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Title: Sporting Dogs - Their Points: and Management; in Health, and Disease
Author: Barton, Frank Townend
Language: English
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SPORTING DOGS


[Illustration: _Photo by T. Fall, Baker St._]      [_Frontispiece._
HEAD OF BLOODHOUND CHAMPION SULTAN.]


SPORTING DOGS

Their Points: and Management; in Health, and Disease

by

FRANK TOWNEND BARTON
M.R.C.V.S.

Veterinary Surgeon to the Gamekeepers' Kennel Association
Veterinary Adviser to the "Gamekeepers' Gazette"

Author of
"Non-Sporting Dogs," "Toy Dogs,"
"Everyday Ailments and Accidents to the Dog,"
"Sound and Unsound Horses," "Our Friend the Horse,"
"Breaking and Training Horses,"
"How to Choose a Horse," "The Horse Owner's Companion,"
"The Veterinary Manual," "The Age of the Horse,"
"Diseases and Accidents of Cattle,"
etc., etc.

Copiously Illustrated From Photographs



London
R. A. Everett & Co., Ltd.
1905
[All Rights Reserved]



Surely the lines--

  "Trust, oh! trust me, I will be
  Still true for ever, true to thee."

have never been more practically demonstrated, than in the following
extract, from an account of a poaching affray, published in the
_Gamekeepers' Gazette_.

"The dead gamekeeper's dog was to be seen by the roadside restlessly
waiting for its master, while he lay in a cottage fatally riddled with
shot."



                                  TO

                               BREEDERS

                       EXHIBITORS, AND FANCIERS

                                  OF

                             SPORTING DOGS

                    THROUGHOUT THE KING'S DOMINIONS



PREFACE


_This work_--Sporting Dogs: Their Points and Management in Health and
Disease--_has been prepared as a companion volume to those already
published, viz._, Non-Sporting Dogs: Their Points, etc., _and_ Toy
Dogs, _in response to numerous inquiries from readers of those volumes,
asking for a work upon Sporting Dogs, to complete the series_, at a
proportionate _price_.

The Points _of the various breeds used by Sportsmen have been freely
discussed, supplemented by illustrations from photographs of the most
celebrated animals known_.

_Kennel Management, The Management of Hounds, Diseases, Accidents and
Simple Operations forms an important section of the work--features
that should render the book of far greater practical utility than one
dealing solely with the different varieties of dogs._

_Both Author and Publisher, will be satisfied, if it meets with the
hearty reception accorded to the companion publications._

_In conclusion, the Author wishes to express most hearty thanks to
all Breeders and Exhibitors who have so generously supplied him with
Photographs: to_ Our Dogs Gazette; The Kennel Gazette; The Gamekeeper,
_etc._



                               CONTENTS


  SECTION A
                                                                  PAGE
  CHAPTER I                                                          3

  =The Pointer=

  Head--Colour--Eyes--Back--Hind-quarters--Faults--Value
  of Points.

  CHAPTER II                                                        18

  =The English Setter=

  Laverack Setters--Coat--Colour--Skull--Ears--Eyes--Neck
    --Back-quarters--Tail--Fore-limbs--Weight--Faults.

  =The Irish Setter=

  Coat--Ears--Eyes--Neck--Forelegs--Loins.

  =The Black=and=Tan Setter=
  (Gordon Setter)

  Eyes--Ears--Head--Neck--Shoulders and Chest--Fore-limbs--Feet
    --Back--Loins--Stern--Value of Points.

  CHAPTER III                                                       32

  =International Gundog League=

  POINTER AND SETTER SOCIETY

  Rules--Rules for the Trial Meetings.

  CHAPTER IV                                                        42

  =Retrievers=

  FLAT-COATED: Coat--Head--Ears--Eyes--Chest--Neck--Back--
  Loins--Limbs--Faults.
  CURLY-COATED.

  =Labradors=

  RULES OF THE RETRIEVER SOCIETY

  CHAPTER V                                                         66

  =Spaniels=

  General Characteristics of the different Varieties--Temperament
    --Coat--Colour--Head--Ears--Fore-limbs--Body.

  =The Clumber=

  Weight--Head--Ears--Eyes--Coat--Neck--Club.

  =The Sussex Spaniel=

  Colour--Coat--Weight--Head--Eyes--Ears--Nose--Neck--Shoulders and
    Chest--Fore-limbs--Faults.

  =Field Spaniels=

  =The Cocker Spaniel=

  Head--Ears--Coat--Colour--Club Prices--Faults.

  The Irish Water Spaniel

  Colour--Nose--Skull--Ears--Neck--Coat--Height--General
    Appearances--Faults--Weight--Club.

  =The English Water Spaniel=

  CHAPTER VI                                                        94

  =International Gundog League=

  Rules--Regulations (subject to alteration).

  CHAPTER VII                                                      102

  =Training Spaniels=


  SECTION B

  HOUNDS

  CHAPTER VIII                                                     113

  =The Foxhound=

  Packs of Foxhounds.

  =Harriers=

  Loins--Back--Ribs--Chest--Fore-limbs--Coat.

  =The Otterhound=

  Colour--Height--Eyes--Ears--Skull--Neck.

  =The Deerhound=

  Head--Ears--Neck--Shoulders--Stern--Eyes--Body--Legs--Feet
    --Coat--Colour--Height--Weight--Points required.


  SECTION C

  HOUNDS

  CHAPTER IX                                                       141

  =The Bloodhound=

  Head--Eyes--Legs--Feet--Chest--Shoulder--Neck--Ribs--Back
    --Loins--Hind-quarters--Limbs--Tail--Coat--Colour--Height
    --Club--Association of Bloodhound Breeders.

  =Irish Wolfhounds=

  Weight--Height--Head--Ears--Neck--Fore-limbs--Hind-quarters

  =The Greyhound=

  Head--Eyes--Ears--Neck--Fore-quarters.

  =The Whippet=

  Coat--Constitution--Fore-limbs--Hind-quarters--  Feet--Tail
    --General Appearance of the Whippet.


  SECTION D

  MIXED HOUNDS

  CHAPTER X                                                        179

  =The Borzois or Russian Wolfhound=

  Ears--Eyes--Chest--Neck--Fore-limbs--Colour--Coat--Height
    --Faults--Club.

  =The Beagle=

  English Beagle Club--Points--American Beagle Club--Points.

  CHAPTER XI                                                       194

  =The Dachshund=

  Coat--Head--Nose--Eyes--Ears--Neck--Chest--Shoulders
    --Legs--Feet--Toes--Hind-quarters.

  =The Basset-hound=

  Colour--Coat--Head--Fore-quarters--Chest--Club Rules of Basset
    Club--Points of Basset Hound (smooth)--General Appearance
    --Points of the Basset-hound (rough).


  SECTION E

  FOX TERRIERS

  CHAPTER XII                                                      239

  =The Fox Terrier=

  Standard of Points recommended by the Fox Terrier Club.

  =Rough Fox Terrier=

  Scale of Points--Disqualifying Points.


  SECTION F

  TERRIERS

  CHAPTER XIII                                                     269

  =The Skye Terrier=

  Colour--Head--Body--Legs--Height--Faults--Club--Prices.

  =The Bedlington Terrier=

  History--Height--Weight--Colour--Nose--Coat--Skull--Body--Tail
    --Limbs and Quarters--Club.

  =The Scottish Terrier=

  Coat--Height--Colour--Body--Neck--Chest--Limbs and Feet--Ears
    --Eyes--Head--Hair--Muzzle--Height--Clubs.

  =The Irish Terrier=

  Coat--Colour--Neck--Body--Limbs and Feet--Weight--Club--Prices.

  =The Airedale Terrier=

  Standard of the Airedale Terrier Club--Points--Rules and
    Regulations.

  =The White West Highland Terrier=

  Description of.

  =The Welsh Terrier=

  Head--Neck--Arms--Forearms--Back and Loins--Tail--First and
    Second Thighs--Feet--Club.

  =The Dandie=Dinmont=

  History--Head--Neck--Tail--Fore and Hind limbs--Colour--Society
    --Standard of Points of Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club--Rules
    for Breeders' Challenge Cup--Rules for the Tiddeman Trophies
    --Rules for the Ringwood Club--Breeders' Cups, etc.


  SECTION G

  AFGHAN GREYHOUND-LURCHER

  CHAPTER XIV                                                      333

  =The Afghan Greyhound=

  Skull--Eyes--Ears--Neck--Colour--Weight--Height at Shoulder
    --Limbs.

  =The Lurcher=

  =The Training, Use, and Abuse, of Night=Dogs=

  CHAPTER XV                                                       351

  =The Gamekeepers' Kennel Association=

  CHAPTER XVI                                                      363

  =Feeding Sporting Dogs=

  =Conditioning Dogs=

  CHAPTER XVII                                                     369

  =Specific Ailments=

  Distemper--Rabies--Blood Poisoning--Rheumatism--Chest Founder
    or Kennel Lameness.

  CHAPTER XVIII                                                    384

  =Constitutional Skin Diseases=

  Eczema--Boils--Herpes--Nettle Rash.

  CHAPTER XIX                                                      389

  =External Parasites and Parasitic
  Skin Diseases=

  Fleas--Pediculi or Lice--Ringworm--Sarcoptic
  Mange--Follicular Mange.

  CHAPTER XX                                                       394

  =Diseases of the Gullet, Stomach, Bowels,
  and Digestive Glands=

  Disease of the Gullet--Inflammation of the Stomach--Twist and
    Intussusception of the Bowels--Inflammation of the Bowels
    --Vomiting--Worms--Diarrhœa--Dysentery--Hæmorrhage
    --Hæmorrhoids--Dyspepsia--Jaundice--Ruptures.

  CHAPTER XXI                                                      413

  =Poisons and their Remedies=

  Poisoning by Arsenic--Antimony--Strychnine--Phosphorus--Rat
  and other Vermin Destroyers--By
  Lead--Mercury--Ptomaine Poisoning.

  CHAPTER XXII                                                     419

  =Diseases of the Urinary Organs=

  Disease of the Kidneys--Stone in the Bladder--Inflammation
  of the Bladder--Stricture of the
  Urethra.

  CHAPTER XXIII                                                    422

  =Diseases of the Ear=

  Dropsy of the Ear-flap--Otitis--Otorrhœa or Canker (internal)
    --Split Margin of Ear--(External Canker)--Eczema of Ears
    --Deafness--Morbid Growths in Passage--Concretions--Syringing
    ears.

  CHAPTER XXIV                                                     428

  =Diseases of the Eye=

  Ophthalmia--Blindness--Inverted Eyelids--Everted
  Eyelids--Torn Eyelids--Foreign Bodies
  in Eyes--Bareness around Margins.

  CHAPTER XXV                                                      433

  =Injuries and Minor Operations=

  Wounds--Overgrown Claws--Fractures.

  CHAPTER XXVI                                                     438

  =Minor Operations=

  Docking--Setoning--Enemas--Fomentations--Blistering--Tumours
  and Warts.

  APPENDIX                                                         443

  White West Highland Terrier

  =Club Standard of Points.=

  INDEX                                                            447



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


                                                                  PAGE

  HEAD OF BLOODHOUND CHAMPION SULTAN                    _Frontispiece_

  POINTERS ON PARTRIDGES                                             5

  POINTER CHAMPION FASKALLY BRAG                                     7

  POINTER CHAMPION CORONATION                                       11

  POINTER BITCH BARTON BEAUTY                                       13

  POINTER BITCH BARTON BLANCHE                                      15

  A BRACE OF ENGLISH SETTERS AT REPOSE (PRIDE and SALLY)            19

  ENGLISH SETTER ROMNEY ROCK                                        21

  IRISH SETTER DOG                                                  25

  IRISH SETTER CHAMPION FLORIZEL                                    27

  MR CARTWRIGHT'S FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER CHAMPION COLWYN CLYTIE      43

  TYPICAL FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER                                     45

  FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER DANEHURST ROCKET                            49

  FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER BUSY MARQUIS                                51

  TYPICAL FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER DOG                                 53

  CURLY-COATED RETRIEVER DOG                                        57

  CLUMBER SPANIEL DOG BOBS OF SALOP                                 73

  MR NEWINGTON'S SUSSEX SPANIEL DOG ROSEHILL ROCK                   77

  TYPICAL COCKER SPANIEL                                            85

  IRISH WATER SPANIEL PAT O'BRIEN                                   89

  MR WALTER WINANS' PACK OF HOUNDS AND MASTER                      115

  ENEMIES AT PEACE--FOXHOUND NAMELESS AND TAME DOG FOX             117

  LECTURER--A MEMBER OF THE CRICKHOWELL HARRIERS                   123

  DEERHOUND CHAMPION ST RONAN'S RHYME                              131

  DEERHOUND DOG CHAMPION SELWOOD MORVEN                            133

  A QUARTET OF TYPICAL BLOODHOUNDS                                 143

  GREYHOUND BITCH LADY GOLIGHTLY                                   159

  FAWN GREYHOUND DEAN BADEN POWELL                                 161

  A TRIO OF GREYHOUNDS, DUKE O' RINGMER, LADY GOLIGHTLY, GLORY
    O' RINGMER                                                     163

  GREYHOUND SUSSEX BELLE                                           165

  TYPICAL WHIPPET DOG DANDY COON                                   169

  BORZOIS PADIHAM NORDIA                                           175

  BORZOIS DOG                                                      177

  A GROUP OF LEYSWOOD BEAGLES                                      183

  POCKET BEAGLE CHEERFUL OF RODNANCE                               185

  DACHSHUND CHAMPION SNAKES PRINCE                                 195

  A BRACE OF TYPICAL DACHSHUNDS                                    197

  DACHSHUND DOG AND BITCH                                          199

  RED DACHSHUND VICTORIA REGINA                                    201

  MR PROCTOR'S BASSET-HOUND BITCH QUEEN OF THE GEISHA              209

  A BRACE OF TYPICAL SMOOTH-COATED BASSET-HOUNDS                   211

  SMOOTH-COATED BASSET-HOUND BITCH AND HER PUPPIES                 213

  SMOOTH BASSET-HOUND DOG CHAMPION LOUIS LE BEAU.
  A veritable pillar of the Stud Book                              215

  TYPICAL SMOOTH-COATED BASSET BITCH                               217

  A GROUP OF CHAMPION SMOOTH-COATED BASSETS                        219

  TYPICAL ROUGH BASSET BITCH                                       221

  ROUGH-COATED BASSET-HOUND DOG CHAMPION PURITAN                   223

  TYPICAL ROUGH-COATED BASSET DOG                                  225

  MR SCOTT'S SMOOTH FOX TERRIER MILLGATE JOE                       241

  CHAMPION SOUTH CAVE LEGER                                        243

  SMOOTH FOX TERRIER DUKE OF DONCASTER                             245

  SMOOTH FOX TERRIER CHAMPION CYMRO QUEEN                          249

  MISS LEWIS'S WIRE-HAIRED FOX TERRIER CHAMPION DONINGTON VENTURE  251

  MR SCOTT'S SMOOTH FOX TERRIER MILLGATE BANDIT                    253

  SMOOTH FOX TERRIER DOG CHAMPION DUKEDOM                          257

  SMOOTH FOX TERRIER DOG DARLEY DALE                               259

  WIRE-HAIRED FOX TERRIER DOG REMUS OF GAYWOOD                     261

  MR SCOTT'S WIRE-HAIRED FOX TERRIER MILLGATE LEADER               263

  TYPICAL PRICK-EARED SKYE TERRIER DOG                             271

  BEDLINGTON TERRIER DOG                                           275

  SCOTTISH TERRIER DOG CHAMPION HYNDMAN THISTLE                    279

  A TRIO OF SCOTTISH TERRIERS                                      281

  GROUP OF SCOTTISH TERRIERS                                       285

  IRISH TERRIER BLACKBROOK BANKER                                  289

  AIREDALE TERRIER DOG BARKEREND MASTERPIECE                       291

  AIREDALE TERRIER DOG CROMPTON MARVEL                             295

  AIREDALE TERRIER DOG BARKEREND VICTORIA                          299

  BRACE OF WHITE WEST HIGHLAND TERRIERS                            305

  WELSH TERRIER                                                    309

  DANDIE-DINMONT TERRIER DOG THISTLE GROVE BEN                     311

  AFGHAN GREYHOUND                                                 335

  THE CELEBRATED KEEPER'S NIGHT-DOG THORNEYWOOD TERROR,
    said to be the most perfectly trained Night Dog ever bred      339



  SECTION A

  CHAPTER I

  POINTERS

  CHAPTER II

  SETTERS

  ENGLISH--IRISH--GORDON

  CHAPTER III

  INTERNATIONAL GUNDOG LEAGUE

  CHAPTER IV

  RETRIEVERS

  FLAT-COATED--CURLY-COATED--LABRADOR

  CHAPTER V

  SPANIELS

  GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DIFFERENT VARIETIES--CLUMBER--SUSSEX
    --FIELD--COCKER--IRISH WATER--ENGLISH SPRINGERS



SPORTING DOGS



CHAPTER I

=The Pointer=


Most authorities are in agreement that the English Pointer has been
derived from a cross of the old Spanish Pointer and Southern Hound, or
with the former and a Foxhound.

The old Spanish Pointer was a heavy, loose-made dog, had a large head,
short and smooth coat, thin, loose ears and a thin tail.

In colour he was generally black, black and white, liver and white, red
and white, dark brown, liver, etc. The breed, it is said, was first
introduced into this country by a Portuguese merchant, living and
shooting in Norfolk.

According to accounts, the Spanish Pointers had a remarkable degree of
scenting power, never missing their game.

In Germany there are two varieties of Pointers--the Rough-and the
Smooth-coated. Like the old Spanish Pointer, these dogs are slow, but
sure workers: they are heavily built, and frequently liver, or liver
and white.

The chief drawback to the Spanish Pointer was his slowness, and
indifferent temper. The French Pointer was probably superior, and may
have had considerable influence towards making the many good qualities
possessed by the English Pointer of to-day. A medium-sized dog is the
most useful, the heavy being too slow and the light weights too fast,
especially for aged shooters.

The Pointer may be described as fairly hardy; generally of good
constitution, and when bred from working parents, puppies usually
respond readily to the breaker's tuition.

A second-, or third-season dog, is preferable to a first-season one,
so that, when purchasing, this should be borne in mind. Another matter
worthy of attention, and that is, never to purchase a Pointer without
having him for a week or two's trial on your own shoot.

The colour of a Pointer is more a matter for individual taste, though
there is no doubt that one should choose such as can be the most
readily discerned in the distance. Lemon and white, black and white,
and liver and white ticked, especially the last-named, are the most
general colours. Liver, and red and white are frequently seen, though
the former is not so readily recognisable on ploughed land, etc.

[Illustration:

  [_Photo by Horner._

POINTERS ON PARTRIDGES (Property of Mr F. R. HORNER).]

[Illustration: POINTER CHAMPION FASKALLY BRAG (Property of Mr H.
SAWTELL).]

In action, these dogs ought to move with beauty and freedom, unobserved
in any other breed. The movements alone ought to be sufficient to
create admiration in the mind of the sportsman.

_Head._--Should be of good size, wide in the dome, and wider between
the eyes, with a long, broad, square nose and broad, well-dilated
nostrils, giving the head a somewhat square conformation.

In _colour_, nose ought to be black, but in lemon and white dogs,
flesh-coloured. Cartilages of ears, long and thin, covered by soft
hair, and carried close to cheeks.

_Eyes._--Of medium size.

Twenty-four per cent. of points are allowed for skull, nose, eyes,
ears, lips, and six for the neck, which ought to be long, arched, and
free from loose skin or dewlap. Long oblique shoulders and long arms
are essentials of beauty in the Pointer. Forearms long, having plenty
of bone and muscle. Pasterns of medium length, feet round (like those
of the cat), and the soles hard. A good deal of attention is paid to
the legs and feet, by Pointer judges. Some prefer the hare-foot. The
elbow must stand well off the brisket and be low placed. Dog must not
be "out" at elbow. Viewed from the front, the chest of the Pointer,
nevertheless, ought not to be broad, otherwise the beautiful elastic
step is interfered with. The contour of the chest is round and deep.
Back ribs must be deep, and flanks broad and thick, so as to give
strength in these regions.

_Back and Hind-quarters._--The back should be of good length but
strongly built, and the loins broad and deep. First and second thighs
well covered with muscle; hocks strong and good; stifles broad.

Too much importance cannot be attached to the stern of the Pointer, and
judges are keen on quality in this region. First of all, it must be
strong at its "set on," and gradually taper to a fine point.

If the tail is as thick at the end as it is at its "set on," or coarse
in other respects, it indicates inferior breeding. Should be carried on
a line with the back.

_Faults._--Any approach to curl in tail, coarse coat, soft feet,
short back ribs, wide chest, too heavy in head and facial expression,
short on legs, under-or over-sized, presence of flews or big cheeks,
undershot; too much of Hound character, bad temper, disobedience, bad
constitution, etc.

[Illustration: POINTER CHAMPION CORONATION (Property of Mr H.
SAWTELL).]

[Illustration: POINTER BITCH BARTON BEAUTY (Property of Sir HUMPHRY DE
TRAFFORD, Bart.).]

[Illustration: POINTER BITCH BARTON BLANCHE (Property of Sir HUMPHRY DE
TRAFFORD, Bart.).]


VALUE OF POINTS

  Skull                               10
  Ears                                 5
  Nose                                10
  Neck                                 5
                                      --  30
  Shoulders, chest, back and thighs,      30
  Colour and coat,                        10
  Stern and general quality,              10
  Legs                                 6
  Feet                                 6
  Elbow                                4
  Hocks                                2
  Stifles                              2
                                      --  20
                                        ----
                   Total                 100



CHAPTER II


=The English Setter=

Most authorities, or those who have made diligent inquiries into
the history--if such it can be called--or origin, of the English
Setter, are agreed that it has been derived from the Spaniel--Setting
Spaniel--and Laverack, in his work on the Setter, says,--

"I am of the opinion that all Setters have more or less originally
sprung from our various strains of Spaniels, and I believe most
breeders of any note agree that the Setter is nothing more than a
Setting Spaniel. How the Setter attained his sufficiency of point is
difficult to account for, and I leave the question to wiser heads than
mine to determine. The Setter is said and acknowledged by authorities
of long standing, to be of greater antiquity than the Pointer. If this
be true--and I believe it is--the Setter cannot at first have been
crossed with the Pointer to render him what he is."

If the foregoing views be accepted, it follows that our lovely Setter
is but an improved Spaniel.

[Illustration: A BRACE OF ENGLISH SETTERS AT REPOSE (PRIDE and SALLY,
Mr STANHOPE LOVELL).]

[Illustration: AN ENGLISH SETTER (ROMNEY ROCK).]

The Laverack Setters--a strain preserved by the late Mr Laverack--has
always played an important part in the more recent history of the
Setter. The Llewellin Setter--a strain bred by Mr Llewellin--(a
Laverack cross) stands out as being one of the best strains ever
produced, both on the show bench and in the field.

A high-class English Setter should have a rich, glossy coat, and every
movement should be one of elegance, dash, and beauty.

A high degree of intelligence and great power of physical endurance are
a _sine qua non_.

Field trials have done more towards perfecting the working qualities of
the Setter than could have been attained by any other means.

The breeding of stock from dogs coming out top at these trials affords
the surest means of attaining the highest degree of working capacity.

The points of the English Setter are as follows:--

_Coat._--To be soft, silky, and free from curl. There ought to be an
abundance of soft feather on fore and hind legs.

_Colour._--Not a great deal of importance is attached to this. The
chief colours are:--Liver and white, lemon and white, black, black
and white, red or yellow, orange Belton, black and white ticked, with
splashes of black, or bluish tint--blue Belton, black, white and tan
markings, &c. Black and white ticked are commonest.

_Skull._--Long and narrow, with a well-developed occipital bone. Muzzle
square, and lips full at their angles.

_Ears and Eyes._--Ears set on low, thin and soft, carried close to the
cheeks, and covered by silky hair about a couple of inches in length.
Eyes of medium size, either brown or hazel.

_Neck._--Slightly arched and covered by somewhat loose skin.

_Back and Quarters._--Arched, and loins wide and strong. Hocks, strong.

_Tail._--Should be carried in a straight line with the body, and
the feather upon it to consist of straight, silky hairs, shortening
towards the point. A beautiful flag is a great adornment to the Setter,
especially when at work.

_Fore-limbs._--Shoulders set well back. Forearms straight and strong,
of medium length, and with a good fringe at the back. Pasterns short
and nearly vertical. Feet well feathered below and cat-like.

_Weight._--Dogs from 50 to 60 lbs. Bitches, 45 to 55 lbs. _Club._--The
English Setter.

_Faults._--Curly coat, snipy head, bad carriage of stern, too light in
bone, too short or too long in leg, out at elbows, too heavy in head,
bad symmetry, disobedience, bad scenting power, indifferent at work,
etc., etc.


The Irish Setter

The origin of these dogs, as in many other breeds, is enshrouded in
mystery. The theory that they have been derived from Red Spaniels,
crossed with the Bloodhound, is accepted by some breeders, the traces
of Hound blood being observable in their method of working (scenting
their game), so much objected to, by many sportsmen.

[Illustration: IRISH SETTER DOG.]

In Ireland these Setters have been, and still are, greatly used for
snipe shooting, being hardy, fast, and very keen-nosed--their ability
to bear fatigue, and cold, being unequalled by any other variety of
Setter.

It has been said that the finest and oldest strain of Irish Setters
have a slight tinge of black on the tips of the ears and muzzle;
others, again, regard the presence of black hairs as a sign of impurity
of blood, agreeing that these dogs ought to be a very deep, rich red--a
dark or blood red being preferred. White hairs ought not to be present
anywhere, excepting on the forehead and chest, though many object to
white in the situation last named.

The _Coat_ should be close, of strong growth, and neither coarse nor
silky in texture. Feather of a golden tinge, and of moderate amount.

_Ears._--To be long, set low on the head, and have a medium degree of
feathering.

_Eyes._--A deep hazel or brown, and the nose dark or mahogany flesh. A
black nose should disqualify.

_Neck._--Of fair length, slightly arched, and body proportionately
long; the chest deep, and ribs well sprung.

_Forelegs._--Straight, not too much feathered, and the feet small,
firm, and close, with well-arched toes.

_Strong Loins_, powerful thighs and hocks, and a horizontal carriage of
the tail (not cocked) are excellences in this region.

Taken as a whole, the Irish Setter is built more after the type of a
racer. Moreover, has a little wider skull than the English variety.

[Illustration: IRISH SETTER CHAMPION FLORIZEL (Property of Mrs
HAMILTON).]


The Black-and-tan Setter (Gordon Setter)

This famous breed of Setters can be traced back for a hundred years to
the castle of the Duke of Gordon, but whether this nobleman laid the
foundation stone of the present breed of Black-and-tan Setter, becomes
a matter of speculation.

It is not the least improbable that these Setters have been derived by
crossing the English Setter with a Black-and-tan Collie, as certain
Gordons exhibit more than a trace of the Collie element.

During the last few years the Black-and-tan Setter classes at the
Kennel Club Shows in London have been very badly filled, and unless
breeding this variety of dog becomes more popular, in England at least,
it will soon deteriorate.

A well-broken Gordon is a most useful dog in the field, though
certainly his luck at field trials has not been anything like that of
the Englishman.

In colour he should be a glossy raven black, with rich mahogany tan
markings, pencilling of the toes being allowable.

On the inside of the fore-limbs, tan ought to show nearly up to the
elbows, and up to the hocks, on the inner sides of the hind ones.

There should be tan on the lips, cheeks, undersides of the ears; spots
over eyes, on front of the chest, on the vent, and at the root of tail
or flag.

_Eyes._--To be of medium size and deep brown.

_Ears._--The ears of the Gordon are longer than those of the Irish or
English, are set on low and lie close to head.

_Head._--There ought to be good evidence of "stop," rendering the
occiput well-defined.

From eye to occiput, head should measure nearly 6 inches.

The old type of Gordon was much too clumsy in the head.

_Neck._--Long, clean, and racey.

_Shoulders and Chest._--Shoulders of good slope and chest deep. Ribs to
be well sprung.

_Fore-limbs and Feet._--To be of moderate length; strong in the
forearms, and elbows well in. Feet arched and cat-like.

A _strong back, loin_, and well-bent stifles are qualifications of the
Gordon.

_Stern._--The tail carried as nearly in the same line as the body. Many
Gordons have defective carriage of the caudal appendage.

The so-called "tea-pot" tail is the worst fault, and destroys a dog's
chance of winning in the show ring.

Gordon Setter puppies are not difficult to rear, though good specimens
are difficult to produce; still more so to purchase, when grown up, and
thoroughly broken.

In America this variety of Setter is much thought of, and in that
country a great deal has been done towards the improvement of the
breed, where the value of points is as follows:--

  Head, muzzle and nose                        15
  Shoulders and chest                          15
  Back, loins, thighs and stifles              15
  Stern and flag                                8
  Fore-limbs                                   15
  Colour and markings                           8
  Symmetry and quality                          8
  Neck                                          5
  Eyes, ears and lips                           5
  Texture of coat and feather                   6
                                             ----
                                              100

[Illustration]



CHAPTER III

INTERNATIONAL GUNDOG LEAGUE

_Pointer and Setter Society_


CONSTITUTIONAL RULES

1. That the object of the Society be to promote the Breeding of pure
Pointers and Setters, and to develop and bring to perfection their
natural qualities. In order to carry out these purposes, an Autumn
Trial--on grouse, if practicable--shall be annually held within the
United Kingdom; and also Spring Trials on partridges shall be held (if
possible), either on the Continent, or in the United Kingdom.

2. That the Society shall consist of a President, Vice-Presidents,
a Central Committee, and an unlimited number of members, and that
there may also be appointed triennially a Vice-President and Honorary
Secretary for each separate Country or Colony. That these officers,
after election, be empowered to call Sub-committees of their
fellow-countrymen (being also members of the Pointer and Setter
Society), to advise and report to the Central Committee.

3. That one-third of the Central Committee (exclusive of the officers)
shall be withdrawn by lot each year, at the Annual General Meeting
for the first two years, and afterwards by rotation, and members
shall be elected to fill their vacancies; the retiring members to be
eligible for re-election. The President, Vice-Presidents, and Honorary
Secretaries shall be _ex-officio_ members of the Central Committee.

4. That the entire control and management of the Society shall be
vested in the Central Committee (of which three shall form a quorum),
who shall have power to make bye-laws and decide upon all matters in
dispute not provided for by the Rules of the Society; and further
that any member of the Central Committee, if unable to be present at
a Central Committee Meeting, shall be permitted (upon application for
same) to vote by proxy, duly signed, upon any resolution appearing upon
the agenda paper, except as provided in Rule 8.

5. That each Candidate for admission shall be proposed and seconded
by members of the Society. The Candidate's name, rank, residence
and profession or occupation, if any, shall be sent to the Central
Secretary a fortnight before the election of Candidates at the Central
Committee Meeting; and that each member of the Central Committee be
advised, at least seven days beforehand, of the proposed election of a
new member of the Society.

6. That the election of members shall be vested solely in the Central
Committee, and be made by ballot, two black balls to exclude.

7. That for the present no entrance fee shall be charged, and that
the annual subscription shall be two guineas, payable 1st January in
advance; and that any member whose payments shall continue in arrear
for six months shall (due notice of such arrear having previously been
given in writing by the Central Secretary) have his name struck off the
list, and shall cease to be a member of the Society. Any member joining
the Society after the 31st of August in any year shall not be liable
for an annual subscription for the current year. Life membership may be
acquired upon payment in a lump sum of twenty guineas.

8. Any member of the Society who shall be proved to the satisfaction
of the Central Committee to have in any way misconducted himself in
connection with Dogs, Dog Shows, or Trials, or to have acted in any way
which would make it undesirable that he should continue to be a member,
shall be requested to retire from the Society; and if a resolution to
that effect shall be carried by three-fourths of the Central Committee
(present and voting), duly summoned or warned to the consideration of
the case, the member so requested to retire shall henceforth cease to
be a member of the Society.

9. That subscriptions and donations, after payment of all liabilities,
shall be applied in such a manner as the Central Committee may
determine, for prizes at Trials or Workers' Classes, at not more than
one Dog Show each year, or otherwise; and all balance shall be invested
for the use of the Society, in such a manner as the Central Committee
shall direct.

10. That Central Committee Meetings may be held at each Trial Meeting
of the Society, or at such other times and places as the Central
Committee may determine, notice thereof having been duly sent to each
member of the Central Committee.

11. That the Annual General Meeting of the Society be held in May or
June in London, and that a Special General Meeting may be called at any
time, and at such place as may be agreed to by the Central Committee,
on the requisition of six members.

12. At every meeting the President, or one of the Vice-Presidents,
shall be chairman, or, failing these, a member of the Central
Committee; such chairman to have a casting vote at all meetings. And,
further, the minutes of the preceding meeting shall be read, approved,
confirmed, and signed by the chairman at the commencement of the next
subsequent meeting.

13. Any member may withdraw from the Society on giving notice in
writing to one of the Honorary Secretaries, or to the Central
Secretary, provided always that such member shall be liable for his
subscription to the Society for the current year in which he gives such
notice.

14. That the Central Secretary shall enter the name and address of each
member of the Society in a Book kept for that purpose.

  A. E. SANSOM,
  _Secretary_,
  12 and 13 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden,
  London, W.C.


INTERNATIONAL GUNDOG LEAGUE

_Pointer and Setter Society_

RULES FOR THE TRIAL MEETINGS

1. In Single Stakes the competing dogs shall be drawn into pairs by
lot, dogs belonging to the same owner being guarded from each other as
long as possible. The Judges having seen each pair run as drawn, if
possible, will at the end of the first round give to the Committee the
names of those dogs which they consider have a chance of being placed.
The Committee will then proceed to draw these dogs again, taking care
that dogs which have met in the first round do not run together in the
second. At the end of the second round the Judges will call up at their
own discretion, any dogs they require further, and run them as they
choose. If any dog would, by the withdrawal of his antagonist before
running, be left untried, the Judge may order him to run with any dog
similarly circumstanced in that round, or with the dog that has the
bye. The dog that has drawn a bye, if not called for previously by the
Judges, shall run as one of the first pair in the next round.

2. In Brace Stakes, the two dogs running together must belong to the
same owner, and the order of running in the first round shall be
decided by lot. No dog shall be allowed to form part of more than one
brace at the same meeting, and only one man at a time shall work any
brace.

3. In all Stakes the Judges will, except in cases of undoubted lack of
merit, try each pair in the first round for at least fifteen minutes,
and in Single Stakes the first and second prize dogs must have run
together, likewise the second and third. In the Brace Stake, all
prize-winning braces must have been down twice.

4. The Judges are requested not to award a Prize to any dog unless they
are satisfied that he will back of his own accord.

5. The Judges will, in making their awards, give full consideration
to the manner in which the ground is quartered and beaten, and are
requested not to award a Prize to the dog of any owner or handler who
does not beat his ground, and work exactly as he would do were he
actually out shooting.

6. The Judges will avoid, if possible, holding a dog so long on his
point, for the purpose of securing a back, as to cause the birds to
run: but if the pointing dog be so held on a point by order of the
Judge, he shall not incur any penalty for misbehaviour in reference to
that particular point.

7. The Judges shall not decide the merit of a dog's running from the
number of times he points game, backs, etc., but from the style and
quality of his performance as a whole. Dogs are required to maintain a
fast and killing range, wide or narrow, as the necessity of the case
demands; to quarter the ground with judgment and regularity; to leave
no birds behind them; and to be obedient, cheerful, and easily handled.

8. The Judges are requested and empowered by the Committee to first
caution, and upon repetition of the offence, turn out of the Stake any
breakers not beating the ground to their satisfaction; not keeping
together or out-walking their opponents; unduly whistling or shouting,
or behaving in such a manner as, in the opinion of the Judges, is
detrimental to the chances of success of their opponents. Any breaker
or owner who feels that the behaviour of his opponent is unsettling his
dog, may request the interference of the Judges.

9. A gun must have been fired over all aged dogs as well as puppies
before they can be awarded either a Prize or a Certificate of Merit.

10. Certificates of Merit will be awarded with a view to the
establishment of Workers' Classes at the Dog Shows, and as a guide to
purchasers of dogs which, though not in the list of Prize Winners,
give promise in their work of being valuable sporting dogs. In a Brace
Stake this honour may be conferred on one dog without reference to the
behaviour of his companion.

11. The Judges are empowered to withhold a Prize when, in their
opinion, no merit is shown, and to exclude from competition bitches on
heat, or any animals they may consider unfit to compete, and the entry
fees of such dogs will be forfeited.

12. After the first round the Judges may order a flag to be hoisted
at the end of each individual contest to indicate which of the two
competitors has shown the greater merit in that particular trial.
The hoisting of the "colour" of a dog whose performance on that one
occasion has been the more meritorious will not necessarily imply that
his opponent is debarred from winning in the Stake. When a striking
evenness of merit is shown, both flags will be hoisted simultaneously;
and, conversely, when there is a total lack of good work, no flags will
be displayed.

13. In the event of the weather being considered by the Committee
unsuitable for holding trials, it shall be in their power to postpone
the meeting from day to day until the Saturday following the first day
of the trials, on which day either the stakes not already decided shall
be abandoned and their entry fees returned, or a fresh draw for them
shall take place, at the discretion of the Committee.

14. If, from unforeseen circumstances, the Committee deem it advisable
to alter the date of the meeting after the closing of the entries, this
may be done by sending formal notice to all competitors that they may
recover their entry fees by exercising the option of cancelling their
entries within four days from the date of such notice. All entries,
however, about which no such application is made, within those four
days will stand good for the meeting at its altered date.

The Committee also reserve to themselves the right to abandon the
meeting at any time, on returning the entry monies to the competitors.

15. If any of the advertised Judges be prevented from fulfilling their
engagement for either the whole or part of the Meeting, the Committee
shall appoint any other person to judge, or shall make any other
arrangement that to them seems desirable.

16. The Committee have the power--if they think fit--to refuse any
entries for the Society's Trials, and if they consider that any
persons by their conduct or otherwise, are undesirable visitants at
the Society's Trials, they shall exclude such persons from the Trials,
without being obliged to assign any reason for their action.

The disqualifications of any other recognised Trial Society--British,
Continental or otherwise, shall be upheld by this Society.

17. An objection to a dog may be lodged with the Secretary at any time
within seven days of the last day of any meeting, upon the objector
depositing £5 with the Secretary, which shall be forfeited if the
Committee deem such objection frivolous. All objections must be made in
writing.

18. Upon any case arising not provided for in the above rules, the
members of the Committee present shall decide, and their decision shall
be final.



CHAPTER IV

=Retrievers=


(_a_) FLAT-COATED

There is good evidence to show that the Retriever is what may be termed
a "made" breed, and that his present state of perfection is the outcome
of careful selection during the last fifty years or thereabout, the
latter thirty years of this time having been devoted by enthusiastic
sportsmen to raise the standard of the Retriever to the highest
standard of excellence, and no one did more in this respect than the
lamented late President of the Kennel Club, S. E. Shirley, Esq.,
Ettington Park, Stratford-on-Avon.

