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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (11 of 12)
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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EDWARD THE THIRD,

who came to the crowne by the resignation of his father Edward the
second.


[Sidenote: 1327.]

Edward the third of that name, the sonne of Edward the second, and of
Isabell the onelie daughter of Philip le Beau, & sister to Charles
the fift king of France, began his reigne as king of England, his
father yet liuing, the 25 daie of Ianuarie, after the creation 5293,
in the yeare of our lord 1327, after the account of them that begin
the yeare at Christmasse, 867 after the comming of the Saxons, 260
after the conquest, the 13 yeare of the reigne of Lewes the fourth then
emperour, the seuenth of Charles the fift king of France, the second
of Andronicus Iunior emperour of the east almost ended, and about the
end of the 22 of Robert le Bruce king of Scotland. He was crowned at
Westminster on the day of the Purification of our ladie next insuing,
by the hands of Walter the archbishop of Canturburie.

[Sidenote: Gouernours appointed.]

And bicause he was but fourtéene yeares of age, so that to gouerne
of himselfe he was not sufficient, it was decréed that twelue of the
greatest lords within the realme should haue the rule and gouernment
till he came to more perfect yeares. The names of which lords were as
followeth. The archbishop of Canturburie, the archbishop of Yorke,
the bishops of Winchester and of Hereford, Henrie earle of Lancaster,
Thomas Brotherton earle marshall, Edmund of Woodstoke earle of Kent,
Iohn earle of Warren, the lord Thomas Wake, the lord Henrie Percie, the
lord Oliuer de Ingham, & the lord Iohn Ros. These were sworne of the
kings councell, and charged with the gouernement as they would make
answer. But this ordinance continued not long: for the quéene, and the
lord Roger Mortimer tooke the whole rule so into their hands, that both
the king and his said councellors were gouerned onelie by them in all
matters both high and low. Neuerthelesse, although they had taken the
regiment vpon them, yet could they not foresée the tumults and vprores
that presentlie vpon the yoong kings inthronizing did insue: but néeds
it must come to passe that is left written where children weare the
crowne, & beare the scepter in hand,

    Væ pueri terræ sæpissimè sunt ibi guerræ.

[Sidenote: The franchises of the citie of London confirmed.]

He confirmed the liberties and franchises of the citie of London, and
granted that the maior of the same citie for the time being might sit
in all places of iudgement within the liberties thereof for chéefe
iustice, aboue all other, the kings person onelie excepted; and that
euerie alderman that had béene maior should be iustice of peace
through all the citie of London and countie of Middlesex; and euerie
alderman that had not béene maior, should be iustice of peace within
his owne ward. He granted also to the citizens, that they should not
be constreined to go foorth of the citie to anie warres in defense of
the land, and that the franchises of the citie should not be seized
from thenceforth into the kings hands for anie cause, but onelie for
treason and rebellion shewed by the whole citie. Also Southwarke was
appointed to be vnder the rule of the citie, and the maior of London to
be bailiffe of Southwarke, and to ordeine such a substitute in the same
borough as pleased him.

[Sidenote: Records of Burie.]

In the first yeare of this kings reigne, we find in records belonging
to the abbeie of S. Edmundsburie in Suffolke, that the inhabitants of
that towne raised a sore commotion against the abbat & moonks of the
same abbeie, and that at seuerall times, as first on the wednesdaie
next after the feast of the conuersion of S. Paule, in the said first
yeare of this kings reigne, one Robert Foxton, Richard Draiton, and a
great number of other, assembling themselues togither in warlike order
and araie, assaulted the said abbeie, brake downe the gates, windowes,
and doores, entered the house by force, and assailing certeine moonks
and seruants that belonged to the abbat, did beat, wound, and euill
intreat them, brake open a number of chests, coffers, and forssets,
tooke out chalices of gold and siluer, books, vestments, and other
ornaments of the church, beside a great quantitie of rich plate, and
other furniture of household, apparell, armour, and other things,
beside fiue hundred pounds in readie coine, & also thrée thousand
florens of gold.

All these things they tooke and caried awaie, togither with diuerse
charters, writings, & miniments, as thrée charters of Knute sometime
king of England, foure charters of king Hardiknute, one charter of king
Edward the confessor, two charters of king Henrie the first, & other
two charters of king Henrie the third, which charters concerned as well
the foundation of the same abbeie, as the grants and confirmations of
the possessions and liberties belonging thereto. Also they tooke awaie
certeine writings obligatorie, in the which diuerse persons were bound
for the paiement of great summes of monie, and deliuerie of certeine
wines vnto the hands of the said abbat. Moreouer they tooke awaie with
them ten seuerall buls, concerning certeine exemptions and immunities
granted to the abbats and moonks of Burie by sundrie bishops of Rome.

Furthermore, not herewith contented, they tooke Peter Clopton prior of
the said abbeie, and other moonks foorth of the house, and leading them
vnto a place called the Leaden hall, there imprisoned them, till the
thursdaie next before the feast of the Purification of our ladie, and
that daie bringing them backe againe into the chapter-house, deteined
them still as prisoners, till they had sealed a writing, conteining
that the abbat and conuent were bound in ten thousand pounds to be
paid to Oliuer Kempe and others by them named. And further, they were
constreined to seale a letter of release for all actions, quarels,
debts, transgressions, suits and demands, which the abbat might in anie
wise claime or prosecute against the said Oliuer Kempe and others in
the same letters named.

For these wrongs and other, as for that they would not permit the
abbats bailiffes and officers to kéepe their ordinarie courts as they
were accustomed to doo, as well thrée daies in the wéeke for the
market, to wit, mondaie, wednesdaie and fridaie, as the Portman mote
euerie tuesdaie thrée wéeks, and further prohibit them from gathering
such tols, customes, and yearelie rents, as were due to the abbat for
certeine tenements in the towne, which were let to farme, the abbat
brought his action against the said Foxton, Draiton, and others, and
hauing it tried by an inquest, on the fridaie next after the feast of
saint Lucie the virgine, in a sessions holden at Burie by Iohn Stonore,
Walter Friskney, Robert Maberthorpe, & Iohn Bousser, by vertue of the
kings writ of oier and determiner to them directed, the offendors were
condemned in 40000 pounds, so that the said Richard Draiton, and others
there present in the court, were committed to prison in custodie of
the shiriffe Robert Walkefare, who was commanded also to apprehend the
other that were not yet arrested, if within his bailiwike they might
be found, and to haue their bodies before the said iustices at Burie
aforsaid, on thursdaie in Whitsunwéeke next insuing.

[Sidenote: The second riot.]

Beside this, there was an other indictement and action of trespasse
found there the same daie against the said Richard Draiton and others,
for a like disorder and riot by them committed, on the thursday next
after the feast of the Purification of our ladie, in the same first
yeare of this king, at what time they did not onelie breake into the
abbie, and beat the abbats men, but also tooke the abbat himselfe,
being then at home, with certeine of his moonks, kéeping both him
and them as prisoners, till the next daie that they were constreined
to seale certeine writings. And amongst other, a charter, in which
it was conteined, that the abbat and his conuent did grant vnto the
inhabitants of the towne of Burie, to be a corporation of themselues,
and to haue a common seale with a gild of merchants and aldermen: also
they were compelled to seale another charter, wherein was conteined a
grant to the said inhabitants, that they should haue the custodie of
the towne gates, and likewise the wardship of all pupils and orphans
within the same towne, beside diuerse other liberties.

Moreouer, they were in like manner constreined to seale thrée seuerall
obligations, in which the abbat and conuent were bound to the said
inhabitants, as to a communaltie of a corporation, in seauen thousand
pounds, as in two thousand by one obligation, and in two thousand by
an other, and in thrée thousand by the third obligation: and further
they were driuen to seale a letter of release of all trespasses, and
other things that might be demanded against the said inhabitants, with
a generall acquittance of all debts. Beside this, the said riotous
persons tooke at the same time foorth of the abbie great riches, as
well in plate, armor, books, & apparell, as in other things. They also
brake downe two houses or messuages, that belonged to the abbeie, and
situate within the towne of Burie: they also destroied his fish-ponds,
and tooke out such store of fish as they found in the same: they cut
downe also thréescore ashes there growing on the soile that belonged to
the said abbat, and did manie other great outrages and enormities, so
that it was found by the inquest, that the abbat was damnified to the
value of other fortie thousand pounds.

[Sidenote: The third riot.]

These riots may séeme gréeuous and verie strange, but yet the same
were not so heinouslie taken, as an other which the said inhabitants
of Burie attempted against the said abbeie in manner of a plaine
commotion, vpon saint Lukes day in the same yeare, at what time (as by
the records of that abbeie it should appeare) both the abbat and his
house were in the kings speciall protection, and the said inhabitants
prohibited by his letters to attempt anie iniurie against him or his
conuent. But neuerthelesse we find that not onelie the inhabitants
of Burie, but also a great number of other misgouerned persons, that
resorted to them from places there about, arraied and furnished
with horsse, armor and weapons, after the manner of warre, came and
assaulted the abbeie gates, set fire on them, and burned them with
diuerse other houses néere adioining, that belonged to the abbeie, and
continued in that their riotous enterprise all that day and the night
following.

[Sidenote: The manour of Holdernesse barne.]

[Sidenote: The manour of Westlie burnt.]

The same night also they burnt a manor of the abbats called Holdernesse
barne, with two other manors called the Almoners barne, and Haberdone,
also the granges that stood without the south gate, and the manour of
Westlie, in which places they burned in corne & graine, to the value of
a thousand pounds. The next daie they entered into the abbeie court,
and burnt all the houses on the north side, as stables, brewhouses,
bakehouses, garners, and other such necessarie houses and conuenient
roomes of offices; and on the other side the court, they burnt certeine
houses belonging to the Almonrie. On the next daie they burned the mote
hall, and Bradford hall, with the new hall, and diuerse chambers and
sollers to the same halles annexed, with the chapell of saint Laurence
at the end of the hospitall hall. Also the manor of Eldhall, the manor
of Horninger, with all the corne and graine within and about the same.

[Sidenote: The manour of Fornham burnt.]

The next day they burnt the soller of the Sollerer, with a chapell
there: also the kitchin, the larder, and a part of the farmarie. On
the thursdaie they burnt the residue of the farmarie, and the lodging
called the blacke lodging, with a chapell of S. Andrew therein. In
executing of all these riotous disorders, one Geffrie Moreman was an
aider, who with diuerse other persons vnknowne, departed foorth of the
towne of Burie, and by the assent of the other his complices he burnt
the manor of Fornham. The same day also other of their companie, as
William the sonne of Iames Neketon, Rafe Grubbe, Richard Kerie, and a
great number of other persons vnknowne, by the assent and abbetment of
the other that committed the said disorders, burnt two manors belonging
also to the said abbeie in great Berton, with all the corne and graine
there found.

Vpon knowledge had of these great riots, and perillous commotions,
there was a commission directed from the king, vnto Thomas earle of
Northfolke high marshall of England, to Thomas Bardulfe, Robert Morlie,
Peter Wedall, Iohn Howard, and Iohn Walkfare, authorising them with the
power of the countesse of Suffolke and Northfolke, to apprehend, trie
and punish such lewd disordered persons, and rebellious malefactors,
which had committed such felonious enterprises, to the breach of the
kings peace, and dangerous disquieting of his subiects: but the said
commissioners procéeded not according to the effect of their commission
in triall of anie felonies by the same persons committed and doone,
but onelie caused them to be indicted of trespasse: albeit Robert
Walkfare, and Iohn Clauer, with their associats iustices of peace, in
their sessions holden at Elueden the tuesdaie next after the feast
of the apostles Simon and Iude, in the said first yeare of this K.
Edward the third procéeded in such wise against the said malefactors,
that Iohn de Berton cordwainer, Robert Foxton, and a great number of
other were indicted of felonie, for the misdemenours afore mentioned,
and the indictements so found were after sent and presented vnto Iohn
Stonore, Walter de Friskenie, Robert Malberthorpe, and Iohn Bousser,
who by vertue of the kings commission of oier and determiner to them
directed, sat at S. Edmundsburie the wednesdaie next after the feast
of saint Lucie the virgine; and then and there sent foorth precepts
to the shiriffe, commanding him to apprehend the said Berton, Foxton,
and others, that were indicted of the foresaid felonies, and also to
returne a sufficient iurie to trie vpon their arreignment the said
malefactors by order of law, the fridaie next after the said feast
of S. Lucie. Herevpon Alane de Latoner, and Robert Dalling, with
seauentéene others, being arreigned, were found guiltie, and suffered
death according to the order appointed for felons.

One Adam Miniot stood mute, and refused to be tried by his countrie,
and so was pressed to death, as the law in such case appointeth.
Diuerse other were saued by their bookes, according vnto the order
of clerkes conuict, as Alexander Brid person of Hogeset, Iohn Rugham
person of little Welnetham, Iohn Burton cordwainer, and diuerse other.
Some were repriued, as one woman named Iulian Barbor, who being big
bellied was respited, till she were deliuered of child. Benedict Sio
and Robert Russell were repriued, and committed to the safe kéeping
of the shiriffe, as triers or appeachers (as we tearme them) of other
offenders: and bicause there was not anie as yet attached by their
appeales, they were commanded againe to person. One Robert de Creswell
was saued by the kings letters of speciall pardon, which he had there
readie to shew. As for Robert Foxton, Adam Cokefield, and a great
number of other, whome the shiriffe was commanded to apprehend, he
returned that he could not heare of them within the precinct of his
bailiffewéeke, wherevpon exigents were awarded against them, and the
shiriffe was commanded, that if he might come to attach them, he should
not faile but so to doo, and to haue their bodies there at Burie before
the said iustices, the thursdaie in Whitsunwéeke, next insuing.

[Sidenote: The common people often deceiued by lewd informations.]

Diuerse also were arreigned at the same time of the said felonies,
and thereof acquited, as Michaell Scabaille, Rafe Smeremonger, and
others. Indéed those that were found guiltie, and suffered, were the
chéefe authors and procurers of the commotion, bearing others in hand
that the abbat had in his custodie a certeine charter, wherein the
king should grant to the inhabitants of the towne of Burie, certeine
liberties, whereby it might appeare that they were frée, and discharged
from the paiment of diuerse customes and exactions, wherevpon the
ignorant multitude easilie giuing credit to such surmised tales, were
the sooner induced to attempt such disorders as before are mentioned. ¶
Thus haue yée heard all in effect that was doone in this first yeare of
king Edward the third his reigne, by and against those offendors. But
bicause we will not interrupt matters of other yeares with that which
followed further of this businesse, we haue thought good to put the
whole that we intend to write thereof here in this place.

[Sidenote: Rob. Foxton pardoned.]

[Sidenote: A priuilege.]

[Sidenote: Portman mote.]

[Sidenote: The abbats officers blamed.]

Yée shall therefore vnderstand, that diuerse of those, against whome
exigents were awarded, came in, and yéelded their bodies to the
shiriffes prison, before they were called on the fift countie daie.
Albeit a great manie there were that came not, and so were outlawed.
Robert Foxton got the kings pardon, and so purchasing foorth a
supersedeas, the suit therevpon against him was staied. The shiriffe
therefore in Whitsunwéeke, in the second yeare of this kings reigne,
made his returne touching Benedict Sio, Robert Russell, & Iulian
Barbor, so that he deliuered them vnto the bailiffes of the libertie
of the abbat of Burie, by reason of an ancient priuilege, which the
abbat claimed to belong to his house. The bailiffes confessed they had
receiued the said prisoners, but forsomuch as they had béene arreigned
at a Portman mote, which was vsed to be kept euerie thrée wéeks, and
vpon their arreignment were found guiltie of certeine other felonies
by them committed within the towne of Burie, and therevpon were put to
execution, Adam Finchman the kings attornie there tooke it verie euill,
& laid it gréeuouslie to the charge of the abbats officers, for their
hastie and presumptuous procéeding against the said prisoners, namelie,
bicause the said Sio and Russell were repriued, to the end that by
their vtterance, many heinous offenses might haue béene brought to
light.

[Sidenote: A condemnation.]

On the same daie, that is to wit, the thursdaie in Whitsunwéeke, the
foresaid Robert Foxton, and diuerse other came in, and were attached
by the shiriffe to answer the abbat to his action of trespasse, which
he brought against them, and putting the matter to the triall of an
inquest, they were condemned in sixtie thousand pounds, to be leuied of
their goods and chattels, vnto the vse of the abbat, and in the meane
time they were committed to prison. But first they made suit that they
might be put to their fines for their offenses committed against the
kings peace, and their request in that behalfe was granted, so that
vpon putting in sufficient suerties for their good abearing, their
fines were assessed, as some at more and some at lesse, as the case was
thought for to require.

[Sidenote: An agréem[=e]t.]

Thus rested the matter a long season after, vntill the fift yeare of
this kings reigne, in which the thursdaie next after the feast of the
blessed Trinitie, the K. being himselfe in person at S. Edmundsburie
aforesaid, a finall agréement and concord was concluded betwixt the
said abbat and his conuent on the one partie, and Richard Draiton and
others of the inhabitants of that towne on the other partie, before the
right reuerend father in God Iohn bishop of Winchester and chancellour
of England, and the kings iustices Iohn Stonore and Iohn Cantbridge
sitting there at the same time, by the kings commandement. The effect
of which agréement was as followeth.


The articles of agréement betwéene the moonks of Burie and the
inhabitants of Burie.

First, whereas the said abbat had recouered by iudgement before
the said Iohn Stonore and other his associats iustices of oier and
determiner in the said towne of Burie, the summe of seuen score
thousand pounds for trespasses to him and his house committed and doone
by the said Richard Draiton, and other the inhabitants of Burie: now at
the desire of the said king, and for other good respects him moouing,
he pardoned and released vnto the said Richard Draiton, and to other
the inhabitants of Burie, to their heires, executors, and assigns the
summe of 122333 pounds, eight shillings eight pence, of the said totall
summe of 140000 pounds.

And further the said abbat and conuent granted and agréed for them
and their successors, that if the said Richard Draiton, & other the
inhabitants of the said towne of Burie, or any of them, their heires,
executors or assignes, should paie to the said abbat & conuent, or
their successors within twentie yeares next insuing the date of that
present agréement, 2000 marks, that is to saie, 100 marks yearelie at
the feasts of S. Michaell & Easter, by euen portions: that then the
said Richard & other the inhabitants of the towne of Burie should be
acquited & discharged of 4000 marks, parcell of 17666 pounds, thirtéene
shillings foure pence residue behind for euer.

Moreouer, whereas the said abbat and conuent, & the said abbat by
himselfe, since the 19 yeare of the reigne of king Edward the second
vnto that present time, had sealed certeine charters, déeds, &
writings, as well with the proper seale of the abbat, as with the
common seale of the abbat & conuent, if the said Richard and the
inhabitants of the said towne of Burie did restore vnto the said abbat
& conuent all the same writings, or take such order, that neither the
abbat nor conuent be impleaded, or in any wise hindered, indamaged nor
molested by force of the same: and further if neither the said Richard,
nor any the inhabitants of the said towne, nor their heires, executors,
nor assignes, shall go about to reuerse the iudgements against them, at
the suit of the said abbat, nor shall séeke to impeach the executions
of the same iudgements by anie false or forged aquitances or releases,
nor implead nor molest any of the iurie, by whom they were conuict,
that then they and their heires, executors & assignes shall be acquited
& discharged of ten thousand pounds parcell of the said 17666 pounds,
13 shillings foure pence.

And furthermore, if the said Richard and other the inhabitants of
the said towne of Burie, doo not hereafter maliciouslie rise against
the said abbat or conuent, nor séeke to vex them by any conspiracie,
confederacie, or by some other secret vniust cause, nor likewise euill
intreat any man by reason of the inditement found against them, nor yet
claime to haue any corporation of themselues within that towne, that
then the said Richard, & the said inhabitants, their heires, successors
& assignes, shall remaine acquited and discharged of all the residue
of the said 17666 pounds, thirtéene shillings foure pence for euer.
And the said abbat and conuent doo grant for them & their successours,
that their intention is not, that if any singular person of his owne
priuate malice, shall rise against the said abbat and conuent, their
successors, moonks, bailiffes, or seruants, to doo them, or any of
them iniurie or displeasure; that those which be not partakers of
the offense, shall be in any wise punished for the same, so that the
offendors be not mainteined by any of the same towne, but that the
inhabitants there, doo assist the abbat and conuent their successours,
bailiffes, seruants & officers, that the same offendors may be
punished, according to their demerits, as reason and law shall allow.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: This might come to passe before the agréement was made
in the fift yeare of the kings reigne as aboue is mentioned, and so
therevpon he might be restored.]

This was the effect of the agréement at length had and made betwixt
the abbat and moonks of Burie on the one part, & the inhabitants of
that towne on the other part, and for the more confirmation therof,
it pleased the king to put his seale to the charter conteining the
same agréement. ¶ But how soeuer it chanced, it should appeare by
such records as came to the hands of master Iohn Fox, as he alledgeth
in the first tome of his booke of acts and monuments, this agréement
was but sorilie kept: for diuerse of the former offendors, bearing
grudge towards the abbat for breaking promise with them at London,
did confederat themselues togither, and priuilie in the night comming
to the manour of Chennington where the abbat then did lie, burst open
the gates, and entring by force, first bound all his seruants, and
after they had robbed the house, they tooke the abbat, and shauing
him, secretlie conueied him to London, and there remoouing him from
stréet to stréet vnknowne, had him ouer the Thames into Kent, and at
length transported him ouer vnto Dist in Brabant, where they kept him
for a time in much penurie, thraldome and miserie, vntill at length
the matter being vnderstood, they were all excommunicate, first by
the archbishop, & after by the pope. At the last, his fréends hauing
knowledge where he was, they found means to deliuer him out of the
hands of those théeues, and finallie brought him home with procession,
and so he was restored to his house againe.

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: Rob. Maners capteine of Norham castell.]

Thus much touching those troubles betwixt the townesmen of Burie &
the abbat and moonks there, and now we will returne to other generall
matters touching the publike state of the realme. ¶ And first you shall
vnderstand, that in the beginning of this kings reigne the land trulie
séemed to be blessed of God: for the earth became fruitfull, the aire
temperate, and the sea calme and quiet. This king though he was as yet
vnder the gouernement of other, neuerthelesse he began within a short
time to shew tokens of great towardnesse, framing his mind vnto graue
deuises, and first he prepared to make a iornie against the Scotishmen,
the which in his fathers time had doone so manie displeasures to the
Englishmen, and now vpon confidence of his minoritie, ceassed not to
inuade the borders of his realme. And namelie the verie selfe night
that followed the day of this kings coronation, they had thought
by skaling to haue stolne the castell of Norham: but Robert Maners
capteine of that place, vnderstanding of their enterprise aforehand by
a Scotishmen of the garison there, so well prouided for their comming,
that where sixtéene of them boldlie entred vpon the wall, he slue nine
or ten of them and tooke fiue.

[Sidenote: The Scots inuade England.]

[Sidenote: The lord Beaumont of Heinault.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

This was thought an euill token, that they should still be put to
the worsse in this kings time, sith they had so bad successe in the
verie beginning of his reigne: but they continuing in their malicious
purposes, about saint Margarets tide inuaded the land with thrée
armies, the earle of Murrey hauing the leading of one of the same
armies, and Iames Douglas of another, and the third was guided by the
earle of Mar. King Edward aduertised hereof, assembled not onelie a
great power of Englishmen, but also required Iohn lord Beaumont de
Heinault, whome he had latelie sent home right honorablie rewarded for
his good assistance, to come againe into England, with certeine bands
of men at armes, and he should receiue wages and good interteinement
for them. The lord Beaumont, as one that loued déeds of armes, was
glad to accomplish king Edwards request: and so therevpon with seauen
hundred men at armes, or fiue hundred (as Froissart saith) came ouer
into England againe, to serue against the Scots.

[Sidenote: A fraie betwixt ye English archers and the Henuiers.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Froissart._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Froissart._]

The generall assemblie of the armie was appointed to be at Yorke, and
thither came the said lord Beaumont with his people, and was ioifullie
receiued of the king and his lords. Here whilest not onelie the Scotish
ambassadours (which had béene sent to treat of peace, were heard to
tell their message) but also whilest the councell tooke some leisure
in debating the matter how to guide their enterprise, which they
had now in hand: vpon Trinitie sundaie, it chanced that there arose
contention within the citie of Yorke, betwixt the English archers, and
the strangers, which the lord Beaumont of Heinault had brought with
him, insomuch that fighting togither there were slaine to the number
of foure score persons of those archers, which were buried within the
church of saint Clement in Fosgate. ¶ Some write that there were slaine
to the number of thrée hundred Englishmen: yet bicause the Henuiers
came to aid the king, their peace was cried vpon paine of life. And
further, it was found by an inquest of the citie, that the quarrel
was begun by the Englishmen, the which (as some write) were of the
Lincolneshire men, of those that sometime belonged to the Spensers, and
to the earle of Arundell, so that there was cause, whie they bare euill
will to the Henuiers which had aided (as ye haue heard) to bring the
said earle and Spensers to their confusion.

[Sidenote: Stanop parke.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

In this meane time the Scots being entred into England, had doone
much hurt, and were come as farre as Stanop parke in Wiredale: and
though they had sent their ambassadours to treat with the king and
his councell for peace, yet no conclusion followed of their talke.
At the same time, bicause the English souldiers of this armie were
cloathed all in cotes and hoods embrodered with floures and branches
verie séemelie, and vsed to nourish their beards: the Scots in derision
thereof made a rime, which they fastened vpon the church doores of
saint Peter toward Stangate, conteining this that followeth.

[Sidenote: A rime in derision of the Englishmen.]

    Long beards, hartlesse, painted hoods, witlesse,
    Gaie cotes, gracelesse, Make England thriftlesse.

[Sidenote: _Froissart._]

[Sidenote: The lord Dowglas.]

The king when he saw it was but a vaine thing to staie anie longer in
communication with the ambassadors about peace, departed from Yorke
with his puissant armie, and getting knowledge how the Scots were
closelie lodged in the woods of Stanop parke, he came and stopped all
the passages, so it was thought that he should haue had them at his
pleasure, but through treason (as was after reported) of the lord Roger
Mortimer, after that the Scots had béene kept within their lodgings for
the space of fiftéene daies, till they were almost famished, they did
not onelie find a waie out, but about two hundred of them vnder the
leading of the lord William Douglas, assailing that part of the English
campe where the kings tent stood, in the night season, missed not
much of either taking the king or sleieng him: and hauing doone hurt
inough otherwise, as in the Scotish chronicle is also touched, they
followed their companie, and with them returned into Scotland without
impeachment.

[Sidenote: The lord Beaum[=o]t returned home.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: 1328.]

It is said, that Henrie earle of Lancaster, and Iohn the lord Beaumont
of Heinault would gladlie haue passed ouer the water of Wire, to haue
assailed the Scots, but the earle of March through counsell of the lord
Mortimer, pretending to haue right to the leading of the fore ward,
and to the giuing of the first onset, would not suffer them. Howsoeuer
it was the king missed his purpose, and right pensiue therefore, brake
vp his field, and returned vnto London. ¶ Walter bishop of Canturburie
departed this life in Nouember, and then Simon Mepham was aduanced
to the gouernement of that sée. The lord Beaumont of Heinault was
honorablie rewarded for his paines and trauell, and then licenced
to returne into his countrie, where he had not béene long, but that
through his means then (as some write) the marriage was concluded
betwéene king Edward, and the ladie Philip daughter to William earle
of Heinault, and néece to the said lord Beaumont, who had the charge
to sée hir brought ouer thither into England about Christmasse: where
in the citie of Yorke vpon the éeuen of the Conuersion of saint Paule,
being sundaie, in the latter end of the first yeare of his reigne, king
Edward solemnlie maried hir.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 2.]

[Sidenote: A parlement at Northampton.]

[Sidenote: A dishonorable peace.]

[Sidenote: Ragman.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: The blacke crosse.]

In the second yeare of his reigne, about the feast of Pentecost, king
Edward held a parlement at Northampton, at the which parlement by euill
and naughtie counsell, whereof the lord Roger Mortimer and the quéene
mother bare the blame, the king concluded with the Scotish king both an
vnprofitable and a dishonorable peace. For first, he released to the
Scots their fealtie and homage. Also he deliuered vnto them certeine
old ancient writings, sealed with the seales of the king of Scots, and
of diuerse lords of the land both spirituall and temporall: amongst the
which was that indenture, which they called Ragman, with manie other
charters and patents, by the which the kings of Scotland were bound as
feodaries vnto the crowne of England; at which season also there were
deliuered certeine iewels, which before time had béene woone from the
Scots by the kings of England, and among other, the blacke crosier or
rood is speciallie named.

[Sidenote: A marriage concluded.]

[Sidenote: Ione Makepeace.]

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southwell._]

And not onelie the king by his sinister councell lost such right and
title as he had to the realme of Scotland, so farre as by the same
councell might be deuised, but also the lords and barons, and other men
of England that had anie lands or rents within Scotland, lost their
right in like manner, except they would dwell vpon the same lands, and
become liege men to the king of Scotland. Herevpon was there also a
marriage concluded betwixt Dauid Bruce the sonne of Robert Bruce king
of Scotland, and the ladie Iane sister to king Edward, which of diuerse
writers is surnamed Ione of the tower, and the Scots surnamed hir halfe
in derision, Ione Makepeace. This marriage was solemnised at Berwike
vpon the daie of Marie Magdalen. The quéene with the bishops of Elie
and Norwich, the earle Warren, the lord Mortimer, and diuerse other
barons of the land, and a great multitude of other people were present
at that marriage, which was celebrate with all the honour that might be.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsin._]

[Sidenote: _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Creations of earles.]

[Sidenote: The earle of March ruleth all things at his pleasure.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

After the quindene of saint Michaell, king Edward held a parlement
at Salisburie, in which the lord Roger Mortimer was created earle
of March, the lord Iohn of Eltham the kings brother was made earle
of Cornwall, and the lord Iames Butler of Ireland earle of Ormond,
who about the same time had married the earle of Herefords daughter.
But the earle of March tooke the most part of the rule of all things
perteining either to the king or realme into his owne hands: so that
the whole gouernment rested in a manner betwixt the quéene mother and
him. The other of the councell that were first appointed, were in
manner displaced; for they bare no rule to speake of at all, which
caused no small grudge to arise against the quéene and the said earle
of March, who mainteined such ports, and kept among them such retinue
of seruants, that their prouision was woonderfull, which they caused
to be taken vp, namelie for the quéene, at the kings price, to the sore
oppression of the people, which tooke it displesantlie inough.

[Sidenote: The earle of Lancaster.]

[Sidenote: Robert Holland slaine.]

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburie was the chiefe procuror of the
agréement & reconciliation of the earle (as _Merimuth_ saith.)]

There was like to haue growen great variance betwixt the quéene and
Henrie earle of Lancaster, by reason that one sir Thomas Wither, a
knight perteining to the said earle of Lancaster, had slaine Robert
Holland, who had betraied sometime Thomas earle of Lancaster, and
was after committed to prison by earle Henries means, but the quéene
had caused him to be set at libertie, and admitted him as one of hir
councell. The quéene would haue had sir Thomas Wither punished for the
murther, but earle Henrie caused him to be kept out of the waie, so
that for these causes and other, Henrie the earle of Lancaster went
about to make a rebellion, and the quéene hauing knowledge thereof,
sought to apprehend him: but by the mediation of the earles Marshall
and Kent, the matter was taken vp, and earle Henrie had the kings peace
granted him for the summe of eleuen thousand pounds, which he should
haue paid, but he neuer paid that fine, though it was so assessed at
the time of the agréement.

[Sidenote: _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: 1329.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 3.]

There were diuerse lords and great men that were confederat with him,
the lord Thomas Wake, the lord Henrie Beaumont, the lord Foulke Fitz
Warrein, sir Thomas Rosselin, sir William Trussell, and other, to the
number of an hundred knights. ¶ In the third yeare of his reigne, about
the Ascension tide, king Edward went ouer into France, and comming to
the French king Philip de Valois, as then being at Amiens, did there
his homage vnto him for the duchie of Guien (as in the French historie
appeareth.) ¶ The same yeare Simon the archbishop of Canturburie held
a synod at London, wherein all those were excommunicated that were
guiltie to the death of Walter Stapleton bishop of Excester, that had
béene put to death by the Londoners, as in the last kings time ye haue
heard. ¶ This bishop of Excester founded Excester colledge in Oxford, &
Harts hall. But now to the purpose.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southwell._]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Meri._]

[Sidenote: Thom. Dunhed a frier.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

The king about the beginning, or (as other saie) about the middle of
Lent, held a parlement at Winchester, during the which, Edmund of
Woodstoke earle of Kent the kings vncle was arrested the morrow after
saint Gregories day, and being arreigned vpon certeine confessions and
letters found about him, he was found giltie of treason. There were
diuerse in trouble about the same matter, for the earle vpon his open
confession before sundrie lords of the realme, declared that not onelie
by commandement from the pope, but also by the setting on of diuerse
nobles of this land (whome he named) he was persuaded to indeuour
himselfe by all waies and meanes possible how to deliuer his brother
king Edward the second out of prison, and to restore him to the crowne,
whome one Thomas Dunhed, a frier of the order of preachers in London,
affirmed for certeine to be aliue, hauing (as he himselfe said) called
vp a spirit to vnderstand the truth thereof, and so what by counsell
of the said frier, and of thrée other friers of the same order, he had
purposed to worke some meane how to deliuer him, and to restore him
againe to the kingdome. Among the letters that were found about him,
disclosing a great part of his practise, some there were, which he had
written and directed vnto his brother the said king Edward, as by some
writers it should appeare.

[Sidenote: 1330.]

[Sidenote: Anno Reg. 4.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent beheaded.]

[Sidenote: Naughtie seruants bring their master into disfauour.]

The bishop of London and certeine other great personages, whome he had
accused, were permitted to go at libertie, vnder suerties taken for
their good demeanour and foorth comming. But Robert de Touton, and
the frier that had raised the spirit for to know whether the kings
father were liuing or not, were committed to prison, wherein the frier
remained till he died. The earle himselfe was had out of the castell
gate at Winchester, and there lost his head the 19 day of March,
chiefelie (as was thought) thorough the malice of the quéene mother,
and of the earle of March: whose pride and high presumption the said
earle of Kent might not well abide. His death was the lesse lamented,
bicause of the presumptuous gouernement of his seruants and retinue,
which he kept about him, for that they riding abroad, would take vp
things at their pleasure, not paieng nor agréeing with the partie to
whome such things belonged; in so much that by their meanes, who ought
to haue doone their vttermost for the inlargement of his honour, he
grew in greater obloquie and reproch: a fowle fault in seruants so to
abuse their lords names to their priuat profit, to whome they cannot be
too trustie. But such are to be warned, that by the same wherin they
offend, they shall be punished, euen with seruants faithlesse to plague
their vntrustinesse, for

    Qui violare fidem solet, & violetur eidem.

[Sidenote: The Blacke prince borne.]

[Sidenote: _Croxden._]

[Sidenote: An eclipse.]

[Sidenote: A late haruest.]

The yoong quéene Philip was brought to bed at Woodstoke the 15 day of
Iune of hir first sonne, the which at the fontstone was named Edward,
and in processe of time came to great proofe of famous chiualrie, as in
this booke shall more plainlie appeare. He was commonlie named when he
came to ripe yeares prince Edward, & also surnamed the Blacke prince.
The sixtéenth day of Iulie chanced a great eclipse of the sunne, and
for the space of two moneths before, and thrée moneths after, there
fell excéeding great raine, so that through the great intemperancie
of weather, corne could not ripen, by reason whereof, in manie places
they began not haruest till Michaelmas, & in some places they inned not
their wheat till Alhallontide, nor their pease till saint Andrews tide.

[Sidenote: A mightie wind.]

On Christmasse euen, about the breake of day, a maruellous sore and
terrible wind came foorth of the west, which ouerthrew houses and
buildings, ouerturned trées by the roots, and did much hurt in diuerse
places. ¶ This yeare shortlie after Easter, the king with the bishop of
Winchester, and the lord William Montacute, hauing not past fiftéene
horsses in their companie, passed the sea, apparelled in clokes like
to merchants, he left his brother the earle of Cornewall his deputie &
gardian of the realme till his returne. Moreouer, he caused it to be
proclaimed in London, that he went ouer on pilgrimage, and for none
other purpose. He returned before the later end of Aprill, and then was
there holden a turnie at Dertfort.

[Sidenote: Additions to _N. Triuet._]

The mondaie after saint Matthews day in September, the king held a
solemne iusts in Cheapeside, betwixt the great crosse and Soperlane, he
with 12 as chalengers answering all defendants that came. This solemne
iusts and turnie continued thrée daies. The quéene with manie ladies
being present at the same, fell beside a stage, but yet as good hap
would they had no hurt by that fall, to the reioising of manie that
saw them in such danger, and yet so luckilie to escape without harme.
¶ Also in a parlement holden at Notingham about saint Lukes tide, sir
Roger Mortimer the earle of March was apprehend the seuntéenth day
of October within the castell of Notingham, where the king with the
two quéenes, his mother and his wife, and diuerse other were as then
lodged. And though the keies of the castell were dailie and knightlie
in the custodie of the said earle of March, and that his power was
such, as it was doubted how he might be arrested (for he had, as some
writers affirme, at that present in retinue nine score knights, besides
esquiers, gentlemen and yeomen) yet at length by the kings helpe, the
lord William Montacute, the lord Humfrie de Bohun, and his brother
sir William, the lord Rafe Stafford, the lord Robert Vfford, the lord
William Clinton, the lord Iohn Neuill of Hornbie, and diuerse other,
which had accused the said earle of March for the murther of king
Edward the second, found means by intelligence had with sir William de
Eland constable of the castell of Notingham, to take the said earle of
March with his sonne the lord Roger or Geffrey Mortimer, and sir Simon
Bereford, with other.

[Sidenote: Maister _Fox._]

Sir Hugh Trumpington or Turrington (as some copies haue) that was one
of his chéefest fréends with certeine other were slaine, as they were
about to resist against the lord Montacute, and his companie in taking
of the said earle. The manner of his taking I passe ouer, bicause of
the diuersitie in report thereof by sundrie writers. From Notingham
he was sent vp to London with his sonne the lord Roger or Geffrey de
Mortimer, sir Simon Bereford, and the other prisoners, where they
were committed to prison in the tower. Shortlie after was a parlement
called at Westminster, chéefelie (as was thought) for reformation of
things disordered through the misgouernance of the earle of March. But
whosoeuer was glad or sorie for the trouble of the said earle, suerlie
the quéene mother tooke it most heauilie aboue all other, as she that
loued him more (as the fame went) than stood well with hir honour. For
as some write, she was found to be with child by him. They kept as it
were house togither, for the earle to haue his prouision the better
cheape, laid his penie with hirs, so that hir takers serued him as
well as they did hir both of vittels & cariages. Of which misvsage
(all regard to honour and estimation neglected) euerie subiect spake
shame. For their manner of dealing, tending to such euill purposes as
they continuallie thought vpon, could not be secret from the eies of
the people. And their offense héerein was so much the more heinous,
bicause they were persons of an extraordinarie degrée, and were the
more narrowlie marked of the multitude or common people,

[Sidenote: _Claudi._]

    ---- nam lux altissima fati
    Occultum nil esse sinit, latebrásq; per omnes
    Intrat, & obtrusos explorat fama recessus.

[Sidenote: The earle of March attainted.]

But now in this parlement holden at Westminster he was attainted of
high treason expressed in fiue articles, as in effect followeth.

1 First, he was charged that he had procured Edward of Carnaruan the
kings father to be murthered in most heinous and tyrannous maner within
the castell of Berklie.

2 Secondlie, that the Scots at Stanop parke through his means escaped.

3 Thirdlie, that he receiued at the hands of the lord Iames Dowglas,
at that time generall of the Scots, great summes of monie to execute
that treason, and further to conclude the peace vpon such dishonorable
couenants as was accorded with the Scots at the parlement of
Northampton.

4 Fourthlie, that he had got into his hands a great part of the kings
treasure, and had wasted and consumed it.

5 Fiftlie, that he had impropried vnto him diuerse wards that belonged
vnto the king: and had béene more priuie with quéene Isabell the kings
mother, than stood either with Gods law, or the king pleasure.

[Sidenote: _Adam Meremuth._]

[Sidenote: The earle of March executed.]

These articles with other being prooued against him, he was adiudged by
authoritie of the parlement to suffer death, and according therevnto,
vpon saint Andrewes éeuen next insuing, he was at London drawne and
hanged, at the common place of execution, called in those daies The
elmes, & now Tiborne, as in some bookes we find. His bodie remained
two daies and two nights on the gallowes, and after taken downe was
deliuered to the friers minors, who buried him in their church the
morrow after he was deliuered to them, with great pompe and funerall
exequies, although afterwards he was taken vp and carried vnto Wigmore,
whereof he was lord. He came not to his answer in iudgement, no more
than any other of the nobilitie had doone, since the death of Thomas
earle of Lancaster.

[Sidenote: Sir Simon Bereford executed.]

[Sidenote: Some bookes haue 3 thousand pounds.]

[Sidenote: _Ad. Merem._]

Sir Simon de Bereford knight that had béene one of the kings iustices,
was drawne also and hanged at London, vpon S. Lucies daie. In this
parlement holden at Westminster, the king tooke into his hand, by
aduise of the states there assembled, all the possessions, lands and
reuenues that belonged to the quéene his mother, she hauing assigned
to hir a thousand pounds by yeare, for the maintenance of hir estate,
being appointed to remaine in certeine place, and not to go elsewhere
abroad: yet the king to comfort hir would lightlie euerie yeare once
come to visit hir. ¶ After that the erle of March was executed (as yée
haue heard) diuerse noblemen that were departed the realme, bicause
they could not abide the pride and presumption of the said earle, now
returned: as the sonne and heire of the earle of Arundell, the lord
Thomas Wake, the L. Henrie Beaumont, sir Thomas de Rosselin, sir Foulke
fitz Warren, sir Griffin de la Poole, and diuerse other.

[Sidenote: 1331.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 5.]

[Sidenote: Edward Balioll commeth into England.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: Iohn Barnabie.]

[Sidenote: The lord Beaumont.]

In the fift yeare of K. Edwards reigne, Edward Balioll came foorth of
France into England, and obteined such fauour through the assistance of
the lord Henrie Beaumont, the lord Dauid of Strabogie earle of Athole,
the lord Geffrey de Mowbraie, the lord Walter Cumin, and others, that
king Edward granted him licence to make his prouision in England to
passe into Scotland, with an armie of men to attempt the recouerie
of his right to the crowne of Scotland, with condition that if he
recouered it, he should acknowledge to hold it of the king of England
as superiour lord of Scotland. The comming awaie of Edward Balioll
out of France is diuerslie reported by writers: some saie that he was
aided by the French king, whose sister he had married: and other saie,
that he being in prison in France, for the escape of an Englishman,
one Iohn Barnabie esquier, which had slaine a Frenchman by chance of
quarelling in the towne of Dampierre, where the same Barnabie dwelled
with the said Edward Balioll, so it came to passe that the lord Henrie
Beaumont hauing occasion of businesse with the French king, that
fauoured him well, came ouer to France, and there vnderstanding of
Baliols imprisonment, procured his deliuerance, and brought him ouer
into England, and caused him to remaine in secret wise at the manor of
Sandhall vpon Ouse in Yorkeshire with the ladie Vescie, till he had
purchased the kings grant for him to make his prouision of men of war
and ships within the English dominions.

[Sidenote: 1332.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 6.]

[Sidenote: _Croxden._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Gelderland.]

[Sidenote: Edward Balioll crowned K. of Scotl[=a]d.]

In the sixt yeare of king Edwards reigne, Reignold earle of Gelderland
married the ladie Elianor sister to this king Edward the third, who
gaue vnto the said earle with hir for hir portion, fiftéene thousand
pounds sterling. ¶ Isabell the kings daughter was borne also this
yeare at Woodstoke. ¶ After that Edward Balioll had prepared and made
readie his purueiances for his iournie, and that his men of warre were
assembled and come togither, being in all not past fiue hundred men of
armes, and about two thousand archers, and other footmen, he tooke the
sea at Rauenspurgh in Yorkeshire, and from thence directing his course
northward, he arriued at length in Scotland, where he atchiuing great
victories (as in the Scotish chronicle yée may read more at large) was
finallie crowned king of that realme.

[Sidenote: The cause that mooued K. Edward to aid Edward Balioll.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: Edward Balioll chased out of Scotland.]

[Sidenote: 1333.]

It may séeme a woonder to manie, that the king of England would permit
Edward Balioll to make his prouision thus in England, and to suffer
his people to aid him against his brother in law king Dauid that had
married his sister (as before ye haue heard.) Indéed at the first he
was not verie readie to grant their suit that mooued it, but at length
was contented to dissemble the matter, in hope that if Edward Balioll
had good successe, he should then recouer that againe, which by the
conclusion of peace during his minoritie, he had through euill counsell
resigned out of his hands. The Scots neuerthelesse in December chased
their new king Edward Balioll out of Scotland, so that he was faine
to retire into England, and celebrated the feast of the Natiuitie at
Carleill, in the house of the friers minors, and the morrow after being
S. Stephans day, he went into Westmerland, where of the lord Clifford
he was right honorablie receiued, to whome he then granted Douglas
Dale in Scotland, which had béene granted to the said lord Cliffords
grandfather in the daies of king Edward the first, if he might at anie
time recouer the realme of Scotland out of his aduersaries hands.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 7.]

[Sidenote: Berwike beseiged.]

[Sidenote: The victorie of Englishmen at Halidon hill.]

After this, he went and laie a time with the ladie of Gines, that
was his kinsewoman. Finallie about the téenth day of March, hauing
assembled a power of Englishmen and Scotishmen, he entred Scotland,
and besieged the towne of Berwike, during the which siege, manie
enterprises were attempted by the parties: and amongst other, the Scots
entred England by Carleill, dooing much mischiefe in Gillesland, by
burning, killing, robbing and spoiling. The king aduertised hereof,
thought himselfe discharged of the agréement concluded betwixt him and
Dauid Bruce, the sonne of Robert Bruce that had married his sister,
& therfore tooke it to be lawfull for him to aid his coosen Edward
Balioll the lawfull K. of Scots. And herewith assembling an armie,
came to the siege of Berwike, togither with his brother Iohn of Eltham
earle of Cornewall, and other noble men, séeking by all meanes possible
how to win the towne: and finallie discomfited an armie of Scots,
which came to the rescue théerof vpon Halidon hill, in sleaing of them
what in the fight and chase, seuen earles, nine hundred knights and
baronets, foure hundred esquiers, and vpon 32 thousand of the common
people: and of Englishmen were slaine but 15 persons, as our English
writers make mention. The Scotish writers confesse, that the Scotishmen
lost the number of 14 thousand.

[Sidenote: Berwike deliuered.]

[Sidenote: The lord Richard Talbot.]

