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Title: The Beaver, Volume 1, No. 10, July, 1921.
Author: Hudson's Bay Company
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Beaver, Volume 1, No. 10, July, 1921." ***

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  Vol. I JULY, 1921 No. 10

  _The Beaver
  A Journal of Progress_

  [Illustration: AN H.B.C. FUR BRIGADE]

  _Devoted to The Interests of Those Who Serve The Hudson's Bay Company_



The "Lords of the North" in Annual Conclave

    _Commissioned Officers of H.B.C. Met in Grand Councils to Formulate
    Annual Plans for Administration of Vast Fur Districts; a Typical
    Meeting in 1878_

    By J. BROWN


"Lords of the North" was the appellation sometimes applied to those
intrepid Factors and Chief Factors of H.B.C. who for many years
gathered in annual conclave at some central fort to arrange for the
administration and provisioning of the great fur-trade districts.

Norway House, Fort Carlton on the Saskatchewan, Fort Garry on the Red
and the "Stone Fort" were successively the meeting places of these
ancient councils.

When the season's furs had been gathered and stoutly baled and marked
with the cryptic signs which destined them for the far-away auction mart
at London--when the shouting, chanting fur brigades of the north went
swinging away down roaring watercourses to meet the sailing ships on the
great Bay--just at this time the bearded chieftains of the inland
districts mobilized their voluminous accounts, dried their goose quill
pens and shot away in swift birchbarks to the grand council.

Some of these officers travelled a thousand miles; others, at more
southerly stations had not far to go. But in any case their only
carriers were the canoe, the York boat, the plodding oxen or the pony of
the plains.

The council was not usually complete until early July. Then the grizzled
veterans of the fur service sat down to "talk musquash" under the
chairmanship of the Chief Commissioner, and in the space of a fortnight
had deliberated upon the commerce and government of a wilderness empire
and promulgated the specific orders that would control the victualing,
the supply and the trade, the commercial, civic, industrial and
religious life of the vast unplotted north country for another year.

Weighty problems of transport were solved at these historic meetings, so
that the chain of H.B.C. communication might be unbroken; mail packets,
freight and furs traversed the forest leagues and the expanse of
mountain and prairie under "timetables" placed in effect by this
council. And rare indeed was there instanced the loss of a package
of merchandise or pelts--or even a letter--notwithstanding the
extraordinary difficulties of travel, the storm and stress of climate.

Some idea of the plan under which the grand council operated may be
conveyed by the following extracts from the minutes of a typical meeting
of the Factors and Chief Factors held at Fort Carlton, beginning the
first of July, 1878:


Minutes of Council, 1878

    Memoranda having reference to a Meeting at Carlton called by the
    Chief Commissioner for the purpose of receiving advice and
    information regarding the Trade and Requirements of the Several
    Districts in Northern Department from the officers in charge of the
    same commencing on the 1st day of July, 1878, at which the
    undermentioned qualified Commissioned Officers were present by
    request:

      Richard Hardisty, Chief Factor.
      Lawrence Clarke, Chief Factor.

    The following Factors, Chief Trader and Junior Chief Trader were
    also invited to attend:

      Archibald McDonald, Factor.
      Horace Belanger, Factor.
      Wm. McKay, "C", Factor.
      James McDougall, Chief Trader.
      J. Ogden Grahame, Junior Chief Factor.

    _Article 1_--That the appointments of Commissioned Officers for the
    current outfit be as follows, viz.:

    McKenzie River--Julian S. Camsell, Factor; John Wilson, Junior
    Chief Trader; Charles F. Gaudet, Chief Trader.

    Peace River--James McDougall, Chief Trader; Alexr. MacKenzie, "A"
    Junior Trader.

    Athabasca--Rodk. McFarlane, Chief Factor: Henry J. Moberly, Chief
    Trader; John McAulay, Junior Chief Trader; William F. Gairdner,
    Junior Chief Trader.

    English River--Ewen McDonald, Chief Trader.

    Edmonton--Richard Hardisty, Chief Factor.

    Saskatchewan--Lawrence Clarke, Chief Factor; Wm. McKay, "C" Factor.

    Cumberland--Horace Belanger, Factor; Pierre Deschambeault, Senior
    Chief Trader.

[Illustration: _An H.B.C. Fur Trade Council at one of the north-central
forts during the later years of the nineteenth century. The artist has
here caught much of the facial likeness of such commissioned officers as
McDougall, Camsell, McKay, McDonald, Livock and King, who were all
present at the last council of the Company's fur trade Officers, held
at Athabasca Landing, July, 1898._]

    Grand Rapids--Alexander Matheson, Chief Trader.

    Norway House--Roderick Ross, Factor.

    Island Lake--Cuthbert Sinclair, Junior Chief Trader.

    York Factory--Joseph Fortescue, Factor.

    Swan River--Archibald McDonald, Factor; William J. McLean, Junior
    Chief Trader.

    Manitoba--Wm. Clarke, Junior Chief Trader.

    Red River--John H. McTavish, Chief Factor; Wm. Flett, Chief Trader;
    Joseph J. Hargrave, Junior Chief Trader; Duncan Matheson, Junior
    Chief Trader; Alexr. Christie, Junior Chief Trader.

    Lac la Pluie--Alexr. R. Lillie, Chief Trader; James B. McKenzie,
    "A" Junior Chief Trader.

    General Service--George S. McTavish, Inspt. Chief Factor; J. Ogden
    Grahame, Junior Chief Trader.

    _Article 2_--Winter Arrangements, 1878-9


_ENGLISH RIVER_

    Isle a la Crosse--Ewen McDonald, Chief Trader; Walter B. West,
    Apprentice Clerk; Francois Maurice, Clerk.

    Portage la Loche--Nicol Sinclair, Clerk; Pierre Laliberte, Clerk.

    Green Lake--Scott W. Simpson, Clerk.

    Outpost--Charles Lafleur, Interpreter.

    Disposable--Fredk. S. Church, Apprentice Clerk.

    _Article 3_--That 25 servants, including tradesmen and
    interpreters, and about 550 pieces of goods including winter
    allowances and servants' equipments constitute the current outfit
    of English River District, the goods to be conveyed inland via
    Carlton and Green Lake.

    _Article 4_--That the appointments of Clerks and Postmasters,
    Summer 1879, be made by Chief Trader Ewen McDonald as he may deem
    expedient and that he be directed to superintend the transport of
    outfits and returns of A. & R. Districts between Green Lake and
    Portage la Loche.

    _Article 5_--That the country-made articles for English River
    District for Outfit 1879 be provided at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

    _Article 6_--Winter Arrangements, 1878-9.


_EDMONTON_

    Edmonton House--Richard Hardisty, Chief Factor; John Sinclair,
    Clerk; Frank Wilson, Clerk; Wm. Leslie Wood, Clerk.

    Lac Ste. Anns--James Kirkness, Clerk.

    Victoria--Wm. R. Brereton, Clerk.

    Bow River--Angus Fraser, Interpreter.

    White Fish Lake--Joseph Nooskeyah, Clerk.

    Lesser Slave Lake--Harrison S. Young, Clerk; Charles Anderson,
    Interpreter.

    Lac la Biche--Wm. E. Traill, Clerk.

    Disposable--Joseph Favel, Pilot.

    _Article 7_--That 8 engaged and 4 temporary servants with about 800
    pieces of goods including winter allowances and servants'
    equipments constitute the current outfit for the Edmonton District,
    the goods to be conveyed from Fort Garry by steamers.

    _Article 8_--That Chief Factor Richard Hardisty be instructed to
    assist Saskatchewan District with country produce required for
    general service as far as his means will admit.

    _Article 9_--That Chief Factor Hardisty be authorized to make the
    necessary and proper arrangements for the summer business of the
    District, 1879, and to change the appointments of the clerks if he
    deem it necessary.

    _Article 10_--That Chief Factor Hardisty be instructed to be
    prepared to forward to Lesser Slave Lake from 600 to 800 pieces of
    goods intended for the Peace River and Athabasca Outfit, 1879, as
    early as possible after the same shall have reached Edmonton and
    that he superintend the transport between Edmonton and Smoky River.

    _Article 11_--That the following country produce be forwarded to
    Lesser Slave Lake from Edmonton for the Transport Service between
    that point and Smoky River:

      20 bags flour.
      30 bags pemmican, each 100 pounds.
      50 whole buffalo skins.

     _Article 12_--That the following supplies for New Caledonia Outfit
     1879 be forwarded from Edmonton to Peace River for delivery at
     Hudson's Hope on or before the 10th September, 1879:

       350 whole buffalo skins.
       300 lbs. common pemmican.
        20 lbs. sinews.

    _Article 13_--That the country-made articles required for the trade
    of Edmonton District for Outfit 1879 be provided at Fort Garry,
    Summer 1878.

    _Article 14_--Winter Arrangements, 1878-9


_SASKATCHEWAN_

    Carlton House--L. Clarke, Chief Factor; George McCrum, Clerk; Jas.
    K. Simpson, Clerk; Angus McKay, Apprentice Clerk.

    Fort Pitt--Wm. McKay, "C" Factor.

    Cold Lake--Wm. McKay, "J" Clerk.

    Turtle Lake--Daniel Villebrun, Interpreter.

    Battleford--August H. Bastien, Postmaster.

    Prince Albert--Philip Turner, Clerk; Colin McIntyre, Apprentice
    Clerk.

    Fort a la Corne--George Goodfellow, Clerk.

    _Article 15_--That Chief Factor Lawrence Clarke be authorized to
    make the necessary and proper arrangements for the summer business
    of the District season 1879, including the forwarding of the Outfit
    for the Districts north of Carlton and that he change the
    appointments of clerks in his District as he may deem necessary.

    _Article 16_--That the following country produce be deposited at
    Cumberland House in the Spring of 1879 for the use of passing
    brigades and for the trade of that District:

      200 bags common pemmican.
      400 whole dressed buffalo skins.
       50 large dressed moose skins.
        8 leather tents, each 10 skins.

    _Article 17_--That the following country produce be forwarded to
    Green Lake, Autumn 1878, or Spring of 1879, for transport service
    in English River District, Season 1879, viz:

      250 bags common pemmican, each 100 lbs.
      400 whole dressed buffalo skins.
       50 large dressed moose skins.
       8 leather tents, each 10 skins.

    _Article 18_--That the following country produce be furnished by
    the Saskatchewan District, season 1878, for distribution 1879,
    among the Districts of Norway House, York Factory and Island Lake,
    and that the same be forwarded to Grand Rapids for that purpose:

      300 bags common pemmican, each 100 lbs.
       20 leather tents, each 10 or 12 skins.
      600 whole buffalo skins.
      400 half buffalo skins.

    _Article 19_--That the country-made articles for the Saskatchewan
    District for Outfit 1879 be provided at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

    _Article 20_--That Chief Factor Clarke be instructed to comply with
    no additional requisitions for country produce of any kind except
    he is satisfied there may be a hitch in the transport for the want
    of them.

    Article 21--Winter Arrangements, 1878-9.


_CUMBERLAND_

    Cumberland House--Horace Belanger, Factor; Nicol McDougall, Clerk.

    Le Pas--Charles Adams, Clerk; Robert Ballendine, Postmaster.

    Moose Lake--John McDonald, "D" Clerk.

    Pelican Narrows--John E. Stewart, Apprentice Clerk; Antoine Morin,
    "B" Interpreter.

    Lac du Brochet--Pierre Deschambeault, Chief Trader; Pierre Morin,
    Postmaster.

    Rapid River--Philip McDonald, Clerk; Angus McLeod, Interpreter.

    Disposable--Joseph Hourston, Postmaster.

    _Article 22_--That 20 servants and 700 pieces of goods, including
    Winter allowances and servants' equipments, constitute the current
    outfit for Cumberland District, the goods to be conveyed from Fort
    Garry by steamers.

    _Article 23_--That Factor Belanger be authorized to make the
    necessary arrangements for the summer business of the District,
    Season 1879, and that he change the appointments of commissioned
    officers and clerks in his District as he may deem necessary.

    _Article 24_--That Factor Belanger be instructed to forward to
    Norway House, Spring 1879, the following country produce, viz:

      50 lbs. large snowshoe netting.
      50 lbs. small snowshoe netting.

    _Article 25_--That Factor Belanger take measures to have rendered
    at Portage la Loche, Summer 1879, on or about 25th July but not
    later than 1st August, 8 boat loads, each boat load to consist of
    75 pieces of the Athabasca Outfit which will be landed from the
    Steamer "Northcote" at Cumberland, and that on the return trip the
    crews of the 8 boats be engaged to take in each boat not less than
    50 packs furs and deliver the same at the Grand Rapid should the
    Steamer "Northcote" have ceased running.

    _Article 26_--That the country-made articles for Cumberland
    District, Outfit 1879, be provided at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

    _Article 27_--Winter Arrangements, 1878-9.


_GRAND RAPIDS_

    Grand Rapids--Alex. Matheson, Chief Trader; Colin Thompson,
    Apprentice Clerk.

    _Article 28_--That Chief Trader Alexander Matheson be instructed to
    receive at the Grand Rapids all goods intended for the Northern
    Districts that may be sent there and have conveyed by the Steamer
    Northcote to Cumberland the goods intended for that District and
    600 pieces of those intended for Athabasca District, sending to
    Carlton by the same steamer the goods intended for the Districts of
    Saskatchewan, English River, Edmonton, Peace River and McKenzie
    River as well as the remainder of those intended for "i."

    _Article 29_--That the country-made articles for Grand Rapids
    District for Outfit 1879 be provided for at Fort Garry, Summer
    1878.

    _Article 30_--Summer Arrangements, 1878-9.


_NORWAY HOUSE_

    Norway House--Roderick Ross, Factor; D. C. McTavish, Clerk; James
    Flett, "C" Apprentice Clerk; Walter Franklin, Apprentice Clerk.

    Nelson River--Wm. Isbister, Clerk.

