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´╗┐Title: How to Succeed as an Inventor - Showing the Wonderful Possibilities in the Field of Invention; &c.
Author: Smith, Goodwin B.
Language: English
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"One way to measure your success is by the earnestness with which your
competitors lie about you."--_Poor Richard, Jr.'s, Almanac._






Registered Attorney, United States Patent Office, and Officially
Connected with a Number of Industrial Enterprises Founded on United
States Patents






CHAPTER I.              Looking Forward                            11

CHAPTER II.             Looking Backward                           14

CHAPTER III.            Patents the Greatest Source of Wealth      21

CHAPTER IV.             Successful Inventors                       22

CHAPTER V.              Field of Invention                         27

CHAPTER VI.             Growth of the Field of Invention           32

CHAPTER VII.            Necessary Steps                            38

CHAPTER VIII.           Sounding the Market                        48

CHAPTER IX.             Practical Development                      49

CHAPTER X.              Lower Cost--Superior Merit                 50

CHAPTER XI.             Application for Patents, Etc.
                          Picture of U.S. Patent Office.           51

CHAPTER XII.            Marketing                                  54

CHAPTER XIII.           Discouragements and Dangers                56

CHAPTER XIV.            Selling Patents                            60

CHAPTER XV.             Conclusion                                 62

CHAPTER XVI.            Statistics of the Countries of the World   63

CHAPTER XVII.           Mechanical Movements and
                          Explanation Thereof                      65

Man's Value to Society

Failure is want of knowledge; success is knowing how.

Wealth is not in things of iron, wood and stone. WEALTH is the brain
that organizes the metal.

Pig iron is worth $20 per ton; Made into horse shoes, $90; into knife
blades, $200; into watch springs, $1000; that is, raw iron, $20, brain
power, $980.--Newell Dwight Hillis.

Dedicated to the

Grand Army of American Inventors

"How to Succeed as an Inventor"


The author of this book, after a number of years' experience in Patent
Causes, is constrained to enter a strong protest against the enormous
waste and loss attendant on methods at present pursued in regard to
patents. This loss and waste is largely due to a lack of business
knowledge necessary to properly market and develop inventions. History
shows that enormous profits can be earned from good, strong patents.

A careful perusal of the following pages will point out some of the
dangers to be avoided and the safe and reasonable course to be
pursued. Invention is a matter that requires the deepest study, and
should be approached, not in a haphazard, hit-or-miss fashion, but
rather in a receptive, studious, analytical manner. While the average
individual is fond of giving advice, no one enjoys accepting it. There
is no one, however, who so needs competent, unprejudiced advice as the

A genius is more or less prejudiced in certain directions, and it has
been found that the prejudice oftentimes runs against the acceptance
of well-intentioned criticism.

"Our judgment is like our watches,--none go just alike, but each
believes his own."

It is to be hoped that this volume will be the means of saving, as
well as earning, money for the hosts of deserving American geniuses.

    Philadelphia, March, 1909.        THE AUTHOR.



"Patience and the investment of time and labor for future results are
essential factors in every inventor's success."

The field of invention is closed to no one. The studious mechanic may
design and improve on the machine he operates. The day laborer, if
dissatisfied with his lot, may devise means for lessening the toil of
his class, and largely increase his earning capacity. The busy
housewife, not content with the drudgery incident to her household
cares, may devise a means or article which will lighten her task, and
prove a blessing to her sisters. The plodding clerk, without an iota
of mechanical knowledge, may perfect a system or an office appliance
which will prove of vast benefit to himself and his fellows. The
scientist may discover new forces and make new applications of old
principles which will make the world marvel,--and so on through the
whole category of crafts, occupations and professions.

If one of the old Kings of Israel, centuries ago, voiced the sentiment
that there was nothing new under the sun, do we not possess, at the
present time, a similar mental attitude, and are we not apt to say
with him that there appears to be "nothing new under the sun"?
Civilization begets new needs and wants; opportunities for new
invention are multiplying at a tremendous rate. In other words, where
an inventor, two centuries ago, would have had one hundred chances to
"make good," today the chances are multiplied many thousand-fold.

No avenue of business can open up the possibilities of such enormous
honors and fabulous money returns as a _real_ invention which is in
universal demand. The discoveries of the past form a record which is
not only glorious, but points the man of genius of today in an
unswerving manner to the possibilities which the future holds, and
which are vastly greater than anything which has gone before. Each age
finds the people convinced that human ingenuity has reached the summit
of achievement, but the future will find forces, mechanical principles
and combinations which will excite wonder, and prove to be of
incalculable benefit to mankind.

Our old friend Darius Green and his flying machine, that we heard
about when we were children, was not as great a fool as he was imputed
to be.

Witness at the present time the marvelous results attained by
inventors with air ships. We are proud of Wilbur and Orville Wright,
who at this writing have just broken all records for Aeroplanes, or
"machines heavier than air." It seems that in five or ten years from
now the navigation of the air will be a problem perfectly solved.

(Since writing the above, on Thursday, September 17th, Orville Wright,
at Fort Myer, Va., met with an accident to his machine, which resulted
in the death of Lieutenant Selfridge, of the U.S. Army, and severe
injuries to the inventor. The accident is said to have been due to the
breaking of one of the propellers.)

When you think that the first locomotives that were invented were
considered wonders if they made a speed of eight to ten miles per
hour, the chances are that within the next few years we will have
airships going through space at incredible rates of speed.

We might also, at this time, refer to the experiments of Count
Zeppelin and Santos-Dumont, and the American, Professor Baldwin, in
"dirigible balloons." This type of airships will undoubtedly be
superseded by the "Aeroplane," or the "Helicopter." The principal
inventors in this line are Henry Farman, the French inventor, and
Delagrange, the German. Wright Brothers hold the world's record, at
this time.

Little did Murdock (who erected, in 1792, while an engineer in
Cornwall, England, a little gasometer which produced gas enough to
light his house and office) think that in the year 1908 no house would
be considered as modern unless it was fully equipped with the gas for
lighting and heating which he discovered and brought to practical use.
It is also said that "while Murdock resided in Cornwall he made gas
from every substance he could think of, and had bladders filled with
it, with which, and his little steam carriage running on the road, he
used to astonish the people." No one is astonished at "little steam
carriages," or, in other words, automobiles, nowadays, one hundred and
sixteen years later.

Our grandparents, when they were young people, imagined that they were
living in the "Golden Age," and yet we today would consider their lack
of what we nowadays consider positive necessities a mighty primitive
and inconvenient manner in which to live. When the "wisest man,"
centuries ago, is chronicled as saying, "There is nothing new under
the sun," they lived in tents, rode camels, fought with bows and
arrows, sling shots and battering rams! While the Tower of Babel was
possibly the first "skyscraper," it did not contain express elevators,
hot and cold water, telephones, call boxes, yale locks, granolithic
floors, fire escapes, transom lifts, automatic sprinklers, stationary
wash stands, water closets, steam or hot water heat, electric and gas
lights, push buttons, sash weights, and so on ad infinitum. So you can
readily appreciate the marvelous strides the human race is making in
the way of material development, and all, or nearly all of which has
been due to the fertile brain and nimble wit of the inventors! Who
will have the temerity to say when and where this development will
stop, when Solomon, centuries ago, thought they had reached the limit?

What will be the next wonderful invention? For instance, the perfected
telephote? You, by stepping into a cabinet in Philadelphia, could have
your photograph taken and shown in Boston, all by and through an
electric wire! The Telephote may transmit light and color as the
Telephone does sound; why not a combination of the two, so you can see
your friend perfectly when you talk to him on the 'phone?

Our grandparents thought they were as comfortable as possible, and
they were, because they did not know any better. Do we know better? One
hundred years from now, possibly, _our_ great, great-grandchildren
will consider us as having lived in the "stone age." The field of
invention has no bars up,--you, all of us, are free to enter.

    "The important thing in life is to have a great aim, and to
    possess the aptitude and perseverance to attain it."



"Intelligent study and the application of unremitting effort to a
definite purpose are the factors that overcome obstacles."

Here follows a list of the principal inventions chronologically
arranged, with the names and nationalities of their inventors.

  Year.  Name of Invention.   Name of Inventor.    Nationality.

  1620  Spirally grooved
          rifle barrel        Blaew                   German.
  1643  Barometer             Torricelli              Italian.
  1660  Discovery of
          Phenomena           William Gilbert         English.
  1663  Steam engine          Thos. Newcomen          English.
  1690  Steam engine with
          piston              Denis Papin             French.
  1702  First practical
          application of
          steam engine        Thos. Savory            English.
  1709  Thermometer           Fahrenheit              Danzig.
  1725  Franklin printing
          press               Benj. Franklin          U.S.
  1731  Stereotyping          William Ged             Scotch.
  1733  Weaving flying
          shuttle             John Kay                English.
  1745  Leyden Jar            Kleist                  German.
  1752  Lightning conductor   Benj. Franklin          U.S.
  1763  Spinning jenny        Jos. Hargreaves         English.
  1767  Piano                                         England.
  1775  Cut nails             Jere. Wilkinson         U.S.
  1777  Circular wood saw     Miller                  English.
  1782  Steam engine          Jas. Watt               Scotch.
  1783  Balloon inflated
          with gas            Montgolfier             French.
  1784  Puddling iron         Henry Cort              English.
  1784  Cast iron plow        Jas. Small              Scotch.
  1786  Steamboat             John Fitch              U.S.
  1787  Steam road wagon,
          first automobile    Oliver Evans            U.S.
  1788  Threshing machine     And. Meikle             English.
  1791  Wood planer           Sam'l Bentham           English.
  1794  Cotton gin            Eli Whitney             U.S.
  1800  Electric battery      Volta                   Italian.
  1801  Fire-proof safe       Richard Scott           English.
  1803  Steel pen             Wise                    English.
  1804  Malleable iron
          castings            Lucas                   English.
  1808  Band wood saw         Newberry                English.
  1808  First sea-going
          steamboat           John Stephens           U.S.
  1810  Revolving cylinder
          printing press      Fred'k Koenig           German.
  1811  Breech-loading
          shot gun            Thornton & Hall         U.S.
  1814  First locomotive,
          U.S                 Geo. Stephenson         English.
  1815  Miner safety lamp     Sir Humphry Davy        English.
  1815  Gas meter             Clegg                   English.
  1823  Discovery of water
          gas                 Ibbetson                English.
  1825  Portland cement       Aspdim                  English.
  1827  Friction matches      John Walker             U.S.
  1828  Hot blast for iron
          furnaces            Neilson                 Scotch.
  1829  Washington printing
          press               Sam'l Rust              U.S.
  1831  Chloroform            Guthrie                 Scotch.
  1832  Electric telegraph    Prof. Morse             U.S.
  1832  Rotary electric
          motor               Sturgeon                English.
  1832  "Old Iron Sides"
          locomotive          Baldwin                 U.S.
  1833  Steam whistle         Geo. Stephenson         English.
  1834  Reaper                Cyrus H. McCormick      U.S.
  1834  Carbolic acid         Runge                   German.
  1835  Horse-shoe machine    Burden                  U.S.
  1836  Acetylene gas         Davy                    English.
  1836  Revolver              Sam'l Colt              U.S.
  1836  Screw propeller for
          steam navigation    John Erickson           U.S.
  1837  Galvanizing iron      Craufurd                English.
  1839  Babbitt metal         Isaac Babbit            U.S.
  1839  Vulcanizing rubber    Goodyear                U.S.
  1839  Daguerreotype         Louis Daguerre          French.
  1840  Artesian wells                                French.
  1842  Automatic piano       Seytre                  French.
  1844  First telegram sent   Prof. Morse             U.S.
  1845  Double cylinder
          printing press      Richard Hoe             U.S.
  1845  Pneumatic tire        Thompson                English.
  1846  Sewing machine        Elias Howe              U.S.
  1846  Ether as an
          anaesthetic         Dr. Morton              U.S.
  1847  Nitroglycerine        Sobrero
  1847  Improved Hoe printing
          press               Richard Hoe            U.S.
  1849  Steam pressure gauge  Bourdon                French.
  1849  Corliss engine        George H. Corliss      U.S.
  1850  Mercerized cotton     John Mercer            English.
  1851  Breech-loading rifle  Maynard                U.S.
  1851  Ice-making machine    Gorrie                 U.S.
  1852  Telegraph fire alarm  Channing & Farmer      U.S.
  1854  Diamond rock drill    Herman                 U.S.
  1854  Revolver              Smith & Wesson         U.S.
  1855  Cocaine               Gaedeke                German.
  1855  Bessemer steel        Sir Henry Bessemer     English.
  1855  Bicycle               Michaux                French.
  1856  Sleeping car          Woodruff               U.S.
  1858  Cable car             Gardner                U.S.
  1858  First Atlantic cable  Cyrus Field            U.S.
  1859  "Great Eastern"
          launched                                   U.S.
  1861  Passenger elevator    E. G. Otis             U.S.
  1861  Barbed wire fence                            U.S.
  1862  Gattling gun          Dr. R. J. Gattling     U.S.
  1865  Antiseptic surgery    Sir Jos. Lister        English.
  1866  Open hearth steel
          process             Siemens-Martin         English.
  1866  Torpedoes             Whitehead              U.S.
  1868  Typewriting machine   C. L. Sholes           U.S.
  1868  Dynamite              Nobel                  French.
  1868  Oleomargarine         Mege                   French.
  1868  Sulky plow            Slusser                U.S.
  1869  Spring tooth harrow   Garver                 U.S.
  1870  Celluloid             Hyatt                  U.S.
  1872  Automatic brake       Geo. Westinghouse      U.S.
  1872  Car coupler           E. H. Janney           U.S.
  1873  Quadruplex telegraph  Thos. A. Edison        U.S.
  1873  Twine binder
          harvester           Gorham                 U.S.
  1873  Self-binding reaper   Loche & Wood           U.S.
  1875  Roller flour mills    Wegmann                U.S.
  1875  Ice-making machine    Pictet         Switzerland.
  1876  Telephone             Dr. Alex. Graham Bell  U.S.
  1877  Phonograph            Thos. A. Edison        U.S.
  1877  Gas engine            N. A. Otto             U.S.
  1877  Telephone
          transmitter         Emile Berliner         U.S.
  1878  Carbon filament for
          electric lamps      Thos. A. Edison        U.S.
  1878  Rotary disc
          cultivator          Mallon                 U.S.
  1880  Telephone transmitter Blake                  U.S.
  1880  Hammerless gun        Greener                U.S.
  1880  Typhoid bacillus      Robert Koch            German.
  1880  Pneumonia bacillus    Sternberg              U.S.
  1881  Buttonhole machine    Reece                  U.S.
  1882  Tuberculosis bacillus Robert Koch            German.
  1882  Hydrophobia bacillus  Louis Pasteur          French.
  1884  Cholera bacillus      Robert Koch            German.
  1884  Diphtheria bacillus   Loefler                German.
  1884  Lockjaw bacillus      Nicolaier              French.
  1884  Antipyrene            Kuno                   U.S.
  1884  Linotype machine      Ottmar Mergenthaler    U.S.
  1885  First electric street
          railway in the U.S.              Baltimore, Md.
  1885  Overhead electric
          trolley             Van Depole             U.S.
  1886  Graphophone           Bell & Tainter         U.S.
  1887  Cyanide process       McArthur & Forest      U.S.
  1887  Incandescent gas
          light               Carl Welsbach          German.
  1888  Harveyized
          armor plate         Harvey                 U.S.
  1888  Kodak snapshot
          camera              Eastman & Walker       U.S.
  1890  Bicycles equipped
          with pneumatic
          tires                                      U.S.
  1890  Magazine rifle        Krag-Jorgensen         U.S.
  1891  Rotary steam
          turbine             Parsons                English.
  1893  Kinetoscope           Thos. A. Edison        U.S.
  1893  Carborundum           E. G. Acheson          U.S.
  1893  Calcium carbide
          produced            Thos. L. Wilson        U.S.
  1895  Liquifying air        Carl Linde             German.
  1895  X-rays                Prof. Roentgen         German.
  1895  Acetylene gas from
          calcium carbide     Thos. L. Wilson        U.S.
  1896  Wireless telegraphy   G. Marconi             Italian.
  1896  Finsen rays           Finsen                 Danish.
  1898  Non-whittling lead
           pencil             F. H. Lippincott       U.S.
  1900  Mercury vapor
          electric light      Peter Cooper Hewitt    U.S.
  1901  Airship               M. Santos-Dumont       French.
  1901  Automobile mower      Deering Harvester Co.  U.S.

