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Title: A Handbook of Pictorial History
Author: Donald, Henry W.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  --------------------------------------------------------
  Transcriber’s note:

  All Plates and their captions have been moved to the end
  of the chapters to which they belong.
  --------------------------------------------------------

[Illustration]



  A HANDBOOK

  OF

  PICTORIAL HISTORY.

[Illustration]

  SOME OTHER
  HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY
  PUBLICATIONS.

  +HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.+
  In Four Sets. By H. W. Donald.
  Price, each set, +1/6+

  +HISTORY TEACHING
  BY BIOGRAPHIES.+
  In Two Volumes. By Alice Eve, B.A.
  Price, each, net, +3+/-; post free, +3/4½+

  +“BRITANNIC”
  HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY.+
  In Two Parts. Price, each, net, +5+d.

  Details of the above will be found
  on pages at back of this book.

  A

  Handbook

  of

  PICTORIAL
  HISTORY

  Containing 680 Illustrations from Original &
  Contemporary Sources treating upon Architecture,
  Arms and Armour, Antiquities, Costumes,
  Customs, Shipping, Heraldry, The Church, etc.
  with Notes and Descriptive Articles on These
  Subjects for the use of Students & Teachers.

  Written and Illustrated
  _by_
  HENRY W. DONALD

  _Compiler of the Britannic Historical Geography &
  the Suggestions Historical Drawing Cards etc._

  [Illustration]

  LONDON:
  Charles and Son, Ltd.
  10, PATERNOSTER SQUARE, E.C.4.
  AND GLASGOW.

  Made and printed in Great Britain.



PREFACE.


It has been felt that in the study of English History, to the
ordinary student and teacher, there are great difficulties in the
way of consulting the numerous standard and other excellent works,
on the subjects dealt with in this volume. Many have not sufficient
leisure, and many are unable to make use of the facilities for study
and research offered by our great national and provincial libraries
and museums. And, to most, the prohibitive cost of a representative
collection of these standard works is an effectual bar to the
acquisition of a personal collection.

An acquaintance with these subjects is necessary to an intelligent
appreciation of the life history and development of our nation, and
of the conditions of life of our ancestors, and this work has been
undertaken for students and teachers with regard to these matters, with
the hope that, by its means, the path of study will be illuminated, and
the interest shown in the study of history correspondingly increased.

Too often, in the past, has history been taught as a series of dry
lessons on facts and dates, and although in late years there has been
a great improvement in this respect, to many the living facts around
us, as bearing on our history, in our churches, our historic buildings,
our museums, and our national collections, are still disregarded. What
eloquent tongues they have, and yet, on what deaf ears do their voices
fall!

Mr. Fairholt, in his well-known work on “Costume in England,” says:
“A knowledge of costume is, in some degree, inseparable from a right
knowledge of history. We can scarcely read its events without, in some
measure, picturing in the mind’s eye the appearance of the actors.”

What is true of costume, which includes, of course, civil, military,
and ecclesiastical costume, is equally true of architecture and other
matters associated with the daily lives of our forefathers.

How they lived and died, how they worked, how they dressed, how and
where they worshipped God, and the influences brought to bear upon them
by the Church, must be realized as factors in the development of the
nation.

It is hoped that this work may prove useful to the student, to the
pupils in our schools and colleges, and to teachers who have not been
able to make a special study of these things.

Several plans of arranging the subject-matter have suggested
themselves, and the writer has thought--though it is open, of course,
to criticism--that the work would be most usefully and most easily
consulted by arranging it under the heads of our historic periods.
It will be readily understood that this is merely an arbitrary
arrangement, and that there must be overlapping at times. The aim
has been to make each section as complete as possible in the given
space, and yet to avoid tedious details. To experts the food may seem
very light, but it is to the average student and teacher, to whom the
subjects are new, that the work must appeal.

Every effort has been made to secure accuracy and truthfulness, both in
the matter and in the six hundred and eighty drawings which illustrate
it.

Very many works have been consulted, and, as _all the illustrations
are from authentic and contemporary sources_, it is hoped that the
usefulness of the work will be very considerable.

The writer wishes to express his great obligation to the following
writers and books, whom he has laid under contribution:--

  Greenwell’s _British Barrows_,
  Dawkin’s _Early Man in Britain_,
  Evans’s _Ancient Stone Implements of Great Britain_,
  Strutt’s _Horda_,
  Grose’s _Military Antiquities_,
  Wallis Budge’s _Roman Antiquities at Chesters_,
  Jewitt’s _Ceramic Art of Great Britain_,
  Fairholt’s _Costume in England_,
  Mrs. Ashdown’s _British Costume during Nineteen Centuries_,
  Planche’s _Cyclopædia of Costume and History of British Costume_,
  Cutt’s _Scenes and Characters of the Middle Ages_,
  Barnard’s _Companion to English History, Middle Ages_,
  Traill’s _Social England_,
  Green’s _Short History_ (Illustrated Edition),
  Parker’s various works on _Gothic Architecture_,
  Rickman’s _Gothic Architecture_,
  Boutell’s _Monumental Brasses of England_,
  Suffling’s _English Church Brasses_,
  Macklin’s _Brasses of England_,
  Ashdown’s _British and Foreign Arms and Armour_,
  Hewitt’s _Ancient Armour and Weapons in Europe_,
  Boutell’s _Arms and Armour_,
  Fox-Davies’s _Complete Guide to Heraldry_,
  Boutell’s _English Heraldry_,
  Bloom’s _English Seals_,
  Abbot Gasquet’s _English Monastic Life_,
  Commander Robinson’s _British Fleet_,
  Oman’s _History of the Art of War_,
  Fowkes’s _Bayeux Tapestry_,
  Gardiner’s _History of England_,
  The _Journals of the British Archæological Association_, and of
    various County Associations.

The writer, too, wishes to thank the Library Committee of the City
of London Corporation for permission to make drawings of objects in
the Guildhall Museum, and Mrs. Ashdown for permission to make use of
illustrations in her “British Costume.”

  HENRY W. DONALD.



CONTENTS.

                                                           PAGE

  THE STONE AGE. (Plate 1)                                    7

  THE BRONZE AGE. (Plate 2)                                   9

  PREHISTORIC POTTERY AND FUNERAL CUSTOMS. (Plate 3)         11

  THE ROMAN WALL. (Plate 4)                                  13

  ROMAN POTTERY, ETC. (Plate 5)                              17

  ROMAN ANTIQUITIES FOUND IN LONDON. (Plate 6)               19

  ROMAN ARCHITECTURE IN BRITAIN. (Plate 7)                   21

  ROMAN ARMS, ETC. (Plate 8)                                 23

  SAXON WEAPONS. (Plate 9)                                   25

  SAXON COSTUME, A.D. 460-A.D. 1066. (Plates 10-11)          27

  ANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE. (Plate 12)                       31

  SAXON CUSTOMS. (Plate 13)                                  33

  SAXON FARMING. (Plate 14)                                  35

  SAXON ANTIQUITIES. (Plate 15)                              37

  DANISH VESSELS, ETC. (Plate 16)                            39

  NORMAN COSTUMES. (Plate 17)                                41

  NORMAN ARMS AND ARMOUR. (Plate 18)                         43

  THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY. (Plate 19)                            46

  EARLY NORMAN ARCHITECTURE. (Plate 20)                      51

  LATER NORMAN ARCHITECTURE. (Plate 21)                      53

  NORMAN CASTLES. (Plate 22)                                 55

  NORMAN SEALS AND COINS. (Plate 23)                         59

  THE JOUST AND THE TOURNAMENT. (Plate 24)                   61

  ENGLISH ARCHERS. (Plate 25)                                63

  EARLY CANNON. (Plate 26)                                   67

  A FIFTEENTH CENTURY SHIP. (Plate 27)                       71

  BRASSES. (Plate 28)                                        73

  HERALDRY. (Plate 29)                                       78

  THE TUDOR NAVY. (Plate 30)                                 83

  PLANTAGENET COSTUME. (Plates 31-32)                        86

  MAIL ARMOUR. (Plate 33)                                    93

  EARLY ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. (Plates 34-35)                 98

  MIXED MAIL AND PLATE ARMOUR. (Plate 36)                   103


  LANCASTRIAN AND YORKIST PERIODS.

    Male Costumes. (Plate 37)                               107

    Female Costumes. (Plate 38)                             113

    Plate Armour. (Plate 39)                                115

    Decorated Architecture. (Plates 40-41)                  119


  TUDOR PERIOD.

    Male Costumes. (Plate 42)                               126

    Female Costumes. (Plate 43)                             131

    Plate Armour. (Plate 44)                                136

    Perpendicular Architecture. (Plates 45-46)              141


  STUART PERIOD (TO WILLIAM III.).

    Male Costumes. (Plate 47)                               144

    Female Costumes. (Plates 48-49)                         151

    Arms and Armour.--To end of Charles II. (Plate 50)       155


  ANNE, GEORGE I. AND GEORGE II.

    Male Costumes. (Plate 51)                               159

    Female Costumes. (Plate 52)                             163


  GEORGE III.

    Male Costumes. (Plate 53)                               165

    Female Costumes. (Plate 54)                             168


  THE MONASTIC ORDERS. (Plate 55)                           173

  GENERAL PLAN OF A MONASTERY. (Plate 56)                   174

  THE FRIARS AND CANONS. (Plate 57)                         177

  MILITARY MONASTIC ORDERS. (Plate 58)                      181

  ECCLESIASTICAL COSTUMES AND VESTMENTS. (Plate 59)         185

  PILGRIMS. (Plate 60)                                      189



THE STONE AGE.

_The Flint Weapons of Prehistoric Man in Britain._


When Britain was joined to the continent of Europe (at the time
when the mammoth lived), it was inhabited by the _Palæolithic_ or
_Ancient Stone men_. They were ignorant of the use of metals, and used
implements of bone and of rudely chipped stone and flint, which they
did not know how to fasten to handles. These implements and weapons, of
a different type from those of later periods, are found in the river
beds of drifts, and these early people are spoken of as the “Drift men.”

Cave-dwelling Palæolithic men succeeded these. Their weapons were still
very rude, but they made handles and fixed them to the flints, so
forming arrows, lances or javelins, and axes.

These were followed by a race called _Neolithic_ men, or men of the
_New Stone Age_. Their stone implements were better shaped, more highly
finished, were often ground smooth, and even polished. They also made
a rude kind of pottery. These men were, doubtless, of the race called
_Iberians_.

[Illustration: PLATE 1.

  (Fig. 1): Flint hand-hammer or axe found in Gray’s Inn Lane.
  This was the earliest form, roughly chipped into shape, with
  unsharpened edges. (Figs. 2 and 3): A dagger in the British
  Museum (front and side views). The dagger is one of the
  commonest weapons of the Stone Age, being simple in form and
  easy of construction. (Fig. 4): A javelin head; a simple,
  elongated splinter of flint, shaped to a small stem, which
  was inserted in the end of a shaft and fastened by means of
  ligaments. (Figs. 5 and 6): A stone celt (pronounced selt)
  or axe of the simplest form. This is ground, probably by the
  use of sand and water into a regular and sharp edge. (Fig.
  7): A flint flake, probably used as a scraper. (Fig. 8): A
  stemmed arrow-head. (Fig. 9): A barbed arrow-head (a later
  development). (Fig. 10): A lozenge-shaped arrow-head. (Fig.
  11): A polished stone axe, fixed in a stag’s horn socket.
  (Fig. 12): A perforated hammer found at Scarborough. (Figs.
  13 and 14): A perforated axe (two views) found in Yorkshire.
  (Both Figs. 12 and 13 show a very high degree of skill in the
  shaping of the form, in the drilling, and in general finish.)
  (Fig. 15): A polished celt fixed in its original handle, found
  in Cumberland. (Fig. 16): A flint chisel-shaped tool. (Fig.
  17): A flint borer, used for making holes in wood, bone, or
  stone, found in the Yorkshire Wolds.]



THE BRONZE AGE.


The Iberians were succeeded by the Celts, who conquered, and probably
intermarried with, the former.

They had a knowledge of the use of metals, and employed copper first
for the manufacture of their weapons and tools. Then they learned that,
by mixing tin with copper, a harder metal was obtained, which we call
bronze, and this period is, consequently, called the _Bronze Age_. The
early bronze weapons were of the same form as the flint weapons, for
probably the latter were used as “patterns” for forming the mould.
Later, in the case of the celt, flanges were formed at the side, and,
finally, a socketed celt was made, showing a considerable skill in its
manufacture. “The knowledge of bronze must have affected the warfare of
the time in the same way as the introduction of gunpowder affected the
warfare of the Middle Ages.” It has been estimated that the Bronze Age
commenced in Britain about 1500 B.C.

[Illustration: PLATE 2.

  (Fig. 1): A bronze spear head--Later Celtic--in the British
  Museum. It is probable that the flint spear-head continued in
  use into the Bronze Age, and that the spear-head with a socket
  was not invented until socketed celts were made. (Fig. 2): An
  ornamental bronze celt or axe found in Suffolk. The simpler
  form of the celt has been improved upon by the addition of
  flanges. (Figs. 3 and 4) show how they were probably fixed in
  handles. (Fig. 5): A bronze knife dagger found in the Isle of
  Wight (British Museum). (Fig. 6): A bronze arrow-head. (Fig.
  7): A bronze socketed celt. (Fig. 8): The same, with the
  probable method of fastening to a handle. (Fig. 9): A bronze
  cauldron found in Ireland. (Fig. 10): A late Celtic Helmet,
  ornamented and showing generally in its structure a very
  advanced skill in manufacture; found in the Thames; now in
  the British Museum. (Fig. 11): A bronze dagger in the British
  Museum. (Fig. 12): A bronze spear-head (elongated form), found
  at Stanwick in Yorkshire; now in the British Museum. Both the
  spear heads in Figs. 1 and 12 tend towards a leaf form. (Fig.
  13): A bronze sword, narrow and leaf-shaped, in the Guildhall
  Museum, London; showing rivet holes. The sword of the Bronze
  Age is remarkable for the beauty of its form. The average
  length of the blade was about two feet, the handle being made
  of horn or wood, split and rivetted on either, side. The sword
  was probably encased in a scabbard of leather, wood or bronze.]



PREHISTORIC POTTERY AND FUNERAL CUSTOMS.


Neolithic men (of the Later Stone Age) buried their dead in the caves
which they had used for dwellings, or in stone chambers, probably
representing the huts in which they lived. Each of these was used as
a vault, common to the family or tribe, for they are found containing
skeletons of all ages. The dead were buried in the tomb as they died,
in a contracted or crouching position, laid upon their sides, probably
due to their sleeping in that position, and not at full length on a
bed. Implements of various kinds, arrow heads, celts and pottery, were
frequently placed in the tombs, and were probably intended for the use
of the dead. The tombs were then covered with stones and earth, forming
mounds (also known as barrows and tumuli), which were usually long and
oval in plan.

Domestic animals were slaughtered, and a feast was made after the
interment in honour of the dead.

In the Bronze Age, there was a striking change in the custom of
burial, probably the sign of the introduction of a new faith. The
dead were burned on a funeral pile, and with them were burned their
belongings--the various articles and implements of daily use--and the
burnt remains were gathered up with the calcined bones and ashes and
placed in an urn. Sometimes this urn was placed upright, and at other
times it was inverted over the ashes.

As in former times, a mound was carefully raised, covering the urn and
its contents, and the memory of the dead was preserved by periodic
feasts, after each of which earth or stone was added to the top of the
mound, each feast being represented by a layer of the broken and burnt
bones of the animals consumed. These barrows of the Bronze Age were
generally circular in plan.

Cremation did not, however, altogether abolish the older practice
of burying. It is evident that both customs were carried on
simultaneously. Hundreds of these mounds have been carefully opened at
various times and the contents investigated, and, in almost every case,
earthen-ware vessels of various forms and sizes have been found. It is
entirely to these grave mounds that we are indebted for the examples of
prehistoric pottery that are preserved in our museums.

There are four classes of pottery of these early times:--

    1. Sepulchral or Cinerary Urns, which have been made for,
    and have contained or been inverted over, calcined human
    bones.

    2. Drinking Cups, which are supposed to have contained some
    liquid to be placed in the grave.

    3. Food vessels (so called), which are supposed to have
    contained an offering of food, and which are more usually
    found with unburnt bodies than along with interments by
    cremation.

    4. Immolation Urns (or Incense Cups), very small vessels
    found only with burnt bones, and usually containing bones
    and ashes also, placed in the mouths of, or close by, the
    larger cinerary urns. It has been suggested that these were
    simply small urns, intended to receive the ashes of the
    infant, perhaps sacrificed at the death of its mother. They
    are also known as incense cups, and are supposed by some to
    have been used to carry the sacred fire with which to light
    the funeral pile, or as censers in the funeral ceremonies.

These vessels differ much in size and ornamentation, and in the quality
of the clay from which they are formed.

In the examination of barrows, the spot where the funeral pyre has been
made can often be detected by the burnt soil there. It is considered
probable that, while the body was burning, the clay urn was placed on
the funeral fire and then baked.

“Drinking Cups” are usually burnt much harder than the other vessels.

Most of the vessels are decorated in a rude fashion with lines or
figures, probably drawn by a pointed instrument or comb whilst the clay
was soft.

They were made by hand, and are often very uneven and crudely formed.

[Illustration: PLATE 3.

  (Fig. 1): Food vessel of the prevailing type, ornamented with
  dots and lines, forming saw-like patterns around it. (From
  Greenwell’s _British Barrows_.) (Fig. 2): Immolation urn or
  incense cup, covered with a pattern. (British Museum.) (Fig.
  3): Food vessel of a rather uncommon type, of good form and
  elaborately ornamented. (From Greenwell’s _British Barrows_.)
  (Fig. 4): A large drinking cup, the outer surface being
  almost covered with ornament, formed by the point of a sharp
  instrument (found in a barrow at East Kennet). (Fig. 5):
  Drinking cup, found in a barrow near Goodmanham, ornamented
  with patterns formed with lines. (From Greenwell’s _British
  Barrows_.)]



THE ROMAN WALL.


Much difference of opinion has been expressed between archæologists
as to who built the Roman Wall, it being severally attributed to both
Hadrian and Severus. A recent writer of authority says: “No one really
knows who built the Roman Wall, and the evidence now available is, in
the present writer’s opinion, wholly insufficient to enable us to
decide the difficult problem.... A commonsense and probable view is
that Hadrian caused the vallum (earthen rampart), which may have been
there before his time, to be supplemented by walls and forts, built of
stone, in such extremely exposed and commanding positions as we find
at or near Borcovicus (Homesteads), and that, about 86 years after the
Emperor left Britain, Severus ordered these to be repaired, and the
whole of the Roman fortifications to be built of stone, and the wall to
be carried across from sea to sea.” It stretches from Wallsend, near
Newcastle, to Carlisle. A section of its general structure is shown in
Pl. 7, Fig. 11. It was very strong, and consisted of a ditch on the
north side, about 15 ft. deep, and then a broad stone wall about 18 ft.
high and 8 ft. thick. South of the ditch was a broad road, and next to
that a rampart or earthen wall. In some parts, however, there were two
roads made, parallel to one another.

At fairly regular intervals along the wall were fortified military
“stations,” variously computed at from 18 to 23 in number.

Between them, at intervals of about a mile, were rectangular towers,
called “mile castles,” and smaller towers or “turrets” were placed
about four to the mile between these.

The _Stations_ were small, rectangular towns, the inhabitants of
which lived probably under martial law. They varied in extent from
one to six acres, were always strongly fortified with walls six to
nine feet thick, surrounded by a ditch. Each Station had, at least,
four gateways, one on each side, and its area was crossed by two main
streets, which bisected each other at right angles.

The larger Stations were provided with a _Forum_, serving as a
marketplace and a place for public assembly; a _Pretorium_, or
residence for the Commandant; baths, barracks, and numerous smaller
dwellings for the minor officials and others.

The _Mile Castles_ were rectangular in form, and measured about sixty
feet by fifty feet. The Wall formed the northern wall of the Castle,
and each had two gates, north and south.

The _Turrets_ were also rectangular, but much smaller than the Mile
Castles, measuring about twelve feet by ten feet, and had walls nearly
three feet thick. They served the purpose of look-out towers.

The Wall required a garrison of from 10,000 to 12,000 soldiers to man
it, and these were of many nationalities, being drawn from different
parts of the Roman Empire. Borcovicus, one of the Stations, was
garrisoned for about 200 years by a cohort of 1,000 Tungrian (German)
Infantry. Other cohorts consisted of Astures (Spaniards), Batavians
(Dutch), Gauls, Dalmatians, Moors, and Thracians.

It must be remembered that the soldiers themselves built the Wall and
the various structures on it, and kept the masonry in repair, as the
numerous inscribed wall tablets testify (Figs. 1 and 2).

After the Romans left Britain, the Wall was used for many centuries
as a convenient quarry, with ready-prepared stones, by neighbouring
landowners and farmers, and many farmhouses, walls and outhouses in the
vicinity of the Wall are built entirely of stones from it.

During excavations on the sites of the Stations, many Roman
remains--altars, ornaments, coins, utensils, etc.--have been found,
particularly through the public-spirited work carried on by Mr.
Clayton, of Chesters.

[Illustration: PLATE 4.

  (Fig. 1): A wall tablet, sculptured in relief, with the
  figure of a boar, the badge of the 20th Legion. The tablet is
  20 in. in length, and was found at Vindolana (Chesterholm).
  (Fig. 2): Another tablet, inscribed with a record of the
  building of a portion of the Wall, 24 paces long, by the
  Thruponian Centuria; from the Wall at Procolitia. (Fig. 3):
  An altar, dedicated to the god Mihr, or Mithras, by Litorius
  Pacatianus, a consular beneficiary, on behalf of himself and
  his family; found in the temple of Mithras, at Borcovicus.
  (Mihr was a form of the Sun-god, who was worshipped in Persia
  in very early times, and about 100 B.C. the worship of this
  deity was adopted by the Romans.) (Fig. 4): Small plan of
  Procolitia (Carranburgh), probably the seventh Station on the
  Wall, from east to west. The northern rampart is formed by
  the Roman Wall. Procolitia was about 143 yards long and 118
  yards wide, measuring about 3½ acres, and was garrisoned by
  the 1st Batavian Cohort (Dutch). (Fig. 5): Plan of Cilurnum
  (Chesters), the sixth Station on the Wall from the east. It
  was 186 yards by 137 yards, and measured about 5½ acres.
  The Roman Wall does not, in this instance, coincide with
  the northern wall of the Station. The walls, surrounded by
  a ditch, are about five feet thick, and the corners are
  rounded off. It was garrisoned by the 2nd Ala of the Asturians
  (Spanish), a famous cavalry regiment. The Stations had usually
  four gates, but Cilurnum has six.]



ROMAN POTTERY, Etc.

(_In the Guildhall Museum, London._)


“After the Roman occupation of Britain, glass and pottery were made
here in large quantities, so that the importation of glass, which was
carried on at first, ceased to be necessary.”

_Samian ware_, which was a red glazed ware, was used ordinarily
throughout the western half of the Roman Empire. It was manufactured
first in Etruria, but afterwards its manufacture was imitated in Gaul.
Very little of the genuine Samian ware from Etruria found its way into
Britain, but the Gaulish Samian ware was imported in large quantities,
and was used throughout the province.

The finer specimens are decorated with design in low relief, of a
pictorial character, and the ware was of very good quality, for, 1,500
years after its manufacture, it preserves its colours and its lustre
perfectly.

_Castor ware_, a native product, was made at Castor (Durobrivae),
near the River Nen, and includes small vases of rusty copper or slate
colour, with white ornament in low relief. “Castor ware is not Roman in
character, but rather a local survival of late Celtic art.”

[Illustration: PLATE 5.

  (Fig. 1): A Roman tablet of wood. This was covered with a thin
  coating of wax, upon which the writing was done with a stylus
  of metal or bone. When the inscription was no longer needed, a
  hot iron was held over the surface, and a new surface formed
  on the wax. (Fig. 2): A Roman stylus of iron. (Fig. 3): A
  Roman amphora. (Fig. 4): An ornamented vase of Cologne ware.
  (Fig. 5): A bowl of Cologne ware. (Fig. 6): An ewer or water
  bottle, with indented mouth. (Fig. 7): A deep bowl of Roman
  pottery. (Fig. 8): A cinerary urn of grey ware for containing
  the ashes of the dead. (Fig. 9): A decorated urn of Cologne
  ware. (Fig. 10): A vase of Castor ware, red, with black glazed
  neck ornaments, decorated with pinkish-white slip. (Fig. 11):
  A Roman glass hemispherical bowl. (Fig. 12): A drinking cup of
  thick Samian ware, 3¾ in. high.]



ROMAN ANTIQUITIES FOUND IN LONDON.

(_Guildhall Museum._)


The Roman influence in Britain was directed to the civilizing of
the inhabitants. It gave the people better conditions of life; it
guaranteed protection against the tyrannies of petty chieftains; and
it gave to them the resources of Roman civilisation. The Roman remains
that are to be found in our museums, unearthed after centuries of
oblivion, show how definite was the influence of the Romans in the
comforts and necessities of daily life.


“Keys and steelyards, roofing tiles and hairpins, glass bottles and
spoons, statues and bells, represent wants and comforts strange to
the ‘savage and shivering Britons,’ dressed in skins, whom earlier
writers knew.” The manufacture of glass, chiefly beads, was carried on
at Glastonbury in Roman times, but most of the glass found is Roman
in character. The large green jars which were used for containing the
ashes of the dead were generally made here, but the best specimens came
probably from Gaul, where the manufacture of glass was carried on to a
considerable extent.

[Illustration: PLATE 6.

  (Fig. 1): A square bottle of green glass, found in a grave
  with cinerary urns. (Fig. 2): An unguentarium, or bottle for
  unguents, perfumes and other toilet requisites, of Roman
  glass. (Fig. 3): A Roman lamp of earthen-ware. The wick was
  inserted in the spout, and the central hole was for the
  purpose of feeding the lamp. (Fig. 4): Another Roman lamp,
  viewed from above. (Fig. 5): A Roman pole-axe, with expanded
  blade, oval shaft-hole, and pointed projection behind, 9 in.
  long. (Figs. 6 and 7): Two forms of Roman keys of bronze.
  (Fig. 8): A Roman shoe or buskin, with ten large holes stamped
  out on each side. (Fig. 9): An axe with crescent-shaped blade
  and tang for handle. (Fig. 10): A Roman spoon of copper (5 in.
  long). (Fig. 11): A Roman steelyard of bronze, with hooks and
  rings. (Fig. 12): A sacrificial knife (7¼ in. long). (Fig.
  13): A Roman iron knife with ornamented bone handle.]



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE IN BRITAIN.


Roman architecture in Britain, judging from the remains of buildings,
was generally of an inferior description, for Britain was a remote and
half-civilised province, and little attention appears to have been paid
to make the buildings very ornate.

There are two principal varieties of masonry employed in their
construction.

The first, which is very characteristic, consists of layers of
irregularly shaped stones and flat tiles embedded in mortar, generally
arranged in alternate layers of tiles and stones in mortar, forming a
kind of concrete (Pl. 7, Fig. 3). The Mint wall at Lincoln, the Jewry
wall at Leicester, and the walls at Richborough and Colchester are
built in this manner.

The other variety consists of walls formed of regular courses, with
wide joints of outer facings of square stones or ashlars, the interior
spaces being filled with a rubble embedded in mortar. The blocks, which
were of hewn sandstone, were about 8 in. by 10 in. on the face, and as
much as 22 in. long in the bed. The whole rests on a course of larger
foundation stones (Pl. 7, Figs. 1 and 2).

Roman mortar may generally be distinguished by the fact that it was
mixed with powdered brick, and it is extremely hard. It is often easier
to break the tile or stone than the mortar, and this hardness arises
largely from the fact that the Romans always burnt the lime on the
spot, and used it hot and fresh, for on the freshness of the lime the
strength of the mortar largely depends. The walls of Burgh Castle,
Suffolk, and Richborough, Kent, are among the most perfect Roman walls
in England.

There are vestiges of Roman towns and villas throughout the country,
but they consist of foundations only. The upper story of these Roman
houses was usually of wood, and all the innumerable Roman towns
and villas of which foundations have been discovered bear marks
of destruction by violence, fire having been usually the agent of
destruction.

[Illustration: PLATE 7.

  (Fig. 1): Section of Roman masonry, showing the outer facing
  of regularly shaped stones and the interior of rubble and
  mortar. (Fig. 2): View of outside of wall. (Fig. 3): Roman
  arch at Colchester Castle, Hampshire, showing alternate layers
  of tiles or flat bricks and stones. (Figs. 4, 5 and 6):
  Fragments of Roman ornamental mouldings built in at Hexham.
  Roman building material is often used again in other buildings
  near the site of the Roman Station, as at Colchester Castle
  (Essex), St. Martin’s Church, Canterbury, and St. Alban’s
  Abbey (Herts.). (Fig. 7): Basement of Station on the Roman
  Wall. (Fig. 8): Arch of Roman gate at Lincoln. It was the
  north gate of the Roman city of Lindum, and still forms the
  principal entrance into the city from the north. There was
  a smaller arch on either side, but only the one on the east
  remains. It appears to have been without ornament of any
  kind. (Fig. 9): A stone capital, probably from the portico
  of a temple, found at Cilurnum (Chesters). It is elaborately
  sculptured with acanthus, is 17 inches in height, with a
  diameter, at its widest part, of 18 inches. (Fig. 10): A
  portion of the Roman Wall passing over a hill. The Roman Wall
  consistently passed in a straight direction over the country,
  and only swerved from a straight line to take, in the route,
  the boldest elevations. (Fig. 11): Section of the Wall in
  Northumberland. (_a_) Ditch of the Wall; (_b_) the stone wall;
  (_c_) the military way; (_d_) the ditch of the vallum; (_e_)
  the vallum (of earth).]



ROMAN ARMS, Etc.

[Illustration: PLATE 8.

  (Fig. 1): A Roman galley (from Pompeii). (Fig. 2): A Roman
  Eagle. This was mounted on a pole and carried before the
  Legion. The soldiers rallied round it and fought for its
  honour. It corresponded with the regimental flags of our
  time. (Fig. 3): A Roman sword. This was remarkable for the
  shortness of its blade. It was suspended from a shoulder
  belt passing over the left shoulder, so that the sword
  hung on the _right_ side, a custom which was possible on
  account of the shortness of the blade. The length was about
  twenty-two inches. The blade was straight, of uniform width,
  double-edged, and cut at the end in an obtuse angle to form
  the point. (Fig. 4): A short sword or sword dagger. (Fig. 5):
  Scabbard of the same. (Fig. 6): A Roman Centurion, with an
  oval shield, such as was generally carried by horse soldiers.
  The body was protected by a metal cuirass formed of back and
  breast plates, strapped together at the sides, and fastened by
  broad belts passing over the shoulders. At the lower part of
  the cuirass were two bands of leather, one showing underneath
  the other, the edges of both being tagged or scalloped.
  Below this double border there was a kind of leather skirt,
  reaching nearly to the knee. A military cloak or mantle was
  picturesquely draped over the shoulder. Metal greaves covered
  the shins, and sandals, which were often highly ornamented,
  covered the feet. (Fig. 7): A Roman laminated cuirass worn
  by the heavily armed troops. It consisted of lames or plates
  of steel encircling the body, with curved lames passing over
  the shoulders, and several lames hanging vertically over the
  lower part of the trunk. They were sewn or rivetted to a
  tightly-fitting leather garment. (Figs. 8, 9 and 10): Roman
  helmets, all fitted with neck pieces to guard the neck--Figs.
  8 and 9 with cheek pieces, hinged and fastening beneath the
  chin. (Fig. 11): Another form of shield, differing entirely
  from that in Fig. 6. “It is elongated and convex oblong,
  somewhat resembling a hollow watercourse tile.” It was carried
  by the legionaries, and was about 2 ft. 6 in. long. It was
  strengthened, at the top and bottom only, or all round, with
  additional bands of metal. With this form of shield, the
  well-known testudo or tortoise formation was made. (Fig. 12):
  A Roman sandal of leather.]



SAXON WEAPONS.


The Saxon arms were the spear, the axe, the sword, the dagger, the
long-bow, and the arrow.

The defensive armour consisted of helmet, shield, and byrnie.

The _Spear_ was the chief weapon of the Saxons. It was of two forms:
(1) 9 or 10 ft. long, for use against cavalry or as a cavalry weapon,
and (2) about 6 ft. long, for use as a javelin or throwing spear. When
the latter was used, it was generally carried in pairs.

The spear, or, rather, the spear-head is always found in Saxon graves,
as it was buried with its owner. The shaft was generally of ash.

The _Axe_ was a very characteristic weapon of the Saxon and kindred
races, but it is very seldom found in graves. There were several forms,
particularly a long, tapering blade (Fig. 6) and a broader blade (Fig.
7).

Sometimes the axe-head was mounted on a short handle, and at other
times on a long shaft, to form a pole-axe, as shown in the Bayeux
tapestry.

The _Sword_ was essentially the cavalry weapon, and was the weapon of
the upper classes, no person below the rank of Thane carrying it.

The earliest swords which have been found have no quillon or cross
guard. The sword was usually about 3 ft. long, the blade being 30 in.
long and about 2 in. wide near the hilt. It was double-edged, and
tapered slightly towards the point. It usually had a wooden scabbard,
and was often ornamented with gold and precious stones on the hilt.

The _dagger_ or knife was a very general weapon, and has been found
in many graves. It varies considerably in size. The soldier probably
carved his food with the same weapon with which he stabbed his enemy.

The _long-bow_ was not in general use among the Saxons. Our knowledge
of it, and of arrows also, is mainly from MSS. It is a disputed point
whether the English used the bow at Hastings, for only one archer is
depicted on the English side.

For defensive purposes, the soldier wore a _helmet_ of metal, or of
leather strengthened with metal bands and rims, and he carried a
_shield_. The latter was of wood, and was circular or oval in form. The
centre was formed of metal, and was called a _boss_ or _umbo_. As the
shield was buried with a warrior, many umbos have been found in the
graves, the wooden portion of the shield having decayed.

In early Saxon times, a protective garment called a _byrnie_ was worn
by the leaders. It may have been mailed or quilted and padded. In later
times, when the nation was in a more prosperous condition, the use of
this garment probably became much more general. At the time of the
Norman conquest, there was very little difference in arms and equipment
between the Normans and Saxons, on account of the intercourse between
the two Courts.

[Illustration: PLATE 9.

  (Fig. 1): A Saxon spear-head, 10½ in. long, with a socket
  for the shaft, found in Southwark. (Guildhall Museum, London.)
  (Fig. 2, 3 and 4): Saxon spear-heads, from MSS. The lateral
  projections from the shaft were probably guards, to prevent
  the shaft being severed by a sword cut. (Fig. 5): A spear-head
  of different form. (Fig. 6): A Saxon taper axe-head, 3½
  in. wide and 6½ in. deep, found in the Thames. (Guildhall
  Museum, London.) (Fig. 7): Another and broader form of
  axe-head. (Fig. 8): A Saxon sword from an 8th century MS.
  (Figs. 9 and 10): Sword handles, found in Cambridgeshire.
  (Fig. 11): Umbo of Saxon shield. (Fig. 12): Saxon dagger or
  knife, with ornamental wooden handle. (Figs. 13, 14 and 15):
  Saxon arrow-heads. (Figs. 16 and 17): Saxon helmets. (Fig.
  18): Saxon bow, from a MS.]



SAXON COSTUME, A.D. 460-A.D. 1066.


The main sources from which we obtain our knowledge of Saxon Costume
are the illuminated MSS. remaining to us. The earliest MS. we have was
written A.D. 720, about 200 years after the Saxon Conquest. Of this
long period we have no reliable record.

We know, however, that on their first appearance in Britain, they were
not so advanced in civilisation as the inhabitants, who had gained a
considerable advantage, in this respect, from the Roman occupation.
The only reliable source from which information can be gained of this
period is in the tumuli or graves. In these have been found weapons and
many personal ornaments of a rich character.


_Saxon Male Costume._

A kind of shirt, reaching to the knee, worn next to the skin, was the
universal, and, in the case of the humblest, the only garment, and it
was always made of linen. Over this was worn a _tunica_, which was
generally short, but, in the case of persons of high rank, it was worn
longer. It fitted closely around the neck, and was cut open in front,
being also often open at the sides from the hips to the hem. Sleeves
were worn to this garment, and for many years were worn rucked upon
the fore-arm in a very peculiar manner, probably so that the sleeves
could be drawn down over the hands in cold weather. The hem was often
decorated with embroidered work.

A short cloak, or mantle, was generally worn over the tunica, fastened
by a fibula or brooch upon the right shoulder or in the centre of the
chest. In the case of a person of high degree, a larger cloak was also
wrapped around the figure.

The head was generally uncovered, except in time of war. The hair was
worn long, reaching down to the shoulders, parted carefully in the
centre, and tucked behind the ears. When the head was covered, a cap of
the Phrygian shape (Fig. 8) was worn. Persons of distinction, like the
members of the Witan, wore a sugar-loaf shaped cap.

The beard was worn either round or long and flowing. In the latter
case, it was divided in the centre like a fork, and was called the
“bifid” beard.

The breeches were tight to the leg, and sometimes wide at the bottom,
reaching to the middle of the thigh.

Stockings were worn, either long enough to join the breeches or short,
reaching nearly to the knee. The rustic frequently wore no stockings.

Civilians often bound strips of coloured cloth, and soldiers
strips of leather, around their stockings, forming what is called
_cross-gartering_.

Their shoes were generally low, and had an opening up the instep.


_Female Costume._

The female costume was also very simple, and consisted of a long,
tight-sleeved garment, the _gunna_ or gown, reaching to the feet, with
a tunic over this, reaching to the knees. The tunica was girdled at the
waist, and had wide sleeves extending to the elbow.

A wide mantle, a characteristic feature of the costume of both men and
women, covered the upper part of the body, and a head-rail or hood
consisting of a piece of material adjusted over the head, was always
worn.

When making a journey, a large travelling cloak was also worn.

No illustration shows the complete arrangement of the hair, but, as the
women of Continental nations at this period wore it in long plaits, we
may conclude that the same fashion was followed here; but the hair was
always covered. A kirtle was also probably worn, corresponding in form
to the garment now known as a “princess petticoat.”


_Military Costume._

There was but little difference between the civil and military costume
of the men. In MSS., soldiers are often represented with no other
weapon than a shield or spear, or an axe or a bow with arrows, and
attired in ordinary costume. Occasionally, one is represented wearing
a kind of cuirass formed of scales, made of overlapping slices of horn
sewn upon coarse linen.

During the reigns of Edward the Confessor and Harold II., owing to
the constant intercourse between the English and the Norman Courts,
the English adopted many of the customs and much of the costume of
the Normans, so that, among the upper and military classes, at any
rate, when William of Normandy invaded England, the members of the two
opposing armies were armed and attired in a very similar manner.

[Illustration: PLATE 10.