    Berens River--James Flett, "B" Clerk.

[Illustration: "_Playmates of the North._" _This chubby lad, who seems
to have the entire confidence of the lead dog of the team, is the son of
Mr. John J. Loutit, post manager at Fort Chipewyan._]

    Grand Rapids--John Moar, Postmaster.

    Poplar River--Alex. Stout, Postmaster.

    Disposable--John C. Sinclair, Postmaster.

    _Article 31_--That 20 servants and 650 pieces of goods, including
    Winter allowances and servants' equipment, constitute the current
    outfit for Norway House District and that the outfit be conveyed
    from Fort Garry by steamer or otherwise as most convenient.

    _Article 32_--That Factor Roderick Ross be instructed to forward
    per boats to the Grand Rapids, Summer 1879, any goods on depot at
    Norway House intended for the trade of the Northern Districts
    Outfit as early as navigation will permit and have brought back
    from there to Norway House any returns or country produce intended
    for the supply of Norway House, Island Lake or York Factory
    Districts or for shipment to England from the latter place.

    _Article 33_--That Factor Ross be instructed to make arrangements
    with Factor Fortescue as to the number of boats requisite to bring
    up from the Factory any gunpowder or other articles intended for
    shipment inland and avail himself of the freight room downwards to
    forward to the Factory as large a portion as possible of the
    returns of Norway House District besides any castorum, buffalo
    tongues and quills received from other Districts for shipment to
    London, after providing for the country produce intended for Island
    Lake and York Factory.

    _Article 34_--That the country-made articles for Norway House
    District for Outfit 1879 be provided at Fort Garry, Summer 1878.

    _Article 35_--Winter and Summer Arrangements, 1878-9


_ISLAND LAKE_

    Oxford House--Cuthbert Sinclair, Junior Chief Trader.

    Island Lake--Thos. M. Linklater, Clerk.

    _Article 36_--That 8 servants and 320 pieces of goods constitute
    the current outfit for Island Lake District, the same to be
    conveyed from York Factory by the Oxford House boats and provided
    for in York Factory requisition.

    _Article 37_--That the Island Lake boats make one round trip
    between Norway House and York Factory, Summer 1878, laden with such
    cargoes as the officers in charge of these Districts may have to go
    forward should they be required to do so.

    _Article 38_--Winter and Summer Arrangements 1878-9


_YORK FACTORY_

    York Factory--Joseph Fortescue, Factor; John K. McDonald, Clerk; A.
    O. T. Bennett, Apprentice Clerk; James Cowie, Apprentice Clerk;
    George Grieve, Postmaster.

    Severn--John Taylor, Postmaster.

    Trout Lake--James Tod, Clerk.

    Churchill--John R. Spencer, Clerk.

    _Article 39_--That 35 servants, including mechanics, constitute the
    summer and winter establishments of York Factory District and that
    the outfits and returns of the Posts of Severn and Trout Lake be
    transported in the usual manner and those of Churchill landed from
    and shipped in the annual vessel from London which is directed to
    call at Churchill on its way out to York Factory.

    _Article 40_--That Factor Fortescue be instructed to have in
    readiness, Spring 1879, for shipment to Oxford House the outfit
    intended for the trade of Island Lake District, 1879, and that he
    direct Mr. Cuthbert Sinclair to send to York Factory by boats the
    returns of Island Lake District as early in the summer as possible
    providing at the same time a sufficient number of men and boats for
    the transport of the Outfit for 1879.

    _Article 41_--That Factor Fortescue be instructed to forward to
    Norway House as opportunity offers the gunpowder and country-made
    articles on hand at York Factory (exclusive of beads, country-made
    articles, etc.) which are set aside for the Inland Districts.

    _Article 42_--Winter Arrangements, 1878-9.


_MANITOBA_

    Oak Point--Wm. Clark, Junior Chief Trader; Geo. F. Kinnaird,
    Apprentice Clerk.

    Manitoba House--Isaac Cowie, Clerk.

    Water Hen River--Alexr. Munro, Clerk.

    Shoal River--Donald McDonald, "A" Clerk.

    Fairford--An Interpreter.

    _Article 43_--That Junior Chief Trader William Clark be authorized
    to make the necessary and proper arrangements for the summer
    business of the District, Season 1879, and change the disposal of
    the clerks if he may think it necessary.

    _Article 44_--That 4 servants and 300 pieces of goods, including
    winter allowances and servants' equipments, constitute the current
    outfit of Manitoba District and be imported via St. Paul to Fort
    Garry and thence by carts to Oak Point.

    _Article 45_--That the live stock on inventory in Manitoba District
    be priced at their market value in the District, less 33-1/3%

    Article 46--That Junior Chief Trader William Clark be instructed to
    procure at Fairford and forward to Berens River for the use of
    Norway House District, Summer 1879:

    20 fathoms birch bark for canoe bottoms. 20 fathoms birch bark for
    canoe sides. _Article 47_--That the country-made articles for
    Manitoba District, Outfit 1879, be provided at Fort Garry, Summer
    1878.

    _Article 48_--Winter and Summer Arrangements, 1878-9


_SWAN RIVER_

    Fort Ellice--Archibald McDonald, Factor; David Armit, Clerk; Hugh
    McBeath, Clerk.

    Riding Mountain--James C. Andy, Clerk.

    Qu'Appelle--Wm. J. McLean, Junior Chief Trader; George Dreyer,
    Postmaster.

    Fort Pelly--Adam McBeath, Clerk; John Calder, Apprentice Clerk.

    Touchwood Hills--Angus McBeath, Clerk; Thomas W. Lillie, Apprentice
    Clerk.

    Egg Lake--Henry McKay, Clerk.

    _Article 49_--That 10 servants and 800 pieces of goods, including
    winter allowances and servants' equipments, constitute the current
    outfit of Swan River District and be imported via St. Paul to Fort
    Garry and thence by carts to the District.

    _Article 50_--That Factor Archibald McDonald be authorized to make
    the necessary and proper arrangements for the summer business of
    the District, season 1879, and change the disposal of clerks if he
    may think it is necessary.

    (_Note_--Articles 51 to 107 of the Minutes are of a similar nature
    to the foregoing.)


LITTLE JOURNEYS TO FUR TRADE POSTS OF THE HUDSON'S BAY CO.


Hudson's Hope Post, B.C.

By JOHN GREGG

The Post is situated at the head of navigation on the Peace river. From
here to Vermillion there is good water for stern-wheelers and gasoline
boats, for five hundred fifty miles.

Immediately to the west is the famous Rocky Mountain canyon, which makes
a horseshoe of twenty-five miles; and from the head of the canyon to
Finlay Forks there is another good stretch of water. The Peace river
here cuts through the Butler range, the most easterly range of the
Rockies.

The climate is excellent. In winter chinook winds break up the cold
snaps. The extreme minimum last winter was 45 below on two nights. In
summer, the maximum sometimes rises over 90. One peculiarity is that
during winter there are no winds excepting the warm chinooks. The
country generally is well wooded. Many streams are unexcelled for
fly-fishing. At Moberly Lake (15 miles south) trout very often scale
more than 35 pounds.

The "town" consists of the Honourable Company's buildings, postoffice,
telegraph, police offices and the freighter. Close in are several
homesteaders. There is also a meteorological station, deputy mining
recorder's post and hydrometric station.

During the summer business is brisk, for usually there are government
geological parties in the field, tourists passing through and trappers
going outside to "blow in their wads." In winter things are somewhat
dull, for there are not enough Indians to keep business steady. Then it
is that the violin, gramophone and H.B.C. library are called on to
relieve _ennui_ in the evenings, for there is no theatre nearer than
Edmonton.

For industrial possibilities, Hudson's Hope undoubtedly occupies a
strategic position. It is known that extensive bodies of the hardest
soft coal in the world are in the immediate vicinity, but owing to lack
of transport facilities they have not been worked to any extent.

Some gold is found forty miles west on Branham Flat and a few outfits
will be in this summer to work there.

A marvellous mountain of copper and silver was reported up north some
two years ago, but for some reason or another nothing definite has
transpired regarding it.

For the past three years government geologists have been examining the
vicinity for oil possibilities and their reports have been so good as to
lead one or two drilling outfits this way.

Although all grains and vegetables grow here to perfection the
agricultural aspect of the country is not to be enthused over, for the
arable land is along the river bank only. A cattle ranch has started on
the south fork of the Halfway river.

It should be added that the river invariably opens for navigation the
first week in May. This year the spring was early--bluebirds and robins
on the 8th of April, geese on the 12th, with poplars in bud.



Discovery and Exploration of the Yukon (Pelly) River

By ROBERT CAMPBELL, F.R.G.S.

(_Former H.B.C. Chief Factor_)


    _NOTE--Sir George Simpson expressed his satisfaction regarding
    these explorations in a letter to Mr. Campbell, the author, and
    spoke of the arrangement made by H.B.C. with Russia for a great
    stretch of Alaskan territory. The letter follows:_

    Red River Settlement,
    16th June, 1839.

    To R. Campbell, Esq.,
    Fort Halkett.

    Dear Sir:

    I have much pleasure in acknowledging receipt of your letter of
    17th September, and have to express my entire satisfaction with
    your management in the recent voyage down the Pelly or Stickine
    river, bearing ample evidence that the confidence reposed in you
    was well placed.

    I was always of the opinion that the Pelly and Stickine rivers were
    identical, but many of my friends in this country thought
    differently. You have at length, however, set the question at rest,
    and your writing the note to our gentlemen on the coast was very
    judicious.

    I last winter concluded an arrangement for the Company with Baron
    Wrangle, acting on behalf of the Russian-American Company, by which
    we become possessed of the whole of the Russian mainland territory
    (for a term of ten years) up to Cape Spencer. By that means we
    become possessed of their establishment situated on Point
    Highfield, entrance of Stickine river, immediately, and have access
    to the interior country through all the rivers falling into the
    Pacific to the southward of Cape Spencer.

    This arrangement renders it unnecessary for us now to extend our
    operations from the east side of the mountains or Mackenzie river,
    as we can settle that country from the Pacific with greater
    facility and at less expense.

    Your services will now therefore be required to push our
    discoveries in the country situated on the Peel and Colville rivers
    and I am quite sure you will distinguish yourself as much in that
    quarter as you have latterly done on the west side of the
    mountains.

    With best wishes, believe me,

    Very truly yours,
    (Signed) GEORGE SIMPSON.

The Yukon is the largest river that flows from the American continent
into the Pacific ocean. Rising as the Pelly in the Rocky Mountains on
the northern frontier of British Columbia, it maintains a westerly
direction for several hundred miles.

It crosses the 141st meridian, which forms the eastern boundary of
Alaska, and holding a northwest course for more than six hundred miles,
it is joined by the Porcupine river from the north. Up to this point it
is called the Pelly, but for the remaining 1200 miles of its course to
its embouchure in Behring Sea it is known as the Yukon.

After the failure of previous efforts to establish a Hudson's Bay
Company's trading post at Dease's Lake, I volunteered my services for
that purpose; and in the spring of 1839, after overcoming many
difficulties, I succeeded in my mission, and then crossed over the
mountains to the west side, where I struck the source of a rapid river,
which I ascertained from the hordes of Indians I met to be the Stikene
(afterwards the great highway to the northern gold fields of British
Columbia), a discovery which caused no small commotion and surprise at
the time among H.B.C. men, especially from the fact that a young man
with only a half-breed and two Indian lads had effected what had baffled
well-equipped parties under prominent and experienced Hudson's Bay
officers from both sides of the mountains. This led to part of the coast
being leased by the Company from the Russian government.

On returning to Dease's Lake, we passed a winter of constant danger from
the savage Russian Indians and of much suffering from starvation. We
were dependent for subsistence on what animals we could catch, and,
failing that, on "tripe de roche." We were at one time reduced to such
dire straits that we were obliged to eat our parchment windows, and our
last meal before abandoning Dease's Lake, on 8th May, 1839, consisted of
the lacing of our snowshoes.

In the spring of 1840 I was appointed by Sir George Simpson to explore
the north branch of the Liard river to its source, and to cross the
Rocky Mountains and try to find any river flowing westward, especially
the headwaters of the Colville, the mouth of which was in the Arctic
ocean, discovered by Dease and Simpson.

In pursuance of these instructions I left Fort Halkett in May with a
canoe and seven men, among them my trusty Indians, Lapie and Kitza, and
the interpreter Hoole. After ascending the stream some hundreds of
miles, far into the mountains, we entered a beautiful lake, which I
named Frances lake, in honor of Lady Simpson. The river thus far is
rather serpentine, with a swift current, and is flanked on both sides by
chains of mountains, which rise to a higher altitude in the background.
The country is well wooded with poplar, spruce, pine, fir and birch.
Game and fur-bearing animals are abundant, especially beaver, on the
meat of which, with moose, deer, geese and ducks, we generally lived.

The mountain trout are very fine and plentiful, and are easily taken
with a hook and any bait. About five miles farther on the lake divides
into two branches round "Simpson's Tower." The south, which is the
longer branch, extends forty miles. Leaving the canoe and part of the
crew near the southwest extremity of this branch, I set out with three
Indians and the interpreter.

Shouldering our blankets and guns, we ascended the valley of a river
which we traced to its source in a lake ten miles long, which, with the
river, I named Finlayson's lake and river. The lake is situated so near
the watershed that in high floods its waters flow from both ends down
both sides of the mountains towards the Arctic on the one hand and the
Pacific on the other.

From this point we descended the west slope of the Rocky Mountains, and
on the second day from Finlayson's lake we had the satisfaction of
seeing from a high bank a splendid river in the distance. I named the
bank from which we caught the first glimpse of the river "Pelly Banks,"
and the river "Pelly River," after our home governor, Sir H. Pelly.

