 29, 194
    vats, 28, 29, 195

  Fire, regulating distilling, 61

  Floors for malting barley, 106

  "Fractionating", 83

  Fusel oil, (see Rectifying).


  Geisler's apparatus for estimating alcohol, 184

  Gelatinizing apparatus, 10

  Germinating barley, 106

  Grain, alcohol from, 126
    composition of, 128
    cooling of mashed, 133
    distillery for, 197
    grinding, 129
    infusion of, 131, 135

  Grain, mashing in general, 130, 134
    mashing, proportions of grain for, 134
      under steam pressure, 137
    mashes, cooling, 133
      regulating temperature of, 133, 138
    mash tub, 134
    thin mash of, 134, 135
    saccharifying,  131, 134
    steeping, 129
      sulphurous acid, 132
      temperature of water, 129
    sufficient steeping of,  130

  Grains, relative quantities of alcohol from various, 126

  Gauge glass, 71


  Heat indicator for regulating, 61
    necessary for fermentation, 19

  Henze steamer, 11, 14

  Hydraulic presses for beets, 153

  Hydrometers, 176, 177


  Indicator for regulating distillery fire, 61

  Iodine Test, 185


  Lactic fermentation, 25

  Lime, neutralizing acid by milk of, 80

  Loss of alcohol in fermentation, 28


  Malt, 103
    drying, 108
    grinding dried, 109
    kiln, 108

  Malting barley, 103
    cleaning barley for, 104
    couch, 106
    floors, 106
    germinating barley for, 106
    in large plants, 108
    steeping barley for, 105

  Mash cooling, 15, 16, 17
    heating, 52, 74
    tub, 122, 123, 124

  Mashing in general, 8
    grain, 30, 134
      cleaning, 104
    potatoes, 110, 125
    starchy materials, 10

  Molasses, alcohol from, 163
    acidifying, 164
    beet sugar, 164
    cane sugar, 168
    clarifying cane sugar, 170
    composition of "  ",   168
    dilution of, 167
    dunder from cane sugar, 168
    fermenting cane sugar, 170, 206
      cane sugar in Mauritius, 172
      cane sugar in Java, 172
    mixing vats for water and, 164, 165
    plant for distilling, 205
    skimmings from cane sugar, 168
    transportation of, 207
    washes, setting up, 166
      pitching temperature of, 166

  Methylated spirits, 211, 212

  Neutralizing Acids in rectifying, 86


  Pitching the mash, 22
    temperature, 22

  Potato-alcohol use in Germany, 212
    how to obtain good, 138

  Potatoes, alcohol from, 110
    best for distilling, 110
    cleaning, 110, 204
    crusher for, 116

  Potatoes, crushing and steaming, 111, 117
    extraction of starch from separately, 122
    isolation of starch from, 122
    keeping, 110
    mashing, 110, 118, 125
    plant for distilling, 204
    rasp for pulping, 152
    saccharifying by sulphuric acid, 124
    starch from, 122
    steaming, 111
      under high pressure, 11, 118, 121
      vat for, 112, 121
    steamer and crusher for, 111, 117
    vacuum cooker for, 11

  "Proof spirit", 175


  Rectification, 82, 92
    by filtration, 101

  Rectifying apparatus, 87
    Barbet's, 94
    Gillaume, 97, 99
    intermittent, 90
    Vulcan, 93

  Regulating distillery fire, 61

  Relative quantities of alcohol in grains, 126

  Rice, (see Grains).


  Saccharification, 8, 10, 14
    by sulphuric acid, 138
    complete, 185
    of grain, signs of, 137

  Saccharifying apparatus, 14

  Specific gravity of alcohol, 2, 174
    calculating, 174

  Steam generator, 114
    regulator, 69

  Steamers, high pressure, 11, 12

  Steaming under high pressure, 13

  Steaming grain, 136
    potatoes, 111
      under pressure, 118, 121
    vat, 112

  Steeping barley, 105
    grain, 129
      sufficiently, 130
    temperature, 130

  Stills, (see Distilling Apparatus).

  Sulphuric acid for saccharifying grain, 138
    neutralizing, 86

  Sykes' hydrometer, 177


  Testing Alcohol for purity, 187

  Twin column rectifier, 95


  Vacuum cooker, 10, 11

  Vulcan rectifying still, 93
    stills, 73, 77
    traps, 75


  Water for distilling, 208


  Yeast, 20
    brewers, 11
    fermentation by, 9, 10

                   *       *       *       *       *


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=SIMPLE ELECTRICAL WORKING MODELS.= How to make them and how to use them.
With 43 illustrations.

=TELEPHONES AND MICROPHONES.= Making and using simple forms of telephones
and microphones, with 29 illustrations.

=SMALL ELECTRIC MOTORS.= How to make and use them, including design,
examples of small motors, and their applications, speed controllers,
starters, fuses, etc. 48 illustrations.

=ELECTRIC LIGHTING= for amateurs. The installation of electric light on a
small scale, construction of lamps and lamp holders, switches, batteries
and their connections. With 45 illustrations.

=INDUCTION COILS.= A practical handbook on the construction and use of
shock and spark coils. With 35 illustrations.

=X-RAYS SIMPLY EXPLAINED.= The theory and practical application of
Radiography. 10 illustrations and 6 plates.

=STATIC ELECTRICITY.= Simple experiments in. A series of instructive and
entertaining electrical experiments with simple and inexpensive
apparatus. With 51 illustrations.

=SIMPLE SCIENTIFIC EXPERIMENTS.= How to perform entertaining and
instructive experiments with simple home-made apparatus. With 59
Illustrations.

=SMALL ELECTRICAL MEASURING INSTRUMENTS=, describing the making and using
of the different instruments fully illustrated.

=SMALL DYNAMOS AND MOTORS.= How to make and use them. A practical
handbook, by F. E. POWELL. Contents of Chapters: 1. General
Considerations. 2. Field Magnets. 3. Armatures. 4. Commutators and Other
Details. 5. Tables of Windings. 6. How to Build a Small Machine. 7.
Useful Data. 8. Testing and Repairing. 76 pages, fully illustrated with
detail drawings.

=UNIVERSAL TIME CARD MODEL.= By setting to the desired hour at any one
place the movable model will show at a glance the actual time of all the
other places in the world. Printed in two colors.


                     CROSS SECTION BOOKS 25c. each.

      =THE HANDY SKETCHING BOOK.= Size 5×8, scale 8 to 1 in.
      =THE HANDY SKETCHING PAD.= Size 8×10, scale 8 to 1 in.
      =ELECTRICIANS' SKETCHING BOOK.= Size 5×8, scale 10 to 1 in.
      =ELECTRICIANS' SKETCHING PAD.= Size 8×10, scale 10 to 1 in.
      =PLOTTING PAD.= Size 9×11, scale 16 to 1 in.

                   *       *       *       *       *


                 =ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTS and TESTING.=

How to Use the Voltmeter, Ammeter, Galvanometer, Potentiometer, Ohmmeter,
the Wheatstone Bridge, and the Standard Portable Testing Sets.

                                   BY

                          NORMAN H. SCHNEIDER.

Author of "Care and Handling of Electric Plants," "Induction Coils and
Coil Making," "Circuits and Diagrams," etc., etc.

The aim of the author has been to produce a complete and practical work
on this important subject.

First describing the various forms of Electrical Testing and Measuring
Instruments and their construction.

Secondly, their practical application to everyday work with numerous
examples worked out.

Thirdly, detailing the many tests of insulation resistance, current and
e.m.f. that can be made with a voltmeter.

Using only formulas in simple algebra and then explaining them in plain
language for the benefit of practical men lacking a knowledge of
mathematics.

During the past ten years the author has made hundreds of tests, which
has made him familiar with the subject from the practical standpoint. He
has also obtained valuable information and diagrams from the principal
manufacturers of Testing Instruments. The apparatus described is modern
and in universal use.

Most of the diagrams have been specially drawn for this book.