  (Fig. 1): A Saxon rustic, wearing only a solitary garment,
  with a pointed cap which has a comb, and shoes. (Cott. MS.,
  Claudius B. iv.) (Fig. 2): A Saxon lady, attired in (1) the
  gunna, (2) the tunica, (3) the mantle, (4) the head-rail.
  (Harl. MS., 2,908.) (Fig. 3): A Saxon, dressed in (1) the
  tunica, (2) the mantle, (3) breeches, with cross-gartered
  stockings, and shoes, and (4) a banded Phrygian cap. (After
  Mrs. Ashdown.) (Fig. 4): Saxon, showing the bifid beard and
  the arrangement of the hair. (Cott. MS., Claudius B. iv.)
  (Fig. 5): An English Freeman, wearing a tunica, with short
  stockings and shoes, and armed with sword, spear, helmet,
  and shield. (From a MS.) (Fig. 6): A Saxon soldier, wearing
  a tunica covered with a mantle, stockings, and shoes, with
  spurs. (Note the manner in which the mantle is fastened on
  the right shoulder.) He is armed with a spear, and has his
  head covered with a conical helmet. As is pointed out above,
  the military costume did not differ from the civil costume,
  except as regards the helmet and the arms. (Figs. 7 to 12):
  Saxon head-dresses. (Fig. 7): A form of the square helmet.
  (Fig. 8): A Phrygian-shaped cap of leather, bound with metal;
  the bifid beard is also shown again. (Fig. 9): Another form of
  the square helmet, with a kind of crest or comb. (Fig. 10):
  A pointed helmet of simple form. (Fig. 11): A pointed hat
  serrated along the back like a cock’s comb. (Fig. 12): The
  commonest form of helmet, a conical cap with a rim, probably
  of metal. (The other form of beard is shown in this figure.)
  (Figs. 13, 14 and 15): Saxon shoes, from MSS. (Figs. 16 and
  17): Saxon crowns, from MSS.]

[Illustration: PLATE 11.

  (Fig. 1): A Saxon monarch represented as seated on a throne,
  wearing a square crown, and holding a sceptre in his right
  hand. He is attired in a richly embroidered tunica and a
  mantle of ample proportions, gathered up with a brooch on
  the left shoulder. His stockings are cross-gartered and
  ornamented at the knees and in the lozenges formed by the
  gartering. (Cott. MS., Tiberius Cvi.) (Fig. 2): A fiddler,
  wearing the tunica, long stockings and shoes. (MS., Tib. Cvi.)
  (Fig. 3): A gleeman or juggler, attired similarly to the
  fiddler. (From the same MS.) (Fig. 4): A husbandman, engaged
  in digging. (From MS., after Strutt.) (Fig. 5): A blacksmith,
  working at the anvil. (From MS., after Strutt.) (Fig. 6):
  A Saxon king, with a bifid beard, on the seat of judgment,
  crowned and attired in a tunica, covered with a short mantle,
  which is fastened in the centre of the chest by a brooch of
  rectangular form. (Fig. 7): A Saxon noble, with long hair and
  a bifid beard, holding a sword of characteristic Saxon form.
  He is wearing an ornamented tunica reaching to the ankles,
  and over it a voluminous mantle. His head is covered with a
  conical helmet. The rucking of the sleeve on the fore-arm is
  plainly shown. (Figs. 6 and 7 from a MS., after Strutt.) (Fig.
  8): A Saxon horn-blower, attired similarly to the fiddler
  and gleeman (Figs. 2 and 3), from the same MS. (Fig. 9): A
  carpenter at work with an axe. (From a MS., after Strutt.)
  (Note.--In Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9, all the heads are bare.)
  (Figs. 10 to 14): Saxon personal ornaments, buckle, rings,
  etc., found in tumuli.]



ANGLO-SAXON ARCHITECTURE.


Buildings erected from about 500 A.D. to 1050 A.D. are called
Anglo-Saxon, or simply Saxon, in their style.

The Romans built in stone and brick, but the English, when they
conquered Britain, razed the Roman buildings to the ground, and built
their own structures of wood.

It is interesting to note that the Saxon word for “build” was
“getimbrian,” to construct of wood.

From the middle of the 5th century, for nearly 700 years, until
the time when the Norman Castle arose, well-nigh every building of
architectural merit was in some way or other connected with the Church.

The English were essentially workers in wood, and profoundly ignorant
of masonry. The churches that sprang up all over England after the
conversion of the country to Christianity were, no doubt, of wood, and
even in the 9th and 10th centuries we hear of “the worm-eaten walls of
cathedrals.”

They were decorated internally with paintings in various bright
colours, and the ornamentation was of metal work, bronze or the
precious metals.

Before the end of the 7th century, stone churches were built at York,
Ripon and Hexham, the latter being largely built of materials from the
Roman Wall, which passes within a short distance of the place, and
Roman inscribed slabs have been used in forming the roof of the crypt.

Bede tells us that Benedict crossed the sea to Gaul, and carried back
with him masons to build churches of stone, “after the manner of the
Romans that he loved,” at Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, about 680 A.D. Each
of these churches contains portions which are, without doubt, from
their rude construction, parts of the original fabrics of Benedict.
Anglo-Saxon stone churches were small, rectangular or cruciform in
shape, and without aisles.

A lofty tower, without buttresses, stands at the west end, or at the
intersection of the nave and transepts. The walls were usually of
rubble or small stones, of very irregular shape, covered with “rough
cast” or plaster. The kind of masonry termed “herring-bone” is often
used, and Roman bricks, taken from the ruins of earlier buildings, seem
to have been freely used.

It is probable that the sides of the towers terminated in acutely
pointed gables, from which the roof is carried up, as at Sompting
Church, in Sussex.

The towers were without staircases, the different storeys being reached
by means of ladders.

The old church at Bradford, in Wiltshire, is one of the most perfect
specimens of the Anglo-Saxon class. It is probably the small, original
church of the Abbey, built by Adhelm, in the 8th century (A.D. 705).

It is constructed of Bath stone, and it is considered, on account of
the fineness of the building, that there may have been a certain amount
of later restoration.

In the 9th century, many churches were destroyed by the Danes, and
Canute rebuilt many churches which his father and his followers had
destroyed. But, for a period before the year 1000 A.D., the building
of churches stopped on account of the expected millenium. After that
date, when the hopes and fears of the people had proved groundless, the
building of churches commenced again with renewed vigour.

[Illustration: PLATE 12.

  (Fig. 1): The Anglo-Saxon tower of Earl’s Barton Church,
  Northants. At the angles, there are “quoins,” or
  corner-stones, formed of long stones set upright, alternately
  with others laid horizontally, and technically known as
  “long and short work.” The surface of the walls is also
  divided up by “pilaster strips,” which are an imitation in
  stone of wooden construction, and are evidently intended
  to bind together the rude masonry of the walls. It is “the
  design of a carpenter executed by a mason.” The parapet is
  comparatively recent in construction. (Fig. 2): Tower arch of
  Anglo-Saxon character at Barnack, Northants. Barnack was one
  of the places where the old church was burnt by the Danes, in
  their raid through that part of the country, and rebuilt by
  order of Canute after the settlement of the Danes. The impost
  mouldings (_b_) appear to have been suggested by a pile of
  boards overlapping. (Fig. 3): An enlargement of the belfry
  window (_a_, Fig. 1). Double windows are usually round-headed
  or triangular-headed. The lights or single windows are not
  separated by a stone moulding, but by a kind of shaft or
  “baluster,” set in the middle of the wall, and supporting the
  impost. (Fig. 4): Belfry window in the tower of Deerhurst
  Church (1050 A.D.). The windows are triangular-headed, the
  head being formed of two straight stones placed obliquely,
  and meeting at a point. (Fig. 5): A window at Caversfield,
  Bucks, with small opening and very wide “splay.” This window
  is splayed, or widened out, both outside and inside, the
  window itself being set in the middle of the wall, so that the
  wicker-work or oiled parchment, that did duty as a glass, was
  protected from the weather. (Fig. 6): Section of Anglo-Saxon
  wall, which consisted of two rows of fairly regular stones,
  the intervening space being filled with irregularly shaped
  stones, embedded in mortar, the latter comprising nearly half
  the substance of the wall. The layer of stones in the interior
  of the building was generally plastered over. (Fig. 7): An
  Anglo-Saxon triangular-headed doorway. (Figs. 8, 9 and 10):
  Different forms of Anglo-Saxon balusters.]



SAXON CUSTOMS.


At meal-times the company sat down in the hall, the master, mistress,
and honoured guests taking their places at a “high” table placed on a
dais at the upper end of the apartment. Dinner was generally served
either at noon or at about 3 o’clock in the afternoon.

The walls were decorated with coloured and embroidered curtains, for
English ladies and their maidens were famed for their skill with the
needle in embroidery and decorative needlework. The tables consisted of
boards laid upon trestles, which could be easily removed when, the meal
being over, the ladies retired to the bower and the men settled down to
drinking.

Sometimes the tables were bare, at other times covered with a
table-cloth. Some MSS. show a circular table arranged for the meal.
On the table appear the round cakes which served the Saxons as bread,
also dishes containing meat, fish, and other food. A few spoons and
razor-shaped knives, and drinking vessels of varying sizes and shapes,
were also placed upon the table.

While the meal was in progress, wandering minstrels played on their
instruments and sang; jugglers and conjurers delighted their patrons
with feats of balancing and sleight-of-hand; while others danced and
postured, or exhibited the feats of dancing bears and other animals
that they led about.

[Illustration: PLATE 13.

  (Fig. 1): A dinner party standing at a long table. (After
  Strutt.) MS., Claud. B. v. (Fig. 2): A dinner party seated
  around a circular table with embroidered curtains behind them,
  and serving men waiting upon them. (After Strutt.) Cott. MS.
  Tiberius Cvi. (Fig. 3): A Saxon bed. (After Strutt.) MS.,
  Claud. B. iv. An apartment called the bower or bur was used
  chiefly by the women and children for sleeping and dwelling
  in. Sometimes there were recesses in the wall, covered by
  curtains, and in these the beds were placed. The bed furniture
  consisted of bolster, pillows, coverlets, and sheets, and, as
  far as can be gathered from the MSS., the sheets were wrapped
  about the naked body. (Fig. 4): A dancing girl with musicians.
  (After Strutt.) Cott. MS., Cleopatra C. viii. In MSS., women
  are represented almost invariably with the head covered by a
  hood or head-veil even when they have retired to rest (Fig.
  3), and we may assume that it was considered disgraceful for
  a woman to appear in public with the head bare. When women
  are represented with the head uncovered they are people
  whose calling was considered more or less of a questionable
  character, as dancers, strolling players, etc. (Fig. 5):
  A labourer threshing corn with a flail. (From a MS. after
  Strutt.)]



SAXON FARMING.


Both these figures are taken from an Old English calendar of the
eleventh century (after Strutt). Cott. MS., Julius A. vi.

This calendar is arranged as in a modern almanack, with a page to each
month and a line to each day. At the foot of each page there is a
drawing, typical of the work carried on during that month.

[Illustration: Plate 14.

  (Fig. 1): _January_. This month was called by the English,
  when heathen, “Wolf-monath,” because the wolves were most
  troublesome at this period of the year. When the English
  became Christians it was called “Aefter-Yule,” i.e.,
  After-Christmas. Here there is a ploughing scene. Four oxen
  yoked together in couples are drawing a plough of a very
  solid-looking type. (In those days horses were not employed
  in farm work.) A farm-hand, bare-headed, bare-footed, and
  wearing only a single garment, is goading the oxen with a
  sharp-pointed ox-goad, similar to a long spear in appearance.
  A man in superior attire is guiding the plough, while another
  is scattering seed as the plough passes. A good representation
  of the plough of that period is shown here. (Fig. 2):
  _August_. This month was called by the English “Arn-moneth”
  or “Barn-moneth,” i.e., “harvest-month.” This drawing gives
  a representation of a farm wagon of good construction, and
  of the costumes of the workers, who appear to be of at least
  two grades--some bare-footed, wearing a single garment,
  while others have better-cut garments, and wear shoes and
  stockings in addition. At the head of a party is a man with
  a spear in his right hand, blowing a horn, who may be either
  superintending the work or may be the “advance guard” of a
  hunting party entering the field. The implements, sickles, and
  forks appear to be very similar to those in use at the present
  time.]



SAXON ANTIQUITIES.

[Illustration: Plate 15.

  (Fig. 1): A long Saxon drinking glass, ornamented with raised
  and decorated ribbons of glass. The bottom is rounded, so that
  when filled with liquid it had to be emptied at one draught.
  (British Museum.) (Fig. 2): Another form of Saxon drinking
  vessel. (British Museum.) (Fig. 3): Old English bronze vessel
  found in a barrow at Taplow, in Bucks, in 1883, now in the
  British Museum. (Fig. 4): A silver spoon (Anglo-Saxon) found
  at Sevington, in Wiltshire, in 1834. (British Museum.)
  (Fig. 5): Great Seal of Edward the Confessor. The King is
  represented crowned and seated upon the throne, bearing the
  sceptre in his right hand and the orb in his left. Edward here
  calls himself “By the Grace of God, King of the English,”
  using the Greek and not the Latin term. (Figs. 6 and 7): A
  silver penny of Alfred the Great, minted at London--(6) the
  obverse bearing Alfred’s portrait and name; (7) the reverse
  with the word “Londini” (as a monogram). (Figs. 8 and 9): A
  silver penny of Edgar the Peaceful--(8) the obverse; (9) the
  reverse. (Figs. 10, 11, and 12): Three views of King Alfred’s
  jewel. This was found near the site of Athelney Abbey,
  Somersetshire, in 1693. Fig. 10, the obverse, is faced with
  an oval plate of crystal, having under it a miniature of a
  man, in enamelled mosaic (probably St. Neot, Alfred’s special
  protector), holding in each hand a fleur-de-lys. Fig. 11, the
  reverse, is a detached plate of gold bearing a fleur-de-lys
  ornament. Fig. 12, the edge, on which is inscribed “AELFRED
  MEC HEHT GEWYRCAN” (Alfred bid me be wrought). The stalk
  end bears a grotesque figure, apparently the head of a sea
  monster. It may have been the head of a stylus or pen, or have
  served as a standard in battle. (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.)
  (Fig. 13): An ornamented fibula or brooch at Goldsborough,
  Yorkshire. (British Museum.) (Fig. 14): An Anglo-Saxon
  comb--St. Cuthbert’s comb, at Durham Cathedral.]



DANISH VESSELS, Etc.


[Illustration: Plate 16.

  (Fig. 1): A Norseman’s boat found in a peat bog at Nydam,
  in South Jutland, in 1863. It is clincher-built of oak, is
  large, open and pointed at both ends, and is designed only for
  rowing, as there is no trace of a mast and no arrangement for
  stepping one. It is 78 ft. between the high points at the stem
  and the stern, and 10 ft. 9 in. broad amidships. It was rowed
  with fourteen pairs of oars, which are like those still used
  in the North, and are 11 ft. 2 in. long. The rudder is narrow,
  and was fastened to one side of the boat near the stern end.
  During the latter part of the heathen times, boats were drawn
  up on land for the winter or when they were not wanted for
  some time. This boat has holes at the ends for the ropes by
  which it was hauled up on land. (Montelius’ “Civilization
  of Sweden.”) (Fig. 2): A Danish vessel reconstructed from
  a representation of a Danish ship from the MS. of Caedmon
  Bodl. Junius ii., c. A.D. 1000. It is steered, like the one
  in Fig. 1, by a rudder fastened near the stern of the ship
  on the side still called the starboard or steer-board. (Fig.
  3): Noah’s Ark. Another drawing from the same MS. The Ark is
  represented in the form of a Danish ship, showing the dragon’s
  head at the bows and the stern. It is interesting, also, as it
  illustrates the fact that when the old illuminators wanted to
  represent any circumstance--Biblical or classical--pictorially,
  they made use of the material they saw around them, copying
  the buildings, the ships, the persons, and the costumes of
  their own time, so that MSS. form very reliable contemporary
  evidence of these things. (Fig. 4): A Danish sword found
  in the River Withalm, very similar in general design and
  construction to the Saxon sword illustrated on Plate 9. (Fig.
  5): A Jutish or Danish shield, made of wood with a bronze rim
  and a boss or umbo of bronze in the centre, of the period
  before A.D. 450, found in Jutland.]



NORMAN CUSTOMS.


The ordinary costumes of people in early Norman times differed little
from that of the Saxons.

At first the Norman warriors were clean-shaven, but after settling in
England the courtiers gave way to a love of finery. They wore long,
embroidered garments with long white sleeves, and they allowed their
hair and beards to grow long so that they incurred the reproach of the
clergy, who called them “filthy goats.”

The Norman ladies also changed from the simplicity of their costume to
a great extravagance of shape and material. The gowns were very ample,
and were sometimes worn with a kind of train.

The general garments of the men were the tunic, the super-tunic, and
the mantle.

The upper classes wore a garment next to the skin, under the tunic,
called the _just-au-corps_; but amongst the lower classes the tunic
was worn next to the skin. The _Tunic_ was made of linen or cloth, had
short sleeves, and reached at first to the knees, but later to the
ground. Over this was worn a _super-tunic_ corresponding to the Saxon
tunica, with tight sleeves, reaching to the wrist, and subject to the
same modification as the tunic.

The _mantle_ was similar to the Saxon mantle, but was fuller. In later
Norman times it was made of the finest cloth, and was lined with rich
furs. There were several forms of cap, as illustrated in the plate. The
lower limbs were covered with a kind of trousers called _chausses_. The
shoes in early Norman times were quite plain, but later they were very
elaborate, coloured, and had pointed toes.

The costume of Norman ladies consisted of a robe, a mantle, and a
couvre-chef.

The _robe_ was worn with long sleeves, and in later times with long
pendulous strips at the wrists, often of such a length that they had to
be tied into knots to keep them from trailing on the ground. The skirt
of the robe was long, full, and hung in folds on the ground.

The _mantle_ was worn over the robe, and the head was covered, as in
Saxon times, with a head-veil, which was now called the _couvre-chef_.

The hair was worn plaited into two long tails. From illustrations in
MSS. it is seen that the costumes of the lower classes during Norman
times were similar to those worn during the three preceding centuries.

[Illustration: PLATE 17.

  (Fig. 1): The figure of Queen Matilda, wife of Henry I. The
  sculptured effigies of these two sovereigns are the earliest
  of those of English sovereigns in existence, and are at
  Rochester Cathedral. They are mutilated, but still show
  clearly the details of royal costume. In the figure of Matilda
  the hair is plaited into two tails. She wears a long robe
  girded at the waist and having long sleeves. Over this she
  wears a long mantle. (Fig. 2): Costume of a young man of the
  middle classes. (Representing David with a sling in Cott.
  MS., Nero C4.) He wears a long tunic reaching to the ankles,
  having a collar, long cuffs extending nearly to the elbow,
  and an embroidered border along the bottom. He also wears
  tight-fitting chausses, and the lower parts of his legs are
  covered either with high boots or with leg bandages. (Fig.
  3): Costume of an older man. (From the same MS., representing
  Noah with an axe about to build the Ark.) He wears a Phrygian
  hat with a band around it, a long, full tunic with hanging
  sleeves, and a green mantle bordered with gold thrown over
  it. He appears to be wearing stockings reaching to the knees,
  and his shoes are ornamented with diagonal lines crossing
  each other. He has long hair and a moustache and beard. This
  is considered to be a good example of the ordinary costume
  of the time. (Figs. 4 and 5): Examples of a covering for
  the lower part of the leg. (From the same MS.) (Fig. 4): A
  swathing for the leg worn by shepherds, similar in appearance
  to the hay bands of the modern carter. (Fig 5): Shows a leg of
  the breeches ornamented with diagonal stripes ending at the
  ankle, where there is a band or garter. No shoes are worn, as
  frequently appears to have been the case when persons were on
  a journey. (Fig. 6): A sock or half-boot ornamented around
  the top. (Fig. 7): A Norman shoe with stocking. (Fig. 8): A
  shoe of later Norman times, decorated with bands and coloured.
  (Fig. 9): Pointed military shoe from a seal. (Figs. 10, 11,
  12, 13): The four commonest forms of head-dress in use. (Fig.
  13): Shows that called the cowl. (Fig. 14): Figure of a Norman
  lady showing the robe with long sleeves, the mantle, and the
  couvre-chef.]



NORMAN ARMS AND ARMOUR.


The military costumes of the early Normans and the Saxons were very
similar on account of the intercourse between the Courts of England and
Normandy at the time immediately preceding the Conquest, and much of
our knowledge of Norman military costume is obtained from the Bayeux
Tapestry. The arms in use among the Normans were the sword (which only
soldiers of superior rank were allowed to carry), the axe, the lance or
spear, the mace, and the bow and arrows. The _sword_ was, as might be
expected, of the same type as the Danish or Norse sword--straight, long,
and double-edged, with a slight taper to the acute point. The scabbard
was worn on the left side, and was suspended by a cord or strap around
the waist. The _axe_ was of various forms, as may be seen from the
plate. The _lance_ or spear was generally similar to that used by the
Saxons, but had a pennon with several points. Sometimes several lances
were carried, and were probably thrown as javelins.

The _mace_ is depicted several times in the Bayeux Tapestry.

The _bow_ and _arrows_ played an important part in the Battle of
Hastings, and were of the form used by the Saxons.

The defensive armour consisted of the helmet, the hauberk, and the
shield.

The _helmet_ was generally conical in shape, with a nasal or nose-piece
of iron to guard the forehead and nose against a horizontal stroke.
The nasal was fixed or movable. Sometimes there was a peak behind the
helmet to protect the neck. The nasal was generally discarded about
1140.

The _hauberk_, or military tunic, was a garment in one piece, fitting
almost tightly to the person and reaching to the knees, with sleeves
reaching to the elbow. Occasionally it appears to have ended in
close-fitting trousers at the knee. The hauberk was of quilted and
padded material or of leather, covered with metal rings or plates
or studs of metal and leather, and formed a very effective body
armour. The plated or mailed tunic of William I. and his followers
was superseded early in the twelfth century by a defensive hauberk,
covered, as before, with various straps and plates of metal, or more
generally formed of interwoven ring or chain mail. The legs and feet
were enveloped in simple bandages or fillets bound around them.

The _shield_ completed the defensive equipment, and was generally long,
rounded or oval at the top, with a pointed base, so that the shape
resembled that of a kite. Many of them were decorated (according to the
Bayeux Tapestry).

[Illustration: PLATE 18.

  (Figs. 1 and 2): The ordinary costumes of Norman soldiers.
  Each is clothed in a military hauberk, which fitted the
  body very closely, and was probably slit a little before
  and behind. In the case of these two the hauberk ends in
  close-fitting trousers to the knee. The heads are protected
  by conical helmets with nasal pieces, fitting over hoods of
  mail. In Fig. 1 the warrior is armed with a sword, an axe,
  and a spear. The shield is of the kite shape. The hauberk is
  covered with ringed mail, and the sleeves reach to the wrist.
  In Fig. 2 the sleeves reach to the elbow only, and are covered
  with rings, but the body is covered with what is known as
  “trellised” armour, formed of strips of leather fastened on a
  body of quilted cloth and crossing each other diagonally, with
  knobs of steel fastened in the angular spaces as an additional
  protection. He holds in his hand a _gonfanon_ or lance with a
  small flag--carried only by the leaders of the army. (Fig. 3):
  A Norman sword. (From the Bayeux Tapestry.) (Fig. 4): Two
  Norman soldiers, each carrying a decorated shield and spear,
  one being armed with a sword. Each wears a flat-topped helmet,
  one only being fitted with a “nasal.” The shield of the
  right-hand one is curved to the form of the body. The hauberks
  of mail are shown, and also the tunics worn under them
  reaching nearly to the knee. (Figs. 5 and 6): Norman axes.
  (From the Bayeux Tapestry.) (Fig. 7): A Norman archer. (From
  the Bayeux Tapestry.) Dressed in a close-fitting vest with
  narrow sleeves, and full breeches, gathered apparently above
  and below the knee, and ornamented with large red spots. He
  carries a quiver of arrows slung over his back. Other archers
  are represented in the Tapestry fully dressed in ringed mail.
  (Fig. 8): The head of a mounted soldier. (From the Bayeux
  Tapestry.) A peculiar custom existed among the Normans at the
  Conquest of shaving the back of the head as well as the face.
  When spies sent by Harold reconnoitred the Norman camp, they
  saw the Normans with shaven heads, and they returned with
  the news that “the Duke had far more priests than knights
  or other troops.” (Fig. 9): Guy, Count of Ponthieu. (From
  the Bayeux Tapestry.) He is armed with an axe, and wears a
  hauberk of scale armour. These scales were either of iron,
  bronze, or _cuir bouilli_. (The latter was leather which had
  been softened by boiling in oil and stamped or moulded into
  a definite form while in that condition. When it was dry it
  became very hard and tough.) He also wears a mantle gathered
  on the right shoulder, but has no head covering.]



THE BAYEUX TAPESTRY.


The Bayeux Tapestry is a valuable picture of the manners and costumes
of the Normans and the English about the time of the Norman Conquest.
It is traditionally recorded to have been worked by Queen Matilda
(the wife of William the Conqueror) and the ladies of her Court, to
commemorate the invasion and conquest of England by her husband.

There is no evidence to prove this, and consequently there is much
doubt about it; but it is held on the best authority that though the
Tapestry is a _contemporary_ work, Queen Matilda had no part in its
manufacture, since it was probably ordered for his cathedral by Bishop
Odo (the half-brother of William I.), and made by Norman workers at
Bayeux.

It is preserved in the Hotel-de-Ville at Bayeux, and consists of a long
band of linen about 231 ft. long and 20 in. wide.

It is divided into 72 scenes or compartments, separated from one
another by trees or buildings, worked in the material in a conventional
manner. On it are represented 623 people, 202 horses and mules, 55
dogs, 505 other animals, 37 buildings, 41 ships and boats, and 49
trees, making a total of 1,512 objects. It has always been known
as “tapestry,” but it is really an enormous piece of woolwork or
embroidery, yet it has been known so long by the previous name that it
will probably continue to bear it.

No attempt has been made to depict the figures in their natural
colours, for we find horses coloured yellow, red, blue, and green, and
perspective has been totally disregarded. But “if the drawing be rude,
the composition is bold and spirited, and is always rendered with great
truth of expression, which is, at times, exaggerated.”

The narrow border which runs along both the top and the bottom of
the Tapestry (Pl. 19, Fig. 3) is for the greater part not connected
with the thread of the story, and is decorated with animals, real and
fabulous, and scenes of husbandry and the chase; but in some parts it
contains allegorical allusions to the scenes depicted.

Over most of the scenes are worked Latin inscriptions in Roman capitals
about an inch high, explaining the pictures. The reasons for supposing
that, although not made by Matilda, it is nevertheless contemporary
work, are:

    (1) The accurate representation of the civil and military
    costumes of the eleventh century.

    (2) The attempt to represent Edward the Confessor and
    William I. as they appeared on their seals.

    (3) Certain words used in it suggest an English origin, but
    admit of the explanation that the dialect spoken in Bayeux
    was a mixture of Saxon and Norman.

    (4) The prominence given to Odo and to less-known persons.

    (5) The introduction of the local form of wine barrel and
    certain dialectic peculiarities of the district.

The Bayeux Tapestry is not mentioned in any historical document until
1476, when it appears among an inventory of the ornaments of the
Cathedral of Bayeux.

In 1522 its safety was threatened by the Calvinists who pillaged the
cathedral, but it was restored to the authorities and was used to
decorate the nave on festive occasions.

It remained forgotten till 1724, when, a drawing having been made of it
by an antiquarian, public interest was aroused in it, both in France
and in our own country.

In order to preserve it, it was lined and strengthened, for it was used
to decorate the nave for eight days at the time of St. John’s Day. It
has passed through many vicissitudes, and once or twice it was nearly
destroyed, but a number of the leading inhabitants of Bayeux formed
themselves into a committee to protect it.

Napoleon I. went to see it, and was much impressed by it when it was
exhibited in Paris. It was afterwards returned to Bayeux, where it was
visited by Mr. Charles Stothard, a clever and accurate young artist,
and at the request of the Society of Antiquaries of London he made
drawings of it, the work occupying him for two years.

In 1842 the Municipal Council of Bayeux provided a permanent resting
place for the Tapestry in the Hotel de Ville, where it is still
exhibited under glass, and where it has been visited by artists and
archæologists from every part of the world. During the Franco-German
war it was taken down, sealed in a zinc cylinder, and hidden away till
all danger was past.

In 1871 permission was given to the English Government to make
a photographic reproduction of the Tapestry, and a copy of this
full-sized reproduction, coloured after the original, is now preserved
at South Kensington.

The Tapestry commences with a picture of Edward the Confessor, and
continues with scenes illustrating Harold’s visit to Normandy;
his capture and appearance before William; his taking the oath of
allegiance to William; his return to England and to Edward the
Confessor; the death of the latter; the crowning of Harold; the
preparations made by William (building ships, assembling soldiers,
collecting food and arms) for the invasion of England; the passage of
the English Channel; the landing at Pevensey; the march to Hastings;
the preparations for the fight; a long and spirited picture of the
battle, illustrating various incidents in it and culminating in the
death of Harold and the flight of the defeated English.

(The writer wishes to express his great obligation for the above to Mr.
Frank R. Fowke’s very complete work on _The Bayeux Tapestry_. Geo. Bell
and Sons.)

[Illustration: PLATE 19.

  The figures illustrate the following scenes:

  (Fig. 1): _Duke William came to Pevensey_. A very clear idea
  is obtained of the general character of a Norman ship and
  the manner in which it is steered by an oar on the starboard
  (steer-board) side, etc. This ship, the _Mora_, bearing
  William, was given him by Matilda, his wife, and bears on
  the stern an effigy of his little son Rufus, blowing a bugle
  and holding a banner. (Fig. 2): _Harold made an oath to Duke
  William_. William is shown seated on a throne while Harold,
  one hand on an altar and the other on a reliquary containing
  the sacred relics, is taking the oath. (Fig. 3): _A scene in
  the Battle of Hastings_. The English Army withstanding the
  charge of the Norman horsemen after receiving a flight of
  Norman arrows. Most of the English are armed with javelins and
  shields, few with axes and swords. One figure is shown using
  the bow, and he is the only one thus armed on the English
  side. It has consequently been asserted by some authorities
  that bows were not used by the English in the battle, but, as
  Mr. Fowke says, “this seems to be hardly correct literally
  ... though ... the use of the bow as a weapon of war in
  our country was then probably rare.” This scene shows the
  whole width of the Tapestry with the two borders, the upper
  containing allegorical figures, and the latter displaying the
  fallen warriors. It may be noted that throughout the picture
  of the battle the arms and accoutrements of both Normans and
  English are similar, probably accounted for by the close
  intimacy that existed between the two countries. (Fig. 4):
  _Here is seated Harold, King of the English; Archbishop
  Stigand_. Harold was crowned in Westminster Abbey on the
  same day that Edward was buried in the same building. He is
  represented seated on the throne, wearing the crown on his
  head and holding the sceptre in his right hand and the orb in
  the left. Stigand, who, the Normans allege, crowned Harold, is
  shown standing at his left side.]



EARLY NORMAN ARCHITECTURE.


Norman, Anglo-Norman, or Romanesque architecture was called by the
former name because it followed the Norman style. It is found in
Normandy itself, in England, in Italy, and Sicily--in fact, wherever the
Northern conquerors established themselves.

Its chief characteristics are solidity and strength--walls of enormous
thickness, huge masses of masonry for piers, windows comparatively
small, and a profusion of peculiar ornaments.

The earliest Norman work in England--as the transepts of Winchester
Cathedral--is almost as plain as Anglo-Saxon; but the Norman churches
are larger and higher than those of the Anglo-Saxon period. They are
generally cruciform in shape, with a square tower over the intersection
of the nave and transepts. The towers are not lofty, but are very
solid, and usually contain windows with two lights. In a number of
instances the choir ends in a semi-circular apse after the Roman style.

Early Norman work was much plainer than that of the later period; the
arch is not recessed, or only once recessed, the edges are square, or
have a plain round moulding cut in them, and the zigzag ornament (Pl.
20, Fig. 14) is used, though not so abundantly as at a later period.
Windows are generally plain, small, and round-headed, and consist of
single lights except in belfry windows. Doors are square-headed under a
round arch. The simplest form is a narrow, round-headed opening with a
plain dripstone. But Norman windows are not met with as frequently as
doors, since they have, in many cases, been destroyed to make room for
those of later styles. In England the Norman style is usually assigned
to the eleventh century, and in the latter half of it the transition to
the Early English style took place. It was introduced into England in
the reign of Edward the Confessor, who was more Norman than English,
and who himself founded the Abbey of Westminster. Some buildings were
of a mixed character (Anglo-Saxon and Norman), some in the old style,
others altogether in the new.

Soon after the Norman Conquest, the Norman Bishops who supplanted
Englishmen in English sees and abbacies in very many instances
commenced to rebuild the cathedrals and churches from their foundations.

The entire English fabric was usually pulled down, and a new building
was erected on a much larger plan and in a better manner. It is chiefly
in remote places, where the inhabitants were too few and too poor
to rebuild and enlarge their churches, that we find remains of the
original Anglo-Saxon work.

Early Norman masonry is very rude, the joints between the stones being
filled with a great thickness of mortar, from one to three inches
thick (this is called “wide-jointed” masonry), and the stonework was
usually rubble. In the later work the joints are comparatively fine
(“fine-jointed” masonry). The Normans were very active builders.
William I. and his son, William II., built one hundred and ninety-five
religious houses during their reigns, and all the cathedrals and great
churches in the eleventh century were rebuilt, while many new ones were
founded; though it is said that of the many churches commenced in the
reigns of these two kings but few were completed until after 1100 A.D.

Gundulph built the Cathedral of Rochester, while certainly St. Albans
and Ely were also commenced in the reign of the Conqueror. In the
earliest work the ornament was not characterised by the same profusion
so common in later work. It was shallow, and cut with the axe, as the
chisel was little used at that time.

[Illustration: PLATE 20.

  (Fig. 1): Pillar with spiral fluting in Waltham Abbey (founded
  by Harold II.) The spiral grooves were originally filled with
  chased and gilt metal. Of the twelve pillars in the Abbey two
  are indented spirally and two with chevrons. The others are
  plain. (Other instances of this work on the pillars may be
  found at Durham, Lindisfarne, and Kirkby Lonsdale). The arches
  are decorated with the indented zigzag ornament. (Fig. 2):
  Flat Norman buttress (Iffley, Oxfordshire). The buttresses
  at first were merely flat, pilaster-like projections, wholly
  devoid of ornament. (Figs. 3 to 8): Norman capitals. These
  were either plain, cubical masses with the lower angles
  rounded off, forming a rude cushion shape (Fig. 3), or they
  have a rude kind of volute cut upon the edges of the angles
  (Fig. 8, from St. John’s Chapel in the White Tower). The
  scalloped capitals (Figs. 6 and 7) belong to a later period.
  This form of capital is most common in all the first half of
  the twelfth century. The capital is the member by which the
  styles are more easily distinguished than by any other. The
  abacus (A, Fig. 4) is square in section. (Figs. 9 to 14):
  Norman mouldings, which were almost endless in variety. They
  were most abundantly used in doorways and other arches and in
  horizontal strips. The most general is the zigzag (Fig. 14).
  (Fig. 9): The star. (Fig. 10): The round billet (a square
  billet is also used). (Fig. 11): The billet and lozenge. (Fig.
  12): The beak-head. (Fig. 13): The bead course. (Fig. 14): The
  zigzag or chevron. (Fig. 15): Early Norman pier, recessed at
  the angles, and square edges, in St. Alban’s Abbey, 1080 A.D.
  (Fig. 16): Norman doorway with recessed pillars and decorated
  head, at St. Mary’s, Shrewsbury. (Fig. 17): Norman chamfer.]



LATER NORMAN ARCHITECTURE.


The Earlier period of Norman architecture may be approximately closed
in 1120 A.D. (fifty-four years after the Battle of Hastings).

In the Later period the chisel took the place of the axe in the cutting
of the ornament. Consequently there is a fineness and a more finished
style of work, which could not be executed with the latter tool.

The Later or rich Norman style is chiefly characterised by the
abundance of the ornament and the deep cutting. Sculpture, which
was sparingly used in the earlier work, was frequently added to it
at a later period, and as the style advanced, greater lightness and
enrichment were introduced.

It is said that through the Crusades men saw the architecture of many
cities, and their return from the wars was marked by a striking change
not only in the masonry, but in the character and feeling of Norman
work. It is said, also, that the ornaments in Later Norman work and
in the Transition period which followed often partook very much of a
Greek, Byzantine, or Oriental character.

St. Bartholomew’s Church, Smithfield, is a good specimen of Norman
work. It was the church of the Augustinian Priory, founded 1123 A.D. by
Rahere, the King’s minstrel.

The rich doorways of this period form one of the most important
features of Later Norman work. They are considered to be the most
beautiful and characteristic specimens which remain to us, and the most
elaborate workmanship was bestowed upon them by the Normans. They are
generally round-headed and very deeply recessed, and frequently have
several small shafts at the sides of the doorway. The tympanum or
semi-circular space above the door within the arch is frequently filled
with rich sculpture (Pl. 21, Fig. 2). The mouldings are richly overlaid
with ornament, which, though of a peculiar and rude character, produces
great richness of effect.

The west door of Rochester Cathedral is a very striking instance of
this.

The windows are, in general, long and rather narrow, round-headed
openings. Many of them were ornamented very richly in the same manner
as the doors with zigzag and other mouldings.

[Illustration: PLATE 21.

  (Fig. 1): Very rich Norman sculpture from Shobdon Church,
  Herefordshire, about 1180 A.D. (Fig. 2): South door, Kilpeck
  Church, Herefordshire, showing the richly ornamented arch,
  the decorated tympanum, and richly sculptured pillars at
  the sides. (Figs. 3 and 4): Ornamented capitals from York
  Minster. (Fig. 5): Ornamented capitals from St. John’s Abbey,
  Chester. (Fig. 6): Capital preserved in the Chapter House of
  Westminster Abbey, carved with the story of the Judgment of
  Solomon. (Fig. 7): Pointed arch with pure Norman mouldings and
  scalloped capitals from Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, 1135-1139
  A.D. It is generally assumed that _all_ Norman arches are
  round, but the pointed arch, taken by itself, is no proof of
  change of style. The semi-circular arch is the characteristic
  form of the Norman arch, but there are a few Early examples in
  which the pointed arch is used, supported by massive piers.
  (Figs. 8 and 9): Bases of Norman columns.]



NORMAN CASTLES.


When Duke William of Normandy invaded England in 1066, the existing
type of fortification called a _burh_ was a moated hillock, either
wholly or partly artificial, surmounted by a timber stockade enclosing
a wooden house or tower. He repaired and enlarged many of the existing
strongholds, and also built many new wooden castles. But in order to
overawe the conquered English he erected in the larger towns square
stone keeps or castles, like the White Tower in the Tower of London.
Gundulph, Bishop of Rochester, the great architect in the reign of
William I., built the latter in 1081 A.D. It is one of the best
examples that we have of Early Norman work, and is a huge quadrangular
structure more than 100 ft. square, built of rudely coursed rubble,
with a vast amount of mortar.

Many of the existing Norman keeps were founded in the reigns of William
I. and William II., but were rebuilt at a later period. These keeps
were usually square or rectangular towers of stone (not having much
height in proportion to the breadth), with small, slightly projecting
square turrets at each angle, and one or more flat buttresses up the
centre of each face, with a dividing wall passing up through the centre
of the building from the ground. (Pl. 22, Fig. 3, B C.)

Comparatively speaking, the windows were generally small, and the walls
exceedingly thick. Those of the White Tower are 15 ft., and of Carlisle
Castle 16 ft. thick. The connecting passages and staircases were
constructed in the thickness of the masonry.

Norwich Castle, for its size, is a perfect type of the square Norman
keep, and Castle Hedingham is another. Many magnificent stone keeps
were built or rebuilt in the reign of Henry I., such as Rochester,
Newark, Corfe, and Chepstow. Henry II. was also a great builder of
keeps, and those of Dover, Canterbury, Scarborough, and Newcastle are
shown by the Pipe Rolls to have been his work.