I may mention, in passing, that Sir George Simpson in a kind letter
called them both after me, "Campbell's Banks and River," but in my reply
I disclaimed all knowledge of any such places. After reaching the actual
bank of the river, we constructed a raft, on which we embarked and
drifted down a few miles on the bosom of the stream, and at parting we
cast in a sealed tin can with memoranda of our discovery and the date.

Highly delighted with our success, we retraced our steps to Frances
lake, where we rejoined the rest of our party, who during our absence
had built a house on the point at the forks of the lake which we called
"Glenlyon." Returning, we reached Fort Halkett (on Liard river) about
the 10th of September, and forwarded the report of our trip by the party
who brought up our outfit.

[Illustration]

The Company now resolved to follow up these discoveries, and with this
view I was ordered in 1841 to establish a trading post on Frances lake
so as to be ready for future operations westward. In 1842, birch bark
for the construction of a large canoe to be used in exploring the Pelly
was brought up from Fort Liard with the outfit, and during the winter
was sent over the mountains by dogsleighs to Pelly banks, where the
necessary buildings were put up, and the canoe was built in the spring
of 1843.

Early in June, I left Frances lake with some of the men. We walked over
the mountains to Pelly banks, and shortly after I started down stream
in the canoe with the interpreter Hoole, two French Canadians and three
Indians. As we advanced, the river increased in size and the scenery
formed a succession of picturesque landscapes. About twenty-five miles
from Pelly banks we encountered a bad rapid--"Hoole's"--where we were
forced to disembark everything; but elsewhere we had a nice flowing
current. Ranges of mountains flanked us on both sides; on the right hand
the mountains were generally covered with wood; the left range was more
open, with patches of poplar running up the valleys and burnsides,
reminding one of the green braeface of the Highland glens. We frequently
saw moose and bear as we passed along, and at points where the precipice
rose abruptly from the waters edge the wild sheep--"big horn"--were
often seen on the shelving rocks. They are very keen-sighted, and when
once alarmed they file swiftly and gracefully over the mountain. When we
chanced to get one we found it splendid eating--delicate enough for an
epicure.

In this manner we travelled on for several days. We saw only one family
of Indians--"Knife" Indians--till we reached the junction of the Pelly
with a tributary which I named the Lewis. Here we found a large camp of
Indians--the "Wood" Indians. We took them by no ordinary surprise, as
they had never seen a white man before, and they looked upon us and
everything about us with some awe as well as curiosity. Two of their
chiefs, father and son, were very tall, stout, handsome men. We smoked
the pipe of peace together, and I distributed some presents. They spoke
in loud tones as do all Indians in their natural state, but they seemed
kind and peaceable. When we explained to them as best we could that we
were going down stream, they all raised their voices against it. Among
other dangers, they indicated that inhabiting the lower river were many
tribes of "bad" Indians--"numerous as the sand"--"who would not only
kill us, but eat us." We should never get back alive, and friends coming
to look after us would unjustly blame them for our death. All this
frightened our men to such a degree that I had reluctantly to consent to
our return, which under the circumstances was the only alternative. I
learned afterwards that it would have been madness in us to have made
any further advance, unprepared as we were for such an enterprise.

[Illustration: _DINNERTIME on the East Coast of Hudson Bay. H.B.C.
"tripping" party enjoying a snack at sixty degrees below--with gloves
on!_]

Much depressed, we that afternoon retraced our course upstream; but
before doing so I launched on the river a sealed can containing
memoranda of our trip.

I was so dejected at the unexpected turn of affairs that I was perfectly
heedless of what was passing; but on the third day of our upward
progress I noticed on both sides of the river fires burning on the
hill-tops far and near. This awoke me to a sense of our situation. I
conjectured that, as in Scotland in the olden time, these were
signal-fires and that they summoned the Indians to surround and
intercept us.

Thus aroused, we made the best use of paddle and "tracking-line" to get
up stream and ahead of the Indian signals. On the fourth morning we came
to a party of Indians on the further bank of the river. They made signs
to us to cross over, which we did. They were very hostile, watching us
with bows bent and arrows in hand and would not come down from the top
of the high bank to the water's edge to meet us. I sent up a man with
some tobacco--the emblem of peace--to reassure them; but at first they
would hardly remove their hands from their bows to receive it. We
ascended the bank to them and had a most friendly interview, carried on
by words and signs. It required, however, some finesse and adroitness to
get away from them.

Once in the canoe we quickly pushed out and struck obliquely for the
opposite bank, so as to be out of range of their arrows, and I faced
about, gun in hand, to observe their actions. The river was there too
broad either for ball or arrow. We worked hard during the rest of the
day and until late. The men were tired out, and I made them all sleep in
my tent while I kept watch. At that season the night is so clear that
one can read, write or work throughout.

Our camp lay on the bank of the river at the base of a steep declivity
which had large trees here and there up its grassy slope. In the
branches of one of these trees I passed the greater part of this anxious
night, reading "_Hervey's Meditations_" and keeping a vigilant lookout.
Occasionally I descended and walked to the river bank, but all was
still.

Two years afterwards, when friendly relations had been established with
the Indians in this district, I learned to my no small astonishment that
the hostile tribe encountered down the river had dogged us all day, and
when we halted for the night had encamped behind the crest of the hill,
and from this retreat had watched my every movement. With the exactitude
of detail characteristic of Indians they described me sitting in the
tree holding "something white" (the book) in my hand, and often raising
my eyes to make a survey of the neighborhood; then, descending to the
river bank, taking my horn cup from my belt, and even while I drank
glancing up and down the river and towards the hill.

They confessed that had I knelt down to drink they would have rushed
upon me and drowned me in the swift current and after thus despatching
me would have massacred the sleeping inmates of my tent. How often
without knowing it are we protected from danger by the merciful hand of
Providence!

Next morning we were early in motion and were glad to observe that we
had outwitted the Indians and outstripped their signal-fires. After this
we travelled more at leisure, hunting as we advanced, and in due time
reached Frances lake.

For a few years after this we confined our operations to trading between
Frances lake and Pelly banks; but during the summer we sent hunting
parties down to Pelly to collect provisions for our establishments; and
by this means we obtained accurate information respecting the Pelly
river, its resources and Indian tribes.

In the winter of 1847-8 we built boats at Pelly banks and, sending off
our returns to Fort Simpson, we started off early in June, 1848, to
establish a post at the forks of Pelly and Lewis rivers, which I named
Fort Selkirk. Ever since our discovery of the Pelly in 1840 various
conjectures were hazarded as to what river it really was and where it
entered the sea. Fort Yukon was, I think, established in 1847, from Peel
river near the mouth of the Mackenzie.

From the first I expressed my belief, in which hardly anyone concurred,
that the Pelly and the Yukon were identical. In 1850, having obtained
Sir George Simpson's permission, I explored the lower river, descending
a distance of about 1200 miles and by reaching Fort Yukon proved the
correctness of my opinion.

From Fort Yukon I directed my boat and party upwards into the Porcupine
river. I was accompanied by Mr. Murray, who was conveying the returns
and whose duty it was to take back with him the Yukon outfit from La
Pierre's house at the head of the Porcupine river, to which point
supplies were transported over the mountains in winter by dogsleighs
from Peel river. La Pierre's house duly reached, we left our boat there
and walked over the mountains to Peel river, about ninety miles; thence
by boat we ascended the Mackenzie river to Fort Simpson.

I thus performed a circuit of several thousand miles from my point of
departure on the Liard river. Great astonishment was felt by all my
friends and acquaintances when they saw me reach Fort Simpson by coming
up the Mackenzie river instead of descending the Liard, for no one
entertained a suspicion that the Pelly river had any connection with the
Yukon or that the Pelly was linked with the Porcupine, Peel and
Mackenzie rivers.

Thenceforward this new route, so unexpectedly found out, was made the
highway for the transport of outfits to, and results of trade from the
Pelly and all intermediate posts.

When I visited England in 1853 this vast stretch of country--until then
a blank on the map and untrodden and unknown of white men--was under my
direction correctly delineated on his map of North America by J.
Arrowsmith, Hudson's Bay Company's topographer; and hence it happens
that many of these rivers and places of note are named after my friends
or after the rivers in my native glens.

[Illustration: _CHIPEWYAN Indians returned to H.B.C. Post with a fine
bag of the great grey geese that flock in thousands over Lake
Athabasca._]

I may mention that in these explorations, which embraced a period of
fifteen years, we had to rely for the means of existence almost entirely
on the natural resources of the scene of our operations, however dreary
and barren a region it might be. We were once cut off from all supplies
and connection with our people, to the extreme peril of our lives, for
over two years--from May, 1848, till September, 1850--during which time
we received neither a letter nor supplies, and the opening up of
communication with the outside world was ultimately brought about by our
own unaided and determined efforts in the face of appalling obstacles.

The Pelly-Yukon is a magnificent river, increasing in size as it is
joined by the many affluents that swell its tide. It sweeps in a gentle,
serpentine course round the spurs of the double mountain range that
generally skirts each side of the valley. Of these twin ranges the more
distant is the loftier. Many of its summits are dotted with wreaths of
snow, while others wear a perpetual mantle of white.

At a distance of some forty-five miles from Yukon the mountains recede,
the river widens and for miles wanders among countless islands. Many of
the Pelly's tributaries are large streams--especially the M'Millan,
Lewis, White, and Stewart rivers.

Four kinds of salmon ascend the river in great numbers in their season;
and then comes a busy harvest time for the Indians, who assemble in
large camps along the river and handle their spears with great
dexterity. Large numbers of salmon are killed, some for present and some
for winter use. This fish has been seen and killed above Pelly banks,
which is more than two thousand miles from the sea.

Steamers from the Pacific have already ascended to Fort Yukon (twelve
hundred miles); and during the freshet they can ascend more than twelve
hundred miles further (to Hoole's Rapid).

The lakes all over the country abound in excellent white fish.

The fauna of the country is abundant and varied. It includes moose and
reindeer, bears (black and grizzly), wolves and wolverines, rats and
hares, the fox and lynx, the beaver, the mink, and the marten. I saw the
bones, heads and horns of buffaloes; but this animal had become extinct
before our visit, as had also some species of elephant, whose remains
were found in various swamps. I forwarded an elephant's thigh bone to
the British Museum, where it may still be seen.

The flora of the country is rich and diversified. I forwarded several
specimens of the vegetation to Sir William J. Hooker, director of the
Kew Gardens, I also sent him specimens of all the rocks from Yukon to
Pelly banks. The climate is more pleasant and genial than in the same
latitude on the east side of the mountains.


Aged Fur Trader Moves

H. J. Moberly, 86, fur trader in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company
for thirty-seven years, passed through Edmonton, June 15th, on his way
from Cedarvale, B.C., to his home at Duck Lake, Sask.

This aged veteran of the H.B.C. fur trade service has the distinction of
having seen Edmonton at an earlier date than any living white man. He
reached the Saskatchewan at Edmonton in 1854, sixty-seven years ago. Mr.
Moberly has been staying for the past year at the fruit ranch of his
son, forty miles west of Hazelton, B.C.



  _Published Monthly by the Hudson's Bay Company for Their Employees
  Throughout the Service_

  [Illustration]

  The Beaver

  "_A Journal of Progress_"

  Copyright, 1921, by the Hudson's Bay Company

  Address all communications to Editor,
  "THE BEAVER," York and Main Streets,
  Winnipeg, Canada.

  Vol. I JULY, 1921 No. 10


A National Flag for Canada

Canada has no flag; a startling assertion, but true. The Dominion emblem
so familiar to Canadians is a marine ensign authorized by the Imperial
Government many years ago _for use on Canada's merchant shipping_. No
flag has ever been officially adopted by the Canadian people.

Among designs submitted for a distinctive Canadian flag, one which most
appeals to the sense of fitness displays the Union Jack in the upper
left quarter and nine blue stars in the form of the Great Dipper and
North Star on a field of white in the remaining three quarters. One star
for each province, in the form of the familiar constellation of the
Northland, sealed with the symbol of Empire!

The antipodean dominion of New Zealand has the Southern Cross on a field
of red, with the Union Jack, for her official flag. This design was
adopted from several hundred submitted by citizens.

Canada too should have a flag of her own--an emblem to emphasize her
essential nationhood--of a design that will connote her stewardship of
this North Portal of the Empire.


Carrying Water

A motorist, mired down on a country road, asked a passing lad with a
team to pull him out.

Paying the boy's price of two dollars the car owner remarked, "Well,
son, do you make much money at this sort of thing?" "You are the fifth I
have pulled out to-day," replied the boy.

"I should work nights, too, at that rate," said the motorist.

"I do," said the boy, "at night I haul water for the mud-hole."

In business many young men are like the boy and the mud-hole. They have
a single eye to making the job _last_. Fixed in a situation with certain
routine things to do they lose ambition and are chiefly concerned with
stretching their duties to fill a day. No origination. No progress. No
increasing of efficiency to fit themselves for greater responsibilities.

They are "carrying water" in this blind way oftentimes until it's too
late to stride out into bigger things.

Don't "carry water." Mend the road, and find a way to speed up traffic.
The pay will be higher and the work more satisfying.


Arena Lust

The day of the Gladiator is not past. Near New York this month the
pugilistic champion of the United States, for the consideration of
merely a million dollars, will stand up for something less than an hour
to pummel and be pummeled by the pugilistic champion of Europe.

Nearly seventy thousand fervid partisans will look on, eating
peanuts--primordially yelling for blood.

Among them, it is said, will be hundreds who figure prominently in
Bradstreet's, the Blue Book and the Society Column.

Gentlewomen will be there--in the fifty dollar seat section. Roustabouts
and longshoremen, barristers, doctors and preachers, business men and
government officials--and small boys roosting in neighboring trees--all
with "thumbs down" when one bruiser weakens.

Who is there to stop wars and rumors of wars while the spirit of the
gladiatorial combat is thus rampant in human society, breaking through
the carefully laid veneer of civilization?


