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Title: Special Days and their Observance - September 1919
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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Transcriber's Note

Italic text is denoted by _underscores_ and bold text by =equal signs=.


                          STATE OF NEW JERSEY

                             Special Days
                               and their

                            September 1919


                              APPROVED BY
                       STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION
                               JUNE 1919

[Illustration: Liberty Bell

The symbol of liberty, freedom, justice and order in the government of
the United States of America]


Special Days
and their

September 1919


JUNE 1919



  Foreword                                                               7
  Acknowledgments                                                        9
  Opening Exercises                                                     11
  Morning Exercises, Jennie Haver                                       13
  Morning Exercises, Florence L. Farber                                 24
  Opening Exercises, Louis H. Burch                                     27
  Columbus Day, J. Cayce Morrison                                       33
  Thanksgiving Day, Roy L. Shaffer                                      59
  Lincoln's Birthday, Charles A. Philhower                              69
  Washington's Birthday, Henry W. Foster                                89
  Arbor Day                                                            109
  Trees and Forests, Alfred Gaskill                                    112
  Arbor Day observed by planting Hamilton Grove, Charles A. Philhower  119
  Suggestions to Teachers, K. C. Davis                                 121
  Value of our Forests, U. S. Bureau of Education                      123
  Memorial Day, George C. Baker                                        125
  Flag Day, Hannah H. Chew                                             141
  Bibliography, Katharine B. Rogers                                    159



  Liberty Bell                                                Frontispiece
  Columbus, "Admiral at the Helm"                                       51
  Saint Gaudens' Lincoln                                                73
  Gutzon Borglum's Lincoln                                              85
  Stuart's Washington                                                   93
  Statue of Washington at West Point                                   103


In the statutes of the state will be found the following:

 The day in each year known as Arbor Day shall be suitably observed
 in the public schools. The Commissioner of Education shall from time
 to time prepare and issue to schools such circulars of information,
 advice and instruction with reference to the day as he may deem

 For the purpose of encouraging the planting of shade and forest trees,
 the second Friday of April in each year is hereby designated as a day
 for the general observance of such purpose, and to be known as Arbor

 On said day appropriate exercises shall be introduced in all the
 schools of the State, and it shall be the duty of the several county
 and city superintendents to prepare a program of exercises for that
 day in all the schools under their respective jurisdiction.

 In all public schools there shall be held on the last school day
 preceding the following holidays, namely, Lincoln's Birthday,
 Washington's Birthday, Decoration or Memorial Day and Thanksgiving
 Day, and on such other patriotic holidays as shall be established by
 law, appropriate exercises for the development of a higher spirit of

 It shall be the duty of the principals and teachers in the public
 schools of this State to make suitable arrangements for the
 celebration, by appropriate exercises among the pupils in said
 schools, on the fourteenth day of June, in each year, as the day of
 the adoption of the American flag by the Continental Congress.

The provisions of these statutes have been carried out in the schools
of the state. They are believed in and supported heartily by the public
opinion of the state.

In order that greater assistance may be rendered to teachers and school
officers in preparing for these special days, this pamphlet on _Special
Days and their Observance_ has been prepared by the Department, chiefly
through the efforts of Mr. Z. E. Scott, Assistant Commissioner in
charge of Elementary Education.

The pamphlet also contains suggestions concerning the opening exercises
of schools.

Mr. Scott has been assisted in this work by the following persons, the
school officers having in turn been aided by their teachers. To all
these grateful acknowledgment is hereby made.

  George C. Baker, Supervising Principal, Moorestown
  Louis H. Burch, Principal Bangs Avenue School, Asbury Park
  Hannah Chew, Principal Culver School, Cumberland County
  K. C. Davis, formerly of State Agricultural College, New Brunswick
  Florence Farber, Helping Teacher, Sussex County
  Henry W. Foster, Supervising Principal, South Orange
  Alfred Gaskill, State Forester
  Jennie Haver, Helping Teacher, Hunterdon County
  J. Cayce Morrison, Supervising Principal, Leonia
  Charles A. Philhower, Supervising Principal, Westfield
  Katharine B. Rogers, Reference Librarian, State Library
  Roy L. Shaffer, Supervisor of Practice, Newark State Normal School

It has been the aim of Mr. Scott and his associates to suggest
exercises which would be appropriate for the observance of these
several days, which would be of interest to pupils, and which at the
same time would be of a character worthy of the dignity of the public
schools of the state.

                                          Calvin N. Kendall
                                             _Commissioner of Education_


Grateful acknowledgment is hereby made to the following publishers and
authors for permission to use copyrighted selections:

    American Book Company, New York, for extract from Green's "Short
       History of the English People."

    D. Appleton & Company, New York, for Bryant's "America" and extract
       from Edward S. Holden's "Our Country's Flag."

    Henry Holcomb Bennett for "The Flag Goes By."

    Bobbs-Merrill Company, Indianapolis, for "The Name of Old Glory,"
       by James Whitcomb Riley.

    Boosey & Company, New York, for "We'll keep Old Glory Flying," by
       Carleton S. Montanye.

    Dr. Frank Crane for "After the Great Companions."

    Thomas Y. Crowell Company, New York, for extract from "The Book of
       Holidays," by J. Walker McSpadden. Reprinted by permission of
       the publishers. Copyright 1917 by Thomas Y. Crowell Company.

    Joseph Fulford Folsom for "The Unfinished Work."

    Harper & Brothers, New York, for extract from "The Americanism of
       Washington," by Henry van Dyke.

    Caroline Hazard for "The Western Land."

    Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, for Bret Harte's "The Reveille"
       and extract from "Our National Ideals," by William Backus

    Kindergarten Magazine Publishing Company, Manistee, Michigan, for
       nine selections, including two by Laura Rountree Smith and one
       by Mary R. Campbell.

    Macmillan Company, New York, for extract from "The Making of an
       American," by Jacob A. Riis, and "On a Portrait of Columbus,"
       by George Edward Woodberry, used by permission of and special
       arrangement with the publishers.

    Moffat, Yard & Co., New York, for extract from "Memorial Day," by
       Robert Haven Schauffler.

    New England Publishing Company, Boston, for "Columbus Day" and Walt
       Whitman's "Address to America." From "Journal of Education."

    New York Evening Post for "America's Answer," by R. W. Lillard.

    New York Herald for Mrs. Josephine Fabricant's "The Service Flag."

    New York State Department of Education, Albany, for "The Boy
       Columbus" and an extract from speech of Chauncey M. Depew.

    Theodore Presser Company, Philadelphia, for "Our Country's Flag,"
       by Mrs. Florence L. Dresser.

    G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, for "In Flanders Fields," by John

    Saturday Evening Post, Philadelphia, for "I Have a Son," by Emory

    Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, for extract from "With Americans
       of Past and Present Days," by J. J. Jusserand, copyright 1916;
       used by permission of the publishers.

    C. W. Thompson & Company, Boston, for "The Unfurling of the Flag,"
       by Clara Endicott Sears. Copyright; used by permission.

    Horace Traubel, Camden, for "O Captain! My Captain!" by Walt

    P. F. Volland Company, Chicago, for "Your Flag and My Flag," by
       Wilbur D. Nesbit. Copyrighted 1916 by publishers.

    Harr Wagner Publishing Company, San Francisco, for "Columbus," by
       Joaquin Miller.


    This above all: to thine own self be true,
    And it must follow, as the night the day,
    Thou canst not then be false to any man.





 The morning exercise is a common meeting ground; it is the family
 altar of the school to which each brings his offerings--the fruits
 of his observations and studies, or the music, literature, and art
 that delight him; a place where all cooperate for the pleasure and
 well-being of the whole; where all contribute to and share the
 intellectual and spiritual life of the whole; where all bring their
 best and choicest experiences in the most effective form at their

This quotation from the Second Year Book of the Frances W. Parker
School may well be an inspiration, a guide, and finally, a goal for us
to use in preparation for the morning exercises.

The period given to the opening exercises may be made the most
important period of the day. The pupils, whether they be in a one room
rural school or a larger town school, need a more receptive attitude
toward the work before them. A short time given to interesting,
uplifting exercises will do much to control and lead the restless
children, encourage the downhearted ones, inspire the indifferent, and
give to teachers and pupils alike higher ideals for effective work and
right living.

A part of the time given to opening exercises should be of a devotional
nature--consisting of the reading of short selections from the Bible,
without comment--and of prayer and singing. Very careful plans must
be made for the devotional exercises if they are to function as they
should. Too often the selection of song and Bible reading is made
after the pupils are in their seats. A message that is truly inspiring
is usually the result of considerable time spent in preparation. The
thoughtful teacher will plan her opening exercises as carefully as any
other part of her regular school work.

The morning exercise affords an opportunity to train pupils for
leadership. Recently an interesting morning program of musical
appreciation was carried out in a two room country school. When the
bell rang the twelve year old pupil leader went to the front of the
room and placed a march record on the phonograph. After the pupils were
seated she conducted the following program with a great deal of poise
and self confidence:

  _America_, by the School
  Psalm XXIII
  Bacarolle from "Tales of Hoffman" (phonograph)
  Traumerei--Schumann (phonograph)
  Spring Song--Mendelssohn (phonograph)
  Flag salute, by the School

Following each record on the phonograph she asked for the name of
the selection and the composer's name. It was surprising to see how
familiar even the little ones were with the classical selections.

Some one has said that the only influence greater than that of a good
book is personal contact with a great man or woman. Once in a while an
interesting talk may be given by a visitor, but the morning exercise
period should not be regarded as a lecture period. Occasionally it is
well to have leaders of different occupations in the neighborhood give
short, pertinent talks on their work.

All too often children are blind to the beauty, deaf to the music,
and almost insensible to the wonder and mystery of the great world
of nature. One day a little country girl found a large, silky, brown
cocoon and carried it to school. She didn't know what it was: neither
did her teacher. The cocoon was taken home and kept as an object of
curiosity to be shown to the neighbors when they called. One warm
spring morning a beautiful Cecropia moth, measuring six inches from
tip to tip of wing, emerged from the cocoon. That girl will never
forget her wonder and awe as she watched Nature stage one of her most
beautiful miracles. Any teacher would find it an inspiration and
a delight to bring such a charming bit of nature into her morning
exercises. Every day Nature is unfolding just as wonderful stories. Our
eyes must be open to see them.

The opening exercises, conducted as they should be, may be a source of
inspiration and a means of training for moral and social behavior, for
patriotism, for health, for vocational usefulness, for the right use of
leisure--in other words, for useful, patriotic citizenship.

There is an abundance of material on every hand that can be used in
morning exercises. Following are a few suggestions that may be of help.


Profiting by the experience of French and English troops, instructors
taught our sailors and soldiers to sing in unison. It has been found
that singing does much to improve the morale of the company. Singing
in the morning exercises does much to socialize the group and develop
school spirit.

There is such a wealth of suitable songs for morning exercises that
it seems hardly necessary to suggest many. The hymns selected should
be inspiring and uplifting; the patriotic songs should be thoroughly
learned and sung in an enthusiastic manner.

=Patriotic Songs=

  Battle Hymn of the Republic
  Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean
  Flag of the Free
  God Speed the Right
  Marching through Georgia
  Marseillaise Hymn
  National Hymn
  Old Glory
  The American Hymn
  The Battle Cry of Freedom
  The Star Spangled Banner

=Folk Songs=

  Annie Laurie
  Auld Lang Syne
  Flow Gently, Sweet Afton
  Home, Sweet Home
  My Old Kentucky Home
  Oft in the Stilly Night
  Old Black Joe
  Old Folks at Home
  Robin Adair
  Santa Lucia
  The Blue Bells of Scotland
  The Miller of Dee


  Cradle Song
  Lullaby and Good-night
  Oh, Hush Thee, my Baby
  Sweet and Low
  Silent Night


  How Gentle God's Command
  Holy, Holy, Holy
  In Heavenly Love Abiding
  Italian Hymn
  Love Divine, All Love Excelling
  Nearer, My God, to Thee
  Oh, Worship the King
  The King of Love
  There's a Wideness in God's Mercy
  Vesper Hymn


The introduction of the phonograph into the public school and the
multitude of records which reproduce the great masterpieces now make
it possible for every child to have an opportunity to hear and to
be taught to appreciate good music. Frequently part of the morning
exercise period should be devoted to an appreciation of good vocal and
instrumental musical selections. In one rural school the pupils readily
associate the name of the composition and composer with each of the
following records, which they helped to purchase:

  Anvil Chorus from "Il Trovatore"--Verdi
  Barcarolle from "Tales of Hoffman"--Offenbach
  Hearts and Flowers--Tobain
  Intermezzo from "Cavalleria Rusticana"--Mascagni
  Lo, Hear the Gentle Lark--Bishop
  Melody in F--Rubinstein
  Miserere from "Il Trovatore"--Verdi
  Pilgrim's Chorus from "Tannhauser"--Wagner
  Sextette from "Lucia di Lammermoor"--Donizetti
  Spring Song--Mendelssohn

Literature on musical appreciation will be mailed free to all teachers
who request it from the educational departments of the phonograph

Teachers who are really interested in giving their pupils the best
music will find that a number of their patrons are willing to lend
records to the school for special exercises.

Following are suggestive musical programs:

A Morning with Beethoven

  Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
  Minuet in G, No. 2 (phonograph)
  "The Moonlight Sonata," Reading by pupil
  The Moonlight Sonata (phonograph)
  The Flag Salute, Pupils

A Morning with Mendelssohn

  Hark! the Herald Angels Sing, Song by School
  Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
  Spring Song (phonograph)
  Oh, For the Wings of a Dove (phonograph)
  The Flag Salute, School

Indian Songs

  Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
  The Story of the Indians, Pupil
  Navajo Indian Song (phonograph)
  Medicine Song (phonograph)
  Flag Salute, School

Negro Songs

  Old Black Joe, School
  Bible Reading and Prayer
  Good News (phonograph)
  Live a-Humble (phonograph)
  The Flag Salute, School
  (The records given are by the Tuskegee Institute Singers)

Irish Songs

  Wearin' of the Green, School
  Bible Reading and Prayer
  Come Back to Erin (phonograph)
  Macushla (phonograph)
  The Flag Salute, School

Scotch Songs

  My Laddie (phonograph)
  Bible Reading and Prayer
  Annie Laurie, School
  My Ain Countrie (phonograph)
  Flag Salute, School


To instil in the hearts of boys and girls a love for good literature
is to give them a never ending source of happiness throughout life.
Children can be interested in books by hearing stories read, by
retelling them, and by reading them. The story of the author's life
may add interest to the author's work. Much can be done in morning
exercises to start children on the road to good reading. The more work
children do themselves the more interested they will be. Following are
suggestive literary programs:

=Robert Louis Stevenson=

  Bible Reading by pupils--Philippians IV, 4-8
  Stevenson's Prayer for a Day's Work, Recitation by pupil
  Short story of Stevenson's life, Pupil
  My Shadow, Pupil
  The Land of Story Books, Pupil
  God Speed the Right, Sung by School
  The Flag Salute, School

=Hans Christian Andersen=

  Psalm 100, Pupil
  Lord's Prayer, School
  A Poor Boy Who Became Famous, Retold by pupil
  The Steadfast Tin Soldier, Retold by pupil
  The Little Tin Soldier, Song by School
  The Flag Salute, School

=Henry W. Longfellow=

  The Arrow and the Song, Song by School
  Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
  Scenes from Hiawatha, Dramatization by pupils
  The Village Blacksmith, Recitation by pupil


When children are truly interested in reading, the natural outlet
for the emotions aroused is dramatic action. Let different classes
be responsible for dramatizing stories from their history or reading
lessons and present the results in the morning exercises. The educative
and socializing value to the class presenting the exercise is almost
invaluable. Dramatizing the story makes an interesting incentive for
a number of language lessons; rehearsing the play provides for much
practice in oral expression; and producing the play before an audience
gives valuable training in leadership, self confidence and poise.


We do not expect many of the school children to become artists, but
all can learn to appreciate and tastefully select the beautiful
in pictures, personal dress, home furnishing and decoration, and
architecture. It has been truly said, "Though we travel the world over
to find the beautiful, we must carry it with us or we find it not."

Frequently a few minutes of the morning exercises may be very
profitably, spent in the study of the beautiful. Artistic material
to use as illustrations for the talks is on every hand. Inexpensive
reproductions of the world's great pictures; illustrations in
magazines; beautifully colored papers for color combinations in
neckties, dress designing and hat trimming; magazine and catalog
pictures of well designed furniture and home utensils can be easily

A suggestive list of morning talks is given below:

  Famous Pictures
      The First Step--Millet
      Landscape with Windmill--Ruysdael
      The Horse Fair--Bonheur
      Sistine Madonna--Raphael

  How Can We Get Good Pictures for Our Schoolroom
  Color Harmony in Dress
  Good Taste in Furniture
  Home Decoration
  Beautifying the School Ground
  Washington, the City Beautiful

      How to Enjoy Pictures--Emery
      A Child's Guide to Pictures--Coffin
      The Mentor
      The School Arts Magazine
      Ladies' Home Journal
      The Perry Pictures
      National Geographic Magazine


Truly, "A people's health's a nation's wealth," and every encouragement
should be given in school to further the doctrine of healthful living.
The medical examiner, the school nurse, the pupils and the teachers,
all may do their part to make the health talks practical and of much
value to the school.

=Suggestive Health Talks=

  Why we should exercise
  Care of the Teeth
  Care of the Eyes
  Prevention of Colds
  How to prevent Tuberculosis
  Swat the Fly
  How to destroy mosquitoes
  Safety First
  Cigarette Smoking
  Self Control and Good Manners
  School Sanitation


  Teaching of Hygiene and Safety Pamphlets of Health, from the National
    Department of Health, Washington, D. C.
  State Department of Health, Trenton, N. J.
  Russell Sage Foundation, New York City
  Health-Education League, Boston, Mass.
  Farmer's Bulletins from U. S. Department of Agriculture
  Modern Hygiene textbooks
  Newspaper and Magazine Articles


The study of the wonderful things of the world, their beautiful
fitness for their existence and function, the remarkable progressive
tendency of all organic life, and the unity that prevails in it create
admiration in the beholder and tend to his spiritual uplifting.

=Suggestive topics for morning exercises=

  How can we attract the birds?
  How I Built A Bird House
  Does it Pay the Farmer to Protect the Birds?
  The Travel of Birds
  The Life History of a Frog
  The Life History of a Butterfly
  How I made my Home Garden
  How I raised an Acre of Corn
  The Trees on our School Ground


A series of morning exercises may be devoted to the local history
of a community. The material may be planned by the pupils with the
assistance of some of the older people in the neighborhood. This idea
was carried out very successfully in a small town and did much to
interest the parents in the school. Many were willing to send family
heirlooms to the classroom to use as illustrations for the talks. One
charming old lady sent a written account of the history of her old home.

Following are some topics that might be developed:

  Former Location of Indian Tribes in the Community
  Evidences of Indian Occupation (old trails, implements, mounds, etc.)
  The First White Settlers
  Revolutionary Landmarks
  Colonial Relics
  Historic Homes in the Community
  Famous People of the Community

A program for one morning might be conducted by the pupils as follows:

  Proverbs 27:1-2, Pupil
  Italian Hymn, School
  Famous People of the Community
  The Grandfather who fought in the Civil War, pupil
  The Man who was Governor of the State, pupil
  The Woman who was a Nurse in the World War, pupil
  The Man who wrote a Book, pupil
  The Soldier boy in France, pupil


Much interesting and instructive material can be secured for opening
exercises by making use of members of recognized organizations for boys
and girls. There are members of the Boy Scouts of America in almost
every community. The Camp Fire Girls are getting to be almost as well
known. Let each group prepare occasional programs for morning exercises.

=Boy Scouts=

  Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
  The Origin and Growth of Scouting
  The Three Classes of Scouts
  The Scout Motto
  The Scout Law
  "America" and Flag Salute

=Camp Fire Girls=

  Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
  The Seven Laws of the Order
  The Wood Gatherer
  The Fire Maker
  The Torch Bearer
  Song by School
  The Flag Salute


The patriotic note should be found in every morning exercise and
some periods should be devoted entirely to patriotic selections. The
national hymns should be learned from the first stanza to the last. It
is hard to get the patriotic note in our singing when we do not know
the words.

=Suggestive Programs=

  America, School
  Bible Reading and Lord's Prayer
  Patrick Henry's Speech (phonograph)
  Lincoln's Gettysburg Address (phonograph)
  Flag Salute

  Bible Reading and Prayer
  Army Bugle Call No. 1 (phonograph)
  The Junior Red Cross
      Sewing for the Red Cross, A girl
      Earning Money for the Red Cross, A boy
      How the Work of the Junior Red Cross develops Patriotism
        in a school, Pupil
  Come, Thou Almighty King, School

"Patriotism consists not in waving a flag but in striving that our
country shall be righteous as well as strong."--_James Bryce_

"One cannot always be a hero, but one can always be a man."--_Goethe_

"Go back to the simple life, be contented with simple food, simple
pleasures, simple clothes. Work hard, play hard, pray hard. Work,
eat, recreate and sleep. Do it all courageously. We have a victory to


    For life is the mirror of king and slave;
    'Tis just what we are and do.
    Then give to the world the best you have
    And the best will come back to you.

                                                   _Madeline S. Bridges_

    Somebody did a golden deed;
    Somebody proved a friend in need;
    Somebody sang a beautiful song;
    Somebody served the whole day long.
    Was that "somebody" you?

    Courtesy is to do and say
    The kindest thing in the kindest way.

    Truth is honest, truth is sure;
    Truth is strong and must endure.


    Hang on! Cling on! No matter what they say.
    Push on! Sing on! Things will come your way.
    Sitting down and whining never helps a bit;
    Best way to get there is by keeping up your grit.

                                                       _Louis E. Thayer_

The day returns and brings us the petty round of irritating concerns
and duties. Help us to play the man, help us to perform them with
laughter and kind faces, let cheerfulness abound with industry. Give us
to go blithely on our business all this day, bring us to our resting
beds weary and content and undishonored, and grant us in the end the
gift of sleep.

                                                _Robert Louis Stevenson_

    Be strong!
    We are not here to play, to dream, to drift.
    We have hard work to do and loads to lift.
    Shun not the struggle; face it; 'tis God's gift.

    Be strong!
    It matters not how deep intrenched the wrong,
    How hard the battle goes, the day how long;
    Faint not--fight on! Tomorrow comes the song.

                                                    _Maltbie D. Babcock_

    Smile a smile;
    While you smile,
    Another smiles,
    And soon there's miles and miles
    Of smiles. And life's worth while
    If you but smile.

                                                         _Jane Thompson_

You cannot dream yourself into a character; you must hammer and forge
yourself one.--_James Anthony Froude_

    Small service is true service while it lasts;
      Of friends, however humble, scorn not one;
    The daisy, by the shadow that it casts,
      Protects the lingering dewdrop from the sun.


    There's so much bad in the best of us
    And so much good in the worst of us,
    That it hardly behooves any of us
    To talk about the rest of us.

    A wise old owl lived in an oak.
    The more he saw the less he spoke;
    The less he spoke the more he heard.
    Why can't we be like that old bird?

Kindness is catching, and if you go around with a thoroughly developed
case your neighbor will be sure to get it.

    The thing to do is hope, not mope:
    The thing to do is work, not shirk.

If you have faith, preach it; if you have doubts, bury them; if you
have joy, share it; if you have sorrow, bear it. Find the bright side
of things and help others to get sight of it also. This is the only and
surest way to be cheerful and happy.



The short period known as the opening exercise period belongs to all
the children of the school. This period should furnish especially
favorable opportunities for the development of initiative on the part
of pupils, group cooperation, development of the play spirit, interest
in community life, interest in and love for our great men and women,
and devotion to our Republic.

The first problem of the teacher, then, is to understand fully that she
is to a great degree responsible for furnishing aims and purposes in
this beginning period of the day, or rather in providing the situations
through which these aims and purposes may develop. When she feels the
importance of this period in the general scheme of the day's work
she will plan for it as definitely and as carefully as she will any
other part of her program. The working out of a detailed program is
of secondary importance. The thing of first importance is that she
become fully cognizant of the general aims and ideals which she hopes
to achieve. With these firmly fixed in her mind she is ready then to
cooperate with the pupils of her room in planning detailed programs.

The following projects are in keeping with the principles presented and
have been found stimulating in one and two room schools:

=Project 1.= The teacher divides her children into groups on the basis
of age and ability. For example, in a one room school a teacher might
have two groups. Each group is to work out with the teacher a program
which it is to give and for which it is responsible. This program
may consist of a short story to be dramatized, the story to contain
not more than two or three important scenes. The costuming, if any
is needed, is to be done by pupils and teacher. Rehearsing is to be
directed by the teacher. When the program is presented it should be
as a new production to all the school except those who are engaged in
presenting it. It is to be given, therefore, as a real play to a real
audience. Each pupil should invite a member of the family or a friend.

The value of such work will soon be noticed in a better social spirit
among the children. The dramatizations given may furnish the material
for both oral and written language lessons. Dramatization itself will
provide excellent practice in oral expression and also training in
initiative, leadership and cooperation. The story presented may furnish
many funny settings which the pupils may enjoy with abandon. And what
children do not need real merriment in school! Opportunity ought to be
afforded all children of our public schools to enjoy a real laugh at
least once each day.

Teachers need have no fear that the different groups will be
over-critical or discourteous to one another. They will understand that
they are being entertained and they will cooperate to make the play
given worth while.

The following stories lend themselves very readily to dramatization.

=First and Second Grades=

  The Three Billy Goats Gruff
  Spry Mouse and Mr. Frog
  The Three Bears
  The Camel and The Jackal
  The Tale of Peter Rabbit
  Our First Flag

=Third and Fourth Grades=

  The Sleeping Beauty
  Snow White and Rose Red
  Brother Fox's Tar Baby
  How the Cave Man Made Fire
  Scenes from Hiawatha
  Early Settlers in New Jersey

=Fifth and Sixth Grades=

  The Pied Piper of Hamelin
  Joseph and His Brethren
  Abou Ben Adhem
  Paul Revere's Ride
  Scenes from Life of Daniel Boone
  Franklin's Arrival in Philadelphia
  Scenes from Alfred the Great
  The Battle of Hastings
  How Cedric Became a Knight

=Seventh and Eighth Grades=

  The Vision of Sir Launfal
  Rip Van Winkle
  The King of the Golden River
  Scenes from Evangeline
  Landing of the Pilgrims
  Conquest of the Northwest Territory
  The Man Without a Country

=Project 2.= A special problem in history or geography, for example,
may be taken up, such as the life of the people in Japan, or the life
of the people on a cattle ranch. In either case the class that presents
the work as an opening exercise should be given opportunity to work
out certain scenes which it wants to give. These scenes should be
presented either by sand-table, by charts, by posters, by pictures from
magazines, or by dramatization on the part of the children. Preparation
of such work is decidedly worth while, and ought to be a regular part
of the day's program. The important scenes should be rehearsed before
the final presentation.

=Project 3. Poster exhibit.= This project could be arranged for all
the children of a given school, in which case the best work would be
selected and the children presenting it would discuss each poster in
one or two minute talks. A still better way to handle the project
would be to have the best posters from different schools. In this case
at least one pupil from each school should be invited to present the
posters from his school.

=Project 4. War programs.= A war opening exercise program could be
worked out by the children of a given school. This could be done by
having children collect war posters and war pictures made during the
recent world war and arrange them in such a way that they tell a
connected story. A group should be held responsible for presenting each
story or part of a story. A sand-table should be provided if necessary.

An excellent war program could be provided by having the emphasis
placed upon the various men who have led or are leading in our own
national life. Pictures of these men should be secured and children
called upon to tell what important work each man has done or is doing.
This same device could be carried a step further and a special program
arranged, centering around the pictures of the different men who led
the allied forces. The older pupils of any school ought to be able to
do this work.

An additional way by which our schools may help in the work of
patriotism is to have an opening exercise by the children whose
immediate relatives were at the front. Such a program ought to have for
its purpose the idea of service to one's country.

Another helpful device would be to have at an appropriate time former
soldiers come to the school and talk to the children concerning the
meaning of the war.

The teacher who plans her opening exercise periods in keeping with the
foregoing presentation will make these periods inspiring and helpful
to herself and her children. She will be putting across the gospel of
good cheer, and cooperation in the new kind of school which offers
opportunities for participation in life's present day activities, not
preparation for future activities.



Play is one of the first manifestations of the child in self
expression. As the child grows older this play is made up in part
of the imitation of the doings and sayings of the older persons and
playmates with whom he is associated. The child reflects the life of
his parents wherever it comes under his comprehension. The stick horse
gives as much pleasure to the boy as the well trained saddle horse
gives to the father.

When the child enters school much of the play element of his life is
left behind, and teachers have often failed to use to advantage the
experience and knowledge the child has in "living over" the actions
and sayings of others. The ordinary child has observed the animals
and birds around him and can imitate them. He can personify the tree,
the flower, or the brook, and gain a clearer knowledge of the purpose
and function of the thing personified by so doing. Under the proper
direction of the teacher nearly all the common occurrences of life may
be dramatized by the children in the ordinary schoolroom and with few
so-called stage properties.

Older children are interested in the simple dramatizations of the
little folks and should have opportunity to see them often, not alone
to be entertained, but to be reminded of the simple and easy ways of
"playing you are someone else." A grammar grade class may learn many
things from watching a primary class dramatize "Three Bears," "Little
Red Hen," or "Little Red Ridinghood."

The simple dramatization in the schoolroom furnish excellent material
for general assemblies or morning exercises. Simple costumes and stage
settings satisfy the children, and the setting of the stage or platform
for the scene should, in most cases, be done before the children.
Children who see the table set, the chairs placed, and the beds
prepared for the "Three Bears" know how to get ready for their play
when they are called upon to contribute their part for the assembly.