The solidarity of the keep made it impregnable against the siege
operations of the day. Such a building could not be battered down,
and at best it could only be injured by undermining. This was done
by removing the earth from an angle of the building and gradually
introducing wooden props. A fire was then kindled about them, and as
the props burnt through, the wall fell.

The square keep was followed by the polygonal and the round ones.
Coningsburgh is circular, Berkeley is circular flanked by four
towers, and Oxford is polygonal. The base of the keep was generally
“battered”--_i.e._, sloped outwards (see Fig. 1)--to give a firmer
foundation and also that it might better withstand the operations of
the sapper. Very few of the existing keeps have openings in the lower
storeys, which were used either as _dungeons_ or _store rooms_, and
were only accessible by a trap-door from above. Generally there were
two floors, occasionally three floors above the basement. One of these
floors is assumed to have been the _hall_, and in the larger keeps the
floor above it may have been reserved for the use of the ladies of
the household. In the latter half of the twelfth century small mural
chambers, probably for use as bedrooms, became more frequent.

In many keeps there were _chapels_, but every one contained a _well_,
so that when besieged the occupants would not have to depend on outside
sources for the supply of water. Dover Castle still has a well which is
capable of supplying fresh water, although the keep is on the summit of
a high cliff.

There were no _kitchens_ in Norman keeps, as the cooking was either
done on the roof or in a special building in the yard. Fire-places
were not invariable. In the White Tower, where for a long time it
was supposed that there were no fireplaces, holes in the wall have
been found which probably answered the purpose of chimneys. There
was only _one_ entrance, perhaps some 20 feet above the ground,
sometimes approached by a removable wooden staircase, sometimes by
a fore-building with elaborate precautions for defence. The only
ornamentation to be found is at the entrance doorway, on the staircase,
or in the chapel. The keep soon had _outer defences_ added to
it--ditches, palisades, and outer walls of masonry.

Into the outer defences the cattle and stores from the surrounding
country would be brought, and the dwellings of the soldiers of the
garrison, together with the domestic offices and stables, were erected
within these.

It is more usual to find the keep at one end than in the centre of the
system of walls, and the whole was surrounded by a _moat_.

[Illustration: PLATE 22.

  (Fig. 1): Newcastle Keep, founded in 1080 A.D. The battlements
  are of later date. In this keep there is a large room in
  the thickness of the wall, known as the King’s Chamber, and
  another which is assigned to the Queen. (Fig. 2): Rochester
  Castle, which was probably entirely rebuilt in the twelfth
  century on another site. The parapet or battlements are
  considered to be the original ones. (Fig. 3): Plan of the
  middle floor of the White Tower (Tower of London). A is St.
  John’s Chapel, and the circular stairs are shown in the corner
  towers, D D D. B C is the parting wall running through the
  building. (Fig. 4): A Norman castle. (From Grose’s “Military
  Antiquities.”) Showing the general arrangements of the
  buildings, etc.]



NORMAN SEALS AND COINS.


Seals are held in the highest estimation as reliable _contemporary_
authorities in English heraldry, costume, armour, etc.

The matrix or die was usually of latten or bronze, and in the case
of large seals two dies were used--one for the front, or _obverse_,
the other for the back, or reverse--so that when complete the seal was
similar to a coin or medal.

In the earlier seals pure white beeswax was used as the medium on which
to impress the seal, and at other times this was coloured--green, red,
brown, and nearly black.

There were two types of seals--_Plaqué_ seals, those impressed in
wax direct on the document, and _Pendant_ seals, in which the wax
impression was suspended by cords, or a ribbon, or strip of parchment
from the document. (Figs. 1, 2, 3). Great precautions were taken with
regard to the Royal Seals, or the Great Seals, as they were called.
Seals may be classed as: (_a_) _Lay Seals_--(1) Royal Seal, (2) Personal
Seals, (3) Official Seals, (4) Common Seals of Corporate bodies.
(_b_) _Ecclesiastical Seals_--(1) Official Seals (Bishops, Abbots,
etc.), (2) Corporate Seals (chapters, religious houses, etc.), (3)
Personal Seals.

Many of the Royal Seals are very beautiful. The _Great Seal_, or the
chief Royal Seal, was, and is still, in the keeping of the Chancellor,
who has to keep it in his personal custody wherever he goes.

[Illustration: PLATE 23.

  (Figs. 1, 2, 3): Pendant Seals. (Figs. 4, 5): Obverse and
  reverse of silver penny of Stephen. (Fig. 6): Seal of Anselm.
  (Fig. 7): Reverse of Seal of Henry I. The obverse of Royal
  Seals bears a picture of the King seated on the throne in
  robes of peace, and the reverse the King on horseback armed
  for war. (Figs. 8 and 9): Obverse and reverse of a silver
  penny of William I. At the Conquest there was no change in the
  monetary system of England, and a coinage of silver pennies
  only, continued to be issued of the same character as under
  the Saxon Kings, and the silver penny continued to be the
  only coin until the end of the reign of Henry III. The weight
  was about 21 grains. (Fig. 10): Reverse of the Royal Seal of
  William I. He is represented on horseback, armed in a hauberk
  of leather on which metal rings are sewn. A conical helmet is
  on his head. He carries a typical kite-shaped Norman shield
  on his left arm, and bears a long lance with pennon in his
  right hand. The motto or “legend,” when translated, reads:
  “Know ye this William, Patron of the Normans, and by this seal
  recognise him King of the Angles.”]



THE JOUST AND TOURNAMENT.


It was natural that men whose profession it was to bear arms should
engage in friendly contests with one another, and in this way acquire
skill in arms as well as indulge in a manly pastime. When only two
combatants fought, it was called _jousting_. If a friendly trial of
skill only were intended, the lances were blunt, and if swords were
used it was only with the edge which could not inflict a wound on a
well-armed man. This was the _joute à plaisance_.

If the combatants fought with sharp weapons and put forth all their
skill and force, it was the _joute à l’outrance_.

When a number of knights were engaged on each side, it was called a
_tournament_.

Sometimes this was played with weapons of lath, the players being
arrayed in gorgeous costumes. Sometimes the tournament was a mimic
battle, and was then usually fought between hostile factions. In a
contemporary MS. in the British Museum we have a detailed account of
all the preparations for a contest of arms.

The heralds of the King, noble, or lady who designed to give a joust
travelled to towns, castles, and sometimes from court to court of
foreign countries, clothed in the insignia of their office, and made
public announcements of the event in each place, inviting knights to
come and try their skill against the home champions.

In the MS. there is an account of all the equipment that is required
by a knight for such an occasion: a suit of armour and horse with
trappings, an armourer, with hammer and pincers to fasten the armour,
two servants on horseback in suitable costume, who are his squires, and
six servants on foot, dressed alike.

As the fixed day approaches, the visitors flock from all parts, and
find lodgings in the castle or in the town, or else pitch their tents
in a meadow near the Castle. A suitable piece of ground is selected,
barriers are put around it, and “grand stands” are erected for the
ladies and gentry. On the day, the knights rise up at sunrise and
bathe, and then are carefully armed, by their squires and armourers.

Then they come into the field, with their helms borne before them,
and with servants (squires) carrying their lances. They are announced
by the heralds to the assembled company of “ladyes and gentilwomen.”
Each of the strangers who comes to the field has to satisfy the
officer-at-arms that he is a “gentilman of names and armes,” and to
take oath that he has no secret weapons or unfair advantage.

When this is satisfactorily completed, they put on their helms, and
each of the home champions in turn runs two or more courses with a
stranger knight. A course is successfully run if each breaks his lance
full on the breastplate or helmet of his adversary, but neither is
unhorsed; and they retire amidst the plaudits of the spectators.

If a knight is unhorsed, or lose his stirrup, he is vanquished, and
retires from the game. Following that, there is probably a miniature
tournament between the home champions and the strangers.

At length, when all have run their courses, the knights remove their
helmets before the ladies, make their obeisance, and retire to their
lodgings to change. Then they return, and a lady presents a prize to
the one who is considered the best “juster,” and prizes of less value
to those who have taken the second and third places in the contest,
making a little speech suitable to the occasion. The herald comes
forward and announces: “John hath justed well, Richard hath justed
better, and Thomas hath justed best of all.” A dance completes the
function, in which the champion knight leads off with the lady of the
tournament.

There were two distinct ways in which the jousting took place: (1)
On an open course; (2) with a barrier. In the former, the combatants
usually started from the ends of the lists, and met about the centre.
In the latter, a wooden barrier was erected down the centre of the
lists lengthwise, and, when the signal was given, the combatants
charged, each of them having the barrier on his left. (Fig. 1.) For
these two methods of jousting, different arrangements of armour were
worn; for some, the upper part of the body was armed more than the
lower limbs, and sometimes it was _vice versa_.

[Illustration: PLATE 24.

  (Fig. 1): A joust between Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick,
  and an opponent, each charging on the left of the barrier. The
  Earl of Warwick has his arms displayed upon his tabard, and
  there is also a display of arms on the trappings, or bardings,
  of his horse. This was not the first of the charges, for a
  broken lance lies on the ground. (From the Life of Richard
  Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, written in MS. by a Chantry
  priest of Guy’s Cliff, named Rouse, about 1485.) (Fig. 2):
  The combat on foot after the charge. The Earl of Warwick is
  armed with a lance, and the other knight with a pole-axe.
  Several splintered lances on the ground show that the combat
  has been going on for some time. The Earl of Warwick’s crest,
  “a bear with a ragged staff,” appears on his helmet, while his
  adversary has a single large feather as crest.]



ENGLISH ARCHERS.


In Saxon times, little value was placed upon the bow as a weapon, but,
after the decisive part it played at Hastings, its use was practised
generally.

From early times, archers carried long stakes, sharpened at both ends,
and when they took up their position on the battlefield, they stuck
them into the ground before them, with the points sloping outward, to
break up a cavalry charge which might be made against them. In the 12th
century, English archers became renowned for their skill, and Richard
I. himself used the long-bow on more than one occasion. By the end of
the 13th century, it had come into great prominence. Each archer--in
later times, at least--carried two dozen arrows under his belt, and
archers sometimes carried great movable shields, which they fixed
upright by means of rests, and so sheltered themselves from the enemy’s
bowmen. They also carried swords, so that they could defend themselves,
if attacked, hand to hand.

The great bow, or long-bow, was five feet long, and was formed of yew,
which, at a range of 240 _yards_, discharged a strong arrow, sharp and
barbed. The arrows were usually “a yard or an ell long,” but one, now
in the United Service Museum, recovered from the “Mary Rose,” which
sank in 1545, is six feet long.

The archers always began the battle at a distance, as the artillery do
in modern warfare, to disorganise the enemy before the main bodies came
to actual hand-to-hand fighting. The cross-bow, or arbalest, had been
used in sport for many years, but in the 12th century it came to be
employed in warfare, though its use was forbidden by the Pope as “being
unfit for Christian warfare.” It was driven out of use by the long-bow
in England at the end of the 13th century. In the Continental armies,
it continued to grow in use in preference to the long-bow, so that in
time the long-bow became essentially an English arm. There were several
kinds of cross-bows, which may be classified accordingly as the string
was drawn back (1) by hand, (2) by means of a lever, and (3) by means
of a wheel and ratchet.

The missiles shot from the cross-bow were short and stout, and had
heads of different forms, and were called quarrels or bolts.

There were several reasons why the cross-bow was superseded by the
long-bow: (1) A good bowman could shoot about six arrows while a
cross-bowman was winding up his bow and making one shot. (2) The
penetrative power of the arrow, and the distance which it could travel,
were quite equal to those of the quarrel from the cross-bow. (3)
Long-bowmen, using their bows when held in a vertical plane, could
stand more closely together than cross-bowmen, who had to discharge
their weapons while holding them in a horizontal plane. (4) Greater
skill and strength were required in handling the long-bow with
precision than was the case with the cross-bow; consequently, more
practice was necessary, and more enthusiasm and confidence developed
with the use of the former than with the latter.

Of the archers who took part in the Hundred Years’ War, Boutell says:
“In those days, the archers of England were the best infantry in the
world; but then their famous long-bow acquired its reputation, in no
slight degree, from the fact that, in peace, archery was the favourite
pastime of the English yeomanry.” Crecy, Poitiers, Agincourt--indeed,
most of the great victories gained over the French--mainly resulted from
the unrivalled skill of the English long-bowmen. All our old writers
are agreed upon the vast superiority of our English bowmen over those
of other nations. The Scotch depended on their pikemen and the French
on their men-at-arms.

The English archers were held in high esteem and trust by the English
nobles, and it was the custom for some English barons and distinguished
knights always to join the archers in battle, fighting side by
side with them in their own ranks. On the other hand, the French
nobles were very arrogant, and despised the common people, who were,
consequently, made unfit to become good soldiers.

But the reputation of English archers rose so high that several foreign
princes, in the 15th century, deemed their armies materially reinforced
if they could retain 200 or 300 English archers in their service.

In 1363, and again in 1388, statutes were passed in England calling
upon people to leave their popular amusements of “ball and coits” on
their festivals and Sundays, and to practise archery instead. “Servants
and labourers shall have bows and arrows, and use the same on Sundays
and holidays.” By an ordinance made in the reign of Edward IV., every
Englishman or Irishman dwelling in England was required to have a “bow
of his own height, either of yew, witch-hazel, ash or auburne, or any
other reasonable tree, according to their power.”

Butts were encouraged in every parish, and traces of them still remain
in the names of places, as “Newington Butts.” Henry V., who was very
proud of his English archers, ordered the sheriffs of several counties
to obtain geese feathers for his archers, plucking six from each goose.

The arrows were carried in a quiver, or bound together into a sheaf,
suspended from the waist-belt. When the battle was about to commence,
the archer placed his arrows under his left foot, point outwards, or
stuck them, point downwards, into the ground, or into his girdle. He
was able to discharge his bow twelve times in a single minute, at a
range of 240 yards, and “he, who in these twelve shots once missed his
man, was very lightly esteemed.” In the reign of Edward III., a painted
bow sold for 1s. 6d., a white bow for 1s., and sharp-pointed arrows at
1s. 2d. per sheaf of twenty-four.

As is well-known, at Crecy, and in many other battles, the English
archers shot down or wounded the horses of the French knights so
considerably that, in their pain and terror, the maddened horses upset
the ranks of the cavalry and quite destroyed its efficiency.

At first, archers were not protected by body armour, but in later times
they wore _jazerine_ jackets, consisting of overlapping pieces of
steel, fastened by one edge to a garment of canvas, and then covered
over with velvet or cloth.

A similar defensive garment of the 15th and 16th centuries was the
_brigandine_, a specimen of which may be seen in the Tower of London.
Archers often wore _salades_, or shell helmets, which covered the head
and eyes, and sometimes had movable visors.

[Illustration: PLATE 25.

  (Fig. 1): An English archer of the 15th century, wearing a
  salade with movable visor to protect the head. It will be
  noticed that he has stuck some arrows into his girdle, so
  that they may be “handy” for shooting. See Fig. 8 also, and
  compare with Fig. 7. (From Royal MS., 14 E. iv.) (Fig. 2): An
  English salade. This was worn by archers, and it also formed
  the usual head-piece for soldiers about the time of Henry VI.
  (Wars of the Roses.) (Fig. 3): A Brigandine, from a specimen
  in Warwick Castle. (Figs. 4 and 5): Quarrels, quarells, or
  bolts, for shooting from the cross-bow or arbalest. Fig.
  4 is feathered; Fig. 5 is from the Tower of London. (Fig.
  5a): A bird-bolt, used for shooting birds from a “sporting”
  cross-bow. (Fig. 6): An English arrow of the ordinary form
  during the Middle Ages, showing the sharp projection of the
  barb, which rendered the extraction a difficult and painful
  matter. (Fig. 7): An English archer using the long-bow, and
  cross-bowman winding up his cross-bow. It will be noticed that
  the former is left-handed, as the arrow was usually drawn
  back with the right hand and shot from the right shoulder.
  He has arranged his arrows for shooting by sticking them,
  point downwards, into the ground at his side. Both he and
  the cross-bowman are wearing _jazerine_ jackets, but the
  former has a camail and a chain mail jacket beneath it. The
  cross-bowman has, hanging from his girdle, a leathern bag, to
  contain the quarrels for his cross-bow. (Fig. 8): A sea-fight,
  showing four archers using the long-bow, one cross-bowman,
  and one soldier using the military flail. One of the archers
  has placed his arrows in his belt, as in Fig. 1. (From the
  Cambridge MS. of the “Greater Chronicles,” by Matthew Paris,
  who died 1259 A.D.)]



EARLY CANNON.


The discovery of gunpowder, which, by degrees, totally changed
military tactics and the constitution of armies, was the event that
most powerfully influenced warfare in the Middle Ages. Very little
is known about its actual invention. It is supposed that Greek
fire, which was used with such terrifying and destructive effect in
warfare, particularly in sieges, consisted of the three ingredients of
gunpowder, with resin and naphtha in addition.

Roger Bacon, an English friar, discovered the secret of the composition
of gunpowder in the latter half of the 13th century; but Schwartz, a
Franciscan, at Cologne, perfected it about a century later.

The use of cannon for siege purposes commenced in England in the armies
of Edward III. Froissart says that the English army used them against
Calais, when besieging it in 1347. But there were very few made at
first; an important fortress like the Tower of London, in 1360, only
mounting four guns, while Dover Castle, in 1372, had six.

When first introduced, cannon were small and vase-shaped; they were
slow in fire, and very liable to accidents.

They were called “bombards,” and were mounted upon a wooden cradle or
frame. Towards the end of the 14th century, they had become of large
dimensions, firing heavy _stone_ shot of from 200 to 450 lbs. weight.
All the shot were stone until, because they did not do sufficient
damage in battering down a wall, it became the practice to bind and
otherwise strengthen them with iron.

The earliest cannon were of the rudest possible description. They were
made of bars or thin sheets of iron, arranged longitudinally over a
wooden core, in the form of a tube, around which were welded iron hoops
to hold them together.

In 1338 there existed breech-loading guns, with one or more movable
chambers, to facilitate loading, but, even then, the fire was very
slow; “three shots an hour was fair practice for a big bombard.” It
is not certain when wheeled carriages were introduced, though mention
is made of two-wheeled bombard carriages in 1376; but it must be
remembered that the gun at first was looked upon as a substitute for
the balista and other war machines employed in the siege of a fortified
place. Its value as an effective and movable weapon on the battlefield
was not realised for some time.

The powder was fired at first by the insertion of a red-hot wire, but
this was often very dangerous to the gunners, because the gun was so
liable to burst. James II. of Scotland was killed by the bursting of
a gun at the siege of Roxburgh in 1460. It became the custom, in the
case of large bombards, for a small train of powder to be laid from the
ground leading to the touchhole. The gunners fired the train, and then
hastily betook themselves to a place of safety.

The earliest known representation of a gun in England is contained
in a MS., “De Officiis Regum,” at Christ Church, Oxford, of the time
of Edward II. (1326). It shows a knight in armour, firing a short,
primitive weapon, shaped something like a vase, and loaded with an
incendiary arrow--that is, one charged with an inflammable substance.
Firearms of this type were evidently very small, as only 2 lb. of
gunpowder was provided for firing forty-eight arrows.

From the beginning, contrivances had been made to resist the recoil of
the gun when it was fired; heavy timbers, etc., were packed up against
the breach to prevent the gun from flying backwards, but this plan
often brought about the bursting of the gun. About the middle of the
15th century, trunnions (small cylinders of solid metal projecting
from the sides, at right angles to the axis of the gun) were formed
with the gun, and by means of these the recoil of the gun could be
transferred to the carriage, and the pivoting of the gun up and down on
the trunnions made the laying and sighting an easier task.

Stone cannon shot were employed until 1520, and, when it was considered
necessary to use very heavy projectiles, correspondingly enormous guns
had to be built. Mons Meg, a well-known gun in Edinburgh Castle, of
this large type, is a wrought-iron gun of the 15th century. It is built
of iron bars and external rings, with a calibre of 20 inches, and it
fired a shot weighing 350 lbs.

Bronze guns, of a great size, were cast in 1468 at Constantinople, and
one of them is now in the Rotunda at Woolwich. It was actually used
in warfare against the English at the Dardanelles, in 1807. To show
the destructive power of such a large piece of ordnance, even though
a crude and ancient construction, it may be mentioned that the stone
shot, weighing 700 lbs., which was fired from it against the English
fleet, cut the mainmast of the British flagship in two, and another
killed and wounded sixty men. These old 15th century guns in the
battle altogether accounted for six of our men-of-war damaged and 126
men killed and wounded. The gun at Woolwich is in two pieces screwed
together. The front part has a calibre of 25 inches for the reception
of the shot, and a rear portion, forming a powder chamber, 10 inches in
diameter. The whole gun weighs nearly 18¾ tons, and was presented to
Queen Victoria by the Sultan of Turkey.

Late in the 15th century, guns began to be more regularly employed on
the battlefield. In the 16th century, the extremely large guns were
discarded, and small, wrought-iron guns were made, this change being
due to the use of cast-iron shot, which was as destructive as the more
bulky stone shot formerly used.

In 1521 the first bronze gun was cast in England, cast-iron cannon
being made also in 1540, by foreign workmen, introduced into this
country by Henry VIII. to teach the English the art. The first foundry
was at Uckfield, in Sussex, and Sussex iron was used, smelted with
charcoal.

The small gun of this period was made very long, and a specimen is
to be found in Dover Castle. It is known as Queen Elizabeth’s Pocket
Pistol, and is 24½ feet long, with a bore of 4¾ inches. It was
cast in 1544, and was presented to Henry VIII. by Charles V.

Generally speaking, the English were much behind other nations in the
use of artillery until the end of the 18th century. The quality of
the gunpowder used in the early days of the cannon was very poor. The
ingredients were often mixed on the spot at the time of loading, and
the powder burnt slowly, with but little strength, and naturally varied
from round to round. When the more fiercely-burning granulated powder
was introduced into England, in the middle of the 15th century, it was
often too strong for the larger pieces of that date, and could only be
used for small firearms for more than a century afterwards.

In the 17th century, bronze and cast-iron guns were strengthened, and
were more adapted to the use of grained powder, and, at the same time,
more energy and greater range were obtained.

[Illustration: Plate 26.

  (Fig. 1): Bombard or mortar of a very early date. (From a MS.)
  (Fig. 2): Vase-shaped bombard of a date posterior to the reign
  of Henry IV. It is fastened to a wooden bed or trough, which
  rests on a movable pivot in a stout square timber frame. (From
  a MS.) (Fig. 3): A soldier with a hand-gun fitted to a stock.
  (From a treatise, “De Re Militari,” printed 1472.) (Fig. 4):
  An early gun, in a primitive gun-mounting. It is supported on
  a massive timber framing at each side, while the flat breech
  is resting against a strong wooden support, driven into the
  ground, to prevent recoil. (From Mallet’s “Construction of
  Artillery.”) (Fig. 5): A gun as used during the chief part
  of the 15th century. It is fixed on the swivel principle,
  being suspended between the branches of an immense fork of
  iron. The elevation or depression of the gun was effected by
  means of a large iron bar, in the form of a scythe, standing
  in a vertical position. The whole thing is fixed on an iron
  plate fastened on a massive bed of oak. (Fig. 6): A hand-gun
  of the reign of Edward IV., fired by means of a match. (From
  Roy. MS., 15 E. iv.) (Fig. 7): A gun called a Peterara, of
  the time of Edward IV., in the Rotunda at Woolwich, made of
  bars of iron laid longitudinally, and bound together with iron
  hoops. The powder chamber is seen, with the handle to raise
  it, and there is a locking arrangement, so that it cannot be
  blown out when the gun is discharged. It has trunnions, and is
  fastened into the metal frame, which supports it on the wooden
  carriage. (Fig. 8): A cannon of the 15th century, more of the
  form of the mortar, supported in a wooden framework. (From
  Roy. MS., 14 E. iv.)]



A 15th CENTURY SHIP.


[Illustration: Plate 27.]

This engraving, taken from Rouse’s MS. ‘Life of Richard Beauchamp, Earl
of Warwick’ (British Museum, Julius E. iv.), of the latter part of the
15th century (1485) gives a very clear representation of a ship and
its boat. The Earl is setting out on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. In
the foreground, we see him, with his pilgrim’s staff in hand, stepping
into the boat which is to carry him to his ship, lying at anchor in
the harbour. The costume of the sailors is illustrated by the men in
the boat. The vessel is a ship of burden, but such a one as kings and
great personages had equipped for their own use, resembling an ordinary
merchant ship in all essentials, but fitted and furnished with more
than usual convenience and sumptuousness. In Earl Richard’s ship, the
sail is emblazoned with his arms, and the pennon, besides the red cross
of England, has his badges of the bear and ragged staff. The ragged
staff also appears on the castle at the masthead.

The castle, which all ships of this age had at the stern, is, in this
case, roofed in and handsomely ornamented, and, no doubt, formed the
state apartment of the Earl.

There is also a castle at the head of the ship, known as the
forecastle, though it is not very plainly shown in the drawing.

It consists of a raised platform; the round-headed entrance to the
cabin beneath it is seen in the picture; the two bulwarks also, which
protect it at the sides, are visible, though their meaning is not at
first sight obvious.

Incidentally, also, are shown the costumes of the men-at-arms, with
the small, round, close-fitting cap, and the various forms of shafted
weapons. No one is in armour.

Mr. W. Laird Clowes, in “Social England,” describing this picture,
says: “The ship is clincher-built (_i.e._, the planks overlap one
another), with a rudder and roofed stern-cabin or round-house. In the
bulwarks of the waist are apertures (not portholes), through which
cannon are pointed. The mainmast has shrouds, a top and one large
square sail. The mizen is much smaller, and has one sail, which is
reefed. The top is ornamented with the Earl’s device, a ragged staff.
From above it floats what in the bill (still preserved) of Seburg
(painter)” and Ray (tailor) is described as “a grete stremour of forty
yards length, and seven yardes in brede, with a grete Bear and Gryfon
holding a ragged staff, poudrid full of ragged staves and a grete
Crosse of St. George.”



BRASSES.


As many references have been made in this work to “Brasses,” and a
number of the illustrations of armour and costumes are taken from them,
it is fitting that a section should be devoted to so important a series
of national records.

Monumental Brasses are plates of brass, embedded in stone slabs,
which have been placed over graves in the floors of our churches and
cathedrals.

Their use began early in the thirteenth century, and took the place
of the carved stone slabs, which had, up to this time, served as
sepulchral monuments. Their value is as great as their interest, for
they represent very accurately, and with the weight of contemporary
authority, the costumes and armour of our ancestors.

They are found from the reign of Edward I. down to the time of
Cromwell, and may be seen in many churches throughout the length
and breadth of the land. There are between three and four thousand
that are known to exist at the present time, these forming, however,
only a small proportion of the number originally existing. At the
Reformation, particularly in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward
VI., and during the time of Cromwell, when the fanatical Puritans
ravaged our churches and cathedrals, many thousands were torn up and
sold as old metal; while during the misguided “restorations” of many
of our churches very large numbers have disappeared or have been
destroyed. In most cases where the brasses remain they are in excellent
condition, notwithstanding the fact that they have been trodden over
by generations of worshippers. On account of the great hardness of the
metal of which they are composed, they are almost as fresh and “sharp”
now as when they left the hands of the engravers.

There is an additional advantage which the brass possesses over the
stone monument, and that is that the brass is found as a memorial of
members of _every_ class of society--the knight, the noble, the bishop,
the abbot, the priest, the nun, the lord of the manor, the judge, the
lawyer, the University don, the merchant, the wool-stapler, the yeoman,
women of every rank, and even the schoolboy, have their brasses.

In speaking of their value as historical records, Mr. Macklin says:
“Brasses give a complete pictorial history of the use and development
of armour, dress, and ecclesiastical vestments from the thirteenth
to the end of the seventeenth century.... All these (members of
every class of society) we see, not in fancy sketches, but in actual
contemporary portraits.” Perhaps one of the greatest values of the
brass is that it is a great and authentic record of _middle-class
costume_ during the Middle Ages.

Light, too, is thrown by them upon the social conditions and customs
of the people, for example, when, during the Wars of the Roses,
practically every noble was ranged under one or other of the rival
banners, we find there was a great _increase_ in the number of brasses
of the middle classes, showing that in the midst of civil strife not
only were they unaffected to any appreciable degree, but that the
property and wealth of the middle and trading classes were actually on
the increase.

The _material_ of which the brasses were made consisted of 60 parts
of copper, 30 of zinc, and 10 of lead and tin. This gave a very hard
alloy, which would stand very hard usage. It was called _latten_ or
_laton_, and until the reign of Elizabeth was manufactured exclusively
in Flanders and Germany--particularly at Cologne, whence they were often
termed _Cullen_ plates.

They were imported into England in rectangular plates of the required
thickness. When the plates were manufactured in England, they were very
much thinner, and consequently more liable to injury; so that though
they are not nearly so old as the earlier brasses, they are yet in a
much worse condition.

In the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries brasses were
manufactured in great quantities, and the work gave employment to many
people. It is probable that the engravers worked in guilds established
in London, Norwich, Ipswich, and Bristol.

The figure was drawn (generally in a recumbent position, with the hands
in the attitude of prayer) upon the flat brass plate, and then the
lines of the armour, the folds of the drapery, and the features, etc.,
were deeply cut into the metal.

After these lines had been engraved, the whole figure was cut out of
the plate just as a child cuts out a figure from a picture.

A brass consisted of the following parts:

(1) The figure or figures; (2) heraldic devices and armorial bearings
on shields; (3) mottoes or epitaphs; (4) other subsidiary figures or
ornaments (angels, canopies, etc.).

In the English brass each of these elements was cut out separately
and placed in position upon a stone slab. The outline was then marked
round each, the brasses were lifted off, and the stone cut away in the
portions thus marked out, to a depth equal to the thickness of the
brass. The plates were then placed in position in this stone matrix,
the surfaces of the brass being level with the surface of the stone,
and each piece was fastened down by means of metal screws.

In a number of cases, part or even the whole of the brasses on a slab
have disappeared, but the empty matrix clearly shows the general form
of the missing parts. (Fig. 1.)

We have in England a few magnificent brasses of a different kind that
were manufactured and engraved entirely in Flanders or North Germany,
and they are known as Flemish brasses. The great difference between the
English and Flemish brasses is that in the former the figures were cut
out of the rectangular sheets of metal, and the lines of the drawing
were bold and few in number as was compatible with clearness; whereas
in the latter the brass was kept in a rectangular form, and the whole
plate was engraved as the plate of a picture might be. The figures were
incised upon a background which was entirely filled in with diapered
ornaments and suitable heraldic devices and patterns, while the
inscription was engraved around the edge of the plate.

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the inscriptions on all
brasses were in Norman French; in the fifteenth century they were in
Latin; and in the sixteenth century in English.

In the reigns of Edward I., II., III., and Richard II., the brasses
rose to their highest quality and magnificence. The figures were
usually life-sized; the lines were deeply and boldly cut, and there
was an absence of “shading,” the brass being usually a pure, outline,
incised drawing.

In the reign of Edward II., architectural canopies were often
introduced (Fig. 1), and then the figures were consequently made less
than life-size. At first only knights and ladies were represented, but
in the reigns of Edward III. and Richard II., members of the great
middle classes, which were increasing in power, wealth, and public
influence, were included.

From the time of Henry IV. to Richard III. the brasses were not of
so high an order, and at the latter part of the period they began to
deteriorate in quality and size.

The Tudor period may be called the decadent period of brasses, for
the drawings were often disproportionate and lightly cut, the figures
crude, and the plates thin. There is often an excess of “shading” in
them which detracts from the beautiful simplicity of the drawing. The
practice of laying down these brasses, probably through these very
causes, began to decay, the last known being laid in 1773 A.D.

Copies of brasses, or _rubbings_, are made in a very simple and
interesting manner by taking a sheet of white lining paper (plain
wallpaper), laying it upon the brass, and carefully rubbing over it
with a piece of shoemaker’s heel-ball. The flat portions of the brass
“catch” the heel-ball during the process, while the incised lines are
left white, and if care be taken that the paper does not shift, a very
faithful copy of the brass can be made. The rubbing should be continued
until a deep black tone is obtained, for the heel-ball does not smear
on the paper.

Most clergymen are proud of the brasses in their churches, and readily
give permission for rubbings to be taken from them if a courteous
application be made.

Brasses are not scattered at random throughout the country. They are
met with most frequently in the eastern and home counties. Probably
this is because these parts are nearest to Flanders, and the cost of
transporting the sheets of brass far inland would be a considerable
addition to their cost.

(For those who wish to pursue this subject, Macklin’s _Brasses of
England_ (Methuen) and Suffling’s _English Church Brasses_ (Upcott
Gill) will be found most useful, as in addition to other matter they
contain a register of all brasses known in the British Isles.)

[Illustration: PLATE 28.

  (Fig. 1): The despoiled slab of Bishop Beaumont of Durham,
  about 1335 A.D., showing the matrix for the brass in the slab,
  and also the form of a canopy brass. The place where the
  inscription was fixed is shown in the white band just inside
  the edge. (Fig. 2): The brass of a Notary (name lost), about
  1475 A.D., in St. Mary Tower Church, Ipswich. “Notaries wore a
  plain gown, with an ink-horn and pen-case suspended from the
  belt, and a scarf and cap on the left shoulder.” (Macklin.)
  (Fig. 3): The brass of Dame Elizabeth Harvey, Benedictine
  Abbess of Elstow, Bedfordshire, about 1525 A.D. Figs. 2 and 3
  show the actual appearance of “rubbings” of brasses.]



HERALDRY.


Heraldry has been called the “shorthand of history,” and “the critical
desire for accuracy, which fortunately seems to have been the keynote
of research” during recent times, necessitates an inquiry into the
history and practice of Heraldry, which played such an important part
in the life of the Middle Ages.

It is not believed that the Normans at the Conquest bore any “arms” on
their shields. There are certain markings shown on the shields in the
Bayeux Tapestry, but they were probably bands and bosses used for the
purpose of strengthening them.

As a system, heraldry was not organised until the twelfth or thirteenth
century. It was probably introduced into England from France, as all
the terms used in the practice are French.

The two great factors in the extensive and almost universal practice
of heraldry were the tournaments and jousts, and the Crusades. All the
sovereigns of Europe, and particularly the Kings of England, encouraged
the former, because of the excellent practice in the use of arms and
the rigorous training they gave.

Clothed, as the combatants were, in their armour, their features
concealed within the heaumes or helmets, it became a necessity for them
to bear some distinctive marks or devices, either as “crests” on their
helmets or as armorial bearings or “arms” upon their shields, their
surcoats, their pennons and banners.

The retainers of a knight followed their master, and rallied around
him, recognising him by these features, and their battle cry became, in
many cases, the family motto, and has so remained until this day.

At first the crest, which was of large size, was made of leather, but
later on it was made of wood or steel. Originally the devices upon the
shields were few and simple, and consisted of bands fastened to the
shields in various positions (Figs. 1 to 18) to strengthen them. These
were termed “honourable ordinaries.” When the surface of the shield was
coloured, these bands would be coloured differently. As the custom of
bearing these devices became more universal, and the number of knights
increased, it became necessary to add many others and to modify and
differentiate in many ways the existing ones. The simplest “arms” are
consequently held to be the most honourable, as they imply greater
antiquity. Many devices were granted and borne in recognition of feats
of arms or of important duties performed, as, in later days, the
Douglas family were privileged to bear on their shield a heart (later
on surmounted by a crown), in commemoration of the fact that a Douglas
had the honour of bearing the heart of Robert Bruce to the Holy Land.
(Fig. 21.) Often, after the performance of a particularly heroic deed
on the battlefield, knights were rewarded by being granted the right to
wear some suitable commemorative device upon their shields. These had a
similar significance to the V.C. or D.S.O. awarded nowadays, with the
additional advantage that they were hereditary.

In the Crusades, which formed the other great factor in the growth and
practice of heraldry, it became necessary to distinguish the knights
of different nations from one another. The English wore a white cross
on the right shoulder of their cloaks. Similarly the French wore a red
one, the Flemings a green one, and the warriors from the Roman States
two keys crossed as in a St. Andrew’s cross or Saltire.

As a special inducement to the warriors of the West, the Pope promised
that any soldier, whatever his rank or station, who slew an infidel
in battle, should be declared noble, and be at liberty to adopt any
device he might choose as a memento of the part he had taken in the
Wars of the Cross. Hence, many devices connected with the Holy Land and
the Crusades were introduced into and remain in heraldry--_e.g._, the
scalloped shell, the palmer’s staff, bezants (gold coins of Byzantium),
water bougets (leathern water-bottles), crescents, stars, scimitars,
Saracens’ heads, and the numerous forms of the cross. Probably from the
same source came such mythical creatures as the dragon, the wyvern, and
the cockatrice.

In time, the arms of knights became hereditary. A man, on the death of
his father, received proudly his father’s sword and his shield, and
appreciated the dignity of thus being associated with the honourable
achievements of his parent.

Before this practice had become general, a young knight commenced
his knightly career with a perfectly plain (argent) shield, and he
_achieved_ or won the right to bear devices upon it; hence the arms
which were displayed on it were called his _achievements_. The whole
surface of the shield was called “the field” because he performed his
deeds, recorded on the shield, on the “field of battle.”

Sometimes a knight adopted arms representing his name--_e.g._, the arms
of Lucy were “three luce or pike”; the family of Colthurst had “a
colt” as crest. These were called “canting arms,” and were obviously
not granted for any feat of daring. Symbolism played a prominent part
in the selection of arms and crests, for kings and leaders displayed
on their shields lions and eagles--the emblems of courage and power
and kingly authority. The castle was an emblem of stability, and this
device was also granted to knights who successfully defended or reduced
a castle.

The followers of knights and nobles adopted the habit of wearing
a device called a _badge_, taken from the arms of their lord, and
they wore costumes of the chief colours of his shield. These were
called liveries, and from this is derived the modern custom of the
liveries of men-servants. Most famous of these liveries were the
Plantagenets--scarlet and white; the Lancastrians--blue and white; the
Yorkists--blue and crimson; the Tudors--white and green. The common
people, at the time when heraldry was most generally practised, were
quite illiterate, but everyone could read and understand the devices of
heraldry.

Among the most famous badges worn by retainers were the _Planta
genista_, or broom plant of the Plantagenets, and the roses, red and
white, of the Lancastrians and Yorkists. The Tudor family fittingly
adopted as a badge a double rose, consisting of a white rose within a
red one, to signify the union of the two great families. Village inns
were named after a prominent device borne upon the shield of the local
lord of the manor, and in this way we get such names as the Red Lion,
the Blue Boar, the White Hart, the Rose and Crown, etc.

Many knights were spoken of by their badges--_e.g._, Henry Tudor speaks
to his followers of “the wretched, bloody, and usurping boar,” meaning
Richard III., one of whose badges was the boar.

The surcoat, or sleeveless coat, was adopted, worn over the armour, to
lessen the discomfort caused by the sun’s rays striking directly on the
armour. It became a magnificent garment of velvet or silk, elaborately
embroidered with the armorial bearings in silk and gold (hence the
origin of the word “coat-of-arms”).

This garment still survives in the Tabard of the Royal Heralds, on
which are embroidered the arms of the sovereign.

During the reigns of Edward III. and Henry V., owing to the French Wars
and their effect upon the martial population of England, heraldry was
practised most extensively and had its noblest application, but during
the reign of that butterfly king, Richard II., it reached its most
fantastic heights.

After the reign of Edward IV., the value and importance attached to
the correct practice of heraldry declined, for during the Wars of the
Roses many noble families became exterminated, and Henry VII. ennobled
many of the upper middle classes to take their places. To this, and the
profuse creation of knights’ bannerets or baronets by James I., may be
attributed the gradual decline of heraldry, and the ridiculous grants
of arms made in the Georgian period contributed still further to that
effect.