The work is divided into XI. chapters as follows:

Introduction; Chapters I. and II, The Galvanometer; III, Rheostats; IV,
The Voltmeter; V, The Wheatstone Bridge; VI, Forms of Portable Sets; VII,
Current Flow and e.m.f.; VIII, The Potentiometer; IX, Condensers; X,
Cable Testing; XI, Testing with Voltmeter.

=230 pages, 105 illustrations and diagrams, 12mo., cloth, $1.00.=

       *       *       *       *       *


                    EVERYBODY'S BOOK ON ELECTRICITY.


                          PRACTICAL ELECTRICS.
                         A UNIVERSAL HANDY-BOOK
                                   ON
                      EVERYDAY ELECTRICAL MATTERS.

                             FIFTH EDITION.


                               CONTENTS.

_Alarms._--Doors and Windows; Cisterns, Low Water in Boilers; Time
Signals; Clocks. _Batteries._--Making; Cells; Bichromate; Bunsen;
Callan's; Copper-oxide; Cruikshank's; Daniel's; Granule carbon; Groves;
Insulite; Leclanché; Lime Chromate; Silver Chloride; Smee;
Thermo-electric. _Bells._--Annunciator System; Double System; and
Telephone; Making; Magnet for; Bobbins or Coils; Trembling; Single
Stroke; Continuous Ringing. _Connections. Carbons. Coils._--Induction;
Primary; Secondary; Contact-breakers; Resistance. Intensity Coils.--Reel;
Primary; Secondary; Core; Contact-breaker; Condenser; Pedestal;
Commutator; Connections. _Dynamo-Electric Machines._--Relation of Speed
to Power; Field-Magnets; Pole-pieces; Field-magnet Coils; Armature Cores
and Coils; Commutator Collectors and Brushes; Relation of size to
efficiency; Methods of exciting Field-Magnets; Magneto-Dynamos;
Separately excited Dynamos; Shunt Dynamos; Organs of Dynamos as
constructed in practice; Field-Magnets; Armatures; Collectors; Brush
Dynamo; Second Class; Alternate Currents; Third Class. _Fire Risks._--The
Dynamo; Wires; Lamps; Danger to persons. _Measuring._--Non-Registering
Instruments; Registering Instruments. _Microphones._--Construction, &c.
_Motors._--Application; for Railways. _Phonographs. Photophones.
Storage._--Plates. _Terminals._--Charging. _Telephones._--Forms; Circuits
and Calls; Transmitter and Switch; Switch for Simplex.

                  135 PAGES. 126 ILLUSTRATIONS. 8 VO.
                            Cloth, 75 Cents.

       *       *       *       *       *


                           AN AMERICAN BOOK.

                    INDUCTION COILS and COIL MAKING.

 Second edition thoroughly revised, greatly enlarged and brought up to
                       latest American Practice,

                            BY H. S. NORRIE,
                         (NORMAN H. SCHNEIDER)


Considerable space in the new matter is given to the following: Medical
and bath coils, gas engine and spark coils, contact breakers, primary and
secondary batteries; electric gas lighting; new method of X-ray work,
etc. A complete chapter on up-to-date wireless telegraphy; a number of
new tables and 25 original illustrations. Great care has been given to
the revision to make this book the best American work on the subject. A
very complete index, contents, list of illustrations and contents of
tables have been added.

                         Contents of Chapters.

1. Construction of coils; sizes of wire; winding; testing; insulation;
general remarks; medical and spark coils. 2. Contact breakers. 3.
Insulation and cements. 4. Construction of condensers. 5. Experiments. 6.
Spectrum analysis. 7. Currents in vacuo; air pumps. 8. Rotating effects.
9. Electric gas lighting; in multiple; in series. 10. Primary batteries
for coils; varieties; open circuit cells; closed circuit cells;
solutions. 11. Storage or secondary batteries; construction; setting up;
charging. 12. Tesla and Hertz effects. 13. Roentgen Radiography. 14.
Wireless telegraphy; arrangement of circuits of coil and coherer for
sending and receiving messages; coherers; translating devices; air
conductors; tables; contents; index.

          XII + 270 Pages, 79 Illustrations, 5 × 6-1/2 Inches.
                             Cloth. $1.00.

                   *       *       *       *       *


                    PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICAL POWER.
                         (CONTINUOUS CURRENT.)
                             FOR MECHANICAL
                               ENGINEERS.

                                   BY
                         A. H. BATE, A.M.I.E.E.


The rapid progress that has been made of late years in the application of
electricity to industrial purposes, and particularly in the transmission
of power by means of the electric motor, has made it imperative for every
engineer who wishes to keep up to date to have some knowledge of the way
electrical currents are controlled and used for practical purposes. This
work is especially written for the practical engineer, mathematics being
avoided.

                         Contents of Chapters.

     1. The Electric Motor.
     2. Magnetic Principles.
     3. Electrical Measurements.
     4. The Dynamo.
     5. Construction of Motor.
     6. Governing of Motors.
     7. Open and Closed Motors; rating.
     8. Motor Starting Switches.
     9. Speed Control of Shunt-wound Motors.
    10. Series Motor Control.
    11. Distribution System.
    12.  Installing and Connections.
    13.  Care of Dynamos and Motors.
    14. Cost of Plant.
    15. Examples of Electric Driving.

Horse-power absorbed by various machines, including general engineering
and shipyard machines; wood working and printing machinery (arranged in
14 pages of tables).

        XII + 204 pages, 63 illustrations, 12 mo. cloth. $2.00.

                   *       *       *       *       *


    THE PRACTICAL ENGINEER'S HANDBOOK. TO THE CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF
                         ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

                        By NORMAN H. SCHNEIDER,
           _Chief Engineer, "White City," Colingwood, Ohio_.


                         EXTRACTS FROM PREFACE.

In revising the first edition of Power Plants the author decided to
greatly enlarge it in the hope that it will have a still greater success
than the first one. The section on theory is thoroughly revised. A
complete chapter on Standard Wiring including new tables and original
diagrams added. The National Fire Underwriters' rules condensed and
simple explanations given.

Direct and alternating current motors have been given a special chapter
and modern forms of starting rheostats described at length. The
principles of alternators have been considered also transformers and
their applications. Modern testing instruments and their use are given a
separate chapter. New matter has been added to storage batteries
including charging of automobile batteries, 10 new tables, and 137 new
illustrations.

                   SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS.

1. THE ELECTRIC CURRENT; series and multiple connections; resistance of
circuits; general explanation of formulas.

2. STANDARD WIRING; wiring formulas and tables; wiring systems; cut-outs;
conduits; panel boxes; correct methods of wiring.

3. DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT GENERATORS; management in the power
house; windings; selection of generators.

4. MOTORS AND MOTOR STARTERS; various forms of motors; controllers; care
of motors and their diseases; rules for installing.

5. TESTING AND MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; voltmeter testing and connections;
instruments used; switchboard instruments.

6. THE STORAGE BATTERY; different kinds; switchboards for charging fixed
and movable batteries; management of battery.

7. THE INCANDESCENT LAMP; various methods of testing; life of lamps.

8. ENGINEERING NOTES; belts and pulleys h.p. of belts. Tables. Contents.
Index.

           290 pages, 203 illustrations. 12mo., cloth, $1.50.
                       Full limp leather, $2.50.

                   *       *       *       *       *


                           Design of Dynamos

            BY SILVANUS P. THOMPSON, D. Sc., B. A., F. R. S.


                         EXTRACTS FROM PREFACE.

"The present work is purposely confined to continuous current generators.
The calculations and data being expressed in inch measures; but the
author has adopted throughout the decimal subdivision of the inch; small
lengths being in mils, and small areas of cross-section in sq. mils, or,
sometimes, also, in circular mils."

                         CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS.

1. DYNAMO DESIGN AS AN ART.

2. MAGNETIC DATA AND CALCULATIONS. Causes of waste of Power. Coefficients
of Dispersion. Calculation of Dispersion. Determination of exciting
ampere-turns. Example of Calculation.