From the Encyclopedia Americana.

    "There are no elevators in the house of success."--Silent Partner.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Since the above list (taken from the Encyclopedia Americana) was
published, there have been a large number of very important inventions
brought out.

In 1898 Professor and Madam Curie, of Paris, discovered radium. This
remarkable substance is extracted from pitch-blende. It is said to
require the reduction of about five thousand tons of the blende to
produce one pound of radium. The cost of one pound of radium is
variously estimated at from one to three millions of dollars. Radium
overturns all the laws of chemistry and physics. Scientists state that
if a method of producing it cheaply is ever discovered it will create
the greatest revolution in industrial circles. One pound of radium is
said to be capable of lighting an enormous area for one billion years
without reducing its size or substance by one thousandth part. In
other words, it exerts abnormal energy without any appreciable loss.

In 1902, January, Peter Cooper Hewitt, of New York City, announced the
invention by him of his Mercury Vapor tube electric light. This light
is red-less,--gives off all colors except red. It is in present use in
many large establishments. It is practically indestructible, and gives
eight times as much light with the same amount of electricity as other
lights. Mr. Hewitt is a wealthy man, having inherited money. He comes
of the famous New York Hewitt family, whose members have been in the
forefront of progress. Mr. Hewitt also invented the "Hewitt Electrical
Converter" and the "Hewitt Electrical Interrupter," both inventions of
unusual merit.

In 1903, January 18th, Guglielmo Marconi sent a wireless message from
Cape Cod, Mass., to Cornwall, England, a distance of 3000 miles. Such
a thing, a few years ago, would have been considered absolutely
impossible,--unbelievable,--a wild flight of the imagination.
Marconi's achievement was accomplished only after the most prolonged
experimentation and many disappointments.

In 1908, September 12th, Hudson Maxim filed an application for a
patent on an electrical invention for the prolongation of human life.

In 1908, Professor Alexander Graham Bell and Professor Emile Berliner,
famous inventors in telephones, are working on new styles of flying
machines. With these experts in the field, aerial navigation will, no
doubt, shortly be a problem completely solved.


In 200 B.C., Hero, of Alexandria, gives an account of an ingenious
steam toy.

                     *      *      *      *      *

In 1543, one Blasco de Garay is said to have shown in the harbor of
Barcelona, Spain, a vessel of two hundred tons' burden, moved by a
paddle wheel driven by steam power.

                     *      *      *      *      *

In 1663 Edward Somerset, the ingenious Marquis of Worcester, contrived
the first steam engine.

                     *      *      *      *      *

In 1742, when Benjamin Franklin invented the "Franklin Stove," or as
it is sometimes called, the "Pennsylvania Fireplace," he refused to
accept a patent on it, saying, "we enjoy great advantages from the
inventions of others, so we should be glad of an opportunity to serve
others by an invention of ours." An unscrupulous London manufacturer
made some light changes in Franklin's stove, we are sorry to state,
got a patent on it, and made a fortune from its sale.

                     *      *      *      *      *

An invention of the greatest utility was that brought out in 1788 by
William Symington, a young Englishman, for a method of converting the
reciprocating motion of an engine into the rotary.

                     *      *      *      *      *

About 1790, Claude Chappe, a Frenchman, while at school at Angers,
contrived an apparatus consisting of a post bearing a revolving beam
and circulatory arms with which he conveyed signals to three of his
brothers who were at another school about half-a-league distant, who
read the signals with a telescope. In 1792 the French Legislature
voted Chappe 6000 francs ($1200) to enable him to make experiments in
Paris. This invention of Chappe was called the "Semaphore Telegraph."
Of course, misty or foggy weather would preclude the use of this
signalling device. During the war between England and France an
amusing incident is related of the use of the "Semaphore Telegraph."
The admiral at Plymouth started a "wigwag message" to Whitehall, but
was able to forward only part of the message, a thick fog gathering
over a portion of the line and interrupting the message. The first
part of the message was "Wellington defeated," which caused great
distress and anxiety in London. The remainder of the message, "the
French at Salamanca," received next day, changed the metropolitan
sorrow into gladness.

                     *      *      *      *      *

About the year 1790, Signor Galvani, a professor of anatomy at
Bologna, discovered the principle of Galvanic electricity. This was
brought about in a very peculiar way. Mrs. Galvani was ill, and her
physician prescribed some frog broth. Accordingly, frogs were
procured, skinned, washed and laid on a table in the professor's
laboratory, which seemed to serve a double purpose of a room for
scientific and culinary operations. One of the professor's assistants
was engaged in experimenting with a large electric machine which stood
upon the same table, and had occasion to draw sparks from the machine.
The wife of Galvani, who was present, was surprised to observe that
every time he did so the limbs of the frogs moved as if alive. She
immediately communicated this strange incident to her husband, who
repeated the experiments with, of course, the same result. From this
experiment was later developed the so-called zinc and copper wet jars
used in the art.

                     *      *      *      *      *

In 1807, Robert Fulton, who was of Irish Descent, made his famous trip
in his steamboat, the "Clermont," from New York to Albany, a distance
of one hundred and fifty miles, in thirty-two hours, and returned in
thirty hours, averaging about five miles per hour. Many stories are
told of the consternation the "Clermont" excited in those who saw her
for the first time. People who had seen her passing at night described
her as "a monster moving on the waters, defying wind and tide, and
breathing flames and smoke." The steamboats, at that time, used pine
wood for fuel, which sent columns of ignited vapor many feet above the
stack, and whenever the fire was stirred enormous showers of sparks
would fly off, which in the night produced a very brilliant and
beautiful effect. Sailors and seamen on vessels that had never seen a
steamboat were scared speechless, and in many cases prostrated
themselves, and besought Providence to protect them from the
approaches of the horrible monster which they saw.

                     *      *      *      *      *

In 1835 Thomas D. Edmundson, a station agent on the New Castle and
Carlisle line, in England, invented the first railroad ticket. The
inventor for several years devoted himself entirely to the ticket
industry, and by degrees a business arose which became one of the
largest in the world.

                     *      *      *      *      *

In 1840 the Government issued the first postage stamps.

                     *      *      *      *      *

George Stephenson died in 1848 at the age of 67, a wealthy man,
beloved and honored by all. Statues of him were erected at Liverpool,
London and Newcastle. In Rome, Italy, a tablet bears this inscription:
"In this Rome, from whence wondrous roads proceed to the empire of the
world, the employees of the Roman railways, on the 9th of June, 1881,
worthily commemorated the centenary of George Stephenson, who opened
still more wondrous roads to the brotherhood of the nations, and whose
virtues, inspiring to great works, have left an undying example."
During an examination before a Parliamentary Committee George
Stephenson was asked, "Suppose, now, one of your engines to be going
at the rate of nine or ten miles an hour, and that a cow were to stray
upon the line, and get in the way of the engine, would not that be a
very awkward circumstance?" Stephenson replied, "Yes, very awkward for
the cow." In the course of the same examination he was asked, "But
would not men and animals become frightened by the red hot smoke
pipe?" to which question Stephenson replied, "But how would they know
that it was not painted?" These extracts indicate some of the
difficulties inventors had to contend with.

                     *      *      *      *      *

In 1876 two hours after Bell filed his patent for his telephone,
Elisha Gray, of Boston, filed an application for a similar device.
Bell won, and has been awarded great honors for his invention. It was
at first referred to as a "scientific toy." It is now a necessity.

                     *      *      *      *      *

In 1880 Marthelemay Themonier, a Frenchman, was mobbed for building a
sewing machine, by laborers who thought his machines contrary to their

    "Victory belongs to the most persevering."--Napoleon.

    "Success is the child of audacity."--Beaconsfield.


Many men mistake obstinacy for perseverance.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Anybody can slide down hill, but it takes good legs and good wind to
go up.

                     *      *      *      *      *

A third of our lives is spent in bed--that's why we ought to hustle
the other two-thirds.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Waste is criminal. The old proverb says, "Waste not, want not." And it
is true.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Anybody may drink at the fountain of knowledge, but you've got to
bring your own cup.

                     *      *      *      *      *

The farther you look back into the history of industry and invention,
the more you will be impressed with the fact that almost everything
has improved as our ability to produce it has increased.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Wireless telegraphy would never have come about had not the other kind
preceded, and it is impossible to imagine the phonograph's being ahead
of the telephone.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Without illuminating gas and gasoline, Welsbach lights would never
have been thought of or possible.

                     *      *      *      *      *

We would have no electric lights without the dynamo, and no dynamo if
wire-drawing had not first been perfected.

                     *      *      *      *      *

So it goes--everything is dependent on factors that have preceded and
any achievement of today is the result of thousands of years of
previous effort and thought.

                     *      *      *      *      *

And the knowledge that we are adding to the world's store today is but
the foundation for further advance by men to come.

                     *      *      *      *      *

As long as we don't know everything there will be things we cannot
explain and these things will be called chance. Into the life of every
human being there enter these inexplicable occurrences.




"Upon what meat does this, our Caesar, feed, that he has grown so


  _The diagram below shows very       } _The cry nowadays is that
  clearly the rich men of the world,  } there are no chances for
  and the source of their wealth_:    } accumulating wealth as did
                                      } these people--in some ways
                                      } this is right._
                                      } _Three of the avenues to
                                      } wealth are pretty well closed:
                                      } Taking each up in turn we find_

  1ST. NATURAL WEALTH.                }
  Secured by Mining, Drilling and     } FIRST.
  Digging. Examples:                  }
      John D. Rockefeller,            } Mines and Oil Wells are becoming
      Henry H. Rogers,                } scarcer every year, and there
      Barney Barnato,                 } are few which remain undiscovered.
      and many others.                }

  2ND. REAL ESTATE.                   }
  Advances in value as by buying      } SECOND.
  lots in a growing city and taking   }
  advantage of its growth. Examples:  } Real Estate takes an inside
      Hetty Green,                    } knowledge of conditions, which
      The Vanderbilts,                } none but men who give the
      Russell Sage,                   } subject deep study can hope to
      and many others.                } acquire.

  3RD. TRANSPORTATION.                }
  Steam Railways, Electric Railways,  } THIRD.
  and Steamboat lines. Examples:      }
      The Goulds,                     } Transportation requires
      Thomas J. Ryan,                 } big capital, and the small
      E. H. Harriman.                 } investor on the "outside" has
                                      } no chance whatsoever.