[Illustration: PLATE 29.

  The various tinctures (or colours), metals, and furs are
  represented by lines, etc., in black-and-white drawings.
  (Figs. 1 to 8): Showing those most commonly in use. (1):
  Gold (or). (2): Silver (argent). (3): Red (gules). (4): Blue
  (azure). (5): Black (sable). (6): Green (vert). (7): Ermine.
  (8): Vair. Nos. 1 and 2 are metals, 3-6 colours, 7 and 8
  furs. The heraldic names are given in brackets. (Figs. 9 to
  18): Honorouble ordinaries (bands upon the shields). (9): A
  chief. (10): A pale. (11): A fess. (12): A bend dexter. (13):
  A bend sinister. (14): A chevron. (15): A cross. (16): A
  saltire or St. Andrew’s cross. (17): A pile. (18): A bordure.
  The shields were also divided or “parted” into differently
  coloured portions by lines following the position of these
  ordinaries--_e.g._ (Fig. 19): Shows a shield “parted per pale”
  (see 10.) (Fig. 20): “Parted per chevron” (see 14). (Fig. 20):
  Also shows the different portions of a shield--A, the chief; B,
  the base; C, the dexter (right) side; D, the sinister (left)
  side; E, the dexter chief; F. the sinister chief. (Fig. 21):
  Arms of the Douglas family. (Fig. 22): A lion rampant--typical
  of animals borne upon the shield. (Fig. 23): A castle--typical
  of inanimate objects. (Fig. 24): The banner of the Knights
  Templars, the renowned _Beauseant_, black above and white
  below, to denote that while fierce to their foes they were
  gracious to their friends. (Fig. 25): Badge of Henry VIII.,
  typifying the union of England (the rose) with Spain (the
  pomegranate) in the persons of Henry and Katherine of Aragon.
  (Fig. 26): A Tabard from a brass of 1444. The arms: Argent,
  a chevron between three crosses patée sable. (In describing
  a coat of arms, the colour of the shield or field is always
  given first, in this case being argent or white.) (Fig. 27):
  Crest of the Duke of Hamilton, “an oak tree covered with
  golden acorns, the trunk being cut transversely by a frame
  saw, on the blade of which is inscribed the word ‘_Through_’.”
  This commemorates the fact that an ancestor of the Duke of
  Hamilton, when fleeing before his enemies, was pursued closely
  into a wood, accompanied only by a faithful retainer. He
  bribed two woodcutters, who were sawing the trunk of an oak
  tree, to let him and his servant take their places. Soon after
  the fugitives had commenced sawing, their pursuers came up
  and questioned them (thinking them to be woodcutters) as to
  the whereabouts of the men they were pursuing. The servant,
  frightened, began to falter, but Hambledon sternly bade him go
  on with his sawing and cut “through.” After reaching a place
  of safety, Sir Gilbert de Hambledon adopted the above crest
  and motto, and they have continued in the family to this day.
  (Fig. 28): “Shield for Peace” of the Black Prince, described
  heraldically as “sable, three ostrich feathers, two and one,
  the quill of each passing through a scroll argent.” The Black
  Prince was, according to Mr. Fox-Davies, probably so called
  on account of black being his livery colour, and that his own
  retainers and followers wore the livery of black. (Fig. 29):
  Badge of Richard II.--a white hart. (Fig. 30): Upper part of a
  heraldic achievement. Over the shield is placed an esquire’s
  helmet surmounted by a crest upon a torse or wreath, with a
  lambrequin or mantling between the wreath and the helmet.
  The _torse_, representing two twisted silken scarves, was
  worn to hide the junction of the crest with the helmet. It
  must consist of six links alternatively of metal and colour
  (the livery colours of the arms). The mantling was a “little
  mantle” depending from the crown of the helmet and hanging
  over the back of the neck as a protection against heat. In
  the course of a fight it would become rent and slashed. Hence
  it has become the custom to make it very ragged as a sign of
  honour. (Fig. 31): Crest of William Earl of Salisbury, c.
  1344, from his seal.]



THE TUDOR NAVY.


Henry VII. founded the first English permanent dockyard at Portsmouth,
and built in 1495 the first dry dock in England. During his reign 85
vessels at least were added to the Navy, some being purchased, some
taken as prizes, and others (about 46) built.

The first great ship in mediæval times was the _Great Harry_, built by
Henry VII. in 1488, and costing £14,000; but up to this time vessels
had no portholes from which the guns could be fired.

This was the invention of a ship-builder of Brest, named Descharges,
in 1500, and by its adoption, guns could be fired from the lower
decks. The early portholes, however, were so small that the guns could
consequently only be worked in one direction. This did not matter very
much, as it was usual, on account of the difficulties of loading, only
to fire the guns once or twice, and then to run alongside the enemy and
board him.

In 1515 the great English man-of-war, _Harry Grace à Dieu_, was
built by Henry VIII. She had two decks, and carried 14 heavy guns on
the lower deck, 12 on the upper deck, and 46 other guns arranged in
different quarters of the vessel--a total of 72 guns. The heavy guns
weighed from 2,000 to 3,000 lbs., and gave the English ships a distinct
advantage over their less heavily armed enemies.

She had four masts and a bowsprit, all square rigged. There were two
sails on each of the first and second masts (“foer” and “mayne”),
and a lateen sail on each of the other two masts (“mayne mizzen” and
“bonaventure”).

The _Harry_ was estimated at 1,000 or 1,500 tons, the system of
measuring a ship at the time being to estimate how many tons or tun
casks of wine she could carry.

The other ships of war built in this reign were constructed on similar
lines to the _Harry_, but on a smaller scale. At this time the
larger ships of the Navy were divided into two classes, “ships” and
“galliasses,” the latter being huge galleys propelled by sweeps or
large oars.

As progress was made, the height of the fore-castles was lowered,
and the keels of these ships were covered with a lead sheathing. In
the reign of Elizabeth there was a considerable improvement in the
general construction of the vessels. They were not made of large size,
but under the direction of Sir John Hawkins they were built on longer
keels, with finer lines and lower superstructures than before, and
on account of these improvements they were capable of carrying more
sail and sailing more swiftly. The sides of ships were painted black
and white or green and white or timber colour. Figureheads (lions or
dragons) at the bows and the Royal Arms in gold and colours at the
stern were used to decorate them. It is interesting to note that the
cooking galley was solidly built of bricks and mortar upon the gravel
ballast down in the hold.

The large vessels continued to have four masts, and the armament was
the same as in the reign of Henry VIII., the largest guns, “great
ordnance,” being 12 feet long, with a bore of 8½ inches, and an
extreme range of about one mile. The largest ships had from 40 to 60 of
these “great ordnance,” and there were also provided for each ship 200
arquebuses or cross-bows, 40 longbows, and 180 sheaves of arrows.

It had been the custom for many years to carry a great many soldiers
in each ship, in addition to the crew of sailors. The _Great Harry_
carried “soldiers 349, marines 301, and gunners 50.” The soldiers
consisted of musketeers and archers, allotted to each ship under their
own officers. The captain was not selected for his skill as a sailor;
in fact, he was also the King’s Master of the Horse and a soldier by
profession.

The actual handling of the ship was left to the Master. At the end of
the sixteenth century the war vessels no longer carried soldiers, the
sailors being trained to fight and sail the ships themselves. In the
reign of Elizabeth, too, the custom of putting landsmen in command was
modified, and seamen-captains, such as Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher,
commanded some of the fighting ships of the Royal Navy.

After any special service on which the vessels had been engaged was
completed, the ships were laid up, the captains retired to private
life, and the seamen, who were paid by the week or the month, were
discharged; only a small body of officers and men, ship-keepers, being
retained to take charge of the vessel in harbour.

It is interesting to find that the following was the pay of some of the
various ranks of the Navy about 1588:

Admiral, from £3 6s. 8d. to 15s. per day; Captain, 2s. 6d. per day. All
the other ranks were paid by the month: Lieutenant (one only on each
ship), £3; Master, £1 to £3 2s. 6d.; Preacher, £2 to £3; Boatswain,
13s. 9d. to £1 10s.; Master Carpenter, 17s. 6d. to £1 5s.; Surgeon,
£1; Cook, 13s. 9d. to 17s. 6d.; Sailor, 10s. (In the time of Henry
VIII. the sailor only received 5s. per month.) As an instance of the
religious feeling that existed in those times, the Preachers said
prayers twice a day, “and there was, besides, the singing of a psalm
at watch setting, a very old custom in the English sea service.”

With regard to the clothing of the sailors, Edward IV. is said to have
provided “jackets,” probably a kind of uniform, and the practice was
continued by Henry VII. Henry VIII. also, as long as he had ample funds
(from his late father’s treasury), clothed the sailors in the Tudor
colours (white and green), cloth being worn by the sailors and damask
and satin, by the officers.

Sailors were allowed a gallon of beer a day, as water was not carried
on men-of-war until the middle of the seventeenth century.

Henry VIII. is said to have “refashioned the Navy in the direction of
shipbuilding, armament, and administration. He may be said to have
created it, since from his reign it has been recognised as the special
national arm.” In Elizabeth’s time the standing strength of the Navy
was about 2,000 to 3,000 men.

[Illustration: PLATE 30.

  (Fig. 1): The _Ann Gallant_, a man-of-war constructed in the
  reign of Henry VIII. (1546). The lofty forecastle and poop
  were still found in the ships of this reign. Vessels were now
  built “carrel” fashion, _i.e._, with the planks laid edge to
  edge, instead of “clincher” built, where the planks overlap
  one another; for it was considered that the former style of
  building gave greater strength. (Fig. 2): An Elizabethan
  man-of-war. The St. George’s Cross, which was the national
  flag, and was only permitted to men-of-war, is carried at the
  main-top, while the Tudor flag of green and white is carried
  at the stern. Fighting tops will be seen on all the masts; the
  high poop is very noticeable, while the forecastle has almost
  disappeared.]



PLANTAGENET COSTUME.


During the Plantagenet period, for the first times the effigies of
English sovereigns give authentic representation of regal costume in
form and colour (having been painted to imitate the actual clothing).

The Royal Robes of Henry II., Richard I., and John consist of (1) an
undergarment with close-fitting sleeves; (2) a tunic-like garment with
loose sleeves, called a _dalmatica_, which is girded round the waist
by a belt; (3) a mantle, richly embroidered, covering all. The costume
of the nobles was similar in form and style to these, stockings and
chausses being worn, and the habit of “cross-gartering” the leg from
the toe to above the knee was continued; but during the reigns of these
soverigns, splendour of appearance was studied rather than quaintness
of shape.

The costume of ladies consisted of (1) an under robe with sleeves,
close-fitting at the wrist; (2) a loose garment, like the dalmatica,
but without sleeves; (3) a mantle. A head-dress, called the _wimple_,
was worn. This consisted of a piece of silk or linen passing under the
chin, with the ends gathered overhead, and was first mentioned in the
reign of John. It was worn with a veil hanging down by the sides of the
face and over the back of the head.

A purse to hold money for the giving of alms was suspended from the
girdle. It is worthy of note that the general costume of nuns at the
present day is, in all but colour, the usual dress of women of the
thirteenth century.

The dress of the lower classes did not vary much from that of the
preceding period. It consisted of a plain tunic, strong boots, and a
hood or hat for the head, with coarsely made gloves without separate
fingers. A cap called a _coif_, fitting close to the head and fastened
under the chin, was often worn by men of all classes.

During the reign of Henry III. the general costume of men consisted
of the tunic, open in front to the waist, chausses or stockings and
drawers. Mantles and cloaks were only used for State or for travelling,
the materials used for these being very rich.

A garment called a _super-totus_ (over-all), acting as an overcoat, was
commonly worn. It consisted of a circular piece of cloth with a hole
in the centre, through which the head was passed, and to it was often
attached a hood or _capuchon_, which became very popular and held its
own for about 300 years.

The costumes of women and of ordinary citizens were essentially the
same as in the preceding reigns, but the hair of the ladies was
gathered up into a network or caul of gold and silver filigree, instead
of being arranged in plaits.

Edward I. dressed in a very plain manner, differing little from an
ordinary citizen, and consequently there was little extravagance of
dress in his reign. The ladies, however, wore their garments unconfined
at the waist, very full, and with long trains.

On account of their extravagance in this respect, they were very much
satirised by contemporary writers. They also wore a very ugly form
of the wimple. There was no change in the dress of the lower classes
excepting that a kind of smock frock, made generally of canvas or
fustian, was worn by both sexes. Edward II., with his favourites,
Gaveston and the Despensers, made the Court “a wild debauch of costume
and foppish eccentricities.”

The costume of ladies changed very little during this reign, but the
practice of wearing the head uncovered became more general.

In the costume of men, the greatest change was the displacement of the
loose tunic or dalmatica by a garment called the _côte-hardi_, fitting
tightly from the neck to the waist, with a skirt below.

The hood or capuchon was modified by the tail or point at the back,
being extended until it reached to the waist, this tail being often
wound round the neck in cold weather as a kind of muffler.

A similar kind of hood was also in use, covering the head and shoulders
and reaching to the elbow.

In this reign a new source of authentic information is available in the
brasses which are found in our churches. They are very well preserved,
and show the details of costume very clearly and accurately. For this
reason they are invaluable.

Edward III. has been called “the King who taught the English people how
to dress,” and it is worthy of note that the costumes worn during his
reign followed the lines of the body itself.

The use of the côti-hardi increased. It was often made of very
expensive materials, and long narrow strips of white cloth called
_tippets_ were added to the sleeves, reaching from the elbow to the
knee.

Many garments were parti-coloured, _i.e._, one side was one colour and
the other side of another colour. It is interesting to note that black
came into use as a mourning colour during the fourteenth century. A
mantle was worn by men over the côti-hardi, reaching to the ankles
and fastened on the right shoulder by several buttons, while the hood
was fastened to the mantle. In this reign the chausses were made like
trunk hose, and fitted tightly to the limbs. Pointed shoes were worn,
and a curious form of hat with turned-up brim and tall feathers was
introduced. The lower class of labourers dressed as their fancy guided
them, so that all the fashions of preceding reigns may be recognised in
their attire.

The ladies dressed very sumptuously during the reign of Edward III. An
innovation in their costume was a kind of spencer or waistcoat, faced
and bordered with fur, to which sometimes sleeves reaching to the waist
were worn. The côti-hardi was also adopted as a feminine garment.

In the reign of Richard II. the costumes were ever changing, the
King himself being the greatest fop, and extravagances in form and
sumptuousness of material was carried to a remarkable excess. Holinshed
says “he had one cote which he caused to be made for him of gold and
(precious) stones, valued at 30,000 marks” (a mark being 13s. 4d.).

The famous portrait of Richard II. in Westminster Abbey is a fine
example of the dress of an extravagant King of that time. The fashion
of embroidering the dress with heraldic devices, family badges,
initials, and mottoes became common during this period. The edges of
the garments were also cut and scalloped, very richly decorated, and
often set with precious stones.

The servants of the nobility were sumptuously attired, and there was
universal extravagance throughout the nation. So extreme was the dress
of the courtiers that it was said to be difficult to distinguish the
sex of the wearer if the face were turned away. Costumes were not only
worn wide and flowing, but they sometimes went to the other extreme,
the garments being worn very short and tight-fitting.

The shoes were made with very long points called _crackowes_ (so named
from Cracow, in Poland). Sometimes the points were so long that they
were fastened to the knee by chains of gold and silver.

Ladies’ dresses in this reign did not differ much from those of Edward
III.’s, but tippets were discarded, and the dresses were ornamented,
like the men’s, with heraldic devices, initials, etc.

Chaucer has given us the best information regarding the costumes of the
different grades of English society during this reign.

The upper classes wore a short _jupon_, or tight-fitting vest,
parti-coloured, with narrow waist belt and tight sleeves. A loose body
garment, with full-hanging scalloped sleeves, was also worn. Over all
was worn a great gown, trailing on the ground, with full, long sleeves
and a high collar fitting tightly under the chin. Both hoods and felt
caps were worn, and a peculiar variety of the latter was in fashion
formed of strips arranged in fan fashion.

The hair of the men was worn long, and was curled with great care. The
beard was forked, and the moustaches were long and drooping.

The lower orders varied little in their dress from that of the reign of
Edward III.

[Illustration: PLATE 31.

  (Fig. 1): A nobleman of the thirteenth century. (MS. Bod.
  Auct. D., iv. 17.) A good example of the costume of the
  nobility of the time. The dalmatica is plainly shown, open
  up the front. In the MS. it is red, decorated with groups
  of spots, with a white lining. The mantle is blue; the long
  gloves are green. Red chausses are worn on the legs, with a
  cross-gartering of gold from the toes upwards. The hat is
  blue, and a small portion of the knickers is also shown. (Fig.
  2): The hood or capuchon, with a long tail as worn in the
  reign of Edward II. (Fig. 3): Costume of a man in the reign
  of Edward III., from the brass of Robert Braunche, 1364, at
  King’s Lynn. He is dressed in the plain costume of the period,
  while a hat with a feather is worn over the hood. (Figs. 4 and
  5): Hats of the time of Edward III., probably made of white
  felt, with coloured turned-up brims and long feathers. (Fig.
  6): Costume of a youth in Early Plantagenet times. He wears
  an ornamental tippet round the neck, with a plain, bordered
  tunic, tight at the waist, and closed all round. He also
  wears chausses and high boots. (Fig. 7): Costume of a lady
  in the reign of Henry III., from Matthew Paris’s “Lives of
  the Offas.” (Cotton MS., Nero D 1.) The dress is very simple,
  there is an absence of ornament or decoration, and the gown
  is loose, falling to the feet in ample folds. (Figs. 8 and
  9): Hoods at the time of Edward II. (Fig. 8): Shows the hood,
  closely fitting to the head and neck, with the point that
  usually hangs down drawn up over the head. (Fig 9): Shows the
  long tail of the hood wound around the head. (Figs. 10 and
  11): The ordinary costume of the labouring classes during the
  time of Edward II. (Royal MS., 14 E 3.) The man wears a long
  gown, buttoned from the neck to the waist, with loose hanging
  sleeves below the elbow, showing the tight sleeve of the time.
  The head and shoulders are covered by a hood hanging down. The
  shoes reach to the ankle, are slightly ornamented, and have
  pointed toes. The woman carries a distaff, and wears a hood or
  kerchief swathed round the head and knotted at the side. She
  has a wide, short gown, which, being caught up under the arm,
  shows the under garment and high buttoned boots. (Fig 12):
  Bronze figure of a daughter of Edward III., from his tomb in
  Westminster Abbey (1377). She wears a dress, however, which
  was in vogue twenty years earlier. The hair is arranged in
  square plaits at the sides of the head. There is an absence
  of any decorative material round the low-cut neck, and she
  has vertical front pockets in her tightly fitting gown, with
  long streamers hanging from the arms down to the feet. (Figs.
  13 and 14): Two methods of “doing the hair” in the time of
  Edward I. (Fig. 14): Shows the hair enclosed in a caul or net,
  and is spoken of as “the reticulated head-dress.” (Fig. 15):
  Head-dress from the Braunche Brass. (King’s Lynn, 1354.) (Fig.
  16): The Coif.]

[Illustration: PLATE 32.

  (Fig. 1): Bronze figure of Lionel Duke of Clarence (a son of
  Edward III.), from the tomb of the latter in Westminster Abbey
  (1377). It illustrates the ordinary costume of a gentleman
  at the end of the fourteenth century. He is attired in the
  côti-hardi or jupon, fastened down the front with buttons,
  and wears an ornamented girdle around the hips, while a
  large, full mantle reaches down to the ankles. The chausses
  are very similar in appearance to trunk hose, and fit tightly
  to the limbs; while the beard is forked after the fashion of
  the period. (Fig 2): Brass of Joan, Lady de Cobham, 1320, at
  Cobham, Kent. She wears a kind of wimple under the chin called
  the _gorget_ (which copies a part of the knightly armour of
  the period), with a couvre-chef over the head falling on
  to the shoulders, completing the head-dress. She wears an
  under garment with tight-fitting sleeves, which are closely
  buttoned to the wrist, and a loose robe with loose sleeves
  terminating below the elbow. (Fig 3): A fop of the reign
  of Richard II., when the fashion of “cutting” the mantles in
  patterns reached a very absurd limit. The sleeves are cut
  at the edges into a number of acanthus-like lobes, and are
  lined with another colour. The robe has a high collar, is
  very full, and hangs in loose folds to the ground. The shoes,
  which are elaborately pierced and cut, are of the long-toed
  variety known as “crackowes,” and the point of the toe is
  fastened to the leg below the knee. He also carries a long
  purse or bag suspended from the girdle. (Harl. MS., 1319.)
  (Fig. 4): Costume of the early part of Edward III.’s reign.
  A semi-military dress with a breastplate worn under the
  côte-hardi. A very characteristic feature of the costume is
  formed by the tippets--long strips of white cloth, which are
  fastened to the arms above the elbow. (MS. 17 E vi.) (Fig.
  5): Costume of a labourer of the better class of the time of
  Edward III. The tail of the hood is worn around the head.
  (Fig 6): Costume of a nobleman in the reign of Richard II.,
  probably representing one of his royal uncles. (Royal MS., 20
  B vi.) It shows another extravagant dress of the period. The
  gown is abbreviated to the hips; the sleeves are wide, and
  the chausses are tight-fitting to the limbs; while the shoes
  have long pointed toes. He wears a jewelled circlet around the
  forehead. (Figs. 7, 8, 9): Costumes of ladies in the reign of
  Richard II. (Fig. 7): Shows the sideless garment faced with
  fur, terminating in long, full skirts worn over the kirtle (or
  loose gown). (Fig. 9): Shows a lady with the outer sleeveless
  garment, so long as to be gathered up and carried under the
  arm. (Figs. 10, 11, 12): Various forms of head-dresses of men
  of the reign of Richard II. (Fig. 13): A singular kind of hood
  covering the head and shoulders, reaching to the elbows, and
  having pointed ends spreading out at each side. This was worn
  in the time of Edward III.]



MAIL ARMOUR.


Pure mail armour, _i.e._, armour worn without additional defence over
the mail but the heaume, was in use from 1150 A.D. to 1300 A.D., but
its use was finally discontinued about 1350 A.D.

There were several kinds of mail, and different ways of representing it
on effigies, brasses, etc., _viz._:

    (_a_) Mail apparently formed of rings or _mailles_, sewn on
    to a leather garment by the edge only, and arranged so that
    one ring overlapped the next.

    (_b_) Mail formed of rows of rings sewn on strips of linen
    or leather, the strips being then applied to the garment.

    (_c_) Mail formed of rings interlocked with each other
    (chain mail).

    (_d_) Mail called “banded mail,” in which double lines
    separated each row of links.

    (_e_) Armour formed of rings or small discs of metal sewn
    flat all over the garment.

Another similar kind of armour was formed of scales or overlapping
plates of leather or metal, fastened to a leather or linen foundation.

The chain mail or armour formed of interlacing rings was finally
adopted throughout Western Europe, being copied from that of the
Saracens in the Crusades.

We have not many contemporary illustrations of the armour and knightly
apparel in the period between the Norman Conquest and the Edwardian era.

There are but few illuminated MSS.; sepulchral monuments are not
numerous, and the valuable series of monumental brasses had not begun.

The plaited or mail shirt of the Early Norman was superseded by a
stout, quilted tunic, also called the _hauberk_, reaching to the knees
and with short sleeves, and a _coif_ or hood of mail on the head.

Frequently a metal breastplate or _plastron-de-fer_, and a steel cap
or _chapel-de-fer_, were worn under the mail. Sometimes over the
coif a close-fitting iron helmet was worn. The hauberk sleeves were
lengthened, covering the hands as mittens or fingerless gloves of
strong leather strengthened by mail or pieces of metal.

The legs were covered with long leggings or trews of mail called
_chausses_, protecting all the lower limbs from the thighs to the toes.
In the twelfth century the chain mail was made very light, like that of
the Saracens. It was made of steel rings, connected with each other,
without being fastened to the leather garment worn underneath--similar,
in fact, to the ordinary steel purse. On account of it great cost, this
mail was not worn by the common soldiers. Beneath the mail hauberk,
as an additional defence, and to relieve the pressure of the mail, a
quilted tunic was worn, known as a _haketon_, or a _gambeson_.

The haketon was made of buckram, stuffed with cotton-wool and quilted.
The gambeson was a sleeved tunic, of stout, coarse linen, stuffed with
flax or wool, and sewn longitudinally.

In the reign of Richard I., the close-fitting helmet was superseded by
the _Heaume_, great helm or tilting helmet. It was large enough to put
easily over the head, and long enough to rest on the shoulders.

It was at first nearly cylindrical, and generally had a flat top. There
were openings in front to allow the wearer to see and breathe. During
the mail period, no heaume is represented with a movable visor.

In monumental effigies and brasses, a knight is often represented with
his heaume under his head as a pillow, and it was the custom actually
to use it for that purpose when resting after a day’s journey or
fighting.

The heaume was only put on when actual fighting in battle or in the
lists was about to commence. At other times, it was carried at the
saddle-bow, and, lest it should be dropped or struck off when on the
head, it was fastened to the body armour by a chain, passing through
a ring in front. Towards the close of the twelfth century the use of
armorial bearings was introduced.

Each knight assumed a device, which was exclusively used by him, by
which he was recognised, and which became hereditary in his family.
This device was usually displayed on the shield, and on the surcoat,
when the use of that garment was adopted.

The form of the shield was changed from that of a kite to that of a
“heater,” or flat-iron. It was also made much smaller.

The arms of the knight were the sword, the lance, the mace, the
battle-axe, the military flail, and the martel. The sword belt, slung
over the shoulder in Norman times, was now fastened around the waist or
hips. The sword varied little in form from that of Norman times.

The lance was never used as a javelin, but was made strong, generally
of uniform thickness, and varied in length. The head was very broad,
and without barbs.

All knights had a pointed or swallow-tailed pennon fastened to the
lance; but nobles who brought a number of retainers to battle displayed
a square banner on the lance. These knights were called _Bannerets_.

Foot soldiers were armed with the cross-bow--a formidable weapon with
which short, stout missiles, called bolts or quarrels, were shot--the
long-bow, the halberd, the bill, the guisarme (all shafted weapons),
and the sling. In time, the chausses were cut into two pieces at
the knees; the lower part, corresponding with the modern stocking,
protected the leg, and the upper portion protected the thigh. In order
to protect the knee, a knee-cap, or _genouillière_ of cuir bouilli, was
fastened over it.

The sleeves of the hauberk were similarly cut into two parts at the
elbow, and elbow caps, or _coudières_, of leather came into use over
the elbow joint.

At the end of the 12th century, a flowing surcoat of linen or silk was
worn over the armour. This generally bore the same heraldic device as
the shield, and its use was probably to lessen the effect of the sun’s
rays upon the mail. At first, this surcoat had no sleeve, but in the
second half of the 13th century sleeves were added to it, and at the
same time the hauberk was shortened.

About 1270, the mailed mittens were divided into fingers, and the
helmet was rounded at the top.

The spurs consisted of single spikes, and were called “pryck” spurs.

[Illustration: PLATE 33.

  (Fig. 1): Brass of Sir Roger de Trumpington, in Trumpington
  Church, Cambridge, 1289. The head rests on the Heaume, which
  is of large size. The latter is fastened to a rope around the
  waist, by means of a chain. The knight is represented with
  his legs crossed. It was thought at one time that this showed
  that the knight had taken part in the Crusades, but it is
  now considered by some that he was probably a benefactor to
  the church. Others think that it was merely a device of the
  engraver to lessen the stiff appearance of the figure. All
  the features of mail armour to which attention has already
  been directed, may easily be seen in this figure, and the
  knees are covered by genouillières (probably of cuir bouilli),
  which are the first pieces of additional armour worn over the
  mail. It will be noticed in this plate that there are four
  ways in which mail armour is represented, viz., in Figs. 1,
  2, and 3, 5, and 9. (Fig. 2): Head of the effigy of William
  Earl of Pembroke, which shows very clearly the way in which
  the _coif de mailles_ was secured to the head, and lapped
  round the face, being fastened to the left side, near the
  temple, by a strap and buckle. (Fig. 3): Head of an effigy in
  Pershore Church, Worcestershire, in which the lappet of the
  _coif_ is represented as unloosed. (Fig. 4): A great heaume
  of the 13th century, found at Eynesford Castle, Kent. The
  ring at the bottom is for the attachment of the heaume to
  the body armour. (Fig. 5): The heads of a group of soldiers,
  from the Painted Chamber at Westminster. In this will be seen
  the great diversity of equipment found among knights. In the
  rear are shown two banners and a pennon. (Fig. 6): Heaume at
  Staunton, Notts., 1312. On the top is seen the staple for
  affixing the crest to the heaume. (Fig. 7): The heaume of
  Richard I., taken from his Great Seal, showing a fan-shaped
  ornament at the top, with a lion painted upon the crown.
  (Fig. 8): Soldiers in a boat, engaged in siege operations.
  One has a staff sling, which is apparently charged with some
  combustibles. The archer is also discharging either a bag of
  quick-lime or some combustible. The slingers were generally
  bare-headed, and wore no body armour. The archer wears a coif
  of mail or leather on his head, and a sleeveless hauberk on
  his body. The third soldier carries a pole-axe, a sword, and a
  spear. (Fig. 9): Head from the brass of Sir John D’Abernoun,
  in Stoke D’Abernoun Church, Surrey, 1277. This is the earliest
  known example of brass. The chain mail is represented in
  great detail, every link being shown. Fig. A is a portion
  of the mail enlarged. (Fig. 10): A spear with pennon, from
  the same brass. (Fig. 11): A martel-de-fer, which was used
  for breaking or dragging off the rings of the hauberk, and
  opening a passage for other deadly weapons. (Fig. 12): A
  guisarme, a powerful, scythe-shaped, shafted weapon, used by
  foot soldiers. (Fig. 13): A banner, such as was carried by
  Knights Bannerets, who must have a following of at least fifty
  men-at-arms before they were qualified to carry this.]



EARLY ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE.


_The Transition._--At the close of the Norman period, the quality
of the masonry was very good, and the workmen had learnt how to
economise their materials. The improvement continued until the work
reached a high degree of perfection. The mouldings, the ornament, the
sculpture, and all other details are of a lighter style, and more
highly finished. The architecture that remains of this period is aptly
termed “Transitional.” The transition, from the round-arched Norman
style, with its heavy and massive appearance, and its strongly-marked
horizontal lines, to the graceful Early English style, with its
prominent vertical lines, is very gradual, and the first step in
this direction was the introduction to general use of the pointed
arch. This is considered the most characteristic element of Gothic
architecture--its ever-increasing use permitting the slenderness of
proportion, lightness, and loftiness of effect to be carried out to a
marvellous extent.

Professor Freeman has traced the adoption of the pointed arch in
Western Europe to influence of Saracenic architecture, which was
extended in the West through the Crusades.

In the early examples, the features and general characteristics of the
buildings are, in the main, the same as in the Norman style, but with
the pointed arch employed in place of the round-headed one.

_Gothic Architecture._--This term was originally applied to the mediæval
styles at the time of the Renaissance. It was given as a term of
contempt when it was the fashion to write Latin and to expect it to
become the universal language.

English Gothic is usually divided into three periods or styles, viz.:
Early English, Decorated, and Perpendicular, prevailing (approximately)
during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries respectively, although there
was no strict division between them.

_Early English_ Reigns of Richard I., John and Henry III. (A.D.
1189-1272).--The characteristics of this style as compared with
the Norman are, “the comparative lightness of the structures, the
long, narrow, lancet-shaped, pointed windows, the boldly projecting
buttresses and pinnacles, the acute pitch of the roof, and generally
the variety, the beauty of proportion, and the singular grace and
vigour of the ornaments.”

Internally, we have pointed arches, supported on slender and lofty
pillars. When the style had become fully established, the builders
appear to have revelled in it even to exuberance and excess.

Church building had received a severe check in the reign of John,
during the interdict of 16 years that rested upon the kingdom, but
soon after the accession of Henry III., who was himself an enthusiast,
architecture revived and developed very rapidly.

One of the chief characteristics of the Early English styles consists
in the _mouldings_, in which a new principle was embodied. This was the
idea of obtaining effective combinations of light and shade by means
of “undercutting.” Such a combination of projecting rounds and deep
hollows would present to the eye the appearance of alternate bands
of light and shade, the depths of the hollows causing them to appear
almost black.

The most characteristic ornament of this style is the “_dog-tooth_” or
“_tooth_” ornament. (Pl. 34, Figs. 9 and 11.) It consists of a series
of flowers, each of the four petals, bent backwards, the division
between the petals being placed in the middle of the sides of the
pyramid thus formed.

A very striking peculiarity is the foliage used in sculpture, which
is technically known as “_stiff-leaf foliage_,” though the stiffness
is in the stems rather than in the leaves. The latter take the form
of a conventional three-lobed foliage. (Pl. 35, Fig. 1.) It copied no
individual leaf, “though it has all the essential qualities of Nature.”
Its use gives great richness of effect to the building, and is supposed
to have been developed by gradual change from the Classical Orders,
chiefly from the Ionic Volute.

The _Crocket_ was also introduced as a new feature in this style. It is
an ornament used to decorate the edges of the architectural units, and
is supposed to be derived from the crook of a bishop’s pastoral staff.
In fine Early English work the Abacus (Pl. 35, Fig. 1A) is circular,
and is deeply undercut.

The _Pillars_ are usually round or octagonal. They are built of large
blocks of dressed stone, and so differ from the Norman pillars, which
consisted of rubble with a facing of stone. In the more important
buildings they are formed of four or more slender shafts of Purbeck
marble, which are placed around a large circular column of stone, and
their dark colour causes them to “stand out” against the paler central
stone pier.

The _Arches_ vary in form from a very blunt to a very sharp point, but
they are generally acutely pointed, and are often richly moulded, as in
Westminster Abbey. The mouldings, however, are the safest guide to the
style, as the form of the pointed arch largely depends on convenience.
As a rule, they are generally more acutely pointed in the cathedrals
and large churches, whilst they are broader in small churches.

The _Windows_ in earlier examples are plain, long, and narrow, with
acutely pointed heads. They are frequently spoken of as “lancet-shaped.”

The earliest form is that of a single light, with arched head and
without moulding of any kind, external or internal. (Pl. 34, Fig.
1.) Windows of four lights are occasionally met with, but generally
they consist of three, five, or seven lights, rising in height to the
central one. They are often included under an arched moulding called a
“dripstone.” (Pl. 34, Figs. 2, 3, 4A.)

Square-headed windows are not uncommon, but sometimes in these cases
there is an arch or a dripstone in the form of an arch over the window.

When two lights were combined under one arch, a blank space called
a “tympanum” was left between the heads of the lights and the arch;
but in time this space began to be pierced with another small light,
generally in the form of a circle, a trefoil, or a quatrefoil, which
both relieved the blank space and admitted more light. (Pl. 34, Fig.
3.) When this is done in the stone work, it is called _plate tracery_,
and from this is developed the window tracery of later times.

The Normans were doubtful about their skill in making ceilings of
stone to cover large spaces, and consequently they generally built
timber roofs. Over small spaces, however, they erected stone ceilings
or “vaults,” which were quite plain. In this period the vaults are
distinguished by having ribs in the angles of the groins, with carved
masses of foliage in stone, called bosses, at the intersection of the
ribs. (Pl. 34, Fig. 5.)

The _Buttresses_ (Pl. 35, Figs. 4, 5, and 6), instead of being merely
flat strips of masonry, slightly projecting from the wall, as in the
Norman Period, have now a bold projection, generally diminished upwards
by stages, and terminate in a plain slope or a gable. By the use of
this form of buttress it was possible to reduce the thickness of the
wall. The corner of the building had a pair of buttresses at right
angles to the wall, as if each wall had been continued beyond the point
of junction--never one buttress placed diagonally, as in subsequent
periods.

_Flying Buttresses_ at this period became prominent features in large
buildings. They are arches springing from the wall buttresses to the
walls, and they carry off the weight and consequent “thrust” of the
roof, over the central space, obliquely down to the external buttress,
and so down to the ground.

The _Roof_ was formed of timber, and was covered with the material
most easily procurable in the district. A thatch of straw or reeds
was probably the most common; shingles were procured where oak was
plentiful, and slabs of stone and slate or tiles where they were
obtainable. Lead was generally used only on very important buildings.

Spires were also often constructed of timber, and where the framework
has become warped and twisted by the weather, we have a grotesque
appearance, as in the twisted spire of Chesterfield.

[Illustration: PLATE 34.

  (Fig. 1): Simple lancet window. (Fig. 2): A triple-lancet
  window from Warmington, in Northants (about A.D. 1230). The
  lights are placed under an arch or dripstone with the “eye”
  solid. (Fig. 3): A window of two lights, with a quatrefoil
  of plate tracery in the head, and a dripstone, terminated by
  the characteristic ornament called a “mask” or a “buckle,”
  from Charlton-on-Otmoor, Oxfordshire (about A.D. 1240). (Fig.
  4): Five lancet windows under one arch, with the spandrils
  pierced, forming what are called the “eyes” of the window,
  from Irthlingborough, Northants (about A.D. 1280). (Fig. 5):
  Early English vault, groined, with moulded ribs on the groins
  only, from Salisbury Cathedral (about A.D. 1240). (Fig. 6):
  Pointed arch in the porch, from Barnack, Northants (about
  A.D. 1250). (Fig. 7): A trefoil-arched doorway. (Fig. 8):
  Characteristic Early English moulding (in section). (Fig.
  9): “Dog-tooth” ornament in profile, showing how the name
  probably arose. (Fig. 10): A transitional tower and spire,
  from St. Denis, Sleaford, Lincolnshire. It shows a band of
  interlaced, round-headed arches, while in the belfry light it
  exhibits the pointed arch. The four corners are filled up with
  half-pyramids inclining from the angles. This angle-pyramid,
  which marks the transition from the square form of the tower
  to the pointed form of the spire, is known as the _broach_,
  and the “broach-spire” is quite the characteristic form
  assumed by the early stone spires in England. (Fig. 11):
  “Dog-tooth” ornament, front view. (Fig. 12): Door with
  “shouldered” arch, from Lutton, Huntingdonshire (about A.D.
  1200).]

[Illustration: PLATE. 35.

  (Fig. 1): Capitals in Lincoln Cathedral (A.D. 1220), showing
  the moulded abacus (A) with undercutting, “stiff-leaf”
  foliage, and the “dog-tooth” ornament used between the shafts.
  (Fig. 2): Transitional Norman capital, at Oakham Castle,
  Rutland (built between A.D. 1165 and 1191). An excellent
  specimen of transitional work, retaining a good deal of the
  Norman character, but late and rich. (Fig. 3): Moulded capital
  in the form of a plain bell reversed, from Westminster Abbey
  (A.D. 1250). (Figs. 4, 5, 6): Buttresses. (Fig. 7): Flying
  buttresses, from Westminster Abbey. (Figs. 8 and 9): Plans of
  Early English columns.]



MIXED MAIL AND PLATE ARMOUR.


Arms and armour, with all the accompaniments of chivalry, during the
fourteenth century reached a pitch of great splendour. The French
Wars and the extravagance of costume at the Courts of Edward III. and
Richard II. encouraged this. From the constant use of armour in the
wars and in the tournament, many modifications were found necessary to
render it more comfortable and also more thoroughly protective. Towards
the end of the thirteenth century additions had been made to the
mail for the latter purpose, and this practice was continued in the
fourteenth century by the addition of pieces of “plate” or sheet steel,
until in the early part of the fifteenth century, knights were clothed
in complete suits of plate armour.