Children will bring material for their costumes and stage furnishings
from home and should be encouraged to do so. Parents will come to see
children take part in a program when nothing else would attract them
to the school, and if the home is to be called upon to help the school
there must be a closer relationship between parents and teacher.

In preparing dramatizations for elementary school pupils but few scenes
should be chosen, and in those selected the language and action should
be simple and within the capabilities of the children.

The following dramatizations were worked out by teachers and pupils
of our building as class projects. They were presented in the opening
exercises as worth-while classroom projects which would be entertaining
and helpful to all pupils of the school, to teachers and to parents.
In presenting these scenes the pupils secured excellent practice in
oral English work, in dramatic action, and in community and group
cooperation. The pupils and teachers who made up the audience enjoyed
opening exercises in which there was purpose. All entered into the
spirit of the play; all enjoyed the exercises without having to think
why. The results have been better team work between teacher and pupils,
better school spirit, more pupil participation in leadership activities.

The History of Cotton

_Prepared by Bessie O'Hagen, Teacher of Fourth Grade, Bangs Avenue
School, Asbury Park_

_Characters_: Spirit of Cotton, Little Girl, Maiden from India, Maiden
from Egypt, Maiden from America, Spirit of Eli Whitney.

_Little Girl_ (_coming into the room in bad humor_). I hate this old
cotton dress. I wish I had a silk one. I don't see why we have to use
cotton anyway. We have to have cotton dresses, cotton sheets, cotton
stockings, cotton everything. I just hate cotton! I'm not going out to
play or anything. (_Finally sits down._) I am so tired. I wish I had a
silk dress. I hate this cotton dress. (_Falls asleep._)

_Spirit of Cotton_ (_skipping into the room_). Heigh ho! Ho heigh! Here
am I, the Spirit of Cotton. I heard what you said, little girl. Did you
ever see cotton grow?

_Little Girl_ (_frightened_). Why, no.

_Spirit of Cotton._ How do you know whether it is interesting or not?
I will tell you the story of my life. In the early spring the planter
gets the ground ready for me. As soon as the frost is out of the
ground, he plants me.

_Little Girl._ What happens then?

_Spirit of Cotton._ The good earth gives me food. The sun and rain make
me grow, and soon--

    Heigh ho! Ho heigh!
    There am I,
    A tall plant of cotton.

_Little Girl._ How do you look?

_Spirit of Cotton._ My leaves are green like the maple. I have lovely
blossoms. They are white the first day and pink the next.

_Little Girl._ I thought you said that you were a cotton plant.

_Spirit of Cotton._ So I did. My blossoms fall off, and then--

    Heigh ho! Ho heigh!
    There am I,
    A nice bunch of cotton.

_Little Girl._ Is that all?

_Spirit of Cotton._ No, I have some friends who will tell you more
about my life. (_Goes out and returns leading a little girl by the
hand._) This is my friend from India. (_Goes out again._)

_Little Girl._ How did you get here?

_Maiden from India._ I heard the Spirit of Cotton calling and I obeyed.

_Little Girl_ (_pointing to a map of Asia which is pinned on Maiden
from India_). Is this your country?

_Maiden from India._ Yes, I have come to tell you something about
cotton in my country. Cotton was first raised in my country. That was
long, long, long ago.

_Little Girl._ A hundred years ago?

_Maiden from India._ We knew how to weave cotton thousands of years ago.

_Little Girl._ Did you know how to weave well?

_Maiden from India._ We made such fine dresses that you could draw a
whole one through your ring.

_Little Girl._ I don't believe I could draw my dress through my ring.

_Maiden from India._ I know you couldn't.

_Spirit of Cotton_ (_outside_). Heigh ho! Ho heigh!

_Maiden from India._ I must return. The Spirit of Cotton is calling.
(_Goes out._)

_Spirit of Cotton_ (_comes in, leading a little girl by the hand_).
This is my friend from Egypt. She has something to tell you too. (_Goes

_Little Girl._ Do you know about cotton?

_Maiden from Egypt._ Yes, we knew how to use cotton long before your
country was even heard of.

_Little Girl._ Is this your country (_pointing to a map_)?

_Maiden from Egypt._ Yes.

_Little Girl._ Did your people like cotton dresses?

_Maiden from Egypt._ Yes; just think how warm those woolen ones were.

_Little Girl._ I guess every one who ever lived must have liked cotton.

_Maiden from Egypt._ All good children do now.

_Spirit of Cotton_ (_outside_). Heigh ho! Ho heigh!

_Maiden from Egypt._ I must go. I hear the Spirit of Cotton calling.

_Spirit of Cotton_ (_bringing a little girl into the room_). This is my
friend from America. (_Goes out again._)

_Little Girl._ I know you. We studied that map in school. You are from
the United States. What did America have to do with cotton?

_Maiden from America._ When Columbus first landed on the Bahama Islands
the natives came out to his ships in canoes, bringing cotton thread and
yarn to trade.

_Little Girl._ That was in 1492, wasn't it?

_Maiden from America._ Yes, it was 427 years ago.

_Little Girl._ Why did you put all this cotton here (_points to cotton
pasted on different states_)?

_Maiden from America._ They are the cotton states.

_Little Girl._ I know which ones they are--North Carolina, South
Carolina, Louisiana, Arkansas and Texas. Did America do anything
wonderful with cotton?

_Maiden from America._ Yes; we raise more cotton than any other place
in the world. It is the best cotton too.

_Little Girl._ I am so glad of that. We won't let India and Egypt get
ahead of us, will we?

_Maiden from America._ Of course not. All good little girls must help

_Little Girl._ I shall always like cotton after this.

_Spirit of Cotton_ (_outside_). Heigh ho! Ho heigh!

_Maiden from America._ I hear the Spirit of Cotton calling; I must go.
(_Goes out._)

_Spirit of Cotton_ (_leading a boy into the room_). This is my friend
Eli Whitney. (_Goes out._)

_Eli Whitney._ I am the Spirit of Eli Whitney. I was born in
Massachusetts in 1765. One day when my father went to church, I took
his watch to pieces and put it together again. Then I thought I would
go to Yale College. When I finished Yale College I went to Georgia. I
heard everyone there talking about cotton. They were trying to find out
how to get the seeds out of it more easily. I invented the cotton gin.

_Little Girl._ What happened then?

_Eli Whitney._ One man could now clean fifty times as much cotton as he
could before.

_Spirit of Cotton_ (_outside_). Heigh ho! Ho heigh!

_Eli Whitney._ I hear the Spirit of Cotton calling; I must go. (_Goes

_Little Girl_ (_waking up_). Where is the spirit of Cotton? Where is
the Maiden from India? Where is the Spirit of Eli Whitney? It must
have been a dream! I guess I got up on the wrong side of the bed this
morning. I will always like cotton after this. I am going out to play

The Cat and His Servant

_Prepared by Alice Lewis, Teacher of Second Grade, Bangs School, Asbury

_Dramatized from story of same name_

_Characters: Farmer, Cat, Fox, Wolf, Bear, Rabbit, Cow, Sheep._

_Materials used_: Small branches of tree, box for house, cards with
printed names of animals.

_Scene:_ The Forest.

                    _Enter the Farmer and the Cat_

_Farmer._--I have a cat. He is very wild so I will take him to the
forest. (_Puts cat in bag and takes him to tree._) I will leave him
here. (_Takes off bag and leaves the cat._)

_Cat._ I will build a house for myself and be the owner of this forest.
(_Brings in box and nails boards._) Now my house is done.

                            _Enter the Fox_

_Fox._ Good morning. What fine fur you have! What long whiskers you
have! Who are you?

_Cat._ I am Ivan, the owner of this forest.

_Fox._ May I be your servant?

_Cat._ Yes; you may. Come into my house. (_Both go in house._) I am
hungry. Go out and get me something to eat.

_Fox._ I will go. (_Goes into forest and meets Wolf._)

_Wolf._ Good morning.

_Fox._ Good morning.

_Wolf._ I have not seen you for a long time. Where are you living now?

_Fox._ I am living with Ivan. I am his servant.

_Wolf._ Who is Ivan?

_Fox._ He is the owner of this forest.

_Wolf._ May I come with you and see Ivan?

_Fox._ Yes; if you will promise to bring a sheep with you. If you do
not Ivan will eat you.

_Wolf._ I will go and get one. (_Leaves the fox and hunts for a sheep._)

                           _Enter the Bear_

_Bear._ Good morning, Mr. Fox.

_Fox._ Good morning, Mr. Bear.

_Bear._ I have not seen you for a long time. Where are you living?

_Fox._ I am living with Ivan. I am his servant.

_Bear._ Who is Ivan?

_Fox._ He is the owner of this forest.

_Bear._ May I go with you and see him?

_Fox._ Yes, but you must promise to bring a cow with you or Ivan will
eat you.

_Bear._ I will go and get one. (_Leaves the fox and hunts for a cow._)

_The Fox returns to the house and enters_

_Cat._ Did you bring me something to eat?

_Fox._ No; but I have sent for something and it will be here soon.

_Cat._ All right; we will wait.

_Enter Wolf with a sheep and Bear with a cow_

_Bear._ Good morning, Mr. Wolf. Where are you going?

_Wolf._ Good morning. I am going to see Ivan, the owner of this forest.

_Bear._ So am I. Let us go together.

_Bear and Wolf walk to Cat's house and place sheep and cow near door_

_Wolf._ You knock on the door.

_Bear._ No; you knock on the door. I am afraid.

_Wolf._ So am I. Shall we ask Mr. Rabbit to do it?

_Bear._ Yes; you ask him.

_Wolf_ (_calling to a rabbit who is passing_). Hello, Mr. Rabbit; will
you knock at the Cat's door for us?

_Rabbit._ Yes, I will. _(Knocks.)_

_Bear and Wolf hide behind the trees and bushes_

_Cat_ (_coming out of his house with the Fox and noticing the cow and
sheep lying by the door_). Look! here is what you got for my dinner.
There is only enough for two bites.

_Bear_ (_to himself_). How hungry he is. A cow would be enough to eat
for four bears and he says it is only enough for two bites. What a
terrible animal he is.

_Cat_ (_seeing Wolf behind the bushes_). Look! there is a mouse. I must
catch him and eat him. (_Chases Wolf away._) I think I hear another
mouse. (_Sees Bear and tries to catch him but fails._) I am so tired
that I cannot run at all. Let us sit by the door and eat our dinner.
(_Cat and Fox sit down and eat the sheep and cow._)


See Bibliography at end of monograph.


October 12

Columbus, seeking the back door of Asia, found himself knocking at the
front door of America.

                                                  _James Russell Lowell_



October 12, 1492! What a date in the world's history--the linking of
the new world with the old--the dreams of a dreamer come true--the
opening of the gates to a newer and better home for man--the promise

The story of Columbus is a story of romance, of patient perseverance,
of high endeavor, of noble resolve--a story that grips and thrills.
Every boy and every girl who feels the story wants to discover a
new world; and out of that desire may well come the discovery of
America--its aims, ideals, opportunities. The Columbus Day program is
an opportunity to discover the new world into which we are emerging.
Even childhood in the school may come to glimpse that which lies beyond
and feel the exultation of the sailor who cried, "Land! Land!"

The materials of this program are largely suggestive. It is hoped that
they may be of service in program making from kindergarten to high

The school program of most value is that which results from the
creative genius of the children themselves. Let children live the life
of Columbus in imagination and they will create their own program
and express it in costume, tableaux, music, composition, acting, and
dialog. The merit of the Columbus Day program will lie in its leading
children, through their own expression, to a better understanding of
their country, to a broader conception of patriotism.


  Marco Polo
  A flat world
  The new idea--sailing west to reach the east
  The dangers of the western sea
  The attempted mutiny (See Irving's "Life of Columbus")
  The signs of land
  Columbus in chains
  San Salvador
  October 12, 1492
  The Columbian Exposition, 1892
  The discovery of America, 1919
  What Columbus would do today

A Little Program for Columbus Day


(By three boys bearing the American flag, the Spanish flag, and a drum)

  _1st_--We are jolly little sailors;
         Join us as we come;
         We'll bear the flag of proud old Spain,
         And we will beat a drum!

  _2d_--We are jolly little sailors,
         And we pause to say,
         We raise the bonny flag of Spain
         Upon Columbus Day.

  _3d_--We are jolly little sailors;
         Raise the red, the white, the blue;
         Though we honor brave Columbus,
         To our own flag we are true.

  _All_--(Beat drum and wave flag)
          Salute the banners, one and all,
          O raise them once again;
          Salute the red, the white, the blue,
          Salute the flag of Spain!
          For countries old and countries new,
          We will wave the red, the white, the blue!


(By eight girls carrying banners that bear letters spelling "Columbus")

    C    Columbus sailed o'er waters blue,
    O    On and on to countries new.
    L    Long the ships sailed day and night,
    U    Until at last land came in sight.
    M    Many hearts were filled with fear,
    B    But the land was drawing near.
    U    Upon the ground they knelt at last
    S    So their dangers all were past.

  _All_ Wave the banners bright and gay,
             We meet to keep Columbus Day.

                           Crowning Columbus

(Recitation by four children. Picture of Columbus on easel. Children
place on it evergreen and flower wreaths and flags)

  _1st_--Crown him with a wreath of evergreen,
              The very fairest ever seen--
              Our brave Columbus.

  _2d_--Crown him with flowers fresh and fair;
             We'll place them by his picture there--
             Our brave Columbus.

  _3d_--Crown him with the flag of Spain;
             Columbus day has come again--
             Our brave Columbus.

  _4th_--Crown him with red, and white, and blue;
              Bring out the drum and banners too--
              Our brave Columbus.

  _All_--As we stand by his picture here,
              Columbus' name we all revere--
              Our brave Columbus.

                            What We Can Do

(Recitation by two small boys, carrying flag)

  1.  I wish I could do some great deed--
      Just find a world or two,
      So that the flag might wave for me
      As for Columbus true.

      It makes a small child very sad
      To think all great deeds done.
      What is then left for us to do?
      What's to be tried and won?

  2.  My father says--and he knows too,
      For he's a grown up man--
      That heroes leave some things for us
      To carry out their plan.

      He says that if we do our best,
      Just where we are, you see,
      We too shall serve our country's flag;
      True patriots we shall be.

  _Both._ We'll love our flag, we'll keep its pledge;
      We'll honor and obey;
      We'll love our fellow brothers all;
      And serve our land this way.


(By a very small child, carrying a flag)

    My beautiful flag,
    You are waving today,
    To honor a hero true;
    Columbus who gave us
    Our dear native land,
    Our land of the Red, White and Blue.


(By a very small child, carrying a flag)

    I'll wave my flag for Discovery Day,
    And before I get frightened
    I'll scamper away.

Columbus Game

The children stand in a circle. They choose one to represent Columbus.
The children all sing the song (given below). As they sing the fifth
line Columbus points to three children, who become the Nina (baby),
the Pinta, and the Santa Maria. These three children come inside the
circle, and wave arms up and down as though sailing. The children now
all repeat the song, marching round in the circle, waving arms up and
down, and the children inside the circle skip round also.

The song is then repeated, children standing in a circle, and the three
chosen as Nina, Pinta and Santa Maria choose three children to take
their places by pointing at any three children in the circle.

Game may continue as long as desired or until all have had a chance to
go inside the circle.[A]

[A] The story of Columbus may be dramatized in connection with this


    Columbus was a sailor boy,
      Many years ago.
    A great ship was the sailor's joy,
      Many years ago.
    The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria,
      Little vessels three,
    The Nina, the Pinta, the Santa Maria,
      Sailed out across the sea.

                                                  _Laura Rountree Smith_

My Little Ship

    Once I made a little ship,
    Down beside the sea;
    And I said, "Come now, dear winds,
    And blow it back to me!"
    O little ship that sails the sea.
    O wind that blows it back to me!


_Tune, Lightly Row_

    Wave the flags, wave the flags;
    We are sailor boys at play;
    Wave the flags, wave the flags,
    On Columbus Day.
    O'er the waters we will go,
    Singing, singing, as we row;
    Wave the flags to and fro,
    On Columbus Day.            (_Children wave flags_)

    Cross the flags, cross the flags,
    With their pretty colors gay;
    Cross the flags, cross the flags,
    On Columbus Day.
    We would like to sail, 'tis true,
    O'er the waters bright and blue,
    So we cross the flags for you
    On Columbus Day.            (_Children cross flags_)

                                                  _Laura Rountree Smith_

Recitation for Very Little Boys

  _1st_--Columbus was a sailor bold,
         At least that's what I have been told.

  _2d_--I would also like to sail the sea,
         If not too far from mother's knee.

  _3d_--He had three ships to sail the sea,
         One ship would be enough for me.

  _4th_--In the Nina I would go;
         But what if stormy winds should blow?

  _5th_--In the Pinta I'll set sail;
         That ship has weathered many a gale.

  _6th_--The Santa Maria waits for me;
         O how I love to sail the sea.

  _7th_--At night we'll glide across the foam,
         But wish ourselves quite safe at home.

  _8th_--Kind friends, I hope you understand,
         We are really happier far on land.

  (_All join hands and run to seats_)

         Then come, dear sailors, hand in hand,
         We'll run to seek the nearest land!


(_Ferdinand and Isabella on their thrones, chairs with a red drapery
concealing them._)

              _Enter Columbus and followers, bowing low_


    O most gracious majesties!


    My wise men say your scheme is vain,
    So your plan I must disdain;
    If as _you_ say this earth is round
    No one could stay upon the ground.

(_Bows his head and looks very wise. Columbus looks sadly around and
sighs. Queen Isabella stretches forth her hand._)


    I have talked to the Abbot kind,
    And he has made me change my mind.
    Take these and these (_dropping her bracelets and necklaces into
      Columbus' hat_) and may you be,
    Successful in your quest at sea.

_Columbus and followers_

    Long live, long live Isabella the queen!
    Such generous faith has seldom been seen.
    Long live, long live Isabella the queen!

_All_ (_except Columbus, who bows as he listens_)

    Here's to Columbus, so brave and so true,
    Who will soon sail west on the ocean blue

          _Headed by king and queen all march around and off_

_One returns_

    Columbus safely made his voyage
    And now, though he never knew it,
    He discovered this land, the fair land of our birth,
    The greatest nation on all the earth.

(_Displays flag_)

             _All except Columbus return and sing America_

                                                      _Mary R. Campbell_


(_By three boys_)

  _1st_--Columbus dared to cross the sea
         Where none had gone before;
         And sailing west from Palos, Spain,
         He came to our front door.

   _2d_--His men were only prisoners
         Queen Isabel set free;
         For other men, they did not dare
         To cross the unknown sea.

   _3d_--He had no friend to share his hope;
         No one could understand;
         Now all men honor his great name,
         Who first saw our dear land.

  _All_--If we can only be as true
         To our best selves as he,
         Speak truth, keep faith, be brave and pure,
         True heroes we shall be.

Discovery Day

    I wonder what Columbus
    Would think of us today,
    Just stepping out from '92,
    Four centuries on, we'll say.

    With aeroplanes and warships,
    And submarine affairs,
    He'd surely think the mighty sea
    Was putting on some airs.

    Discovery Day, we greet you;
    You're only just begun;
    Industry, art, and science now,
    Begin their race to run.

    But brighter than these wonders,
    More beautiful to see,
    Democracy's fair smile begins
    To dawn o'er land and sea.

    Discovery Day! When Freedom
    Shall reign in every land,
    When nations know their brotherhood,
    And naught but good is grand.

    America, thy mission
    Be this: discover now
    A _world_ safe for Democracy.
    'Tis ours to teach it how.

The Flag of Spain

_Tune--Long, Long Ago_

    There was a flag that waved all over Spain
    Long, long ago; long, long ago.
    And many sailors had gone forth in vain,
    Long, long ago, long ago.
    Then came the ships and Columbus set sail;
    Proudly the vessels withstood every gale.
    Then came the cry, "Blessed land, land we hail,"
    Long, long ago, long ago.


    A dreamer they called him,
    And mocked him to scorn,
    But O, through this dreamer
    A new world was born.

    A new land whose watchword
    Is ringing afar--
    "Democracy! Freedom!"
    That none shall dare mar.

    A nation whose vision
    Is making it be
    Humanity's champion
    On land and on sea.

    America, my land,
    A dream gave thee birth;
    Through vision thou'st conquered
    In all realms of worth.

    Thy spirit shall beckon
    Till all nations heed,
    And follow in wisdom
    The path thou dost lead.


The foundation for these exercises should be laid in previous class
recitations and specially prepared class compositions which relate
developing incidents in the life of Columbus. Several periods used in
the preparation of these oral and written exercises will be time well
spent. Select the composition which portrays the life pictures most
clearly and effectively; and as the writer reads his story, let other
members of the class give tableaux or act scenes apropos. The children
should be encouraged to initiate their own ideas and execute their own
mental pictures in costume, arrangement, facial expression, etc.

The following are mentioned _suggestively_:

Acts portraying the life of Columbus

 1. Columbus, the boy

   Boy of nine to eleven years, seated, intently studying a geography,


   Boy whittling a wooden toy ship.

 2. Columbus, the man

   Larger boy, posing as a dreamer, gazing at and studying the stars, _or_

   Larger boy drawing maps, appearing wise and thoughtful.

   (Let others stand aside, smiling and mockingly pointing.)

 3. Columbus' appearance before King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella

   King and Queen, dressed in royal style, on improvised throne; Columbus
     kneeling before them; the queen offering him her jewels.

 4. On shipboard

   Boys representing mutinous sailors, their faces depicting fear, anger,
     dejection--dressed sailor fashion.

   Columbus displaying confidence, courage and patience--dressed in short
     full trousers, cape over his shoulders thrown back on one side. Let
     facial expressions and actions change to show land has been sighted.

 5. The landing

   Columbus planting the flag of Spain in the New World. Sailors (all
     with uncovered heads) kneeling. Indians (let the boys wear Indian
     suits) watching from the outskirts, one falling down in worship.

 6. The return reception

   King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella on throne, dressed as before, with
     guards on either side. Ladies-in-waiting, noblemen, etc., dressed in
     15th century style, grouped about. Columbus enters (to music). All
     bow low except king and queen, who rise to meet him. Columbus kneels
     before them, kisses the queen's hand and rises.

   Indians enter (with bow and arrow) and gaze in wonder about. One
     Indian plucks Columbus by sleeve and gruntingly interrogates him
     concerning some wonder in the room--a picture of the king and queen,
     decorated with Spanish flags. The king takes the hand of the Indian,
     places it in Columbus' hand and, covering them with his own left
     hand, raises the right to signify his blessing upon the newly found

   Music gives the signal for the recessional. All fall into line and
     march out--guards, king, queen, Columbus, ladies, and courtiers.
     The Indians follow irregularly.


    "'Tis a wonderful story," I hear you say,
    "How he struggled and worked and plead and prayed,
    And faced every danger undismayed,
    With a will that would neither break nor bend,
    And discovered a new world in the end--
    But what does it teach to a boy of today?
    All the worlds are discovered, you know, of course,
    All the rivers are traced to their utmost source;
    There is nothing left for a boy to find,
    If he had ever so much a mind
        To become a discoverer famous;
    And if we'd much rather read a book
    About some one else, and the risks he took,
        Why nobody, surely, can blame us."

    So you think all the worlds are discovered now;
    All the lands have been charted and sailed about,
    Their mountains climbed, their secrets found out;
    All the seas have been sailed and their currents known--
    To the uttermost isles the winds have blown
    They have carried a venturing prow?
    Yet there lie all about us new worlds, everywhere,
    That await their discoverer's footfall; spread fair
    Are electrical worlds that no eye has yet seen,
    And mechanical worlds that lie hidden serene
        And await their Columbus securely.
    There are new worlds in Science and new worlds in Art,
    And the boy who will work with his head and his heart
        Will discover his new world surely.


One day Columbus was at a dinner which a Spanish gentleman had given
in his honor, and several persons were present who were jealous of the
great Admiral's success. They were proud, conceited fellows, and they
very soon began to try to make Columbus uncomfortable.

"You have discovered strange lands beyond the seas," they said, "but
what of that? We do not see why there should be so much said about it.
Anybody can sail across the ocean; and anybody can coast along the
islands on the other side, just as you have done. It is the simplest
thing in the world."

Columbus made no answer; but after a while he took an egg from a dish
and said to the company:

"Who among you, gentlemen, can make this egg stand on end?"

One by one those at the table tried the experiment. When the egg had
gone entirely around and none had succeeded, all said that it could not
be done.

Then Columbus took the egg and struck its small end gently upon the
table so as to break the shell a little. After that there was no
trouble in making it stand upright.

"Gentlemen," said he, "what is easier than to do this which you said
was impossible? It is the simplest thing in the world. Anybody can do
it--after he has been shown how!"

                             COLUMBUS DAY

              (_Fitchburg, Massachusetts, Normal School_)

This entertainment is simply an attempt to give a few of the most
dramatic incidents in the life of Columbus as connected with his
discovery of the New World. Other scenes could be readily added,
although it would require some care to avoid an anti-climax.

                A. In Spain at the Council of Salamanca

Before this scene is presented give a brief explanation and description
of the early life of Columbus and his attempts to obtain aid.

_Characters_: Churchmen and counselors at the court of Spain (seven to
ten) and Columbus.

_Costumes_: The _churchmen_ are dressed in long black garments, except
two, who have black capes with white underneath. Columbus wears a long,
black garment or coat, which plainly shows the poverty of its owner.

         _Tableau I--Columbus before the Council at Salamanca_

The characters are arranged somewhat as in a picture of this scene
found in the Perry pictures. A picture of this scene is also found
in Lossing's History of the United States, volume I. Only the chief
characters are shown in this tableau. Three churchmen or counselors are
in center near Columbus; two at left, one pointing mockingly, or making
fun of Columbus; two stand haughtily in the back, and there may also be
two or three at right. Columbus has a partly open roll of parchment in
one hand and is pointing with the other. One of the churchmen in the
center has an open Bible in his hand, and another has a book which he
is holding out to Columbus.

                            B. On Shipboard

_Characters_: Columbus, the mate, other sailors.

_Costumes_: Columbus, red cape; sailors, sweaters and sailor caps.

           _Tableau II--Nearing Land; Columbus and the Mate_

The conversation in Joaquin Miller's "Columbus" takes place between
Columbus and mate. The sailors are in the background, one holding a
lantern. Between the different parts of his conversation with Columbus,
the mate goes to consult with the sailors. The last stanza of the
poem is given by some one from the wings. When the reader reaches the
line, "A light! A light!" Columbus and the mate change their position.
Columbus points and the mate raises his arm, peering forward. (Picture
in "Leading Facts of American History," by Montgomery, revised edition.
Also in "Stepping Stones of American History.")

                          C. In the new world

_Characters_: Columbus, three noblemen, eight sailors, six Indians.

_Costumes_: Columbus and the noblemen wear the Spanish costume of the
fifteenth century (described later). Sailors wear sweaters and sailor
caps made from blue, red or grey cambric. Indians wear Indian suits
(nearly all boys have or may obtain them from any clothing store). They
carry bows and arrows or tomahawks. The spears and swords for this and
the following scene are made from wood, bronzed to look like silver.
The tall cross is made of wood and stained with shellac. The banner of
the expedition is white, with a green cross. Over the initials F and Y
(Ferdinand and Ysabella) are two gilt crowns.

                _Tableau III--The landing of Columbus_

The characters are posed from Vanderlyn's painting of the scene in the
Capitol at Washington. Reproductions are found in many histories and
among the Perry pictures. Columbus holds the banner of the expedition
in one hand, and a drawn sword in the other. One of the men has a tall
staff with the top in form of a cross; two others hold tall spears. The
Indians are peering out at the white men from the sides of the stage;
one of them is down on the stage with his head bowed on his hands,
worshipping the strangers; the others seem to be full of fear and

                       D. At Barcelona in Spain

Before this scene is presented a description of the reception of
Columbus by the king and queen upon his return to Spain is given. This
scene is more elaborate than any of the others.

_Characters and costumes_: Queen, red robe, purple figured front;
collar and trimmings of ermine. She wears a crown. Ermine is made
of cotton with little pieces of black cloth sewed on it, crown of
cardboard covered with gilt paper. Dress cheesecloth with a front of

King wears purple full, short trousers (trunks), purple doublet, purple
cape and gilt crown. The trousers and cape are trimmed with ermine.

The two guards have black trousers (trunks) and red capes, collars, and
knee pieces made from silver paper; they wear storm hats covered with
silver paper, and carry spears.

The two ladies-in-waiting wear dresses fixed to resemble the dress of
the period. They have high headpieces shaped like cornucopias, made
from cardboard covered with gilt paper, and with long veils draped over
them; this was one style of headpiece worn in the fifteenth century.

The eight churchmen, eight sailors and six Indians are dressed as in
previous scenes.

The little page of Columbus is dressed in his own white suit.

Columbus wears grey and red clothing. The ten noblemen wear
combinations of bright colors.

The general plan in regard to the dress of the Spanish nobility in the
time of Columbus is to have the full, short trousers (trunks) made
of one color and slashed with another; the upper garment or doublet
made of figured silkoline; the cape of one color lined with another,
worn turned back over one shoulder; pointed collars and cuffs of white
glazed or silver paper; and soft felt hats with plumes. Each nobleman
carries a sword.

The gold brought by the sailors may be made by gilding stones.

         _Tableau IV--Reception of Columbus by King and Queen_

In center of stage is raised platform or throne with two or three steps
leading up to it: this throne is covered with figured raw silk (yellow
and brown). Chairs are placed on throne for king and queen.

The scene is an attempt to represent the reception of Columbus on
his return to Spain after his first voyage. (See painting by Ricardo
Balaca, the Spanish artist, of Columbus before Ferdinand and Isabella
at Barcelona.)

A march may be played on the piano while the different characters in
the tableau come on the stage and take their proper positions. First
the two royal guards march to the throne, taking positions one on each
side, so that the king and queen may pass between them in mounting
the platform. They are followed by the king and queen, and then the
ladies-in-waiting. The king and queen mount the platform and take
seats; the ladies wait in front of the platform until the king and
queen are seated, then they take positions on each side of the throne.
The guards, after the king and queen are seated, take positions on the
platform in the rear. All these come as one group in the procession,
with only a little space between them.