  4TH. PATENTS.                       }
  Inventions on articles in use in    } FOURTH.
  the manufactures, the arts, the     }
  home. Examples:                     } PATENTS ARE TO-DAY THE
      Carnegie,      Edison,          } GREATEST SOURCE OF WEALTH.
      Schwab,        Maxim,           }
      Krupp,         Westinghouse,    } "Genius, that power which
      Pullman,       Bell,            }     dazzles mortal eyes,
      Welsbach,      Singer,          } Is oft but perseverance in
      Hewitt,        McCormick,       }     disguise."
      Acheson,       Colt,            }
      Marconi,       Bessemer,        }
      and thousands of others.        }



    "Lives of great men all remind us,
      We can make our lives sublime,
    And departing, leave behind us,
      Footprints on the sands of time."--Longfellow.

The long list of famous patentees with their inventions which a
previous chapter contains is an eloquent testimonial to the fact that
fame, fortune and an undying place in history will be given to anyone
fortunate enough to conceive and work out a new idea which inures to
the benefit of mankind. While these famous inventors have been
devising and exploiting inventions of wide scope and large calibre
there have been an army of small inventors which should be equally as
famous and whose inventions will, probably, on the average, return
larger proportionate profits to their owners than have a great many of
the prominent ones already listed. The writer has in mind small
inventions, such as, for instance, Mrs. Pott's Sad Iron; the De Long
Hook and Eye; the Gillette Safety Razor; Enterprise Meat Chopper;
Junoform Bust Form; Push-point Pencil; Bromo Seltzer; Morrow Coaster
Brake; Brass Tips for Boys' Shoes; Mennen's Talcum Powder; Rubber Tips
for Lead Pencils; Bundy Time Clock; President Suspenders; Pianola;
Castoria; Angelus; O'Sullivan's Rubber Heel; Macey's Sectional
Bookcases; Red Dwarf Ink Pencil; 1900 Washing Machine; Tyden Table
Lock, and the thousands of similar small inventions, practically all
of which are bringing or have brought enormous fortunes to their
owners and developers.

King C. Gillette has become a wealthy man from the royalties and
profits on his safety razor. While safety razors had been on the
market for years, it took Gillette to bring out a better one, patent
it, and make his fortune. The inventor of the President Suspender is
said to have collected over fifty thousand dollars last year in
royalties on the sales of over two hundred thousand dozen pairs of his
suspenders. Miss Wolfe, the inventor of the Junoform Bust Form, it was
remarked recently, would attain wealth from her royalties. Mrs. Potts
is reputed to have collected over half a million dollars from
royalties from the patents on her sad iron.

It is also said that the Selden Gas Engine royalties exceed ten
million dollars in amount. It is stated that McCormick, the inventor
of a Cream Separator, has an annual income from his patents of over
thirty thousand dollars. It is said that the inventor of the new-style
"pay-as-you-enter" street car will receive a large royalty on every
car of that style used in the United States. They are at present
coming into use on the metropolitan street car lines. Everybody is
familiar with the enormous fortune made by Pullman with his palace car


It is related that when George Westinghouse called on Commodore
Vanderbilt to endeavor to interest him in his air-brake, Vanderbilt
said to him: "Do you mean to tell me that you can stop a train of cars
by wind?" and when informed that in effect that was what was
contemplated, remarked that he had no time for fools. Sometime
afterward when, through the support of Andrew Carnegie and several
others, a successful test of the brake had been made, Westinghouse had
the satisfaction, according to the story, of replying to Vanderbilt's
request for a conference, "I have no time to waste on fools."

                     *      *      *      *      *

Ottmar Mergenthaler worked twenty years on the development of his
linotype machine, and ten years thereafter in perfecting it. The
Mergenthaler Linotype Company has paid out twenty millions of dollars
in dividends in fourteen years. The romance of the invention of the
linotype brings out in glaring letters PERSISTENCE, as Edward Mott
Woolley states in "System," of September, 1908, in an article
describing the development of the linotype machine.

                     *      *      *      *      *

It is related of Oscar Hammerstein, the well-known theatrical
proprietor, that when he was fifteen years old he landed from a
steamer at the Battery in New York, after running away from his German
home. He was without money or friends, or any place to go. He got a
job in a cigar factory at $2.00 per week. Making cigars by hand seemed
to him a poor way of doing it, so he began experimenting on his own
account, and four years later he had a machine to do the work. He sold
this machine for $6,000 cash, and immediately started on a new one,
which in place of selling outright he had manufactured on a royalty
basis. It is said that he has received over $250,000 in cash from his
royalties. Yet today Hammerstein is not known by his inventions, but
by the big theatrical enterprises which have earned or lost other
fortunes for him at various times.

                     *      *      *      *      *

In the struggle of Charles Goodyear to manufacture a rubber compound
that should fulfil mercantile needs is presented a striking, if rather
familiar example of what eternal persistence will finally accomplish,
and of how it may be assisted by what we call "luck." When he was
twenty-one Goodyear entered a rubber house in Philadelphia and began
experimenting in India rubber. By chance one day a little rubber mixed
with sulphur fell on a stove, and he at once realized what might be
accomplished by what is now known as vulcanization. To carry on his
experiments he was required to pawn the school-books of his children
to raise money. However, he kept everlastingly at it, and was rewarded
with a number of international prizes and decorated by several foreign
rulers. His name has gone down to fame as one of the successful
inventors of the world. The Goodyear Rubber Company bears his name.

                     *      *      *      *      *

The public today is familiar with the record of Thomas A. Edison, who
is considered the greatest inventor the world has ever known. The new
book which has recently come out, "The Life of Thomas A. Edison," is
well worth purchasing and reading. The public press reported he had
won his infringement suits and that the "Moving Picture" trust or
combination agreed to pay him royalties running into a sum of seven

                     *      *      *      *      *

George Ade, the "funny man," is independent financially from the
royalties paid him on his copyrights.

                     *      *      *      *      *

The story of the De Long Hook and Eye Company is the history  of
an infinitesimal start with an enormous present size.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Sir Henry Bessemer is said to have been paid $10,000,000 in royalties
on his steel process.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Emerson, a Baltimore druggist, made a number of fortunes from his
invention of Bromo-Seltzer. Likewise Mennen, of talcum powder fame,
whose face and name are known all over the world.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Landis, a Franklin county (Pa.) man, sold his "Straw Stacker" patents,
it is said, for $50,000 cash,--practically all profit.

                     *      *      *      *      *

This list, if complete, would fill volumes, but it would be a
story with the same ending in each and every case.

                     *      *      *      *      *

A careful study of the reason why all the above patents have proved to
be so successful emphasizes the fact that inventors, to succeed,
_must not lose sight of the Six Cardinal Tests enumerated elsewhere
in this volume_.

[Illustration: Press and Pen




"If a man can write a better book, preach a better sermon, or make a
better mouse-trap than his neighbor, though he build his house in the
woods, the world will make a beaten pathway to his door."--Emerson.

Inventions, to possess commercial merit, must supersede in utility
similar devices already on the market. They must also possess capacity
for production at lower cost, as well as having conspicuously superior
merit. The field of invention is a broad one, and embraces any new
electrical appliances, engineering devices, improvements in steam
navigation, agricultural implements, railways, household novelties,
novelties in hardware and tools, pencils and toys, vehicles,
furniture, toilet articles, wearing apparel, office appliances and



A simple, cheap and powerful electric motor; electrical motors adapted
to use of either direct or alternating current; improvements in the
filaments of incandescent bulbs, something along the lines of the new
Tungsten filaments; new, cheap substitute for gutta-percha for
insulating; simple method of generating ozone for medical and
disinfecting purposes; method for generating electricity direct from
coal without the incidental production of light and heat; a new,
indestructible incandescent lamp filament; a new style of incandescent
lamp that will give more light and use less current; a simple means
for preventing the blowing out of fuses, and yet preventing the
overloading of the motors; method of extracting electricity from the
earth. (NOTE: A number of experiments have been carried out along this
line with partial success.) A method of storing electricity generated
during a severe electrical storm. (NOTE: This is not considered
practicable by electrical engineers, although it is possible that
someone may hit on a way of accomplishing it.) A simple, light
accumulator for storing electricity.


A substitute for paper pulp; strong, tough, thin, flexible paper;
substitute for glass in eye-glasses, telescopes, opera glasses, and
other optical lenses; a cheap, artificial substitute for indigo;
method for deodorizing petroleum, gasoline, naphtha and similar
volatile oils without changing their quality; method of deodorizing
asphalt; method of deodorizing paint; method of increasing the life
and durableness of soft rubber; simple means for preserving butter;
new shoe blacking free from sulphuric and acetic acids; cheap
substitute for matches; method of removing nicotine from tobacco;
method of utilizing vulcanized rubber scrap; substitute for leather;
method for producing artificial mica in large sheets; artificial
flavors of tea and coffee, similar to the commercial artificial
extract of vanilla; cheap method of producing sugar from starch;
method of producing pure carbon; substitute for celluloid; substitute
for asphalt; method for producing flexible glass.


First and foremost is the method of hardening and tempering copper;
cheap method for extracting gold from brick clay, ore, sand, etc.;
cheap method for procuring iron direct from ore without the
intervention of the blast furnace; method for producing malleable pig
iron; cheap method of producing high-speed steels for tools and the
like; machine to separate slate from Anthracite and Bituminous Coal.
(NOTE: It should be some process not requiring water settling-tanks.)
Process for casting copper without blow holes; solder for cast iron;
cheap method for recovering tin from old tin cans and the like.


    NOTE.--It has been found extremely hard to introduce railway
    patents. We would, therefore, most earnestly advise our American
    inventors not to spend any time and money on inventions such as
    car couplers, steel railway ties, block signals, and the like. In
    this class we would suggest so-called "small-inventions."

Efficient air gun as a weapon; improvements in army tents; improvements
in dirigible balloons and aeroplanes for military uses.* (*NOTE: This
is a big undertaking, and we would not advise any of our clients to
enter it.)


Simple means of adjusting ball bearings; attachment for lathes, such
as taper cutting devices, grinding attachments; attachments for
planers for producing curved surfaces; attachment for drill press for
radial boring; new and improved tools of all kinds and descriptions;
simple and cheap bone crusher; simple and cheap bone cleaner; simple
and cheap casting machine for small foundries; simple and cheap
molding machine for small foundries; machine for casting under
pressure; substitute for fly wheels on engines; efficient safety
stopping devices for engines; substitute for governor; cheap and
efficient denatured alcohol motor; substitute for belts and pulleys;
simple, cheap and efficient anti-friction bearings; machine for
automatically sewing buttons on clothing; tool for cutting ice without
waste; cheap music turner.


Simple, cheap and efficient cash register; cash register that will
throw out false coins; machine for vending newspapers; electrically
driven typewriter; cheap substitute for fountain pen; cheap substitute
for lead pencil; indestructible writing pen; reliable gas meter;
reservoir lettering brush.


Indestructible gas mantel for Welsbach lights; method of
simultaneously lighting all the burners in a room, or house; automatic
valve closing device for shutting off gas when not ignited;
brick-laying machine; method of glazing without the use of putty;
window sash that will not bind or stick in the frame; substitute for
sash weights; substitute for spring shade rollers; substitute for
carpet nails; new, cheap, springless lock; substitute for hinges on
doors; cheap, efficient door check and buffer.


Durable and unpuncturable tires; cheap and efficient power meter;
cheap and efficient dust preventer; improvements in all the details of
automobile and vehicular construction; substitute for motor wheels.



Substitute for horse hair; substitute for broom fibre; substitute for
asbestos; substitute for silk; method of coating cheap fibres with
silk; method of spinning asbestos; substitute for an umbrella;
one-piece covering for umbrellas, etc., etc.


Method for multi-color printing with but one impression; method for
printing sheet metals; substitute for printing blocks.* (*NOTE: Must
be light in weight, and non-inflammable.) Substitute for lithographic
stone; a firm, black, copying, printing ink; method for photographing
in colors.


Machine for harvesting sugar cane; substitute for cotton bale tie;
method or machine for exterminating caterpillars; method or machine
for exterminating mosquitoes; improvements or new devices for use of
farmers, agriculturalists, truckmen, florists, and similar vocations;
method or machine for annihilating flies.


Substitute for rubber fire hose; method for profitable utilization of
saw dust; substitute for hair pin, or one that will not fall out;
envelope that cannot be opened.


    Non-refillable bottles.
    Nut locks.
    Metal railway ties.
    Railroad rail joints.
    Patent medicines.
    Car couplers.
    Hooks and eyes.
    Safety pins.
    Hair curlers.
    Washing Compounds.
    Trolley pole catchers.
    Bending machines, unless absolutely new idea, and style.
    Adding machines, unless absolutely new idea and style.
    Present style typewriters.
    Turbine engines, unless absolutely new idea, and style.
    Submarine boats.

    Our reason for advising inventors to stay away from the above
    classes is on account of the fact of the killing competition in
    these classes, and the additional fact that the field is
    absolutely overcrowded. The attorneys that have applied for the
    hosts of patents for inventors in these lines have "rung all
    possible changes" in their claims for patents into which it is
    possible to twist and turn the English language.


In a publication on Patents published about fifteen years ago, the
following articles were asked for, which have since been invented, and
which are making their inventors money:

    Cheap ice machine.
    Denaturated alcohol.
    Cheap calcium carbide.
    Method of preserving milk.

    (Note the organization of the "White Cross Milk Companies" in
    the cities of Philadelphia, Boston, New York, Baltimore and
    Washington, at this writing. Milk prepared by this process is said
    to keep for several months, and will be absolutely free from germs
    and bacilli. It is a new process.)