The change was, however, very gradual, and the evolution may be best
traced by considering it as taking place in certain fairly definite
stages. The following is the usual division adopted:

_1st Period_: c. 1300 A.D.--c. 1325 A.D. _2nd Period_: c. 1325 A.D.--c.
1335 A.D. _3rd Period_: c. 1335 A.D.--c. 1360 A.D. _4th Period_: c. 1360
A.D.--c. 1405 A.D. _5th or Transition Period_: c. 1405 A.D.--c. 1410 A.D.

_1st Period_: c. 1300 A.D.--c. 1325 A.D. During this period the mail
armour remained practically the same, but steel plates were fastened by
straps (1) over the back of the upper arm and the front of the fore-arm
(the parts most exposed to a blow); (2) over the shins (_jambarts_)
and continued over the front of the feet as a series of metal plates
riveted to one another, called _sollerets_; (3) in front of the
shoulders and to protect the armpits (_roundles_.)

Gauntlets or armoured gloves (with separate fingers) were introduced
about this time.

The surcoat was worn shorter and with less fulness about the body.

_2nd Period_: c. 1325 A.D.--c. 1335 A.D. The surcoat was superseded by
a garment called a _cyclas_, which was slit open and laced up at the
sides, and was much shorter in front than behind. (See Fig. 1, Pl. 36.)
It thus shows the escalloped and fringed border of a padded garment or
_gambeson_ worn between the cyclas and the mail hauberk, while below
the mail was worn another padded garment--the _haketon_.

The whole must have formed a very cumbersome combination. The plates
on the arms were enlarged so as to form cylinders, encasing the limbs,
opening with a hinge at one side and fastening with buckle and strap or
rivets at the other side. Those covering the fore-arm were worn under
the sleeve of the hauberk, which was often cut off below the elbow.

Plates were still worn on the knees, legs, and feet.

The _Basinet_, a comparatively light and close-fitting helmet, was
worn without a mail coif beneath it; but to protect the neck a kind
of tippet of mail called the _camail_ was fastened by laces to the
basinet, and hung down over the breast, back, and shoulders. The
basinet was open at the face or had a movable face-piece (_visor_ or
_ventaille_). In battle it was worn with the face-piece, but for the
tournament the visor was removed and the heaume or great helmet, with
its crest and mantling, placed over it.

The shield was small and of the “heater” shape, and “pryck” spurs gave
place to spurs with rowels.

_3rd Period_: c. 1335 A.D.--c. 1360 A.D. Splinted armour, _i.e._,
armour consisting of small overlapping plates (like the shell of a
lobster), was introduced, and a garment called the _pourpoint_ (like a
haketon, but made of finer material, faced with silk or ornamented with
needlework) was worn over the hauberk.

The surcoat was again worn, shortened to the knee and shaped to fit the
body closely above the waist. The armorial bearings of the wearer were
embroidered in silks upon it.

It must be remembered that there was no uniform--in the modern sense--for
knights and men-at-arms, but each dressed as he liked; and there was
consequently a great variety of arms and armour in a single troop.

_4th or Camail Period_: c. 1360 A.D.--c. 1405 A.D. This is called the
camail period because by this time the custom of wearing the camail had
become universal. The legs and arms were now entirely encased in plates
of armour, with sollerets on the feet, which were acutely pointed at
the toes in imitation of the prevailing civil fashion. The hauberk was
shortened to the middle of the thigh, was sleeveless, and was worn over
a globular breastplate. Roundles disappeared from the shoulders and
elbows, and laminated plates took their place, giving freer movement to
the limbs.

The sleeveless surcoat was now called the _jupon_. It fitted tightly
over the hauberk, and was slightly shorter than it, so that the lower
edge of the hauberk showed behind it. The jupon was made of a rich
material, blazoned with the arms of the wearer, and was escalloped
along the bottom edge.

The long, straight sword, with decorated hilt and scabbard, was hung on
the left side from a richly ornamented belt, and on the right side was
suspended a small, pointed dagger called the _misericorde_.

After 1380 the basinet was made shorter, but the great heaume still
continued to be worn, often being strengthened by an additional plate
on the left side, where the wearer was likely to receive blows.

The sculptured effigy of the Black Prince on his tomb at Canterbury is
a typical representation of a knight of the camail period.

_5th or Transition Period_: c. 1405 A.D.--c. 1410 A.D. There are a
few examples of knights clothed entirely in plate armour, with the
exception of the basinet and camail, and this is therefore called the
Transition Period leading to the time of the complete adoption of plate
armour.

[Illustration: PLATE 36.

  (Fig. 1): Brass of Sir John Creke, in Westley Waterless
  Church, Cambridgeshire, 1325. It shows a pointed and fluted
  basinet with the camail of “banded mail” fastened to it. The
  hauberk, also of banded mail, is seen just above the knees,
  and the legs and arms are covered with the same kind of
  armour. The roundles, taking the form of lions’ faces, are
  seen at the shoulders and elbow. The upper arms are covered
  with plates over the mail, and the fore-arm covered in the
  same way with plates, which pass under the short sleeves of
  the hauberk. The cyclas is seen to be loose, girded at the
  waist, and shorter in front than behind. Under it is shown
  the escalloped edge of the gambeson; beneath that the pointed
  ending of the hauberk, and under that again the folds of
  the haketon may be seen reaching to the knee-caps. Jamberts
  or shin pieces cover the shins, and are continued to cover
  the feet as sollerets. (Fig. 2): A heaume or great helmet,
  worn in the tournament over the basinet and resting upon
  the shoulders (1375). (Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6): Shafted weapons
  of the period. (Fig. 3): A bill, also called a fauchard or
  guisarme, of the time of Richard II. (From a MS.) (Figs. 4
  and 5): Pikes. (Fig. 6): A pole-axe (the voulge). (Fig. 7):
  A knight wearing a gambeson, from the monumental effigy of
  Sir Robert Shurland, c. 1300 (after _Ashdown_). (Fig. 8): A
  heaume, from the brass of Sir Hugh Hastings, 1347 A.D. It
  shows the _mantling_, or little mantle, hanging over the back
  of the helmet, the crest, and the _torse_, or wreath, hiding
  the junction of the crest with the helmet. (Fig. 9): A piece
  of armour, showing the “splints” or small overlapping plates
  in the elbow joint. (Fig. 10): A basinet, showing the loops
  by which the camail is fastened to it. (Fig. 11): Heaume and
  crest of Sir Geoffrey Luterell, from the Luterell Psalter,
  1345 A.D. It has a round top, a movable visor, and a crest
  on which are displayed the wearer’s “arms.” (Fig. 12): A
  “snout-nosed” basinet with movable visor or ventaille of the
  time of Richard II., with the visor raised. (Fig. 13): The
  same with the visor lowered, as on the battlefield. (Fig.
  14): The brass of Sir Robert Symborne, in Little Horkesley
  Church, Essex, 1391 A.D., showing the arms and armour of
  a knight of the camail period. The head is covered with a
  conical basinet (without a face-piece), to which the camail
  of chain mail is fastened. The lower edge of the hauberk is
  shown below the close-fitting, sleeveless jupon which covers
  the body. The arms, legs, and feet are covered with plate
  armour, and the laminated plates which superseded roundles are
  seen at the shoulders and elbows. The hands are protected by
  gauntlets, and the knight is armed with long, straight sword
  and misericorde. (Fig. 15): A mace, from a MS., c. 1350.]



LANCASTRIAN AND YORKIST PERIODS.

MALE COSTUMES.


The effigies of King Henry IV. and his Queen at Canterbury are some of
the most splendid of our royal effigies, uniting richness, grandeur,
and simplicity. The King’s crown is particularly remarkable for its
magnificence (Fig. 1.) Since there had been very great extravagance in
costume during the reign of Richard II., when he came to the throne
Henry revived the sumptuary laws of his predecessors regulating the
quality of the clothing to be worn by the various classes of his
subjects.

Four years after that, all slashing and cutting of garments into
various devices was forbidden; but the people were very fond of
display, and perfect disregard was shown by all classes of the
community to any of these laws. A notable decoration that appeared in
this reign was the collar of SS. Various accounts of its origin have
been given, but the most probable one is that S is the initial letter
of Henry’s motto, “Souveraine,” which he had borne while Earl of Derby.

The houppelande of Richard’s reign, with its high collar, huge sleeves,
and full skirt, was still worn, and is always depicted scarlet in MSS.
The “bag sleeves” came into fashion during this reign. They were of
great size and fulness, but gathered at the wrist and at the shoulders.

In the reign of Henry V. little change was made in costume, for the
minds of men were occupied with more serious matters in the war with
France.

Long and short gowns with large sleeves, either sweeping and indented
at the edge or of the “bag sleeve” variety, were the common upper
garments of all classes.

In some instances small bells were worn, fastened to a baldric or belt
passing diagonally like a sash across the body from the shoulder to the
waist.

Beards were not worn much during this reign, and moustaches were only
partially worn, for the fashion was to be clean shaven, and the hair
was cut close above the ears.

At the commencement of Henry V.’s reign the colour of the surcoat was
again changed to white.

Henry VI. was invariably plain in his dress, and we are told that he
refused to wear the long-pointed shoes worn by the gentry. It is an
interesting reflection on the unsettled condition of the country in
the unfortunate reign of this King that the costumes were numerous and
diverse, being “a curious mixture of the costumes of preceding reigns.”

The most remarkable feature of the fifteenth century was the more
common use of caps and hats of fantastic shapes and the change of form
of the capuchon or hood into a regularly formed crown, with a thick
roll, having a long tippet attached to it and trailing on the ground or
tucked into the girdle. (Fig. _2a_.)

A single feather is sometimes worn in the cap. (Fig. 5.) Long, tight
hose and short boots or buskins, and shoes with high fronts and backs
that turned over each way, were worn, all with long toes.

The gown or jacket begins to be cut even around the shoulders, instead
of being made high up the neck.

The face was still closely shaven.

The state mantles of the King and nobles were made of velvet and lined
with white damask or satin.

Legal and other official habits consisted of long, full gowns, girdled
round the waist and trimmed and lined with fur, according to the rank
of the wearer.

During the reigns of Edward IV., Edward V., and Richard III., a very
characteristic style of costume begins to come into vogue. The store
from which we draw our knowledge--the brasses, effigies, and illuminated
MSS.--is a very extensive one, and owing to the invention of printing
and the use of the wood block for illustration, we have still another
source of information.

A very important feature of the costumes of this time was the excellent
fit of the garments. As Mrs. Ashdown says, in her _British Costume_,
“Broadly speaking, it had been perfectly possible for a dressmaker to
cut out and complete any garment worn by men up to that period; after
the reign of Edward IV. the era of the tailor began.”

In Edward’s reign the jackets and doublets were cut shorter than ever,
the sleeves slit so as to show the large, loose white shirts, and the
shoulders were padded with moss or flock.

Men wore the hair long, and had hats of cloth a quarter of an ell or
more in height, and all wore most sumptuous chains of gold. Shoes with
long, pointed toes, some as much as two feet long, called _poulaines_,
were also worn.

Sumptuary laws were again enacted in this reign against people who
dressed beyond their social position, and both the wearers and the
tailors and shoemakers were subject to fines for transgressing them.

In the reign of Richard III., gentlemen began to wear the long gowns
and more sober costumes that distinguished the reign of Henry VII. The
costumes of the nobility generally consisted of hose or long stockings
tied by _points_ or laces to the doublet, which was open in front,
about half-way down the breast, showing a stomacher or vest, over which
it was laced like a peasant’s bodice.

Over the doublet was worn a long or a short gown, according to fancy
and circumstances, the former hanging loose, the latter full of pleats
before and behind, plain at the sides and girdled tightly about the
waist.

Small caps or “_bonets_” of various shapes were worn. Boots reaching to
the middle of the thigh are frequently seen in the illuminations of the
period.

The hair was worn very bushy behind and at the sides. (Fig. 9.)

Very rich materials were used for the garments of nobles and others.

The costumes of the lower classes during this period followed the more
sober costumes of this and preceding periods, the materials being
coarse and the cut simple.

The costumes of the retainers of the nobility imitated those of their
masters, and were very often made of rich materials and in the extreme
fashion.

[Illustration: PLATE 37.

  (Fig. 1) The Crown of Henry IV., from his effigy in
  Canterbury Cathedral, 1422. It is of beautiful proportion
  and workmanship. (Fig. 2): Brass of Ralph Segrym, M.P.,
  Mayor, 1449, St. John’s Church, Maddermarket, Norwich. This
  is a good example of civilian costume of the time, the baggy
  sleeves being very typical. The cloak is fur-lined, and has
  a fur collar, fastening with three buttons on the right
  shoulder. (Fig. 2_a_): Head-dress of the period, composed
  of a thick roll of stuff encircling the head like a turban,
  having a quantity of cloth attached to its inner edge which
  covers one side, while on the other side a broad band or
  becca of the same material hangs down to the ground. (Harl.
  MS., 2,278.) (Fig. 3): Male costume of Henry IV.’s reign.
  (Harl. MS., 2,332.) The sleeves of the gown are very wide,
  and are gathered tight around the wrist. The gown or tunic
  reaches only to the knee, where it is scalloped in the form
  of leaves. Tight hose and boots reaching above the ankle
  complete the costume. The hair is parted in the front and is
  curled at the sides. (Fig. 4): An Exquisite of the reign of
  Edward IV., wearing a characteristic peaked cap of the time,
  called a _bycocket_, with a black crown and a white brim. His
  short, green jacket has wide sleeves edged with ermine, and
  his chausses are red. (Fig. 5): A hat of the time of Henry
  VI., from Gough’s _Sepulchral Monuments_. (Fig. 5_a_): Head
  of Duke of Bedford, from a portrait of the time of Henry VI.,
  showing the peculiar way in which the hair was worn in this
  and the preceding reign. (Fig. 6): Figure of Richard, Duke of
  Gloucester, afterward Richard III. (From the Royal MS., 15 E.
  4.) He is attired in the most fashionable dress of the day.
  His red hat has a gold band and jewelled buttons to secure
  the feathers. His crimson jacket is furred with deep red, is
  very short, and is gathered in close folds behind, the sleeves
  being extremely long. He wears the Garter around his left leg;
  his hose are blue, and he has the fashionable long-pointed
  shoe and the clog or patten over it. (Fig. 7): Another form of
  the bycocket hat. (Fig. 8): Hat of black cloth with the long
  pendant twisted around the neck. (Harl. MS., 4,379.) (Fig. 9):
  Costume of the time of Edward IV. (Royal MS., 15 E. ii.)]


FEMALE COSTUMES.

Little change was made in the costumes of ladies during these periods,
but there was a more wonderful variety in the head-dresses--many of them
striking and even picturesque--than during any other century of English
history. In the early part of this period the _crespine_ or golden net
caul, into which the hair was gathered (Fig. 12), partly covered by a
veil, was very common. The côte-hardi was still very popular, but many
ladies wore the full outer garment or mantle, called the _houppelande_,
buttoned high up to the neck, with wide sleeves, and reaching down to
the feet. (Fig. 4.)

Long-trained gowns were also worn, with stomachers, trimmed with
fur and velvet, and these displaced the super-tunic. Fur was very
extensively used by all classes, to the great disgust and contempt of
some contemporary writers.

Sumptuary laws passed in the reign of Henry IV. prohibited “the wearing
of furs of ermine, lettice, pure minivers, or grey,” by the wives of
esquires, unless they were noble themselves or their husbands held the
office of Mayor of certain towns.

In the reign of Henry VI. the previous fashions were continued,
with numerous fantastic additions. Towards the end of the reign,
short-waisted gowns were worn, girded tightly at the waist, with
enormous trains and with turn-over collars of fur or velvet coming to a
point in front. Sleeves were worn of all descriptions.

The different varieties of head-dresses were known as (1) the _turban_,
(2) the _horned_ head-dress, (3) the _heart-shaped_ head-dress, and (4)
the _forked_ head-dress.

_The Turban Head-dress_ (Fig. 7) was in fashion for some time, even
continuing until the next century, and was probably based upon the
Turkish turban.

It consisted of a light framework of wire, covered with silk or other
rich material.

_The Horned Head-dress_ (Fig. 6) was probably the most grotesque form
of head-dress worn in this reign. The cauls at the side of the head
were made very large, and horns, from which depended the veil, extended
horizontally on either side of the head. This came in for very severe
condemnation and satire by the writers of the time, being compared to
the horns of the snail, of the unicorn, of the hart, and even of the
devil himself.

The horns were worn so large that in some places “it was judged
necessary to enlarge the doors of the apartments,” and when entering a
room the wearers had “to turn aside and stoop.”

_The Heart-shaped Head-dress_ (Fig. 9) was formed by the cauls being
made higher, so that the pad resting on them was pushed upward at the
sides, and the head-dress assumed the shape of a heart.

_The Forked Head-dress_ (Fig. 10) was a variation of the horned
head-dress, in which the horns were placed vertically instead of
horizontally.

The costumes of the reigns of the Yorkist Kings are very amply
illustrated from the numerous effigies, brasses, and MSS., and from the
newly invented wood blocks used in the new art of printing.

The ladies’ costumes of the reign of Edward IV. were modifications of
those worn in the reign of Henry VI., but they were very splendid and
most extravagant. The fashion of wearing tails to the gowns fell into
disuse, and in their room borders of velvet or fur were substituted.
The gowns were exceedingly short-waisted, and the dress was cut very
low at the neck.

_The Steeple Head-dress_ (Fig. 11), nicknamed “the chimney pot,” came
into use during this reign. It was conical or pyramidal in form, and
was generally about three-quarters of an ell in height. It was placed
on the head at an angle of about 45 degrees from the vertical, and in
order to lessen the tension on the head, a kind of framework of wire
netting was worn under it. To the apex was affixed a veil, often of
fine texture, sometimes reaching to the ground.

Another peculiar form of head-dress was known as the _Butterfly
Head-dress_ (Fig. 8), introduced about 1470 A.D. It appears to
have been a modification of the steeple head-dress, the cone being
truncated, with wires arranged about it, to which wings of gauze
veiling were affixed.

With this head-dress the hair was worn tightly drawn back from the
forehead.

The ladies of the middle class did not adopt these extravagant
fashions. They wore caps of cloth “with two wings at the side like
apes’ ears.”

By the sumptuary laws, wives of persons whose income was less than £40
a year were forbidden to wear girdles ornamented with gold and silver
work, or any “corse of silk” made out of the realm, or any coverchief
exceeding a certain price, or the furs of certain animals.

[Illustration: PLATE 38.

  (Fig. 1): Joice, Lady Tiptoft, from the brass in Enfield
  Church, Middlesex, 1446 A.D. She is shown wearing a horned
  head-dress of very moderate proportions and very elaborately
  made. She wears a côte-hardi and gown trimmed richly with
  ermine. The brass, which is one of the finest of the kind
  in England, shows the armorial bearings upon the cloak
  also. (Fig. 2): Head-dress of a lady in the reign of Henry
  VI., with a veil or kerchief attached to it. (Harl. MS.,
  6,431.) (Fig. 3): Head-dress of a lady in the reign of Henry
  V., from the effigy of Catherine, Countess of Suffolk,
  showing the golden caul at the sides of the head. (Fig. 4):
  Female costume of the reign of Henry V., showing the horned
  head-dress covered with a kerchief, the short waist, and
  the gown with very wide trailing sleeves and high collar
  called the houppelande. (Fig. 5): Brass of Margaret, wife of
  William Cheyne, 1419 A.D., at Hever, in Kent, showing the
  horned head-dress, the close-fitting dress, and the mantle
  fastened across the bosom. (Fig. 6): Horned head-dress of
  the fifteenth century, from the effigy of Beatrice, Countess
  of Arundel, in the church at Arundel. This is considered
  to be the finest illustration of the horned head-dress in
  existence. (Fig. 7): A turban head-dress. (Harl. MS., 2,278.)
  (Fig. 8): Butterfly head-dress, from the brass of Lady Say,
  in Broxbourne Church, Herts, 1473 A.D. (Fig. 9): Heart-shaped
  head-dress. (Froissart’s Chronicles, Harl. MS., 4,379.) (Fig.
  10): A forked head-dress with small hanging veil. (Harl. MS.,
  2,278.) (Fig. 11): Female costume of the reign of Edward IV.,
  showing the steeple head-dress, with kerchief fastened to the
  apex. The gown is very full, and both it and the train are
  edged with ermine. The turn-over collar is also shown, and the
  square-shaped under garment with lacing. (Harl. MS., 4,379.)
  (Fig. 12): Head of a lady, from a brass at Sawtrey, Hants,
  1404 A.D., showing the _crespine_ or golden net caul worn by
  ladies of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, with a small
  veil hanging down by the side of the face.]


PLATE ARMOUR.

The various modifications in plate armour were such as were found
necessary for greater ease or for more perfect protection, and were of
a progressive character. In order to prevent confusion it is customary
to divide this period of 200 years into five lesser periods, the
first three being roughly coincident with the Lancastrian and Yorkist
Periods, the remaining two with the Tudor Period.

1st Period: 1410--1430. 2nd Period: 1430--1450. 3rd Period: 1450--1500.

_1st Period_: 1410--1450. This is also known as the surcoatless period,
as the polished breast and back plates were worn without any textile
covering.

Before the Hundred Years’ War had broken, out again in the reign of
Henry V.--just before Agincourt--the types of armour had completely
changed. Knights gave up the use of the camail and jupon, and were
clothed in complete armour. Additional protections were placed in
front of the armpits, as _roundles_ or _pallettes_, resembling small
shields, and fan-shaped plates were placed at the elbow joints. The
basinet was made much more globular in form, and a piece of plate
called the _gorget_ or neck-piece took the place of the camail to
connect the basinet with the body armour. The lower part of the
basinet, protecting the chin, was called the _beaver_ (“I saw young
Harry with his _beaver_ on.” H. IV., Pt. 1), and was fastened by rivets
to the upper part near the temples. The basinet now rested on the
gorget, and was so arranged that the head could be turned to right and
left.

The breastplate was of globular form, and there was a corresponding
plate over the back. From the waist to the middle of the thigh, a
series of narrow, flexible, horizontal overlapping bands or plates of
steel, called _taces_ or _tassets_, fastened to a lining of leather,
were worn.

They thus formed a kind of armoured kilt or short steel petticoat. The
sword-belt was narrow, and was worn diagonally over the taces, and the
general form of the sword remained unaltered. The misericorde continued
to be worn on the right side. The hauberk was sometimes worn under the
plate armour, for the lower edge is sometimes shown in effigies and
brasses. All the details of the above description are shown in Fig. 1.

_2nd Period_: 1430-1450. This is sometimes called the Tabard Period, as
a new variety of short surcoat called a _tabard_ was worn with short
sleeves over the armour, bearing the heraldic devices of the wearer,
emblazoned down the front and also on each sleeve.

The chief characteristic of the period with regard to the actual armour
was the system of adding strengthening or _reinforcing_ pieces of plate
to the armour.

Over the flanks on each side, depending from the taces, a small plate,
varying in shape, called a tuille, was appended. It was fastened by
strings and allowed free movement of the limbs.

The _sollerets_ or feet coverings became longer, and plates like those
on the shell of a lobster were added to the gauntlets to cover and
protect the backs of the hands.

Additional plates varying in size and form, were fixed to the elbows
and shoulders on the ordinary armour.

It is interesting to note that the right arm and shoulder were
accoutred so as to interfere as little as possible with the action when
fighting; while the left side and bridle arm were more fully protected
with additional defensive armour. Large reinforcing plates called
_pauldrons_ extended over the shoulders, sometimes being made with a
kind of standing collar to protect the neck from a direct stroke.

One of the finest specimens of the armour of this period is that on the
splendid bronze effigy of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. (Figs. 2
and 3.)

The brilliant artist and archæologist, Charles Stothard, when making
drawings of the figure, found to his great delight that it was movable,
and that the armour on the back was represented and finished as
perfectly as on the front.

_3rd Period_: 1450-1500. During this period the practice of reinforcing
the armour continued, and great modifications were made in the existing
pieces. The armour became more extravagant in form, dimensions and
adornment.

Enormous fan-like elbow pieces were worn, and the pauldrons or shoulder
pieces were very large.

This period includes the Wars of the Roses, and is, therefore, of
considerable interest. It has been said that, before this time, arms
and armour were European rather than English, but in this period, for
the first time since the Norman Conquest, England was cut off from the
rest of Europe, and was free to develop along her own lines.

Distinguishing and party badges, collars and devices were freely worn,
and incorporated with the arms during this period. The salade, a light
helmet, was principally worn in the Wars of the Roses.

The horses of knights in the tournament and on the battlefield were
sometimes as heavily armed as the riders. The horse’s head was
protected by a _chanfrein_, or face-piece, and movable plates of steel,
forming the _crinet_, covered the mane, while burnished shields or
plates of metal were fixed on the breast.

The weight of armour was so great that, when a knight was unhorsed,
he was utterly helpless, and at the mercy of his opponent, as it was
impossible for him to rise without assistance, and the victor had
only the trouble of coolly selecting the best chink in the junctures
in the armour in which to insert his sword or his dagger. As James I.
afterwards said of armour, owing to its general cumbersomeness, “It was
an admirable defence, as it hindered a man from being hurt himself or
of hurting others.”

[Illustration: PLATE 39.

  (Fig. 1): Brass of Sir John Lysle, Thruxton Church, Hampshire,
  1407 A.D. This is the earliest example of complete plate
  armour in existence in England, but the brass was probably
  made ten years after that date. (1) Gorget; (2) Beaver; (3)
  Roundles; (4) Taces (8 in number); (5) Fanshaped _coudières_.
  (Fig. 2): Front view of bronze effigy of Richard Beauchamp, K.
  G., Earl of Warwick, from his tomb in the Beauchamp Chapel,
  Warwick. The Earl died 1439 A.D., and the effigy was executed
  in 1453. The following points will be noted: (1) The head
  is bare, and rests on a crested helm; (2) the breastplate
  shoulder-guards are reinforced, the _pauldrons_ having low,
  upright neck defences; (3) the _coudières_, or elbow pieces,
  are large, and of the same size on both arms; (4) there are
  five taces, showing a skirt of mail beneath them, and there
  are two large _tuilles_. (Fig. 3): Back view of the same.
  (Fig. 4): A skull cap of steel, called a _casquetel_, with
  large ear-pieces, of the reign of Edward IV. (Fig. 5): Basinet
  of the reign of Henry V. (Fig. 6): Basinet from the Register
  Book of St. Albans, A.D. 1417. It rises to a point, upon which
  is placed a hollow tube to receive the _panache_, or crest
  of feathers, and has a movable visor. (Fig. 7): Salade with
  movable visor. (Fig. 8): Round salade with a jewelled plume.
  (From Rouse’s Life of the Earl of Warwick.) (Fig. 9): Effigy
  of Sir Thomas Peyton, in Isleham Church, Cambridgeshire, of
  the reign of Richard III. The grotesque form of the enormous
  fan-like elbow-pieces and the large _pauldrons_ reinforcing
  the shoulder armour are particularly noticeable. (Fig. 10):
  Figure of Sir Robert Wingfield in complete armour, from a
  painted window in East Herling Church, Norfolk, executed
  between 1461 and 1480. He wears a tabard, with his “arms”
  blazoned on the front and on each sleeve.]


DECORATED ARCHITECTURE.

A.D. 1300 to 1377. Reigns of Edward I., II., and III.

The transition from the Early English, or Lancet style, to the
Decorated was much more gradual than from Norman to Early English, so
gradual that it is impossible to draw a line where one style ceases
and another begins. There can be no doubt that in some parts of the
kingdom, Early English was in use at the same time that, in other
districts, the Decorated style was becoming general, and thus the terms
adopted to denote the different periods must not be taken as definite
or as commencing or closing at any particular date, but merely as
indicating the broad classification of the styles and details, and for
associating them with particular reigns for convenience of study. The
divisions are arbitrary, but very convenient in practice. Structurally,
there was not a great change in the buildings, but there was a more
harmonious relation and development of all the architectural features
in walls, piers, buttresses, windows, etc., both with regard to
their size and their enrichment, and it was because of this general
use of ornament or enrichment that it is called the Decorated Period.
“It rivals the preceding style in chasteness and elegance, while it
surpasses it in richness.”

Great progress was made in the reign of Edward I., and the Decorated
work exhibits the most complete and perfect development of the Gothic
arch, which in the Early English was not fully matured, and in the
Perpendicular began to decline.

It is remarkable for its geometric tracery, its natural types of
foliage, and the undulating character of line and form in its
ornamental details.

_Windows._--The most distinctive features of the Decorated style are its
large windows and its mouldings. The windows are the chief glory of the
14th century Gothic. They vary very considerably in size, in form and
in intricacy.

As the window arches became broader, mullions or vertical bars of
masonry were required for their support, dividing the windows into
lights, and the upper portions of these mullions were developed into
tracery, forming circles, trefoils, or other geometric figures, and,
afterwards, flowing lines.

It has been shown how the grouping of lancet-shaped windows and the
piercing of the space above them, under the arched dripstone, had
produced “plate tracery.” As the piercings became larger, narrow and
irregularly shaped surfaces of stone were left. These were pierced, and
the intervening piers of stone came to be shaped like the mullions;
in fact, became a continuation of the mullions. This development,
which was reached before the middle of the 13th century, is called
“bar tracery.” At first, this bar tracery was plain; then “cusps” (Pl.
40, Fig. 5), or projecting points, were introduced on the inner edge
of the mullions, and added greatly to the rich effects. The earliest
Decorated windows have tracery on a purely geometric basis. Exeter
Cathedral is considered the best typical example of the early part
of this style, and the existing windows were constructed at the end
of the 13th century. The Chapter-houses at York and Southwell are
other rich examples. Windows with flowing tracery are, in general,
later than those with geometrical patterns, though they are sometimes
contemporaneous in the same building.

No rule is followed in the form of the arch over windows in this style.
Some are very obtuse, others very acute, and the ogee, or double-curved
arch, is not uncommon.

Square-headed windows are very common in this style, in many parts of
the country, especially in Leicestershire and Oxfordshire. This form
of window was so very convenient that its use was never discontinued,
though it was more commonly used in houses and castles than in
churches, and windows with a flat curved top are frequently used.
Circular or “Rose” windows in churches and cathedrals are also a fine
feature of this style. Notable among these are the windows at the end
of the south transept in Lincoln and Westminster.

_Pillars._--In ordinary parish churches the pillars are frequently as
plain as in the Early English Period, and are generally octagonal
in cross sections, but in richer churches they are clustered, and
no longer have detached shafts. The bases of the columns are often
lozenge-shaped, or a square set diagonally, to allow the light to
penetrate better into the body of the building. The capitals are
frequently octagonal or bell-shaped, and sometimes they are merely
moulded or decorated with the “ball flower” (Pl. 49, Fig. 9) and the
“four-leaved flower” (Pl. 49, Fig. 10). In the preceding style a
conventional form of foliage was employed to decorate the capitals.
But in the richer examples of this style they are decorated with
beautiful foliage, more faithfully copied from Nature; the vine leaf,
the maple leaf, the oak leaf with acorns, the rose, and the ivy being
most commonly imitated. The foliage is twisted horizontally round
the bell-shaped head, and does not shoot up vertically from stiff or
upright stems, as in the Early English. The bases are usually moulded
only, consisting of two or three rounds or roll-moulds, and stand upon
a plinth, the height of which varies very much.

_Mouldings._--The mouldings of this style differ from those of the Early
English mainly in not having the rounds and hollows so deeply cut--a
characteristic feature being the introduction of fillets or small flat
bands. The deepest hollows, too, are found, not between each member,
but between groups of members.

They are always very effective, and are so arranged as to produce a
pleasing contrast of light and shade, which is softer and more blended
than in the Early English mouldings. (Pl. 41, Fig. 10.)

A moulding peculiar to this style is the “roll moulding” (Pl. 41, Fig.
7), in which the upper half projects over the lower. The hollows are
frequently enriched with running foliage or with flowers at intervals,
particularly the “ball-flower” and the “four-leaved flower,” which are
typical ornaments of this period.

The surface of the interior walls is often covered with flat foliage,
arranged in small squares, called diaper work. (Pl. 9, Fig. 11.) This
kind of ornament is found in the Early English choir at Westminster
Abbey, but belongs more commonly to the decorated style.

_Crockets and Finials_ (Pl. 41, Fig. 8) introduced into the Early
English style, were now used with greater profusion, and were treated
with great richness.

The _Doorways_ are frequently large and richly sculptured, but in
small churches they are frequently plain. In large doorways the arch
is generally pointed; in smaller ones it is generally an Ogee (Pl. 41,
Fig. 9), an arch formed of a double curve, convex and concave, which
came into general use in this country in the fourteenth century. The
mouldings are commonly very rich.

_The Arches_ do not differ materially in general effect from the Early
English ones; they are not so acute, but are distinguished by the
mouldings and caps as described above. In some cases the mouldings are
continued down the pier without the intervention of a capital, forming
a completely moulded opening.

_Arcades_ or series of arches, were used in richly decorated buildings
to ornament the walls. The _sedilia_ or seats on the south side of
the choir, near the altar, for the officiating clergy, were usually
decorated in this form. (Pl. 41, Fig. 6.)

_Groined roofs_ or vaults of this style are distinguished from those of
the preceding style, chiefly by the introduction of numerous extra or
intermediate ribs and groins and by the natural foliage richly carved
on the base. Stone groining is imitated in cases where it would not be
safe to place the weight of a stone roof on the walls.

Timber roofs of this period are comparatively rare, but those of
domestic halls appear to have been more enriched than those of
churches. It should be noted that what are called “timber roofs” are
frequently inner roofs or ceilings, built for ornament only, with a
plain, substantial roof over them, as at Sparsholt, Berks. (Pl. 40,
Fig. 6.)

_Gargoyles_, or grotesque waterspouts in the shape of monsters, are a
noticeable feature, and are for the purpose of throwing the rainwater
clear of the walls and buttresses.

_The Buttresses_ in this period received great attention. They were
proportioned with distinct regard to their function. They are found
in a great variety of form and of degrees of richness, but they are
almost invariably worked in stages and are often ornamented with niches
with crocketed canopies originally containing images, and they often
terminate in pinnacles. (Pl. 41, Fig. 5.)

The _Clear-story_ and the _Triforium_.--In large churches and cathedrals
the upper portion of the nave is lighted by a row of windows called
the Clear-story or the Clere-story. Below these, in the unlighted
space under the roof of the aisle, is a row of unlighted arches called
the Triforium or Blind-story. The decoration of these was, of course,
similar to that employed in the other windows and arches of this period.

[Illustration: PLATE 40.

  (Fig. 1): Decorated window from Meopham--an example of early
  geometrical tracery with cusps. (Fig. 2): Decorated window
  from St. Mary’s, Beverley, showing the manner in which the
  lines of the mullions were carried up to fill the head of
  the arch with _flowing_ tracery. (Fig. 3): Decorated Piscina
  from Fyfield, Berks., c. 1300 A.D., showing geometrical
  tracery with a crocketed pediment, pinnacles and a battlement.
  (A Piscina was a water drain, consisting of a shallow basin
  or sink with a hole in the bottom to carry off the water with
  which the priest washed his hands. It was placed near the
  altar, and was very common in the thirteenth and succeeding
  centuries.) (Fig. 4): Square-headed window from Dorchester,
  Oxfordshire, c. 1330 A.D. (Fig. 5): Detail showing a cusp.
  (Fig. 6): Decorated timber (inner) roof at Sparsholt, c.
  1350 A.D. (Fig. 7): Clear-story window splayed (widened on
  the inside to throw down the light), from Barton, Northants,
  c. 1320 A.D. (Fig. 8): Band of decorated ornament from
  the triforium of the nave of St. Albans. (Fig. 9): The
  Ball-flower, a characteristic ornament used on mouldings in
  the Decorated Period, being a globular flower half-opened.
  (Fig. 10): The Four-leaved flower, another characteristic
  ornament of the Decorated Period. (Fig. 11): Diaper work from
  Lincoln Cathedral.]

[Illustration: PLATE 41.

  (Fig. 1): Decorated Capitals from the Chapter House,
  Southwell, characteristic examples of the richly carved and
  clustered caps of the period. (Fig. 2): Decorated Flying
  Buttress from the spire at Caythorpe, c. 1320 A.D. (Fig. 3):
  Decorated Capital of the Transition Period (between Early
  English and Decorated). (Fig. 4): Decorated Corbel Head or
  Mask. Such an ornament was placed at the end of a stone rib
  or dripstone. (Fig. 5): Decorated Buttress, with a niche for
  an image, from St. Mary Magdalene, Oxford, c. 1320 A.D. It is
  also ornamented with pinnacles and crockets. (Fig. 6): Sedilia
  from Chesterton, Oxfordshire, c. 1326 A.D., decorated with
  the Ball-flower. (Fig. 7): Roll moulding, very characteristic
  of the Decorated Period--a moulding made up of two portions of
  circular mouldings, the upper part larger than and projecting
  over the lower. (Fig. 8): Decorated finial with crockets (on
  the side of the slope), from Lincoln Cathedral. (A finial
  is a bunch of foliage which terminates pinnacles, canopies,
  pediments, etc.) Crockets are projecting leaves, etc., used
  in Gothic architecture to decorate the angles of spires,
  canopies, pinnacles, etc. (Fig. 9): An Ogee arch, ornamented
  with crockets, from Beverley Minster, c. 1350 A.D. (Fig. 10):
  Section of decorated mouldings from Bray, Berks, c. 1300
  A.D. (Fig. 11): Piscina from Wilford Church, Notts. This
  illustration is given to show how builders, in renovating a
  church, altered and adapted work of a preceding style. When
  the church was enlarged in the fourteenth century this piscina
  was placed near the altar. The upper part was formed of
  portions of two small Norman arches taken from two dismantled
  windows. These were roughly trimmed to form a pointed arch to
  be in keeping with the “pointed” style. (After H.F.)]



TUDOR PERIOD.

MALE COSTUMES.


_Henry VII._

The male costumes of Henry VII.’s reign were not brilliant, and Henry
himself, on account of his miserly disposition, was very soberly
dressed. His conduct in this respect naturally influenced the whole
nation, though there were exquisites at this time, as there always will
be, who dressed in a very extreme fashion. Strutt says that at the end
of the fifteenth century “the dress of the English was exceedingly
fantastical and absurd, insomuch that it was even difficult to
distinguish one sex from another”; but this referred more particularly
to the dress of the nobility and gentry.

The custom of “slashing” came into fashion at this time, and was
probably due to the desire to show the rich lining or embroidered shirt
underneath. The hood fell into disuse, and broad felt hats or caps and
bonnets of velvet and fur with large, drooping plumes became general
“among the great and gay.” A square cap peculiar to this period is
still shown on the heads of the knaves on our playing cards.

A long gown, which was of varying proportions, girdled at the waist,
having wide sleeves, a lining of darker cloth, and open at the upper
part to display the inner vest, was a common and a dignified costume.
(Pl. 42, Fig. 1.)

Embroidery was restricted to the under garments, the shirts being often
decorated on the collars and wrists with needlework. The costumes of
private gentlemen were plain and unobtrusive in their character. (Fig.
2.)

The pointed toes of the shoes gave place to very broad ones, termed
_sabbatons_ (Figs. 10 and 11), and the hair was worn long and flowing,
though the face was still closely shaven, moustaches and beards being
worn by soldiers and old men only.

Chausses, which had been generally worn up to this period, began to
give place to the separate breeches and hose.