[Sidenote: The lord iustice of Ireland c[=o]meth into Scotland.]

On the morrow following, being S. Margarets day, the towne of Berwike
was rendered vnto king Edward with the castell, as in the Scotish
chronicle ye may read, with more matter touching the siege and battell
aforesaid, and therfore here in few words, I passe it ouer. King
Edward hauing thus sped his businesse, left a power of men with Edward
Balioll, vnder the conduct of the lord Richard Talbot, and returned
himselfe backe into England, appointing the lord Percie to be gouernor
of the towne of Berwike, and sir Thomas Grey knight his lieutenant.
The lord Iohn Darcie lord chéefe iustice of Ireland, leauing the lord
Thomas Bourgh his deputie in that countrie, passed ouer with an armie
into Scotland, to aid the king, who (as ye haue heard) was there
the same time in person. And so by the king on one side, and by the
Irishmen on an other, Scotland was subdued, and restored vnto Balioll,
who the morrow after the octaues of the Natiuitie of our ladie, held a
parlement at saint Iohns towne, in the which he reuoked and made void
all acts, which the late king of Scots Robert Bruce had inacted or
made: and further ordeined, that all such lands and possessions as the
said Bruce had giuen to any maner of person should be taken from them,
and restored to the former and true inheritour.

[Sidenote: _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: 1334.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 8.]

[Sidenote: _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: A parlement at Yorke.]

[Sidenote: Edward Balioll dooth homage vnto the king of England for
Scotland.]

In this yeare about the twelfth of October, Simon Mepham archbishop
of Canturburie, departed this life, in whose place succéeded Iohn
Stretford, being remooued from the sée of Winchester, whereof he was
bishop, before that he was thus called to the sée of Canturburie.
After Candlemas the king of England repaired towards Yorke, there to
hold a parlement, to the which (beginning on the mondaie in the second
wéeke in Lent) when Edward Balioll doubting to be surprised by his
aduersaries, could not come, yet he sent the lord Henrie de Beaumont,
and the lord William de Montacute, to make excuse for him. The king
of England passing further into the north parts, held his Whitsuntide
at Newcastell vpon Tine, with great roialtie: and shortlie after,
Edward Balioll king of Scots came thither, and vpon the ninetéenth
daie of Iune made his homage vnto the king of England, and sware vnto
him fealtie in the presence of a great number of Nobles and gentlemen
there assembled, as to his superiour and chiefe lord of the realme
of Scotland, binding himselfe by that oth, to hold the same realme
of the king of England, his heires and successors for euer. He also
gaue and granted vnto the king of England at that time fiue counties
next adioining vnto the borders of England, as Berwike and Rocksburgh,
Peplis, and Dunfres, the townes of Hadington and Gedworth with the
castell, the forrests of Silkirke, Etherike, and Gedworth, so as all
these portions should be cléerelie separated and put apart from the
crowne of Scotland, and annexed vnto the crowne of England for euer.
And these things were confirmed and roborated with oth, scepter, and
witnesse sufficient.

[Sidenote: Inundation of the sea.]

Which things doone in due order, as was requisite, the king of England
returned home, and the kings went backe into Scotland. And then were
all such lords restored againe to their lands and possessions in
Scotland, which in the daies of Edward the second had béene expelled
from the same: and now they did their homage vnto the king of Scotland
for those lands as apperteined. ¶ Immediatlie after, the king of
England called a councell of his lords spirituall and temporall at
Notingham, commanding them to méet him there about the thirtéenth daie
of Iulie, there to consult with him of weightie causes concerning
the state of the realme. This yeare on saint Clements daie at night,
which fell on the thrée and twentith of Nouember, through a maruellous
inundation & rising of the sea all alongst by the coasts of this
realme, but especiallie about the Thames, the sea bankes or walles were
broken and borne downe with violence of the water, and infinite numbers
of beasts and cattell drowned, fruitfull grounds and pastures were made
salt marishes, so as there was no hope that in long time they should
recouer againe their former fruitfulnesse.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors from the French king.]

In this meane time the French king was appointed to haue made a viage
against the Saracens, enimies of our faith, and had sent to the king of
England, requiring him of his companie in that iournie. But the king
of England being otherwise occupied with the affaires of Scotland,
made no direct answer therevnto, so that the French king perceiuing
that the king of England was not in all things well pleased with him,
thought good before he set forward on that iournie to vnderstand his
meaning, and thervpon sent eftsoones vnto him other ambassadours. These
ambassadours arriued here in England and had audience, but nothing
they concluded in effect, saue that the king promised to send his
ambassadors ouer into France, to haue further communication in the
matter touching such points of variance as depended betwixt them.

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: A parlement at London.]

[Sidenote: The king entreth into Scotland with an armie.]

[Sidenote: 1335.]

Although Edward Balioll by the puissance of the king of Englands
assistance had got the most part of the realme of Scotland into his
hands, yet diuerse castels were holden against him, and the Scots
dailie slipped from him, and by open rebellion molested him diuerse
waies. The king of England aduertised thereof called a parlement at
London, wherein he tooke order for his iournie into Scotland, had a
tenth and a fiftéenth granted him, and so about Alhallontide he came
to Newcastell vpon Tine, with his armie, and remained there till the
feast of saint Katharine, and then entring into Scotland, came to
Rockesburgh, where he repared the castell which had béene aforetime
destroied. After the third daie of Christmasse was past, the king of
England entred into Ethrike forrest, beating it vp and downe, but the
Scots would not come within his reach: wherevpon he sent the king of
Scots that was there present with him, and the earles of Warwike and
Oxenford, and certeine other barons and knights with their retinues
vnto Carleill, to kéepe and defend those west parts of the realme from
the Scots.

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marle._]

[Sidenote: A dearth and death of cattell.]

In their iournie thitherwards, they went by Peplis to apprehend
certeine Scots, whome they heard to be lodged and abiding thereabouts,
but when they found them not, they wasted the countrie, and turned
streight to Carleill, where after the Epiphanie there assembled an
armie foorth of the counties of Lancaster, Westmerland, and Cumberland,
by the kings appointment, which armie togither with the king of Scots
and the other lords there found, entred Scotland, and did much hurt
in the countrie of Galloway, destroieng towns and all that they found
abroad, but the people were fled and withdrawne out of their waie. And
when they had taken their pleasure, the king of Scots returned backe to
Carleill. This yeare there fell great abundance of raine, and therevpon
insued morren of beasts: also corne so failed this yeare, that a
quarter of wheat was sold at fortie shillings.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent into France.]

Finallie, when the king had finished his businesse in Scotland, as to
his séeming stood with his pleasure, he returned into England, and
shortlie after he sent the archbishop of Canturburie, sir Philip de
Montacute, and Geffrey Scroope vnto the French king, to conclude a
firme amitie & league with him. These lords comming into France, were
not at the first admitted to the French kings presence, till they
shewed themselues halfe gréeued with that strange dealing: for then
finallie were they brought vnto him, who gentlie receiued them, and
caused the matter to be intreated of about the which they were sent, in
furthering whereof, such diligence was vsed, that finallie a conclusion
of peace and concord was agréed, and so farre passed, that proclamation
thereof should haue béene made in Paris, and in the countrie thereabout
the next day: but scarse were the English ambassadours returned vnto
their lodgings, when they were sent for backe againe, and further
informed, that the French king minded to haue Dauid king of Scotland
comprised in the same league, so that he might be restored vnto his
kingdome, and the Balioll put out. The English ambassadors answered,
that their commission extended not so farre, and therefore they could
not conclude any thing therein. Herevpon all the former communication
was reuoked, and cléerelie made void, so that the English ambassadors
returned home into England without anie thing concluded.

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southwell._]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The Welshmen.]

[Sidenote: Dundée burnt.]

About the feast of the Ascension, the king held a parlement at
Yorke, ordeining for his iournie into Scotland, and also deuising by
authoritie thereof diuerse profitable statutes for the common-wealth.
About midsummer, he came with his armie vnto Newcastell vpon Tine,
whither came to him from Carleill the king of Scots, and there order
was taken, that the king of England, and his brother the earle of
Cornwall, the earls of Warwike, Lancaster, Lincolne, and Hereford, with
all their retinues, and the earle of Gulikerland, that had married the
kings sister, and with a faire companie was come to serue the king in
these warres, should passe to Carleill, and on the twelfe of Iulie
enter Scotland. The king of Scots, the earles of Surrie, and Arundell,
and the lord Henrie Percie, a baron of great might and power, being
all of kin vnto the king of Scots, with their retinues should go to
Berwike, and there enter the same day aboue mentioned, and as it was
appointed, so it was put in practise. For both kings on the same day
entring Scotland in seuerall parts passed forward without resistance at
their pleasures, wasting and burning all the countries, both on this
side, and beyond the Scotish sea. The Welshmen spared neither religious
persons nor their houses, making no more accompt of them than of
others: the mariners of Newcastell also burnt a great part of the towne
of Dundée.

[Sidenote: The earle of Namure.]

[Sidenote: _Fourdon._]

[Sidenote: _Fourdon._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Murrey tak[=e].]

[Sidenote: _Rich. Southw._]

The earle of Namure about the same time comming into England, to serue
the king in his warres, tooke vpon him to passe into Scotland with a
band of an hundred men of armes, beside seauen or eight knights which
he brought ouer with him, and certeine Englishmen to be his guides
from Berwike, but he was assailed before he could get to Edenburgh, by
the earles of Murrey and Dunbarre, and the lord William Dowglas: so
that notwithstanding the strangers bare themselues verie manfullie,
yet oppressed with multitude, they were forced to giue place, but yet
still fighting and defending themselues till they came to Edenburgh,
and there taking the hill where the ruines of the castel stood, kept
the same all the night folowing. But the next day they despairing of
all succours, and hauing neither meat nor drinke, at length yéelded
themselues, whom the earle of Murrey receiuing right courteouslie,
shewed them such fauour, that without ransome he was contented they
should returne into their countries: and for more suertie, he conueied
the said earle of Namure (whome the Scotish books call earle of
Gelderland) and his companie backe to the borders; but in his returne,
or shortlie after, the same earle of Murrey that tooke himselfe for
gouernour of Scotland, was encountred by the Englishmen that laie in
garrison within Rockesburgh, and by them taken prisoner. The lord
William Dowglas being there also with him escaped, but Iames Dowglas
brother to the said lord William Douglas, was at that bickering slaine
with diuerse other.

[Sidenote: Scots submit them to the king of England.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Kildrummie. The earle of Atholl slaine.]

[Sidenote: 1336.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.]

[Sidenote: A truce granted to the Scots.]

About the feast of the Assumption of our ladie, diuerse of the Scotish
nobilitie came and submitted themselues to the king, namelie the earle
of Atholl and others, but earle Patrike of Dunbarre, and the earle of
Rosse, the lord Andrew de Murrey, the lord William Dowglas, and the
lord William de Keth, and manie other would not come in, but assembling
themselues togither, did all the mischéefe they could vnto those that
had receiued the kings peace. The earle of Atholl in the winter season,
besieging the castell of Kildrummie beyond the Scotish sea was set
vpon by the earles of Dunbarre and Rosse, so that they slue him there
in field, for his men fled from him (through some traitorous practise
as was thought) and left him and a few other in all the danger. ¶ The
king of England being returned foorth of Scotland, remained for the
most part of the winter in the north parts, and held his Christmasse
at Newcastell vpon Tine, and after the Epiphanie hauing assembled an
armie readie to passe into Scotland, to reuenge the earle of Atholl's
death, which he tooke verie displeasantlie, there came in the meane
time ambassadors both from the pope and the French king, and found
the king of England at Berwike, readie with his armie to set forwards
into Scotland. But these ambassadors did so much by intreatie with
the two kings of England and Scotland, that about the feast of the
Purification, a truce was agréed vpon to indure till midlent.

[Sidenote: The stoutnes of Scots hindered the conclusion of the peace.]

Then was a parlement to be holden at London, and herewith articles
were drawne, and certeine petitions put foorth, vpon the which if the
parties in the meane time could agrée, the peace accordinglie might be
established, if not, then the warre to be prosecuted as before. The
chiefest article and petition which the Scots proponed, as desirous to
be therein resolued, was to vnderstand which of the two that claimed
the crowne of Scotland, to wit, Edward Balioll, and Dauid Bruce, had
most right thereto. But when in the parlement time the lord Maurice de
Murrey slue sir Geffrey de Rosse a Scotish knight, that was shiriffe
of Aire and Lenarke, being of the Baliols side, for that in time of
open warre the same sir Geffrey had slaine his brother, vpon respect of
this presumptuous part, and by reason of such stoutnesse as the Scots
otherwise shewed, no conclusion of peace could be brought to effect.

[Sidenote: An armie sent into Scotland.]

[Sidenote: S. Iohns towne fortified.]

[Sidenote: _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: The K. goeth into Scotland.]

Before the feast of the Ascension, the king of England sent forward
the king of Scots, the earles of Lancaster, Warwike, Oxford, and
Anegos, and diuerse lords and capteins with an armie, the which after
Whitsuntide entring into Scotland, passed ouer the Scotish sea, and
comming to saint Iohns towne (which the Scots had burnt, despairing to
defend it against the English power) they set in hand to fortifie it,
compassing it with déepe diches and a strong rampier of earth. ¶ About
the same time the king called a parlement at Northampton, where leauing
the prelats and other to treat of such matters as were proponed, he
himselfe rode northwards, and comming to Berwike, tooke with him a
small band of men of armes, and setting forward, hasted foorth till
he came to saint Iohns towne, where he found the king of Scots, and
other his nobles greatlie woondering at his comming thither so vnlooked
for. After he had rested there a little, he tooke with him part of the
armie, and passed forward ouer the mounteines of Scotland euen vnto
Elgen in Murrey and Inuernes, further by manie miles than euer his
grandfather had gone.

[Sidenote: Aberden burnt.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsin._]

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Rosselin slain.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall.]

[Sidenote: The lord Douglas.]

[Sidenote: Striueling castell built or rather repared.]

In his returne he burnt the towne of Aberden, in reuenge of the death
of a right valiant knight called sir Thomas Rosselin, that comming
thither by sea tooke land there, and was slaine by the enimies: he
burnt diuerse other townes and places in this voiage, spoiling and
wasting the countries where he came, not finding anie to resist him.
About Lammas the earle of Cornewall with the power of Yorkeshire and
Northumberland, and the lord Anthonie Lucie with the Cumberland and
Westmerland men entred Scotland, and destroied the west parts, as
Carrike, and other which obeied not the Balioll. The lord William
Douglas still coasted the Englishmen, dooing to them what damage he
might. At length this armie loden with preies and spoile returned home,
but the earle of Cornewall with his owne retinue came through to saint
Iohns towne, where he found the king being returned thither fr[=o] his
iournie which he had made beyond the mounteins. The king staied not
long there, but leauing the king of Scots with his companie in that
towne, he went to Striueling, where, on the plot of ground vpon which
the destroied castell had stood, he built an other fortresse, called a
Pile. And now, bicause he had spent a great deale of treasure in those
warres of Scotland, he summoned a parlement to be holden at Notingham,
in which there was granted to him a tenth of the cleargie, and likewise
of the citizens and burgesses of good towns, and a fiftéenth of other
that dwelt foorth of cities and boroughes.

[Sidenote: The deceasse of the earle of Cornewall.]

[Sidenote: The deceasse of Hugh de Fresnes earle of Lincolne.]

[Sidenote: _Walter Gisburgh._]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: The lord Stafford.]

About the latter end of October, Iohn of Eltham earle of Cornewall the
kings brother departed this life at saint Iohns towne in Scotland:
his bodie was afterwards conueied to Westminster, & there buried with
all solemne funerals. The Scotish writers affirme that he was slaine
by his brother king Edward for the crueltie he had vsed in the west
parts of Scotland, in sleaing such as for safegard of their liues
fled into churches. Moreouer, in December there deceassed at S. Iohns
towne aforesaid, Hugh de Fresnes, that in right of the countesse of
Lincolne was intituled earle of Lincolne. He died of the flix, or (as
was said) through excessiue cold, which in those quarters in that cold
time of the yeare sore afflicted the English people. ¶ In the meane
time, about the feast of saint Luke the euangelist, the king went with
an armie into Scotland toward the castell of Bothuille, and comming
thither repared the same, which by the Scots had latelie before béene
destroied. The baron Stafford at the same time comming towards the king
with a power of men, took Dowglas Dale in his waie, taking in the same
a great preie of cattell and other things.

[Sidenote: A statute ordeined by the Scots in fauour of the K. of
England.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Townes fortified by king Edward in Scotland.]

Before Christmasse the king returned into England, but the king of
Scots remained all the winter in saint Iohns towne with a sober
companie. When the king had setled the state of Scotland vnder the
gouernement of the Balioll, those Scotishmen which tooke part with the
Balioll, ordeined as it were in recompense of king Edwards friendship a
statute, whereby they bound themselues to the said king Edward and his
heires kings of England, that they should aid and assist him against
all other princes: and whensoeuer it chanced that either he or any king
of England being rightfull inheritor, had any wars against any prince,
either within the land or without, the Scotishmen of their owne proper
costs and expenses should find thrée hundred horssemen, & a thousand
footmen well and sufficientlie arraied for the warre, the which
thirtéene hundred men the Scots should wage for a whole yeare: & if
the king of England ended not his warres within the yeare, then he to
giue wages to the said number of thirtéene hundred Scots, as he dooth
to other of his souldiers and men of warre. There be that write, that
the king of England should not onelie fortifie saint Iohns towne about
this time, as before is mentioned, but also saint Andrews, Cowper,
Aberdine, Dunfermeling, with certeine other castels, leauing garisons
of men in the same. But for so much as ye may read sufficientlie of
those troubles, in Scotland; and of the returne of king Dauid foorth of
France, and how his realme was recouered out of the Baliols hands in
the Scotish chronicles: we néed not here to make anie long discourse
thereof.

[Sidenote: _Th. Walsing._]

[Sidenote: _Croxden._]

[Sidenote: 1337.]

[Sidenote: The king studieth to gather monie to mainteine his warres.]

[Sidenote: Great cheapnesse of wars and scarsitie of monie.]

The quéene was deliuered of hir second sonne at Hatfield, who was
therfore named William of Hatfield, who liued but a short time,
departing this world when he was but yoong. The king being returned
home out of Scotland, sought by all waies possible how to recouer
monie, both to supplie his charges for the Scotish wars, and also to
furnish the other wars which he meant to take in hand against the
French king: he got so much into his hands (as it is reported by
writers) that it was verie scant and hard to come by throughout the
whole realme: by reason of which scarsitie and want of monie, or vpon
some other necessarie cause, vittels, and other chaffer and merchandize
were excéeding cheape: for at London a quarter of wheat was sold for
two shillings, a fat oxe for six shillings eight pence, a fat shéepe
for six pence or eight pence, halfe a doozen of pigeons for one penie,
a fat goose for two pence, a pig for one penie, and so all other
vittels after the like rate.

[Sidenote: 1338.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 11.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

This yeare was the warre proclaimed betwixt England and France,
chéefelie by the procurement of the lord Robert Dartois, a Frenchman,
as then banished out of France, vpon occasion of a claime by him made
vnto the earledome of Artois. This lord Robert after he was banished
France, fled ouer vnto king Edward, who gladlie receiued him and made
him earle of Richmond. ¶ All the goods of the Italians were by the
kings commandement this yeare confiscate to his vse, and so likewise
were the goods of the moonks of the Cluniake and Cisterceaux orders.
¶ This yeare also a comet or blasing starre appeared, with long and
terrible streames passing from it. In the eleauenth yeare of his
reigne, the king held a parlement at Westminster, about the time of
Lent, during the which, of the earledome of Cornewall he made a duchie,
and gaue it vnto his eldest sonne Edward, that was then earle of
Chester, whom also (as some write) he created at the same time prince
of Wales.

[Sidenote: Creations of noble men.]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Hen. Marle._]

[Sidenote: _Croxden._]

[Sidenote: An act of arraie, against sumptuous apparell.]

Moreouer in reward of seruice, there were six noble men at this
parlement aduanced to the honour and title of earles, as the lord
Henrie sonne to the earle of Lancaster was created earle of Derbie, or
after some writers, earle of Leicester; William Bohun was created earle
of Northampton, William Montacute earle of Salisburie, Hugh Audeley
earle of Glocester, William Clinton earle of Huntingdon, and Robert
Vfford earle of Suffolke. This creation was on the second sundaie in
Lent, and the same day were twentie knights made, whose names for
bréefenesse we doo here omit. In this parlement it was enacted, that
no man should weare any manner of silke in gowne, cote, or doublet;
except he might dispend of good and sufficient rent an hundred pounds
by yeare, which act was not long obserued. For the nature of man is
such, that of it owne corrupt & euill inclination, it withstandeth
good things, and chooseth rather to follow whatsoeuer is forbidden, yea
though the same be starke naught and offensiue to law and conscience:
which preposterous and ouerthwart disposition the poet noteth well,
saieng,

    ---- aliúdq; cupido
    Mens aliud suadet: video meliora, probóq;
    Deteriora sequor.

[Sidenote: An act for restraint of tr[=a]sporting ouer wools.]

[Sidenote: _Adam Merimuth._]

It was also ordeined by the aduise of this parlement, that Henrie of
Lancaster newlie created erle of Derbie should go ouer into Gascoine,
there to remaine as the kings lieutenant. But Richard Southwell saith,
that the earle of Salisburie, and not the earle of Derbie was appointed
to go into Gascoine at that time, and the earle of Warwike into
Scotland. Moreouer in this parlement it was enacted that no wooll of
the English growth should go foorth of the land, but be here wrought
and made in cloath: and further an act was ordeined for receiuing
of strangers that were clothworkers, and order taken, that fit and
conuenient places should be assigned foorth to them where to inhabit,
with manie priuileges and liberties, and that they should haue wages
and stipends allowed them, till they were so setled as they might gaine
commodiouslie by their occupation and science: but now to returne
againe to other matters.

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: The castell of Bothuile taken.]

[Sidenote: Sir Eustace Maxwell.]

The Scots this yeare tooke the castell of Bothuile by surrender, so as
the Englishmen that were within it, departed with their liues and goods
saued. Diuerse other castels and fortresses were taken by the Scots
in Fife, and in other parts, but the countrie of Galloway was by them
speciallie sore afflicted, bicause the people there held with their
lord Edward Balioll. Herevpon it was agréed in this last parlement,
that the earle of Warwike being appointed to go thither, should
haue with him the power beyond Trent northwards. But when about the
Ascension tide the Scots had besieged the castell of Striueling, the
king of England in person hasted thitherwards, of whose approach the
Scots no sooner vnderstood, but that streightwaies they brake vp their
siege, and departed thence: the king therefore returned backe into the
south parts. About the same time sir Eustace de Maxwell knight, lord
of Carlauerocke, reuolted from Edward Balioll vnto Dauid le Bruse his
side, and so that part dailie increased, and also the warre continued,
with damage inough vnto both parts.

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike inuadeth Scotland.]

In the beginning of September the earle of Warwike with an armie
entred Scotland by Berwike, and the lord Thomas de Wake, and the lord
Clifford, with the bishop of Carleill accompanied with the Westmerland
and Cumberland men, entred by Carleill, and within two daies after
met with the earle of Warwike, as before it was appointed, and so
ioining togither, they passed forwards, spoiling and wasting Teuidale,
Mofeteidale, and Nidesdale. The lord Anthonie Lucie with a part of the
armie entred into Galloway, and after he had wasted that countrie, he
returned to the armie, which by reason of the excéeding great weat
that fell in that season, they could not kéepe on their iournie into
Douglasdale, and to Aire, as they had appointed: but hauing remained
in Scotland twelue daies, they returned altogither vnto Carleill.
Edward Balioll was not with them in this iournie, but remained still in
England.

[Sidenote: The castell of Edenburgh besieged.]

[Sidenote: The siege is raised.]

[Sidenote: The K. practiseth with ye Flemings.]

The Scots in reuenge hereof made diuerse rodes into England,
withdrawing still with their prey and booties, before the English power
could assemble to giue them battell. About Alhallontide, the Scots
besieged the castell of Edenburgh, but the bishop of Carleill, the
lord Randoll Dacres of Gillesland, with the power of the counties of
Cumberland and of Westmerland, and the king of Scots Edward Balioll,
with the lord Anthonie Lucie, and such companie as they brought from
Berwike, méeting at Rockesburgh, marched foorth vnto Edenburgh, and
chasing the Scots from the siege, tooke order for the safe kéeping of
the castell from thencefoorth, and returned into England. In this meane
time things happened so well to the purpose of king Edward, that by
practise he alienated the hearts of the Flemings from the obedience of
their earle, being altogither an earnest fréend to the French king.
He therefore vnderstanding the minds of his people, sought to winne
them by some gentle treatie, and so did euen at the first, concluding
an agréement with them of Gaunt, which were fullie at a point to
haue entred into league with the king of England, as with him whose
fréendship by reason of the traffike of merchandize, (and namelie of
the English wools) they knew to be more necessarie for their countrie
than the French kings.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Tournie.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: The Ile of Cadsant.]

[Sidenote: An armie sent by sea into Flanders.]

[Sidenote: Foure thousand saith _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

Although by the helpe of the bishop of Tournie the earle of Flanders
caused them to staie from concluding or ioining in anie such bonds
of amitie with the king of England for that time, yet he doubted
the arriuall of some power out of England, and therevpon appointed
his bastard brother Guie of Rijckenburgh, and certeine other noble
men and capteins, with a crue of men of warre to lie in the Ile of
Cadsant, to defend the passage there, and to sée that no English ships
should come or go that waie by the seas: whereof the king of England
being aduertised, sent thither the earle of Derbie, the lord Lewes
Beauchampe, the lord Reginald Cobham, also the lord William sonne to
the earle of Warwike, the lord Walter de Mannie an Hanneuier, and other
lords, knights, and capteins, with a power of fiue hundred men of
armes, and two thousand archers, the which comming to the foresaid Ile
of Cadsant, found the Flemings, about fiue thousand in number, readie
arranged on the towne dikes and sands, in purpose to defend the entrie,
which they did a certeine space right valiantlie: but in the end they
were discomfited, and thrée thousand of them slaine in the stréets,
hauen, and houses. Sir Guie the bastard of Flanders was taken with
diuerse other knights and gentlemen, the towne was burnt, and the goods
with the prisoners were carried into England. This chanced on a sundaie
the daie before the feast of saint Martine in Nouember. Where the lord
Walter de Mannie might haue had 11 thousand pounds sterling for the
ransome of the said sir Guie, and other prisoners, the king bought them
of him in the fouretéenth yeare of his reigne for eight thousand pounds
sterling, as by records in the tower it appeareth.

[Sidenote: Two cardinals come into England.]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Meri._]

[Sidenote: 1339.]

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southwell._]

[Sidenote: The castell of Dunbar beseiged.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 12.]

About the feast of saint Martine in winter, there came vnto London two
cardinals, sent by the pope to treat for a peace betwixt the kings of
England, and France. ¶ The archbishop of Canturburie, with the bishops
of Winchester, Elie, Chichester, Couentrie, & the c[=o]moners of the
citie of London met them on Shooters hill. The duke of Cornewall with
the earle of Surrie, and manie other of the nobilitie receiued them a
mile without the citie. The king himselfe receiued them at the lesser
hall doore of his palace at Westminster, and brought them into the
painted chamber, where they declared their message: wherevpon the king
caused a parlement to be summoned at London, to begin the morrow after
Candlemasse day. The king held his Christmasse at Gildford, and within
the octaues of the same feast he tooke his iournie towards Scotland,
or rather (as other haue) he sent thither the earles of Salisburie,
Glocester, Derbie, and Anegos, with thrée barons, the lords Percie,
Neuill, and Stafford, the which with twentie thousand men besieged the
castell of Dunbar.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: _Croxden._]

[Sidenote: A subsidie.]

[Sidenote: The cardinals returne.]

This siege began euen in the beginning of the twelfth yeare of king
Edwards reigne, and continued for the space of ninetéene wéeks, with
small gaine and lesse honour to the Englishmen, in so much that the
same brake vp vnder a colour of a truce, when there was no hope of
winning the place, and that the noble men that laie there at siege,
hasted to make an end, that they might attend the king in his iournie
ouer into Brabant. The morrow after Candlemasse day the parlement
began, in which there was a grant made to the king by the laitie of
the one halfe of their woolles through the whole realme for the next
summer, which he receiued, and likewise he leuied of the cleargie the
whole, causing them to paie nine marks of euerie sacke of the best
wooll. But after the rate of the one halfe he tooke in whose hands so
euer it was found, aswell merchants as others. After this, he tooke a
fiftéenth of all the communaltie of his realme in wooll, the price of
euerie stone containing fouretéene pounds rated at two shillings. The
one and twentith of March the two cardinals tooke the sea at Douer, and
in their companie went ouer the archbishop of Canturburie, the bishop
of Durham to treat of a peace, if by any good means the two kings
might be made fréends. But as it appeared, their trauell was in vaine,
for although they abode togither for a time on the frontiers, dooing
their best indeuor, yet their trauell nothing auailed, as by that which
followeth is most manifest.

[Sidenote: Iaques or Iacob Arteueld, a honimaker of Gant.]

[Sidenote: His authoritie among the commons.]

[Sidenote: A league betwixt England & Flanders.]

[Sidenote: _Iac. Meir._]

[Sidenote: Siger de Curtrey.]

The Flemings that fauoured king Edward, were put in such comfort by the
late victorie obteined by the Englishmen in the Ile of Cadsant, that
falling to their former practise, one Iaques or Iacob van Arteueld an
honimaker of the towne of Gant, was chosen amongst them to be as it
were the defender of the people, and namelie of the weauers, and other
clothworkers. Finallie, his authoritie grew so hugelie amongst all the
whole number of the commons in Flanders, that he might doo more with
them than their earle; and yet the earle to reconcile the people to
his fauour, ceassed not to vse all courteous means towards them that
he could deuise, as releasing customes and duties of monie, pardoning
offenses, forfeitures, and other such like, but all would not auaile
him. The king of England had so woon them by the meanes of the said
Iaques van Arteueld, that in the end Iohn archbishop of Canturburie, &
Richard the bishop of Durham, came into Flanders as ambassadors from
king Edward, and trauelled so earnestlie to draw the Flemings vnto
an amitie with their master king Edward, that finallie a league was
concluded betwixt the countrie of Flanders, and the said king at Gant,
in the presence of the earle of Gelderland, as then being there. The
chéefe authors of this league were the said Iaques van Arteueld, and a
noble man of Flanders, called Siger de Curtrey.

[Sidenote: The Fullers of Gant.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders fléeth into France.]

[Sidenote: He returneth home.]

[Sidenote: Dixmue.]

[Sidenote: He eftsoones fléeth.]

But this Siger being immediatlie after apprehended by the earle of
Flanders, was put to death. Which act procured the earle so much hatred
of the people, that shortlie after comming to Bruges, and attempting
to force the towne to his will, he was forced himselfe to flée from
thence, for otherwise he had béene either taken or slaine; the commons
of the towne & namelie the fullers, of whome he had slaine some there
in the stréets, rose so fast vpon him. Herevpon fléeing home to his
house, he tooke his wife, and a sonne which he had, and fled with them
into France, so forsaking his countrie which was now gouerned by Iaques
van Arteueld, as though he had béene immediatlie lord thereof. After
this, the earle returned home againe, as it were with the French kings
commission, to persuade the Flemings to renounce the league concluded
with the king of England: but he could bring nothing to passe, but was
still in danger to haue béene arrested and staied of his owne subiects,
both at Gant and in other places, but namelie at Dixmue, where if he
had not made the more hast awaie, he had béene taken by them of Bruges.
Amongst other of his stuffe which he left behind him in that hastie
departure, his signet was forgotten, and not missed till he came to
saint Omers, whither he fled for his safegard.

[Sidenote: Flanders wholie at the deuotion of K. Edward.]

[Sidenote: K. Edward saileth to Antwerpe.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The marques of Gulikerland.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Gelderland created duke.]

Thus we may perceiue that Flanders rested wholie at king Edwards
commandement, who to establish amitie also with the duke of Brabant,
and other princes of the empire, about the middest of Iulie sailed
ouer vnto Antwerpe, with his wife quéene, Philip his sonne the prince
of Wales, and a great number of other of the péeres and barons of his
realme, where he was most ioifullie receiued of the duke of Brabant,
and other lords of the empire. There was sent to the emperour to
procure his fréendship, from the king of England, the marques of Gulike
with certeine noble men of England, and also certeine of the duke of
Gelderland his councell, the which marques was made at that time an
earle, & the earle of Gelderland was made duke. This duke of Gelderland
named Reginald had married the ladie Isabell sister of king Edward,
and therefore in fauour of the king his brother in law, trauelled most
earnestlie to procure him all the fréends within the empire that he
could make.

[Sidenote: K. Edwards confederates.]

[Sidenote: Lionell that was after duke of Clarance borne.]

The princes and lords then with whom king Edward was alied and
confederated at that time, I find to be these; the dukes of Brabant
and Gelderland, the archbishop of Cullen, the marquesse of Gulike, sir
Arnold de Baquehen, and the lord of Valkenburgh, who all promised to
defie the French king, in the king of Englands quarrell, and to serue
him with notable numbers of men, where and whensoeuer it should please
him to appoint. The aliance of the earle of Heinault first procured the
king of England all these fréends, vnto the which earle he had sent
ouer the bishop of Lincolne and other in ambassage, immediatlie after
that he had resolued to make warres against France, by the counsell and
aduise of sir Robert Dartois, as in the French historie more plainlie
appeareth. In this meane season was quéene Philip brought to bed at
Antwerpe of hir third sonne, which was named Lionell. ¶ The king of
England earnestlie followed his businesse, and had manie treaties with
his fréends and confederats, till at length he made sure to him the
fréendship of all those townes & countries, which lie betwixt France
and the riuer of Rhene: onelie the cities of Tournie and Cambrie held
of the French kings part, though Cambrie belonged to the empire.

[Sidenote: Additions to _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: A parlement at Northampton.]

[Sidenote: A subsidie vpon wooll.]

[Sidenote: The cleargie granteth a tenth.]

[Sidenote: Great raine.]

[Sidenote: 1339.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 13.]

In this twelfth yeare of king Edwards reigne at a councell holden at
Northampton by the duke of Cornewall, lord warden of England in absence
of the king his brother, and by manie of the prelats and barons of
the realme, there was granted to the king a subsidie in wooll, to the
great burthen of the commons: but for so much as the cleargie of the
land was not present at that councell, it was ordeined that they should
be called, and so they assembled in a conuocation at London the first
day of October, in which the cleargie granted to the king a tenth for
the third yeare then to come, ouer and besides the two tenths before
granted, and that the tenth of this present yeare should be paid in
shorter time than it was appointed: but they flatlie denied to grant
their wools, which neuerthelesse the laitie paid, and that to their
great hinderance, for it rose double to a fiftéene. From the beginning
of October, to the beginning of December this yeare, fell such
abundance of raine that it hindered greatlie the husbandmen in sowing
of their winter corne: and in the beginning of December came such a
vehement frost continuing the space of twelue wéeks, that it destroied
vp all the séed almost that was sowne, by reason whereof small store
of winter corne came to proofe in the summer following: but though
there was no plentie, yet all kinds of graine were sold at a reasonable
price, through want of monie.

[Sidenote: The Frenchmen inuade ye coasts of this land.]

[Sidenote: Plimmouth burnt.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Deuonshire.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

The Frenchmen by sea sore troubled the sea coasts of this realme,
speciallie where the champion countries stretch towards the sea coasts.
At Hastings in the feast of Corpus Christi, they burnt certeine
fishermens houses, and slue some of the inhabitants. Also in the hauens
about Deuonshire and Cornewall, and towards Bristow, they tooke and
burnt certeine ships, killing the mariners that came to their hands,
and in the Whitsunwéeke they landed at Plimmouth, and burnt the more
part of the towne: but Hugh Courtnie earle of Deuonshire, a man almost
fourescore yeares of age, and other knights and men of the countrie
came against these Frenchmen, sleaing such as came into their hands to
the number of fiue hundred, as was estéemed, and chased the residue. ¶
The Scots also about the same time did much hurt and great mischéefe to
the Englishmen both by sea and land.

[Sidenote: William Dowglas.]

[Sidenote: _Hect. Boetius._]

[Sidenote: A floud.]

In the beginning of Iulie the lord William Dowglas, with a number of
men of warre, returned from France home into England, and to him vpon
his returne the castell of Cowper was deliuered, with all the countrie
thereabouts. After this, comming to the siege of S. Iohns towne, which
the gouernour the earle of Murrey, the erle of March, Patrike de
Dunbarre, and other of the Scotish lords had besieged, at length it
was surrendered by sir Thomas Vthred capiteine there of the English
garison, departing in safetie home into England. Thrée daies before the
feast of the Assumption of our ladie, there chanced in the night season
such a mightie and sudden inundation of water at Newcastell vpon Tine,
that it bare downe a péece of the towne wall, six perches in length,
néere to a place called Walknow, where a hundred and twentie temporall
men with diuerse préests and manie women were drowned and lamentablie
perished.

[Sidenote: C[=o]missioners sent to treat of peace.]

[Sidenote: They cannot agrée.]

[Sidenote: Cambrie besieged.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: The king raiseth his siege and entreth into France.
Flaminguerie.]

But now to returne to the king, which all this while remained in
Brabant. Ye haue heard how the citie of Cambrie held with the French
king: wherefore the K. of England, assembling togither a mightie strong
armie aswell of Englishmen as of the low countries of Dutchland, ment
to besiege it, but first he sent the archbishop of Canturburie with the
bishops of Lincolne and Durham vnto Arras, as commissioners from him
to méet there with the archbishop of Rouen, and the bishops of Langres
and Beauuais, appointed to come thither as commissioners from the
French king, to treat with the Englishmen of a peace, but they could
not agrée vpon anie conclusion, wherevpon king Edward, comming forward
with his power, approached to Cambrie, and planted his siege round
about it. But the bishop not meaning to deliuer the citie vnto king
Edward nor vnto anie other that should demand it to the behoofe of the
emperour Ludouike of Bauiere, as then excommunicated of the pope, had
receiued into the towne fiue thousand Frenchmen, with the French kings
eldest sonne, the duke of Normandie latelie returned out of Guien, and
the lord Theobald Maruise, with certeine companies of Sauoisins, so
that the citie was so defended, that the king of England perceiuing
he should but lose time, leuied his siege, and entred into France,
pitching his field at a place called Flaminguerie.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: Southampt[=o] burnt.]

[Sidenote: Two English ships taken.]

In the meane time had the French king not onelie made himselfe strong
by land, but also by sea, hauing sent foorth a strong nauie of
ships and gallies towards the coasts of England, which arriuing at
Southampton the mondaie after Michaelmas day, tooke and spoiled the
towne, and the morrow after set fire vpon it in fiue places, so that a
great part of it was burnt. Also thirtéene sailes of the French fléet
met with fiue English ships, and after a sore fight which continued
nine houres, tooke two of those fiue being tall and goodlie ships, the
one called the Edward, and the other the Christopher; the other thrée
being smaller vessels, as two of them barks and the other a caruell
escaped by their swiftnesse of sailing. There was slaine in that fight
vpon both parts about the number of six hundred men.

[Sidenote: The French kings armie.]

[Sidenote: _Iacob Meir._]

[Sidenote: Townes burnt by the Englishmen in France.]

[Sidenote: The towne of Guise burnt.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Heinault.]

The French king himselfe hearing that the king of England would inuade
his realme, made his generall assemblie of his armie at Peronne; and
when he heard that he was entred France, he remooued towards him with
his whole power, being at the point of an hundred thousand men, as in
the French chronicle yée may read more at large. The king of England
had not past thréescore thousand in his armie at the most: but whilest
he laie there vpon the borders of France, his people did much hurt,
making roads abroad beyond the water of Some, burning and spoiling
abbies, towns, and villages, as Orignie, saint Benoit, Ribemont in
Thierasse, saint Gouan, Marle, and Cressie. Also the lord Beaumont of
Heinault burnt the towne of Guise, though his daughter was as then
within the same towne wife vnto Lewes earle of Blois: his brother
William earle of Heinault was latelie before deceassed, leauing the
earledome to his sonne named also William, who continued with the
king of England so long as he laie before Cambrie, & kept him within
the bounds of the empire, as though his allegiance had bound him to
no lesse, but after the said king was passed the riuer of Lescault,
otherwise called the Skell, and in Latine Scaldis, which diuideth the
empire from the kingdome of France, he would no longer serue the king
of England, but departed from him for feare to offend the French king,
accounting that the matter perteined not now to the empire, but to the
priuate quarell and businesse of the king of England: notwithstanding
his vncle the said sir Iohn like a faithfull gentleman continued still
in king Edward his seruice.

[Sidenote: The armies approch néere togither.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Robert king of Sicill dissuadeth the French king to fight
with the king of England.]

[Sidenote: The armies retire without battell.]

The two armies of England and France approched within foure miles
togither, so that euerie man thought that there would sure haue béene
battell betwixt them, as there had béene in déed, if the French king
had béene willing; yet some saie, that he of himselfe was disposed
thereto: but his councellors aduised him to the contrarie, by reason
of certeine signs and tokens which they misliked, as the starting of
an hare amongst them, and such like. Also it was said that Robert king
of Naples being then come into France, whose knowledge in astronomie
was knowne to be great, dissuaded the French king by his letters,
that in no wise he should fight with the king of England, for he had
vnderstanding by art of the heauenlie influences and disposition of the
bodies aboue, that if the French king fought with this Edward king of
England, he should assuredlie be put to the worsse. Whether this was
the cause, or anie other, sure it is that the Frenchmen had no mind
to fight, so that these two mightie armies departed in sunder without
battell, and the king of England returned into Flanders, sorie in déed
that he had not with him halfe the number that the French king had, yet
in trust of the valiancie of his souldiers, chosen out of the pikedst
men through England and all the low countrie on this side the Rhene, he
ment verelie to haue incountered his enimies, if they had come forward.

[Sidenote: A councell at Brussels.]

[Sidenote: The moti[=o] of the Flemings to haue the K. of England to
take vpon him the title to the crowne of France.]

At his comming backe into Brabant, there was a councell called at
Brussels, where were present all those lords of the empire which had
béene with him in that iournie, as the dukes of Brabant, Gelderland,
and Gulike, the marques of Blankbourgh, the earle of Bergen, the lord
Beaumont of Heinault otherwise called sir Iohn de Heinault, the lord
of Valkenbourgh, and manie others. Thither came also Iaques Arteueld
chéefe gouernour of Flanders. Here in councell taken how the king of
England might best mainteine the wars which he had begun thus against
the French king, he was aduised that he should in anie wise require
them of Flanders to aid him and in his quarell to defie the French
king, and to go with him against the said French king, and if they
would thus doo, then should he promise them to recouer and deliuer
into their hands the towns of Lisle, Dowaie, and Bethon. The king of
England, according to this aduise to him giuen, made such request to
the Flemings, who therevpon desired time to consult togither, what they
might doo therein, and finallie they declared for answer, that they
would gladlie so doo, but yet whereas they were bound by faith and oth,
and in the summe of two millians of florens in the popes chamber, not
to make nor mooue any warre against the king of France, whosoeuer he
were, on paine to lose that summe, and beside to run in the sentence of
cursing, they besought him, that it might stand with his pleasure, to
take vpon him the title and armes of France, as the same apperteined to
him of right, and then would they obey him as rightfull K. of France,
and require of him acquittances in discharge of their bonds, and he to
pardon them thereof, as rightfull king of France.

[Sidenote: The kings answer to the Flemings.]

[Sidenote: These towns had béene ingaged to the king of Fr[=a]ce for
monie.]

[Sidenote: The quartering of the armes of England & France.]

The king of England, though he had iust cause to claime the crowne of
France, in right of his mother quéene Isabell, yet to take vpon him
the name and armes of that realme, before he had made conquest of any
part thereof, he thought it stood not with much reason: but yet after
he had caused the matter to be throughlie debated amongst them of his
councell, as well to satisfie the Flemings, as for other respects, he
saw it should be the best waie that might be taken to the aduancement
of his purpose. Then he answered the Flemings, that if they would
sweare, and seale to this accord, and promise to mainteine his warre,
he would be contented to fulfill their desire, and also he promised
to get for them againe the townes of Lisle, Dowaie, and Bethune.
Herevpon was a day assigned to méet at Gant: the king came thither,
and the most part of the said lords, and all the councellors of the
good townes & places in Flanders were there assembled, and so all the
foresaid matters were rehearsed, sworne, and sealed, and the armes of
France were then quartered with those of England, and from thenceforth
he tooke vpon him the name of king of France, in all his writings,
proclamations, and commandements. This is noted by Christopher Okland,
where speaking of the mingling of the French and English armes, he
saith amongst other things,

[Sidenote: _In Angl. prælijs sub Edwardo 3._]

    ---- vt hæres
    Legitimus regni Celtarum, insignia gentis
    Ille suis immiscet atrox, quòd auunculus orbus
    Carolus è vita ad superas migrauerat oras, &c.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The issue of Philip le Beau.]

[Sidenote: Lewes Hutine.]

[Sidenote: Philip le Long.]

[Sidenote: Charles le Beau.]

¶ Sith then that we be come to this place, it shall not be much amisse
to rehearse somewhat of the right and title whereby king Edward did
thus claime the crowne of France, hauing of purpose omitted to speak
thereof, till now that he intituled himselfe with the name, & tooke
vpon him to beare the armes also of France, vpon occasion before
expressed. It is well knowne that Philip le Beau king of France had
issue by his wife quéene Ione thrée sons, Lewis surnamed Hutine, Philip
le Long, and Charles le Beau; also two daughters, the one dieng in hir
infancie, and the other named Isabell liued, and was maried vnto Edward
the second of that name king of England, who begot of hir this Edward
the third, that made this claime. The thrée sonnes of the foresaid
Philip le Beau reigned ech after other, as kings of France. First after
Philip the father, succéeded his eldest sonne Lewes Hutine, who had
issue by his first wife Margaret, daughter to Robert duke of Burgogne,
a daughter named Ione, the which was anon giuen in mariage vnto Lewes
earle of Eureux: but she liuing not long, died without issue. Hir
father the said Lewes Hutine married after the deceasse of his first
wife, an other wife named Clemence, daughter to Charles Martell, the
father of K. Robert of Sicill, whom he left great with child when he
died. The child being borne proued a son, & was named Iohn, but liued
not manie daies after. Then Philip the Long was admitted vnto the
crowne of France, though manie stood in opinion that Ione the daughter
of Lewes Hutine, which yet was aliue, ought to haue inherited the
kingdome after hir father: and namelie Odo duke of Burgogne, vncle to
the said Ione, was most earnest in that matter, in fauour of his néece.
But might ouercame right, so that he was constreined to be quiet.
Philip le Long, after he had reigned fiue yeares, died also, and left
no issue behind him. Then lastlie Charles le Beau tooke vpon him the
kingdome, and the seuenth yeare after died, his wife big bellied, which
shortlie after brought foorth a maiden named Blanch, that streightwaies
hasting to follow hir father, liued no while in this world. By this
means then the bloud roiall in the heires male of Philip le Beau was
extinguished in his sonne the foresaid Charles le Beau, whereof the
contention tooke beginning about the right to the crowne of France,
betwixt the Frenchmen and Englishmen, which hangeth as yet vndecided
till these our daies. For king Edward auerred that the kingdome of
France apperteined vnto him as lawfull heire, bicause that he alone was
remaining of the kings stocke, and touched his mothers father Philip le
Beau, in the next degrée of consanguinitie, as he that was borne of his
daughter Isabell.