3. COPPER CALCULATIONS. Weight of Copper Wire. Electrical resistance of
Copper, in cube, strip, rods, etc. Space-factors. Coil Windings; Ends;
Insulation; Ventilating; Heating.

4. INSULATING MATERIALS AND THEIR PROPERTIES. A list of materials,
including "Armalac," "Vitrite," "Petrifite," "Micanite," "Vulcabeston,"
"Stabilite," "Megohmite," etc. With tables.

5. ARMATURE WINDING SCHEMES. Lap Windings, Ring Windings, Wave Windings,
Series Ring-Windings, Winding Formulæ. Number of circuits. Equalizing
connections. COLORED PLATES.

6. ESTIMATION OF LOSSES, HEATING AND PRESSURE-DROP. Copper Losses, Iron
Losses, Excitation Losses, Commutator Losses, Losses through sparking.
Friction and Windage Losses. Secondary Copper Losses.

7. THE DESIGN OF CONTINUOUS CURRENT DYNAMOS. Working Constants and Trial
Values; Flux-densities; Length of Air-gap; Number of Poles; Current
Densities; Number of Armature Conductors; Number of Commutator Segments;
Size of Armature (Steinmetz coefficient); Assignment of Losses of Energy;
Centrifugal Forces; Calculation of Binding Wires; Other procedure in
design. Criteria of a good design. Specific utilization of material.

8. EXAMPLES OF DYNAMO DESIGN.

1. Shunt-wound multipolar machine, with slotted drum armature. 2.
Over-compounded Multipolar traction generator, with slotted drum
armature, with general specifications, tables, dimensions and drawings,
fully described.

A number of examples of generators are given in each chapter, fully
worked out with rules, tables and data.

VIII. × 253 pages, 92 illustrations, 10 large folding plates and 4
THREE-COLOR PLATES, 8vo., cloth, $3.50.

                   *       *       *       *       *


                       Dynamo-Electric Machinery

                      VOL. I.--CONTINUOUS CURRENT.

                                   BY
               SILVANUS P. THOMPSON, D.Sc., B.A., F.R.S.

               7th Edition Revised and Greatly Enlarged.


                         CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS.

     1. Introductory.
     2. Historical Notes.
     3. Physical Theory of Dynamo-Electric Machines.
     4. Magnetic Principles; and the Magnetic Properties of Iron.
     5. Forms of Field-Magnets.
     6. Magnetic Calculations as Applied to Dynamo Machines.
     7. Copper Calculations; Coil Windings.
     8. Insulating Materials and their Properties.
     9. Actions and Reactions in the Armature.
    10. Commutation; Conditions of Suppression of Sparking.
    11. Elementary Theory of the Dynamo, Magneto and Separately Excited
  Machines, Self-exciting Machines.
    12. Characteristic Curves.
    13. The Theory of Armature Winding.
    14. Armature Construction.
    15. Mechanical Points in Design and Construction.
    16. Commutators, Brushes and Brush-Holders.
    17. Losses, Heating and Pressure-Drop.
    18. The Design of Continuous Current Dynamos.
    19. Analysis of Dynamo Design.
    20. Examples of Modern Dynamos (Lighting and Traction).
    21. Dynamos for Electro-Metallurgy and Electro-Plating.
    22. Arc-Lighting Dynamos and Rectifiers.
    23. Special Types of Dynamos; Extra High Voltage Machines,
  Steam-Turbine Machines, Extra Low Speed Machines, Exciters,
  Double-Current Machines, Three-Wire Machines, Homopolar
  (Unipolar) Machines, Disk Dynamos.
    24. Motor-Generators and Boosters.
    25. Continuous-Current Motors.
    26. Regulators, Rheostats, Controllers and Starter.
    27. Management and Testing of Dynamos.
        Appendix, Wire Gauge Tables. Index.

996 pages, 573 illustrations, 4 colored plates, 32 large folding plates.
                        8vo., cloth. $7.50.[++]

                   *       *       *       *       *


                     Alternating-Current Machinery

                            BEING VOL. II OF

                       Dynamo-Electric Machinery.

                                   BY
               SILVANUS P. THOMPSON, D.Sc., B.A., F.R.S.


Owing to the enormous increase in the use of electrical machinery since
the publication of the sixth edition of DYNAMO-ELECTRIC MACHINERY the
author has deemed it advisable to divide the work. Vol. I. is devoted to
DIRECT CURRENT MACHINERY and this the second part. Vol. II. ALTERNATING
CURRENT MACHINERY. Amongst the many new features treated special mention
must be made of the number of fine colored plates of windings and the
many large folding scale drawings. These two volumes make the most
comprehensive and authoritative work on dynamo machinery. The work has
been so universally adopted that it has been found necessary to translate
it into French and German.


                         CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS.

   1. Principles of Alternating Currents.
   2. Periodic Functions.
   3. Alternators.
   4. Induced E.M.F. and Wave-Forms of Alternators.
   5. Magnetic Leakage and Armature Reaction.
   6. Winding Schemes for Alternators.
   7. Design of Alternators. Compounding of Alternators.
   8. Examples of Modern Alternators.
   9. Steam Turbine Alternators.
  10. Synchronous Motors, Motor Generators, Converters.
  11. Parallel Running of Alternators.
  12. Transformers.
  13. Design of Transformers.
  14. Induction Motors.
  15. Design of Induction Motors.
  16. Examples of Induction Motors.
  17. Single-Phase Induction Motors.
  18. Alternating-Current Commutator Motors.
      Appendix. The Standardization of Voltages and Frequencies.
      Complete Index.

XX + 848 pages, 546 illustrations, 15 colored plates and 24 large folding
plates. 8vo., cloth. $7.50[++].

                   *       *       *       *       *


                       Books for Steam Engineers.

=DIAGRAM OF CORLISS ENGINE.= A large engraving giving a longitudinal
section of the Corliss engine cylinder, showing relative positions of the
piston, steam valves, exhaust valves, and wrist plates when cut-off takes
place at 1/4 stroke for each 15 degrees of the circle. With full
particulars. Reach-rods and rock shafts. The circle explained.
Wrist-plates and eccentrics. Explanation of figures, etc. Printed on
heavy paper, size 13 in. × 19 in., =25c.=

=THE CORLISS ENGINE= and its Management. A Practical Handbook for young
engineers and firemen, (3rd edition) by J. T. HENTHORN. A good little
book, containing much useful and practical information. =Illustrated,
cloth, $1.00.=

=THE FIREMAN'S GUIDE= to the Care and Management of Boilers, by KARL P.
DAHLSTROM, M.E., covering the following subjects: Firing and Economy of
Fuel; Feed and Water Line: Low Water and Priming: Steam Pressure:
Cleaning and Blowing Out; General Directions. A thoroughly practical
book. =Cloth, 50c.=

=A B C OF THE STEAM ENGINE.= With a description of the automatic shaft
governor, with six large scale drawings. A practical handbook for firemen
helpers and young engineers, giving a set of detail drawings all numbered
and lettered and with names and particulars of all parts of an up-to-date
American high speed stationary steam engine. Also a large drawing and
full description of the automatic shaft governor. With notes and
practical hints. This work will prove of great help to all young men who
wish to obtain their engineer's license. =Cloth, price 50c.=

=HOW TO RUN ENGINES AND BOILERS.= By E. P. WATSON, (for many years a
practical engineer, and a well-known writer in _The Engineer_.) A
first-rate book for beginners, firemen and helpers. Commencing from the
beginning, showing how to thoroughly overhaul a plant, foundations,
lining up machinery, setting valves, vacuum, eccentrics, connection,
bearings, fittings, cleaning boilers, water tube boilers, running a
plant, and many useful rules, hints and other practical information; many
thousands already sold. =160 pages, fully illustrated, cloth, $1.00.=

=AMMONIA REFRIGERATION.= By I. I. REDWOOD. A practical work of reference
for engineers and others employed in the management of ice and
refrigerating machinery. A first-rate book, beginning from the bottom and
going carefully through the various processes, stage by stage, with many
tables and original illustrations. =Cloth, $1.00.=

=MEYER SLIDE VALVE.= Position diagram of cylinder with cutoff at 1/8,
1/4, 3/8 and 1/2 stroke of piston with movable valves, on card 7-1/2 in.
× 5-1/2 in. =Price, 25c.=

                   *       *       *       *       *


                        AN ELEMENTARY TEXT-BOOK
                     ON STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS,
                                FOR THE
                USE OF STUDENTS IN SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.