    Smokeless gun powder (now in almost general use).
    Iron and steel railway ties. (They have been found mechanically
      impracticable and have been discarded by the Pennsylvania Railroad
    Safety device for rifles and revolvers. (Everybody is familiar
      with the "Hammer the Hammer" advertisement.)
    Milking machine.
    Bread cutting machine.
    Pocket cigar lighter.
    Steam heating for trains.

The above list will serve as an illustration of the fact that
inventors are persistently supplying what the world needs in the way
of new devices and machines.


    "Where there's a will there's a way."

Do not imagine that anyone is lying awake at night waiting for your
invention to come out, because they are not. All of us consider
ourselves pretty comfortable, and we are not bothering much about any
new inventions. Another mistake inventors often make is that of
endeavoring to make the public want their device. The proper thing to
do is to invent something that the public already wants. In other
words, "follow the lines of least resistance."

There are many good things which are very ingenious, and perfectly
novel and patentable, but which are in lines in which there would not
be enough sale in ten years to pay the inventor the expense of getting
out patents. Yet plenty of such things are patented almost every week,
in this country. "Some time there could be but one customer,--say, the
government, or some great corporation,--and there may be reasons which
are obvious, and others not so plain on the surface, why you could not
even make them a present of your invention."



The following pages concisely show the marvelous growth of the Field
of Invention from Primitive Man's Three Fundamental Wants, namely,
Food, Clothing and Shelter, to the present-day countless necessities
of Twentieth Century life. The same marvelous broadening of the field
is found in all directions. The few illustrations given on the
following pages will illustrate the point, and direct the thoughts of
the student unerringly to the almost illimitable sphere of invention.


  ==============================     ===============================

  Planting      }                                    { Construction
  Cultivating   }                                    { Materials
  Harvesting    }                                    { Decorating
  Stock Raising }                                    { Hardware
  Slaughtering  }   +----------+     +-----------+   { Furnishing
  Marketing     }   |   FOOD   |     |  SHELTER  |   { Lighting
  Hunting       }   +---+------+     +-------+---+   { Medicine
  Fishing       }        \                  /        { Heating
  Preparing     }         \                /         { Cleaning
  Storing       }          \              /          { Defending
  Amusements    }           |            |
                            |            |
  FOOD :::: THEN AND NOW    |            |   SHELTER : THEN AND NOW
  B.C.--Manna & Roots       |            |   B.C.--Caves & Tents
  1909--15-course dinner    |            |   1909--Skyscrapers
                            |            |
                         |    THE THREE    |
                         |    WANTS OF     |
                         |  PRIMITIVE MAN  |
                            |           \ /
  B.C.--Fig Leaf            |            |    THEN AND NOW
  1909--Directoire Gown     |            |    B.C.--Camels & Oxen
                            |            |    1909--Autos &
                            |            |      Flying Machines

                            |            |
                            |            |             { Ships
  Manufacturing }          /              \            { Banking
                }         /                \           { Shoes
  Materials     }   +----+-----+     +------+----+     { Railroads
                }   | CLOTHING |     |  TRANSPORTATION { Vehicles
  Marketing     }   +----------+     |  |              { Autos
                }                    +-----------+     { Mail
  Jewelry, Etc. }                                      { Subways & Tubes
                                                       { Telegraph
                                                       { Telephone

    NOTE: A further analysis of the above, together with the
    sub-division, "Transportation", (a natural outgrowth of the three
    primary needs) will be found on the following pages.

Copyright 1909 by Goodwin B. Smith.


  ~H~ Scythes,
  ~A~ Sickles,
  ~R~ Rakes, Reapers,
  ~V~ Mowers,
  ~E~ Binders,
  ~S~ Threshers,
  ~T~ Stackers,
  ~I~ Loaders,
  ~N~ Unloaders,
  ~G~ Grain-elevators, etc.

  ~PLANTING~           { Garden Tools, Plows, Harrows,
                       { Rollers, Planters, Seed Drills, etc.

                       { Cultivators, Sprinklers,
  ~CULTIVATING~        { Weeders, Insect
                       { Destroyers, Fertilizers, etc.

  ~STOCK RAISING~      { Fences, Harness, Incubators, Brooders,
                       { Milking Machines, Creameries, etc.

  ~M~ Crates, Boxes,
  ~A~ Stores, Scales,
  ~R~ Packages,
  ~K~ Delivery-systems,
  ~E~ Office Appliances,
  ~T~ Stationery,
  ~I~ Printing,
  ~N~ Pens, Pencils,
  ~G~ Inks, Rubbers, etc.

  ~SLAUGHTERING~       { Conveyors, Pens, Grinders, Stuffers, etc.

  ~HUNTING~            { Bows and Arrows, Snares, Traps, Guns, Bags,

  ~FISHING~            { Nets, Hooks, Lines, Boats, Canneries, Kits,

  ~P~ Cutlery,
  ~R~ Stoves,
  ~E~ Kettles,
  ~P~ Broilers,
  ~A~ Ovens,
  ~R~ Condiments,
  ~I~ Grinding,
  ~N~ Distilling,
  ~G~ Evaporating, etc.

  ~S~ Elevators,
  ~T~ Refrigerators,
  ~O~ Canning,
  ~R~ Curing,
  ~I~ Drying,
  ~N~ Pickling,
  ~G~ Evaporating, etc.

  ~M~ Musical
  ~U~ Instruments,
  ~S~ Theatres,
  ~E~ Parks,
  ~M~ Cards,
  ~E~ Games,
  ~N~ Toys,
  ~T~ Moving
  ~S~ Pictures, etc.

Copyright 1909, by Goodwin B. Smith.


  ~C~ Tools, Engineering
  ~O~ Excavating,
  ~N~ Masonry,
  ~S~ Wood-working,
  ~T~ Elevating,
  ~R~ Stone-cutting,
  ~U~ etc.
  ~C T I O N.~

  ~F~ Carpets, Rugs,
  ~U~ Fixtures,
  ~R~ Furniture,
  ~N~ Bedding,
  ~I~ China,
  ~S~ Cutlery,
  ~H~ Glass-ware,
  ~I~ Periodicals,
  ~N~ Books,
  ~G~ etc.

  ~HARDWARE~           { Builders, Shelf, Mill House, etc.

  ~CLEANING~           { Brooms, Brushes Sweepers, Soaps, etc.

  ~D~ Sling shots, Bows
  ~E~ and Arrows, Guns,
  ~F~ Revolvers, Shot,
  ~E~ Burglar Alarms, Armor,
  ~N~ Military Battle Ships,
  ~D~ Insurance: Fire, Life,
  ~I~ Accident, Burglary,
  ~N~ Liability, etc.
  ~G~ Explosives, Air-ships, etc.

  ~M~ Quarrying,
  ~T~ Cement,
  ~R~ Plaster,
  ~A~ Steel-Structure,
  ~S~ etc.

                       { Brasiers, Stoves, Furnaces,
  ~HEATING~            { Hot air, Hot water, Steam,
                       { Vapor, Electricity, etc.

                       { Paint, Varnish, Wall Paper,
  ~DECORATING~         { Molding, Carving,
                       { Polishing, Photography, etc.

  ~MEDICINE~      { Drugs, Instruments, Specifics, Toxins, etc.

  ~LIGHTING~           { Lamps, Burners, Oil, Gas, Electricity,
                       { Acetylene, Glass, etc.

Copyright 1909, by Goodwin B. Smith.


  ~M~ Spinning, Weaving,
  ~A~ Bleaching, Tanning,
  ~N~ Curing, Sorting, Picking,
  ~U~ Carding, Shearing,
  ~F~ Vulcanizing, Mixing,
  ~A~ Cutting, Fitting, Lining,
  ~C~ Buttons, Threads,
  ~T~ Sewing Machines,
  ~U~ etc.
  ~R I N G.~

  ~M~ Cotton, Wool, Linen.
  ~A~ Leather, Silk, Straw,
  ~T~ Fur, Feathers, Rubber,
  ~E~ Felt, Fibre, Paper,
  ~R~ Wood, Pulp, etc.
  ~I A L S.~

  ~J~ Precious Stones, Rings,
  ~E~ Chains, Necklaces,
  ~W~ Bracelets, Pins, Brooches,
  ~E~ Pendants, Watches, Pocketbooks,
  ~L~ Accessories, Perfumeries,
  ~R~ Cosmetics.
  ~Y  E T C.~

  ~M~ Advertising, Department
  ~A~ Stores,
  ~R~ Adding Machines,
  ~K~ Cash Registers,
  ~E~ etc.
  ~T I N G.~

Copyright 1909, by Goodwin B. Smith.


  ~A~ Horses,
  ~N~ Camels, Oxen,
  ~I~ Mules,
  ~M~ Llamas,
  ~A~ Dogs,
  ~L~ Burros,
  ~S~ Elephants, etc.

  ~V~ Sleds, Chariots,
  ~E~ Jinrikishas, Carts, Wagons,
  ~H~ Sleighs, Coaches, Hearses,
  ~I~ Coffins, Carriages, Cabs,
  ~C~ Velocipedes, Wheel-Barrows,
  ~L~ Trucks, Cars, Trams,
  ~E~ Tricycles,
  ~S~ Bicycles, etc.

  ~S~ Sandals, Snowshoes,
  ~H~ Skates, Roller-skates,
  ~O~ Rubbers, Boots,
  ~E~ Gaiters, Slippers,
  ~S~ Motor Skates, etc.

  ~R~ Horse, Steam,
  ~A~ Cable, Compressed,
  ~I~ Air Trolleys,
  ~L~ Third-rail, Elevated,
  ~R~ Monorail, Alcohol,
  ~O~ Motors, Gasoline
  ~A~ Motors, Electric
  ~S~ Motors, etc.

  ~S~ Rail, Steam Propeller,
  ~H~ Turbine, Submarine,
  ~I~ Balloons, Dirigibles,
  ~P~ Aeroplanes,
  ~S~ Helicopters, etc.

                       { Poles, Exchanges,
  ~TELEPHONE~          { Directories, Phonographs,
                       { Graphophones, etc.

                       { Wiring, Insulation, Batteries,
  ~TELEGRAPH~          { Poles, Conduits, Semaphore,
                       { Stock Tickers, Switchboards, etc.

  ~A~ Steam, Gasoline,
  ~U~ Alcohol,
  ~T~ Electric,
  ~O~ Elevators,
  ~S~ Moving Stairways, etc.

  ~M~ Envelopes, Stationery,
  ~A~ Postage, Expressage,
  ~I~ Pneumatic Mail boxes,
  ~L~ Letter boxes, etc.

  ~SUBWAYS AND       { Reinforced Concrete,
  TUBES~             { Air-locks, etc.

  ~BANKING~          { Species, Banknotes, Vaults,
                     { and Safes, Checks, etc.

Copyright 1909, by Goodwin B. Smith.



"In any business, it is to-day's unknown facts that wreck the machine
tomorrow. Therefore, find out the facts."

Almost all inventors show an unusually needless amount of haste in
rushing off to an attorney and applying for a patent, even before they
have given their idea any practical demonstration whatsoever. This is,
in the opinion of the writer, all wrong, and is not the most practical
way to proceed. The application for patent, and filing of carefully
drawn specification and claims, is, of course, highly important and
necessary, but it should not be undertaken until after the most
searching, practical tests of the invention, as well as the most
careful investigation as to the _public demand_ for your idea, as
it is from the latter source that profits will come. The care with
which your specification is written, and the claims drawn, will
regulate the strength of your protection against infringers. Don't
forget that the red seal and blue ribbon on a worthless patent are
just as red and blue as they are on a high-grade, "suit-proof," one
that has stood the tests of the courts from bottom to the top.


"The specification and claims of a patent, particularly if the
invention be at all complicated, constitute one of the most difficult
legal instruments to draw with accuracy, and in view of the fact that
valuable inventions are often placed in the hands of inexperienced
persons to prepare such specification and claims, it is no matter of
surprise that the latter frequently fail to describe with requisite
certainty the exact invention of the patentee, and err either in
claiming that which the patentee had not in fact patented, or in
omitting some element which was a valuable or essential part of his
actual invention." Topliff vs. Topliff, 145 U.S. 156.

The highest court of the land thus puts itself on record in reference
to the importance of having the specification and claims of your
patent properly drawn. It is equally as important to have your models,
drawings, patterns, etc., accurately designed and executed.

Every week the "Official Gazette," published by the U.S. Patent
Office, is chock full of new, novel and ingenious devices on which
patents have been granted, but which are in lines in which the demand
and sales are so very restricted that the profits in seventeen years
will scarcely pay for the cost of the patent. As Dr. Grimshaw, Ph.D.,
M. E., a celebrated inventor and scholar, known to many Americans, and
at present residing in Germany, so aptly puts it, it is well to
remember "There are some lines in which competition is so fierce that
there would not be any use in coming into the field. If the Marquis of
Worcester, Watt, Fulton and Morse, Whitney and Howe, Edison and
McCormick, and a dozen more of the great inventors of the world, past
and present, were to put their heads together, and get up a new
car-coupler, the chances are that they could not get thirty cents for
the patent. The thing is overdone."

Many, many, hard-earned dollars are annually expended by inexperienced
inventors in the building of ornate, nickel-plated models that from a
practical, business stand-point are commercially impossible, and never
will amount to anything. While they are splendid in "theory," and
pretty to look at, and talk about, yet in "practice" and real utility
they are of no value. Don't go to the expense of a model until you
know your device is patentable, mechanically practicable, commercially
salable, and in demand in the markets of the world, and in a class in
which there is no killing competition.