H.B.C. Enters Consignment Fur Business

_Company Takes Over Warehouses of Defunct Nesbitt Firm; Will
Strengthen London Market_

By PRO PELLE

One of the most interesting events in the fur trade last month was the
announcement by the Hudson's Bay Company of its intention to accept
consignments of skins for sale at its London auctions. The news came as
a surprise to many, as it has long been known that the famous old
Company took particular pride in offering no skins for sale at its
auctions save those collected by its own posts and graded with that
excellency which has earned for the Company the reputation of setting an
accepted standard for all skins.

To those who are familiar with the past history of H.B.C., the news did
not come altogether as a surprise. The Company has demonstrated on many
occasions in the past that it does not hesitate to reverse its decisions
and alter its policies when the changes wrought by time and economic
progress in the domain of the Company make such changes a business
necessity.

Many in the fur trade wondered why the Company did not enter the
consignment business sooner but the sequence of events has since
demonstrated that by keeping out of that end of the business until after
the speculators had had their fling, the Company was able to enter on
the "ground floor," so to speak, and with everything in its favor.

The establishment of great fur auction companies in St. Louis, New York
and Montreal tended to deprive London of its old-time prestige, and,
naturally, anything that detracted from the influence of the London fur
market also affected the Hudson's Bay Company.

With the passing of the famous old firm of Nesbitt, the London fur
market lost one of the best-known consignment houses in the world. This
house was particularly happy in its connection with the American trade
and enjoyed the confidence and respect of the best American firms. When
the Nesbitt firm was forced to liquidate in order to save as much as
possible for its clients, it was felt that the London market had lost
one of its landmarks and was, to a certain extent, weakened in its
uphill fight to regain its leadership in the fur trade.

By taking over the warehouses and offices of the Nesbitt Company and
announcing its willingness to accept consignments of fur skins, the
Hudson's Bay Company carries on where Nesbitt Ltd. left off. H.B.C. will
now be in a position to hold its auctions on its own premises.

The London market will be made all the stronger by the entrance of the
Company as a consignment house, as it will naturally follow that the
class of goods consigned will have to be up to a fine standard and will
only be accepted from reputable and first-class firms.

By taking the lead in the London market, by setting the standard for all
the trade, both in goods and in business principles, by inducing the
best firms to send their best goods to the London market, by eliminating
speculative bidding and by having great financial strength and sound
business methods back of it, the Hudson's Bay Company has once more
proved its ability to come through all kinds of trials and tribulations
with flying colors.


Impressions of the Store Managers' Conference

By F. F. HARKER

Being comparatively a newcomer with the Hudson's Bay Company, judging by
the long records of service of other managers present, I felt deeply
moved by the cordial spirit of comradeship shown me by my co-partners.

I was greatly impressed by the frank way we were received by the
Canadian Advisory Committee.

The conference was a remarkable one in many ways. It created a
precedent, insofar that it was the first time in the history of the
Company that managers of the many H.B.C. stores were gathered together
for consultation, advice and mutual benefit.

I feel that this conference will prove the forerunner of an era of
singular prosperity to the Company and of increased efficiency
throughout the Company's stores.


Humorous Extracts from Some Official Letters

Written in all seriousness and not in the least intended to be humorous

By C. C. SINCLAIR

In an official letter from an outpost manager the activities of the
opposition were reported upon as follows:

"_The opposition ain't raisin' no 'ell._"

By which it was assumed that the outpost manager was holding his own.

    "_Dear Brother and Fellow Superior:_

    "_I have spent a lonely and dissolute_ (meaning desolate) _winter,
    owing to the loss of two good hunters and a beloved wife._"

       *       *       *       *       *

    "..._The canoes you sent up last fall arrived safely. Everything
    was in order with the exception of one or two destitute items in
    the displacement._"

       *       *       *       *       *

    "_I am very thankful for the increase of salary accorded to me by
    the Commissioner. Now that I have my new eyes_ (meaning glasses)
    _I am able to see better, and my new teeth help me to masticate my
    food better, which aids the "deegestion" and keeps me in better
    health so that I can do more work now. Now I think I am capable of
    taking charge of a much larger Post than the one I am at._"

       *       *       *       *       *

    "_I could not make my cash agree with the books, but it agrees
    now, because I made an entry 'To cast to cook the account,
    $60.00.'_"

       *       *       *       *       *

    "_I am sorry that I caused you so much worry last fall when I
    wrote you that I was at death's door and asking you to send my
    successor, as I expected soon to enter the pearly gates._

    "_I am sorry to say I recovered soon after and the black suit I
    asked for to be buried in was not required. I had no mourning
    envelopes on hand, so I blackened the edges of an official
    envelope with ink, to advise you befittingly of my approaching
    demise._"

       *       *       *       *       *

    "_Hereafter I am to receive my instructions from Fort ----. I am
    sorry to leave you. We have differed sometimes about the orders
    issued from time to time, but I have endeavoured to carry out the
    instructions when I thought they were for the good of the post._"

       *       *       *       *       *


"Some Reputation"

In looking over an old Hudson's Bay wharf with a view to repairs, the
contractor remarked:

"Well! the piles are so badly eaten away, I'm hanged if I know what
keeps the wharf up."

A bystander promptly replied:

"Nothing but the Company's reputation is keeping up that wharf, sir."


Suggestion Competition--Labrador District

In connection with awards made in the 250th Anniversary Suggestion
Competition (Fur Trade department) it is to be noted that H.B.C. men in
Hudson's Straits and Ungava (Labrador District) were without the
opportunity of participating, owing to their extreme isolation in the
far north.

First word of the competition was conveyed to these men by the Company's
supply ship in August, 1920. With the landing of the supplies and
preparation of the annual accounts, there was no opportunity for the men
to write out their suggestions before the sailing of the supply ship on
her homeward voyage. Since that time there has been no communication
whatever with these posts.

It is regretted that owing to the short time between the receipt of the
instructions regarding the competition and the date by which replies
were to be in Winnipeg it was impossible for northern Labrador posts to
participate.


FORT McMURRAY NEWS

_The H.B.C. motor tug_ "Nechemus," left McMurray for the north on May
12th, laden with horses and wagons together with the season's first
shipment of freight for FitzGerald.

_The H.B.S.S. "Fort McMurray"_ sailed on May 13th on her second trip,
bound for FitzGerald with a hundred and twenty tons of supplies for the
northern posts. Passengers on the steamer included: J. G. M. Christie
and wife, who are going to McPherson and back. Mr. Christie is a retired
employee of the Company and is looking forward to renewing old
acquaintances with H.B.C. men along the Mackenzie. Mrs. C. C. Sinclair,
with Miss Sinclair, are going down to McPherson, and will join Mr.
Sinclair, Manager of Athabasca-Mackenzie District.

Bishop Lucas, of the Anglican diocese of Mackenzie, was on his way to
the land of the Midnight Sun. The bishop spent the winter in the old
country, and is bound for his headquarters at Chipewyan.



H.B.C. Fur Trade Post on San Francisco Bay, 1824

_Company Did Not Own Million Acres of California Land, as Reported,
but Had Two Fur Posts and Farms, Closed in 1832-49._

By C. H. FRENCH


    _NOTE.--In a leading Western Canadian newspaper we read: "It is
    not commonly known that at one time the Hudson's Bay Company owned
    a million acres of land in California surrounding the present site
    of the City of San Francisco. The importance of the great harbour
    now known as the Golden Gate was not recognized and the area was
    sold for one dollar an acre."_

When in 1824, shortly after the amalgamation of H.B.C. with the
Northwest Company, the fur brigades under Sir George Simpson swept to
the verge of the Pacific, north, west and southwest, the flag of H.B.C.
was carried far down the California coast. One new fur trading
establishment was planted by the Company at the Golden Gate San
Francisco Bay; another was erected at Umpqua, not many miles to the
northward.

Up to 1820 the only fur post on the Pacific coast between Sitka, Alaska,
and southern California was Fort George. This post had been first opened
by Astor of New York, but was taken over by H.B.C. at the time of the
amalgamation with the Nor'westers. Meanwhile it had been re-christened
"Fort George" by Captain Black of H.M.S. "Raccoon" in 1813.

From Fort William at the head of the Great Lakes came Dr. John
McLaughlin, James Douglas and John Work, ordered by the Company to Fort
George to take charge of the newly created Western Department of the
H.B.C. fur trade. Dr. McLaughlin was in charge, James Douglas was
accountant and John Work was what might be termed an explorer.

Dr. McLaughlin was a versatile man, but leaned towards the development
of farming and stockraising, while John Work's only interest was in fur
trading.

In 1824 they arrived at Fort George and at once mapped out plans for
development of their department.

It was decided to abandon Fort George because the farming possibilities
of the neighbourhood were not so promising as those of the country
further up the river. A new site was selected just below the Willamette
River, and the construction of Fort Vancouver (Washington) was
commenced.

At that time the whole territory was known as Oregon Territory. The
country was also known as Columbia District, and when the boundary line
between Canada and the United States was established, the part to the
north of the line was named British Columbia District, and still retains
this name in the Company's organization.

In order to stock the newly established farms, the Company sent men
south for sheep, cattle and horses, and I believe that it was on this
account that Posts were opened at Umpqua and San Francisco Bay in 1824
or 1825, and operated until 1832, when they were abandoned and there is
nothing in the records to indicate that the Hudson's Bay Company ever
afterwards claimed one foot of soil in or around San Francisco.

In fact, there is information that would make it appear that the San
Francisco Bay Post alone was closed in 1832 and Umpqua not until a later
date, as a letter written by Sir George Simpson to Captain J. Sheppard,
R.N., dated 28th May, 1849, mentions Umpqua as being still in existence.
Sir George said the names of Posts west of the mountains were at that
time:

_American Territory, South of 49°_

  Fort Colville,
  Flat Head House,
  Fort Okanagan,
  Fort Nez Perces,
  Fort Bois,
  Fort Hall,
  Fort Vancouver,
  Fort Umpqua,
  Fort George,
  Fort Nisqually,
  Cowlitz Farm.

_British Territory, North of 49°_

  Victoria,
  Simpson,
  Langley,
  Hope,
  Kamloops,
  Thomson,
  Alexandria,
  George,
  Fraser,
  St. James,
  Connolly,
  Kilmaurs (Babine),
  McLeod,
  Chilcotin.

Europeans employed at these posts numbered six hundred, besides hundreds
of Indian laborers.

There were seven vessels employed in the service:

3 barques, carrying goods to and from Europe,

  1 steam vessel
  1 brig
  1 schooner
  1 sloop

In order to take care of the Russian American Company's and the H.B.C.
Posts' requirements, large farms and dairies were necessary, and
suitable land was plentiful between the Puget's Sound and the Columbia
River. When the negotiations between the Hudson's Bay Company and the
United States government were under way to settle the Oregon dispute,
the Company claimed 160,000 acres of land as being farmed and grazed by
them.

There has undoubtedly been a tendency on the part of historians and
newspaper writers to confuse the Company's Oregon land claim with the
lands at the H.B.C. San Francisco Bay post, but there is absolutely no
connection.


H.B.C. Aided Wilderness Wanderer

The following letter of appreciation was recently received by the
Company from J. P. Burns, an engineer who met with misfortune in the
wilds of British Columbia:

    "_Because of a serious accident last fall I was compelled to call
    at one of your trading posts situated at the junction of the Dease
    river and Liard, run by Mr. F. J. Bass. Mr. Bass did all in his
    power for me at a time when I was almost destitute and in a very
    low state of health owing to a broken bone in my right foot and a
    bad wound on my right side. I wish you would thank Mr. Bass for
    his hospitality and hope and trust that the Hudson's Bay Company
    will long remain and prosper in regions where engineers and dogs
    struggle for life and civilization._

    _Yours faithfully,
    J. P. BURNS._


PAS MOUNTAIN POST NEWS

By ALEX HORNE

The excitement which always prevails during the breakup around this
Reserve was perhaps of a more serious nature this Spring than previous
years.

Usually the Carrot river on the banks of which the Post is situated,
overflows every other second year or so, but this time the flood proved
to be a record.

The ice broke up on the 23rd of April and started going out on the 26th.
During that day it travelled well.

As it was the first breakup I had ever witnessed, the sight was most
interesting and fascinating. Some of the blocks, I estimated, were
perhaps ninety by thirty feet and eighteen to twenty inches thick. These
huge blocks were to cause us a considerable amount of discomfort before
the day was over.

Towards evening it was noticed that the ice was travelling very slowly
on the east bend of the river. As the river flows directly south past
the Post and then takes a turn east, our view for over a mile is fairly
good. We watched with strained eyes and beating hearts, for already the
water was rising. Ah! yes, it was only too true, there was a jam!

Soon the water was coming over in front of the house. Immediate action
was necessary. Canoes had to be attended to, boards, posts, boxes and
barrels moved to a place of safety.

[Illustration: _The Swirling Waters in Front of the Store._]

Very soon the water was making a noise like a waterfall and sweeping
everything before it. In a short time the sidewalk was trying to pilot
its way through the garden gate. A cord of wood made an effort to follow
suit but did not succeed. That night the roaring waters sang us to
sleep.

All day the ice and driftwood kept going by. At 7 o'clock in the evening
the Post was completely surrounded by water and a canoe was for the next
few days to be our only mode of travelling.

Towards twilight the last of the ice and driftwood passed. We gave a
sigh of relief and were about to retire when our attention was attracted
by a noise in the bush on the opposite bank of the river; on looking, it
was no little surprise to see a birch bark, and three Indians come into
sight. From the conversation, we gathered that the country for miles
around was under water.

Many cattle belonging to the Indians in this Reserve were drowned, also
an old house was carried away and where it once stood we have now a
small creek running from the river to a muskeg.


STANLEY POST (SASK.) NOTES

The last of the freighters reached here on April 18th, on their return
trip to Prince Albert, having delivered all the freight for Lac du
Brochet Post at South Deer Lake. The season being late, they had to work
night and day, under adverse weather conditions.