                           BY J. H. KINEALY.
     _Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Washington University._

  Illustrated with Diagrams and Numerous Cuts, Showing American Types
                  and Details of Engines and Boilers.


This book is written solely as an elementary text-book for the use of
beginners and students in engineering, but more specially for the
students in the various universities and colleges in this country.

No attempt has been made to tell everything about any one particular
subject, but the author has endeavored to give the student an idea of
elementary thermodynamics, of the action of the steam in the cylinder of
the engine, of the motion of the steam valve, of the differences between
the various types of engines and boilers, of the generation of heat by
combustion, and the conversion of water into steam.

Care has been taken not to touch upon the design and proportion of the
various parts of engines and boilers for strength; as, in the opinion of
the writer, that should come after a general knowledge of the engine and
boiler has been obtained.

In the derivation of some of the formulæ in thermodynamics, it has been
necessary to use the calculus, but the use of all mathematics higher than
algebra and geometry has been avoided as much as possible.

An earnest endeavor has been made to present the subject in a clear and
concise manner, using as few words as possible and avoiding all padding.

CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS.

Chapter I.--Thermodynamics; First Law of Thermodynamics; Work, Power;
Unit of Heat; Mechanical Equivalent; Application of Heat to Bodies;
Second Law of Thermodynamics; Specific Heat; Absolute Temperature;
Application of Heat to a Perfect Gas; Isothermal Expansion; Adiabatic
Expansion; Fusion; Vaporisation; Application of Heat to Water;
Superheated Steam. Chapter II.--Theoretical Heat Engine; Cycle;
Thermodynamic Efficiency; Perfect Gas Engine; Perfect Steam Engine;
Theoretical Diagram of the Real Engine; Clearance; Efficiency

       *       *       *       *       *


                            THE SLIDE VALVE

                           SIMPLY EXPLAINED.

               By W. J. TENNANT, Asso. M. Inst. Mech. E.

           The work has been thoroughly revised and enlarged
           in accordance with the present American Practice.

             By J. H. KINEALY, D. E., M. Am. Soc. Mech. E.


The work is based upon notes and diagrams which were prepared by Mr.
Tennant in his lectures to his classes of working engineers and students
towards the obtainment of clear _general_ notions upon the Slide Valve,
its design, varieties, adjustments and management. They have been revised
and considerably added to and in this form the authors believe they will
be of considerable value to all engineers and others interested in steam
engines.


                         CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS.

  I.    The Simple Slide.
  II.   The Eccentric a Crank. Special Model to give Quantitative
        Results.
  III.  Advance of the Eccentric.
  IV.   Dead Centre. Order of Cranks. Cushioning and Lead.
  V.    Expansion--Inside and Outside Lap and Lead; Advance affected
        thereby. Compression.
  VI.   Double-ported and Piston Valves.
  VII.  The Effect of Alterations to Valve and Eccentric.
  VIII. Note on Link Motions.
  IX.   Note on very early cut-off, and on Reversing Gears in general.

  The illustrations aim to cover the different kinds of Slide Valves,
         and the circular diagrams will prove a novel feature.

             88 Pages. 41 Illustrations. 12mo. Cloth, $1.00

                   *       *       *       *       *


                              LUBRICANTS,
                           OILS AND GREASES.

               TREATED THEORETICALLY AND GIVING PRACTICAL
                      INFORMATION REGARDING THEIR

                   COMPOSITION, USES AND MANUFACTURE.

            _A PRACTICAL GUIDE FOR MANUFACTURERS, ENGINEERS,
                  AND USERS IN GENERAL OF LUBRICANTS._

                          By ILTYD I. REDWOOD,

   Associate Member American Society of Mechanical Engineers; Member
   Society Chemical Industries (England); Author of 'Theoretical and
  Practical Ammonia Refrigeration,' and a 'Practical Treatise on Mineral
                      Oils and Their By-Products.'


                               CONTENTS.

  INTRODUCTION.--Lubricants.

                              THEORETICAL.

  CHAPTER I.--Mineral Oils: American and Russian; Hydrocarbons.
  CHAPTER II.--Fatty Oils: Glycerides; Vegetable Oils; Fish Oils.
  CHAPTER III.--Mineral Lubricants: Graphite; Plumbago.
  CHAPTER IV.--Greases: Compounded; "Set" or Axle; "Boiled" or Cup.
  CHAPTER V.--Tests of Oils: Mineral Oils. Tests of Oils: Fatty Oils

                              MANUFACTURE.

    CHAPTER VI.--Mineral Oil Lubricants: Compounded Oils; De-bloomed Oils.
    CHAPTER VII.--Greases: Compounded Greases; "Set" or Axle Greases;
  Boiled Greases; Engine Greases.
    APPENDIX.--The Action of Oils on Various Metals. Index.
    TABLES: I.--Viscosity and Specific Gravity. II.--Atomic Weights.
  III.--Origin, Tests, Etc. of Oils. IV.--Action of Oils on Metals.
    LIST OF PLATES: I.--I. I. Redwood's Improved Set Measuring Apparatus
  II.--Section Grease Kettle. III.--Diagram of Action of Oils on Metals.

                           8vo. Cloth. $1.50.

                   *       *       *       *       *


                           Mechanical Draft.

                                   BY
                    J. H. KINEALY, M. Am. Soc. M.E.

  _Past President American Society Heating and Ventilating Engineers._


                                PREFACE.

In writing this book the author has assumed that those who will use it
are familiar with boilers and engine plants, and he has had in mind the
practicing engineer who is called upon to design power plants, and who
must therefore decide when it is best to use some form of mechanical
draft. The arrangement of the book is what the experience of the author
in making calculations for mechanical draft installations has shown him
is probably the best. And he has tried to arrange the tables in such a
way and in such a sequence that they may prove as useful to others as
they have to him.


CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS.

1. GENERAL DISCUSSION. Introduction; systems of mechanical draft;
chimneys v. mechanical draft; mechanical draft and economizers.

2. FORCED DRAFT. Systems; closed fire-room system; closed ashpit system;
small fan required; usual pressure; forced draft and economisers;
advantages; disadvantages.

3. INDUCED DRAFT. Introduction; temperature of gases; advantages;
disadvantages.

4. FUEL AND AIR. Weight of coal to be burned; evaporation per lb. of
coal; effect of rate of evaporation; weight of air required; volume of
air and gases; volume of gases to handle; leakage; factor of safety.

5. DRAFT. Relation to rate of combustion; resistance of grate; resistance
due to economizer; draft required under different conditions.

6. ECONOMIZERS. Effect of adding; ordinary proportion and cost; increase
of temperature of feed water.

7. FANS. Type and proportions of fan used; relation between revolution of
fan and draft; capacity of fan.

8. PROPORTIONING THE PARTS. Diameter of fan wheel required; speed at
which the fan must run; power required to run the fan; size of engine
required; steam used by fan engine; choosing the fan for forced draft,
for induced draft without economizer, for induced draft with economizer;
location of the fan; breeching and up-take; inlet chamber; discharge
chimney; by-pass; water for bearings.

Appendix. Tables. Index. 156 pages. 13 plates. 16mo.

                             Cloth, $2.00.

                   *       *       *       *       *


                     THE AUTHORITY ON THIS SUBJECT.