Next come the churchmen. One of them carries the tall cross. They take
their places at the right of the queen.

The Indians come, shuffling across the stage to the extreme left of
the king and queen. Of course they know nothing of keeping time to the
music or paying homage to royalty.

The sailors march upon the stage, each bringing something from the New
World--gold, a stuffed bird, or some product. Each in turn approaches
the king and queen, kneels, and then places whatever he carries at the
side of the platform, and takes his place on the left.

The noblemen, one by one, come in with great dignity, go to the front
of the throne, kneel and salute with their swords. Then they go to the
right of the stage.

Finally the music sounds a more triumphal note, announcing the approach
of the hero of the occasion. Columbus is preceded by his page, carrying
the banner of the expedition. The page kneels to the king and queen,
then goes to the left, where he is to stand just back of the place
reserved for Columbus.

As Columbus approaches the throne, the king and queen rise and come
forward to do him honor. Columbus kneels, kisses the queen's hand, then
rises and points out to the king and queen the treasures which his
sailors have brought. He also brings forward one of the Indians. The
king and queen regard everything with interest. After this, at a signal
given on the piano, all kneel to give thanks for the discovery of the
New World. The Te Deum Laudamus is chanted or the Doxology is sung.

This is the end of the reception.

       *       *       *       *       *

This scene may be simplified, if desired, and given in the form of two
tableaux. Columbus kneeling before the queen and king and Columbus
telling his story may be given separately. There need not be as many
characters in the scene. See the picture, "Reception of Columbus"
(adapted from the picture by Ricardo Balaca) in "America's Story for
American Children," by Mara L. Pratt.

It would be easy to give the substance of this entertainment in any
schoolroom and without costumes. Even with these limitations the story
of Columbus would become more real to the children in this way than it
could be made by any description.

A good description of the reception of Columbus in Spain after his
first voyage is given in the "Life of Columbus," by Washington Irving.

A description and picture of the banner of the expedition may be found
in Lossing's "History of the United States," volume I.

Music that may be used: "Columbus Song," taken from "1492"; the "New
Hail Columbia."


It was on the morning of Friday, 12th of October, 1492, that Columbus
first beheld the New World....

No sooner did he land than he threw himself upon his knees, kissed the
earth, and returned thanks to God with tears of joy. His example was
followed by the rest, whose hearts indeed overflowed with the same
feelings of gratitude.

Columbus then rising drew his sword, displayed the royal standard, and
... took solemn possession in the name of the Castilian sovereigns,
giving the island the name of San Salvador. Having complied with the
requisite forms and ceremonies, he now called upon all present to take
the oath of obedience to him, as admiral and viceroy, representing the
persons of the sovereigns.

The feelings of the crew now burst forth in the most extravagant
transports.... They thronged around the Admiral in their overflowing
zeal. Some embraced him, others kissed his hands. Those who had been
most mutinous and turbulent during the voyage, were now most devoted
and enthusiastic. Some begged favors of him, as of a man who had
already wealth and honors in his gift. Many abject spirits, who had
outraged him by their insolence, now crouched as it were at his feet,
begging pardon for all the trouble they had caused him, and offering
for the future the blindest obedience to his commands.

                                                     _Washington Irving_


    Immortal morn, all hail!
    That saw Columbus sail
        By Faith alone!
    The skies before him bowed,
    Back rolled the ocean proud,
    And every lifting cloud
        With glory shone.

    Fair science then was born,
    On that celestial morn,
        Faith dared the sea;
    Triumphant over foes
    Then Truth immortal rose,
    New heavens to disclose,
        And earth to free.

    Strong Freedom then came forth,
    To liberate the earth
        And crown the right;
    So walked the pilot bold
    Upon the sea of gold,
    And darkness backward rolled,
        And there was light.

                                                  _Hezekiah Butterworth_

All hail, Columbus, discoverer, dreamer, hero, and apostle! We here, of
every race and country, recognize the horizon which bounded his vision,
and the infinite scope of his genius. The voice of gratitude and praise
for all the blessings which have been showered upon mankind by his
adventure is limited to no language, but is uttered in every tongue.
Neither marble nor brass can fitly form his statue. Continents are his
monument, and unnumbered millions, past, present, and to come, who
enjoy in their liberties and their happiness the fruits of his faith,
will reverently guard and preserve, from century to century, his name
and fame.

                                               _Chauncey Mitchell Depew_

Little wonder that the whole world takes from the life of Columbus one
of its best-beloved illustrations of the absolute power of faith. To a
faithless world he made a proposal, and the world did not hear it. To
that faithless world he made it again and again, and at last roused the
world to ridicule it and to contradict it. To the same faithless world
he still made it year after year; and at last the world said that,
when it was ready, it would try if he were right; to which his only
reply is that he is ready now, that the world must send him now on the
expedition which shall show whether he is right or wrong. The world,
tired of his importunity, consents, unwillingly enough, that he shall
try the experiment. He tries it; he succeeds; and the world turns round
and welcomes him with a welcome which it cannot give to a conqueror.
In a moment the grandeur of his plans is admitted, their success is
acknowledged, and his place is fixed as one of the great men of history.

                  Give me white paper!
    The sheet you use is black and rough with smears
    Of sweat and grime and fraud and blood and tears,
    Crossed with the story of men's sins and fears,
    Of battle and of famine all those years
        When all God's children have forgot their birth
        And drudged and fought and died like beasts of earth.

                  Give me white paper!
    One storm-trained seaman listened to the word;
    What no man saw he saw, and heard what no man heard.
        For answer he compelled the sea
                  To eager man to tell
                  The secret she had kept so well;
    Left blood and woe and tyranny behind,
    Sailing still West that land newborn to find,
        For all mankind the unstained page unfurled,
        Where God might write anew the story of the world.

                                                   _Edward Everett Hale_

[Illustration: Columbus

"Admiral at the Helm"]

The fame of Columbus is not local or limited. It does not belong to
any single country or people. It is the proud possession of the whole
civilized world. In all the transactions of history there is no act
which for vastness and performance can be compared with the discovery
of the continent of America, "the like of which was never done by any
man in ancient or in later times."

                                                    _James Grant Wilson_

With boldness unmatched, with faith in the teachings of science and
of revelation immovable, with patience and perseverance that knew no
weariness, with superior skill as a navigator unquestioned, and with
a lofty courage unrivaled in the history of the race, Columbus sailed
from Palos on the 3d of August, with three vessels, the largest (his
flagship) of only ninety feet keel, and provided with four masts, eight
anchors, and sixty-six seamen. Passing the Canaries and the blazing
peak of Teneriffe, he pushed westward into the "sea of darkness," in
defiance of the fierce dragons with which superstition had peopled it,
and the prayers and threats of his mutinous seamen, and on the 12th of
October landed on one of the Bahama Islands.

                                                     _Benson J. Lossing_


[B] From complete works of Joaquin Miller, published by the Harr Wagner
Publishing Company of San Francisco.

    Behind him lay the gray Azores,
        Behind the Gates of Hercules;
    Before him not the ghost of shores,
        Before him only shoreless seas.
    The good mate said: "Now must we pray,
        For lo! the very stars are gone.
    Brave Admiral, speak; what shall I say?"
        "Why, say 'Sail on! sail on! and on!'"

    "My men grow mutinous day by day;
        My men grow ghastly wan and weak."
    The stout mate thought of home; a spray
        Of salt wave washed his swarthy cheek.
    "What shall I say, brave Admiral, say,
        If we sight naught but seas at dawn?"
    "Why, you shall say at break of day,
        'Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!'"

    They sailed and sailed, as winds might blow,
        Until at last the blanched mate said:
    "Why, now not even God would know
        Should I and all my men fall dead.
    These very winds forget their way,
        For God from these dread seas is gone.
    Now speak, brave Admiral, speak and say--"
        He said: "Sail on! sail on! and on!"

    They sailed. They sailed. Then spake the mate:
        "This mad sea shows his teeth tonight.
    He curls his lip, he lies in wait,
        He lifts his teeth, as if to bite!
    Brave Admiral, say but one good word;
        What shall we do when hope is gone?"
    The words leapt like a leaping sword:
        "Sail on! sail on! sail on! and on!"

    Then pale and worn, he paced his deck,
        And peered through darkness. Ah, that night,
    Of all dark nights! And then a speck--
        A light! A light! At last a light!
    It grew, a starlit flag unfurled!
        It grew to be Time's burst of dawn.
    He gained a world; he gave that world
        Its grandest lesson: "Oh! sail on!"

                                                        _Joaquin Miller_

    He failed. He reached to grasp Hesperides,
    To track the foot-course of the sun, that flies
    Toward some far western couch, and watch its rise--
    But fell on unknown sand-reefs, chains, disease.

    He won. With splendid daring, from the sea's
    Hard, niggard fist he plucked the glittering prize,
    And gave a virgin world to Europe's eyes,
    Where gold dust choked the streams, and spice the breeze.

    He failed fulfillment of the task he planned,
    And drooped a weary head on empty hand,
    Unconscious of the vaster deed he'd done;
    But royal legacy to Ferdinand
    He left--a key to doorways gilt with sun--
    And proudest title of "World-father" won!

                                                 _George W. W. Houghton_

With all the visionary fervor of his imagination, its fondest dreams
fell short of the reality. He died in ignorance of the real grandeur of
his discovery. Until his last breath, he entertained the idea that he
had merely opened a new way to the old resorts of opulent commerce, and
had discovered some of the wild regions of the East.... What visions of
glory would have broke upon his mind, could he have known that he had
indeed discovered a new continent, equal to the whole of the old world
in magnitude, and separated by two vast oceans from all of the earth
hitherto known by civilized man; and how would his magnanimous spirit
have been consoled, amidst the chills of age and cares of penury, the
neglect of a fickle public, and the injustice of an ungrateful king,
could he have anticipated the splendid empires which were to spread
over the beautiful world he had discovered, and the nations, and
tongues, and languages, which were to fill its lands with his renown,
and to revere and bless his name to the latest posterity!

                                                     _Washington Irving_


    Was this his face, and these the finding eyes
        That plucked a new world from the rolling seas?
        Who, serving Christ, whom most he sought to please,
    Willed the great vision till he saw arise
    Man's other home and earthly paradise--
        His early thought since first with stalwart knees
        He pushed the boat from his young olive trees,
    And sailed to wrest the secret of the skies.
        He on the waters dared to set his feet,
    And through believing planted earth's last race.
        What faith in man must in our new world beat,
    Thinking how once he saw before his face
        The west and all the host of stars retreat
    Into the silent infinite of space!

                                               _George Edward Woodberry_

Of no use are the men who study to do exactly as was done before, who
can never understand that today is a new day. There never was such
a combination as this of ours, and the rules to meet it are not set
down in any history. We want men of original perception and original
action, who can open their eyes wider than to a nationality--namely, to
considerations of benefit to the human race--can act in the interest of
civilization; men of elastic, men of moral mind, who can live in the
moment and take a step forward. Columbus was no backward-creeping crab,
nor was Martin Luther, nor John Adams, nor Patrick Henry, nor Thomas
Jefferson; and the Genius or Destiny of America is no log or sluggard,
but a man incessantly advancing, as the shadow on the dial's face, or
the heavenly body by whose light it is marked.

                                                   _Ralph Waldo Emerson_


(_From a Commencement Poem, Dartmouth College. 1872_)

    As a strong bird on pinions free,
    Joyous, the amplest spaces heavenward cleaving,
    One song, America, before I go,
    I'd sing, o'er all the rest, with trumpet sound,
    For thee, the Future.

    Sail--sail thy best, Ship of Democracy!
    Of value is thy freight--'tis not the Present only,
    The Past is also stored in thee!
    Thou holdest not the venture of thyself alone--
    Not of thy western continent alone;

    Earth's résumé entire floats on thy keel, O Ship--
    Is steadied by thy spars.
    With thee Time voyages in trust,
    The antecedent nations sink or swim with thee;
    With all their ancient struggles, martyrs, heroes, epics, wars,
    Thou bears't the other continents;
    Theirs, theirs as much as thine, the destination-port triumphant,
    Steer, steer with good strong hand and wary eye--
    O helmsman--thou carryest great companions,
    Venerable, priestly Asia sails this day with thee,
    And royal, feudal Europe sails with thee.

                                                          _Walt Whitman_


    O mother of a mighty race,
    Yet lovely in thy youthful grace!
    The elder dames, thy haughty peers,
    Admire and hate thy blooming years;
              With words of shame
    And taunts of scorn they join thy name....

    They know not, in their hate and pride,
    What virtues with thy children bide;
    How true, how good, thy graceful maids
    Make bright, like flowers, the valley shades;
              What generous men
    Spring, like thine oaks, by hill and glen.

    What cordial welcomes greet the guest
    By thy lone rivers of the West;
    How faith is kept, and truth revered,
    And man is loved and God is feared,
              In woodland homes,
    And where the ocean border foams.

    There's freedom at thy gates, and rest
    For earth's down-trodden and opprest;
    A shelter for the hunted head;
    For the starved laborer toil and bread.
              Power, at thy bounds,
    Stops, and calls back his baffled hounds.

    O fair young mother! on thy brow
    Shall sit a nobler grace than now.
    Deep in the brightness of thy skies
    The thronging years in glory rise,
              And, as they fleet,
    Drop strength and riches at thy feet.

    Thine eye, with every coming hour,
    Shall brighten, and thy form shall tower;
    And when thy sisters, elder born,
    Would brand thy name with words of scorn,
              Before thy eye
    Upon their lips the taunt shall die.

                                                 _William Cullen Bryant_


    Great Western land, whose mighty breast
    Between two oceans finds its rest,
    Begirt by storms on either side,
    And washed by strong Pacific tide.
    The knowledge of thy wondrous birth
    Gave balance to the rounded earth;
    In sea of darkness thou didst stand,
    Now first in light, great Western land.

    In thee the olive and the vine
    Unite with hemlock and with pine;
    In purest white the southern rose
    Repeats the spotless northern snows.
    Around thy zone a belt of maize
    Rejoices in the sun's hot rays;
    And all that Nature could command
    She heaped on thee, great Western land.

    Great Western land, whose touch makes free,
    Advance to perfect liberty,
    Till right shall make thy sov'reign might,
    And every wrong be crushed from sight.
    Behold thy day, thy time is here;
    Thy people great, with naught to fear.
    God hold thee in His strong right hand,
    My well beloved Western land.

                                                       _Caroline Hazard_


[C] Used by permission of, and by special arrangement with, Houghton
Mifflin Company, the authorized publishers.

Foremost among the ideals which have characterized our national life
is the spirit of self-reliance. The very first chapter of our national
history records the story of a man, who arose from among the toilers
of his time, and whom eighteen years of disappointed hopes could
not dismay. It tells how this man, holding out the promise of a new
dominion, at last overcame the opposition of royal courtiers, and
secured the tardy support of reluctant rulers. And when, at Palos,
Columbus flung to the breeze the sails of his frail craft, and ventured
upon that unknown ocean from which, according to the belief of his age,
there was no hope of return, he displayed the chief characteristic of
the American people--the spirit of self-reliance.

What is this spirit? Emerson has expressed it in a sentence: "We will
walk on our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will speak
our own minds." This was the spirit which animated that little group
of colonists who preferred the unknown hardships of the new world
to the certain tyranny of the old; who chose to break old ties, to
brave the sea, to face the loneliness and perils of life in a strange
land--a land of difficulties and dangers, but a land of liberty and

In order that our country may continue this proud record of
self-reliance, each one of us has a special obligation. Every
citizen in his individual life should live up to the same ideal of
self-reliance. The young citizen who relies on himself, who does honest
work in school, never cheating or shirking, who is always, ready to do
a little more than is actually required of him, who thinks for himself,
acts rightly because he loves right actions--such a citizen is doing
his part in helping to achieve our national ideal of self-reliance.

                                               _William Backus Guitteau_

I believe in my country. I believe in it because it is made up of my
fellow-men--and myself. I can't go back on either of us and be true
to my creed. If it isn't the best country in the world it is partly
because I am not the kind of a man that I should be.

                                                       _Charles Stelzle_


See Bibliography at end of monograph.


Last Thursday in November

    For flowers that bloom about our feet;
    For tender grass, so fresh, so sweet;
    For song of bird, and hum of bee;
    For all things fair we hear or see,
        Father in heaven, we thank Thee!

    For blue of stream and blue of sky;
    For pleasant shade of branches high;
    For fragrant air and cooling breeze;
    For beauty of the blooming trees,
        Father in heaven, we thank Thee!

                                                   _Ralph Waldo Emerson_



Among our national holidays Thanksgiving should be a red letter day.
We need these days so that the modern tendency of reducing all days to
the same mediocre level may be overcome. Such days, when contrasted
with common school days, show a wonderful stimulation. Hence it is
urged that the celebration of Thanksgiving take on the aspect of the
play-festival. The play-festival will have a potent effect on the
audience and the actors. The audience will be composed for the most
part of the school body and on this body the festival program will have
a unifying effect. For this reason it is further urged that an entire
grade, or perhaps a group of grades, be employed to render the program.
Such a rendition will be treated as a contribution from a part to the

The festival to be effective must bind the entire school into one
social group. The response of the audience will be complementary and
the spirit and the pride of the school will give forth inspiration to
the actor and the audience. The performer must make others feel what he
knows, and thus his learning becomes intensified. The result is that
the play-festival has two high values, the social and the educational.

The essential problem which arises, and which must be answered by every
teacher, is, "What shall be done to provide a good program, and how
shall it be done?" The answer will come from a careful survey of the
needs, capacities, and make-up of each individual or group of pupils.
The answer includes the utilization of the dramatic instinct, i. e.,
the play instinct, which finds expression through singing, speaking
and dancing. The successful festival must be well organized, and
this organization must be effected according to a suitable program.
(1) The history of the day must be clearly brought to the attention
of the pupils. (2) There should be a committee appointed to have
supervision of the arranging of the festival. (3) A program full of
content should-be arranged. (4) What constitutes the proper program for
a Thanksgiving festival should have the careful thought of those in
charge. The children should be actual factors in planning the program,
as well as in presenting it.

In order that Thanksgiving Day may be celebrated in an appropriate
manner it is necessary that its history be fully comprehended by the
entire school. Teachers of all grades should use the historic material
that will meet the needs and capacities of their pupils. This material
should be correlated with as much of the regular school work as may
seem advisable. It is essential that the entire school fully appreciate
the historic foundations of the day, so that they may comprehend the
setting which has so much to do with this holiday. Furthermore, a full
comprehension of the history as a background for this festival will
stimulate the school audience, so that they will receive from the
program those things which we believe they ought to receive from the


The following extracts relative to the history of Thanksgiving have
been selected because they are exceptionally interesting; they show
that traditionally the celebration of this holiday is truly American;
they also give hints as to the wealth of material that may be woven
into a program for the play-festival.

The first year of the Pilgrim settlement, in spite of that awful winter
when nearly half of their number perished, had been comparatively
successful. The Pilgrims had planted themselves well, and it is easy
to understand why this fact should have appealed to the mind of their
governor, William Bradford, as an especial reason for proclaiming a
season of thanksgiving. The exact date is not certain, but from the
records we learn that it was an open air feast. It is evident that
it must have occurred in that lovely period of balmy, calm, cool
air and soft sunshine which is called Indian Summer, and which may
be considered to range between the latter week of October and the
latter week of November. It came at the end of the year's harvest. In
confirmation, let us quote from the writing of Edward Winslow, thrice
governor of the Pilgrims:

 "Our corn did prove well; and, God be praised, we had a good increase
 of Indian corn, and our barley indifferent good. Our harvest being
 gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling that so we might
 after a special manner rejoice together after we had gathered the
 fruit of our labors."

We learn that as a result of this hunting expedition they had many
wild turkeys, which the women probably stuffed with beechnuts, and
they brought home wood pigeons and partridges in abundance. But, it
seems, they must have lacked deer, since the Indians, with their king,
Massasoit, volunteered to go out and bring in the venison.

One noteworthy fact is the relations that existed between the Pilgrims
and the Indians. At this first Thanksgiving feast King Massasoit and
ninety of his warriors were present. They entered heartily into the
preparations of thanksgiving. What a cheerful spectacle it must have
been to see the Indian guests appearing, carrying a many branched
buck or a pretty doe, possibly hung across the stalwart shoulders of
some giant red man? Shall one doubt that the Pilgrim gravity was for
a moment dispelled, when the Indians approached with their delicious
contribution to the feast? Can't we hear the welcoming cheer that arose
from the throats of those Englishmen, or the clapping of the hands of
the younger women as those Indian athletes entered the camp? It is also
recorded that from their Indian guests the Pilgrims received clams,
oysters, fish and vegetables. What a feast this must have been!

The warriors remained with the Pilgrims for several days, and contended
with them in various games or feats of strength and agility. Perhaps
Massasoit unbent from his kingly dignity to show how straight he
could send an arrow at some improvised target. Maybe some Puritan
maiden laughingly tried her hand on an Indian bow. Possibly, too,
in the military drill which Miles Standish with his famous regiment
of twenty gave, there was intention on the part of the stout little
warrior to show the Indian what a formidable foe the white man might
be if provoked. At any rate, the friendship, hallowed by thanksgiving
hospitality, continued unbroken for nearly half a century.

What a noble, inspiring picture is the history of this first
Thanksgiving Day--a picture of piety, of human brotherhood, and of
poetry, for which the universal heart of man, when realizing its
profound significance, must gladly and proudly give thanks.

For many years this autumnal "feast of ingathering" was merely an
occasional festival, as unexpected prosperity or hoped for aid in
adversity moved our Pilgrim fathers to a special act of praise. It
was not until after the Revolutionary War that this day took on a
national significance. George Washington issued the first proclamation
in 1795. This will be read by many with deep interest, especially in
view of the fact that some persons believe that a national Thanksgiving
proclamation is a recent invention in our country. After this date it
was only occasionally observed until 1863. It was our Civil War which
awakened our national conscience, and since that time every President
of the United States has issued a Thanksgiving Proclamation, which
has in turn been issued to the different states by their respective

Thanksgiving is a universal holiday; it is for all the people. As
heretofore, each year brings new households, enlarged families,
increased affections, comfortable homes, plentiful tables, abundant
harvests, a beneficent government, free schools, and religious liberty.
There is much to be grateful for in our national history. Whatever may
have been our sense of past duty, it is the privilege of all to thank
God that He has given us the unexpected and unsought for opportunity to
relieve much oppression and to extend the blessings of good government
and fair freedom to many millions of people.

It is a wonderful opportunity, and no people on the face of the globe
have a stricter sense of duty than our great country. We may be far
from perfect if tried by the highest standards, but where shall we find
a nation which less desires to rule, and desires to rule more justly,
giving liberty to all? We as a generation have lived to see what may
be the greatest epoch in the world's history. Truly the seeds of this
harvest were sown years ago by our Pilgrim fathers. For such mercies
what soul will not raise its thanksgiving to God? Let us as teachers
of the state of New Jersey teach our children these great truths, and
enter with an open mind and a willing heart into each Thanksgiving
festival, and let us all try to inculcate in the hearts of our pupils
this significant brotherhood.


Let the history of this great Thanksgiving Feast be the background and
setting for your play-festival. Let it be the duty of teachers to see
that the program for this celebration is inspired by patriotism, by a
reverence for God, who has been most gracious to us as a people. For
social reasons, it will be well to let some particular grade prepare
the program for the festival. The other grades of the school will be in
the audience, and thus the whole school will be united into one large
social group. Before it is decided which grade shall be selected to
prepare the program the principal and teachers should meet and, after
talking over the preliminary plans, appoint the festival committee.
It is important that the proper kind of machinery for this festival
work be constructed. It will be the duty of this special committee to
keep in mind such objects of the play-festival as the promotion of a
keener appreciation and a more reverent remembrance of great events and
great men and women of our history; the promotion of a deep national
patriotism; the promotion of a sense of deep gratitude that we live
in such a bountiful and beautiful earth. The play-festival should
be looked upon as a means of moral, social, cultural and esthetic

Keeping these things in mind, the play-festival should be invented
almost entirely by the children, who will present the program. Of
course this will require the watchful guidance of teachers and
committee. A play or program that has been already planned for the
occasion may be taken, but even in such a program the scenes should
be planned by the class. If this plan is followed almost any of the
ready-made plays may be adapted for any grade from the kindergarten to
the high school. The wealth of historic material which readily conforms
to the Thanksgiving program is abundant. There is no school that
cannot act some scene, pantomime, tableau or the like, with but little
thought and drill. The results obtained by bringing any class in touch
with some of our masterpieces of history, literature, art, music, or
sculpture, cannot be easily estimated.


A good method of preparing the program is to bring before the class who
has been decided upon to render the festival the fact that this grade
has been appointed to do this bit of patriotic service. Tell them about
the festival, its simple aims; about the historic material on which
the day is founded. Have the pupils write their ideas about developing
the program. These may be discussed, and the best suggestions can be
used about which to form an outline. This is admirable training for
the pupils. Not infrequently surprises occur; unsuspected talents are
discovered; and often the children who have appeared as dullards in
them regular school subjects will take an interest which will lead to
salutary results. Many times children will enjoy working on such plans
and develop a new interest in their studies. The children should also
be asked for suggestions as to developing the stage scenery, costumes,
etc. Frequently their suggestions, with slight modifications, have an
effectiveness beyond the reach of the teacher. Of course we as teachers
must be satisfied with rather crude suggestions, and work up to a
satisfactory result.

The stage setting should always be simple, but suggestive. Often a
play-festival may be rendered with little or no scenery. In fact, most
of our present school programs are given without even a semblance
of scenery or decorations. Some simple stage setting, scenery, or
decorations will add wonderfully to the effect of your program, and
this will be found easy to accomplish. This is particularly true of
the Thanksgiving Day program. In the rural districts, especially, can
be found the proper materials for this day. Such things as cornstalks,
pumpkins, apples, fruits, cereals, and vegetables of many kinds will
meet your needs. Whatever is good for a harvest home celebration may be
used to celebrate Thanksgiving.

It is desirable, also, to have simple costumes. The teacher should not
be burdened with the making of the costumes. Arouse the interest of
your class, and they will take home this interest. The result will be
that the teacher will get more than he had hoped or suggested.

The work of preparing the music should be done during the period of the
day when singing is usually done. The music is very valuable. The whole
school appreciates music and singing. It is the one unifying influence
within the reach of the school. If all the various classes are used to
promote the play-festival a practical correlation of the work of the
school may be profitably accomplished.


Below is submitted a type program for the Thanksgiving Day Festival.
This is suitable for fifth and sixth grade pupils. This type of program
may be easily changed so that it may be rendered by pupils of the
first grade or by students of the high school. Care should always be
exercised that the plan of the program is easily understood by the
class who renders it. Scenes should be molded to meet the needs and
capacities of the grade that is to perform. The dialog or monolog
should also be adapted to the ages of the pupils who are to do the
acting. Below will be found a list of scenes which by thoughtful
manipulation may be made to fall within the command of pupils from the
kindergarten to the high school. The bibliography given will furnish
much information.


_In Charge of Grade VI_

Theme: The Harvest

  =Song=--"America," by the school
  =Reading=--"George Washington's Thanksgiving Proclamation of 1795"
  =Song=--"Harvest Home," by the school

  =Act I.= Getting ready for seed time
    _Scene I._ Indians showing the Pilgrims how to plant corn
    _Scene II._ Resting (a camp scene)

  Song--"Thanksgiving Day," by the school
  Recitation--"Thanksgiving," by a pupil

  =Act II.= A corn husking bee (place, a New England barn)
    _Scene I._ Husking corn
    _Scene II._ The frolic
    _Scene III._ Going home

  Song--"Star Spangled Banner," by the school

The following scenes may be made appropriate for the different grades
by changing the quality and quantity of the scenery. Pantomimes are
especially to be recommended for use in our school programs. Many
of these scenes will lend themselves to this purpose. Hints for the
preparation of these scenes may be gained from the great paintings or
their reproductions.

  Autumn Memories
  The Pilgrims
  An Indian Camp
  An Indian Village
  Miles Standish and his Warriors
  The Pilgrim's Town Meeting
  The Pilgrims going to Church
  The Pilgrims Hunting
  The Pilgrims Fishing
  The Husking Bee
  The Dying Year
  Thanksgiving at Home
  The Harvest Home (Old English)
  The Country Dance
  The Love Scene of Priscilla and John Alden
  Miles Standish's Home
  Many Indian Scenes from Hiawatha
  Many Harvest Home Scenes


See Bibliography at end of monograph.


February 12

    Again thy birthday dawns, O man beloved,
      Dawns on the land thy blood was shed to save,
    And hearts of millions, by one impulse moved,
      Bow and fresh laurels lay upon thy grave.

                                                     _Ida Vose Woodbury_



The observance of Lincoln's birthday as a national holiday has grown
steadily until twenty-four states have designated it by statute as a
holiday. The great emancipator is today our foremost national hero. His
most unusual career from the log cabin to the White House sets ambition
and hope of attainment before the most lowly and the most favorably
environed alike.

There are many salient reasons why the boys and girls of our schools
should study the life of this great hero. He established once and for
all time the now inalienable right of life, liberty, and the pursuit of
happiness to all mankind. Early in life he was dubbed by his friends
and neighbors with the enviable title of "Honest Abe." On the frontier
we find him inuring himself to toil. He was thoroughly acquainted
with that slogan always necessary to success, "hard work." His life
was pure, untainted with the vices which spring from luxury, the lust
for gain, the greed for fame. Simple in living, steadfast in purpose,
kindly in spirit, he towered among his fellows, exemplary of that
manhood toward which all boys who would be of worth to mankind should

At the present time it is especially opportune that Lincoln's birthday
be celebrated most impressively. The freedom for which we have just
been fighting is a greater freedom than that of '61. That was for the
freedom of the slave, this for a greater freedom of men already free;
that was freedom for a part of mankind, this a freedom for all, for
the democracy of the world. The principles for which he stood are the
principles for which we must ever stand, but the application of those
principles is limitless in its scope. It is for us to see that those
who have sacrificed their lives in this great cause shall not have died
in vain. It is for the boys and girls in our schools today to carry
to a successful issue this great project of making the world safe for
democracy and democracy safe for the world, and no small part of this
work lies on our shoulders as teachers of boys and girls who will be
citizens tomorrow.