One big snowstorm lasted a day and a night, and the wind was terrible,
the track being covered up a few moments after it had been opened. The
rain and the soft weather we had in March formed a hard crust on the
deep snow, which was very bad for the horses.--Thos. Bear, Post Manager.


Buying Everything in Sight

By P. H. GODSELL, _Fort Simpson_

The article by Mr. Forbes in connection with the London Auction Sales
calls to mind a rather amusing incident that occurred when I once
attended a H.B.C. fur sale at College Hill, London.

Being young, I took a keen interest in everything, especially in the
actions of the auctioneer.

I studied my catalogue and notes closely and when a lot would be called
by the auctioneer invariably raised my head and _looked him in the eye._

As I was leaving the sale room at the termination of the afternoon sale
I passed Mr. Ingrams and Mr. Randall. They remarked that I must feel
very well satisfied with my afternoon's business, as _I should be the
owner of almost every lot that was put up_.

It was not until then that I learned that by even such a small sign as a
direct look a lot would be knocked down by the broker, and that I had to
all appearances bought everything in sight!


As They Were

We begin in this number publication of a series of "Youthful Portraits"
depicting present-day H.B.C. employees as they appeared at a "tender
age." It appears that considerable interest will be demonstrated by our
readers in trying to discover familiar likenesses in these quaint old
photographs.


McKay Post Manager Dies

_B. F. Cooper Served H.B.C. Thirty-Seven Years in North_

B. F. Cooper, an old timer and Hudson's Bay fur trader, died at Fort
McMurray, May 28th, after an illness of some weeks. Mr. Cooper was an
Englishman, an old "blue-coat school" boy, brought up in London. Instead
of moving in the limelight of politics Mr. Cooper chose the quiet and
lasting work of pioneering on the frontier posts of the empire and for
thirty-six years had been a trusted and faithful servant of the Hudson's
Bay Company, in charge of the Fort McKay post.

[Illustration: B. F. COOPER]

A few weeks before his death, an urgent message was sent to Fort
McMurray for medical help and immediately the Company chartered a motor
boat to bring Mr. Cooper from McKay. He was given every possible care.

The funeral took place on Sunday, May 29th, in the little Presbyterian
church at McMurray, the coffin being covered with the Hudson's Bay flag
and borne by Hudson's Bay men, C. C. Sinclair, J. Cunningham, L. Lane,
G. Petty, H. Porter, Captain McLeod, Ed. Jones and J. Sutherland. The
little church was crowded with people who followed to the cemetery the
remains of the respected old timer whose only relative present was a son
of sixteen years. Mr. Cooper leaves a wife and seven children. His
record with the Company follows:

  Date        Capacity         Post

  1884-1885   Clerk            N.D. Office, Winnipeg
  1885-1887   In charge        Fort Ellice
  1887-1895   In charge        Touchwood Hills
  1895-1899   Accountant       Chipewyan
  1899-1904   Clerk in charge  Fond du Lac
  1904-1905   Clerk            Onion Lake
  1905-1912   Clerk            Fort Smith
  1912-1914   Post Manager     Chipewyan
  1914-1921   Post Manager     McKay


Tried for North Pole by Balloon

_H.B.C. Was on Lookout for Ill-Fated Andree Polar Party, 1896_

By H. M. S. COTTER

While I was stationed at North West River Post on the Labrador coast in
1896, the government of Norway and Sweden sent out an arctic expedition
in a polar balloon to make an attempt at reaching the North Pole.

The Company, anxious to lend a hand to the success of this scientific
exploration to the top of the earth, despatched to its many far northern
posts drawings of the balloon like the illustration shown, accompanied
by the notice:

    "In the summer of 1896 a balloon (an object like that shown on
    the drawing) may be seen floating in the air. This balloon will
    convey a party of three Swedish scientists who have been making
    explorations towards the North Pole by these means.

    The Government of Sweden and Norway has requested that the
    explorers may receive all possible assistance. Natives should
    therefore be told that the balloon is not a dangerous thing, but
    merely a mode of conveyance in the air just as a ship is in the
    water.

    Natives should be told to approach the people in it without fear
    and to give them all the help in their power.

    If the balloon is seen only, the natives should be told to
    communicate the day and hour, the direction and time it was
    visible, and the direction of the wind.

    If the people arrive, having lost the balloon, the natives to be
    told to give them all possible assistance.

    It is requested that the travellers may be supplied with passport
    and all necessary official documents, the names being:

    Mr. Solomon August Andree, aged 42; Dr. Nils Gustaf Ekholm, aged
    48; Mr. Nils Strindberg, aged 24."

[Illustration: _The Drawing of Andree's Polar Balloon._]

According to instructions, I informed all the Indians to be on the
lookout for the balloon.

Early one morning an Indian rushed into the store to say he had heard an
awful "ringing of bells" away up in the heavens and was sure it was the
balloon passing.

I could see or hear nothing, but the native persisted in his story. I
told him it might have been Andree ringing the breakfast bell. I could
only get him calmed down by giving him some tobacco. Probably that was
all he was after.

Traces of Andree were said to have been found at Cape Mugford, Northern
Labrador, but no positive proof was ever obtained.

Another story came from Ft. Churchill to the effect that an Eskimo had
found some clothing supposed to have been from the balloon, but these
were said to have been left behind by Mr. J. B. Tyrrell on one of his
expeditions.



WHAT HAPPENED AT FORT SIMPSON, N.W.T. DURING WINTER, 1921?

_From entries in the Post Journal by Manager A. F. Camsell_


Jan., 1921

    1--The usual reception was given the Indians this morning and a
    Dance will take place in the evening till 12 p.m.

    5--Mail arrived from Liard this evening; they were ten days coming
    down.

    8--Mail arrived from Providence at 10 a.m.

    10--Mr. P. H. Godsell with Robbillard, driver, and two Liard men
    left for Liard this morning. Mr. Godsell goes to Liard on an
    inspection trip. The mail left yesterday for McPherson.

    12--Five men and two trains of dogs arrived from the south this
    afternoon en route to the Norman oil fields to stake claims.

    13--Tony Neis and a party of oil men arrived from the south
    this evening en route to the Norman oil fields to stake claims;
    Corporal Doke and Constable Brackett of the Mounted Police also
    arrived and are to be stationed at Norman.

    17--Clear and cold, 38 below.

    22--Mr. T. W. Harris and W. George left for Norman this morning in
    connection with the staking of claims below Norman.

    28--Inspector Godsell returned today from a trip to Liard.

Feb.

    2--Wind North. Mr. Godsell, Mr. Jackson, clerk, Robbillard, W.
    Sibbiston and John Hope, forerunner, left for Good Hope this
    morning with two trains of dogs. Wind North.

    19--Mail arrived from the South today, 20 days behind schedule
    time.

    23--Clear and fine. Mr. Conibear and two sons arrived from Smith
    with two trains of dogs to stake claims at Norman.

    25--Clear and mild, thawing in the sun for the first time this
    season. Norwegian arrived from Rabbit Skin River with a good bunch
    of furs.

Mar.

    2--Most of the oil prospectors left for the south today after
    recording their claims here.

    12--Mr. Harry McGurn arrived with the mail from the North last
    night. Mr. Wada and party accompanied him from Wrigley.

    18--Mail arrived from Providence today, 18 days behind time. This
    mail will do down as far as McPherson.

    30--Cloudy and thawing. H. Camsell and W. Johnson went for a moose
    across the river this morning. Two airplanes arrived this morning
    at 11:30 a.m. from Peace River. They were one hour and forty
    minutes travelling time from Providence.

Apr.

    1--W. Johnson, H.B.C. engineer, making propellor for airplane.

    5--One of the airplanes started for Norman this morning and met
    with an accident in starting, smashing the prop. and damaging one
    of the wings.

    15--One of the airplanes took a trial trip with a new prop. this
    afternoon and appeared to give satisfaction.

    18--W. Johnson left this morning at 2 a.m. with two trains of dogs
    and supplies for work on the S.S. Liard at Spence River.

    22--Wind North and snowing most of the day. Both airplanes are now
    ready, and they will be leaving for Peace River as soon as the
    weather is favourable.



The Englishman and The "Grizzly"

_A Bear Story With a Stinger_

By C. H. FRENCH


Leaving Wrangell, Alaska, for Telegraph Creek, British Columbia, in the
spring of 1914, I overtook an Englishman who intended to spend the
summer in the interior of British Columbia, and after enjoying a big
game hunt in the fall would return to civilization.

Before we had got far up the river, night overtook us, making it
necessary for the "gas" boat on which we were travelling to tie up for
the night. The beach on which we landed was a sandy one that would
permit of walking along the shore for some distance; so my friend, the
Englishman, started out to stretch his legs.

Not far up the beach there commenced a large piece of low, swampy
country and just before coming to it my friend caught a glimpse of what
he thought was a large grizzly bear going speedily through the bush.
Wasn't the Englishman excited! A few well-directed spider-like movements
landed him back on the launch. After his struggle for breath was over we
learned the exciting news. We agreed that our friend should be allowed
to do all the execution, while we kept in the background in order to
help out should the brute attack.

Guns were made ready and a stealthy advance was commenced. At length the
rifle of our friend went to his shoulder and bang! In a moment the
monster was dead.

By this time it was quite dark, so we made haste and prepared to drag
the game to the launch to be skinned. Finally, after tugging and working
with all our strength, with perspiration pouring off our foreheads, we
concluded the carcass was too heavy to be handled by only six ordinary
men.

A suggestion was then made to run a line from the boat and attach it to
the hand capstan and haul him along in that way. This scheme was tried
and after working hard (putting more grease on the gears every ten
minutes) our enthusiasm began to wane and before another half hour had
passed it was decided to leave the monster where it was until daylight,
when it would be skinned where it lay.

We were up bright and early the next morning and while breakfast was
being prepared the hunting and skinning knives were ground and sharpened
to a fine edge and fit to cut the toughest hide or even to shave with.

Breakfast was finished and we trooped off to where lay the king of the
forest (especially the low-lying swampy fringed forest) and after coats
were thrown off and sleeves rolled up to above the elbows the operation
of skinning was ready to commence.

Our friend the Englishman was naturally anxious that the job be a neat
one, as he certainly was anxious to have that hide mounted, especially
on account of its large size and its being the first specimen of big
game killed by him in Cassiar, and he suggested that we wait a few
minutes longer until it was full daylight.

At last the light of the rising sun commenced to show brightly in the
east until it ended in one great burst of brilliant glory which held us
as in a trance admiring its beauty.

Finally we turned to the animal and the work of skinning. One glance in
the improved light was sufficient to show that there was something
wrong, and that our grizzly bear was not a bear after all.

But what was it? Owing to my years of experience the matter was referred
to me, and after making a close examination I was able to announce with
surety that the supposed grizzly bear was _only a common, everyday
Stikine River mosquito_, of perhaps a little greater size than is
usually encountered.

It was then up to everyone to remark that they were sure from the first
that it was not a bear. But the climax was reached when the Englishman
_expressed surprise that we had any doubts about what the animal really
was_ right from the start, because he had killed it _only to get the
stinger_, which, he was told, made an excellent golf club.


Pigeon Trap

In the June issue I note a reference to the pigeon trap at H.B.C.
Calgary Gun Club.

As a devotee of the gun myself, and without any wish to presume to
dictate to Mr. Chamberlain or any member of the Gun Club, I would
respectfully draw his attention to the fact that the practice
of shooting live pigeons sprung from traps has received severe
condemnation; so much so that it is contemplated to discontinue the
"sport" at Monte Carlo, Biarritz, and many other fashionable resorts.
Also the British parliament intended to set the seal of its disapproval
on this pastime by an Act which would render it prohibitive.

    _The Times_ of April 27th, 1921, says:

    "_A standing committee of the House of Commons, over which Mr.
    Hodge presided, yesterday considered the Bill introduced by Sir
    Burton Chadwick to prohibit the use of captive birds in all
    shooting carried on under artificial conditions._

    "_Sir Burton Chadwick moved a minor amendment to Clause 1, which
    renders any person concerned in shooting of captive birds liable
    to a maximum fine of £25, or imprisonment for a term not exceeding
    three months or to both._"

    Again on May 27th, _The Times_ reports:

    "_We are able to state on high authority that the directors of the
    Casino at Monte Carlo have decided to abandon the use of living
    birds in the pigeon-shooting competitions at Monte Carlo._"

    _John McMurray, Chief Accountant's Office, Winnipeg_


Old Fur Trader Ill

Joseph Sinclair, 83, a former H.B.C. fur trader at York Factory and in
the Saskatchewan district, was admitted to the Winnipeg General Hospital
on April 21st. Mr. Sinclair is suffering from cancer, a rodent ulcer on
the face. He has had an attack of pneumonia while in hospital, but
recovered and according to his physician is doing as well as could be
expected.



The Vanished Buffalo Herds of North America

_Kingly Race That Once Roamed a Continent Almost Wiped Out for "A Dollar
a Hide"; Straggling Survivors Carefully Guarded_

By W. E. ANDERSON


About the year 1879 a party of Metis hunters came to the plains
southwest of the present situation of Regina, Saskatchewan, to hunt
buffalo. The party consisted of the father, a man then on the elderly
side of middle age, but who had been in his youth a noted buffalo runner
and Indian fighter; his wife, a heavy half-breed woman of some fifty
years; and his daughter, a girl of about seventeen of a comely and
attractive appearance.

The father, according to his custom, followed the chase on horseback,
the old woman, seated amongst robes and camp baggage, drove the creaking
Red river cart, whilst the young girl was in and out of the vehicle like
an eager young spirit of the prairie.

That season there were very few carts which came to the plains after
buffalo. The great herds that used to blacken the country to the rim of
the horison had thundered away into the limbo of the lost, and all that
was left of them was a few stragglers that still haunted some of the
more remote valley bottoms.

The halfbreeds had strange and superstitious ideas about the passing of
the buffalo. They could not believe that they had gone never to return.
It was only yesterday that the plains were black with the shaggy herds.
Their trails and wallows were still to be seen everywhere.