                           CENTRIFUGAL FANS.
                A THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL TREATISE ON
                Fans for Moving Air In Large Quantities
                    At Comparatively Low Pressures.

                                   BY
                    J. H. KINEALY, M. Am. Soc. M.E.
   Past-President American Society Heating and Ventilating Engineers.


The matter in this book was a series of articles written for the
_Engineering Review_. The favorable attention which they attracted lead
the author to believe that there was a real demand for a book treating in
a theoretical as well as a practical way on centrifugal fans. The
articles have been thoroughly revised, added to, and made as complete as
possible.

                         Contents of Chapters.

     1. Flow of Air; Volume of Air Flowing; Pressure Necessary for
  required velocity.
     2. Vortex; Vortex with Radial Flow.
     3. Fans; First Type of Fans; Second or Guibal Type of Fans; Third
  Type of Fans; Modern Type.
     4. Fan Wheel; Vanes or Floats; Inlet; Width.
     5. Capacity; Blast Area; Effect of Outlet on Capacity; Air per
  Revolution.
     6. Pressure; Work.
     7. Horse Power Required to Run a Fan; Engine Required to Run a Fan;
  Motor Required to Run a Fan; Width of Belt.
     8. Efficiency; Air per Horse Power.
     9. Exhausters.
    10. Housing; Dimensions of Housings; Shaft.
    11. Cone Wheels.
    12. Disk Fans; Number of Revolutions per Minute; Capacity of a Disk
  Fan; Horse Power Required.
    13. Choosing a Fan. Index.

Twenty-two tables have been prepared and they have been arranged in the
way, which the experience of the author in designing heating and
ventilating plants has shown to be the most convenient. The tables are
full and complete, all calculations having been very carefully checked,
read and revised. XIV. + 206 pages, 39 diagrams. Full limp leather
pocketbook.

                =Round Corners, gilt edges. $5.00.[++]=

                   *       *       *       *       *


                               CHARTS FOR
                       LOW PRESSURE STEAM HEATING
                             for the use of
                 ENGINEERS, ARCHITECTS, CONTRACTORS AND
                             STEAM FITTERS.

                         By J. H. KINEALY, M.E.
     _M. Am. Soc. M. E., M. Am. Soc. of H. and V. Eng'rs, &c., &c._


The author has long been in the habit of using charts to aid him in his
work. Knowing the value of them in saving time, simplifying work and
ensuring correct calculations he feels confident that they will be
appreciated by engineers, architects and contractors, for whose benefit
they have been compiled. Care has been taken to make the charts as clear
and as easily understood and, above all, as accurate as possible. They
have been based upon theoretical considerations, modified by what is
considered to be good practice in this country.

CHART 1.--This chart is for determining the number of square feet of
heating surface of a low pressure steam heating system, pressure not to
exceed 5 lbs. per square inch by the gauge, necessary to supply the heat
lost through the various kinds of wall surfaces of rooms. The chart is
divided into four parts. CHART 2.--For determining the diameters of the
supply and return pipes for a heating system. CHART 3.--For finding the
number of square feet of boiler heating surface and the number of square
feet of grate surface for a boiler that is to supply steam to a steam
heating system. CHART 4.--For determining the area of the cross section
of a square flue, or the diameter of a round flue, leading from an
indirect radiation heater to the register in a room to be heated.

Full details are given for the use of these cards.

These four charts are printed on heavy white card-board and bound
together with cloth, size 13 in. by 9-1/4 in., $1.00[++].

_These cards are securely packed for mail and sent to any part of the
World on receipt of price._

                   *       *       *       *       *


                         Gas Analyst's Manual.

                   By JAQUES ABADY, M. Inst. Mech. E.

    _(Incorporating F. W. Hartley's "Gas Analyst's Manual" and "Gas
                            Measurement.)"_


                         EXTRACT FROM PREFACE.

The numerous requests received by the Publishers for the late Mr. F. W.
Hartley's "Gas Analyst's Manual" and "Gas Measurement" form the
justification of the present work, which embodies practically the entire
contents of those two volumes. It has been found, however, that their
scope was too narrow to comply with modern requirements in various
directions, although ample at the time they were written, and so I have
ventured to add such extensions as appeared to be necessary in order to
meet the demand which exists for a comprehensive work on Gas Apparatus
and its use.

This large work has been in course of preparation for the past three
years by Mr. Jaques Abady, and has been very carefully revised by other
experts.

Many valuable tables of data have been included, a number of which come
from the private note books of the Author, being practically results
obtained by him during many years of work as Expert, Gas Engineer and
Gas-Works Materials Manufacturer.

                         CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS.

   1.--Photometry (58 pages.)
   2.--The table photometer and Photometer Room (38 pages.)
   3.--Standard of Light (32 pages.)
   4.--Calorimetry and Specific Gravity, with a note on Mond Gas
       (48 pages.)
   5.--The Referees' Test for Sulphur and Ammonia in Gas (28 pages.)
   6.--Coal Testing (22 pages.)
   7.--Testing Enrichment and Purification Materials (33 pages.)
   8.--Purity Tests for Gas in the Various Stages of its Manufacture
       (43 pages.)
   9.--Testing Bye-products (35 pages.)
  10.--Technical Gas Analysis (63 pages.)
  11.--Meter-Testing Apparatus (48 pages.)
  12.--Meter and Governor Testing (34 pages.)
  Appendix. Data, Tables, Formulæ, etc., (38 pages).

And very complete Contents, Index and List of Illustrations, and Tables,
&c. &c. XV+560 pages, 5-1/2 × 8-1/2 in., 93 illustrations and 9 folding
plates.

             =Bound in Handsome Half Leather - $6.50 [++]=

                   *       *       *       *       *


                      The Design and Construction
                                   OF
                              OIL ENGINES.
                        WITH FULL DIRECTIONS FOR
         Erecting, Testing, Installing, Running and Repairing.
             Including descriptions of American and English
                         KEROSENE OIL ENGINES.


                       By A. H. GOLDINGHAM, M.E.


                   SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS OF CHAPTERS:

1. Introductory; classification of oil engines; vaporizers; ignition and
spraying devices; different cycles of valve movements. 2. On design and
construction of oil engines; cylinders; crankshafts; connecting rods;
piston and piston rings; fly-wheels; air and exhaust cams, valves and
valve boxes; bearings; valve mechanism, gearing and levers; proportions
of engine frames; oil-tank and filter; oil supply pipes; different types
of oil engines; cylinders made in more than one piece; single cylinder
and double cylinder engines; crankpin dimensions; fitting parts;
assembling of oil engine; testing water jackets, joints, etc. 3. Testing
for leaks, faults, power, efficiency, combustion, compression; defects as
shown by indicator; diagrams for setting valves; how to correct faults;
indicator fully described; fuel consumption test, etc. 4. Cooling water
tanks; capacity of tanks; source of water supply; system of circulation;
water pump; exhaust silencers; self starters; utilization of waste heat
of exhaust. 5. Oil engines driving dynamo; installation of plant; direct
and belt connected; belts; power for electric lighting; loss of power. 6.
Oil engines driving air compressors; direct connected and geared; table
of pressures; pumping outfits; oil engines driving ice and refrigeration
outfits. 7. Full instructions for running different kinds of oil engines.
8. Hints on repairs; adjustment of crank-shaft and connecting rod
bearing; testing oil inlet valves and pump, fitting new spur gears, etc.
9. General descriptions with illustrations of American and English oil
engines; methods of working; portable oil engines, etc., etc. Index and
tables.

    XIII. + 196 pages, 7-1/2 × 5-1/2, 79 illustrations, cloth, $2.00

                   *       *       *       *       *


                           PRACTICAL HANDBOOK
                                   ON
                              GAS ENGINES.
         _With Instructions for Care and Working of the Same._


                         By G. LIECKFELD, C.E.

              TRANSLATED WITH PERMISSION OF THE AUTHOR BY
                          Geo. Richmond, M.E.