The law requires that on the last school day preceding Lincoln's
birthday appropriate exercises be held for the development of a high
spirit of patriotism. The whole day should center around the life of
Lincoln. For the afternoon a special program should be prepared and
the parents of the school children invited by special letters written
by the pupils of the school. The pupils of each school should assist
in working out the program. In some schools, in the upper grades the
pupils should be held responsible for much of the work in program
making. Each teacher and principal should arrange the work of the
day and the special program to one end, that of utilizing the great
spirit and profound wisdom of a wonderful man to the establishment of a
greater patriotism and the working out of the national problems before

The following general suggestions indicate the important factors to be
considered in making a Lincoln program.

 Point out the significance of the flag salute

 Analyze the pledge

 Sing patriotic songs

  The songs of today
  The songs of the past

 Study Lincoln's boyhood. His career from the log cabin to the White
 House is phenomenal

 Lincoln the lawyer and politician

 Emphasize the work and honesty in the life of Abraham Lincoln

 President of the United States and statesman. His great speeches

 Read, study and memorize the Gettysburg speech. Each child should have
 a copy

 Learn quotations, and know their meaning and application

 Collect a number of pictures of Lincoln

 Call special attention to the best statuary

 Gutzon Borglum's Lincoln before the Court House in Newark, New Jersey,
 and the statue by Saint Gaudens in Lincoln Park, Chicago, are the most
 worthy and should be particularly noted

 "O Captain, My Captain," by Whitman, and "The Perfect Tribute," by
 Mary Shipman Andrews, should be read by the teacher

 Do not neglect the great humor in his life; children enjoy a joke

 Pupils will enjoy writing acrostics on the name of Lincoln

 The Lincoln Highway and the National Lincoln Memorial are recent
 monuments to the honor of this great man

 Let the decorations of the room be in keeping with the celebration

 Lincoln posters may be made in the drawing class

 The younger pupils will be interested in collecting the stamps with
 Lincoln's picture

 Civil War veterans, Civil War pictures, Civil War newspapers, Civil
 War correspondence, will make vital contributions in vivifying the
 life of Lincoln, incidents of the War, and this special observance.
 Invite veterans to come in and make brief speeches. Request pupils to
 bring old newspapers, old correspondence, war relics and the like with
 the assurance that they will be cared for and safely returned

[Illustration: Saint Gaudens' Lincoln Lincoln Park, Chicago

Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N.Y.]

 Read letters from boys who were at the front. Collect war pictures
 from the Sunday newspapers. Remember the boys from your community who
 went to war. Contrast the present war situation and practices with
 those of the Civil War. Classroom activity of this kind may continue
 for the whole week.


Preparatory to the observance of Lincoln's birthday teach carefully
and thoroughly the Gettysburg Speech. Each pupil from the fifth grade
through the high school ought to know this great masterpiece. Teach
the occasion on which it was given, which brought forth this great
production, the significance of the speech then and now, and finally
have each child give it from memory. A contest in the delivery of
Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech would interest the school and the public.
The winner should appear on the holiday program.

The placing in schools of Lincoln Memorial Bronze Tablets containing
the Gettysburg Speech will give special significance to the observance.
This practice should be promoted. Every new school should have its
Lincoln Memorial Tablet.

The most interesting persons in the eyes of children are children. They
are most concerned with what kind of a boy Lincoln was. Books such as
"Life of Abraham Lincoln for Boys and Girls," by C. W. Moores, and
"The Boy's Life of Abraham Lincoln," by J. G. Nicolay, should be made
available. Pupils should be encouraged to tell to the class what they
have found of interest in the accounts of his boyhood. Incidents of
his honesty, his desire for learning, and habit of hard work, will be
brought forth and no effort should be spared to emphasize these most
important characteristics. Strive for enthusiastic admiration, and the
imitation of these most desirable qualities will follow.

Stories from his life, incidents in his experience, and periods in his
career, such as the twenty-two years on the farm, the twenty-seven
years in intellectual pursuits, and the seven years in national
service, will give profitable material for work in English. Oral and
written reproductions should be taught for some time before the holiday
observance and the best of these used on this occasion. Mr. Judd
Stewart's suggestions (given on another page) respecting the study of
Lincoln's English are very valuable.

Give an exercise or two in acrostic writing with the aim of setting
forth in a succinct way his admirable character and laudable
accomplishments. A problem of this type appeals to children and has
value in it.

The humorous stories of Lincoln should not be neglected. There is
great need for high standards of humor, jokes and jests with boys and
girls. Every one should be able to tell a good story well. The humor in
Lincoln's life presents good material for such teaching.

A study and memorizing of quotations may be begun early in the fall;
in fact, such study should be pursued throughout the whole school
course. If this is done many pupils will be able to give on February
twelfth their choice from among Lincoln's sayings with reasons for
their selections and with statements respecting the source of their
admiration. Every pupil should have a stock of Lincoln sayings at his
command. These selected thoughts should be a part of the thinking of
boys and girls.

Readings for the week preceding the holiday observance can be made from
the following brief publications:

  "Lincoln Centenary Ode," Percy MacKaye
  "Commemorative Ode," James Russell Lowell
  "Abraham Lincoln," Carl Schurz
  "Abraham Lincoln," George Bancroft
  "The Perfect Tribute," Mary Shipman Andrews

The selections should be read in their entirety, in most cases by the
teacher to the class. If there is a pupil who is a very good reader,
such a pupil may do it effectively. Each school library ought to have
a good selection of Lincolnia from which the pupils could draw books
for outside reading. Books such as these should be read by the class
supplemental to the study of the Civil War period.

A good teacher is able to read well "O Captain, My Captain," and she
reads it often to her pupils. Ultimately the children will get the
spirit of the poem and some will be able to read it well or give it
from memory. The various poems herein mentioned are worthy of similar

As the Gettysburg Speech is studied, so should the Civil War songs be
studied. The "Battle Hymn of the Republic" should be sung with all the
feeling which its meaning is capable of conveying. As much should be
done with "Tenting on the Old Camp Ground." The allusion here is very
impressive. The sentiment is the song, the tune is a mode of expression.

Each school in the state should have a picture of Lincoln. It should
be hung by the pupils where it can be seen by the youngest as well as
the oldest. A child does well in having a definite acquaintance with
the rugged, kindly face of Lincoln. A look at this picture should give
renewed emphasis to his standards of living and the great principles
which he established. Not long since a teacher said to me, "When I have
a case of discipline where the pupil has difficulty in getting the
right point of view I often say to the boy, especially if he be of the
upper grades, 'Go out into the hall and look for a few minutes at the
fatherly face of the great Lincoln and then come back to me and tell me
what you think he would say in this case.'" Such procedure is extremely
effective, particularly when the pupil is acquainted with Lincoln's
sayings and the great principles for which he stood. Marshall's
"Lincoln" is a fine portrait for schools.

The decoration of the classroom will present demands for drawing and
handwork activities such as picture frames, draperies, red, white and
blue chains, and flag decorations. Much can be done in the making of
posters with water colors and crayons, in the artistic ornamentation
of Lincoln picture mounts on drawing paper, and in the lettering and
decoration of Lincoln acrostics. The use of Lincoln picture cutouts;
the drawing or painting of flags, the state seal and shields, the
American eagle; perspective drawings of the log cabin, the White House
and the Capitol are suggested activities. Postage stamps containing
Lincoln's picture may be used in connection with handwork and drawing
activities. Booklets for acrostics, anecdotes, quotations, brief
biography or history incidents, with appropriate cover design, initial
letters and simple illustrations will afford attractive and profitable

Many other ways and means of presenting the life of Lincoln will
suggest themselves to the active, thinking teacher. The whole object is
to help boys and girls to know Lincoln as he lived, to make his life
function in making their lives better and more worth while through his
great thoughts, high ideals and indefatigable spirit of work.

The following programs, selections, suggestions and bibliography are
intended to make available some selected material which in many cases
may not be accessible.


 =Organization of School for exercises=

  1. School orchestra
  2. Two color bearers at each entrance to auditorium
  3. One color bearer with honorary guard of two at each side of platform
  4. Color bearer for flag salute--center of platform


  Salute flag draped over Lincoln portrait
  Song, "America"
  Story of Lincoln's life told by pupil[D]
  Reading "Gettysburg Address" by teacher
  Solo "When The Boys Come Home"
  Reading Civil War letter
  Solo, "Star Spangled Banner," school joining in chorus
  Talk by Civil War veteran
  Chorus sung by school, "Keep the Home Fires Burning"
  Formal dismissal in keeping with assembly

[D] It would be well to have several pupils take part in this, each
presenting a period in Lincoln's life.


 Place in front of the room the picture of Lincoln veiled with the
 American Flag

 Unveil picture

 Pupils stand in saluting posture ten seconds

 Quote in concert, verse from Ida Vose Woodbury's "Lincoln's Birthday"

 Song, "Battle Hymn of the Republic"

 Brief story of life of Lincoln (compare autobiography). (Told by an
 older pupil--not longer than five minutes)

 At least three incidents from Lincoln's life given by intermediate

 Damage to borrowed book

 Returning of right change

 Lincoln and the pig

 Long walk to school

 Wood chopping for log house

 Lincoln and his sums

 Illustrate on sand table Lincoln's log house and the clearing of
 forest land

 Recitation, "Gettysburg Speech"

 "O Captain, My Captain" read by teacher

 Song, "My Country 'Tis of Thee"

 Salute flag and give pledge: "I pledge allegiance to my flag, and
 to the republic for which it stands; one nation, indivisible, with
 liberty and justice for all"


 Reading of acrostics, using letters of Lincoln's name

 Make Lincoln booklets

 Conversational lesson in which each child contributes what he knows or
 was able to find about Lincoln, the teacher adding interesting items

 Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech recited by one child

 Civil War newspaper articles read

 Patriotic songs chosen by children sung

 Pledge--"I pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the republic for which
 it stands; one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all"


 Picture of Lincoln in front of room

 Salute and pledge

 Song, "America"

 Stories about Lincoln selected and read by children from books brought
 from home or library

 Recitation, "A Prayer for our Soldiers and Sailors," by Oriola Johnson

 Marching and military exercises with flags

 Lincoln's early boyhood told by pupil. A few readings of sketches
 written by pupils. Request that each child take his composition home
 and read it to his parents



=1. Morning Circle=


 Tone plays about flag, etc.

 Hail to the flag (Gaynor)

=2. Morning talk about Lincoln=

 Get from the children what they know about Lincoln. Add to this until
 they know something of his life, laying emphasis on his kindness,
 obedience, thoughtfulness, bravery. Hint as to how these much admired
 qualities may be used by little children

=3. Table Work=

 Gift period

 Make soldier hats from squares of newspaper. Build Lincoln log house

=4. Games=

 (a) "Soldier Boy, where are you going?"

 (b) Parade for Lincoln's Birthday

 Choice by children of best kindergarten soldiers to carry the flags in
 parade; use drum

=5. Table Work=

 Occupation period

 Make crayoneine frame around picture of Lincoln

 Take picture home

=6. Sing "America," at least one verse=


Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this
continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal. Now we are engaged in
a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so
conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great
battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of it as
the final resting-place of those who here gave their lives that that
nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should
do this.

But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate--we cannot consecrate--we
cannot hallow--this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who
struggled here, have consecrated it far above our poor power to add or
detract. The world will little note nor long remember what we say here,
but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us, the living,
rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who
fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be
here dedicated to the great task remaining before us--that from these
honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they
gave the last full measure of devotion; that we here highly resolve
that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this nation, under
God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that the government of the
people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

  _Abraham Lincoln_


[Lincoln's ideas respecting the injustice of the principles of slavery
and the honesty of purpose in waging the Civil War are set forth in the
Second Inaugural Speech. This passage is probably the most beautiful,
the most chaste, the most profound, the grandest, ever uttered by an

Fellow-countrymen: At this second appearing to take the oath of the
presidential office, there is less occasion for an extended address
than there was at the first. Then a statement somewhat in detail, of a
course to be pursued, seemed fitting and proper. Now, at the expiration
of four years, during which public declarations have been constantly
called forth on every point and phase of the great contest which still
absorbs the attention and engrosses the energies of the nation, little
that is new could be presented.

The progress of our arms, upon which all else chiefly depends, is as
well known to the public as to myself; and it is, I trust, reasonably
satisfactory and encouraging to all. With high hope for the future, no
prediction in regard to it is ventured.

On the occasion corresponding to this, four years ago, all thoughts
were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it; all
sought to avert it. While the inaugural address was being delivered
from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war,
insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without
war--seeking to dissolve the Union, and divide effects, by negotiation.

Both parties deprecated war; but one of them would make war rather than
let the nation survive, and the other would accept war rather than let
it perish. And the war came.

The prayer of both could not be answered--those of neither have been
answered fully. The Almighty has His own purposes. "Woe unto the world
because of offenses! for it must needs be that offenses come; but woe
to that man by whom the offense cometh."

If we shall suppose that American slavery is one of those offenses
which, in the providence of God, must needs come, but which, having
continued through His appointed time, He now wills to remove, and that
He gives to North and South this terrible war as the woe due to those
by whom the offense came, shall we discern therein any departure from
those divine attributes which the believers in a living God always
ascribe to Him?

Fondly do we hope, fervently do we pray, that this mighty scourge of
war may soon pass away.

Yet, if God wills that it continue until all the wealth piled by the
bondsman's two hundred and fifty years of unrequited toil shall be
sunk, and until every drop of blood drawn by the lash shall be paid by
another drawn with the sword, as was said three thousand years ago,
so still it must be said, "The judgments of the Lord are true and
righteous altogether."

With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the
right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish
the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him
who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and for his orphan;
to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among
ourselves, and with all nations.

                                                       _Abraham Lincoln_


The following autobiography was written by Mr. Lincoln's own hand at
the request J. W. Fell, of Springfield, Illinois, December 20, 1859. In
the note which accompanied it the writer says: "Herewith is a little
sketch, as you requested. There is not much of it, for the reason, I
suppose, that there is not much of me."

 I was born February 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky. My parents
 were both born in Virginia, of undistinguished families--second
 families, perhaps I should say. My mother, who died in my tenth
 year, was of a family of the name of Hanks, some of whom now reside
 in Adams County, and others in Mason County, Illinois. My paternal
 grand-father, Abraham Lincoln, emigrated from Rockingham County,
 Virginia, to Kentucky, about 1781 or 1782, where, a year or two later,
 he was killed by Indians, not in battle, but by stealth, when he
 was laboring to open a farm in the forest. His ancestors, who were
 Quakers, went to Virginia from Berks County, Pennsylvania. An effort
 to identify them with the New England family of the same name ended
 in nothing more definite than a similarity of Christian names in both
 families, such as Enoch, Levi, Mordecai, Solomon, Abraham, and the

 My father, at the death of his father, was but six years of age, and
 grew up literally without any education. He removed from Kentucky to
 what is now Spencer County, Indiana, in my eighth year. We reached
 our new home about the time the state came into the Union. It was
 a wild region, with many bears and other wild animals still in the
 woods. There I grew up. There were some schools, so called, but no
 qualification was ever required of a teacher beyond readin', writin'
 and cipherin' to the rule of three. If a straggler, supposed to
 understand Latin, happened to sojourn in the neighborhood, he was
 looked upon as a wizard. There was absolutely nothing to excite
 ambition for education. Of course, when I came of age I did not know
 much. Still, somehow, I could read, write, and cipher to the rule of
 three, but that was all. I have not been to school since. The little
 advance I now have upon this store of education I have picked up from
 time to time under the pressure of necessity.

 I was raised to farm work, at which I continued till I was twenty-two.
 At twenty-one I came to Illinois, and passed the first year in Macon
 County. Then I got to New Salem, at that time in Sangamon, now Menard
 County, where I remained a year as a sort of clerk in a store. Then
 came the Black Hawk War, and I was elected a captain of volunteers--a
 success which gave me more pleasure than any I have had since. I went
 into the campaign, was elected, ran for the Legislature the same year
 (1832), and was beaten--the only time I have ever been beaten by
 the people. The next and three succeeding biennial elections I was
 elected to the Legislature. I was not a candidate afterward. During
 the legislative period I had studied law, and removed to Springfield,
 to practice it. In 1846 I was elected to the Lower House of Congress.
 Was not a candidate for reelection. From 1849 to 1854, both inclusive,
 practiced law more assiduously than ever before. Always a Whig in
 politics, and generally on the Whig electoral ticket, making active
 canvasses. I was losing interest in politics when the repeal of the
 Missouri Compromise aroused me again. What I have done since then is
 pretty well known.

 If any personal description of me is thought desirable, it may be said
 I am in height six feet four inches, nearly; lean in flesh, weighing,
 on an average, one hundred and eighty pounds; dark complexion, with
 coarse black hair and gray eyes--no other marks or brands recollected.


                        Executive Mansion, Washington, November 21, 1864

 Dear Madam:

 I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of
 the Adjutant-General of Massachusetts, that you are the mother of
 five sons who have died gloriously on the field of battle. I feel how
 weak and fruitless must be any words of mine which should attempt to
 beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot
 refrain from tendering to you the consolation that may be found in
 the thanks of the Republic they have died to save. I pray that our
 Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement, and leave
 you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn
 pride that must be yours to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the
 altar of freedom.

                Yours, very sincerely and respectfully

                                                         Abraham Lincoln

  To Mrs. Bixby
        Boston, Massachusetts


 Let us have faith that right makes might; and in that faith let us, to
 the end, dare to do our duty as we understand it.

 I intend no modification of my oft-expressed wish that all men
 everywhere should be free.

 A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government
 cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.

 I take the official oath today with no mental reservation and with no
 purpose to construe the constitution by any hypercritical rules.

 You can have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the government;
 while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect and
 defend" it.

 The mystic chords of memory stretching from every battle-field and
 patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this
 broad land, will yet swell the chorus of Union, when again touched, as
 surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.

 In giving freedom to the slaves we assure freedom to the
 free--honorable alike in what we give and what we preserve.

 Do not swap horses in the middle of the stream.

 You can fool part of the people all of the time, and all of the people
 part of the time; but you cannot fool all of the people all of the

 I do not think much of a man who is not wiser today than he was

 The leading rule for the man of every calling is diligence; never put
 off until tomorrow what you can do today.

 I never let an idea escape, but write it on a piece of paper and put
 it in a drawer. In this way I sometimes save my best thoughts on a

 Wealth is a superfluity of what we do not need.

 Come what will, I will keep faith with friend and foe.

 Faith in God is indispensable to successful statesmanship.

 God bless my mother; all I am or hope to be I owe to her.

 I will study and get ready and maybe my chance will come.

 Be sure you put your feet in the right place and then stand firm.

 And having thus chosen our course, without guile and with pure
 purpose, let us renew our trust in God, and go forward without fear
 and with manly hearts.

 Nothing valuable can be lost by taking time.

 It is all in that one word--thorough.

 Let us strive on to finish the work we are in.

 When you can't remove an obstacle plow around it.

 The way for a young man to rise is to improve every way he can, never
 suspecting that anybody wishes to hinder him.

 To add brightness to the sun or glory to the name of Washington is
 alike impossible. Let none attempt it. In solemn awe pronounce the
 name and in its naked deathless splendor leave it shining on.


    O Captain! my Captain! our fearful trip is done;
    The ship has weather'd every rack, the prize we sought is won;
    The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting,
    While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring.
                    But O heart! heart! heart!
                      O the bleeding drops of red,
                        Where on the deck my Captain lies,
                          Fallen cold and dead.

    O Captain! my Captain! rise up and hear the bells;
    Rise up--for you the flag is flung--for you the bugle trills;
    For you bouquets and ribbon'd wreaths--for you the shores a-crowding;
    For you they call, the swaying mass, their eager faces turning.
                    Here, Captain! dear father!
                      This arm beneath your head!
                        It is some dream that on the deck,
                          You've fallen cold and dead.

    My Captain does not answer; his lips are pale and still;
    My father does not feel my arm; he has no pulse nor will.
    The ship is anchor'd safe and sound, its voyage closed and done;
    From fearful trip the victor ship comes in with object won.
                    Exult, O shores, and ring, O bells!
                      But I with mournful tread,
                        Walk the deck my Captain lies,
                          Fallen cold and dead.

                                                          _Walt Whitman_


    The crowd was gone, and to the side
      Of Borglum's Lincoln, deep in awe,
    I crept. It seemed a mighty tide
      Within those aching eyes I saw.

    "Great heart," I said, "why grieve alway?
      The battle's ended, and the shout
    Shall ring forever and a day--
      Why sorrow yet, or darkly doubt?"

    "Freedom," I plead, "so nobly won
      For all mankind, and equal right,
    Shall with the ages travel on
      Till time shall cease, and day be night."

    No answer--then; but up the slope
      With broken gait, and hands in clench,
    A toiler came, bereft of hope,
      And sank beside him on the bench.

                                                 _Joseph Fulford Folsom_


(Written by a fifth grade child)

  L  is for Lincoln, brave and true
  I  is for the Iron nerve which helped him through
  N  is for Nation whose tongue sings his praise
  C  is for Colors on his birthday we raise
  O  is for Oration or speech he gave
  L  is for Liberty given the slave
  N  is his Name which ever we'll save

[Illustration: Statue of Lincoln by Gutzon Borglum

In front of Court House, Newark]


 In his eagerness to acquire knowledge, young Lincoln had borrowed
 of Mr. Crawford, a neighboring farmer, a copy of Weems' Life of
 Washington--the only one known to be in existence in that section of
 the country. Before he had finished reading the book, it had been
 left, by a not unnatural oversight, in a window. Meantime, a rain
 storm came on, and the book was so thoroughly wet as to make it nearly
 worthless. This mishap caused him much pain; but he went, in all
 honesty, to Mr. Crawford with the ruined book, explained the calamity
 that had happened through his neglect, and offered, not having
 sufficient money, to "work out" the value of the book.

 "Well, Abe," said Mr. Crawford, after due deliberation, "as it's you,
 I won't be hard on you. Just come over and pull fodder for me for two
 days, and we will call our accounts even."

 The offer was readily accepted, and the engagement literally
 fulfilled. As a boy, no less than since, Abraham Lincoln had an
 honorable conscientiousness, integrity, industry, and an ardent love
 of knowledge.


 Lincoln could not rest for an instant under the consciousness that
 he had, even unwittingly, defrauded anybody. On one occasion, while
 clerking in Offutt's store, at New Salem, Illinois, he sold a woman
 a little bill of goods, amounting in value by the reckoning, to two
 dollars six and a quarter cents. He received the money, and the
 woman went away. On adding the items of the bill again, to make sure
 of its correctness, he found that, he had taken six and a quarter
 cents too much. It was night and closing and locking the store, he
 started out on foot, a distance of two or three miles, for the house
 of his defrauded customer, and, delivering over to her the sum whose
 possession had so much troubled him, went home satisfied.

 On another occasion, just as he was closing the store for the night,
 a woman entered, and asked for a half pound of tea. The tea was
 weighed out and paid for, and the store was left for the night. The
 next morning, Lincoln entered to begin the duties of the day, when
 he discovered a four-ounce weight on the scales. He saw at once
 that he had made a mistake, and, shutting the store, he took a long
 walk before breakfast to deliver the remainder of the tea. These
 are very humble incidents, but they illustrate the man's perfect
 conscientiousness--his sensitive honesty--better perhaps than they
 would if they were of greater moment.


 An instance of young Lincoln's practical humanity at an early period
 of his life is recorded, as follows:

 One evening, while returning from a "raising" in his wide
 neighborhood, with a number of companions, he discovered a straying
 horse, with saddle and bridle upon him. The horse was recognized as
 belonging to a man who was accustomed to excess in drink, and it was
 suspected at once that the owner was not far off. A short search only
 was necessary to confirm the suspicions of the young men.

 The poor drunkard was found in a perfectly helpless condition, upon
 the chilly ground. Abraham's companions urged the cowardly policy
 of leaving him to his fate, but young Lincoln would not hear to the
 proposition. At his request, the miserable sot was lifted to his
 shoulders, and he actually carried him eighty rods to the nearest
 house. Sending word to his father that he should not be back that
 night, with the reason for his absence, he attended and nursed the man
 until the morning, and had the pleasure of believing that he had saved
 his life.


 Two persons who had been arguing with each other how long a man's legs
 should be in proportion to his body, stepped into Lincoln's office and
 asked him to settle the dispute.

 To them he replied: "After much thought and consideration, not to
 mention mental worry and anxiety, it is my opinion, all side issues
 being swept aside, that a man's lower limbs, in order to preserve
 harmony of proportion, should be at least long enough to reach from
 his body to the ground."


 When Abraham Lincoln was a lawyer in Illinois, he and a certain judge
 once got to bantering each other about trading horses, and it was
 agreed that the next morning at nine o'clock they should make a trade,
 the horses to be unseen up to that hour, and no backing out, under a
 forfeiture of $25.

 At the hour appointed the Judge came up, leading the sorriest-looking
 specimen of a horse ever seen in those parts. In a few minutes
 Mr. Lincoln was seen approaching with a wooden sawhorse upon his
 shoulders. Great were the shouts and the laughter of the crowd, and
 both were greatly increased when Mr. Lincoln, on surveying the Judge's
 animal, set down his sawhorse, and exclaimed: "Well, Judge, this is
 the first time I ever got the worst of it in a horse trade."

The following paragraphs are quoted from a small pamphlet of Mr. Judd
Stewart of Plainfield, New Jersey, entitled "Suggestions for a Text
Book for Students of English." Mr. Stewart is a profound student of
Lincoln, and without doubt has the largest private collection of
Lincolnia in the United States.

 It was recently suggested to me by a lieutenant in the navy, a
 graduate of Annapolis, that in teaching English the writings and
 speeches of Lincoln would be a very proper text-book. This appeals to
 me most forcefully because all school children know who Lincoln was,
 know something of his Gettysburg Address, know him as the Emancipator
 of the Slaves and probably a majority of them admire him. Therefore,
 it seems to me that a text-book based upon, or rather made up from
 Lincoln's speeches and letters would be of great interest to the
 majority of children, and by having such a text-book they would learn
 history and good expressive English at the same time and in a most
 interesting way.

 The suggested text-book would consist of: The House Divided Against
 Itself Speech, in 1858; The First Debate with Douglas Speech in 1858;
 The Cooper Institute Speech, 1860; The First Inaugural, 1861; The
 First Message to Congress, 1861; The Emancipation Proclamation, 1863;
 The Gettysburg Address, 1863; The Letter to Mrs. Bixby, 1864; The
 Second Inaugural, 1865.

 Lincoln spent 49 years of his life in preparation, six years in the
 accomplishment of his work. The study of his life is commended and
 commends itself to all thinking people.

 Why should we not teach his thoughts, his modes of speech, his
 simplicity of expression to those who with their children and
 descendants for ages will remember Abraham Lincoln, the Emancipator,
 the Martyr, the Greatest American?

Attention should be given to the great statue of Lincoln before the
Court House in Newark, New Jersey. It presents our most admired
statesman seated on a bench absorbed in thought. The statue is a
wonderful work of art. From every angle it is unique, beautiful, and a
masterpiece. At all times of day passersby may see the children of the
city sitting in his arm, lovingly admiring the fatherly face. On his
knees and on the bench they gather, children of all races, rejoicing in
the freedom which he gave to mankind.

The statue was conceived and made by the Sculptor Gutzon Borglum, for
Amos H. VanHorn, the donor. It was presented to the Lincoln Post on
May 30, 1911, by Chancellor Mahlon Pitney. Colonel Theodore Roosevelt
received it in behalf of the Post, and Mayor Husaling made the speech
of acceptance.

 Pass on, thou that hast overcome. Your sorrows, O people, are his
 peace. Your bells and bands and muffled drums sound triumph in his
 ear. Wail and weep here; God made it echo joy and triumph there. Pass

 Four years ago, O Illinois, we took from your midst an untried man,
 and from amongst the people. We return him to you a mighty conqueror.
 Not thine any more, but the Nation's; not ours, but the world's. Give
 him place, O ye prairies. In the midst of this great continent his
 dust shall rest, a sacred treasure to myriads who shall pilgrim to
 that shrine to kindle anew their zeal and patriotism. Ye winds that
 move over the mighty places of the West, chant his requiem. Ye people,
 behold a martyr whose blood as so many articulate words, pleads for
 fidelity, for law, for liberty.

                                                    _Henry Ward Beecher_


See Bibliography at end of monograph.


February 22

 It was almost unconsciously that men learned to cling to Washington
 with a trust and faith such as few other men have won, and to regard
 him with a reverence which still hushes us in presence of his memory.




February is the greatest month for the teaching of patriotism. The
national heroes, Washington and Lincoln, whose birthdays we celebrate,
give distinction to two of its days. The time falls happily in midyear,
when pupils and teachers alike need inspiration for a new period of
sustained effort requiring determination and vigor.

It has been shown very clearly that through its schools a nation can be
trained in ideals which will govern national life and conduct. Neither
Washington nor Lincoln, however, owed his heroic quality to schools;
but they did owe it to the very same ideals for which our schools
stand. Indeed, their greatest service to mankind is the fact that they
incarnated those ideals.

It is not so easy to venerate abstract principles and to submit one's
life to them as it is to imitate great personalities whose deeds have
embodied those principles.

Because we love our national heroes and venerate them personally,
they still live and work through us. The principles of democracy are
established eternally in their deeds and in ours.