[Illustration: _Our map diagram indicates the approximate distribution
of the buffalo grounds prior to 1800; limitations, Mississippi River,
Rocky Mountains, Gulf of Mexico and Great Slave Lake._]

This particular Metis hunter believed that they had gone to some new
pasturage, and that if they could be found the hunting would again be
as good as in the days of yore.

So for a period of years he led his family up and down the plains. One
season they wintered at Wood Mountain, another they wandered as far
north as Ile a la Crosse, then again at the Milk River; but in all their
wanderings they found none of the vanished herds.

One winter they came to Fort Edmonton, and there the mother who had
suffered for years from goitre, and was doubtless wearied with much
wandering, lay down and quietly died.

Towards the close of the winter there came to the Post a Touchwood
Indian who had been in the Slave River country as a dog driver for a
Hudson's Bay officer. He told the halfbreed hunter that in the northern
country of the lakes and rivers he had heard strange tales of great
herds of buffalo. He had actually seen some himself. They were larger
than the old-time buffalo of the plains, and their coats were longer and
silkier.

The old hunter brightened at the news. Here at last was the word of the
missing herds; making a company of travel with an Iroquois river man,
they penetrated through labyrinths of waterways to the region of the far
north.

There is no doubt but that the old hunter had been misled by rumors of
the herd of wood-buffalo which had existed for many years in the Slave
River country, and which are today carefully protected by the Northwest
Mounted Police patrol.

The original area over which the buffalo ranged began almost at
tide-water on the Atlantic coast. It extended westward through a vast
tract of dense forest, across the Alleghany mountains to the prairies
along the Mississippi, and southward to the delta of that great stream.

Although the vast plains country of the west was the natural home of the
species, where it flourished most abundantly, it also wandered south
across Texas to the burning plains of north-eastern Mexico, westward
across the Rocky mountains into New Mexico, Utah and Idaho, and
northward across a vast treeless waste to the bleak and inhospitable
shores of Great Slave and Hudson Bay.

Vast herds of bison seemed to clothe the prairies in a coat of brown.
They roamed the country around the headwaters of the Qu'Appelle river in
tens of thousands.

Catlin has given some idea of the enormous numbers of bison that were
killed during the first half of the nineteenth century. In 1832 he
stated that 150,000 to 200,000 robes were marketed annually, which meant
a slaughter of 2,000,000 or perhaps 3,000,000 bison. So great was the
destruction that he prophesied their extermination within eight or ten
years.

The death knell was struck when the construction of the Union Pacific
railway was begun at Omaha in 1866. Prior to the advent of the first
transcontinental railway the difficulties of marketing the results of
the slaughter served as a slight check on the rate of extermination. The
destruction began in earnest in 1876 and was complete four years later.
The facility for shipping out the hides over the new railways was the
cause of the rapid disappearance of the buffalo.

In the United States, buffalo hunters grew prosperous shooting down the
animals for "a dollar a hide."

While the accompanying map is approximately correct, the feeding ground
was necessarily subject to food material. In such years, for instance,
as the grasshoppers spread devastation over large tracts of the
Northwest--when for miles and miles not a blade of grass could be
seen--it is only reasonable to expect that the buffalo changed his
regular stamping ground.

William T. Hornaday, the naturalist, estimated, January 1st, 1908, the
number of wild bison in the Rocky Mountains at 25, and the number in
Canada at 300. About 130 are captive in Europe, and 1116 in the United
States, bringing the total number of pure bred bison up to 2047. A large
herd is under the protection of the Canadian government in the park at
Wainwright, Alberta. The more notable American herds are found in
Corbin's game preserve, New Hampshire; in Oklahoma; in the Yellowstone
national park; and on various private ranches in the western part of the
United States.



FAMOUS H.B.C. CAPTAINS AND SHIPS

(Continued from the June issue)

By H. M. S. COTTER, Cumberland House


The "Pelican" once scraped the sunken ledges near Cartwright, but no
H.B.C. ship has left her "bones" to rot on that iron-bound shore.

Little is known of the wrecks that do take place on this coast, but I
have heard of appalling disasters amongst the hardy fishermen. On the
Nova Scotian coast, collision with ice and subsequent loss of life is
not infrequent. Every year there are wrecks of some kind. Ocean-going
steamers have been forced ashore and become total wrecks. And so it is
remarkable that H.B.C. ships have never met with disaster, especially
considering their many ports of call.

In 1908 I was a passenger on the "Pelican" (Captain Alex. Grey) bound
for Fort Chimo, Ungava. From the time we left Quebec till we passed Cape
Harrison, North of Hamilton Inlet, Labrador, we had enjoyed fair
weather. But the clouds and rising sea denoted a change.

We were then standing off the coast nearly twelve miles and steaming at
about seven knots. The wind kept veering between N. and N.E., finally
blowing straight down the coast about north. We stood farther out to
sea. At nightfall it was blowing half a gale with rain coming down--and
mist. Our speed then was not more than three knots and gradually getting
less till about 2 o'clock in the morning when the wind increased to a
living gale, screeching and howling through the rigging and stopping all
progress. It was then decided to run for shelter, but the nearest
harbour was forty miles south, a place named _Webek_. Captain Grey had
been in this harbour only once, about twenty-five years before, and no
one else aboard had ever anchored there. They turned the ship and we
came scudding south in the blackness of night, then lay-to till dawn,
and picking up the land approached at half speed.

To give some idea of the gale outside, when we finally came to an
anchorage about 8 o'clock in the morning, the swell was so great in the
harbour with the continued violence of the wind that we kept steaming to
the anchors to prevent dragging and as the sailors say we were rolling
"like maggots in an oak apple." Several fishing schooners had run in the
day before and even in shelter the crews had abandoned some of the
vessels, as they were dragging their anchors and in imminent danger of
going ashore.

The Captain was on the bridge all night. For hours he stood in the bow
of the boat hanging in the starboard davits peering through the gloom
and mist, looking for landmarks and the harbour entrance. He had on a
black sou'wester and oil-skin coat and great long sea-boots. His face
was streaming with the rain and spray--a gigantic, picturesque figure,
and on this particular morning, unusually silent.

When the ship was snug and safe he came off the bridge, and all he said
was, "Aye, aye, a little wind," and then he turned in.

The entries in the log were quite commonplace--all in the day's work, as
it were--and one would never glean from them that a ship and cargo worth
a quarter of a million had been safely brought to a haven of refuge
through exceptional seamanship and courage.

It was in 1894 that Captain Grey in the "Erik," when near Resolution
Island at the entrance of the Straits, ran into an iceberg. It happened
at night in a thick fog. The ship was moving slowly at the time and
before the lookout saw or could give warning she had poked her nose into
the 'berg. Her long bowsprit of pitch pine was crumpled up like so much
matchwood, and the gear attached to it and one of the catheads was
carried away.

Masses of ice came thundering down on her forecastle head, doing much
damage to the woodwork. In the meantime the lookout sprinted aft, the
watch below came tumbling up on deck and made for safety. The ship was
put astern and hove to till daylight. They steamed up next day close
enough to see a hole as big as a house which they had punched in the
side of the 'berg. All the damage to the ship fortunately was done above
the water line.

When the "Erik" returned to Rigolet in October she was sporting a dinky
little jib-boom made from one of the spare spars carried on deck for
just such an emergency.

Mr. John Ford, a passenger on his way to Georges River Post, told me he
never saw Captain Grey more cool or collected. He gave orders as if
nothing unusual were taking place. And at breakfast next morning all he
said in reference to it was, "Aye, aye, a little ice."


F. T. C. O. Notes

Ralph Parsons, district manager for Labrador, left St. John's,
Newfoundland, June 1st for inspection of fur trade posts in his
district, including Cartwright, Rigolet, Northwest River and Davis
Inlet. Mr. Parsons will later board the H.B.C. supply ship at Grady, off
the Labrador coast, and proceed north to the Hudson Straits section of
his district.

_L. Romanet_, fur trade general inspector, left Vancouver at the end of
May for inspection of posts in the British Columbia district. He will
return in August.

_T. P. O'Kelly_ was to go on Company's business with the "Lady
Kindersley," which was scheduled to sail from Vancouver for the Western
Arctic, June 28th.

_W. R. Mitchell_, post manager at Fort Churchill, left Winnipeg June
17th for his station, going via The Pas and York Factory.

_John Bartleman_, district manager for Keewatin, left Winnipeg June 20th
for his regular summer inspection trip of fur trade posts.

_The Company has engaged_ twelve apprentice clerks in Scotland for
service at H.B.C. fur trade posts in northern Canada. The party of young
men sailed from Southampton June 15th on the "Corsican" for Montreal.

_J. J. Barker_, district manager for Saskatchewan, left Prince Albert
June 18th on summer inspection trip. He will return August 1st.

_Mrs. Owen Griffith_, wife of the post manager at Albany, James' Bay
district, was in Winnipeg during June visiting her mother, Mrs. Allan
Nicolson.


KAMLOOPS, B. C. STORE NEWS

_Miss Smith_, of the ready-to-wear department, returned June 1st after
two weeks' vacation, part of which was spent with her mother and sisters
at Barriere.

_Mr. Madill_, of the shoe department, made a short visit to Calgary to
meet Mr. Purves, manager of shoe department of Winnipeg Depot.

_Miss Weatherby_, of the dry goods department, is on a two weeks'
vacation trip to the coast cities.

_Mrs. Munn_, wife of our grocery manager, who has just undergone two
very trying operations in Vancouver Hospital, is home again and we are
pleased to note her marked improvement.

_Harry Campbell_ is the latest addition to our grocery staff and is
welcomed by all.

[Illustration: Youthful Portrait No. 1]

Who is it? Send your guess to the Photograph Editor, _The Beaver_ and
watch for the name next month.

_Mrs. L. G. Mayer_, wife of the post manager at Great Whale River, was
visiting relatives in Fort William during June and has returned to the
post. _Nixon, our esteemed_ checker and shipper, is a recognized expert
in all matters pertaining to horticulture. When the North Kamloops
May-Day committee was making preparations for their celebration this
year and wanted something very special in the way of flowers for the May
Queen's crown they appointed Mr. Nixon a committee of one to grow
flowers for this purpose and to make the crown.


A True Fish Story

By GEO. R. ROBSON, Esquimalt, B.C.

If one chanced to be in the neighbourhood of the Naas river in the early
spring of the year, when the bolachan (candle fish) run begins, he could
not fail to notice the large number of ducks gathered in the bays and
the eagles perched on almost every tree skirting the beaches, all on the
watch for the coming feast.

Sit down for a while and notice what is going on. Ah! there is a
fishhawk darting into the water of the bay. It is up again with a fish
clutched in its talons; see, there comes an eagle in full chase rapidly
overtaking the hawk which is now soaring up and up. It is useless; the
eagle soon rises above and swoops down on the osprey. The fish abandoned
and falling is followed by the eagle and caught before it reaches the
water. So it goes on day by day while the run continues.

At Nelson one Sunday afternoon when walking towards town, looking
towards the lake I saw a hawk rise with a fish, and sure enough an eagle
just starting in pursuit. (I pointed them out to my wife and children
who were with me.) They were coming in our direction, flying low.

Thinking the eagle might be driven off, I gathered a few pebbles, and
when the birds were almost above us threw them and shouted loudly. To my
surprise the hawk dropped the fish and both birds wheeled about and flew
in the direction of the lake. The fish fell in the brush about a hundred
feet away. I ran to the spot; there was a fine trout wriggling in the
grass. Jack Gibson, the drug store man, had appeared on the scene and
called out, "What have you got there?" "Oh, only to-morrow's breakfast,"
I replied.

[Illustration: _Guests at Kitchen Shower given for Miss Smith_]

Gets Wheelbarrow-full of Aluminum Pans

Miss Smith, manager of the ready-to-wear department, who is leaving
shortly to be married, was the guest of honor at a kitchen shower given
at the home of Miss Stella Cozens by the lady members of our staff and
friends, who represented in almost every instance former members of the
staff.

The shower consisted of aluminum kitchen utensils in a wheelbarrow
decorated with crepe paper and flowers, surmounted by two kewpie dolls
dressed as bride and groom.

After lunch was served and everybody felt happy and comfortable, Miss
Dougans gave a little exhibition of acrobatic skill.


MONTREAL

       *       *       *       *       *

_H.B.C. Eastern Buying Agency News_


The following buyers for the new H.B.C. Victoria store were in the East
during June:

  Miss J. Murdock.
  Miss A. G. McLaren.
  Mr. Hunter.
  Mr. Gordon.

_Miss F. O'Grady and Mr. Frankish_, from the Winnipeg retail branch,
were with us June 17th, and Mr. Thomas Ross, of the Winnipeg Depot, also
spent a few days in Montreal.

_Miss Kate Currie, of Vancouver_, recently paid us a visit and is now en
route for home.


WINNIPEG


_Retail Store News_

_At a recent meeting_ of the managers and buyers of the store two of our
associates were honored for their service records. Miss F. Smith had
just attained ten years' service, all of which was given in Winnipeg
store. Mr. Roland Hoccon had just completed twenty years in the
Company's employ.

In the name of the Governor, Mr. Sparling commented upon the creditable
records of both Miss Smith and Mr. Hoccon, and presented Mr. Hoccon with
a twenty-year bar to his long service medal.

_Tom Johnson_, of the men's clothing department, was a busy man during
the week of June 1st. Tom is a hard working member of the Manitoba
Football Association and was on the reception committee from Manitoba to
welcome the visiting aggregation of Scottish football experts.

_Everyone regrets_ that we are losing Miss Netta McEwan, who will occupy
an important position in the new Victoria store. Miss McEwan's pleasing
personality has won her many friends during her years of association
with us and we are, frankly, jealous of Victoria store.