Caveats have proven to be, oftentimes, worse than worthless. The
Government fee is $10; the attorney fee from $10 to $25. When you file
your application you are notified by the U.S. Patent Office of an
interference suit, if someone else happens to file an application
along similar lines. It is then "up to you" to show that "you thought
of it first," usually a very expensive and disappointing task. Don't
apply for a caveat, is the writer's advice.

Confidence is the bed-rock foundation of all business today, so don't
be afraid of anyone trying to steal your idea. A simple and
inexpensive means to follow is to have a rough pencil sketch and
description of your idea, dated and signed by yourself and two
competent witnesses. Then, if the question of priority of invention is
raised, you have a strong document to substantiate your claims to

If your idea will pass muster on the Six Cardinal Tests, (1) as
regards patentability; (2) as regards mechanical practicability; (3)
as regards its possession of superior merit and low cost of
production; (4) as regards a large and constant public demand for it;
(5) as regards to its being better, cheaper and more salable than
similar devices already on the market; (6) as regards to the
competition it will encounter,--then, and only then, are you justified
in spending time and money in applying for a patent, and having proper
working model built, etc. Don't rely on your own judgment in such
matters,--it is of necessity greatly prejudiced, and rightly so. You,
as an inventor, are in the same relative position as the mother of a
new baby. Both of you undoubtedly feel that your offspring possesses
all the graces, and has no bad points whatsoever. But your invention
does not have as good a show, at least no better, than the new baby
has of developing into a "world-beater" or prodigy. In both instances
it will require careful development, much study, and the hardest kind
of work to make a moderate success of the new infant. Another point to
remember is that the one who is responsible for its successful
development is entitled to more credit and greater rewards than the
father of the idea or infant.

A Patent Attorney, must, of very necessity, be disposed to find
practically everything submitted to him "to be patentable." Some firms
go so far as to mail their guarantees that ideas are patentable, but
your idea has five other points in which it may "fall down." Mere
patentability is only one-sixth of the necessary ground you must
cover. Your friends may think you are a genius, a wonder, and you may
be, but don't let their adulation turn your head to the extent of your
forgetting the six tests necessary to your idea's success. If you are
sick, you go to the best physician you can find; if your horse is
sick, you send for a veterinarian; if you are required to go to Court,
you retain a good lawyer to represent your side,--you don't try to
cure yourself, or your horse, or defend yourself. You go to a
specialist in these lines. Follow the same sane method in your patent
matters. The "no-cure-no-pay" doctor is not highly regarded, neither
are patent firms that do a "contingent fee" business on the "no
patent-no pay" basis. Cut rates are also to be shunned. Good service
demands and can exact commensurate returns. Economy in these matters
is a poor policy to pursue.

Analysis of the Six Cardinal Patent Tests.

    "If I am building a mountain, and stop before the last bucketful
    of earth is placed on the summit, I have failed."--Confucius.

First: Would it be possible to cover my idea or invention by a good,
strong, basic patent?

First and foremost, the thing to do is to find out if your invention
can be properly covered by a good, strong patent,--a basic patent, if
possible, and if not basic, at least, one covering some novel elements
which would prevent unscrupulous imitators and dealers from
substituting "something just as good" for your invention. In this
connection we might say that any bright attorney can find some way in
which an alleged patent can be issued practically on anything, so very
little dependence can be placed, as a rule, on "preliminary searches"
that are furnished "free of cost." Expect to pay at least $5.00 for
it, and ask for the references the search develops. We place the
covering of an invention by strong letters patent first, as we
consider it of the utmost importance that an invention, to be a
commercial success, must grant its owner a virtual monopoly.

Second: Is my invention mechanically practicable?

There are a great many ideas which of themselves are good, and still
are not of themselves of any value. It is of equal importance, in
order to make a success of an invention, to have it conform to certain
recognized mechanical principles, and capable of economical production
through the regular trade and manufacturing channels. In other words,
an invention nowadays would be seriously handicapped if it was
necessary to revolutionize the present equipment of factories to bring
it out.

(In this connection it might be interesting to note that Thomas A.
Edison, in an article published in "The Star," of Washington,
September 17th, 1908, said that in his opinion Wright Brothers were
working on the wrong principle with their flying machine. In Edison's
opinion the machine should not be dependent on the skill of the
operator, but should be capable of automatic operation somewhat
similar to an automobile or the locomotive.)

Third: Can my invention be more cheaply manufactured than similar
devices already on the market?

If your invention will enter the markets of the world in close
competition with other devices of similar nature, it is necessary that
it possesses the possibility for lower cost of production than the
articles it will meet in competition. If it costs more to make, it
will be heavily handicapped from the start. If it costs less to make
it will have this additional advantage pulling in its favor from the

Fourth: Does my idea possess conspicuous novelty and superior merit
over similar devices already on the market?

The established, advertised article in the markets of the world always
has a great advantage over new and relatively untried devices. A new
article, to succeed, must show at a glance that it is "something
better." In addition to that, it must have superior merit which will
at once make it possible to bring about a quick sale in competition
with the article already on the market. If your invention is better,
costs less to produce, has more "talking points," dealers will be
quick to buy it. Otherwise, possibly not.

Fifth: Is there a large, constant, public demand for my invention, or
its product?

Public demand for anyone's invention practically regulates its
success, from a commercial standpoint. If there is no public demand
for it, there can be no individual profit derived from it. In other
words, it is useless to apply for a patent on any art, machine or
process where the demand for its use is very limited. For instance, it
would be ridiculous to patent a process for performing one single act
or function, the demand for which would cease as soon as the act or
function was accomplished. To illustrate, some years ago, while
building the City Hall, in Philadelphia, it was necessary to raise the
enormous statue of William Penn to the top of the tower. This was
quite an undertaking, and a great many bright men cudgeled their
brains as to the best means of accomplishing the result. It would have
been very foolish to patent the means by which the statue was put on
the top of the tower, because after it was placed on the top there
would be no further demand for the process or means by which Penn was
raised to his elevated position.

"Little and often fills the purse" is a familiar quotation to many of
us, and is especially applicable to the profits to be made from

Sixth: Is there killing competition in the class to which my invention

If your device is likely to run into a section of the trade of the
world where questionable tactics and high-pressure methods are
necessary to keep one's head above water, our advice to you would be,
"Don't do it!" as it would possibly be better to "follow the lines of
least resistance," and spend your time and money on something where
you would have a better chance for success.

In the year 1909, what chances do you think an inventor would have in
starting a business in competition with the United States Steel
Corporation, or the American Sugar Refining Company, or the Standard
Oil Company, or the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, or the Paper Trust,
or the Bell Telephone Company, or the Moving Picture Trust, or the
American Can Company, or the Baldwin Locomotive Works? These enormous
aggregations of brains and capital would make it quixotic to attempt
to compete with them in the markets of the world. Yet you may be able
to invent something they would be glad to purchase!

If your patent is weak or deficient in any one of these six cardinal
tests it is heavily handicapped to just that extent in the race for
success. Do not depend on your own judgment, as your judgment is
naturally prejudiced, and will not, most likely, reflect a dependable
forecast of the public attitude toward your invention. It will be
cheaper in the long run to get reliable counsel in these respects
before you start, rather than learning it from bitter experience.


Terse Suggestions

This is the day of short cuts. If you take the long way 'round, you
will never "arrive." Cuts, to be short, need not be poorly done with a
blunt knife. The cleverest surgeon is he who can perform the biggest
operation in the shortest time. Learn to do things quickly, but do
them well.

                     *      *      *      *      *

In this hustling world we must "get there," and "get there quick," not
only in our conversation but in all our work. We must avoid

                     *      *      *      *      *

Spend your time and money on money-savers rather than on frills. Do
your work under a system, and stick to it. Do not have a too elaborate
system, however.

                     *      *      *      *      *

With the machine work of the Twentieth Century method, fine hand work
is now considered a luxury.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Don't beat about the bush. Get right down to the point. The swiftest
road to success has the fewest curves.

    "Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time, for that is the
    stuff life is made of."--Franklin.



"People are always to be found who think anything with which they are
not familiar cannot be good."

If the average inventor goes out among his friends with his invention
and asks them their opinion of it, he will hear some such expressions
as this: "Old man, you are a marvel!"; "You will be a millionaire some
day, sure thing!"; "That looks a big winner!"; "Beats anything I ever
saw!" and so on. But such comments are absolutely worthless. Many an
inventor's head has been turned by just such praise. It is all
well-meant, best-intentioned, and highly gratifying, but as an
indication of what will be likely to happen to your invention it is
worse than valueless. It is grossly misleading. Your friends want to
encourage you, help you. They see only your invention's good points,
not its vital weaknesses. They are not "skilled in the art,"--are not
in a position to judge competently at all. Do not depend on any such
opinions. Go to a specialist in such lines. Will a stranger to you buy
your invention in preference to the ones already on the market? If so,
he exacts a lower price or a better article, which amount to the same
thing. Can you manufacture your invention and sell it at a good profit
in competition with others? Will the wholesalers handle it? Can they
do so at a good profit? Has it good selling and talking points, or do
you need to make excuses for it? Is the field now over-crowded? In
this connection, remember the "Six Cardinal Patent Tests," especially
the fifth and sixth. Is there a large, constant, public demand for my
invention or its product? And is there killing competition in the
class to which my invention belongs? Get the advice of a specialist.



"Everything in this world is a development. Nothing happens by

Can my invention be made to do better work by putting in gears in
place of that sprocket chain? Would canvas be cheaper and better than
leather in that belt? Won't a cotter pin be cheaper and better in
place of that nut? Won't a steel casting be cheaper and better than
that expensive machined steel bearing? Would not my machine do better
work and cost less if I stuck to just this one operation?

Questions such as this you must ask yourself. The successful inventor
is not a "one-idea" man. He must be on the watch for "something
better" all the time, until he and his expert advisers are convinced
by _actual tests_ in _actual service_ that it is absolutely right in
every way. No invention is complete and perfect when it is first
conceived. Its successful development is a series of changes,
substitutions, alterations, rearrangements, until finally it attains
marketable shape.

At a meeting of mechanical experts in Philadelphia one evening,
six men were asked the very best way to make a certain piece of
machine work. There were six different answers.--"Many men of many
minds."--Which was the best way, and why? If you take your own ideas
you will possibly have but one way to do it, and your way may not
prove the best way in the end. The successful invention of today
dominates its particular field. Why? Because it is better than others.

Successful development of any invention requires a great degree of
patience, unlimited hard work, belief in ultimate success, and
competent theoretical and practical knowledge of mechanics, physics,
mathematics, salesmanship, shop practice and the like. It is a science
in itself.

    "Whatever I have tried to do in life, I have tried with all my
    heart to do well; whatever I have devoted myself to, I have
    devoted myself to completely; in great aims and small I have
    always been thoroughly in earnest."--Charles Dickens.



"An idea of itself may be good, but still not of itself be of any

Patents, to meet with even moderate commercial success, must be on a
"human necessity" or "luxury"--must cost less and be better than the
ones already on the market. That is this whole chapter in a nutshell.
Lines upon lines could be said about it, but the reader will grasp the




"The man who does things is the man who is doing things. The busiest
man in the city is the man who is always ready for new business."

"To postpone action generally means an attempt to kill by time."--John
Timothy Stone.


  An art or process,
  Machines or mechanisms,
  Manufactured articles,
  Compositions of matter,
  Improvements on any of the above,

if the art, machine, manufactured article, composition of matter, or
improvement thereof, for which a Patent is desired, was not known or
used by others, in this country, and has not been patented or
described in any printed publication in this or any foreign country,
before the applicant's invention or discovery thereof, and has not
been in public use or on sale for more than two years prior to his
application, unless the same is proved to have been abandoned.

Usual Cost

The cost of taking out a patent varies with different cases. In a
simple case such as, for instance, an improvement in potato mashers,
it is, ordinarily, $65. Some attorneys charge $5 less, and some $10
more, according to their schedules. This amount is made up as follows:

  Preliminary search of Patent Office records                $ 5 00
  Preparation of drawings, one sheet                           5 00
  Preparation of specification and claims                     20 00
  First Government fee                                        15 00
  Final Government fee, payable six months after
    allowance of patent                                       20 00
  Total cost of simple one-sheet case                        $65 00

Complicated machines and processes that require a large number of
sheets of drawings and contain a great deal of detail work cost
often times, especially if interferences develop, as much as $1000.
Elsewhere in this volume is quoted the opinion of the Supreme Court
as regards the importance of having the specification and claims
carefully drawn. Have your work done well, and expect to pay a fair
price for good service.


  Preparation of drawings and specification, and
    prosecuting case                                    $25 00
  Government fee, for 3-1/2                              10 00
  Government fee, for 7                                  15 00
  Government fee, for 14                                 30 00


  The cost of obtaining a Copyright, including all
  fees, is usually                                      $ 5 00


  Preliminary Search, Government and Attorney's Fees    $25 00


  Government and Attorney's Fees                        $16 00

    NOTE.--Patents run for seventeen years, and cannot be renewed.
    Design Patents run for 3-1/2, 7 or 14 years, as the case may be.
    Trademarks run for thirty years, and longer, if desired. Label
    Patents run for 28 years, and may be renewed for fourteen years
    longer, if desired. Copyrights run for 28 years, and may be
    renewed for fourteen years longer, if desired. Special rates and
    terms are payable on "Interferences," Infringements, Appeals and

                     *      *      *      *      *

FOREIGN PATENTS can be procured in all civilized countries, but should
be applied for only after the most careful study as to whether they
are likely to prove profitable to the inventor. We are inclined to say
it is the exception when they do.