_Henry VIII._

The costume of the gentry of the reign of Henry VIII. consisted of a
full-skirted and girdled jacket or doublet, with large sleeves at the
wrist, over which was worn a short, full coat or cloak with loose,
hanging sleeves and a broad collar or cape of fur--a brimmed cap,
jewelled and bordered with ostrich feathers--stockings, and square-toed
shoes, with ruffles at the wrist. An embroidered stomacher or vest was
sometimes worn over the shirt and under the doublet. The skirts of the
latter reached sometimes to the knees, but were often made shorter.

On the whole, there were no great innovations of male costume made
during the actual reign of Henry VIII., for the same fashions appear to
have continued during its whole extent.

Henry passed sumptuary laws regulating the use of the rarer furs,
velvets, satins, and damasks to certain classes of society, while the
working classes were confined to the use of cloth of a certain price
and lamb’s fur only, and were forbidden to wear ornaments of gold,
silver, or gilt work. Stockings of silk are generally supposed to have
been unknown in England before the middle of the sixteenth century, and
Henry VIII. never wore any hose but such as were made of cloth.

The upper portion of the coverings for the legs, called _trunk hose_,
were slashed, puffed, and embroidered, and were fastened by points or
laces to the doublet (so called from being made of double stuff with
padding between).

They were made of velvets, satins, silks, and golden and silver stuffs.
The large sleeves and capes of the various garments were fastened
to the body of the dress by means of points or by buttons, and were
separate articles of apparel, and often of different colour from the
remaining portion of the garment.

The waistcoat was first mentioned in this reign, and was worn under the
doublet. Slashed shoes were also worn.

Henry VIII. gave orders for all his attendants and courtiers to wear
the hair short, and that, of course, became the fashion for men
throughout the land.

The pictures at Hampton Court representing episodes connected with
the Field of the Cloth of Gold have been called “general pictorial
encyclopædias” of the costume of this reign. The portrait of the Earl
of Surrey at Hampton Court is a good illustration of the costume
of the nobility during Henry’s reign. He is represented in a short
doublet, open at the neck down to the waist, displaying an embroidered
shirt. Round his waist is a girdle with a dagger in a richly gilt
case fastened to it. His jerkin is made very broad at the shoulder
(a characteristic of this reign) and wide at the sleeves, which are
gathered, puffed, and slashed.

He also wears full trunk hose reaching to the knees, tight stockings,
and a small, flat cap with feathers. His hair is cut short in the
prevailing fashion.

It is interesting to note that breeches were often spoken of as
“sloppes,” and a certain class of clothier’s shop is still known
colloquially as a “slop-shop.”

It was the custom at this time for people in the lower and middle
classes to bequeath their articles of dress in their wills.

The apprentices of London wore blue cloaks in summer, and in the winter
gowns of the same colour. Their breeches and stockings were usually
made of white broadcloth. Generally speaking, a person’s station in
life was well indicated by his dress.


_Edward VI. and Mary I._

During the reign of Edward VI. the earnest desire to settle religious
questions introduced through the Reformation, and the persecution and
consequent national depression in the reign of Mary, are responsible
for the fact that the costumes were not extreme in these reigns, being
plain and serviceable, and the rank being generally indicated more
by richness of material than by extravagance of style. In this reign
was introduced the small, flat bonnet or cap, worn on one side of
the head, preserved to this day in the caps of the boys of Christ’s
Hospital (which they should wear but do not). Blue coats were the
common habits of apprentices and serving men, and yellow stockings were
very generally worn at this period. Their whole dress is, in fact, the
prevailing costume of the grave citizens of London at the time of the
foundation of the school in the reign of Edward VI.

The flat cap was known as “the city flat cap,” common to citizens, and
it was also known as “the statute cap” because Elizabeth afterwards
ordered that everyone should wear “one cap of wool knit, thickened, and
dressed in England,” or be fined 3s. 4d. for each day’s transgression.

The broad-toed shoe was put out of fashion by proclamation in the reign
of Mary.

The portrait of John Heywood, a citizen who was held in high esteem by
Mary, is a good example of the costume of citizens and merchants of
London in her reign. (Fig. 12.)


_Elizabeth._

During this reign the change of costume, which had commenced in
the reign of Henry VIII., was completed, and was of that fantastic
character now known as “the Elizabethan costume.”

Elizabeth, by her strong individuality, would not be content “with the
same garments her grandmother affected.” She was fond also of pleasure
and display, and the richness of her costume and that of her ladies
naturally brought about a corresponding richness in the costume of the
men.

Before this time, the English had been largely indebted to foreign
influences for their changes in dress, but now their costumes were
largely developed in this country, and the many extravagances and the
numerous changes caused considerable surprise to Continental nations.

The innovations in dress were as bold as those in literature and the
drama, and corresponded to the daring and adventures of her soldiers
and sailors in far-off seas.

The trunk hose were of various kinds, “the French hose being round and
narrow and gathered into a series of puffs around the thighs. The Gally
hose were made large and wide, reaching down to the knees only. The
Venetian hose reached beneath the knee to the gartering place of the
leg.”

The doublet had a long waist, and both it and the trunk hose were
heavily slashed. A short cloak or mantle with a standing collar, a
ruff, and a hat with band and feathers, were also worn. At first
the doublet was worn tight-fitting, but later in her reign the
“peascod-bellied” variety was introduced. It is seen in the body dress
of our old friend Punch, “whose wardrobe of Italian origin dates as
nearly as possible from this period.”

It fitted the body tightly, and was carried down to a long peak in
front, whence it obtained the name “peascod,” and it was stuffed or
“bombasted” to the required shape. Trunk hose were stuffed with wool,
rags or bran, and were made very large.

Fig. 13 is a good example of the dress of a nobleman of this period.

The hats had high crowns and broad brims. Beards, which had been worn
in the reign of Henry VIII., continued in the reign of Elizabeth.

[Illustration: PLATE 42.

  (Fig. 1): Male costume of the reign of Henry VII., “a fair
  specimen of the general form of dress adopted by the gentlemen
  of the age.” It was difficult at this time to distinguish one
  sex by the dress from another. (From Royal MS., 19, C 8, A.D.
  1496.) (Fig. 2): Costume of a gentleman of the Early Tudor
  period, with a close-fitting hat to which is affixed long
  pendant streamers of cloth. “This figure is remarkable for its
  simplicity, and may be received as the type of a gentleman
  unspoiled by the foppery of extravagance.” (From Harl. MS. No.
  4,425, A.D. 1479) one of the last of the priceless Illuminated
  MSS., and one of the chief authorities for the costume of the
  earlier part of this reign. (Fig. 3): Flat cap, which was
  the general head-dress of men in the reigns of Henry VIII.
  and Edward VI. (Fig. 4): Hat with plumes of feathers of the
  time of Henry VII. From the same MSS. as (Fig. 2.) (Fig. 5):
  Hat of the Yeoman of the Guard, with three plumes, from a
  contemporary picture. (Fig. 6): Hat of the time of Elizabeth,
  from a picture of her funeral. (Figs. 7 and 9): “Copotain”
  hats of the time of Elizabeth, from contemporary pictures.
  (Fig. 8): Another common form of hat of the time of Elizabeth.
  (Figs. 10 and 11): “Sabbatons,” or shoes with very broad toes,
  puffed and slashed, in fashion in the reign of Henry VIII.
  They were generally made of black velvet or leather with silk
  in the slashings. (From contemporary sources.) (Fig. 12):
  Ordinary costume of the middle classes such as was worn by the
  citizens and merchants of London. (From Heywood’s “Parable
  of the Spider and the Fly,” 1556 A.D.) (Fig. 13): Costume of
  a nobleman of the reign of Elizabeth. He wears an immense
  ruff, “a peascod-bellied doublet,” quilted or stuffed and
  covered with slashes. He also has Venetian breeches, slashed
  like the doublet, stockings of fine black yarn, and shoes of
  white leather. (From a portrait of the reign of Elizabeth.)
  (Fig. 14): Wide, stuffed breeches, called “bombasted” trunk
  hose, worn about 1575 A.D. (From a woodcut in “The Book of
  Falconrie.”) (Figs. 15, 16, and 17): Different styles of
  beards worn in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. “Each
  class of the community trimmed their beards after a fashion
  indicative of their pursuits.” (Fig. 15): “Spade” beard of a
  soldier. (Fig. 16): “Stiletto” beard of a soldier. (Fig. 17):
  “Great round beard.” (All from contemporary engravings.)]


FEMALE COSTUMES.


_Henry VII._

The chief article of attire in female costume was the robe, which
continued to be short waisted, and was worn with sleeves either of the
variety now known as Bishop’s sleeves or wide and confined at intervals
from the elbow to the wrist. The waist was small, and the neck was
cut square. Stomachers, belts and buckles, or girdles with a long
pendant in front were also worn. A warm cloth hood was worn folded back
from the face over the head in thick pleats behind, the edges being
embroidered (Fig. 1) with gold or coloured threads. Caps and cauls
of gold net from beneath which, in the case of unmarried ladies, the
hair hung loose down the back, and various other forms of head-dresses
were generally in use. The horned head-dress and the steeple cap
disappeared, but the most striking novelty for the head was the
pediment or pyramidal-shaped hood worn perfectly white. (Fig. 4.) The
stiffness of this article is a characteristic feature of the costumes
worn by aged ladies, who frequently ended their lives in a convent,
or, at any rate, frequently adopted the conventual form of dress in
their widowhood. Very numerous examples of this head-dress exist in
effigies and brasses, the bands being frequently edged with pearls and
ornamented with precious stones. It continued in use for about fifty
years.


_Henry VIII._

No great changes took place in female costume during this reign, but
there were considerable modifications in the forms of head-dresses. We
have in existence the portraits (painted by Holbein) of the six wives
of this fickle monarch, and they give us a good idea of the fashions of
women of high degree during his reign of thirty-eight years.

The new articles worn were the habit-shirt or “partlet” and the
waistcoat. The former sometimes had sleeves, and was made of rich
materials. The waistcoat was similar to that of the men.

The gowns of noble ladies were magnificent, and were made open to
the waist, showing the kirtle or petticoat, and had trains. Ladies’
sleeves were made wide and separate, like those of the men, and could
be attached at will to either gown or waistcoat. They were of very rich
material, very gorgeous in colour and elaborate in construction.

The dresses of women of the middle classes were sober in this reign.
They wore close hoods, and wore partly over their faces a _muffle_--an
article that became very fashionable and remained in use among elderly
women until the reign of Charles I. (Fig. 3.)

The coif or cap, familiarly known as the Mary Queen of Scots’ cap, came
into use in this reign. (Fig. 12.)


_Edward VI. and Mary._

Female costumes were the same as in the previous reign. The ordinary
dresses of the commonalty were plain; a hood or cloth cap and apron
with close collar and tight sleeves with a small puff at the shoulders
were worn. (Fig. 6.)


_Elizabeth._

Elizabeth was inordinately fond of dress and display, and from the
portraits of her in existence we see very clearly the height of the
fashions of her reign.

At the commencement the costumes passed through a transition period.
Ladies copied men’s fashions by having doublets and jerkins as the men
had, buttoned up at the breast with a small ruff about the neck. The
skirts at this time were only padded to a slight extent at the hips.

Unmarried women wore low-necked dresses even out of doors at this time.

About the middle of Elizabeth’s reign the great change took place
which gave female costume of the sixteenth century its remarkable
character. Elizabeth herself was long waisted and narrow chested, and
in this costume the body was imprisoned in whalebone to the hips,
while an enormous ruff was worn, rising gradually from the front
of the shoulders to nearly the height of the head behind. From the
bosom, partly bare, descended the long stomacher on each side of which
jutted out horizontally the enormous “_fardingale_” or farthingale, a
construction of hoops similar to the crinoline of more recent times.
It projected more at the sides than in front or at the back, and had a
dwarfing effect on the height of the figure. (Fig. 10.)

The cap or coif was occasionally exchanged for a round bonnet like that
of the men, or the hair was dressed with many curls and adorned with
ropes and stars of jewels or feathers. About the middle of her reign,
Elizabeth herself wore false hair, and this fashion was taken up by
the ladies of her court, so that it was made possible to build the
hair up to a great height. As Elizabeth’s hair was yellow it was very
fashionable to dye the hair the same colour as the Queen’s.

The ruff, which was so important a feature of the costume of the
period, made its appearance in England during Elizabeth’s reign, and it
reached its greatest size about 1580 A.D. After the end of the century
it began to decrease in size.

Ruffs were now made of lawn and cambric, but originally they had been
made of holland. The employment of these lighter materials necessitated
the use of starch for stiffening. But as there was no one in England
who could starch or stiffen them, the Queen sent to Holland for some
women to come over as “starchers of ruffs.” One Dutch woman who came
over taught the art of starching at a fee of £4 to £5 for each pupil,
and 20s. in addition for teaching them how to make the starch.

One of the writers of the time complains loudly of the practice of
starching, saying: “The devil hath learned them to wash and dive their
ruffs, which being dry will then stand stiff and inflexible about their
necks.”

The starch was made of different colours--white, red, blue, and
purple. In order that the enormous ruffs might remain in their
original position, they were supported by frameworks of wire called
“_supportasses_,” covered with gold thread, silver, or silk. (Fig. 7.)

In 1579 Elizabeth issued orders that long cloaks should not be worn,
“nor such great excessive ruffles.” It was in this reign that William
Lee, M.A., a Fellow of St. John’s College, Cambridge, invented a
stocking frame, and worked with it at Calverton, a village near
Nottingham. There was considerable opposition to him and his machine
from the other hosiery manufacturers, and he left this country to take
up his abode in Rouen.

Stockings were worn of “silk, jarnsey, cruel, or the finest yarns,
thread, or cloth that could be had, and they were of all colours.”

Ladies’ shoes were of many colours and of many fashions. “Some of black
velvet, some of white, some of green, and some of yellow; some of
Spanish leather, some of English, stitched with silk and embroidered
with gold and silver all over the foot.”

When riding abroad, ladies wore masks and visors of velvet with holes
for the eyes.

They wore much jewellery, and perfumed gloves embroidered with gold and
silver, and they carried looking-glasses about with them wherever they
went.

[Illustration: PLATE 43.

  (Fig. 1): Costume of a lady of the early part of the reign of
  Henry VII. The warm cloth hood took the place of the gauze
  veil on the head-dress, and it was folded back from the
  face and pleated behind. The gown was open from the neck to
  the waist behind, and was laced up. No girdle was worn. The
  fulness of the sleeves and of the garment generally give a
  very heavy appearance to the figure. (Fig. 2): Another view
  of a similar cloth head-dress. Figs. 1 and 2 are copied from
  Royal MS., 16 F 2. (Fig. 3): Head of a female figure of the
  reign of Henry VII., showing the face partly covered by a
  muffler, which became very fashionable and was in use among
  elder women up to the reign of Charles I. (Fig. 4): Pediment,
  pyramidal, or diamond-shaped head-dress of the reign of Henry
  VIII., from a portrait by Holbein. (Fig. 5): Head of “Cicely
  Page, who died ye XIIth daye of March, Anno 1598,” and is
  buried in Bray Church, Bucks, from her effigy. “The plain
  hat, ruff, and open-breasted gown are a good specimen of part
  of the dress of a country lady at the end of Elizabeth’s
  reign.” (Fig. 6): Female figure showing dress worn by a
  woman of the citizen class in the time of Edward VI., from a
  picture showing his progress from the Tower to Westminster. A
  cloth cap is worn with a border hanging round the neck, and
  a gown with close collar and tight sleeves, the latter with
  small puffs on the shoulders. (Fig. 7): Back view of a ruff
  as worn in the middle of Elizabeth’s reign, copied from a
  Dutch engraving of the period, showing the “_supportasse_” or
  under prop of wire to keep the ruff in its original position.
  (Fig. 8): Head of a female figure from the tomb of Sir Roger
  Manwood, 1592, in St. Stephen’s Church, near Canterbury,
  showing the French hood as worn during the latter part of
  Elizabeth’s reign. (Fig. 9): Pyramidal head-dress taken from
  a portrait of the Lady Mary, afterwards Queen Mary I., by
  Holbein. The broad bands which are seen hanging down in Fig.
  4 are here looped up on either side of the head, and the
  bag-like portion, which formerly hung down the back, is also
  brought up to the top of the head and fastened there. (Fig.
  10): Costume of a lady worn about the middle of Elizabeth’s
  reign, from the print by Vertue representing the progress
  of Elizabeth to Hunsdown House. This shows the enormous
  ruff and the huge, ungainly-looking “_fardingale_,” and the
  long stomacher brought low down to a peak in front. (Fig.
  11): Costume of a lady of quality, 1588, from Caspar Ruiz,
  during the latter part of Elizabeth’s reign. The ruff is here
  reduced to small dimensions, and the whole costume is much
  more graceful than the grotesque figure shown in Fig. 10.
  (Fig. 12): Brass of Anne Rede, who died 1577, showing a ruff
  of ordinary size and a French hood often spoken of as a Marie
  Stuart bonnet.]


PLATE ARMOUR.

(About 1500 A.D. to about 1600 A.D.)


_4th Period_, about 1500 A.D. to about 1526 A.D.--Armour had now reached
a great pitch of perfection. How perfect it was may be judged from the
fact that in many of the battles very few knights were slain.

Their greatest danger lay in being unhorsed and ridden over, and
of being slain while lying helpless on the ground. After a battle,
the camp followers and servants of the victors flocked about the
men-at-arms who had been overthrown, and slew most of them by breaking
open the “vizards” of their head-pieces and then cleaving their heads.

At the beginning of the sixteenth century the pointed sollerets gave
place to the broad-toed sabbatons (Fig. 1), cut off square or rounded
at the toes, following as in former times the fashion of the shoes in
civil costume. The breastplate was globular in form and narrow at the
waist. A regular skirt of chain mail was added now to the knightly
costume, reaching half-way down the thigh below the lowest part of the
tuilles.

They were probably found more convenient to horsemen than solid plates
of overlapping steel (Fig. 1). Armour generally became more massive,
and the enrichment and ornamentation were very elaborate.

During the reign of Henry VIII. the helmets took the form of the head,
and had flexible, overlapping plates of steel covering and protecting
the neck. They were called _Armets_, and were worn with and without
face-pieces. As in earlier times, we find in pictures of the period a
great variety of fashion and great divergence both of arms, and armour
brought together in the same troop of warriors. The _halberd_, first
mentioned in the reign of Edward IV., was now a weapon in common use
with the infantry (Fig. 5). The hand gun or cannon was also first
generally known in England during the reign of Edward IV. It was now
improved by the addition of a lock, and was called an arc-a-bousa,
corrupted into arquebus, and was familiarised to the English by Henry
VII.

_5th Period_, about 1525 A.D. to about 1600 A.D.--During this period
“all the rich and fanciful fertility of invention which distinguished
the artists of the sixteenth century was lavished on the enrichment
and ornamentation of armour,” while as actual protective covering its
value began to decline. It must be remembered that “armour used on the
battlefield was much lighter and less complete than that used in the
tournament, where protection to the wearer was more considered than his
ability to hurt his opponent.” In the Tower of London there is, among
others, a suit of armour given to Henry VIII. by the Emperor Maximilian
as a wedding present on the occasion of his marriage to Katherine of
Arragon, which is considered to be one of the finest in existence.
The badges (roses, pomegranates, portcullis, etc.) of Henry and of
Katherine, with their initials united by a true-lovers’ knot, are
engraved on it, and it is also elaborately ornamented and covered with
engravings from the Lives of the Saints.

The greatest innovation in the armour of this period was the
introduction of the _lamboy_ (Fig. 7) or outstanding steel skirt, which
took the place of taces and tuilles, and covered the body from the
waist to the knees in fluted folds ribbed vertically, giving it much
the appearance of an inflated petticoat. It was sloped away before and
behind to allow the wearer to sit with more ease in the saddle. The
_pauldrons_ or shoulder-pieces were made very large, and the shield
was also elaborately shaped and curved to form an outer armour for the
protection of all the left side of the body. Instead of the shield,
however, an additional piece of armour called the _grande-garde_ was
sometimes screwed to the breastplate to protect the left side and
shoulder, while the great spear had also a piece of armour fixed
in front of the grasp, which not only protected the hand, but was
large enough to make a kind of shield for the left arm and breast.
The tilting helmet disappeared altogether about this period, and the
head-piece was adorned with streaming plumes. The armour generally, by
its being fluted and laminated and puffed, imitated the costume of the
time.

But all over the continent of Europe, as well as in England, leaders of
experience were finding out that armour was useless and cumbersome; in
fact, it was becoming a questionable kind of protection. It was said
that many soldiers at thirty years of age were practically deformed or
broken down in health through the habit of constantly wearing armour.
Presently the troopers took the matter in their own hands by not
commencing to put on their armour until the moment of battle, and then,
not having time to arm themselves, they went into battle with their
buff leather or padded jackets as their only protection.

In the reign of Elizabeth, when long-waisted doublets and short trunk
hose became the fashion, the armour was considerably modified. The
cuirass or breastplate was made long waisted, copying the doublet,
ridged and brought to a peak in front known as the “peascod.” The front
of the thigh was protected by laminated thigh pieces, which passed
under the trunk hose, while the lower part of the leg was protected by
knee-caps and jambarts or shin-pieces.

Buckled to the rim of the cuirass, and hanging down over the trunk
hose, were two large _tassets_, the most characteristic feature of
Elizabethan armour. They consisted of a number of hinged plates
fastened to one another; they are usually rounded off at the knees and
fastened to the breeches by leather straps.

The pauldrons upon the shoulders were also large, but there were
no ridges or guards, and they consisted of several plates riveted
together. They were generally lined with leather. The helm was a close
_Armet_, but very frequently the _Morion_ (Fig. 3), which was a variety
of the salade, was worn.

The foot soldiers of the period were armed with a breast and back
plate, and with tassets reaching to the knees. The swords of the time
commonly had guarded or basket hilts. The _pike_ was introduced into
this country in the reign of Henry VIII., and became the common weapon
for infantry up to the time of William III.

In the reign of Elizabeth, the armour seldom came lower than just below
the hip, and complete suits were used only for the tournament.

The brass of Humphrey Brewster illustrates well the armour of the
Elizabethan Period described above. (Fig. 10.)

[Illustration: PLATE 44.

  (Fig. 1): Brass of “Richard Gyll, squyer, late sergeant of the
  bakehous wyth Kyng Henry the VII. and also wyth Kyng Henry the
  VIII.,” in Shottesbrooke Church, Hampshire, A.D. 1511. This
  shows the type of armour in use at the end of the reign of
  Henry VII. There are high ridges on the shoulder-pieces, very
  simple elbow-pieces, four narrow _taces_ around the waist,
  with two small _tuilles_ over a tunic of mail. The broad toes
  of the _sabbatons_ are also shown. (Fig. 2): Morion of the
  reign of Elizabeth, A.D. 1560. (Fig. 3): Another morion of
  the same reign from the Tower of London. (Fig. 4): Armet with
  crest of Sir George Brooke, K.G., 8th Lord Cobham, from his
  tomb in Cobham Church, Kent, 1480-1500. (Fig. 5): Halberd of
  the time of Henry VIII., the cutting edge being shaped like a
  half-moon. The staves of these weapons were often covered with
  velvet studded with brass-headed nails. (Fig. 6): Partisan
  (a variety of the pike) of the same period, with the side
  blades sharp on both edges. (Fig. 7): Lamboys from the armour
  presented by the Emperor Maximilian to Henry VIII., now in
  the Tower of London. (Fig. 8): Breast and back plates of
  the “peascod” form, from about 1580 A.D. (Fig. 9): English
  armet, about 1500 A.D. (Fig. 10): Brass of Humphrey Brewster,
  in Wrentham Church, Suffolk, 1593 A.D. This is typical
  of Elizabethan armour. The laminated shoulder pieces are
  particularly noticeable, nearly meeting over the cuirass; the
  long _tassets_ of overlapping, hinged steel plates reaching to
  and rounded off at the knees, the basket form of sword hilt
  and the long-waisted peascod form of the breast plate are very
  characteristic. The tassets were generally lined with leather,
  and the scalloped edges, forming an ornamental border, are
  plainly shown.]



PERPENDICULAR ARCHITECTURE.


The Transition from Decorated to Perpendicular architecture is not so
apparent at first sight as between the other styles; but it may be
traced quite clearly. The change was seen in the choir and transepts of
Gloucester Cathedral before the middle of the fourteenth century.

This Transition begins the decline of Gothic architecture from the
perfect and symmetrical Decorated to the style which showed more
elaborate and richer work, but was wanting in the elegant effect for
which the Decorated Period stands unequalled. The Perpendicular Period
is very much the longest in point of time, extending, as it did, over
170 years.

The name is both descriptive and appropriate to the style, and
the chief instrument by which this effect is produced is the
straight-sided, shallow, sunk panelling. In previous times the panel
had been used but sparingly, but now the whole surface, inside and
outside, was covered with it. The beautiful flowing tracery of the
Decorated Period was supplanted by the mullions, running, as a rule,
straight up from the sill to the window top. The spaces between were
frequently divided and subdivided by similar perpendicular lines, so
that _perpendicularity_ is most distinctly the characteristic of these
windows. In fact, by this subdivision the windows became simply an
arrangement of panels, pierced to let in the light. As the tendency of
the Perpendicular style is to employ the vertical line at the expense
of the horizontal, a general squareness spread from the characteristic
tracing and panelling to the other features and details.

In the later examples of this period the arches of the windows and
doorways became flattened, and the four-centred Tudor arch, so
called because it was formed of curves described from four centres
(Pl. 45, Fig. 4), began to be extensively used, until all beauty and
proportion were lost, and stiffness and squareness became the striking
characteristics of this style. The later windows had frequently great
width in proportion to their height, and they were placed so near
together that the wall space was reduced and the strength of the
building entirely depended upon the buttresses.

The windows were originally filled with painted glass, and the panel
form of the subdivision lent itself admirably to this decoration.

_Square-headed Windows_ (Pl. 45, Fig. 6) are frequent in this style,
and the doorways were generally set in a square frame (Fig. 4), though
many of the later doorways are frequently very rich in the decoration
over them.

The foliage employed in this style, by reason of its squareness, is
much less beautiful than that of the Decorated Period. It has neither
the vigour and beauty of the Early English nor the imitative skill of
the Decorated. It is angular, shallow, and often wooden in appearance.

An ornament used very extensively during this period was the so-called
“Tudor ornament.” (Pl. 45, Fig. 7, and Pl. 46, Fig. 7.) It is founded
on the fleur-de-lis alternate with a trefoil or ball, but although poor
in invention, has frequently a very rich effect, as in Henry VII.’s
chapel at Westminster.

_Perpendicular mouldings_ differ much from those of the preceding
styles, and show a marked falling off. They are, in general, shallower,
having more breadth and less depth. In arches they are often carried
down to the ground without any capitals or columns. In country churches
the mouldings are often feeble or coarse and clumsy.

_The Capitals_ of the columns are either circular or octagonal. The
bell portion is mostly plain, but is sometimes curved, with foliage
of a shallow and formal character, twisted horizontally round it.
Particularly in the churches of Devonshire this foliage is found, and
it is often spoken of, consequently, as “Devonshire foliage.”

_The Buttresses_ are similar to those of the preceding style, but are
frequently panelled and project more from the wall.

Many churches were built in the Perpendicular style, and the majority
of early churches were either enlarged or rebuilt during this period,
so that it is the prevailing characteristic English style, and there
are comparatively few churches which do not display some features
belonging to it.

The redeeming features of the Perpendicular style are its towers, its
elaborate stone vaultings, and its timbered roofs.

The towers are often extremely rich, and are ornamented very
elaborately, having four or five storeys of large windows with rich
canopies and pinnacles, double buttresses at the bottom, and rich
parapets with crocketed turrets at the corners. One of the most
beautiful is that of Magdalen College, Oxford.

Parapets with square battlements become an important feature. They
are often panelled or pierced with tracery, which frequently contains
shields with armorial bearings and heraldic devices. A very rich
form of vaulting was frequently used, composed of inverted, curved
semi-cones covered with foliated panel work. When seen from below,
these present a fan-like appearance, and the work received the name of
“fan-tracery.” (Pl. 46, Fig. 1.) One of the richest examples of it is
Henry VII.’s Chapel at Westminster Abbey, where an almost incredible
point was reached in the lightness and delicacy of its lace-like
stonework.

During the fourteenth century carpentry had been brought to a high
pitch of perfection. Timber roofs reached their highest development in
what is known as the Hammer-beam roof. (Pl. 46, Figs. 5, 6.)

In this, a bracket called the Hammer-beam (Pl. 46, Fig. 5 H) rests on
the top of the wall and projects into the building, to strengthen the
latter and to diminish the lateral pressure that falls on the walls.
This form of roof lends itself to a highly decorative treatment,
the finest example being that of Westminster Hall (in the Houses of
Parliament), erected in the reign of Richard II.

[Illustration: PLATE 45.

  (Fig. 1): Perpendicular window from St. Mary’s, Devizes,
  Wilts., about 1450 A.D. (Fig. 2): Perpendicular window
  from the Clere-story, York Minster, A.D. 1361-1408. (Fig.
  3): Perpendicular capital with Devonshire foliage, from
  Stoke-in-Teignhead, Devonshire, about 1480 A.D. (Fig. 4):
  Perpendicular doorway from St. Peter’s, Chester. (Fig. 5):
  Panelled buttress from the Divinity School, Oxford, about
  1450 A.D. (Fig. 6): Perpendicular square-headed window
  from Christchurch College, Oxford. (Fig. 7): Perpendicular
  battlements, panelled and decorated with the “Tudor flower,”
  from S. Lavenham, Suffolk. (Fig. 8): Part of arch from St.
  Agnes’, Cawston, Norfolk, showing a crocket (A) and cusping
  (B).]

[Illustration: PLATE 46.

  (Fig. 1): Fan tracery from St. Stephen’s Cloister, Westminster
  Hall. (Fig. 2): Perpendicular capitals and foliage from
  Beverley Minster, Yorkshire. (Fig. 3): Base of Perpendicular
  column from the Lady Chapel, Winchester, about 1460 A.D.
  (Fig. 4): Section of Perpendicular moulding from St. Mary’s,
  Oxford, 1488 A.D. (Fig. 5): Section showing construction of
  Hammer-beam roof. H, H, hammer beams; R, R, rafters. (Fig.
  6): Portion of the Hammer-beam timber roof from St. Stephen’s
  Church, Norwich. The Eastern counties are particularly rich
  in these fine timbered roofs. (Fig. 7): The “Tudor flower”
  ornament from Henry VII.’s Chapel in Westminster Abbey. (Fig.
  8): Plan of oblong Perpendicular pillar. Oblong pillars
  are common in large buildings. (Figs. 9 and 10): Base of
  Perpendicular columns. (Fig. 11): Carved Perpendicular
  ornament from the (wooden) screen at High Ham.]



STUART PERIOD (To William III.).

MALE COSTUMES.


_James I._

Little change was made in the early part of this reign from the
costumes worn at the end of Elizabeth’s reign. The peascod doublet, the
conical-crowned hat, and the large trunk hose, also called “_bombasted
breeches_,” slashed, quilted, stuffed, and laced, were worn as before.
(Fig. 10.) The cowardly despotism of James led him to guard his person,
at all times awkward and ungainly, with quilted and padded clothing
in order that it might be dagger-proof. The “great round abominable
breech,” as the satirists termed it, now tapered to the knee, and was
slashed all over and covered with lace and embroidery, as shown in Fig.
10, which represents his Majesty, in 1614. Corsets were also worn at
this time to give the required shape to the upper part of the body.

The hat of the period, a truncated cone, will also be noticed, with a
feather at the side and turned-up brim. It was frequently ornamented
with precious stones. With regard to the bombasted breeches, an amusing
tale is told of a man who was being prosecuted at this time for having
his breeches stuffed with prohibited articles, but he was acquitted
because he proved to the satisfaction of his judges that his stuffing
“consisted merely of a pair of sheets, two tablecloths, ten napkins,
four shirts, a brush, a glass, a comb, and a night-cap.”

The ruff was sometimes exchanged for a wide, stiff collar, standing out
horizontally and squarely, and starched and wired as usual, but plain
instead of pleated, and it was sometimes edged, like the ruff, with
lace. These collars were called “bands,” and were usually stiffened
with yellow starch.

A slight alteration in costume was made in James’s reign. Short jackets
or doublets were worn, and the trunk hose, instead of being slashed and
laced, were covered with broad, loose strips, richly embroidered or
adorned with buttons, displaying the silk or velvet trunk in the narrow
intervals between the strips (see Plate 50, Fig. 1, which shows Prince
Henry, the eldest son of James I.).

The clothes of the nobles were very gorgeous, being made of silk and
velvet, and ornamented with lace, gold and gems. It was said that
George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, a favourite of James I., had a
white velvet suit, decorated with diamonds valued at fourteen thousand
pounds. Silk, worsted, and thread stockings were now almost universally
worn.

In a comedy written in 1607, a gentleman’s wardrobe is thus enumerated:
“A cloak lined with rich taffeta, a white satin suit, the jerkin
covered with gold lace, a chain of pearl, a gilt rapier in an
embroidered hanger, pearl-coloured silk stockings, and a pair of
massive gilt spurs.”

Pure white costumes of silk, velvet, or cloth were very fashionable at
this time.

Jewels were sometimes worn in the ears of gentlemen, and they also had
a custom of allowing a long lock of hair, called a “_love-lock_,” to
hang over upon the breast (Fig. 2).

The costume of a yeoman of the period consisted of a narrow-brimmed hat
with flat crown, a doublet with large wings and short skirts, a girdle
about his waist, trunk breeches, with hose drawn up to the thigh and
gartered below the knees.


_Charles I. and the Commonwealth._

It is said that the male costumes in this reign were “the most elegant
and picturesque ever worn in England.” The characteristic costume worn
by Charles in his portrait by Vandyke is often spoken of as the Vandyke
costume and was introduced about the middle of his reign. In the
earlier part, the fashions of his father, James I., were continued. The
change from the “bombasted” or stuffed breeches to the elegant costume
of this reign is ascribed to the refined tastes of Charles and his
Queen, and also to the fact that the size of the stuffed breeches made
it impossible for gentlemen to find seating accommodation at masques,
etc., when each spectator took up the place of three persons in a
rational attire.

At the commencement of the Civil War, the Royalist party or Cavaliers,
and the Republican party or Roundheads, were as opposite in their
costumes as they were diverse in their opinions.

“The Cavalier’s costume consisted of a doublet of rich materials, silk,
satin, or velvet, with large, loose sleeves, slashed up the front, the
collar covered with a falling band of the richest point lace. A short
cloak was worn carelessly over one shoulder. Long breeches, fringed
or pointed, met the broad tops of the boots, which were trimmed with
lace or lawn. A broad-leaved Flemish beaver-hat with a rich hat-band
and plume of feathers, was set on one side of the head, and a Spanish
rapier hung from a magnificent baldrick or sword belt, worn sash-wise
over the right shoulder.”

In the troubled times of this reign, the silk or velvet doublet was
often exchanged for a richly-laced buff (leather) coat. A broad sash or
satin scarf was tied round the waist in a large bow.

The beard was worn very peaked, with small, upturned moustache, and the
hair was long in the neck, and sometimes powdered.

The extravagant costume worn by some is shown in Fig. 2, which depicts
an exquisite of 1646. Among the most noticeable features in this
costume are the “love-locks,” tied with ribbon, on either side of the
head (which were a special abomination to the Puritans), the patches on
the face, and the shirt protruding from the partly-open vest, the short
breeches “ornamented with many dozens of points at the knees, and,
above them, on either side, two great bunches of ribbon, of several
colours.”

The tops of his boots are very large, fringed with lace, and turned
down almost to the heels.

Very different from this figure was that of the Roundhead, with
close-cropped hair, clothes of extreme simplicity, severe cut, and
sober colours, as shown in Fig. 4.

It will be gathered from the foregoing remarks that the dress of the
various classes of the community presented a considerable mixture.

When Cromwell was in power, the general tendency was towards plainness
of attire.


_Charles II._

When Charles II. ascended the throne, at the Restoration, great
extravagance and folly were shown by his courtiers in their costume,
after the stern rule of the Puritans, and many new fashions were
introduced from France, where Charles had resided for so long a time.
This was “the natural reaction after twenty years of uncertainty,
gloom, and fanatical oppression. The doublet was made very short, open
in front, without any waistcoat, showing a rich shirt, which bulged out
in front over the waistband of the loose breeches, the latter, as well
as the large, full sleeves, being ornamented with ribbons and points or
laces.”

Beneath the knee hung long, drooping lace ruffles, and a falling collar
of the richest lace enveloped the neck. A high-crowned hat, with a
broad brim and a plume of feathers, still preserved its cavalier
character. A short cloak, edged deep with gold lace was usually worn
or carried over the arm. But the practice of copying French fashions
gave rise to the monstrous “_periwig_,” a corruption of “perruque” or
“peruke.” (Fig. 3.)

The periwig had, however, been worn in England for many years, but did
not become fashionable until this reign.

With its introduction, there came a change in the form of the hat.
“Down went the crown, and up went the brim at the sides,” and a kind of
ruche of feathers replaced the waving plume of the Cavalier. This was,
in fact, the first step towards the cocked hat of the 18th century.

A garment called the “_petticoat breeches_” was introduced into England
in 1658. These are well illustrated in Figs. 6, 7, and 8 (from a
drawing about 1658). The doublet, or jacket, which, in the early part
of the reign, barely reached to the waist, was now lengthened, reaching
the middle of the thighs, with sleeves to the elbows, terminated by
rows and bunches of ribbon, from under which bulged forth the sleeves
of the shirt, ruffed, and adorned also profusely with ribbons. When
buttons and button holes were added down the front, it became a coat.

Neckcloths or cravats, of Brussels and Flanders lace, came into use
towards the close of the reign, being tied in a knot, with the ends
hanging down (Fig. 5).

The sober citizen of London was dressed in black coarse woollen,
breeches, a broad skirted doublet, a girdle about the middle, and a
short black coat. A broad-brimmed hat, with a great twisted hat-band,
with a rose at the end of it, completed his costume, and the natural
hair was worn uncovered by a wig.


_James II. and William III._

There were few novelties in civil costumes during these reigns. The
petticoat breeches were exchanged for those tied beneath the knee. The
periwig became more monstrous, and it was the fashion for the beau
to comb his wig in public just as a modern gallant would twirl his
moustache.

Gentlemen appeared in little, low hats, with a bow at the side;
and long coats and waistcoats were worn, with rows of buttons down
the front, breeches, moderately wide, reaching to the knee, close
stockings, and high-heeled shoes, with roses or buckles (Fig. 15).

The full-bottomed wig was worn by the learned professions. The broad
brims of the hats were frequently turned up on two sides, and were
ornamented with feathers or ribbons. “To turn up the brim or flap of
the hat was to ‘cock’ it; the mode following the custom of the Duke of
Monmouth was called ‘the Monmouth’ cock.”

The broad, falling bands around the neck were replaced by small Geneva
bands, similar to those now worn by barristers.

[Illustration: PLATE 47.