_Suppose Mr. Saalfeld_ would probably like to present us with a crate of
retired eggs--one at a time--for saying so, but it just occurred to us
that an advertisement of the following character should be productive of
considerable business during the summer months:

    "_The Beauty Parlors announce for Wednesday a sale of stylish new
    moustaches. These will be made up for two simoleons, in color
    desired to match any facial decoration scheme--waxed, fitted and
    attached free of extra charge. Line forms on the left!_"

_Miss Kandie, Miss Garnier and Miss Girourd_ have all left us, amid
showers of confetti, during the last little while. Object, matrimony.

[Illustration: Youthful Portrait No. 2]

Who is it? If you "have a hunch" send in your guess and watch for name
in the August issue.


Listening-in at an H.B.C. Dance!

(Imaginary Scraps of Desiccated Conversation Collected at a Company
Dance).

  "_I have just two left open."
    "Say, isn't he lanky!"
  "Who is that dressed in Copen?"
    "There--I've lost my hankie!_"

  "_Hear that saxophone whine!"
    "Who's your friend, may I ask?"
  "Have yu tried the grape-vine?"
    "Whew! This three-step's some task!_"

  "_Now, you take a pace back."
    "See here--when do we eat?"
  "Like a sea-going hack--
    "Stepped all over my feet!_"

  "_Such a long intermish!"
    "Do you wish lemonade?"
  "She's like Dorothy Gish."
    "Yes, that's imported Jade._"

  "_I could fox-trot all night."
    "And never grow weary!"
  "M-m-m! My face is a sight;
    "Slip me your puff, dearie._"

  "_There's those two, cheek to cheek!"
    "Ho! See that man bowing."
  "Now, don't jump when I speak--
    But your ears are showing!_"

  "_'Home, Sweet Home!'--You live far?"
    "Why you're really so kind,--
  But then Art. bro't his car;
    I am sure you won't mind._"

--_From_ "Piebald Pomes and other Atrocities" by the Akoond of Swat.


Joe Scott Tends Goal Against All-Stars

By T. REITH

Joe Scott was pleasantly surprised when he received a handsome gold
watch fob bearing the following inscription:

    _Presented to Joseph Scott by his admirers in Hudson's Bay Store
    for splendid display as goalkeeper against Scottish All-Star
    Football Team,_

    _Winnipeg, June 9th, 1921._

Joe is an esteemed member of our delivery department and was honored by
Manitoba footballers in being chosen to keep goal for Manitoba against
the visiting Scottish stars.

Said the one and only Jimmy McMenemy: "We won with ease, but there is
one consolation left for the home boys, and that is that they are the
best team we have yet opposed.

"Your goalkeeper, Joe Scott, is a worthy custodian. Facing a blinding
sun and having to handle a lively ball, he put up a great game between
the sticks. I thought that some of his saves were particularly fine."

[Illustration: _Joe Scott stopping a "hot shot" from Andy Wilson of the
visiting stars._]


WHOLESALE DEPOT

_Miss Rose Paradis_, late steno star, was our first "June bride." Rose
was married at Sedan on Wednesday, June 8th.

_Miss Maude Poole_, who came out from England, joining the staff of
steno stars, was our next "June bride," being married on Saturday, June
11th, to Mr. L. Keeble, of Winnipeg. The wedding took place at St.
Luke's church, Fort Rouge, at 4 o'clock. The girls of the staff
presented Miss Poole with an electric table lamp as a token of their
appreciation.

_Poor Bobby_ (Miss Gow) is on the sick list and is unfortunately
compelled to miss the first part of the tennis season. Bobby was one of
our enthusiasts last year.

_Miss Fairbanks_ is another unfortunate one on the sick list.

_Football_--The team in the Commercial League are still going at a great
gait--Government Telephones and Eaton's Wanderers being beaten 2-1 and
1-0, respectively. To date the Wholesale have played four games, winning
two and drawing two.

_Tennis_--Like bears awakening after the winter's sleep, so the long
evenings and fine weather is luring the tennis fans on to the courts.
The latest converts are Miss Kellet, Miss Vusom, Miss Smeaton and Bill
Paul. All members of the staff are welcome and we wish that more would
come out and take advantage of the courts.

_Quoits._--The Wholesale section of the depot are going to try for the
quoits championship this year. Many are coming out for practice games,
and as one remarked the other night, "Watch our smoke."


Modern Canoes for Northland

A carload of modern Peterboro canoes will go forward shortly from
Edmonton to Fort McPherson, at the mouth of the McKenzie River, for
distribution among the northernmost posts of H.B.C.

This modern type of canoe is being shipped in to take the place of the
old time birchbark, and this summer will see them being paddled by
Eskimos and Indians who hitherto have never navigated anything more
modern than a kayak or birchbark canoe.

The new canoes weigh but forty pounds each, although twelve feet in
length. They are intended especially for the requirements of the lone
hunter. There are twelve canoes in all going to the far north in this
shipment, including the various types and sizes from the big cruiser to
the trapper's craft.


LETHBRIDGE (Alta.) STORE NEWS

An enjoyable time was had on May 24th at the club house on Henderson
Lake by the members and friends of the Hudson's Bay Athletic Association
of Lethbridge.

Baseball, boating, music and dancing provided entertainment for the
large crowd. In the afternoon a presentation of a knife and fork cabinet
was made to Mr. Charles Briggs, who recently took unto himself a wife.
The presentation was made by Mr. C. H. Fair on behalf of the management
and staff.

_Miss Reeves_ attended the Gossard corset demonstration at Calgary
recently.

_Mr. W. Thomson_, who recently arrived in Canada from Scotland, and who
has served overseas with the Imperial Army as French and German
interpreter with the army of occupation, is now manager of the house
furnishings department. Mr. Thomson has had a number of years'
experience in Glasgow.

_Mr. Charles Briggs_ has been transferred to the managership of our
grocery department.

_Miss Patterson_ left for a short visit to Vancouver where she has
undergone an operation and we are pleased to know that she is
progressing favorably and able to enjoy the scenic wonders of the coast
city.

_Mrs. Mars_ is now back with us after a short illness.

_Mr. George Burns_, manager of the shoe department, is on the sick list,
but we hope to see him back in his department shortly.


GENERAL OFFICE (WINNIPEG) NEWS

The publicity department removed June 8th from York Street to the
executive offices at 208 Main Street.

_T. H. Irvine_, caretaker, was heard talking to himself, chuckling, and
saying something about a "prize bairn." Mrs. Irvine is doing well, and
Thomas Henry is the name of the fine new baby.

_Colin Urquhart_, whose retirement was reported in our issue of
December, 1920, was a visitor last month. He looked the picture of
health.

_Miss Peggy Boyle_ and Mr. W. A. Wylde, of the chief accountant's office
were on holidays from June 13th to 27th.

[Illustration: Winnipeg Dry Goods Staff, 1898. Any familiar faces here?]


VANCOUVER

[Illustration: _This up-and-coming aggregation of H.B.C. Vancouver
baseball artists has been playing in hard luck so far, but enthusiastic
rooting will encourage them to fight for a place at the top. Our 'photo
shows the players from left to right: McReery, Leaney, Vater, Stedham,
Barber, Anderson, Jopson, Cline, Rawlinson, Adams._]


Watch These Ball Players From Now On

By L. A. KEELE

Out of four games played the team has yet to win a game, but the boys
are trying hard and with a little co-operation and support from the rest
of the store staff the ball team will yet be seen in the form of a
championship contender.

All games are played immediately after the close of business and it is
hard to expect the boys to be on hand and ready to play at a moment's
notice. However, that is one of the hardships they are working under and
if the supporters of our team will have patience until the team gets
into its stride they will see the team win ball games.

Support the team. Come out to every game; let the boys who are playing
know that you are behind them. Make a noise when you are there and don't
let the players think that the whole crowd is rooting for the other
team.

City senior baseball is good and any team that can make good in the
league are ball players.

In view of the fact that this is the H.B.C. store's first attempt to
field a team in the city league, and all other teams have the rest of
the city to choose from, whereas the H.B.C. team is being confined to
store boys, we have a very formidable aggregation.


No Skirts for This 4200-Foot Climb

By A. HUMPHREYS

A party of five of the younger set--Misses E. Martin, L. Geach, V.
Fairhurst, A. Humphreys and M. Phillips, started out for a hike up
Grouse Mountain on a Sunday in June.

After an enjoyable ride on the ferry they boarded the car for the
mountain, started to climb about ten o'clock and reached Mosquito Creek
(2000 feet) about noon. There camp was struck. The climb was continued
to the summit, which was reached about 4 o'clock.

A lively game of snowball was enjoyed by these ardent Alpine spirits,
who nothing daunted by the 4200-foot grade, declared they had the time
of their lives.

Many of the staff will no doubt want to follow in the footsteps of these
pioneer trail-breakers. But girls, side-step skirts and get into riding
trousers for this climb!

       *       *       *       *       *

_Mr. H. Pout_, H.B.C. manager at Vernon, who has been recently appointed
to position of merchandise manager at Victoria store, was in Vancouver
during June making arrangements for entering his new sphere in the
Company's service.


Presentation to Mr. Horne

J. S. Horne, assistant accountant, who has devoted twelve years of
faithful service at the Vancouver store, was presented on June 11th with
a gold watch and chain as a mark of the regard in which he is held by
the staff, the occasion being the transfer of Mr. Horne to the new store
soon to be opened at Victoria.

Mr. Lockyer, general manager, made the presentation in the presence of
representatives from the different departments of the store.


H.B.C. Cribbage Players Win Baxter Cup

The aggregate scores for the season in the Vancouver inter-club and
cribbage association show the Hudson's Bay Company players as winners of
the T. S. Baxter cup for single points, while G.W.V.A. has carried off
the double championship and with it the cup donated by H. T. Lockyer.


Wholesome Minds

A Few Thoughts for Our Younger Folks (older ones not barred)

_By Mrs. Jack Hawkshaw_

When a young woman's skirt or a young man's trousers show bulging
creases over the knees, their owners are living a sedentary life or have
never learned to walk correctly.

Stand erect with the upper part of the chest "leading." Breathe deeply,
laugh deeply and smoothly. Don't giggle and squirm, girls. Have poise.
It is the most wonderful health inspirer on earth. How many of us
realize that a flustered mind is the cause of more disease than the
inoculation of poisonous germs?

Physicians are coming more and more to see the power of mentality. A
great deal of practice of the now-a-days physician is in "cheering up"
his patients and routing morbid fears. Every thought has an effect of
some sort on the human body. How often an unreasoning fear of a disease
will bring about conditions which make for the "catching" of it!

We would have fewer cases of "chronic ailments" if only folks would
realize that if it is "chronic" then it can not be very "killing"
trouble, else people would not last for years (sometimes for more than
half a century) with some affliction that they become so attached to
they could not live without.

You know in every community there is the chronic sufferer from insomnia
who forty-nine times out of every fifty nights has not "slept a wink."
Sleeplessness is his hobby.

By all means let us throw the windows of our minds wide open to the
blessed breezes of heaven and rejoice in this "best of all possible
worlds." Live vitally, energetically. Really "enjoy your work" and throw
yourselves with might and main into play.

And remember, the Hudson's Bay Company, which has existed for 251 years,
does not require _you_ to be its Atlas when you go home at night. It
will get along quite as well if you lay business aside, out of your
mind, and relax and "air your brain" from the fatigues of the day and
then come back in the morning full of "pep" ready to give good measure
in the service you have sold them.

Some of our young ladies like to do a little bit of homekeeping in their
spare time; one we know of has a wonderful little "cabin home" on the
wooded shores of Burrard Inlet. On Wednesdays and Sundays she dispenses
hospitality to a chosen friend or two.

We heard of a most entertaining "party" held not so long ago. It would
appear that the guests foregathered at a rendezvous to be driven to
"Ozocomfy" in another young lady's motor car. They all had a wonderful
day of it, notwithstanding the fact that the motor tires blew off, and
the gas gave out. They pluckily stuck to the game and arrived home after
a most hilarious outing.


Leaving for New Posts at Victoria

Those about to leave Vancouver for their new appointments at Victoria
Store are as follows: _Mr. Porte, manager_; _Mr. Stanhope, manager,
furniture department_; _Mr. Marten, manager, draperies_; _Mrs. Grew,
librarian_; _Mr. Stewart, manager, ladies' shoes_; _Miss McLaren,
manageress, whitewear_; _Miss Grimason, manageress, ready-to-wear_; _Mr.
Wilkinson, manager, delivery_; _Mr. Horne, accountant_; _Mr. McBain,
traffic manager_.


The Wild Man

  "_Who's the stranger, mother dear?
  Look! He knows us! Ain't he queer?"
  "Hush, my own! Don't talk so wild,
  "That's your father, dearest child!"
  "He's my father? No such thing!
  Father died, you know, last spring!"
  "Father didn't die, you dub!
  Father joined a golfing club,
  But they closed the club, so he
  Had no place to go, you see!
  No place left for him to roam,
  That's why he's coming home.
  Kiss him--he won't bite you, child,
  All these golfing guys look wild!_"


EDMONTON

[Illustration: _A pyramid of pretty players who are upholding the honor
of H.B.C. Edmonton retail in the lively game of basketball. Won one,
lost two. More wins soon._]


Retail Store Topics

_Miss Vera Solick_ has recently been promoted as assistant to Mr. Briggs
in the whitewear section.

_Miss Winnie Campbell_, of the whitewear department, is leaving, to be
married. The event will take place the latter part of June.

_Miss A. Lavoy_, of the underwear department, leaves on the 1st of July
for the coast, a change being absolutely necessary for her health.

_Mrs. K. Duncan_, our corsetiere, is leaving for Calgary to attend the
"Gossard School of Instruction" which is being held in that city.

_Miss Ritchie_, of the transfer desk, has changed her name. Mr. Yuill,
of H.B.C. wholesale department, is the cause of this drastic procedure.
The whole store staff tenders them their most hearty congratulations.

_Miss Opal Jobe_, recently of the whitewear section, has been
transferred to the drug department.