[Sidenote: King Edward signifieth his right to the crowne of France.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Mair._]

[Sidenote: King Edward tooke vpon him the title & armes of the K. of
France.]

[Sidenote: The Flemings swere fealtie to the king of England.]

Therefore immediatlie after the deceasse of the said Charles le Beau,
by ambassadours sent vnto the péeres of France, he published to
them his right, requiring that they would admit him king according
therevnto: but his ambassadours could neuer be quietlie heard, and
therefore returned home without anie towardlie answer, which mooued
him in the end to attempt the recouerie of his lawfull inheritance
by force, sith by law he could not preuaile, and now by aduise of
his fréends to take vpon him both the title and armes of France,
to signifie to the world what right he had to the same. After that
this league therefore was concluded with them of Flanders, and that
king Edward had taken vpon him the name of king of France with the
armes; the duke of Gelderland and Iaques van Arteueld went vnto all
the good townes and iurisdictions of Flanders, to receiue their oths
of fidelitie vnto king Edward, persuading with the people, that the
supreme rule belonged vnto him, sauing to the townes their ancient
lawes and liberties, and to their earle his right of proprietie.

[Sidenote: Additions to _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Iohn of Gaunt borne.]

About the latter end of this thirtéenth yeare of K. Edwards reigne,
the mariners and sea-men of the cinque ports, getting them aboord into
a number of small ships and balingers, well trimmed and appointed for
the purpose, passed ouer to Bullongne, where they tooke land one day
in a thicke foggie weather, and setting on the Base towne, they burnt
ninetéene gallies, foure great ships, and to the number of twentie
smaller vessels, togither with their tackle and furniture. They set
fire also on the houses that stood néere to the water side, and namelie
they burnt one great house, wherein laie such a number of oares,
sailes, armour, and crossebowes, as might haue sufficed to furnish so
manie men as could be well aboord in ninetéene gallies. There were
manie slaine on both parts in atchiuing this enterprise, but more of
the Frenchmen than of the Englishmen. About the same time the quéene of
England was deliuered of hir fourth sonne in the towne of Gaunt, the
which was named Iohn, first created earle of Richmond, and after duke
of Lancaster. He was borne about Christmasse, in the thirtéenth yere of
king Edwards reigne.

[Sidenote: 1340.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 14.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marl._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: A subsidie.]

When king Edward had finished his businesse with the Flemings at
Gaunt, he left his wife quéene Philip there still in that towne, and
returned himselfe vnto Antwerpe, and shortlie after about the feast of
Candlemasse tooke the sea, and came backe into England, to prouide for
monie to mainteine his begun warres. And herevpon about the time of
Lent following, he called his high court of parlement at Westminster,
in the which he asked of his commons towards his charges, for the
recouerie of his right in France, the fift part of their mooueable
goods, the customes of wools for two yeares to be paid aforehand,
and the ninth sheafe of euerie mans corne. At length it was agréed,
that the king should haue for euerie sacke of wooll fortie shillings,
for euerie thrée hundred wooll fels fortie shillings, and for euerie
last of leather fortie shillings, and for other merchandize after the
rate; to begin at the feast of Easter, in this fouretéenth yeare of
the kings reigne, and to indure till the feast of Pentecost, then next
following, and from that feast till the feast of Pentecost then next
insuing into one yeare: for which the king granted, that from the feast
of Pentecost, which was then to come into one yeare, he nor his heires
should not demand assesse, nor take, nor suffer to be assessed or
taken, more custome of a sacke of wooll of any Englishman, but halfe a
marke, and vpon the wooll fels and leather the old former custome.

[Sidenote: The citie of London lendeth the king monie.]

Beside this, the citizens and burgesses of cities and good townes,
granted to giue the ninth part of all their goods; and the forren
merchants and other not liuing of gaine, nor of bréeding cattell, nor
of shéepe, should giue the fiftéenth part of all their goods lawfullie
to the value: for the which he granted that as well now in time of
warre as of peace, all merchants, denizens and forreiners (those
excepted that were of the enimies countries) might without let safelie
come into the realme of England with their goods and merchandize, and
safelie tarie, and likewise returne, paieng the customs, subsidies, and
profits, resonable thereof due, so alwaies that the franchises and frée
customs granted by him or his predecessours reasonablie to the citie
of London, and other cities, burroughes, and townes, might alwaies to
them be saued. Moreouer, there was granted vnto him the ninth sheafe,
the ninth fléece, and the ninth lambe, to be taken by two yeares next
comming. And for the leuieng thereof, the lords of euerie shire through
the land, were appointed to answer him, euerie one for the circuit
within the which he dwelled. And bicause the king must néeds occupie
much monie yer the receit of this subsidie could come to his hands, he
borowed in the meane time manie notable summes of diuerse cities, and
particular persons of this land, amongst the which he borrowed of the
citie of London 20000 marks, to be paied againe of the monie comming of
the foresaid subsidie.

[Sidenote: The frontiers of France full of men of warre.]

[Sidenote: The towne of Asper burnt.]

[Sidenote: The erle of Heinault defieth the Fr[=e]ch king.]

[Sidenote: Townes burnt in Thierasse.]

In the meane while, now that king Edward was come backe into England,
the warres were hotlie pursued against his fréends, that had their
lands néere to the borders of France, and namelie against sir Iohn
de Heinault lord Beaumont, for the Frenchmen burned all his lands of
Chimaie, except the fortresses, and tooke from thence a great preie.
All the frontiers were full of men of warre, lodged within townes in
garrison, as at Tournie, Mortaigne, S. Amond, Dowaie, Cambrie, and in
other smaller fortresses. These men of warre laie not idle, but were
dooing oftentimes in Flanders, and sometime otherwhere, neither was
the countrie of Heinault spared, though the earle (as yée haue heard)
did not onelie refuse to serue the king of England against France, but
also when the same king entred France, he resorted to the French king,
and serued him; yet by the suggestion of the bishop of Cambrie, who
complained of the Hainuiers, for the damages which they had doone him,
the French garrisons of the frontiers thereabouts were commanded to
make a road into that countrie, which they did, burning the towne of
Asper, and brought from thence a great bootie. The earle of Heinault
sore mooued therewith to haue his lands so spoiled and burnt, defied
the French king, and ioining with his vncle the lord Beaumont, entred
with an armie into Thierasse, tooke & destroied Aubenton, with Mawbert,
Fonteine, Daubecuille, and diuerse other.

[Sidenote: Flanders interdicted.]

[Sidenote: _Ad. Merim._]

[Sidenote: _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: _Iac. Meir._]

[Sidenote: The earles of Salisburie & Suffolke taken.]

[Sidenote: The countrie of Heinault inuaded.]

In this meane time the French king procured the pope to pronounce his
cursse against the Flemings for their rebellion, and to suspend all
diuine seruice that ought to be said in anie hallowed place, so that
there were no priests to be found that would take vpon them to saie any
diuine seruice: wherevpon the Flemings sent ouer into England certeine
messengers to giue notice to king Edward how they were intreated, but
he sent them word that he would bring at his comming ouer vnto them,
priests that should saie masses and other seruice, whether the pope
would or not, for he had priuilege so to doo. ¶ In Aprill, William
Melton archbishop of Yorke departed this life, after whome variance
rose in the election of a new gouernour to that church, so that two
were elected, William la Zouch and William Killesbie: but at length
William la Zouch tooke place, being the 43 archbishop that had sit in
that seat. ¶ The earles of Salisburie and Suffolke, which were left in
Flanders by king Edward to helpe the Flemings, shortlie after Ester, or
(as other haue) in the time of Lent, were discomfited by the garrison
of Lisle, and taken prisoners as they would haue passed by that towne,
to haue ioined with Iaques Arteueld, meaning to besiege Tournie; but
now by the taking of those two earles that enterprise was broken. The
duke of Normandie with a great armie entred into Heinault, burning and
wasting the countrie, euen to the gates of Valenciennes and Quesnoy.
And thus were they occupied in those parts, whilest the king of England
prepared himselfe with all diligence to returne into Flanders.

[Sidenote: _Gaguin._]

[Sidenote: A great nauie prepared by the French king.]

[Sidenote: The king of England taketh the sea.]

The French king being aduertised, that the king of England meant
shortlie to returne into Flanders with a great power, in purpose to
inuade the realme of France on that side, assembled a nauie of foure
hundred ships vnder the leading of thrée expert capteins of the warres
by sea, as sir Hugh Kiriell, sir Peter Bahuchet, and a Geneweis named
Barbe Noir, appointing them to the coasts of Flanders to defend the
king of England from landing there, if by any meanes they might. These
thrée capteins or admerals came and laie with their ships in the hauen
of Sluise, for that it was supposed the king of England would arriue
there, as his meaning was indéed, wherevpon when his men, ships, and
prouisions were once readie in the moneth of Iune, he tooke the sea
with two hundred saile, and directing his course towards Flanders,
there came vnto him the lord Robert Morley, with the north nauie of
England, so that then he had in all about thrée hundred saile, or (as
other saie) two hundred and thrée score.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: The king of England setteth vpon his enimies.]

[Sidenote: Additions to Triuet.]

[Sidenote: The victorie of the Englishmen at the battell of Sluise.]

The French nauie laie betwixt Sluise and Blancbergh, so that when the
king of England approched, either part descried other, & therewith
prepared them to battell. The king of England staied, till the sunne
which at the first was in his face, came somewhat westward, and so
had it vpon his backe, that it should not hinder the sight of his
people, and so therewith did set vpon his enimies with great manhood,
who likewise verie stoutlie incountered him, by reason whereof insued
a sore and deadlie fight betwixt them. The nauies on both sides
were diuided into thrée battels. On the English part, the earles of
Glocester, Northampton and Huntington, who was admerall of the fléet
that belonged to the cinque ports, and the lord Robert Morley admerall
of the northerne nauie had the guiding of the fore ward, bearing
themselues right valiantlie, so that at length the Englishmen hauing
the aduantage, not onlie of the sunne, but also of the wind and tide,
so fortunatlie, that the French fléet was driuen into the streights of
the hauen, in such wise that neither the souldiers nor mariners could
helpe themselues, in somuch that both heauen, sea, and wind, séemed
all to haue conspired against the Frenchmen. And herewith manie ships
of Flanders ioining themselues with the English fléet, in the end the
Frenchmen were vanquished, slaine and taken, their ships being also
either taken, bowged, or broken.

[Sidenote: Additions to _Triuet_ & _Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: The Iames of Déepe.]

[Sidenote: Barbenoir.]

[Sidenote: _Gaguin._]

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: _R. Southw._]

[Sidenote: The number slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

When night was come vpon them, there were thirtie French ships, that
yet had not entred the battell, the which sought by couert of the night
to haue stolne awaie, and one of them being a mightie great vessell,
called the Iames of Déepe, would haue taken awaie with hir a ship of
Sandwich that belonged to the prior of Canturburie: but by the helpe of
the earle of Huntington, after they had fought all the night till the
next morning, the Englishmen at length preuailed, and taking that great
huge ship of Déepe, found in hir aboue foure hundred dead bodies. To
conclude, verie few of the French ships escaped, except some of their
smaller vessels, and certeine gallies with their admerall Barbenoir,
who in the beginning of the battell got foorth of the hauen, aduising
the other capteins to doo the like, thereby to auoid the danger which
they wilfullie imbraced. There died in this battell fought (as some
write) on midsummer daie, in the yeare aforesaid, of Frenchmen to the
number of 30000, of Englishmen about 4000, or (as other haue that liued
in those daies) not past 400, amongst whom there were foure knights of
great nobilitie, as sir Thomas Monhermere, sir Thomas Latimer, sir Iohn
Boteler, and sir Thomas Poinings.

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: The king goeth to Gant.]

It is said also, that the king himselfe was hurt in the thigh. The two
English ships that had béene taken the yéere before, the Edward and
the Christopher, were recouered at this time, amongst other of the
French ships that were taken there. ¶ Sir Peter Bahuchet was hanged
vpon a crosse pole fastened to a mast of one of the ships. Through the
wilfulnesse of this man, the Frenchmen receiued this losse (as the
French chronicles report) bicause he kept the nauie so long within the
hauen, till they were so inclosed by the Englishmen that a great number
of the Frenchmen could neuer come to strike stroke, nor to vse the
shot of their artillerie, but to the hurt of their fellows. Howsoeuer
it was, the Englishmen got a famous victorie, to the great comfort of
themselues, and discomfort of their aduersaries. ¶ The king of England,
after he had thus vanquished his enimies, remained on the sea by the
space of thrée daies, and then comming on land, went to Gant, where he
was receiued of the quéene with great ioy and gladnesse.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The riuer of Lestault, or the Scelle.]

In this meane while had the duke of Normandie besieged the castell
of Thuine Leuesques, néere to Cambrie, which was taken by sir Walter
of Mannie, a lord of Heinault, at the first beginning of the warres,
and euer since till that time kept to the king of England his vse.
The earle of Heinault, who had béene of late both in England with
king Edward, and also in Almaine with the emperour, to purchase their
assistance for the defense of his countrie against the inuasions of the
Frenchmen, was now returned home, and meaning to rescue such as were
besieged in Thuine, sent for succours into Flanders, and into Almaine,
and in the meane time leuieng such power as he could make with his owne
countrie, came therewith to Valenciennes, whither foorthwith resorted
vnto him the earle of Namure with two hundred speares, the duke of
Brabant with six hundred, the duke of Gelderland, the earle of Bergen,
the lord of Valkenburgh, and diuerse other, the which togither with
the earle of Heinault went and lodged alongst by the riuer of Lestault
ouer against the French host, which kept siege (as ye haue heard) vnder
the conduct of the duke of Normandie before Thuine Leuesques, that is
situate vpon the same riuer.

[Sidenote: The Flemings.]

[Sidenote: Sir Richard Limosin.]

[Sidenote: The armies brake vp.]

There came also to the aid of the earle of Heinault Iaques Arteueld,
with his thrée score thousand Flemings. Now it was thought that they
would haue fought yer they had departed in sunder, but they did
not. For after it was knowne how the king of England was arriued in
Flanders, and had discomfited the French fléet, the duke of Brabant
and others thought good to breake vp their enterprise for that time,
and to resort vnto the king of England, to vnderstand what his purpose
was to doo. Neither were the Frenchmen hastie to giue battell, so that
after the capteins of Thuine Leuesques, sir Richard Limosin knight an
Englishman, and two esquiers, brethren to the erle of Namure, Iohn
and Thierrie, had left their fortresse void, and were come ouer the
riuer by boats vnto the earle of Heinaults campe, the armies on both
sides brake vp and departed, the Frenchmen into France, and the other
to Valenciennes, and from thence the princes and great lords drew to
Gaunt, to welcome the king of England into the countrie, of whome they
were right ioifullie receiued: and after they had communed togither of
their affaires, it was appointed by the king, that they should méet him
at Villefort in Brabant at a daie prefixed, where he would be readie
to consult with them about his procéedings in his warres against his
aduersaries the Frenchmen.

[Sidenote: The assemblie of the princes at Villeford.]

[Sidenote: The couen[=a]ts betwixt the K. of England & his
c[=o]federats.]

At the day appointed, there came to Villefort the dukes of Brabant,
and Gelderland, the earle of Heinault, Gulike, Namure, Blackenheim,
Bergen, sir Robert Dartois earle of Richmond, the earle of Valkenburgh,
and Iaques Arteueld, with the other rulers of Flanders, and manie
others. Here it was ordeined, that the countries of Flanders, Brabant,
and Heinault, should be so vnited and knit in one corporation, that
nothing should be doone amongst them in publike affaires, but by common
consent, and if anie warres were mooued against anie of them, then
should the other be readie to aid them, against whome anie such warre
was mooued: and if vpon anie occasion anie discord rose betwixt them
for anie matter, they should make an end of it amongst themselues;
and if they could not, then should they stand to the iudgement and
arbitrement of the king of England, vnto whome they bound themselues by
oth to kéepe this ordinance and agréement.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Tournie furnished with a strong power of men.]

[Sidenote: Tournie besieged.]

The French king being informed that the king of England ment to laie
siege vnto Tournie, as it was indéed deuised at this councell holden at
Villefort, tooke order for the furnishing thereof with men, munition,
and vittels in most defensible wise. There were sent to that towne
the best men of warre in all France, as the earle of Ewe constable of
France, the yoong earle of Guines his sonne, the earle of Foiz and
his brethren, the earle Amerie de Narbon, with manie other, hauing
with them foure thousand souldiers. Sir Godmar du Foie was there
before as capteine of the towne, so that it was prouided of all things
necessarie. Howbeit, the king of England (according as it was appointed
at the councell holden at Villefort, about the feast of Marie Magdalen)
departed from Gaunt, and came to Tournie, hauing with him seauen earles
of his owne countrie, as Darbie, Penbroke, Hereford, Huntingdon,
Northampton, Glocester, and Arundell, eight prelats, eight and twentie
baronets, two hundred knights, foure thousand men of armes, and nine
thousand archers, besides other footmen. He lodged at the gate called
saint Martine, in the waie that is toward Lisle and Dowaie.

[Sidenote: The great number of people at the siege of Tournie.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Richmond.]

Anon after came the dukes of Brabant and Gelderland, the earle of
Gulike, the marquesse of Blanqueburgh, the marquesse of Musse, the
earls of Bergen, Sauines, and Heinault: also Iaques Arteueld, who
brought with him about fortie thousand Flemings. So that there was at
this siege to the number of six score thousand men, as some writers
affirme. There was also an other armie of Flemings, as of the townes
of Ypres, Popringue, Furnes, Cassell, of the Chateleinie, & of Bergis,
being to the number of fortie thousand, appointed to make warre against
the Frenchmen that kept saint Omers, and other townes there on the
frontiers of Arthois, which armie was led by the earle of Richmond,
otherwise called the lord Robert Dartois, and by sir Henrie de
Flanders, the which approching one day to saint Omers, were sharplie
fought with; for within saint Omers at that time laie a strong power of
Frenchmen with the duke of Burgoine, the earle of Arminacke and others.

[Sidenote: The Frenchmen set vpon ye Flemings.]

[Sidenote: The variable fortune of fights.]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Adam Merimuth._]

The Flemings were not willing to serue, for neither had they any
trust in their capteine the said erle of Richmond, neither would
they willinglie haue passed out of their owne confines, but onlie to
defend the same from the inuasion of their enimies: yet through much
persuasion, forward they went, diuided into sundrie battels contrarie
to their manner. The enimies perceiuing some aduantage, issued forth
vpon them, and assailed them verie stoutlie, insomuch that the earle of
Arminacke setting vpon them of Ypres, ouerthrew them, and chased them
vnto a towne called Arques, which they had a little before set on fire
and burned. An other companie of Frenchmen, skirmishing with them of
Franks, Furnes, and Bergis, put them also to the worse. Contrarilie,
those Frenchmen that encountered with the lord Robert Dartois, and them
of Bruges whome he led, susteined great losse, and were beaten backe
into the citie: the duke of Burgoine himselfe being in no small danger
for a time, so sharpe the bickering was betwixt them, and the euent so
variable. Wherefore it is notablie and fitlie said in this behalfe, that

[Sidenote: _Sil. Ital. lib. 6._]

    ---- incerti fallax fiducia Martis.

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Vthred.]

There be that write, that this fight continued from thrée of the clocke
till euentide, and that the earle of Richmond was twise put to flight,
for his people did leaue him in the plaine field: but at length by the
aduise of sir Thomas Vthred, whome the king of England had appointed to
attend the said earle, with manie Englishmen and archers, he assembled
his people eftsoones togither againe, and setting on his enimies.
Now when it was almost night, néere to the gates of saint Omers, he
finallie ouercame them, where were slaine of the French part fiftéene
barons and fourescore knights, beside a great number of other people.
Diuerse also were slaine on the earle of Richmonds part at this last
encounter, and among other an English knight, that bare armes eschecked
siluer and gules.

[Sidenote: The earle of Richmond in danger to be slaine.]

Finallie, as the earle of Richmond returned towards his campe, which
laie in the vale of Cassell, he met with certeine Artesines and
Frenchmen, which had béene chasing the other Flemings, and though it
was late in the euening, that one could not take good view of an other,
yet here they fought againe, and so diuerse of the Frenchmen were
taken and killed, and amongst other that were caught, was a knight of
Burgoine, named sir William de Nillie. But when the earle of Richmond
and those that were with him came to the place where the campe laie,
they found that all the residue of the Flemings were fled and gone. And
when the said earle came to Cassell, the people were readie to haue
slaine him, their former malice towards him being now much increased
with the euill successe of this passed enterprise, so that he was glad
to get him thence, and to repaire vnto king Edward, that laie yet at
the siege before Tournie, during which siege manie proper feats of
armes were doone betwixt those within and them without: for few daies
passed without the atchiuing of some enterprise.

[Sidenote: The great armie raised by the French king.]

Also the French king, hauing made his assemblie at Arras, and got
thither a mightie host, as well out of the empire as of his owne
subiects, came and lodged at the bridge of Bouuins, thrée leagues from
Tournie. There were with him the king of Bohem, the duke of Lorreine,
the bishop of Mentz, the earles of Bar, mount Belliard, & Sauoie, also
the dukes of Burgogne and Burbone, with a great number of other earles
and lords, so that the greatest puissance of all France was iudged to
be there with the king. Whilest he laie incamped thus at Bouuins, and
the king of England at Tournie, manie exploits were atchiued betwixt
their people, who laie not idle, but still rode abroad and oftentimes
met, and then that part which was weakest paied for the others
charges, so that manie were slaine & taken on both sides as well of
the nobilitie as other. Also diuerse townes were sacked and burned on
the frontiers of France, during this siege at Tournie, namelie at the
pursuit of the earle of Heinault, as Seclin, S. Amond, Orchies, Landas,
and other.

[Sidenote: The ladie Iane de Valois treateth for a peace.]

[Sidenote: A truce accorded.]

At length at the suit of the ladie Iane de Valois, sister to the French
king, and mother to the earle of Heinault, trauelling still betwixt
the parties to bring them vnto some accord, it was granted that either
partie should send certeine sufficient persons to intreat of the
matter, which should méet at a little chappell, standing in the fields
called Esplotin, and hereto also was a truce granted for thrée daies.
For the English part were appointed the duke of Brabant, the bishop of
Lincolne, the duke of Gelderland, the earle of Gulike, and sir Iohn de
Heinault lord Beaumont. For the French part, the king of Bohem, Charles
erle of Alanson brother to the French king, the bishop of Liege, the
earle of Flanders, and the earle of Arminacke: and the ladie of Valois
was still among them as a mediatrix, by whose meanes chéefelie they
at length did agrée vpon a truce to indure for a yeare betwéene all
parties and their men, and also betwéene them that were in Scotland, in
Gascoigne, and Poictou.

[Sidenote: The Flemings released of debts, and of the interdiction.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Restitution of townes to the king of England.]

[Sidenote: _Gaguin._]

It was agréed also by these commissioners, that there should other
commissioners of either part foure or fiue méet at Arras at a daie
appointed, and thither also should the pope send his legats, to treat
of a perpetuall peace and full agréement to be made betwixt the two
kings of England and France. There was also consideration had of the
Flemings, so that they were released of all such summes of monie as
they were by any bonds indangered to paie by forfeiture, or otherwise,
for any matter before that time vnto the crowne of France. Also they
were released of the interdiction and cursse of the church, and then
also was their earle restored home. It was further accorded, that the
French king should restore vnto the king of England certeine townes and
places in Guien, which in the beginning of these warres the earle of
Alanson had taken from the Englishmen, as Penne in Agenois, and others.
Also whereas the French king had seized the countie of Pontieu into
his hands, which was the dower of quéene Isabell, the mother of king
Edward, he should also restore the same vnto king Edward, to hold it as
he did before.

[Sidenote: The siege raised from Tournie.]

Herevpon was the siege raised from Tournie, after it had continued
there the space of ten wéekes and foure daies. They within stood in
great danger for lacke of vittels to haue béene constreined to the
surrendring of the towne, if this truce had not béene concluded, which
caused the French king the sooner to agrée, in like case as the lacke
of monie caused the king of England to take his truce, which otherwise
(as was thought) he would not haue doone: so that by the violent
constraint of necessitie they were forced thus to doo, against which
there is no trieng of maisteries, nor strugling to make it stoope and
obeie: for

    A necessitate omnia in seruitutem rediguntur.

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders feasteth the K. of England.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: The king goeth into Zealand.]

[Sidenote: Continuation of _Triuet._]

After he had raised his siege he went to Gant, and thither came also
the earle of Flanders being now restored home to his countrie, and made
the king of England great cheare, feasting and banketting him right
princelie, togither with the quéene. Finallie, after that king Edward
had refreshed himselfe a while at Gant, he tooke a verie few with him,
and came into Zealand; and there taking the seas to passe ouer into
England, he was sore tossed by force of outragious stormes of wind and
weather. Yet at length after thrée daies and thrée nights sailing, in
the night of the feast of saint Andrew, he came on land at the tower
of London about cocke-crowing, and with him the earle of Northampton,
the lord Walter de Mannie, the lord Iohn Darcie, the sonne of the lord
Iohn Beauchampe, Giles Beauchampe, with two chapleins that were his
secretaries, sir William Killesbie, and sir Philip Weston, beside a few
others.

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: Iudges and other officers committed to the tower.]

After his arriuall he sent for the bishop of Chichester that was lord
chancellor, for the bishop of Couentrie and Lichfield being lord
treasuror, and for such of the iudges as were then in London. The lord
chancellor and the lord treasuror he streightwaies discharged of their
offices, threatening to send them into Flanders, there to remaine
as pledges for monie that he there owght, or if they refused to go
thither, then to kéepe them prisoners in the towne. But when the bishop
of Chichester declared to him the danger of the canon established
against such as imprisoned bishops, he suffered them to depart: but the
iudges, to wit, Iohn de Stonore, Richard de Willoughbie, William de
Shareshull, and also Nicholas or (as other haue) Matthew de la Bech,
who was before gardian of his sonne, and lieutenant of the tower:
also Iohn de Pultnie, and William de Poole merchants; and the chiefe
clerkes of the chancerie, Iohn de saint Paule, Michaell de Wath, Henrie
de Stretford, and Robert de Chikewell; and of the escheker, Iohn de
Thorpe, and manie other, were committed to diuerse prisons, but yet
bicause they were committed but onelie vpon commandement, they were
within a while after deliuered.

[Sidenote: New officers made in place of other that were discharged.]

The lord Wake was also committed but shortlie after, he was deliuered
to his great honor, as Walsingham writeth. Robert de Bourchier was
made lord chancellor and Richard de Sadington lord treasuror: all the
shiriffes of shires, and other officers also were remooued, and other
put in their places, and iustices appointed in euerie shire, to inquire
vpon the defaults of collectors and other officers, so that few or
none escaped vnpunished, howsoeuer they had demeaned themselues, so
streictlie those iustices procéeded in their commissions. The king
indéed was sore offended with those whom he had put in trust to leuie
monie, and to sée it conueied ouer to him into the low countrie,
bicause that for want therof in time of néed, he was constreined to
take truce with his aduersarie the French king, and leaue off his
enterprise, which he was in good forwardnesse to haue gone through
withall, if he had not béene disappointed of treasure which he had
commanded to be sent ouer vnto him, which was not doone but kept backe,
in whom soeuer the fault rested.

[Sidenote: The K. offended with the archb. of Canturburie.]

[Sidenote: 1341.]

[Sidenote: The archbish. writeth to the king.]

There were some of his secretaries, namelie, sir William Killesbie,
which stirred him to take no small displeasure against the archbishop
of Canturburie Iohn Stratford, who therevpon withdrew him into the
priorie of Christes church at Canturburie, and there remaining for a
season, wrote his mind to the king, exhorting him not to giue too light
credit vnto such as should counsell him to haue those in contempt that
were faithfull and true to him, for in so dooing, he might happilie
loose the loue and good will of his people. Neuertheles, he wished
that he should trie out in whose hands the wools and monie remained,
which were taken vp to his vse, and that vpon a iust accompts had at
their hands, it might appeare who were in fault, that he had not monie
brought to him, whilest he laie at siege before Tournie, as he had
appointed, and that when the truth was knowne, they that were in fault
might be worthilie punished. And as for his owne cause, he signified,
that he was readie to be tried by his péeres, sauing alwaies the state
of holie church, and of his order, &c. Further, he besought the king,
not to thinke euill of him, and of other good men, till the truth might
be tried, for otherwise, if iudgement should be pronounced, without
admitting the partie to come to his answere, as well the guiltlesse as
the guiltie might be condemned.

[Sidenote: An. Reg 15.]

[Sidenote: A letter sent to the deane of Paules.]

[Sidenote: The archbishop refuseth to come to the court.]

The king neuerthelesse still offended towards the archbishop, caused
Adam bishop of Winchester to indite a letter against him, directed
from the king to the deane and chapiter of Paules, openlie to be
published by them: the effect whereof was, to burthen the archbishop
with vnthankfulnesse, and forgetting of his bounden duetie towards
his souereigne lord and louing maister, namelie, in that where he
promised the king to sée him throughlie furnished with monie, towards
the maintenance of his warres: when it came to passe, none would be
had, which turned not onelie to the hinderance of the kings whole
procéedings, but also to his great discredit, and causing him to run
greatlie in debt by interest, through borrowing of monie, for the
paiment of the wages of his men of warre, when through the archbishops
negligence, who had the chéefe rule of the land, the collectors and
other officers slacked their duetie, whereby there was no monie sent
ouer, according to that was appointed: and wheras now, since his
comming ouer, he had sent to the archbishop to come vnto him, that
by his information, he might the better learne who they were that
neglected their duetie, he disobedientlie refused to come, pretending
some feare of bodilie harme, through the malice of some that were about
the king. Wherevpon, when Rafe lord Stafford, lord steward of the kings
house, was sent with a safe conduct, for him to come in all safetie to
the court, he flatlie made answer that he would not come, except in
full parlement.

Manie other misdemeanors was the archbishop charged with towards the
king in that letter, as maliciouslie slandering the king for vniust
oppression of the people, confounding the cleargie, and gréeuing the
church with exactions, leuies of monie, tolles and tallages. Therefore,
sith he went about to slander the kings roiall authoritie, to defame
his seruants, to stirre rebellion among the people; and to withdraw
the deuotion and loue of the earles, lords, and great men of the land
from the king: his highnesse declared, that he meant to prouide for the
integritie & preseruation of his good name (whereof it is said trulie,

    Dulcius est ære pretiosum nomen habere)

and to méet with the archbishops malice. And herewith diuerse things
were rehersed to the archbishops reproch, which he should doo, procure,
and suffer to be doone, by his euill and sinister counsell, whilest he
had the rule of the realme in his hands vnder the king: wherein he had
shewed himselfe not onelie an acceptor of gifts, but also of persons,
in gratifieng diuerse that nothing had deserued sundrie waies foorth,
and presuming to doo rashlie manie other things to the detriment of
the kings roiall state, and hurt of his regall dignitie, and to no
small damage of the people, abusing the authoritie and office to him
committed, so that if he persisted in his obstinate wilfulnesse, and
rebellious contumacie, the king by those his letters signified, that
he meant to declare it more apparantlie in due time and place, and
therefore commanded the said deane and chapiter of Paules, to publish
all those things openlie, in places where they thought conuenient,
according to their wisedome giuen to them by God, so as he might haue
cause to commend therein their carefull diligence. ¶ This letter was
dated at Westminster the tenth of Februarie, in the fiftéenth yeare of
his reigne ouer England, and second ouer France.

Where the Londoners would not permit the kings iustices to sit within
the citie of London, contrarie to their liberties, the king appointed
them to sit in the tower; and when they would not make anie answer
there, a great tumult was raised by the commons of the citie, so that
the iustices being in some perill (as they thought) feigned themselues
to sit there till towards Easter. Wherevpon, when the king could not
get the names of them that raised the tumult, no otherwise but that
they were certeine light persons of the common people, he at length
pardoned the offense. After this, those iustices neither sat in the
tower, nor elsewhere, of all that yeare.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: _Adam Merimuth._]

In the quindene of Easter, the king held a parlement at London, in
the which, the prelats, earls, barons, and commons, presented manie
petitions; as to haue the great charter of liberties, and the charter
of forrests dulie obserued, and that they which brake the same should
be discharged of their offices, if they were the kings officers,
and that the high officers of the king should be elected and chosen
by their péeres in parlement. The king withstood these petitions
a certeine time, yet at length he granted to some of them; but as
concerning the election of his officers, he in no wise would consent,
but yet he was contented that they should receiue an oth in parlement,
to doo iustice to all men in their offices, &c. Vpon which article and
others, a statute was made and confirmed with the kings seale.

[Sidenote: The emperor woone fr[=o] the king of Englands fréendship.]

[Sidenote: The emperor offereth to be a meane to c[=o]clude a peace.]

In the meane while, the French king had with bribes wonne Lewes of
Bauaria, that named himselfe emperour, from further fauouring the
king of England; in so much that, vnder a colourable pretense of
finding himselfe gréeued, for that the king of England had without his
knowledge taken truce with the French king, he reuoked the dignitie of
being vicar in the empire, from the king of England, but yet signified
to him, that where the French king had at his request put the matter
in controuersie betwixt him and the king of England into his hands,
to make an end thereof, if it so pleased the king of England, that he
should treat as an indifferent arbitrator betwixt them, he promised to
doo his indeuour, so as he doubted not, but that by his means he should
come to a good agréement in his cause, if he would follow his aduise.
And to receiue answer hereof, he sent his letters by one Eberhard a
chapleine of his, the reader of the friers heremits to S. Augustins
order, requesting the king of England to aduertise him by the same
messenger, of his whole mind in that behalfe.

[Sidenote: The kings answer.]

The king for answer, signified againe by his letters to the emperour,
that for the zeale which he had to make an accord betwixt him and
his aduersarie Philip de Valois, that named himselfe French king, he
could not but much commend him, and for his part he had euer wished,
that some reasonable agréement might be had betwixt them: but sith
his right to the realme of France was cléere and manifest inough, he
purposed not to commit it by writing vnto the doubtfull iudgement or
arbitrement of anie. And as concerning the agréement which the emperour
had made with the French king, bicause (as he alledged) it was lawfull
for him so to doo, sith without the emperors knowledge he had taken
truce with the same French king, he said, if the circumstances were
well considered, that matter could not minister any cause to mooue him
to such agréement: for if the emperour remembred, he had giuen to him
libertie at all times to treat of peace, without making the emperour
priuie thereto (so that without his assent, he concluded not vpon any
finall peace) which he protested that he neuer meant to doo, till he
might haue his prouident aduise, counsell, and assent therevnto.
And as concerning the reuoking of the vicarship of the empire from
him, he tooke it doone out of time; for it was promised, that no such
reuocation should be made, till he had obteined the whole realme of
France, or at the least, the more part thereof. ¶ These in effect were
the points of the kings letters of answer vnto the emperour. Dated at
London the thirtenth of Iulie, in the second yeare of his reigne ouer
France, and fiftéenth ouer England.

[Sidenote: The deceasse of the lord Geffrey de Scrope, & of the bishop
of Lincolne. The quéene brought to bed.]

This yeare, about Midsummer, or somwhat before, at Gant in Flanders,
died the lord Geffrey Scrope the kings iustice, and Henrie bishop of
Lincolne, two chéefe councellors to the king. The quéene after hir
returne into England, was this yeare brought to bed in the tower of
London of a daughter named Blanch, that died yoong, and was buried at
Westminster. ¶ In this meane while, during the warres betwixt France
and England, the French king in fauour of Dauid king of Scotland,
had sent men of warre into Scotland, vnder the conduct of sir Arnold
Dandreghen, who was after one of the marshals of France, and the lord
of Garrentiers, with other, by whose comfort and helpe, the Scots that
tooke part with king Dauid, did indeuor themselues to recouer out of
the Englishmens hands, such castels and fortresses as they held within
Scotland, as in the Scotish historie ye shall find mentioned, and how
about this time, their king the foresaid Dauid returned foorth of
France into Scotland by the French kings helpe, who hauing long before
concluded a league with him, thought by his friendship to trouble the
king of England so at home, that he should not be at great leisure to
inuade him in France.

[Sidenote: The commissioners that met at Arras.]

[Sidenote: This truce was prolonged about the feast of the decollation
of S. Iohn to indure till Midsummer next following, as the addition to
_Ad. Merimuth_ hath.]

But now to tell you what chanced of the méeting appointed at Arras.
For the c[=o]missioners that shuld there treat of the peace, when the
day assigned of their méeting was come, there arriued for the king
of England the bishop of Lincolne, the bishop of Duresme, the earle
of Warwike, the erle of Richmond, sir Robert Dartois, sir Iohn of
Heinault, otherwise called lord Beaumont, and sir Henrie of Flanders.
For the French king, there came the earle of Alanson, the duke of
Burbon, the earle of Flanders, the earle of Blois, the archbishop of
Sens, the bishop of Beauuois, and the bishop of Auxerre. The pope
sent thither two cardinals, Naples and Cleremont; these commissioners
were in treatie fiftéene daies, during the which, manie matters were
put forth and argued, but none concluded; for the Englishmen demanded
largelie, and the Frenchmen would depart with nothing, sauing with the
countie of Pontieu, the which was giuen with quéene Isabell in marriage
to the king of England. So the treatie brake, the commissioners
departed, and nothing doone, but onelie that the truce was prolonged
for two yeares further.

[Sidenote: The occasion of the wars of Britaine.]

Thus were the wars partlie appeased in some part of France, but yet was
the truce but slenderlie kept in other parts, by reason of the duke of
Britaine. For whereas contention arose betwixt one Charles de Blois,
and Iohn earle of Mountfort, about the right to the duchie of Britaine,
as in the historie of France maie more plainelie appeare; the earle of
Mountfort, thinking that he had wrong offered him at the French kings
hands, who fauoured his aduersarie Charles de Blois, alied himselfe
with the king of England. And (as some write) after he had woone
diuerse cities and townes within Britaine, he came ouer into England,
and by doing homage to king Edward, acknowledged to hold it of him,
as of the souereigne lord thereof, so that he would promise to defend
him and that duchie against his aduersaries: which the king promised
him to doo. After this, the French king made such warres against this
earle of Mountfort, that he was at length taken prisoner in the towne
of Naunts, and committed to safe kéeping within the castell of Loure
at Paris. But his wife being a stout woman, and of a manlie courage,
stood vp in the quarrell of hir husband, and presented a yoong sonne
which she had by him, vnto such capteins and men of warre as serued
hir husband, requiring them not to be dismaid with the infortunate
chance of hir husbands taking; but rather like men of good stomachs,
to stand in defense of his right, sith whatsoeuer happened to him, the
same remained in that yoong gentleman his sonne: meaning that although
the enimies should deale tyrannicallie with him, & without regard of
his nobleness practise his ouerthrow; yet there was hope in hir son,
as increase of yeares should minister strength and courage, both to be
reuenged on his fathers enimies, and to ad an inlargement of glorie and
renowne to his present honor by practises of his prowesse: which to be
singular the séemelie symmetrie or goodlie proportion of his person and
his iolie countenance séemed to testifie; for

[Sidenote: _Hor. lib. car. 4. Ode 4._]

    Fortes creantur fortibus, & bonis
    Est in iuuencis, est in equis patrum
        Virtus; nec imbellem feroces
        Progenerant aquilæ columbam.

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

This countesse of Mountfort was sister vnto Lewes earle of Flanders,
and named Margaret, and not Claudia (as some write.) She was verie
diligent in hir businesse, and spared no trauell to aduance hir
cause, so that she wan not onelie the harts of the men of warre, but
also of the people of Britaine, the which fauoured hir husband, and
lamented the mishap of his taking. She first furnished such cities,
townes, castels, and fortresses as hir husband had in possession,
with men, munition and vittels, as Renes, Dinaunt, Guerand, Hanibout,
and others. This doone, she sent ouer into England, sir Emerie de
Clisson, a noble man of Britaine, to require the king of England of
succors, with condition, that if it pleased him, hir sonne Iohn should
marrie one of his daughters. ¶The king of England glad to haue such an
entrie into France, as by Britaine, thought not to refuse the offer, &
therevpon granted to aid the countesse: & foorthwith raising a power,
sent the same ouer into Britaine, vnder the conduct of the lord Walter
of Mannie, and others: the which at length, after they had continued
long vpon the sea, by reason of contrarie winds, arriued in Britaine;
in which meane time, a great armie of Frenchmen were entred into
Britaine, and had besieged the citie of Renes, and finallie woone it by
surrender, & were now before the towne of Hanibout, which with streict
siege, and sore brusing of the walles, they were néere at point to
haue taken, and the countesse of Mountfort within it; if the succours
of England had not arriued there, euen at such time as the Frenchmen
were in talke with them within, about the surrender. But after that the
English fléet was séene to approch, the treatie was soone broken off,
for they within had no lust then to talke anie further of the matter.

[Sidenote: The english succour ariued in good time.]

[Sidenote: Archers.]

[Sidenote: Charles de Blois.]

[Sidenote: Lewes de Spaine.]

[Sidenote: Britaine Britonant.]

The lord of Mannie, and the Englishmen arriued at Hanibout thus in time
of imminent danger, wherein the countesse, and the other within that
towne were presentlie beset, greatlie recomforted the said countesse,
as she well shewed by hir chéerefull countenance in receiuing them.
Shortlie after their arriuall, a certeine number of the English
archers, issuing foorth, beat the Frenchmen from an engine which they
had reared against the walles, and set fire vpon the same engine. To
conclude, the Frenchmen liked the Englishmen so well, that shortlie
after being wearie of their companie, they raised their siege to get
themselues further from them: and in an other part of the countrie
indeuoured themselues to win townes and castels as they did indéed,
hauing their armie diuided into two parts, the lord Charles de Blois
gouerning the one part, and a Spaniard called the lord Lewes de Spaine
the other (which was the same that thus departed from the siege of
Hanibout, after the arriuall of the Englishmen) and then winning the
townes of Dinand and Guerand, passed into the countrie of Britaine
Britonant, and there not farre from Quinpercorentine, were discomfited
by the Englishmen, who followed them thither. Of six thousand
Genowaies, Spaniards, and Frenchmen, which the lord Lewes of Spaine had
there with him, there escaped but a few awaie. A nephue which he had
there with him named Alfonse was slaine, howbeit he himselfe escaped,
though not without sore hurts.

[Sidenote: Edmund of Langley that was after duke of Yorke is borne.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: A iusts and tornie at Dunstable.]

[Sidenote: Hanibout besieged.]

[Sidenote: 1342.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 16.]

[Sidenote: The countes of Richmond commeth ouer into Engl[=a]d. An
armie sent into Britaine.]

This yeare, the fift of Iune quéene Philip was deliuered of a sonne at
the towne of Langley, the which was named Edward, and surnamed Langley
of the place where he was thus borne. Also about the same time was a
great iustes kept by king Edward at the towne of Dunstable, with other
counterfeited feats of warre, at the request of diuerse yoong lords
and gentlemen, whereat both the king and quéene were present, with the
more part of the lords and ladies of the land. ¶ The lord Charles de
Blois, hauing in the meane time woone Vannes, and other towns, brought
his armie backe vnto Hanibout, and eftsoones besieged the same, and
the countesse of Mountfort within it. But for so much as it was well
fortified, and prouided of all things necessarie to defend a siege, the
Englishmen being returned thither againe after the ouerthrow of the
lord Lewes de Spaine, it could not be easilie woone. At length, by the
labour of certeine lords of Britaine, a truce was taken for a time,
during the which, the countesse of Richmond came ouer into England,
to commune with king Edward, touching the affaires of Britaine,
who appointed sir Robert Dartois earle of Richmond, the earles of
Salisburie, Penbroke, and Suffolke, the lords Stafford, Spenser, and
Bourchier, with others, to go with hir ouer into Britaine, who made
their prouision, so that they might take the sea, to come thither
against the time that the truce betwixt the countesse and the lord
Charles de Blois should be expired.

[Sidenote: Additions to _Adam Merimuth_ and _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Northampton and Deuonshire.]

[Sidenote: Genowaies reteined in the French kings wages.]

There be that write, how the lord Walter de Mannie, tooke a truce
indéed with the lord Charles de Blois, to indure till Alhallontide next
insuing, but with condition, that if the king of England were contented
therewith, then the same to be firme and fullie ratified, otherwise
not. Whervpon, when about the beginning of Iulie, the said lord Walter
came ouer into England, bringing with him the lord of Lions, and
other such prisoners as he had taken, and signified to king Edward
what he had concluded touching the truce, the king liked not thereof,
and so sent ouer the earles of Northampton and Deuonshire, the lord
Stafford, and sir William de Killesbie his chapleine, and one of his
secretaries, with fiue hundred men of armes, and a thousand archers,
which taking ship, on the vigill of th'Assumption of our ladie, sailed
foorth towards Britaine. The Frenchmen therfore vnderstanding that this
succour was comming, appointed the lord Lewes of Spaine, sir Charles
Grimaldo, and sir Antonie Doria, with thrée thousand Genowaies, and a
thousand men of armes, imbarked in two and thirtie great ships, to lie
on the sea in wait to incounter with the English fléet, as the same
should approch towards Britaine.

[Sidenote: The English men and Genowaies méet and fight on the Seas.]

[Sidenote: Vannes won.]

About Easter, the countesse of Mountford with the English armie,
appointed to attend hir, tooke the sea at Southampton, and at length
met with the lord Lewes of Spaine, and his fléet, where betwixt them
was fought a sore battell. Of the Englishmen there were six and fortie
vessels, but the lord Lewes of Spaine had nine great ships, and of more
force than anie of those which the Englishmen had, and also he had
thrée gallies. They began to fight about euensong time, and continued
till that night parted them, and had gone togither againe in the
morning, if by a tempest, that rose about midnight, the same night,
they had not béene scattered in sunder. The Spaniards and Genowaies
tooke awaie with them foure English ships, which being vittellers,
were left behind. And bicause the same Spaniards and Genowaies were
able to abide the sea better than the Englishmen, by reason of their
great ships, they kept the maine sea; but the Englishmen were aduised
by their mariners to drawe vnto the land, and so they did, arriuing
at a little hauen, not farre from Vannes, where comming on land, they
streightwaie made towards that citie, and besieged it, not ceassing to
assault it both day and night, till at length they wan it, by giuing
the assault in two places at once, whilest an other number of them set
vpon it in a third place, where was no suspicion, and so entred.