       TO WHICH HAS BEEN ADDED FULL DIRECTIONS FOR THE RUNNING OF
                              OIL ENGINES.


                               CONTENTS.

Choosing and installing a gas engine. The construction of good gas
engines. Examination as to workmanship. As to running. As to economy.
Reliability and durability of gas engines. Cost of installing a gas
engine. Proper erection of a gas engine. Construction of the foundation.
Arrangement for gas pipes. Rubber bag. Locking devices. Exhaust pipes.
Air pipes. Setting up gas engines. Brakes and their use in ascertaining
the power of gas engines. Theory of the brake. The Brauer band brake.
Arrangement of a brake test. Explanation of the expressions "Brake Power"
and "Indicated Power." Comparisons of the results of the brake test and
the indicated test. Quantity of work consumed by external friction of the
engine. Distribution of heat in a gas engine. Attendance on gas engines.
General remarks. Gas engine oil. Cylinder lubricators. Rules as to
starting and stopping a gas engine. The cleaning of a gas engine. General
observations and specific examination for defects. Different kinds of
defectives. The engine refuses to work. Non-starting of the engine. Too
much pressure on the gas. Water in the exhaust pot. Difficulty in
starting the engine. Clogged slide valve. Leaks in gas pipes. Unexpected
stopping of engine. Irregular running. Loss of power. Weak gas mixtures.
Late ignition. Cracks in air inlet. Back firing. Knocking and pounding
inside of engine. Dangers and precautionary measure in handling gas
engines. Examination of gas pipes. Precautions when:-Opening gas valves.
Removing piston from cylinder. Examining with light openings of gas
engines. Dangers in starting. Dangers in cleaning. Safeguards for
fly-wheels. Danger of putting on belts. =Oil Engines.= Gas engines with
producer gas. Gasoline and oil engines. The "Hornsby-Akroyd" oil engine.
Failure to start. Examination of engine in detail. Vaporizer valve box.
Full detailed directions for the management of Oil Engines. Concluding
remarks. 120 pages, illustrated, 12mo. cloth. $1.00

                   *       *       *       *       *


                         THE CHEMISTRY OF FIRE
                                  AND
                            FIRE PREVENTION.

                  A HANDBOOK FOR INSURANCE SURVEYORS,
                   WORKS MANAGERS, AND ALL INTERESTED
                   IN FIRE RISKS AND THEIR DIMINUTION


                                   BY
                     HERBERT INGLE, F.I.C., F.C.S.
                                  AND
                       HARRY INGLE, PH.D., B.SC.
                         TECHNOLOGICAL CHEMIST.


                         Contents of Chapters.

I. Definition of Fire, Old Theories as to its Nature, Modern Views of
Combustion--The Physical and Chemical Properties of the Atmosphere, the
Chief Properties of its Constituents--Some Conditions Affecting the
Combustion of Substances in Air, the Principle of the Miner's Safety
Lamp.

II. Explanation of Chemical Terms, Outline of the Atomic Theory. Brief
Explanations of the Use of Chemical Formulæ and Equations.

III. Methods of Preparations of Oxygen, Brin's Oxygen Manufacture--Heat
Measurements, the Calorimeter, Calorific Power of Substances Burning in
Air.

IV. Coal Gas: Its Preparation, Purification and Composition--Properties
of Its Chief Constituents--Reciprocity of Combustion--Gaseous
Diffusion--Explosion of Gases--Dust Explosions.

V. Fuel: Chemical Composition of Wood, Charcoal, Peat, Lignite, Coal,
Coke, Petroleum, Coal Gas--Use of "Atmospheric Burners"--Producer
Gas--Water Gas--Dawson Gas.

                   *       *       *       *       *


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                                                    NEW YORK, U. S. A.

                   *       *       *       *       *


                              25c. BOOKS.


=MODEL BOILER MAKING.= Contains full instructions for designing and
making model stationary, marine and locomotive boilers. Fully illustrated
with original working drawings.

=METAL WORKING TOOLS AND THEIR USES.= A Handbook for Young Engineers and
Apprentices. Shows how to use simple tools required in metal working and
model making. Illustrated.

=SIMPLE MECHANICAL WORKING MODELS.= How to make and use them, including
stationary engine locomotive, steamboat, waterwheel, etc. With 34
illustrations.

=MODEL STEAMER BUILDING.= A practical handbook on the design and
construction of model steamer hulls, and fittings, with 39 scale
drawings.

=MACHINERY FOR MODEL STEAMERS.= On the design, construction, fitting and
erecting of engines and boilers for model steamers, with 44 scale
drawings.

=THE SLIDE VALVE.= Simply explained for working engineers. Fully
illustrated.

=THE LOCOMOTIVE=, simply explained. A first introduction to the study of
the locomotive engine, their designs, construction and erection, with a
short catechism, and 26 illustrations.

=THE BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO THE LATHE.= An elementary instruction book on
turning in wood and metal. By P. MARSHALL. 76 pages, 75 illustrations.

=GAS AND OIL ENGINES.= A practical handbook on, with instructions for
care and running. Illustrated.

=STANDARD SCREW THREADS.= A Guide to Standard Screw Threads and Twist
Drills. (Small sizes.) Illustrated.

=STEAM TURBINES.= How to design and build them. A practical handbook for
model makers. Contents of Chapters. 1. General Consideration. 2. Pressure
Developed by an Impinging Jet; Velocity and Flow of Steam Through
Orifices. 3. Method of Designing a Steam Turbine. 4. Complete Designs for
DeLaval Steam Turbines; Method of Making Vanes; Shrouding. 5. The Theory
of Multiple Stage Turbines. Fully illustrated with detail drawings and
tables.

=MECHANICAL DRAWING=, simply explained. Use of instruments, reading and
setting out drawings, inking in and finishing, drawings for reproduction,
lettering, with 44 illustrations.

=ACETYLENE GAS.= How to make and use it. A practical handbook on the uses
of Acetylene Gas, suitable apparatus for its generation, hints and
fitting up, etc. 34 illustrations.

=LETTERING FOR DRAWINGS.= A System of Easy Lettering, by J. H. CROMWELL,
with an appendix of eight new alphabets by G. Martin. Giving a variety of
very attractive alphabets suitable for engineering and architectural
drawings. =8th thousand. 50c.=

=PROJECTION DRAWING.= Twelve plates on, by OSWALD GUETH, M.E., Inst.
Mech. Drawing, Cooper Inst., N. Y. Arranged in three sections:
_Projections_, plate 1, Prisms; 2, Pyramids; 3, Inclined Prisms; 4,
Inclined Pyramids. _Sections_, plate 5, Prisms and Pyramids; 6, Cones; 7,
Spheres; 8, Various Solids. _Intersections_, plate 9, Prisms; 10,
Cylinders; 11, Spheres; 12, Prisms and Pyramids. =Size, 8-1/2[**
fraction] × 11 in., sewn, 75c.=

=ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS.= Simply explained. A text-book for students,
apprentices and engineers. By H. H. HARRISON. =165 pages, 59 diagrams,
cloth, 75c.=

=ALGEBRA SELF-TAUGHT.= By W. P. HIGGS. 7th edition. The simplest and best
book for beginners, mechanics, young engineers and electricians.
Commencing from the very beginning, and advancing step by step, with many
practical examples worked out. The signs given are fully explained. The
language used is so simple that a student can readily master algebra by a
little home study. This is the book to help the young man get into a
better position. =Bound in cloth, 60c.=

=EDUCATIONAL WOODWORK.= By A. C. HORTH. A complete manual for teachers
and organizers of woodworking classes. Contents of Chapters: 1. First
Year Course. 2. Second Year Course. 3. Third Year Course. 4. Fittings and
Furniture. 5. Discipline. 6. Organization and Method. 7. The Instruction
of the Physically and Mentally Deficient and Blind. 8. Object Lessons.
Fully illustrated with reproductions from photographs, drawings, and
facsimile black-board lessons. =158 pages, 12mo., cloth, $1.00 net.=