Most of Mr Shirley's exhibits were an ornament to the show bench,
and not only were they ornamental, but equally useful in the field,
this gentleman being a keen sportsman and one of the most successful
breeders and exhibitors of Flat-coats in the annals of this or any
other time.

The Retriever is gradually coming more and more into favour, and
will continue to do so when his usefulness becomes better known. It
is a variety of dog that stands little chance of becoming spoiled by
interbreeding, as in the case of so many Spaniels.

[Illustration: MR CARTWRIGHT'S FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER CHAMPION COLWYN
CLYTIE.]

[Illustration: TYPICAL FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER.]

To the sportsman, the Retriever can claim advantages over the Pointer,
Setter and Spaniel, but unless very thoroughly handled during his
training, he is not of much service. A perfectly broken Retriever--more
especially if rich in show-bench points--should readily bring sixty or
seventy guineas at least, and cheap at that price.

_Coat._--Should be perfectly flat--not wavy as formerly--of an intense
raven blackness,[1] glossy, and the hair of good length and dense, more
especially over the tops of the shoulders and along the back, but the
contour ought not to be interfered with.

White hair upon any part of the body, head, tail, or extremities, is
not desirable, and should, in the author's opinion, tell against the
animal. We are aware that the presence of a few white hairs upon the
chest is not regarded as being of much importance. Still, there is no
gainsaying that to be perfect in all points, the Retriever must not
have such.

_Head._--Ought to possess the highest degree of intelligence. The
occipital dome to be wide, of medium height, becoming much narrower as
the nose is approached; the latter to be black.

_Ears._--Small, carried close to cheeks, and thin cartilage covered
with soft hair, yet free from feather at the margins.

Many Retrievers are very faulty here, a touch of the Spaniel element
sometimes being in evidence.

_Eyes._--To be of a deep hazel. Any tendency towards the so-called
"snipy" nose is a defect.

_Chest._--Deep, but not wide, and well covered with soft, black hair.

_Neck._--Somewhat short, but thick.

_Back and Loin._--A long, strong back and loin, slightly depressed
about midway, with a beautiful rise towards the hind-quarters. These
latter should be well muscled and covered by the same flatness of coat.

_Limbs._--Shoulders, strong and oblique, and forearm big-boned and
muscular; of medium length; pasterns short and strong; feet of
proportionate size.

From the hinder face of the fore-limb there should be a sparing amount
of feather, not of sufficiency to interfere with the dog when swimming.

When at rest the tail is carried down, but under excitement straight
out, though slightly below the level of the back. Any tendency to
curling of it, is very faulty.

[Illustration: FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER DANEHURST ROCKET.]

[Illustration: FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER BUSY MARQUIS (Property of Mr E. H.
BLAGG).]

[Illustration: FLAT-COATED RETRIEVER DOG.]

Many capital working Retrievers carry their tails very badly,
indicative of inferior breeding. What is equally important--no matter
whether it be the Flat-, or Curly-coated variety--in a Retriever, is
that of being good-tempered, obedient, persevering, quick to find, to
remain at heel until given the word of command, and to have a very
tender mouth.

If a dog is too headstrong, he will never make a good Retriever,
running out directly a shot is fired. Must respond with alacrity to his
master's word of command, in short, perfect obedience.

An "unstable" Retriever is not a useful dog; in fact, an annoyance.
The chief faults of a Flat-coated Retriever are--too Setter-like in
appearance, wavy coat, short coat, Spaniel-like ears, rusty tint, white
hair, bad temper, disobedience, too long on the leg, too short on the
leg, too much of the Newfoundland element, etc., etc.


(_b_) THE CURLY-COATED

Of the two varieties, the Curly-coated can, we think, lay claim to have
been the first established. In almost every particular, save that of
coat, the Curly Retriever corresponds to the description given under
the heading of (_a_)--the Flat-coat. Weight about 80 lbs. Particular
attention is paid by judges to the coat. The dog must be covered all
over with small tight curls, the tail to be the same. Any tendency
towards slackness of curl or an open coat necessarily handicaps the
dog in the show ring. If black, should be free from any rusty tint, or
from white. Face clean, neck long, and chest deep.

Liver Curly-coated specimens are nothing like so frequently met with as
the black. Should be of an intense liver, free from white hairs and a
nose of corresponding colour.

The Curly-coated Retriever Club has done much towards encouraging
breeding typical specimens. Although very useful, we fancy that the
Flat-coats are in more demand, probably because really A1 Curly-coats
are not so readily obtainable at a moderate price, and an indifferent
one, has not as good an appearance as an indifferent specimen of the
Flat-coats.

At the recent Kennel Club Shows in London, etc., the proportion of
Flat-coats to Curly was as three to one--the best evidence as to which
is the most popular variety.


Labradors

At the Kennel Club Show there are classes for this variety of
Retriever, and, in our opinion, the Labrador will, in course of
time, become very popular amongst sportsmen, as they are excellent
retrievers, when properly broken. They are wavy-coated dogs, either
black, fawn, or yellow in colour, and, what is remarkable, these
coloured dogs often appear in a litter belonging to a black sire and
dam.

[Illustration: CURLY-COATED RETRIEVER DOG.]

White specimens have been produced, and it seems likely enough that a
race of white Retrievers will, in course of time, become established,
though, from a sportsman's view, they will not be as serviceable as
their black or darker-coloured brethren.

The author remembers several fawn-coloured Labradors on an estate in
Scotland, and the gamekeeper spoke most highly of the breed for work,
though, constitutionally, somewhat delicate.


CONSTITUTIONAL RULES OF THE RETRIEVER SOCIETY

1. That the object of the Society be to promote the breeding of pure
Retrievers, and to develop and bring to perfection their natural
qualities. In order to carry out these purposes, a working trial, if
practicable, shall be annually held.

2. That the Society shall consist of a President, Vice-Presidents, a
Committee, and an unlimited number of members.

3. That one-third of the Committee (exclusive of officers) shall be
withdrawn by lot each year, at the Annual General Meeting for the first
two years, and afterwards by rotation, and members shall be elected
to fill their vacancies; the retiring members to be eligible for
re-election. The President, Vice-Presidents, and Honorary Secretaries
shall be _ex-officio_ members of the Committee, and shall be elected
annually.

4. That the entire control and management of the Society shall be
vested in the Committee (of which three shall form a quorum), who shall
have power to make bye-laws, and decide upon all matters in dispute not
provided for by the rules of the Society; and, further, that any member
of the Committee, if unable to be present at a Committee Meeting, shall
be permitted (upon application for same) to vote by proxy, duly signed,
upon any resolution appearing upon the agenda paper, except as provided
in Rule 8.

5. That each candidate for admission shall be proposed and seconded
by members of the Society. The candidate's name, rank, residence, and
profession or occupation, if any, shall be sent to the Secretary a
fortnight before the election of candidates at the Committee Meeting;
and that each member of the Committee be advised, at least seven days
beforehand, of the proposed election of a new member of the Society.

6. That the election of members shall be vested solely in the
Committee, and be made by ballot, two black balls to exclude.

7. That for the present no entrance fee shall be charged, and that
the annual subscription shall be one guinea, payable 1st January in
advance; and that any member whose payments shall continue in arrear
for six months shall (due notice of such arrear having previously been
given in writing by the Secretary) have his name struck off the list,
and shall cease to be a member of the Society. Any member joining the
Society after the 31st October in any year shall not be liable for
an annual subscription for the current year. Life membership may be
acquired upon payment in a lump sum of ten guineas.

8. Any member of the Society who shall be proved to the satisfaction
of the Committee to have in any way misconducted himself in connection
with Dogs, Dog Shows, or Trials, or to have acted in any way which
would make it undesirable that he should continue to be a member, shall
be requested to retire from the Society; and if a resolution to that
effect shall be carried by three-fourths of the Committee (present and
voting), duly summoned or warned to the consideration of the case, the
member so requested to retire shall henceforth cease to be a member of
the Society.

9. That subscriptions and donations, after payment of all liabilities,
shall be applied in such a manner as the Committee shall determine,
for prizes at Trials or Workers' Classes at Dog Shows, or otherwise;
and all balance shall be invested for the use of the Society, in such
manner as the Committee shall direct.

10. That Committee Meetings may be held at each Trial Meeting of
the Society, or at such other times and places as the Committee may
determine, notice thereof having been duly sent to each member of the
Committee.

11. That the Annual General Meeting of the Society be held in May or
June, in London, and that a Special General Meeting may be called at
any time, at such place as may be agreed to by the Committee, on the
requisition of six members.

12. At every meeting the President, or one of the Vice-Presidents,
shall be chairman, or failing these, a member of the Committee, such
chairman to have a casting vote at all meetings. And, further, the
minutes of the preceding meeting shall be read, approved, confirmed,
and signed by the Chairman at the commencement of the next subsequent
meeting.

13. Any member may withdraw from the Society on giving notice in
writing to the Secretary, provided always that such member shall be
liable for his subscription to the Society for the current year in
which he gives such notice.

14. That the Secretary shall enter the name and address of each member
of the Society in a book kept for that purpose.

  A. E. SANSOM,
  _Secretary_,
  12 and 13 Henrietta Street, Covent Garden.


RULES ADOPTED AT THE RETRIEVER SOCIETY

(_Subject to Alteration_)

1. Before the Trials a number will be drawn by lot for each competing
dog, and the dogs will be tried by batches accordingly during the first
round. The handler of the dog must shoot with ammunition supplied by
the Committee, and he will not be allowed to carry in his hand anything
besides his gun. After all the competing dogs have been tried, the
Judges will call up, at their own discretion, any dogs they require
further, and try them again. No dog can win a prize which has not been
subjected to both tests of "walking up" and "driving."

2. All aged dogs will be expected to retrieve fur as well as feather,
if ordered to do so, but no handler must send his dog after any game
until bidden by a Judge to do so. The Judges have power to order any
handler to set his dog to retrieve game not shot by him personally.

3. The principal points considered by the Judges are sagacity,
steadiness, nose, dash, perseverance, obedience, and retrieving. This
last should be done quickly, with a tender and dry mouth, and right up
to the hand.

4. Any dog not present to be tried in its turn, the Committee reserve
the right of disqualifying at the expiration of fifteen minutes.

5. The Judges are empowered to turn out of the Stake the dog of any
person who does not obey them or who wilfully interferes with another
competitor or his dog, and to withhold a prize when, in their opinion,
no merit is shown; and to exclude from competition bitches on heat, or
any animals they may consider unfit to compete. The entry fees of all
such dogs will be forfeited.

6. Certificates of merit will be awarded with a view to the
establishment of Workers' Classes at the Dog Shows, and as a guide to
purchasers of dogs which, though not in the list of prize-winners, give
promise in their work of being valuable Sporting Dogs.

7. An objection to a dog may be lodged with the Secretary at any time
within seven days of a meeting, upon the objector depositing with the
Secretary the sum of £2, which shall be forfeited if the Committee deem
such objection frivolous. All objections must be made in writing.

8. The Committee have the power, if they think fit, to refuse any
entries for the Society's Trials, without assigning any reason for
their action.

9. In the event of the weather being considered by the Committee
unsuitable for holding the Trials, it shall be in their power to
postpone the Meeting from day to day until the Saturday following the
first day of the Trials, on which day the Stakes not already decided
shall be abandoned and their entry fees returned.

10. The Committee reserve to themselves the right to abandon
the Meeting at any time, on returning their entry monies to the
competitors, and if, from unforeseen circumstances, they deem it
advisable to alter the date of the meeting, after the closing of the
entries, this may be done by sending formal notice to all competitors
that they may recover their entry fees by exercising the option of
cancelling their entries within four days from the date of such notice.
All entries, however, about which no such application is made within
those four days, will stand good for the Meeting at its altered date.

11. If an advertised Judge be prevented from filling his engagement for
either the whole or part of the Meeting, the Committee shall appoint
any other person to judge, or shall make any other arrangements that to
them seem desirable.

12. Upon any case arising not provided for in the above Rules, the
Members of the Committee present shall decide, and their decision shall
be final.



CHAPTER V

=Spaniels=


GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DIFFERENT VARIETIES

[Illustration]

Regarding the word "Spaniel" as a generic title, and the different
varieties (Toys excepted) as "species" belonging to this genera,
the author purposes taking a brief survey of certain features
characteristic of Spaniels, leaving distinctive features for discussion
under the various titles of classification as adopted by the Kennel
Club. Judging from the literature at our disposal upon the subject, it
is at once evident that the Spaniel of to-day--no matter how changed by
selection--is of very ancient lineage, having existed as the Springing
Spaniel and Cocking, for upwards of 600 years, and his uses were then,
as they are--or rather ought to be--now: to range well within gunshot,
chase neither fur nor feather; never give tongue; find quickly, and
retrieve tenderly on either land, or water.

All these excellences are revealed in many of the beautiful old
coloured sporting prints, now so highly priced and prized, and
so difficult to obtain, though when obtained are a joy for ever,
gladdening the hearts of lovers of the old forms of such sport.

It is, we believe, universally accepted that the Spaniel originally
came from Spain, but during what period, there is no reliable data
to go upon. The departure, from what we may conveniently speak of as
the normal type of Spaniel, is most marked in that of the Irish Water
Spaniel, more especially in those coming from the north of Ireland.

Adhering to our original intention of general comparison, the author
will first of all consider--

_Temperament._--Most Spaniels are of a quick, inoffensive disposition,
a sour temper being oftener the results of bad training than any
inherent vice.

As with all other breeds, quarrels frequently arise over canine love
affairs, etc. Few, we think, can speak of the Spaniel as a quarrelsome
dog.

The sportsman's Spaniel--which is not commonly the show-bench
animal--is of hardy constitution, taking the water in the coldest of
weather, doing his eight or ten hours' work in a day, and roughing it
in the matter of food and kennelling.

The progeny of the working dog are not any more trouble to rear than
those of a rough-and-tumble Terrier.

The "soft" constitution of so many black and Sussex Spaniels is due to
that foolish system (in breeding) having been carried beyond all sense
of reason.

All are water-loving dogs, and, when properly trained, retrieve their
game tenderly.

_Coat._--Either flat, wavy, or curly, a flat coat being typical of the
up-to-date Spaniel. Many of the older type have a strong tendency to
show a "top-knot," and even now and again (Water Spaniels excepted), in
a litter of well-bred ones there is a reversion towards this type. All
have an abundance of feather on both fore and hind limbs, Irish Water
breed excepted.


_Colour_

  Irish Water Spaniel       Liver.
  English Water Spaniel     Liver and white, black
                              and white, black, or
                              black, white, and tan.
  The Clumber Spaniel       White, with red, lemon,
                              or orange patches.
  The Sussex Spaniel        Golden liver.
  Field Spaniels(?)         Black or tri-coloured,
                              also liver and white,
                              or tan.
  Cocker Spaniels          Black, black, white and
                             tan, liver, roan, liver
                             and white, black and
                             white, red and white,
                             etc., etc.
  English Springers        Variously coloured.
  Welsh Springers              Do.        do.

Liver, liver and white, black, and black and white, are by far the most
frequent colours of the Spaniel. Tan markings are very common in Welsh
Springers.

The Irish Water and the Clumber Spaniel are really the only two
varieties free from the introduction of blood from other varieties of
the breed.

Except in rare instances, the show-bench Sussex contains a lot of Field
Spaniel blood, the result of crossing a typical Sussex Spaniel with a
black bitch, over twenty years since, and its perpetuation until the
present day.

_Head and Ears._--They all agree in the anatomical outlines of their
skulls, the greatest breadth being in the head of the Clumber.

Heavy facial expressions are characteristic of the pure Sussex, the
half-bred, or Jacobs' strain of Sussex, and the Jacobs' strain of Black
Spaniels. Many Cockers also show it.

Long ears, not only long in the cartilage, but heavily
feathered--excepting the Northern Irish Water--are very characteristic
of Spaniels, but this large amount of hair in this region can hardly
be a recommendation for work, knowing that it is very liable to become
entangled in brambles, etc.

The occipital dome is well marked, and in some there is evidence of
"stop," as in Toys. Muzzles generally broad; nose broad, and cheeks
full.

_Fore-limbs._--With the exception previously alluded to, Spaniels all
agree in having a short arm and short forearm, largely augmented in the
Spaniels of to-day (excepting Clumbers, etc.) through the introduction
of Sussex blood.

From a sportman's point of view, this has been a detrimental influence,
short legs greatly interfering with retrieving of hares, etc., although
there may be what can be described as compensatory advantages, such as
getting under the low runs of brushwood, etc.

The older type of Field Spaniel was vastly superior for work to many of
the lethargical, long-bodied, low-legged, semi-intelligent specimens on
the show benches at the present time.

_Body._--Mostly of medium length, with well-sprung ribs, strong back
and loins.

Tail carried on a level with the back. In all, the feet are full, and
toes prominent, well feathered in the interspaces.

Length of body has always been a marked feature of the Sussex, and
"massiveness" characteristic of body, head and limbs in the Clumber.

From the foregoing outlines, it must be allowed that conformity of type
throughout the whole of the Spaniels is general.

The points, etc., of the different varieties are as follows:--


The Clumber

Very early on, these Spaniels were bred at Clumber House, the seat
of the Duke of Newcastle, one William Mansell having had the care of
them under the Duke for a great number of years, and much was done to
improve the beauty and utility of this handsome variety of Spaniel.

It is, in the author's opinion, the one variety of Spaniel that has
suffered the least in the way of introducing the blood of other
species. To attempt to cross the Clumber, with the object of making
some improvement, is defeating the first principles of the Clumber
exhibitor, purity of breed being the aim of his affection.

On the other hand, the introduction of Clumber blood into other strains
of Spaniels, for working purposes at least, is rather beneficial than
otherwise, and it is a cross frequently employed.

At one time the Duke of Portland had a very fine kennel of Clumbers,
and when these dogs appeared at the Palace or other Kennel Club Shows,
they simply swept the boards.

Mr Holmes of Lancaster had also a strong team, though I did not like
the appearance of his Clumbers anything akin to those shown by the Duke.

Probably the handsomest--we will not say the most typical--Clumber
that ever adorned the show bench was Mr Parkinson's Champion "Trusty,"
though, for some unknown reason, this exhibitor quietly dropped from
the show ring, and "Trusty" sank into insignificance.

My dog, Champion "Psycho," was one of the most typical Clumbers going
the rounds, and deserved a much more successful career than he had.
He was about as sweet-tempered a dog as it was possible to have, and
formed a most devoted attachment to my mother, under whose care he
chiefly was.

At one time the classes for Clumber Spaniels were well filled, though
in recent years they have declined considerably.

Lately His Most Gracious Majesty the King, and the Duchess of
Newcastle, have shown Clumbers, and this alone should give a fresh
impetus towards the popularity of the breed. At anyrate, we hope it
will have this effect.

When carefully broken, Clumbers make excellent workers, and can stand a
lot of heavy work.

[Illustration: CLUMBER SPANIEL DOG (BOBS OF SALOP).]

A typical Clumber must be long, low and heavy. The author does not
like a Clumber to be so short on the leg that the belly nearly sweeps
the ground, and considers extreme lowness ought not to be encouraged.
The Americans bred their Clumbers for use more than show bench,
consequently kept up a good useful sort. Of course, any tendency to
legginess is fatal to type.

_Weight_, about 55 lbs.; bitches a trifle less, and big in bone.

The _Head_ of a Clumber is very characteristic. It must be "massive"
in every sense of the word, or wide in all proportions, and the nose
broad, full and flesh-coloured--a Dudley nose.

_Ears._--Long, carried close to head and "set on" low with feathering
on front edge, not elsewhere.

_Eyes._--Deeply set in orbits, and rather large.[2]

_Coat._--Soft, silky, shining, straight, dense, and feather long and
profuse.

For colour markings, we prefer orange ears, with an evenly marked head
and ticked legs. Orange is a common marking. Less marking on the body
the better.

Powerful loins; a long and straight back, and a nicely rounded
croup are essentials of beauty. A deep chest, well-rounded ribs, and
powerfully-built fore-quarters are equally important.

A good Clumber must have staying power, and if he has not a
well-developed muscular system, he cannot have this requisite.

_Neck._--To be of medium length and stoutly built.

The head, body and hind-quarters constitute fifty per cent. of the
total value of points, and the neck and shoulders fifteen per cent.,
hence the significance of being well done up in these regions.

Stout arms and forearms, with an abundance of feather, are necessary.

A good deal of brushing and combing, together with washing before
showing, are needful to make the Clumber look fit. His heavy appearance
can be increased by keeping him a bit above average condition.

One should be able to purchase a good pup--one likely to make a
winner--for, say, ten guineas.

_Club._--Clumber Spaniel.


=The Sussex Spaniel=

This is a very old variety of Spaniel, said to have originated in the
county of Sussex, in the locality of Rosehill.

[Illustration: MR NEWINGTON'S SUSSEX SPANIEL DOG ROSEHILL ROCK.]

Five-and-twenty years ago, typical specimens of the Rosehill strain
were scarce, and since that time not a great deal has been done towards
maintaining the purity of breed.

Very few Spaniels shown in the Sussex classes can claim purity of
breeding, the introduction of black blood by mating Champion Bachelor
to Negress, being the cause of this. Jacobs Bachelor was by Buckingham
ex Peggie and own brother to Rover III.--though very different types of
Spaniels.

The author was personally acquainted with these and many other old
Sussex Spaniels.

I always took Buckingham to be a very typical Sussex and Rover III. was
much of the same stamp as his sire; whereas Bachelor was more akin to
the Dam Peggie--of course much her superior, though quite unlike his
brother, Rover III.

At one time the judges would not look at Champion Bachelor, Messrs
Willet then preferring Rover III.

Later on the order was reversed, and we believe--though cannot be
certain--at the London Kennel Club Show. Champion Lawyer--at one
time in my possession--was a heavily built type of Sussex. The Rev.
Mr Shields, Mr Fuller, and Mr Newington, all had some of the pure
Rosehills, and I also bought a good bitch from Mr Henry Hawkins by
Rover III. ex Duchess. The last time that old Buckingham ever appeared
on the show bench--and then not for competition--was at the Royal
Lancashire Agricultural Society's Show, held at Preston about 1880.

Although the litter out of which I bought Countess was an exceptionally
good one--and Countess very typical--Messrs Willet would not award them
prizes, owing, they said, to the faintest evidence of tan markings,
observed with difficulty.

The typical colour for the Sussex is a light golden liver, and this
Bachelor certainly was, Rover being darker.

Poor old Bachelor had a violent death through fighting with a kennel
companion--a Gordon Setter.

Champion Rover III. was withdrawn from the show ring for some reason.

Even in those days animated discussion went on in the Press as to what
was and what was not typical of the Sussex. There is no gainsaying one
fact, and that is that the Sussex of twenty years ago existed in a
different state of purity to what he does in the present day.

In casually looking over recent entries at the Kennel Club Show of
Sussex Spaniels, it is questionable whether there is a single animal so
entered that can justly claim the title of Sussex.

When Mr Jacobs had old Champion Bachelor in his possession, he had not
more than one Sussex bitch to mate him with, to my recollection. There
can be no doubt that the great improvement--for the show bench--of the
modern Spaniels began when Jacobs crossed Bachelor with old Negress,
a black Field Spaniel bitch. It destroyed the purity of the Sussex,
but if it had not been indulged in, there would, in all probability,
have been no class for the breed now. Blacks, livers, and liver and
tan, all used to come in the same litter out of Negress, who certainly
constituted the nucleus of a fortune to her owner.

The points of the Sussex are as follows:--

_Colour._--Deep golden liver.

_Coat._--Flat, and slightly wavy, but absolutely free from any tendency
to curl. Soft and abundant.

_Weight._--About 40 lbs.

_Head._--Heavy, though smaller and lighter than that of the Clumber.

_Eyes._--Rather deeply set, giving the dog a very thoughtful expression.

_Ears._--These should be long and well clothed with long, silky hair.
Above, the ears ought to be rather narrow, but broad below, set on low
down, and carried close to sides of head.

_Nose._--Broad and liver-coloured, open nostrils.

_Neck._--Short and strong, and the back long, strong, and level.

_Shoulders and Chest._--A fairly deep chest, oblique shoulders, and
well-sprung ribs are necessary.

Flat-sidedness, and "tucked up under" are decidedly faulty.

_Fore-limbs._--Must be short on the leg. Arms and forearms short but
well boned. Crooked fore-limbs are objectionable; turned out at elbows
equally bad. There should be an abundance of feather springing from the
backs of the fore-limbs, and down to the hocks, in the hind ones.

For the show bench the more feather the better.

Feet also well feathered, round and strong. The chief faults of the
Sussex are: white hairs on any portion, tan markings, curly coat, too
leggy, light in body, snipy head, short ears, want of feather, bad
constitution, and Bloodhound expression on face.


=Field Spaniels=

To attempt to define the term "Field Spaniel" so as to be free from
objection, would be, indeed, a difficult problem.

Unquestionably it is a very ambiguous term, and capable of wide
interpretation. The mere fact of the Kennel Club and other shows having
a class or classes for Field Spaniels, does not satisfy (though it
simplifies classification) the mind of the thoughtful observer.

Anything from a half-bred Clumber, or Irish Water Spaniel may
constitute a Field Spaniel, and rightly so, in the eyes of a sportsman.

That such dogs would win--say at a Kennel Club Show--could not be
entertained for a moment. It is the cross-bred Sussex that generally
comes out top, and the longer and lower and more Sussex-like in
character, the better the chances of success on the show bench. These
are the author's views, though they may not coincide with those of
others.

Some twenty-five years ago the "modern" Field Spaniel was as yet
unknown. Jacobs' Champion Kaffir and Royle's Champion Zulu, and my
dog Negro (by Kaffir ex Negress) were all black Field Spaniels of the
Sussex type.

Zulu, with his Bloodhound-like eyes, had a remarkable show career, so
had Kaffir, but they were not Field Spaniels from a sportsman's point
of view, more especially Zulu. I had the two best pups[A]--one whole
black and the other liver and tan--though, unfortunately for me, they
both died from distemper before they were three months old. The black
puppy I remember in particular. He was a facsimile of his dad, old
Champion Bachelor, and had he lived, might have proved to be a little
gold mine. Like his brother, nothing would ever have persuaded me that
he was a "Field Spaniel," accepting that term as did the sportsman of
days gone by.

My black Spaniel, Negro, though a big winner, was about as stupid a
sportsman's dog or companion as ever saw daylight. The author's opinion
is that a Field Spaniel should have a fair length of leg, be of good
size, have short, thick ears, and not much feather on them, or yet
on the legs. Should be stoutly built, have a good tight jacket, be
big-boned, have nice full eyes, well-rounded ribs, and, above all,
quick hearing and a sound constitution. Colour unimportant, but black
and white, black, or black, white and tan, or liver and white, for
preference. Weight 40 to 50 lbs. There is no doubt that in course of
time the Field Spaniel Trials will do much towards building up a proper
type of field dog. A flat coat, of silky texture, and very glossy:
long, heavily-feathered ears, short, strong, straight, cull-feathered
fore-limbs, long body, and well-sprung ribs, long, graceful neck, and a
long, moderately-wide head, with level carriage of the tail, are points
of the Show Field Spaniel. Black (no white) or particolours (also
liver) are preferred.



=The Cocker Spaniel=

This is a pretty type of small Spaniel, and one that has been in
existence from a very early date.

Modern Cockers have been bred in all sorts of ways, though lately it
has become a fairly general rule to breed only Cocker with Cocker, not
necessarily of the same colour. A typical Cocker should weigh between
20 and 25 lbs., and be of smart, active appearance.

[Illustration: TYPICAL COCKER SPANIEL.]

Probably two of the most successful black Cocker Spaniels ever adorning
the show bench were Obo and Miss Obo. My (formerly Mr Easton's)
Champion Bess was a very typical variety Cocker.

The American clubs' standard for Cockers is not quite the same as the
English, the weight there being from 18 to 28 lbs.

_Head._--Ought to be of medium length, and the muzzle square cut off,
tapering from the eye, though there must be no appearance of the
so-called "snipy" head.

There is a marked "stop," and from it there is a groove running up the
skull, gradually fading away.

_Ears._--Set on low, covered with long, silky, straight or wavy hairs,
and reaching at least to the tip of nose.

_Coat._--To be free from any sign of curl, plentiful, straight, or wavy
and silky. Body of medium length, with well-sprung ribs, fairly deep
chest, and full in the flanks. Many Cockers are very defective here,
being what is called "tucked up."

Short fore-legs, strong, straight, well feathered, and well-placed,
good-sized, feet. The tail should be carried on a level with back when
dog is at ease, but lower under excitement.

_Colour._--Unimportant; regularity and beauty of markings (if any)
being qualifications.

_Clubs._--The English Cocker Spaniel; the American Cocker Spaniel.

_Prices._--Very typical puppies can be bought for three or four guineas
shortly after weaning.

_Faults._--Top-knot, out at elbows, light in bone, too leggy, and, from
a sportsman's view, too short on leg. In whole-coloured specimens white
is objectionable; shallow flanks, high carriage of tail, deafness, and
bad constitution. Narrowness of chest, flat-sidedness, and a narrow
flank constitutes faulty conformation.


=The Irish Water Spaniel=

There are said to be two distinct types of Irish Water Spaniels, one
coming from the South and the other from the North of Ireland. The
former is usually pure liver-coloured, with long and well-feathered
ears, whereas the latter has short ears, and the liver colour mixed
with considerable white.

One of the most characteristic features of the Irish Water Spaniel
is his "top-knot," consisting of a crown of hair from the occiput
to between the eyes, leaving the temples free. These Spaniels, to a
sportsman of but slender means, in particular, cannot be over-valued.
They are, so to speak, born to water, and in their element when
retrieving wild-duck in the depth of winter, requiring very little
tuition.

[Illustration: IRISH WATER SPANIEL PAT O'BRIEN (Property of MAJOR
BIRKBECK).]

A famous dog of this variety, and one that had a wonderful show-bench
career, was Mr Skidmore's Larry Doolan. The writer remembers this dog
very well, as he was shown from north to south, east to west.

In _Colour_, these Irishmen should be a dark liver, free from any white
hairs, unless it be a very small patch on the breast, or toes. A boiled
liver (sandy) colour is objectionable.

_Nose._--Large, of the same colour, and the _Eyes_ a deep amber.

_Skull._--High in the occipital dome, and of good width. A good
top-knot essential.

_Ears._--Set on low, having long cartilage (15 to 20 inches), and well
feathered, the hair in this region being wavy and profuse.

Hair on tail short, and straight, blending the curls, towards its
set-on, with those on the stern. Tail, whip-like.

_Neck._--Long and well set up, blending below with strong shoulders.

A deep chest, strong back and loins, are necessary for the working
capacity of the breed.

_Coat._--Very important. To consist of tight, crisp curls all over
body, and limbs. Fifteen per cent. of points go to the coat.

_Height_ (shoulder measurement).--Not more than 24 inches, or less than
20 inches.

_General Appearances._--To win, the Irish Water Spaniel must look
proportionate all over, be active, have a tight curly coat and a good
top-knot, carry the head well up, be keen in facial expression, have a
cat-like tail, and look as though he would be ready to dive at the word
of command--in fact a workman from top-knot to tail.

_Faults._--Total absence of top-knot, a fully feathered tail and much
white hair will disqualify. An open woolly coat, light in colour,
cording of hair, Setter feathering on legs, and a moustache, are
objectionable, and should tell heavily against an Irishman in the
show-ring.

_Weight._--55 to 65 lbs.

_Club._--The Irish Water Spaniel Society.


=The English Water Spaniel=

Bewick gives an excellent figure of a large Water Spaniel. It is
generally liver-coloured and white, with the hair on the body in little
curls. The dog is of medium size, strong, active and intelligent, and
used by the water-fowl shooter.

In the _Gentleman's Recreation_ and in the _Sportman's Cabinet_, this
variety of dog is also described.

In the writer's opinion, there are plenty of these dogs to be seen
about at the present time. They are larger than the Field Spaniel, and
stronger built altogether, looking as though they had both the blood
of Retriever and Irish Water Spaniel in them.

The English Water Spaniel Club looks after the interests of this breed,
and the Kennel Club provides a class for them.

A narrow head, small eyes, large nose, straight neck, strong back,
rather narrow, deep chest, long strong legs, large feet, a six-inch
dock, with a coat of ringlets or curls (no top-knot), and good general
appearance, are the chief points.

Black, liver, liver and white, black and white, black and liver, are
the accepted colours, but pied is most admired.

In addition to this breed of Spaniel, the Kennel Club also provides
classes for English Springers and Welsh Springers.

[Illustration]



CHAPTER VI

INTERNATIONAL GUNDOG LEAGUE

_The Sporting Spaniel Society_


CONSTITUTIONAL RULES

1. The name of the Society shall be "The Sporting Spaniel Society," its
objects being to encourage the working qualities of Spaniels in every
possible way, the breeding of them upon working lines, and the judging
of them at shows from a working standpoint. All varieties of Sporting
Spaniels, English and Irish Water, Norfolk, Clumber, Sussex, Black
Springer, and Cocker Spaniels, and any other varieties of Spaniels used
with the gun, shall be fostered and encouraged by this Society. It
shall, if possible, hold a series of working Trials.

2. The Society shall consist of an unlimited number of members, whose
names and addresses shall be kept by the Secretary in a book, which
book shall be kept open to the inspection of members at reasonable
times. Any respectable person favourable to the objects of the Society
is eligible for admission as a member. Each candidate for admission
must be proposed by one member and seconded by another member. The
election of members shall be vested solely in the Committee and shall
be by ballot, three members to form a quorum, and two black balls to
exclude.

3. The annual subscription for each member shall be one guinea, payable
on 1st January in each year. Anyone failing to pay his subscription by
31st January shall have notice given him by the Secretary, and if his
subscription be still unpaid on 31st March, his rights of membership
shall cease until he has paid his subscription. By non-payment of his
subscription, a member renders himself liable to be struck off the list
of members. No new member shall be entitled to enjoy the privileges of
members until he has paid his subscription. This rule will be strictly
enforced. Life membership may be acquired upon payment in a lump sum
of ten guineas. The payment of the first subscription of any member
elected after the 30th June in any year will cover the period up to the
31st December next after the following 31st December.

4. The affairs of the Society shall be conducted by a President,
Vice-President and a Committee consisting of twelve members. All
officers of the Society shall be honorary, and no member may make the
Society a means of private speculation, or trade in any way whatever,
and if found to have done so, he is liable to expulsion.

5. That the property and management of the Society be vested in the
Committee jointly, which shall have power to call meetings of the
Society, to make necessary bye-laws, to arbitrate in disputed matters,
to refuse the admission of any person deemed objectionable, and to
expel any member guilty of dishonourable conduct; after such expulsion,
the member so expelled to have no claim whatever against the Society,
or to be entitled to recover any portion of his subscription. Any
member of this Society, who has been declared by the Kennel Club
Committee incapable of competing for, or winning a prize at a Show
under Kennel Club Rules for any period shall cease to be a member of
the Society. The Committee shall also have power to deal with any
question not provided for by the Rules. The Committee shall decide upon
the value and nature of the prizes to be offered during the year.

6. Meetings of the Society shall be held as occasion shall require for
the transaction of business. A meeting may be specially convened by the
Secretary on receipt of a written requisition signed by not less than
six members, stating the time, place, and object of such meeting, to
be lodged with the Secretary at least a fortnight previous to the date
fixed for such meeting to take place. An Annual General Meeting of
the Society shall be held in London, if possible in May or June, and
at the said meeting the whole of the Committee in office shall retire,
the retiring members being eligible for re-election. Any member not
being able to attend this meeting, and wishing to vote at the election
of officers, can do so by proxy. But the proxy paper, properly filled
up, must be lodged with the Secretary at least forty-eight hours
before the meeting, and no person can be nominated a proxy unless he
be a member of the Society. The Committee shall have power to appoint
sub-committees for any special object. The Committee and officers shall
stand elected from one Annual General Meeting to another.

7. All the Officers shall be annually elected at the Annual General
Meeting, and their duties shall be purely honorary.

8. The minutes of the last Meeting shall be read at the commencement
of, and be approved and confirmed by the next subsequent similar
Meeting. The Chairman shall have a casting vote in addition to his
own. Notice of a General Meeting shall be sent to each member at
least seven days previous to the date fixed for such Meeting to take
place, and with the notice shall be stated a list of the business to
be transacted, and copies of all proposed resolutions shall accompany
the notice. The Honorary Solicitor to be _ex officio_ member of the
Committee.

9. All authorised expenses incurred by the Officers on behalf of
the Society shall be defrayed out of the funds of the Society. The
Society's Rules, and its Prize Lists, together with the names of its
Committee and Officers, and a List of the members and their addresses
shall be printed and supplied to each member. The accounts shall be
presented at the Annual Meeting duly audited by two auditors appointed
at the Annual Meeting.

10. Any member can withdraw from the Society on giving notice to the
Secretary (such member to have no claim whatever on the Society),
provided always that such member shall be liable for his subscription
for the current year in which he gives such notice.


THE SPORTING SPANIEL SOCIETY

_Regulations_ (_subject to Alteration_)

1. In Single Stakes for Spaniels, the order of running shall be decided
at the Draw. At the end of the first round the Judges will call up,
at their own discretion, any dogs they require further, and run them
as they choose. The Judges will, except in a case of undoubted lack
of merit, try each Spaniel for at least fifteen minutes in the first
round, but they can carry on the trial of two dogs simultaneously, not
ordering down together two dogs worked by the same person or belonging
to the same owner. All shooting will be done by guns appointed by the
Committee.

2. In Brace and Team Stakes the order of running in the first round
shall be decided by lot, and the dogs composing a brace or team must
belong to the same owner. No dog shall form part of more than one brace
or team at the same Meeting, and only one man at a time shall work any
brace or team.

3. In all Stakes the Spaniels shall be regularly shot over in the
customary sporting manner, and may be worked up and down wind, and on
feather and fur.

4. In all Stakes the principal points to be considered by the Judges
are scenting power, keenness, perseverance, obedience, freedom
from chase, dropping to shot, style, method of beating and working
to the gun--whether in cover, hedgerow, or the open. In Single
Stakes, besides, the Spaniels are expected to retrieve at command
as required--tenderly, quickly and right up to the hand; and any
additional excellence, such as dropping to hand and shot, standing
to their game and flushing it at command, etc., will be taken into
account; while in Brace or Team Stakes they are expected to beat their
ground harmoniously together. In all Stakes with puppies under twelve
months old, the retrieving of fur shall be optional.

5. Any dog not present to run in its turn, the Committee reserve the
right of disqualifying at the expiration of fifteen minutes.

6. The Judges are empowered to first caution, and, upon repetition
of the offence, turn out of the Stake the dog of any person who does
not beat the ground to their satisfaction; to withhold a prize when,
in their opinion, no merit is shown; and to exclude from competition
bitches on heat, or any animals they may think unfit to compete. The
entry fees of all such dogs will be forfeited.