After this, the most part of the Englishmen departed from Vannes, as
some with the countesse, to bring hir vnto Hanibout, and some with the
earls of Salisburie, Suffolke, and Cornewall, who went and laid siege
to Rennes, so that the earle of Richmond remained in Vannes, with the
lords Spenser and Stafford, to kéepe it, hauing a certeine number of
archers and other men of warre with them. The lord Clisson, and sir
Henrie de Leon, which were within Vannes, when it was taken by the
Englishmen, and found means to escape, were abashed at the matter, that
they had so lost the citie, wherevpon they secretlie assembled a great
power of men thereabouts, and came againe vnto Vannes, and so fiercelie
assailed the gates and wals, that in the end they entred by more force.
The earle of Richmond was sore hurt, but yet he escaped out at a
posterne gate, and the lord Stafford with him, but the lord Spenser was
taken by sir Henrie de Leon.

[Sidenote: Additions to _Nic. Triuet._]

Other write otherwise, both of the landing, and also concerning the
misfortune of the lord Spenser, alledging letters sent from the earle
of Northampton (whome the same authors repute as generall of that armie
into Britaine) directed to the king, in which was signified, how that
within the octaues of the Assumption of our ladie, they ariued on the
coast of Britaine, néere to the towne and castell of Brest, in the
which the dutchesse of Britaine with hir children were of the enimies
besieged, both by sea and land, by sea with thirtéene great gallies, by
land by the lord Charles de Blois, the earls of Sauoie and Foiz. But
the gallies perceiuing the English fléet to be approched vpon them, yer
they were aware, so that they were compassed in, to their great danger,
thrée of the same gallies fled, and so escaped, the residue got vp into
a riuer of the same hauen, where they that were aboord, left their
vessels and fled to the land, and as well they, as the other that held
siege before Brest and such as kept a castell there, not farre off,
called Goule forrest, packed awaie without anie more adoo. The English
mariners following the gallies (that were withdrawn vp the riuer) with
their small boats and barges, set fire on the gallies, and so burnt
them.

Thus all the Englishmen came on land, and leauing the lord Saie
capteine in the said castell of Goule forrest, they passed forward
into the countrie, and comming to a castell commonlie called Monsieur
Relix, gaue an assault thereto, where manie of their men of warre were
wounded, and sir Iames Louell slaine. After this, staieng a time for
the comming of their confederats, which after a fortnights space came
to them on the mondaie, being the morrow after Michaelmas daie, they
heard that the lords Charles de Blois was comming in all hast with a
power of thrée thousand men of armes, twelue hundred Genowaies, & a
great multitude of commons to raise the siege. Whervpon the earle of
Northampton with his armie marched softlie towards them, and choosing
a plot of ground conuenient for his purpose, fought with his enimies,
slue and tooke of them at the least thrée hundred men of armes. The
earle of Northampton lost not any noble man in this fight, the lord
Edward Spenser onelie excepted.

[Sidenote: The king passeth ouer into Britaine.]

[Sidenote: Vannes besieged.]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Triuet._]

[Sidenote: An armie of Frenchmen discomfited by a few Englishmen.]

But now as touching the earle of Richmont, Froissard saith, that he
comming to Hanibout, after he had thus lost Vannes, tooke the sea, and
sailed into England: but by reason of being tossed on the seas, his
wounds rankled so, that shortlie after his comming to London he died,
& was buried in the church of S. Paule. The king of England was sore
displeased with his death, and immediatlie after passed ouer himselfe
into Britaine with a great armie: and landing there the nine and
twentith of Nouember, at the same place where the earle of Richmond did
land at his arriuall there, not farre from Vannes, he went straight
and besieged Vannes, but perceiuing that it would not be woone but by
long siege, he left the earle of Arundell, and the lord Stafford to
continue the siege, whilest he went to Rennes to aid his people, which
still laie at the siege thereof. Before the kings arriuall in Britaine,
those that were there vnder the earle of Northampton, as the lord Hugh
Spenser, and the lord Richard Talbot, with their retinues, fought with
the Frenchmen néere to Morleis, where a few Englishmen, scarse fiue
hundred, discomfited a mightie power of Frenchmen, estéemed to be aboue
fiftie thousand, of whome some they slue, and some they tooke. Among
other was taken the lord Geffrey de Charnie, accompted for one of the
best and sagest knights in France, whome the lord Richard Talbot tooke
and sent into England.

[Sidenote: Naunts besieged.]

But now as touching the kings dooings, we find, that whilest he
remained for this winter season in Britaine, his people forraied the
countrie foure daies iournie in length and two daies iournie in bredth.
After his comming to Rennes, he staied not past fiue daies, but leauing
them whome he found there to continue the siege, he went himselfe to
Naunts, where he had knowledge, that the lord Charles de Blois was. At
his comming thither, he inuironed the citie about with a strong siege,
& made manie fierce assaults to the walles and gates, but could not
preuaile, then leauing certeine of his lords there to continue the
siege, he raised with the residue, and went to Dinan, which towne with
sore and fierce assaults he lastlie woone, and after that drew againe
towards Vannes, for that he was informed, how the duke of Normandie
was comming downe towards him, with an armie of fortie thousand men.
Herevpon he sent for them that laie at siege before Naunts to come vnto
him, and suffered them at Rennes to kéepe their siege still, till they
heard other word from him.

[Sidenote: The duke of Normandie commeth downe into Britaine.]

The duke of Normandie with foure thousand men of armes, and thirtie
thousand other men of warre, comming into Britaine to aid the lord
Charles of Blois, was aduertised, that the king of England was with
the most part of all his power withdrawen to Vannes, and there laie
at siege, sore constreining them within: wherefore he also drew
thitherwards, and approching to the place, incamped with his armie ouer
against the king of England, inclosing his field with a great trench.
The king of England supposing he should haue battell, sent vnto those
which laie at siege before Rennes, commanding them to come from thence
vnto him: so that by this meanes all the powers, both of the king of
England, and of the duke of Normandie, generall to his father the
French king in those warres of Britaine, being assembled before Vannes,
had fought some great and bloudie battell, as was supposed, for the
whole triall of the right of Britaine, if the cardinals of Cleremont
and Prenesti, as legats from pope Clement the sixt, had not taken vp
the matter, by concluding a truce betwixt them, for the tearme of thrée
yeares.

[Sidenote: Additions to _Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Commissioners for the king of England.]

[Sidenote: Commissioners for the French king.]

[Sidenote: 1343.]

[Sidenote: A truce for thrée yeares.]

Commissioners appointed to treat with these cardinals, on the behalfe
of the king of England were these, Henrie of Lancaster earle of
Derbie, William Bohun earle of Northampton, William Montacute earle of
Salisburie, Rafe lord Stafford, Bartholomew lord Burghese, Nicholas
lord Cantelow, Reginald lord Cobham, Walter lord of Mannie, Maurice
lord Berkeley, and maister Iohn Vfford archdeacon of Elie. For the
French king, Odo duke of Burgogne, and Piers duke of Burbon were
deputed commissioners. Such diligence was vsed by the parties, that
finallie they agréed vpon this truce of thrée yeares, with certeine
articles for meane to conclude some finall peace, as that there should
be sent from either king some personages of their bloud and others,
vnto the court of Rome, with sufficient authoritie, to agrée, confirme,
and establish vpon all controuersies and dissentions betwixt the said
kings, according to the agréement of the pope, and such as should be so
sent to treat thereof.

[Sidenote: The conditions of the truce.]

It was further agréed, that they should haue libertie to declare and
pronounce their arguments and reasons before the pope, but not to haue
power to decide and giue sentence, but onlie by waie of some better
treatie and order of agréement to be made. And these commissioners were
appointed to appeare before the pope, afore the feast of saint Iohn
Baptist next insuing, and the pope to dispatch the businesse before
Christmasse after, if by consent of the said nobles, the terme were
not proroged. And if it so were that the pope could make no agréement,
yet should the truce indure the prefixed terme, to wit, till the feast
of S. Michaell the archangell, and for the space of thrée yeares then
next insuing, betwixt the kings of France, England and Scotland,
the earle of Heinault and their alies, as the dukes of Brabant, and
of Gelderland, also the marques of Gullikerland, the lord Beaumont,
otherwise called sir Iohn de Heinault, and the people of Flanders,
in all their lands and dominions, from the date of the charter made
hereof, by all the said terme aforesaid, to be obserued, holden and
kept. Also, the king of Scots, and the earle of Heinault were appointed
to send certeine persons, as commissioners for them, vnto the said
court of Rome.

This truce was also accorded to be kept in Britaine, betwixt the said
kings and their adherents, in which countrie, as well as in Guien, and
other places, euerie man should remaine in possession of that which
he held at the time of concluding this truce, saue that the citie
of Vannes should be deliuered into the hands of the cardinall, to be
kept by them in the popes name, during the truce, and then to dispose
thereof, as should séeme to them good. Manie other articles were
comprised in the charter of this truce, too long héere to rehearse,
all the which were confirmed with the oths of the said dukes of
Burgoigne and Burbone, on the French kings behalfe; and of the earles
of Derbie, Northampton and Salisburie, the lord Burghersts, and the
lord of Mannie, for the king of England. In witnesse whereof, the
said cardinals caused the charter to be made, putting therevnto their
seales, the ninetéenth daie of Ianuarie, in the yeare 1343 in presence
of diuerse prelats, and of the earles of Bullongne, Ausserre, Sancerre,
Iuignie, and Porcien, the lord Miles de Nohers, the lord Ingram de
Coucie, and the foresaid lords, Cantelowe, Cobham, and Berkeley, with
manie other lords, barons, nobles, and gentlemen.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 17.]

[Sidenote: The King of England returneth by sea forth of Britaine.]

[Sidenote: Shipwracke.]

[Sidenote: A parlement. The kings eldest sonne created prince of Wales.]

When this truce was thus confirmed, manie of the English armie returned
home through France, so to passe ouer by the narrow seas into England,
but the king himselfe, with a few other, taking their ships to passe by
long seas, were maruellouslie tormented by tempest, so that their ships
were scattered and driuen to take land at diuerse hauens. The dutchesse
of Britaine with hir sonne and daughter, came on land in Deuonshire.
Sir Péers de Véele, and his sonne sir Henrie Véele, and sir Iohn Raine
knights, were drowned, togither with the ship in which they passed. The
king escaping verie hardlie, landed at Weimouth, and on the fift day of
March came to London to the quéene. In the quindene of Easter, he held
a parlement at Westminster, in which he created his eldest sonne Edward
prince of Wales. In this parlement were diuerse matters talked of, and
speciallie concerning wools, and of the assessement of a certeine price
of them, more and lesse, according to the seuerall parts of the realme,
and of the customes to be made of them, to wit, thrée marks and an
halfe, for euerie sacke to be transported foorth of the realme.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors appointed to go to the pope.]

Also in the same parlement were ambassadors appointed foorth, such as
should go to the pope to treat of peace (as in the charter of the truce
among other articles it was conteined) whose names follow, Iohn bishop
of Excester, Henrie de Lancaster earle of Derbie, Hugh le Dispenser
lord of Glamorgan, cousins to the king; Rafe lord Stafford, William de
Norwich deane of Lincolne, William Trussell knight, and master Andrew
de Vfford a ciuillian. These persons were sent with commission to the
pope, to treat with him, not as pope, nor as iudge, but as a priuat
person, and a common fréend to both parts, to be a meane or mediator,
to find out some indifferent end of all controuersie betwixt the
parties. The date of their commission was at Westminster, the foure and
twentith of Maie, in this seauentéenth yeare of the kings reigne.

Moreouer, in this parlement a gréeuous complaint was exhibited, by the
earles, barons, knights, burgesses, and other of the commons, for that
strangers, by vertue of reseruations and prouisions apostolike, got the
best benefices of this land into their hands, and neuer came at them,
nor bare any charges due for the same, but diminishing the treasure of
the realme, and conueieng it foorth, sore indamaged the whole state.
The bishops durst not, or would not giue their consents in exhibiting
this complaint, but rather séemed to stand against it, till the king
compelled them to giue ouer.

Herevpon, a letter was framed by the lords of the temporaltie and
commons, which they directed vnto the pope in all humble manner,
beséeching him to consider of the derogation doone to the realme of
England, by such reseruations, prouisions, and collations of benefices,
as had béen practised here in England. And therefore sith the churches
of England had béene founded and endowed by noble and worthie men
in times past, to the end the people might be instructed by such as
were of their owne language, and that he being so farre off, and not
vnderstanding the default, had (like as some of his predecessors
more than in times past had béene accustomed) granted by diuerse
reseruations, prouisions, and collations, the churches and spirituall
promotions of this land vnto diuerse persons, some strangers, yea,
and enimies to the realme, whereby the monie and profits were carried
foorth, the cures not prouided for, almes withdrawne, hospitalitie
decaied, the temples and other buildings belonging to the churches
ruinated and fallen downe, the charitie and deuotion of the people
sore diminished, and diuerse other gréeuous enormities thereby
growne cleane contrarie to the founders minds: wherefore, vpon due
consideration thereof had, they signified to him, that they could not
suffer such enormities any longer, & therefore besought him wholie
to reuoke such reseruations, prouisions, collations, to auoid such
slanders, mischéefes, and harmes as might insue, and that the cures
might therewith be committed to persons méet for the exercise of the
same: further also, beséeching him without delaie, to signifie his
intention, sith they meant to imploie their diligence to remedie the
matter, and to sée that redresse might be had according to reason. The
date of these letters was in full parlement at Westminster, the eight
and twentith of Maie, in the yeare of Grace 1343.

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Shordich sent to the pope.]

Beside these letters, were other written, and sent from the king,
conteining in summe, the tenor of the other aboue mentioned, and one
sir Iohn Shordich, knight a graue personage and well séene in the law,
was appointed to go with the same, who comming to Auignion, and there
presenting his letters in the popes priuie chamber, where the pope sat,
with all his cardinals about him, receiued no great courteous welcome,
after his letters were once read. And whie? Euen bicause the c[=o]tents
of the same misliked his mind, tending to the impairing of his vsurped
profits & c[=o]modities from time to time in this land,

    Ambitiosus enim sibi totum vendicat orbem,
    Seq; (scelus) Christo clamitat esse parem.

[Sidenote: The Popes words to Sir Iohn Shordich.]

[Sidenote: Of benefices inhibited by the king.]

Now when the knight made answer to such words as he heard the pope
vtter, and charged him with giuing the deanrie of Yorke vnto one that
was reputed the kings enimie, the pope said; "Well, it is not vnknowne
to vs who made and indited these letters, and we know that thou madest
them not, but there is one that pincheth at vs, and we shall punish
him well inough: we know all." Herevnto he added thus much more, that
"there was a knight that spake defamous words of him, and the church
of Rome, wherewith he séemed highlie offended." To conclude, he said,
"that he would answer the letters of the king and commons, as touching
the points conteined in the same." The cardinals, after they had heard
these things, departed as if they had béene sore offended and troubled
therewith: and the knight taking his leaue of the pope, departed also
foorth of the chamber, and without anie longer abode, got him awaie
toward Burdeaux, about other of the kings businesse, doubting least if
he had staied longer, he might haue béene kept there against his will.
The pope sent answer indéed, but neuerthelesse, the king procéeded in
prohibiting such prouisions, and collations within his realme, on paine
of imprisonment and death to the intrudors thereby, as after ye shall
perceiue.

[Sidenote: Iusts in Smithfield.]

[Sidenote: 1344.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 18.]

[Sidenote: _Th. Walsing._]

[Sidenote: A chamber built within the castell of Windsore, called the
round table.]

[Sidenote: _I. Stow_ out of Henrie de Leicester. The Ile of Man.]

This yeare about Midsummer, there were solemne iusts proclaimed by
the lord Robet Morley, which were holden in Smithféeld, where for
challengers came foorth one apparelled like to the pope, bringing with
him twelue other in garments like to cardinals, which tooke vpon them
to answer all commers, for thrée courses. On the defendants side, ran
the prince of Wales, with manie earls, barons, knights and esquires
innumerable, so that those iusts continued thrée daies togither, to the
great pleasure of the beholders. ¶ This yeare, king Edward ordeined a
certeine new coine of gold, which he named the floren, that is, the
penie of six shillings eight pence, the halfe penie of the value of
thrée shillings foure pence, and the farthing of the value of twentie
pence. This coine was ordeined for his wars in France, the gold whereof
was not so fine as the noble, which in the fourtéenth yeare of his
reigne he had caused for to be coined. This yeare, the king caused
a great number of artificers and labourers to be taken vp, whome he
set in hand to build a chamber in the castell of Windsore, which was
called the round table, the floore whereof, from the center or middle
point, vnto the compasse throughout, the one halfe was (as Walsingham
writeth) an hundred foot, and so the diameter or compasse round about,
was two hundred foot. The expenses of this worke amounted by the wéeke,
first vnto an hundred pounds, but afterward by reason of the wars that
followed, the charges was diminished vnto two and twentie pounds the
wéeke (as Thomas Walsingham writeth in his larger booke, intituled, the
historie of England) or (as some copies haue) vnto 9 pounds. This yéere
also, W. Montacute earle of Salisburie conquered the Ile of Man, out of
the hands of the Scots, which Ile the king gaue vnto the said earle,
and caused him to be intituled, and crowned king of Man. ¶ This Ile (as
Robert Southwell noteth) was woone by the Scots, about the second yeare
of Edward the second his reigne, who in the yeare before, to wit, anno
Christi 1307, had giuen the same Ile vnto Péers de Gaueston, whom he
had also made earle of Cornewall.

[Sidenote: Iusts & tornies holden at Windsore.]

[Sidenote: The order of the garter founded.]

Moreouer, about the beginning of this eightéenth yeare of his reigne,
king Edward held a solemne feast at his castell of Windsore, where
betwixt Candlemasse and Lent, were atchiued manie martiall feasts,
and iusts, tornaments, and diuerse other the like warlike pastimes,
at the which were present manie strangers of other lands, and in the
end thereof, he deuised the order of the garter, and after established
it, as it is at this daie. There are six and twentie companions or
confrers of this felowship of that order, being called knights of
the blew garter, & as one dieth or is depriued, an other is admitted
into his place. The K. of England is euer chéefe of this order. They
weare a blew robe or mantell, & a garter about their left leg, richlie
wrought with gold and pretious stones, hauing this inscription in
French vpon it, Honi soit qui mal y pense, Shame come to him that euill
thinketh. This order is dedicated to S. George, as chéefe patrone of
men of warre, and therefore euerie yeare doo the knights of this order
kéepe solemne his feast, with manie noble ceremonies at the castell of
Windsore, where king Edward founded a colledge of canons, or rather
augmenting the same, ordeined therein a deane with twelue canons
secular, eight peticanons, and thirtéene vicars, thirtéene clearks, and
thirtéene choristers.

The knights haue certeine lawes and rules apperteining to their order,
amongst the which this is chéeflie to be obserued (as Polydor also
noteth) that they shall aid and defend one another, and neuer turne
their backes or runne awaie out of the field in time of battell, where
he is present with his souereigne lord, his lieutenant or deputie,
or other capteine, hauing the kings power roiall and authoritie, and
whereas his banners, standards, or pennons are spred. The residue
of the lawes and rules apperteining vnto this noble order, I doo
here purposelie omit, for that the same in [1] an other place more
conuenient is expressed, so far as may be thought expedient. But now
touching these six and twentie noble men & knights, which were first
chosen and admitted into the same order, by the first founder thereof,
this king Edward the third, their names are as followeth.

[1] Looke in the description of Britaine.

[Sidenote: _In Angl. prælijs sub Edwardo 3._]

First the said noble prince king Edward the third, the prince of Wales
duke of Cornewall and earle of Chester his eldest sonne, Henrie duke
of Lancaster, the earle of Warwike, the capitall de Beuch aliàs Buz or
Beufe, Rafe earle of Stafford, William Montacute earle of Salisburie,
Roger lord Mortimer, Iohn lord Lisle, Bartholomew lord Burwasch or
Berghesech, the lord Iohn Beauchampe, the lord de Mahun, Hugh lord
Courtnie, Thomas lord Holand, Iohn lord Graie, Richard lord Fitz Simon,
sir Miles Stapleton, sir Thomas Walle, sir Hugh Wrottesley, sir Néele
Loring, sir Iohn Chandos, Iames lord Audelie, sir Otes Holand, sir
Henrie Eme, sir Sanchet Dabrichcourt, sir Walter Panell. ¶ Christopher
Okland speaking of the first institution of this honorable order, dooth
saie, that after foure daies were expired in the said exercises of
chiualrie, the king besides the rich garter which he bestowed vpon them
that tried maisteries, did also giue them a pretious collar of S S. but
whether this collar had his first institution then with the garter he
saith nothing, belike it was an ornament of greater antiquitie. Oklands
words are these as followeth;

    ---- ---- concertatoribus ampla
    Præmia dat princeps, baccatas induit illis
    Crura periscelides, quas vnio mistus Eous
    Commendat, flammis interlucente pyropo.
    Præterea ex auro puro, quòd odorifer Indus
    Miserat, inserta donabat iaspide gemma,
    Si formam spectes duplicato ex sygmate torques.

[Sidenote: The occasion that mooued K. Edward to institute the order of
the garter.]

¶ The cause and first originall of instituting this order is
vncerteine. But there goeth a tale amongst the people, that it rose
by this means. It chanced that K. Edward finding either the garter
of the quéene, or of some[2] ladie with whom he was in loue, being
fallen from hir leg, stooped downe and tooke it vp, whereat diuerse of
his nobles found matter to iest, and to talke their fansies merilie,
touching the kings affection towards the woman, vnto whome he said,
that if he liued, it should come so passe, that most high honor should
be giuen vnto them for the garters sake: and there vpon shortlie after,
he deuised and ordeined this order of the garter, with such a posie,
wherby he signified, that his nobles iudged otherwise of him than the
truth was. Though some may thinke, that so noble an order had but a
meane beginning, if this tale be true, yet manie honorable degrées of
estates haue had their beginnings of more base and meane things, than
of loue, which being orderlie vsed, is most noble and commendable, sith
nobilitie it selfe is couered vnder loue, as the poet Ouid aptlie saith,

[2] The countes of Salisburie.

[Sidenote: 1345.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 19.]

    Nobilitas sub amore iacet.

[Sidenote: Additions to _Adam Merimuth_, and _Triuet._]

William de Montacute earle of Salisburie king of Man, and marshall of
England, was so brused at the iusts holden here at Windsore (as before
ye haue heard) that he departed this life, the more was the pitie,
within eight daies after. ¶ The king about the same time, to wit, in
the quindene of Candlemasse, held a councell at London, in the which
with good aduise and sound deliberation had vpon the complaint of the
commons to him before time made, he gaue out streict commandement,
that no man on paine of imprisonment and death, should in time to
come, present or induct anie such person or persons, that were so
by the pope promoted, without the kings agréement, in preiudice of
his roiall prerogatiue. Héerevpon, he directed also writs to all
archbishops, bishops, abbats, priors, deanes, archdeacons, officials
and other ecclesiasticall persons, to whome it apperteined, inhibiting
them in no wise to attempt anie thing in preiudice of that ordinance,
vnder pretext of anie bulles, or other writings, for such manner of
prouisions to come from the court of Rome. Other writs were also
directed to his sonne the prince of Wales, and to all the shiriffes
within the realme, for to arrest all such as brought into the land any
such buls or writings, and to bring them before the kings councell or
his iustices, where they might be punished according to the trespasse
by them committed.

[Sidenote: Coine changed.]

About the same time, the king ordeined a certeine coine of fine gold,
and named it the floren, which coine was deuised for his warres in
France, for the gold thereof was not so fine as was the noble, which
in the fourtéenth yeare he had caused to be coined: but this coine
continued not long. ¶ After the feast of the holie Trinitie, the king
held a parlement at London, in the which he asked a tenth of the
cleargie, and a fiftéenth of the laitie, about which demand there was
no small altercation, but at length he had it granted for one yeare.
¶ At the same time, the archbishop of Canturburie held a conuocation
of all the cleargie at London, in the which manie things were in talke
about the honest demeanor of churchmen, which sildome is obserued,
as the addition to Nicholas Triuet saith. About the feast of the
Assumption of our ladie, the king disanulled the florens, to the great
commoditie of his kingdome, ordeining a greater floren of halfe a
marke, and a lesser of thrée shillings foure pence, and the least of
all of twentie pence, and these were called nobles, and not without
cause, for they were a noble coine, of faire & fine gold.

This yeare, on the seauentéenth daie of Nouember, the pope in Auinion
created the lord Lewes de Spaine, ambassador for the French king,
prince of the Iles called Fortunatæ, for what purpose it was not
knowne, but it was doubted, not to be for anie good meaning towards
the kingdome of England, the prosperitie whereof, the same pope was
suspected not greatlie to wish. ¶ About the beginning of Lent the same
yeare, the said pope had sent an archbishop and a bishop, ambassadors
to the king, who met them at Ospring in Kent, and to the end they
should not linger long within the realme, he quicklie dispatched them
without effect of their message. ¶ This yeare, shortlie after Easter,
the duke of Britaine, that had béene deteined prisoner by the French
king, and escaped out of prison, came ouer into England. ¶ And about
the same time, the king ordeined the exchange of monies at London,
Canturburie, and Yorke, to the great commoditie of his people.

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: _Ad. Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: _Polychron._]

[Sidenote: Fiue hundred men of armes and two thousand archers saith
_Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Bergerat woone.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

About Midsummer, or (as other haue) Michaelmas, the earle of Derbie,
with the earle of Penbroke, the lord Rafe Stafford, the lord Walter
de Mannie, the lord Iohn Graie of Codnore, and diuerse other lords,
knights, and esquires, to the number of fiue or six hundred men of
armes, and as manie archers, sailed ouer into Gascoine, to assist the
kings subiects there against the Frenchmen. This earle of Derbie,
being generall of the armie, after his arriuall in Gascoine, about the
beginning of December, wan the towne of Bergerat by force, hauing put
to flight the earle of Lisle, as then the French kings lieutenant in
Gascoine, who laie there with a great power, to defend the passage:
but being driuen into the towne, and hauing lost the suburbes to the
Englishmen, he fled out in the night, and so left the towne, without
anie souldiers to defend it, so that the townesmen yéelded it vnto the
earle of Derbie, and sware themselues to be true liege men vnto the
king of England. After this, the earle of Derbie passed further into
the countrie, and wan diuerse castels and towns, as Lango, le Lake,
Moundurant, Monguise, Punach, Laliew, Forsath, Pondair, Beaumont in
Laillois, Bounall, Auberoch and Liborne, part of them by assault, and
the residue by surrender. This doone, he returned to Burdeaux, hauing
left capteins and souldiers in such places as he had woone.

This yeare, the king sent foorth a commission vnto certeine persons in
euerie countie within the realme, to inquire what lands and tenements
euerie man, aboue fiue pounds of yéerelie reuenues, being of the laie
fée, might dispend; bicause he had giuen order, that euerie man which
might dispend fiue pounds and aboue, vnto ten pounds of such yéerelie
reuenues in land of the laie fée, should furnish himselfe, or find an
archer on horssebacke, furnished with armour and weapon accordinglie.
He that might dispend ten pounds, should furnish himselfe, or find
a demilance or light horsseman (if I shall so terme him) being then
called a hobler with a lance. And he that might dispend fiue and
twentie pounds, should furnish himselfe or find a man at armes. And he
that might dispend fiftie pounds, should furnish two men at arms. And
he that might dispend an hundred pounds should find thrée men at armes,
that is, himselfe, or one in his stéed, with two other. And such as
might dispend aboue an hundred pounds, were appointed to find more in
number of men at armes, accordinglie as they should be assessed, after
the rate of their lands, which they might yearelie dispend, being of
the laie fée, and not belonging to the church.

[Sidenote: Additions to _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The duke of Britaine departed this life.]

[Sidenote: The lord Beaumont of Heinault forsaketh the K. of England
his seruice.]

About this season, the duke of Britaine, hauing with him the earles of
Northampton and Oxenford, sir William de Killesbie one of the kings
secretaries, and manie other barons and knights, with a great number
of men of armes, passed ouer into Britaine, against the lord Charles
de Blois, where they tarried a long time, and did little good to make
anie accompt of, by reason that the duke, in whose quarrell they came
into those parts, shortlie after his arriuall there, departed this
life, and so they returned home into England. But after their comming
from thence, sir Thomas Dagworth knight, that had béene before, and
now after the departure of those lords and nobles, still remained the
kings lieutenant there, so behaued himselfe against both Frenchmen and
Britains, that the memorie of his worthie dooings deserueth perpetuall
commendation. Sir Iohn de Heinault lord Beaumont, about the same
time, changed his cote, and leauing the king of Englands seruice, was
reteined by the French king.

[Sidenote: The king goeth ouer into Flanders.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Mair._]

In this ninetéenth yeare of king Edward I find, that about the feast
of the Natiuitie of saint Iohn Baptist, he sailed ouer into Flanders,
leauing his sonne the lord Lionell, warden of the realme in his
absence. He tooke with him a great number of lords, knights, and
gentlemen, with whome he landed at Sluse. The cause of his going ouer
was, to further a practise which he had in hand with them of Flanders,
the which by the labour of Iaques Arteueld, meant to cause their earle
Lewes, either to doo homage vnto king Edward; or else if he refused,
then to disherit him, and to receiue Edward prince of Wales for their
lord, the eldest sonne of king Edward.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: A councell holden in the king of Englands ship.]

King Edward promising to make a dukedome of the countie of Flanders,
for an augmentation of honour to the countrie, there came vnto Sluse to
the king, Iaques van Arteueld, and a great number of other, appointed
as councellors for their chéefest townes. The king with all his
nauie lay in the hauen of Sluse, where, in his great ship called the
Catharine, a councell was holden vpon this foresaid purpose: but at
length, those of the councellors of the chéefest townes misliked the
matter so much, that they would conclude nothing, but required respit
for a moneth, to consult with all the comunaltie of the countries and
townes, and as the more part should be inclined, so should the king
receiue answer. The king and Iaques Arteueld would faine haue had a
shorter daie, and a more towardlie answer, but none other could be
gotten.

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: Welshmen appointed to Iaques Arteueld for a gard against
Gerard Denise.]

Herevpon the councell brake vp, and Iaques Arteueld tarieng with the
king a certeine space, after the other were departed, promised him
to persuade the countrie well inough to his purpose, and suerlie, he
had a great gift of eloquence, and had thereby induced the countrie
wonderfullie, to consent to manie things, as well in fauour of king
Edward, as to his owne aduancement: but this suit which he went now
about to bring to passe, was so odious vnto all the Flemings, that
in no wise they thought it reason to consent vnto the disheriting of
the earle. At length, when Iaques Arteueld should returne vnto Gant,
king Edward appointed fiue hundred Welshmen to attend him as a gard,
for the preseruation of his person, bicause he said, that one Gerard
Denise deane of the weauers, an vnquiet man, maliciouslie purposed his
destruction.

[Sidenote: Iacob Arteuelds house beset.]

Capteins of these Welshmen were Iohn Matreuers, and William Sturine
or Sturrie, and so with this crue of souldiers Arteueld returned
vnto Gant, and earnestlie went in hand with his suit in king Edwards
behalfe, that either the earle should doo his homage to the king of
England to whome it was due; or else to forfeit his earledome. Then
the foresaid Gerard, as well of his owne mind, as procured thereto by
the authoritie of earle Lewes, stirred the whole citie against the
said Arteueld, and gathering a great power vnto him, came and beset
Arteuelds house round about vpon each side, the furie of the people
being wonderfullie bent against him, crieng; "Kill him, Kill him that
hath robbed the tresurie of the countrie, and now goeth about to
disherit our noble earle."

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: _I. Meir._]

[Sidenote: Iacob van Arteueld slaine.]

Iaques van Arteueld perceiuing in what danger he was, came vnto a
window, and spake to that inraged multitude, in hope with faire and
courteous words to appease them, but it could not be: whervpon he
sought to haue fled out of his house, but the same was broken vp, and
so manie entred vpon him, that he was found out, and slaine by one
Thomas Denise (as some write.) But other affirme, that on a sundaie
in the after noone, being the 17 of Iulie, a cobler, whose father
this Iaques van Arteueld had sometime slaine, followed him, as he was
fléeing into a stable where his horsses stood, & there with an ax cloue
his head asunder, so that he fell downe starke dead on the ground.
And this was the end of the foresaid Iaques van Arteueld, who by his
wisdome and policie had obteined the whole gouernment of all Flanders.
This wofull end was allotted vnto him by destinie, whose decrée nothing
is able by any shift to auoid, as is notablie said of the poet in this
distichon;

[Sidenote: _M. Pal. in scor._]

    Nil extra fatum est, metitúrque omnia summi
    Mens regis, cuius sine numine fit nihil vsquam.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors from the good townes in Flanders vnto king
Edward.]

There were slaine also ten other persons that were of his councell, and
diuerse of the Welshmen in like manner; but the other escaped, and got
awaie vnto king Edward, as yet remaining at Sluse, vnto whome those
of Bruges, Cassell, Curtrike, Ypres, Aldenard, and other townes, did
afterwards sent their orators to excuse themselues, as nothing guiltie
nor priuie to the death of his fréend, and their worthie gouernor
Iaques van Arteueld, requiring him not to impute the fault vnto the
whole countrie, which the rash and vnaduised Gantiners had committed,
sith the countrie of Flanders was as readie now to doo him seruice and
pleasure as before, sauing that to the disheriting of their earle they
could not be agréeable, but they doubted not to persuade him to doo
his homage vnto the king of England, and till then they promised not
to receiue him. They put the king also in hope of a mariage to be had,
betwixt the sonne of their earle, and some one of the kings daughters.
Herewith the king of England (who was departed from Sluse, in great
displeasure with the Flemings) became somewhat pacified in his mood,
and so renewed the league eftsoons with the countrie of Flanders: but
the earle would neuer consent to doo homage vnto the king of England,
but still sticked to the French kings part, which purchased him much
trouble, and in the end cost him his life, as after shall appeare.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Auberoch besieged.]

[Sidenote: The French armie distressed, and the earle of Lisle taken.]

But now to returne vnto the earle of Derbie, whome we left in
Gascoigne. Ye shall vnderstand, that shortlie after he was come backe
to Burdeaux, from the conquest which he had made of Bergerat, and other
townes thereabouts; the earle of Lisle, who (as ye haue heard) was
the French kings lieutenant in that countrie, assembled an armie of
twelue thousand men, & comming before Auberoch, (a towne in Gascoigne)
besieged it, sore pressing them within, in somuch that they were in
great danger to haue béene taken, if the earle of Derbie, hauing
knowlege in what case they stood, had not come to their rescue, who
with thrée hundred speares or men of armes, as we maie call them, and
six hundred archers, approching néere to the siege, laid himselfe
closelie within a wood, till the Frenchmen in the euening were at
supper, & then suddenlie set vpon them in their campe, and discomfited
them, so that the earle of Lisle was taken in his owne tent, and sore
hurt. There were also taken the earle of Valentinois, and other earles,
vicounts, and lords of great accompt, to the number of nine, besides
those that were slaine. The residue were put to flight and chased,
so that the Englishmen had a faire iournie, and wan great riches by
prisoners and spoile of the enimies campe.

[Sidenote: Towns woon by the earle of Derbie.]

[Sidenote: Angolesme.]

After this, the earle of Derbie, being returned to Burdeaux, and hauing
put the captiues in safe kéeping, assembled his power, and marching
foorth into the countrie, towards the Rioll (a towne in those parts
which he meant to besiege) he wan diuerse towns and castels by the way,
as saint Basill, Roch, Million, Montsegure, Aguillon, & Segart. At
length he came to the towne of the Rioll, which he besieged, and laie
about it nine wéekes yer he could win it, and then was the same towne
surrendered into his hands, but the castell was still defended against
him for the space of eleuen wéekes, at which time being sore oppressed
& vndermined, it was yéelded by them within conditionallie, that they
should depart onelie with their armour. After this, the earle of Derbie
wan Montpesance, Mauleon, Ville-Franche in Agenois, Miremont, Thomines,
the castell of Damassen, and at length came before the citie of
Angolesme the which made appointment with the earle, that if no succors
came from the French king within the space of a moneth, that then the
citie should be surrendered to the king of Englands vse: and to assure
this appointment, they deliuered to the earle foure and twentie of
their chéefe citizens as hostages.

[Sidenote: Blaues.]

In the meane time, the earle laid siege to Blaues, but could not win
it. His men rode abroad into the countrie, to Mortaigne, Mirabeau, and
Aunay, but wan little, and so returned againe to the siege of Blaues.
Now when the month was expired, that they of Angolesme should yéeld,
the earle sent his two marshals thither, who receiued the homage and
fealtie of the citizens, in the king of Englands name, and so they
were in peace, and receiued againe their hostages. At length when the
earle of Derbie saw that he did but lose his time in the besieging of
Blaues, which sir Guischart Dangle, and sir Guilliaume de Rochfort,
being capteins within, did so valiantlie defend, that he could obteine
no aduantage of them, he raised his siege, and returned vnto Burdeaux,
hauing furnished such townes as he had woone in that iournie with
conuenient garisons of men to defend them against the enimies, and to
kéepe frontier warre, as they should sée cause.

[Sidenote: _Froissard_ saith they were an hundred thousand.]

[Sidenote: _Gio. Villani_ writeth that they were a six thousand horsmen
and fiftie thousand footemen, of Frenchmen, Gascoignes & Lombardes.]

[Sidenote: _Annales de Burgoigne._]

[Sidenote: 1346.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 20.]

[Sidenote: Angolisme recouered by the Frenchmen. Damassen. Thonins.]

[Sidenote: Aiguillon besieged.]

The French king being sore moued at the conquests thus atchiued by the
earle of Derbie, raised a mightie armie, and sent the same foorth,
vnder the leading of his sonne the duke of Normandie, into Gascoigne,
to resist the said earle, and to recouer againe those townes which he
had woone in those parts. The duke of Normandie being come to Tholouz,
where generall assemblie was appointed, set forward with his armie,
and winning by the waie Miremount, and Ville Franche in Agenois; at
length came to the citie of Angolesme, which he inuironed about with
a strong siege, continuing the same, till finallie, the capiteine
named Iohn Normell, required a truce to indure for one daie, which was
granted, and the same was the daie of the Purification of our ladie,
on the which, the same capiteine, with the souldiers of the garrison
departed, and left the citie in the citizens hands. The Frenchmen,
bicause they had granted the truce to indure for that daie without
exception, permitted them to go their waies without let or vexation.
The citizens in the morning yéelded the citie to the duke. After this,
he wan the castell of Damassen, Thonins, and Port S. Marie; Thonins by
surrender, and the other two by force of assaults. Then he came to the
strong castell of Aiguillon, which he besieged, and laie thereat a long
season. Within was the earle of Penbroke, the lord Walter de Mannie,
sir Franke de Halle, and diuerse knights and capteins, which defended
themselues, and the place so stoutlie, that the Frenchmen could win
little aduantage at their hands.

[Sidenote: _Gio. Villani._]

[Sidenote: The archdeacon of Vnfort.]

[Sidenote: Frenchmen discomfited.]

Whilest the siege continued before this fortresse, the seneshall of
Guien departed from the campe, with eight hundred horssemen, and foure
thousand footmen, purposing to win a castell, belonging to a nephue of
the cardinall Della Motte, a twelue leagues distant from Aiguillon. The
archdeacon of Vnfort, owner of that castell, went to the Rioll, where
the earle of Derbie with his armie as then was lodged, to whome he
made suit, to haue some power of men to rescue his castell. The earle
appointed to him a sufficient number, both of horssemen, and also of
English archers, with whome the said archdeacon rode all the night, and
the next morning betimes, being the one and thirtith of Iulie, they
came to the castell where the Frenchmen were arriued the daie before,
and had fiercelie assailed the castell, dooing their best to win it by
force. But the Englishmen without anie delaie, immediatlie vpon their
comming, set vpon the Frenchmen, and gaue them so sharpe and fierce
battell, that in the end, the Frenchmen were discomfited: the seneshall
with manie other gentlemen were taken prisoners, beside those that were
slaine. To conclude, the number of them that were slaine, and taken
prisoners in the whole, amounted to foure hundred horssemen, and two
thousand footmen. Sir Godfrey de Harcourt being constreined to flée out
of France, to auoid the French kings displeasure, came ouer vnto the
king of England, who receiued him verie ioifullie, for he was knowne to
be a right valiant and a wise personage. He was brother to the earle
of Harecourt, lord of saint Sauiour le Vicount, and of diuerse other
townes in Normandie. A little before that he fell into the French kings
displeasure, he might haue doone with the king of France, more than
anie other lord within that realme.

[Sidenote: Additions to _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: Purueiers punished.]

[Sidenote: Iustices.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: Cardinals.]

In this twentith yeare of his reigne, king Edward vpon complaint of
the people made against purueiours of vittels for his houshold (the
which vnder colour of their commissions, abused the same, in taking vp
among the commons all manner of things that liked them, without making
paiment for the same, further than the said commissions did allow
them) he caused inquirie to be made of their misdemeanors, and such
as were found to haue offended, of whome there was no small number,
some of them were put to death on the gallowes, and other were fined,
so to teach the rest to deale more warilie in their businesse from
thenceforth. ¶ About the same time, he caused all the iustices within
his dominions to renounce and giue ouer all their pensions, fées, and
other bribing benefits and rewards, which they vsed to receiue of
the lords and great men of the land, as well prelats, as of them of
the temporaltie, to the end that their hands being frée from gifts,
iustice might more fréelie haue course, and be of them dulie and
vprightlie ministred. Also this yeare in the Lent season, the king held
a parlement at Westminster, and tooke into his hands all the profits,
reuenues, and emoluments, which the cardinals held within this land:
for he thought it not reason, that they which fauoured the pope and
the French king, being his aduersaries, should inioy such commodities
within his realme.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The king paseth ouer into Normandie.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn Villani_ saith there were 2500 horsemen, and 30000
footmen and archers, that passed ouer with the K. but when he commeth
to speake of the battell, he séemeth to increase the number.]

After this, in the moneth of Iulie following, he tooke shipping, and
sailed into Normandie, hauing established the lord Percie, and the lord
Neuill, to be wardens of his realme in his absence, with the archbishop
of Yorke, the bishop of Lincolne, and the bishop of Duresme. The armie
which he had ouer with him, was to the number of foure thousand men
of armes, and ten thousand archers, beside Irishmen, & Welshmen, that
folowed the host on foot. The chéefest capteins that went ouer with
him were these. First his eldest sonne Edward prince of Wales, being
as then about the age of thirtéene yeares, the earles of Hereford,
Northampton, Arundell, Cornewall, Huntington, Warwike, Suffolke, and
Oxford; of barons the lord Mortimer, who was after erle of March,
the lords, Iohn, Lewes, and Roger Beauchampe; also the lords Cobham,
Mowbraie, Lucie, Basset, Barkeley, and Willoughbie, with diuerse other
lords, besides a great number of knights and other worthie capteins.
They landed by the aduise of the lord Godfrey of Harecourt, in the Ile
of Constantine, at the port of Haguc saint Wast, néere to saint Sauiour
le Vicount. The earle of Huntington was appointed to be gouernour of
the fléet by sea, hauing with him a hundred men of armes, and foure
hundred archers.

[Sidenote: The ordering of the kings armie.]

[Sidenote: Harflew.]

[Sidenote: Chierburge.]

[Sidenote: Mountburge.]

[Sidenote: Carentine.]

After that the whole armie was landed, the king appointed two marshals,
the lord Godfrey of Harecourt, and the earle of Warwike, and the earle
of Arundell was made constable. There were ordeined thrée battels, one
to go on his right hand, following by the coast of the sea; and another
to march on his left hand, vnder the conduct of the marshals; so that
he himselfe went in the middest with the maine armie, and in this order
forward they passed towards Caen, lodging euerie night togither in one
field. They that went by the sea, tooke all the ships they found in
their waie, and as they marched foorth thus, what by water & land, at
length they came to a towne called Harflew, which was giuen vp, but
yet neuerthelesse it was robbed, and much goods found in it. After
this they came to Chierburge, which towne they wan by force, robbed
it, and burnt part of it, but the castell they could not win. Then
came they to Mountburge and tooke it, robbed it & burnt it cleane. In
this manner they passed foorth, and burnt manie towns and villages in
all the countrie as they went. The towne of Carentine was deliuered
vnto them against the will of the soldiers that were within it. The
soldiers defended the castell two daies, and then yéelded it vp into
the Englishmens hands, who burnt the same, and caused the burgesses to
enter into their ships. All this was doone by the battell that went by
the sea side, and by them on the sea togither.

[Sidenote: Saint Lo.]

On the other side, the lord Godfrie of Harecourt, with the battell on
the right hand of the king, road foorth six or seuen leagues from the
kings battell, in burning and exiling the countrie. The king had with
him (beside those that were with the marshals) 3000 men of armes, six
thousand archers, and ten thousand men on foot. They left the citie of
Constance, and came to a great towne called saint Lo, a rich towne of
draperie, hauing manie wealthie burgesses within it: it was soone taken
and robbed by the Englishmen vpon their first approch. From thence the
king marched streight to Caen, wherein were capteins Rafe earle of Ewe
and Guines constable of France, & the earle of Tankeruile. These noble
men meant to haue kept their defenses on the walles, gate, bridge,
and riuer, and to haue left the suburbes void, bicause they were not
closed, but onelie with the riuer: but they of the towne said they
would issue forth, for they were strong inough to fight with the king
of England.

[Sidenote: There were slaine in all without and within the towne 5000
men, as _Gio. Villani_ writeth.]

[Sidenote: Peter Legh.]

When the constable saw their good willes, he was contented to follow
their desire, and so foorth they went in good order, and made good face
to put their liues in hazard: but when they saw the Englishmen approch
in good order, diuided into thrée battels, & the archers readie to
shoot, which they of Caen had not séene before, they were sore afraid,
and fled awaie toward the towne without any order or arraie, for all
that the constable could doo to staie them. The Englishmen followed,
and in the chase slue manie, and entered the towne with their enimies.
The constable, and the earle of Tankeruile tooke a tower at the bridge
foot, thinking there to saue themselues, but perceiuing the place to
be of no force, nor able long to hold out, they submitted themselues
vnto sir Thomas Holland. ¶ But here whatsoeuer Froissard dooth report
of the taking of this tower, and of the yéelding of these two noble
men, it is to be proued that the said earle of Tankeruile was taken
by one surnamed Legh, ancestor to sir Peter Legh now liuing, whether
in the fight or within the tower, I haue not to saie: but for the
taking of the said earle, and for his other manlike prowes shewed
here and elsewhere in this iournie, king Edward in recompense of his
agréeable seruice, gaue to him a lordship in the countie of Chester
called Hanley, which the said sir Peter Legh now liuing dooth inioy and
possesse, as successor and heire to his ancestor the foresaid Legh, to
whom it was so first giuen.