  (Fig. 1): Costume of a gentleman of the time of Charles I.,
  from a contemporary print. (Fig. 2): An exquisite of 1646,
  from a rare broadside, entitled “The Picture of an English
  Antick,” with all details of the costume exaggerated, patches
  on the face, and two love-locks tied with bows of ribbon.
  (Fig. 3): Head of George, Earl of Albemarle, showing the
  voluminous periwig of the time of James II. (Fig. 4): A
  Roundhead, from a print of 1649, showing the plainness and
  simplicity of costume adopted by the Puritans. (Fig. 5):
  Neckcloth which succeeded the ruff and band, and was generally
  worn by the courtiers during the reign of Charles II., by whom
  it was introduced from France. (Figs. 6, 7 and 8): “Petticoat
  breeches,” three types, as worn in 1656, 1658, and 1659,
  from Holmes’s “Contemporary Notebook on Costume,” preserved
  in the British Museum. (Fig. 9): Head of Sir Thomas Meautys,
  secretary to Sir Francis Bacon, showing a waved love-lock
  reaching to the elbow. (Fig. 10): King James I. in hunting
  costume, from “A Jewell for Gentrie,” published in 1614. He
  is shown wearing the stuffed or “bombasted” breeches. (Fig.
  11): Costume of a Cavalier in the early part of Charles II.’s
  reign, from Ogilvie’s “Book of the Coronation.” (Fig. 12):
  A shoe (introduced from France), worn by the courtiers of
  Charles II., from a contemporary work, 1670. (Fig. 13): A
  boot with wide tops, worn in 1646, from a print of the time.
  (Fig. 14): A Jack-boot of the time of William III., such as
  was worn by the Cavalry of the time, from Meyrick’s “Arms and
  Armour.” (Fig. 15): Winter costume of a gentleman of the time
  of William III.]


FEMALE COSTUMES.


_James I._

The female costume of this reign presents few variations from that in
use at the end of Elizabeth’s reign. The portrait of Anne of Denmark,
Queen of James I. (Pl. 49, Fig. 1), in the general character of the
dress, resembles that of Queen Elizabeth painted by Holbein. The
enormous farthingale was worn throughout this reign by the nobility,
the ruffs and collars worn at this time by the ladies being generally
stiffened with yellow starch, like those of the gentleman.

“The fondness of ladies for painting their faces and exposing the bosom
was severely reprimanded by the divines and satirists at the early
part of the 17th century. While a ruff or band of immoderate size
stretched forth from the neck, the front of the dress was cut away
immediately beneath it, nearly to the waist, which made the fashion
more noticeable, as all the other part of the bust was over-clothed,
while the bosom was perfectly bare.”

Masks were worn by ladies on all public occasions, and it was
considered a sign of impropriety to appear without them (Fig. 2).

The ruff went out of fashion during this reign, because Mrs. Annie
Turner, a starcher of ruffs, who was executed for poisoning Sir Thomas
Overbury, wore a starched ruff of the approved colour at her execution.


_Charles I. and the Commonwealth._

There was little change in female costume at the beginning of this
reign. The French hood and farthingale were still worn, and the
high-crowned hat was generally worn by countrywomen and the wives of
the citizens (Figs. 5 and 7), especially when they belonged to the
Puritanical party. In the course of the reign of Charles, there came
a change in female costume, contemporary with and as elegant as that
which took place in the male costume.

The hood, the farthingale, and the starched bands disappeared. A good
specimen of the new costume is given in Fig. 1, after Hollar. The
dress is full, and falls gracefully about the body; the bodice is
tight-fitting, and the sleeves are rich and full, but gathered at the
wrist, and there is an elegant falling collar edged with lace.

The long petticoat was generally displayed in a certain measure by the
robe, which was, at times, quite gathered up at the waist.

As a matter of course, the ladies of the Republican party, following
the example set by their men folk, dressed very soberly, some of them
adhering to old-fashioned articles of dress, such as the hood and
high-crowned hat. A fashion introduced in the previous reign was that
of wearing _patches_ on the face. Fig. 3 gives a curious specimen of
this fashionable absurdity. It excited the derision of the satirists,
who repeatedly decried it in their works; but it continued in fashion
for a long time--until the end of the 17th century.

The usual costume of a Puritan woman is shown in Fig. 5.

The female costume in the later years of the Protectorate is
illustrated by Fig. 6 from the monumental effigy of Elizabeth
Sacheverell, 1657 A.D., in Morley Church, Derbyshire.


_Charles II._

With the Restoration, England threw off the sober, kill-joy aspect
that it had worn, and the Court, with its gaiety, set the fashion in a
studied negligence and elegant déshabille.

The glossy ringlets of the ladies, escaping from a simple bandeau of
pearls, or adorned by a single rose, fell in graceful profusion upon
bare, snowy necks, and the arms were bare to the elbow.

This was carried to such an extent that a book was published entitled
“A Just and Seasonable Reprehension of Naked Breasts and Shoulders,”
with a preface by Richard Baxter.

The richest and brightest materials were employed for the dresses and
petticoats. The costume of this period is very well known from the
portraits of the ladies of the Court by Sir Peter Lely (see Pl. 49,
Fig. 2).


_James II. and William III._

There was no change in female costume during the short and unfortunate
reign of James, but when William and Mary ascended the throne, they and
their entourage brought with them, as might be expected, a number of
Dutch fashions. The very low-necked dresses were replaced by those with
a formal stomacher.

The elegant full sleeve gave place to a tight one, with a cuff above
the elbow, from which fell a profusion of lace in the form of ruffles.

The hair, which had been allowed to hang loose in ringlets, was now
“put up” and combed from the forehead like a rising billow, and
surmounted by piles of ribbons and lace. This was called the “commode,”
and was sometimes covered by a lace scarf or veil that streamed down
each side of the coiffure.

Stiff stays, tightly laced over the stomacher and very long in the
waist, became fashionable, so that a lady’s body, from the shoulder to
the hips, looked like the letter V.

[Illustration: PLATE 48.

  (Fig. 1): A lady of the Court of Charles I. (1643), after the
  engraver Hollar, wearing a lace collar on a low cut neck.
  The robe is not draped, and the hair is combed tightly back
  from the forehead and gathered in close rolls behind, being
  allowed to flow freely at the sides. (Fig. 2): A lady wearing
  a mask of the time of James I., from a contemporary print. She
  holds a folding bone fan in her right hand, and attached to
  her girdle, hanging over the farthingale, are a looking glass,
  a ball-shaped pomander (containing perfumes) with tassels,
  and a toilet case, probably of silver. In the Court of James
  I., which was very dissolute, the mask was worn on all public
  occasions by ladies; and those who appeared without it were
  called “bare-faced.” (Fig. 3): A lady wearing patches, from a
  woodcut in Bulwer’s “Artificial Changeling,” 1650. The custom
  of patching was introduced in the reign of James I. A coach,
  with a coachman and two horses, with postillions, appears
  on her forehead; both sides of her face have crescents upon
  them; a star is on one side of her mouth, and a plain circular
  patch on her chin. (Fig. 4): A lady of Charles I.’s reign,
  showing the arrangement of the hair, with a coif covering
  the head. (From a tomb in Morley Church, Derbyshire.) (Fig.
  5): An English tradesman’s wife, 1649, after Hollar. (Fig.
  6): Dress of an elderly lady of the middle class during the
  Protectorate. She wears a close hood and band, with ample
  gown. (From the effigy of Elizabeth Sacheverell, 1657, in
  Morley Church, Derbyshire.) (Fig. 7): A Puritan woman, 1646,
  from a contemporary print. (Fig. 8): A “Tower” head-dress,
  also known as a “Commode,” as worn at the close of the 17th
  century. It consisted of rows of lace stuck bolt upright over
  the forehead, rising one above the other, forming a kind of
  pyramid, with streaming lappets hanging over the shoulders
  from the head. The hair was combed upwards to form a support
  to the structure. (From a contemporary print.) (Fig. 9): Side
  view of a similar head-dress, of one “storey” only, backed by
  dark coloured ribbons, the hair at the front and sides being
  arranged in short, close curls. (From a contemporary print.)
  (Fig. 10): Head of a lady of the early time of Charles II.,
  showing the method of dressing the hair with a “foretop” or
  tuft of hair turned up from the forehead. This fashion, being
  introduced by Catherine of Braganza, was probably Portuguese.
  (From a print in the Pepysian Library.)]

[Illustration: PLATE 49.

  (Fig. 1): Anne of Denmark, Queen of James I. (from a
  contemporary portrait). This costume differs in no way from
  that worn at the Court at the end of Elizabeth’s reign. The
  farthingale, or enormous hooped petticoat, projected more at
  the sides than in front. It was absolutely flat on the top,
  with a series of radiating pleats upon the surface of it. The
  exquisite design in needlework upon the robe, with gems worked
  into the pattern, is shown clearly in the illustration. The
  ruff, composed of rich lace and needlework, stretches back
  from the neck, and the front of the dress is cut very low.
  The Queen holds a feathered fan and a book in her hands. (Fig.
  2): A lady of the Court of Charles II. (from a contemporary
  portrait). There is the greatest contrast between the costume
  shown in Fig. 1 and this, the former being most uncomfortable
  and artificial. Fig. 2 shows the prevailing character of the
  female costume of this reign--unconfined ease. “The ringlets
  hang loosely upon the exposed neck, which is quite innocent
  of the transparent lawn of the band or the partlet. The gown
  is striking by its very simplicity, the sleeves being merely
  looped material covering the undersleeves of lawn.”]



ARMS AND ARMOUR.

(To end of CHARLES II.)


_James I._

During the reign of Elizabeth the decay of the use of armour had set in
on account of the enormous weight and unwieldly nature of the harness.

It prevented free action, and, indeed, seriously crippled the physical
frames of many of the wearers.

The increasing use of fire arms also tended to hasten the disuse
of armour, for it became difficult to make plates that would be
sufficiently strong to oppose a bullet, unless the armour were made of
great thickness. By the end of the reign of James I. its use had been
so modified that the armour of the heaviest cavalry terminated at the
knees. Sometimes the arms were encased in armour, and occasionally
complete armour was worn by the commanders.

A contemporary engraving of Prince Henry of Wales, the eldest son of
James I. (Pl. 50, Fig. 1), shows the nature and extent of the armour
usually worn.

Through the intercourse with Spain, the cavalry soldier was often
termed a cavalier instead of lancer. The infantry consisted of pikemen,
armed with pikes or spears 18ft. long, and musketeers, armed with fire
arms. Before this reign, on account of their weight, a soldier carrying
a fire arm also bore a forked rest in which to place the musket when
firing it; but at this time the caliver or matchlock, that could be
fired without a rest, came into use generally.

The musketeers were armed with long, rapier-like blades (for their
personal defence), nicknamed a “sweyne’s feather” or a “hog’s bristle”
(Fig. 9).


_Charles I. and the Commonwealth._

During the struggle between King and people, the armour consisted,
at the most, of helmet, backplate and breastplate, or cuirass, with
tassets.

In fact, the only armour worn by many noblemen and gentlemen was a
cuirass over a buff leather coat, with a helmet or hat to cover the
head; and some entire regiments of cavalry were raised, attired in this
fashion and named “Cuirassiers.” They were armed with a good sword,
stiff, cutting, and sharp-pointed, and pistols hanging at the saddle.

The lancers carried a pike-shaped lance, about 18ft. long, a sword
similar to that carried by the cuirassiers, and one or two pistols.

One class of cavalry was called dragoons, because they were armed with
a fire arm shorter than that in general use, called a “dragon.”

The full length portrait of Sir Denner Strutt, 1641 (Fig. 10) from
his tomb in Whalley Church, Essex, well illustrates the armour of the
period as worn by officers in the field. The upper part of the body
is completely armed, but the lower part is not so, as the back of
the figure and the thighs, which would, in fact, be defended by the
position of riding, could need no other protection in the field. The
front of the thigh is covered, and the entire leg below the knee. A
broad sword-belt passes across the chest, and the plain fashionable
collar and long hair repose peacefully on the armed shoulders. Some
officers wore helmets completely covering the head (Fig. 8), but often
helmets of the form shown in Fig. 5 were in use. Flexible ear-pieces
covered the cheeks, and overlapping plates (lobster-tailed) covered
the back of the neck. The costume of a General of the Parliamentary
Army (Lord Fairfax, General for the County of York) is shown in Fig. 2,
where the only articles of armour he wears appear to be the cuirass and
gauntlets, the former over a buff coat. His breeches also appear to be
of buff leather, and large boots, with wide tops, encase his feet and
legs. The modern fire-lock was invented about this time, and a spark
being struck by a piece of steel from a flint, so that the spark fell
upon the powder in the pan.


_Charles II._

The military costume of this reign was nearly that worn in the Civil
Wars.

The defensive armour of the cavalry consisted of “a back, breast, and
pot (helmet), the two latter to be pistol proof.” As offensive arms
they carried a sword and case of pistols with barrels not under 14
inches in length. The musketeers were ordered to carry a musket with a
barrel not under three feet in length, a collar of bandoliers, and a
sword.

During this reign the bayonet was first invented, at Bayonne, and was
made like a dagger, with a round wooden hilt, screwed or merely stuck
into the muzzle of the gun. It is now known as a “plug bayonet.” The
gun could not be fired while the bayonet was fixed without the loss of
the bayonet also.

[Illustration: PLATE 50.

  (Fig. 1): Henry, Prince of Wales, eldest son of James I.
  (from Drayton’s “Polyolbion”), showing the amount of armour
  that was generally worn. The Prince wears only armour to the
  waist, with large, bombasted trunk hose, and is represented
  as balancing a pike. (Fig. 2): Costume, with armour of
  “Ferdinand, Lord Fairfax, the father of the more celebrated
  Parliamentary General, who also served in the same cause, and
  was appointed General for the County of York.” He wears as
  armour only the cuirass and gauntlets. (Figs. 3 and 4): Plug
  bayonets (the earliest form), invented at Bayonne; formerly
  in the Meyrick collection. (Fig. 5): Single-barred helmet
  with “lobster-tail” neck piece and ear-pieces, usually worn
  by dragoons. (Fig. 6): Helmet with triple bars which protect
  the face, as worn by harquebussiers in 1645. (Fig. 7): Pot
  helmet or open head-piece, with cheeks, and a fluted ornament
  over the top, of the time of Cromwell. (Fig. 8): Close helmet
  of the time of Charles I., with ear-pieces and a perforated
  vizor which may be drawn down to cover the face. (Fig. 9):
  A “sweyne’s feather” or “hog’s bristle,” a kind of rapier,
  carried by the musketeer for his defence. (Fig. 10): Effigy
  of Sir Denner Strutt, 1641, from his tomb in Whatley Church,
  Essex, illustrating the armour of the period as worn by
  officers in the field. (Fig. 11): A pikeman of the time of
  James I. (from a broadside in the possession of the Society
  of Antiquaries). He wears a morion-shaped helmet with plumes,
  back and breast plates reaching to the waist, with two
  broad tassets fastened to the breast plate over padded knee
  breeches. He is armed with a long pike and sword. (Fig. 12):
  A musketeer of the time of James I. (from the same source as
  Fig. 11). Musketeers at first wore morions on the head, but,
  later on, large hats with plumes were adopted. This one is
  represented as wearing only back and breast plates, and he is
  armed with a musket and a sword. In his right hand he carries
  a rest for his musket, and slung over his shoulder he wears a
  bandolier or set of leather cases, in each of which a complete
  change of powder for a musket was carried, to facilitate the
  loading of the piece. This was used until the end of the 17th
  century, when the cartridge-box came into use.]



ANNE, GEORGE I. AND GEORGE II.

MALE COSTUMES.


The reign of Anne (a Stuart), is taken with those of the early
Hanoverians, as the costumes of the three reigns were so similar.


_Anne and George I._

With the former of these reigns, all the chivalric costume except the
sword disappeared, the latter still completing the full dress of the
Court of St. James’.

Planché, in his “History of British Costume,” very tersely describes
the costume of the gentlemen of these reigns:--

“Square-cut coats and long-flapped waistcoats with pockets in them, the
latter meeting the stockings, still drawn up over the knee so high as
to entirely conceal the breeches, but gartered below it; large hanging
cuffs and lace ruffles; the skirts of the coats stiffened out with wire
or buckram, from between which peeped the hilt of the sword, deprived
of the broad and splendid belt in which it swung in the preceding
reigns; blue or scarlet silk stockings, with gold or silver cloaks;
lace neckcloths; square-toed, short-quartered shoes, with high red
heels and small buckles; very long and formally curled perukes, black
riding-wigs, bag-wigs and nightcap-wigs; small three-cornered hats
laced with gold or silver galloon, and sometimes trimmed with feathers,
comprise the habit of the nobleman and gentleman during the reigns of
Queen Anne and George I.”

The large-skirted coat is really the precursor of the modern
frock-coat. Full-bottomed wigs were very expensive to the wearer,
for in a wig-maker’s bill, dated December 17th, 1712, we find an
item as follows:--“For a long, full-bottomed periwig, £12:10:0.” Many
interesting peeps are given us at the costume of the time from the
advertisements which appeared in the public papers of the losses or
robbery of clothes.

In 1714 a gentleman advertised that he was robbed of his wardrobe,
consisting of “a scarlet cloth suit, laced with broad gold lace, lined
and faced with blue, a fine cinnamon cloth suit with plate buttons, the
waistcoat fringed with a silk fringe of the same colour; and a rich
yellow flowered satin morning-gown lined with a cherry-coloured satin,
with a pocket on the right side.”

George I. was not inclined to changes in dress, for he was by no means
young when he succeeded to the throne. Indeed, it is said that from the
days of Charles II. till the accession of George III. the Court gave
little encouragement to dress.

The beau of 1727 is described as dressed in “a fine linen shirt, the
ruffles and bosom of Mechlin lace, a small wig with an enormous queue
or tail, his coat well garnished with lace, black velvet breeches, red
heels to his shoes and gold clocks to his stockings, his hat beneath
his arm, a sword by his side, and himself well scented.”

There were many minor changes in articles of dress, such as the
introduction of the Ramilies cock of the hat (Fig. 3) soon after the
battle of Ramilies, and a wig also took its name from the same event.
It was invented by an enterprising wig-maker, and had the tail plaited
to the taste of the Swiss female peasant, having a black tie at the
top and another at the bottom. It is not flowing at the sides, but
consists of a bushy heap of well-powdered hair (Fig. 3). The fashion of
“cocking” the hat or turning up the brim, had many changes, and by the
cock of the hat, the occupation of the man who wore it was known; and
it varied from the modest broad brim of the clergy and countrymen to
the slightly upturned hat of the country gentleman or citizen.

A large hat, called the Kevenhuller hat, of extravagant proportions,
was worn (Fig. 7), and it was generally patronised by military men or
bullies about town after the type of the Mohocks, Bloods, &c.

In the reign of George II. there was no alteration in the general
character of male costumes. The pigtail appeared in 1745, and some
young men wore their own hair, dressed and powdered, about 1751.

The costume of the ordinary classes during these reigns was very
simple, and consisted of a plain coat, buttoned up the front, a long
waistcoat reaching to the knees, both having capacious pockets with
great overlapping flaps, plain bob (short and round) wigs, hats
slightly turned up, and high quartered shoes.

The works of Hogarth afford abundant examples of the costumes of the
reign of George II. Thanks to his skilful pencil we are familiar with
the square-cut coats, flapped waistcoats and knee breeches of the first
half of the 18th century. The use of muffs by men may be traced back to
the exquisites of Louis XIV., and were as commonly carried by men as by
women.

[Illustration: PLATE 51.

  (Fig 1): Costume of a gentleman of the time of Queen Anne and
  George I. (Fig. 2): A clergyman’s hat (1745), from Hogarth.
  (Fig. 3): A fashionable cock, as worn by merchants and
  well-to-do Londoners, known as the Ramilies cock, with the
  Ramilies wig. (Fig. 4): Costume of a gentleman of the time of
  George I. (1720). (Fig. 5): Costume of a gentleman of the
  time of George II., from “The School of Venus, or the Lady’s
  Miscellany,” 1739. He wears a small wig and hat, and a long
  wide-skirted coat. (Fig. 6): A plain and decisively cocked
  hat, which was in fashion in 1745, and a bag-wig beneath it.
  (Fig. 7): The Kevenhuller hat, of extravagant proportions, as
  worn by military men, or bullies about town. (Fig. 8): Costume
  of a gentleman, from a print dated 1744.]


FEMALE COSTUMES.

At Anne’s accession little change was made in the costumes of ladies,
as the Queen was of too retiring a disposition to introduce any
originality in that direction.

In 1711 Addison, in the “Spectator,” devoted a whole number to the
subject of ladies’ head-dress, commencing with a declaration “that
there is not so variable a thing in nature,” adding, “within my own
memory I have known it rise and fall about 30 degrees. About ten years
ago it shot up to a very great height, insomuch that the female part of
our species were much taller than the men” (allusion to the Commode).
“I remember several ladies that were once very near seven feet high,
and at present want some inches of five feet.” After about fifteen
years the high Commode again came into fashion, but the startling
novelty was the hoop-petticoat. It widened gradually from the waist
to the ground, the gown being looped up round the body in front and
falling in loose folds behind (Pl. 52, Fig. 1.). A writer of the time
says of this fashion: “Nothing can be imagined more unnatural, and,
consequently, less agreeable. When a slender woman stands upon a basis
so inordinately wide, she resembles a funnel, a figure of no great
elegancy.”

About this time, ladies, particularly in their riding costumes,
imitated the costumes of the men, wearing a cocked beaver hat and
feathers, hair curled and powdered and tied like a man’s, coat and
waistcoat like a man, with a petticoat below the waist. Sir Roger de
Coverley, when looking at a young sporting lady, was about to address
her as “Sir,” until he cast his eye lower and saw her petticoat.

In contrast with the extravagance shown in the quantity and quality
of the materials used for ladies’ dresses, how cheaply the poor could
dress at this time may be gathered from an entry in some parish
accounts in Norfolk in 1719: “Paid for clading of the Widow Bernard
with a gown, petticoat, bodice, hose, shoes, apron and stomacher, 18s.
6d.”

In the time of George I. there were few innovations in fashion set by
the Court.

In the reign of George II. the ladies still laced as tightly, and their
hoops were as ugly and inconvenient as ever; but generally speaking,
every lady dressed only as pleased herself, so that there was an
enormous variety of costumes worn at all public assemblies. At the
close of this reign there was a great rage for pastoral plays and Court
masques, in which the ladies of the Court and the noblemen appeared as
country-folk, shepherds, shepherdesses, milkmaids, &c.

Their garments were cut in a simple style after the characters whom
they represented, but they were of very costly materials, with diamonds
and other precious stones as ornaments. Ladies often wore white muslin
aprons similar to that of a modern waitress, and it is said that Beau
Nash, the Master of the Ceremonies, and “King of Bath,” disliked them
so much at social gatherings, that he took one off a Duchess at one of
the assemblies, and threw it among the waiting women.

The fashions in dress changed so rapidly, however, and were so
numerous, that it is impossible to record all the variations of the
times. Their diversity and variety will be seen by looking at any of
the prints recording social events, which are found in our public
collections and are reproduced in the magazines.

[Illustration: PLATE 52.

  (Fig. 1): A lady with a very tightly laced bodice and hoop
  petticoat, in fashion about 1718. (Fig. 2): A lady in the
  fashion of 1755, showing a later development of the hoop
  petticoat, when, owing to the torrent of invectives levelled
  at it, it became more constricted in its dimensions. In this
  form it much resembles the farthingale of Elizabeth’s time.
  (Fig. 3): Hooded head-dress worn in 1727; a complete envelope
  for the head, commonly used in riding and travelling, as well
  as when walking in the parks. It was called a Nithisdale,
  because when Lord Nithisdale escaped from the Tower dressed
  as a woman, by the assistance of his devoted wife, his
  features were concealed in a hood like this. (Fig. 4): Hat of
  the milk-maid type, such as was affected by ladies in 1727
  (from the “Musical Entertainer”). (Fig. 5): High-heeled and
  small-pointed shoe of embroidered silk, with a thin sole of
  leather such as was worn by the lady in Fig. 7. (Fig. 6):
  The clog for the shoe seen in Fig. 5 is made of leather,
  ornamented by coloured silk threads worked with a needle.
  Figs. 5 and 6 are from Hone’s “Everyday Book.” (Fig. 7): A
  good specimen of the fashion in the hoop petticoat, from a
  curious print called the “Review,” published about 1740. The
  hoop, which was formed of whalebone, stretches the dress on
  all sides, so that it rises from the ground, and allows the
  small-pointed, high-heeled shoes to be seen. The wearer had to
  double the hoop round in front, or lifted it up on each side
  when she entered a door or carriage, and, when seated, she
  occupied the space usually allotted for half a dozen of the
  male sex. (All the above are from contemporary engravings.)]



GEORGE III.

MALE COSTUMES.


King George III. was very young when he came to the throne, and he was
retiring and modest in his personal habits, so that he did not set the
fashion in any extravagant direction. The nobility and gentry started
all that was new in the fashions without waiting for the royal sanction
to their flippancies and extravagances.

Both ladies and gentlemen dressed simply at first, Fig. 1 being the
type of the male costume of the time. It was only remarkable for the
great quantity of lace with which the coat and waistcoat were trimmed.

The dress of the countryman at this time was conspicuous for its
“bagginess.” The garments were full and easy, the natural hair was
worn; a loosely-twisted neckcloth, enormous hat, and easy shoes
completed a dress, which “was remarkable as fitting only where it
touched.”

At the commencement of the reign, men’s hats were worn with very
wide brims (about 6½ inches wide), and cocked in various styles
according to the profession of the wearer. A favourite cocked hat was
the Nivernois. It was very small, with large flaps, fastened up to the
shallow crown by hooks and eyes. The corner in front was spout-shaped,
and stiffened out by wire.

Gold-laced hats were generally worn again in 1775, because the wearers
thought that they gave them a military and distinguished appearance,
and it is said that many men wore them to escape the attentions of the
press gang, that were remarkably active about this time. In 1772 a
new fashion was introduced by young gentlemen who had been travelling
in Italy. They formed themselves into the Maccaroni Club, which was
intended as a rival to the Beefsteak Club, and distinguished themselves
by a most extravagant and eccentric costume.

The new-fashioned dandy was known as a Maccaroni (Figs. 2 and 3). His
hair was dressed into an enormous toupée, with large curls at the
sides, while behind it was gathered and tied up into an enormous club
or knot, that rested on the back of the neck. Upon this, a very small
hat was often worn (Fig. 3). A full, white handkerchief was tied in
a large bow round the neck. Both coat and waistcoat were shortened,
and were edged with lace or braid. The garments were decorated with
the wearer’s initials, pictures of windmills, horsemen, hounds, &c.,
showing to what extent a ridiculous fashion can be carried. Two watches
were worn, one in each waistcoat pocket, from which hung large bunches
of seals. Silk stockings, and small shoes with diamond buckles,
completed the costume, which, however, remained in fashion only one
season.

About the middle of the reign of George III., the square-cut coat and
the long-flapped waistcoat of the three preceding reigns underwent an
alteration. The stiffening was taken out of the skirts, the waists were
shortened, and the cut of the present Court suit introduced. Cloth
became the general material for the coat, and velvet, silk, satin, and
embroidery, were reserved for Court dress or waistcoats and breeches
only. The stockings were worn under the breeches, and shoes had large
buckles. The lace cravat was abandoned in 1735, and a black ribbon,
worn around the neck, was tied in a large bow in front. White cambric
stocks, buckled behind, succeeded these, and then followed muslin
cravats.

Round hats began to be worn in the mornings, and shortly after this
time the French Revolution in 1789 completed the downfall of the
three-cornered hat on both sides of the Channel. A flat, folding,
crescent-shaped beaver, still called a cocked hat, distinguished the
beaux at the theatre, and the chapeau-de-bras, a small triangular silk
article, was slipped under the arm of the courtier.

The original three-cornered hat remains in the head-dress of State
coachmen of Royal and noble families, and of the Lord Mayor of London,
while the chapeau-de-bras is still worn as part of the Court dress.

The French Revolution also affected the wig. It had, during the latter
half of the 18th century, become smaller and smaller, and the natural
hair was plastered and powdered till it was, at last, as ugly as a wig.
This fashion remains in the present day in the powdered hair of footmen
in full dress. About 1793, French fashions, copied from the costumes
of the leaders of the Revolution, became very much the vogue in this
country. A high sugar-loaf hat covered the head, and the flowing hair
was powdered; a frilled shirt, a white striped waistcoat, a loose
cravat of white cambric tied in a large bow, were worn, and a long
green coat covered the upper part of the body. The breeches were tight,
and reached to the ankle, being buttoned from the bottom, up the sides
to the middle of the thigh, and low top-boots were worn.

Towards the end of the reign, the shirt collar appeared, and the ruffle
vanished. The coat was made with lapels and with a tail cut square in
front above the hips, like the modern dress-coat. The waistcoat was cut
ridiculously short, and pantaloons and Hessian boots were introduced
about the same time.

[Illustration: PLATE 53.

  (Fig. 1): Costume of a gentleman at the commencement of the
  reign of George III. It is remarkable only for the extra
  quantity of lace with which it is decorated, and the small
  black cravat which he wears. (Fig. 2): Side view of head-dress
  of a Maccaroni, showing (1) the height to which the hair was
  raised and plastered, (2) the row of curls around it, and (3)
  the large “club” tied with a broad ribbon. (Fig. 3): Complete
  costume of a Maccaroni (1772) showing a different treatment
  of the hair from that in Fig. 2, the ridiculously small hat,
  and the ornamented coat are also shown. (Fig. 4): A hat of
  the style worn in 1786. (Fig. 5): The last form of the cocked
  hat. Both Figs. 4 and 5 may be taken as specimens of the
  latter days of the wig, “large curls, ties and bob, ending
  in a single pigtail.” (Fig. 6): Fashionable riding dress in
  1786. The costume consists of a broad brimmed hat with band
  and buckle, powdered wig and pigtail, a long-tailed coat
  with large buttons, tight buckskin breeches buttoned at the
  knee, and high boots. (Fig. 7): A hat of the newest fashion
  of 1792, gaily decorated with gold strings and tassels. The
  natural hair is worn powdered, and the high coat collar is
  very characteristic of the time. (All the above are from
  contemporary prints.)]


FEMALE COSTUMES.


Both George III. and his wife were decorous and retiring in their
habits, and during their reign the fashions were started and maintained
by the nobility and gentry of their Court.

The latter “did not wait for the royal sanction to their flippancies,
and their taste or want of taste ran riot during this reign to an
extent that equalled the absurdities of any previous period, and which
makes the history of fashion during that time more varied than that of
any similar length of time.”

At the commencement of the reign, ladies’ dresses were generally simple
enough; but about 1763 the fashion came over from France of dressing
the hair by curling and crisping it, and raising it by adding pomatum,
upon a foundation of “many a good pound of wool,” into such an erection
“that my lady is dressed for three months at least, during which time
it is not in her power to comb her head.” So enormous were these
head-dresses, that a satirist said: “Our fine ladies remind me of an
apple stuck on the point of a small skewer.” A sign of the times was
the number of works written by hairdressers, which appeared with many
illustrations, describing the various styles of these monstrosities of
hairdressing, “for in those days hairdressers were great men.”

When the Maccaroni costume was adopted in 1772 by some of the dandies,
many ladies followed suit with a costume on similar, extravagant lines,
particularly copying the enormous toupée.

In 1775 another fashion came in, depicted in Fig. 1. The head-dress is
called a half-moon toupée, combed up from the forehead, large curls
being made at the sides, and a plume of feathers surmounting the
structure. Round the neck is a simple ribbon. The gown is high behind
at the neck, and low in front, with a large bunch of flowers stuck in
the breast, and the body is tightly confined in stays strengthened with
steel busks. The sleeves reach to the elbow; long gloves are worn, and
the fan is constantly displayed.

The gown is open from the waist, and gathered in festoons at the
sides, the edges being ornamented with silk ribbons in puffs, forming
a diamond shaped pattern and edged with lace. The petticoat, which
is displayed by the open gown, is similarly decorated, and small,
high-heeled shoes with rosettes complete the dress.

The head-dress continued as monstrous as ever until, in 1782, it
reached the enormous size shown in Fig. 6. One hairdresser, on
completing his task, told the lady that “heads, when properly dressed,
kept for three weeks”; that they would not “keep” longer may be
seen from the many recipes given for the destruction of the insects
which bred in the flour and pomatum so liberally bestowed upon the
head-dresses. Needless to say, these structures gave unlimited
materials to the many satirists and caricaturists of the period. About
1786 the heads began to lower, and the hair was allowed to stream down
the back, a fashion attributed to the portrait painters, led by Sir
Joshua Reynolds. Hats with enormous brims were worn of the style shown
in Fig. 4, which represents a lady in a fashionable riding dress of
1786.

In 1789 the hair began to be worn “frizzled” in a close bush all over,
with pendant curls on the back and shoulders (Fig. 5). The high bonnet
of the French peasants was introduced and was worn trimmed with lace,
so that it hung over the face like an extinguisher. The puffed out
chest, the little frilled jacket and tight sleeves, were also very
characteristic of this time.

A curious fashion came in during 1783, in the use of straw as an
ornament of dress. It was used to decorate everything, from the cap to
the shoe buckle, and naturally this was the era of straw bonnets. In
1794 extremely short waists became fashionable; that is to say, the
waists of dresses were carried up to the armpits. In derision of this
fashion, a song commencing,

  “Shepherds, I have lost my love,
   Have you seen my Anna?”

was parodied thus by a wag:

  “Shepherds, I have lost my waist,
   Have you seen my body?”

The gown was worn without a hoop, and fell in straight, loose folds to
the feet. The fashion of powdering the hair fell into disuse, for Mr.
Pitt, computing that it would bring in a revenue of about £210,000, put
a tax upon powdering the hair, and almost everyone, to his disgust,
abandoned the fashion.

Although the hoop had been discarded in private life for some time, it
appeared regularly at Court in as great state as ever (Fig. 7).

It was decorated with ribbons, cords, tassels, and bunches of flowers;
the waist was pinched, and the head overloaded with feathers, jewels,
ribbons, and ornaments--altogether a most uncomfortable attire.

Many of the fashions at the end of George’s reign became tasteful
and simple, and illustrations of them will be seen in the portraits,
engravings, and caricatures of the time.

[Illustration: PLATE 54.

  (Fig. 1): Costume of a lady in 1775, from an illustration in
  the “Ladies’ Magazine” of that year (taken from a drawing made
  at Ranelagh). (Fig. 2): A bonnet “of unassisted British taste”
  of the time of the Regency, 1811-1820. (Fig. 3): A head-dress
  about 1768, from a curious work written by a hairdresser
  named Stewart, under the astounding title of “Plocacosmos,
  or the Whole Art of Hair Dressing.” It is a large but light
  compound of gauze, wire, ribbons and flowers, sloping over
  the forehead. (Fig. 4): A lady’s fashionable riding costume
  in August, 1786 (from a print). (Fig. 5): A lady of fashion
  in 1789 (from a print dated 1790). (Fig. 6): Head-dress of a
  lady, 1766 (in Stewart’s “Plocacosmos”). (Fig. 7): A lady in
  Court dress in 1796. The hoop petticoat, though fallen into
  disuse generally, was retained in the Court dress.]



THE MONASTIC ORDERS.


[Illustration: Plate 55.]

1. _The Benedictines_ (Fig. 1) are the most ancient of the Monastic
Orders, and have always been the most learned. They were founded by St.
Benedict in Italy about A.D. 529, as a monastery for 12 monks, in order
that they might live, in a religious community, a Christian life with
lofty ideals. Originally, St. Benedict’s idea was not to found an Order
whose branches should extend throughout Europe as one organisation, but
rather that the various houses should be independent of one another.

The Order spread very rapidly, being very rational and elastic in its
rules, and it displaced the others that were in existence. Pope Gregory
the Great gave to it his high approval, for as the learned Abbot
Gasquet says:--“In his (Gregory’s) opinion, it manifested no common
wisdom in its provisions, which were dictated by a marvellous insight
into human nature, and by a knowledge of the best possible conditions
for attaining the end of a monastic life, the perfect love of God and
of man.”

Its rule did _not_ enforce ascetism, and great liberty was given to
the heads of the Order to modify its regulations to suit special
circumstances. The Mission sent to England by St. Augustine, A.D.
597, consisted of a Prior and Monks of St. Benedict’s rule; and as
Christianity spread in this country, so the number of houses of the
Order increased, until “during the whole Saxon period, this was the
only form of monasticism in England.”


2. _The Cluniacs_ grew out of the Benedictines, being established at
Cluny, near Macon-sur-Saone, A.D. 912. By the Benedictine rule, all
religious houses were self-centred. The Cluniac rule established a
new principle--that there should be a great central monastery, with
dependencies spread over many lands, all owing allegiance to the
central authority. In every case, the Superior of the lesser houses was
not elected by the community, but was nominated by the Abbot of Cluny.

The Order was established in England shortly after the Norman Conquest,
and when the monasteries were suppressed in the 16th century, there
were thirty-two Cluniac Monasteries in this country, one only--at
Bermondsey--being an abbey.


3. _The Cistercians_ (Fig. 2).

This was the most flourishing offshoot of the Benedictines, and was
founded at the Monastery of Citeaux, A.D. 1092. Though not the founder
the greatest organiser was an Englishman, St. Stephen Harding. The
Cistercians formed themselves “into an organised corporation, under the
perpetual pre-eminence of the Abbot and house of Citeaux, with yearly
Chapters, which all Superiors were bound to attend.”

The Order spread very rapidly, and the first abbey was founded in
England A.D. 1129. At the general suppression there were one hundred
Cistercian houses in this country.


4. _The Carthusians_ (Fig. 3).

This Order was founded in the 11th century on very strict and ascetic
lines. The monks lived a life of the greatest austerity and practised
the most self-denying ordinances. Their clothes were mean and rough;
they never ate meat--fish and eggs being the only animal food allowed,
and that only on two days in the week. On two days they had pulse or
herbs boiled, and on three days bread and water--only two meals a day
being taken.

The first Carthusian house was founded in England A.D. 1180, and
there were only eight monasteries of the Order in this country at the
dissolution of the monasteries.

Most of the above Orders had houses of Nuns affiliated to them.



GENERAL PLAN OF A MONASTERY.


[Illustration: Plate 56.]

The Abbeys and Monasteries of the Benedictines and the Orders founded
from them, with the exception of the Carthusians, were built on the
same general plan.

The _Church_ itself was, of course, the principal of the monastic
buildings, and the most important part of the Church was the
_Presbytery_, with the High Altar and the Choir. The Church was always
cruciform and the Presbytery was the eastern arm. To it only the monks
who were in priestly orders had access. The Choir, or Quire, frequently
stretched in the _Nave_ beyond the _Transepts_, and was divided off
from the more public part by the great screen.

In northern climates the Church was generally situated on the northern
side of the monastic buildings. Being a lofty and substantial
structure, it afforded protection, and acted as a screen to the other
buildings from the keen north winds. Next to the Church in importance
came the _Cloisters_, which were generally, in England, placed on
the south side of the Nave. Around them were grouped the principal
buildings. The Cloisters were covered and paved walks, surrounding a
rectangular space called the _Cloister Garth_. They were the common
dwelling place of the community, for in them the greater part of the
work of the monks was carried on. The Northern Walk, by the wall of the
Church, was naturally the warmest, as it had a southern aspect, and
here the monks worked. The Prior sat near the eastern end of this walk,
where there was the usual entrance to the Church, and along this side,
the other seniors sat--not arranged in order of seniority, but in the
positions that best suited them for the respective tasks on which they
were engaged. The Abbot sat apart at the end of the eastern cloister
nearest the Church door. In the same cloister, but toward the southern
end, the Novice Master gave regular instruction to the novices, and the
Western Cloister was given up to the junior monks.

The Southern Cloister, with a north aspect, was sunless and cheerless,
and was not generally used as a working place. Here were placed the
lavatories, and the towel cupboards.