=WOODWORK JOINTS.= How to make and where to use them; including mortise
and tenon joints, lap joints, dovetail joints, glue joints and scarfing
joints. With a chapter on circular woodwork, revised and enlarged
edition, 101 pages, 178 illustrations. =25c.=

=THE BEGINNER'S GUIDE TO FRETWORK.= Containing full instructions on the
Use of Tools and Materials; and six full size Fretwork designs. With 39
pages and 26 illustrations. =25c.=

=VENEERING, MARQUETRY AND INLAY.= A practical instruction book in the art
of Decorating Woodwork by these methods. By P. A. WELLS. 79 pages, 37
illustrations. =25c.=

=SOFT WOODS AND COLONIAL TIMBERS.= The selection and Uses of Soft Woods
and Colonial Timbers. The cultivation, cutting and seasoning. 57 pages,
15 illustrations. =25c.=

=HARD WOODS, ENGLISH AND FOREIGN.= A practical description of Hard and
Fancy Woods used by the carpenter and cabinet maker. By P. A. WELLS, 79
pages, 19 illustrations, =25c.=

                   *       *       *       *       *


                                 Spons'

                           Mechanics Own Book

               =A WORK THAT SHOULD BE IN YOUR BOOKCASE.=


The general method of treatment of each subject, is first the raw
materials worked upon, its characteristics, variations and suitability;
secondly, the tools used, the sharpening and use; thirdly, devoted to
typical examples of work to be done, materials, and how to do similar
work, etc.

               THE FOLLOWING ARE THE PRINCIPAL CONTENTS.

  Mechanical Drawing, (13 pages.)
  Mechanical Movements, (55 pages.)
  Casting and Founding in Brass and Bronze, (30 pages.)
  Forging and Finishing, (46 pages.)
  Soldering in all its branches, (26 pages.)
  Sheet Metal Working, (10 pages.)
  Turning and Turning Lathes, (31 pages.)
  Carpentry, (224 pages.)
  Log Huts, Building, Etc., (8 pages.)
  Cabinet-Making, (36 pages.) Upholstery, (6 pages.)
  Carving and Fretwork, (13 pages.)
  Picture Frame Making, (4 pages.)
  Painting, Graining and Marbling, (28 pages.)
  Staining, (13 pages.)  Gilding, (3 pages.)
  Polishing, (23 pages.) Varnishing, (4 pages.)
  Paper Hanging, (4 pages.) Glazing, (7 pages.)
  Plastering and White Washing, (9 pages.)
  Lighting, (8 pages.)
  Foundations and Masonry, (46 pages.)
  Roofing, (14 pages.)
  Ventilating and Warming, (13 pages.)
  Electric Bell and Bell Hanging, Gas Fitting, (8 pages.)
  Roads and Bridges, Banks, Hedges, Ditches and Drains, Asphalt Cement
    Floors, Water Supply and Sanitation.


Total number of pages 702. Total number illustrations 1,420 Bound in
substantial half-extra,--=PRICE BY MAIL ONLY $2.50=

We have an 8 page circular giving full contents which will be sent free
on application.

                   *       *       *       *       *


                           Workshop Receipts.

                           THE MOST COMPLETE

                    Technical Cyclopedia in 5 Vols.


=First Series. Principal Contents.=--Bronzes, Cements, Dyeing,
Electrometallurgy, Enamels, Etchings, Fireworks, Fluxes, Fulminates,
Gilding. Gums, Japanning. Lacquers, Marble Working, Nitro-Glycerine,
Photography, Pottery, Varnishes, etc., etc. 420 pages, 108 illustrations,
12mo, cloth, $2.00.

=Second Series. Principal Contents.=--Acidimetry, Albumen. Alcohol,
Alkaloids, Bitters. Bleaching, Boiler Incrustations, Cleansing,
Confectionery, Copying, Disinfectants, Essences. Extracts, Fire-proofing,
Glycerine. Gut, Iodine, Ivory Substitutes, Leather, Matches Pigments,
Paint, Paper, Parchment, etc., etc. 485 pages, 16 illustrations, 12mo,
cloth, $2.00.

=Third Series. Principal Contents.=--Alloys, Aluminium, Antimony, Copper,
Electrics, Enamels, Glass. Gold, Iron and Steel, Liquors. Lead,
Lubricants, Magnesium. Manganese, Mercury, Mica, Nickel, Platinum,
Silver, Slag, Tin, Uranium, Zinc, etc., etc. 480 pages, 183
illustrations, 12mo, cloth, $2.00.

=Fourth Series. Principal Contents.=--Water-proofing, Packing and
Stowing, Embalming and Preserving Leather Polishes, Cooling Air and
Water. Pumps and Siphons, Dessicating. Distilling, Emulsifying,
Evaporating, Filtering, Percolating and Macerating. Electrotyping,
Stereotyping. Book-binding, Straw-plaiting, Musical Instruments, Clock
and Watch Mending, Photography, etc., etc. 443 pages, 243 illustrations,
12mo, cloth, $2 00.

=Fifth Series. Principal Contents.=--Diamond Cutting, Laboratory
Apparatus, Copying, Filtering, Fire-proofing. Magic Lanterns, Metal Work.
Percolation, Illuminating Agents, Tobacco Pipes, Taps, Tying and
Splicing. Tackle Repairing Books. Netting, Walking Sticks Boat-Building,
etc., etc. 440 pages, 373 illustrations, 12mo, cloth, $2.00.

  =EACH SERIES has its own Contents and Index and is complete in itself.=

                   *       *       *       *       *


                          SPONS' ENCYCLOPÆDIA

                                 OF THE
                     Industrial Arts, Manufactures
                                  AND
                          Commercial Products.

                               EDITED BY

               G. G. ANDRE, F.G.S., Asso.-M. Inst. C.E.

                                  AND

             C. G. WARNFORD LOCK, F.L.S., F.G.S., M.I.M.M.

   Assisted by many prominent Manufacturers, Chemists and Scientists.


This encyclopedia is written by practical men for practical men.

_Raw Materials_ form perhaps its most important feature and are dealt
with in a way never before attempted.

_Manufacturers_ are discussed in detail from the manufacturing standpoint
by manufacturers of acknowledged reputation.

Special consideration is given to the utilization of waste, the
prevention of nuisance, and the question of adulterations.

Technicalities are explained, and bibliographies (English, American,
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Over 2,000 pages and nearly 2,000 illustrations.

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         A full descriptive circular can be had on application.

                   *       *       *       *       *


                       Dubelle's Famous Formulas.

                                KNOWN AS

        Non Plus Ultra Soda Fountain Requisites of Modern Times.

                           By G. H. DUBELLE.

  _A practical Receipt Book for Druggists, Chemists, Confectioners and
                        Venders of Soda Water._


                         SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION.--Notes on natural fruit juices and improved methods for
their preparation. Selecting the fruit. Washing and pressing the fruit.
Treating the juice. Natural fruit syrups and mode of preparation. Simple
or stock syrups.