7. An objection to a dog may be lodged with the Secretary at any time
within seven days of a Meeting, upon the objector depositing with the
Secretary the sum of £2, which shall be forfeited if the Committee deem
such objection frivolous. All objections must be made in writing.

8. The Committee have the power, if they think fit, to refuse any
entries for the Society's Trials without assigning any reason for their
action.

9. In the event of the weather being considered by the Judges
unsuitable for holding the Trials, it shall be in their power to
postpone the Meeting from day to day until the Saturday following the
first day of the Trials, on which day the Stakes not already decided
shall be abandoned and their entry fees returned.

10. The Committee reserve to themselves the right to abandon
the Meeting at any time, on returning their entry monies to the
competitors, and if, from unforeseen circumstances, they deem it
advisable to alter the date of the Meeting after the closing of the
entries, this may be done by sending formal notice to all competitors,
who may exercise the option of cancelling their entries within four
days from the date of such notice, in which event their entry fees will
be returned to them. All entries, however, in regard to which no such
option is exercised, will stand good for the Meeting at its altered
date.

11. If an advertised Judge be unable to fulfil his engagement for the
whole or part of the Meeting, the Committee shall appoint any other
person to judge, or shall make any other arrangements that to them seem
desirable.

12. The decisions of the Committee present shall, in all matters
arising at the Meetings, be final and conclusive, and shall bind all
parties.



CHAPTER VII

=Training Spaniels=

(_being an Extract from "Land and Water"_)


"Most people are contented if a dog will work within gunshot and push
out the game for him to kill. Almost any mongrel with the necessary
practice and experience will do this, but I assume that the sportsman
takes a pride in his dogs, likes to have good-looking and well-bred
ones, and if he wishes to shoot in comfort and in good form when he
uses Spaniels, it is quite as necessary to have them well-trained as
any other breed of sporting dog. I will therefore give such directions
as experience has taught me are useful. I know no dog that more repays
the trouble of breaking yourself (that is, if you have the requisite
knowledge and patience) than the Spaniel, who, from natural love and
affection he has for his master more than any other dog, should be
more ready to work for him than anyone else. The Spaniel's natural
love of and ardour in hunting require a firm hand over him until he
is matured. There is an old saying that 'A Spaniel is no good until he
is nearly worn out.' There is a great deal of truth in this, and the
Spaniel's enthusiasm must be largely reduced before he can get down
to cool, earnest work. I recollect an old bitch, that belonged to a
Devonshire sportsman, that was so cunning that she used to catch as
much game as he shot. When the old man died, I bought the bitch, as she
had a great reputation; but she was far too much of a pot-hunter for
me. I could have backed her against a moderate gun any day.

"Spaniels get very knowing in working to the gun after a few months,
and it is astonishing what efforts they will make to manœuvre the
game out to the shooter. I have seen numberless instances of this,
particularly in hedgerow shooting, when I have frequently seen a clever
old dog, on winding game, not make a rush at it, which would have had
the effect of sending it out on the other side, but pop through the
fence and push it out to you. This, as I have said, is only acquired
by experience; and a young, vigorous Spaniel will sometimes push up
the game, irrespective of lending any aid to the gun. A really good
Spaniel, even when he is busy questing and bustling about, should
always have an eye to the gun, and to work to it instead of for himself
and his own gratification and amusement. You cannot well begin too
early to train young Spaniels to get their noses down and to hunt
close; to work thoroughly every bit of ground and every hole and corner
that can possibly shelter a head of game. This is what the Spaniel
is required to do when he is grown up; and in order to inculcate
this habit in him, and to discourage him in what he is so prone to
do--namely, go ahead--you should begin by flinging small bits of meat
or boiled liver into small patches of turnips in a garden, or small
patches of thick bushes, or any kind of covert that will cause him to
seek for it with his nose, and not with his eye. By no means enter
your young Spaniels to rabbits if you can avoid it; they take to them
naturally when they get the chance, and there is no fear of their not
having the opportunity soon enough. Enter them to winged game, by all
means, and for this purpose get an old cock partridge, cut one wing,
and put him into a small patch of thick covert.

"Never take young Spaniels into large or thick coverts where they can
get away from under your eye. Confine your working ground to small bits
of covert, patches of turnips, bushes, bits of gorse--any thing, in
fact, where you will be likely to have thorough control over them, and
where they are in reach of an attendant; whom you should always have
with you to turn them to your whistle. I have found it a first-rate
plan to take them out on the sides of rivers and ponds, where there are
lots of moorhens, and plenty of sedge and rushes; let them hunt in
the rushes till they are tired, and a morning's work of this kind will
do them more good than anything I know of. They soon become fond of the
work; it teaches them to work close, and they are perfectly under the
control of yourself and assistant.

"Teach them early to drop to hand and shot, and spare no pains about
it; this is a part of a Spaniel's education which is generally
neglected. I know many men who, instead of making them drop to shot,
make them come to heel, using the words 'come around,' or 'heel.' It
answers every purpose; and as it brings every dog to you, and he has
to work right away from you again when he gets the signal, it has its
advantages in keeping them under control; but, on the whole, I prefer
the dropping to shot and wing instantly. It is difficult to make a
Spaniel drop to fur; and if you can keep him from chasing, merely
putting up hares and rabbits, but not following them after they are
started, rest satisfied that little more is necessary or desirable.

"I once saw an interesting thing of this kind. I was shooting with a
gentleman near Southampton, in one of his coverts, to a team of small
Clumbers; we were both standing in a ride, and saw a charming little
bitch feathering near us towards the ride. Just as she got to it, out
popped a rabbit and scuttled down the ride, followed out of the covert
by the bitch; but as soon as she cleared the wood and was in the ride,
close on to the rabbit, which she had not seen till then, down she
dropped entirely of her own accord. She had not seen either of us,
neither did we know that we were each observing this pretty bit of work
until we compared notes a few minutes after, and agreed that we had
never seen anything better. It is rather difficult to describe, but to
me it was worth all the afternoon's shooting, and it made an impression
at the time which is as fresh as ever now. She was, I need scarcely
say, thoroughly broken.

"If it is desired to make young Spaniels take water, and they show any
disinclination to it, the best plan is to take them to a stream which
you can wade through. Walk through to the other side, and they will
probably follow you at once; if they do not, walk straight away from
the opposite side and go out of sight; they will come, after making
a little fuss about it. If you have not a suitable shallow stream,
but are obliged to make use of a deep river for your purpose, get an
attendant, whom they do not know, to hold your puppies while you go
round by a bridge out of their sight, and come down opposite to them,
and follow the instructions I have given above. Remember many young
dogs have, at first, a great fear of getting out of their depth all at
once, but will freely dabble into a shallow stream; so that it is best
to lead them on by degrees. Once having got off their legs, and finding
that it is an easy matter to swim, there will be no further trouble.
Always choose warm weather for this teaching. There is, however, no
better plan of teaching them to take to the water than letting them
hunt moorhens. As to whether Spaniels should be taught to retrieve or
not, will depend upon what your requirements are, the number you use,
and so on.

"If you own but one dog, by all means take all the trouble you can to
perfect him in this business; and for this purpose you should choose
your whelp from a strain that retrieves naturally.

"If you work three or four Spaniels together, unless they are
thoroughly broken, they all want to retrieve, and it is often the
cause of much trouble. Nothing looks worse than to see several dogs
all tugging at one bird, except, perhaps, the bird itself afterwards.
If your dogs are sufficiently broken and under command, and will drop
to shot or come to heel, and you can direct either one of them to find
the wounded game, while the others remain down or at heel, you can let
them take it in turn which shall be allowed the pleasure and honour of
recovering the wounded; but how rarely one sees Spaniels so well under
command as this. In the case of a team of Spaniels, I think it better
that they should not be allowed to retrieve, and this duty is better
confined to a regular retriever.

"It is a good plan with young Spaniels to walk round a covert towards
evening, when pheasants are out at feed in the stubbles, having an
attendant with you to prevent them getting into covert, and walk in
a zigzag way about the stubbles; you can generally give them plenty
of practice in this way, and enter them well to the scent of winged
game. If your puppies do not readily return to your whistle, but show
a disposition to go on, turn your back upon them and go the other way,
which will generally have the desired effect--and a rate or a crack of
the whip from your attendant will greatly aid it. If a puppy is too
fast, put up a fore-leg in his collar, or tie a strap tightly round one
hind-leg just above the hock; but neither of these must remain long
without changing, or you will produce swelling and inflammation. Apart
from the pleasure and satisfaction there is in shooting to dogs of your
own breaking, there is this advantage that they learn to understand
your ways, and to know thoroughly your every look and motion, while you
at the same time perfectly understand them.

"In selecting young Spaniels to break, if you do not breed your own, be
most particular in getting them from a good working strain, of a sort
that a friend of mine designates as 'savage for work.'

"To work Spaniels in thick, large woods, you should always go with them
to work them, or send someone they are accustomed to work with, or they
will become wild or slack."

[Illustration]



  SECTION B

  =Hounds=

  CHAPTER VIII

  FOXHOUNDS

  HARRIERS

  OTTERHOUNDS

  DEERHOUNDS



CHAPTER VIII


=The Foxhound=

At no period of English history has fox-hunting, with Horse and Hound,
been more vigorously pursued than it is during the twentieth century.

Scattered from north to south, east to west, are approximately some two
hundred packs of these magnificent specimens of the canine race.

Judging from the excellent sport enjoyed by the majority of hunts
during this last season, one has no need to be sceptical as to the
progress and continuance of this grand and manly form of sport. Looking
back on the times when such great followers of the chase as Peter
Beckford and Mr Apperley ("Nimrod"), one is apt to think that through
lapse of time, agricultural depression, and inroads made into the
country through commercial industry, fox-hunting might well-nigh have
become a sport of the past, but, happily, this is not so.

Given good weather and a favourable season, there is as good sport to
be obtained with Horse and Hound as in the days of Beckford. The modern
Foxhound, has, by selection, been derived from the old Southern Hound,
a dog that had longer ears, was heavier built, and slower.

This Hound was supposed to have been used by the Ancient Britons for
hunting the larger game present at that time.

The number of Hounds constituting a pack varies, and if the pack is a
very large one, the dogs and bitches are hunted alternately.

As to which is the best for hunting, opinions vary.

From twelve to twenty-five couples may be taken as the average number
working at one time.

The following is a description of the Foxhound, taken from the
_Foxhound Stud Book_:--

Head, of full size, but by no means heavy.

Brow pronounced but not high or sharp.

There must be good length and breadth, sufficient to give in the dog
Hound a girth in front of the ears of fully 16 inches. The nose should
be long (4½ inches) and wide, with dilated nostrils.

Ears set on low and lying close to the cheek.

The neck must be long and clean, without the slightest throatiness.
It should taper nicely from the shoulders to the head, and the upper
outline should be slightly convex.

The shoulders ought to be long and well clothed with muscle without
being heavy, especially at the points. They must be well sloped, and
the arm must be long and muscular, but free from fat and lumbar.

[Illustration: MR WALTER WINANS' PACK OF HOUNDS AND MASTER.]

[Illustration: ENEMIES AT PEACE--FOXHOUND NAMELESS AND TAME DOG FOX
(Property of Mr WALTER WINANS).]

The chest should girth over 30 inches in a 24-inch Hound, and back
ribs to be deep. The back and the loin both ought to be very muscular,
running into each other without any contraction (waist) or nipping
between them.

The couples must be wide even to raggedness, and there should be the
slightest arch in the loin, so as to be scarcely perceptible.

The hind-quarters, or propellers, are required to be very strong, and
as endurance is of even more consequence than speed, straight stifles
are preferred to those much bent, as in the Greyhound.

Elbows set quite straight, neither turned in nor out, are a _sine
qua non_. They must be well let down by means of the long true arm
previously mentioned.

Every Master of Foxhounds insists on legs as straight as an arrow and
very strong; size of bone at knees and stifles being specially regarded
as important.

Not much attention is paid to colour and coat, so long as of good Hound
colour, and the latter short, dense, hard and glossy. Typical Hound
colours are: black, white and tan (tricolour), black and white and the
various "pies," compounded of white and the colours of the hare and
badger, or yellow and tan.

In some old strains the "blue mottle" of the Southern Hound is still
preserved. The stern is gently arched, coming gaily over the back and
slightly fringed with hair below. It should taper to a point. The
symmetry of the Foxhound is considerable, and what is called "quality"
is highly regarded by all Hound judges. Dogs ought to weigh 70 to 80
lbs. and bitches from 60 to 70 lbs.

As to height, this varies in accordance with the country over which the
Hounds have to hunt. From 22 up to 26 inches, but between these heights
is general.

It is a very old custom to crop the young Hounds' ears with scissors,
the operation being known as "rounding". It is done with the object of
preventing the ears from becoming lacerated by briars, etc.

Recently there has been a good deal of discussion as to the necessity
for a continuance of this practice, many asserting that it is not
necessary, and constitutes cruelty.

As to the cruelty, there can be no two opinions.

The Kennel Club put their veto on the cropping of Bull-terriers,
Black-and-tan Terriers, Boarhounds, etc., and there is little doubt
that in course of time small ears will be the result. The old type of
Foxhound had very much bigger ears than the modern one.

All things considered, the author is of opinion that the time has
arrived for total abolition of this cruel operation.

The following is a list of some of the principal packs of Foxhounds in

_England_

  Albrighton.
  Atherston.
  Badsworth.
  Beaufort, Duke of.
  Berkley, Old West.
  Bicester.
  Blackmore Vale.
  Blankney.
  Braham Moor.
  Burton.
  Cambridgeshire.
  Cornwall, North.
  Do., East.
  Cotswold.
  Do., North.
  Devon, East.
  Do., Mid.
  Do., South.
  Oxford, South.
  Quorn.
  Shropshire, South.
  Staffordshire, North and South.
  Worcester.
  Taunton Vale.
  Zetland.
  Warwick, North.
  Do.
  Dorset.
  Essex.
  Fitzhardinge, Lord.
  Fitzwilliam, Earl.
  Flint and Denbigh.
  Grafton.
  Kent, East.
  Do., West.
  Ledbury.
  Meynell.
  Oakley.
  Rutland, Duke of.
  Sussex.
  Tredegar, Lord.
  York and Ainsty.
  Whaddon Chase.
  Yarborough, Earl of.

_Some Packs in Scotland_

  Buccleuch, Duke of.
  Lanark and Renfrew.
  Fife.
  Eglinton.

_Some Packs in Ireland_

  Meath.
  Wexford.
  King's County.
  Louth.
  Waterford.
  Tipperary.
  Galway County.
  Carberry.
  Carlow.


=Harriers=

Although there are packs of Harriers in various parts of the country,
they are of a very limited number, hare-hunting with Hounds being a
very inferior sport to that of fox-hunting. Moreover, hares are not as
plentiful as in the days of our forefathers, in a large measure arising
through diminished agricultural industry and commercial relations.

That good sport is still to be had with Harriers we do not for a moment
dispute, but it is not general.

Formerly "dwarf" foxhounds were used for hare-hunting, though proved
not to be equal to the typical Harrier for this purpose.

Harriers vary in their height according to the nature of the country
they have to work in.

[Illustration: LECTURER--A MEMBER OF THE CRICKHOWELL HARRIERS.]

From 16 to 20 inches is the general height, sometimes a trifle more, or
less.

Unless very carefully trained, Harriers will hunt rabbits, and then
they are with difficulty broken of this vice.

The most useful colour is black, white and tan (tricolour), but hare,
red, tan, badger and yellow pies are frequent.

Throughout, the Harrier should be symmetrical, have a large nose,
dilated nostrils, ears low set on and lying close to the cheeks, and
the neck long and strong. A short neck is a defective one.

There must be no loose skin, such as dewlap, etc., in this region.

Elbows well let down and carried in the same line as body.

_Loins._--Broad; and back straight, strong, and wide.

_Back ribs._--Deep.

_Chest._--Deep, but not wide.

_Fore-limbs._--Straight as a line, well rounded and of good bone and
substance. Feet must be hard and compact.

Strong hind-quarters, and a gay carriage of tail are typical of a
well-built Harrier.

_Coat._--Dense, smooth (not coarse), and glossy.

Twenty couples were considered by the late Peter Beckford as
constituting a full pack of Harriers, though there is no fixed number
for this purpose.

Our illustration represents one of the Crickhowell Harriers, and for
the picture I am indebted to Mr Stanhope Lovell of Crickhowell.[3]


=The Otterhound=

Otter-hunting is a very ancient sport, otter dogs being used during the
reign of King John.

The Hounds in those days had not the beauty of the present-day
Otterhound, as very different types of dogs were then used, _e.g._, a
cross-bred Terrier, Foxhounds, etc.

One of the best packs of Otterhounds in this country are those
belonging to the Dumfriesshire otter-hunt, the River Tweed affording
the pack excellent hunting ground. It is an old-established pack, and
has always given, we believe, the best of sport.

Looking at a typical specimen of this breed, one is not slow to
recognise a "workman all over."

To a casual observer he has the appearance of a rough-coated--if such
there can be--Bloodhound.

These dogs weigh from about 65 to 80 or 90 lbs., and the bitch Hounds
10 or 15 lbs. less, and of different colours, but grizzle (black and
grey), and tan is the most general.

_Colour._--Fawn, yellow, blue and white and black-and-tan are
frequently seen. The last-named colour should not be encouraged in
these Hounds.

White markings are common.

His coat should be dense, of a wiry texture, shaggy in appearance, and
of a water-resisting nature.

When judging these dogs, particular attention is paid to the coat.

A soft coat is decidedly objectionable, so is one that is thin.

_Height._--About 25 inches.

_Eyes._--Deeply sunk, thoughtful, showing the "haw" plainly.

_Ears._--Long and sweeping, hanging closely to the cheeks.

_Skull._--The peak is less prominent than that of the Bloodhound and
the head shorter, but the flews large and loose. Like the ears, it
is covered by shaggy hair, softer than that on the body. Beneath the
lower jaw there is a moustache. Large teeth and powerful jaws are
indispensable in an encounter with an otter.

Of Foxhound-like conformation, the frame is of stouter build altogether.

_Neck._--Thick, of medium length, ending in very powerful shoulders
and arms, and the chest must be deep, running and swimming demanding
a sound heart and lungs. Dewlap loose. A strong back and loins, the
latter slightly arched, an additional qualification of the breed.
Should be shorter in the leg than a Foxhound, but have big-boned,
muscular limbs, with large feet, close, and horny below.

These Hounds hunt both by scent and by sight, their scenting-power
being developed to a remarkable degree.

The music of Otterhounds is rich, deep and mellow.


=The Deerhound=

[Illustration]

Regarding the origin of the Scottish Deerhound there is very little
reliable information, though there can be no questioning the fact that
it is a variety of dog indigenous to the Highlands, and bred specially
for the purpose of hunting the deer.

About forty-five years since there were not many of these Hounds in
England, and even in their native land at, or about, this period, they
were by no means common.

Although powerful and swift dogs, they are only used to a very limited
extent, and breeders of these Hounds keep them more for companionship,
and exhibition purposes.

They make excellent watch-dogs, and are exceedingly hardy.

The following description is that issued by the Deerhound Club:--

_Head._--The head should be broadest at the ears, tapering slightly to
the eyes, with the muzzle tapering more decidedly to the nose.

The muzzle to be pointed, but the teeth and lips level.

The head ought to be long, the skull flat, rather than round, with a
very slight rise over the eyes, but with nothing approaching a "stop."

The skull should be coated with moderately long hair, which is softer
than the rest of the coat.

The nose to be black (although in some blue fawns the colour is blue)
and slightly aquiline.

In the lighter coloured dogs a black muzzle is preferred. There should
be a good moustache of rather silky hair and a fair beard.

_Ears._--These to be set on "high," and in repose folded back like
those of the Greyhound, though raised above the head during excitement
without losing the fold, and, in some cases, semi-erect.

A "prick" ear is bad.

A big, thick ear hanging flat to the head, or heavily coated with long
hair, is one of the worst faults. The ear should be soft, glossy and
like a mouse's coat to the touch, and the smaller it is, the better. It
should have no long coat or long fringe, but there is often a silky,
silvery coat on the body of the ear and the tip.

Whatever the general colour, the ears ought to be black, or dark
coloured.

_Neck and Shoulders._--The neck should be long--that is, of the length
that befits the Greyhound character of the dog.

An overlong neck is neither necessary nor desirable, for the dog is
not required to stoop to his work like a Greyhound, and it must be
remembered that the mane, which every good specimen should have,
detracts from the apparent length of the neck.

Moreover, a Deerhound requires a very strong neck to hold a stag.

The nape of the neck must be very prominent where the head is set on,
and the throat clean cut at the angle, and prominent.

Shoulders to be of good slope and blades well back. Loaded and straight
shoulders are faulty ones.

_Stern._--To be tolerably long, tapering and reaching to within 1½
inches of the ground, and about the same distance below hocks.

When the Hound is at rest, tail ought to be quite straight down, or
curved.

[Illustration: DEERHOUND CHAMPION ST RONAN'S RHYME (Property of Mr
HARRY RAWSON).]

[Illustration: DEERHOUND DOG CHAMPION SELWOOD MORVEN (Property of Mr
HARRY RAWSON).]

During excitement, curved, and in no case lifted out of the line of the
back.

It should be well covered with hair on the inside, thick and woolly,
underside longer, and a slight fringe near tip not objectionable. A
curl or ring tail very faulty.

_Eyes._--These should be dark; generally they are dark brown or hazel.
A very light eye is not liked. The eye is moderately full, with a soft
look during repose, but a keen, far-away expression when the Hound is
roused. Rims of eyelids ought to be black.

_Body._--The body and general formation is that of a Greyhound, of
larger size and bone.

Chest deep, rather than broad, but not too narrow, and flat-sided. The
loin well arched, and drooping to the tail. A straight back is not
desirable, this formation being unsuitable for uphill work, and very
unsightly.

_Legs and Feet._--The legs to be broad and flat, with good broad
forearms and elbows.

Straight fore-limbs, and close compact feet.

The hind-quarters to be drooping, and as broad and powerful as
possible, the hips being set wide apart.

The hind-legs to be well bent at the stifle, with great length from
hips to hocks, and the latter broad and flat.

Cow-hocks, weak pasterns, straight stifles, and splay feet are the
worst of faults.

_Coat._--The hair on the body, neck, and quarters should be hard and
wiry, and about 3 or 4 inches in length, and that on the head, breast,
and belly much softer. There ought to be a slight hairy fringe on the
inside of the fore and hind legs, but nothing approaching the feather
of a Collie.

The Deerhound ought to be a shaggy dog, but not overcoated. A woolly
coat is a bad one.

Some good strains have a mixture of silky coat with the hard, and this
is preferable to a woolly coat. The proper Deerhound coat is thick,
close-lying, ragged, and harsh or crisp to the feel.

_Colour._--More a matter for individual fancy.

A dark blue-grey most preferred, and after this, darker and lighter
grey, or brindles, the darkest being preferred.

Yellow, sandy-red, or red-fawn, with black points (_i.e._, ears and
muzzle), are equally esteemed, more so because two of the oldest
strains--the M'Neil and Chesthill Menzies--are of these colours.

White is condemned by all the old authorities, but a white chest
and white toes, occurring as they do in a great many of the darkest
coloured dogs, are not so much objected to, though less the better, as
the Deerhound is a self-coloured dog.

A white blaze on the head, or a white collar, should entirely
_disqualify_.

A white tip on tail occurs in most strains.

_Height of Dogs._--From 28 to 30 inches.

_Height of Bitches._--From 26 inches upwards.

A big bitch is better for breeding and keeping up size. Ought not to
exceed the height of the dog under any circumstances.

_Weight._--Dogs, 85 to 105 lbs. Bitches, 65 to 80 lbs.

Mr Rawson, of Joppa, kindly supplied me with photographs.


THE TOTAL POINTS REQUIRED FOR A DEERHOUND

_Character_--

  Length and shape of head            10
  Ears                                 6
  Beard and eyebrows                   3
  Eyes                                 5
  Coat                                 7
  Neck                                 5
  Tail                                 4
  Nails                                2
  Teeth                                5
                                      --47


_Body_--

  Height at shoulder                   10
  Substance and girth                   9
  Length and symmetry of body           9
                                       --28

_Limbs_--


  Loins and hocks             10
  Fore-limbs                   8
  Feet                         7
                              --25

                       Total   100



  SECTION C

  =Hounds=

  CHAPTER IX

  BLOODHOUNDS

  IRISH WOLFHOUNDS

  GREYHOUNDS

  WHIPPETS



CHAPTER IX


=The Bloodhound=

For several centuries at least, the Bloodhound has existed as a
distinct variety of the canine race. According to Jesse, the earliest
mention of Bloodhounds was during the reign of Henry III., and that
the breed originated from the Talbot, brought over by William the
Conqueror, and very similar to a breed from St Hubert's Abbey and
Ardennes, which, according to the old legends, was imported by St
Hubert, from the south of Gaul, about the sixth century.

The Talbot was the popular Hound from the twelfth to the sixteenth
century, becoming extinct about the end of the last century.

"The Southern Hound, another very old breed, showing many
characteristics of the Bloodhound, is difficult to find now in his pure
state, although many old packs of Harriers have descended chiefly from
Southern Hounds. The best authorities agree that the St Hubert, Talbot,
and Bloodhound are all closely allied."

The foregoing is an extract from the _Century_, by E. Brough.

These Hounds were used by Henry VIII. in the wars in France; by the
Spaniards in Mexico, and by Queen Elizabeth against the Irish.

One of the most remarkable features of the Bloodhound is found in his
abilities to track the footsteps of strangers, but in towns and cities
he is quite useless for this purpose.

Within recent years, these Hounds have frequently been employed with
the object of tracking a criminal, and in some instances, we believe,
with very satisfactory results.

In appearance the Bloodhound has a very stately bearing, and usually of
a kindly disposition.

On the hunt their music is deep and bell-like.

Although generally of good constitution, Bloodhound puppies are very
troublesome to rear, distemper being the scourge to which most of them
succumb.

For the photograph of the beautiful quartet, the author is indebted to
Mrs Chapman of Thrapston, and to this lady, and Mr Fall for the lovely
picture of the head of Champion Sultan.

The points of the Bloodhound are as follows:--

1. _Head._--This is characteristic.

The skin covering the forehead and cheeks is heavily wrinkled, the more
so the better. Reference to the picture showing the head of Sultan
shows the remarkable expression in this region.

[Illustration: A QUARTET OF TYPICAL BLOODHOUNDS (the Property of Mrs
CHAPMAN, Thrapston).]

The occipital dome is high but not wide, and very round. At the top it
forms a peak.

The nasal surface, _i.e._, from eyes to nose, is very long, so that
from peak to nose it may measure as much as a foot. The brows are
prominent; the flews very long--sometimes a couple of inches--and the
nostrils large and well dilated.

_Eyes._--Small, hazel in colour, deeply sunk, and should show a great
deal of "haw," _i.e._, the _membrana nictitans_, or third eyelid. These
features are very characteristic of the Bloodhound.

Long ears, thin, soft to the feel, set on low down, hanging close to
cheeks, and meeting, when pulled together, over the nose.

The facial expression ought to appear quick and penetrating.

2. _Legs and Feet._--There must be plenty of bone and muscle here;
strong knees; straight and round well-formed, cat-like feet.

3. _Chest and Shoulders._--Width and fair depth are desirable, the
shoulder being very strong, the arm also strong.

4. _Neck._--A long neck is essential, and the dewlap should be well
developed.

5. _Ribs, Back and Loin._--Well-sprung ribs, with a wide back, of
moderate length, and strong loins.

6. _Hind-quarters and Limbs._--There should not be much more than skin,
bone, and muscle in these regions. The hocks are strong and coarse.
Must not be cow-hocked.

7. _Tail._--Gay carriage as in other Hounds. At rest tail is down.

8. _Coat and Colour._--Black-and-tan. The black hair is generally
blended with the tan, and this ought to be of a deep red. Some Hounds
are tan-coloured only. Lion colour uncommon, but coveted. The body coat
short and hard, but on the ears, and head, fine and soft.

_Height._--For dogs, about 2 ft. 3 in.; bitches, 2 ft. (measured at
shoulder).

_Club._--Bloodhound Breeders' Association, particulars of this being
given.


THE ASSOCIATION OF BLOODHOUND BREEDERS

(_Founded 1897_)

OBJECTS OF THE ASSOCIATION

1. To foster the interests of the breed generally.

2. To establish a Fund by means of a subscription of 10 per cent.
of all money prizes that each member may have won and received, as
provided by the Rules.

3. To approach Show Committees with the view of obtaining extended
Classification in the Bloodhound Classes.

4. To promote Stakes in connection with the progeny of Stud Dogs.

5. To promote Stakes in connection with the progeny of Brood Bitches.

6. To offer prizes for competition at Shows in addition to those
offered by Show Committees.

7. To do everything possible to promote, by trials or otherwise, the
training of Bloodhounds to hunt man.


RULES AND REGULATIONS

_Members_

1. The Association shall consist of an unlimited number of Honorary
Members and Members, who shall be persons interested in the promotion
of the breeding and training of Bloodhounds, whose names and addresses
shall be entered in a register to be kept by the Secretary.

_Honorary Members_

2. The Committee shall have power to elect as Honorary Members any
persons whose election may be considered beneficial to the interest of
the Association. Honorary Members to be exempt from paying the Annual
Subscription, and shall not participate in any benefits to be derived
from the Association, nor take any part in its management.

_Mode of Election_

3. Each Candidate for Membership shall be proposed by one Member and
seconded by another, and the election shall be vested absolutely in the
Committee.

_Subscription_

4. The Annual Subscription shall be One Guinea, payable on the 1st of
January.

_Members' Prize Fund_

5. Each member shall, during the continuance of his membership,
contribute to a fund, to be known as The Members' Prize Fund, 10 per
cent. of all money prizes received by him (except out of the Fund)
during each year, and won for Bloodhounds at Shows and Trials held
under Kennel Club Rules.

6. The Fund shall be closed on the 31st December in each year, and the
amount received shall be offered for competition amongst the Members
during the year following in such manner as the Committee may deem fit.

7. No Member shall be entitled to compete for prizes offered out of a
Fund subscribed for whilst he shall not have been a Member, except as
provided by Rule 8.

8. No Member shall be entitled to compete for prizes offered out of the
Fund subscribed during the year during which he shall have been elected
a Member, unless he shall have, within one month of his election, paid
to the Association 10 per cent. of all money prizes previously received
by him during that year for Bloodhounds at Shows and Trials held under
Kennel Club Rules.

_Members in Arrear_

9. No Member shall be allowed to vote or compete for Association
Prizes, or in any way whatsoever enjoy any of the privileges of
Membership, whilst his current subscription and any other debts due by
him to the Association are outstanding, and for which application has
been made.

10. The Committee shall have power to erase the name from the list of
Members of any Member whose subscription remains unpaid on 31st day of
March.

_Executive_

11. The affairs of the Association shall be conducted by a Chairman,
a Committee of five, a Treasurer and a Secretary. All officers of the
Association shall be Honorary, and no Member shall be allowed to make
the Association a means of private speculation or trade, or to derive
money profit through it. The Chairman, Treasurer, and Hon. Secretary
shall be _ex-officio_ Members of the Committee.

12. The Executive shall be elected annually, as provided by Rule
22:--_Chairman_, Mr EDWIN BROUGH; _Committee_, Mr WALTER EVANS, Mr H.
C. HODSON, Mr ARTHUR O. MUDIE, Mr W. K. TAUNTON, Mr J. SIDNEY TURNER;
_Hon. Secretary_, Mr EDGAR FARMAN.

_Annual General Meeting_

13. An Annual General Meeting shall be held in January, for the purpose
of electing the officers of the Association for the ensuing year.

_Powers of the Committee_

14. The management of the Association shall be wholly vested in
the Committee, which shall have the power to call meetings of the
Association, to make necessary bye-laws and rescind the same, arbitrate
in disputed matters, the absolute power of the election of Members, and
the right to refuse the admission of or remove from the Association
any person deemed objectionable. The Committee shall also have the
sole power to deal with the funds and property of the Association in
its absolute discretion, also to deal with any question or matter not
provided for by these Rules, and also elect persons to fill up any
vacancy occurring in its numbers. Such elections to be confirmed at the
next Committee Meeting, and such persons shall continue in office until
the next Annual General Meeting. The Committee shall decide upon the
value and nature of the prizes to be offered at the various Shows and
Trials.

_Meetings_

15. There shall be a meeting of the Committee as often as deemed
necessary--three shall form a quorum. There shall be Meetings of
the Members of the Association--five actually present shall form a
quorum--in London or elsewhere, as often as the Committee may deem
necessary.

_Minutes and Votes_

16. The minutes of the proceedings of all Meetings shall be kept,
and the minutes of the last preceding Meeting shall be read at the
commencement of the next subsequent Meeting, and be approved and
confirmed by vote. Each Member shall have one vote, and the Chairman
shall have a casting vote.

_Shows and Trials_

17. The Association shall, if possible, promote and hold such Shows
and Trials as the Committee may deem expedient, and either in or
without connection with any other Exhibition, as the Committee may
direct.

_Disbursements_

18. All expenses incurred by the Secretary, Treasurer, or other Member
of the Committee, or by any Member for or on behalf of the Association,
on the authority of the Committee, shall be defrayed out of the funds
of the Association.

_Report and Audit_

19. An Annual Report, with a statement of the financial position of the
Association, shall be drafted by the Retiring Committee, and presented
at the Annual General Meeting.

_Withdrawal from Membership_

20. It shall be competent for any Honorary Member or Member to withdraw
from the Association on giving notice of his intention in writing to
the Secretary, but any Member leaving the Association shall remain
liable for all subscriptions not already paid, including that due
for the current year, and shall not be entitled to receive back any
money he may have paid to or on account of the Association during his
Membership, or have any claim against the Association, except under
Rule 18.

_Expulsion_

21. Any Member violating the Rules and Regulations of the Association
for the time being in force, shall be liable to be expelled by the
Committee; and any Member of the Association who shall be proved to the
satisfaction of the Committee to have in any way misconducted himself
in connection with Dogs, Dog Shows, or Trials, or to have in any way
acted in opposition to the fundamental rules and principles upon which
the Association has been established, or in any other manner which
would make it undesirable, in the opinion of the Committee, that he
should continue to be a Member, shall be requested to retire from the
Association, and if a resolution to that effect shall be carried by
a majority of the Committee, the Member so requested to retire shall
thenceforth cease to be a Member of the Association, as if he had
resigned in the usual course, and shall not be entitled to have any
part of his Annual Subscription for the current year returned to him,
and shall remain liable for all arrears of subscriptions unpaid and any
dues owing, but before any such expulsion or request to retire, the
Member shall have an opportunity of being heard in his defence.

_Election of Committee and Officers_

22. The Chairman, Treasurer, Hon. Secretary, and Committee shall be
elected annually. Their election shall take place at the Annual General
Meeting, and be by ballot. Only Members of the Association shall be
eligible to hold office. Nominations shall be sent in to the Secretary,
seven days prior to the Meeting, of gentlemen whom it may be deemed
desirable to elect; and Members of the retiring Committee shall be
eligible for re-election without nomination.

A Member shall not give more than one vote for any one candidate, and
must vote for the full number of vacancies.

_Notices_

23. Notices of the convening of any Meetings may be inserted in the
_Kennel Gazette_, _Field_, _Stock-Keeper_, _Our Dogs_, _Kennel News_,
or such other similar publication of which due notice is given to the
Members, and that shall thenceforth be deemed full and sufficient
without notice in writing.

_Service of Notices_

24. A notice may be served by the Association upon any Member, either
personally or by sending it through the post in a prepaid letter
addressed to such Member at his registered place of address.

25. Any notices, if served by post, shall be deemed to have been served
at the latest within twelve hours after the same shall have been
posted, and in proving such service it shall be sufficient to prove
that the letter containing the notice was properly addressed and put
into a post-office letter box.

26. As regards those Members of the Association who have no registered
address in the United Kingdom, a notice posted up in the office or
residence of the Secretary for the time being shall be deemed to be
well served on them at the expiration of twelve hours after it is so
posted up.


=Irish Wolfhounds=

The present breed of Irish Wolfhounds appears to be the outcome of
crossing the Deerhound with the Boarhound, though several centuries ago
this variety of dog was said to be in existence, and employed, as its
name indicates, for hunting the wolves in this and his own country.

The extermination of wolves in these countries would naturally account
for the decadence of the Hounds hunting them.

Be this as it may, the present type of Hound is a fast and powerful
dog, and, we should judge, would prove to be quite equal to his earlier
representatives.

In colour these Hounds are red, brindle, fawn, grey, black, white,
etc., and have a rough, hard coat on body, head and limbs, the hair
under the jaw and over the eyes, being long, and wiry in texture.

_Weight_, _height_ (proportionate), and powerful build are essentials,
and should be one of the principal aims of the breeder.

Dogs ought not to be less than 31 inches, and bitches 28 inches. In
weight, the former ought to scale 120 lbs. and bitches about 100 lbs.

_Head._--Must be long, of medium width above the eyes, and the muzzle
long and pointed.

_Ears._--Small.

_Neck._--Ought to be well curved, long, and deep.

A deep chest, wide brisket, and long, strong back and loins, together
with a long curved tail, having an abundance of hair upon it, are
qualifications for a typical specimen.

_Fore-limbs._--Strong, big-boned forearms, straight and carried
straight, ending in large round feet and strong claws, are essentials
of beauty in these regions.

_Hind-quarters._--To be clothed with well-developed muscles--weakness
in this respect being a fault--having a long second thigh, and hocks
low placed.

In many respects the Irish Wolfhound resembles the Russian Wolfhound,
our own Deerhound and Greyhound, though it is a more massive animal
than any of these, but like these Hounds, built upon racing lines,
though of the heavy-weight class.

The Irish Wolfhound Club watches over the interests of the breed.


=The Greyhound=

From representations upon Egyptian monuments, etc., the Greyhound has
been shown to have been in existence for three thousand years at least,
and, according to Holinshead, was introduced into Britain some time
during the third century. The first record of any coursing club in this
country is said to be that founded by Lord Orford in Norfolk, during
1776.

The modern Greyhound is vastly superior to those of the ancients, if
the old prints are faithful representations of these fleet-coursing
thoroughbreds.

Although the Greyhound hunts by "sight," he is by no means "devoid" of
hunting by "scent," as the Foxhound, Otterhound, etc. Misterton, winner
of the Waterloo Cup in 1879 (63 lbs. weight); Coomassie, winner of the
Waterloo Cup twice (weight 42 lbs.); Master M'Grath, winner of the
Waterloo Cup three times (54 lbs.), and Fullerton (65 lbs.), winner of
the Waterloo Cup three times and a division of it the fourth time with
his kennel companion, may be said to have been the grandest quartet of
Greyhounds ever gracing the course.