Abbot Gasquet, in his “English Monastic Life,” says:--“Day after day for
centuries, the Cloister was the centre of the activity of the religious
establishment. The quadrangle was the place where the monks lived and
studied and wrote. In the three sides--the Northern, the Eastern, and
Western walls--were transacted the chief business of the house, other
than what was merely external. Here the older monks laboured at the
tasks appointed them by obedience, or discussed questions relating to
ecclesiastical learning or regular observance; or at permitted times
joined in recreative conversation. Here, too, in the parts set aside
for the purpose, the younger members toiled at their studies under the
eye of their teacher, learnt the monastic observance from the lips of
the Novice Master, or practised the chants and melodies of the Divine
Office with the Cantor or his assistant. How the work was done in the
winter time, even supposing that the great windows looking out on to
the Cloister Garth were glazed or closed with wooden shutters, must
ever remain a mystery.”

The _Refectory_, also called the Fratry, or Frater House, was the
dining hall of the establishment. It was always placed, with the
kitchens, &c., as far as possible from the Church, so that the smell of
the cooking should not penetrate the sacred structure. As a rule, the
walls of the Refectory were wainscotted, and the floor was covered with
hay or rushes. The monks sat in a single row on each side, with their
backs to the wall. The Superior sat at a high table at the Eastern end,
and a pulpit was erected at the western side or southern end of the
hall. From it, one of the novices read aloud part of the Scriptures in
Latin during meal times.

In Cistercian monasteries the Refectory was placed at right angles to
the Southern Cloister, but in those of the Cluniacs and Benedictines
its length ran east and west along this Cloister.

The kitchen, buttery, and other offices connected with the cooking and
storing of food, were naturally placed near to the refractory.

The _Chapter House_ was situated on the eastern side of the Cloisters,
being built near the Church. It was always a room of noble proportions
and design, and here the Abbot and monks met daily to transact the
solemn business of the Order. The latter sat along by the wall and the
former in the east.

In a vestry or sacristy near it were kept, beside other things, the
books of the house.

The _Parlour_ was a room in which the monks did what talking was
necessary, when strict silence had to be observed in the cloisters, and
here sometimes they interviewed visitors. It was generally situated
near the Chapter House.

The _Common Room_, also called the _Calefactory_ or _Warming House_,
was a room to which the monks resorted in winter to warm themselves
at the common fire, and it was also used at times for the purposes of
recreation.

Above the Chapter House and the other buildings on the eastern side was
the _Dormitory_ or _Dorter_ of the monks, and it had one set of stairs
leading to it from the Eastern Cloister, and another set leading down
into the church.

Generally, too, on the eastern side was a passage leading to the
_Infirmary_, which was placed some distance away from the other
buildings, and near to it was the _Misericorde_, a room where monks,
by permission of the Abbot, might eat meat, which was at other times
forbidden.

By the Western Cloisters were the _Cellar_ and the Fratry of the lay
brethren or Conversi, and over these was placed their Dorter.

There was also, in addition to these, a _Guest House_, often of great
size and very well appointed, where strangers were entertained. This
was generally built in such a place where it would least interfere with
the privacy of the monks; and there was also an _Almonry_, where food
and clothing were distributed by the monks to the poor who came for
relief.



THE FRIARS AND CANONS.


From the beginning of the 10th to the end of the 12th century, a
series of religious orders arose, each aiming at a more successful
reproduction of the monastic ideal.

In the 13th century there arose the Orders of Friars, who were inspired
by the principle of devotion to the performance of active and actual
religious duties among their fellow-men, rather than by that of
monastic seclusion. Their plan was “to mix with the world and work for
the salvation of the world” in a state of absolute poverty.

Their houses were built in the poorest quarters of large towns, but
they only used the houses as temporary resting-places, preaching and
carrying out their ministrations throughout the country, and attending
to the physical and spiritual needs of the lowest and poorest,
including the lepers and the outcasts. They were great preachers, and
this was particularly striking, because preaching had fallen into
disuse among the monastic orders.

“Nothing in the histories of Wesley or of Whitfield can be compared
with the enthusiasm which everywhere welcomed them,” and it is said
that the work of the Friars staved off the Reformation for 200 years.

As students, the Friars did not confine themselves to theology, but
cultivated the whole range of science and art, and members of the
Orders held very distinguished academical posts throughout Europe.

A candidate for admission to one of the Orders studied theology
for three years, and was then examined on his work, receiving, if
successful, a commission limiting his mission to a certain district
(when he was called a _limitour_), or allowing him to go where he
listed (_a lister_).

As may be imagined, much strife arose between these wandering preachers
and the parochial clergy. There were four Orders of Friars: Dominicans,
Franciscans, Carmelites, and Augustines. They were called Friars
because, out of humility, their founders would not have them called
Father, like the monks, but simply Brother (Frater, Frère, Friar). The
Dominicans and Franciscans came into being at the beginning of the 13th
century.

Dominic, an Augustinian Canon and a Spaniard of noble birth, conceived
the idea of founding an Order of men who should spend their lives in
preaching, and at the same time St. Francis of Assisi, the son of a
rich Italian merchant, was inspired with a similar idea. Dominic and
Francis met at Rome 1216 A.D., but, though an attempt was made to
combine their movements, it was found impossible to do so.

Each adopted the Augustian rule, and each required that his followers
should have no property, either personally or as a corporate body. They
were to work for a livelihood or live on alms.

The Dominicans were learned, energetic and dogmatic; the Franciscans
retained somewhat of the character of the pious, ardent enthusiast,
from whom they took their name. The Dominicans were called Black
Friars, as their habit consisted of a white tunic with white girdle,
and a white scapulary with a _black_ mantle, hood and shoes. (Pl. 58,
Fig. 3.)

The Dominican nuns wore the same dress, with a white veil.

The Franciscans were called Grey Friars, from the colour of their
habits, or Cordeliers, from the knotted rope which formed their
characteristic girdle.

Their habit was originally a grey tunic, with long, loose sleeves, a
knotted cord for a girdle, and a black hood. The feet were always bare,
or only protected by sandals. In the 15th century, the colour of the
habit was changed to dark brown. (Pl. 57, Fig. 1.)

The Franciscans were first introduced into England at Canterbury, 1223
A.D., and there were sixty-five houses of the Order in England, besides
four houses of minoresses.

While the Dominicans retained their unity of organisation, the
Franciscans divided into several branches, under the names of
Minorites, Capuchins, Minims, Observants, Recollets, &c.

The _Carmelites_ took their name from Mount Carmel, where they
originated.

They were driven from Palestine by the Saracens in the 12th century,
and then spread into Europe, coming to England about 1245 A.D.

Their dress was a white frock over a dark blue tunic, and they were
hence known as White Friars. In the 16th century they had about forty
houses in this country. (Pl. 57, Fig. 2.)

_The Augustines_, or _Austin Friars_, were founded in the middle of
the 13th century, consisting originally of hermits and solitaries, who
lived under no rule at all. They were incorporated by Pope Innocent IV.
into a new Order with the above name.

They wore a black gown with board sleeves, girdled with a leather belt,
and a black cloth hood. They had thirty-two houses in England.

Besides these four principal Orders of mendicant Friars, there were
a number of lesser Orders, the chief being the _Crutched Friars_ (so
called because they wore a red cross on the breast and back of their
habit); _Friars of the Sack_, who wore a plain, bag-like garment
of coarse cloth or sacking; and _Friars of the Holy Trinity_, or
_Trinitarians_, who made part of their work the ransoming of Christians
captured by the infidels.

All the minor mendicant Orders (excepting the four great Orders) were
suppressed 1370 A.D.


THE CANONS.

A great monastic family was known under the name of Augustinians, from
St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, who, it is said, established monastic
communities in Africa, and gave them a “rule,” or method of life.

In the middle of the ninth century all the clergy--priests, canons,
clerks, etc.--who had not entered the monastic ranks were incorporated
into one great Order to observe the rule of St. Augustine. The Canons
Regular, as they were called, were the clergy of Cathedral and
Collegiate Churches, living in a community on the monastic model. They
wore during divine service a surplice, and a fur tippet or _almuce_
over a long black cassock, and a four-square cap called a _baret_ or
_biretta_.

They had much more liberty than the monks. A writer in the thirteenth
century says: “Among them one is well shod, well clothed, and well fed.
They go out when they like, mix with the world, and talk at table.”

There were several classes of them in England known as--

1. Augustinian Canons.

2. Premonstratensian Canons.

3. Gilbertine Canons.

The _Augustinian_, Austin or Black Canons (Pl. 57, Fig. 3), so
called from the habit of the order, were found in Europe after the
twelfth century, and were very popular in England. At the time of
the Dissolution they had about 170 houses in England, two of the
Abbeys--Waltham Cross and Cirencester--being governed by mitred abbots.

The _Premonstratensian_ Canons were named after Prémontré, in France,
where they originated in the twelfth century. They wore a white habit,
and were known as White Canons. Welbeck Abbey was the chief house in
England, and at the Dissolution there were 34 houses of the Order in
this country.

The _Gilbertine Canons_ were founded by St. Gilbert, Rector of
Sempringham. in the twelfth century. The Order was one for both men
and women, and in the double monasteries the canons and nuns lived in
separate houses, having no communion. The men wore a black habit with a
white cloak, and a hood lined with lamb’s wool.

The women were in black, with a white cap. The Order had 26
establishments in England at the Dissolution.

[Illustration: PLATE 57.

  (Fig. 1): A Franciscan Friar. (Fig. 2): A Carmelite Friar.

  (Fig. 3): An Augustinian Canon.]



MILITARY MONASTIC ORDERS.

(Plate 58.)


The military Orders, consisting of men who combined the religious
duties of monks and the military exercises of knights, were the Knights
Hospitallers and the Knights Templars.

_The Knights Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem_ (Pl. 58, Fig. 1)
were originally not a military Order.

This Order took its name and was founded at an hospital in Jerusalem
by the merchants of Amalfi, in Italy, for the purpose of affording
hospitality to the Pilgrims coming to the Holy Land. It was dedicated
to St. John the Baptist, and the first business of its members was to
provide for such pilgrims at that hospital, and to protect them from
insults and injuries on the road. The open country was perpetually
exposed to the incursions of irregular bands of Saracen and Turkish
horsemen, and any of the hapless pilgrims who were captured were put to
death or sold into slavery.

[Illustration: PLATE 58.

  (Fig. 1): A Knight Hospitaller. (Fig. 2): A Knight Templar.

  (Fig. 3): A Dominican Friar.]


The Order was instituted about 1092 A.D., and was very much favoured by
Godfrey of Bouillon and his successor, Baldwin, King of Jerusalem.

The kindness of the Hospitallers to the sick and wounded soldiers of
the First Crusade made them popular, and several of the Crusading
princes endowed them with estates; while many of the Crusaders, instead
of returning home, laid down their arms and joined the brotherhood.

After a time, when their endowments became very great, they
reconstituted the Order on the model of the Templars. From this time
the two military Orders formed a powerful standing army for the defence
of the kingdom of Jerusalem.

As monks, they followed a rule of life founded upon that of St.
Augustine, and wore a black mantle with a white cross on the left
shoulder.

They soon came to England, and had a house built for them in London
about 1140 A.D., and from poor and mean beginnings obtained so great
wealth, honours, and exemptions, that their Superior here in England
was the first lay baron and had a seat among the Lords in Parliament;
some of their privileges being extended even to their tenants. When on
military duty, the knights wore the ordinary armour of the period, a
red surcoat with a white cross on the breast, and a red mantle with a
white cross on the shoulder.

The smaller establishments upon their manors and estates were called
_commanderies_, and the head of the house was known as the Commander.

Sometimes their houses were called _preceptories_, but this term was
more generally applied to the establishments of the Knights Templars.

They had their headquarters at the Hospital of St. John, near
Clerkenwell, where the gate (rebuilt in 1540) may still be seen. There
were about 53 cells or commanderies attached to this hospital in
different parts of the country, where the novices might be trained in
piety and in military exercises.

When the Christians were driven out of Jerusalem, the Knights of St.
John passed to the Isle of Cyprus, afterwards to the Isle of Rhodes,
and finally to Malta, where they maintained a constant warfare against
the Mahommedans, acting as the police of the Mediterranean and doing
their best to oppose the piracies of the Corsairs.

The Order was divided at Malta according to nationality--the English
knights, the French knights, etc., each nation having a separate house
situated at a different point of the island for its defence.

The Order was suppressed in England in 1541, resuscitated in Mary’s
reign, and finally abolished on the accession of Queen Elizabeth.

_Knights Templars._ (Pl. 58, Fig 2.)

The Knights Templars, or simply the “Templars,” were instituted 1118
A.D., and were so called from having their first residence adjoining
the Temple at Jerusalem. Nine knights bound themselves into a
fraternity, which adopted the fundamental monastic vows of obedience,
poverty, and chastity, and, in addition, their business was to guard
the roads for the security of pilgrims in the Holy Land. Many members
of the noblest houses in Europe joined the Order, and endowments flowed
in abundantly. Gradually dependent houses were established on its
estates in nearly every country of Europe. Their rule, like that of
the Hospitallers, was according to that of St. Augustine, and their
habit consisted of a large white mantle with a red cross on the left
shoulder, over the ordinary armour of the period. They came to England
early in the reign of Stephen, settling first at Holborn in London.
Afterwards their headquarters were removed to Fleet Street, and were
known as “The Temple.” On this ground they built a monastery, barracks,
cloister, council chamber, refectory, a river terrace as exercise
ground as well as for religious meditation, a tilting ground where the
Law Courts now stand, and a very beautiful church. This establishment
now for many years has been given over to the Law, Chaucer having
been one of the first law students there. The original church, with
its round nave, after the form of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at
Jerusalem, still remains--a monument to the wealth and influence of the
ancient Templars. The banner of the Order was of black and white cloth,
called _beauseant_ (Pl. 29, Fig. 24), and they adopted this word as a
war cry.

The rule allowed three horses and a servant to each knight, and married
knights were also admitted to the Order.

In England their numbers increased very rapidly, and they obtained
large possessions, but in less than two hundred years their wealth and
power were thought to be too great. They were accused of horrid crimes,
and were everywhere put into prison. Their Order was suppressed by Pope
Clement V. in 1309 A.D., and totally abolished by the Council of Vienna
1312 A.D. The Superior of the Order in England was styled Master of the
Temple, and was often summoned to Parliament.

Like the Hospitallers, the Templars built churches and houses on
their estates called _Preceptories_. When the order was suppressed,
these lands and houses, eighteen in number, were handed over to the
Hospitallers.

In the Temple Church there are nine effigies of knights, which are
certainly the finest and most interesting collection of monumental
figures of this early period possessed by any one church in the
kingdom. They exhibit the military costume as it is said to have been
worn at the Crusades.

According to the sculptor who restored the effigies, the Templars
wore long beards, and their general dress consisted of a hauberk or
tunic of ringed mail reaching to the knees, with sleeves, gloves, and
chausses covering the legs and feet of the same kind of mail, a light
sleeveless surcoat of white with a red cross over the hauberk, girded
about the waist by a belt; another belt passing transversely round the
body over the right shoulder and under the left arm, by which a long
or kite-shaped shield was supported; a sword belt obliquely across the
loins, with a long, heavy sword attached, and single-pointed or “prick”
spurs.

Over all was worn a long white mantle fastened under the chin and
reaching to the feet, with a red cross on the left shoulder.

On the head was worn a linen coif, and above that a bowl-shaped
skull-cap of red cloth turned up all round. When completely armed, the
coif and cap were exchanged for a hood of mail covering the neck and
head, and over that one of the large heaumes or helmets was worn.



ECCLESIASTICAL COSTUMES AND VESTMENTS.


There were two great divisions of Mediæval Ecclesiastics, the Major
Orders and the Minor Orders.

The Major Orders included the Archbishop, the Bishop, the Priest, the
Deacon or Gospeller, and the Sub-deacon, or Patterner, as Chaucer calls
him.

The Minor Orders comprised the Acolyte (symbol, a candle), the Exorcist
(a holy water vessel), the Doorkeeper (a key), the Lector (a key), and
in some cases the Sexton.

In the monastic times all these had the shaven crown or _tonsure_.

For many centuries ecclesiastical vestments remained unchanged, those
used in the Church at the Conquest being practically identical with
those used at the time of the Reformation.

The everyday garment was the _cassock_, a long garment with long
sleeves, made of heavy woollen material. It was generally black or
brown in the case of the inferior clergy, and scarlet for Doctors of
Divinity.

[Illustration: PLATE 59.

  (Fig. 1): Brass of Lawrence Seymour, 1337, Higham Ferrers
  Church, Northamptonshire, showing the Eucharist Vestments,
  Amice, Chasuble, Maniple, Alb, Stole, and Apparels. (Fig. 2):
  Brass of Robert Langton, D.C.L., 1518, at Queen’s College,
  Oxford, in rich ornamented Cope, wearing also a doctor’s cap.
  These are often spoken of as the Processional garments. (Fig.
  3): Brass of Abbot de la Mare, at St. Alban’s Abbey, died
  1396; brass made in his lifetime, between 1360 and 1375. The
  whole brass, of Flemish manufacture, is one of the finest in
  England. The Abbot is “vested in Eucharist vestments, with
  jewelled mitre and pastoral staff,” the latter with the Agnus
  Dei in the head.]


In cold weather the cassock was frequently lined with sheepskin or fur,
was provided with a hood, and was girded with a thick knotted cord or
_cingulum_. The vestments or ceremonial garments, worn when officiating
at the services of the Church, were much more elaborate. A long,
close-fitting white garment, like a coat with narrow sleeves, reaching
to the feet, was worn by all, even to the doorkeeper. It was called the
_alb_, and was confined at the waist by a girdle.

Priests and dignitaries of the Church had six pieces of embroidered
needlework or cloth of gold called _apparels_ fastened to the alb, at
the bottom of the skirt before and behind (2), on the wrist of each
sleeve (2), and on the breast (1) and back (1).

Around the neck was worn the _amice_: It was a kind of large linen
handkerchief, with embroidered work along one of its sides. It was
turned down like a collar, showing the embroidery (which appears in
brasses like a collar), and leaving the throat of the wearer exposed.

A _stole_ or narrow embroidered band was hung around the neck, reaching
nearly to the feet, the ends being fringed.

In brasses only the ends appear, the upper portions being covered by
the other vestments.

A short piece of embroidered work called the _maniple_, with ends
fringed like the stole, was worn over the left arm, being fastened to
the sleeve. At the time of the Conquest the maniple was a napkin with
which the priest wiped his face and brow during Mass.

Over the other vestments was worn a circular or oval garment called a
_chasuble_. It had an opening in the centre through which the head was
thrust, and its ample folds rested at either side upon the arms. It was
worn plain or with an embroidered border.

In later times the chausuble and alb were sometimes made of coloured
materials.

The chasuble, maniple, and stole were all of the same material and
colour.

The priest wore these vestments during the services, and when he died
he was buried in them.

They were put on in the following order: Amice, alb, maniple, stole,
and chasuble, and they are often spoken of as the “eucharistic
vestments.”

Bishops and Mitred Abbots wore the same vestments as priests, but
with the addition of the _tunicle_ and _dalmatic_ below the chasuble,
sandals, gloves, a ring set with precious stones on the third finger of
the right hand, mitre, and pastoral staff.

The _dalmatic_ was a garment shorter than the alb, slit up for a
distance on either side. (Pl. 59, Fig. 3.) Like the chasuble, it was
made of rich material.

The _tunicle_, worn underneath the dalmatic, was similar to it in
shape, but made of linen.

The only ecclesiastical ornaments which underwent any change were the
mitre and crozier.

At first the mitre was of white linen, and low in height. As time went
on it was made of silk and ornamented with embroidery and jewels, and
it became higher in form. (From the time of the Reformation the mitre
was not recognised as part of episcopal attire in the Established
Church, but in 1885, after a lapse of 50 years, it was resumed by
the Bishop of Lincoln, who wrote it then for the first time amid
considerable protests.)

The _Pastoral Staff_, or so-called crozier, was borne alike by
Archbishops, Bishops, and Abbots, and was usually held in the left
hand or against the left arm, leaving the right free to be uplifted
in blessing. It terminated in a large shepherd’s crook or scroll, the
curved volute being often richly ornamented with foliage. The staff was
made of rarer wood, such as cedar or ebony, and was shod with a pointed
ferrule. The top was detachable, and was usually made of metal or of
ivory.

Before Archbishops was also carried a _Cross_, a staff bearing a cross
at the top. They also wore the pall, or palium, a narrow loop or
circle of white lambswool placed over the shoulders, with a weighted
band hanging down before and behind. Looked at from the front, it
appears like the letter Y. It was made only in Rome, and was especially
bestowed on all Archbishops by the Pope.

In processions the clergy wore cassock and surplice as they do now,
with the _almuce_, a large cap turned down over the shoulders, and
lined with fur, which varied in colour according to the degree of the
wearer; the _hood_ and the _cope_. The _cope_ was a kind of cloak, and
became the most gorgeous of mediæval ecclesiastical garments. It was
made in every conceivable colour, and heavily adorned with the richest
gold work encrusted with jewels.

When spread out flat, it was in shape a perfect semi-circle, and was
decorated at the front edges with bands of embroidery from collar to
hem.

A famous cope is the Syon Cope now preserved in the South Kensington
collection.

In the Middle Ages the clergy, when not engaged in their official
duties, often dressed similarly to the laity, and though they were
ordered to wear the tonsure and a sober dress, these instructions were
very often neglected and ignored.

Many of them dressed in bright colours, often in the extreme of
fashion, wearing knives at their girdles, brightly coloured shoes with
long toes, and jewellery.

At the time of the Reformation, when the English clergy abandoned the
mediæval robes, they also desisted from wearing the tonsure, which had
for many centuries been the distinguishing mark of the clergy, and they
seem generally to have adopted the academical dress for their official
and ordinary attire.



PILGRIMS.


The _fashion_ for going on pilgrimage appears to have sprung up in the
fourteenth century, but we hear of it at a much earlier time than this.
Christian pilgrimages began in visits to the scenes of Our Lord’s early
life.

As the custom grew, facilities were offered to lighten the journey.
Adventurous shipowners organised a kind of service, so that pilgrims
could travel to the Holy Land _viâ_ Rome.

When the journey was made on land, the pilgrims took advantage of
the hospitals and hostels which were founded here and there along
the regular routes to rest themselves and obtain food. Treaties were
made by monarchs to secure the safe passage of their subjects through
foreign lands. Pilgrims were freed from all tolls, and anyone doing
them bodily injury was liable to excommunication.

In the Holy Land the Orders of Knights Templars and Knights
Hospitallers were founded to safeguard them from the attacks of
wandering bodies of Saracens, and to lodge them safely when they
reached Jerusalem.

The next most important pilgrimages were those to the tombs of SS.
Peter and Paul at Rome, the centre of Western Christianity, and to the
shrine of St. James at Compostella, in Spain.

The English people, who were prevented from making pilgrimages to
Jerusalem, Rome, or Compostella, could probably spare time for a
shorter journey, and pilgrimages to English shrines became very common.

The most popular of these were that of St. Thomas Becket, at
Canterbury, and that of Our Lady (the Virgin Mary), at Walsingham
(twenty-seven miles from Norwich), where there was a miraculous statue
of the Virgin. To the former came also many pilgrims from the Continent
of Europe.

Nearly every Cathedral and Monastery, too, had its famous saint, to
whose shrine the people restored. There were St. Cuthbert at Durham,
St. William at York, St. Hugh at Lincoln, St. Edward Confessor at
Westminster, and St. Edmund at Bury, and many others.

There were also famous Roods (figures of our Lord on the Cross),
statues of the Virgin, and Holy Wells; and a place of great attraction
was Glastonbury, to which many travelled to see the famous Holy Thorn,
said to have been planted by St. Joseph of Arimathæa.

Members of all classes of society undertook these pilgrimages. Rich
people with no occupation could afford the leisure and cost of these
journeys, and the poor, who gave up their regular work and made the
pilgrimage, could count on board and lodging at the numerous hospitals,
monasteries, at the parish priest’s rectory, and in every gentleman’s
hall.

The poor pilgrim repaid his hosts by entertaining them with the news
of the lands through which he had passed, and by amusing the household
after supper with marvellous saintly legends and travellers’ tales.

He raised funds, too, on his return journey by retailing holy trifles
and curiosities, which were sold wholesale at the shrines frequented by
pilgrims, and sometimes he would make a bolder flight by carrying some
fragment of a relic, a joint of a bone, or a couple of the hairs of a
saint, and he received payment from people for bringing to their doors
some of the advantages of the holy shrines which he had visited. This,
however, was an abuse, and was visited by heavy penalties by the Church.

The main purpose of these pilgrimages was, of course, to gain direct
spiritual advantage, but some were expiatory and penitential; others
were made out of gratitude for special mercies, recovering from
illnesses, &c.

It is said that in the 8th century, some English merchants carried on a
kind of smuggling trade in foreign countries. They put on the pilgrim’s
garb, and carried their goods in bales, which they said contained
provisions for their journey, and were exempt from paying any duty.

The preparation of the pilgrim in the Middle Ages was a solemn matter.
Before he started on his journey, he went to Church, and, after
Confession, his _scrip_ and _staff_ were blessed and handed to him, and
his habit (if he were going to Jerusalem), was blessed also. He then
took the Holy Sacrament, and it is surmised that a certificate of his
having been blessed as a pilgrim was then handed to him.

After that, he was conducted out of the parish, to commence his
journey, by the priest, with the Cross and Holy Water borne in
procession.

A certain costume was worn, spoken of as “pilgrim’s weeds,” consisting
of a robe, hat, staff, and scrip.

The robe is said to have been of wool, sometimes of a very shaggy
appearance. (Fig. 2.)

The hat was round, with a wide brim, and was commonly made of felt. But
the special insignia of a pilgrim were his scrip and staff. The _scrip_
was a small bag, slung by a cord over the shoulder to hold his food
and a few necessaries, and to it was often affixed a special sign or
token, indicating the pilgrimage he was making. The pilgrim to the Holy
Land, too, wore a cross formed by two strips of coloured cloth sewn on
the shoulder of his robe. Different colours were used to indicate the
nationality of the pilgrims--_e.g._, the English wore a white cross, the
French red, and the Flemish green.

The _staff_ or _bourdon_ varies in appearance in different MSS., but
was generally like a long walking stick, often with a knob at the top
and one lower down. (Figs. 1 and 3.) Sometimes below the top is a hook
(Fig. 2), to which a water-bottle or small bundle could be attached.

Many pilgrims also carried bells, as they were “thought to possess
locomotive and other miraculous powers.” (Cutts.)

When the pilgrim reached the Holy Land and had visited the holy places,
he was entitled to wear the _palm_, showing that he had accomplished
his pilgrimage, and from this badge he was known as a Palmer. Probably
it was fastened as a sprig of palm on the hat or scrip.

To give an idea of the number who undertook these pilgrimages, it may
be mentioned that in one month during the First Jubilee, 200,000 of
them went to Rome.

The chief badge for this journey bore the effigies of St. Peter, St.
Paul, and the Cross Keys, and another was the Vernicle or Kerchief of
St. Veronica. The sign of the Compostella was a scallop shell. (Fig. 8.)

These badges, known also as _Pilgrims’ signs_ or Pilgrims’ tokens (Pl.
60, Figs. 4, 6, 8, 10), were made of lead or pewter, and as one was
obtained at each shrine visited, a pilgrim who made a long journey
might come back with many of these signs displayed about his person.

The chief sign of the Canterbury pilgrimage was an ampul or ampulla or
flask of lead or pewter.

It is said that after the murder of Becket, the monks of Canterbury
collected his blood from the pavement and made a miraculous cure by
administering a drop to a sick lady who visited the shrine. Thereupon
they mixed a drop in a chalice of water and gave it as a medicine to
many sick who came to be cured, and in order that the medicine might be
carried away and administered to other sick people, these small metal
flasks were made to contain it.

On their return, the pilgrims hung these flasks in their parish
churches as sacred relics. (Figs. 5, 8, and 9.)

Another “sign” of Canterbury was a bell, and it is owing to this fact
that a well-known flower is called the Canterbury bell. Following the
example of the monks of Canterbury, the guardians of other shrines
dipped their sacred relics into water and put up this sacred water for
use as medicine into small flasks, which they sold to pilgrims.

[Illustration: PLATE 60.

  (Fig. 1): A bare-footed Pilgrim of the fourteenth century,
  from British Museum, Royal MS., 15 iii. (Fig. 2): Ludgate’s
  Pilgrim, from Harl. MS., 4826 (fourteenth century). His scrip
  bears a scallop shell, the pilgrim’s sign for Compostella, and
  he wears a rough, shaggy robe. (Fig. 3): A Palmer, from Cott.
  MS., Tib. A vii. His hat is slung behind him, and the crown of
  his head is shaved, as was often the custom. (In Figs. 1 and 2
  a beard is worn, for often the pilgrim on setting out, made a
  vow that he would not cut his hair or his beard while on the
  pilgrimage.) (Fig. 4): A Pilgrim’s Sign--the five small circles
  representing the five wounds of Christ. (Fig. 5): A lead
  Ampulla from the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury.
  (York Museum.) It bears a figure of the Archbishop, and on the
  scroll a legend which is translated as “_Thomas is the best
  physician for the pious sick._” It probably dates from the
  early part of the thirteenth century. (Fig. 6): A Pilgrim’s
  Sign of St. Catherine, consisting of a Catherine Wheel.
  (Fourteenth century.) (Fig. 7): A Reliquary in form of sphere
  of open-work tracery, containing fragments of shells, from
  the shrine of St. James of Compostella. (Fourteenth-fifteenth
  centuries.) (Fig. 8): An Ampulla in the form of a scallop
  shell, with handles for suspending it around the neck by a
  cord, from Compostella. (Fig. 9): An Ampulla from the shrine
  of St. Thomas Becket, Canterbury, bearing on one side a
  representation of the murder of Becket, and on the other,
  three figures within an arcade. (Fig. 10): A Pilgrim’s Sign
  from Canterbury, containing a figure of St. Thomas, the right
  hand uplifted in blessing and the left holding the crozier.
  (Figs. 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 are from the Guildhall Museum,
  London.)]

In the old MSS., we read of many wonderful miracles performed by the
administration of these holy waters to sick and diseased persons.
Special roads appear to have been made to the chief shrines. There was
the “Pilgrims’ Road” across Kent from London to Canterbury, and the
“Palmers Way,” and the “Walsingham Green Way” to Walsingham.

The towns of pilgrimage were largely a collection of inns, and churches
and hostels for poor pilgrims, the later institutions often being
supported by local guilds.

Pilgrims made their journeys either singly or in bands for the sake of
protection and company, and to enliven their way they sometimes hired a
musician to play the bagpipes.

When the pilgrims reached the shrine, they made their offerings, took
part in prayer, and were shown the holy relics, which they were often
allowed to kiss.

At Canterbury the shrine of St. Thomas was covered with gold and
encrusted with many precious stones of great size and value; for the
principal of them were offerings from sovereign princes.

A great result of the practice of making pilgrimages was the
development of national sentiment, for people in foreign lands were
brought together from different parts of the same country. “It also
broke down the provincialism, gave a holiday and fresh air and change
of life and scene. Finally it introduced the pilgrims to foreign lands,
and so helped on the growth of commerce.”



_History and Geography Publications._

THE “BERGER” HANDWORK CARDS.

By H. R. WELLER, A.M.C.

CARDBOARD AND PAPER MODELLING CARDS

for the

HISTORY and GEOGRAPHY LESSON.


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instructions, and where necessary, directions for colouring the models
are added.

This series will be found especially helpful during the year preceding
instruction in light woodwork.

Teachers will also find them useful when models are required to
illustrate History and Geography Lessons.

[Sidenote: _Some of the Models are_:

  TUDOR HOUSE AND SHOP.
  PILLORY.
  NORMAN CASTLE.
  STOCKS AND WHIPPING POST.
  KNIGHT’S CABRIOLET.
  CORACLE.
  SEDAN CHAIR.
  FRIDSTOOL.
  OLD MARKET CROSS.
  RAM AND RAT.
  PALANKIN.
  BIRCH BARK CANOE.
  SAMPAN.
  PYRAMID.
  LOG CABIN.
  HOWDAH.
  THE PILLORY.
  BUNKER’S HILL MONUMENT.]

[Illustration: A SAXON HOUSE

Framework of wooden beams filled in with plaster, stones. Bricks:
roofed with a cover of thatch: smoke hole in roof: no windows: the
openings barred: cover the roof of model with bast or a colour to
imitate

Colour: black beams: yellow white plaster

_Reduced Illustration._]

Price per box, net, +3+s. +6+d.; post free, +3+s. +9+d.

ILLUSTRATIONS for the HISTORY LESSON.


THE “SUGGESTIONS” HISTORICAL ILLUSTRATIONS.

By H. W. DONALD.

[Illustration]

    Four Sets of Plates containing illustrations of Armour,
    Architecture, Pottery, Musical Instruments, etc., ranging
    from the time of the Ancient Britons to the Victorian era.

Each set contains +24+ cards.

USES:

  (1) To illustrate the History Lesson.
  (2) To form the basis of Conversational History Lessons.
  (3) To connect Drawing with History.


SET A.

(80 Illustrations.)

  Ancient Britons
  Romans
  Danes and Vikings
  Anglo-Saxons

SET B.

(76 Illustrations.)

  Normans
  Plantagenets
  Houses of Lancaster & York
  Tudors

SET C.

(65 Illustrations.)

  Tudors
  Stuarts
  Hanoverians

SET D.

(65 Illustrations.)

    Illustrates +European History+ in Armour, Architecture,
    Domestic Appliances, Musical Instruments, &c.

Price, per Set, net, +1+s. +6+d.; post free, +1+s. +9+d.

Packed in strong cardboard case.


HISTORY TEACHING by BIOGRAPHIES.

By ALICE EVE, B.A., L.L.A.

A HANDBOOK for TEACHERS in two Volumes.

_Volume 1._

JULIUS CÆSAR to Sir FRANCIS DRAKE.

_Volume II._

Sir WALTER RALEIGH to EARL ROBERTS.

Each volume contains +30+ biographies.

The purpose of these volumes is to teach History by grouping historical
facts round the lives of famous men and women. Each set of notes is
preceded by two paragraphs, one giving the aim of the Lesson, and the
other, apparatus for use in connection with it, _e.g._


+EARL OF STRAFFORD+ (_Vol. II. xxxv._):

+Aim.+--To teach the beginning of the great dispute between King Charles
I. and his people.

+Apparatus.+--Map of British Islands, Portraits of Charles I.,
Strafford, Buckingham, Pictures of Cavaliers and Puritans of the time.
Picture of Westminster Hall.

Price, each volume, net, +3+s.; post free, +3+s. +4½+d. Two volumes,
post free, +6+s. +9+d.

  “Britannic” Historical Geography Books
  FOR CORRELATING
  HISTORY, GEOGRAPHY and MAPPING.

  (_Left page_) _HISTORICAL SUMMARY._
  (_Right page_) _OUTLINE MAP._

  The “Britannic” Historical Geography Maps.
  No. 6.--Part I.


England before the Norman Conquest.


THE CHIEF EARLDOMS.

On his ascension to the throne of England Canute divided the country
into four Governments, viz.:--

  WESSEX,
  EAST ANGLIA,
  MERCIA and
  NORTHUMBRIA.

He took charge of Wessex himself, and three Danes were placed as Earls
over the others.


THE GREAT SAXON EARLS.

He afterwards appointed Englishmen to the government of these Earldoms:--

_Leofric_ becoming _Earl of Mercia_, _Godwin_, _Earl of Wessex_, and
_Siward_, _Earl of Northumberland_.

In each lesson the historical narrative is followed by notes describing
fully the correlated work to be done in connection with the story.

[Illustration: ENGLAND AT THE CONQUEST (1066)

showing the Earldoms]

(_Reduced specimen pages._)


Part I.

From the Roman Invasion, B.C. 55, to the Wars of the Roses, A.D. 1485.

  MAPS.

  Roman Britain.
  The Early Home of the English.
  Anglo-Saxon Conquest.
  Saxon England in the 7th century.
  England between the Danes & Saxons.
  England at the Conquest.
  England and Normandy.
  Dominions of the Plantagenets.
  Scotland in 1285 A.D.
  French Campaigns.
  Four Famous Battles.
  Wars of the Roses.

Part II.

From the Tudors, A.D. 1485, to the Crimean War, A.D. 1856.

  MAPS.

  Maritime Discoveries.
  The Tudors, 1485-1603.
  The Great Civil War, 1642-1648.
  The Revolution of 1688.
  The Jacobite Rebellions.
  The Seven Years’ War.
  The War of Independence.
  English Rule in India.
  The Peninsular War.
  Battle of Trafalgar.
  The Waterloo Campaign.
  The Crimean War.

Part III.

Europe 1600-1914.

  MAPS.

  Division of Territory after 30 years’ War.
  Europe after Treaty of Utrecht.
  Europe after Treaty of Paris.
  Paris, A.D. 1789.
  Campaigns of A.D. 1792, 1793, 1794, 1795 & 1796.
  Peace of Amiens, A.D. 1802.
  Europe after Wagram.
  Congress of Vienna & Treaty of Paris.
  Central Europe, A.D. 1866.
  Franco-Prussian War.
  Eastern Europe, A.D. 1878.
  Balkan Peninsula, 1914.

_HISTORY for the JUNIORS and INFANTS._

HISTORY IN PICTURES AND STORIES.

By B. M. AND D. M. ASLING.

For READING and COLOURING.

(_Adopted by the London County Council._)

    +The PLAN.+--The story, written in simple and attractive
    form, is on the left page. On the opposite page is an
    outline drawing, with full particulars for colouring, for
    the child to colour.

    +The AIM.+--To show in story and picture how the boys and
    girls lived and dressed in those far-off days. To show
    what their homes were like. To provide an opportunity for
    comparing then and now.

PERIOD.--From the Cave Man to the Norman Conquest.

CONTENTS:

Book I.

  A Cave Man.
  A Cave Woman and her little boy.
  A Pit Dwelling and the People who live in it.
  A Pit Man at Work.
  The Lake Dwellers.
  A man making copper spear heads.
  A woman grinding corn.

Book II.

  Celts and Phoenicians exchanging goods.
  A Pict.
  Julius Cæsar looking at the shores of Britain.
  The Building of Hadrian’s Wall.
  A Roman Road in Britain.
  A Roman Road in Britain to-day.
  Saxons building a house in Britain.

Book III.

  The Coming of St. Augustine.
  English Villagers pursuing a thief in the 7th century.
  The Northmen sailing up an English river.
  King Alfred visiting a school.
  Duke William of Normandy preparing to invade England.
  A Norman Noble riding through an English village in 1066.
  A Norman Manor House.

Price, each, net, +5+d.; post free, +6+d.


STORY LESSONS IN HISTORY.

By EDNA LAKE.

An original scheme of 23 lessons correlating +History+, +Geography+,
+Literature+ and +Handwork+, covering the period from William I. to
Queen Elizabeth.

Fully illustrated with designs for Paper or Cardboard Modelling and
Free Paper Cutting.

In each lesson the historical narrative is followed by notes describing
fully the correlated work to be done in connection with the story,
_e.g._


LESSON III.--THE WHITE SHIP.

  HISTORY--The White Ship.
  GEOGRAPHY--The English Channel.
  LANGUAGE--Some words we get from the French.
  LITERATURE OR STORY--The Church Builders.
  COMPOSITION--Ships.
  CHALK OR BRUSH DRAWING--Ships.
  PAPER OR CARDBOARD MODELLING--A Ship.
  SAND AND CLAY MODELLING--A Church.
  FREE PAPER CUTTING--A Ship (12th century).

Price, net, +3+s. +9+d.; post free, +4+s. +2+d.

_Complete Catalogue of Publications sent post free on request._

  CHARLES and SON, Ltd.
  LONDON: 10, Paternoster Square. E.C.4
  GLASGOW:           68, Gordon Street.





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