                     *      *      *      *      *

"Rules of Practice" issued by the United States Patent Office contain
the following in regard to the importance of care in the selection of
an attorney:

"As the value of Patents depends largely upon the careful preparation
of the Specification and Claims, the assistance of competent counsel
will, in most instances, be of advantage to the applicant; but the
value of their services will be proportionate to their skill and
honesty, and too much care cannot be exercised in their selection."

                     *      *      *      *      *

"Before you spend much money, either your own or any one's else, be
sure (1) that your invention will work; (2) that no one else has
patented it; (3) that there is an opportunity for its sale; (4) that
there is not too much competition. Many a man starts off and orders a
fancy nickel-plated model, and applies for his patent, only to find
that the idea will not work even the least little bit. In this matter
the advice of some one else well up in the theory, added to that of
some one else well up in the practice, would be valuable."

                     *      *      *      *      *

"Many an application done up in all the bravery of typewriting,
notarial seal, and all that, has been rejected like a bad penny for
the very simple reason that some one else had before patented the
idea, or something enough like it to bar out the newcomer. It is
cheaper to have the ground gone over first by a preliminary search by
a competent person even before the application is written out."

                     *      *      *      *      *

"Don't be unduly suspicious. Don't fear that any one who takes more
than a passing interest in your invention is going to steal it. All
business is based more or less on trust. You trust some one every day.
So does every one else. There is no use in your showing every Tom,
Dick and Harry what you have, or expect to have; but if you show a man
anything at all, do it with trust. If he is not trustworthy, do not
show him anything."--Dr. Grimshaw.



"Anybody can slide down hill, but it takes good legs and good wind to
go up."--Silent Partner.

The brightest minds of the business world are endeavoring to solve
the problem of how best to market an article. Of course, unlimited
capital, and a good article greatly lessen the problem. But to start
with little or no money, build up a business, equip the plant, buy raw
materials, hire help, manage a factory, establish credit, advertise,
fill orders, collect accounts, and do the thousand and one other
things necessary to make success of a business requires a good, virile
mind, and plenty of hard work and close attention to detail, and
should be a steady, gradual development. With honesty of purpose,
quality of product, absolute fair-dealing, push and untiring energy as
guides, any man or woman given good health, common sense and a fairly
meritorious patented article can unquestionably succeed in profitably
marketing it. A steady climb with unflagging zeal and singleness of
purpose always win out. The motto should be, "This one thing I do."

It has been found from experience that it is usually well to get the
best expert advice in connection with the establishment of a new
business before making plans for spending much money. There are
specialists in all business lines today, and as a rule it proves to
be wise economy to spend money in payment of their services.

Some of the largest industrial establishments in the world are the
direct outgrowth of a very small plant judiciously handled and
energetically developed. Of course, in marketing a product, one
must know exactly what the product costs. Allow proper margin for
management expenses, fixed charges, depreciation, selling expenses
and the like. It is usually safe to add one hundred per cent. to the
manufacturing cost for the purpose of covering administrative and
fixed charges. Wholesale selling prices should always conform to the
list put out by other manufacturers. In other words,

  An article retailing at     5c
    usually sells wholesale for    35c to    40c doz.
  An article retailing at    10c
    usually sells wholesale for    60c to    90c doz.
  An article retailing at    25c
    usually sells wholesale for $1.75  to $2.25 doz.
  An article retailing at    50c
    usually sells wholesale for $3.50  to $4.50 doz.
  An article retailing at $1.00
    usually sells wholesale for $7.50  to $9.00 doz.

The gross prices are approximately as follows:

  On a     5c article,  $4.20  to   $4.80 per gross
  On a    10c article,  $7.20  to   $9.80 per gross
  On a    25c article, $21.00  to  $27.00 per gross
  On a    50c article, $42.00  to  $54.00 per gross
  On a $1.00  article, $90.00  to $108.00 per gross

It is usually customary to give a discount of from 5 per cent. to 10
per cent., if ordered in gross lots. Terms of settlement show
considerable variation in different lines, and range anywhere from 1
per cent. to 8 per cent. for cash in ten days, with extension of
credit of from thirty days net to ninety days "extra dating." There
are some splendid books advertised and published along these lines
which can be had from the various publishers. There are also weekly
and monthly periodicals that will prove of great benefit to anyone
engaging in a new business.

Carefully prepared catalogues, stationery, printed matters, follow-up
letters, etc., should be used. Consult a specialist about these

    "The world always listens to a man with a will in him."



When to-day's difficulties overshadow yesterday's triumphs and
obscure the bright visions of tomorrow--

When plans upset, and whole years of effort seem to crystallize into a
single hour of concentrated bitterness--

When little annoyances eat into the mind's very quick, and corrode the
power to view things calmly--

When the jolts of misfortune threaten to jar loose the judgment from
its moorings--

Remember that in every business, in every career, there are valleys to
cross, as well as hills to scale, that every mountain range of hope is
broken by chasms of discouragement through which run torrent streams
of despair!

To quit in the chasms is to fail. See always in your mind's eye those
sunny summits of success!

Don't quit in the chasm! Keep on!"--System.

A careful study of the histories of great inventors and inventions
impresses the student most forcibly with the glaring fact that while
the field of invention offers, and has paid, fabulously large rewards
to the fortunate genius who invents or discovers some really new
device or idea, it also is a field full of discouragements, dangers
and heart-breaking delays, disappointments and unfulfilled hopes, to
say nothing of time and energy utterly wasted by misguided zeal and
misdirected effort. We need to look at the matter from all angles, and
study to avoid the pitfalls and dangers history unerringly points out
to us, as well as learn thoroughly the lesson so dearly bought for us
by the noble men and women in the army of inventors who have gone

The following table shows the startlingly large totals of Patents and
Re-issues issued by the United States Government since the year 1837,
up to last year, 1908:

  1837             435
  1838             520
  1839             425
  1840             473
  1841             495
  1842             517
  1843             519
  1844             497
  1845             503
  1846             638
  1847             569
  1848             653
  1849            1077
  1850             993
  1851             872
  1852            1019
  1853             961
  1854            1844
  1855            2013
  1856            2505
  1857            2896
  1858            3710
  1859            4538
  1860            4819
  1861            3340
  1862            3521
  1863            4170
  1864            5020
  1865            6616
  1866            9450
  1867           13015
  1868           13378
  1869           13986
  1870           13321
  1871           13033
  1872           13590
  1873           12864
  1874           13599
  1875           14837
  1876           15595
  1877           14187
  1878           13444
  1879           13213
  1880           13947
  1881           16584
  1882           19267
  1883           22383
  1884           20413
  1885           24233
  1886           22508
  1887           21477
  1888           20506
  1889           24158
  1890           26292
  1891           23244
  1892           23559
  1893           23769
  1894           20867
  1895           22057
  1896           23373
  1897           23794
  1898           22267
  1899           25527
  1900           26499
  1901           27373
  1902           27886
  1903           31699
  1904           30934
  1905           30399
  1906           31965
  1907           36620
  1908           32757

The United States Government has issued, approximately, 900,000
PATENTS. When we compare the number of patents that have proven to be
commercial successes (in other words, money-makers), how pitifully
small the list is by comparison! How many "blasted hopes," vanishing
"air castles"; how much poverty, how many wrecked homes, how many
suicides (but why prolong this list?) are represented by those Letters
Patent that did not win! Why did they fail? The seal was just as red,
the ribbon just as blue, they cost just as much, the drawings were
just as clear--then why did they fail?

For one, any or all of the following reasons:

  1. The claims were weak.
  2. The invention would not work.
  3. The cost of manufacture was too great.
  4. The idea was feebly patentable, but not sufficiently new or novel.
  5. There was no demand for it.
  6. The big fellows froze it out!

Or, to be exact, they failed to stand the SIX CARDINAL TESTS given

Don't intend to "take up inventing," as some men say, and expect to
make a success of it, without any preparation, with little practical
education, much less diligent study. You can't do it, unless it be by
merest accident! Look at history. She tells the story so that all can
hear and heed it. Think of Edison's perseverance, his all-night
experiments, without food or drink, his life-long hard and unremitting
effort. Picture George Stephenson's disappointments; the silly
opposition he met; his constant "if at first you don't succeed, try,
try again!" spirit! Think of John Fitch and his steamboat; Ottmar
Mergenthaler and his linotype,--years of trial and study; remember
Fulton and his "Clermont"; the Wright Brothers, Wilbur and Orville,
working year after year, planning, perfecting, always at it! Success
in invention is not "easy money."--It does not consist of "thinking
out an idea," picking up a magazine or paper and reading a Patent
advertisement "Free Report as to Patentability,"--"No Patent No
Pay,"--"Send sketch," etc., etc.; drawing a rough pencil sketch and
forwarding it to the attorneys the inventor picked out; getting back a
mysterious looking certificate done up in purple ink, seals, etc.,
purporting to guarantee that the idea is a patentable one, or he
doesn't pay a cent. Next he forwards from $40 to $50 and gets back the
specification and claims (the claims "claiming" every thing above the
earth, and numbering possibly twenty to fifty) for his oath and
signature. Then the case is filed with the Patent Office. After
waiting anywhere from six months to several years the attorney
notifies him that his case is "allowed" (sometimes it is rejected, and
he has thrown his money away), and will be issued upon payment of the
final Government fee of $20, that is, of course, provided it has not
run into an "interference." If it has, it is to be regretted, as it
may mean the loss of all the inventor's money in fees and expenses,
and the loss of his case in the end. But for the sake of the story
we'll say he gets his patent in a big, official looking envelope. He
sees his name on it, the seal, the ribbon, the picture of the Patent
Office, and his heart and head naturally swell with pride. But if he
looks at it carefully, he will find the claims (and they are what
count) consist of one big long paragraph of several hundred words,
without a period in it, describing the exact or fancied construction,
the protection in the claim being so restricted and limited in scope
that a poor chauffeur could drive a sight-seeing auto through the
alleged Patent without touching sides, top or bottom! The twenty to
fifty claims were all rejected. Then what happens? He shows it to his
family, friends, neighbors. He gets his name in the town paper. He is
spoken of as an "Inventor." Then he begins to wonder what he is going
to do with it. He is dreaming possibly of millions, when it is not
worth cents.

When his name appears in the Official Gazette he will begin getting
circulars, cunningly worded letters, postal cards, etc., mentioning
his wonderful (?) invention (it may be a new paring knife!) and saying
that for any amount ranging from $1.00 to $30.00 the writer will be
glad to sell the patent for any amount their fertile imagination may
conjure up, always more than ample, but after the money is sent for
"advertising," "printing," or what not, all signs of a sale absolutely
disappear. (Don't send any money to a firm to sell your patent unless
they are known to be reliable and trustworthy, and _don't guarantee_
to do anything but treat you fairly and make an honest effort to sell
it.) The safe and rational way is to test your idea thoroughly in
advance of having it patented, and then you are practically sure of a

Here is the moral: Some day he will wake up and find he might better
have painted the house with the $65, or given it to his wife for a new
dress. He will give up the idea of fame and fortune so alluringly set
forth in the circulars sent out by some attorneys.

This is an every-day case one in the business meets with all the time.
It is all wrong, but is only too true. Authorities state that 90 per
cent. of the patents issued today are worthless from a commercial
standpoint! Statistics appear to prove it, although it is hard to get
at the real facts. The reader may feel that the author is trying to
discourage inventors from entering the field. No. All that is intended
is to show and point out the rational course to pursue in applying for
Patents and endeavoring to be a success as an inventor. Volumes could
be written on this subject, but the above will serve as an average
example of blasted hopes and misdirected effort.

    "Failure is only endeavor temporarily off the track. How foolish
    it would be to abandon it in the ditch."


The output of all the gold, silver and diamond mines in the world does
not equal in value the profits earned from American inventions.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Probably between fifty and sixty millions of dollars have been, spent
in procuring patents issued by the United States Government, on the
basis that the average patent costs from $60 to $65, and there have
been 900,000 issued. To show that patents are profitable, we need only
recall the fact that almost twice this amount has been received in
profits from several of them, namely, the Bell Telephone, for
instance, or the Harvester, Sewing Machine, Telegraph, Phonograph,
etc. Authorities on the subject are of the opinion that there are
almost two hundred patents in force in the United States today that
return profits of over one million dollars per year; several hundred
that return half-a-million dollars profit; five or six hundred that
return from $250,000 to $500,000 in profits; and an enormous number
which return incomes of from $5,000 to $100,000 annually.

                     *      *      *      *      *

Inventive genius can exact the highest possible price, for its labor
in the markets of the world. If you are a genius you cannot employ
your time to better advantage than in endeavoring to improve methods
at present in use, or invent combinations that will cheapen
production, or discover new elements or combinations that will effect
economic results. The history of inventions, poets, past and present,
tell us that success is possible, if persistently pursued. Do not
allow the dangers and discouragements that we must all meet with to
dishearten you. As Longfellow so beautifully puts it:

    "Be still, sad heart! and cease repining;
    Behind the clouds is the sun still shining;
      Thy fate is the common fate of all,
      Into each life some rain must fall,
    Some days must be dark and dreary."



It is not so much how you sell your patent. It is what you get for it.

Patents can be disposed of in various ways. We are sorry to say that
the majority of patents issued today, for reasons already stated, are
disposed of on the scrap heap, or the waste basket. However, if you
have a patent that possesses commercial value, it can possibly be
disposed of in one of the following manners:

First, by selling it outright for a cash consideration.