To enter into a detailed account of the Greyhound would be quite
outside the title and scope of this work, therefore the author will
only give a brief outline of some of the more important points of these
fleet-footed Hounds, which are as follows:--

_Head._--This should be long and narrow, wide between the ears and low
between the eyes. The head of a bitch is of finer mould. Lean jaws.

_Eyes._--Penetrating and full of animation.

_Ears._--Elegantly carried and small.

_Neck._--Very important. Must be long, strong, very supple, and, above
all, graceful. A high degree of flexibility is indispensable.

_Fore-quarters._--Shoulders must not be over-loaded with muscle, but a
great degree of obliquity is a _sine qua non_.

Arm, long, ending below in a strong elbow joint.

_Fore-arm._--Very long, strong, and should consist of little beyond
bone, muscles and tendons. It is in this region, particularly, that the
Greyhound excels in beauty. Must be as straight as a line from elbow to
knee, and, above all, well placed in relation to the parts above and
below.

The forward position of the fore-limbs are a striking feature of the
Greyhound, giving a minimum of weight to carry in front.

_Long oblique pasterns_, and compact hard feet are points of great
importance.

_Hind-quarters._--Strength, width, and a great degree of flexibility
are necessary in this region. Weak, or soft muscles destroys a
Greyhound's speed, turning and staying power.

[Illustration: GREYHOUND BITCH LADY GOLIGHTLY (Property of Mrs.
DEWÈ).]

[Illustration: FAWN GREYHOUND DEAN BADEN POWELL (Property of Mr EYERS,
Blandford).]

[Illustration: A TRIO OF GREYHOUNDS (Property of Mrs DEWÈ).

  DUKE O' RINGMER.
  LADY GOLIGHTLY.
  GLORY O' RINGMER.]

[Illustration: GREYHOUND, SUSSEX BELLE (Property of Mrs DEWÈ).]

First and second thighs must be long, and well muscled.

The oblique position of the second thighs constitutes the main beauty
in this region. Their backward curve joins the hocks in such a manner
as to give the greatest possible leverage on the long, strong, pasterns
and feet below.

The angles of the hocks are very acute, and, in relation to the body,
placed very far back.

If a Greyhound has not typically formed and well-placed hind-quarters,
he will never make his mark as a runner.

_Chest._--Most certainly should be deep, but not wide.

If a greyhound is not well-hearted he is no good for speed, or
endurance.

Flatness of ribs, especially towards the keel, is advantageous.

_Tail._--Long and tapering.

_Coat._--Of medium texture, neither too coarse, nor too fine.

_Colour._--Unimportant. A good Greyhound may be any colour.

Our illustrations are from photographs kindly lent by Mrs Dewè of
Ringmer, and Mr Eyers of Blandford.


The Whippet

The Whippet may be described as a miniature Greyhound, and is judged
much upon the same lines. The chief use of these little dogs is that of
racing on a course, and for rabbiting, also as a snap-dog. It is rather
singular, but miners, etc., are remarkably fond of Whippets, and the
Lancashire and Staffordshire towns contain a lot of this breed.

This variety of canine flesh resulted through crossing a Greyhound and
Terrier.

The best time of the year to breed Whippets is the spring, so that the
youngsters will have the whole of the summer to develop in.

For general purposes, from 15 to 18 or 20 lbs. is the most useful
weight, and of either whole, or mixed colours. Fawn, bramble, blue, red
and white are very common ones.

_Coat._--Should be fine and close.

_Constitution._--Must be sound (otherwise a Whippet is not the
slightest use), and the chest of good capacity, _i.e._, the dog ought
to be well-hearted. A long, lean, finely-chiselled head (wide between
the eyes), and flat on the top, with bright, expressive eyes, and small
rose ears, are essentials.

Shoulders should have a good slope; the neck long, clean, and inclined
to be straight, not arched, as stated by some authorities.

_Fore-limbs._--These must be as straight as a line; have good bone, be
long, have well-developed muscles, and well placed in relation to the
body.

[Illustration: TYPICAL WHIPPET DOG DANDY COON (Property of Mr THOMAS
REDRUTH).]

The shoulders long, the arms long, forearms very long, and pasterns
long, but proportionate.

The loins are very important features in a good Whippet. This region
should show strongly-developed muscles, be slightly arched, passing in
front on to a broad and square back.

Front ribs to be well rounded and long; the back ones short.

_Hind-quarters, Tail, and Feet._--If a racing dog is poorly developed
in these regions, he is no use for the purpose. The outlines of the
individual muscles ought to be plainly seen.

Long first and second thighs are a _sine qua non_ in the Whippet. Both
width and strength are necessary. Well-bent stifles and strong hocks
equally essential. Feet round, and well split up.

_Tail._--Long, tapered, and nicely curved.

_General Appearance of the Whippet._--A smart, racily-built,
active-looking dog, of various colours, having a deep chest, narrow
waist, and long, beautifully modelled, muscular extremities.



  SECTION D

  =Mixed Hounds=

  CHAPTER X

  BORZOIS

  BEAGLES

  DACHSHUNDS

  BASSET-HOUNDS (Rough and Smooth)

[Illustration: BORZOIS PADIHAM NORDIA (Property of Mr MURPHY).]

[Illustration: BORZOIS DOG (Property of Mrs HEAVEN).]



CHAPTER X


=The Borzois or Russian Wolfhound=

The Borzois appears to be unquestionably of Russian origin, being,
in anatomical structure, closely allied to the Greyhound, and in his
native country is used for hunting the wolf, a brace being "slipped"
after the wolf has been beaten out of cover, much in the same fashion
as Greyhounds' coursing. The Hounds retain their hold until the
huntsman arrives to secure it.

Russian Wolfhounds have during recent years become remarkably
fashionable in England, probably in a large measure owing to the fact
that Queen Alexandra, the Duchess of Newcastle--who owns some of
the finest specimens of the breed in this country--and many others
of aristocratic lineage, have been keen supporters of these noble
creatures. In England, the only use for these hounds is that of
companionship. They are, when trained, fairly good house dogs, though
the uncertain temper of many of these Hounds renders them not very
reliable. Although always carrying a most benignant expression, this
will often be found to be deceptive.

A typical Borzoi should have a long, lean head; flat and narrow skull,
and long, tapering muzzle, the head of the bitch being somewhat finer
than that of the dog.

Greyhound-like _ears_, and dark, elliptically-shaped eyes.

_Chest_, narrow and deep, with great depth of rib behind the elbows,
one of the most striking features of the breed.

_Neck_, very muscular, rather long and deep where it joins the
shoulders, and these ought to be fairly oblique, but well clothed with
muscles.

A long, straight back and broad loins, with powerful quarters, long
thighs and low-placed, strong hocks are counted points for the show
bench. The hind limbs, in relation to the body, are placed very far
back, only just appearing to be under it at the lower part of the
extremities when the dog is standing still.

Tail must be heavily feathered, long, and carried down, the so-called
"gay" carriage being a drawback.

_Fore-Limbs._--Good fore-limbs are a _sine qua non_. The arms should be
well muscled, and the forearms long, straight, broadening out as they
approach the arms, and tapering from a trifle above the knees until the
feet are reached. These ought to be long, toes well arched, and close.

_Colour._--Grey, or orange patches on a white ground.

_Coat._--Short and smooth on the head, ears, and fore-limbs. The frill
on neck should be abundant and somewhat curly. That covering the head,
body, tail, and hind-quarters, long and silky.

_Height._--Dogs from 28 inches, and bitches from 26 inches.

_Faults._--A drooping nose; sickle-shaped carriage of the tail, short
back, weak forehand, etc.

_Club._--The Borzoi, formed in 1892.


=The Beagle=

This is a very ancient variety of sporting dog, and one that was much
in favour during the Elizabethan period, these miniature Hounds even at
that time being spoken of as the "merry, singing Beagles."

The typical Beagle is a modification of the Foxhound, and has every
appearance of having been derived, by selection, from this source.

Just as the Foxhound is used for hunting the fox, the Harrier for
hunting the hare, so is the Beagle employed for rabbit-hunting--hence
the term "Rabbit Beagles," of which there are many small packs of
these splendid little creatures up and down this, and other countries
sometimes used for hare-hunting.

The smaller ones--Pocket Beagles in particular--are lovely little
Hounds, and to the sportsman who loves hunting on foot, they are ideal
field companions.

Typical specimens of the breed are, in our opinion, handsome; their
symmetrical form and workmanlike appearance carry an irresistible charm
into the heart of the rabbit-hunter.

There is also the Rough-coated Beagle, and for these a class is usually
provided at the Kennel Club and Cruft shows, in London.

In order to breed Pocket Beagles it is advisable to select as small a
sire and dam as possible, because there seems to be a natural tendency
for these Hounds to become over, rather than under, sized.

By instinct, the Beagle seems to take to work.

Taking puppies out along with a "schoolmaster" or "mistress" will
generally be sufficient education, if carried out in systematic lessons.

These Hounds are, as a rule, quiet and affectionate, and some are not
at all bad house dogs, though, of course, this is quite outside the
uses for which they have been designed.

When purchasing Beagles, more especially for work, there are several
important matters to look to.

Buy Hounds having a dense, rather coarse coat; short, strong, upright
pasterns, cat-like feet, short back, heavily muscled on the quarters
and second thighs, and well-hearted, _i.e._, a deep chest and
well-sprung ribs.

[Illustration: A GROUP OF LEYSWOOD BEAGLES.]

[Illustration: POCKET BEAGLE CHEERFUL OF RODNANCE (Property of Mrs
OUGHTON GILES).]

Good coupling is essential.

Long ears, low set on, fine, and hanging close to cheek are additional
points of beauty.

The classes at the London Kennel Club shows are:--

  1. Not exceeding 10 inches.
  2. Not exceeding 12 inches.
  3. Over 10 but not over 12 inches.
  4. Over 12 but not over 16 inches.
  5. In the Novice Class--any height.
  6. Class for Rough Coats.

The following descriptions and standards of points will afford the
reader the best information upon the subject, but as the English and
American standards differ somewhat in details, the author deems it
advisable to insert the descriptions framed by both clubs.


1. ENGLISH BEAGLE CLUB

DESCRIPTION AND STANDARD OF POINTS

_Head._--Of fair length, powerful, without being coarse, skull domed,
moderately wide, with an indication of peak, "stop" well defined,
muzzle not snipy, and lips well flewed.

_Nose._--Black, broad, and nostrils well-expanded.

_Eyes._--Brown, dark hazel or hazel, not deep-set or bulgy, and with a
mild expression.

_Ears._--Long, set on low, fine in texture, and hanging in a graceful
fold close to the cheek.

_Neck._--Moderately long, slightly arched, and throat showing some
dewlap.

_Shoulders._--Clean and slightly sloping.

_Body._--Short between the couplings, well let down in chest, ribs
fairly well sprung and well ribbed up, with powerful, and not tucked-up
loins.

_Hind-quarters._--Very muscular about the thighs, stifles and hocks
well bent, the latter well let down.

_Forelegs._--Quite straight, well under the dog, of good substance and
round in bone; feet round, well knuckled up, and strongly padded.

_Stern._--Of moderate length, set on high, carried gaily, but not
curled over the back.

_Colour._--Any recognised Hound colour.

_Coat._--Smooth variety: smooth, very dense, and not too fine or short.
Rough variety: very dense and wiry.

_Height._--Not exceeding 16 inches.

_General Appearance._--A compactly-built Hound, without coarseness,
conveying the impression of great stamina and activity.

Pocket Beagles must not exceed 10 inches in height, although ordinary
Beagles in miniature. No point, however good in itself, should be
encouraged, if it tends to give a coarse appearance to such minute
specimens of the breed. They should be compact and symmetrical
throughout, of true Beagle type, and show great quality and breeding.

_Classification._--It is recommended that Beagles should be divided at
shows into Rough and Smooth, with classes for "not exceeding 16 inches
and over 12 inches"; "not exceeding 12 inches and over 10"; and "not
exceeding 10 inches."


STANDARD OF POINTS

  Skull                               6
  Ears                               10
  Eyes                                3
  Expression                          5
  Muzzle, jaws, and lip              10
  Coat                                5
  Legs and feet                      15
  Neck and shoulders                 10
  Chest                               5
  Back, loins, and ribs              15
  Hind-quarters                      10
  Stern                               6
                                   ----
                                    100

_Disqualifying Point._--Any kind of mutilation. (It is permissible to
remove the dewclaws.)


2. AMERICAN BEAGLE CLUB

POINTS, &C.

_Head._--The skull should be moderately domed at the occiput, with the
cranium broad and full. The ears set on low, long, and fine in texture,
the forward or front edge closely framing and inturned to the cheek,
rather broad and rounded at the tips, with an almost entire absence of
erectile power at their origin.

_Eyes._--The eyes full and prominent, rather wide apart, soft and
lustrous, brown or hazel in colour. The orbital processes well
developed. The expression gentle, subdued, and pleading.

_Muzzle._--The muzzle of medium length, squarely cut, the "stop" well
defined. The jaws should be level. Lips either free from, or with
moderate, flews. Nostrils large, moist, and open.

_Defects._--A flat skull, narrow across the top of head, absence of
dome. Ears short, set on too high; or when the dog is excited, rising
above the line of the skull at their points of origin, due to an excess
of erectile power. Ears pointed at tips, thick or boardy in substance,
or carried out from cheek, showing a space between. Eyes of a light or
yellow colour. Muzzle long and snipy. Pig jaws, or the reverse, known
as undershot. Lips showing deep, pendulous flews.

_Disqualifications._--Eyes close together, small, beady, and
Terrier-like.

_Neck and Throat._--Neck rising free and light from the shoulders,
strong in substance, yet not loaded; of medium length. The throat
clean, and free from folds of skin; a slight wrinkle below the angle of
the jaw, however, may be allowable.

_Defects._--A thick, short, cloddy neck carried on a line with the top
of the shoulders. Throat showing dewlap and folds of skin to a degree
termed "throatiness."

_Shoulders and Chest._--Shoulders somewhat declining, muscular, but
not loaded, conveying the idea of freedom of action with lightness,
activity, and strength. Chest moderately broad and full.

_Defects._--Upright shoulders and a disproportionately wide chest.

_Back, Loins, and Ribs._--Back short, muscular, and strong. Loin
broad and slightly arched, and the ribs well sprung, giving abundant
lung-room.

_Defects._--A long or swayed back, a flat, narrow loin, or a flat,
constricted rib.

_Forelegs and Feet._--Forelegs straight, with plenty of bone. Feet
close, firm, and either round or hare-like in form.

_Defects._--Cow-hocks and open feet.

_Tail._--The tail should be carried gaily, well up, and with some
medium curve, rather short as compared with the size of the dog, and
clothed with a decided brush.

_Defects._--A long tail, with a "tea-pot" curve.

_Disqualifications._--A thinly-haired, rattish tail, with entire
absence of brush.

_Coat._--Moderately coarse in texture, and of good length.

_Disqualifications._--A short, close, and nappy coat.

_Height._--The meaning of the term "Beagle" (a word of Celtic origin,
and in Old English, "Begele") is small, little. The dog was so named
from his diminutive size. Your Committee, therefore, for the sake
of consistency, and that the Beagle shall be in fact what his name
implies, strongly recommend that the height line shall be sharply
drawn at 15 inches, and that all dogs exceeding that height shall be
disqualified as overgrown and outside the pale of recognition.

_Colour._--All Hound colours are admissible. Perhaps the most popular
is black, white and tan. Next in order is the lemon and white, the
blue and lemon mottles; then follow the solid colours, such as
black-and-tan, tan, lemon, fawn, etc. This arrangement is of course
arbitrary, the question being one governed entirely by fancy. The
colours first named form the most lively contrast, and blend better
in the pack, the solid colours being sombre and monotonous to the
eye. It is not intended to give a point value to colour in the scale
for judging, as beforesaid all true Hound colours being correct. The
following remarks on the subject are therefore simply suggestive.

_General Appearance._--A miniature Foxhound, solid and big for his
inches, with the wear-and-tear look of the dog that can last in the
chase and follow his quarry to the death.

_Note._--Dogs possessing such serious faults as are enumerated under
the heading of "Disqualifications" are under the grave suspicion of
being of impure blood. Under the heading of "Defects," objectionable
features are indicated, such departures from the standard not, however,
impugning the purity of the breeding.



CHAPTER XI


=The Dachshund=

[Illustration]

Like many other varieties of the dog, the origin of the Dachshund seems
to be involved in obscurity, though there are fairly reasonable grounds
for concluding that the home of the Dachshund is Germany, where the
terrier-like type is that cultivated, the Hound characteristics of the
breed having become largely developed through the English system of
breeding.

To anyone unacquainted with this breed of dog in his own country, the
Hound features are the most striking, in fact, so overshadow anything
of the Terrier element as to completely obscure it.

Some few years since the Dachshund was an exceedingly fashionable
variety of dog, chiefly as a lady's companion.

[Illustration: DACHSHUND CHAMPION SNAKES PRINCE (Property of Mr DE
BOINVILLE).]

[Illustration: A BRACE OF TYPICAL DACHSHUNDS (Property of Mr DE
BOINVILLE).]

[Illustration: DACHSHUND DOG AND BITCH (Property of Mrs GERALD
SPENCER).]

[Illustration: RED DACHSHUND VICTORIA REGINA (Property of Miss
BLACKOE).]

Latterly he seems to have been displaced by the Pomeranian, Pekinese,
and Japanese Spaniels. This brings us back to the adage that "every
dog has his day." So with the Dachshund, yet the classes at the London
shows are always well filled. The Terrier-type of Hound is usually
smaller and built upon lighter lines. The legs are not so crooked, the
head shorter, so are the ears.

In weight they are from 10 to 16 lbs. or thereabout.

The so-called Toy Dachshund or Spiel Dachs are a diminutive production
of the smallest Terrier-type of the variety, but not specially sought
after, at least in this country.

In England Dachshunds are but rarely used for sporting purposes, but in
Germany they are largely employed for hunting the fox in his home.

These little dogs can go into the earth after any fox, and are not
long in giving tongue when Reynard is in the ground, and if several of
these little dogs are at work on one fox they are not long in causing
him to bolt, or settle the dispute by underground combat. With the
badger--always a formidable antagonist--these little dogs are said to
be equally game, usually fighting to a finish. A few sportsmen have
made use of Dachshunds for driving rabbits out of cover, but they have
no particular qualification in this respect, and are decidedly inferior
to the Beagle, or a pack of Beagles for this purpose.

It is a variety of dog not the easiest to rear, distemper being, as in
most other breeds, accountable for the high mortality amongst them.

The colour of Dachshunds varies considerably, but the chief ones are,
deep red, chocolate and tan, fallow-red, black-and-tan, and dapple.

White on the body is objectionable, less so on the feet.

The so-called "Tiger Dachs," or steel-blue and tan-colour is uncommon,
though it gives the animal a very handsome appearance. At the London
Kennel Club shows there is a class for dappled dogs and bitches. As a
rule, the crossing of a black-and-tan Dachs with a red one, produces
puppies true to type, _i.e._, some are black and tan, others red, and
not a mixture of these two colours. A red dog and bitch, will, however,
sometimes throw a black-and-tan puppy; or a black-and-tan sire and dam
produce a whole-red puppy. This is precisely what happens with certain
other varieties.

There are really three varieties of coat, viz.:--

  (_a_) The Smooth.
  (_b_) The Rough.
  (_c_) Wire-haired.

The coat should be short and thick and the skin remarkably loose--a
characteristic feature of the breed, and one that undoubtedly affords
the animal a degree of protection during combat.

_Head._--This is distinctly wedge-shaped and large in proportion to the
size of the animal. Jaws strong.

_Nose._--Black or Dudley (flesh) coloured. A red dog may have a black
nose.

_Eyes._--Well apart, with brown or black iris.

_Ears._--These ought to be long, thin, covered by silky short hair and
free from scales.

_Neck._--Short and thick.

_Chest._--Wide and deep, almost touching ground.

_Shoulders._--The shoulders are very prominent and heavily clad with
muscle, giving the dog a square appearance in front. A long body and
well-rounded ribs are essentials.

_Legs, Feet and Toes._--Most important. The forearm should be short
and thick, running inwards so as to form almost right angles with the
parts below. At the wrists or knees the parts touch each other and
almost immediately bend outwards (splay-feet), as long, flat paws.
These latter ought to be large and shovel-shaped, bearing long, strong,
slightly-hooked claws of a black or brown colour, a white claw (as in
Pugs) being objectionable. The more the "crook" the better. This, with
well-rounded ribs and a long body, constitutes one of the chief points
in a Dachshund, giving it a well-let-down appearance, but not too low.

_Hind-quarters._--Strength in this region is of great importance,
the croup being well-rounded and the thighs strong. The loins must be
well arched. The tail thick and tapering, and carried like that of the
Foxhound under excitement. It must not curl over the back, this being
one of the worst faults a Dachshund can have.

From 17 to 22 lbs. is the average weight of dogs in fair condition.

The Dachshund Club, and the Northern Dachshund Association, are the two
principal societies, in this country, presiding over the interests of
the breed.

The service of A1 stud dogs can be had at fees from two to four
guineas, and excellent youngsters obtained from three to ten or twelve
guineas.


The Basset-hound

This is said to be a very ancient variety of dog, having existed in
France for several centuries. In France the term "Basset" is frequently
employed to indicate any crooked-legged variety of dog, being
synonymous with the English word "Terrier" and the German "Dachs."
Consequently the word "Basset," when applied to a dog in France, may
become a very ambiguous one. There are Rough and Smooth-coated strains
of Basset-hounds, but the Smooth-coated are the most popular varieties,
and most of the Hounds shown at the Kennel Club shows are of the
Smooth-coated variety, although this useful canine body provides a
class for Rough-coated ones in addition. The Smooth-coated Basset had
his origin in the province of Artois, whilst the Rough-coated variety
came from Flanders. Although there are the crooked, half-crooked, and
straight-legged Bassets in both Rough and Smooth coats, the only one of
interest in this country is that having the full-crook of leg.

The late Mr Everett Millais brought the breed into prominence in
England in 1874, through the importation of a famous Basset, called
Model.

He purchased this hound at the Jardin d'Acclimation in Paris.

This animal was the foundation-stone of the Basset as he appears in
England at the present day.

The late Mr G. R. Krehl did much towards the improvement of the breed,
and later, many other enthusiastic admirers, none more so than Mrs
Tottie.

The scenting powers of these dogs are said to be exceptional, and many
prefer them to Beagles for rabbiting, their deep, clear musical notes
telling one exactly of their whereabouts. Most of these Hounds are
exceedingly sweet-tempered, though rather troublesome to rear.

In height they are from 9 to 12 inches at shoulder, but 12 inches is a
desirable height, and about 40 lbs. weight.

_Colour._--The most popular one is the tricolour, viz., white body with
black markings and a tan-coloured head. Many varieties of white and
black and tan.

_Coat._--Glossy, smooth and close, but the hair must be hard enough to
make the jacket fairly waterproof.

_Head._--Taken as a whole in the Smooth-coated variety, the head has
the expression not unlike that of a Bloodhound, chiefly owing to the
high peak, deeply-set eyes, exposed "haw" and close carriage of the
ears at their set-on. This expression of face is, however, overshadowed
in the Rough-coated variety, the Airedale or Otterhound being more in
evidence in this region.

In the Smooth-coated variety there is often a very weird expression on
the face, and one that betokens a good-natured animal. Head must be
long, have a good peak (no "stop"), and be rather narrow, but no snipy
appearance. A typical head and ears, a good front and long body are,
in short, the principal beauties of the Basset, and points of vital
importance in judging the breed. A black nose, strong teeth, good long
cheeks (flews as they are called), and a long, strong jaw with large,
long, velvety ears, complete the beauties in the region of the head.

[Illustration: MR PROCTOR'S BASSET-HOUND BITCH QUEEN OF THE GEISHA.]

[Illustration:

[_Fall, Photographer._

A BRACE OF TYPICAL SMOOTH-COATED BASSET-HOUNDS (Property of Mrs
LUBBOCK, Farnborough).]

[Illustration: SMOOTH-COATED BASSET-HOUND BITCH AND HER PUPPIES.]

[Illustration: SMOOTH BASSET-HOUND DOG CHAMPION LOUIS LE BEAU. Died
1902. A veritable pillar of the Stud Book (Property of Mrs TOTTIE).]

[Illustration: TYPICAL SMOOTH-COATED BASSET BITCH. (Note the perfection
of facial expression).]

[Illustration: A GROUP OF CHAMPION SMOOTH-COATED BASSETS.]

[Illustration:

[_Horner, Photographer, Settle._

TYPICAL ROUGH BASSET BITCH (Bred by Mrs TOTTIE).]

[Illustration:

[_Horner, Photographer, Settle._

ROUGH-COATED BASSET-HOUND DOG CHAMPION PURITAN.]

_Fore-quarters and Chest._--Viewed from the front and in profile, this
region is powerfully built, the chest nearly touching the ground,
the shoulders short and muscular, arm very short, with a short,
stoutly-made forearm, turning in at the knee. From the wrist (knee) the
parts below turn outwards, so as to give the Hound a very splay-footed
appearance.

[Illustration: TYPICAL ROUGH-COATED BASSET DOG.]

The back is long, somewhat hollow, rising slightly at the loins to the
top of the croup, and from this very powerful muscles should spring.
Weak hind-quarters are a serious defect. Well-rounded ribs and plenty
of loose skin, especially over the tops of the shoulders and back, are
desirable qualifications for the show ring.

Our illustration represents one of the most typical Basset-hound
bitches ever seen.

_Club._--The Basset Society.


RULES OF THE BASSET-HOUND CLUB.

1. That the name of this Club be "The Basset-hound Club."

2. That the objects of the Club be to promote the breeding of pure
Smooth-coated and Rough-coated Basset-hounds, to define precisely, and
publish a description of the true type; to urge the adoption of such
type on breeders, exhibitors, judges, dog-show committees and others,
as the only recognised and unvarying standard by which Basset-hounds
should be judged, and which may in future be uniformly accepted as the
standard of excellence in breeding, and in awarding prizes of merit in
Basset-hounds: and by giving prizes, supporting and originating shows,
and taking other steps to do all in its power to protect and advance
the interests of the breed.

3. That the Club compile a correct Stud Book for dogs and bitches,
containing the names and pedigrees, as far as can be ascertained,
of all pure-bred Basset-hounds, and keep a register of the birth of
pure-bred Basset-hounds.

4. That in the event of a Hound winning a prize under the Kennel Club
Rules, whose pedigree does not agree with the Basset-hound Club Stud
Book, the same shall be objected to on behalf of the Club by the Hon.
Sec., with a view to the investigation of its correctness, but in any
case the Club Special which may go into the prizes shall be withheld.

5. That the Club consist of unlimited number of Members, whose names
and addresses shall be entered in a book to be kept by the Secretary,
which book shall be open for inspection at reasonable times. That any
respectable person favourable to the object of the Club be eligible for
Membership, except professional dealers. That ladies be eligible for
Membership.

6. That each candidate for admission be proposed by one Member of the
Club personally known to him, and seconded by another, also personally
known to him. That the first twenty Members be original members.

7. That the Annual Subscription be two guineas. That the Annual
Subscription be due on 1st January of each year, and that any Member
failing to pay his Subscription before 31st January have notice given
him by the Treasurer; and if his Subscription be still unpaid on 31st
March, his rights of Membership shall cease until he has paid his
Subscription which is in arrear, and he shall render himself liable
to be struck off the list of Members of the Club, unless he can give
a satisfactory explanation to the Committee. That the liability of
Members shall be limited to their Entrance Fee and Annual Subscription.

8. That the Club offer no prizes or cups at any show not held under
the Kennel Club Rules, except at such other shows as the Committee or
Sub-Committee may especially approve.

9. That the affairs of the Club shall be managed by a Committee of
eight or a Sub-Committee of three, including a Treasurer and Secretary.
Three shall form a quorum. That the Committee and Sub-Committee shall
retire annually, but shall be eligible for re-election. That the
Election of Members to serve on Committee and Sub-Committee be held
Annually.

10. That the election of Members shall be made by ballot of Committee
or Sub-Committee, two black balls to exclude. That the election of a
Member shall be at once notified to him by the Secretary, and the
Member shall at once be liable for his Entrance Fee and Subscription
for the current year.

11. That the Committee or Sub-Committee meet at least twice a year, and
that they have full power to transact all business relating to the Club
which they may think fit; to make necessary bye-laws, to arbitrate in
disputed matters, to refuse admission to the Club, to decide upon the
value and nature of the prizes to be offered at the various shows, and
to deal with any question not provided for by these Rules. That seven
days' notice must be given of Committee Meetings.

12. That any Member of the Club who shall be proved to the satisfaction
of the Committee or Sub-Committee to have in any way misconducted
himself in connection with Dogs or Dogs Shows, or to have in any
way acted in opposition to the Rules and principles upon which the
Club has been established, or in any other manner which would make
it undesirable that he should continue to be a member, be expelled
from the Club. That such Member shall have no claim against the Club.
That the Committee or Sub-Committee may report the expulsion of such
Member to the Kennel Club with a view to his being disqualified from
exhibiting at any show held under the Kennel Club Rules, and from
competing for prizes or cups offered by this Club or the Kennel Club.

13. That there be one General Meeting of the Club each year, to be held
at such time as may be found suitable by the Committee or Sub-Committee.

14. That an Extraordinary General Meeting may be convened by the
Secretary. That such Extraordinary General Meeting shall have power
only to deal with the objects for which it was called.

15. That all Minutes of Meetings be read at the commencement of, and be
approved and confirmed by, the next subsequent Meeting.

16. That all expenses incurred by the Treasurer or Secretary for or on
behalf of the Club be defrayed out of the funds of the Club.

17. That an Annual Report, the names of the Members and Officers, and
the Annual Statement of Accounts (duly audited by two Members of the
Committee) be printed, and supplied to each Member not later than 11th
February in each year.

18. That no new Rule, or alteration of existing Rules, or reversal of
any former act or decision, shall ever be made without a fortnight's
notice being given previously in writing to all Members, and without
the sanction of at least two-thirds of the Members present. That it
shall be competent for any Member unable to attend the Meeting to
record, by letter to the Secretary, his opinion to be read at the
Meeting, such opinion to be entered in the minutes.

19. That it be competent for any Member to withdraw from the Club on
giving notice to the Secretary before 11th December (such Member to
have no claim on the Club); provided always that such Member shall be
liable for his subscription to the Club for the current year in which
he gives such notice.

20. That every Member bring to the notice of the Club Committee any
apparent dishonesty at Dog Shows, &c., against which the Club may
publish a formal protest.

21. That the Club shall, if possible, hold a special Basset-hound
Exhibition, at least once in each year, either confined to members of
the Club, or open, as the Committee or Sub-Committee may determine.
That the judges at this exhibition be appointed solely by the Club,
and that the dogs be judged according to the standard of excellence as
defined by the Club.

22. That at other shows, not held or managed by the Club, prizes,
cups, or certificates of merit may be provided by the Club for the
competition in Basset-hound classes, where these classes are judged by
judges appointed or approved by the Club, and according to the standard
of excellence adopted by the Club.

23. That a list of Members competent and willing to act as judges of
Basset-hounds be annually made by the Committee or Sub-Committee, and
the Secretary shall, on the application of the Committee, Secretary,
&c., of any Dog Show, send a copy of such list, and arrange with the
gentlemen chosen to act as judges at such show; the expenses to be
borne by the show at which the judges officiate.

24. That the judges shall not exhibit at, or be interested either
directly or indirectly in, any show at which they officiate.

25. That at all shows at which the Club offers prizes or cups, the name
of the judge shall be, prior to the date of closing of the entries for
such show, submitted to the Secretary of the Club, for the approval of
the Committee.

26. That Members may vote by proxy at the General Meeting, such proxies
to be sent to the Secretary or Treasurer at least forty-eight hours
before the time of Meeting.

27. In the above Rules the word "dog" shall mean both sexes.

28. That the payment of his Subscription by any Member shall imply his
full acquiescence in the above Rules.


POINTS OF BASSET-HOUND (SMOOTH)

  Head, skull, eyes, muzzle, and flews         15
  Ears                                         15
  Neck, dewlap, chest and shoulders            10
  Forelegs and feet                            15
  Back, loins and hind-quarters                10
  Stern                                         5
  Coat and skin                                10
  Colour and markings                          15
  "Basset character" and symmetry               5
                                             ----
                            Total             100


_General Appearance_

1. To begin with, the _head_ is the most distinguishing part of all
breeds. The head of the Basset-hound is most perfect when it closest
resembles a Bloodhound's. It is long and narrow, with heavy flews,
occiput prominent, "la bosse de la chasse," and forehead wrinkled
to the eyes, which should be kind, and show the haw. The general
appearance of the head must present high breeding and reposeful
dignity; the teeth are small, and the upper jaw sometimes protrudes.
This is not a fault, and is called the "bec de lievre."

2. The _ears_ are very long, and when drawn forward folding well over
the nose--so long, that in hunting they will often actually tread on
them; they are set on low, and hang loose in folds like drapery, the
ends inward curling, in texture thin and velvety.

3. The _neck_ is powerful, with heavy dewlaps. Elbows must not turn
out. The chest is deep, full, and framed like a "man-of-war." Body long
and low.

4. _Forelegs_ short, about 4 inches, and close-fitting to the chest
till the crooked knee, from where the wrinkled ankle ends in a massive
paw, each toe standing out distinctly.

5. The _stifles_ are bent, and the quarters full of muscle, which
stands out, so that when one looks at the dog from behind it gives him
a round barrel-like effect. This, with their peculiar waddling gait,
goes a long way towards Basset character--a quality easily recognised
by the judge, and as desirable as Terrier character in a Terrier.

6. The _stern_ is coarse underneath, and carried Hound-fashion.

7. The _coat_ is short, smooth and fine, and has a gloss on it
like that of a racehorse. (To get this appearance, they should be
hound-gloved, never brushed.) Skin loose and elastic.

8. The _colour_ should be black, white and tan; the head, shoulders,
and quarters a rich tan, and black patches on the back. They are also
sometimes hare-pied.


POINTS OF THE BASSET-HOUND (ROUGH)

  Head and ears                               20
  Body, including hind-quarters               35
  Legs and feet                               20
  Coat                                        15
  "Basset character," etc                     10
                                            ----
                          Total              100


_General Appearance_

1. The _head_ should be large, the skull narrow but of good length, the
peak well developed. The muzzle should be strong, and the jaws long and
powerful: a snipy muzzle and weakness of jaw are objectionable. The
eyes should be dark and not prominent. The ears should be set on low,
of good length and fine texture.

2. The _neck_ should be strong, of good length and muscular, set on
sloping shoulders.

3. The _body_ should be massive, of good length and well ribbed up, any
weakness or slackness of loin being a bad fault. The chest should be
large and very deep, the sternum prominent.

4. The _forelegs_ should be short and very powerful, very heavy in
bone, either half-crooked or nearly straight. The elbows should lie
against the sides of the chest, and should not turn out.

5. _Hind-quarters_ should be powerful and muscular, the hind-legs
should be rather longer than the forelegs, and should be well bent at
the stifles.

6. _Stern_ of moderate length and carried gaily, should be set on high.

7. _Coat._--An extremely important point. It should be profuse, thick
and harsh to the touch, with a dense undercoat. The coat may be wavy.

8. _Colour._--Any recognised Hound colour.

9. _Weight._--Dogs, from 40 to 50 lbs., bitches rather less.

The Rough Basset should appear a very powerful Hound for his size, on
short, strong legs. Body massive and a good length, without slackness
of loin. The feet should be thick, well padded and not open. The
expression should be kindly and intelligent. Any unsoundness should
disqualify the Hound.

[Illustration]



  SECTION E

  =Fox Terriers=

  CHAPTER XII

  SMOOTH-COATED

  WIRE-HAIRED

  CLUB RULES



CHAPTER XII

=The Fox Terrier=

[Illustration]


These Terriers have been for a number of years, and still are,
exceedingly popular, chiefly, we believe on account of the following
reasons:--(1) Their size renders them easily and conveniently kept;
(2) their gameness makes them good for destroying vermin, such as
rats, etc.; (3) making excellent house dogs, and are smart, active
companions, and as such suitable for both sexes.

At most shows the Fox Terrier classes are better filled than those
devoted to any other variety.

There is very little reliable information as to how and when the
Fox Terrier sprang into existence, as it is hundreds of years since
Terriers were written about, though very little can be gleaned, as the
word at that time had a very ambiguous meaning, consequently most of
such records become speculative when discussing the probable origin of
any given type of Terrier.

Rawdon B. Lee, in his book on the Fox Terrier, gives numerous extracts
from various ancient writers with reference to the early history of the
Fox Terrier, but the information leaves one very little wiser, upon the
earlier history of these game little Terriers. It is a problem that
bears every possibility of remaining unsolved.

For the present purpose it is sufficient to know that the breed is with
us in a very high state of perfection, and that this has been attained
by selection within the last fifty years, or thereabout.

Whether these Terriers, as we find them on the show bench, are equal to
the tasks usually imposed upon their predecessors, is another matter,
and one that Fox Terrier men, in general, are not always inclined to
discuss.

That there are any amount of game Fox Terriers on the show bench there
is abundant evidence to prove, but we have no knowledge as to whether
these constitute the majority.

[Illustration: MR SCOTT'S SMOOTH FOX TERRIER MILLGATE JOF.]

[Illustration: CHAMPION SOUTH CAVE LEGER (Property of Mr A. JOWETT).]

[Illustration: SMOOTH FOX TERRIER DUKE OF DONCASTER (Property of Mrs
BENNETT EDWARDS).]

The Fox Terrier Club, the Fylde Fox Terrier Club, and Fox Terrier
clubs galore in other parts of the country have done wonders towards
improving the show-bench qualities of the modern Fox Terrier, and still
more to render him popular in almost all parts of the globe.

There are two varieties--the Smooth and the Wire-haired, but of the
two the Smooth are in greater demand, requiring much less attention to
their toilet.

Fox Terriers are very easy to rear, are hardy, usually of good
constitution, pleasant in the house, though not always reliable with
children, more especially under provocation.

Puppies should be docked when they are two or three weeks old, and
weaned about the fifth week. Before showing, we recommend washing on
the previous day, adding a little blue to the water. Hard coats are
greatly softened by washing.

The Fox Terrier Club's description leaving little to be desired as to
the show points of the Terrier, the author has taken the liberty of
reproducing it as issued by that body.


STANDARD OF POINTS RECOMMENDED BY THE FOX TERRIER CLUB

_Head and Ears_ (value 15).--The skull should be flat and moderately
narrow, and gradually decreasing in width to the eyes. Not much "stop"
should be apparent, but there should be more dip in the profile between
the forehead and top jaw than is seen in the case of a Greyhound.

The cheeks must not be full.

The ears should be V-shaped and small, of moderate thickness, and
dropping forward close to the cheek, not hanging by the side of the
head like those of a Foxhound.