                              =FORMULAS.=

FRUIT SYRUPS.--Blackberry, black currant, black raspberry, catawba,
cherry, concord grape, cranberry, lime, peach, pineapple, plum, quince,
raspberry, red current, red orange, scuppernong grape, strawberry, wild
grape. NEW IMPROVED ARTIFICIAL FRUIT SYRUPS.--Apple, apricot, banana,
bitter orange, blackberry, black currant, cherry, citron, curacoa, grape,
groseille, lemon, lime, mandarin, mulberry, nectarine, peach, pear,
pineapple, plum, quince, raspberry, red current, strawberry, sweet
orange, tangerine, vanilla. FANCY SODA FOUNTAIN SYRUPS.--Ambrosia,
capillaire, coca-kina, coca-vanilla, coca-vino, excelsior, imperial,
kola-coca, kola-kina, kola-vanilla, kola-vino, nectar, noyean, orgeat,
sherbet, syrup of roses, syrup of violets. ARTIFICIAL FRUIT
ESSENCES.--Apple, apricot, banana, bergamot, blackberry, black cherry,
black currant, blueberry, citron, cranberry, gooseberry, grape, lemon,
lime fruit, melon, nectarine, orange, peach, pear, pineapple, plum,
quince, raspberry, red currant, strawberry. CONCENTRATED FRUIT
PHOSPHATES.--Acid solution of phosphate, strawberry, tangerine, wild
cherry.--29. different formulas. NEW MALT PHOSPHATES--36. FOREIGN AND
DOMESTIC WINE PHOSPHATES--9. CREAM-FRUIT LACTARTS--28. SOLUBLE FLAVORING
EXTRACTS AND ESSENCES--14. NEW MODERN PUNCHES--18. MILK PUNCHES--17.
FRUIT PUNCHES--32. FRUIT MEADS--18. NEW FRUIT CHAMPAGNES--17. NEW EGG
PHOSPHATES--14. FRUIT JUICE SHAKES--24. EGG PHOSPHATE SHAKES. HOT EGG
PHOSPHATE SHAKES. WINE BITTER SHAKES--12. SOLUBLE WINE BITTERS
EXTRACTS--12. NEW ITALIAN LEMONADES--18. ICE CREAM SODAS--39.
NON-POISONOUS COLORS. FOAM PREPARATIONS. MISCELLANEOUS FORMULAS--26.
LATEST NOVELTIES IN SODA FOUNTAIN MIXTURES--7. TONICS.--Beef, iron and
cinchona; hypophosphite; beef and coca; beef, wine and iron; beef, wine,
iron and cinchona; coca and calisaya. LACTARTS.--Imperial tea; mocha
coffee; nectar; Persian sherbert. PUNCHES. EXTRACTS.--Columbia root beer;
ginger tonic; soluble hop ale. LEMONADES.--French; Vienna. Egg nogg. Hop
ale. Hot tom. Malt wine. Sherry cobbler. Saratoga milk shake. Pancretin
and wine. Kola-coco cordial. Iron malt phosphate. Pepsin, wine and iron,
etc.

           =157 Pages, Nearly 500 Formulas. 12mo, Cloth. $1=

                   *       *       *       *       *


                Latest practice, New and original cuts.

                          KATHARINE MELLISH'S

                                COOKERY
                                  AND
                          DOMESTIC MANAGEMENT.


                         SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.

  Complete Breakfast Menus, with receipts, pages 1-27.
    Complete Luncheon Menus, with receipts, pages 28-74.
      Tea Menus, High Tea Menus, with receipts, pages 75-124.
        Complete Dinner Menus, with receipts, pages 125-220.

Processes:--This chapter is illustrated with exact position of the
=cook's hands= during the various operations of preparing, boning birds
and joints, trussing fish, joints, poultry, game, hares, rabbits, etc.
Larding and icing, etc.

Receipts of separate dishes.

Stocks and soups of all kinds, broth, gravy, etc.

Fish.--To clean, general rules for cooking. Numerous receipts or boiling,
baking, stewing, frying fish of all kinds.

The preparation and making of gravies, stuffing, forcemeats, purees,
garnishes and sauces for all purposes, with many receipts.

Entrees.--Their preparation and serving, with receipts.

Joints.--Preparation, cooking and serving of, with many receipts.

Vegetables.--Preparation and cooking of plain and dressed vegetables of
all kinds and how to serve them.

Poultry and game.--Preparation, cooking and serving, with receipts.

Pastries, pudding and sweet dishes. Cakes, biscuits, bread.

Omelets.--With receipts for preparing, cooking and serving.

Ices, confectionery, syrups, jams, preserves and preserving, cordials,
liqueurs, and aerated drinks. Cookery for invalids, carving, serving,
etc., etc., and very complete index and contents.

  =987 pages, 56 full page colored plates, 439 illus. Size, 7-1/4 in. ×
   10-1/4 in. × 2-1/2 in. Full waterproof texederm in 1, 3 or 5 vols.=

                   *       *       *       *       *


  Published Weekly,    Annual subscription,  Subscription 6 months, $1.50
  Single numbers, 8c.  $3.00 postpaid.          "         4  "      $1.00


                           THE MODEL ENGINEER
                            AND ELECTRICIAN.

  The BEST Paper for Young Engineers, Students, Model Makers, Apprentices,
         and all interested in Mechanical and Electrical Work.


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Transcriber's Notes:

The original spelling and minor inconsistencies in the spelling and
formatting have been maintained.

Inconsistent hyphenation is as in the original if not marked as a
misprint.

Text in italics has been marked with underscores (_text_) and bold text
with egual signs (=text=)

Inconsistent smallcap mark-up of the word Fig. in captions has been
harmonized to FIG.

Missing punctuation in the advertisement at the end of the book has been
added.

Table A has been re-arranged to fit the line size.

Table II and B have been split into two parts.

The table below lists all corrections applied to the original text.

  p. ix: Gay-Lassacs -> Lussac's
  p. x: for molasses. Transportion -> Transportation
  p. xii: 30, 31, -> 30, 31
  p. 8: Mashes, and Fermentation -> Fermentation.
  p. 11: Company, of Cincinnati -> Cincinnati,
  p. 11: illustrated in Fig -> Fig.
  p. 15: stirrer arms B -> _B_
  p. 16: driving shaft F -> _F_
  p. 22: This is know -> known
  p. 26: of the yeast stops -> stops.
  p. 40: pipes G G G -> _G G G_
  p. 40: in the worm, -> worm.
  p. 57: as the chamber B -> _B_
  p. 64: Fig. 22.--Diagramatie -> Diagramatic
  p. 68: depriving it of its aclohol -> alcohol
  p. 72: Gauge Glass for Regulatar -> Regulator
  p. 73: runnings or ".feints." -> "feints."
  p. 73: Fig. 29 -> 29.
  p. 80: the column _A_ -> _A_.
  p. 94: more highly varporized -> vaporized
  p. 107: being kept at 65°F -> 65° F
  p. 117: saccharification takes place -> place.
  p. 138: steam is admitted though -> through
  p. 145: is required per arce -> acre
  p. 149: which is varied accroding -> according
  p. 158: FIF. -> FIG.
  p. 185: starch a blue color, -> color.
  p. 186: may contain numerious -> numerous
  p. 186: processes are largely empirical -> empirical.
  p. 191: in the still in Fig. 8 -> 8.
  p. 192: money for their proprieters -> proprietors
  p. 195: constructed, however, to pervent -> prevent
  p. 195: After the chief feremnting -> fermenting
  p. 198: rectifying columns, refrigerators -> refrigerators,
  p. 198: FIG. 56 -> 55
  p. 206: FIG 59. -> FIG. 59.
  p. 218: 100 gallons -> gallons.
  p. 218: Ethyl Alcohol--100 gallons. -> Ethyl Alcohol 100 gallons.
  p. 219: 100 gallons -> gallons.
  p. 220: and similar products -> products.
  p. 221: on metallic susbtances -> substances
  p. 239: used for de-naturign -> de-naturing
  p. 246: employees for the work. -> work"
  p. 251: subject to the penalites -> penalties
  p. 256: de-natured spirits is -> are
  p. 259: tax free of domestic alchohol -> alcohol
  p. 272: Prof. Silvanus P. Thomson -> Thompson
  p. 275: thermostats, annnuciators -> annunciators
  p. 285: DIGRAM -> DIAGRAM
  p. 292: "Gas Analyst's Manual -> Manual"
  p. 292: Mond Gas (48 pages) -> (48 pages.)
  p. 292: Tables, Formulae -> Formulæ
  p. 294: "Hornsby-Akroyd' -> "Hornsby-Akroyd"
  p. 302: Blackberry, black current -> currant
  p. 302: orange, blackberry, black current -> currant
X/





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