[Sidenote: Caen taken.]

[Sidenote: 40000 clothes, as _Gio. Villani_ writeth, were got by the
Englishmen in one place and other in this iournie.]

But to returne now to the matter where we left. The Frenchmen being
entred into their houses, cast downe vpon the Englishmen below in the
stréets, stones, timber, hot water, and barres of iron, so that they
hurt and slue more than fiue hundred persons. The king was so mooued
therewith, that if the lord Godfrie of Harecourt had not asswaged his
mood, the towne had béene burnt, and the people put to the edge of the
sword: but by the treatie of the said lord Godfrie, proclamation was
made, that no man should put fire into any house, nor slea any person,
nor force any woman, and then did the townesmen and souldiers submit
themselues, and receiued the Englishmen into their houses. There was
great store of riches gotten in this towne, and the most part thereof
sent into England, with the fléet which the king sent home with the
prisoners, vnder the guiding of the earle of Huntington, accompanied
with two hundred men of armes, and foure hundred archers.

[Sidenote: Louiers.]

[Sidenote: Gisors.]

[Sidenote: Vernon.]

[Sidenote: _Gio. Villani._]

[Sidenote: S. Germans in Laie. S. Clowd.]

[Sidenote: Beauuois.]

[Sidenote: Burners executed.]

When all things were ordred in Caen as the king could desire, he
marched from thence in the same order as he had kept before, burning
and exiling the countrie. He passed by Eureux & came to Louiers, which
the Englishmen soone entred and sacked without mercie. Then went they
foorth and left Roan, and came to Gisors, the towne they burnt, but
the castell they could not get: they burnt also Vernon, and at Poissie
they repared the bridge which was broken, and so there they passed ouer
the riuer of Saine. The power of the Englishmen increased dailie, by
such numbers as came ouer foorth of England in hope to win by pillage.
Also manie gentlemen of Normandie, and other of the French nation,
which loued not nor owght any good will vnto the French king, came
to the king of England, offering to serue him, so that there were in
his armie foure thousand horssemen and fiftie thousand footmen with
the Normans, and of this number there were thirtie thousand English
archers, as Giouan Villani writeth. The English marshals ran abroad
iust to Paris, and burnt S. Germans in Laie: also Mountioy, and S.
Clowd, and petie Bullongne by Paris, & the quéenes Burge. In the meane
time had the French king assembled a mightie armie vpon purpose to
fight with the Englishmen. ¶ The lord Godfrey of Harecourt, as he rode
foorth with fiue hundred men of armes, and 13 hundred archers, by
aduenture incountered with a great number of the burgesses of Amiens on
horssebacke, who were riding by the kings commandement to Paris. They
were quickelie assailed, and though they defended themselues manfullie
for a while, yet at length they were ouercome, and eleuen hundred of
them slaine in the field, beside those that were taken. The Englishmen
had all their cariage and armour. Thus passed foorth the king of
England, and came into Beauuoisin, and lodged néere vnto the citie of
Beauuois one night in an abbeie called Messene, and for that after he
was dislodged, there were that set fire in the same abbeie, without any
commandement giuen by him; he caused twentie of them to be hanged that
were the first procurers of that fire.

[Sidenote: Piqueney.]

[Sidenote: The French kings armie.]

So long the king of England passed forward, that finallie he approched
néere to the water of Some, the which was large and déepe, and all the
bridges broken and the passages well kept, wherevpon he caused his two
marshals with a thousand men of armes, & two thousand archers, to go
along the riuer, to the end to find some passage. The marshals assaied
diuerse places, as at Piqueney, and other where, but they could not
find any passage vnclosed, capteins with men of warre being set to
defend the same, in somuch that the marshalls returned to the king,
and declared what they had séene and found. At the same instant time
was the French king come to Amiens, with more than a hundred thousand
men, and thought to inclose the king of England, that he should no waie
escape, but be constreined to receiue battell in some place greatlie to
his disaduantage.

[Sidenote: Sir Godmare du Foy.]

[Sidenote: Gobin Agace.]

The king of England well perceiuing himselfe in danger, remooued from
the place where he was incamped, and marched forward through the
countries of Pontiew and Vimew, approching vnto the good towne of
Abuile, and at length by one of the prisoners named Gobin de Grace, he
was told where he might passe with his armie ouer the riuer of Some, at
a foord in the same riuer, being hard in the bottome, and verie shallow
at an eb water. The French king vnderstanding that the K. of England
sought to passe the riuer of Some, sent a great baron of Normandie,
one sir Godmare du Foy, to defend the passage of the same riuer, with
a thousand men of armes, and six thousand on foot with the Genowaies.
This sir Godmare had with him also a great number of them of Mutterell
and others of the countrie, so that he had in all to the number of
twelue thousand men, one and other, and hearing that the king of
England was minded to passe at Blanchetake (which was the passage that
Gobin Agace had informed the king of England of) he came thither. When
the Englishmen approched, he arranged all his companie to defend the
passage.

[Sidenote: The English men wan the passage ouer the water of Some.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: The number slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Crotay burnt.]

And suerlie when the Englishmen at the lowe water entred the foord
to passe ouer, there was a sharpe bickering, for diuerse of the
Frenchmen incountred the Englishmen on horssebacke in the water,
and the Genowaies did them much hurt, and troubled them sore with
their crosbowes: but on the other side, the English archers shot so
wholie togither, that the Frenchmen were faine to giue place to the
Englishmen, so that they got the passage and came ouer, assembling
themselues in the field, and then the Frenchmen fled, some to Abuile,
some to saint Riquier. They that were on foot could not escape so
well as those on horssebacke, insomuch that a great number of them of
Abuile, Mutterell, Arras, and S. Riquier were slaine and taken, for
the chase indured more than a great league. There were slaine in all
to the number of two thousand. When the K. of England had thus passed
the riuer, he acquitted Gobin Agace, and all his companie of their
ransomes, and gaue to the same Gobin an hundred nobles, and a good
horsse, and so the king rode foorth as he did before. His marshals road
to Crotaie by the sea side, and burnt the towne, and tooke all such
wines and goods as were in the ships and barks which laie there in the
hauen.

One of the marshals road to the gates of Abuile, and from thence to
S. Riquier, and after to the towne of Rue saint Esperit. This was on
a fridaie, and both the marshals returned to the kings host about
noone, and so lodged all togither about Cressie in Pontiew, where
hauing knowledge that the French king followed to giue him battell, he
commanded his marshalls to choose a plot of ground, somewhat to his
aduantage, that he might there abide his aduersaries. In the meane time
the French king being come with all his puissance vnto Abuile, and
hearing how the king of England was passed ouer the riuer of Some, and
discomfited sir Godmare du Foy, was sore displeased in his mind: but
when he vnderstood that his enimies were lodged at Cressie, and meant
there to abide him, he caused all his people to issue out of Abuile,
and earlie on the saturdaie in the morning, anon after sunne rising he
departed out of the towne himselfe, and marched towards his enimies.
The king of England vnderstanding that his aduersarie king Philip still
followed him, to giue him battell, & supposing that the same saturdaie
he would come to offer it, rose betimes in the morning, and commanded
euerie man first to call vpon God for his aid, then to be armed, and
to draw with spéed into the field, that in the place before appointed
they might be set in order of battell. Beginning his enterprise at
inuocation or calling vpon God, he was the more fortunate in his
affaires, and sped the better in the progresse of his actions, as the
issue of the warre shewed. A notable example to euerie priuat man, to
remember to call vpon God when he purposeth anie thing, for as the poet
saith, and that verie christianlie,

[Sidenote: _Mar. Pal. in sag._]

    ---- nihil est mortalibus ægris
    Vtilius, quàm coelestem, sanctéq; piéq;
    Orando sibi quærere opem.

[Sidenote: _Giov[=o] Villani_ saith, that when they should ioine in
battell, the Englishmen were 30000 archers English & Welsh, beside
other footmen with axes & iauelins, and not fullie 4000 horssemen.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The kings demeanor before ye battell.]

Beside this, he caused a parke to be made and closed by the wood side
behind his host, in the which he ordeined that all the carts and
carriages should be set, with all the horsses (for euerie man was on
foot.) Then he ordeined thrée battels, in the first was the prince
of Wales, and with him the earle of Warwike, the lord Godfrey of
Harecourt, the lord Stafford, the lord de la Ware, the lord Bourchier,
the lord Thomas Clifford, the lord Reginald Cobham, the lord Thomas
Holland, sir Iohn Chandos, sir Bartholomew de Browash, sir Robert
Neuill. They were eight hundred men of armes, and two thousand archers,
and a thousand of other with the Welsh men. In the second battell was
the earle of Northhampton, the earle of Arundell, the lords Ros and
Willowbie, Basset, S. Albine, Multon, and others. The third battell
the king led himselfe, hauing with him seauen hundred men of armes,
and two thousand archers, and in the other battell were to the number
of eight hundred men of armes, and twelue hundred archers. Thus was
the English armie marshalled according to the report of _Froissard._
When euerie man was gotten into order of battell, the king leapt vpon
a white hobbie, and rode from ranke to ranke to view them, the one
marshall on his right hand, and the other on his left, desiring euerie
man that daie to haue regard to his right and honour. He spake it so
courteouslie, and with so good a countenance, that euen they which
before were discomforted, tooke courage in hearing him speake such
swéet and louing words amongst them. It was nine of the clocke yer euer
he had thus visited all his battels, & therevpon he caused euerie man
to eat and drinke a little, which they did at their leisure.

[Sidenote: The disorders among the Frenchmen.]

The French king before he approched néere to his enimies, sent foorth
foure skilful knights to view the demeanor of his enimies, the which
returning againe, made report as they had séene, and that forsomuch
as they could gesse, the Englishmen ment to abide him, being diuided
into thrée battels, readie to receiue him and his puissance, if he
went forward, in purpose to assaile them. Here was the French king
counselled to stay and not to giue battell that day, but to aduise all
things with good deliberation and regard, to consider well how and
what way he might best assaile them. Then by the marshals were all men
commanded to staie, and not to go anie further, they that were formost
and next to the enimies taried, but they that were behind would not
abide but rode foorth, and said they would not staie till they were as
far as the formost: and when they before saw them behind come forward,
then they marched on also againe, so that neither the K. nor his
marshals could rule them, but that they passed forward still without
order, or anie good arraie, till they came in sight of their enimies:
and as soone as the formost saw their enimies, then they reculed backe,
whereof they behind had maruell, and were abashed, supposing that the
formost companie had béene fighting. Then they might haue had roome
to haue gone forward, if they had béene minded. The commons, of whome
all the waies betwixt Abuile and Cressie were full, when they saw that
they were néere their enimies, they tooke their swords and cried;
"Downe with them, Let vs slea them all." There was no man, though he
were present at the iornie, that could imagine or shew the truth of
the euill order that was among the French partie, and yet they were a
maruellous great number.

[Sidenote: Charles Grimaldi & Anthonie or Othone Doria were capteins of
these Genowaies, which were not past six thousand, as _Gio. Villani_
saith.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Alanson.]

The Englishmen which beheld their enimies thus approching them,
prepared themselues at leisure for the battell, which they saw to be at
hand. The first battell, whereof the prince was ruler, had the archers
standing in maner of an herse, and the men of armes in the botome of
the battell. The earle of Northampton and the earle of Arundell with
the second battell were on a wing in good order, readie to comfort the
princes battell if néed were. The lords and knights of France came
not to the assemblie togither, for some came after, in such hast and
euill order, that one of them troubled another. There were of Genowaies
crosbowes to the number of twelue or fiftéene thousand, the which were
commanded to go on before, and with their shot to begin the battell;
but they were so werie with going on foot that morning six leagues
armed with their crosbowes, that they said to their constables; "We be
not well vsed, in that we are commanded to fight this daie, for we be
not in case to doo any great feat of armes, we haue more néed of rest."
These words came to the hearing of the earle of Alanson, who said; "A
man is well at ease to be charged with such a sort of rascals, that
faint and faile now at most néed."

[Sidenote: Raine and thunder with an eclipse.]

[Sidenote: The Genowaies.]

[Sidenote: The battell is begun.]

Also at the same instant there fell a great raine, and an eclipse with
a terrible thunder, and before the raine, there came flieng ouer both
armies a great number of crowes, for feare of the tempest comming: then
anon the aire began to wax cleare, and the sunne to shine faire and
bright, which was right in the French mens eies, and on the Englishmens
backs. ¶ When the Genowaies were assembled togither, and began to
approch, they made a great leape and crie, to abash the Englishmen,
but they stood still and stirred not at all for that noise. Then the
Genowaies the second time made an other leape and huge crie, and
stepped forward a little, and the Englishmen remooued not a foot. The
third time againe the Genowaies leapt, and yelled, and went foorth
till they came within shot, and fiercelie therwith discharged their
crossbowes. Then the English archers stept foorth one pase, and let
flie their arrowes so wholie and so thicke togither, that it séemed to
snowe. When the Genowaies felt the arrowes persing their heads, armes
and breasts, manie of them cast downe their crosbowes, and cut the
strings, and returned discomfited. When the French king saw them flée
awaie, he said: "Slea these rascals, for they will let and trouble vs
without reason."

[Sidenote: The king of Boheme.]

Then ye might haue séene the men of armes haue dasht in amongst them,
and killed a great number of them, and euer the Englishmen shot where
they saw the thickest prease: the sharpe arrowes ran into the men of
armes, and into their horsses, and manie fell horsse and man amongst
the Genowaies, and still the Englishmen shot where they saw the
thickest prease, and when they were once downe they could not recouer
againe. The throng was such that one ouerthrew another; & also among
the Englishmen, there were certeine of the footmen with great kniues,
that went in among the men of armes, and killed manie of them as they
laie on the ground, both earles, barons, knights, and esquires. The
valiant king of Bohem being almost blind, caused his men to fasten all
the reines of the bridels of their horsses ech to other, and so he
being himselfe amongst them in the formost ranke, they ran on their
enimies.

[Sidenote: The earle of Alanson.]

The lord Charles of Boheme sonne to the same king and late elected
emperour, came in good order to the battell, but when he saw how the
matter went awrie on their part, he departed and saued himselfe. His
father by the meanes aforesaid went so far forward, that ioining with
his enimies he fought right valiantlie, and so did all his companie:
but finallie being entred within the prease of their enimies, they were
of them inclosed and slaine, togither with the king their master, and
the next daie found dead lieng about him, and their horsses all tied
ech to other. The earle of Alanson came right orderlie to the battell,
and fought with the Englishmen, and so did the earle of Flanders also
on his part. These two lords coasted the English archers, and came to
the princes battell, and there fought right valiantlie a long time.
The French king perceiuing where their banners stood, would faine haue
come to them, but could not, by reason of a great hedge of archers
that stood betwixt them and him. This was a perillous battell and sore
foughten: there were few taken to mercie, for the Englishmen had so
determined in the morning.

[Sidenote: The princes battell pearsed.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Northampt[=o] sendeth to the king.]

[Sidenote: The kings answer.]

[Sidenote: The French king departeth out of the field.]

Certeine Frenchmen and Almaines perforce opened the archers of the
princes battell, and came to fight with the men of armes hand to
hand. Then the second battell of the Englishmen came to succor the
princes battell, and not before it was time, for they of that battell
had as then inough to doo, in somuch that some which were about him,
as the earle of Northampton, and others sent to the king, where he
stood aloft on a windmill hill, requiring him to aduance forward, and
come to their aid, they being as then sore laid to of their enimies.
The king herevpon demanded if his sonne were slaine, hurt, or felled
to the earth? "No (said the knight that brought the message) but he
is sore matched." "Well" (said the king) "returne to him and them
that sent you, and saie to them that they send no more to me for any
aduenture that falleth, so long as my son is aliue, for I will that
this iournie be his, with the honor thereof." With this answer the
knight returned, which greatlie incouraged them to doo their best to
win the spurs, being half abashed in that they had so sent to the king
for aid. At length when it drew toward euening, and that the Frenchmen
were beaten downe and slaine on ech hand, king Philip as it were by
constreint departed out of the field, not hauing as then past thrée
score persons about him, of whome the lord Iohn of Heinault was one, by
whose persuasion he chéefelie consented to ride his waie for his owne
safegard, when he saw the losse was such as on that daie it could not
be recouered.

[Sidenote: Great slaughter of Frenchmen.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Iac. Meir._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Noble men slaine.]

The slaughter of the Frenchmen was great and lamentable, namelie for
the losse of so manie noble men, as were slaine at the same battell,
fought betwéene Cressie and Broy on the saturdaie next following the
feast of saint Bartholomew being (as that yeare fell) the 26 of August.
Among other which died that daie, these I find registred by name as
chéefest, Iohn king of Boheme, Rafe duke of Lorraine, Charles of Alanso
brother germane to king Philip, Charles earle of Blois, Lewes earle
of Flanders, also the earle of Harecourt, brother to the lord Geffrie
of Harecourt, with the earles of Ausserre, Aumerle, and saint Poule,
beside diuerse other of the nobilitie. The Englishmen neuer brake out
of their battels to chase any man, but kept themselues togither in
their wards and ranks, and defended themselues euer against such as
came to assaile them. This battell ended about euening.

[Sidenote: The king of England commeth downe from the hill.]

When the Frenchmen were clearelie ouercome, and those that were left
aliue fled and gone, so that the Englishmen heard no more noise of
them, king Edward came downe from the hill (on the which he stood all
that day with his helmet still on his head) and going to the prince,
imbraced him in his armes, and kissed him, saieng; "Faire sonne, God
send you good perseuerence in this your prosperous beginning, you haue
noblie acquit your selfe, you are well worthie to haue the gouernance
of a realme committed to your hands for your valiant dooings." The
prince inclined himselfe to the earth in honouring his father, as he
best could. This done, they thanked God togither with their souldiers
for their good aduenture. For so the king commanded, and willed no man
to make anie boast of his owne power, but to ascribe all the praise to
almightie God for such a noble victorie; séeming héerein to be affected
as Dauid was in the foure and fortith psalme; for he also referreth the
happie successe of warre, and all victorie, vnto Almightie God, and not
to the strength of a multitude of men, saieng:

[Sidenote: _Georg. Buch. paraph. in psal._]

    Tu nos ab hoste subtrahis, sternis solo
      Infensa nobis agmina.
    Non ergo semper iure te cantabimus
      Nostræ salutis vindicem?

¶ On the sundaie in the morning, there was such a mist, that a
man could not sée an acres bredth before him. Then by the kings
commandement there departed from the host fiue hundred speares, and
two thousand archers, to trie if they might heare of anie Frenchmen
gathered togither in anie place néere vnto them.

[Sidenote: Frenchmen slaine the day after the battell.]

[Sidenote: The archb. of Rouen and the lord grand prior of France
slaine.]

On the same morning there were departed out of Abuile and S. Requier in
Pontiew, the commons of Roan and Beauuais, with other that knew nothing
of the discomfiture the daie before. These met with the Englishmen,
supposing they had béene Frenchmen, and being fiercelie assailed
of them, after sore fight, and great slaughter, the Frenchmen were
discomfited and fled, of whome were slaine in the hedges and bushes,
more than seuen thousand men. The archbishop of Roan, and the grand
prior of France, ignorant also of the discomfiture the day before, &
supposing (as they were informed) the French should not haue foughten
till that sundaie, were likewise incountred (as they came thitherward)
by the Englishmen, with whome they fought a sore battell, for they were
a great number, but yet at length they were not able to susteine the
puissant force of the Englishmen, and so the most part of them were
slaine, with the said archbishop and grand prior, and few there were
that escaped.

On that sundaie morning, the Englishmen met with diuerse Frenchmen,
that had lost their waie on the saturdaie, and wist not where the king
nor their capteins were become. They were all slaine in manner, so
manie as the Englishmen could méet with, insomuch that of the commons
and footmen of the cities and good townes of France (as was thought)
there were slaine this sundaie foure times as manie as were slaine
on the saturdaie in the great battell. When those Englishmen that
were sent abroad thus to view the countrie, were returned againe, and
signified to the king what they had séene and doone, and how there was
no more appearance of the enimies, the king to search what the number
was of them that were slaine, and vpon the view taken, it was reported
vnto him, that there were found dead eleuen princes, foure score
baronets, 12 hundred knights, and more than thirtie thousand other of
the meaner sort. Thus was the whole puissance of France vanquished, and
that chéeflie by force of such as were of no reputation amongst them,
that is to say, the English archers, by whose sharpe and violent shot
the victorie was atchiued, to the great confusion of the French nation.
¶ Of such price were the English bowes in that season, that nothing was
able to withstand them; whereas now our archers couet not to drawe long
and strong bowes, but rather to shoot compasse, which are not méet for
the warres, nor greatlie to be feared, though they come into the field.

[Sidenote: Calis besieged.]

The king of England with his armie kept still his field, vntill mondaie
in the morning, and then dislodged, and came before Moturéell by the
sea, and his marshals ran towards Hedin. The next daie they road toward
Bullongne, & at Wisam the king and the prince incamped, and tarried a
whole daie to refresh their people, and on the wednesdaie being the
thirtith day of August, he came before the strong towne of Calis,
and there planted his siege, and erected bastides betwéene the towne
and the riuer, and caused carpenters to make houses and lodgings of
great timber, which were couered with réed & broome, so manie and in
such order, that it séemed a new towne, and in it was a market place
appointed of purpose, in the which the market was dailie kept of
vittels, & all other necessarie things euerie tuesdaie and saturdaie,
so that a man might haue bought what he would of things brought thither
out of England & Flanders. ¶ But now, forsomuch as we haue spoken of
this iournie and inuasion made by king Edward into France, in this
ninetéenth yéere of his reigne, accordinglie as we haue gathered out of
Froissard, and diuerse other authors, I haue thought good to make the
reader partaker of the contents of a letter written by a chapleine of
the said king, and attendant about him in the same iornie, conteining
the successe of his procéedings after his departure from Poissie, which
letter is inserted with others in the historie of Robert de Auesburie,
and Englished by maister Iohn Fox as followeth.


A letter of W. Northbourgh the kings confessor describing the kings
voiage into France.

[Sidenote: In the acts and monuments.]

Salutations premised. We giue you to vnderstand, that our souereigne
lord the king came to the towne of Poissie the daie before the
Assumption of our ladie, where was a certeine bridge ouer the water
of Saine broken downe by the enimie, but the king tarried there so
long, till that the bridge was made againe. And whiles the bridge was
in reparing, there came a great number of men at armes, and other
souldiers well armed, to hinder the same. But the earle of Northampton
issued out against them, and slue of them more than a thousand, the
rest fled awaie: thankes be to God. And at another time, our men passed
the water (although with much trauell) and slue a great number of the
common souldiers of France, about the citie of Paris, and countrie
adioining, being part of the French kings armie, and throughlie well
appointed: so that our people haue now made other good bridges vpon
our enimies, God be thanked, without anie losse and damage to vs. And
on the morrow after the Assumption of our ladie, the king passed the
water of Saine, and marched toward Poissie, which is a towne of great
defense, and stronglie walled, and a maruellous strong castell within
the same, which our enemies kept. And when our vauntgard was passed
the towne, our rergard gaue an assault therevnto, and tooke the same,
where were slaine more than thrée hundred men at arms of our enimies
part. And the next daie following, the earle of Suffolke, and sir Hugh
Spenser, marched foorth vpon the commons of the countrie assembled and
well armed, and in fine discomfited them, and slue of them more than
two hundred, & tooke thrée score gentlemen prisoners, beside others.

And after that, the king marched toward grand Villiers, and while he
was there incamped, the kings vantgard was descried by the men at armes
of the K. of Boheme: whervpon our men issued out in great hast and
ioined battell with them, but were inforced to retire. Notwithstanding,
thanks be vnto God, the earle of Northampton issued out, and rescued
the horssemen with the other soldiers: so that few or none of them were
either taken or slaine, sauing onlie Thomas Talbot, but had againe
the enimie in chase within two leagues of Amiens: of whome we tooke
eight, and slue twelue of their best men at armes: the rest being well
horssed, tooke the towne of Amiens. After this the king of England
marched toward Pountife, vpon Bartholomew day, and came to the water
of Some, where the French king had laid fiue hundred men at armes, and
thrée thousand footmen, purposing to haue kept and stopped our passage:
but thanks be to God, the K. of England and his host entered the same
water of Some, where neuer man passed before, without losse of any of
our men; and after that incountered with the enimie, and slue of them
more than 2000, the rest fled to Abuile, in which chase were taken
manie knights, esquiers, & men at armes. The same day sir Hugh Spenser
tooke the towne of Crotaie, where he & his soldiers slue 400 men at
armes, & kept the towne, where they found great store of vittels.

The same night incamped the king of England in the forrest of Cressie
vpon the same water, for that the French kings host came on the other
side of the towne, néere vnto our passage: but he would not take the
water of vs, & so marched toward Abuile. And vpon the fridaie next
following, the king being still incamped in the said forrest, our
scuriers descried the French K. which marched toward vs in foure
great battels; and hauing then vnderstanding of our enimies (as Gods
will was) a little before the euening tide, we drew to the plaine
field, and set our battels in arraie: and immediatlie the fight began,
which was sore and cruel, & indured long, for our enimies behaued
themselues right noblie. But thanks be giuen vnto God, the victorie
fell on our side, & the king our aduersarie was discomfited with all
his host & put to flight: where also was slaine the king of Boheme,
the duke of Loraine, the earle of Alanson, the earle of Flanders, the
earle of Blois, the earle of Harecourt, with his two sons, the earle
Daumarle, the earle de Neuers, and his brother the lord of Tronard,
the archbishop of Nismes, the archbishop of Sens, the high prior of
France, the earle of Sauoie, the lord of Morles, the lord de Guies, le
seigneur de Saint Nouant, le seigneur de Rosinburgh, with six earles
of Almaine, and diuerse other earles, barons, knights, and esquiers,
whose names are vnknowne. And Philip de Valois himselfe, with an other
marques, which was called lord elector among the Romans, escaped from
the battell. The number of the men of armes which were found dead in
the field, beside the common soldiers and footmen, were a thousand,
fiue hundred, fortie and two: and all that night the king of England
with his host aboad armed in the field, where the battel was fought.

On the next morrow before the sunne rose, there marched towards vs
another great host mightie & strong, of the Frenchmen: but the earle
of Northampton, and the earle of Norffolke issued out against them in
thrée battels, & after long and terrible fight, them likewise they
discomfited by Gods great helpe and grace (for otherwise it could
neuer haue béene) where they tooke of knights and esquiers a great
number, and slue aboue two thousand, pursuing the chase thrée leages
from the place where the battell was fought. The same night also the
king incamped himselfe againe in the forrest of Cressie, and on the
morrow marched toward Bullongne, and by the way he tooke the towne of
Staples: and from thence he marched toward Calis, where he intendeth
to plant his siege, and laie his batterie to the same. And therfore
our souereigne lord the king willeth and commandeth you, in all that
euer you may, to send to the said siege vittels conuenient. For after
the time of our departing from Caen, we haue trauelled through the
countrie with great perill & danger of our people, but yet alwaies had
of vittels plentie, thanks be to God therefore. But now (as the case
standeth) we partlie néed your helpe to be refreshed with vittels. Thus
fare you well. Written at the siege before the towne of Calis, the
fourtéenth daie of September.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: _Iac. Meir._]

[Sidenote: Terrouan.]

[Sidenote: Terrouan woon by force.]

But now touching the siege of Calis, and to returne where we left,
ye shall vnderstand, that (as ye haue heard) the English campe was
furnished with sufficient prouision of meat, drinke, apparell,
munition, and all other things necessarie: and oftentimes also the
soldiers made roads and forrais into the borders of France next
adioining, as towards Guines, and saint Omer, ye euen to the gates of
that towne, and sometime to Bullongne. Also the earle of Northampton
fetched a bootie out of Arthois, and as he returned toward the host,
he came to Terrouan, which towne the bishop had fortified and manned,
deliuering the custodie therof vnto sir Arnold Dandrehen: for when he
heard the Englishmen approched, he durst not tarrie within the citie
himselfe, but got him to saint Omers. Sir Arnold stood valiantlie to
his defense, and would not yéeld, till by verie force the Englishmen
entered the citie, slue the soldiers, and tooke their capteine the said
sir Arnold prisoner. The citie was put to sacke, and after set on fire.
And when the Englishmen were departed, there came a number of Flemings
from the siege, which they had laid before S. Omers, and began a new
spoile, and fired such houses belonging to the canons and other, which
the Englishmen had spared. Thus were those confines in most miserable
case, for no house nor other thing was in safegard, but such as were
conteined within closure of strong townes and fortresses.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn de Vienne capteine of Calis.]

[Sidenote: The king of Englands pitie towards the poore.]

The king of England would not assaile the towne of Calis by giuing
anie assault to it, for he knew he should but lose his labour, and
waste his people, it was so strong of it selfe, and so well furnished
with men of warre. Capteine thereof also was one sir Iohn de Vienne, a
valiant knight of Burgoigne, hauing with him diuerse other right hardie
and expert capteins, knights, and esquiers. When the said sir Iohn de
Vienne saw the manner of the English host, and what the kings intention
was, he constreined all the poore and meane people to depart out of the
towne. The king of England perceiuing that this was doone of purpose to
spare vittels, would not driue them backe againe to helpe to consume
the same, but rather pitied them; and therefore did not onelie shew
them so much grace to suffer them to passe through his host, but also
gaue them meat and drinke to dinner, and moreouer two pence sterling to
euerie person: which charitable déed wan him much praise, and caused
manie of his enimies to praie right hartilie for his good successe and
prosperitie. A most notable example of pitie and compassion, teaching
other to be in like sort affected, and also to know, that

    Spernit coelorum regem spretor miserorum.

[Sidenote: The duke of Normandie sent for.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Derbie assembleth an armie.]

[Sidenote: Towns won by the earle of Derbie.]

The French king meaning to raise the siege from Calis, which the king
of England kept there, sent for his sonne the duke of Normandie, which
had line long at the siege of Aiguillon, and now by commandement of his
father left it sore against his will. In this mean while, the earle
of Derbie remained in the citie of Burdeaux, and there had held him
during all the time that the siege laie before Aiguillon. When he once
vnderstood that the siege was raised, and that the duke of Normandie
had broken vp his campe, he sent into Gascoigne for all knights and
esquires that held of the English part. Then came to Burdeaux the lord
Dalbret, the lord de Lespare, the lord de Rosam, the lord of Musident,
the lord of Pumiers, and a great sort more of the lords and nobles
of Gascoigne, so that the earle had twelue hundred men of armes, two
thousand archers, and thrée thousand other footmen. They passed the
riuer of Garon, betwixt Burdeaux and Blaie, and tooke their waie to
Zanctonge, so to go vnto Poictiers, and tooke by the waie the towne of
Mirabell by assault: they wan also the towne and castell of Aunaie,
Surgieres, and Benon. Also they took Maraunt in Poictow by force, they
burnt also the towne of Lusignen, but the castell they could not win.
Moreouer, they did win the bridge, towne, and castell of Tailburge, and
slue all that were found within it, bicause a knight of the English
part was slaine in the assaulting. From thence the earle of Derbie went
and laid siege to saint Iohn Dangelie, which was yéelded to him by
composition.

[Sidenote: The citie of Poictiers woon by force.]

At Niort he made thrée assaults, but could not win it, and so from
thence he came to Bourge saint Mariment, the which was woone by force,
and all that were within it slaine; and in like manner the towne of
Montreuill Bonin was woone, and the most part of them within slaine,
that tooke vpon them to defend it, which were 200 coiners of monie that
wrought in the mint, which the French king kept there. From thence he
passed forward with his host, and finallie came before the citie of
Poictiers, which was great and large, so that he could not besiege
it but on the one side. The third daie after his comming thither, he
caused the citie to be assaulted in thrée places, and the greatest
number were appointed to assaile the weakest part of the citie. As
then there were no expert men of warre within Poictiers, but a great
multitude of people vnskilfull and not vsed to any feats of warre, by
reason whereof the Englishmen entered in at the weakest place. When
they within sawe the citie woone, they fled out at other gates, but
yet there were slaine to the number of seauen hundred persons, for all
that came in the Englishmens waie, were put to the sword, men, women,
and children. The citie was sacked and rifled, so that great store of
riches was gotten there, as well of the inhabitants as other that had
brought their goods thither for safegard of the same. The earle of
Derbie laie there ten or twelue daies, and longer might haue laine, if
his pleasure had so béene, for there was none that durst go about to
disquiet him, all the countrie trembled so at his presence.

[Sidenote: Saint Iohn Dangelie.]

[Sidenote: The king of Scots inuadeth England.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

At his departure from Poictiers he left the citie void, for it was too
great to be kept: his souldiers and men of warre were so pestered with
riches, that they wist not what to doo therewith: they estéemed nothing
but gold and siluer, and feathers for men of warre. The earle visited
by the waie as he returned homewards to Burdeaux the towne of saint
Iohn Dangelie, and other fortresses which he had woone in going towards
Poictiers, and hauing furnished them with men, munition, and vittels
necessarie, at his comming to Burdeaux he brake vp his host, and
licencing his people to depart, thanked them for their paines and good
seruice. All this while the siege continued still before Calis, and the
French king amongst other deuises which he imagined how to raise the
K. of England from it, procured the Scots to make warre into England,
insomuch that Dauid king of Scotland, notwithstanding the truce which
yet indured betwixt him and the king of England, vpon hope now to doo
some great exploit, by reason of the absence of king Edward, intangled
thus with the besieging of Calis, he assembled the whole puissance of
his realme, to the number of fortie or thréescore thousand fighting men
(as some write) and with them entered into England, burning, spoiling,
and wasting the countrie, till he came as far as Durham.

[Sidenote: The English lords assemble a power to fight with the Scots.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The quéenes diligence.]

The lords of England that were left at home with the quéene for the
sure kéeping and defense of the realme, perceiuing the king of Scots
thus boldlie to inuade the land, and in hope of spoile to send foorth
his light horssemen to harrie the countrie on ech side him, assembled
an host of all such people as were able to beare armour, both préests
and other. Their generall assemblie was appointed at Newcastell, and
when they were all togither, they were to the number of 1200 men of
armes, thrée thousand archers, and seauen thousand other, with the
Welshmen, and issuing out of the towne, they found the Scots readie to
come forward to incounter them. Then euerie man was set in order of
battell, and there were foure battels ordeined, one to aid another.
The first was led by the bishop of Durham, Gilbert de Vinfreuile earle
of Anegos, Henrie lord Percie, and the lord Henrie Scroope: the second
by the archbishop of Yorke, and the lord Rafe Neuill: the third by the
bishop of Lincolne, Iohn lord Mowbraie, and the lord Thomas de Rokebie:
the fourth was gouerned by the lord Edward Balioll capteine of Berwike,
the archbishop of Canturburie, and the lord Ros: beside these were W.
lord d'Eincourt, Robert de Ogle, and other. The quéene was there in
person, and went from ranke to ranke, and incouraged hir people in the
best manner she could, and that doone she departed, committing them and
their cause to God the giuer of all victorie.

[Sidenote: The Scots fight with axes.]

[Sidenote: The English men obteine the victorie. The king of Scots
taken.]

Shortlie herevpon the Scots set forward to begin the battell, and
likewise did the Englishmen, and therewith the archers on both parts
began to shoot: the shot of the Scots did little hurt, but the archers
of England sore galled the Scots, so that there was an hard battell.
They began at nine of the clocke, and continued still in fight till
noone. The Scots had sharpe and heauie axes, & gaue with the same great
and mightie strokes, howbeit finallie the Englishmen by the helpe of
God obteined the victorie, although they lost manie of their men. There
were diuerse of the nobles of Scotland slaine, to the number of seauen
earles, beside lords. The king was taken in the field sore wounded, for
he fought valiantlie. He was prisoner to an esquier of Northumberland,
who as soone as he had taken him, rode out of the field with him,
accompanied onelie with eight of his seruants, and rested not till he
came to his owne castell where he dwelled, being thirtie miles distant
from the place of the battell.

[Sidenote: _Hect. Boetius._]

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southwell._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Neuils crosse.]

There was taken also beside him, the earles of Fife, Sutherland,
Wighton, and Menteth, the lord William Douglas, the lord Vescie, the
archbishop of S. Andrewes, and another bishop, with sir Thomelin
Foukes, and diuerse other men of name. There were slaine of one and
other to the number of 15 thousand. This battell was fought beside
the citie of Durham at a place called Neuils crosse, vpon a saturdaie
next after the feast of saint Michaell, in the yeare of our Lord 1346.
Of this ouerthrow Christopher Okland hath verie commendablie written,
saieng,

[Sidenote: _In Angl. prælijs sub Edwardo 3._]

    ---- haud omine dextro
    Iam Scotus intulerat vim Dunelmensibus agris,
    Cùm formidandum sæuus bellum instruit Anglus,
    Aggreditúrque hostem violantem foedera sacra.
    Nominis incerti Scoticæ plebs obuia gentis
    Sternitur, & tristi gladio cadit impia turba,
    Frustrà obluctantur Scotiæ comitésque ducésque,
    Quorum pars iacet occumbens; pars cætera capta
    Captiuum corpus dedit vincentibus, auro
    Et pacto pretio redimendum, bellicus vt mos
    Postulat. At Dauid Scotiæ rex captus ad vrbem
    Londinum fidei pendens dignissima fractæ
    Supplicia, adductus celebri concluditur arce.
    Exiguus numerus volucri pede fisus equorum
    Effugit in patriam, testis certissimus Anglos
    Deuicisse suos, & tristia funera narrant.

[Sidenote: Sée in Scotland.]

[Sidenote: _Hector Boet._]

[Sidenote: Countries of Scotl[=a]d subdued by the Englishmen.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

¶ He that will sée more of this battell, may find the same also
set foorth in the Scotish historie, as their writers haue written
thereof. And for somuch as by the circumstances of their writings, it
should séeme they kept the remembrance of the same battell perfectlie
registred, we haue in this place onelie shewed what other writers haue
recorded of that matter, and left that which the Scotish chronicles
write, to be séene in the life of king Dauid, without much abridging
therof. The Englishmen after this victorie thus obteined, tooke the
castels of Roxburgh and Hermitage, and also without any resistance
subdued the countries of Anandale, Galloway, Mers, Tiuidale, and
Ethrike forrest, extending their marches foorth at that time vnto
Cokburnes Peth, and Sowtray hedge, and after vnto Trarlinlips, and
crosse Caue.

[Sidenote: Iohn Copland refuseth to deliuer the K. of Scots.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Copland rewarded.]

The quéene of England being certeinelie informed that the king of
Scots was taken, & that Iohn Copland had conueied him out of the
field, no man vnderstood to what place, she incontinentlie wrote to
him, commanding him foorthwith to bring his prisoner king Dauid vnto
hir presence: but Iohn Copland wrote to hir againe for a determinate
answer, that he would not deliuer his prisoner the said king Dauid
vnto any person liuing, man or woman, except onelie to the king of
England, his souereigne lord and master. Herevpon the quéene wrote
letters to the king, signifieng to him both of the happie victorie
chanced to his people against the Scots, and also of the demeanour of
Iohn Copland, in deteining the Scotish king. King Edward immediatlie
by letters commanded Iohn Copland to repaire vnto him where he laie at
siege before Calis, which with all conuenient spéed he did, and there
so excused himselfe of that which the quéene had found hirselfe gréeued
with him, for deteining the king of Scots from hir, that the king
did not onelie pardon him, but also gaue to him fiue hundred pounds
sterling of yearelie rent, to him & to his heires for euer, in reward
of his good seruice and valiant prowes, and made him esquire for his
bodie, commanding him yet vpon his returne into England to deliuer king
Dauid vnto the quéene, which he did, and so excused himselfe also vnto
hir, that she was therewith satisfied and contented. Then the quéene,
after she had taken order for the safe kéeping of the king of Scots,
and good gouernement of the realme, tooke the sea and sailed ouer to
the king hir husband still lieng before Calis.

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: The Flemings.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: 1347.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 21.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders c[=o]streined to promise mariage to
the king of Englands daughter.]

Whilest Calis was thus besieged by the king of England, the Flemings
which had latelie before besieged Betwine, and had raised from thence
about the same time that the battell was fought at Cressie, now
assemble togither againe, and dooing what damage they might against
the Frenchmen on the borders, they laie siege vnto the towne of Aire.
Moreouer, they wrought so for the king of England (earnestlie requiring
their fréendship in that behalfe) that their souereigne lord Lewes
earle of Flanders being as then about fiftéene yeares of age, fianced
the ladie Isabell daughter to the king of England, more by constraint
indéed of his subiects, than for any good will he bare to the king of
England: for he would often saie, and openlie protest, that he would
neuer marrie hir whose father had slaine his: but there was no remedie,
for the Flemings kept him in maner as a prisoner, till he granted to
follow their aduise. But the same wéeke that the mariage was appointed
to be solemnized, the earle as he was abroad in hawking at the hearon,
stale awaie and fled into France, not staieng to ride his horsse vpon
the spurs till he came into Arthois, and so dishonorablie disappointed
both the king of England, and his owne naturall subiects the Flemings,
to their high displeasure.

[Sidenote: The lord Charles de Blois taken prisoner.]

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Dagworth.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Hartille an English knight was also there with him.]

While the king laie thus before Calis, diuerse lords and knights came
to sée him out of Flanders, Brabant, Heinault, and Almaigne. Amongst
other came the lord Robert of Namur, and was reteined with the king
as his seruant, the king giuing him thrée hundred pounds sterling of
yearelie pension out of his coffers to be paid at Bruges. During the
time that the siege thus continued before Calis, the lord Charles de
Blois, that named himselfe duke of Britaine, was taken before a castell
in Britaine, called la Roch Darien, and his armie discomfited, chéeflie
by the aid of that valiant English knight sir Thomas Dagworth, who
had béene sent from the siege of Calis by king Edward to assist the
countesse of Montfort and other his fréends against the said Charles
de Blois, that with a gret armie of Frenchmen and Britains, had the
same time besieged the said castell of Roch Darien, c[=o]streining
them within in such forceable maner, that they stood in great néed
of present succors. The said sir Thomas Dagworth aduertised hereof,
with thrée hundred men of armes, and foure hundred archers of his owne
retinues, beside certeine Britaines, approched to the siege, and on the
20 of Iune earlie in the morning, a quarter of an houre before day,
suddenlie set vpon the enimies, who hauing knowledge of his comming,
were readie to receiue him as the day before, but being now surprised
thus on the sudden, they were greatlie amazed: for they that were
within Roch Darien, as soone as the appearance of daie had discouered
the matter vnto them, so that they might know their fréends from their
enimies, they issued foorth, and holpe not a litle to the atchiuing of
the victorie, which was cléerelie obteined before sunne-rising, and
the French armie quite discomfited, greatlie to the praise of the said
sir Thomas Dagworth and his companie, considering their small number,
in comparison of their aduersaries, who were reckoned to be twelue
hundred good men of armes, knights, and esquires, beside six hundred
other armed men, two thousand crossebowes, six hundred archers of the
countrie of Britaine, and footmen of commons innumerable.

There were taken, besides the lord Charles de Blois naming himself
duke of Britaine, diuerse other lords and men of name, as monsieur
Guie de la Vaall, sonne and heire to the lord la Vaall, which died in
the battell, the lord of Rocheford, the lord de Beaumanour, the lord
of Loiacke, with other lords, knights, and esquiers, in great numbers.
There were slaine the said lord de la Vaall, the Vicount of Rohan, the
lord of Chasteau Brian, the lord de Mailestreit, the lord de Quintin,
the lord de Rouge, the lord of Dereuall and his sonne, sir Rafe de
Montfort, and manie other worthie men of armes, knights and esquiers,
to the number of betwixt six and seuen hundred, as by a letter written
by the said sir Thomas Dagworth, and registred in the historie of
Robert de Auesburie dooth appeare.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The French king assembleth an armie.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

In this meane while, king Philip hauing dailie word how the power of
his enimie king Edward did increase by aid of the Easterlings and
other nations, which were to him alied, and that his men within Calis
were brought to such an extreme point, that without spéedie rescue
they could not long kéepe the towne, but must of force render it ouer
into the hands of his said enimie, to the great preiudice of all the
realme of France, after great deliberation taken vpon this so weightie
a matter, he commanded euerie man to méet him in their best arraie for
the warre, at the feast of Pentecost in the citie of Amiens, or in
those marches. At the daie and place thus appointed, there came to him
Odes duke of Burgoigne, and the duke of Normandie eldest sonne to the
king, the duke of Orleance his yoongest sonne, the duke of Burbon, the
earle of Fois, the lord Lois de Sauoie, the lord Iohn of Heinault, the
earle of Arminacke, the earle of Forrest, and the earle Valentinois,
with manie others.

[Sidenote: The Flemings besiege Aire.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: The French K. c[=o]meth towards Calis.]

These noble men being thus assembled, they tooke councell which waie
they might passe to giue battell to the Englishmen: it was thought the
best waie had béene through Flanders, but the Flemings in fauour of
the king of England denied, not onelie to open their passages to the
Frenchmen, but also had leuied an armie of an hundred thousand men
of one and other, and laid siege to Aire, and burnt the countrie all
about. Wherevpon there were manie sharpe bickerings and sore incounters
betwixt the Flemings and such Frenchmen as king Philip sent foorth
against them both, now, whilest the French armie laie about Amiens,
and also before, during all the time that the siege lay at Calis.
For all the French towns vpon the frontiers were stuffed with strong
garrisons of souldiers, as Lisle, saint Omers, Arras, Bullongne, Aire
and Monttreuill, and those men of war were euer readie vpon occasion to
attempt sundrie exploits. After this, when the armie of the Flemings
was broken vp, and returned home, or rather diuided into parts, and
lodged along on the frontiers, the French king with two thousand men
one and other came forward, taking his way through the countrie called
la Belme, and so by the countrie of Frankeberge, came streight to the
hill of Sangate, betwixt Calis and Wisant.

[Sidenote: The earle of Derbie.]

The king of England had caused a strong castell to be made betwéene
the towne of Calis and the sea, to close vp that passage, and had
placed therein thrée score men of armes, and two hundred archers which
kept the hauen in such sort that nothing could come in nor out. Also
considering that his enimies could come neither to succour the towne,
nor to annoie his host, except either by the downes alongst the sea
side, or else aboue by the high waie, he caused all his nauie to drawe
alongst by the coast of the downes, to stop vp that the Frenchmen
should not approch that waie. Also the erle of Derbie being come
thither out of Guien, was appointed to kéepe Newland bridge, with
a great number of men of armes and archers, so that the Frenchmen
could not approch anie waie, vnlesse they would haue come through the
marishes, which to doo was not possible.

[Sidenote: The request of the French lords to the king of England.]

[Sidenote: His answer.]