Second, by selling state, county or shop rights for the use of your

Third, by placing it with an already established concern on a royalty

Fourth, by the organization of a company or partnership for its
production and marketing.

Taking up each one of the methods in order, the following explanations
will possibly be of interest:

It has often been said that an inventor rarely underestimates the
value of his patent. Associating with and meeting large numbers of
inventors from time to time has convinced the writer that no one
individual can give a reliable estimate of the value of anyone's
invention. If an inventor desires to sell his invention outright,
he should take into consideration, in fixing the price, just how
much he spent on the development of the idea; how much money he
actually spent in procuring the patent, building the models, and
getting the invention into marketable shape. He should add a certain
modest percentage for good will, and if he desires to sell outright,
base his figures on some such estimates. For instance, a small, simple
patent could be estimated as being worth, say $2500 cash, as follows:

  Twenty weeks of time spent in developing the idea,
    $25 per week                                           $ 500 00
  Procurement of patent                                       75 00
  Building of models                                         150 00
  Expert advice and counsel                                   25 00
  Manufactured samples, dies,  tools,  etc.                  250 00
  Good will, or present value of the patent per se         1,500 00
  Fair selling price for patent in which the time,
    labor, expenditures, etc., were approximately
    in accordance with the figures listed above,
    would be                                              $2,500 00

The man that buys the patent will be entitled to a great deal more
profit than the inventor who conceived it, and by the time he has it
on the market and has the sale established, he will be entitled to
everything he earns. Of course, there are exceptions to every rule,
but the writer is not speaking of exceptions now.

Another very profitable way to dispose of a patent is the selling of
state, county and shop rights. This has brought many inventors very
large returns, although it involves a good deal of selling expense,
and salesmanship of the highest order.

The placing of a patent on a royalty basis, and the payment of a
nominal cash "_quid pro quo_" we consider the best method of
disposing of an invention, and the one most likely to prove
profitable, provided, of course, that the firm with which the patent
is placed is thoroughly reliable, and can energetically push its sale.
Elsewhere in this volume you have read of the enormous sums in
royalties that have been received on various successful inventions.
One particular illustration at this time may not be in-apropos.

Oscar Hammerstein, the New York theatre proprietor, sold his first
cigar-making machine for $6,000 cash. The next one he invented he
placed on a royalty, and made $250,000. This is almost a typical case.

When the patent or its product has a sufficiently large public demand
it is oftentimes better to organize a new company for its development
and sale. This is done by applying for a charter under some favorable
State laws, (it is usually expedient to apply in the State in which it
is intended to manufacture,) and give the inventor a reasonable stock
interest in the company, together with an executive position if he is
capable of filling it.

"You must bear some of the burden of introduction yourself. A
capitalist may be willing to bet his hard dollars that your idea will
work, if you have secured a patent; or he may be induced to bet that
it is patentable, if you show him that it will work; but moneyed men
who will bet that your invention is both patentable and practicable
are few and far between. If they make such a bet, it will be with very
heavy odds against the inventor."--Grimshaw.

Do not forget that some men have made millions out of a single patent.
Do not forget that others have lost all they could make and borrow.

    "Victories that are easy are cheap. Those only are worth having
    which come as a result of hard fighting."



The old adage, "Be sure you are right and then go ahead," is
especially apropos advice to inventors. But how can you be SURE
you _are_ right? Only by investigation that is strictly impersonal
and unprejudiced in every sense. You can have this work of
investigation done for you--you can buy advice of this kind just as
you can buy legal or medical advice from specialists. Better disburse
$25 or $50 in procuring sound expert advice than spend weeks, months
and years chasing a mirage or will-o'-wisp. You are not compelled to
accept the advice if it differs from your ideas, but you will most
likely learn a great deal that will pay you handsomely.

The writer is fully aware that this line of talk is opposed to the
"don't hesitate," "send at once," "delays are dangerous," "the other
fellow will get ahead of you" arguments so generally used by
individuals who "have an axe to grind." BE SURE you are right, and
then go ahead--don't THINK you are sure--BE SURE!

The author feels that a careful weighing of all statements and facts
in this volume will be of great value to anyone considering the
application for a patent. History has undoubtedly proven that
_good_ patents are possibly more profitable than any other
investment that can be made. If you have an idea, or have made a
discovery that you think will prove of benefit to mankind, the wise
and prudent course is to have it thoroughly investigated, in all
points as relate to its success. The small cost of a reliable
investigation would be money well spent as it is possible your idea or
discovery may be the means of bringing you in enormous wealth.



  COUNTRIES                          POPULATION    SQ. MILES  CAPITALS

  China                        426,447,000   4,218,401  Peking.
  British Empire[1]            396,968,798  11,146,084  London.
  Russian Empire               129,004,514   8,660,395  St. Petersburg.
  United States[2]              76,303,887   3,602,990  Washington.
  United States and islands[3]  89,000,000   3,756,884  Washington.
  France and colonies           65,166,967   3,250,000  Paris.
  German Empire, in Europe      58,549,000     208,830  Berlin.
  Austro-Hungarian Empire       46,973,359     264,595  Vienna.
  Japan                         44,260,604     147,669  Tokio.
  Netherlands and Colonies      33,042,238     778,187  The Hague.
  Turkish Empire                33,559,787   1,652,533  Constantinople.
  Italy                         32,449,754     110,665  Rome.
  Spain                         17,550,216     196,173  Madrid.
  Brazil                        18,000,000   3,218,130  Rio Janeiro.
  Mexico                        13,546,500     767,316  City of Mexico.
  Korea                         10,519,000      85,000  Seoul.
  Congo State                    8,000,000     802,000  ....
  Persia                         7,653,600     636,000  Teheran.
  Portugal and colonies         11,073,681     951,785  Lisbon.
  Sweden and Norway              7,376,321     297,321  ....
  Belgium                        6,069,321      11,373  Brussels.
  Argentine Republic             4,800,000   1,095,013  Buenos Ayres.
  Chile                          3,110,085     256,860  Santiago.
  Peru                           3,000,000     405,040  Lima.
  Switzerland                    3,312,551      15,981  Berne.
  Greece                         2,433,806      24,977  Athens.
  Denmark                        2,417,441      14,780  Copenhagen.
  Venezuela                      2,444,816     566,159  Caracas.
  Liberia                        2,060,000      35,000  Monrovia.
  Cuba                           1,600,000      44,000  Havana.
  Guatemala                      1,574,340      46,774  N. Guatemala.
  Hayti                          1,211,625       9,830  Port au Prince.
  Paraguay                         600,000     145,000  Asuncion.
  Panama                           285,000      31,571  Panama.

          [1] These estimates of the population and area include the
          recently acquired great possessions in Africa.

          [2] Census of 1900.

          [3] Estimated for January 1st, 1904.


  Alabama                          1,828,697
  Alaska                              63,592
  Arizona                            122,931
  Arkansas                         1,311,564
  California                       1,485,053
  Colorado                           539,700
  Connecticut                        908,420
  Dakota                               ....
  Delaware                           184,735
  District of Columbia               278,718
  Florida                            528,542
  Georgia                          2,216,331
  Hawaii                             154,001
  Idaho                              161,772
  Illinois                         4,821,550
  Indiana                          2,516,462
  Indian Territory                   392,060
  Iowa                             2,231,853
  Kansas                           1,470,495
  Kentucky                         2,147,174
  Louisiana                        1,381,625
  Maine                              694,466
  Maryland                         1,188,044
  Massachusetts                    2,805,346
  Michigan                         2,420,982
  Minnesota                        1,751,394
  Mississippi                      1,551,270
  Missouri                         3,106,665
  Montana                            243,329
  Nebraska                         1,066,300
  Nevada                              42,335
  New Hampshire                      411,588
  New Jersey                       1,883,699
  New Mexico                         195,310
  New York                         7,268,894
  North Carolina                   1,893,810
  North Dakota                       319,146
  Ohio                             4,157,545
  Oklahoma                           398,331
  Oregon                             413,536
  Pennsylvania                     6,302,115
  Rhode Island                       428,556
  South Carolina                   1,340,310
  South Dakota                       401,570
  Tennessee                        2,020,616
  Texas                            3,048,710
  Utah                               276,749
  Vermont                            343,641
  Virginia                         1,854,184
  Washington                         518,103
  West Virginia                      958,800
  Wisconsin                        2,069,042
  Wyoming                             92,531
    Total                         76,303,387

Population Continental United States (including Alaska), 76,149,386
(1900); Philippines, 8,000,000; Porto Rico, 953,233; Hawaii, 154,001;
Guam, 8,661; American Samoa, 5,800; Total population, 85,271,093.
Population, 1904, estimating Continental United States, about



In deciding upon the construction of models and the development of an
idea, the proper mechanical movements should always be very carefully
taken into consideration. In other words, movements which simplify
the invention, minimize friction, and add power, are always to be
preferred to clumsy and inefficient means or methods. Every inventor,
and all students of the mechanical arts and sciences, should arrange
any mechanism which they may desire to produce with the least number
of parts possible, and embracing the greatest amount of simplicity of

On the following pages you will find a large number of mechanical
movements with suitable description thereof which will undoubtedly
assist inventors in developing and constructing their models of ideas.
Most of the movements embraced in the following pages have appeared in
various scientific journals and publications devoted to scientific and
mechanical art. Study all the various movements applicable to your
invention before deciding upon any particular one.


1. Illustrating the transmission of power by simple pulleys and an
open belt. The pulleys in this case rotate in the same direction.

2. Illustrating the transmission of power by simple pulleys and a
crossed belt. The pulleys rotate in opposite directions.

3. Showing the transmission of motion from one shaft to another
at right angles to it by means of guide-pulleys. There are two
guide-pulleys side by side, one for each leaf of the belt.

4. Showing the transmission of motion from one shaft to another at
right angles to it, without the use of guide-pulleys.

5. Showing a method of engaging, disengaging, and reversing the
upright shaft on the left. The belt is shown on a loose pulley, and
accordingly no motion is communicated to the shafts. If the belt be
traversed on to the left-hand pulley, which is fast to the outer
hollow shaft (_b_), motion is communicated to the vertical shaft by
the bevel-wheels HOW TO SUCCEED and C; and if it be traversed on to
the right-hand pulley, which is fast to the inner shaft (_a_), motion
in an opposite direction is transmitted to the vertical shaft by the
bevel-gear A and C.

6. Stepped speed-pulleys (on the left of the figure), used in lathes
and machine-tools, and cone pulleys (on the right of the figure),
used in cotton machinery, &c., for varying speed according to the
requirements of the work being done. For a given speed of the upper
shaft the speed of the lower one will be greater the more to the left
the belt is placed. The cone-pulleys permit of more gradation in speed
than the stepped arrangement.

7. Spur-gearing. The wheels rotate in opposite directions (cf. 12).
The smaller wheel has the greater speed of revolution, and the speeds
of the wheels are in the inverse ratio of their diameters.

8. Evans' variable friction gear. The gripping medium by which motion
is transmitted from one cone to the other is a loose leather band,
whose position can be varied by the hand-screw shown.

9. Bevel-gearing. This is an adaptation of the spur-wheel principle to
the case of non-parallel axes.

10. A worm or endless screw geared with a worm wheel.]


11. Elliptical spur-gearing, used when a rotary motion of varying
speed is required.

12. A spur-wheel geared internally with a pinion. The wheels rotate in
the same direction (cf. 7).

13. Spur-gearing with oblique teeth, giving a more continuous bearing
than 7.

14. Showing the transmission of power by rolling contact from one
shaft to another obliquely situated with regard to it.

15. Different kinds of gearing for transmitting motion from one shaft
to another arranged obliquely to it.

16. Two kinds of universal joints.

17. A method of transmitting motion from one shaft (the vertical)
to another (the horizontal) by means of bevel-gearing, with a
double-clutch for altering the direction of rotation. The bevel-wheels
on the horizontal shaft are loose, and the direction of movement is
determined by the side upon which the double-clutch is engaged. The
clutch slides upon a key or feather fixed on the shaft.

18. Transmission of two speeds by gearing. The hand is shown on the
loose left hand pulley of the lower three. When it is moved on to the
middle pulley, which is keyed to the shaft carrying the small pinion,
a slow motion is transmitted to the lowest shaft; but when, it is on
the right-hand pulley, which is fast to the outer shaft carrying the
large spur-wheel, a quick speed is transmitted.

19. Transmission of two speeds by means of belts. The two outer
pulleys on the lower shaft are loose, the two inner fast. With the
belts arranged as shown, the speed of the lower shaft is slower than
when both are traversed to the right.]


20. An intermittent circular motion in the direction indicated by the
arrow is transmitted to the wheel A, by means of the oscillating rod D
and the pawl B, from the reciprocating rectilinear motion of the rod

21. The continuous rotation of the shaft carrying the two cams or
wipers gives to the rod A an intermittent alternating rectilinear
motion. The rod is raised by the action of a wiper on the projection
B, and it falls by its own weight. This contrivance is used in
ore-stampers or pulverizers, power-hammers, &c.

22. The reciprocating rectilinear motion of the rod on the right
produces intermittent circular motion of the wheel by means of the
elbow-lever and the pawl. The direction of motion of the wheel is
determined by the side on which the pawl works. This contrivance is
used in giving the feed-motion to planing-machines and other tools.