The jaw, upper and under, should be strong and muscular; should be
of fair punishing strength, but not so in any way to resemble the
Greyhound or modern English Terrier. There should not be much falling
away below the eyes. This part of the head should, however, be
moderately chiselled out, so as not to go down in a straight line like
a wedge.

The nose, towards which the muzzle must gradually taper, should be
black.

The eyes should be dark in colour, small, and rather deep-set, full of
fire, life, and intelligence; as nearly as possible circular in shape.

The teeth should be as nearly as possible level, I.E., the upper teeth
on the outside of the lower teeth.

_Neck_ (value 5).--The neck should be clean and muscular, without
throatiness, of fair length, and gradually widening to the shoulders.

[Illustration: SMOOTH FOX TERRIER CHAMPION CYMRO QUEEN (Property of Mr
A. JOWETT).]

[Illustration: MISS LEWIS'S WIRE-HAIRED FOX TERRIER CHAMPION DONINGTON
VENTURE.]

[Illustration: MR SCOTT'S SMOOTH FOX TERRIER MILLGATE BANDIT.]

_Shoulders and Chest_ (value 10).--The shoulders should be long and
sloping, well laid back, fine at the points, and clearly cut at the
withers.

The chest deep and not broad.

_Back and Loin_ (value 10).--The back should be short, straight, and
strong, with no appearance of slackness.

The loin should be powerful and very slightly arched. The fore-ribs
moderately arched, the back-ribs deep, and the dog well ribbed up.

_Hind-quarters_ (value 15).--Should be strong and muscular, quite
free from droop or crouch; the thighs long and powerful; hocks near
the ground, the dog standing well up on them like a Foxhound, and not
straight in the stifle.

_Stern_ (value 5).--Should be set on rather high and carried gaily, but
not over the back or curled. It should be of good strength, anything
approaching a "pipe-stopper" tail being especially objectionable.

_Legs and Feet_ (value 15).--The legs viewed in any direction must
be straight, showing little or no appearance of an ankle in front.
They should be strong in bone throughout, short and straight to
pastern. Both fore-and hind-legs should be carried straight forward in
travelling, the stifles not turned outwards. The elbows should hang
perpendicular to the body, working free of the sides. The feet should
be round, compact, and not large, the soles hard and tough, the toes
moderately arched, and turned neither in nor out.

_Coat_ (value 10).--Should be straight, flat, smooth, hard, dense, and
abundant. The belly and under side of the thighs should not be bare.

As regards colour, white should predominate, brindle red, or liver
markings are objectionable. Otherwise this point is of little or no
importance.

_Symmetry, Size, and Character_ (value 15).--The dog must present a
general gay, lively, and active appearance; bone and strength in a
small compass are essentials, but this must not be taken to mean that a
Fox Terrier should be cloddy, or in any way coarse--speed and endurance
must be looked to as well as power, and the symmetry of the Foxhound
taken as a model. The Terrier, like the Hound, must on no account be
leggy, nor must he be too short in the leg. He should stand like a
cleanly-made hunter, covering a lot of ground, yet with a short back
as before stated. He will then attain the highest degree of propelling
power, together with the greatest length of strides that is compatible
with the length of his body. Weight is not a certain criterion of a
Terrier's fitness for his work--general shape, size, and contour are
the main points, and if a dog can gallop and stay, and follow his
fox up a drain, it matters little what his weight is to a pound or
so--though, roughly speaking, it may be said he should not scale over
20 lbs. in show condition.

[Illustration:

[_Photo by Reveley, Wantage._

SMOOTH FOX TERRIER DOG CHAMPION DUKEDOM (Property of Mr REDMOND).]

[Illustration:

[_Photo by Reveley, Wantage._

SMOOTH FOX TERRIER DOG, DARLEY DALE (Property of Mr REDMOND).]

[Illustration: WIRE-HAIRED FOX TERRIER DOG, REMUS OF GAYWOOD (Property
of Mr WEAVER).]

[Illustration: MR SCOTT'S WIRE-HAIRED FOX TERRIER MILLGATE LEADER.]


Rough Fox Terrier

This variety of the breed should resemble the Smooth sort in every
respect except the coat, which should be broken. The harder and more
wiry the texture of the coat is the better. On no account should the
dog look or feel woolly, and there should be no silky hair about the
poll or elsewhere. The coat should not be too long, so as to give a dog
a shaggy appearance, but at the same time it should show a marked and
distinct difference all over from the Smooth species.


SCALE OF POINTS

  Head and ears                                  15
  Neck                                            5
  Shoulders and chest                            10
  Back and loins                                 10
  Hind-quarters                                  15
  Stern                                           5
  Legs and feet                                  15
  Coat                                           10
  Symmetry, size, and character                  15
                                               ----
                                                100


DISQUALIFYING POINTS

Nose.--White, cherry, or spotted to a considerable extent with either
of these colours.

Ears.--Prick, tulip, or rose.

Mouth.--Much undershot or much overshot.



  SECTION F

  CHAPTER XIII

  =Terriers=

  SKYE TERRIERS

  BEDLINGTON TERRIERS

  SCOTTISH TERRIERS

  IRISH TERRIERS

  AIREDALE TERRIERS

  WHITE WEST HIGHLAND TERRIER

  (POLTALLOCH TERRIER)

  WELSH TERRIERS

  DANDIE-DINMONTS



CHAPTER XIII


=The Skye Terrier=

These little Terriers are natives of the Island of Skye and adjoining
coast, though by what means the breed was originally produced there
does not appear to be any accurate data to go upon. The Skye is the
only truly long-coated Sporting Terrier in Great Britain, cross-bred
dogs excepted.

The introduction of this long coat into a Terrier--dogs originally bred
for rough-and-tumble work, can hardly have been advantageous, and the
remarkably profuse coats of typical specimens in the present day is
absolutely detrimental for work; moreover, it requires very careful
grooming to keep the coat in a perfect state, though the texture of the
hair being much harder than the silky coat of the Yorkshire Toy, gives
less trouble than the last named.

Skyes are divided into "drop"-eared, and "prick"-eared, the chief
differences being the carriage of the ears and tail. The drop-eared
has a little longer and softer coat, longer body, and slightly smaller
head; in all other respects they are practically the same. They are
generally very game little Terriers, and will hold their own, weight
for weight, in combat with any dog. Are good companions; of good
constitution, and not given to quarrelling, unless interfered with.

Many indifferent specimens of the breed are remarkably clever for
destroying vermin, and take to water without the slightest trouble.

In colour the Skye should be a steel-grey or blue, silver-grey, or
fawn. If fawn, black or dark-brown tipped, and if silver-grey, black
tipped.

The coat is a very important matter; taken along with the head it
constitutes thirty-five per cent. value in point judging.

For the show bench, the outer coat must be long, in fact, reaching to
the ground. For work, this is objectionable. Better to be of medium
length, and this is the sort of coat that judges will do well to plump
for. The outer coat to be of hard texture; straight, and long, and
the under coat close and woolly. The long hair on the head almost
completely conceals the sharp brown or hazel-coloured eyes.

A thick, soft, woolly undercoat affords the most perfect protection
against wet to the skin, and supports the outer coat, as in
Rough-coated Collies. Both limbs and tail must be well feathered in the
case of show dogs, but for work, too much hair in these regions is a
nuisance.

[Illustration: TYPICAL PRICK-EARED SKYE TERRIER DOG (Property of Miss
M'CHEANE).]

In drop-eared Skyes a low carriage of tail is desirable, but in the
prick-eared variety on a level with the back.

The hair down the spinal column has a parting in it, causing the coat
to hang, in curtain-like fashion, from head to tail.

_Head._--This should be long, rather wide between the eyes, flat on
the skull, and narrow between ears. Nose black, and hard palate black,
or nearly so. Ears about 2 inches, and lying close to cheeks. If
prick-eared, to be well up, and inclined forward.

Body long, and ribs well rounded. The back ought to be fairly level,
rising at the croup.

Legs, short and strong, having round feet, well covered with hair.

_Weight._--From 16 to 20 lbs.

_Faults._--Short back, faulty carriage of ears, thin coat, too short
coat, legginess, bad carriage of tail, bad colour, too light, etc.

_Club._--Skye Terrier.

_Prices._--Typical puppies, at six or eight weeks, can be bought at
prices ranging from four to twelve guineas, but it is advisable to
purchase Skyes when they are older, as one is then in a better position
to speculate--for such it is--as to the probable subsequent value, for
the show bench.


=The Bedlington Terrier=

This breed of Terrier has certain features distinct from that of all
others, and originated, so far as we are able to glean, in the county
of Northumberland, over a century since.

William and James Allan appear to have had a great deal to do with
laying foundation-stone of this variety of Terrier.

It is said that James Allan lived in a gipsy camp about the year
1730, in the Rothbury Forest, and that his father, William, was famed
for other hunting Terriers, which were then known under the title of
Rodbury, or Rothbury Terriers.

During 1825 a stone mason, to name Tom Ainsley, had a dog that he
called Young Piper, and through his residence in the locality of
Bedlington (near Newcastle), the present breed derived its name.

The dam of Piper was black, with brindled legs, and light-coloured hair
on the top, and she weighed about 14 lbs. and the sire was about the
same weight, liver-coloured, with a somewhat hard texture of hair.

Bedlingtons are very game dogs, and will generally tackle anything
their own weight.

[Illustration: BEDLINGTON TERRIER DOG (Mr H. WARNES).]

They make good watch-dogs, and are capital "ratters," etc. Many
cross-bred Terriers--and game ones too, have a considerable proportion
of Bedlington blood in them. Their chief points are as follows:--

_Height._--About 15 inches.

_Weight._--22 to 24 lbs.

_Colour._--Sandy, liver, dark blue, blue and tan, liver and tan.

_Nose._--If dark blue, or blue and tan, the nose should be black, but
when liver-coloured, sandy, or liver and tan, then the nose ought to
correspond, being either liver, or flesh-coloured.

_Coat._--Hard in texture, standing well off the body. A great deal of
trimming is necessary to get Bedlingtons fit for the show bench.

_Skull._--Narrow, but should have a good dome on it, with a silky
"top-knot" or "crown." From the eyes to nose, face ought to be long,
and rather narrow.

The jaw to be long and the lips tight-fitting, free from flew. Strong,
level teeth.

Small, deeply-sunk, keen-looking eyes, moderate-sized ears, carried
flat on cheeks, and covered with soft hair, are typical of the
Bedlington.

The neck should be long, well set up, and strongly muscled.

_Body._--This is moderately long, deep at the chest, and slender at the
waist.

_Tail._--Long, tapering, thick at "set-on," feathered on under
surface, and the carriage of it reminds one, somewhat of the Setter.

_Limbs and Quarters._--To be of medium length, straight and strong.

_Club._--The Bedlington Terrier.


=The Scottish Terrier=

[Illustration]

Sometimes spoken of as the "Die-hard," a name said to have been given
to them by George, Earl of Dumbarton, owing to the pluck of a pack
owned by him.

The title is certainly not a misnomer, these little Terriers of
Highland descent still having the gameness of their ancestors, though
many of them at the present time are only used as ladies' companions.

The terms "Aberdeen" and "Scottish" Terrier are--or should
be--synonymous, though an inferior specimen of a "Scottie" has, and is,
frequently sold to the unwary as an "Aberdeen." Another name is that
of "Cairn" Terrier, which speaks for itself, these dogs having been
expressly bred for hunting in the cairns, or spaces amongst heaps of
rocks, etc.

[Illustration: SCOTTISH TERRIER DOG CHAMPION HYNDMAN THISTLE.]

[Illustration: A TRIO OF SCOTTISH TERRIERS (Property of Mr
M'CANDLISH).]

Owing to their small size, they are admirably adapted for such
purposes. Some will retrieve and take well to water; are good
companions, and active house dogs. They are very hardy, consequently
puppies are not difficult to rear, and fair specimens of the last-named
can be had at two and three guineas apiece.

The following are the chief points of the Scottish Terrier.

_Coat._--In point judging, 20 per cent. of the marks are allotted to
the coat--so many are faulty in this respect. Outer coat must be very
thick, short, and of a hard or wiry texture, and absolutely free from
any sign of curl, or waviness.

Hair, 2 or 3 inches in length. Under coat, very dense.

The so-called "open" coat is a fault. The term is sufficiently
explanatory.

_Weight._--From 14 to 20 lbs. for dogs and a few pounds less for
bitches.

_Colour._--Not of great importance, but white markings are
objectionable; less important on the breast, but better without any
white hairs.

White specimens are rare.

Brindle, black, red, mustard, and iron-grey, are the usual colours,
the black and brindle shades being preferred.

_Body._--Important (value 10). This should be short, so as to give the
dog a sturdy, compact appearance.

Some Scotties are too long in the body.

_Neck._--To be short and thick, ending in good, strong, sloping
shoulders.

_Chest._--Deep, well-rounded on to the shoulders, and plump.

_Limbs and Feet._--Legs, short, big-boned, well-muscled, straight,
though generally turned out at ankles, ending in large fore feet, and
smaller well-padded hind ones. The same hard hairs should clothe the
limbs. If soft, it is a fault.

_Ears._--Erect, or semi (half) erect. Must never "droop" at tips.
Should be covered with short hair.

Particular attention is paid by judges to the carriage of the ears of
the Scottie.

_Eyes._--To be either dark brown or hazel, giving a lively expression
to the face.

_Head._--Rather long, and wide above the eyes. Most of the length is
gained from eyes to nose.

Hair to be hard and short (not soft).

_Muzzle._--Long, tapering, and very strong.

Sound teeth--exceptionally large--and tight lips are a _sine qua non_.

[Illustration: GROUP OF SCOTTISH TERRIERS (Property of Mr
M'CANDLISH).]

_Height._--9 to 12 inches.

_Clubs._--1. The English Scottish Terrier Society; 2. Scotch Scottish
Terrier Society.


=The Irish Terrier=

This is unquestionably a very ancient variety of dog, indigenous to the
Emerald Isle, in certain features being a modification of the Wolfhound
of that country.

Practically, there is no history of the breed, its origin being
involved in obscurity.

Ballymena and County Wicklow are said to have been the chief
birth-places of these Terriers. Although but a speculative statement at
its best, it is a very probable one, and in accordance with what one
knows of the history of many other breeds. More recent history of the
breed may be said to date from about 1875, marked by their appearance
on the show bench in Ireland and the following year in England. They
are excellent vermin Terriers, very affectionate to those to whom they
become attached, and, as a rule, exceedingly good-tempered. Their dash
and pluck has earned for them the _sobriquet_ of "Dare-devils," as in
the case of the Scottish Terrier--"Die-hards."

These Terriers should have a black nose, strong and level teeth, small
hazel-coloured eyes, small V-shaped ears, directed forwards, so as
to fall closely to the sides of the head, free from feather, and the
hair on them of darker shade than the rest of the body. A Dudley (red)
nose will disqualify. The head long, like that of a Fox Terrier, the
skull flat, and from the lower jaw there should be rather longer hairs,
forming a sort of beard--a characteristic feature of the Dare-devil. A
good punishing lower jaw is essential. The head, jaws, teeth, and eyes
constitute fifteen per cent. of value in the Irish Terrier Club's scale
of points, only equalled by that of the coat.

_Coat._--Straight and flat, free from any curl, and of hard or wiry
texture.

A soft coat very detrimental, as in the Wire-haired and Scottish
Terriers. If the hair of an Irish Terrier is too long, he loses the
contour of body, and this ought not to be so.

_Colour._--Bright red is much preferred. Some are yellowish-red, others
yellow, wheaten and grey.

Brindle will disqualify, and white on feet is a fault, less
detrimental, in the judge's eye, when on the chest, but, as in nearly
every other breed, Irishmen are better without any white hair.

_Neck._--To be of moderate length, carried well up, having a slight
frill on either side of it, and ending in strong shoulders, of good
shape, with a chest of medium width.

[Illustration: IRISH TERRIER BLACKBROOK BANKER.]

[Illustration: AIREDALE TERRIER DOG.]

_Body._--The Irish Terrier has rather a long body, due, in part at
least, to the rather narrow--though very muscular--upper part of the
thighs, increasing the flank area. In this region the breed is somewhat
shallow. Strong loins and the so-called "gay" carriage of tail is
requisite. Dock not too short.

_Limbs and Feet._--Must be free from feather. Feet small, compact, and
black toe nails. Forearms of medium length, straight, with plenty of
bone and muscle.

Many Irishmen have very poor fore-limbs, either too long, bent, or weak.

Must be well set up in front, and free movers in both fore-and
hind-limbs.

_Weight._--About 20 lbs., a few pounds more or less being unimportant.

_Club._--The Irish Terrier.

_Prices._--First-rate puppies can be got at three and four guineas each.


=The Airedale Terrier=

This useful variety of dog first of all appears to have sprung up in
the districts of Saltaire, Bingley, Shipley Glen, Keighley, etc., in
Yorkshire, and it is to the credit of Yorkshiremen for having produced
a most useful variety of Terrier. Few other breeds can surpass, or
even equal, the gameness, docility, and general usefulness of these
rough-and-ready, companionable Terriers.

In appearance, it would hardly be correct to speak of the Airedale
as being handsome, but the weird expression upon the face, and
thoughtful-looking eyes offer an irresistible charm to those who are
fond of a really good pal, and inexpensive forms of sport, such as
ratting, etc., on river-banks, and the like used to be called Waterside
Terriers.

When looking at many of the larger Airedales, one can hardly help
thinking but that the breed has been produced by crossing some Terrier,
_e.g._ Bedlington, etc., with an Otterhound. To this latter breed many
inferior specimens bear a strong resemblance, in appearance, habits,
and temperament.

If properly trained, an Airedale ought to take to water like a duck, be
obedient to his master's call, and form an unceasing attachment towards
him.

Typical specimens should have a rough or broken coat, dense and wiry,
free from curl--a common fault; be of a dark grizzle on the back from
top of skull to set on of tail, likewise on the sides of the body and
skull.

The remaining portions of the body ought to be a rich tan, the ears
being of a deeper tan than the rest.

The weight for dogs should be from about 40 to 45 lbs., and bitches 35
to 40 lbs.

[Illustration: AIREDALE TERRIER DOG CROMPTON MARVEL (Property of LEAVER
BROTHERS).]

Colour, coat, and head are very important points, and judges of the
breed lay great stress upon the "ideal" in these particulars.

Skull should be flat, of medium width, and show no "stop" when viewed
from the front; with square, long and strong jaws, bearing large and
level teeth, free from decay. Nose black, and nostrils full, V-shaped
ears, with Fox-Terrier carriage and small dark eyes.

Chest deep, of fair width (not wide); shoulders long, strong, and of
good slope; neck of medium length, with short, strong back, well-sprung
ribs and broad, muscular loins--the last two being specially desirable.
Fore-limbs well rounded, straight and strong, ending in round, thick
feet.

As to the hind-quarters, these ought to be well clothed with powerfully
developed muscles, the "dock" being set on high up and carried (when
excited) very like that of a Fox Terrier.

The chief disqualifying points of the Airedale are: a Dudley nose,
white feet, white on throat or face, and defective teeth, undershot,
etc.

Many Airedale Terriers are much too big, rendering them over cumbersome
for activity.

It is a variety of dog fairly easy to rear, and good specimens, during
puppyhood, can be bought at prices varying from two to five guineas.

_Clubs._--Airedale Terrier; South of England Airedale Terrier Club.


STANDARD OF THE AIREDALE TERRIER

_Airedale Terrier Club_

_Head._--Long, with flat skull, not too broad between the ears and
narrowing slightly to the eyes, free from wrinkle. "Stop" hardly
visible, and cheeks free from fulness. Jaw deep and powerful, well
filled up before the eyes, lips tight. Ears V-shaped, with a side
carriage, small but not out of proportion to the size of the dog. The
nose black. The eyes small, and dark in colour, not prominent, but full
of Terrier expression. The teeth strong and level.

_Neck._--Should be of moderate length and thickness, gradually widening
towards the shoulders and free from throatiness.

_Shoulders and Chest._--Shoulders long and sloping well into the back,
shoulder blades flat. Chest deep but not broad.

_Body._--Back short, strong and straight. Ribs well sprung.

_Hind-quarters._--Strong and muscular with no droop. Hocks well let
down. The tail set on high and carried gaily but not curled over the
back.

_Legs and Feet._--Legs perfectly straight with plenty of bone. Feet
small and round with a good depth of pad.

[Illustration: AIREDALE TERRIER DOG.]

_Coat._--Hard and wiry and not so long as to appear ragged, it should
also lie straight and close, covering the dog well all over the body
and legs.

_Colour._--The head and ears, with the exception of dark markings on
each side of the skull, should be tan, the ears being of a darker shade
than the rest. The legs up to the thighs and elbows being also tan. The
body black or dark grizzle.

_Size._--Dogs 40 lbs. to 45 lbs. weight. Bitches slightly less.

That as it is the unanimous opinion of the Airedale Terrier Club that
the size of the Airedale Terrier as given in the above Standard is one
of if not the most important characteristics of the breed, all Judges
who shall henceforth adjudicate on the merits of the Airedale Terrier
shall consider undersized specimens of the breed severely handicapped
when competing with dogs of the standard weight. And that any of the
Club's Judges who, in the opinion of the Committee, shall give Prizes
or otherwise push to the front dogs of a small type, shall at once be
struck off from the list of Specialist Judges.


RULES AND REGULATIONS

1. The Club shall be called "The Airedale Terrier Club."

2. The objects of the Club shall be to advance and protect the
interests of the Airedale Terrier, and to improve the breed.

3. The Club shall consist of a President, four Vice-Presidents, a
Committee, Honorary Treasurer and Secretary, and an unlimited number of
Members.

4. The President, Vice-Presidents, Committee, and Honorary Treasurer
and Secretary, shall be elected annually at the first General Annual
Meeting of the Club.

5. The first General Annual Meeting of the Club shall be held at the
Liverpool Dog Show, and any other General Meetings shall be held at
such places and times as the Committee shall think desirable.

6. Any respectable person favourable to the objects of the Club shall
be eligible for admission as a Member. Such person shall be proposed by
one Member of the Club and seconded by another Member, and the election
shall take place at any General Meeting of the Club. Two black balls
shall exclude from Membership.

7. There shall be an Entrance Fee of 10s., and an Annual Subscription
of 10s. for each Member, due on the 1st day of January in each year.

8. No one shall be deemed a Member of the Club or entitled to the
privileges of Membership, until the Annual Subscription and Entrance
Fee are paid.

9. The question of giving Prizes of Cups at Shows shall be decided by
any General Meeting, or by the Committee, or by a Sub-Committee to be
appointed for that purpose, who shall satisfy themselves as to the
Classes and Prizes, and Judges.

10. The President, Vice-Presidents, and Committee of the Club shall be
_ex-officio_ Judges at any show where the Club's Prizes or Cups are
given for competition.

11. All expenses incurred on behalf of the Club shall be defrayed out
of the funds of the Club.

12. The voting at all Meetings shall be by show of hands, unless
otherwise determined by such Meetings.

13. In the absence of the President, or Vice-Presidents, at any
Meeting, the Members present shall elect a Chairman for the purposes of
such Meeting.

14. Any Member can withdraw from the Club on giving notice in writing
to the Secretary, provided always that such Member shall be liable for
his subscription for the current year in which such notice is given.

15. Notices of all Meetings to be held, and Reports of such meetings,
may be sent to the _Stock-Keeper_, _Our Dogs_, and other Fanciers'
Publications, or as may be determined by the Committee.

16. Any Rules or Regulations of the Club shall only be made, altered,
or amended, at the First General Annual Meeting of the Club, and such
Rules, Regulations, Alterations or Amendments, shall only be made on
notice given by any Member to the Secretary at least ten days previous
to such Meeting.


=The White West Highland (Poltalloch) Terrier=

To Colonel Malcolm, C.B., the author is, through the kindness of _Our
Dogs' Gazette_, indebted for the following description of the breed
(_see_ Appendix).

"The White West Highland or Poltalloch Terriers are a very old breed of
dog in the West Highlands of Scotland, with traditions of two hundred
years, and they are known to have existed for at least eighty years
certain at Poltalloch, in Argyllshire. It is only of late years that
any of them have been publicly exhibited, and this because Colonel
Malcolm, C.B., of Poltalloch, felt that it was not just to the West
Highlands, and I think, of Scotland, that this ancient breed of
handsome hard-bitten dogs should be absolutely ignored by the canine
world.

"The Western Highlands of Scotland are not overrun with railways and
other means of rapid communication, so showing is both difficult and
extra expensive, and the possessors of good dogs of the breed have
not hitherto come forward in numbers to show what they have. And this
is a breed which must be carefully handled by bench judges, for they
are actual working dogs, and it will be a thousand pities if they get
spoiled, or, in Mr G. T. Teasdale-Buckell's words, become defiled by
scales of points, or degraded by the hunting of the tin-pot at dog
shows.

[Illustration: BRACE OF WHITE WEST HIGHLAND TERRIERS (Property of
Colonel MALCOLM, C.B.).]

"Colonel Malcolm's views are much as follows:--Dogs should not exceed
18 lbs., nor bitches 16 lbs., in weight. They should be very active,
for in power to spring considerable heights they may at times owe their
lives in a fox cairn. Heads should be broad, and eyes not closely set.
The latter point gives room for the brain pan, and without brains
there cannot be much intelligence. The former point provides for the
very powerful muscles which enable his dogs to cope successfully with
badgers, foxes, otters, etc., in their native fastnesses. He strives
also for as light a jaw as may be, contending that the fox is as good a
model as can be followed, and against the craze for heavy, or as they
are called, 'strong' jaws, that the heads of the cat and otter, both
of which animals have a bite of extraordinary power, might almost be
called round, so short and so wide are their jaws.

"Another point, practically as yet never looked at by the show-bench
judges, is the working coat. Now it is no matter whether the outer coat
be hard or soft. It should be long enough first to throw off water
with a good shake of the body, and to act as a good thatch to a thick
undergrowth of finest down, which will enable the wearer to stand the
worst of weather, and for perfection the coat should be strongest on
the sit-down portions of the body. Eyes must be dark and nose jet
black, and also a good deal of the mouth inside. This dog is as good
underground as he is on the show bench. How many champions, I wonder,
of other Terrier breeds have killed underground?"


=The Welsh Terrier=

It is only within the last few years that this variety of Terrier has
made his appearance on the English show benches, though indifferent
specimens have been in existence in Wales for a number of years.

The Welsh Terrier Club and the Kennel Club have been the chief mediums
through which the present standard of excellence has been obtained.

They are nice, smart, active little Terriers, and when properly trained
make exceedingly useful companions, being full of pluck and ready to
tackle anything their own height.

In colour, the Welshman is grizzle and tan, the coat being similar in
texture to that of the wire-haired Fox Terrier, smooth and free from
curl.

The _Head_ ought to be long, more especially from eyes to nose, the
occipital dome being a trifle more marked than it is in the Irish
Terrier. Ears small, and curved close to sides of face.

_Neck._--Of medium length and thickness, ending in oblique shoulders.

_Arms._--Short and strong.

_Forearms._--Of medium length, straight, and well muscled, tapering
from elbows to feet.

[Illustration: WELSH TERRIER.]

_Back and Loins._--Strong, and ribs well sprung.

_Tail._--Docked short, and curved like that of an Irish Terrier.

_First and Second Thighs._--Strong and well muscled.

_Feet._--Of a hare shape, but compact. A typical Welsh Terrier should
be compactly built all over.

_Club._--Welsh Terrier.


=The Dandie-Dinmont=

It was not until 1814 that this variety of dog received his present
name, through Sir Walter Scott having written _Guy Mannering_, in which
the hero, Dandie Dinmont, plays such a conspicuous part.

To the _Field_, so far back as 1778, a Mr J. Davidson wrote a letter
as to how James Davidson, the original Dandie Dinmont, came into the
possession of his first Dandies, the chief of this account being as
follows:--

 "The Border Muggers were great breeders of Terriers, and in their
 wanderings the different tribes would meet once or twice yearly at
 some of the border villages. If they could not get a badger, they
 would try their dogs on a foumart (wildcat) or a hedgehog.

 "Jock Anderson, the head of the tribe, had a red bitch that for such
 work beat all the dogs that came over the border.

 "Geordie Faa had a wire-haired dog that was the terror of all the
 dogs in the district, and that was good at badger, fox, or foumart.

 "A badger had been procured, and both the dog and bitch drew the
 badger every time.

 "Geordie Faa said to Jock Anderson, 'Let's have a big drink, the man
 first down to lose his dog.'

[Illustration: DANDIE-DINMONT TERRIER DOG THISTLE GROVE BEN (Property
of Mr R. FISHER, Hawick).]

 "'Done,' says Jock.

 "Down they sat on the green, and in eighteen hours Jock was laid out,
 and Geordie started off with the dogs.

 "They were mated, and produced the first Pepper and Mustard, and
 these were presented by Geordie to James Davidson ('Dandie Dinmont')."

The foregoing account would appear to be fairly acceptable, and one
that is in accordance with the gameness of these little Terriers.

The breed is a hardy one; are good-tempered, and make excellent
companions.

The chief points of the Dandie-Dinmont are as follows:--

_Head._--The skull ought to be broad between the ears, and the forehead
well domed. It should be covered with light, silky hair, softer the
better. The muzzle deep, and from it--excepting the bare part about an
inch from the back part of the nose--there ought to be hair growing, a
little darker than that on the head.

Level, strong, and sound teeth are a _sine qua non_.

Large, full round eyes, set well apart, and low down, with a lively
expression; a black nose; black inside mouth, together with large,
low-placed, pendulous ears, hanging close to cheek, and tapering on
their posterior borders.

The ears should be covered with soft, brown hair, forming a feathering
around the bottom, and 3 or 4 inches long.

_Neck._--Short and well rounded.

Body, long and strong, with well-rounded ribs, and a downward curve
behind the shoulders, but slightly arched at the loins.

_Tail._--About 8 inches in length, thick at the set-on, and then
thicker for 2 or 3 inches, afterwards tapering.

The upper face of the tail should be covered with wiry hair, and the
under side also have lighter-coloured hair. When at rest, the tail
ought to assume a scimitar-like curve, and under excitement carried on
a level with its set-on.

_Fore-and Hind-limbs._--Short fore-legs, set well apart, and if dog is
blue-coloured, the hair on them should be tan or fawn, in accordance
with body colour.

A couple of inches of feather ought to be present, and a shade lighter
than that on the front of the legs.

In a "mustard" Dandie the hair on the head is cream-coloured.

The hind-legs, have no feather, neither should they have any dewclaws.
If present at birth they must be removed.

_Colour._--Mustard or Pepper. If the former, the tint is from a
reddish-brown to a delicate fawn; the head creamy and darker.

Pepper-coloured Dandies are either steel-coloured, or a light silvery
grey, and are preferred with the body colour blending with that on the
limbs.

The most useful weight is about 20 lbs., and the height 8 to 11 inches.

The coat should be a mixture of hard and soft hair, yet crisp to the
feel.

_Society._--Dandie-Dinmont Terrier.


STANDARD OF POINTS OF THE DANDIE-DINMONT TERRIER,

_As Defined and Adopted by The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club_.

_Head._--Strongly made and large, not out of proportion to the dog's
size, the muscles showing extraordinary development, more especially
the maxillary. Skull broad between the ears, getting gradually less
towards the eyes, and measuring about the same from the inner corner of
the eye to back of skull as it does from ear to ear. The forehead well
domed. The head is covered with very soft silky hair, which should not
be confined to a mere top-knot, and the lighter in colour and silkier
it is the better. The cheeks, starting from the ears proportionately
with the skull, have a gradual taper towards the muzzle, which is
deep and strongly made, and measures about 3 inches in length, or in
proportion to skull as three is to five. The muzzle is covered with
hair of a little darker shade than the top-knot, and of the same texture
as the feather of the fore-legs. The top of the muzzle is generally
bare for about an inch from the back part of the nose, the bareness
coming to a point towards the eye, and being about 1 inch broad at the
nose. The nose and inside of mouth black or dark coloured. The teeth
very strong, especially the canine, which are of extraordinary size
for such a small dog. The canines fit well into each other, so as to
give the greatest available holding and punishing power, and the teeth
are level in front, the upper ones very slightly overlapping the under
ones. [Many of the finest specimens have a "swine mouth," which is very
objectionable, but it is not so great an objection as the protrusion of
the under jaw.]

_Eyes._--Set wide apart, large, full, round, bright, expressive of
great determination, intelligence and dignity; set low and prominent in
front of the head; colour, a rich dark hazel.

_Ears._--Pendulous, set well back, wide apart, and low on the skull,
hanging close to the cheek, with a very slight projection at the base,
broad at the junction of the head and tapering almost to a point, the
fore part of the ear tapering very little--the tapering being mostly
on the back part, the fore part of the ear coming almost straight down
from its junction with the head to the tip. They should harmonise
in colour with the body colour. In the case of a Pepper dog they are
covered with a soft, straight, brownish hair (in some cases almost
black). In the case of a Mustard dog the hair should be mustard in
colour, a shade darker than the body, but not black. All should have a
thin feather of light hair starting about 2 inches from the tip, and
of nearly the same colour and texture as the top-knot, which gives the
ear the appearance of a distinct point. The animal is often one and two
years old before the feather is shown. The cartilage and skin of the
ear should not be thick, but rather thin. Length of ear from 3 to 4
inches.

_Neck._--Very muscular, well-developed, and strong, showing great power
of resistance, being well set into the shoulders.

_Body._--Long, strong and flexible; ribs well sprung and round, chest
well developed and let well down between the fore-legs; the back rather
low at the shoulder, having a slight downward curve and a corresponding
arch over the loins, with a very slight gradual drop from top of loins
to root of tail; both sides of backbone well supplied with muscle.

_Tail._--Rather short, say from 8 inches to 10 inches, and covered on
the upper side with wiry hair of darker colour than that of the body,
the hair on the under side being lighter in colour and not so wiry,
with nice feather about 2 inches long, getting shorter as it nears the
tip; rather thick at the root, getting thicker for about 4 inches, then
tapering off to a point. It should not be twisted or curled in any way,
but should come up with a curve like a scimitar, the tip, when excited,
being in a perpendicular line with the root of the tail. It should
neither be set on too high nor too low. When not excited it is carried
gaily, and a little above the level of the body.

_Legs._--The fore-legs short, with immense muscular development and
bone, set wide apart, the chest coming well down between them. The feet
well formed, and not flat, with very strong brown or dark-coloured
claws. Bandy legs and flat feet are objectionable. The hair on the
fore-legs and feet of a Pepper dog should be tan, varying according to
the body colour from a rich tan to a pale fawn; of a Mustard dog they
are of a darker shade than its head, which is a creamy white. In both
colours there is a nice feather, about 2 inches long, rather lighter
in colour than the hair on the fore part of the leg. The hind-legs are
a little longer than the fore ones, and are set rather wide apart, but
not spread out in an unnatural manner, while the feet are much smaller;
the thighs are well developed, and the hair of the same colour and
texture as the fore ones, but having no feather or dewclaws; the whole
claws should be dark; but the claws of all vary in shade according to
the colour of the dog's body.

_Coat._--This is a very important point; the hair should be about 2
inches long; that from skull to root of tail, a mixture of hardish
and soft hair, which gives a sort of crisp feel to the hand. The hard
should not be wiry; the coat is what is termed pily or pencilled. The
hair on the under part of the body is lighter in colour and softer than
on the top. The skin on the belly accords with the colour of dog.

_Colour._--The colour is Pepper or Mustard. The Pepper ranges from a
dark bluish black to a light silvery grey, the intermediate shades
being preferred, the body colour coming well down the shoulder and
hips, gradually merging into the leg colour. The Mustards vary from a
reddish brown to a pale fawn, the head being a creamy white, the legs
and feet of a shade darker than the head. The claws are dark as in
other colours. [Nearly all Dandie-Dinmont Terriers have some white on
the chest, and some have also white claws.]

_Size._--The height should be from 8 to 11 inches at the top of
shoulder. Length from top of shoulder to root of tail should not be
more than twice the dog's height, but preferably, 1 or 2 inches less.

_Weight._--From 14 lbs. to 24 lbs.; the best weight as near 18 lbs. as
possible. These weights are for dogs in good working condition.

The relative value of several Points in the Standard are apportioned as
follows:--

  Head                                  10
  Eyes                                  10
  Ears                                  10
  Neck                                   5
  Body                                  20
  Tail                                   5
  Legs and feet                         10
  Coat                                  15
  Colour                                 5
  Size and Weight                        5
  General Appearance                     5
                                      ----
                                       100


RULES FOR BREEDERS' CHALLENGE CUP

1. These shall be four breeders' Challenge Cups--one for Pepper
Dogs, one for Pepper Bitches, one for Mustard Dogs, one for Mustard
Bitches--to be competed for at shows to be decided upon by the
Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club: but they shall not be
offered at any show where the competition is not open to all the
Members.

2. No dog or bitch whelped prior to 1st Jan. 1902 shall be eligible to
compete for the Cups.

3. Every dog or bitch competing for one of the Cups must be bred by
a Member (who is a Member at the time the dog is whelped) of The
Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club, and must at the time of competition be
the _bonâ fide_ property of a Member of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier
Club, and the Cup or Cups shall be awarded to the breeder, who need not
necessarily be the owner.

4. No dog or bitch shall be eligible to win a cup more than once.

5. Each cup must be won five times by the same Member before becoming
his or her property.

6. A medal shall be presented in commemoration of each win.

7. Winners for the time being shall have the custody of the cup or
cups, subject to the conditions to be fixed by the Committee of The
Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.


RULES FOR THE TIDDEMAN TROPHIES

1. The two Shields subscribed for in memory of the Rev. E. S. Tiddeman,
the late President of the Club, shall be called the "Tiddeman
Trophies." In the competitions one Shield shall be for the best dog
and the other for the best bitch in the Dandie classes.

2. The Trophies shall be competed for as Perpetual Challenge Shields,
and shall be confined to Members of the Club. The name of every winning
dog or bitch and its exhibitor shall be inscribed on the Shield,
together with the particulars of the win, at the expense of The
Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

3. The Trophies shall be competed for once in every year at a show to
be decided on by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

4. The Trophies may be won any number of times by the same dog or bitch.

5. A medal shall be presented in commemoration of each win.

6. The winners for the time being shall have the custody of the
Trophies subject to the conditions fixed by the Committee of The
Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

7. All other matters affecting the Trophies shall be adjudicated on by
the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club, whose decision shall
be final.


RULES FOR THE RINGWOOD, CLUB, LANGLEY, AND BOUGHTON BREEDERS' CUPS

_Presented by Mrs Grieve, The Club, Messrs W. Goodall-Copestake and T.
B. Potterton for Pepper Dogs and Bitches and Mustard Dogs and Bitches._

1. The above Cups are for dogs and bitches under two years of age, open
to Members of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club only.

2. The Cups to be competed for by dogs and bitches who in competition
in their particular class have secured not less than a third prize,
and who have been bred by Members of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club,
_i.e._, Members of the Club at the time of dog's birth.