Fiftéene hundred of the commons of Tournie wan a tower, which the
Englishmen had made and kept for the impeachment of the Frenchmens
passage by the downes, but that notwithstanding, when the marshals of
France had well viewed all the passages and streicts through the which
their armie must passe, if they meant to fight with the Englishmen,
they well perceiued that they could not come to the Englishmen to giue
them battell, without the king would lose his people, wherevpon (as
Froissard saith) the French king sent the lord Geffrey de Charnie,
the lord Eustace de Ribaumont, Guie de Néele, and the lord de Beauiew
vnto the king of England, which required him on their maisters behalfe
to appoint certeine of his councell, as he would likewise appoint
certeine of his, which by common consent might aduise betwéene them an
indifferent place for them to trie the battell vpon: wherevnto the king
of England answered, "That there he was and had béene almost a whole
yeare, which could not be vnknowne to his aduersarie their maister,
so that he might haue come sooner if he would: but now, sith he had
suffered him there to remaine so long, without offer of battell, he
meant not to accomplish his desire, nor to depart from that, which to
his great cost he had brought now at length to that point, that he
might easilie win it. Wherefore if the French K. nor his host could
not passe those waies which were closed by the English power, let them
séeke some other passage (said he) if they thinke to come hither."

[Sidenote: Cardinals s[=e]t to intreat of peace.]

[Sidenote: They depart.]

[Sidenote: The French K. returneth into France.]

[Sidenote: The conditions of the surrender of Calis.]

In this meane while came two cardinals fr[=o] pope Clement, to treat a
peace betwixt the two kings, wherevpon commissioners were appointed, as
the dukes of Burgoigne and Burbone, the lord Lewes de Sauoie, and the
lord Iohn de Heinault, otherwise called lord Beaumont, on the French
part: and the earles of Derbie and Northampton, the lord Reginald
Cobham, and the lord Walter de Mannie, on the English part. These
commissioners and the legates (as intreators betwéene the parties) met
and communed thrée daies togither, but agréed not vpon anie conclusion,
and so the cardinals departed; and the French king perceiuing he could
not haue his purpose, brake vp his host and returned to France, bidding
Calis farewell. After that the French king with his host was once
departed from Sangate, without ministring anie succour to them within
the towne, they began to sue for a parlée, which being granted, in the
end they were contented to yéeld, and the king granted to receiue them
and the towne on these conditions; that six of the chéefe burgesses of
the towne should come foorth bareheaded, barefooted, and barelegged,
and in their shirts, with halters about their necks, with the keies of
the towne and castell in their hands, to submit themselues simplie to
the kings will, and the residue he was contented to take to mercie.

[Sidenote: Six burgesses of Calis presented to the king.]

[Sidenote: The quéene obteined their pardon.]

This determinate resolution of king Edward being intimated to the
commons of the towne, assembled in the market place by the sound of the
common bell before the capteine, caused manie a wéeping eie amongst
them: but in the end, when it was perceiued that no other grace would
be obteined, six of the most wealthie burgesses of all the towne agréed
to hazard their liues for the safegard of the residue, and so according
to the prescript order deuised by the K. they went foorth of the gates,
and were presented by the lord Walter de Mannie to the king, before
whom they knéeled downe, offered to him the keies of the towne, and
besought him to haue mercie vpon them. But the king regarding them
with a fell countenance, commanded streight that their heads should
be striken off. And although manie of the noble men did make great
intreatance for them, yet would no grace be shewed, vntill the quéene
being great with child, came and knéeled downe before the king hir
husband, and with lamentable chéere & wéeping eies intreated so much
for them, that finallie the kings anger was aswaged & his rigor turned
to mercie (for

    Flectitur iratus voce rogante Deus)

so that he gaue the prisoners vnto hir to doo hir pleasure with them.
Then the quéene commanded them to be brought into hir chamber, and
caused the halters to be taken from their necks, clothed them anew,
gaue them their dinner, and bestowing vpon ech of them six nobles,
appointed them to be conueied out of the host in safegard, and set at
libertie.

[Sidenote: Calis yéelded to the king of England.]

[Sidenote: Calis made a colonie of Englishmen. The quéene brought to
bed in the castell of Calis.]

Thus was the strong towne of Calis yéelded vp into the hands of king
Edward, the third of August, in the yeare 1347. The capteine the lord
Iohn de Vienne, and all the other capteins and men of name were staied
as prisoners, and the common soldiers and other meane people of the
towne were licenced to depart and void their houses, leauing all their
armor and riches behind them. The king would not haue any of the old
inhabitants to remaine in the towne, saue onlie a priest, and two
other ancient personages, such as best knew the customes, lawes and
ordinances of the towne. He appointed to send ouer thither amongst
other Englishmen, there to inhabit, 36 burgesses of London, and those
of the wealthiest sort, for he meant to people the towne onelie with
Englishmen, for the better and more sure defense thereof. The king and
quéene were lodged in the castell, and continued there, till the quéene
was deliuered of a daughter named Margaret.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: A truce. Women hard to agrée.]

[Sidenote: Sir Amerie de Pauie.]

The cardinals, of whome ye heard before, being come as legats from pope
Clement to mooue communication of peace, did so much in the matter,
that a truce was granted betwixt the realme of England & France, for
the terme of twelue moneths, or two yeares (as Froissard saith.) But
the English chronicle and Iacobus Meir séeme to agrée, that this
truce was taken but for nine moneths, though afterwards the same was
proroged. To the which truce all parties agréed, Britaine excepted,
for the two women there would not be quieted, but still pursued the
war the one against the other. After that this truce was accorded,
the king with the quéene his wife returned into England, and left as
capteine within Calis one sir Amerie of Pauie an Italian knight, or
(as other bookes haue) he was but capteine of the castell, or of some
one of the towers of that towne, which séemeth more like to be true,
than that the king should commit the whole charge of the towne vnto his
gouernement, being a stranger borne, and therefore Iacobus Meir is the
more to be credited, that writeth how sir Amerie of Pauie was left but
in charge with the castell onelie, and that the towne was committed to
the kéeping of the lord Iohn Beauchampe, and Lewes his brother.

[Sidenote: 1348.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 22.]

[Sidenote: Great raine.]

[Sidenote: 1349.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 23.]

[Sidenote: A great mortalitie.]

[Sidenote: Dearth.]

But now that there was a peace thus concluded betwixt the two kings, it
séemed to the English people that the sunne breake foorth after a long
cloudie season, by reason both of the great plentie of althings, and
remembrance of the late glorious victories: for there were few women
that were housekéepers within this land, but they had some furniture
of houshold that had béene brought to them out of France as part of
the spoile got in Caen, Calis, Carenten, or some other good towne. And
beside houshold stuffe, the English maides and matrones were bedecked
and trimmed vp in French womens iewels and apparell, so that as the
French women lamented for the losse of those things, so our women
reioised of the gaine. In this 22 yeare, from Midsummer to Christmasse
for the more part it continuallie rained, so that there was not one day
and night drie togither, by reason whereof great flouds insued, and the
ground therewith was sore corrupted, and manie inconueniences insued,
as great sickenes, and other, in somuch that in the yeare following in
France the people died woonderfullie in diuerse places. In Italie also,
and in manie other countries, as well in the lands of the infidels,
as in christendome, this grieuous mortalitie reigned to the great
destruction of people. ¶ About the end of August, the like death began
in diuerse places of England, and especiallie in London, continuing so
for the space of twelue moneths following. And vpon that insued great
barrennesse, as well of the sea, as the land, neither of them yéelding
such plentie of things as before they had doone. Whervpon vittels and
corne became scant and hard to come by.

[Sidenote: A practise to betraie Calis.]

About the same time died Iohn Stretford archbishop of Canturburie,
after whome succéeded Iohn Vfford, who liued not in that dignitie
past ten moneths, and then followed Thomas Bredwardin, who deceassed
within one yeare after his consecration, so that then Simon Islep
was consecrated archbishop by pope Clement the sixt, being the 53
archbishop that had sit in that seat. Within a while after, William
archbishop of Yorke died: in whose place succéeded Iohn Torsbie, being
the 44 archbishop that had gouerned that church. Moreouer in this 23
yeare of king Edwards reigne, the great mortalitie in England still
continuing, there was a practise in hand for recouering againe of Calis
to the French kings possession. The lord Geffrie of Charnie lieng in
the towne of S. Omers, did practise with sir Amerie de Pauie, to be
receiued into the towne of Calis by the castell, secretlie in the night
season. The Italian gaue eare to the lord Geffrie his sute; and to make
few words, couenanted for the summe of twentie thousand crownes to
betraie the towne vnto him, in such sort as he could best deuise.

[Sidenote: Diuersitie in writers.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The king secretlie passeth ouer to Calis.]

[Sidenote: The lord Geffrie de Charnie.]

¶ Here writers varie: for Froissard saith that king Edward had
information thereof, before that sir Amerie de Pauie vttered the thing
himselfe; but the French chronicles, and also other writers affirme,
that the Italian aduertised the king of all the drift and matter
betwixt him & the lord Geffrie of Charnie, before he went through with
the bargaine. But whether by him or by other, truth it is the king was
made priuie to the matter at Hauering Bower in Essex (where he kept the
feast of Christmasse) & therevpon departing from thence, he came to
Douer, and the daie before the night of the appointment made for the
deliuerie of the castell of Calis (hauing secretlie made his prouision)
he tooke shipping, and landed the same night at Calis, in so secret
maner, that but few of the towne vnderstood of his arriuall, he brought
with him out of England thrée hundred men of armes, and six hundred
archers, whom he laid in chambers and towers within the castell, so
closelie that few or none perceiued it, the maner he knew by sir Amerie
de Pauie his aduertisements (accordinglie as it was agréed betwixt
them) that the lord Geffrie of Charnie was appointed to come and enter
the towne that night, for the king had commanded sir Amerie to procéed
in merchandizing with the said lord Charnie, and onelie to make him
priuie of the day & houre in the which the feat should be wrought.

[Sidenote: 1350.]

[Sidenote: Sir Edward de Rentie.]

[Sidenote: The king crieth Mannie to the rescue.]

The lord Geffrie de Charnie being couenanted that he should be receiued
into Calis the first night of the new yeare, departed from S. Omers,
where he had assembled fiue hundred speares, the last day of December
toward night, and so in secret wise he passed foorth, till about the
middest of the next night after, he approched néere to Calis, and
sending an hundred men of armes to take possession of the castell, and
to paie the Italian his twentie thousand crownes, came to the posterne
of the castell, where sir Amerie de Pauie hauing let downe the posterne
bridge, was readie to bring them in by the same posterne, and so the
hundred men of armes entered, and sir Edward de Rentie deliuered to the
Italian his twentie thousand crownes in a bag, who when he had cast the
crownes into a coffer (for he had no leisure to tell them) he brought
the Frenchmen into the dungeon of the castell, as it were to possesse
them of the chéefest strength of the fortresse. Within this dungeon or
tower was the king of England closelie laid, with two hundred men of
armes, who issued out with their swords and axes in their hands, crieng
Mannie to the rescue, for the king had so ordeined, that both he and
his sonne should fight vnder the banner of the lord Walter de Mannie,
as chéefe of that enterprise.

[Sidenote: The earles of Stafford and Suffolke, the lords Montacute,
Berkley and la Ware.]

[Sidenote: The Frenchmen alight on foot.]

Then were the Frenchmen greatlie abashed, in such wise, that perceiuing
how no defense might aduance them, they yéelded themselues without
any great shew of resistance. Herewith the Englishmen issued out of
the castell into the towne, and mounted on horssebacke, for they had
the French prisoners horsses, and then the archers road to Bullongne
gate, where the lord Geffrie was with his banner before him of gules
thrée scutchens siluer. He had great desire to be the first that should
enter the towne: but shortlie the king of England with the prince his
son was readie at the gate, vnder the banner of the lord Walter de
Mannie to assaile him. There were also other banners, as the earles of
Stafford and Suffolke, the lord Iohn Montacute brother to the earle
of Salisburie, the lord Beauchampe, the lord Berkley, and the lord de
la Ware. Then the great gate was set open, and they all issued foorth
crieng Mannie to the rescue. The Frenchmen perceiuing that they were
betraied, alighted from their horsses, and put themselues in order
of battell on foot, determining to fight it out like valiant men of
war. The king perceiuing this, caused his people likewise to be set in
order of battell, & sent thrée hundred archers to Newland bridge, to
distresse those Frenchmen, which he heard should be there. This was
earelie in the morning but incontinentlie it was daie: the Frenchmen
kept their ground a while, and manie feats of armes were doone of
both parts, but the Englishmen euer increased out of Calis, and the
Frenchmen diminished, so that finallie they were ouercome, as well in
the one place, as in the other.

[Sidenote: Sir Eustace de Ribaum[=o]t a right valiant knight.]

[Sidenote: He is taken prisoner by the king of England.]

[Sidenote: The lord Geffrie de Charnie is taken.]

[Sidenote: Sir Eustace de Ribaumont.]

It chanced that in the hotest of the fight, the king was matched with
sir Eustace de Ribaumont, a right strong and hardie knight. There was
a sore incounter betwixt him and the king, that maruell it was to
behold them. At length they were put asunder, for a great companie
of both parts came that waie, and there fought fiercelie togither.
The Frenchmen did behaue themselues right valiantlie, and especiallie
sir Eustace de Ribaumont: he strake the king that daie twise vpon his
knées, but finallie he was taken prisoner by the king himselfe. The
lord Geffrie of Charnie was also taken prisoner, and wounded right
sore, but the king of his noble courtesie caused him to be dressed by
surgions, and tenderlie looked vnto. There were slaine, sir Henrie
de Blois, and sir Pepin de la Ware, with other, to the number of six
hundred. Monsieur de Memorancie escaped with great danger. Froissard
saieth, that this battell was fought in the yeare 1348, vpon the last
of December, towards the next morning being Newyeares daie: but (as
Auesburie & Walsingham haue, who begin the yeare at our ladie day) this
enterprise chanced 1349, and so consequentlie in the 23 yeare of this
kings reigne. All the prisoners were brought to the castell of Calis,
where the K. the next night gaue them a supper, & made them right
hartie cheare, and gaue to sir Eustace de Ribaumont a rich chaplet of
pearles, which he then did weare on his owne head, in token that he had
best deserued it for his manfull prowes shewed in the fight; & beside
that in fauour of his tried valiancie, he acquit him of his ransome,
and set him at libertie. This fact of the king was roiall in déed, and
his clemencie greatlie to be commended; & therfore it is well said to
this purpose,

    Gloria consequitur reges sic bella gerentes,
    Sic certare parit decus immortale duello.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 24.]

[Sidenote: The death ceaseth.]

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: Commissioners méet to talke of peace.]

[Sidenote: Men borne with fewer téeth than in times past.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsin._]

[Sidenote: _Polychron._]

[Sidenote: A combat.]

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: A Spanish fléet. Spaniards vanquisht by the K. of England by
sea.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

About the end of August the death in London ceassed, which had bin
so great & vehement within that citie, that ouer & beside the bodies
buried in other accustomed burieng places (which for their infinit
number cannot be reduced into account) there were buried that yeare
dailie, from Candlemasse till Easter, in the Charterhouse yard of
London, more than two hundred dead corpses. Also this yeare, by the
earnest sute of the two cardinals which were sent (as ye haue heard)
from pope Clement the sixt, a peace was concluded for one yeare. There
met néere vnto Calis for the treatie of this peace, the foresaid two
cardinals, as mediators; and for the king of England, the bishop of
Norwich treasuror and high chancellor of the realme, with others came
thither as commissioners; and in like maner for the French king, there
appeared the bishop of Lion, and the abbat of S. Denise. ¶ This yeare
in August died Philip de Valois the French king. Here is to be noted,
that all those that were borne, after the beginning of that great
mortalitie whereof ye haue heard, wanted foure chéeke téeth (when they
came to the time of growth) of those 32 which the people before that
time commonlie vsed to haue, so that they had but 28. In this 24 yeare
of this kings reigne, there was a combat fought in lists within the
kings palace of Westminster, betwixt the lord Iohn, bastard sonne to
Philip king of France, & a knight of the towne of Ypres in Flanders;
but the bastard had the vpper hand, and vanquished his aduersarie. ¶
About the feast of the decollation of saint Iohn Baptist, king Edward
aduertised of a fléet of Spaniards returning foorth of Flanders,
that was laden with clothes and other riches, assembled a conuenient
power of men of armes and archers, & at Sandwich tooke the sea with
them, sailing foorth, till vpon the coast of Winchelsie he met with
the Spaniards, and there assailed them; so that betwixt him and those
Spaniards, there was a sore fight, and long continued, to the great
losse of people on both parts; but in the end, the bright beame of
victorie shone vpon the English sailes, so that all the Spaniards were
slaine, for they were so proud and obstinat (as Walsingham affirmeth)
that they would not yéeld, but rather choose to die, & so they did
indéed, either on the Englishmens weapons points, or else were they
drowned there in the sea, six and twentie of their ships were taken,
in the which was found great store of good ware and riches. And so the
king thought himselfe well reuenged of the Spaniards, which in the
last yeare about Alhallontide, had entred into the riuer of Garons, as
it runneth vp towards Burdeaux, and there finding manie ships fraught
with wines, slue all the Englishmen they found aboord, and tooke awaie
the ships with them: which iniurie mooued the king to enterprise this
exploit now at this time against them.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Dagworth slaine.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to the pope.]

About the beginning of August, sir Raoull de Cahors, and diuerse other
knights and esquiers, to the number of six score men of armes, fought
before a castell called Auleon, with sir Thomas Dagworth, and there
slue the same sir Thomas, and to the number of one hundred men of armes
with him. There were sent solemne messengers this yeare vnto Auignion,
for the establishing of a peace, mentioned betwixt the king of England
and France, at the sute of the pope, so that king Edward should haue
resigned his title and claime to the crowne of France, and the French
king should haue giuen ouer vnto him the whole duchie of Guien, to hold
the same fréelie, without knowledging of resort or superioritie, or
dooing any manner of homage for the same: but such delaies were made,
and the sute so prolonged by the pope, that the earle of Derbie, who
with others was sent to him about this matter, returned without spéed
of his purpose for the which he went.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 25.]

[Sidenote: 1351.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

In the fiue and twentith yeare of king Edwards reigne, the Frenchmen
hauing laid siege vnto the towne of saint Iohn Dangeli, the lord
Dalbrets son, hauing assembled six hundred men of armes, Gascoigns
and Englishmen, meant to worke some feat for reliefe of them within,
whervpon, as he was marching through the countrie of Xainctonge néere
vnto Xaincts the eighth of Aprill, or (as other haue) the first, he was
incountered by the lord Guie de Néell, one of the marshals of France,
& other French lords, where at length, the Frenchmen were discomfited,
manie also slaine, and diuerse taken prisoners, of which number was the
said marshall, with his brother the lord William, and sir Arnold de
Dandrehen, beside others, to the number of 300 men of armes, but yet
the siege remained, till for want of vittels the towne was rendered to
the Frenchmen.

[Sidenote: The castell of Guines woone.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

The same yeare in October, an English archer of the garison of Calis,
named Iohn of Dancaster, by licence of the lord deputie of Calis, tooke
with him thréescore persons men of armes and archers, and in the night
that goeth before the feast daie of S. Vincent, in the last quarter of
the same night, he comming to the castell of Guines, found as well the
watch as others fast asléepe, wherevpon he passed a water that adioined
to the castell, wading vp to the girdle, and so came to the wall, where
he & his companie rearing vp ladders, mounted by the same so secretlie,
that slaieng the watch, being not past thrée or foure persons that
were on the wals, they entred the castell, and finding the Frenchmen
asléepe, slue those that vpon their wakening made any defense, and
tooke the residue, whome they suffered to depart: and by this meanes
they wan the castell, finding great store of vittels within, and so as
they found it, they kept it to the king of Englands vse. The French
histories declare, that one Guilliam de Beauconroy that was capteine
of this castell, betraied the place to the Englishmen, for a summe of
monie, and when the French king required restitution bicause the truce
was not yet expired, he was shifted off with this forged answer, that
nothing was excepted by the assurance of the truce, concerning things
that should be bought and sold. The Frenchman that betraied it, was
shortlie after put to execution at Amiens.

[Sidenote: Grotes and halfe grotes first coined.]

[Sidenote: 1352.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 26.]

[Sidenote: Mouron.]

In this yeare were the first péeces of siluer called grotes and halfe
grotes of foure pence & two pence the péece stamped, by the kings
appointment, through the counsell of William de Edington bishop of
Winchester lord treasuror. Before that time, there were no other
coines, but the noble, halfe noble, and quarter noble, with the péeces
of siluer called sterlings. Bicause these new péeces wanted of the
weight of the old sterling coine, the prices as well of vittels as of
other wares, did dailie rise, and seruants and workemen waxing more
craftie than before time they had béene, demanded great wages. ¶ This
yeare, vpon the euen of the Assumption of our ladie, sir Iohn Bentlie
knight, as then lord warden of Britaine, fought with the lord Guie
de Néell, marshall of France (latelie ransomed out of captiuitie) in
the parts of Britaine, néere to a place called Mouron, betwixt Rennes
and Pluremell, where the said marshall was slaine, togither with the
lord of Briquebeke the Chateline of Beauuais, and diuerse other both
Britains and Frenchmen.

[Sidenote: 1353.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 27.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: In the printed booke of statutes it should appeare, that
this parlement was rather holden in the 25 yeare of this kings reigne.]

[Sidenote: Statutes for making of clothes.]

[Sidenote: Weares and milles.]

In the seuen and twentith yeare of his reigne, K. Edward held a
parlement at Westminster, after the feast of Easter, in which an
ordinance was deuised, what wages seruants and laborers should be
allowed, prohibiting them to receiue aboue the rate which they were
accustomed to take before the yeare of the great mortalitie. Seruants
and laborers were in déed growen to be more subtill than before time
they had béene; but by reason of the prices of things were inhanced,
it is like they demanded greater wages than they had doone before
time: and one cause of the dearth was imputed to the new coine of
monie, being of lesse weight in the value thereof, than before it had
béene, so that the bishop of Winchester being lord treasuror, who had
counselled the king to ordeine those grotes and halfe grotes, was euill
spoken of amongst the people. In this parlement there were statutes
also made, that clothes should in length and in breadth through the
realme, beare the same assise, as was ordeined in the parlement holden
at Northampton. Also, that all weares, milles, and other lets, should
be remooued foorth of riuers, that might be any hinderance of ships,
boats, or lighters to passe vp and downe the same. But these good
ordinances tooke little or none effect, by reason of bribes that walked
abroad, and fréendship of lords and great men, that sought rather their
owne commoditie, than the common-wealths.

[Sidenote: Creations of noble men.]

[Sidenote: The lord Charles of Blois.]

Shortlie after the feast of Pentecost, the earle of Derbie and
Lancaster was made duke of Lancaster, and Rafe lord Stafford was
created earle of Stafford. Whereas there had béene a treatie betwixt
the lords of Britaine, and the king of England, not onelie for the
deliuerance of the lord Charles de Blois, but also for the matching of
his eldest sonne in mariage with one of king Edwards daughters, and
so to inioy the dukedome in peace: this matter was so far forwards,
that in the yeare last passed, the said lord Charles, leauing two
of his sonnes and a daughter in pledge for the paiement of fortie
thousand florens, agréed vpon for his ransome; he was permitted to
returne into Britaine to prouide that monie: and withall, to procure a
dispensation, that his eldest sonne might marrie with one of K. Edwards
daughters, notwithstanding that otherwise they were within the degrées
of consanguinitie, prohibiting them to marrie. Herevpon this yeare
about Michaelmas, he returned into England with the same dispensation:
but bicause about the same time the Britains had taken by stealth an
Iland with a castell therein, that the Englishmen had kept, & put all
those which they found therein, to the sword, the said lord Charles,
otherwise duke of Britaine, lost the kings fauour, so that he would
heare no more of anie such aliance, by waie of marriage, as had béene
communed of before: by reason whereof the British lords, that were in
great number come ouer with the lord Charles de Blois, were constreined
to returne home, without atchiuing anie part of their purpose, leauing
the said lord Charles and his children behind them still héere in
England.

[Sidenote: Debate betwixt the dukes of Brunswike & Lancaster.]

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._ affirmeth that this remoouing of the staple of
wols was the 28 yeare of K. Edwards reigne.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

On the fourth day of September, the duke of Brunswike and the duke of
Lancaster should haue fought a combat in Paris, about words the duke of
Lancaster should speake, in derogation of the duke of Brunswikes honor,
for the which the said duke had appealed him in the court of France:
but when they were readie to haue tried it, and were on horssebacke
with their speares in hand within the lists, at point to haue runne
togither, the French king caused them to staie, and taking on him the
matter, made them fréends, and agréed them. This yeare the king by
aduise of his councell remooued the mart or staple of wools from the
townes in Flanders, and caused the same to be kept at Westminster,
Chichester, Lincolne, Bristowe, Canturburie and Hull. This was doone
in despite of the Flemings, bicause they held not the couenants and
agréements which they had made with the king, in the life time of
Iacques Arteueld, by whose prouision the said mart or staple had béene
kept in sundrie townes in Flanders, to their great aduantage and
commoditie.

[Sidenote: Sir Walter Bentlie committed to the tower.]

[Sidenote: A great drought.]

[Sidenote: A dearth.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: Corn brought out of Zeland.]

Sir Walter Bentlie, vpon his comming ouer foorth of Britaine, where he
had béene the kings lieutenant, was committed to the tower, where he
remained prisoner for the space of twelue moneths, bicause he refused
to deliuer vp the castels within his gouernement, vnto sir Iohn Auenell
knight, being appointed to receiue the same, to the vse of the lord
Charles de Blois, at the same time when the treatie of agréement was
in hand, betwixt the king, and the said lord Charles. But after, when
it was perceiued what damage might haue insued by deliuerie of those
castels, sir Walter was set at libertie vpon suerties yet they were
bound for his foorth comming, and that he should not depart the realme:
at length, he was receiued againe into the kings fauour. In the summer
of this seauen and twentith yeare, was so great a drought, that from
the latter end of March, fell little raine, till the latter end of
Iulie, by reason whereof, manie inconueniencies insued: and one thing
is speciallie to be noted, that corne the yeare following waxed scant,
and the price began this yeare to be greatlie inhanced. Also béeues and
muttons waxed déere for the want of grasse, and this chanced both in
England and France, so that this was called the déere summer. The lord
William duke of Bauiere or Bauarie, and earle of Zeland, brought manie
ships into London, fraught with rie, for reléefe of the people, who
otherwise had, through their present pinching penurie, if not vtterlie
perished, yet pittifullie pined.

[Sidenote: 1354.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 28.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: A truce betwixt England and France.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors to the pope.]

In the eight and twentith yeare of king Edwards reigne, vpon a treatie
that was holden by commissioners, appointed by the two kings of England
and France, after Easter, they were in maner fullie agréed vpon a
peace, so that nothing wanted, but putting vnto their seales. In the
articles whereof it was conteined, that the king of England should
inioy all the lands of his dutchie of Aquitaine, without holding the
same of anie by homage, or resort, and in consideration thereof he
should resigne all his claime to the crowne of France. Héerevpon were
ambassadors sent from either king, vnto the pope, and a truce taken,
to indure till the feast of saint Iohn Baptist in the yeare next
following. Ambassadors for the king of England were these: Henrie
duke of Lancaster, Iohn earle of Arundell, the bishops of Norwich and
London, and the lord Guie de Brian. For the French king, the archbishop
of Rouen lord chancellor of France, the duke of Burbon, and others: but
when the matter came to be heard before the pope about Christmasse,
all went to smoke that had béene talked of: for the Frenchmen denied
that the articles were drawne according to the meaning of their
commissioners, and the pope also winked at the matter, so that the
English ambassadors (when they saw that nothing would be concluded)
returned home all of them (the bishop of Norwich excepted who departed
this life there) and so their iournie came to none effect.

[Sidenote: 1355.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 29.]

[Sidenote: Debate betwixt the scholers & townesmen of Oxenford.]

This yeare, the tenth of Februarie, there rose a sore debate betwixt
the scholers and townesmen of Oxenford. The occasion rose by reason
of the falling out of a scholer with one that sold wine: for the
scholer perceiuing himselfe euill vsed, powred the wine on the drawers
head, knocking the pot about his pate, so as the bloud ranne downe
by his eares. Héerevpon began a sore fraie betwixt the scholers and
townesmen, which continued for the most part of two daies togither.
There were twentie townesmen slaine, beside those that were hurt:
but at length, there came a great number of countrimen foorth of the
villages next adioining, to aid the townesmen, entring the towne with a
blacke banner, and so fiercelie assailed the scholers, that they were
constreined to flée to their houses and hostels, but their enimies
pursuing them, brake vp their doores, entered their chambers, slue
diuerse of them, and threw them into priuies, tare their bookes, and
bare awaie their goods. The sholers héerewith tooke such displeasure,
that they departed the Vniuersitie: those of Merton colledge, and other
the like colledges onelie excepted.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: The quarrell appeased betwixt the scholers and townesmen of
Oxenford.]

The bishop of Lincolne inhibited préests to celebrate diuine seruice in
presence of anie laie man within that towne of Oxenford; and the king
sending his iustices thither, to take knowledge of this disorderlie
riot, there were diuerse, both of the townesmen and scholers indited,
and certeine of the burgesses committed to ward. ¶ This yeare, the
first sundaie in Lent, the king held a roiall iustes at Woodstoke,
for ioy of the quéenes purifieng, after the birth of hir sixt sonne,
the lord Thomas, whome the bishop of Durham (named Thomas) held at
the fontstone: he was borne the seauenth of Ianuarie last past. In
the parlement holden at Westminster this yeare after Easter, the king
tooke vpon him to make an end of the quarrell betwixt the scholers and
townesmen of Oxenford, and sauing to euerie man his right, pardoned
the scholers of all transgressions: and this he signified into euerie
shire, by writs directed to the shiriffes, they to proclame the same
for more notice of the thing. And so in the summer following, the
Vniuersitie began againe to flourish, students resorting thither from
each side, and falling afresh to their academicall exercises, which
they néeded not to haue discontinued, if either partie, I meane the
townesmen or scholers, would haue tolerated and borne one with another,
and not so rashlie haue vndertaken the reuenge of one anothers wrath
and iniurie; but,

    Oderunt pacem stulti & certamina quærunt.

In this parlement, the processe of the iudgement had and made against
Roger Mortimer, late earle of March, was reuoked, adnihilated, and
made void, so that the lord Roger Mortimer was restored to the title
and possessions of the earledome of March, as cousine and heire to his
grandfather the said erle of March. Moreouer, to this parlement came
the bishop of Carpentras, and the abbat of Clugnie, being sent from
pope Innocent the sixt, to make sute to haue the truce proroged betwixt
the two kings, of England and France, to whome the king himselfe in
person, made this resolute answer, that he would not agrée to anie
longer truce; for that, when diuerse times, at the Frenchmens sute,
he had consented to haue truce by mediation of two cardinals, sent to
him about the same matter, his aduersaries in the meane time, whilest
such truces indured, had doone much harme and damage by subtill
practises to persons and places beyond the sea, that were vnder his
rule and gouernement, yet he said he would deliberate héereof with his
councell, and after intimate his pleasure to the pope, and to them of
France by messengers which he would send ouer for that purpose: and so
these ambassadors within foure daies after their comming, were thus
dispatched with answer. Herewith in this parlement it was ordeined,
that the prince of Wales, being as then about foure and twentie yeares
of age, should passe ouer into Gascoigne, and have with him a thousand
men of armes, and two thousand archers, with a great number of Welshmen.

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: A nauie prepared.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Lancaster.]

About the same time the king caused fortie ships to be prouided,
rigged, and made readie at Rutherhiue, furnished with vittels for
one quarter of a yéere, and euerie of the said ships had principall
streamers of the duke of Lancasters armes, who was appointed with a
great power of chosen men of armes and archers to passe to the sea with
the same ships, but few or none of his companie knew whither; horsses
they had none. He had with him two of the kings sonnes, Lionell of
Antwerpe, and Iohn of Gant, the elder of them being about sixtéene
yeares of age. Also, there went with him the earles of Northampton,
March, and Stafford, beside manie lords, barons, & knights. On the
tenth of Iulie, he made saile to Gréenewich, and there and at Sandwich
he staied, till the Assumption of our ladie, the wind for the most
part continuing all that while at west and south, contrarie to his
iournie, as it might appeare. At length with much difficultie he came
to Winchelsie, & after to the Wight. It was thought, that the dukes
purpose was to passe into Normandie, to ioine with the king of Nauarre,
who was at variance with the French king. But after it was knowen by
espials that they were made fréends, the duke of Lancaster doubting
crooked measures, and hauing with him no horssemen, returned home
without further attempt.

[Sidenote: _Record. Tur._]

[Sidenote: The end and award made of the quarrell betwixt the
Vniuersitie and townesmen of Oxford.]

On saint Kenelmes daie being fridaie, and the 17 of Iulie, master
Humfrie Carleton professor of diuinitie, and Iohn Carleton the yoonger,
doctor of the lawes, on the behalfe of the Vniuersitie of Oxford, and
Iohn saint Frideswide maior, Iohn Bereford, and Iohn Norton, burgesses
of the said towne of Oxford, on the behalfe of the communaltie of
the same towne, came before the kings councell at Westminster in the
councell chamber there, néere to the excheker, where the allegations on
both parties being heard, and vpon request made, that it might please
his maiesties councell, according to the submissions by both parties
made vnto the king and to his councell, to take order in the matter in
controuersie betwixt them, concerning the late tumult and businesse
which had chanced in the said towne, by the disorder of the communaltie
of the same, in breaking downe, and burning vp of houses, in taking
awaie the bookes and other goods of the said masters and scholers, &
in committing other transgressions. The councell hauing consideration
thereof, to auoid the decaie that might haue insued to the said towne,
made this end betwixt them, that the said towne (Iohn Bereford, being
in the kings prison, and Robert Lardiner onelie excepted) should be
bound to paie vnto the said masters and scholers, damnified in the
said tumult and businesse, for amends, and reformation of iniuries and
losses susteined (death and maime excepted) two hundred and fiftie
pounds, beside the goods taken and borne awaie, to be restored againe,
and this monie to be paid to the said chancellor, masters and scholers,
on that side the mondaie next before the feast of saint Iames, or
else sufficient suerties put in for the paiment thereof, at certeine
termes, as the parties should agrée vpon: and in respect thereof, the
said Iohn Bereford, and Iohn Norton, shall be releassed out of prison
of the Marshalsea, at the baile of the said maior, and of Robert de
Menkes, and Iohn Dimmoks, till the next sessions of gaole deliuerie,
with condition, that the said summes of monie be paid, or suerties put
in for the paiment thereof, as before is said, or else the bodies of
the said Iohn Bereford, & Iohn de Norton, shall be returned to the said
prison, within thrée daies after the feast of Peter ad Vincula, there
to remaine in manner as before they did.

It was also ordeined by the councell, with the assent of the said
Humfrie and Iohn Carleton, that all and euerie manner of persons of
the said towne of Oxford, and the suburbes of the same, indited and
arreigned of the fellonies and transgressions before mentioned, that
should yéeld themselues to the kings prison to be tried by law, and
also all other that were at that present in prison, which the said
Humfrie and Iohn de Carleton should name (Iohn de Bereford and Robert
Lardiner excepted) might be let to baile, vpon sufficient suerties,
that should vndertake for them, bodies for bodies, to appeare at the
next sessions of gaole deliuerie, there to be tried, according to the
order of law. And further it was ordered, that all such goods and
cattels as were taken and carried awaie from the said masters and
scholers in the said tumult and businesse, by the men of the said
towne and suburbes, in whose hands, and in what places soeuer within
the said towne and suburbes, by inquisitions, informations, or other
meanes, they should or might be found, should be deliuered to the said
chancellor, and procurators of the said Vniuersitie, to be by them
restored vnto those persons, to whome they belonged. This was the
effect of the order taken at that day and place, before the reuerend
fathers, Iohn archbishop of Yorke primat and chancellor of England,
William bishop of Winchester lord treasuror, Thomas de Brembre lord
kéeper of the priuie seale, and Dauid de Wollore master of the rolles,
Henrie de Ingelbie clearke, and other of the kings councell then and
there present.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales goeth ouer into Gascoigne.]

[Sidenote: The citie of London.]

The prince of Wales (as ye haue heard) being appointed to passe ouer
into Gascoigne, set forward from London the last daie of Iune, and
comming to Plimmouth, where his nauie was appointed to be made readie,
he staied there, for want of conuenient wind and weather a long time
after. Finallie, hauing with him the earles of Warwike, Suffolke,
Salisburie & Oxford, also the lord Iohn Chandois, sir Robert Knols,
sir Franke de Hall, the lord Iames Audelie, with diuerse other of the
nobilitie, and of men of armes and archers a great number, then in
parlement to him assigned, he first set from Plimmouth on the daie of
the Natiuitie of our ladie. They were in all thrée hundred saile, and
finding the wind prosperous, they passed ouer into Gascoigne, where of
the Gascoignes they were ioifullie receiued. In August, the Englishmen
that were in Britaine, warring against the Frenchmen, that tooke part
with the lord Charles de Blois, slue manie of them, & tooke the lord of
Beaumanor, the vicount of Roan, and diuerse other. ¶ This yeare also,
about Michaelmasse, the king hauing summoned an armie to be readie at
Sandwich, passed ouer to Calis with the same. There went ouer with him
his two sonnes, Lionell of Antwerp earle of Vlster, and Iohn of Gant
earle of Richmond. He found at Calis a thousand men of armes that came
to serue him for wages, foorth of Flanders, Brabant, and Almaigne, so
that he had about thrée thousand men of armes and two thousand archers
on horsebacke, beside archers on foot a great number. The citie of
London had sent to him fiue hundred men of armes, and fiue hundred
archers all in one sute or liuerie, at their owne costs and charges.
On the second of Nouember, he set from Calis, marching foorth towards
saint Omers, wasting the countrie by the waie as he passed.

[Sidenote: The king inuadeth Fr[=a]ce. The lord Bousicant.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The king for want of vittels returneth.]

The French king being at the same time within the towne of saint Omers,
sent the lord Bousicant vnto the king of England, that vnder colour
of communication, he might view the kings power, who made such report
thereof, vpon his returne backe to the French king, that he determined
not to fight with the king of England, but rather to passe before him,
and so to destroie vittels, that for want thereof, the king of England
should be constreined to returne. And as he determined, so it came
to passe, for the vittels were so cut off, that the Englishmen for
thrée full daies togither, dranke nothing but water. When therefore
king Edward had followed his enimies so for as Heiden, where he brake
the parke, and burnt the houses within and about the parke, although
he entred not into the towne nor castell, at length, for default of
vittels, he returned backe, and came againe to Calis on saint Martins
day, being the tenth after his setting foorth from thence.

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: The constable of France demandeth battell.]

[Sidenote: The answer made to him.]

[Sidenote: Berwike taken by Scots.]

The morrow after being thursdaie, and the twelfe of Nouember, the
constable of France, and other Frenchmen, came to the end of the causie
of Calis, with letters of credence, offering battell on tuesdaie
next following vnto the king of England, in presence of the duke of
Lancaster, the earles of Northampton, and the lord Walter de Mannie,
who in the kings behalfe declared to the constable, that the king of
England, to eschew shedding of bloud, would fight with the French king
bodie to bodie, so to trie their right: and if he liked not of that
match, then if he would choose thrée or foure knights to him that were
néerest to him in bloud, he should choose the like number. But when
this offer would not be accepted, the English lords offered battell
the next day, being fridaie, or else on saturdaie following, at the
Frenchmens choice: but the constable of France and his companie,
continuing in their first offer, refused both those daies. Then the
English lords accepted the daie by them assigned, with condition,
that if they brought not king Edward to giue battell that day, they
would yéeld themselues prisoners, so that the Frenchmen would likewise
vndertake for their king. The constable hauing no answer readie,
staied a while, and after flatlie refused to make any such couenant.
Finallie, when the English lords perceiued their aduersaries, not to
meane battell, as their words at the first pretended, they brake off,
and both parties returned home. The king of England staied till the
tuesdaie, and paid the strangers their wages, and so came backe into
England. On the sixt of Nouember, whilest the king was thus abroad in
Picardie, the Scots verie earlie in the morning of that daie, came
priuilie to Berwike, entred by stealth into the towne, and sleaing
thrée or foure Englishmen, tooke it, with all the goods and persons
within it, those excepted, which got to the castell.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The procéedings of the prince of Wales in Aquitaine.]

In a parlement summoned this yeare, the mondaie after the feast of
saint Edmund the king, the lords and commons granted to king Edward
fiftie shillings of euerie sacke of wooll, that should be caried ouer
the sea, for the space of six yeares next insuing. By this grant it
was thought, that the king might dispend a thousand markes sterling a
day, such vent of wools had the English merchants in that season. ¶
The parlement being ended, the king about S. Andrews tide set forward
towards Scotland, and held his Christmasse at Newcastell. About which
time by letters sent from the prince, the king was aduertised of his
procéedings after his arriuall in Gascoigne, where being ioifullie
receiued of the nobles, and other the people of that countrie (as
before yée haue heard) he declared to them the cause of his thither
comming, and tooke aduise with them how to procéed in his businesse;
and so about the tenth of October, he set forward to passe against his
enimies, first entring into a countrie called Iuliake, which togither
with the fortresses yéelded to him, without anie great resistance.
Then he rode through the countie Armignac, wasting and spoiling the
countrie, and so passed through the lands of the vicounts de la
Riuiere, and after entered into the countie de l'Estrac, and passing
through the same, came to the countie of Commiges, finding the towne of
S. Matain void, being a good towne & one of the best in that countrie.

[Sidenote: Carcasson.]

[Sidenote: Narbonne. Two bishops sent from the pope to the prince of
Wales.]

After this, he passed by the land of the earle of Lisle, till he came
within a league of Tholouse, where the earle of Armignac, being the
French kings lieutenant in those parts, and other great lords and
nobles were assembled. The prince with his armie tarried there two
daies, and after passed ouer the riuer of Garonne, and after ouer an
other riuer thereabouts, a league aboue Tholouse, lodging that night
a league on the other side of Tholouse: and so they passed thorough
Tholouse, dailie taking townes & castels, wherein they found great
riches, for the countrie was verie plentifull. Vpon Alhallowes éeuen,
they came to castell Naudarie, and from thence they tooke the waie to
Carcasson, into the which a great number of men of armes and commons
were withdrawne. But vpon the approch of the Englishmen, they slipt
awaie, and got them to a strong castell that stood néere at hand. The
third day after, the Englishmen burnt the towne, and passing forth,
trauersed all the countrie of Carcassonois, till they came to the towne
of Narbonne. The people there were fled into the castell, in which the
vicount of Narbonne was inclosed, with fiue hundred men of arms. The
prince staied there two daies. The pope sent two bishops towards the
prince, to treat with him of peace, but bicause the prince would not
hearken to anie treatie without commission from his father, they could
not get anie safe conduct to approch néerer.

The prince hauing aduertisments héere, that his enimies were assembled,
and followed him, he turned backe to méet them, but they had no will
to abide him: for although the earle of Armignac, the constable of
France, the marshall Cleremont, and the prince of Orange, with diuerse
other néere to Tholouse, made some shew to impeach the prince his
passage, yet in the end they withdrew, not without some losse, for the
lord Bartholomew de Burwasch aliàs Burghersch, sir Iohn Chandois, the
lord Iames Audeley, and sir Thomas Felton, being sent foorth to view
them, skirmished with two hundred of their men of armes, and tooke
of them fiue and thirtie. After this, they had no mind to abide the
English power, but still shranke awaie, as the prince was readie to
follow them, and so he perceiuing that the Frenchmen would not giue
him battell, he withdrew towards Burdeaux, after he had spent eight
wéekes in that his iournie, and so comming thither, he wintered there,
whilest his capteins in the meane time tooke diuerse townes and castels
abroad in the countrie. ¶ And now to the end yée may haue more plaine
information of the princes dooings in those parties, I haue thought
good to make you partakers of a letter or two, written by sir Iohn
Winkefield knight, attendant on the prince there in Gascoigne.


The copie of sir Iohn Winkefields letters.

My lord, as touching the newes in these parts, may it please you
to vnderstand, that all the earles, barons, baronets, knights, and
esquiers, were in helth at the making hereof, and my lord hath not lost
either knight or esquier in this voyage, except the lord Iohn Lisle,
who was slaine after a strange manner with a quarrell, the third day
after we were entered into our enimies countries, he died the fiftenth
of October. And please it you to vnderstand, that my lord hath ridden
through the countrie of Arminac, and hath taken many fensed townes and
burnt and destroied them, except certeine which he hath fortified.
After this, he marched into the vicountie of Rouergne, where he tooke a
good towne named Pleasance, the chiefest towne of that countrie, which
he hath burnt and destroied, with the countrie round about the same.
This doone, he went into the countie d'Astrike, wherin he tooke manie
townes, wasted and destroied all the countrie. After this, he entred
into the countie of Cominge, and tooke manie townes there, which he
caused to be destroied & burnt, togither with all the countrie abroad.
He tooke also the towne of S. Matan, which is the chéefest towne of
that countrie, being as large in compasse as Norwich.

Afterward, he entered into the countie of Lisle, and tooke the most
part of the fensed townes therin, causing diuerse of them to be burnt
and destroied as he passed. And after entring into the lordship of
Tholouse, we passed the riuer of Girond, and an other a league aboue
Tholouse, which is verie great: for our enimies had burnt all the
bridges, as well on the one side of Tholouse, as the other, except the
bridges with in Tholouse, for the riuer runneth through the towne.
And the constable of France, the marshall Cleremont, and the earle
of Arminac, were with a great power within the towne the same time.
And Tholouse is a great towne, strong, faire, and well walled, and
there was none in our host that knew the foord there: but yet by the
grace and goodnesse of God we found it. So then we marched through the
seigniorie of Tholouse, & tooke manie good townes inclosed, and burnt
and destroied them, and all the countrie about.

[Sidenote: He meaneth the Merantine sea.]

Then we entred into the signiorie of Carcason, and we tooke manie good
towns, before we came to Carcason, which towne we also tooke, which is
greater, stronger, & fairer than Yorke. And as well this towne as all
other townes in the countrie were burnt and destroied. And after we had
passed by manie iournies through the countrie of Carcason, we came into
the seigniorie of Narbon, and we tooke manie townes, and wasted them,
till we came to Narbon, which towne was holden against vs, but it was
woone by force, and the said towne is little lesse than London, and
is situat vpon the Gréekish sea, for that the distance from the said
towne vnto the Gréekish sea is not past two leagues, and there is an
hauen and a place to arriue at, from whence the water c[=o]meth vp to
Narbon. And Narbon is not but eleuen leagues distant from Mountpellier,
& eightéene from Eguemortz, & thirtie from Auignion. And may it please
you to vnderstand, that the holie father sent his messengers to my
lord, that were not past seuen leagues fr[=o] him, and they sent a
sergeant at armes, that was sergeant at armes attendant on the doore
of our holie fathers chamber, with their letters to my lord, praieng
him to haue a safe conduct to come to declare to his highnesse their
message from the holie father, which was to treat betwixt my L. and his
aduersaries of France: and the said sergeant was two daies in the host
before my lord would sée him, or receiue his letters. And the reason
was, bicause he had vnderstanding, that the power of France was come
foorth of Tholouse toward Carcason, so that my lord was driuen to turne
backe towards them suddenlie, and so did.