The child who writes an appreciation of Washington, or recites from his
addresses, or renders a poem commemorating him, or dramatizes something
from his life, enters into his spirit, and in the child Washington
lives again.

The Declaration of Independence asserts the lofty principle of equality
in liberty. All men are created free, and equal in the right to life,
liberty and the pursuit of happiness. It is a declaration of rights,
not of duties. Each person has a right to _his_ life, _his_ liberty,
the pursuit of _his_ happiness. The deeds of Washington embodied not
only these principles, but emphasized the duty of service. In our
time our country has fully justified a new statement of political
faith, which Washington lived. All men are born equal in the right to
opportunity--each to make the best of himself--so that he may render
the best service.

Think not of the reward! On the whole, service is requited according
to its worth. Too many want to do what they can't do, and won't do
what they can do! It may be pride, or it may be looking for an
undeserved reward. The school should train for service, and teach
self-respect in doing the best that one can in the thing for which
he is best fitted. Washington sought no reward; but he commands the
undying veneration, not only of his countrymen, but of all mankind.
Speaking of the retirement of Washington, at a time when party spirit
against the policy of the great founder and preserver of the Republic
was calculated to arouse bitterness in a less noble man, Knight, in
his "History of England," says: "Had his nature been different, had
his ambition been less under the control of his virtue, he might have
taken up his sword and, sweeping away his enemy, have raised himself to
supreme power upon the ruins of his country's liberty. He retired to
his estate at Mount Vernon to pass the rest of his days as a private
citizen.... Washington's scheme of glory was realized. He had been
a ruler of free men, ruling by the power of law. He laid down his
authority when he had done the work to which he was called, most happy
in this, that ambitions of a selfish order could never be justified by
his example."

Washington's point of view as a ruler of men was unique at that period
in the world's history.

We need to teach from the life of Washington that same respect for
English ideals of government which he maintained and defended, even by
revolting against the English king. Too many of our people have grown
up in hatred of England, through the story of the Revolution and the
War of 1812, and the unfortunate attitude of aristocratic England in
our Civil War.

How does England, the heart and brain of England, regard us? If we know
that she sympathizes with our ideals and her heart has been with us
all the time, shall we not feel safe with her, and find in Englishmen
brothers with whom we may work for the good of the world?

English historians have an appreciation of Washington which we cannot
surpass. Writing English history for the instruction of English boys
and girls, and men and women, they justify our Revolution and laud our
national hero as a world hero. No American orator has ever magnified
Washington in more laudatory terms than are to be found in Green's
"History of England." Green says: "Washington more than any of his
fellow colonists represented the clinging of the Virginia land owner to
the Mother Country, and his acceptance of the command proved that even
the most moderate of them had no hope now save in arms."

[Illustration: Stuart's Washington

Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.]

For the future we shall need a better understanding of our English
brothers. This cannot better be attained than by knowing well that our
ideals are held in the same regard by them as by ourselves.

There was one man who was the chief instrument in the hands of
Providence for conducting the war, by his energy, prudence, and
constancy, to that triumphant assertion of Independence which has built
up the great North American republic. To Washington the historian
naturally turns, as to the grandest object of contemplation, when he
laid aside his victorious sword--that sword which, with those he had
worn in his earlier career, he bequeathed to his nephews with words
characteristic of his nobleness: "These swords are accompanied with an
injunction not to unsheathe them for the purpose of shedding blood,
except it be for self-defence, or in defence of their Country and its
rights, and in the latter case to keep them unsheathed, and prefer
falling with them in their hands to the relinquishment thereof."

The United Colonies in America had such a man as Washington to control
the destinies of our country in the making. The new nation had such
a man for a leader during the early years of trial and promise. The
nation today has the records, accomplishments and deeds of the national
hero, Washington, to ever honor, venerate and imitate. The school
children of the great state of New Jersey should be happy to learn from
the life of this great man lessons of service, respect for law and
order, truthfulness and patriotism.


 According to Captain Mercer, the following describes Washington when
 he took his seat in the House of Burgesses in 1759:

 "He is as straight as an Indian, measuring six feet two inches in
 his stockings, and weighing one hundred and seventy-five pounds. His
 head is well shaped, though not large, and is gracefully poised on a
 superb neck, with a large, and straight rather than prominent nose;
 blue-gray penetrating eyes, which are widely separated and overhung by
 heavy brows. A pleasing, benevolent, though commanding countenance,
 dark-brown hair, features regular and placid, with all the muscles
 under control, with a large mouth, generally firmly closed."

 Houdon's bust accords with this description.

       *       *       *       *       *

 To the man of all men for whom his manly heart felt most tenderness,
 to Lafayette, it is that he wrote the beautiful letter of February 1,
 1784, unaware that his rest was only temporary, and that he was to
 become the first President of the country he had given life to:

 "At length, my dear marquis, I am become a private citizen on the
 banks of the Potomac, and under the shadow of my own vine and my own
 fig-tree, free from the bustle of a camp and the busy scenes of public
 life, I am solacing myself with those tranquil enjoyments of which the
 soldier who is ever in pursuit of fame, the statesman whose watchful
 days and sleepless nights are spent in devising schemes to promote the
 welfare of his own, perhaps the ruin of other countries, as if the
 globe was insufficient for us all ... can have very little conception.
 I have not only retired from all public employments, but I am retiring
 within myself, and shall be able to view the solitary walk of private
 life with heart-felt satisfaction. Envious of none, I am determined to
 be pleased with all; and this, my dear friend, being the order for my
 march, I will move gently down the stream of life until I sleep with
 my fathers."

                                                       _J. J. Jusserand_

 Among these men whose union in purpose and action made the strength
 and stability of the republic, Washington was first, not only in
 the largeness of his nature, the loftiness of his desires, and the
 vigor of his will, but also in that representative quality which
 makes a man able to stand as the true hero of a great people. He
 had an instinctive power to divine, amid the confusions of rival
 interests and the cries of factional strife, the new aims and hopes,
 the vital needs and aspirations, which were the common inspiration
 of the people's cause and the creative forces of the American
 nation. The power to understand this, the faith to believe in it,
 and the unselfish courage to live for it, was the central factor of
 Washington's life, the heart and fountain of his splendid Americanism.

                                                        _Henry van Dyke_

    "How did George Washington look?" asked Nell;
    "What was he like? Won't you please to tell?"
    Thus I answered: "A courtly man,
    Wearing his honors as heroes can.
    Erect and tall, with his six feet two;
    Knee-breeches, buckles, frills and queue;
    Powdered brown hair; blue eyes, far apart;
    Strong-limbed and fearless, with gentle heart;
    Gracious in manner toward every one--
    Such, my Nellie, was Washington."

 Washington one day came across a small band of soldiers working very
 hard at raising some military works, under command of a pompous little
 officer, who was issuing his orders in a peremptory style indeed.

 Washington, seeing the very arduous task of the men, dismounted from
 his horse, lent a helping hand, perspiring freely, till the weight at
 which they were working was raised.

 Then, turning to the officer, he inquired why he, too, had not helped,
 and received the indignant reply: "Don't you know I'm the corporal?"

 "Ah, well," said Washington, "next time your men are raising so heavy
 a weight, send for your commander-in-chief." And he strode off,
 leaving the corporal dumbfounded.

 An American sailor landing in England shortly after the close of the
 War of the Revolution took a first-class seat in a stage coach, but
 was told to get out, as such seats were reserved for gentlemen. "I am
 a gentleman," said the sailor. "Who made gentlemen out of fellows like
 you?" asked the coach guard. "George Washington," said the sailor; and
 he kept his seat.

       *       *       *       *       *

 No nobler figure ever stood in the forefront of a nation's life.
 Washington was grave and courteous in address; his manners were
 simple and unpretending, his silence and the serene calmness of his
 temper spoke of a perfect self-mastery; but there was little in
 his outer bearing to reveal the grandeur of soul which lifts his
 figure, with all the simple majesty of an ancient statue, out of the
 smaller passions, the meaner impulses of the world around him. What
 recommended him for command was simply his weight among his fellow
 landowners of Virginia, and the experience of war which he had gained
 by service in border contests with the French and the Indians, as well
 as in Braddock's luckless expedition against Fort Duquesne. It was
 only as the weary fight went on that the colonists learned little by
 little the greatness of their leader, his clear judgment, his heroic
 endurance, his silence under difficulties, his calmness in the hour of
 danger or defeat, the patience with which he waited, the quickness and
 hardness with which he struck, the lofty and serene sense of duty that
 never swerved from its task through resentment or jealousy, that never
 through war or peace felt the touch of a meaner ambition, that knew no
 aim save that of guarding the freedom of his fellow countrymen, and no
 personal longing save that of returning to his own fireside when their
 freedom was secured. It was almost unconsciously that men learned
 to cling to Washington with a trust and faith such as few other men
 have won, and to regard him with a reverence which still hushes us
 in presence of his memory. Even America hardly recognized his real
 greatness till death set its seal on "the man first in war, first in
 peace, and first in the hearts of his fellow countrymen."

                                                           _J. R. Green_

 Washington is the mightiest name on earth, long since mightiest in
 the cause of civil liberty, still mightiest in moral reformation. On
 that name a eulogy is expected. It cannot be. To add brightness to
 the sun or glory to the name of Washington is alike impossible. Let
 none attempt it. In solemn awe pronounce the name, and in its naked,
 deathless splendor leave it shining on.

                                                       _Abraham Lincoln_


[E] Reprinted by permission from "The Book of Holidays," by J. W.
McSpadden. Copyright 1917 by Thomas Y. Crowell Company.

 The story of George Washington's life has been often told, but it is
 worth repeating. It was an active, busy life from his earliest days,
 beginning as it did away back in Colonial times when the country
 was wild and unsettled. Washington was born in Westmoreland County,
 Virginia, in 1732. There is no reliable record of his early education,
 but it has been supposed that the first school he ever attended was
 a little old field school kept by one of his father's tenants, named
 Hobby, who was both sexton and schoolmaster. Even at this early age
 George was fond of playing at war. He used to divide his playmates
 into parties and armies. One of them was called the French and the
 other American. A big boy named William Bustle commanded the French,
 and George commanded the Americans. Every day, with cornstalks for
 muskets and gourds for drums, the two armies would turn out and march
 and fight.

 George was not remarkable as a scholar, but he had a liking for
 mathematics. He was of a more serious turn of mind than most boys of
 his age. His last two years at school were devoted to engineering,
 geometry, trigonometry, and surveying, and at sixteen years of age
 he was appointed a public surveyor. His new employment brought him a
 handsome salary, and well it might; for it took him into the perils
 and hardships of the wilderness, often meeting savage chieftains, or
 fording swollen streams, climbing rugged mountains, breasting furious
 storms, wading through snowdrifts, sleeping in the open air, and
 living upon the coarse food of hunters and of Indians. But everywhere
 he gained the admiration of the backwoodsmen and the Indians by his
 manly bearing and his wonderful endurance.

 In the year 1751 the frontiers of the colony of Virginia were
 constantly being attacked by the French and the Indians, so it was
 decided to divide the colony into military districts under a major;
 and when he was but nineteen, George Washington received one of these
 appointments. Two years later he was sent to the French, who were
 becoming threatening, to find out their intentions and to warn them
 against invading Virginian territory. This important mission made it
 necessary for him to journey six hundred miles through the wilderness;
 but he carried out his instructions successfully, and traveled the
 whole distance without an escort....

 In 1755 George Washington served under the British officer, General
 Braddock, showing great bravery under fire at the battle of
 Monongahela, against the French and Indians, which would probably not
 have been lost if the general had taken Washington's advice.

 In 1759 Washington married a widow named Martha Custis, with two
 children, John and Martha Parke Custis. He was a great favorite with
 the two youngsters, and used to order toys, dolls, and gingerbreads
 for them from London. Mrs. Custis had a large estate and so had
 Washington, and the management cf them took up all of his time.

 When the disputes between England and the American colonies
 were at their height, in 1774, he became a member of the First
 Continental Congress, and the following year was chosen by that body
 Commander-in-Chief of the Continental army. For this position his
 training and his surveying experiences had thoroughly fitted him. He
 took command of the troops at Cambridge, Massachusetts, on July 3,
 1775; but it was a poor army that he found under him. It was in want
 of arms, ammunition, and general equipment. Washington, however, kept
 it together with patience and skill during the trying years of the
 Revolution. The war lasted six years and ended with the surrender of
 the British commander, Cornwallis, at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781.
 During all this time Washington had had to contend with the greatest
 difficulties. The troops were poorly paid or equipped; often there
 were disputes among the officers, and Congress did not know the army's
 needs; but the General always kept the confidence of his men until
 victory was assured....

 In 1783 Washington bade farewell to his army, and for the next six
 years lived the simple life of a country gentleman on his estate at
 Mount Vernon, attending to the affairs of his homestead and property.

 In 1789 he was again called from private life, to become first
 president of the United States. Congress was sitting at New
 York, for which city he started, in April. He disliked fuss and
 ceremony, but the people could not be restrained from showing their
 love and admiration. His progress through New Jersey was amid
 constant cheering, ringing of bells, and the booming of cannon. At
 Elizabethtown he embarked on a splendid barge, followed by other
 barges and boats, making a long water procession up the Bay of New
 York, the ships in the harbor being decorated with colors, and firing
 salutes as it passed. The inauguration took place on April 30, 1789,
 at the old City Hall, in Wall Street, Broad Street being crowded
 with thousands of people as far as the eye could reach. In 1793, he
 was re-elected for a second term of four years, after which he bade
 farewell to the people and retired into private life. On the 12th of
 December, 1799, he caught a severe cold in making the round of his
 plantations and died two days later, in his sixty-eighth year. In
 number of years he had not lived a long life, but how much was crowded
 into it!

 Most of the portraits of Washington show him as a serious-looking
 gentleman in a wig, and the earliest biographies of him would lead us
 to believe that he was always on his dignity. But our first president
 was, in fact, a very genial man, with a hearty laugh, who enjoyed
 going to the theater, was fond of fox-hunting and was a thorough
 sportsman, and, as he himself admitted, had a hot temper. Towards
 young people and children he was always very gracious and kind....

 Like Lincoln, Washington was very athletic. Both of our two great
 presidents were tall men: Washington was six feet two inches; Lincoln
 was six feet four. When he first visited the Natural Bridge, in
 Virginia, Washington threw a stone to the top, a distance of about
 two hundred feet, and, climbing the rocks, carved his name far above
 all others....

 In all the positions which he was called upon to fill, in his
 remarkable life, whether as host at his home, as surveyor, as general,
 or as president, Washington showed the same desire to give the best
 that was in him for his people, his country, and for humanity at
 large. He endeared himself to the lowly and he gained the admiration
 of the great. He was never influenced by mean motives, and those who
 were under him loved him. Thus it was that among Americans he came to
 be regarded as "First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of
 his countrymen;" and when his death became known on the other side of
 the Atlantic Ocean, the armies of Napoleon in France, and the fleet of
 Great Britain, his former enemy, did homage to his memory.

 Washington's birthday was celebrated even during his lifetime, and
 he had the satisfaction of receiving the congratulations of his
 fellow-citizens many times upon the return of this day, frequently
 being a guest at banquets given in honor of the occasion. In fact,
 after the Revolution, Washington's birthday practically took the place
 of the birthday of the various crowned heads of Great Britain, which
 had always been celebrated with enthusiasm during colonial times. When
 independence was established, all these royal birthdays were cast
 aside, and the birthday of Washington naturally became one of the most
 widely celebrated of American holidays....

 Let us not forget what we owe to Washington, or make him merely a
 name--an excuse for a holiday. Let us remember him as a real, flesh
 and blood man--one of the greatest known to history.

    He gave us a nation to make it immortal;
    He laid down for Freedom the sword that he drew;
    And his faith leads us on through the uplifting portal
    Of the glories of peace and our destinies new.

                                                   _J. Walker McSpadden_


 (_Copied by Washington at the age of fourteen from an old translation
 of a French book of 1595._)

 Show not yourself glad at the misfortune of another, though he were
 your enemy.

 When you see a crime punished you may be inwardly pleased; but always
 show pity to the suffering offender.

 Superfluous compliments and all affectation of ceremony are to be
 avoided; yet, where due, they are not to be neglected.

 When a man does all he can, though it succeed not well, blame not him
 that did it.

 Be not hasty to believe flying reports to the disparagement of any.

 In your apparel be modest, and endeavor to accommodate Nature, rather
 than to procure admiration; keep to the fashion of your equals.

 Associate yourself with men of good quality, if you esteem your own
 reputation; for 'tis better to be alone than in bad company.

 Speak not injurious words neither in jest nor in earnest; scoff at
 none, although they give occasion.

 Gaze not at the marks or blemishes of others, and ask not how they
 came. What you may speak in secret to your friend, deliver not before

 Nothing but harmony, honest industry, and frugality are necessary
 to make us a great people. First impressions are generally the most
 lasting. It is therefore absolutely necessary, if you mean to make any
 figure upon the stage, that you should take the first steps right.

 There is a destiny which has the control of our actions not to be
 resisted by the strongest efforts of Human Nature.

 Let your heart feel for the afflictions and distresses of everyone,
 and let your hand give in proportion to your purse; remembering
 always the widow's mite, but that it is not everyone who asketh that
 deserveth charity; all, however, are worthy the inquiry, or the
 deserving may suffer.

 I consider storms and victory under the direction of a wise
 Providence, who no doubt directs them for the best purposes, and to
 bring round the greatest degree of happiness to the greatest number.

 Happiness depends more upon the internal frame of a person's mind,
 than on the externals in the world.

 To constitute a dispute there must be two parties. To understand it
 well, both parties and all the circumstances must be fully heard;
 and to accommodate differences, temper and mutual forbearance are

 Idleness is disreputable under any circumstances; productive of no
 good, even when unaccompanied by vicious habits.

 It is not uncommon in prosperous gales to forget that adverse winds

 Economy in all things is as commendable in the manager, as it is
 beneficial and desirable to the employer.

 It is unfortunate when men cannot or will not see danger at a
 distance; or seeing it, are undetermined in the means which are
 necessary to avert or keep it afar off.

 Every man who is in the vigor of life ought to serve his country in
 whatever line it requires, and he is fit for.

 Rise early, that by habit it may become familiar, agreeable, healthy,
 and profitable. It may, for a while, be irksome to do this, but that
 will wear off; and the practice will produce a rich harvest forever
 thereafter, whether in public or in private walks of life.


 To be prepared for war is one of the most effectual means of
 preserving peace.

 There is a rank due to the United States among nations which will be
 withheld, if not absolutely lost, by the reputation of weakness.

 The propitious smiles of Heaven can never be expected on a nation that
 disregards the eternal rules of order and right which Heaven itself
 has ordained.

 The very idea of the power and right of the people to establish
 government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the
 established government.

 If there was the same propensity in mankind for investigating the
 motives, as there is for censuring the conduct, of public characters,
 it would be found that the censure so freely bestowed is oftentimes
 unmerited and uncharitable.

 Where is the man to be found who wishes to remain indebted for the
 defense of his own person and property to the exertions, the bravery,
 and the blood of others, without making one generous effort to repay
 the debt of honor and gratitude?

 There is no truth more thoroughly established than that there exists
 in the economy and course of nature an indissoluble union between
 virtue and happiness, between duty and advantage, between the genuine
 maxims of an honest and magnanimous policy and the solid rewards of
 public prosperity and felicity.

 Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence the jealousy of a
 free people ought to be constantly awake.

 The name American must always exalt the just pride of Patriotism.

 To the efficacy and permanency of your union a government for the
 whole is indispensable.

 Every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest
 should be indignantly frowned upon.

 Let us impart all the blessings we possess, or ask for ourselves, to
 the whole family of mankind.

 Let us erect a standard to which the wise and honest may repair.

 'Tis substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring
 of popular government.

 It is incumbent upon every person of every description to contribute
 to his country's welfare.

 It would be repugnant to the vital principles of our government
 virtually to exclude from public trusts, talents and virtue, unless
 accompanied by wealth.

 Give such encouragements to our own navigation as will render our
 commerce less dependent on foreign bottoms.

 I have never made an appointment from a desire to serve a friend or

 Labor to keep alive in your breast that little spark of celestial
 fire, conscience.


(_Dated at Rocky Hill, near Princeton, New Jersey, November 2, 1783_)

 It is universally acknowledged that the enlarged prospects of
 happiness, opened by the confirmation of our independence and
 sovereignty, almost exceed the power of description. And shall not the
 brave men who have contributed so essentially to these inestimable
 acquisitions, retiring victorious from the field of war to the field
 of agriculture, participate in all the blessings which have been
 obtained? In such a republic, who will exclude them from the rights of
 citizens and the fruits of their labor?

 To those hardy soldiers who are actuated by the spirit of adventure,
 the fisheries will afford ample and profitable employment; and the
 extensive and fertile regions of the West will yield a most happy
 asylum to those who, fond of domestic enjoyment, are seeking personal

 Little is now wanting to enable the soldier to change the military
 character into that of a citizen but that steady and decent behavior
 which has distinguished not only the army under this immediate
 command, but the different detachments and separate armies through the
 course of the war. To the various branches of the army the General
 takes this last and solemn opportunity of professing his inviolable
 attachment and friendship. He can only again offer in their behalf his
 recommendations to their grateful country and his prayers to the God
 of armies. May ample justice be done them here, and may favors, both
 here and hereafter, attend those who, under the divine auspices, have
 secured innumerable blessings for others!

 With these wishes and this benediction the commander-in-chief is about
 to retire from service. The curtain of separation will soon be drawn,
 and the military scene to him will be closed forever!


(_To the People of the United States--September 17, 1796_)

 Friends and Fellow-Citizens:

 The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive
 Government of the United States being not far distant, and the time
 actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating
 the person who is to be clothed with that important trust it appears
 to me proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct
 expression of the public voice, that I should now apprise you of the
 resolution I have formed, to decline being considered among the number
 of those out of whom a choice is to be made....

[Illustration: Statue of Washington at West Point

Presented to the United States Military Academy by a Veteran of the
Civil War

Copyright by Underwood & Underwood, N. Y.]

 In looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the
 career of my public life my feelings do not permit me to suspend
 the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which I owe to my
 beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me; still
 more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me,
 and for the opportunities I have thence enjoyed of manifesting my
 inviolable attachment, by services faithful and persevering, though
 in usefulness unequal to my zeal. If benefits have resulted to our
 country from these services, let it always be remembered to your
 praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that under
 circumstances in which the passions, agitated in every direction,
 were liable to mislead, amidst appearances sometimes dubious,
 vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in situations in which not
 unfrequently want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism,
 the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts,
 and a guarantee of the plans by which they were effected. Profoundly
 penetrated with this idea, I shall carry it with me to my grave,
 as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that Heaven may continue
 to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your union and
 brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free Constitution,
 which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its
 administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom and
 virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these States,
 under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete, by so careful a
 preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing, as will acquire
 for them the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection
 and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it.

 Here, perhaps, I ought to stop. But a solicitude for your welfare,
 which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger,
 natural to that solicitude, urge me, on an occasion like the present,
 to offer to your solemn contemplation, and to recommend to your
 frequent review, some sentiments, which are the result of much
 reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me
 all important to the permanency of your felicity as a People.

 Interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your
 hearts, no recommendation of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm
 the attachment.

 The unity of government, which constitutes you one people, is also now
 dear to you. It is justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice
 of your real independence, the support of your tranquility at home,
 your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very
 liberty which you so highly prize. But as it is easy to foresee that
 from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be
 taken, many artifices employed, to weaken in your minds the conviction
 of this truth; as this is the point in your political fortress
 against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be
 most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously)
 directed, it is of infinite moment that you should properly estimate
 the immense value of your national Union to your collective and
 individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and
 immovable attachment to it, accustoming yourself to think and speak
 of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity;
 watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing
 whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can, in any event, be
 abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every
 attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest, or to
 enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together the various parts.

 For this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest.
 Citizens, by birth or choice, of a common country, that country has
 a right to concentrate your affections. The name 'American,' which
 belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just
 pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local
 discriminations. With slight shades of difference, you have the same
 religion, manners, habits, and political principles. You have in a
 common cause fought and triumphed together; the independence and
 liberty you possess are the work of joint counsels, and joint efforts,
 of common dangers, sufferings, and successes.

 But these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves
 to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply more
 immediately to your interest. Here every portion of our country finds
 the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the
 union of the whole....

 To the efficacy and permanency of your union a government for the
 whole is indispensable. No alliances, however strict, between the
 parts can be an adequate substitute; they must inevitably experience
 the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times
 have experienced. Sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved
 upon your first essay by the adoption of a constitution of government
 better calculated than your former for an intimate union and for the
 efficacious management of your common concerns. This government, the
 offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon
 full investigation and mature deliberation, completely free in its
 principles, in the distribution of its powers uniting security with
 energy and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment,
 has a just claim to your confidence and your support. Respect for its
 authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are
 duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty. The basis
 of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to
 alter their constitutions of government. But the constitution which at
 any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the
 whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. The very idea of the
 power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes
 the duty of every individual to obey the established government.

 All obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations and
 associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design
 to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation
 and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this
 fundamental principle and of fatal tendency. They serve to organize
 faction, to give an artificial and extraordinary force: to put in the
 place of the delegated will of the nation, the will of a party, often
 a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and,
 according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the
 public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and incongruous
 projects of faction, rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome
 plans digested by common counsels, and modified by mutual interests....

 Towards the preservation of your government, and the permanency of
 your present happy state, it is requisite, not only that you steadily
 discountenance irregular opposition to its acknowledged authority,
 but also that you resist with care the spirit of innovation upon its
 principles, however specious the pretext. One method of assault may
 be to effect, in the forms of the constitution, alterations which
 will impair the energy of the system, and thus to undermine what
 cannot be directly overthrown. In all the changes to which you may be
 invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to
 fix the true character of government as of other human institutions;
 that experience is the surest standard by which to test the real
 tendency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility in
 changes, upon the credit of mere hypothesis and opinion, exposes to
 perpetual change, from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion;
 and remember, especially, that, for the efficient management of your
 common interests, in a country so extensive as ours, a government of
 as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty
 is indispensable. Liberty itself will find in such a government, with
 powers properly distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. It is,
 indeed, little else than a name, where the government is too feeble
 to withstand the enterprise of faction, to confine each member of the
 society within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain
 all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and

 Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity,
 religion and morality are indispensable supports. In vain would that
 man claim the tribute of patriotism who should labor to subvert these
 great pillars of human happiness, these firmest props of the duties
 of men and citizens. The mere politician, equally with the pious man,
 ought to respect and to cherish them. A volume could not trace all
 their connections with private and public felicity. Let it simply
 be asked, where is the security for property, for reputation, for
 life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths which are
 the instruments of investigation in courts of justice? And let us
 with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained
 without religion. Whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined
 education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both
 forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of
 religious principle....

 Promote, then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for
 the general diffusion of knowledge. In proportion as the structure of
 a government gives force to public opinion it is essential that public
 opinion should be enlightened.

 As a very important source of strength and security, cherish public
 credit. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as
 possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but
 remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare for danger
 frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it; avoiding
 likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by shunning occasions of
 expense, but by vigorous exertions in time of peace to discharge the
 debts which unavoidable wars may have occasioned, not ungenerously
 throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear.
 The execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives, but it
 is necessary that the public opinion should cooperate....

 Observe good faith and justice towards all nations; cultivate peace
 and harmony with all. Religion and morality enjoin this conduct; and
 can it be that good policy does not equally enjoin it? It will be
 worthy of a free, enlightened, and, at no distant period, a great
 nation, to give to mankind the magnanimous and too novel example of a
 people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence.


 The life of our Washington cannot suffer by a comparison with those
 of other countries who have been most celebrated and exalted by fame.
 The attributes and decorations of royalty could have only served to
 eclipse the majesty of those virtues which made him, from being a
 modest citizen, a more resplendent luminary.

 Malice could never blast his honor, and envy made him a single
 exception to her universal rule. For himself he had lived enough
 to life and to glory. For his fellow-citizens, if their prayers
 could have been answered, he would have been immortal. His example
 is complete, and it will teach wisdom and virtue to magistrates,
 citizens, and men, not only in the present age, but in future
 generations, as long as our history shall be read.

                                                            _John Adams_

 Washington stands alone and unapproachable like a snow peak rising
 above its fellows into the clear air of morning, with a dignity,
 constancy, and purity which have made him the ideal type of civic
 virtue to succeeding generations.

                                                           _James Bryce_

 First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen,
 he was second to none in the humble and endearing scenes of private
 life, pious, just, humane, temperate, and sincere, uniform, dignified,
 and commanding, his example was as edifying to all around him, as were
 the effects of that example lasting.

                                                             _Henry Lee_

 Others of our great men have been appreciated--many admired by all.
 But him we love. Him we all love. About and around him we call up no
 dissentient and discordant and dissatisfied elements, no sectional
 prejudice nor bias, no party, no creed, no dogma of politics. None of
 these shall assail him. When the storm of battle blows darkest and
 rages highest, the memory of Washington shall nerve every American arm
 and cheer every American heart. It shall relume that Promethean fire,
 that sublime flame of patriotism, that devoted love of country, which
 his words have commended, which his example has consecrated.

                                                          _Rufus Choate_

 Let a man fasten himself to some great idea, some large truth, some
 noble cause, even in the affairs of this world, and it will send him
 forward with energy, with steadfastness, with confidence. This is what
 Emerson meant when he said: "Hitch your wagon to a star." These are
 the potent, the commanding, the enduring men--in our own history, men
 like Washington and Lincoln. They may fail, they may be defeated, they
 may perish; but onward moves the cause, and their souls go marching on
 with it, for they are part of it, they have believed in it.