3. The Cups to be won three times before becoming the property of the
breeder.

4. No breeder to be permitted to win a Cup more than once with the same
dog or bitch.

5. The Cups not to be offered more than once a year, and at a show to
be named by the Committee.

6. All points not provided for in the foregoing conditions to be
settled by the Committee.


RULES FOR THE PICKLE CUPS

1. The two Cups presented by Mr W. H. A. Jacobson shall be called the
"Pickle Cups." In the competitions, one Cup shall be for the best
Pepper Dog, the other for the best Pepper Bitch.

2. The Cups shall be competed for as Perpetual Challenge Cups, and
shall be confined to Members of the Club. The name of every winning dog
or bitch and its exhibitor shall be inscribed on the Cups, together
with the particulars of the win, at the expense of The Dandie-Dinmont
Terrier Club.

3. The Cups shall be competed for once in every year at a show to be
decided on by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club.

4. The Cups may be won any number of times by the same dog or bitch.

5. A medal shall be presented in commemoration of each win.

6. The winners for the time being shall have the custody of the Cups
subject to the conditions fixed by the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont
Terrier Club.

7. All other matters affecting the Cups shall be adjudicated on by the
Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club, whose decisions shall be
final.


RULES FOR OPEN PRODUCE STAKES OF £1 EACH,

_Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Brood Bitches to be entered and their produce
to be shown as explained below_. (5s. forfeit to the fund.)

_Entries close each year on 31st January._

The show will extend to all produce of the entered Bitches that shall
be born between 1st January and 31st December in the year of entry, and
will take place at such time as the Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont
Terrier Club shall decide. The Puppies will be shown under the Kennel
Club Rules and the following special

_Conditions and Rules:_

1. Any number of Brood Bitches, the property of the same owner, may be
entered for the Stake.

2. Bitches shall only be eligible for entry in respect to Produce to be
born on or after 1st January. Entries may be made at any time before
the closing of the Stake on 31st January, but Bitches must be entered
before their Produce is born.

3. One entry shall only cover one litter of Puppies, but Bitches once
entered may be re-entered at any time after the date of closing, if it
is intended to breed another litter from them for competition.

4. A Notification of Service (Form B) must be made by the owner of
each Bitch entered for the Stake. In the case of Bitches which have
been served before the time of entry, this notification must accompany
such entry; and in the case of Bitches which have _not_ been served
before the time of entry, this notification must be sent to the Hon.
Sec. within one calendar month after the time such Bitch shall have
been served.

5. Within one calendar month from the Birth of the Puppies of any
Bitch entered for the Stake, the owner shall forward to the Hon. Sec.
a Certificate (Form C), signed by himself, stating the date of birth,
with sex and colour of each Puppy.

6. Five shillings to be paid on entering each Bitch--the only liability
in case of forfeit--the remaining fifteen shillings to become due and
to be paid if and when the owner accepts for one or more of the Puppies
for the Stake, on or before the date which will be appointed for that
purpose and duly announced.

7. Any number of Puppies of one litter are eligible to compete under
one subscription, provided that, if the breeder shall have sold or
otherwise parted from any such Puppy or Puppies, no other person may
accept for them or for any of them for the Stake, unless he also pay £1
for such acceptance, and forward to the Hon. Sec. a Certificate from
the late owner, properly identifying the Puppy or Puppies in question.

8. Notice for accepting for the Puppies for competition will be sent
at the proper times to all who have entered Bitches, and when the
acceptances have come in, the Committee of the Dandie-Dinmont Terrier
Club will decide the number and proportion of the prize into which the
Stakes will be divided.

9. If a Bitch entered for a Stake be sold or otherwise parted with
before her Puppies are born, the new owner shall forward to the Hon.
Sec. a Certificate of the fact, signed by the late owner, and shall in
all other respects comply with the Rules hereinbefore set out.

10. If any Judge appointed shall have made any entry for this Stake, he
shall have his subscription in respect of such entry returned to him.

11. Any one failing to comply with the above Rules respecting
Certificates shall be refused permission to accept for the litter in
respect of which a breach of Rules has been committed, and shall in
such case forfeit his entrance fee, 5s.

12. All matters of doubt or dispute arising under these Rules and
Conditions, or otherwise respecting the Stake, shall be settled by the
Committee of The Dandie-Dinmont Terrier Club, and their decision shall
be final.

[Illustration]

[Illustration]



  SECTION G

  CHAPTER XIV

  =Afghan Greyhound=

  LURCHER



CHAPTER XIV


=The Afghan Greyhound=

Through the kindness of Cary Barnard, Esq., of Hailsham, I am able to
give an illustration of this variety of dog so scarce in this country,
the specimen depicted being typical of the breed.

These Hounds are said to be somewhat difficult to obtain, the owners
are unwilling to part with them, being kept by a class who consider it
a distinction to own them.

In the Natural History Museum at South Kensington there is a stuffed
specimen, practically identical with the one herein portrayed.

Built on racing lines, in almost every particular, these dogs look
exceedingly quaint, chiefly because of the feather, or long hairs, upon
the ears, throat, backs of the limbs, feet, and tail.

_Skull_ is rather broad, and flat on the top, but there is no "stop."

_Eyes._--Small, placed close together and well to the front, giving the
animal the appearance of having a very penetrating vision.

_Ears._--Remind one of a short-eared Spaniel, and from over their
surface long hairs proceed.

_Neck._--Long, rather thick, and the body and loins long, yet well
coupled.

When viewed from the front, these Hounds look very tall, due to the
great length of the arms and forearms. These regions, and those of the
shoulders, are strongly built.

When at rest, tail is carried rather like that of the Irish Water
Spaniel, and during excitement, elevated, but not carried over the
back. It has an abundance of long hair.

First and second thighs long, and feathery to a short distance above
the hocks. Hind toes are well clothed with hair. The hocks are strong,
low-placed, and pasterns long.

_Colour._--Fawn, with the feathered portions running to a silvery white.

_Weight._--About 50 lbs.

_Height at shoulder._--24 inches, or thereabout.

_Uses._--During Captain Barnard's residence in Afghanistan, the Hound
depicted in our illustration was used for running jackal, and said to
be very useful for this purpose.

He is an exceptionally fine jumper, having made a clean leap over a
fence 9 feet 4 inches in height--a most creditable performance. This
Hound has won numerous prizes, including a 2nd, at Crystal Palace.

[Illustration: AFGHAN GREYHOUND (Property of Mr CARY BARNARD).]


=The Lurcher=

We shall do little more than mention the existence of this cross-bred
variety of dog.

The proprietor of a Lurcher has always been regarded as one who will,
when the opportunity offers, take his dog "up the back stairs," and
gamekeepers generally look upon the owner of a Lurcher as one worthy of
a little extra vigilance.

Any cross-bred dog, in whom the Greyhound blood predominates, may be
designated as a Lurcher, and can be trained as such.

Many of these dogs are wonderfully clever on rabbits, and some will
kill a hare single-handed, more especially if about three-quarter bred
on the Greyhound side, when staying power and swiftness are highly
developed.

Good at fighting, good at poaching, good at retrieving, and fidelity to
master, may justly be claimed as the Lurcher's inheritance.


THE TRAINING, USE, AND ABUSE, OF NIGHT-DOGS

To Mr W. Burton, of Thorneywood Kennels, Nottingham (per gamekeeper), I
am indebted for the following account.

"A perfectly trained and reliable night-dog is as useful to the
gamekeeper as two or three additional assistants, and, indeed, I have
personally heard old poachers remark that they would rather face a
dozen men than half that number accompanied by one of these animals,
even if resistance would be offered at all where a dog was employed
against them. Such being the case, it makes one wonder why night-dogs
are not more frequently used by gamekeepers in rough localities, and I
am afraid the animals have come into disrepute, owing to the manner in
which their employment has been abused by careless watchers.

"It must not be supposed that a night-dog simply requires rearing, and
that when old enough a muzzle has only to be put on and he will face
anything he is encouraged to attack. The dog must be trained to his
duty as a retriever is taught to bring in game, or he will never prove
a satisfactory companion when poachers are about.

"When a puppy has been procured, he should be accustomed to wear a
muzzle from an early age--five months for instance--and strangers
should not be allowed to pet and caress him; on the other hand, they
may tease him as much as they like, providing that he is not hurt.
Of all the muzzles made I prefer those with a solid piece of leather
beneath the jaw, and straps round the neck and nose having buckles so
that they may be manipulated as required.

[Illustration: THE CELEBRATED KEEPER'S NIGHT-DOG THORNEYWOOD TERROR,
said to be the most perfectly trained Night Dog ever bred. (Property of
Mr BURTON, Thorneywood Kennels, Nottingham.)]

"When the dog is ten months old and quite used to wearing its muzzle,
he should be taken muzzled to a quiet place where you have previously
arranged for a perfect stranger to be. This man should have a bag
rolled up and strapped to one hand, and a glove on the other, and
should be in hiding at the appointed spot; when the dog and his master
get within a hundred yards or so, the stranger should 'break covert'
and run out across the field. The dog must at once be released and
encouraged to attack the man, his owner running with him the while.
Upon the dog's coming up with his quarry it is the duty of the latter
to buffet him with the bag, pull his tail and flank, and tease him
generally. Do not let this continue too long without a break, as a
muzzled dog is soon winded. His master should reach the spot as quickly
as possible, encourage the animal a little, and then take him off and
loosen his muzzle; after a slight rest he may be permitted another run
as before.

"When the dog begins to display anxiety for the fray, the man may be
provided with a thin cane, and instructed to give him a slight stroke
or two, but, at this moment, great care should be taken to observe its
effect. Some dogs, although game to a finish, are shy and sensitive,
and a stroke with a stick will cause hesitation, not from fear of the
blow, but because an impression of doing wrong is conveyed thereby.
Should the dog waver at this treatment, relinquish the use of the stick
for a time, and then introduce it again by degrees; if bred right he
will soon commence to resent it with fury. I have known pups from the
same litter to vary greatly in the development of courage, one standing
any amount of stick at a year, while others would not face it until six
months older.

"Such an instance I came across a short time ago. A keeper had a
youngster from me and eighteen months later reported that it had been
no good. I was surprised, and inquired if he had thoroughly tried the
creature. 'Yes!' said he, 'I got one of the night-watchers to run
across the park, and I then set the dog on him. The dog followed all
right, but, when struck with a stick, returned to me, and I shot him.'
This man knew I had retained one of the litter, and inquired how the
puppy had progressed. I arranged for him to visit me and see the dog
work, and he was surprised at what he witnessed. Afterwards I explained
that an animal of this description required training, but my friend
differed, and asserted that education ought not to be necessary.

"In no case should a dog be trained and tried on a lead or chain, or
the result will be that he will not chase a man. Instead, he will only
go for a poacher at close quarters, and then will continue to look
round for his owner. Teach the dog to rely on himself. Some gamekeepers
use their dogs on a long rope and religiously keep hold of the end
thereof, but the reason for this I never could determine, unless it is
to retain the animal for their own bodily protection. If so, the dog is
not being put to its proper duty.

"A night-dog is more valuable for catching a man than for fighting one;
still, he must be taught to give battle, because it is love of the
scrimmage following which causes him to give chase. A dog is certainly
useful when a rough fight takes place, but he is doubly so when active
poachers have a long start of their pursuers, for, if he jumps at a
man, he is bound to bring his victim to the ground. Besides, if a dog
refuses to chase a man, he is of no good in the case of a gang which
freely stones the keepers, as then a resolute animal is a welcome
assistant. The chances against the dog being hit with a stone as he
makes for his assailants are ten to one, and, once he is at close
quarters, stones cannot be thrown at him for fear of comrades being
struck, and while the animal is busy among the party the members of it
will have plenty to do to stave off his attacks, and he will allow
them little leisure for pelting the keepers who must now hasten to the
fight.

"To hark back. Suppose the dog goes for the man when released and shows
no fear of the stick, he must then be taught to keep up the attack and
not have a jump or two and then return from the fray, allowing his foe
an opportunity of escaping. As a means of accomplishing this, the dog's
owner should be as close to the animal as possible and encourage him to
maintain the assault. When it is plainly to be seen that he is scant of
breath, at once take him off, because, if permitted to become tired,
the probability is that the dog will stand still, and, as the man
promptly does the same, will return to his master, perhaps, regarding
the affray as over. Once he acquires the much-to-be-regretted habit of
doing this, it will need some patience to correct it. It is a golden
rule never to unduly exhaust a youngster, and then, when age has been
acquired, he will be game all day or night.

"Having progressed thus far, the dog should next be taught to find
a man hidden in a ditch or up a tree. Candidly, this is a somewhat
difficult undertaking, and it is not every night-dog which becomes
clever in this particular. Instruct the man to secrete himself in a
ditch at the opposite side of the field; be careful to give the dog
the wind, and in nine cases out of ten it will be noticed that he
gazes as if looking for someone. Now move towards the hidden person
and encourage the animal onward. As both near the ditch the dog will
strongly detect the scent of his quarry, and at this point the hidden
man should make a slight movement for the purpose of attracting the
animal's attention. This action should be repeated until discovery
takes place, and, if the dog can thus be taught to use his nose, he
quickly becomes an adept at finding concealed poachers.

"When this is asserted, it is not meant that a man may be despatched
with a few minutes' grace, and if the dog is put upon the trail the
man will be followed; some bull-mastiffs may become clever enough to
foot a man, but recent trials have proved that even bloodhounds have to
possess the best of blood and training before they will unerringly hunt
a man under these conditions.

"Another important thing a night-dog should be taught is to at once
leave a man he has thrown down and start after another of the gang when
the keepers have arrived on the scene and laid hands on the first man.
Suppose a party of watchers drop across half-a-dozen poachers, who
all promptly take to their heels on seeing that the opposing side are
a match for them; the chances are the poachers get a good start, and
are nearly certain to escape, if the dog is not competent to play his
part. If he is capable, promptly slipped, and closely followed, he will
soon bring one to book; he should then be taken off and encouraged to
serve another likewise, and so on, until all have been arrested.

"To train the dog to do this, two men should start at one time, both
being armed with sticks. Instruct the two to keep together, and
when they are well on the run slip the dog and follow him as before
directed. When the animal gets close the men must separate, and he will
confine his attentions to one; immediately the man he first attacks
is down, despatch the dog after the second, who should be making good
pace away, while his companion stands perfectly still. At first, the
dog will plainly manifest that he prefers to stay and worry the one
he has succeeded in defeating rather than seek for fresh glories, but
persevere with him until he does renew the chase without the least
hesitation. You will succeed better in this if the second man is not
allowed to get too far away, and it will be advisable for him to wave
his stick and otherwise try to attract attention and invite attack.
When the dog recognises what is required of him, increase the distance
between first and second man, or let each run in an opposite direction.
It is very necessary that a dog should be taught to respect friends,
that is, to attack only those at whom he is set, and then at no other
time but when he is encouraged to do so. If he fails to learn this, he
is as likely as not to go at one of the watchers who happens to move or
otherwise attract notice.

"When a dog has been sufficiently tried to prove that he is in every
way game, it is advisable to allow the man upon whom he has been
exercising his powers to sit near and endeavour to make friends with
his four-legged opponent. All dogs will not consent to do the agreeable
to this extent, but the majority will generally settle down and be
quiet when they clearly understand that such behaviour is expected. It
is very necessary that a dog should learn to recognise when the battle
is over, and that having duly fulfilled his part he must be quiet, for
it would be awkward, to say the least, if a keeper has to struggle with
the animal to take him off a captured poacher, and then the rascal
takes advantage of the exhaustion of both keeper and dog to escape.

"A night-dog should not under any circumstances be tried on a person
who may at some future time have to accompany the animal while out
watching. If so, the dog is nearly certain to go for this person when
released for a scrimmage with poachers. Several instances like this
have occurred, and in certain of them the dog had not been tried on the
watcher he attacked since a puppy. This proves that they do not easily
forget the identity of an opponent.

"There is one other thing a dog should learn, and, having acquired
cleverness at it in addition to the lessons mentioned previously,
the animal may be regarded as a perfect night-dog. When lying out
with a party of watchers he must not be allowed to get into the habit
of curling himself up and going to sleep like a fat pig. He must be
taught to listen for the coming of poachers, as it is only natural that
he should detect their approach by both sound and smell long before
their advent on the scene is palpable to human senses. Some dogs do
this naturally, and the remainder only need encouragement to render
them proficient watchers. If a young dog displays a tendency to fall
asleep when out, arrange for a man to come on the scene just about the
time the animal will be settled down. This individual should move as
cautiously as he can, go straight to the dog, and have a good rough
round or two with him. Repeat the dose at intervals, and the dog will
soon take to watching attentively, expecting every sound to announce
the appearance of an antagonist.

"Never permit a night-dog to chase game or rabbits; if he is allowed
to do this the movements made by them at night will monopolise his
attention, and the watchers will never be sure whether he is pricking
up his ears at a rabbit rustling in the dead leaves or at the approach
of poachers; when released for a chase or scrimmage he will be likely
to direct his attention towards the less noble game.

"Opinions vary as to the weight a night-dog should attain, but a small
dog, however persevering he may be, cannot be so effective as one which
has the qualities of being large, game, and active. Suppose a dog, of
50 or 60 lbs. weight only, were to jump at a man, the latter could not
be knocked down. A clever poacher would wait his opportunity, catch the
animal in his arms, and throw him over an adjacent wall or fence, well
aware that the dog could not jump back. A night-dog should not be less
than 80 lbs., and if he is 100 lbs., strong and active, so much the
better. He ought to be able to jump a gate with ease and to get over
ground at a good pace. For colour a brindle is to be preferred, not
being so plainly visible at night as a red, fawn, or even black dog.

"When a perfect dog has been bought or trained, every care should be
taken that the animal is used properly. He should only be slipped at a
man when absolutely necessary, and then must be securely muzzled. If
a scrimmage becomes desperate and develops into a fight for life, the
watchers must use their own discretion as to allowing their dog freedom
to bite; if his muzzle be taken off, the man he attacks will surely
be marked in such a way that he will be easily identified. To slip a
night-dog at lads trespassing after mushrooms, blackberries, etc., is
the height of wanton folly, as the lads may be injured or terrified
to a serious degree. Remember, it is best not to loose the dog at all
if a man can be captured without his help, and he should be muzzled
except in extreme cases. If a poacher who has had his clothes torn and
been bitten simply because he ran away is brought before magistrates,
he may excite the pity of the latter, although he heartily deserves
condemnation from his judges; besides, a civil action for damages may
ensue.

"It is entirely through forgetfulness of these rules that so many
gentlemen object to night-dogs being used on their estates. But, if
an animal of this kind is regarded in its proper light, and its use
not abused, its mere presence will do more to deter poaching than the
employment of half-a-dozen extra hands."



CHAPTER XV

THE GAMEKEEPERS' KENNEL ASSOCIATION

CONCERNING THE ASSOCIATION


The Gamekeepers' Kennel Association has been formed with the primary
object of taking over the organisation of the Gamekeepers' Dog Show
as first held at the Westminster Aquarium, on 31st July and 1st and
2nd August 1900, it being deemed advisable by all parties concerned
that the show should cease to be proprietary or to be promoted by any
firm having trading interests with Gamekeepers. The other aims which
the Association has in view are fully described in the following
pages, and the Executive will do everything in their power to uphold
and protect the rights of Game-preservers, recognising that in this
lie the best interests of the Association and its members. The rule
regarding the exclusion of undesirable persons from membership will be
strictly enforced, and the Executive hope, that in time, the fact that
a Gamekeeper is a member of the Association will be looked upon as a
proof of ability and good character.

Donations and Subscriptions in aid of the Funds of the Association
will be gladly received and acknowledged by the Secretary. Cheques and
Post-office Orders should be made payable to the Gamekeepers' Kennel
Association and crossed "Barclay & Co." Secretary's address is:--

  Mr F. W. MILLARD,
  Hertford, Herts.


_Rules_

1. That the name of the Association be "The Gamekeepers' Kennel
Association."

2. That the object of the Association shall be to hold an Annual Show
for the exhibition and sale of trained dogs owned by Gamekeepers, to
uphold by all lawful means the rights of Game-preservers, to maintain
at the Offices of the Association a register of Gamekeepers out of
place, of situations vacant, and of dogs for sale, and also to promote
the interests of game-preserving and Gamekeepers generally in the
United Kingdom.

3. That the funds of the Association be spent in the furtherance of
these and other objects considered by the Committee to be necessary for
the welfare of Gamekeepers generally.

4. That a President, Vice-President, and Treasurer be elected annually.

5. That the present Committee remain in office two years.

6. That after the lapse of two years from the formation of the
Association one-third of the Committee shall retire annually by
rotation.

7. That the said rotation be decided according to alphabetical order.

8. That all members of the Committee retiring shall be eligible for
re-election.

9. That all members of the Committee re-elected on retirement, and
members elected in the place of those who resign, remain on the
Committee for three years.

10. That the Committee have power to add to their number.

11. That the Secretary of the Association be subject to one month's
notice.

12. That only _bonâ fide_ Gamekeepers be eligible for membership.

13. That the definition "Gamekeeper" be understood to include, for the
purposes of membership, anyone wholly engaged in the preservation of
game, deer, or fish.

14. That a Gamekeeper who has been a member of the Association five
years or more shall, on retiring from his duties as Gamekeeper through
old age or other physical incapacity, still be eligible for membership.

15. That retired gamekeepers who wish to at once become members of the
Association, be eligible for election at the option of the Committee.

16. That the annual subscription to be paid by members be fixed at 5s.
per annum for head-keepers and single-handed-keepers, and 2s. 6d. per
annum for under-keepers.

17. That these subscriptions be considered due on the 1st of January
each year, and must be paid before the 31st of that month.

18. That members wishing to join the Association at any time other than
the month of January must pay the full subscription for the current
year.

19. That all under-men wishing to join the Association must be
recommended by a head-keeper under whom they have served.

20. That no head-keeper, after 31st December 1904, shall be accepted
as a member, without a recommendation from his employer, or another
head-keeper who has already been enrolled.

21. That the Committee reserve the right to refuse any application for
membership, and also to expel any member for any wilful misconduct
which they decide is detrimental to the objects of the Association.

22. All members who have benefited by the Register, and not continued
to belong to the Association, must, if re-elected to membership, pay
any subscriptions in arrear, together with a fine of five shillings.

23. That no one except a member of the Association be allowed to
exhibit at any show promoted by the Association.

24. That no member be allowed to show a dog at any show unless he has
been enrolled a member since before 1st February of the same year.

25. All cheques to be signed by both Treasurer and Secretary.

26. That all persons assisting in the management of the Association
who are known to have trading interests with the members thereof, be
understood to hold office in their private capacity only.

27. That the Gamekeepers' Kennel Association recognise the authority of
the Kennel Club, and agree to obey the Rules and Regulations laid down
by the Kennel Club.

28. All new rules shall be framed and adopted in Committee.


_Rules for the Conduct of Meetings_

1. That the dates and places of all meetings be fixed by the Secretary,
and approved by at least three members of the Committee.

2. That each member of the Committee shall receive notice of all
meetings at least seven days previous to the date of such meetings.

3. Want of service of notice of meeting on any member of the Committee
shall not affect the validity of such meeting.

4. That five members of the Committee be considered a quorum.

5. That votes be taken by show of hands.

6. That all questions be decided by majority.

7. That the President or Chairman of any meeting for the time being
shall have a second or casting vote.

8. That minutes of the proceedings of every meeting be fairly entered
into a book kept for that purpose.

9. That notices of motions to be moved at any meeting by any member
of the Committee be sent in to the Secretary on receipt of notice
convening such meetings.

10. That the Committee from time to time make such rules as they
consider necessary for the Regulation of the proceedings at their
meetings.


_Legal Bureau_

Every member has a right to legal advice from the Honorary Solicitor
of the Association regarding any matter connected with his duties. All
applications for such advice must be made through the Secretary, and
letters addressed direct to Mr Everitt will not receive attention. This
regulation is necessary to prevent outsiders seeking benefits reserved
exclusively for members. Mr Everitt is prepared to take legal action
on behalf of members and their employers at recognised fees, and his
great knowledge of the intricacies of the Game Laws should ensure his
engagement in all difficult cases with reference to a breach of these
laws.


_Veterinary Bureau_

Every member of the Association has the privilege of obtaining free
veterinary advice on all matters pertaining to his kennels, diseases
of game, etc. Applications must be sent through the Secretary of the
Association, a description of the symptoms, duration of the disease,
number of animals affected, and any other information likely to be of
service to the expert when forming an opinion.


_The Situation Register_

The Executive of the Association will make every effort to assist
those of its members requiring situations, and, for that purpose,
advertisements will in due season be inserted in certain papers asking
gentlemen requiring Gamekeepers to write to the Secretary and state
their wants. A register of members out of place will be maintained
at the offices of the Association, and it is hoped that head-keepers
requiring under-men will in all cases apply to the Secretary before
seeking elsewhere.


_Directions to be followed by Members desirous of obtaining a Situation
through the Association_

A member out of place wishing to be entered on the Register of the
Association must apply to the Secretary for a form to fill up and
return.

Each member in corresponding with the Secretary must give his number,
which number will be found on his card of membership.

Should a member on the register obtain a situation by other means, he
must at once acquaint the Secretary that he has been engaged.

Should a member be taken into the employment of a gentleman or
head-keeper, with whom he has been placed in communication by the
Secretary, he must at once inform the Secretary, that his name may be
removed from the register.


_Remarks_

The Secretary will place members requiring situations in communication
with applicants for Gamekeepers as fast as inquiries fall in, but in
each case the two parties must arrange their own terms. The Executive
will do their best to find suitable men for the places offered, but
they give no recommendation. It is earnestly requested that members
making a change will at once send their new address to the Secretary.


_The Register of Dogs for Sale_

The Association maintains at its offices a register of sporting dogs,
belonging to its members, which are for sale, and from time to time
advertisements will be placed in certain papers that dogs are on
the register for disposal. It will be the earnest endeavour of the
Executive to induce sportsmen, in want of well-trained dogs, to apply
to the Secretary, and it is hoped that head-keepers requiring dogs will
purchase through the Association.


_Directions for Placing a Dog upon the Register of the Association_

A member of the Association having a dog for sale must write to the
Secretary for a form on which the animal and its capabilities may be
described. When the Secretary receives this form back the dog will be
entered upon the Register of the Association.

Each member in corresponding with the Secretary must give his number,
which number will be found on his card of membership.

Should a dog upon the Register of the Association be disposed of
privately by its owner, he must immediately inform the Secretary, that
it may be removed from the Register. Breaches of this order will be
dealt with by the Committee, because endless confusion and delay will
ensue if it is not followed out.

Beyond placing seller and purchaser in communication with each other,
the Association can accept no responsibility.


_Rules to be observed by both Parties when a Dog goes on Trial_

1. When an intending purchaser stipulates for a trial, a dog must be in
his hands four clear days, the days of despatch and return not being
counted.

2. The intending purchaser must be deemed responsible for the dog's
safety during the period allowed for trial.

3. The carriage of a dog on the outward journey must be paid by the
person to whom it goes on trial.

4. If a dog is returned after a trial as unsuitable, its owner must pay
carriage on the homeward journey.

5. On a sale being concluded, the late owner of the dog sold must
immediately inform the Secretary.

6. If a dog after trial is returned as unsuitable, its owner must at
once inform the Secretary. Until he has done this, no further measures
for its sale will be taken.


_Notice_

Gentlemen will much simplify the work of the Secretary if, when
requiring a dog, they explicitly state their wants, and mention the
price they are prepared to give.


_Remarks_

The Executive hope that both parties to a transaction will implicitly
observe the foregoing rules and directions. When filling up the forms,
an exact description of a dog and its capabilities should be given;
if misrepresentation is attempted, irretrievable harm will be done
to the Association and its objects. Once sportsmen are assured that
the Association is a reliable source from which well-trained dogs may
be obtained, they will not fail to resort to it. By observing the
utmost care when filling in a form, members will be protecting their
own interests, aiding the Executive, and enhancing the honour of the
Association.


_Stud Dogs_

That Gamekeepers may be encouraged to breed true to the recognised
types, the Secretary of the Association will be glad to correspond
with owners of prize stud dogs with a view of securing a reduction
of fees in favour of members of the Association. All members will be
duly advised through _The Gamekeeper_ of such reductions when they
are allowed, and the Executive hope that the efforts they are making
in this direction will be to the advantage of both members and owners
of stud dogs. Members of the Association, who have valuable dogs, are
particularly requested to place them at the service of other members
for stud purposes.


_Notice_

The Secretary will be pleased to forward particulars to members who
are desirous of making the Association known amongst their Gamekeeper
friends. It is hoped that each member will do his best to add to
the roll of the Association by inducing others to join. Forms of
application for intending members may be obtained of the Secretary, who
will be glad to answer all inquiries.

A monthly report concerning the work and position of the Association
will be found in each issue of its organ, _The Gamekeeper_.

A list of stud dogs, placed at the service of members at reduced fees,
is also occasionally published in _The Gamekeeper_, copies of this
paper being obtainable from the EDITOR, Hertford, Herts.

Recently efforts have been made towards instituting a fund for the
benefit of keepers during later life.



CHAPTER XVI


=Feeding Sporting Dogs=

Amongst Masters of Hounds and breeders of other Sporting Dogs, it
is a general custom to feed the animals but once a day, and in most
instances this is economical and satisfactory.

To maintain an even condition of the whole pack is one of the best
tests as to the huntsman's management of the pack, and the kennelman's
skill in feeding them.

Like all other varieties of dogs, Hounds differ in their likes and
dislikes to food, so that whilst certain members of the pack are
thriving on the food set before them, others are losing flesh,
otherwise not improving in condition. Another reason why one or more of
the Hounds may not be "doing well" is often due to the weaker members
being "snapped at" by their stronger and peevish brethren when at the
feeding vessels. Observation will soon settle whether this be the cause
of particular hounds not thriving.

Shy feeders should either be allowed to have the first cut at the food,
or else fed by themselves, say two couples at one time. Horse-flesh
and good oatmeal--or some form of Hound meal--constitutes the best
staple food for Hounds. During the hot weather the flesh requires to
be boiled twice or thrice weekly. As a substitute, skimmed milk can be
used.

Nothing but sound horse-flesh ought to be used. Cattle, sheep, or pigs,
that have died suddenly--unless certain that cause of death is of a
harmless nature--should be avoided.

There is a risk of the animals contracting anthrax, deaths from this
malady amongst dogs by no means being unknown.

Tuberculous cattle are equally objectionable as food for dogs.

In every instance the author recommends boiling the flesh, so that no
redness, or uncooked portions remain.

The Hounds should be fed at least a couple of hours before starting
off. Nothing can be worse than to run dogs with a full stomach.

Precisely the same remark applies to all other Sporting Dogs, but to
the working Hound in particular.

The advantages of placing puppies "out at walk" is, as in the past,
largely carried out, and the system leaves little to be desired. Most
puppy walkers do justice to their charges, but huntsmen and others
will do well to see that thin puppies are kept in _fat conndition_,
and not _low_. The erroneous opinion, though so general, that a puppy
ought to be kept down in condition when distemper is approaching, is
the greatest fallacy under the sun, and one that ought to have exploded
long ago.

My advice to "walkers" and to owners is to feed your puppies well and
get them fat, because distemper will soon plough out their ribs, etc.,
if unfortunate enough--as most of the good ones are--to contract it.

A little black treacle (teaspoonful), mixed with meal, rice, etc., and
given once a week, is beneficial. If too much be used, it makes the
bowels loose, especially after the dogs get warm with work, etc.

A change of food is of course desirable. Pointers, Setters, Retrievers,
Beagles, Terriers, etc., etc., may have dry dog-biscuits--or soaked if
preferred--given to them in a morning, and soaked stale bread--with
water squeezed out--mixed with cut-up meat for the evening meal.

Boiled (or raw) paunches make a splendid food for dogs, and have great
nutritive value. Boiled rice, flour, and various other meals are
suitable, only must have a proportionable amount of flesh added to them.

Many sportsmen believe that flesh destroys a gundog's scenting power,
and others that it makes thin dogs hard-mouthed. The author cannot
share this belief. For the satisfactory performance of work, a dog
must be allowed flesh, and shortness of this--a dog's natural diet--is
one of the chief causes of so many dogs breaking out in skin eruptions.

In addition to good food, regularly given in suitable quantities, it is
necessary to see that the dogs have a plentiful supply of pure water,
but it is not a good plan to give water immediately after feeding.

Another matter, in connection with feeding, that gamekeepers, etc.,
will do well to bear in mind, is to avoid feeding a dog on the
entrails, etc., of rabbits and hares--a fruitful source of worms.


=Conditioning Dogs=

First of all, let us ask the apparently simple question, what is meant
by "Condition?"

Our answer is: "The highest standard of excellence for a given purpose."

To the uninitiated, it may seem a very simple matter--only a question
of plenty of food--to get a dog into condition--or, we ought to say,
with a good layer of flesh upon his ribs.

But the huntsman, sportsman, and exhibitor know different to this.

It is not merely a question of food, but one of well-carried-out
training--at anyrate in the eyes of the two first-named.

Foxhounds, Harriers, Greyhounds, Beagles, Otterhounds, Whippets, etc.,
must be "well winded," and this can only be obtained by daily exercise,
first on foot, and then on horseback, gradually increasing the distance
and pace.

The late Mr Apperley ("Nimrod") said: "That the highest virtue in a
Foxhound is his being true to the line his game has gone, and _a stout
runner at the end of the chase_." In the words printed in italics
is embodied the term "Condition," as understood by the huntsman and
hound-master.

Accepting the statement as correct, it is not necessary to say the
amount of flesh a dog should carry.

With the exhibitor, matters are rather different, _show_ condition
being his desideratum.

If a sporting dog is going to a show, feed night and morning on meat
and bread, so that by the time fixed for the show the ribs will have
a good layer of flesh over them, being felt in outline only when the
fingers are passed across them.

When a dog is very thin, give him a tablespoonful of malt or cod-liver
oil and malt, night and morning.

Raw flesh will help matters greatly.

Before starting to lay on flesh by extra feeding, oil, etc., it is
generally advisable to satisfy oneself that the dog is practically free
from worms, otherwise the extra nourishment will be wasted. Try for
tape-worm with a dose of areca nut, and for round-worms, three days
afterwards, with 10 grains of santonin, mixed with a dessertspoonful of
treacle and one tablespoonful of castor oil.

The use of a hound-glove, chamois leather, and brush and comb, with an
occasional bath, will do the rest.

It is better to wash your dog several days before the show, because the
water destroys the natural lubricant, or that making the hair glossy.

Curly-coated Retrievers are improved in tightness of curl by the use of
cold water.



CHAPTER XVII

=Specific Ailments=

DISTEMPER--RABIES--BLOOD-POISONING--RHEUMATISM OR KENNEL LAMENESS


Under the title of "Specific" Ailments, the author deems it advisable
to give a brief account of such diseases as distemper, blood-poisoning,
rabies or madness, rheumatism, kennel lameness, or chest founder,
these complaints having as their cause germs, or micro-organisms; the
production of these ailments--in three of them at least--being due to
the entrance of minute organisms into the system, the excretions, or
poisonous products resulting in the several forms of disease, as named
above.

By far the commonest of these specific canine ailments is--


DISTEMPER

This malady is only too well known amongst owners and breeders
of sporting dogs, and to its almost constant presence in certain
kennels the rearing of puppies is seriously handicapped. It is
readily communicable from one dog to another--more particularly the
young--either by direct or indirect means.

Some kennels are singularly exempt from its presence, whereas others
are hardly ever without it.

In the latter case, the disease obviously exists upon the premises,
measures for its extinction having been inadequately carried out.

One would hardly credit the multifarious channels through which this
canine scourge can be propagated.

Feeding utensils, benches, the hands and clothing of attendants,
hampers, collars and chains, bedding, water vessels, by contact of the
diseased and healthy, and possibly by wind carrying the dessicated
discharges, are all liable to become active agents for the production
of the malady.

So varied is distemper in its method of attack, that the most expert
professional may ignore its existence. Previous to the development of
the symptoms, there is the so-called period of incubation, _i.e._, the
time during which the germs are, as it were, dormant, though in reality
they are maturing, the advent of their maturation being the development
of the specific lesions designated distemper. By far the commonest
manifestation of this horrible canine scourge is that in connection
with the mucous membranes lining the eyelids, and upper air passages.

Possibly these are the chief portals for the entrance of the germs, and
if the specific poison would only confine its ravages to these regions,
the ultimate results would be of a much less serious nature.

No amount of good government will confine the assaults of the germs
to positions so readily accessible to amelioration by medicinal
applications, bronchial and pneumonic complications being common
results, or what is, equally severe, bowels and brain lesions
supervene, proving an additional source of depleting an already
weakened economy. Masters of Foxhounds and proprietors of other
dogs, are, we fear, only too well acquainted with the truth of this
statement. The usual period of incubation is from four to fourteen
days, and this should be borne in mind, so that any puppies that
have been in contact with the disease may be isolated, and their
temperatures taken for the next two or three weeks night and morning.
The normal temperature is 101° Fahr. or a trifle over; therefore, if
the mercury rises above 102° Fahr. in the morning--more particularly
so--this is sufficient to warrant the animal's separation from the rest
of the puppies.

It has been stated that distemper may exist without any rise of
temperature, or even the presence of catarrhal signs, but the author
does not attach the slightest importance to such statements, and
claims an experience equal to that of any other veterinary expert.

If there is no rise of temperature, no prostration, and no catarrhal
signs, one may at once conclude that the animal is not affected with
distemper.

Dulness, loss of appetite, sneezing, redness, heaviness of the eyes,
slight husky cough, and, it may be, vomiting, are the premonitory signs
of distemper.

If temperature be taken in the rectum or vagina, it will probably
be about 103° or 104° Fahr.--the best positive evidence. There will
generally be either constipation--more especially if a young dog--or
an opposite condition of the evacuations. One well-known M.R.C.V.S.
believes that distemper in adult dogs is of very rare occurrence.

This is not the author's experience, he having encountered and treated
numerous cases when the animals have had _distinct_ attacks of
distemper two, and three times. Like scarlatina, measles, small-pox,
etc., in the human subject, once the patient has passed through a
well-marked attack of the disease, it is to a great extent "protected,"
but certainly not immune, to succeeding ones.

There is indisputable evidence in support of this statement, even the
oldest observers being aware of its truth.

Following upon the preliminary symptoms already indicated, there is a
profuse discharge from the nasal and ocular openings, at first watery
in character, subsequently creamy.

The discharge (unless cleaned off) irritates the margin of the eyes,
occluding these and the nasal openings.

Sometimes the malady remains in this--the so-called simple or catarrhal
form--for several days, and then convalescence begins.

In the case of coarse-bred dogs (mongrels, etc.) the foregoing is the
usual condition of affairs. Bronchial and lung troubles are frequent,
and probably more puppies die from the broncho-pneumonia of distemper
than from other causes. Bronchitis is indicated by frequent attempts
at expectoration, and the so-called "rale," heard within the chest.
This sound is due to the air passing through the inflammatory exudate
in the tubes. If pleurisy is present, there will, during the earlier
stages, be friction or dry rubbing sounds, heard when the ear is placed
against the chest wall. It is generally associated with varying degrees
of pneumonia, either single or double. Quick breathing--more especially
noticeable in the region of the flanks--is the best guide as to its
presence for the amateur physician. Dropsy of the chest is not at all
an uncommon result of pleuritic inflammation.