On the third daie when we should haue come vpon them, they had knowlege
giuen before day, and so retiring, got them to the mounteins, hasting
fast toward Tholouse; and the countrie people that were their guides to
lead them that waie, were taken as they should haue passed the water.
And bicause the popes sergeant at armes was in my kéeping, I caused
him to examine the guides that were so taken; and for that the guide
which was thus examined, was the constables guide, and his countrieman,
he might well sée and know the countenance of the Frenchmen vpon this
examining him. And I said to the same sergeant, that he might well
declare to the pope, and to all them of Auignion, that which he had
heard or séene. And as touching the answer which my lord made to them
that were sent to treat with him, you would be well apaied if you
vnderstood all the maner; for he would not suffer in any wise that they
shuld come néerer vnto him. But if they came to treat of anie matter,
he would that they should send to the king his father: for my lord
himselfe would not doo any thing therin, except by commandement from my
lord his father.

And of my lords turning backe to follow after his enimies, and of the
passage of the riuer of Garonne, and of the taking of castels and
townes in this iournie, and of other things which he hath doone against
his enimies in pursuit of them in this iournie, being things right
worthie and honorable, as manie know verie well, in like maner as sir
Richard Stafford, & sir William Burton can more plainelie declare,
than I to you can write, for it were too much to put in writing. And
my lord rode thus abroad in the countrie of his enimies eight whole
wéekes, and rested not past eleuen daies in all those places where he
came. And know it for certeine, that since this warre began against
the French king he had neuer such losse or destruction as he hath had
in this iournie: for the countries and good townes which were wasted
at this iournie, found to the king of France euerie yeare more to
the maintenance of his warre than halfe his realme hath doon beside,
except the exchange of his monie which he maketh euerie yeare, and the
aduantage and custome which he taketh of them of Poictou, as I can shew
you by good remembrances, which were found in diuerse townes in the
receiuers houses: for Carcason and le Moignes, which is as great as
Carcason, and two other townes in the coasts of Carcason, found to the
king of France yéerelie wages for a thousand men of armes: and beside
that 100000 old crowns to mainteine the war.

And know you, that by the remembrances which we found, that the townes
in Tholouse which are destroied, and the townes in the countrie of
Carcason, and the towne of Narbonne and Narbonnois did find euerie
yeare with the sums aforesaid, in aid of his war, foure hundred
thousand old crownes, as the burgesses of the great townes & other
people of the countrie which ought to know it, haue told vs. And so
by Gods assistance if my lord had wherewith to mainteine this warre,
and to make the kings profit and his owne honor, he should well inlarge
the English marches, and gaine manie faire places: for our enimies are
greatlie astonied. And at the making héereof, my lord hath appointed
to send all the earles and baronets to abide in certeine places on the
marches, to make roads, and to annoie his enimies. Now my lord, at this
present I know none other newes to send, but you may by your letters
command me as yours to my power. My right honorable lord, God grant
you good life, ioy, health, long to continue. Written at Burdeaux, the
tuesdaie next before Christmasse.


The tenor of an other letter written by sir Iohn Wingfield, directed
to sir Richard Stafford knight, who had béene in Gascoigne, and there
leauing his familie, was now returned into England.

[Sidenote: 1356.]

Right deare sir, and right louing fréend, touching newes after your
departure, you may vnderstand, that there be taken and yéelded fiue
townes inclosed, to wit, port saint Marie, Cleirac, Tonings, Burgh,
saint Pierre, Chastiell Sacret or Satrat and Brassake. Also seauentéene
castels, to wit, Coiller, Buset, Lemnake, two castels called Boloines,
which ioine the one néere so the other, Mounioy, Viresch, Frechenet,
Mountender, Pudeschales, Mounpoun, Montanac, Valeclare, Cenamont,
Leistrake, Plassac, Cont Destablison; and Mounriuell. And will it
please you to know that my lord Iohn Chandois, my lord Iames Audeley,
and your men that are with them, and the other Gascoignes that are in
their companie, & my lord Baldwine Butetort, & that companie, & my
lord Reignald Cobham, tooke the said towne, which is called Chastiell
Sacret or Satrat, by assault: and the bastard of Lisle which was
capteine of the said towne was also slaine there, as they assaulted it,
being stricken with an arrow thorough the head: and my lord Reignold
is returned backe toward Languedocke, and my lord Baldwin towards
Brassacke, with their companies: and the lords Iohn & Iames, and those
of their companie remaine in Chastiell Satrat, and haue vittells
plentie of all sorts to serue them betwéen this and Midsummer, except
fresh fish and cabages as they haue certified vs by letters, wherefore
yée néed not take care for your men.

[Sidenote: Buscicault.]

And there be in that towne more than thrée hundred glaiues, and thrée
hundred yeomen, and a hundred and fiftie archers. And they haue rid
before Agen, and burnt and destroied all their milles, and haue burnt
and broken downe all their bridges that lie ouer Garon, and haue taken
a castell without the same towne, and haue fortified it. And monsieur
Iohn Darminake, and the seneshall of Agenois, which were in the towne
of Agen, would not once put foorth their head, nor anie of their
people, and yet haue they béene twise before that towne. And monsieur
Busgaud was come, and monsieur Ernald de Spaine, and Grimoton de
Chambule, with thrée hundred glaiues, and thrée sergeants Lombards, and
they are in the towne of Muschacke, which is in Cressie, and it is but
a mile from Chastiell Satrat or Sacret, and a league from Bressake, and
yée may well thinke that there will be good companie one with another.

[Sidenote: The capitall de Beuf.]

And further may it please yée to know, that monsieur Bartholomew is
at Coniake with six score men of armes of my lords house, & six score
archers, & the capitall de Buche or Beuf, the L. Monferrant, & the L.
of Crotonie, which haue with them 300 glaiues, & six score archers, and
two hundred sergeants, beside them which are in Tailbourgh, Tanney,
and Rochford, so that when they are togither, they may be well six
hundred glaiues, and at the making héereof, they were vpon a iournie
towards Aniou and Poictou, and the earles of Suffolke, Oxford, and
Salisburie, the lord of Museden, monsieur Ellis de Pomiers, and other
Gascoignes, with the which are well more then fiue hundred glaiues,
and two hundred sergeants, and thrée hundred archers, and they were
at the making hereof toward the parties of Nostredame de Rochemade,
and haue béene foorth aboue twelue daies, and were not returned at the
sending of these presents. My lord Iohn Chandois, my lord Iames, and
my lord Baldwin, and those which be in their companie are also foorth
vpon a iournie toward their parties; my lord Reinold and those of the
houshold, with the Gascoigns which be in their companie, are also
foorth vpon a iournie towards their parties.

The earle of Warwike hath béene at Tonings & Clerake, to take those
towns, and at the making hereof was gone towards Mermande to destroie
their vines, and all other things which he can destroie of theirs. My
lord is at Leiborne, and the lord of Pomiers at Fronsack, which is but
a quarter of a leage from Leiborne: and my lords people lie as well
at saint Milion, as at Leiborne, and monsieur Berard de Bret is there
with him, and my lord looketh for newes which he should haue, and
according to the news that he shall haue, he will behaue himselfe: for
as it séemeth, he standeth much on his honor. At the making hereof,
the earle of Arminac was at Auignion, and the king of Aragon is there
also: & of all other parleis which haue béene in diuerse places (wherof
you know) I can not certifie you at the making herof. Right déere sir,
other thing I cannot send vnto you, but that you remember your selfe to
send newes to my lord prince as soone as in anie wise you may, and so
the Lord grant you good life and long. Written at Leiborne the 21 of
Ianuarie.

       *       *       *       *       *

¶ These letters haue I thought good to make the reader partaker of, as
I find them in the chronicle of Robert Auesburie, to the end ye may
perceiue how other writers agrée therewith, sith the same letters may
serue as a touchstone to trie the truth of the matter. And so now I
will returne to speake of the kings dooings in the north part where
he left him. On the fourtéenth of Ianuarie K. Edward hauing his armie
lodged néere the towne of Berwike, and his nauie readie in the hauen to
assaile the Scots that were within the towne, he entered the castell
which the Englishmen had in their hands, the lord Walter de Mannie
being their capteine, who had gotten certeine miners thither from the
forrest of Deane, and other parts of the realme, which were busie to
make passage vnder the ground by a mine, through which the Englishmen
might enter into the towne. Herevpon, when the Scots perceiued in
what danger they stood, and knew that they could not long defend the
towne against him, they surrendered it into his hands without further
resistance.

[Sidenote: _Hector Boek._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 30.]

[Sidenote: The resignation of the realme of Scotland made by the
Balioll.]

In the Scotish histories it is recorded, that when those which were
within the towne of Berwike, heard how that an armie of Englishmen came
to the succours of the castell, they raced the walles and burnt the
houses of the towne, and so departed with all the spoile which they had
gotten there. But how soeuer it was, king Edward being againe possessed
of the towne, he set men aworke to repare it, and passing foorth
to Roxburge, there met with him the rightfull king of Scots Edward
Balioll, who transferred & resigned all the right, title and interest,
which he had or might haue to the crowne and realme of Scotland into
king Edwards hands: which resignatian he confirmed by his letters
patents thereof made and giuen vnder his hand and seale, dated the 25
of Ianuarie 1356, requiring king Edward to perseuere in pursute of his
title to the vttermost.

[Sidenote: K. Edward sore afflicted the Scots.]

[Sidenote: The duke of L[=a]caster sent to aid the king of Nauarre.]

[Sidenote: _Paulus Aemilius._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The castell of Orbec rescued.]

King Edward hauing thus receiued the resignation and release of the
crowne of Scotland, marched foorth with his armie, till he came to
Hadington, burning and destroieng the countrie on ech side round about
him, as he passed. And whilest he laie there abiding for his ships, his
men of warre were not idle, but ranged abroad in the countrie, and did
all the damage to their enimies that they could deuise. At length his
armie which he had at the same time on the sea, arriued on that coast,
and landing, spoiled a church of our ladie called the White kirke: but
being returned to their ships, there arose such a tempest and vehement
north wind, that manie of their vessels rushing and beating against the
banks and sands, were drowned togither with the men that were within
them, for displeasure whereof king Edward fell to the spoile of the
countrie againe, not sparing one place more than another: by reason
wherof, as well abbeis as all other churches and religious houses
both in Hadington, in Edenborough, and thorough all other the parts
of Louthian, wheresoeuer he came, were defaced and put to sacke. At
length when he had accomplished his will, and so set things in order,
he returned backe into England with the foresaid Edward Balioll in his
companie, whome he kept with him, for doubt least he should reuolt, and
procure some new trouble. In the moneth of Iulie the duke of Lancaster
being sent to the aid of the K. of Nauarre, came into Constantine,
which is a portion of Normandie, & there ioined with the lord Philip
of Nauarre, brother to the king of Nauarre, and with the lord Godfrie
de Harecourt, the which being returned into France, and restored to
the French kings fauour, was latelie againe reuolted, vpon displeasure
taken for the death of his nephue the lord Iohn de Harecourt as in the
French histories ye may read more at large. They were in all about the
number of foure thousand fighting men, and being assembled togither,
they went to Liseux, to Orbec, to Ponteau, & rescued the castell there,
which had béene besieged by the lord Robert de Hotetot master of the
crossebowes in France, more than two moneths: but now hearing that the
Englishmen and Nauarrois approched, he departed from thence, leauing
behind him for hast his engins and artillerie.

[Sidenote: The citie of Eureux yéelded to the Frenchmen. Vernueil. The
French K. commeth to giue the duke of Lancaster battell.]

The duke of Lancaster passed forward vnto Bretueill, which he caused to
be relieued and furnished with necessarie things as was conuenient. And
then leauing the citie of Eureux, which was as then in the Frenchmens
hands, latelie yéelded to them after a long siege, he went forward with
the lord Philip de Nauarre in companie till they came to Vernueill
in Perch, and there tooke both the towne and castell, and robbed the
towne and burnt a great part therof. The French king, who had assembled
a mightie armie, being aduertised of these matters, hasted forward
towards the duke of Lancaster, fullie purposing to giue him battell.
The duke and the lord Philip de Nauarre, hauing knowledge that the
French king followed them, withdrew towards the towne of the Eagle, and
the king still went after them, till he came to Tuebeuf two leages from
the towne of the Egle, and there it was shewed to him that he could
not follow his enimies any further, by reason of the thicke forrests,
which he could not passe without great danger of his person and losse
of his people. Then returned he with all his host, and tooke from the
Nauarrois the castell of Thilliers, and also the castell of Bretueill,
which was yéelded to him after two moneths siege.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales inuadeth ye French dominions.]

About the same time, that is to saie, in Iulie, the prince of Wales,
hauing assembled an armie of men of warre, to the number of eight
thousand, entred into the French dominions, and first passing through
Auuergne, at length he came into the countrie of Berrie, wasting and
burning the townes and villages as he went, taking easie iournies for
the better reléefe of his people, and destruction of his enimies: for
when he was entered into anie towne that was sufficientlie stored of
things necessarie, he would tarie there two or thrée daies to refresh
his soldiers and men of warre, and when they dislodged, they would
strike out the heads of the wine vessels, and burne the wheat, oates
and barlie, and all other things which they could not take with them,
to the intent their enimies should not therewith be susteined and
nourished.

[Sidenote: The citie of Burges.]

[Sidenote: Issoldune assaulted.]

[Sidenote: Vierzon woone.]

[Sidenote: The passages stopped.]

After this, they came before the citie of Burges, and there made a
great skirmish at one of the gates, and there were manie feats of armes
doone. The host departed from thence, without dooing anie more, and
comming to a strong castell called Issoldune, they fiercelie assailed
it, but could not win it: the gentlemen within defended the walles and
gates so manfullie. Then passed they forward, and came to Vierzon, a
great towne and a good castell, but it was nothing stronglie fortified;
and therefore was it woone perforce, the people within it being not
sufficient to resist the valiant puissance of the Englishmen. Here
they found wine and other vittels in great plentie, and herevpon they
taried there thrée daies to refresh themselues at ease. But before they
departed, the prince had aduertisement giuen him that the French king
was come to Chartres, with an huge assemblie of men of warre, and that
all the townes and passages aboue the riuer of Loire were closed and
kept. Then was the prince counselled to returne and passe by Touraine
and Poictow, and so that waie to Burdeaux.

[Sidenote: The prince returneth.]

The prince following their aduise that thus counselled him, set forward
toward Remorentine. The French king had sent into that countrie to
kéepe the frontiers there, the lord of Craon, the lord Bouciquault, and
the heremit of Chaumount, the which with thrée hundred men of armes
had followed the Englishmen six daies togither, and could neuer find
anie conuenient occasion to set vpon them: for the Englishmen gouerned
themselues so sagelie, that their enimies could not lightlie assaile
them, but to their owne disaduantage. One day the Frenchmen laid
themselues closelie in an ambush néere to the towne of Remorentine, at
a maruellous streict passage, by which the Englishmen must néeds passe.

[Sidenote: Remorentine.]

On the same daie there were departed from the princes battell, by
licence of the marshals, certeine capteins, Englishmen and Gascoignes,
as the lord Bartholomew de Burgherce or Burwasche (as some write him)
the lord of Mucident Gascongne, monsieur Petiton de Courton, the
lord de la Ware, the lord Basset, sir Daniell Passelew, sir Richard
Ponchardon, sir Noell Loring, the yoong lord Spenser, and two of the
Danbreticourts, sir Edward, and an other, who hauing with them two
hundred men of armes, went foorth to run before Remorentine, that they
might view the place. They passed foorth alongst by the Frenchmen which
laie in ambush, as yée haue heard, and they were not aduised of them,
and they were no sooner passed, but that the Frenchmen brake out, and
gallopped after the Englishmen with great random, hauing their speares
in their rests.

[Sidenote: A skirmish.]

The Englishmen and the Gascoignes hearing horsses to come galloping
after them, turned, and perceiuing them to be their enimies, stood
still to abide them. The Frenchmen couragiouslie gaue the charge, and
the Englishmen as valiantlie defended them, so that there insued a
great skirmish, which continued a long while, so that it could not be
easilie iudged who had the better, nor on which side the fortunate
issue of the present conflict would then fall (for

    ---- mutabilis alea Martis)

[Sidenote: The Frenchmen fled.]

[Sidenote: The prince lodgeth in the towne of Remorentine.]

till that the battell of the English marshals approched, the which
when the Frenchmen saw comming by a wood side, they fled streightwaies
towards Remorentine, and the Englishmen followed in chase so fast
as their horsses might beare them, and entered the towne with the
Frenchmen: but the French lords and the one halfe of their companie got
into the castell, and so saued themselues. The prince hearing what had
happened, came into the towne, and there lodged that night, sending
sir Iohn Chandois to talke with the capiteines of the castell, to know
if they would yéeld: and bicause they refused so to doo, on the next
morrow he caused his people to giue an assault to the place, which
continued the most part of the day, but yet missing their purpose, he
commanded that they should draw to their lodgings, and rest them for
that night.

[Sidenote: The castell of Remorentine assaulted.]

[Sidenote: It is set on fier.]

[Sidenote: They within submitted themselues.]

[Sidenote: The French King foloweth the prince of Wales.]

In the morning as soone as the sunne was vp, the marshals caused the
trumpets to sound, and those that were appointed to giue the assault
againe, prepared themselues to it. The prince himselfe was present
personallie at this assault, so that the same was inforced to the
vttermost: but when they saw that by assaults they could not win the
castell, they deuised engines, wherewith they cast wild fire into the
base court, and so set it on fire, which increased in such vehement
sort, that it tooke into the couering of a great tower, which was
couered with réed: and then they within perceiuing they must either
yéeld or perish with fire, came downe and submitted themselues to the
prince, who as prisoners receiued them. The castell of Remorentine
being thus woone and defaced with fire, the prince left it void, and
marched foorth with his armie as before, destroieng the countrie, and
approched to Aniou and Touraine. The French king came forwards toward
the prince, and at Ambois heard how the prince was in Touraine, meaning
to returne through Poictow. He was dailie aduertised of the princes
dooings by such as were appointed to coast him euer in his iournie.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Seuen thousand chosen men saith _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: Chauuignie.]

Then came the king to Haie in Touraine, and his people were passed
the riuer of Loire at sundrie passages, where most conuenientlie they
might. They were in number twentie thousand men of armes; of noble men
there were six and twentie, dukes and earles, beside a great number
of other lords and barons: the foure sonnes of the king were there,
as the lord Charles duke of Normandie, the lord Lewes after duke of
Aniou, the lord Iohn after duke of Berrie, and the lord Philip which
was after duke of Burgongne. The French king doubting least the prince
should escape by spéedie iournies out of his countrie, before he could
come to giue him battell, remooued to Chauuignie, and there passed
the riuer of Creuse by the bridge, supposing that the Englishmen had
béene before him, but they were not. Some of the Frenchmen taried
behind at Chauuignie for one night, and in the morning followed the
king. They were about two hundred men of armes vnder the leading of
the lord Craon, the lord Raoull de Coucie, and the earle of Ioignie.
They chanced to incounter with certeine of the auaunt currours of the
English armie, which remooued that day from a little village fast by.
Those Englishmen were not past thrée score men of armes, but well
horssed, and therefore perceiuing the great number of the Frenchmen,
they fled towards the princes battell, which they knew was not farre
off. Capteins of the Englishmen were two knights of Heinault, the lord
Eustace Dambreticourt, and the lord Iohn of Guistelles.

[Sidenote: The lord Raoull de Coucie taken.]

[Sidenote: Frenchmen distressed.]

The Frenchmen beholding them in this wise to flée, rode after amaine,
and as they followed in chase, they came on the princes battell before
they were aware. The lord Raoull of Coucie went so far forward with
his banner, that he entred vnder the princes banner, and fought right
valiantlie, but yet he was there taken, and the earle of Ioignie, also
the vicount of Bruce, the lord Chauuignie, and diuerse other, so that
the most part of those Frenchmen were either taken or slaine, and verie
few escaped. The prince vnderstood by the prisoners, that the French
king was so farre aduanced forward in pursute of him, that he could not
auoid the battell. Then he assembled his men togither, and commanded
them to kéepe order, and so rode that day being saturdaie from morning
till it was toward night, & then came within two leagues of Poictiers:
and herewith sending foorth certeine capteins, to search if they
could heare where the king was, he incamped himselfe that night in a
strong place amongst hedges, vines, and bushes. They that were sent to
discouer the countrie, rode so far, that they saw where the French king
with his great battell was marching, and setting vpon the taile of the
Frenchmen, caused all the host to stir: whereof knowledge being giuen
to the king, the which as then was entring into Poictiers, he returned
againe, and made all his host to doo the like, so that it was verie
late yer he and his people were bestowed in their lodgings that night.
The English currours returning to the prince, declared what they had
séene and doone. So, that night, the two armies being lodged within a
small distance either of other, kept strong and sure watch about their
campes.

[Sidenote: The ordering of the French battell.]

On the morrow after being sundaie, and the eightéenth daie of
September, the French king caused his host to be diuided into thrée
battels or wards, and in each of them were sixtéene thousand armed men,
all mustered and passed for armed men. The first battell was gouerned
by the duke of Orleance, wherein were six and thirtie banners, and
twise as manie penons. The second was led by the duke of Normandie and
his brethren, the lord Lewes & the lord Iohn. The third the French king
himselfe conducted. And while these battels were setting in arraie,
the king caused the lord Eustace de Ribaumount, and two other noble
men to ride on before, to sée the dealing of the Englishmen, and to
aduise of what number they were. Those that were thus sent, rode foorth
and beheld the order of the Englishmen at good leisure: and returning,
infourmed the king, that as they could iudge, the enimies were about
two thousand men of armes, foure thousand archers, and fiftéene
hundred of others, and that they were lodged in such a strong place,
and so well fensed with ditches and hedges, that it would be hard
assaulting them therein.

[Sidenote: The cardinal of Piergort.]

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales contented to come to a treatie.]

The cardinall of Piergort the popes legat, as then lieng in the citie
of Poictiers, came that morning to the king, and required him to
absteine from battell, till he might vnderstand whether the prince
would condescend vnto such conditions of peace as he himselfe should
think reasonable, which if it might be brought to passe, the same
should be more honorable for him, than to aduenture so manie noble men
as were there with him at that present in hazard of battell. The king
was contented that the cardinall should go to the prince, and sée what
he could doo with him. The cardinall rode to the prince, and talked
with him till he was contented to come to a treatie. The cardinall
returned to the French king, and required of him that a truce might be
granted till the next daies sun-rising: which truce obteined, he spent
that daie in riding to and fro betwixt them.

[Sidenote: The offer of the prince of Wales.]

[Sidenote: The French kings presumptuous demand.]

The prince offered to render into the kings hands all that he had
woone in that voiage, as well townes as castels, and also to release
all the prisoners, which he or any of his men had taken in that
iournie: and further he was contented to haue béene sworne not to beare
armour against the French king within the terme of seuen yeares next
following. But the French king would not agrée therevnto: the vttermost
that he would agrée vnto, was this, that the prince and an hundred of
his knights should yéeld themselues as prisoners vnto him, otherwise
he would not haue the matter taken vp. But it was the French kings hap
after (notwithstanding his hautines) to be taken captiue, as Okland
noteth, saieng,

    ---- seruilia sub iuga missus
    Disceret vt domino regi parêre Britanno.

But the prince in no wise cold be brought to any such vnreasonable
conditions, and so the cardinall could not make them fréends, although
he trauelled earnestlie betwixt them all that daie. When it drew
towards night, he returned toward Poictiers.

[Sidenote: The Englishmen fortifie their campe.]

[Sidenote: The cardinall trauelled in vaine.]

The Englishmen were not idle, whilest the cardinall was thus in hand
to bring the parties to some good agréement, but cast great ditches,
and made hedges, and other fortifications about the place where their
archers stood, and on the next morning, being mondaie, the prince and
his people prepared themselues to receiue battell, as they had doone
before, hauing passed the day before and that night in great defect
of necessarie things, for they could not stir abroad to fetch forrage
or other prouisions without danger to be surprised of their enimies.
The cardinall came againe earlie in the morning vnto the French king,
and found the French armie readie in order of battell by that time the
sunne was vp, and though he eftsoones fell in hand to exhort the king
to an agréement, yet it would not be. So he went to the prince, and
declared to him how he could doo no good in the matter, and therefore
he must abide the hazard of battell for ought that he could sée:
wherewith the prince was content, and so the cardinall returned vnto
Poictiers.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

[Sidenote: A prophesie of a prelate.]

¶ Here is to be remembred, that when (as Thomas Walsingham writeth)
this cardinall of Piergort was sent from the pope to traueil betwixt
the parties for a peace to be had, and that the pope exhorted him verie
earnestlie to shew his vttermost diligence and indeuour therein: at his
setting foorth to go on that message, the said cardinall (as was said)
made this answer: Most blessed father (said he) either we will persuade
them to peace and quietnesse, either else shall the verie flintstones
crie out of it. But this he spake not of himselfe, as it was supposed,
but being a prelate in that time, he prophesied what should follow;
for when the English archers had bestowed all their arrowes vpon their
enimies, they tooke vp pebles from the place where they stood, being
full of those kind of stones, and approching to their enimies, they
threw the same with such violence on them, that lighting against their
helmets, armor, and targets, they made a great ringing noise, so that
the cardinals prophesie was fulfilled, that he would either persuade a
peace, or else the stones should crie out thereof.

[Sidenote: The exhortation of the prince.]

The worthie prince like a couragious chiefteine, when he saw that he
must néeds fight, required his people not to be abashed at the great
number of their enimies, sith the victorie did not consist in the
multitude of men, but where God would send it: and if it fortuned that
the iournie might be theirs and his, they should be the most honored
people of the world: and if they should die in that righteous quarrell,
he had the king his father and also his brethren, in like case as they
had fréends and kinsmen, that would séeke their reuenge. And therefore
he desired them that daie to shew themselues like valiant men of warre:
and for his part he trusted in God and saint George, they should sée
in his person no default. These or the like words did this most gentle
prince speake, which greatlie comforted all his people.

[Sidenote: Noble men with the prince of Wales.]

[Sidenote: The capitall de Beuf.]

[Sidenote: The number of the prince his armie.]

There were with him of earles, Warwike, Suffolke, Salisburie, Stafford;
of lords, Cobham Spenser, Audeley, Berkley, Basset, Warren, de la Ware,
Bradeston, Burwasch, Felton, Mallow, and diuerse other: also sir Iohn
Chandois, by whome he was much counselled, sir Richard Stafford, sir
Richard of Penbruche, and manie other knights and valiant esquires
of England. Moreouer, there was of Gascoigne, the capitall of Buz or
Beuf, the lords of Prumes, Burguenrie, Chaumount, de Lespare, Rosen,
Monferant, Landuras, the Souldich of Lestrad or Lescard, and other;
and of Heinault, sir Eustace Daubreticourt, sir Iohn de Guistelles,
and other strangers. All the princes companie passed not the number of
eight thousand men one and other, of the which (as Iacobus Meire saith)
thrée thousand were archers: though Froissard (as I haue rehearsed
before) reporteth the number of archers to be more, as in one place six
thousand, and in an other place foure thousand.

[Sidenote: The number of the French.]

[Sidenote: The battell is begun.]

[Sidenote: The force of the English archer.]

[Sidenote: The lord Iames Audeley.]

The French king hauing in his armie thrée score thousand fighting
men, wherof there were more than thrée thousand knights, made so
sure account of victorie, as anie man might of a thing not yet had,
considering his great puissance, in regard to the small number of his
aduersaries: and therefore immediatlie after that the cardinall was
departed, he caused his battels to march forward, and approching to
the place where the Englishmen stood readie to receiue their enimies,
caused the onset to be giuen. There were certeine French horssemen,
to the number of thrée hundred, with the Almains also on horssebacke
appointed to breake the arraie of the English archers, but the archers
were so defended and compassed about with hedges and ditches, that
the horssemen of the French part could not enter to doo their feat,
and being galled with the sharpe shot of the English bowes, they were
ouerthrowne horsse and man, so that the vaward of the Frenchmen,
wherein was the duke of Athens, with the marshals of France, the lord
Iohn de Cleremont, and the lord Arnold Dandrehen or Odenhen, began to
disorder within a while, by reason of the shot of the archers, togither
with the helpe of the men of armes, amongst whome in the forefront was
the lord Iames Audeley, to performe a vow which he had made, to be one
of the first setters on.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: The earles of Warwike and Suffolke.]

There was the lord Arnold Dandrehen taken prisoner, and the lord Iohn
de Cleremont slaine, so that the noble prowesse of the said lord Iames
Audeley, breaking through the Frenchmens battell with the slaughter
of manie enimies, was that day most apparant. The loiall constancie
of the noble earles of Warwike and Suffolke, that fought so stoutlie,
so earnestlie, and so fiercelie, was right manifest. And the prince
himselfe did not onelie fulfill the office of a noble chéefteine, but
also of a right valiant and expert souldiour, attempting what soeuer
any other hardie warriour would in such cases haue done. Neither was
this battell quicklie dispatched, nor easilie brought to end; but it
was fought out with such obstinate earnestnesse, that thrée times
that daie were the Englishmen driuen to renew the fight, through the
multitude of enimies that increased and came still vpon them.

[Sidenote: The marshals battell put to ye worst.]

[Sidenote: The Frenchmen séeke to saue themselues by flight.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Finallie, the marshals battell was quite discomfited: for the Frenchmen
and Almains fell one vpon an other, and could not passe foorth; and
those that were behind, & could not get forward, reculed backe: and
while the marshals battell being on horssebacke thus assailed the
English armie with great disaduantage, and was in the end beaten backe,
the two battels of the dukes of Normandie and Orleance came forward,
and likewise assailed the Englishmen, but could not preuaile. The
archers shot so fiercelie, that to conclude, the Frenchmen behind,
vnderstanding the discomfiture of the marshals battell, and how their
fellowes before could not enter vpon their enimies, they opened and
ran to their horsses, in whome they did put more trust for their
safegard by galloping on them awaie, than in their manlike hands, for
all their late brauerie and great boasts. One thing sore discouraged
the Frenchmen, and that was this: beside those Englishmen that were
within the closure of their campe, there were certeine men of armes on
horssebacke, with a number of archers also on horssebacke, appointed to
coast vnder the couert of a mounteine, adioining to the place, where
they thought to strike into a side of the duke of Normandies battell,
so that with the terrour hereof, and with the continuall shot of the
English archers, the Frenchmen not knowing where to turne themselues,
sought to saue their liues by flight.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The valiancie of the French king.]

[Sidenote: The French king taken.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: Sir Denise Morbecke.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

The prince of Wales, perceiuing how his enimies (for the more part of
them) were fléeing awaie as men discomfited, sent out his horssemen
as well on the one hand as on the other, and he himselfe with his
whole power of footmen rushed foorth, and manfullie assailed the maine
battell of the Frenchmen, where the king himselfe was, who like a
valiant prince would not flée, but fought right manfullie: so that if
the fourth part of his men had doone halfe their parts as he did his,
the victorie by likelihood had rested (as Froissard saith) on his side:
but he was forsaken of his thrée sonnes, and of his brother the duke of
Orleance, which fled out of the battell with cleare hands. Finallie,
after huge slaughter made of those noblemen, and other which abode with
him euen to the end, he was taken, and so likewise was his yongest
sonne Philip, and both put in great danger to haue béene murthered
after they were taken, by the Englishmen and Gascoignes, striuing who
should haue the king to his prisoner, where indéed a knight of Flanders
or rather Artois, borne in saint Omers, called sir Denise Morbecke,
tooke him, but he was streightwaies taken from the same sir Denise
by other that came in the meane season, better prouided (béelike) of
strength, and lead him awaie vnresisted.

[Sidenote: Noblemen slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Mair._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The chase.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: _Annales de France._]

[Sidenote: Archembald Douglas tak[=e].]

[Sidenote: _Iacob Meir._]

[Sidenote: Prisoners taken.]

There were slaine in this battell, of noblemen, the dukes of Burbon
and Athens, the marshall Cleremont, sir Geffrey Charnie that bare the
chéefe standert of France, the bishop of Chaalons, sir Eustace de
Ribaumont, with diuerse other to the number of eight hundred lords,
knights, and gentlemen of name. In all there died on the French part
six thousand of one and other. The chase was continued euen to the
gates of Poictiers, and manie slaine and beaten downe in the stréet
before the gates, which the citizens had closed, for doubt least the
Englishmen should enter with them that fled, thither for safegard.
There were taken beside the king and his sonne, the lord Iaques de
Burbon earle of Ponthieu, brother to the duke of Burbon that was slaine
there, the earle of Ew, the lord Charles his brother earle of Longuile,
the archbishop of Sens, the earle of Vandosme, Salesbruch, Ventadore,
Tankeruille, Estampes, and Dampmartine: also Archembald Douglas a noble
man of Scotland, sonne to the honorable lord William Dowglas that was
killed in Spaine, the marshall Dandrehen or Odenhen (as Iacobus Meir
saith) with others to the number of seuentéene hundred earles, lords,
knights, and gentlemen, beside those of the meaner sort; so that the
Englishmen had twise as manie prisoners as they themselues were in
number: and therefore it was deuised amongst them, to put the most part
of their prisoners to ransome there in the field, and so they did for
doubt of further danger, the multitude being so great as it was.

[Sidenote: The battell of Poictiers when it was.]

[Sidenote: The prince suppeth the prisoners.]

Thus was the prince of Wales victor in that notable battell fought in
the fields of Beauuoir and Malpertuse, two leagues from Poictiers, the
ninetéenth day of September being monday, in the yéere a thousand,
thrée hundred, fiftie and six, which began in the morning and ended at
noone. But bicause the Englishmen were scattered abroad in chase of
their enimies, the princes banner was set vp in a bush, to draw all
his men togither. It was almost night yer they were all returned from
the chase. The prince made a great supper in his lodging that night to
the French king, and to the most part of his nobles that were taken
prisoners, and did all the honour that he could deuise to the king. And
where he perceiued by his chéere and countenance, that his heart was
full of pensiue gréefe, carefull thought and heauinesse, he comforted
him in the best maner that he might, and said to him: as followeth.


The méeke and comfortable oration of the English prince to the French
king being taken prisoner.

Most noble king, there is no cause wherefore your grace should be
pensiue, though God this day did not consent to follow your will.
For your noble prowes and dignitie roiall, with the supreme type of
your kinglie maiestie, remaineth whole and inuiolate, and what soeuer
may rightlie be called yours; so that no violent force of time shall
blot out or diminish the same. The almightie God hath determined
that the chance of war shall rest in his disposition and will, as
all other things. Your elders haue atchiued both by land & sea manie
noble enterprises. The whole compasse of Europe, all the east parts
of the world, all places and countries, both far & néere, are full of
monuments, witnessing the noble victories atteined by the French people.

The cause of godlie liuing and religion, the dignitie and preheminence
of christianitie hath béene defended and augmented by you, against the
most mightie and puissant capteins of the infidels, enimies to the
said christian religion. All ages shall make mention of your worthie
praises, no nation there is but shall confesse it selfe bounden at one
time or other for benefits receiued at your hands; neither is there
any people but such as hope to be hereafter bounden to you for reliefe
and benefits, to procéed from you in time to come. One or two battels
happilie haue chanced among so manie triumphs otherwise than you would
haue wished; chance would it should be so, which may inféeble and
make weake the power of horsses, armor, and weapon: your inuincible
courage and roiall magnanimitie lieth in your power to reteine: neither
shall this day take any thing from you or yours. And this realme of
France which hath procreat and brought foorth and norished so many of
my noble progenitors, shall perceiue my good meaning towards hir, as
not forgetfull of mine elders, and toward your maiestie (if you will
vouchsafe that I should glorie of that name) a most humble kinsman.
There are manie occasions of loue and fréendship betwixt you and my
father, which I trust shall take place, for I know all his thoughts
and inward meanings: you shall agrée and come to an attonement right
easilie togither, & I praie God he neuer take me for his sonne, except
I haue you in the same degrée of honor, reuerence, and faithfull loue,
which I owe towards him.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: The French king thanketh the prince.]

[Sidenote: The prince returneth to Burdeaux.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The lord Audelie rewarded.]

The king (as reason would) acknowledged this to procéed of great
courtesie shewed toward him in the prince, and thanked him
accordinglie. And the prince performing in déed that which he spake
with word, ceassed from further vsing of fire, or other indamaging
of the French dominions, and taking his waie through the countries
of Poictou and Xaintonge, by easie iournies, he and his people came
to Blaie, and so passed ouer the water to Burdeaux in good safetie
with all their riches and prisoners. The prince gaue to the lord
Iames Audelie (who had receiued in the battell manie sore wounds)
fiue hundred marks of yearelie reuenues assigned foorth of his lands
in England. The which gift the knight granted as fréelie as he had
receiued it vnto foure of his esquiers, which in the battell had béene
euer attendant about his person, without whose aid & valiant support,
he knew well that he had béene slaine sundrie times in the same battell
by his enimies, and therefore thought it a dutie of humanitie and
gratitude to make them amends with some temporall recompense, that had
saued his life, than the which nothing is more déere, nor of greater
price in the world, as the poet saith,

    ---- nihil est vita pretiosius ipsa.

When the prince heard that he had so doone, he meruelled what his
meaning was therby, and caused him to be brought before his presence,
and demanded of him wherefore he had so lightlie giuen awaie that
reward which he had bestowed vpon him, and whether he thought that
gift too meane for him or not. The lord Audelie so excused himselfe in
extolling the good seruice doone to him by his esquiers, through whome
he had so manie times escaped the dangers of death, that the prince did
not onelie confirme the resignation of the fiue hundred marks giuen to
the esquiers, but also rewarded the lord Audelie with six hundred marks
more of like yearelie reuenues, in maner and forme as he had receiued
the other.

[Sidenote: Bonfiers.]

[Sidenote: 1357.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 31.]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: The prince bringeth the French king ouer into England.]

When the newes of this great victorie came into England of the
ouerthrow of the Frenchmen, and taking of the French king, ye may
be sure there was great ioy shewed by outward tokens, as bonfiers
made, feasts and bankets kept, through the whole realme. Likewise the
Gascoignes and Englishmen being come to Burdeaux, made great reuell
and pastime there, spending fréelie that gold and siluer which they
had woone in the battell of Poictiers, and elsewhere in that iournie.
¶ This yeare in Aprill the prince of Wales tooke shipping with his
prisoners at Burdeaux, and on the fift of Maie arriued at Plimouth. On
the foure and twentith day of Maie he was with great honour ioifullie
receiued of the citizens into the citie of London, and so conueied
to the palace of Westminster, where the king sitting in Westminster
hall, receiued the French king, and after conueied him to a lodging
appointed for him, where he laie a season; but after he was remoued to
the Sauoie, which was at that time a goodlie house, perteining to the
duke of Lancaster, though afterwards it was burnt and destroied by Wat
Tiler, Iacke Straw, and their companie. In this place the French king
laie, and kept house a long time after.

[Sidenote: A iusts holden in Smithfield.]

[Sidenote: The French K. sorrowfull.]

In the winter following were roiall iustes holden in Smithfield, at the
which were present the kings of England, France, and Scotland, with
manie great estates of all their thrée kingdoms, of the which the more
part of the strangers were as then prisoners. It was reported, that the
French king could not so dissemble nor cloake his inward thought, but
that there appeared some tokens of gréefe in his countenance, whilest
he beheld these warlike pastimes. And when the king of England, & his
sonne prince Edward with comfortable words required him after supper to
put all pensiue cares out of his fantasie, and to be merrie and sing
as other did, he should make this answer with a smiling countenance,
alluding to the complaint of the Israelits in time of their captiuitie
vnder the gentiles, & saieng,

[Sidenote: _Psalm. 137._]

    Quomodo cantabimus canticum in terra aliena?

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Cardinals sent into England.]

[Sidenote: A truce for two yeares.]

About the same time there came ouer into England two cardinals, the one
called Talirand being bishop of Alba (commonlie named the cardinall
of Pierregort) and the other named Nicholas intituled cardinall of
S. Vitale or (as Froissard saith) of Dargell, they were sent from
pope Innocent the sixt, to intreat for a peace betwixt the kings of
England and France: but they could not bring their purpose to anie
perfect conclusion, although they remained here for the space of two
yeares: but yet onelie by good means they procured a truce betwéene the
said kings, and all their assistants, to indure from the time of the
publication thereof, vnto the feast of S. Iohn Baptist, which should be
in the yeare 1359: out of the which truce was excepted the L. Philip of
Nauarre, and his alies, the countesse of Montfort, and the whole duchie
of Britaine.

[Sidenote: The French king remoued to Windsor.]

[Sidenote: Rennes besieged.]

Anon after, the French king was remooued from the Sauoie vnto the
castell of Windsor with all his houshold, and then he went on hunting
and hawking there about at his pleasure, and the lord Philip his sonne
with him, all the residue of the prisoners abode still at London, but
were suffered to go vp and downe, and to come to the court when they
would. In the same yeare the duke of Lancaster besieged the citie of
Rennes in Britaine, in the title of the countesse of Richmond, & hir
yoong sonne Iohn of Montfort, that claimed to be duke of Britaine.
Those that were within the citie, as the vicount of Rohan, and Berthram
de Claiquin (who as then was a lustie yoong bacheler) and others
defended themselues manfullie for a time, but yet at length they were
compelled to render the citie into their enimies hands.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: _Fourdon._]

[Sidenote: The king of Scots ransomed.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

About the same time two Franciscane friers were burnt at London, for
matters of religion. ¶ Moreouer quéene Isabell, mother vnto king
Edward the third, departed this life the seauen and twentith daie of
August, and was buried the seauen and twentith daie of Nouember, in
the church of the friers minors at London, not yet dedicated. ¶ Dauid
king of Scotland, shortlie after the truce was concluded betwixt
England and France, was set at libertie, paieng for his ransome the
summe of one hundred thousand marks (as Fourdon saith) but whether he
meaneth Scotish or sterling monie, I cannot saie. He also was bound by
couenant now vpon his deliuerance, to cause the castels in Nidesdale
to be raised, which were knowne to be euill neighbors to the English
borderers, as Dunfrise, Dalswinton, Morton, Dunsdere, and nine other.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

His wife quéene Ione made such earnest sute to hir brother king Edward
for hir husbands deliuerance, that king Edward was contented to release
him vpon the paiment of so small a portion of monie, and performance
of the couenants, for the raising of those castels; although Froissard
saith, that he was couenanted to paie for his deliuerance within the
tearme of ten yeares, fiue hundred thousand nobles, and for suertie of
that paiment to send into England sufficient hostages, as the earles
of Dowglas, Murrey, Mar, Sutherland, and Fiffe, the baron of Vescie,
and sir William Camoise. Also he couenanted neuer to weare armour
against king Edward, within his realme of England, nor to consent that
his subiects should so doo: and further should vpon his returne home,
doo the best he could to cause the Scots to agrée that their countrie
should hold of him in fée, and that he and his successours, kings of
Scotland, should doo homage to the king of England, and his successors
for the realme of Scotland.

[Sidenote: 1358.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 32.]

[Sidenote: _Annales de France._]

[Sidenote: The citie of Auxerre tak[=e] by sir Robert Knolles.]

[Sidenote: Daúbignie sir le Metre.]

[Sidenote: Chastelon.]

[Sidenote: Newcastell vpon Loire.]

In this two and thirtith yeare, as witnesseth the French chronicles,
sir Robert Knolles, Iames Pipe, and one Thomlin Foulke, with other
capiteins and men of warre as souldiours to the king of Nauarre vpon
the tenth day of March earlie in the morning scaled the walles of
the citie of Auxerre, and behaued them so manfullie, that they were
maisters of the towne before the sunne was vp. They got excéeding much
by the spoile of that citie, and by ransoming the prisoners which
they tooke there. At length after they had remained eight daies in
that citie, and taken their pleasures of all things within it, they
wrought so with the citizens, that to haue possession of their citie
againe, and to haue it saued from fire, they agréed to giue to sir
Robert Knolles, and to his companie, fiftie thousand motons of gold,
which amounted to the summe of twelue thousand and fiue hundred pounds
sterling or there about; and yet was it agréed, that the Englishmen
should burne the gates, and throw downe the walles in diuers places. In
Aprill next insuing, the towne of Daúbignie sir le Metre was likewise
woone by the Englishmen; and the second daie of Maie Chastelon sir
Loigne was taken by the said sir Robert Knolles, and put to sacke as
the other were. From thence they went to Newcastell vpon Loire. Thus
did the Englishmen and other, in title of the K. of Nauarre, greatlie
indamage the realme of France, dailie winning townes and castels,
ransoming the people, and wasting the countries in most miserable wise,
as in the historie of France you may read more at large.

[Sidenote: Talke of a peace, and articles thereof drawne.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

In this meane while there was talke of peace betwixt the king of
England, and the king of France, and articles thereof drawne in this
forme, that the whole countries of Gascoine, Guien, Poictou, Touraine,
Xainctonge, Piergourd, Quercie, Limosin, Angolismois, Calis, Guines,
Bullogne, and Ponthieu, should remaine to the king of England wholie
without dooing homage or paieng anie reléefe for the same: but on
the other part, he should renounce all his right, which he might by
anie manner of meane claime to the countries of Normandie, Aniou, or
Maine. And further, that the French king should paie a certeine summe
of monie for his ransome, and deliuer sufficient pledges for the same,
and so depart into France. These articles were sent ouer into France,
that the thrée states there might confirme them, which they refused to
doo. Wherevpon when the truce ended, the warres were againe reuiued.
¶The king, held this yéere the feast of S. George at Windsor, in more
sumptuous manner than euer it had béene kept before.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Elie.]

[Sidenote: Excommunication.]

[Sidenote: Such as deliuered the popes letters hanged.]

In the same yeare also, frier Iohn Lisle bishop of Elie, being (as
he tooke it) somewhat wronged by the ladie Blanch de Wake, and other
that were of hir counsell, when the last yeare against the kings will
vnto the popes court, where exhibiting his complaint, he caused the
pope to excommunicate all his aduersaries, sending to the bishop of
Lincolne and other of the cleargie, that if they knew any of them
so excommunicated to be dead and buried, they should draw them out
of their graues: which was doone. And bicause some of those that
were excommunicated were of the kings councell, the king tooke such
displeasure therewith, that he gréeuouslie disquieted the prelats.
Wherevpon there were sent from the court of Rome on the behalfe of the
bishop of Elie, certeine persons, which being armed, met the bishop
of Rochester lord treasuror, deliuering to him letters from the pope,
the contents of the which were not knowen, and foorthwith they shranke
awaie: but the kings seruants made such pursute after them, that some
of them they tooke, and bringing them before the kings iustices, vpon
their arreignement they were condemned, and suffered death on the
gallowes.

[Sidenote: Discord betwixt priests and friers.]