_Miss E. Rudder_, of the library, is once more back in her old place at
the stationery counter.

_Mr. Saunders_, of the drug department, is a newcomer and we welcome him
to our ranks.

_Miss Lillian Ritchie_, bride-to-be, was the recipient of a linen
shower, given June 4th by her friends of the store, at the home of Miss
Jennie Jones, Bonnie Doon.

_A certain buyer_ on the main floor went fishing during May, but reports
that all he caught was a "bully cold." Our buyer didn't get a bite, but
as he sat with his friend on the bank of the river he imagined that a
big one was trying to take away his pole which was propped among rocks
while he went for a drink of gingerbeer. He made a dash for the pole,
stumbled on a stone and in trying to avoid a fall, grabbed his
companion. They both rolled into the cold waters of the river. Thus
ended disastrously a promising fishing excursion.


A. & A.A. Early Season Sports Events

_Football_--Our team continues to win and is at the head of the league
table, having played four league games and won them all by scores of
4-0, 1-0, 5-0, and 7-0, and there seems to be nothing to stop us from
annexing the league championship.

_Baseball_--The baseball team has played three league games so far, and
won them all, so they too are strongly in the running, being the only
unbeaten side so far.

_Basketball_--Our girls have played three games since the last report
and have won one of them, losing the others by a single point in each
instance.

_Tennis_--The two new tennis courts which have been in course of
construction were opened on Friday, June 3rd, and a great number took
advantage of the sport provided.

A tournament is being planned. Judging by the number of entrants, it
should be a great success.


LET'S FORGET IT

BY J. PREST

  _If you see a tall fellow ahead of a crowd,
  A leader of men, marching fearless and proud,
  And you know of a tale whose mere telling aloud
  Would cause his proud head in grief to be bowed,
  It's a pretty good plan to forget it._

  _If you know of a skeleton hidden away
  In a closet, and guarded, and kept from the day,
  In the dark, and whose showing, whose sudden display
  Would cause grief and sorrow and lifelong dismay,
  It's a pretty good plan to forget it._

  _If you know of a thing that will darken the joy
  Of a man or a woman, a girl or a boy,
  That will wipe out a smile or leastway annoy,
  Or cause a fellow any gladness to cloy,
  It's a pretty good plan to forget it._

How much brighter and how much more joyful would this old world be if we
all got together and practised that old adage, "Do unto others as ye
would that they do unto you."

This world is too full of sorrow and pain already, and we are all too
ready to condemn when we ought to condone.

What is the matter with us anyway? If one has taken a false step in the
past, is there any reason why they should be given the "cold shoulder,"
especially when they are endeavouring to lead a straight life?

Man or woman is entitled to a square deal, no matter what the past may
have been.

Once the turning point has been passed between right and wrong, and a
firm endeavor is made to keep to the "narrow way," then let us help and
encourage instead of raking up the past and by so doing help wreck a
human soul.

We are all human; many are subject to temptations from which others are
immune. It is usually a case of environment, therefore judge not your
neighbor harshly.

Let's all try to practice the suggestions in the above poem; let's judge
fellow beings by the present--not by the past.


Masquerade Baseball Match Amuses

A big turn-out marked this amusing event on Saturday, June 11th, at the
Company's grounds. About two hundred marched from the store, headed by a
comic jazz band, dressed in almost every conceivable sort of costume.

On arrival at the baseball grounds the fun began in earnest. A troop of
horsemen proved a circus in itself. No less than nine fiery chargers in
the persons of Messrs. Crockett, Ferris, Edwards, Fleming, Arnold,
Plowman, Crockett Jr., and Hardaker, provided fun which was a "scream"
from start to finish.

Frequently the crowd of onlookers were charged by these cavorting and
prancing steeds. Towards the end of the evening, however, Crockett's
horse had its head knocked off and one or two more lost tails and other
parts of their anatomy.

Never had Edmontonians witnessed such a motley crowd as those who took
part and attended this masquerade baseball match. The store manager, Mr.
F. F. Harker, dressed as a stalwart Chinese Mandarin, umpired the game.

The rival teams were as follows:

"_Harmony Has-Beens_"--Miss Peterson, Miss Doherty, Miss McEwen, Miss
Larandeau, Miss Meghy, Mr. Digney, Mr. McKenzie, Mr. B. Stephens, Mr.
Graham.

"_Peerless Misfits_"--Miss McLeod, Miss Bennet, Mrs. Astley, Miss H.
Stephens, Miss Urquhart, Mr. Roberts, Mr. Ferris, Mr. P. Plowman, Mr.
Stephens.

_Score_--"Misfits," 15. "Has-Beens," 8.

[Illustration: Youthful Portrait No. 3]

Who is it? Send in your guess now and watch for name next month.


CALGARY

_Retail Store News_

[Illustration: Officers and Executive of H.B.A.A.A., Season, 1921

Standing--_A. Wilkinson_, _Lou Doll_, _G. Benson_, _T. Walsh_, _H.
Lambert_, _S. McKellar_.

Seated--_Miss Miller_, _F. R. Reeve, Secretary_; _J. S. Smith,
Vice-President_; _J. M. Gibson, President_; _R. W. Mason, Treasurer_;
_Miss McRay_.]


New Department

As a sales-stimulant during June it was decided to take two complete
sections of the fourth floor and create a new department to be known as
Fourth Floor Bargain Centre. This department was opened up in connection
with _June Stock Unloading Campaign_ which ran for a period of eight
days.

Special advertising called attention not only to Fourth Floor Bargain
Centre but to Main Floor Bargain Tables and Rendezvous Bargain Tables as
well. Fourth floor signs were placed on all elevators and on different
floors calling attention to the bargains to be found there.

Considerable interest has been taken by the staff in the formation of
this department and all buyers are very keen to get their merchandise
displayed. If this attitude is reflected by the public there is no doubt
that the creation of this department will prove a decided success.

       *       *       *       *       *

_Holiday time_ is here and several members of the staff are enjoying
themselves in the country and elsewhere. Miss Burrows, of the ladies'
underclothing department, has taken a big risk; she has gone to Ponoka.
Hopes are entertained that she will come back greatly benefited by her
sojourn there.

_Mrs. Marks_, who has resided in Vancouver for a few years, has joined
the whitewear department. She was formerly employed in the blouse
department.


The Adventures of Sales Book No. 666

(_Continued from June issue_)

After the trouble that resulted from my being lost, of which I told you
last month, my owner was for a time very careful where she put me, but
when one is doing one thing and thinking of something altogether
different it won't be long before there is a mistake made--and sure
enough that is what happened.

A lady came up to the counter and my owner, who did not happen to be
serving at the time, asked her what she could show her. The customer
mentioned some little 10c article. My owner produced what was required
and the customer said she would take two. I was then taken up and the
sale was written down, but she did not notice, nor did the cashier, who
knowing the price and looking on the sale slip for 20c saw that and
nothing else. On the sale slip was written 2---- 10|20. It was intended
to mean two articles at 10c ea.--20c; but my owner had placed the 10c in
the $ column, making it look like $10.20. You cannot imagine how
humiliated I felt at the trouble one of my sale slips was, I felt sure,
going to cause; however, I will let it tell its own tale.


_The Story of Sale slip No. 1_

As you know, I am really meant to stand for 20c, but look like $10.20.
The cashier, not noticing the error, stamped me _Paid_, tore me in half,
placed the duplicate portion in the parcel and the original on her file
with a lot of others. Before long others were put on top of me and I
stayed there till store closing time when we were all taken off the
file, tied up and taken to the fourth floor and put in a box with a lot
of other bundles. In the morning we were taken to the audit department
where each bundle was summed up in turn by comptometer operators.

The turn of my bundle soon came; the slips were rapidly added and when
it came to me, sure enough into the machine went $10.20. When the total
of the bundle was compared with the deposit slip it showed the cashier
as being $10.00 short. The bundle was turned back to be re-added;
another operator went through it, and arriving at the same total, and it
was the same with two others who added the bundle. Mr. Cunningham was
then flashed for and the report given to him that the cashier was $10.00
short.

He questioned the cashier but she could not help him. Meanwhile the
audit department were sorting the sale slips and when they had all the
slips for each salesperson in rotation they compared them with the
tallies. When they came to me they saw $10.20 and on the tally only 20c.

They were just about to add $10.00 more on to the tally when they
noticed that the article written on my face was only a 10c article. Then
they realised that the "10" was out of place and that I represented only
20c. By looking at the cashier's stamp number and referring to the
cashier's report they saw she was listed as $10.00 short.

I was then taken to the saleslady who made me out and showed to her. Her
only comment was, "Oh, that's nothing, it's only a little out of place."

    _Note._--_The above was an actual occurrence. The sale slip in
    question was sent to_ The Beaver _but cannot be reproduced here_.


700 Attend Eighth Annual Field Sports

With the exception of a short shower, ideal weather and a bumper crowd
of joyous members made the eighth annual field day of the H.B.A.A.A. one
of the most successful on record.

It was held on Wednesday afternoon, June 8th, on the athletic grounds at
Parkdale. The big programme was run off without a hitch.

The membership to date is the highest on record and well over the 400
mark. Mr. Kitson, of the membership committee, promises to reach 500
before the season has passed.

Mr. Mason and his refreshment committee went to a great deal of trouble
to make the refreshment end a success, and that they did so will be
borne out by each one of the 700 people who partook of them.

Through courtesy of the local military headquarters, the loan of an army
field kitchen was obtained which materially helped the handling of the
liquid refreshments.

[Illustration: _The Happy Throng at H.B.C. Field Day, Calgary, June 8th,
1921_]

Music was supplied by an all-star band during the afternoon, and the
comedy police proved an added feature in patrolling the grounds during
the day. They made several amusing arrests and a court was busily
engaged in pinning on the assessments.

The police tug-of-war team beat the H.B.C. strongmen handily. This is
the same "cop" aggregation that won the title from the firemen at the
gymkhana.

A grand prize drawing was held and twenty-four athletic events for men,
women and girls during the afternoon. It is regretted that space will
not permit to listing here of all the prizes and winners.

THE LAND DEPARTMENT branch at Victoria has removed from the District
building on Wharf Street, and is now established at 401 Pemberton
building.


Miss McColl Wins Prize in Music Festival

Miss Julia McColl, of H.B.C. credit office staff, won second prize in
the contralto solo competition; marks, 86 per cent. and 86 per cent.;
total, 172 per cent.

Miss McColl and Miss I. Ramsay also won second prize in vocal duet
competition; marks, 83 per cent.

Adjudicators were T. F. Noble, M.A., F.R.C., A.R.C.M., of New York, and
Walter Henry Hall, Professor of Choral Music, Columbia 'Varsity, New
York.



H.B.C. Marine and River Transport News


The "Lady Kindersley" made her trial trip off Vancouver June 6th and
proceeded June 9th to Seattle and Ladysmith where she loaded coal and
fuel oil, returning to Vancouver June 15th to take on cargo for H.B.C.
Western Arctic posts. She sailed for Herschel Island on her maiden trip,
June 27th.

_The H.B.C. schooner "Casco"_ arrived safely at Petropavlosk, Kamchatka
peninsula, Siberia, on June 8th, according to a wireless message from
that port which was relayed by cable from Japan.

_The river boats "Hubaco"_ and "Nechemus" arrived at Fort McMurray June
6th from Fort FitzGerald after completing the second trip of the season
to the portage. The "Hubaco" left McMurray again for the north, June
14th, with a house-boat in tow carrying the Treaty Party which will pay
the annual government obligation to the Indian tribes of the Athabasca
and Mackenzie. The "Nechemus" left for FitzGerald June 12th.

_The H.B.S.S. "Fort McMurray"_ completed her second trip of the season
to Fort FitzGerald on June 7th, and left McMurray for the North again on
June 13th with freight and supplies for the Mackenzie.

_The H.B.S.S. "Mackenzie River"_ came south from winter quarters,
arriving at Fort Smith June 1st.

_The H.B.S.S. "Nascopie"_ sailed from St. Nazarre, France, June 15th for
St. John's and Montreal, where she will load supplies for Hudson Bay
posts.

_The Company has purchased_ the auxiliary schooner "L. Burry" at St.
John's, Newfoundland. The vessel has been rechristened the "Fort
Chesterfield" and will be utilized for the redistribution of supplies
from the H.B.C. post at Chesterfield Inlet to the several posts and
outposts of the district. Mr. A. Berthe, late of the Nelson River
District, is in St. John's superintending the overhauling of the boat
and will accompany her to Chesterfield.

_The H.B.S.S. "Baychimo,"_ of sixteen hundred tons deadweight, is a big
steel steamer which has recently been purchased by the Company owing to
the extension of its trade in the Hudson Bay and Straits districts. The
"Baychimo" will supplement the "Nascopie," "Pelican" and "Discovery"
which had been found insufficient to cope with the great supply tonnage
going into the sub-Arctic. The new steamer sailed from St. Nazarre,
France, on June 21st for Montreal.

_The H.B. schooner "Fort Churchill,"_ now lying in James' Bay, will be
transferred this season to the Nelson River District (York Factory.)
Captain Kean is proceeding from Montreal by way of Mattice and the
Missanabie to take charge of the vessel on her voyage up the bay.



Hudson's Bay Company

INCORPORATED A.D. 1670

[Illustration]

"_Everything for your game_"

Select good equipment for a good game


You can't expect to beat Colonel Bogey with golf equipment of doubtful
origin. The better your clubs, the better your game. Be satisfied with
nothing less dependable than H.B.C. Quality.

_It will profit you to get the best; your score card will show. Let us
help in the selection of suitable equipment from these famous lines_:

  _Burke Grand Prize_
  _Harry Vardon_
  _J. H. Taylor_
  _Carnoustie_

The WILSON "Success" 1.62 Ball and the best in all accessories



[Transcriber's Note:

Inconsistent spelling and hyphenation are as in the original.]





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