When consolidation of the lungs has taken place, their respiratory
usefulness becomes materially interfered with, so that, frequently, the
animal has to make use of his lips as an auxiliary, the cheeks being
inflated in a spasmodic manner. Recovery in this advanced condition of
disease is exceedingly rare, though we have known it occur.

Pericardial (heart sac) inflammation is not uncommon in distemper,
resulting through extension of inflammation from the pleural membranes.

A disordered liver is indicated by yellowness of the skin and mucous
membranes, this bilious or hepatic form of the complaint being fairly
common.

A fetid breath and pustular eruption over the belly, and on the skin
inside the thighs are commonly observed; in fact, the pustular eruption
is the most significant sign one can find.

Its presence is at once demonstrative that the animal is affected with
what is known to the professional as a specific eruptive fever, which
will run a definite course, and no amount of medicinal agents can cut
it short.

One may control it by good nursing, suitable surroundings, and the
judicious use of medicinal agents, but for any man to say that it is
within his power to stay its normal progress, would, we opine, be
bordering on madness. So much for distemper cures and their curers.

Ordinary small-pox vaccine has been employed as a preventative for
distemper. Almost everyone knows that when the arm of the human subject
is scarified with the lancet, so as to admit the reception of the
vaccine into the system, the part becomes inflamed and swollen, the
seat of vaccination also showing a vesicle, etc., typical of a mild
form of the disease, and if this does not take place the vaccine is
said not to have "taken," _i.e._, it has done no good.

This is exactly what happens when used in the same way upon the dog,
there being neither inflammation nor yet other signs, typical of local
reaction, therefore it can be no use.

The mere fact of the disease never having occurred in a certain dog
that has been vaccinated is not the least evidence in support of its
utility.

Many dogs are very refractory to certain diseases, amongst these being
distemper.

The Commission of Veterinary Surgeons, appointed to inquire into the
utility of Dr Physalix's Vaccine, has convinced the writer that it
was a failure from beginning to end, and he advises all dog admirers,
Masters of Hounds, etc., to steer clear of its use.

There is no doubt that in course of time an anti-toxin, or some other
attenuated form of distemper virus will be produced for the cure, or
prevention of, this deadly canine malady.

Regarding the treatment of distemper, it has been suggested that a dose
of castor oil may, with advantage, be given at the outset.

The author does not consider this advisable: the oil, owing to its
extremely nauseating properties, tends to further weaken the animal by
the production of vomition, etc. Moreover, castor oil leaves the bowels
in a drier condition than before--an undesirable effect.

A soft--not dysenteric--condition of the evacuations is advantageous,
much of the poison being got rid by the alimentary canal in this way.

A moist condition of the bowels is best maintained by the daily use of
some of the natural aperient waters, such as Apenta, Hunyadi-Janos,
etc., given in small doses once a day; say, every morning, taking
particular care not to go too far.

The superiority of these saline aperients to those of oleaginous and
other resinous purgatives, is further evidenced by the fact that they
also act as febrifuges, lowering the excessive heat, thus diminishing
the rapid loss of flesh, so characteristic of this affection.

For the husky cough give from one teaspoonful to a tablespoonful of
ipecacuanha wine, just as it is. This should induce vomiting, and ought
not to be repeated, at least for several days.

As a rule, very satisfactory results follow its use. Inhalations of
turpentine, eucalyptus, and spirit of camphor, or a little menthol, are
exceedingly beneficial.

Four teaspoonfuls of each of the three first-named may be mixed
together, and then one teaspoonful added to half a pint of boiling
water, the dog being made to inhale the steam.

Five to ten drops of oil of eucalyptus, mixed with a little fine
sugar, and placed inside the mouth night and morning, is good for the
catarrhal symptoms of distemper, and the author can, from experience,
recommend its employment.

When chest complications are marked, the application of mustard paste
to the sides will do good.

Put the fore and hind limbs through holes cut in a thick piece of
woollen blanket, and fasten it over the back. This will keep the chest
warm and prevent the mustard from being rubbed off, more especially if
a bit of brown paper be interposed.

Stimulants are indispensable in distemper, so that bovril, claret, and
brandy are required. Brand's Essence is the best for nourishment. Give
it in teaspoonful doses every hour. One may add the same quantity of
brandy or whisky to it.

Bovril is a good stimulant in distemper, but it will certainly make
the dog vomit, unless given in very small quantities, so long as the
stomach is in an irritable condition, one or two tablespoonfuls each
time being quite sufficient.

As restoratives, claret and Coca Wine are excellent.

When dysenteric symptoms are troublesome, give an injection into the
rectum night and morning. Use two to six tablespoonfuls of tepid boiled
starch, to which ½ drachm of laudanum, 10 drops of turpentine and 1
drachm of tincture of hamamaledin has been added, injecting the lot,
and then keeping the dog very still until the discomfiture of the
injection has subsided.

In addition to this, from 5 to 15 grains of grey powder may be given,
and repeated in the doses first named, daily. If no improvement, give
10 grains of powdered ipecacuanha every 10 hours.

To relieve the congested condition of the liver, the use of hot linseed
and mustard poultices over the organ will be of service, followed by 10
to 20 grains of sal ammoniac, along with 5 grains of hyposulphite of
soda, given in a tablespoonful of water night and morning.

Most reliance must be placed upon careful nursing, and if this is
properly carried out better may be the issue, though, as already
stated, no amount of careful nursing, or use of medicinal agents, will
stop the ravages of distemper.

Fits are frequent, and another very common result is chorea, or St
Vitus' dance, also called the twitch, jumps, etc. For fits, give 20
grains of bromide of potash, and if this does no good, double the dose,
and for chorea try a course of Easton's Syrup--in capsules--malt,
cod-liver oil, etc. Paralysis is not an uncommon sequel.

Dialysed iron--10-drop doses in a tablespoonful of water--is a very
satisfactory drug to use so as to restore the weakened constitution,
and bring back the appetite after distemper.


RABIES

Although not present in our own country, it is very prevalent in
certain provinces in India, etc.

The muzzling order and quarantine has been the means of abolishing this
deadly malady from England.

In ninety-nine per cent. of cases in India, the disease is directly due
to animals left to stray from the bazaars and villages.

At one time rabies was very prevalent in England, therefore cases of
hydrophobia were not infrequent. Moreover other animals (horses, sheep,
cattle, deer, etc.) had the malady through having been bitten by a
rabid dog.

This disease assumes two distinct forms, one known as the "furious"
and the other "dumb" rabies. One of the earliest indications of rabies
is an alteration of the dog's manner. He becomes restless, quarrelsome,
and shy, having a strong inclination to wander from home.

At first the animal is able to drink, but very shortly he is unable,
though evidently willing to do so. A depraved appetite is a singularly
constant feature of rabies, gnawing at wood and snapping at imaginary
(also real) objects.

A rabid dog has no particular inclination to seek objects for revenge;
the injuries he inflicts beings agents that he regards as intercepting
his onward march.

The author had, some years since, considerable experience amongst
cases of rabies, and often innocent owners would bring rabid dogs for
treatment!!

A very characteristic--though we cannot say pathognomonic--sign
of rabies, is an alteration in the bark, and this is changed to a
semi-bark and howl, easily recognised when heard a second time.

A rabid dog generally knows his master until overcome by the fury of
the disease.

Most dogs succumb within a week after the advent of the first signs
of the complaint. From a week to three months may be set down as the
minimum and maximum periods for the development (incubation) of rabies,
after the dog has been bitten by a rabid animal, or received the virus
of the malady into its system, such as might occur through rubbing,
licking, etc., upon a mucous surface.

There are many other minor signs of rabies, and in the so-called "dumb"
form, the most diagnostic one is dropping of the lower jaw, accompanied
by a snuffling sound.

Although this latter might be confused with paralysis of the lower jaw
from injury to the nerve, etc., the history of the case will afford the
most reliable guide, when forming an opinion.

If rabies is suspected, isolation and destruction should be carried out
at once. The speedier the better.

Before concluding, the writer wishes to say that the bite of a dog in
ordinary health is no more injurious than a wound inflicted by any
other means, and that the sooner this stupid fallacy explodes the
better for beast and man.

To destroy a healthy dog because it happens to have bitten a person is
akin to madness.


BLOOD-POISONING

This is almost always due to absorption of septic matter, usually from
the seat of a wound or other injury. We have frequently seen it follow
a bite from another dog. It is generally fatal. The skin assumes a
bluish tint, and beneath it inflammatory products accumulate, giving,
when pressed with the fingers, a crackling sensation.

In other instances, abscesses form both internally and externally,
sometimes the whole of a limb being infiltrated with pus, etc.

Very little can be done.

To support the severe depression, give brandy, eggs, and Brand's
Essence of Beef. Also 25 grains of salicylate of soda every six hours
in a little cold water.


RHEUMATISM OR KENNEL LAMENESS

Masters of Hounds and Sporting-dog men in particular, are nearly all
acquainted with this troublesome complaint.

Where dogs are kenneled on damp or low-lying ground, there may we
expect to find kennel lameness--a title under which it has been known
for many and many a score of years.

A previous attack is a predisposing influence to its recurrence.

Rheumatism may be either acute or chronic.

Although not common in its acute form, the writer has treated dogs that
could hardly bear anyone to enter--much less shake--the rooms where
they have been kept, the slightest shake causing the dog to howl from
the agony of pain so induced.

Under these circumstances, the diagnosis of rheumatism becomes a
certainty, much more so than in its chronic condition, when confined to
a limb, joint, etc.

The muscles of the chest--Chest-founder--and the neck, are commonly
affected.

Stiffness and difficulty in moving--the dog often suddenly howling from
pain--are the chief signs. There is not much (if any) swelling in this
complaint, as it occurs in the dog.

The shifting character of rheumatism is a great aid to diagnosis.

_Treatment._--Keep dog in a dry and warm kennel.

Don't wash, especially in winter.

Give soda water to drink.

For the chronic manifestation of the affection, administer 5 grains of
iodide of potash night and morning.

Open bowels with a purgative.

If acute, 20 grains of salicylate of soda every eight hours in a
tablespoonful of water.

Rub the muscles with some stimulating liniment, such as white oil,
belladonna, or aconite liniments.

Feed on soft food and nurse dog well.

Many cases of rheumatism never get any better, the dog remaining a
confirmed cripple, though worse in damp weather.



CHAPTER XVIII

=Constitutional Skin Diseases=

ECZEMA--BOILS--HERPES--NETTLE-RASH


ECZEMA

This is a very common complaint, indeed much more so than need be if
proper attention were paid to the feeding and exercising of dogs.

That eczema is of a hereditary nature there seems abundant evidence to
prove, the progeny of eczematous parents predisposing the offspring
to suffer--when the exciting cause comes into play--in a like manner.
Derangement of the digestive organs and impaired nerve force must be
reckoned as chief amongst such causes.

Sarcoptic mange and certain other parasites are of course capable of
producing eczema, but this is chiefly mechanical irritation, ceasing
with the destruction of the irritant.

Not so, however, with eczema of a constitutional nature, the irritation
requiring internal medication for its subjugation.

Eczema is denoted by the appearance of one or more patches of inflamed
skin, and unless checked, the whole of the skin may become inflamed,
the hairs broken and shed, reducing the dog to a condition of misery
and suffering.

Any portion of the body or extremities are the seats of eruption, but
where the parts can be licked or scratched by the dog, the worse the
zone of inflammation.

In the moist form of eczema small vesicles appear; the rupture of these
and the dessication of their contents, along with scales, hair, etc.,
forms a scab or crust on the surface.

Many sporting (and other) dogs have a dry form of eczema known as
_Psoriasis_, showing itself upon the points of the elbows and buttocks.

Here the patches are very intractable, the skin having a dry and
leathery appearance.

Between the toes, around the eyelids, margins of the ears, are common
situations for eczema to make its appearance.

_Treatment._--This must be both local, _i.e._, applied to the diseased
part or parts, and general, _i.e._, directed towards improving the
constitution.

Plenty of exercise and a reasonable supply of good, sound, boiled
flesh, mixed with bread, night and morning, will do much towards a cure.

Give a bath of sulphurated potash (2 ounces of sulphate of potash to 6
gallons of water) weekly, dry thoroughly and then dress the parts with
sulphur ointment, or boracic acid ointment.

If the disease has spread more, or less, over the whole skin, dress
with the following liniment.

  Rx Paraffin oil         4 ounces
     Sulphur flowers      4 ounces
     Oil of tar           2 ounces
     Olive oil           30 ounces

Mix. Wash off in six days' time, and repeat once every ten days until
cured.

_N.B._--A cheap oil (rape, colza, etc.), can be substituted for the
olive oil, though these are all distinctly inferior for the purpose.

In addition to the treatment, give the dog a 5-grain blue pill,
say once every three or four weeks, and have the following mixture
compounded.

  Rx Liquid extract of sacred bark         2 drachms
     Acetate of potash                     1 drachm
     Ammoniated citrate of iron            1 drachm
     Tincture of orange                    1 ounce
     Fowler's Solution of Arsenic         80 drops
     Water to 8 ounces

Directions: Give one tablespoonful night and morning before food.
Several weeks' or months' treatment will be required ere a complete
cure can be anticipated.

Mild cases of eczema are not difficult to bring under control, but
those of long-standing demand perseverance. If skin scaly, use tar
ointment daily.


BOILS

A common situation for these to make their appearance is upon or
between the toes.

Frequently they are very troublesome, appearing and reappearing.

The best treatment is to poultice freely with hot linseed meal, and if
at all tardy in healing, paint with Friar's Balsam.

Keep feet very clean, soaking in hot water at each time of removal of
poultice.

Give a dose of Epsom salts, and don't allow dog to run about without a
leather boot for a few days, or at anyrate until the sores have become
perfectly healed. A little powdered boracic acid powder can be dusted
upon the sore places. For drawing sores turpentine ointment is very
useful.


HERPES

By this term we mean an eruption of vesicles or small blisters in
groups upon an inflamed skin. These blisters are larger than those of
eczema. It is not uncommon to see them around the lips during an attack
of distemper, causing the mouth to become extremely sore and painful.
In ringworm, the patch is of a kindred nature, though contagious.


NETTLE-RASH

This complaint is characterised by the sudden appearance of numerous
wheals or elevations upon various parts of the skin, causing a burning
and itching sensation, provoking the dog to bite and scratch the parts
affected.

Generally these wheals disappear as suddenly as they came, though now
and again some are very stationary.

The best treatment comprises the administration of a 5-grain blue pill
and the application of a little vinegar and water to the irritable
patches.



CHAPTER XIX

=External Parasites and Parasitic Skin Diseases=

FLEAS--PEDICULI OR LICE--RINGWORM--SARCOPTIC MANGE--FOLLICULAR MANGE


FLEAS

During the warm weather more particularly, fleas are a source of great
annoyance to dogs, and frequently to their owners, more especially if
the animal be kept in the house.

Owing to the rapid multiplication of fleas, dogs that are not regularly
groomed or washed, soon become swarmed with these pests, consequently
the severe irritation they produce upon the skin causes the animal to
lose condition, whilst the scratching and biting destroys its coat.
Regularity of washing, both dog and kennel, constitutes the best means
of checking these pests.

Wash all woodwork with boiling water and Stone Ammonia, then expose to
air.

Turpentine is a capital thing to sprinkle the kennel, benches, etc.,
with. Fleas seem to dislike this drug more than any other agent we have
employed.

A very good dressing for destroying fleas is composed of an ounce each
of turpentine and terebene, dissolved in a pint of methylated spirits
of wine.


PEDICULI OR LICE (PHTHIRIASIS)

Whenever dogs get into this condition, it is reasonable to conclude
that there has been a want of proper attention.

One may go further, by saying that it is generally the outcome of
neglect, and a lousy dog should only be found in the kennel of the
sluggard, no matter whatever be the source of infection. Detection at
an exhibition leads to exclusion, and rightly so.

The eggs or "nits" are attached firmly to the shafts of the hairs close
to the root, and hatch in about five days after being deposited.

Any part of the body may be the seat of these parasites, but those
parts where the hairy covering is dense, constitute the most favourable
cover.

Loss of condition soon follows the invasion.

_Treatment._--Use the brush and comb freely. Scrub all kennel fittings
with strong decoction of tobacco.

Dress dog with the following:--

  Rx Oil of Stavesacre           1 ounce
     Olive Oil                  14 ounces

Mix and rub in with a stiff brush.

An infusion of quassia is an excellent and harmless remedy.

Buy 4d. of quassia chips, and add a quart of boiling water, with the
addition of half an ounce of shag tobacco, infusing for six hours.
Dress dog all over, rubbing well into "under" coat, if dog has one.

Dog ticks may be snipped off with scissors.


RINGWORM

Although now and then affected with ringworm, the dog does not suffer
from the skin disease anything like so commonly as cattle.

The chief variety seen upon the dog is that induced by the vegetable
parasite, _Tricophyton tonsurans_, which assumes a circular, or
shield-like form. Honeycomb ringworm is another variety. The patch is
about an inch long as a rule, scaly, and shows the hairs broken across,
giving it a stubbly appearance. It is easily recognised.

Ringworm can be readily transferred from one dog to another, or to
animals of different species, and the converse.

_Treatment._--Paint the bare patch or patches with iodine liniment;
groom well and feed well. Keep dog away from others until cured.


SARCOPTIC MANGE

This is a very common form of mange, though often confused with
non-parasitic eczema.

The mange mite is known as _Sarcoptes canis_, and takes up its abode
upon the superficial dermoid structures.

The irritation thus induced, causes the dog to bite and scratch the
part, ending in the production of a raw, weeping surface, extending
from point to point, unless something is done to check the ravages of
the mites. With licking, biting and scratching, these parasites are
transferred as indicated, and an artificial form of eczema induced.

The diagnosis can be confirmed by microscopic examination of the under
surfaces of the crusts upon the sores.

_Treatment._--Being contagious, keep the diseased dog from healthy ones
until cured.

All fittings, clothing, and other appliances likely to have been in
contact with the diseased dog ought to be thoroughly scalded with
boiling water and soda.

Short-coated dogs are more readily curable than heavily-coated
varieties.

Wash dog twice weekly, and after thoroughly drying, dress all over with
a dressing, composed of 4 ounces of flowers of sulphur, ½ ounce of
oil of tar, and a pint of train, or colza oil.

This dressing should be washed off in about three or four days, and
repeated until cured.

A bath of sulphurated potash is a capital remedy.

Add an ounce of sulphurated potash to every ten gallons of tepid water.

In some instances it is advisable to clip the dog, thus facilitating
the penetration of the dressing.

Almost every kennel man and doggy man has his so-called mange cure, but
the first principles are to make a diagnosis of the complaint under
which the animal is labouring.


FOLLICULAR MANGE

This is a very intractable variety of mange, resulting from the
invasion of the hair-follicles by a minute mite, known as _Demodex
folliculorum_, easily recognisable on microscopic examination. It is of
lobster-like shape.

It will readily be understood that the inaccessible habitats of these
mites renders the effective application of medicinal agents at a
disadvantage.

Destruction of the roots of the hairs is a common result, and a
permanent bare patch often remains as a legacy of the parasitic attack.

Like the sarcoptic, follicular mange is transferable from one dog to
another, though less readily than the former.

Bare patches should be shaved all around, and the part painted with
colourless tincture of iodine daily, or twice daily.

The most satisfactory way of dealing with this complaint is to consult
a qualified veterinary surgeon.



CHAPTER XX

=Diseases of the Gullet, Stomach, Bowels, and Digestive Glands=

DISEASE OF GULLET--INFLAMMATION OF STOMACH--TWIST AND
  INTUSSUSCEPTION OF THE BOWELS--INFLAMMATION OF THE
  BOWELS--VOMITING--WORMS--DIARRHŒA--DYSENTERY--HÆMORRHAGE--HÆMORRHOIDS
  --DYSPEPSIA--JAUNDICEOR YELLOW--RUPTURES.


GULLET

This begins at the back part of the mouth, the entrance into it is
known as the pharynx, and ends at the stomach.

Stricture, or narrowing of the gullet, and injury to it, such as
sometimes produced by the dog swallowing a sharp-pointed body, is not
an uncommon accident.

External compression, such as the presence of a morbid growth in
juxtaposition to the gullet, is capable of interfering with the
functional use of the tube, thereby preventing the animal from
swallowing properly.

Diseases of the gullet always demand the exercise of professional
skill, and until this is obtained, nothing beyond trifling amounts of
liquid nourishment ought to be given.


INFLAMMATION OF THE STOMACH (GASTRITIS)

Probably the most frequent cause of gastric inflammation in the dog
is that arising through the ingestion of irritant poisons, such as
arsenic, antimony, etc.

Less frequently an inflamed stomach is due to the presence of worms, or
to the specific poison of distemper: in the latter case the areas of
disease generally being of an extensive nature.

The chief symptoms of stomach inflammation are vomiting; pain in the
belly; prostration; thirst, and other signs of the dog being in a
critical condition.

Treatment must be in accordance with the cause.


TWIST OR STRANGULATION; AND INTUSSUSCEPTION OF THE BOWELS

Neither of these morbid conditions are of uncommon occurrence amongst
dogs, more especially so in young dogs, but why this should be so, is
difficult of explanation.

A twisted bowel is certainly not so frequently met with as a telescoped
or intussuscepted one. In both cases inflammation is set up, chiefly
confined to the area involved, or in those parts in juxtaposition to
the lesion.

Practically speaking, one issue is the rule in both cases, and that is
death.

Spontaneous reduction is rare, and as the diagnosis is attended with
difficulty, relief by operation seldom attempted.

The true nature of these bowel complaints is generally only revealed on
after-death examination.


INFLAMMATION OF THE BOWELS

We have already alluded to this in the previous paragraph, but
inflammation of the bowels also arises from other than the causes
therein named.

In the author's opinion, the most frequent causes of this complaint in
puppies are round-worms (_Ascaris marginata_).

To avoid puppies being troubled with these parasites, small quantities
of lime-water are of service. A tablespoonful will be sufficient at
once.

Teaspoonful doses of Brand's Essence of Beef constitutes one of the
very best substances that can be used when vomition is troublesome,
and later on the yolk of an egg, with the addition of a teaspoonful of
brandy.

As a medicinal agent, bismuth is particularly useful, so that the
following mixture should be obtained from the chemist:--

  Rx Carbonate of bismuth                3 drachms
     Pepsin                             30 grains
     Bromide of potash                   2 drachms
     Bicarbonate of soda                 3 drachms
     Compound tincture of cardamoms      1 ounce
     Water to make                       4 ounces

Mix. Dose: One tablespoonful every four hours until the vomiting
ceases. For Terriers, etc., half this dose will suffice.

This mixture will be found specially suitable for the vomiting of
distemper, and when arising from other causes, of a general nature.
In case the dog has been poisoned or picked up some material of an
objectionable nature, it may not be advisable to try and check the
vomiting. Under these circumstances, it must be regarded as a salutary
process. It is only when it becomes excessive that it is advisable to
stop it.

Another very important matter when dealing with a case of excessive
vomition, is that of keeping the dog as quiet as possible, together
with the application of hot, dry flannels, applied over the belly for
several hours at a time, and continued with until improvement sets in.

The bitch should be thoroughly dosed with worm medicine before she
comes into season, otherwise repeated purgation by worm medicine
may have a prejudicial influence after service. Refusing to suck and
crying from the pain in the belly are the surest indications of this
condition in suckers. In adult dogs irritant poisons are not at all
an uncommon cause of inflammation of the bowels. The specific poison
of distemper is another cause. External injuries will produce it,
and probably exposure to severe wet, such as lying on a damp kennel
floor. Peritonitis is a frequent accompaniment. It is generally fatal,
therefore the best of skill should be obtained. Hot fomentations and
15-to 20-drop doses of chlorodyne every three hours can be tried in the
meantime.


VOMITING

The dog finds vomiting the readiest means of ejecting objectionable
substances from within its stomach, and consequently many medicinal
agents are conveniently--sometimes inconveniently--got rid of by this
means.

Even this ready means does not safeguard our canine friends against
death from the ingestion of various poisonous agents, though doubtless
this prompt action of the stomach in response to stimulation of the
vomiting centre in the brain, does confer a certain degree of immunity
against toxic substances. Rapidity of absorption has an important
bearing in this respect, such deadly agents as strychnine being
absorbed by the stomach, passing into the circulation to other vital
organs in a very rapid manner.

During distemper, vomiting is common, its frequent repetition being an
additional exhausting factor in this malady.

To avoid this, minute quantities of readily assimilable nourishment is
essential.

When the ejected material is stained with blood or actually contains
blood as blood, it points to ulceration of the lining membrane of the
stomach--a condition of gravity.

Stoppage of the bowels is often followed by vomiting, and frequently
brings on paralysis.

_Treatment for Vomition._--Rest for the stomach is one of the first
essentials of treatment. Nourishment must be given, and, if necessary,
this can be in the form of nutrient enemas. (_See_ CLYSTERS.)

Fatty substances, milk, vegetables, and solid food, must be rigidly
excluded until such time as the organ has regained its tone and proper
power of assimilating the nutritive pabulum supplied. Soda-water to
drink and 20 grains of powdered bismuth three times a day, along with a
tablespoonful of the soda-water. If dog is paralytic give it an enema.


WORMS

Although fairly common in other situations, worms are most frequently
found infesting the intestines and stomach.

The cavities of the heart, nasal and respiratory passages, cranial
cavity, and bile-duct are more rarely the seats of parasitic invasion
in the dog. When the heart and respiratory tubes are affected, the
parasites are of a minute, thread-like character, hence known as
_Filaria_, or thread-worms.

The flat, lancet-shaped worm, sometimes found up the nose, is spoken of
as a trematode; the round-worms in the stomach and bowels as nematodes;
whilst the other long, flat, or tape-like worms, are called _Tænia_.

Very few dogs are entirely free from worms of one sort or another,
though it is only when these become numerous that the dog shows signs
of having these pests.

Gradual loss of condition, irregular appetite, irregular evacuations,
harsh coat, sometimes vomiting, and increased redness of the membranes
lining the eyelids, are the usual signs, significant of internal
parasites. Positive proof is of course the passage of segments of
tape-worms, or round-worms, either by vomiting, or in the evacuations.

Sneezing and a catarrhal discharge from the nose is generally present
when the nasal passages are infested with the lancet-shaped worms
already alluded to. An uncommon true blood-sucking worm (_Spiroptera
sanguinolenta_) is occasionally found in the stomach.

Newly-born puppies seem predisposed to become infected with
round-worms, known as _Ascaris marginata_, such infection taking place
from the dam, hence the necessity for ridding her of worms, and the
most suitable time to administer vermifuge medicine, in an efficacious
manner, is prior to her coming in season.

With reference to the preventative measures against worm infestation,
speaking practically, not a great deal can be done, the sources of
infection being so varied. Feeding dogs on the viscera of animals must
of course be condemned, and with the abolition of this practice so will
diminish one source of infection. Many so-called worm specifics are now
largely advertised, rival proprietors claiming superiority and even
infallibility.

Some of these nostrums are given without fasting the dog, but said
to be equally efficacious. This statement must be accepted with
reservation, as all worm medicines act more energetically when the
stomach and bowels are empty. Before administering worm medicine, it is
advisable to fast adult dogs for twenty-four hours, but puppies should
not be kept longer than fifteen hours without food.

Although an old, but well-tried remedy against both round and flat
worms, areca nut still maintains its position, and rightly so, because
when given in suitable doses, and in accordance with the old rules, it
seldom fails to give a satisfactory account of its action.

The freshly grated nut has advantages over the powder, more especially
if the latter has been kept in stock for a considerable time, as
usually happens where the demand for a certain drug is limited. When
combined with santonin, its action on round-worms is greatly enhanced.

Areca nut, santonin, and male fern, are now all sold in capsular form,
thus diminishing their nauseating effects.

The average dose of areca nut for such breeds as Pointers, Setters,
Retrievers, Fox and other Hounds, is a drachm and a half, combined with
8 grains of santonin, and given as a bolus mixed with honey, treacle,
etc., or in a little milk, though less liable to be vomited when given
without any liquid.

About three hours afterwards give a full dose of castor oil.

Repeat weekly, for a month if needful. A course of tonic medicine may
then follow, so as to brace up the constitution.

Such substances as powdered glass and other mechanical irritants ought
to be avoided, being liable to set up gastro-enteritis. Powdered tin,
glass, etc., belong to this class. Calomel, hellebore, pomegranate
bark, spirit of turpentine, Barbadoes tar, garlic, wormwood, Kousso,
Kamala, etc., have been, and still are, much used, and abused.

Whatever be the drug employed, it is advisable to isolate dog both
before and after dosing, so that the results can be properly noted.

Through neglect of this precaution, many failures or indifferent
results arise.

The indiscriminate employment of worm medicines is but too frequently
resorted to, and may further deplete an already exhausted system.

In many instances, a course of iron and arsenic tonics, followed by
cod-liver oil and malt, does more good than the administration of
anti-worm remedies.


DIARRHŒA

Like almost every other animal, the dog is a frequent sufferer from a
too loose condition of the evacuations, constituting diarrhœa.

A variety of causes are capable of bringing this about, but the
presence of worms, cold, feeding on liver and other unsuitable foods,
are, in all probability the most frequent causes.

During distemper, superpurgation is a frequent sign, calling for active
but well-regulated treatment to control it.

It must be borne in mind that this excessive discharge of liquid fæces
is but symptomatic of derangement of the stomach, bowels, or digestive
glands, and that it can only be successfully treated when viewed in
this light, the administration of diarrhœa mixtures being often a
failure, because these facts are ignored.

A little careful consideration will often determine the cause, the
discharge ceasing with its removal.

In other instances it can only be conjectured, treatment becoming
speculative.

Boiled rice and milk, arrowroot and milk, to which two or three
tablespoonfuls of port wine has been added, constitutes suitable
dietary whilst the evacuations are in a fluid, or semi-fluid state.

When arising through a chill, or the animal becoming overheated, the
following mixture can, with benefit, be used:--

  Rx Rubini's Essence of Camphor         1 drachm
     Chlorodyne                          2 drachms

Mix, and give 25 drops three times per day, along with a tablespoonful
of cold arrowroot gruel.

Diarrhœa arising through the irritation of unsuitable food in the
stomach and bowels must be treated as follows:--

1. Give a full dose of castor oil, along with 20 drops of laudanum.

2. After this has had time to work itself out, follow up with doses of
the diarrhœa mixture, as sold by chemists for the human subject.


DYSENTERY

When diarrhœa is allowed to continue, it is liable to end with
dysenteric symptoms, the lower end of the bowel becoming implicated,
producing bloodstained evacuations, or the disease may be of a specific
nature from the beginning.

No matter how arising, dysentery is an exhausting disease, and one that
demands prompt treatment for its alleviation.

Internally, powdered ipecacuanha is the best remedy, and it should be
given.

First give an injection of tepid water (½ to 1½ pints) to wash out
the bowel, and then administer from 5 to 20 grains of the above drug,
mixed with the same quantity of bicarbonate of soda, in a tablespoonful
of honey and water. Repeat in eight hours.

Give no food, and keep dog very quiet for next twenty-four hours.

Injections of starch gruel and laudanum are often very useful for
dysentery, and can be used twice daily.

Twenty to 60 drops of laudanum may be added to a couple of
tablespoonfuls of tepid boiled starch, then injected into the lower end
of the bowel by means of a vulcanite, glass, or ball syringe.

Particular attention must, of course, be paid to the animal's diet.

Nothing but farinaceous foods should be allowed unless it be Brand's
Essence, or some stimulating liquid, such as bovril or Oxo, to which
isinglass has been added. If pain severe, apply hot poultices to the
belly.


HÆMORRHAGE

Loss of blood may arise either from within or without the body, be of
varying amount, and either arterial, venous, or capillary.

Excessive hæmorrhage is of course always injurious, but its gravity is
greater when issuing from some vital part, such as the lungs, stomach,
kidneys, cranium, etc.

In lung hæmorrhage the blood is coughed up, and of a bright-red
colour--fresh blood.

When coming from the stomach it is generally intermingled with the
vomited material.

If issuing from the urinary apparatus, it is either mingled with the
urine, so as to stain this fluid, or passed as blood at the end of the
act of urination.

In the latter case, it will most probably be coming from the bladder,
or the kidneys.

Hæmorrhage from the bowels is passed along with the stools, or
immediately following the act of defecation, as frequently happens in
piles.

Rupture of the heart, or the larger vessels gives rise to a rapid and
fatal hæmorrhage.

The treatment, with a view to arrest the bleeding, will of course
depend upon the conditions through which it has been brought about.

If from without, _e.g._, a wound, the bleeding vessel ought to be
ligatured, or else have a compress fastened on so as to exercise
sufficient pressure upon and above the injured vessel.

When bleeding is due to small blood-vessels having been torn, tincture
of steel, Friar's Balsam, etc., will sometimes be sufficient to arrest
it.

Cold water, or an ice compress is equally useful. When blood comes from
the lungs, _e.g._, a gunshot wound in this region, there is generally
a certain amount of bronchial irritation, so that the dog must be kept
warm. Have ice compresses applied to the chest, and 15 grains of gallic
acid given three times a day. If this fails, Adrenalin Tablets can be
tried.


HÆMORRHOIDS (PILES)

The dog, like other animals, is liable to suffer from piles, causing it
considerable discomfiture. The disease may be external, or internal.
External piles consist of enlarged veins, the result of a sluggish
circulation, and are more frequently seen in ladies' lap-dogs, or
those leading an indolent and useless existence. Internal piles
generally cause bleeding and pain during defecation, and are often seen
protruding during the latter act.

Exercise, a liver laxative, such as 1 to 4 of Carter's Little Liver
Pills now and then, with the application of a little gallic acid
ointment, constitutes the safest treatment that the amateur can adopt.


DYSPEPSIA (INDIGESTION)

Although the dog has remarkable powers of digesting such apparently
insoluble substances as bones, etc., he, like most other animals, is a
frequent sufferer from digestive disturbance, though this derangement
of the digestive organs is certainly of more frequent occurrence
amongst dogs leading inactive lives.

Probably the most frequent cause of dyspeptic symptoms are the various
forms of worms, so prevalent amongst dogs.

Following this as a cause, decayed teeth are liable to provoke it,
whilst prolonged feeding on unsuitable food, over, under, and irregular
feeding, are equally fruitful sources of mischief to the digestive
apparatus.

General unthriftiness, want of energy, and a morbid appetite, together
with foul breath, are the leading features of disordered digestion.

It must be borne in mind, however, that the digestive organs are
frequently in a perverted condition through disease in other parts,
such as the heart, kidneys, liver, etc., and can only be regulated for
proper assimilation when treatment is directed towards the mischief, in
connection with any of the foregoing organs.

Most suitable food is that containing a due proportion of flesh and
carbohydrate; therefore a mixture of boiled paunch and boiled rice will
meet this end.

Feed the dog regularly, and give no more than the dictates of common
sense suggest as sufficient for the size of the dog. Give extract of
malt daily.

Hounds and other sporting dogs should not be allowed to eat as much as
they like, no matter however hard they may have been working.

If sickness is a troublesome symptom, it will generally be advisable to
give the dog a dose of worm medicine. Should the results be negative,
give one of the following powders night and morning.

  Rx Bismuth carbonate          1 drachm
     Pepsin                    20 grains
     Powdered charcoal          2 drachms
     Powdered sugar             1 drachm

Mix and divide into one dozen powders, giving in their dry state, by
placing on the back of the tongue.

Any loose or carious teeth ought to be removed, and a dose of compound
liquorice powder given occasionally to regulate the bowels.

From a quarter to one teaspoonful of this powder will be a suitable
dose.

Should there be no improvement in the animal's condition, it will be
advisable to obtain skilled advice--not such as is frequently offered
by unqualified canine specialists, or others of this class professing a
knowledge of "all pertaining to the doggy world."


JAUNDICE

Affections of the liver, or when the secretion or excretion of bile is
perverted, the symptom known as jaundice results.

Very few people are unacquainted with the characteristic yellow
colouration of the skin and visible mucous membranes.

The word "jaundice" comes from the French "jaune," yellow, and
"icterus," a Greek word for golden thrush.

The yellow colour of the skin, white of eyes, mucuous membranes lining
eyelids and cheeks is, of course diagnostic that the colouring matter
of the bile is circulating throughout the system.

The urine is usually deep yellow and very scanty, and the motions often
clay-coloured and hard, though this latter condition is frequently
absent, in fact diarrhœa present.

This is particularly well marked in the so-called hepatic or bilious
form of distemper.

Gall-stones, when impacted in the bile-ducts, give rise to jaundice and
colic pains.

There is also a catarrhal condition of the bile-ducts that leads to the
same jaundiced condition.

As a considerable number of dogs succumb to this affection, very
careful treatment is necessary. Linseed and mustard poultices over
the region of the liver, and a hot bath, will often work miracles.
Soda-water and milk should constitute the only nourishment for a few
days, unless it be teaspoonful doses of Brand's Essence of Beef.

A grain of calomel along with a quarter teaspoonful of sugar, night
and morning for two or three days (until the bowels are open), will
be found to do good in most instances. Further treatment can, with
advantage, be left to the veterinarian, so much depending upon
individual conditions.


RUPTURES

Although purely of a surgical nature, it may not be out of place to
mention that any organ or tissue in any part of the body may be the
seat of a rupture.

Ruptures of the stomach (rare in the dog), bladder, liver,
blood-vessels, bowels, muscles, etc., are of occasional occurrence.

A very common rupture is that known as "umbilical," many puppies
showing this swelling in the region of the navel. Frequently it
disappears with increasing age. It is of little importance.

Rupture of the wall of the belly and protrusion of the bowels, etc., is
a serious condition, demanding immediate professional aid.

This is equally applicable when the generative organs or perinæum are
injured.

Another form of rupture is that known as "inguinal," denoted by a
variously-sized swelling in the region of the groin.

In scrotal rupture the testicular sac is enlarged.



CHAPTER XXI

=Poisons and their Remedies=

 POISONING BY ARSENIC--BY ANTIMONY--STRYCHNINE--PHOSPHORUS--RAT AND
 OTHER VERMIN-KILLERS--BY LEAD--MERCURY--PTOMAINE POISONING


POISONING BY ARSENIC

Very small quantities of this drug are capable of bringing on a fatal
inflammation of the stomach and bowels, and it is only prescribed in
the most minute doses.

Fowler's Solution of Arsenic is the compound generally selected for
administration of the drug in the liquid form, the average dose of
it for the larger sporting dogs being 10 drops. Arsenious acid or
white arsenic is an extremely cheap compound, and one that enters
largely into the composition of many sheep-dips, a fact that it may
be worth while to bear in mind should a dog be poisoned in a manner,
suspiciously regarded.