23. The piston-rod and crank motion used in the steam-engine. The
reciprocating rectilinear motion of the former is converted into the
rotary motion of the latter through the agency of the connecting-rod
(not shown).

24. An eccentric, such as is used on the crank-shaft of steam-engines
for communicating reciprocating rectilinear motion to the slide-valves.
It rotates round an axis not pushing through its centre.

25. Internal spring pawls for a ratchet brace. The ratchet can revolve
only in one direction (counterclockwise), and as it does so the
springs are gradually compressed and suddenly released in turn.

26. Friction pawl feed motion, silent. The arrow shows the direction
of rotation of the wheel. The principle of the contrivance is obvious.

27. A heart-cam, by whose rotation uniform traversing motion is
imparted to the vertical bar. The dotted lines show the method of
obtaining the curve of the cam. Eight concentric circles are drawn
with radii in arithmetical progression as shown, and they are divided
into twelve equal sectors. The points on the heart-curve are
determined by the intersection of radii and circles.

28. A quick-return crank motion, applicable to shaping-machines. This
arrangement needs no explanation.]


29. A crank motion, with the crank wrist working in a slotted yoke,
thereby dispensing with the oscillating connecting rod.

30. A screw stamping-press, showing how rectilinear motion may be
obtained from circular motion by means of a screw.

31. A screw-cutting mechanism. The rotation of the left-hand screw
produces a uniform rectilinear movement of a cutter which cuts another
screw-thread (seen on the right). The pitch of the screw to be cut may
be varied by changing the sizes of the engaged spur-wheels at the
bottom of the frame.

32. The movable headstock of a turning lathe. By turning the wheel on
the right hand motion is communicated to the screw, thus causing the
spindle with the centre at its end to move in a straight line.

33. Swivelling-gear for car wheels. The essential part is the
operation of the endless screw on the worm-wheel. The wheels are
connected by a lever freely joined to the cranks.

34. Diagrammatic representation of screw-gear to operate three
worm-wheels in the same direction, for chucks, etc. The method of
working is obvious.

35. A mutilated screw for sliding into a nut having corresponding
parts of the thread cut away, to be fixed by a partial turn. It is
used for the breech-pieces of cannon.

36. Variable radius lever, operated by a crank motion to give variable
angular reciprocating motion to a shaft.

37. Hand or power feed-gear, for a drill, boring-machine, &c.

38. A method of doubling the length of stroke of a piston-rod or the
throw of a crank. A pinion revolving on a spindle attached to the
connecting-rod is in gear with the fixed lower rack and also with the
upper rack, which is carried by a guide-rod above and is free to move
backward and forward. The connecting-rod communicates to the pinion
the full length of stroke, and since the lower rack is fixed the
pinion rotates, thus making the upper rack travel twice the length of
the stroke.]


39. A toggle-joint arranged for a punching-machine. The lever at the
right operates upon the joint or knuckle of the toggle on the left,
thus raising or lowering the punch.

40. A stone-breaker, with chilled-iron jaw-faces and a toggle or
knapping motion.

41. An ellipsograph. The oblique traverse-bar carries two studs, which
slide in the grooves of the cross-piece. By the motion of the traverse
bar the attached pencil is made to describe an ellipse.

42. Link-motion valve-gear of a locomotive engine. The rods of the two
eccentrics on the right are jointed to the curved slotted bar called
the link, which can be raised or lowered by the system of levers
terminating in the handle at the left. The link carries in its slot a
slide and pin connected with another arrangement of levers, which
operates on the valve-rod as shown. If the link be so arranged that
the slide is at its centre, then the movement of the eccentrics will
simply cause the link to oscillate about the pin of the slide, and the
valve-rod will be at rest. Otherwise the valve-rod will move, and, if
the slide be at an end of the link, steam will be admitted during
nearly the whole stroke, but if the slide occupy an intermediate
position the period of admission of steam is shorter In the latter
case the steam is worked more or less expansively.

43. Joy's locomotive valve-gear operated by the connecting-rod. The
rod A is connected to the starting-lever to reverse, vary, or stop the
distribution of steam by the slide-valve (cf. 42).

44. Side shaft motion for operating Cornish, Corliss, and spindle


45. The "Geneva stop", used in Swiss watches to limit the number of
revolutions in winding up. The convex part _a b_ of the upper wheel
acts as the stop.

46. A form of strap brake used in cranes and other hoisting-machines.
If the lever be depressed the ends of the brake-strap are drawn toward
each other, and the strap is thus tightened on the brake-wheel.

47. A dynamometer, used to ascertain the amount of useful effect given
out by a motive-power. A is a smooth pulley secured on a shaft as near
as possible to the motive-power. Two blocks of wood, or one block and
a series of straps fastened to a band or chain, are fitted to the
pulley, and these are so arranged as to bite or press upon the pulley
by means of the screws and nuts on the top of the lever D. At the end
of D is a scale, and the stops C, C' prevent the lever from travelling
far from the horizontal position. The shaft being in motion, the
screws are tightened and weights are placed in the scale until the
lever takes the position shown at the required rate of revolution. The
useful effect is then represented by the product of the weight added
and the velocity at which the point of suspension of the scale would
revolve if the lever were attached to the shaft.

48. A diagrammatic sketch of a form of groove for ball-bearings,
running horizontally, showing the points of bearing in the grooves.

49. A diagrammatic sketch of a roller bearing for a vertical shaft,
with steel balls between the ends of the cone-rollers to separate them
and reduce their friction.

50. A diagrammatic sketch of a roller bearing for a wagon axle, with
balls between the roller ends to separate them and prevent internal
friction. Two views of the bearing are shown in order to make the
arrangement perfectly clear.

51. A recoil escapement for clocks. The anchor H L K is made to
oscillate on the axis _a_ by the swing of the pendulum. The teeth of
the escapement-wheel A come alternately against the outer surface of
the pallet A and the inner surface of the pallet D. The pallets are
not concentric to the axis _a_, and therefore a slight recoil of the
wheel takes place after the escape of a tooth (whence the name of the
escapement). When the pallets leave a tooth the teeth slide along
their surfaces, giving an impulse to the pendulum.]


52. A dead-beat or repose escapement for clocks. The lettering is as
in the preceding. The pallets are concentric with the axis _a_, and
thus while a tooth is against the pallet the wheel is stationary.

53. A lever escapement of a watch. The anchor B is attached to the
lever E C, with the notch E. On a disk D, on the axis of the
balance-wheel, there is a pin which enters the notch at the middle of
each vibration, causing the pallet to enter in and retire from between
the teeth of the scape-wheel. The wheel gives an impulse to each
pallet alternately as it leaves a tooth, and the lever gives an
impulse to the balance-wheel in opposite directions alternately.

54. Chronometer escapement. As the balance rotates in the direction of
the arrow, the tooth V presses the spring against the lever, thus
pressing aside the lever and removing the detent from the tooth of the
wheel. As the balance returns V presses aside and passes the spring
without moving the lever, which then rests against the stop E.

55. A parallel motion. To the left-hand end of the short vibrating rod
in the centre the radius-rod is connected, to its right-hand end the
beam, and to its centre the piston-rod.

56. The working of the pin in the oblique groove of the lower cylinder
produces an alternating traverse of the upper shaft with its drum.

57. A drilling-machine. Rotary motion is given to the vertical
drill-shaft by the bevel-gearing. The shaft slides through the
horizontal bevel-wheel, but is made to turn with it by a feather and
groove. It is depressed by means of a treadle connected with the upper

58. Showing how to describe a spiral line on a cylinder. The
spur-wheel on the right gears with the toothed rack shown behind,
thus causing the pencil to traverse the cylinder vertically. It also
produces rotation of the cylinder.

59. Wheel-work in the base of a capstan. The drumhead and the barrel
can be rotated independently. If the former, which is fixed to the
spindle, be locked to the barrel by a bolt, it turns the barrel with
it (single-purchase). Otherwise the wheel-work comes into operation,
and the drum-head and barrel rotate in opposite directions with
velocities as three to one (triple-purchase).]


60. A centrifugal governor for steam-engines. The central spindle is
driven from the engine by the bevel-gearing, and the balls fly out
under the action of centrifugal force. If the engine speed increases,
the balls diverge farther, thus raising the slide at the bottom and so
reducing the opening of the regulating-valve connected with it. If the
speed of the engine decreases, an opposite result follows.

61. Crank-shaft governor cut-off gear. Two hinged centrifugal weights
are coupled by links to the cut-off eccentric sheaves and returned by
springs to the full open position.

62. A gas-engine governor. The revolving cam throws the vertical arm
of the lever far enough to close the gas-valve when the speed
increases beyond the normal.

63. A plan view of the Fourneyron turbine. In the centre are a number
of fixed curved "shutes" A, which direct the water against the buckets
of the outer wheel B, thus causing it to revolve.

64. The Jonval turbine. The shutes are on the outside of a drum _a_,
stationary within the casing _b_. The wheel _c_ is similar, with the
buckets exceeding the shutes in number and set at a slight tangent
instead of radially.

65. Montgolfier's hydraulic ram, by means of which a small fall of
water throws a jet to a great height or furnishes a supply at a high
level. The action of the water on the two valves, which are
alternately open, is easily comprehended. The right-hand one is
pressed down by a weight or spring. The elasticity of the air gives
uniformity to the efflux.

66. Common lift-pump. During up-stroke lower valve opens and
piston-valve closes, and water rushes up to fill the vacuum created.
During down-stroke lower valve closes and piston-valve opens, and the
water passes through the piston. At next up-stroke it is raised by the
piston and passes out by the spout.

67. Common force-pump, with two valves. When piston rises, the
suction-valve opens and water enters the vacuum. When piston descends
the suction-valve closes and the outlet-valve opens, and the water is
forced up through the outlet-pipe.

68. A double-acting piston-pump with four valves.]


69. A hydrostatic press. Water forced by the pump through the small
pipe into the ram cylinder and under the solid ram forces the latter
up. The amount of force exerted on the ram bears to the pressure on
the plunger the same ratio as the area of the ram does to the area of
the plunger. Thus, if the area of the plunger cross-section be two
square inches and that of the ram four square feet, a pressure of ten
pounds on the former will produce a pressure of 2880 pounds on the
latter, or nearly 26 cwts.

70. The Bourdon aneroid gauge. B is a bent tube closed at the ends
and secured at its middle, C. The ends of the tube are connected
with a toothed sector gearing with a small pinion which carries the
indicating pointer. Pressure of steam or other fluid admitted to the
tube tends to straighten it, thus moving the pointer more or less.

71. An air-pump with foot and head valves.

72. Root's rotary engine, used as blower and also as pump. It has two
rotating pistons of special shape, so arranged that air or water may
be caught and carried forward by their motion.

73. Waygood's patent hydraulic balance lift. A is the lift-cylinder
communicating with the interior of the cylinder and ram B. The
cylinder C and ram D are loaded to nearly balance the cage and ram A,
and the load is raised by admitting pressure water to cylinder C.

74. An epicyclic train. The wheel A, which is concentric with the
revolving frame C, gears with F, which is fixed to the same axle as E.
E gears with B and D, the latter on the same axis as A. The driving
motion may be communicated to the arm and one extreme wheel, A or D,
in order to produce an aggregate motion of the other extreme wheel; or
motion may be given to the two extreme wheels, thus communicating
motion to the arm.

75. Another form of epicyclic train. F G is the arm, secured to the
central shaft, A, upon which are loosely fitted the bevel-wheels C, D.
The bevel-wheel B turns freely on F G. Motion may be given to the two
wheels C, D to produce aggregate motion of the arm, or to the arm and
one of these wheels to produce aggregate motion of the other.

76. Common D slide-valve with three ports: a diagrammatic section.]


77. Another form of slide-valve, partly in equilibrium. The arrows
show the movement of the steam. (Like the other figures on this plate,
this one is a diagrammatic section.)

78. A variable cut-off valve on the back of the main slide, the rod of
which (seen above) can be revolved by hand or from the governor to
vary the opening of the cut-off valves.

79. Double-beat valve, with sunk seating.

80. Reducing-valve, which can be adjusted by the balance weight to
pass fluids from a high to any lower pressure.

81. An equilibrium-valve.

82. India-rubber disc and grating valve.

83. A four-plunger valve, used for double-power hydraulic lift-cylinders
employing a trunk piston For the low power the pressure-water acts on
both sides of the piston; for the double power it acts only on the
back of the piston, the front side being then open to the exhaust.

84. Sketch of the Corliss valve-gear, operated by a single eccentric.
It has two steam and two exhaust valves of an oscillating cylindrical
type, worked from pins on a rocking wrist-plate. The steam-valves have
trips regulated by the governor.]


85. Corliss valve, with rectangular rocking spindle.

86. A favourite type of vertical overhead cylinder screw engine, with
half-standards and distance rods, one, two, or three cylinders, simple
or compound. The condenser is usually in the back standards and the
pumps behind.

87. A pedestal bearing, with four brasses and set-screw adjustments.

88. A hydraulic oil-pivot for vertical-spindle. Oil under pressure is
forced into the channels between the bearing faces, the area and
pressure being adjusted to the load. The surplus oil is returned from
the oil-well to the pump.

89. An engine crosshead, with adjustable guide-brasses, set up by
taper keys and nuts.

90. An equalizing lever to distribute the load on two car springs.

91. Korting's water-jet condenser. It requires three feet head of
condensing water

92. An automatic tipping-scale. When full, to equal the weight, it
falls and tips by striking a fixed stop. The scale then turns over and
returns to its position to be refilled.]


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Words printed in italics are marked with underlines: _italics_. Words
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