                                                        _Henry van Dyke_

 Brave without temerity, laborious without ambition, generous
 without prodigality, noble without pride, virtuous without
 severity--Washington seems always to have confined himself within
 those limits where the virtues, by clothing themselves in more lively
 but more changeable and doubtful colors, may be mistaken for faults.
 Inspiring respect, he inspires confidence, and his smile is always the
 smile of benevolence.

                                                   _Marquis Chastelleux_

    Great without pomp, without ambition brave,
    Proud, not to conquer fellow-men, but save;
    Friend to the weak, a foe to none but those
    Who plan their greatness on their brethren's woes;
    Aw'd by no titles--undefil'd by lust--
    Free without faction--obstinately just;
    Warm'd by religion's sacred, genuine ray,
    That points to future bliss the unerring way;
    Yet ne'er control'd by superstition's laws,
    That worst of tyrants in the noblest cause.

                                               _From a London Newspaper_


See Bibliography at end of monograph.


Second Friday in April


    I think that I shall never see
    A poem lovely as a tree;

    A tree whose hungry mouth is prest
    Against the earth's sweet flowing breast;

    A tree that looks at God all day
    And lifts her leafy arms to pray;

    A tree that may in summer wear
    A nest of robins in her hair;

    Upon whose bosom snow has lain,
    Who intimately lives with rain.

    Poems are made by fools like me,
    But only God can make a tree.

                                                          _Joyce Kilmer_



The following are the provisions of the statutes of the State
concerning the observance of Arbor Day:

 The day in each year known as Arbor Day shall be suitably observed
 in the public schools. The Commissioner of Education shall from time
 to time prepare and issue to schools such circulars of information,
 advice and instruction with reference to the day as he may deem

 For the purpose of encouraging the planting of shade and forest trees,
 the second Friday of April in each year is hereby designated as a day
 for the general observance of such purpose, and to be known as Arbor

 On said day appropriate exercises shall be introduced in all the
 schools of the State, and it shall be the duty of the several county
 and city superintendents to prepare a program of exercises for that
 day in all the schools under their respective jurisdiction.

You will notice that Arbor Day now occurs on the second Friday of
April, the Legislature of 1912 having changed the date.

It is believed that Arbor Day may not only be devoted to the
consideration of the value of trees and forests, including, of course,
the planting of trees and shrubs, but that it may also be used to
direct attention to birds and their protection, to the importance of
the school garden, and to other related matters. The conservation of
some of our natural resources might well be considered as the broad
theme of the day, the main emphasis, however, being placed on trees.

Much of the contents of this pamphlet will afford suggestive material
for the use of teachers at any appropriate time. The general
information given may be of help to many teachers throughout the spring
months. The discussions of the various subjects presented may afford
valuable reading material in the grammar schools.

The main purpose of the pamphlet is to give an impetus to the movement
for a greater interest in our natural resources, and the movement
for a greater appreciation of the opportunities offered by rural or
semi-rural life. It is hoped that the suggestions made are such as may
appeal to the interests of children.

It is hoped that Arbor Day may be a profitable one to the pupils in the
schools. It is further hoped that the influence of the contents of the
pamphlet may not be confined to any one day, but may be extended to
many days of the school year.

                                          Calvin N. Kendall
                                             _Commissioner of Education_


Arbor Day will occur this year on Friday, April 11. An announcement
concerning it may be found in the March number of the Education

It has been happily suggested by Secretary Houston of the Department of
Agriculture at Washington that the day be observed in part this year
by planting trees upon our roadways, in our yards, and in our pleasure
places, each tree being named for a soldier who has fallen in the late
War. Such trees would be appropriate memorials to these soldiers.

I suggest that this particular year there be wide-spread planting
of trees dedicated to those whose lives have been sacrificed in the
War. The planting of the trees should be marked with some appropriate
exercises and these exercises should take on more than a school
significance. The whole community should be invited by the school to
take part.

I trust there may be a generous response on the part of the schools of
New Jersey to this idea.

                                          Calvin N. Kendall
                                             _Commissioner of Education_



Save What We Have, Let Planting Come After

When the farmers of Nebraska, led by J. Sterling Morton, established
Arbor Day in 1872, they sought the threefold blessing that trees always
give--shade from the summer sun, shelter from winter winds, and wood.
These men found the broad prairies of the Middle West practically
treeless and they soon discovered that unless nature's fault was
remedied the homes they hoped to make could be neither pleasant, nor
secure, nor successful.

In New Jersey, as in all parts of the East, conditions were and are
different. The whole state was originally unbroken forest, and the
task of the pioneers was to make room for fields and settlements.
Nearly half our area (46 per cent) is still forest, though the greater
part has been reduced to a woefully poor condition. Thus if _our_
festival is to serve _our_ needs, we will celebrate Arbor Day in such,
a way that we shall learn to improve the forests we have rather than
seek to make more; to protect and care for the trees we have as well
as to plant more; to get rid of false impressions and broaden our
understanding of the relations between tree life and human society.

New Jersey cannot spare more land for forests. She now has upwards of
two million acres, and if we apply the rule that a state with 30 per
cent of her area in forests is well off, we shall reduce the total to
about a million and a half acres. But this will adjust itself; our
present concern is to stop the waste of our forest resources and bring
them to serve one of the most highly organized communities in the

With respect to trees, as distinguished from forests, this intensive
life and concentrated population make it imperative that cities and
towns be provided with parks and as much street shade as possible.
Thus there are two ample fields for study and work, the one dealing
with trees and their social bearings, the other with forests and their
economic relations.

The art of caring for _trees_ is called arboriculture, and one who
devotes himself to it an arborist. The art of producing and developing
tree communities, or _forests_, is silviculture or forestry.


The intimate study of trees is full of interest. The sap, consisting
of raw food material gathered by the root hairs from the soil, courses
upward, through the newer wood cells of trunk and branch, to the
leaves; there, under the action of sunlight, it is assimilated with
carbon dioxide, and, so prepared as tree food, passes downward through
the newer bark. Thus, the process never entirely suspended, even in
winter, but varying in vigor with the seasons, the tree grows in
stature by producing new shoots each year. No part of a tree that has
concluded a season's growth is ever elongated, but remains fixed, and
length is added to its terminal by the development of new buds. This
is why a branch always remains at the height at which it started. On
account of this fact the age of a tree or branch may be determined
by counting back from the terminal one year for each section of
development. On most deciduous trees this is hard to follow for more
than a few years, but on the evergreens, which produce their branches
in whorls, it is easy. On the other hand, diameter growth may continue
indefinitely and is exhibited on any cross-section in a series of
annual rings. A count of these rings will give the age of the tree at
that point.

Other interesting things to know are the means by which trees support
themselves upright, even in severe storms; how they support the weight
of heavy branches; and how the various species differ in the form,
color, texture of their bark. Then the flowers and fruits. Few people
know that the early spring awakening of the silver maple is marked by
the appearance of its flowers weeks before the leaves come out, or that
pines and oaks have flowers at all. And so with the fruits: willows
produce catkins; chestnuts, burs; elms, samaras; spruce, cones.


And then one who is fond of trees will not be satisfied until he can
recognize and name at least the commoner kinds. This is field work for
many seasons, for the variations as well as the fixed characters must
be observed, and there are at least a hundred species to be found in
New Jersey. The student will soon want a handbook like Collins and
Preston's "Key to Trees," but without that he will distinguish the two
great groups--evergreen and deciduous. The evergreens are also called
conifers because the fruit of most of them is a cone. Almost all are
ornamental but none is suitable for the street. Their wood is commonly
called soft, though that of many species is quite hard, and forms the
great bulk of coarse lumber used for building, etc.

Deciduous trees are so called because their leaves fall at the
beginning of winter. There are many more kinds or species of these than
of evergreens and their forms and characters are more varied. A few
have recognized values as shade trees; many more are interesting or
attractive in the park or on the lawn; others are never found outside
the forest. By way of contrast with that of the conifers, the wood
of deciduous trees is called hard, though many kinds are quite soft,
and the trees themselves hardwoods. Hardwood lumber is often very
beautiful, and is used for many purposes besides furniture, but the
world could better get along without it than without soft woods.


One is attracted to a noble oak, a graceful hemlock, a beautifully
colored maple, and wants to live with it and its kind. This desire
deserves to be satisfied, and can be satisfied by encouraging the
planting of trees where they will reduce the glare and heat of city
streets; on lawns and in parks they are more at home and can be
treated so that the beauty of individuals and the values of groups or
masses can be brought out. Especially should they find place upon every
school ground so that the attention of the children may be constantly
drawn to these hungry, thirsty, breakable, burnable, beautiful friends
of man.

The kinds of trees that may be planted upon a city street are few, for
the life is so hard that only the hardiest can stand it. If we name
Norway Maple, Ginkgo, Sycamore, White Elm, Red Oak, the list of the
best is exhausted. Others may often be planted where conditions are
favorable, and for lawns and parks the list of availables is almost
endless, but in any case the wisest course is to avoid novelties and
get some one who is experienced to do the planting.

But more important than to plant a tree is to protect and develop one
already in the right place. This applies especially to trees beside
country roads. A newly planted tree has a precarious hold on life for
several years, whereas an old one has survived many dangers. Let,
therefore, the care of the trees that are found in place be the first
concern. Guard them from all that may increase their infirmities, keep
in check the insects that seek to destroy them, have their wounds
attended to and their branches pruned where necessary. This is work for
one who knows how, not for the butcher who "tops" a tree "to make it
grow"; or for the "tree doctor" who uses cement without knowing whether
it will do good or do harm. Reputable men can be found to do any work
of this kind. Under wise direction there should be no hesitation about
cutting down a tree that is in the way. In many places houses and
streets are too much shaded.

The fundamental idea to be grasped is that every tree is an organism;
in one view an individual, in another a community. We must satisfy at
least its strongest requirements or it cannot live. To the extent that
all are satisfied is the tree healthy and vigorous.


As with trees so with the tree communities called forests. Our duty in
New Jersey is to improve the forests we have rather than to concern
ourselves about getting more. Of course, waste land may be redeemed by
planting with trees, but where there is a remnant of the old forest,
nature can be trusted to bring another if she is given a fair chance.
The forest secured in this way may not yield so much lumber as one that
was planted, and it will not satisfy a forester, but it will answer our
most immediate needs, and can be secured more quickly than any other.

And again, as with trees, let no one fear to have a forest cut off when
its time comes. Forest trees were made for use and if they are not used
as they mature, nature will get rid of them by decay. That this must be
so will appear when one observes that in any piece of native woods room
is made for young trees by the fall of old ones that have lived their


Nature clothed most of the habitable earth with forests of one kind or
another and evidently meant that they should serve mankind. This they
do by furnishing wood for shelter and for warmth (seven-eighths of the
people of the world still use wood for fuel), by providing grateful
shade in summer and protection from cold winds in winter, by preventing
the soil on steep hillsides from being lost by erosion, by regulating
the flow of streams. The contention that forests cause rainfall, or
materially influence the climate of a country, is not established. The
weight of evidence indicates that forests thrive in proportion to the
rainfall rather than that the rain falls in proportion to the extent
of forests. And in respect to stream flow we must distinguish between
a mountainous or hilly country and a country that is flat; and whether
the rain commonly falls in brief, heavy storms or in frequent gentle
showers. For instance, we can say with assurance that in North Jersey a
forested watershed will discharge a purer, more regular stream than one
that is unforested, while in South Jersey the influence of the forest
upon the streams is negligible.


As the climate of New Jersey is much the same in all parts, the
character of our forests is determined chiefly by soil conditions.
Fortunately we have a great diversity, and between the northern and
southern sections, strong contrasts. The line separating these sections
is nowhere sharply defined but is commonly assumed to run more or less
irregularly from Long Branch to Salem.

The forests of North Jersey, supported by soils of considerable
fertility, are almost universally of the mixed hardwood type common to
the greater part of the central United States east of the Mississippi
River. That is, they are composed of a variety of deciduous trees in
which are many oaks, chestnut, beech, several maples, ashes, hickories,
elms, birches, etc. As exceptions or variants to the type are swampy
areas in which black spruce and hemlock are dominant, and sterile
mountain crests bearing the pitch pine and scrub oak of the poorest
South Jersey sands. This kind of forest, in which each species occupies
the position to which it is best adapted, and from which therefore all
competitors are excluded, is considered by ecologists the most highly
developed vegetable society.

And about and among these forests is the most fully developed human
society--villages, towns and cities.

Practically all these forests have been several times cut over and many
times burned. Individual trees about settlements are often noble and
imposing, and occasional groves of fine trees are found, but the forest
is only a reminder of what it was--and a promise of what it may be.

In South Jersey the contrast with North Jersey is emphasized in
every way. Instead of hills and valleys the land is level or gently
rolling. Near the Delaware and at numerous points in the interior are
fertile soils and thriving communities, but much of the territory is
characterized by sand and forests of pine, with an undergrowth of scrub
oak, often covering hundreds of thousands of acres. This condition
justifies the common name of the region "The Pines," though variations
in soil frequently give rise to considerable areas of tree oaks, and
swamps of white cedar border many of the streams.

On the sandy land profitable agriculture is full of uncertainties;
but forestry is not, for there the pitch pine, though burned almost
to extinction by the fires that for years swept annually across the
level reaches, persists and wherever given a few years' immunity from
fire, sends up its arms of living green. Here is the great forest area
of the state; one of those tracts fitted by nature to maintain trees
of a single kind, or single class. These "pure" forests, so called
in contrast to the mixed forests of richer regions, are found in the
southern states, in the far North and in the Rocky Mountains. They are
easily developed, easily logged, and always will be, as they now are,
the chief source of the world's lumber supply.


The key to the forest problem in New Jersey, as in every state, is
the control of fire. A few years ago it was an undenied fact that
more forest was destroyed by fire every year than by the ax. Burning
the forest to make plow-land was justifiable when trees were an
encumbrance, but the practice got us into bad habits. From being a
servant, fire became a master. Without fires, we in New Jersey can and
will have all the forest we need; with fires, that which is bad becomes

The lesson for Arbor Day, and for every day, therefore, is to urge and
require that no forest shall be burned. It is good fun to sit about
a camp-fire, yet the danger that the fire will escape and do harm is
great. Even a surface-fire that apparently burns only dry leaves, and
is often set for that purpose, will kill the young trees that are just
starting on the struggle for life. Fortunately New Jersey is getting
her fires under control. Firewardens are located wherever there are
forests; their duty is to prevent fires by every means possible, and if
a fire is started they must summon men to put it out. The forests are
already responding to this protection and proving their ability to take
care of themselves when relieved of the frightful handicap that has
been upon them for generations.


Though fire control will make a forest where conditions are favorable
as here, the skill of a forester is needed to make it a good and a
productive forest. Here is applied a knowledge that is more intimate
than that which serves to recognize a tree or to provide for its
physical well-being. The successful forester must be a practical
scientist in many departments; must have executive ability and be a
capable business man. All who cannot meet these requirements should be
discouraged from seeking to make forestry their profession.


Every urban community needs parks where those who live in close
quarters can find fresh air. And a state with many cities must make it
possible for the people to get into the open--not for an hour only, but
for days and weeks. New Jersey can do this in the woodlands that are so
near to most of the large cities. It is not always necessary that the
state take title to the land; few owners object to reasonable use and
almost all would gladly remove every restriction if they were assured
that the privilege would not be abused.

The timber forests of continental Europe are universally used as great
public parks. Good roads make all parts accessible and the tourists are
so accustomed to behave themselves that no serious harm is done. We can
have ample parks of this kind at no more cost than assuring the owners'
material interests.


The state of New Jersey is prepared to help its citizens in any
interest connected with the soil. The State Forester, Trenton, will
advise individuals or communities regarding the care of shade trees
and the planting or management of forests. The Agricultural Experiment
Station, New Brunswick, and the Department of Agriculture, Trenton,
will afford similar assistance upon any subject connected with farms,
orchards or gardens. Anyone who wants to know about any of these
subjects has the right to ask questions and to seek advice.



The following fitting observance of Arbor Day, commemorating an
historic incident in the life of Alexander Hamilton, was conducted
in Mindowaskin Park, Westfield, April 12, 1918. The program took its
origin from the following narrative:

 Alexander Hamilton, in the year 1801, planted a grove of thirteen
 trees at his home, "Hamilton Grange," 143d Street, west of Convent
 Avenue, New York City. The trees were the liquidambar styraciflua,
 sweet or red gum, and were sent from the South. Each one of the
 thirteen trees was named for one of the thirteen original colonies.
 The group of trees was later known as the "Hamilton Grove." Martha
 Washington became greatly interested both in its upkeep and in its

The program was as follows.

       *       *       *       *       *

The schools marched to the park with flags and assembled en masse.

As the flag was raised, the Star Spangled Banner was sung, a cornetist

Address by Honorable Arthur N. Pierson.

Song, "Over There."

Planting of trees: Each of the thirteen grades, from the kindergarten
through the twelfth grade, planted a tree. As the trees for the states
were planted the following passages were read. When the New Jersey tree
was planted the whole audience joined in the response.


 This tree we plant as a memorial to the great state of Massachusetts,
 noted for its patriots and its learning. As thy emblem, the pine tree,
 points to heaven, may thy ideals lead us on.

New Hampshire

 Land of the Great Stone Face, look over these United States of ours
 with a watchfulness that will keep us true and steadfast in the cause
 of democracy.

Rhode Island

 Grow, thou tree of life, as the spirit of religious liberty has grown
 in this broad land of ours.


 As the famous Charter Oak kept thy government free and unmolested, so
 may the branches of this tree perpetuate to the world the constitution
 under which we as a nation live.

New York

 The towering buildings of thy metropolis cry as they mount heavenward
 "Excelsior." May thy slogan be the slogan of our nation.

New Jersey

 Proud are we of this the "Garden State of the Union." We love thee and
 the great Union of which thou art a part. For thee and our country we
 live and serve.


 Live to the memory of thy founder, William Penn, father of peace and
 justice. This boon we would give to the world.


 Song--"Maryland, My Maryland."


 Long live the memory of this first state of the Union. May we show to
 the world, "In Union there is Strength."


 Home of the father of Our Country, to thee we dedicate this tree.
 Washington, give us that courage that held thee to the great cause of

North Carolina

 The cypress tall and majestic is the tree of this state. Majestic may
 this country of ours stand among the nations of the world.

South Carolina

 Like the palmetto which bends its branches over all who come to its
 shade, spread to all the benediction of life and liberty.


 Refuge of the oppressed. May the charity of thy founders characterize
 us as a nation.

 Song, "America."

A record of the plantings was filed in the school. On each succeeding
Arbor Day each class which planted a tree will see whether its tree is
growing. Should the tree perchance have died, another will be planted
in its place. Other trees than the sweet gum may be used in some
localities with greater certainty of thriving.



As the season of planting is upon us and all nature is preparing to
show her most gorgeous dress, we should interest the pupil in ways of
beautifying the school. There is not a school in the land that cannot
be made better, and many of them may be improved very much. The pupils
will take a great interest in the matter if they receive a little
encouragement and leadership on the part of their teachers.

Beautify the school grounds. A woven wire trellis supporting a thrifty
vine would be a splendid screen for unsightly outbuildings. Shrubs
about the foundations of the school building, in the angles of walks,
and in natural clumps in the corners of the grounds would add beauty
to the school surroundings. A few plots not used for play nor for
garden may be grassed. Never scatter the trees or shrubs openly about
the lawn area. Better mass the shrubs in natural clumps in angles
or foundations, walks and borders. Use the trees along boundary and
division lines. Native trees and shrubs are always preferable to
imported or exotic kinds.


Arbor Day plans should be begun early and should include a number of
lines of preparatory work.

Send for the bulletins first.

Draw plans of the grounds, measuring the lines and distances to make it
somewhat accurate. If a class is assigned to this task the best map may
be framed for the future use of the school. A passepartout binding, at
least, may be used. This map may show the plan of planting for several
years if there is more to be planted than can be done this year. The
walks, buildings, clumps of shrubs, trees, school garden, playgrounds,
etc., should all be shown.

This work may be done by arithmetic or geography classes. The
arithmetic class may also find suitable dimensions for the corn-contest

Have the reading classes read about birds, gardening, trees, lawns,
weeds, etc. Use the newer words in spelling exercises. Let boys and
girls both make bird-houses at home. These may be ready to put up on
Arbor Day.

The corn testing and seed study should begin at once.

Trees, shrubs and seeds that are to be planted on Arbor Day, or soon
after, should be ready in advance. The roots of trees and shrubs must
be temporarily covered with soil to prevent drying out.

Some exercises in root grafting of apples may be carried out as
described in two of the bulletins, 113 and 408.

Tools to be used in the planting of school grounds may be brought by
pupils from their homes; the list available for the purpose should be
made in advance.

Divide the students into suitable groups for the work, so that each
will know his part.

Invite parents and home folks to the work of Arbor Day, and make it
a community exercise. The men may come in the morning to work, and
the women may come with lunch baskets at noon, both staying until the
exercises are over.

Plan to have some one take pictures of the children and patrons while
the improvement work is going on.

Do not forget to have some manure and good soil hauled in advance.



  1. Remarks by the teacher or a member of the school board on the
       value of teaching the useful and beautiful as well as the
       classical and historical.

  2. Have five pupils stand together. The first pupil will read from
       this pamphlet or tell in his own way why we should all know more
       about trees; the second about insects; the third about weeds;
       the fourth about birds; and the fifth about corn.

  3. Have five girls stand and each tell a few things about some
       useful bird.

  4. Have a boy who has made a bird box tell how bird boxes are a
       protection to young birds, and how he made his.

  5. Have a boy tell of some ways of destroying English sparrows,
       learned from U. S. Farmers' Bulletin 383.

  6. Another boy should tell how to distinguish English sparrows from
       other sparrows and common birds.

   7. Have some of the best tree planters tell how to plant a
       tree--preparation of soil, roots, pruning and actual planting.

_Note._ In any or all of these exercises pupils may get the subject
matter from this pamphlet and from bulletins referred to in it. They
may make note on paper of what they wish to say and speak from these
notes. If the time for preparation be very short the points may be
copied and read directly. Let each exercise be very short.


  1. Announcement of outlines of contests in school or home
       gardening, corn growing, or other work the school may be
       planning, and the premiums offered for the contests and exhibits
       next fall.

  2. Some pupils may tell of several benefits of trees and forests,
       or five pupils may stand together and each tell of one important

  3. Have a pupil describe how to test seed corn by the individual
       ear method.

  4. Have two pupils tell of the two types of insect moths, each
       telling how to control such insects.

  5. Have a boy tell of three or four things necessary to improve the
       home lawn. (See U. S. Bulletin 248)

  6. Have three pupils stand and each take one part

      (_a_) Use of vines to beautify the grounds at school or home,
        naming some vines to use in certain places

      (_b_) Use of trees in same way

      (_c_) Use of shrubs in same way


Few people ever think of a forest as a place to store water. Who
would think that "the woods" hold water as well as a mill pond or a
reservoir! But they do, although we cannot see the water they hold,
except, perhaps, as a pool here and there; and yet this is one of the
most important functions that a forest can perform.

All of us have noticed in walking through the woods how soft and
springy the ground is. A thick carpet of leaves, twigs, and decayed
wood covers the earth, sometimes to a depth of several feet. It is very
porous, and it absorbs water like a sponge. When storms come and rain
falls in torrents, it does not beat directly upon the ground under
the trees because the raindrops first strike the leaves and branches
above. The water then trickles gently down and soaks into the leafy
carpet. If the forest is extensive a very large quantity of water is
absorbed--enough to prevent floods except in extraordinarily long
periods of rain. Gradually through the weeks and months that follow
the absorbed water oozes out of low places as "springs," and it dashes
merrily away in little brooks that continue to form creeks and rivers
which flow peacefully and steadily out to sea.

If there are no trees, no leaves to break the beating rain, no spongy
mold to hold the water when it falls, no matted roots to prevent
washing, the big raindrops spatter upon the earth and quickly form
rushing streams that wash the ground into gulleys. The bare earth
absorbs some water, to be sure, but far less than the humus of the
forest. If the rains are continued the rivers are soon filled beyond
the capacity of their banks and they spread over the neighboring
valleys, carrying devastation with them. After the heavy rains cease,
the flood waters subside as suddenly as they had arisen and the streams
dwindle to insignificance, sometimes completely drying up in a long,
hot summer.

Thus it is that forests act as great reservoirs and aid in preventing
disastrous floods and in maintaining the flow of streams at a rate that
is nearly uniform all the year round.

Now let us see what use is made of the trees. The greatest of all is
for firewood; but this is largely the decaying or faulty trees from
the farmer's woodlot, the waste product of a lumber region, or from
land that is cleared for cultivation. It is said that about 100,000,000
cords are used annually.

The greater part of the salable timber, however, is sawed into lumber,
which is used in a variety of ways. The first and greatest use of
lumber is for building houses, barns, sheds, outbuildings and fences.

Next comes furniture of all kinds--chairs, tables, beds, and all other
house, office, and school furniture; musical instruments; vehicles
of all kinds--wagons, carriages, buggies, and parts of automobiles;
agricultural implements--plows, harrows, harvesters, thrashing
machines, and other farm implements.

Car building is another great use for lumber--freight cars, passenger
cars, and trolley cars. Other important uses for timber are as
cross-ties, poles for telegraph and telephone lines, and "shoring" or
supports in mines. Even more trees are used in the manufacture of paper
than for these purposes. Then there are various small articles used in
the home, such as spools, butter dishes, fruit crates, baskets, boxes,
all kinds of tools, toys, picture frames, matches, pencils, clothes
pins, toothpicks, etc. These are little things, but so many of them
are used that they consume a great deal of wood. Next we derive tannic
acid for tanning leather, turpentine and rosin, maple sugar, and many
extracts used in making medicines.

So valuable are the forests that the whole nation is interested in
preserving them. No one is benefited more by them than the farmer, and
no one should be more interested in them.--_U. S. Bureau of Education
Bulletin, "Agriculture and Rural Life Day"_


"The Study of Birds and Bird Life in the Schools of New Jersey," by Dr.
Robert G. Leavitt, of the Trenton State Normal School, published by
this Department, should be consulted.


See Bibliography at end of monograph.


May 30


    How sleep the brave, who sink to rest
    By all their country's wishes blessed!
    When Spring, with dewy fingers cold,
    Returns to deck their hallowed mold,
    She there shall dress a sweeter sod
    Than Fancy's feet have ever trod.

    By fairy hands their knell is rung;
    By forms unseen their dirge is sung;
    There Honor comes, a pilgrim gray,
    To bless the turf that wraps their clay;
    And Freedom shall awhile repair,
    To dwell a weeping hermit there!

                                                       _William Collins_




    Flag Salute

    Song--"Battle Hymn of the Republic"

    Story of Memorial Day

    Stories from the battle-fields of 1861 and 1918, told by larger
       pupils, adult members of the community, or soldiers

    "The Blue and the Gray"

    Song--"Keep the Home Fires Burning"

    "The Gettysburg Address"

    "In Flanders Fields"

    Song--"America" or "The Star Spangled Banner"

Preparatory to the making and carrying out of a Memorial Day program,
the teacher, a group of pupils or some wide-awake member of the
community should talk about the sacrifices made by the soldiers of our
country during the different wars in which we have been engaged; what
great principles they have fought for, and why we should honor their
memory in the public schools of our land. Throughout the preparation
and the execution of the program there should be a consciousness of the
debt we owe to those who have fought and died for freedom's cause. The
simplest program prepared in this spirit will be of lasting value to
the children of the school and to the members of the community in which
the exercises are held.

Pupils and teachers should talk over fully the kind of program to be
given. Much responsibility should be placed upon the pupils for the
making of the program. They should make all "projects" necessary for
the carrying out of the program, and should invite all patrons and
friends in the community.

The exercises should be a service truly commemorating the honored dead
of our land.


The observance of May 30 as Memorial Day had its official origin in an
order issued in 1868 by General John A. Logan, then commander-in-chief
of the Grand Army of the Republic. General Logan often said afterward
that the issuing of that order was the proudest act of his life.

The strewing of flowers upon graves is old in some countries. It is
said that the first decoration of graves of soldiers of the Civil
War was done on April 13, 1862, by two little girls, daughters of a
Michigan chaplain. They had been out gathering wild flowers, and,
returning, came across a rough, unmarked mound which covered some
northern boy.

One of the girls said: "Oh, let's put our flowers on this grave! He was
a soldier boy." They knelt down and made garlands of flowers on that
grave. This grave was in Virginia, not far from Mount Vernon. The next
day they interested their family and friends in a plan to decorate all
the graves, and the plan was carried out. Each year afterward, in May,
they did the same wherever they happened to be. Others saw them and
followed their example.

The later date of May 30 was chosen by General Logan so that flowers
could be had in all the northern states.

From decorating the graves of soldiers the custom has extended to the
graves of all who have relatives or friends to remember them. In time
the soldiers will be forgotten, but the custom of decorating graves
with flowers will doubtless continue for many generations to come. The
spirit which prompts it is a noble one, which should ever be cherished.

Two years after the close of the Civil War the _New York Tribune_
printed a paragraph simply stating that "the women of Columbus,
Mississippi, have shown themselves impartial in their offerings made to
the memory of the dead. They strewed flowers alike on the graves of the
Confederate and of the National soldiers."

Whereupon the North thrilled with tenderness and Francis Miles Finch
was inspired to write his moving lyric "The Blue and the Gray," which
has become the credo of the Festival.

In a famous address, Chauncey M. Depew related the occurrence with
felicity: "When the war was over in the South, where under warmer
skies and with more poetic temperaments symbols and emblems are better
understood than in the practical North, the widows, mothers, and the
children of the Confederate dead went out and strewed their graves
with flowers; at many places the women scattered them impartially also
over the unknown and unmarked resting-places of the Union soldiers. As
the news of this touching tribute flashed over the North it roused,
as nothing else could have done, national amity and love and allayed
sectional animosity and passion. Thus out of sorrows common alike to
North and South comes this beautiful custom."