This same poison is not uncommonly used for the destruction of rats and
other vermin, though the facilities for obtaining it are, to a great
extent, a barrier against its frequent employment for such purposes.

Arsenic is a corrosive and irritant poison, producing vomiting,
dysentery, acute pain within the belly, thirst, prostration, and a
speedy but painful death.

As a rule, dogs poisoned by arsenic die, only the mildest forms making
recovery.

Under any circumstances it is advisable to seek the assistance of a
M.R.C.V.S., acting in accordance with his instructions.

In the absence of professional aid, provided the animal is not too
much exhausted, an emetic should be given, and for this purpose there
is nothing more suitable than 20 grains of white vitriol (sulphate of
zinc), or the same quantity of blue vitriol (sulphate of copper), mixed
with a couple of tablespoonfuls of tepid water. If neither of these
agents are handy, use mustard, salt, and water.

Teaspoonful doses of brandy, mixed with the same quantity of olive or
salad oil, can be given at frequent intervals.

Twenty-drop doses of chlorodyne, may be added if the pain is severe.

Hot fomentations to the belly will do good.


ANTIMONY

The compound of this element most commonly in use for medicinal
purposes is that known as tartar emetic--an exceedingly active poison.
Minute doses are sometimes prescribed in order to induce vomiting, and
in bronchial complaints to produce expectoration.

The symptoms and treatment are practically on a par with those laid
down for arsenic. Vomiting and extreme depression of the vital powers
are specially significant symptoms.

Both arsenic and antimony have their special antidotes, though even
these are of very doubtful efficacy.


STRYCHNINE

Although a difficult poison to procure from any source, it is
surprising the number of dogs that are annually poisoned by this agent.

In appearance, strychnine is a harmless-looking crystalline (or
powdered) white solid, the most minute particles readily inducing
muscular spasms and death.

Strychnine also occurs in the form of a buff-coloured powder, known as
nux vomica, the alkaloid or active principle being strychnine.

Many gamekeepers make use of strychnine for destroying such birds as
hooded crows, etc.

Farmers now and then soak maize in a solution of strychnine, in order
to destroy crows in a wholesale manner.

We merely mention these facts, as showing the various sources from
which a dog might accidentally get poisoned.

In a very few minutes after swallowing strychnine the dog becomes
convulsed all over. The muscular spasms may completely render the dog
paralytic; in fact, this usually happens. Quick and laboured breathing
is soon followed by complete collapse.

So rapidly does strychnine--especially if the dog has taken a few
grains--produce death, that there is seldom much chance for the
employment of remedial agents, or to call professional assistance.

If there seems reasonable hopes of recovery, call in a qualified
veterinary surgeon at once. Twenty grains of chloral hydrate, 25 grains
each of potassium, iodide and bromide, in water, can be used in the
meantime.


PHOSPHORUS

It is hardly necessary to go beyond mentioning the possibility of
poisoning by this agent.

It is a constituent of so-called "phosphor paste" largely used for the
destruction of vermin, such as rats and mice.

Dogs have been known to partake of it, usually ending in death.

A most important matter is to avoid giving the dog any oily substances,
if poisoned by this element.


RAT AND OTHER VERMIN KILLERS

We have already spoken of phosphorus being the active agent in some of
these compounds. Barium and arsenic are likewise employed. Most of
these being proprietary articles, their exact composition is not of any
particular interest.

Sickness, thirst, severe pain and prostration, are chief amongst the
symptoms produced by such agents.

Empty stomach with an emetic; give small doses of brandy in water,
along with 40 grains of carbonate of bismuth, every three hours, or
oftener.

Keep dog quiet, and apply hot dry flannels to the belly continuously.


LEAD

The most likely method for lead-poisoning to occur in a dog is through
the animal licking paint, or drinking out of a leaden vessel.

It is an uncommon form of poisoning in the dog. Lead poisoning can
be either "acute" or "chronic," and is denoted by colicky pains,
constipation and a blue line around the gums. Paralysis and other
nervo-muscular signs supervene.

Give half an ounce of Epsom's salts until bowels are freely open, and
later on, 5 grains of iodide of potash night and morning.

Warm fomentations to belly.


MERCURY

Mercurial poisoning but seldom occurs, and when it does, it is chiefly
the result of the continued medicinal use of the drug, or as an
over-dose.

Dogs seem particularly susceptible to the action of mercurial
compounds, so that this drug requires to be given with circumspection.

An excessive discharge of saliva from the mouth and loosening of the
teeth are amongst the most prominent signs.


PTOMAINE POISONING

To this class belongs various organic poisons produced in food
substances (fish, etc.), as the result of fermentative changes, arising
through the presence of bacteria or other minute living organisms.

Although cases of ptomaine poisoning are more frequently met with in
the human subject, there is a possibility of the occurrence of such in
the dog.

Empty stomach with an emetic, say 20 grains of white vitriol and given
in two tablespoonfuls of tepid water.



CHAPTER XXII

=Diseases of the Urinary Organs=

 DISEASE OF THE KIDNEYS--STONE IN THE BLADDER--INFLAMMATION OF THE
 BLADDER--STRICTURE OF THE URETHRA


DISEASE OF THE KIDNEYS

One or both of the kidneys may be the seat of acute or of chronic
inflammation. Chronic inflammation of the kidneys is not uncommonly
the result of stone, or gravel, accumulating within what is called the
"pelvis" of the kidney.

Under these circumstances, the dog suffers great discomfiture in
passing his water, the latter being ejected in very small quantities,
and it is generally stained with blood.

In some instances a single stone will occupy the whole of the pelvis
of the kidney, destroying its functions, whereas in other cases the
particles of stone are small, or even gritty, rendering them extremely
liable to wander into other portions of the urinary tract.

Abscess of the kidney is induced by the presence of injecting material
gaining admission.

Severe pain during urination, bloody-coloured urine passed in drops,
loss of condition and tenderness across the loins, are some of the more
prominent signs of this malady. If there is the least suspicion as to
the presence of this complaint, consult a M.R.C.V.S.

In the meantime, if the animal is in pain, give 30 drops of laudanum,
in a little water, or, as a substitute, 20 drops of chlorodyne. Avoid
giving the dog much liquid, but easily-digested solid food, such as
rice, boiled chicken, etc.


STONE IN THE BLADDER

The dog is not uncommonly a sufferer from stone in the bladder, the
writer having seen the whole cavity practically obliterated by the
presence of one or more calculi.

Considerable numbers have been removed by operation.

When there are a number of calculi in the bladder, the rubbing of one
against another causes the faces of them to become very smooth.

Calculi vary in size, hardness, weight, shape, and position; likewise
are more frequent in dogs than bitches.

The chief indications of stone in the bladder are the passage of small
quantities of urine at very frequent intervals, often bloodstained.

For the relief of this condition, surgical aid is necessary.


INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER

This arises through chemical, mechanical, and specific causes.

To the first class belong certain drugs; to the second, stone; whilst
the third class includes the germs of distemper, blood-poisoning, etc.,
and the extension of inflammation from adjacent parts.

It may also occur as the sequel to an operation for stone in this organ.

The urine is passed in drops, and the dog is in considerable pain, more
so when the parts in this region are pressed. It is generally fatal.


STRICTURE

The urethra is a tube leading from the bladder to the exterior, serving
for the passage of the urine.

Sometimes it is the seat of obstruction or stricture, _i.e._, a
narrowing of it.

Congestion, spasmodic contraction, and organic changes are the
principal causes.

The chief sign is the passage of urine in drops, together with pain.

Give a hot bath, 20-drop doses of chlorodyne in a little water, and
consult a qualified veterinary surgeon.



CHAPTER XXIII

=Diseases of the Ear=

 DROPSY OF THE EAR-FLAP--OTITIS OR INFLAMMATION OF THE
 EAR--OTORRHŒA OR CANKER--SPLIT MARGIN--ECZEMA OF
 EARS--DEAFNESS--MORBID GROWTHS IN PASSAGE--CONCRETIONS--SYRINGING
 EARS.


DROPSY OF THE EAR-FLAP

Long-eared dogs--more especially Spaniels and Retrievers--are very
liable to suffer from this complaint. In some instances the causes are,
probably, of a constitutional nature, but as a rule it is the result of
a bruise.

The bruise gives rise to the production of an inflammatory effusion
between the skin and cartilage of the external ear, causing a
baggy-like swelling, compressible with the finger, and alterable in
shape when the external ear is manipulated.

The old, and by far the most satisfactory way of dealing with this
serous (watery) abscess is to make a free cut into it. Introduce the
finger into the wound and break down adhesions; then wash out with
a little iodine and water. Keep wound open for a few days. This will
always effect a cure.


OTITIS OR INFLAMMATION OF EAR

The passage of the ear is reddened and causes the dog to rub his
sore ear, or even cry from the pain. Very frequently this condition
is accompanied by a fetid discharge; if so, it is spoken of as
internal canker of ear. A little cooling lotion, such as a couple of
teaspoonfuls of Goulard, in eight ounces of water, applied night and
morning, will usually suffice to cure this complaint. At same time give
a dose of purgative medicine.


OTORRHŒA OR CANKER OF EAR

This is an exceedingly common disease of dogs, and when it has been
allowed to run on unchecked becomes very intractable.

When the internal ear is in a diseased condition, _i.e._, disease of
the bones, etc., the malady is incurable.

In the majority of instances the middle ear alone is the seat of
inflammatory action and suppuration, and usually curable.

One form of ear canker is produced by parasites (_Symbiotes auricularis
canis_) invading the passage.

The ordinary form of canker is the result of some slight abrasion of
the middle ear, and subsequent infection of the wound by germs.

The secretion of the ear and constitutional predisposition towards
eczema have no doubt an influence in determining the onset of canker,
of a non-parasitic nature.

The entrance of water and other foreign materials is thought to be
equally productive of this disease, but, as already stated, in all
probability it is necessary to have some slight excoriation of the
lining membrane.

Turning the head to one side--when one ear is affected, though
frequently both are diseased--pain when the ear is manipulated,
revealing, on close inspection of the passage, increased redness, with
a sooty-like deposit (dry form), or moisture (moist form), passing into
various stages of suppuration, are the usual signs of this disease.

Frequently the pus is mingled with blood, the latter either coming from
the tender abraded lining of the middle ear, or, may be, from disease
of the bones.

Careful inspection will generally settle the matter. The duration of
the malady is of importance when forming an opinion.

In bad cases the discharge drops from the ears, emitting a most
offensive odour.

_Treatment._--Cleanse ears thoroughly with warm water and a little
spirit of wine.

Syringe out daily.

Pour in some of the following lotion night and morning.

  Rx Glycerine          2 ounces
     Laudanum         ½ ounce
     Lead acetate     ½ drachm
     Water added        8 ounces

Mix. Warm before use.

Milder cases can be cured by dusting boracic acid powder into ear night
and morning, and for parasitic canker, use in the same way a little
white precipitate (ammoniated chloride of mercury).

Give a dose of purgative medicine, such as Epsom salts, and then follow
up with a course of alterative medicine. (_See_ RECIPES).


SPLIT MARGIN

Injuries of the flap of the ear are often very troublesome to treat
successfully. On this account such sores are spoken of as _external
canker_, in contradistinction to the disease previously discussed.

When the ear has been torn, it is necessary to have professional aid to
make a satisfactory job of it.

An effort must be made to get the edges of the torn surfaces to heal by
what is called first intention.


ECZEMA OF THE EARS

The margins of the flaps of the ears are commonly the seat of a dry
eczematous eruption. They become scaly, thickened, and hairless.

Many dogs have their ears in this condition for years; nevertheless,
it is very unsightly, and the longer it exists the more the trouble of
eradicating it.

Apply with friction an ointment, composed as follows, night and morning.

  Rx Oil of tar             2 drachms
     Glycerine              2 drachms
     Powdered sulphur     ½ ounce
     Creosote               1 drachm
     Lard added             4 ounces

Mix and rub well in all around the margins, for twenty minutes each
time.

In addition to this, give a 5-grain blue pill, feed on meat and bread,
giving less dog-biscuit, if this has been the principal food. A course
of alterative medicine will be required.


DEAFNESS

Deafness may be "complete" or only "partial," and confined to one, or
affecting both ears.

In some dogs it is congenital, _i.e._, present from birth; in others
acquired.

Severe canker will cause deafness, so will a blow over the ear.

Morbid growths in the passage, and accumulation of waxy material, etc.,
will likewise produce "partial" or "complete" loss of hearing.

Treatment must be directed to the removal--whenever possible--of the
cause.


MORBID GROWTHS IN THE EAR-PASSAGE

Occasionally the middle ear is the seat of various morbid growths,
either of a wart-like character, or as small-stalked tumours, causing
complete or partial deafness, in accordance with the occluding area
involved.

Surgical treatment is necessary, excepting in the case of a
single-stalked growth (polypus), around which a thin piece of twine or
wire can be fixed. It will then slough off.

_Concretions._--These are chiefly accumulations of wax within the ear,
and should be removed first by softening with a little warm almond oil
and then syringing with weak spirit and tepid water.

_Syringing Ears._--Special glass, vulcanite and rubber syringes are
sold for this purpose. Before injecting the fluid, warm it.

The stream of liquid should be forced well into the ear.

For cleansing the ears, add a dessertspoonful of spirit of wine to a
teacupful of rose-water, warmed before use.

This liquid can be syringed into the depths of the passage once a day.

The dog should have a tape muzzle put on, and then held by an
assistant.



CHAPTER XXIV

=Diseases of the Eye=

 OPHTHALMIA--BLINDNESS--INVERTED EYELIDS--EVERTED EYELIDS--TORN
 EYELIDS--BARENESS AROUND MARGINS


OPHTHALMIA

Inflammation of one or both eyes is of fairly frequent occurrence
amongst dogs, more especially when a dog has distemper; in fact, the
eyes nearly always participate in this malady. Injuries, such as those
produced by passing through thickets, etc., are also causes of this
condition: likewise chemical, and other mechanical agencies.

The conjunctiva, or membrane lining the eyelids becomes an intense red:
the eyes are intolerant to light, and tears flow freely over the face:
the eyelids adherent, more especially after sleep, with a purulent
discharge issuing therefrom.

Prolonged inflammation is liable to end in the production of opacity of
the cornea, the surface of this membrane becoming a bluish white.

In distemper, ulceration of it is not uncommon. When Hounds are kept
in damp kennels, where the sanitary arrangements are bad, very severe
forms of distemper ophthalmia are frequent. The remark applies also to
other dogs so situated.

_Treatment._--This must be of both a "local" and general kind.

Sponge eyes several times daily with a weak boracic acid lotion
(30 grains to 6 ounces of water), using a sponge or piece of linen
previously dipped in boiling water. Good results sometimes follow
fomenting with luke-warm tea, its simplicity being a recommendation.
When the cornea is ulcerated, use a solution of nitrate of silver (4
grains to the ounce of distilled water) as drops, night and morning.
Keep the dog's head steady, part the lids, and then apply.

These drops will be equally useful for "cloudy cornea."

Rest the eyes by keeping dog in a dark place. Around the margins a
little of Singleton's Golden Eye Ointment will be of as much service
as aught else that can be recommended, and can be procured at any drug
stores.


BLINDNESS

A predisposing factor in the production of blindness is that of
old age, many aged dogs having what is known as senile cataracts.
Injuries of any kind to the eye are liable to end in either partial, or
complete, blindness.

In cataract, it is the lens, its covering, or both, that are the seats
of disease.

In the so-called glass eye (_Amaurosis_), the appearance of the eye is
that of a normal one, the optic nerve being in a paralytic state.

Opacity of the cornea does, in accordance with the degree and situation
of such deposit, produce corresponding deficiency of sight.


INVERTED EYELIDS

In this diseased condition it is generally the upper eyelid that
is turned inwards. If the eyelashes grow inwards, it is called
_Trichiasis_. In both conditions it follows that the lashes must be in
contact with the globe of the eye.

If only a few lashes are growing inwards, they should be pulled out,
but, if numerous, this is not a good plan. To cure it, a surgical
operation is necessary.


EVERTED EYELIDS

Like inverted or turned-in eyelid, everted, or turned-out eyelid is not
a diseased condition, but the outcome of disease, probably of a weak
orbicular muscle.

It is the lower eye that is usually affected, and is curable by
operation only.


TORN EYELIDS

Injuries to the eyelids, unless properly treated, are liable to result
in permanent unsightliness, or, it may be, affect the sight.

Either of the conditions last alluded to can be produced through injury
to the eyelids externally, or internally.

Unless very slightly torn, it will be better to consult a M.R.C.V.S.


FOREIGN BODIES IN THE EYES

Minute particles of foreign substances, such as thorns, the outer
covering of various seeds, etc., are liable to gain admission into the
eyes.

If the glume of an oat seed, etc., lodges on the cornea, it may remain
adherent, setting up inflammation of it. Blindness is a common result.

When the cornea is punctured, it is advisable to have professional
advice.

After the removal of a foreign body--best done by turning the upper
lid outwards and upwards with the fingers--insert a drop or two of
castor oil daily for a few days, or as long as seems necessary. Severe
injuries to the eyeball are liable to be followed by sympathetic
inflammation in the sound eye.


BARENESS ROUND MARGINS OF EYES

It commonly happens that around the margins, through several causes,
the hairy part becomes destitute of hair, giving the dog a very
unsightly appearance.

In most instances the disease is of an eczematous nature, requiring
constitutional treatment for its removal. (_See_ ECZEMA.)

As an erythema it is seen in distemper, arising through the acrid
discharge from the eyes scalding the surrounding areas.

Smear the part with a little Singleton's Golden Eye Ointment, or with a
little vaseline, cold cream, or boracic acid ointment.



CHAPTER XXV

=Injuries and Minor Operations=

WOUNDS--OVERGROWN CLAWS--FRACTURES


WOUNDS

Lacerated and punctured wounds are very common, more especially amongst
sporting dogs, and this chiefly owing to the thickets, etc., they have
to face during work.

Wounds and fractures are not uncommonly associated; if so, the injury
is spoken of as compound. The gravity of a dual injury is much greater
than where either exists as a single one.

Gunshot wounds are not uncommon, and when examining such, a good deal
of care is necessary. Sometimes the shots are simply lodged beneath the
skin, and can be felt by rolling the skin beneath the fingers.

In other instances the flesh is penetrated, and, it may be, the
internal organs injured.

Although shot may have penetrated the cavity of the chest, or the
belly, it does not follow that the injury be of a vital nature; in
fact, the author's experience of gunshot wounds in the dog has been as
a rule favourable, most of the dogs showing but little after effects.

If shot have passed deeply in, penetrating the chest, etc., no attempt
should be made to interfere with the wounds.

When shots are lodged in tendons, etc., about the knee, they should be
removed forthwith.

Lacerated or torn wounds will probably require sewing up; if so, they
must first of all be thoroughly cleansed with some warm water, to which
a little disinfectant has been added.

Special care must be taken to remove all irritating particles, and the
hair ought to be clipped closely off in juxtaposition to the injury.

Severe bleeding must be arrested with cold water, or by touching the
end of the bleeding vessel with the point of a hot iron, or through
the application of a few drops of strong tincture of iron, tow, and a
bandage.

A stout needle and boiled string can be used to sew up the wound.

A very common situation to find a clean-cut (incised) wound is upon the
pads of the feet, caused by the dog stepping upon some sharp object,
such as a bit of glass, flint, etc.

Put the foot in hot water and cover it with a pad of tow or lint,
soaked in a little carbolic oil or other antiseptic liniment, bandage,
and keep dog at rest for a few days.

A little compound tincture of myrrh is an excellent remedy for painting
superficial wounds, so is boracic acid as a dusting powder.

Every kennelman should keep these handy in case of emergency, likewise
tow, a bandage, and some antiseptic, such as carbolic acid, chinosol,
etc.


OVERGROWN CLAWS

It is very common to find the length of the claws so excessive that the
resulting overgrowth penetrates the soft structures, causing the part
to suppurate, and the dog lameness.

Clip off the offending part with a sharp pair of nippers. As a rule,
nothing further is required.


FRACTURES

The long bones, _i.e._, the bones of the limbs, are those commonly
broken, but short, flat and irregular bones are frequently injured.

Broken back may happen when a dog is run over, but this is more liable
to happen to a non-sporting dog, or rather to such as are kept in the
neighbourhood of busy thoroughfares.

A senseless puppy sometimes meets with an accident of this class.

A dislocation is an injury whereby the bone is forced out of its place.

The short bones of the feet are often broken, and their repair is
usually an easy one, though, as in the case of the other fractures,
complicated, if a wound be present.

Fractures of the skull are not common injuries amongst dogs, and when
they do occur, call for special skill in treatment.

If the broken ends of a bone are not accurately adjusted, a deformed,
or false, union results, more or less spoiling the utility of the
animal.

As a rule, considerable swelling comes on after fracture of the long
bones, especially of the forearm, therefore an effort must be made to
subdue this by bathing freely with warm water.

Well-padded splints should be used--if applicable--and applied directly
to the skin, being retained in position by a bandage.

If the bandage is too tightly applied, the circulation to the part will
be interfered with, probably destroying the vitality of it. Coldness
and numbness are the chief signs of this.

Leather, wood, gutta-percha, starch, egg and gum, etc., are all used as
supports to a broken limb. A plaster bandage is very useful.

In the case of a valuable dog, it is advisable to consult a qualified
veterinary practitioner.

Rest is of course an indispensable factor in the treatment of both
fractures and dislocations.

When a dislocation accompanies a fracture, or wound and fracture, at a
joint, the animal should be destroyed, as the results of surgery under
these conditions is not often satisfactory.



CHAPTER XXVI

=Minor Operations=

 DOCKING--SETONING--ENEMAS--FOMENTATIONS--BLISTERING--TUMOURS AND WARTS


DOCKING

Such varieties as Fox, Airedale, Irish Terriers, Spaniels, etc.,
require to have their tails shortened, and this should be done when
the puppies are, say, a couple or three weeks old. An old, but rather
revolting custom is that of biting off the requisite portion.

A sharp pair of serrated scissors, or a chisel, will do the work
satisfactorily, and nothing should be done to the cut end, beyond
allowing the healing to follow its natural course.


SETONING

Setons and rowels are not used in the present day so much as in times
gone by, nevertheless, when employed with discretion, are of service.

At one time setons were largely used for insertion into the poll when
a dog had fits, especially during distemper. In the author's opinion
they are injurious for this purpose, but as a counter-irritant in lung
and bronchial complaints, good often results from their employment.
Many local swellings can be dispersed through the insertion of either a
set-on or a rowel. Tape, horse-hair, tow, or a circular piece of leather
wrapped in tow, are the issues used. If a seton, the skin must be
snipped at the inlet and outlet; the needle threaded and passed along
under the skin (no deeper as a rule) to the point of exit, and the
tape fastened off. It is usual to smear the tape with some stimulating
substance, such as resin or turpentine ointment, in order to excite a
speedy local inflammation. The tape must be moved (not removed) daily,
kept clean, and smeared with the ointment twice weekly.


CLYSTERS OR ENEMAS (LAVEMENTS)

These may be either plain, medicated, or nutritive. For the two
first-named purposes, either warm or cold water may be used, the amount
varying with the effect it is desired to produce.

To empty the lower end of the bowel, from half to three pints will be
found sufficient for most sporting dogs.

A little salt, soft soap, and glycerine, will increase the activity of
the clyster.

A chronic, torpid condition of the lower end of the bowel is best
overcome by injecting about half a teacupful of cold water into it
every morning, at the same time allowing plenty of exercise and a soft
diet, such as oatmeal, or wet bread and meat.

In diarrhœa, dysentery, etc., good results are often obtained by
giving a cold boiled-starch clyster. About four tablespoonfuls will be
enough at a time. When it is desirable to administer nourishment by the
rectum, it is necessary to wash out the lower end of the bowel with a
warm-water clyster, before injecting the nutritive medium.

The yolk of an egg, a dessertspoonful of brandy, and a teaspoonful of
sulphuric ether makes a useful, sustaining enema.

Another good injection is a couple of teaspoonfuls of salt, dissolved
in half a pint of tepid water, then injected.

Loss of blood, etc., can often be made up by the use of this saline
injection.


FOMENTATIONS

For many purposes fomentations are superior to poultices, the chief
difficulty being in keeping up the heat to the desirable standard.

A pad of thick flannel should be planned, and this soaked in boiling
water, then wrung dry in a roller.

To assist in maintaining the heat, a piece of mackintosh sheeting ought
to be put over the pad, and a dry flannel above all.

For difficult breathing, pain in the belly, or local pain, etc.,
moist warmth is exceedingly beneficial, and quite harmless under any
circumstances.

In animals, it is a general custom to bathe the seat of disease with
the hot water.

Perseverance is essential to success, and more harm results from hot
fomentations applied in a half-hearted manner than where they are not
used at all.


BLISTERING

Beyond the application of mustard, turpentine, or hot water, blistering
agents are not much employed in the treatment of canine ailments.

As a remedy for external use in diseases of the bronchial tubes and
lungs, mustard has not, in the author's opinion, any superior.

It can be used either as a paste applied directly to the skin, or in
combination with boiled linseed poultices.

In long-haired dogs it is advisable to clip off some of the hair, so as
to facilitate the full counter-irritant properties of the mustard.

It requires very little rubbing in, and it is not advisable to repeat
the application, unless specially called for.


TUMOURS AND WARTS

A multiplicity of morbid growths are liable to occur in dogs, some of
these growths being of a very simple nature, others of a malignant or
recurrent order.

By far the commonest are warty growths upon lips, tongue, and
generative organ.

It is remarkable, but these often disappear spontaneously.

Solitary warts, if sufficiently large, can be removed by tying a piece
of strong whip-cord around the root of the growth. This remark is
equally applicable to other small tumours.

Dressing with some caustic agent such as lunar caustic, strong acetic
acid, blue-stone, etc., may be effected in some cases, and others (when
on tongue), dusted with dry calcined magnesia.

Tumours about the belly, etc., demand professional skill.

Polypi, or stalked tumours, are commonly found growing from the mucous
membrane of the ears, nose, and female generative passage.

They can be removed by ligature.



APPENDIX

=White West Highland Terrier=

STANDARD OF POINTS AS AGREED UPON AT THE MEETING OF THE CLUB REPORTED
UNDER "CLUB NOTICES."


1. The General Appearance of the White West Highland Terrier is that of
a small, game, hardy-looking Terrier, possessed with no small amount of
self-esteem, with a varminty appearance, strongly built, deep in chest
and back ribs, straight back and powerful quarters, on muscular legs,
and exhibiting in a marked degree a great combination of strength and
activity. The Coat should be about 2½ in. long, white in colour,
hard, with plenty of soft under coat, and no tendency to wave or curl.
The Tail should be as straight as possible, and carried gaily, and
covered with hard hair, but not bushy. The Skull should not be too
narrow, being in proportion to the terribly powerful jaw, but must be
narrow between the ears. The Ears should be as small and sharp-pointed
as possible, and carried tightly up, but must be either erect or
semi-erect, and both ears must be exactly alike. The Eyes of moderate
size, dark hazel in colour, widely placed, rather sunk or deep-set,
with a sharp, bright, intelligent expression. The Muzzle should be
proportionately long and powerful, gradually tapering towards the nose.
The Nose, Roof of Mouth, and Pads of Feet distinctly black in colour.

2. _Colour._--White.

3. _Coat._--Very important and seldom seen to perfection: must be
double-coated. The outer coat consists of hard hair, about 2½ ins.
long, and free from any curl. The under coat, which resembles fur, is
short, soft, and close. Open coats are objectionable.

4. _Size._--Dogs to weigh from 14 lbs. to 18 lbs., and bitches from 12
lbs. to 16 lbs., and measure from 8 ins. to 12 ins. at the shoulder.

5. _Skull._--Should not be too narrow, being in proportion to his
powerful jaw, proportionally long, slightly domed, and gradually
tapering to the eyes, between which there should be a slight
indentation or stop. Eyebrows heavy. The hair on the skull to be from
¾ in. to 1 in. long, fairly hard.

6. _Eyes._--Widely set apart, medium size, dark hazel in colour,
slightly sunk in the head, sharp and intelligent, which, looking from
under the heavy eyebrows, give a piercing look. Full eyes and also
light-coloured eyes are very objectionable.

7. _Muzzle._--Should be powerful. The jaws level and powerful, and
teeth square or evenly met, well set, and large for the size of the dog.

8. _Ears._--Small, carried erect or semi-erect, but never drop, and
should be carried tightly up. The semi-erect ear should drop nicely
over at the tips, the break being about three-quarters up the ear, and
both forms of ears should terminate in a sharp point. The hair on them
should be short, smooth (velvety), and they should not be cut. The ears
should be free from any fringe at the top. Round-pointed, broad, and
large ears are objectionable, also ears too heavily covered with hair.

9. _Neck._--Muscular, and nicely set on sloping shoulders.

10. _Chest._--Very deep, with breadth in comparison to the size of the
dog.

11. _Body._--Compact, straight back, ribs deep and well arched in the
upper half of rib, presenting a flattish side appearance. Loins broad
and strong. Hind-quarters strong, muscular, and wide across the top.

12. _Legs and Feet._--Both fore-and hind-legs should be short and
muscular. The shoulder-blades should be comparatively broad, and well
sloped backwards. The points of the shoulder-blades should be closely
knit into the backbone, so that very little movement of them should be
noticeable when the dog is walking. The elbow should be close in to
the body, both when moving or standing, thus causing the fore-leg to
be well placed in under the shoulder. The fore-legs should be straight
and thickly covered with short, hard hair. The hind-legs should be
short and sinewy. The thighs very muscular, and not too wide apart. The
hocks bent and well set in under the body, so as to be fairly close to
each other, either when standing, walking, or running (trotting), and,
when standing, the hind-legs, from the point of the hock down to the
fetlock joint, should be straight or perpendicular, and not far apart.
The fore feet are larger than the hind ones, are round, proportionate
in size, strong, thickly padded, and covered with short, hard hair. The
foot must point straight forward. The hind feet are smaller, not quite
as round as fore feet, and thickly padded. The under surface of the
pads of feet, and all the nails, should be distinctly black in colour.
Hocks too much bent (cow hocks) detracts from the general appearance.
Straight hocks are weak: both kinds are undesirable, and should be
guarded against.

13. _Tail._--6 ins. or 7 ins. long, covered with hard hair (no
feather), as straight as possible, carried gaily, but not curled over
back. A long tail is objectionable.

14. _Movement._--Should be free, straight, and easy all round. In
front, the leg should be freely extended forward by the shoulder. The
hind movement should be free, strong, and close. The hocks should be
freely flexed and drawn close in under the body, so that, when moving
off the foot, the body is thrown or pushed forward with some force.
Stiff, stilty movement behind is very objectionable.


FAULTS.

1. _Coat._--Any silkiness, wave, or tendency to curl is a serious
blemish, as is also an open coat.

2. _Size._--Any specimens under the minimum weight, or above the
maximum weight, are objectionable.

3. _Eyes._--Full or light-coloured.

4. _Ears._--Round-pointed, drop, broad, and large ears, also ears too
heavily covered with hair.

5. _Muzzle._--Either under, or overshot and defective teeth.


SCALE OF POINTS.

  General Appearance    5
  Colour                5
  Coat                 10
  Size                  7½
  Skull                 7½
  Eyes                  5
  Muzzle                5
  Ears                  5
  Neck                 10
  Chest                10
  Body                 10
  Legs and Feet         7½
  Tail                  5
  Movement              7½
                      ____
      Total           100



INDEX


  A

  Afghan Greyhound, 333

  ---- neck, 334

  ---- colour, 334

  ---- height at shoulders, 334

  Airedale Terrier, 293

  ---- Standard of Points, 298

  ---- Club, 298

  Antimony poisoning, 414

  Appendix, 443

  Arsenic, 413

  Association of Bloodhound Breeders, 146


  B

  Bareness round margin of eyes, 432

  Basset-hounds, 206

  ---- colour, 208

  ---- coat, 208

  ---- head, 208

  ---- fore-quarters, 225

  ---- chest, 225

  ---- Club, 226

  ---- Club rules, 226

  ---- (Smooth), points, 233

  ---- (Rough) points, 235

  Beagle, 181

  ---- Club (English), description of points, 187

  ---- (American), points, etc., 190

  Bedlington Terrier, 274

  ---- height, 277

  ---- weight, 277

  ---- colour, 277

  ---- nose, 277

  ---- coat, 277

  ---- skull, 277

  ---- body, 277

  ---- tail, 277

  ---- limbs, 278

  ---- quarters, 278

  ---- Club, 278

  Black-and-tan Setter (Gordon Setter), 29

  Blindness, 429

  Blistering, 441

  Bloodhounds, 141

  ---- head, 142

  ---- legs and feet, 145

  ---- chest and shoulders, 145

  ---- neck, ribs, back and loins, 145

  ---- hind-quarters and limbs, 146

  ---- tail, coat and colour, 146

  ---- height, 146

  ---- Club, 146

  Blood poisoning, 381

  Boils, 387

  Borzois or Russian Wolfhound, 179

  ---- chest, neck, 180

  ---- fore-limbs, 180

  ---- colour, 180

  ---- coat, height, 181

  ---- faults, 181

  ---- Club, 181


  C

  Canker of ear, 423

  Clumber Spaniel, 71

  Clysters or Enemas, 439

  Cocker Spaniel, 84

  ---- head, ears, 87

  ---- coat, colour, 87

  ---- Club, 88

  ---- prices, 88

  ---- faults, 88

  Conditioning Dogs, 366

  Constitutional Rules of the Retriever Society, 59


  D

  Dachshund, 194

  ---- head, 194

  ---- chest, shoulders, 205

  ---- hind-quarters, 205

  Dandie-Dinmont Terrier, 310

  ---- head, 313

  ---- neck, tail, 314

  ---- fore and hind-limbs, 314

  ---- colour, 314

  ---- Society, 315

  ---- Standard of Points, 315

  Deafness, 426

  Deerhound, 128

  ---- head, ears, 129

  ---- neck, shoulders, stern, 130

  ---- legs, feet, 135

  ---- faults, 135

  ---- colour, 136

  ---- coat, 136

  ---- height and weight, 137

  Diarrhœa, 403

  Docking, 438

  Dropsy of the ear-flaps, 422

  Dysentery, 405

  Dyspepsia, 408


  E

  Eczema, 384

  English Setter, 18

  ---- points, etc., 23

  ---- faults, 24

  English Water Spaniel, 92

  Everted eyelids, 430


  F

  Feeding Sporting Dogs, 363

  Field Spaniels, 82

  Fleas, 389

  Follicular Mange, 393

  Fomentations, 440

  Foreign bodies in the eyes, 431

  Foxhound, the, 113

  Foxhound, Stud Book, 114

  Fox Terriers, 239

  ---- Club, 247

  ---- Standard of Points, 247

  ---- (Rough), 265

  ---- points of, 265

  ---- Disqualifying Points, 266

  Fractures, 435


  G

  Gamekeepers' Kennel Association, 351

  ---- Rules, 352

  Greyhounds, 157

  ---- head, eyes, 158

  ---- ears, neck, 158

  ---- fore and hind-quarters, 158

  ---- coat and colour, etc., 167

  Gullet, disease of, 394


  H

  Hæmorrhage, 406

  Hæmorrhoids, 407

  Harriers, 122

  ---- loins, back, ribs, 125

  ---- chest, fore-limbs, 125

  ---- coat, 125

  Herpes, 387


  I

  Inflammation of stomach, 395

  ---- of bowels, 396

  ---- of bladder, 420

  ---- of ear, 423

  International Gundog League, 32

  Inverted eyelids, 430

  Irish Setter, 25

  ---- coat, etc., 26

  Irish Terrier, 287

  ---- coat, colour, etc., 288

  ---- weight, 293

  ---- Club, 293

  ---- prices, 293

  Irish Water Spaniel, 88

  ---- colour, coat, height, 91

  ---- general appearance, 91

  ---- faults, 92

  ---- Club, 92

  Irish Wolfhound, 155

  ---- points, etc., 156


  J

  Jaundice, 410


  K

  Kidneys, disease of, 418


  L

  Labradors, 56

  Lead poisoning, 417

  Lurcher, 337


  M

  Mange, Follicular, 393

  Mange, Sarcoptic, 391

  Mercury, 417

  Morbid growths in the ear passage, 427


  N

  Nettle-rash, 388

  Night-dogs, the Training, Use, and Abuse of, 337


  O

  Ophthalmia, 428

  Otterhound, 126

  ---- colour, 126

  ---- skull, neck, 127

  ---- height, 127

  Overgrown claws, 435


  P

  Pediculi or lice, 390

  Phosphorus poisoning, 416

  Pointer and Setter Society, 32

  Pointer, the, 3

  Poisons, 413

  Ptomaine poisoning, 418


  R

  Rabies, 379

  Retrievers, 41

  ---- head, 47

  ---- ears, back limbs, 48

  Retrievers (Flat-coated), 41

  ---- (Curly-coated), 55

  Rheumatism, 382

  Ringworm, 391

  Rules adopted at the Retriever Society, 63

  Ruptures, 411


  S

  Sarcoptic Mange, 389

  Scottish Terrier, 278

  ---- coat, weight, colour, 283

  ---- neck, chest, etc., 284

  ---- head, muzzle, 284

  ---- height, 287

  ---- Clubs, 287

  Setoning, 438

  Skye Terrier, 269

  ---- head, 273

  ---- weight, 273

  ---- faults, 273

  ---- Club, 273

  ---- prices, 273

  Spaniels, 66

  ---- colour of, 68

  ---- Sussex, 76

  Specific ailments, 369

  Split margin, 425

  Stone in the bladder, 419

  Stricture, 421

  Strychnine poisoning, 415


  T

  Torn eyelids, 431

  Training Spaniels, 102

  Tumours and warts, 441

  Twist of the bowels, 395


  V

  Vomiting, 398


  W

  Welsh Terrier, 308

  ---- head, neck, 308

  ---- arms, and forearms, 309

  ---- back, loins, tail, and feet, 309

  ---- Club, 309

  Whippet, 167

  ---- coat, 168

  ---- constitution, 168

  ---- fore-limbs, 168

  ---- hind-quarters, 171

  ---- tail and feet, 171

  ---- General appearances, 171

  White West Highland Terrier, 305, 307 (see Appendix, p. 443)

  Worms, 399

  Wounds, 433


THE END


_Colston & Coy. Limited, Printers, Edinburgh_



                              FOOTNOTES


[1] Liver-coloured flat and wavy coated specimens are not at all
uncommon, though not generally preferred.

[2] A moderate degree of development of the Membrana Nictitans (so
called Haw) is not only typical of the Clumber, but advantageous. To
remove this useful Membrane (unless for surgical reasons) is a cruel
and useless procedure, deserving severe condemnation.

[3] The heights of the Crickhowell Harriers are as follows:--Dogs, 17½
to 18½ inches; bitches, 17 to 18 inches.



      *      *      *      *      *      *



Transcriber's note:

--Obvious errors were corrected.





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