The incident, however, produced no practical results until in May,
1868, Adjutant-General N. P. Chipman suggested to National Commander
John A. Logan, of the Grand Army of the Republic, that their
organization inaugurate the custom of spreading flowers on the graves
of the Union soldiers at some uniform time. General Logan immediately
issued an order naming the 30th day of May, 1868, "for the purpose of
strewing with flowers or otherwise decorating the graves of comrades
who died in defense of their country during the late rebellion,
and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village, or hamlet
churchyard in the land.... It is the purpose of the commander-in-chief
to inaugurate this observance with the hope that it will be kept up
from year to year while a survivor of the war remains to honor the
memory of the departed."

The idea spread rapidly. Legislature after legislature enacted it into
law until the holiday has become a legal one in all states. In some of
the southern states an earlier date is usually chosen.


[F] Used by permission of, and by special arrangement with, Houghton
Mifflin Company, the authorized publishers.

    Hark! I hear the tramp of thousands
      And of armed men the hum;
    Lo! a nation's hosts have gathered
      Round the quick alarming drum--
          Saying "Come,
          Freeman, come!
    Ere your heritage be wasted," said the quick alarming drum.

    "Let me of my heart take counsel:
      War is not of life the sum;
    Who shall stay and reap the harvest
      When the autumn days shall come?"
          But the drum
          Echoed "Come!
    Death shall reap the braver harvest," said the solemn-sounding drum.

    "But when won the coming battle,
      What of profit springs therefrom?
    What if conquest, subjugation,
      Even greater ills become?"
          But the drum
          Answered, "Come!
    You must do the sum to prove it," said the Yankee answering drum.

    "What if, 'mid the cannon's thunder,
      Whistling shot and bursting bomb,
    When my brothers fall around me,
      Should my heart grow cold and numb?"
          But the drum
          Answered "Come!
    Better there in death united than in life a recreant--Come!"

    Thus they answered--hoping, fearing,
      Some in faith and doubting some,
    Till a trumpet-voice, proclaiming,
      Said, "My chosen people, come!"
          Then the drum,
          Lo! was dumb,
    For the great heart of the nation, throbbing, answered,
     "Lord, we come!"

                                                            _Bret Harte_


    By the flow of the inland river,
      Whence the fleets of iron have fled,
    Where the blades of the grave-grass quiver,
      Asleep are the ranks of the dead:
        Under the sod and the dew,
          Waiting the judgment-day;
        Under the one, the Blue,
          Under the other, the Gray.

    These in the robings of glory,
      Those in the gloom of defeat,
    All with the battle-blood gory,
      In the dusk of eternity meet:
        Under the sod and the dew,
          Waiting the judgment-day;
        Under the laurel, the Blue,
          Under the willow, the Gray.

    From the silence of sorrowful hours
      The desolate mourners go,
    Lovingly laden with flowers
      Alike for the friend and the foe:
        Under the sod and the dew,
          Waiting the judgment-day;
        Under the roses, the Blue,
          Under the lilies, the Gray.

    So with an equal splendor,
      The morning sun-rays fall,
    With a touch impartially tender,
      On the blossoms blooming for all:
        Under the sod and the dew,
          Waiting the judgment-day;
        Broidered with gold, the Blue,
          Mellowed with gold, the Gray.

    So, when the summer calleth,
      On forest and field of grain,
    With an equal murmur falleth
      The cooling drip of the rain:
        Under the sod and the dew,
          Waiting the judgment-day;
        Wet with the rain, the Blue,
          Wet with the rain, the Gray.

    Sadly, but not with upbraiding,
      The generous deed was done;
    In the storm of the years that are fading
      No braver battle was won:
        Under the sod and the dew,
          Waiting the judgment-day;
        Under the blossoms, the Blue,
          Under the garlands, the Gray.

    No more shall the war cry sever,
      Or the winding rivers be red;
    They banish our anger forever
      When they laurel the graves of our dead!
        Under the sod and the dew,
          Waiting the judgment-day;
        Love and tears for the Blue,
          Tears and love for the Gray.

  _Francis Miles Finch_


    God of our fathers, known of old--
      Lord of our far-flung battle line--
    Beneath whose awful hand we hold
      Dominion over palm and pine--
    Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
    Lest we forget--lest we forget!

    The tumult and the shouting dies,
      The captains and the kings depart;
    Still stands thine ancient sacrifice--
      An humble and a contrite heart.
    Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
    Lest we forget--lest we forget!

    Far-called, our navies melt away;
      On dune and headland sinks the fire.
    Lo! all our pomp of yesterday
      Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!
    Judge of the nations, spare us yet,
    Lest we forget--lest we forget!

    If, drunk with sight of power, we loose
      Wild tongues that have not Thee in awe,
    Such boasting as the Gentiles use
      Or lesser breeds without the law--
    Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,
    Lest we forget--lest we forget!

    For heathen heart that puts her trust
      In reeking tube and iron shard,
    All valiant dust that builds on dust,
      And guarding calls not Thee to guard,
    For frantic boasts and foolish word,
    Thy mercy on Thy people, Lord!

                                                       _Rudyard Kipling_


    Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord;
    He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored;
    He hath loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword;
        His truth is marching on.

                          Glory! glory! Hallelujah!
                          Glory! glory! Hallelujah!
                          Glory! glory! Hallelujah!
                              His truth is marching on.

    I have seen Him in the watch-fires of a hundred circling camps;
    They have builded Him an altar in the evening dews and damps;
    I can read His righteous sentence by the dim and flaring lamps.
        His day is marching on.

    He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat;
    He is sifting out the hearts of men before His judgment seat;
    Oh, be swift, my soul, to answer Him! be jubilant, my feet!
        Our God is marching on.

    In the beauty of the lilies Christ was born across the sea,
    With a glory in His bosom that transfigures you and me;
    As He died to make men holy, let us die to make men free,
        While God is marching on.

                                                       _Julia Ward Howe_

We have scattered our floral tributes today over the graves of the
patriotic dead. These frail mementos of affection will soon wither,
but let not the memory of these martyrs fail to inspire in us a purer,
holier life! The roll-call brings to mind their faces and their deeds.
They were faithful to the end. The weary march, the bivouac, the
battle are still remembered by the survivors. But your line, comrades,
is growing slenderer every year. One by one you will drop out of the
ranks, and other hands may ere long strew your grave with flowers as
you have done today in yonder cemetery. When mustered in the last grand
review, with all the veterans and heroes of earth, may each receive
with jubilant heart the Great Commander's admiring tribute "Well
done!" and become with Him partaker of a felicity that is enduring and

                                                          _E. P. Thwing_

Of all the martial virtues, the one which is perhaps most
characteristic of the truly brave is the virtue of magnanimity. That
sentiment, immortalized by Scott in his musical and martial verse,
will associate for all time the name of Scotland's king with those of
the great spirits of the past. How grand the exhibitions of the same
generous impulses that characterize this memorable battle-field! My
fellow-countrymen of the North, if I may be permitted to speak for
those whom I represent, let me assure you that in the profoundest
depths of their nature, they reciprocate that generosity with all the
manliness and sincerity of which they are capable. In token of that
sincerity they join in consecrating, for annual patriotic pilgrimage,
these historic heights, which drank such copious draughts of American
blood, poured so freely in discharge of duty, as each conceived it--a
Mecca for the North, which so grandly defended, a Mecca for the South,
which so bravely and persistently stormed it. We join you in setting
apart this land as an enduring monument of peace, brotherhood, and
perpetual union. I repeat the thought with emphasis, with singleness of
heart and of purpose, in the name of a common country, and of universal
liberty; and by the blood of our fallen brothers, we unite in the
solemn consecration of these hallowed hills, as a holy, eternal pledge
of fidelity to the life, freedom, and unity of this cherished Republic.

                                                        _John B. Gordon_

 From "Gettysburg: A Mecca for the Blue and the Gray"

Our fathers ordained that in this Republic there should be no
distinctions; but human nature is stronger than laws and nothing can
prevent this people from showing honor to all who have deserved well
of the country. Every man who has borne arms with credit has earned
and is sure to receive a special measure of regard. And it is our
peculiar privilege to remember that our armies and navies, regular and
volunteer, have always been worthy of esteem ... the Grand Army of the
Republic--soldiers and citizens whom the Republic delights to honor.

                                                              _John Hay_

Let no vandalism of avarice or neglect, no ravages of time, testify to
the present or to the coming generations, that we have forgotten, as a
people, the cost of a free and undivided Republic.

                                                         _John A. Logan_

We honor our heroic and patriotic dead by being true men, as true
men by faithfully fighting the battles of our day as they fought the
battles of their day.

                                                           _David Gregg_


The race has not run out.

We are still men, and worthy of our fathers.

That is what Memorial Day 1919 says to us.

Not in pride nor vain boasting but in fearful and solemn humility we
speak, for it is our dead that prompt us. They, our kin and blood, were
not afraid to die.

When the Destroyer came, the obscene Dragon, with breath of poison
gas, eyes of hell fire, and teeth of steel, they did not shrink, our
brothers, but played the man, and struck, and dying struck again, and
flung their shredded bodies into the breach, and "filled the gap up
with our English dead."

We are of such.

We put our arms around our dead, and hold them proudly up to God, and
glory before all men that this is our breed.

The lies of the Accuser are disproved. His slanders fall from us. We
are not slaves of greed, money grubbers, soft and lily-livered. We know
how to suffer and to die. We, too, can follow the gleam.

O Greeks of Marathon, room for us! Through Chateau Thierry and the wood
of Argonne we have come up to stand by your side, and dare to call you

You Five Hundred of Balaklava, meet these boys from Kansas and New
York, who also rode blithely into the valley of death. They are your

You men of Bunker Hill, of Gettysburg and of San Juan, place! place for
these, our neighbors' sons, our friends and playmates!

For them also the laurel, and the royal requiem! For them the Cross of
Honor, and the Divine Halo!

They are ours! Ours! Dear God, we will be worthy of them. Thus cries
the poet of America:

"Allons! After the great Companions, and to belong to them!

"Allons! through struggles and wars!

"Have the past struggles succeeded?

"What has succeeded? yourself? your nation? Nature?

"Now understand me well--it is provided in the essence of things
that from any fruition of success, no matter what, shall come forth
something to make a greater struggle necessary.

"Allons! the road is before us!"

                                                       _Dr. Frank Crane_


The service flag is not an official flag of the United States
Government. The idea was, so far as we are advised, an entirely novel
one, the credit for the conception of which appears to be due to R. L.
Queisser, of Cleveland, Ohio, who designed and patented the present
flag. It has, however, taken such firm root in popular sentiment and
has been of such beneficial influence that it is officially recognized,
and everyone who is entitled to fly it is encouraged and urged to do so.

Mr. Queisser was formerly captain of the machine gun company, 5th Ohio
Infantry (now 145th United States Infantry), from which he was retired
because of an accident. He thus states the origin of the flag:

"Shortly after April 6, 1917, when war with Germany was declared, the
thought came to me that both of my sons, who were still officers in the
guard, would again be called out, and I wondered if I could not evolve
some sign or symbol by which it might be known that they were away
in their country's service, and one which would be to their mother a
visible sign of the sacrifice her sons were making. The inspiration of
the service flag came to me in that manner."

                                               _Official U. S. Bulletin_


    A field of gleaming white,
      A border ruby red,
    And a blazing star
    That is seen afar
      As it flutters overhead.

    From the window of a cot,
      From the mansion on the hill,
    Sends that banner fair,
    Beyond compare,
      Its loyal message still.

    "A man beloved and dear,
      O land, I've given to you.
    He has gone to fight
    On the side of right;
      To Old Glory he'll be true!"

    It floats from learning's halls,
      And within the busy mart,
    Where its crowded stars
    Form growing bars
      To rejoice the drooping heart.

    Each star stands for a life,
      To the nation gladly given,
    For an answered prayer
    To those "over there,"
      Though a mother's heart be riven.

    We pass with kindling eye
      Beneath your colors true;
    A nation's love,
    A nation's hope
      Are bound in the heart of you!

                                                _Josephine M. Fabricant_


[G] Reprinted from the Saturday Evening Post, Philadelphia. Copyrighted
1917 by the Curtis Publishing Company, Philadelphia.

    I have a son who goes to France
    I have clasped his hand--
    Most men will understand--
    And wished him, smiling, lucky chance in France.
    My son!
    At last the house is still--
    Just the dog and I in the garden--dark--
    Stars and my pipe's red spark--
    The house his young heart used to fill
    Is still.

    He said one day, "I've got to go
    To France--Dad, you know how I feel!"
    I knew. Like sun and steel
    And morning. "Yes," I said, "I know
    You'll go."

    I'd waited just to hear him speak
    Like that.
    God, what if I had had
    Another sort of lad,
    Something too soft and meek and weak
    To speak!

    And yet!
    He could not guess the blow
    He'd struck.
    Why, he's my only son!
    And we had just begun
    To be dear friends. But I dared not show
    The blow.

    But now--tonight--
    No, no; it's right;
    I never had a righter thing
    To bear. And men must fling
    Themselves away in the grieving sight
    Of right.

    A handsome boy--but I, who knew
    His spirit--well, they cannot mar
    The cleanness of a star
    That'll shine to me, always and true,
    Who knew.

    I've given him.
    Yes; and had I more,
    I'd give them too--for there's a love
    That asking, asks above
    The human measure of our store--
    And more.

    Yes; it hurts!
    Here in the dark, alone--
    No one to see my wet old eyes--
    I'll watch the morning rise--
    And only God shall hear my groan

    I have a son who goes to France
    I have clasped his hand--
    Most men will understand--
    And wished him, smiling, lucky chance
    In France.

                                                          _Emory Pottle_


[H] From "In Flanders Fields," by Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae,
courtesy of G. P. Putnam's Sons, publishers.

    In Flanders fields the poppies blow
    Between the crosses, row on row,
    That mark our place; and in the sky
    The larks, still bravely singing, fly,
    Scarce heard amidst the guns below.

    We are the dead. Short days ago
    We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
    Loved and were loved; and now we lie
        In Flanders fields.

    Take up our quarrel with the foe!
    To you from failing hands we throw
    The torch. Be yours to hold it high!
    If ye break faith with us who die
    We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
        In Flanders fields.

                                                           _John McCrae_


    Rest ye in peace, ye Flanders dead.
    The fight that ye so bravely led
    We've taken up. And we will keep
    True faith with you who lie asleep,
    With each a cross to mark his bed,
    And poppies blowing overhead,
    Where once his own life blood ran red.
    So let your rest be sweet and deep
        In Flanders fields.

    Fear not that ye have died for naught.
    The torch ye threw to us we caught.
    Ten million hands will hold it high,
    And freedom's light shall never die!
    We've learned the lesson that ye taught
        In Flanders fields.

                                                         _R. W. Lillard_


It is a fearful thing to lead this great, peaceful people into war,
into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself
seeming to be in the balance. But the right is more precious than
peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried
nearest our hearts--for democracy, for the right of those who submit to
authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights and
liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by such a
concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all nations
and make the world itself at last free.

To such a task we can dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything
that we are and everything that we have, with the pride of those
who know that the day has come when America is privileged to spend
her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and
happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she
can do no other.

                                                        _Woodrow Wilson_

We came into this war for ourselves. It is a war to save America, to
preserve self-respect, to justify our right to live as we have lived,
not as some one else wishes us to live. It is more precious that this
America shall live than that we Americans should live.

                                                      _Franklin K. Lane_

No nation has a right to its freedom if it is unwilling to fight for
the freedom of others, and for its own.

The cost of war is not to be measured in money. It is in the slow paid
price of the human heart--in the blood drops, one by one.

                                                     _Charles C. Gordon_


See Bibliography at end of monograph.


June 14


It is not a painted rag. It is a whole national history. It is the
Constitution. It is the Government. It is the free people that stand in
the Government, on the Constitution.

                                                    _Henry Ward Beecher_



The great war has brought more forcibly to us a realization of the
necessity for training the youth of our land to a greater respect for,
and a fuller knowledge of our national emblem.

Wherever the flag floats, children must be taught to love it and to
respect its significance.

New Jersey long ago required that the flag be displayed on school
buildings, and the flag salute be given daily, but no statute can make
certain that the spirit of the law is emphasized.

The teachers of the children of the state bear the responsibility of
training for patriotism, and the future of democracy depends upon the
patriotic ideals nurtured in the public schools. We shall have more
patriotic observances than formerly and one of those which we shall
celebrate with more interest will be Flag Day.

The date authorized to be observed as Flag Day comes so near the close
of the school year that it may well be used as a special occasion on
which pupil and parent join in paying tribute to our national emblem.

Flag Day can be made the occasion of raising a new flag, or of taking
a collection to provide silk flags or a patriotic picture for the
classrooms, thus giving parents an opportunity to contribute to the
patriotism of the school. If a new flag is to be presented to the
school, Flag Day will be a most appropriate time to receive it, and
exercises can be conducted partly or altogether out-of-doors. On the
playground all pupils can take part in marches and drills suitable to
their grades. In order to have the best effects, some uniformity of
costume is best. Any movements uniformly done in mass are pleasing, and
teachers can adapt marching figures to their own playground with good
effect. The purpose of the teacher of the primary grades should be to
awaken love and reverence for the flag and to instill loyalty into the
minds and hearts of the children.

In the higher grades children should not only be trained to show love
and respect for the flag, but should understand their duty toward their
country. They should study the flag, its history, its significance,
its various forms and uses, the correct ways of displaying it, and the
proper manner of raising and lowering it.

The flag of our state should also be taught, together with its history.

It is a part of our school law that the flag salute shall be a part
of the daily program. It is the duty of the teacher to interpret the
meaning and the spirit of the salute to the pupils, not neglecting
the correct pronunciation of the words. The salute should never be
carelessly repeated, but should be given in a serious manner, and only
after children have been called to standing position.

In the making of a program, attention should be given to current
events. The best of the popular songs may be sung. (Be sure they are
the best.) Current literature will furnish some prose and poetry
suitable for the occasion. A real, present-day note should always be
sounded. The same program should not be used year after year, but the
material should be selected anew each time, though some repetition in
the use of standard recitations and national songs is to be expected.

A scrap-book kept for suitable material will be a valuable aid to
the teacher. Such a scrap-book can be made by using large envelops,
fastening them at the bottom within a cardboard cover, and labelling
each envelop according to its contents. As additions are made to the
songs, poems, programs, etc., a catalog of the contents can be kept on
the outside of the envelop. It will be best to mount recitations on
heavy paper in order to preserve them longer.



    Opening remarks by teacher in charge

    Singing by school, "America"

    Recitation, "Our Flag" (by May Howlister), First grade pupil

    Recitation, "Your Flag and my Flag" (by Wilbur D. Nesbit), Fourth
       grade pupil

    Song, "Our Country's Flag" (by Florence L. Dresser)

    Flag Drill, All pupils

    Presentation of new flag, Member of Parent-Teacher Association

    Flag Salute, Entire audience: "I pledge allegiance to my flag, and
       to the Republic for which it stands; one Nation, indivisible,
       with Liberty and Justice for all"

    Song, "The Star Spangled Banner"


    Remarks by teacher or pupil in charge

    Song, "The Star Spangled Banner," School, led by school orchestra

    Oration, "Flag Day Address" (by President Wilson), Eighth grade boy

    Recitation, "The Name of Old Glory" (by James Whitcomb Riley)

    Song, "The Unfurling of the Flag" (by Clara Endicott Sears)

    "Why we should love the Flag" (Best original speech by grade pupil)

    Recitation, "Old Flag" (by Hubbard Parker)

    Song, "We'll Keep Old Glory Flying" (by Carleton S. Montanye)

    Flag drill and grand march, All pupils of grades 5, 6, 7, 8

    Presentation of new flag by father of pupil

    Flag Raising

    Flag Salute: "I pledge allegiance to my flag and to the Republic
       for which it stands; one Nation, indivisible, with Liberty and
       Justice for all"

    Song, "America"


 On the 2d of July, 1776, the American Congress resolved "that these
 united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent
 states; and that all political connection between us and the states
 of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." On the 4th
 of July a Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Congress,
 and sent out under its authority, to announce to all other nations
 that the United States of America claimed a place among them. On this
 4th of July the nation was born. Its flag, the visible symbol of its
 power, was not adopted till 1777.

 On the 14th of June, 1777, Congress resolved "that the flag of the
 thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white;
 that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing
 a new constellation."

 The national flag--_our_ national flag--grew in the most direct way
 out of the banners that had waved over the colonists. The flag of
 the United Colonies had thirteen stripes, one for each colony, and
 the stripes were alternate red and white. This part of the old flag
 remained unchanged in the new one. Each colony retained its stripe.

 The flag of the colonies, in its union, had displayed the king's
 colors. There was now no longer a king in America, but a new Union had
 arisen--a Union of Thirteen States--no longer a Union of kingdoms.
 The union of the old flag had been the crosses of St. George and St.
 Andrew conjoined on a blue field. The new union was a circle of silver
 stars in a blue sky--"a new constellation."

 The flag of the United States was derived from the flag of the
 United Colonies in the simplest and most natural manner. The old
 flag had expressed the hopes and aspirations of thirteen colonies
 which had united in order to secure justice from their king and
 fellow-countrymen in England. The new flag expressed the determined
 resolve of the same thirteen colonies--now become sovereign
 states--to form a permanent Union, and to take their place among
 the nations of the world. They were no longer Englishmen; they were

 Many suggestions have been made to account for the appearance of stars
 or of stripes in the new flag. It seems unnecessary to seek for any
 explanation other than the one that has just been given. The old flag
 of the United Colonies expressed the feelings and aspirations of the
 revolted English colonists. They were willing to remain as subjects of
 the English king, but they had united to secure justice. The new flag
 expressed their firm resolve to throw off the yoke of England and to
 become a new nation. The symbols of each flag exactly expressed the
 feeling of the men who bore it.

 There is a resemblance between the colors and symbols of the new flag
 and the symbols borne on the coat of arms of General Washington that
 is worthy of remark. General Washington was a descendant of an English
 family, and his ancestors bore a coat of arms that he himself used as
 a seal, and for a book-plate.

 It has been supposed that the stars of the American flag were
 suggested by the three stars of this coat of arms, and this is not
 impossible. General Washington was in Philadelphia in June, 1777, and
 he is said to have engaged Mrs. John Ross, at that time, to make the
 first flag, though this is not absolutely certain.

 However this may be, it is known that the American flag of thirteen
 stars and of thirteen stripes was displayed at the siege of Fort
 Stanwix in August, 1777; at the battle of Brandywine on September 11;
 at Germantown on the 4th of October; at the surrender of the British
 under General Burgoyne on October 17. The flag had been adopted in
 June of the same year. The vessels of the American navy flew this flag
 on the high seas, and their victories made it respected everywhere....

 The treaty of peace between England and the United States was signed
 (at Paris, France) on September 3, 1783. This was the acknowledgment
 of Great Britain of the independence of her former colonies; and the
 other nations of Europe stood by consenting. Our flag was admitted, at
 that time, on equal terms with the standards of ancient kingdoms and
 states, to the company of the banners of the world....

 In April, 1818, the Congress passed "An Act to Establish the Flag of
 the United States":

 "Section I. _Be it enacted, etc._, That from and after the fourth day
 of July next, the flag of the United States be thirteen horizontal
 stripes, alternate red and white; that the Union have twenty stars,
 white in a blue field.

 "Section II. _And be it further enacted_, That on the admission of
 every new state into the union, one star be added to the union of the
 flag; and that such addition shall take effect on the fourth of July
 next succeeding such admission. _Approved_, April 4, 1818."

 No changes (other than the addition of new stars) have been made in
 the national flag since 1818. The stars have been added, one by one,
 until in 1898 there are forty-five in all. Every state has its star;
 each of the original thirteen states has its stripe.

 So long as the United States exists the flag will remain in its
 present form, except that new stars will be displayed as the new
 states come in. It will forever exhibit the origin of the nation from
 the thirteen colonies, and its growth into a Union of sovereign states.

                                                      _Edward S. Holden_


 This morning, as I passed into the Land Office, The Flag dropped me a
 most cordial salutation, and from its rippling folds I heard it say:
 "Good-morning, Mr. Flag-Maker."

 "I beg your pardon, Old Glory," I said, "aren't you mistaken? I am not
 the President of the United States, nor a member of Congress, nor even
 a general in the army. I am only a Government clerk."

 "I greet you again, Mr. Flag-Maker," replied the gay voice. "I know
 you well. You are the man who worked in the swelter of yesterday
 straightening out the tangle of that farmer's homestead in Idaho, or
 perhaps you found the mistake in that Indian contract in Oklahoma, or
 helped to clear that patent for the hopeful inventor in New York, or
 pushed the opening of that new ditch in Colorado, or made that mine in
 Illinois more safe, or brought relief to the old soldier in Wyoming.
 No matter; whichever one of these beneficent individuals you may
 happen to be, I give you greeting, Mr. Flag-Maker."

 I was about to pass on, when the Flag stopped me with these words:

 "Yesterday the President spoke a word that made happier the future of
 ten million peons in Mexico; but that act looms no larger on the flag
 than the struggle which the boy in Georgia is making to win the Corn
 Club prize this summer.

 "Yesterday the Congress spoke a word which will open the door of
 Alaska; but a mother in Michigan worked from sunrise until far into
 the night, to give her boy an education. She, too, is making the flag.

 "Yesterday we made a new law to prevent financial panics, and
 yesterday, maybe, a school teacher in Ohio taught his first letters
 to a boy who will one day write a song that will give cheer to the
 millions of our race. We are all making the flag."

 "But," I said impatiently, "these people were only working!"

 Then came a great shout from The Flag:

 "The work that we do is the making of the flag.

 "I am not the flag; not at all. I am but its shadow.

 "I am whatever you make me, nothing more.

 "I am your belief in yourself, your dream of what a people may become.

 "I live a changing life, a life of moods and passions, of heartbreaks
 and tired muscles.

 "Sometimes I am strong with pride, when men do an honest work, fitting
 the rails together truly.

 "Sometimes I droop, for then purpose has gone from me, and cynically I
 play the coward.

 "Sometimes I am loud, garish, and full of that ego that blasts

 "But always I am all that you hope to be, and have the courage to try

 "I am song and fear, struggle and panic, and ennobling hope.

 "I am the day's work of the weakest man, and the largest dream of the
 most daring.

 "I am the Constitution and the courts, statutes and the statute
 makers, soldier and dreadnaught, drayman and street sweep, cook,
 counselor, and clerk.

 "I am the battle of yesterday, and the mistake of tomorrow.

 "I am the mystery of the men who do without knowing why.

 "I am the clutch of an idea, and the reasoned purpose of resolution.

 "I am no more than what you believe me to be and I am all that you
 believe I can be.

 "I am what you make me, nothing more.

 "I swing before your eyes as a bright gleam of color, a symbol of
 yourself, the pictured suggestion of that big thing which makes this
 nation. My stars and my stripes are your dream and your labors. They
 are bright with cheer, brilliant with courage, firm with faith,
 because you have made them so out of your hearts. For you are the
 makers of the flag and it is well that you glory in the making."

                                                      _Franklin K. Lane_


[I] From the Biographical Edition of the Complete Works of James
Whitcomb Riley, copyright 1913. Used by special permission of the
publishers, The Bobbs-Merrill Company.

    Old Glory! say, who,
    By the ships and the crew,
    And the long, blended ranks of the gray and the blue--
    Who gave you, Old Glory, the name that you bear
    With such pride everywhere
    As you cast yourself free to the rapturous air
    And leap out full-length, as we're wanting you to?--
    Who gave you that name, with the ring of the same,
    And the honor and fame so becoming to you?--
    Your stripes stroked in ripples of white and of red,
    With your stars at their glittering best overhead--
    By day or by night
    Their delightfulest light
    Laughing down from their little square heaven of blue!--
    Who gave you the name of Old Glory?--say, who--
    Who gave you the name of Old Glory?

    The old banner lifted, and faltering then
    In vague lisps and whispers fell silent again.

    Old Glory--speak out!--we are asking about
    How you happened to "favor" a name, so to say,
    That sounds so familiar and careless and gay
    As we cheer it and shout in our wild breezy way--
    We--the crowd, every man of us, calling you that--
    We--Tom, Dick and Harry--each swinging his hat
    And hurrahing "Old Glory!" like you were our kin,
    When--Lord!--we all know we're as common as sin!
    And yet it just seems like you humor us all
    And waft us your thanks, as we hail you and fall
    Into line, with you over us, waving us on
    Where our glorified, sanctified betters have gone--
    And this is the reason we're wanting to know--
    (And we're wanting it so--
    Where our own fathers went we are willing to go)--
    Who gave you the name of Old Glory--O-ho!--
    Who gave you the name of Old Glory?

    The old flag unfurled with a billowy thrill
    For an instant, then wistfully sighed and was still.

    Old Glory: the story we're wanting to hear
    Is what the plain facts of your christening were--
    For your name--just to hear it,
    Repeat it, and cheer it, 's tang to the spirit
    As salt as a tear;--
    And seeing you fly, and the boys marching by,
    There's a shout in the throat and a blur in the eye
    And an aching to live for you always--or die,
    If dying, we still keep you waving on high.
    And so, by our love
    For you, floating above,
    And the scars of all wars and the sorrows thereof,
    Who gave you the name of Old Glory, and why
    Are we thrilled at the name of Old Glory?

    Then the old banner leaped, like a sail in the blast,
    And fluttered an audible answer at last.

    And it spake, with a shake of the voice, and it said:
    By the driven snow-white and the living blood-red
    Of my bars, and their heaven of stars overhead--
    By the symbol conjoined of them all, skyward cast,
    As I float from the steeple, or flap at the mast,
    Or droop o'er the sod where the long grasses nod--
    My name is as old as the glory of God.
    ... So I came by the name of Old Glory.

                                                  _James Whitcomb Riley_



    We'll keep Old Glory flying fair,
        No matter where we are;
    We'll let the breeze caress each stripe
        And proudly kiss each star.
    'Twill never know the despot's heel,
        This Banner of the Free.
    We'll keep Old Glory flying high,
        For Home and Liberty!

    No matter where we go, or when,
        No matter where we go,
    Our starry flag in grandeur proud,
        To us the way will show.
    On foreign shores, afar from home,
        We'll carry it on high,
    And let the foeman know its might--
        To honor it or die.

                                                  _Carleton S. Montanye_



    Beneath our country's flag today,
    We stand a children's band,
    And to it now in loyalty
    We pledge each heart and hand.
    We love its colors as they wave
    Beneath these summer skies,
    The flag our fathers fought to save
    Is sacred in our eyes.

    Our country's flag, the dear old flag,
    To it, ev'ry heart beats true!
    We will follow far each gleaming star,
    Our own red, white and blue.

    'Neath each clust'ring fold, as in days of old,
    It will gather those oppressed,
    And secure from harm and from all alarm,
    It will bid them safely rest.
    To its slightest call, we will rally all;
    Ev'ry pledge it makes to keep;
    And it leads us forth over lands afar,
    O'er the ocean's blue so deep.

                                                   _Florence L. Dresser_


    What shall I say to you, Old Flag?
    You are so grand in every fold,
    So linked with mighty deeds of old,
    So steeped in blood where heroes fell,
    So torn and pierced by shot and shell,
    So calm, so still, so firm, so true,
    My throat swells at the sight of you, Old Flag.

    What of the men who lifted you, Old Flag,
    Upon the top of Bunker Hill?
    'Mid shock and roar and crash and scream,
    Who crossed the Delaware's frozen stream,
    Who starved, who fought, who bled, who died,
    That you might float in glorious pride, Old Flag?

    What of the women brave and true, Old Flag,
    Who, while the cannon thundered wild,
    Sent forth a husband, lover, child,
    Who labored in the field by day,
    Who, all the night long, knelt to pray,
    And thought that God great mercy gave,
    If only freely you might wave, Old Flag?

    What is your mission now, Old Flag?
    What but to set all people free,
    To rid the world of misery,
    To guard the right, avenge the wrong,
    And gather in one joyful throng
    Beneath your folds in close embrace
    All burdened ones of every race, Old Flag.

    Right nobly do you lead the way, Old Flag.
    Your stars shine out for liberty,
    Your white stripes stand for purity,
    Your crimson claims that courage high
    For Honor's sake to fight and die.
    Lead on against the alien shore!
    We'll follow you e'en to Death's door, Old Flag!

                                                        _Hubbard Parker_



    There's a streak across the skyline
        That is gleaming in the sun,
    Watchers from the lighthouse towers
        Signalled it to foreign Powers
    Just as daylight had begun,
            Message thrilling,
            Hopes fulfilling
    To those fighting o'er the seas.
    "It's the flag we've named Old Glory
    That's unfurling to the breeze."

    Can you see the flashing emblem
        Of our Country's high ideal?
    Keep your lifted eyes upon it
        And draw joy and courage from it,
    For it stands for what is real,
            Freedom's calling
            To the falling
    From oppression's hard decrees.
    It's the flag we've named Old Glory
    You see floating in the breeze.

    Glorious flag we raise so proudly,
        Stars and stripes, red, white and blue,
    You have been the inspiration
        Of an ever growing nation
    Such as this world never knew.
            Peace and Justice,
            Freedom, Progress,
    Are the blessings we can seize
    When the flag we call Old Glory
    Is unfurling to the breeze.

    When the cry of battling nations
        Reaches us across the space
    Of the wild tumultuous ocean,
    Hearts are stirred with deep emotion
    For the saving of the race!
            Peace foregoing,
            Aid bestowing,
    First we drop on bended knees,
    Then with shouts our grand Old Glory
    We set flaunting to the breeze!

                                                  _Clara Endicott Sears_


          Your flag and my flag,
            And how it flies today
          In your land and my land
            And half a world away!
          Rose-red and blood-red
            The stripes forever gleam;
          Snow-white and soul-white--
            The good forefathers' dream;
    Sky-blue and true blue, with stars to gleam aright--
    The gloried guidon of the day; a shelter through the night.

          Your flag and my flag!
            And, oh, how much it holds--
          Your land and my land--
            Secure within its folds!
          Your heart and my heart
            Beat quicker at the sight;
          Sun-kissed and wind-tossed--
            Red and blue and white.
    The one flag--the great flag--the flag for me and you--
    Glorified all else beside--the red and white and blue!

          Your flag and my flag!
            To every star and stripe
          The drums beat as hearts beat
            And fifers shrilly pipe!
          Your flag and my flag--
            A blessing in the sky;
          Your hope and my hope--
            It never hid a lie!
    Home land and far land and half the world around,
    Old Glory hears our glad salute and ripples to the sound!

                                                      _Wilbur D. Nesbit_


    There are many flags in many lands,
    There are flags of every hue,
    But there is no flag in any land
    Like our own Red, White, and Blue.

    Then "Hurrah for the flag!" our country's flag,
    Its stripes and white stars, too;
    There is no flag in any land
    Like our own Red, White, and Blue.

                                                        _Mary Howlister_

 This flag, which we honor and under which we serve, is the emblem of
 our unity, our power, our thought and purpose as a nation. It has
 no other character than that which we give it from generation to
 generation. The choices are ours. It floats in majestic silence above
 the hosts that execute those choices, whether in peace or in war. And
 yet, though silent, it speaks to us--speaks to us of the past, of the
 men and women who went before us, and of the records they wrote upon

 We celebrate the day of its birth; and from its birth until now it has
 witnessed a great history, has floated on high the symbol of great
 events, of a great plan of life worked out by a great people. We are
 about to carry it into battle, to lift it where it will draw the fire
 of our enemies. We are about to bid thousands, hundreds of thousands,
 it may be millions, of our men--the young, the strong, the capable men
 of the nation--to go forth and die beneath it on fields of blood far

 Woe be to the man, or group of men, that seeks to stand in our way in
 this day of high resolution, when every principle we hold dearest is
 to be vindicated and made secure for the salvation of the nations. We
 are ready to plead at the bar of history, and our flag shall wear a
 new luster. Once more we shall make good with our lives and fortunes
 the great faith to which we were born, and a new glory shall shine in
 the face of our people.

                                                        _Woodrow Wilson_

 From Flag Day Address, June 14, 1917


 In the War of 1812, when an attack was being made upon Fort McHenry,
 Mr. Key and his friend were on board an American vessel just in sight
 of the enemy's fleet and the flag of Fort McHenry. They remained on
 board all through the night, holding their breath at every shell that
 went careering over among their countrymen in the fort, and every
 moment expecting an explosion.

 Suddenly the firing ceased, and as they had no connection with the
 enemy's ships they could not find out whether the fort had been
 abandoned, or the siege given up. For the remainder of the night they
 paced to and fro upon the deck in terrible anxiety, longing for the
 return of the day, and looking every few moments at their watches to
 see how long they must wait for it.

 Light came at last, and they could see that our flag was still there.
 At length they were told that the attack had failed and that the
 British were re-embarking.

 The words of the "Star Spangled Banner" were written by Mr. Key, as he
 walked the deck in the darkness and suspense.

 In less than an hour after it went into the printer's hands it was all
 over town, was hailed with joy, and at once took its place among our
 national pieces.

 Ferdinand Durag, an actor, saw it, and catching up a volume of flute
 music, he whistled tune after tune; at length, he chanced upon one
 called "Anacreon in Heaven," and as note after note fell from his
 lips, he cried, "Boys, I've hit it!" Then, taking up the words, there
 rang out for the first time the "Song of the Star Spangled Banner."
 How the men shouted and clapped!

 The actor sang it in public. It was caught up in camps, sung around
 bivouac fires, and whistled in the streets. When peace was declared
 and the people scattered to their homes, it was sung around thousands
 of firesides.


    Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light,
      What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,
    Whose broad stripes and bright stars, through the perilous fight,
      O'er the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming?
    And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
    Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there.
    Oh, say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?

    On the shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
      Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
    What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
      As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
    Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
    In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream;
    'Tis the star-spangled banner; oh, long may it wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

    Oh, thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
      Between their loved homes and the war's desolation,
    Blest with victory and peace, may the Heav'n-rescued land
      Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation.
    Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
    And this be our motto: "In God is our trust!"
    And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
    O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.

                                                     _Francis Scott Key_

       *       *       *       *       *

A man came from Europe to this country, and went to Cuba in 1867. He
was arrested as a spy, court-martialed and condemned to be shot. He
sent for the American and English consuls, and proved to them that
he was not a spy. They went to one of the Spanish officers and said,
"This man you have condemned to be shot is an innocent man." The
Spanish officer said, "The man has been legally tried by our laws and
condemned, and the law must take its course and the man must die." The
next morning the man was led out; the grave was already dug for him,
the black cap was put on him, the soldiers were there ready to receive
the order "Fire," and in a few moments the man would be shot and put
in that grave. Then the American consul took the American flag and
wrapped it around the prisoner, and the English consul took the English
flag and wrapped it around him, and they said to those soldiers, "Fire
on those flags if you dare!" Not a man dared. Why? _There were two
great governments behind those flags._

Let us love our flag, because behind it is "the greatest of the best
and the best of the great of all governments."

       *       *       *       *       *

I have told the story of the making of an American. There remains to
tell how I found out that he was made and finished at last. It was when
I went back to see my mother once more and, wandering about the country
of my childhood's memories, had come to the city of Elsinore There I
fell ill of a fever and lay many weeks in the house of a friend upon
the shore of the beautiful Oeresund. One day when the fever had left
me they rolled my bed into a room overlooking the sea. The sunlight
danced upon the waves, and the distant mountains of Sweden were blue
against the horizon. Ships passed under full sail up and down the
great waterway of the nations. But the sunshine and the peaceful day
bore no message to me. I lay moodily picking at the coverlet, sick
and discouraged and sore--I hardly knew why myself. Until all at once
there sailed past, close in shore, a ship flying at the top the flag
of freedom, blown out on the breeze till every star in it shone bright
and clear. That moment I knew. Gone were illness, discouragement and
gloom! Forgotten weakness and suffering, the cautions of doctor and
nurse. I sat up in bed and shouted, laughed and cried by turns, waving
my handkerchief to the flag out there. They thought I had lost my head,
but I told them no, thank God! I had found it, and my heart, too, at
last. I knew then it was my flag; that my children's home was mine,
indeed; that I also had become an American in truth. And I thanked God,
and, like unto the man sick of the palsy, arose from my bed and went
home, healed.

                                                         _Jacob A. Riis_

From "The Making of an American"


    Hats off!
    Along the street there comes
    A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums,
    A flash of color beneath the sky:
    Hats off!
    The flag is passing by!

    Blue and crimson and white it shines,
    Over the steel-tipped, ordered lines.
    Hats off!
    The colors before us fly;
    But more than the flag is passing by.

    Sea-fights and land-fights, grim and great,
    Fought to make and to save the State:
    Weary marches and sinking ships;
    Cheers of victory on dying lips;

    Days of plenty and years of peace;
    March of a strong land's swift increase;
    Equal justice, right and law,
    Stately honor and reverend awe;

    Sign of a nation, great and strong
    To ward her people from foreign wrong;
    Pride and glory and honor--all
    Live in the colors to stand or fall.

    Hats off!
    Along the street there comes
    A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums;
    And loyal hearts are beating high:
    Hats off!
    The flag is passing by!

                                                 _Henry Holcomb Bennett_


In no case should the flag be permitted to touch the ground, nor should
it be marred by advertisements, nor desecrated on the stage.

For indoor decorations the flag should only be used as a drapery; it
should not be used to cover a bench or table, or where anything can be
placed upon the flag.

No words, figures, pictures or marks of any kind should be placed upon
the flag.

When our national flag and state or other flags fly together, or are
used in decoration, our national flag should be on the right.

Whenever possible the flag should always be allowed to fly in the
breeze from a staff or mast, but if it should be necessary to fasten
it to the side of a building or platform, it should hang with the blue
field at the upper left hand corner. If hung where it can be seen from
both sides, the blue field should be toward the east or north.

The correct salute to the flag as required by the regulations of the
United States army is:

Standing at attention, raise the right hand to the forehead over the
right eye, palm downward, fingers extended and close together, arm at
an angle of forty-five degrees. Move hand outward about a foot, with a
quick motion, then drop it to the side.

The oath of allegiance to the flag, adopted by the N. S. D. A. R., and
by our military schools, the Boy Scouts and other organizations, and
which should be taught in all our public schools is:

"I pledge allegiance to my flag, and to the Republic for which it
stands: one Nation indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."

When the colors are passing on parade or in review, the spectator
should, if a man or boy, stand at attention and uncover.

When the "Star Spangled Banner" is played, all present should rise and
stand at attention until the ending.

When the flag is displayed at half mast, for mourning, it is lowered to
that position from the top of the staff. It is afterward hoisted to the
top before it is finally lowered.

When the flag is flown at half staff as a sign of mourning it should be
hoisted to full staff at the conclusion of the funeral.

When used on a bier or casket at a funeral, the stars should be placed
at the head.

Our most important holidays (when the flag should be displayed at full
staff) are: Lincoln's Birthday, February 12; Washington's Birthday,
February 22; Arbor Day; Memorial Day, May 30; Flag Day, June 14;
Independence Day, July 4; Columbus Day, October 12; Thanksgiving Day,
and State Day.

The flag should not be hoisted before sunrise or allowed to remain up
after sunset.

At "retreat," sunset, civilian spectators should stand at "attention"
and the men should remove their hats during the playing of the "Star
Spangled Banner." Military spectators are required by regulation to
stand at "attention" and give the military salute.

When the national colors are passing on parade, or in review,
spectators should, if walking, halt, and if sitting, rise and stand at
attention, the men removing their hats.


See Bibliography at end of monograph.





  =Armstrong, W. C.= Patriotic poems of New Jersey. New Jersey Society
       Sons of the American Revolution

  =Bacon, Corinne=, _comp._ One thousand good books for children.

  [J] This bibliography contains references to books and parts of books
for the different holidays.

  =Bates, E. W. & Orr, W.= Pageants and pageantry. Ginn

  =Bemis, K. I., Holtz, M. S. & Smith, H. L.= Patriotic reader. Houghton

  =Broadhurst, Jean & Rhodes, Clara L.= Verse for patriots. Lippincott

  =Chambers, R.= Book of days. Lippincott

  =Chubb, Percival.= Festivals and plays. Harper

  =Craig, Mrs. A. A.= The dramatic festival. Putnam

  =Davis, H. C.= _ed._ Three minute declamations for college men. Hinds

  =Davis, H. C.= _ed._ Three minute readings for college girls. Hinds

  =Deems, E. M.= Holy-days and holidays. Funk

  =Dynes, S. A.= Socializing the child. Silver Burdette (Chapters VII
       and VIII for teachers' reading)

  =Horsford, I. M.= Stories of our holidays. Silver Burdette

  =Mackay, C. D.= How to produce children's plays. Holt

  =Mackay, C. D.= Patriotic plays and pageants. Holt

  =Mackay, C. D.= Plays of the pioneers. Harper

  =McSpadden, J. W.= Book of holidays. Crowell

  =Needham, M. M.= Folk festivals. Huebsch

  =Olcott, F. J.= _ed._ Good stories for great holidays. Moffat

  =One= hundred and one famous poems. Cable

  =Patten, H. P.= The year's festivals. Estes

  =Paulsson, Emilie.= Holidays songs and everyday songs and games.
       Milton Bradley Co.

  =Rice, S. S.= Holiday selections. Penn

  =Schauffler, R. H.= _ed._ Our American holiday series. Moffat
       Separate volumes on Arbor Day, Flag Day, Lincoln's Birthday,
       Memorial Day, Thanksgiving, Washington's Birthday

  =Stevenson, B. E.= Days and deeds. Baker & Taylor

  =Stevenson, B. E.= Home book of verse. Holt

  =Thorp, J. & Kimball, R.= Patriotic pageants of today. Holt

  =Watkins, D. E. & Williams, R. E.= The forum of democracy. Allyn


  =McNaught, M. S.= Training in courtesy. (U. S. Bureau of Education
       bulletin no. 59, 1917)


  =Brooks, E. S.= The true story of Christopher Columbus. Lothrop

  =Colombo, Fernando.= The discovery of America; from the Life of
       Columbus by his son. (Old South Leaflets, vol. 2, no. 29)

  =Fiske, John.= The discovery of America. 2 vols. Houghton

  =Irving, Washington.= Columbus; his life and voyages. (Heroes of the
       Nation Series)

  =Mackie, C. P.= With the Admiral of the ocean sea; a narrative of the
       first voyage to the western world, drawn mainly from the diary
       of Columbus. McClurg

  =Moores, C. W.= Life of Christopher Columbus for boys and girls.

  =Seelye, Mrs. E. E.= The story of Columbus. Appleton

  =Trenton State Normal School--Junior Class.= Columbus Day; a dramatic
       festival. (Manuscript at Trenton State Normal School Library)

  =Winsor, Justin.= Christopher Columbus, and how he received and
       imparted the spirit of discovery. Houghton


  =Kellogg, A. M.= How to celebrate Thanksgiving and Christmas. Penn

  =Schauffler, R. H.= _ed._ Thanksgiving. Moffat

  =Schell, S.= Thanksgiving celebrations. Werner.

  =Sindelar, J. C.= Thanksgiving entertainments. Flanagan.

  =Trenton State Normal School.= Thanksgiving Day. Crowell Publishing
       Co. (Woman's Home Companion)


  =Andrews, Mary R. S.= The perfect tribute. Scribner

  =Arnold, I. N.= Life of Abraham Lincoln. McClurg

  =Baldwin, James.= Four great Americans, Washington, Franklin,
       Webster, Lincoln. American Book Co.

  =Brooks, E. S.= The true story of Abraham Lincoln. Lothrop

  =Brooks, Noah.= Abraham Lincoln, and the downfall of American
       slavery. Putnam

  =Coffin, C. C.= Abraham Lincoln. Harper

  =Gordy, W. F.= Abraham Lincoln. Scribner

  =Hill, F. T.= Lincoln, the lawyer. Houghton

  =MacKaye, Percy.= Lincoln centenary ode. Macmillan

  =Moores, C. W.= Life of Abraham Lincoln for boys and girls. Houghton

  =Morgan, James.= Abraham Lincoln, the boy and the man. Macmillan

  =Morse, J. T.= Abraham Lincoln. 2 vols. Houghton

  =Nicolay, J. G.= Boy's life of Abraham Lincoln. Century

  =Nicolay, J. G.= Short life of Abraham Lincoln. Century

  =Nicolay, J. G. & Hay, John.= Abraham Lincoln. 10 vols. Century

  =Nicolay, J. G. & Hay, John.= Complete works of Abraham Lincoln. 2
       vols. Century

  =Putnam, M. L.= Children's life of Abraham Lincoln. McClurg

  =Robinson, L. E.= Abraham Lincoln as a man of letters. Reilly

  =Rothschild, Alonzo.= Lincoln, master of men. Lane

  =Schauffler, R. H.= _ed._ Lincoln's Birthday. Moffat

  =Schurz, Carl.= Abraham Lincoln. Houghton

  =Selby, Paul.= Anecdotal Lincoln. Thompson

  =Tarbell, I. M.= Life of Abraham Lincoln. 2 vols. Doubleday

  =Whipple, Wayne.= The story-life of Lincoln. Winston


  =Brooks, E. S.= The true story of George Washington. Lothrop

  =Carrington, H. B.= Washington, the soldier. Scribner

  =Ford, P. L.= The true George Washington. Lippincott

  =Ford, W. C.= George Washington. Small

  =Hapgood, Norman.= George Washington. Macmillan

  =Haworth, P. L.= George Washington: farmer. Bobbs-Merrill

  =Headley, J. T.= Washington and his generals. Scribner

  =Hill, F. T.= On the trail of Washington. Appleton

  =Irving, Washington.= Life of George Washington. 8 vols. Putnam

  =Irving, Washington.= Washington and his country. ("Life" abridged
       for schools) Ginn

  =Kellogg, A. M.= How to celebrate Washington's Birthday. Penn

  =Lodge, H. C.= George Washington. 2 vols. Houghton

  =MacKaye, Percy.= Washington, the man who made us. Knopf

  =Schauffler, R. H.= _ed._ Washington's birthday. Moffat

  =Scudder, H. E.= George Washington. Houghton

  =Seawell, M. E.= Virginia cavalier. Harper

  =Seelye, Mrs. E. E.= Story of Washington. Appleton

  =Sindelar, J. C.= Washington day entertainments. Flanagan.

  =Trent, W. P.= Southern statesmen of the old régime. Crowell

  =van Dyke, Henry.= Americanism of Washington. Harper

  =Whipple, Wayne.= Story-life of Washington. 2 vols. Winston


  =Revell, E. I.= Arbor Day exercises for the schoolroom. Educational
       Publishing Co.

  =Schauffler, R. H.= _ed._ Arbor Day. Moffat

  =Skinner, C. R.= Arbor Day manual. Bardeen


  =Andrews, M. P.= The American's creed and its meaning. Doubleday

  =Hale, E. E.= The man without a country

  =Revell, E. I.= Memorial Day exercises for the schoolroom.
       Educational Publishing Co.

  =Schauffler, R. H.= _ed._ Memorial Day. Moffat

  =United States Committee on Public Information.= Battle line of


  =Canby, George & Balderston, Lloyd.= Evolution of the American flag.
       Ferris & Leach

  =Harrison, P. D.= The stars and stripes and other American flags.
       Little, Brown & Co.

  =Holden, E. S.= Our country's flag and the flags of foreign
       countries. Appleton

  =Ide, E. K.= History and significance of the American flag.
       (Published by the author)

  =National Geographic Magazine.= Flag number, October 1917

  =Preble, G. H.= History of the flag of the United States of America,
       and other national flags. Williams

  =Schauffler, R. H.= _ed._ Flag Day. Moffat

  =Schell, Stanley.= Flag Day program. Werner

  =Stewart, C. W.= The stars and stripes. Boylston Publishing Co.

  =Tappan, E. M.= Little book of the flag. Houghton

  =U. S. Navy Department.= Flags of the maritime nations


  Adams, John, 107
  Address to America, Walt Whitman, 54
  After the great companions, Frank Crane, 134
  America, William Cullen Bryant, 55
  America's answer, R. W. Lillard, 138
  Arbor Day, 109-24

  Babcock, Maltbie D., 23
  Bailey, 22
  Baker, George C., 125
  Battle hymn of the republic, Julia Ward Howe, 132
  Beecher, Henry Ward, 88, 142
  Bennett, Henry Holcomb, 156
  Bibliography, Katharine B. Rogers, 159-64
  Bixby letter, Abraham Lincoln, 82
  Blue and the Gray, The, Francis Miles Finch, 130
  Boy Columbus, The, 44
  Boy that hungered for knowledge, The, 86
  Bridges, Madeline S., 22
  Bryant, William Cullen, 55
  Bryce, James, 107
  Butterworth, Hezekiah, 49

  Campbell, Mary R., 40
  Cat and his servant, The, Alice Lewis, 31
  Chastelleux, Marquis, 108
  Chew, Hannah H., 141-58
  Choate, Rufus, 107
  Civility, selections from rules of, 99
  Collins, William, 126
  Columbus, Christopher, A dreamer they called him, 42
    Columbus and the egg, 45
    Columbus dared to cross the sea, 41
    Columbus sailed over waters blue, 36
    Columbus was a sailor bold, 39
    Crowning Columbus, 37
    Discovery Day, 41
    I'll wave my flag for Discovery Day, 38
    My beautiful flag, 38
    My little ship, 38
    We are jolly little sailors, 36
    What we can do, 37
  Columbus, Joaquin Miller, 52
  Columbus Day, Fitchburg (Massachusetts) Normal School, 45;
    J. Cayce Morrison, 33-57
  Columbus game, 38
  Columbus play, Mary R. Campbell, 40
  Cotton, history of, Bessie O'Hagen, 28
  Courtesy is to do and say, 22
  Crane, Frank, 134

  Davis, K. C., 121
  Depew, Chauncey Mitchell, 50
  Discovery Day, 41
  Discovery of America, Washington Irving, 49
  Dresser, Florence L., 150

  Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 54, 60

  Fabricant, Josephine M., 135
  Farber, Florence L., 24
  Finch, Francis Miles, 130
  Fitchburg (Massachusetts) Normal School, 45
  Flag, American, brief history of, Edward S. Holden, 145
  Flag, story about, 155
  Flag Day, Hannah H. Chew, 141-58
  Flag etiquette, rules for, 157
  Flag goes by, Henry Holcomb Bennett, 156
  Flag of Spain, 42
  Folsom, Joseph Fulford, 84
  Forests, value of, U. S. Bureau of Education, 123
  Foster, Henry W., 89
  Froude, James Anthony, 23

  Gaskill, Alfred, 112
  Gettysburg Speech, Abraham Lincoln, 79
  Gordon, Charles C., 139
  Gordon, John B., 133
  Green, J. R., 90, 96
  Gregg, David, 134
  Guitteau, William Backus, 56

  Hale, Edward Everett, 50
  Hamilton grove, planting of, Charles A. Philhower, 119
  Harte, Bret, 129
  Haver, Jennie, 13
  Hay, John, 134
  Hazard, Caroline, 56
  Holden, Edward S., 145
  Houghton, George W. W., 53
  Howe, Julia Ward, 132
  Howlister, Mary, 153

  I have a son, Emory Pottle, 136
  If you have faith, 23
  Immortal morn, Hezekiah Butterworth, 49
  In Flanders Fields, John McCrae, 138
  Irving, Washington, 49, 53

  Jusserand, J. J., 94

  Kendall, C. N., 7, 9, 111, 112
  Key, Francis Scott, 155
  Kilmer, Joyce, 110
  Kindness is catching, 23
  Kipling, Rudyard, 131

  Lane, Franklin K., 139, 147
  Lee, Henry, 107
  Lewis, Alice, 31
  Lillard, R. W., 138
  Lincoln, Abraham, 79, 82, 96
  Lincoln, Acrostic, 84
  Lincoln and Judge B. ... swap horses, 87
  Lincoln's autobiography, 81
  Lincoln's Birthday, Charles A. Philhower, 69-88
  Lincoln's honesty, 86
  Lincoln's humor, 87
  Lincoln's kindness of heart, 86
  Lincoln's speeches, sayings from, 82
  Logan, John A., 134
  London Newspaper, 108
  Lossing, Benson J., 52
  Lowell, James Russell, 34

  McCrae, John, 138
  McSpadden, J. Walker, 97
  Makers of the flag, Franklin K. Lane, 147
  Memorial Day, George C. Baker, 125-39
  Miller, Joaquin, 52
  Montanye, Carleton S., 150
  Morning exercises, Florence L. Farber, 24;
    Jennie Haver, 13
  Morrison, J. Cayce, 33

  Name of Old Glory, James Whitcomb Riley, 148
  Nesbit, Wilbur D., 153

  O Captain, my Captain, Walt Whitman, 83
  O'Hagen, Bessie, 28
  Old Flag, Hubbard Parker, 151
  On a portrait of Columbus, George Edward Woodberry, 54
  Opening exercises, 11-32;
  ---- Louis H. Burch, 13
  Our country's flag, Florence L. Dresser, 150
  Our flag, Mary Howlister, 153
  Our national ideals, William Backus Gitteau, 56

  Parker, Hubbard, 151
  Philhower, Charles A., 69, 119
  Pottle, Emory, 136

  Recessional, Rudyard Kipling, 131
  Reveille, The, Bret Harte, 129
  Riis, Jacob A., 156
  Riley, James Whitcomb, 148
  Rogers, Katharine B., 159

  Sailor, story of, 96
  Sears, Clara Endicott, 152
  Second inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln, 79
  Service flag, The, Josephine M. Fabricant, 135
  Service flag, The, U. S. Bulletin, 135
  Shaffer, Roy L., 59-67
  Shakespeare, William, 12
  Sleep of the brave, The, William Collins, 126
  Smith, Laura Rountree, 38, 39
  Somebody did a golden deed, 22
  Star spangled banner, Francis Scott Key, 155
  "Star spangled banner," story of, 154
  Stars and Stripes, Henry Ward Beecher, 142
  Stelzle, Charles, 57
  Stevenson, Robert Louis, 23
  Stewart, Judd, 87
  Suggestions to teachers, K. C. Davis, 121

  Thanksgiving Day, Roy L. Shaffer, 59-67
  Thayer, Louis E., 22
  There's so much bad, 23
  Thing to do is hope, The, 23
  Thompson, James, 23
  Thwing, E. P., 133
  Trees, Joyce Kilmer, 110
  Trees and forests, Alfred Gaskill, 112
  Truth is honest, 22

  U. S. Bureau of Education, 123
  Unfinished work, Joseph Fulford Folsom, 84
  Unfurling of the flag, The, Clara Endicott Sears, 152

  van Dyke, Henry, 95, 108

  Washington, Abraham Lincoln, 96
  Washington, George, life of, J. Walker McSpadden, 97
    How did George Washington look, 95
    Lend a hand, 95
    Washington as he looked, 94
  Washington's Birthday, Henry W. Foster, 89-108
  Washington's Farewell address, 102
  Washington's Farewell to the army, 102
  Washington's sayings, 101
  We thank Thee, Ralph Waldo Emerson, 60
  We'll keep Old Glory flying, Carleton S. Montanye, 150
  Western land, The, Caroline Hazard, 56
  Whitman, Walt, 54, 83
  Wilson, James Grant, 52
  Wilson, Woodrow, 139, 154
  Wise old owl, A, 23
  Woodberry, George Edward, 54
  Woodbury, Ida Vose, 70
  Wordsworth, William, 23

  Your flag and my flag, Wilbur D. Nesbit, 153

       *       *       *       *       *

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Special Days and their Observance - September 1919" ***

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