[Sidenote: _Th. Walsing._]

[Sidenote: Iohn of Gant married.]

[Sidenote: 1359.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 33.]

[Sidenote: Windsore castell repared. Additions to _Triuet._]

[Sidenote: A solemne iusts at London.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: The K. with his foure sons are of the challengers part.]

[Sidenote: The French K. remoued. He departed fr[=o] Hertford the 29 of
Iulie.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Great discord rose also about this time, or rather afore, betwixt the
cleargie, and the foure orders of friers, as in the booke of acts &
monuments set foorth by master Iohn Fox ye may read more at large.
In this yeare Iohn of Gant earle of Richmond, sonne to the king, the
ninetéenth day of Maie married the ladie Blanch daughter to Henrie
duke of Lancaster at Reading; and bicause they were cousins within the
degrées of consanguinitie, forbidden by the church lawes to marrie, a
dispensation was procured of the pope to remoue that obstacle and let.
In this yeare the king set workemen in hand to take downe much old
bildings belonging to the castell of Windsore, and caused diuerse other
faire and sumptuous works to be erected and set vp, in and about the
same castell, so that almost all the masons and carpenters that were of
any accompt within this land, were sent for and imploied about the same
works, the ouerséer whereof was William Wickham the kings chaplein, by
whose aduise the king tooke in hand to repare that place, the rather in
déed bicause he was borne there, and therefore he tooke great pleasure
to bestow cost in beautifieng it with such buildings, as may appeare
euen vnto this daie. Moreouer, this yeare in the Rogation wéeke was
solemne iusts enterprised at London, for the maior and his foure and
twentie brethren as challengers did appoint to answer all commers, in
whose name and stéed the king with his foure sonnes, Edward, Lionell,
Iohn, and Edmund, and ninetéene other great lords, in secret manner
came and held the field with honor, to the great pleasure of the
citizens that beheld the same. ¶Ye haue heard how the Frenchmen refused
the peace, which was accorded betwixt K. Edward & their king, as then
prisoner here in England. Wherup[=o] K. Edward determined to make such
warre against the realme of France, that the Frenchmen with all their
harts should be glad to condescend and agrée to reason: and first he
commanded all manner of Frenchmen (other than such as were prisoners)
to auoid out of England. He also appointed the French king to be
remoued from the castell of Hertford, where he then remained, vnto the
castell of Somerton in Lincolneshire, vnder the gard and conduct of the
lord William Deincourt, being allowed fourtie shillings the day for the
wages of two and twentie men at armes, twentie archers, & two watchmen:
as thus, for himselfe and sir Iohn Kirketon baronets, either of them
foure shillings the daie; for thrée knights, sir William Colleuill (in
place of the lord Robert Colleuill, that could not trauell himselfe by
reason of sicknesse) sir Iohn Deincourt, and sir Saer de Rochfort, ech
of them two shillings the daie; seuentéene esquiers ech of them twelue
pence the day, eight archers on horsse backe euerie of them six pence
the day, and twelue archers on foot thrée pence, and the two watchmen
either of them six pence the day, which amounteth in the whole vnto
nine and thirtie shillings the day; and the od twelue pence was allowed
to the said lord Deincourt to make vp the summe of 40 shillings. ¶ This
haue I noted the rather, to giue a light to the reader to consider how
chargeable the reteining of men of war in these daies is, in respect of
the former times. But now to our purpose.

[Sidenote: The king prepareth to make a iournie into France.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The duke of Lancaster.]

[Sidenote: Braie assaulted.]

The king meaning to passe ouer himselfe in person into France, caused a
mightie armie to be mustered and put in a readinesse, and sent before
him the duke of Lancaster ouer to Calis with foure hundred speares, and
two thousand archers, where the said duke ioined with such strangers
as were alreadie come to Calis in great numbers, and togither with
them entered into the French dominions, and passing by saint Omers &
Bethune, came to Mount saint Eloie, a goodlie abbeie and a rich, two
leagues distant from Arras, and there the host tarried foure daies,
and when they had robbed and wasted all the countrie thereabout, they
rode to Braie, and there made a great assault, at the which a baronet
of England was slaine with diuerse other. When the Englishmen saw they
could win nothing there, they departed, and following the water of
Some, came to a towne called Chersie, where they passed the riuer, and
there tarried Alhallowen daie, & the night following.

[Sidenote: The kings arriuall at Calis.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

On the same daie the duke of Lancaster was aduertised, that the king
was arriued at Calis the seuentéenth daie of October, commanding him by
letters to draw towards him with all his companie. The duke according
to the kings commandement obeied, and so returned toward Calis. The
king being there arriued with all his power, tooke counsell which
way he should take. Some aduised him first to inuade Flanders, and
to reuenge the iniurious dealing of the earle and the Flemings: but
he would not agrée to that motion, for he purposed fullie either by
plaine force to make a conquest of France, or else vtterlie to destroie
and wast the countrie throughout with fier and sword. Herevpon he set
forwards the fourth of Nouember, and passing through the countries of
Arthois, and Vermendois, he came before the citie of Reimes. There
went ouer with him in this iournie, & with the duke of Lancaster,
his foure sonnes, Edward prince of Wales, Lionell earle of Vlster,
Iohn earle of Richmond, and the lord Edmund his yoongest sonne. Also
there was Henrie the said duke of Lancaster, with the earles of March,
Warwike, Suffolke, Hereford (who also was earle of Northampton)
Salisburie, Stafford, and Oxford, the bishops of Lincolne, and Durham,
and the lords Percie, Neuill, Spenser, Kirdiston, Rosse, Mannie,
Cobham, Mowbray, de la Ware, Willoughbie, Felton, Basset, Fitz Water,
Charleton, Audelie, Burwasch, and others, beside knights and esquiers,
as sir Iohn Chandois, sir Stephan Goussanton, sir Nowell Loring, sir
Hugh Hastings, sir Iohn Lisle, sir Richard Pembruge, and others.

[Sidenote: Reimes besieged.]

[Sidenote: 1360.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 34.]

[Sidenote: Tonnere woone.]

The siege was laid before Reimes about saint Andrewes tide, and
continued more than seuen wéekes: but the citie was so well defended
by the bishop and the earle of Porcien, and other capiteins within it,
that the Englishmen could not obteine their purpose, and so at length,
when they could not haue forrage nor other necessarie things abroad
in the countrie for to serue their turne, the king raised his field,
and departed with his armie in good order of battell, taking the way
through Champaigne, and so passed by Chaalons, and after to Merie on
the riuer of Seine. From Merie he departed and came vnto Tonnere, which
towne about the beginning of the foure and thirtith yeare of his reigne
was woone by assault, but the castell could not be woone, for there was
within it the lord Fiennes constable of France, and a great number of
other good men of war, which defended it valiantlie.

[Sidenote: Guillon.]

[Sidenote: Flauignie.]

[Sidenote: The number of carriages.]

After the king had rested there fiue daies, and that his men were well
refreshed with the wines and other such things, which they found in
that towne in good plentie, he remooued and drew towards Burgognie,
comming to a towne called Guillon or Aguillon, where he lay from
Ashwednesday vnto Midlent, hauing good prouision of all maner of
vittels by the means of an esquier of his called Iohn Alanson, which
had taken the towne of Flauignie not farre thence, wherein was great
store of bread and wine and other vittels: and still the marshals rode
foorth, and oftentimes refreshed the host with new prouision. The
Englishmen had with them in their carriages, tents, pauillions, milles,
ouens, and forges; also boates of leather cunninglie made and deuised,
able to receiue thrée men a péece, and to passe them ouer waters and
riuers. They had at the least six thousand carts with them, and for
euerie cart foure horsses which they had out of England.

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Ad. Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: Winchelsie burnt by the French.]

[Sidenote: A compositi[=o] made to spare the countrie of Burgognie.]

In this meane while, the Frenchmen made certeine vessels foorth to the
sea, vnder the gouernance of the earle of S. Paule, the which vpon the
fiftéenth daie of March landed earlie in the morning at Winchelsie,
and before sunne rising entred the towne, and finding the inhabitants
vnprouided to make anie great resistance, fell to and sacked the
houses, slue manie men, women, and also children, and after set fier
on the towne; and vpon knowledge had that the people of the countrie
next adioining were assembled, and comming to the rescue, he caused
his men to draw to their ships, and so they taking their pillage and
spoile with them, got them aboord, not without some losse of their
companie, which were slaine in the towne by such as resisted their
violence. Whilest the king laie at Aguillon, there came to him Anscaume
de Salilans chancellor of Burgognie, Iaques de Vienne, and other lords
of the countrie, being sent from their duke, to agrée with the king for
the sparing of the lands and seigniories apperteining to the duchie of
Burgognie.

[Sidenote: Franks hath Paradine, in Les Annales de Burgognie.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The king of England draweth towards Paris.]

The chancellor, and the other Burgognian lords found the king so
agréeable to their request, that a composition was made betwixt him and
the countrie of Burgognie, so that he should make to them an assurance
for him, and all his people, not to ouerrun or indamage that countrie,
during the space of thrée yeares, and he to haue in readie monie the
summe of two hundred thousand florens of gold, which of sterling monie
amounted to the summe of fiue and thirtie thousand pounds. When this
agréement was ingrossed vp in writing, and sealed, the king dislodged,
and all his host, taking the right waie to Paris, and passing the riuer
of Yonne, entered into Gastinois, and at length by easie iournies, vpon
a tuesdaie being the last of March in the wéeke before Easter, he came
and lodged betwéene Mont le Herie, and Chartres, with his people in the
countrie there abouts.

[Sidenote: A treatie.]

Here the duke of Normandie made meanes for a treatie of peace, which
was laboured by a frier called Simon de Langres prouinciall of the
friers Iacobins and the popes legat: he did so much, that a treatie was
appointed to be holden on good fridaie in the Malederie of Longegimew,
where appeared for the king of England the duke of Lancaster, the
erls of Warwike and Northampton, with sir Iohn Chandois, sir Walter
de Mannie, and sir William Cheinie knights: and for the French king
thither came the earle of Eu constable of France, and the marshall
Bouciquaut, with other; but their treatie came to none effect: wherfore
the king vpon the tuesdaie in the Easter wéeke remooued néerer vnto
Paris, and vpon the fridaie following, being the tenth of Aprill, by
procurement of the abbat of Clugnie newlie come from pope Innocent the
sixt, the foresaid commissioners eftsoones did méet to treat of an
agréement, but nothing they could conclude, the parties in their offers
and demands were so farre at ods.

[Sidenote: The Englishmen before Paris.]

Vpon the sundaie next following, a part of the kings hoste came before
the citie of Paris, and imbattelled themselues in a field fast by saint
Marcilles, abiding there fr[=o] morning till thrée of the clocke in
the after noone, to sée if the Frenchmen would come foorth to giue
battell: but the French would not taste of that vessel. For the duke
of Normandie (well considering what losse had insued within few yeares
past vnto the realme of France, by giuing battell to the Englishmen,
and taught by late triall and féeling of smart to dread imminent
danger, for

    Vulneribus didicit miles habere metum)

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The suburbs of Paris burnt.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Beauuois.]

would not suffer anie of his people to issue foorth of the gates, but
commanded them to be readie onelie to defend the walles and gates,
although he had a great power of men of warre within the citie, beside
the huge multitude of the inhabitants. The Englishmen to prouoke their
enimies the sooner to saile forth, burnt diuerse parts of the suburbs,
and rode euen to the gates of the citie. When they perceiued that the
Frenchmen would not come foorth, about thrée of the clocke in the
afternoone they departed out of the field and withdrew to their campe,
and then the king and all the English host remooued towards Chartres,
and was lodged at a place called Dones. Thither came to him the bishop
of Beauuois then chancellor of Normandie, with other, and so handled
the matter with him, that a new daie of treatie was appointed to be
holden at Bretignie, which is little more then a mile distant from
Chartres, vpon the first day of Maie next insuing.

[Sidenote: A new treatie.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Lancaster persuadeth the king to agrée.]

In which daie and place appointed, the foresaid duke of Lancaster, and
the said earles and other commissioners met with the said bishop, and
other French lords and spirituall men to him associate, on the behalfe
of the duke of Normandie then regent of France, to renew the former
communication of peace, in full hope to bring it to a good conclusion;
bicause king Edward began to frame his imagination more to accord with
his aduersaries, than he had doone of late, chéefelie for that the duke
of Lancaster with courteous words and sage persuasions, aduised him not
to forsake such reasonable conditions as the Frenchmen were contented
now to agrée vnto, sith that by making such manner of warre as he had
attempted, his souldiers onelie gained, and he himselfe lost but time,
and consumed his treasure: and further he might warre in this sort all
the daies of his life, before he could atteine to his intent, and loose
perhaps in one daie more than he had gained in twentie yeares.

[Sidenote: An hideous storme & tempest of wether.]

[Sidenote: A peace concluded.]

Such words spoken for the wealth of the king and his subiects,
conuerted the kings mind to fansie peace, namelie by the grace of the
Holie-ghost chéefe worker in this case. For it chanced on a daie,
as he was marching not farre from Chartres, there came such a storm
and tempest of thunder, lightening, haile and raine, as the like had
neuer béene séene by anie of the English people. This storme fell so
hideous in the kings host, that it séemed the world should haue ended:
for such vnreasonable great stones of haile fell from the skie, that
men and horsses were slaine therewith, so that the most hardie were
abashed. There perished thousands thereby, as some haue written. Then
the king remembring what reasonable offers of agréement he had refused,
vpon remorse of conscience (as by some writers should appeare) asked
forgiuenesse of the damage doone by sword and fire in those parts, and
fullie determined to grant vnto indifferent articles of peace, for
reléefe of the christian inhabitants of that land: and so shortlie
after, by the good diligence of the commissioners on both parts, an
vnitie and finall peace was accorded, the conditions whereof were
comprised in fortie and one articles, the chiefe whereof in effect were
these.

[Sidenote: The articles.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Homages and seruices.]

1 First that the king of England should haue and enioy (ouer and beside
that which he held alreadie in Gascoigne and Guien) the castell, citie,
and countie of Poictiers, and all the lands and countrie of Poictou,
with the fée of Touars, and the lands of Belleuille; the citie and
castell of Xainctes, and all the lands and countrie of Xaonctonge
on both sides the riuer of Charent, with the towne and fortresse of
Rochell, with their appurtenances; the citie and castell of Agent, and
the countrie of Agenois; the citie and castell of Piergort, and all the
land and countrie of Perigueux; the citie and castell of Limoges, and
all the lands and countrie of Limosin; the citie and castell of Cahors,
and the lordship of Cahorsin; the castell and countrie of Tarbe; the
lands countrie and countie of Bigorre; the countie, countrie, and lands
of Gaure; the citie and castell of Angolesme; and the countie, land,
and countrie of Angolesmois; the citie, towne and castell of Rodaix;
and all the countie, and countrie of Rouergne; and if there were in the
duchie of Guien any lords, as the earles of Foiz, Arminacke, Lisle, and
Perigueux, the vicounts of Carmain, and Limoges, or other holding any
lands within the foresaid bounds, it was accorded that they should doo
homage and other customarie seruices due for the same vnto the king of
England.

[Sidenote: The date of the charter of the peace.]

2 It was also agréed, that Calis and Guines with the appurtenances,
the lands of Montreuill on the sea with the countie of Ponthieu,
wholie and entirelie should remaine vnto the king of England. All the
which countries, cities, townes, and castels, with the other lands and
seigniories, the same king should haue and hold to him and his heires
for euer, euen as they were in demaine or fée, immediatlie of God, and
frée without recognizing any maner souereingtie to any earthlie man. In
consideration whereof, king Edward renounced all such claimes, titles
and interest as he pretended vnto any part of France, other than such
as were comprised within the charter of couenants of this peace first
agréed vpon at Bretignie aforesaid, and after confirmed at Calis, as
appeareth, by the same charter dated there the foure & twentith daie of
October, in the yeare of our Lord 1360.

[Sidenote: The French kings ransome.]

[Sidenote: Hostages.]

3 It was also couenanted, that the French king should paie vnto the
king of England thirtie hundred thousand crownes in name of his
ransome: for assurance of which paiment, & performance of all the
couenants afore mentioned, and other agréed vpon by this peace, the
dukes of Orleance, Aniou, Berrie, and Burbon, with diuerse other
honorable personages, as earles, lords, and burgesses of euerie good
towne, some were appointed to be sent ouer hither into England to
remaine as hostages.

[Sidenote: The French not to aid the Scots.]

4 It was further agréed, that neither the French king nor his
successors should aid the Scots against the king of England or his
successors; nor that king Edward nor his heirs kings of England should
aid the Flemings against the crowne of France.

[Sidenote: Britaine.]

5 And as for the title or right of the duchie of Britaine, which was in
question betwéene the earles of Blois and Mountfort, it was accorded,
that both kings being at Calis, the parties should be called before
them, and if the two kings could not make them fréends, then should
they assigne certeine indifferent persons to agrée them, and they to
haue halfe a yéeres respit to end the matter: and if within that terme
those that should be so appointed to agrée them, could not take vp the
matter betwixt the said earles, then either of them might make the best
purchase for himselfe that he could, by helpe of fréends, or otherwise:
but alwaies prouided, that neither of the kings nor their sonnes should
so aid the said earles, whereby the peace accorded betwixt England and
France, might by any meanes be broken or infringed. Also, to whether of
the said earles the duchie of Britaine in the end chanced to fall by
sentence of iudges, or otherwise, the homage should be doone for the
same vnto the French king.

[Sidenote: The king of England returneth home.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike.]

All these ordinances, articles and agréements, with manie mo (which
here would be too long to rehearse) were accorded and ratified by the
instruments and scales of the prince of Wales on the one part, and of
the duke of Normandie regent of France on the other part, as by their
letters patents then sealed further appeared, bearing date, the one at
Loures in Normandie the sixtéenth daie of Maie in the yeare of Grace
1360, and the other at Paris the tenth day of the same moneth, and in
the yeare aforesaid. Ouer & beside this, both the said princes tooke
on them a solemne oth, to sée all the same articles and couenants
of agréement throughlie kept, mainteined and performed. This doone,
king Edward imbarked himselfe with his four sonnes and the most part
of his nobles at Hunfleu the twentith daie of Maie, and so sailed
into England, leauing behind him the earle of Warwike to haue the
gouernement of all the men of warre which he left behind him, either in
Guien or in any other place on that side the sea.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsin._]

[Sidenote: The French king goeth ouer to Calis.]

[Sidenote: The kings receiue a solemne oth to sée the peace performed.]

There died in this iournie diuerse noble men of this land, as the
earles of March and Oxford, the lord Iohn Graie then steward of
England, and the lord Geffrie de Saie, with diuerse other. The eight of
Iulie next insuing, the French king hauing licence to depart, landed at
Calis, and was lodged in the castell there, abiding till the king of
England came thither, which was not till the ninth day of October next
after. On the foure and twentith daie of October, both the kings being
in two trauerses and one chappell at Calis, a masse was said before
them, and when they should haue kissed the pax, either of them in signe
of greater fréendship kissed the other, & there they were solemnlie
sworne to mainteine the articles of the same peace; and for more
assurance thereof, manie lords of both parts were likewise sworne to
mainteine the same articles to the vttermost of their powers. Whilest
these kings laie thus at Calis, there was great banketting and chéere
made betwixt them.

[Sidenote: The duke of Normandie.]

[Sidenote: The number of the French hostages.]

[Sidenote: The French king set at libertie.]

Also the duke of Normandie came from Bullongne to Calis, to visit his
father, and to sée the king of England, in which meane time two of king
Edwards sonnes were at Bullongne. Finallie, when these two kings had
finished all matters in so good order and forme that the same could not
be amended nor corrected, and that the French king had deliuered his
hostages to the king of England, that is to saie, six dukes, beside
earles, lords, and other honorable personages, in all to the number of
eight and thirtie: on the morrow after the taking of their oths, that
is to saie on the fiue and twentith daie of October, being sundaie,
the French king was fréelie deliuered, and the same daie before noone
he departed from Calis, and rode to Bullongne. The king of England
brought him a mile foreward on his waie, and then tooke leaue of him in
most louing maner. The prince attended him to Bullongne, where both he
and the duke of Normandie with other were eftsoons sworne to hold and
mainteine the foresaid peace without all fraud or colourable deceit:
and this doone, the prince returned to Calis. Thus was the French king
set at libertie, after he had béene prisoner here in England the space
of foure yeares, and as much as from the ninetéenth daie of September,
vnto the fiue and twentith of October. When the king of England had
finished his businesse at Calis, according to his mind, he returned
into England, and came to London the ninth daie of Nouember.

¶ Thus haue yée hard the originall begining, the processe, and issue of
sundrie conflicts and battels, and speciallie of two, one of Iohn the
French king vnluckilie attempted against England; the other of Dauid
the Scotish king as vnfortunatlie ended. For both kings were subdued
in fight, vanquished, and taken prisoners; with a great number of
their noblemen, whereas they were in hope to haue gone awaie with the
conquest, and to haue had renowme for their reward. Of which ouerthrow
giuen to both these kings, with the clemencie of king Edward (in whose
hands though their liues laie to be disposed as he list, yet he was
so far from violating the same, that he shewed himselfe a woonderfull
fauourer of their estates, and in fine not onelie put them to their
reasonable ransoms, but restored them to their roialties, from the
which their sinister lot had deposed them) Christopher Okland hath left
this remembred:

[Sidenote: _In Angl. proel. sub Edwardo, 3._]

    Plantageneta duos reges iam illustris habebat
    Captiuos, tenuit comites custodia mitis
    Multos ambabus claro regionibus ortos
    Sanguine, quos sæuo bello cepere Britanni.
    Attamen Eduardi viguit clementia regis
    Tanta, & tanta animo virtus innata sedebat,
    Vt pretio & pacto dimitteret ære redemptos
    In patriam ad propriæ consanguinitatis amicos.

[Sidenote: Strange woonders.]

[Sidenote: A great death.]

In this foure and thirtith yeare of king Edward, men and cattell
were destroied in diuerse places of this realme, by lightening and
tempest; also houses were set on fire and burnt, and manie strange
and woonderfull sights séene. ¶ The same yeare Edward prince of Wales
married the countesse of Kent, which before was wife vnto the lord
Thomas Holland: and before that, she was also wife vnto the erle
of Salisburie, and diuorsed from him, and wedded to the same lord
Holland. She was daughter vnto Edmund earle of Kent, brother to king
Edward the second, that was beheaded in the beginning of this kings
reigne, as before yée haue heard. And bicause the prince and shée were
within degrées of consanguinitie forbidden to marrie, a dispensation
was gotten from the pope to remooue that let. In this yeare also was
a great death of people (namelie of men, for women were not so much
subiect thereto.) This was called the second mortalitie, bicause it was
the second that fell in this kings daies.

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marl._]

[Sidenote: The primat of Ardmach departed this life.]

[Sidenote: 1361.]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Triuet_, and _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: A Str[=a]ge sight in the aire.]

This yeare also by the death of Richard fitz Rafe primat of Ardmach,
that departed this life in the court of Rome; and also of Richard
Kilminton deceassed here in England, the discord that had continued for
the space of thrée or foure yeares betwixt them of the cleargie on the
one part, and the foure orders of friers on the other part, was now
quieted and brought to end. Moreouer, this yeare appeared two castels
in the aire, of the which the one appeared in the southeast, and the
other in the southwest, out of which castels about the houre of noone
sundrie times were séene hosts of armed men (as appeared to mans sight)
issuing foorth, and that host which sailed out of the castell in the
southeast séemed white, and the other blacke. They appeared as they
should haue fought either against other, and first the white had the
vpper hand, and after was ouercome, and so vanished out of sight.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 35.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

About the same time the souldiors which were discharged in France and
out of wages, by the breaking vp of the warres, assembled togither,
and did much hurt in that realme, as in the French histories yée may
read. Their chéefe leaders were Englishmen and Gascoignes subiects
to the king of England. The king assembled the states of his realme
in parlement at Westminster in the feast of the Conuersion of S.
Paule, and there was declared vnto them the tenor and whole effect of
the peace concluded betwixt England and France, wherewith they were
greatlie pleased, and herevpon the nobles of the realme, and such
Frenchmen as were hostages, came togither at Westminster church on
the first sundaie of Lent next following: and there such as were not
alreadie sworne, receiued the oth for performance of the same peace,
in a right solemne manner, hauing the tenour of their oths written in
certeine scrols; and after they had taken their oths vpon the sacrament
and masse booke, they deliuered the same scrols vnto certeine notaries
appointed to receiue and register the same.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: 1362.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: A mightie wind.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 36]

The mortalitie yet during, that noble duke Henrie of Lancaster departed
this life on the éeuen of the Annunciation of our ladie, and was
buried at Leicester. ¶ Iohn of Gant the fourth son to the king, who
had married his daughter the ladie Blanch, as before yée haue heard,
succéeded him in that dutchie as his heire in right of the said ladie.
The same yéere also died the lord Reginold Cobham, the lord Walter fits
Warren, and thrée bishops, Worcester, London, and Elie. This yeare vpon
the fiftéenth day of Ianuarie there rose such a passing wind, that the
like had not béene heard of in manie yéeres before. It began about
euensong time in the south, and that with such force, that it ouerthrew
and blew downe strong and mightie buildings, as towers, stéeples,
houses and chimnies. This outragious wind continued thus for the space
of six or seauen daies, whereby euen those buildings that were not
ouerthrowne and broken downe, were yet so shaken, that they without
reparing were not able long to stand. After this followed a verie wet
season, namelie in the summer time and haruest, so that much corne and
haie was lost and spoiled, for want of seasonable weather to gather in
the same.

[Sidenote: Creations of the kings sonnes to degrées of honor.]

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marle._]

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales passeth ouer into Guien.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Ad. Merim._]

[Sidenote: A iusts in Smithfield.]

[Sidenote: The Staple of wools remoued to Calis.]

The lord Lionell the kings sonne went ouer into Ireland, to be deputie
to his father there, and was created duke of Clarence, and his brother
Edmund was created earle of Cambridge; also Edward prince of Wales
was by his father king Edward inuested duke of Guien, and did homage
vnto his father for the same, in like manner and forme as his father
and other kings of England were accustomed to do for the said dutchie
to the kings of France. And afterwards about the feast of Candlemasse
next insuing, the said prince sailed into Gascoigne, and arriued at
Burdeaux, taking vpon him the gouernement and rule of the countrie.
Moreouer this yeare, the fiue first daies of Maie, were kept roiall
iusts in Smithfield by London, the king and quéene being present, with
a great multitude of the nobles and gentlemen of both the realms of
England and France; at which time came hither Spaniards, Cipriots, and
Armenians, requiring aid of the king against the infidels, that sore
molested their confines. ¶ The staple of wols was this yeare remooued
to Calis.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: A pardon.]

[Sidenote: A statute against purueiers.]

[Sidenote: A subsidie.]

Also the sixtéenth of October, a parlement began, that was called
at Westminster, which continued till the feast daie of S. Brice, on
which daie, the king at that time fiftie yeares then past, was borne;
wherevpon, as it were in the yeare of his iubile, he shewed himselfe
more gratious to his people, granting pardon to offendors, and reuoking
outlawes. Moreouer, it was ordeined in this parlement, that no maner of
person, of what estate or degrée soeuer he was, the king, the quéene,
and dukes onelie excepted, should haue any purueiers of vittels, nor
should take vp any thing without readie paiment, and those that from
thencefoorth did contrarie to this ordinance, should be extremelie
punished. There was granted to the king in this parlement six and
twentie shillings eight pence of euerie sacke of wooll that was to be
transported ouer the sea, for thrée yeares next insuing.

[Sidenote: Lawiers to plead their cases in English.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: Schoolemasters to teach scholers to construe their lessons
in English.]

Furthermore, at the suite of the commons it was ordeined and
established by an act in this parlement deuised, that men of law should
plead their causes, and write their actions and plaints in the English
toong, and not in the French, as they had béene accustomed to doo, euer
since the Conquerors time. It was ordeined also, that schoolemasters
should teach their scholers to construe their lessons in English, &
not in French, as before they had béene vsed. The K. shewed so much
curtesie to the French hostages, that he permitted them to go ouer
to Calis, and there being néere home, to purchase friendship, by oft
calling on their fréends for their deliuerance. They were suffered to
ride to and fro about the marches of Calis, for the space of foure
daies togither, so that on the fourth daie before sunne setting, they
returned into Calis againe. The duke of Aniou turning this libertie to
serue his owne turne, departed from thence, and went home into France,
without making his fellowes priuie to his purpose.

[Sidenote: 1363.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 37.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Adam Merimuth._]

[Sidenote: A statute of araie against costlie apparell.]

[Sidenote: Thrée kings come into England about businesse with K.
Edward.]

This yeare a parlement was called by the king, which began the ninth
of October, from the which none of the noble men could obteine licence
to be absent. In this parlement all rich ornaments of gold and siluer
vsed to be worne in kniues, girdels, ouches, rings, or otherwise, to
the setting foorth of the bodie, were prohibited, except to such as
might dispend ten pounds by yeare. Morouer that none should weare any
rich clothes or furres, except they might dispend an hundred pounds
by yeare. ¶ Moreouer it was enacted, that labourers and husbandmen
should not vse any deintie dishes, or costlie drinks at their tables.
But these, and such other acts as were deuised and established at this
parlement, tooke none effect, as after it appeared. In this yeare,
there came into England to speake with king Edward concerning their
weightie affaires, thrée kings, to wit, the king of France, the king
of Scotland, & the king of Cypres: they were honorablie receiued, and
highlie feasted.

[Sidenote: 1364.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 38.]

[Sidenote: The death of the French king.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

The king of Scotland, and the king of Cypres after they had dispatched
their businesse for the which they came, turned backe againe; but the
French king fell sicke, and remained here till he died, as in the next
yeare ye shall heare. He arriued here in England, about the latter end
of this yeare, and came to Eltham (where king Edward as then laie) on
the foure and twentith day of Ianuarie, and there dined. After diner,
he tooke his horsse and rode toward London, and vpon Blacke heath, the
citizens of London clad in one kind of liuerie, and verie well horssed,
met him, and conueied him from thence through to London, to the Sauoy,
where his lodging was prepared. About the beginning of March, in
this eight and thirtith yeare, the forenamed French king fell into
a gréeuous sickenesse, of the which he died the eight day of Aprill
following. His corps was conueied into France, and there buried at S.
Denise: his exequies were kept here in England, in diuerse places right
solemnelie, by king Edwards appointment.

[Sidenote: The battell of Aulroy.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

This yeare, by reason of an extreme sore frost, continuing from the
seuen and twentith day of September last passed, vnto the beginning of
Aprill, in this eight and thirtith yeare (or rather from the seuenth
day of December till the ninetenth day of March, as Walsingham and
other old writers doo report) the ground laie vntild, to the great
hinderance and losse of all growing things on the earth. This yeare on
Michaelmasse day, before the castell of Aulroy, not far distant from
the citie of Vannes in Britaine, a sore battell was fought betwixt the
lord Charles de Blois, and the lord Iohn of Mountford. For when there
could be no end made betwixt these two lords, touching their title vnto
the duchie of Britaine, they renewed the wars verie hotlie in that
countrie, and procured all the aid they might from each side. The king
of France sent to the aid of his cousine Charls de Blois a thousand
speares; and the earle of Mountford sent into Gascoigne, requiring sir
Iohn Chandois, and other Englishmen there to come to his succour. Sir
Iohn Chandois gladlie consented to this request, and therevpon got
licence of the prince, and came into Britaine, where he found the earle
of Mountford at the siege of the foresaid castell of Aulroy. In the
meane time the lord Charles de Blois, being prouided of men, and all
things necessarie to giue battell, came and lodged fast by his enimies.

[Sidenote: Thrée thousand and six hundred fighting men, as _Walsing._
saith.]

The earle of Mountford aduertised of his approch, by the aduise of
sir Iohn Chandois and other of his capteins, had chosen out a plot
of ground to lodge in, and meant there to abide their enimies. With
the lord Charles of Blois was that valiant knight sir Berthram de
Cleaquin or Guesclin (as some write him) by whose aduice there were
ordeined thrée battels, and a reregard, and in each battell were
appointed a thousand of good fighting men. On the other part, the
earle of Mountford diuided his men likewise into thrée battels and a
reregard. The first was led by sir Robert Knols, sir Walter Hewet, and
sir Richard Brulle or Burlie. The second by sir Oliuer de Clisson, sir
Eustace Daubreticourt, and sir Matthew Gournie. The third the earle of
Mountford himselfe guided, and with him was sir Iohn Chandois associat,
by whom he was much ruled: for the king of England, whose daughter the
earle of Mountford should marie, had written to sir Iohn Chandois, that
he should take good héed to the businesse of the said earle, and order
the same as sagelie as he might deuise or imagine.

[Sidenote: The worthie actiuitie of the English archers.]

In ech of these thrée armies were fiue hundred armed men, and foure
hundred archers. In the reregard were appointed fiue hundred men of
warre, vnder the gouernance of sir Hugh Caluerlie. Beside sir Iohn
Chandois, & other Englishmen recited by Froissard, there was the lord
William Latimer, as one of the chiefe on the earle of Mountfords side.
There were not past sixtéene hundred good fighting men on that side,
as Thomas Walsingham plainelie writeth. Now when the hosts were ordred
on both sides (as before we haue said) they approched togither, the
Frenchmen came close in their order of battell, and were to the number
of fiue and twentie hundred men of armes, after the manner of that
age, beside others. Euerie man had cut his speare (as then they vsed,
at what time they should ioine in battell) to the length of fiue foot,
and a short ax hanging at his side. At the first incounter there was
a sore battell, and trulie the archers shot right fiercelie, howbeit
their shot did little hurt to the Frenchmen, they were so well armed
and furnished: the archers perceiuing that (being big men and light)
cast awaie their bowes, and entered in amongst the Frenchmen that bare
the axes, and plucked them out of their hands, wherwith they fought
after right hardlie. There was doone manie a noble feat of armes, manie
taken, and rescued againe.

[Sidenote: Sir Hugh Caluerlie.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Auxerre tak[=e] prisoner.]

[Sidenote: Sir Berthr[=a] de Cleaquin.]

Against the earle of Montfords battell, fought the battell which the
lord Charles de Blois ruled, and at the first, the earle of Montfords
part was sore oppressed, and brought out of order in such sort, that
if sir Hugh Caluerlie had not in time reléeued them, the losse had
runne on that side, but finallie so long they fought, that all the
battels assembled and ioined each to other, except the reregard of the
Englishmen, whereof (as is said) sir Hugh Caluerlie was chéefe. He kept
alwaies his battell on a wing, and euer succoured where he saw néed.
At length, the Frenchmen not able to indure the valiant dooings of
their aduersaries, began to breake. First the earle of Auxerres batell
was discomfited, and put to flight, and the said earle sore wounded,
and taken prisoner, but the battell of sir Berthram de Cleaquin as yet
stood manfullie at defense, howbeit at length the Englishmen perforce
opened it, and then was the said sir Berthram taken prisoner, vnder the
banner of Sir Iohn Chandois.

Herewith also, all the other battels of the Frenchmen and Britaines,
on the part of the lord Charles de Blois, were cleane discomfited, and
put out of arraie, so that such as resisted, and stood at defense,
were slaine and beaten downe, and amongst others, the lord Charles was
there slaine himselfe, and all other either taken or slaine, except
those that escaped by flight, amongst the which there were not manie
of the nobilitie. For (as Thomas Walsingham saith) there were slaine
about a thousand men of armes, and there were taken two earles, seuen
and twentie lords, and fiftéene hundred men of armes. The chase was
followed to the citie of Reimes, eight great leagues from the place
where the battell began. After this victorie, the earle of Montford
conquered manie townes and castels in Britaine, whereof the French
king being aduertised, sent his brother the duke of Aniou, vnto the
wife of the lord Charles of Blois now deceassed, to comfort hir in
such an heauie case, and to take order for things as should be thought
expedient, vntill further prouision might be made.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to ye earle of Montford.]

[Sidenote: The variance for Britaine compounded.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: 1365.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 39.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

Shortlie after, there were sent vnto the earle of Montford, the
archbishop of Reimes, the marshall Bouciquault, and the lord of
Cran, as commissioners, to commune with him of a finall agréement.
Wherevpon, after he had signified the matter vnto the king of England,
and vnderstood his pleasure therein, this treatie was so handled, that
peace therof followed, and the parties were agréed in the moneth of
Aprill next insuing. ¶ This yeare (as some haue written) king Edward
finished his warres vpon S. Stephans daie, and began the foundation of
S. Stephan's chappell at Westminster in memorie thereof, which chappell
was afterwards finished by king Richard the second that succéeded him.
¶ In the nine and thirtith yéere of king Edwards reigne, and in the
moneth of Februarie, in the citie of Angolesme, was borne the first
sonne of prince Edward, and was named after his father, but he departed
this life the seuenth yeare of his age.

[Sidenote: The lord Coucie marieth the king of Englands daughter.]

[Sidenote: _Polychron._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Mair._]

[Sidenote: A treatie of mariage for the earle of Cambridge.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders.]

Also this yeare, the seuen and twentith of Iulie, Ingeram de Guines
lord de Coucie, a Frenchman, married the ladie Isabell daughter to K.
Edward. The solemnization of the marriage feast was kept at Windsor in
most roiall and triumphant wise. The said lord Coucie was created earle
of Bedford, with an yéerelie annuitie of thirtie markes, going foorth
of the issues and profits of that countie, ouer and beside a thousand
marks by yeare, assigned to him and his said wife, and to the heires
male of their bodies begotten, to be paid forth of the excheker. About
this time, there was a treatie also for marriage to be had, betwixt the
lord Edmund earle of Cambridge, and the ladie Margaret, daughter and
heire to the earle of Flanders, which treatie went so far, that the
earle came ouer to Douer, where the king was readie to receiue him,
and there the earle promised by words of affiance, to giue his said
daughter vnto the said lord Edmund in marriage: and after that the
earle had béene at Douer, the space of thrée daies, passing the time
in great solace and banketting, when he had finished his businesse, he
returned backe againe into his countrie.

[Sidenote: The lord Latimer.]

[Sidenote: The king of Castile chased out of his realme.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Peter pence.]

[Sidenote: Ine king of Westsaxons.]

Whilest the king was thus at Douer with the earle of Flanders, the
lord Latimer came from the lord Iohn de Montford, to vnderstand his
pleasure, touching the offers that were made for peace, vpon whose
returne with answer, the peace was concluded as before yée haue heard.
This yeare was Peter king of Castile chased out of his realme, by his
bastard brother Henrie, which was aided in that enterprise by sir
Berthram de Cleaquin latelie deliuered, and other Frenchmen: so that
the said Henrie was crowned at Burgus, vpon Easter daie: wherefore the
said Peter was constreined to flée, and so came to Burdeaux to sue
for aid at the hands of the prince of Wales. This yeare by the kings
commandement, a restraint was ordeined, that Peter pence should not be
from thencefoorth anie more gathered within this realme, nor anie such
paiment made at Rome, which had béene vsed to be paid there, euer since
the daies of Ine, king of Westsaxons, which ordeined this paiment
toward the maintenance of a schoole for English scholers. But howsoeuer
this paiment was abrogated at this time by king Edward, it was after
renewed againe, and the monie gathered in certeine shires of this
realme, till the daies of king Henrie the eight, so greatlie preuailed
the vsurped power of that beast of Rome, which had poisoned the princes
of the world with the dregs of his abhomination, whose glorie shall
end in shame, his honor turne to horror, and his ambitious climing vp
aloft aboue all principalitie (to be compéere with God) shall haue an
irrecouerable ruine; as long agone, and of late likewise hath béene and
now is prophesied of him, that he may readilie read his owne downefall
into hell:

    In rapidas acherontis aquas, qui gloria mundi
      Papa fuit, lapsu corruet ille graui:
    Corruet vt rapidum descendit ab æthere fulmen,
      Corruet in stygios tempus in omne lacus.

[Sidenote: A rainie haruest.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: Death.]

[Sidenote: K. Richard the second borne.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

In this yeare fell great abundance of raine in the time of haie
haruest, so that much corne and haie was lost. ¶ There was also such
fighting amongst sparrowes in that season, that they were found dead on
the ground in great numbers. Also, there followed great mortalitie of
people, the sicknesse being so sharpe and vehement, that manie being
in perfect health ouer night when they went to bed, were found dead in
the morning. Also, manie died of the small pocks, both men, women, and
children. ¶ Moreouer this yeare, Simon Islep archbishop of Canturburie
departed this life, and Simon Langham bishop of Elie succéeded in his
place. This yeare at Burdeaux, was borne the second sonne of prince
Edward named Richard, on the third daie of Aprill: his godfather at the
fontstone was Iames K. of Maiorke. ¶ Peter the king of Spaine, who (as
yée haue heard) was expelled out of his realme by his bastard brother,
made such earnest sute to the prince of Wales for aid to be restored
home, that finallie the prince aduertising his father king Edward of
the whole matter, by aduise from him, determined to bring home the said
king Peter, and to restore him againe to his kingdome, by force of
armes, in despite of all his aduersaries.

The prince indéed was verie desirous to take this enterprise vpon him,
both of a certeine pitifull affection to relieue the miserable state
of king Peter, and also of an ardent desire which he had to purchase
a glorious fame thorough martiall déeds, and noble acts of chiualrie.
Therfore hauing this occasion to imploie his time in such exercises,
and now commanded thereto of his father, he was excéedinglie glad in
his mind, and with all spéed that might be, made his prouision both
of a sufficient armie of men of warre, and also of all other things
necessarie for the furniture of such an enterprise: but first, he tooke
good assurance of king Peter, for the paiment of the soldiers wages: so
the king left at Baionne thrée of his daughters, Beatrice, Constance,
and Isabell as pledges, for performance of all the couenants agréed
betwixt him and the prince.

[Sidenote: 1367.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 41.]

[Sidenote: The prince setteth forward towards Spaine. He entreth into
Nauarre.]

Thus when the prince, by the aduise and counsell of sir Iohn
Chandois, and sir Robert Knols (by whome he was much ruled) had taken
direction in his businesse, for that his iournie into Spaine, in each
condition as was thought behoouefull, he with the king of Spaine in
his companie, passed foorth with a puissant armie, and came to the
streicts of Ronceualle, at the entrie into Nauarre, and obteining so
much fréendship of the king of Nauarre, as to haue the passages of his
countrie opened, they entered into his realme through the same, as
fréends, without finding any resistance. In this meane time, Henrie
king of Spaine, hauing knowledge that the prince of Wales was thus
comming against him, to restore his brother king Peter to his former
degrée, by aduise of sir Berthram de Cleaquin, got a great number
of soldiers out of France, by whose aid he might the better defend
himselfe against his enimies.

[Sidenote: The king of Nauarre taken by the Frenchmen.]

[Sidenote: Sir Martin de Care.]

[Sidenote: Saint Muchaule.]

Now it chanced, that whilest the prince of Wales was passing thorough
Nauarre, toward the entrie of Spaine, certeine of those Frenchmen,
vnder the leading of sir Oliuer Mannie, tooke the king of Nauarre
prisoner, as he was riding from one towne to an other. Manie maruelled
at that chance, and some there were that thought he suffered himselfe
to be taken for a cautele, bicause he would not aid the prince of Wales
any further, nor conduct him through his realme, as he had promised to
doo. But the prince nothing dismaid herewith, passed forward, by the
guiding of a knight of Nauarre, called sir Martin de Care, and finallie
came to the confines of Spaine, and lodged at Victoria, not far from
his enimies. For king Henrie of Spaine, vnderstanding which waie
the prince drew, came forward to incounter him, and pight downe his
field, not far from the borders of his realme, at a place called saint
Muchaule: and thus were both the hosts lodged within a small distance
the one against the other.

[Sidenote: The king of Spaine sendeth to the prince.]

[Sidenote: Victoria. Viana.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

King Henrie had sent to the prince an herauld of armes with a letter,
requiring to know of him for what cause he moued warre against him,
sith he had neuer offended him. The prince taking deliberation for
answer of this letter, kept the messenger with him, and perceiuing
that king Henrie came not forward, but laie still at saint Muchaule,
stronglie incamped, he remooued from Victoria, and came to a towne
called Viana, where he staied two daies to refresh his people, and
after went forward, and passed the riuer which diuideth the realmes of
Castile and Nauarre, at the bridge of Groigne. King Henrie aduertised
hereof, departed from saint Muchaule, and came before the towne of
Nauarret, situat on the same riuer. Not manie daies before the prince
passed the riuer at Groigne, king Henrie had sent foorth two of his
brethren, the earle Dom Teille, and the lord Sanches, with six hundred
horssemen, to view the princes host.

[Sidenote: Sir William Felton slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

They chanced to incounter two hundred English horssemen, whom after
long and sharpe fight they distressed, & slue sir William Felton, one
of the chiefe leaders of those Englishmen, and tooke sir Thomas Felton
his brother, sir Hugh Hastings, and diuerse other, both knights and
esquiers. Whether that king Henrie was greatlie incouraged by this good
lucke in the beginning, or that he trusted through the great multitude
of his people, which he had there with him, to haue the vpper hand of
his enimies, true it is, that he coueted sore to giue them battell; and
although he might haue wearied the prince, and constreined him for want
of vittels to haue returned, or to haue fought with him at some great
aduantage, if he had deferred the battell, as the marshall of France
Dandrehen gaue counsell, yet he would néeds fight in all the hast, and
therefore did thus approch his enimies.

The prince perceiuing that his aduersarie came forward to incounter
him, dispatched the herauld with an answer to the letter which he had
of him receiued, containing in effect, that for great considerations,
he had taken vpon him to aid the rightfull K. of Spaine, chased out of
his realm by violent wrong, and that if it might be, he would gladlie
make an agréement betwixt them; conditionallie, that king Henrie of
necessitie must then forsake the administration, and all the title of
the kingdome of Spaine, which by no rightfull meane he could inioy,
and therefore if he refused thus to doo, he was for his part resolued
how to procéed. The herauld departed with this answer, and came
therewith vnto king Henrie, and deliuered it vnto him, as then lodged
with his puissant armie at Nauarre, so that then both parties prepared
themselues to battell.

[Sidenote: The number of the princes armie.]

[Sidenote: The chieftains of the same armie.]

The prince hauing with him thirtie thousand men of Englishmen,
Gascoignes, and other strangers, ordeined thrée battels, of the
which, the first was led by the duke of Lancaster, and with him was
sir Iohn Chandois constable of Guien, sir William Beauchampe son to
the earle of Warwike, the lord Dalbret, sir Richard Dangle, and sir
Stephan Coosenton, marshals of Guien, & diuerse other. The middle ward
was gouerned by the prince, and with him was the foresaid Peter king
of Spaine, and diuerse other lords and knights of England, Poictou,
and other countries, as the vicounts of Chatelareault and Rochcort,
the lords of Partnie, Pinan, Taneboton, and others, sir Richard
Pontchardon, sir Thomas Spenser, sir Iohn Grendon, and a great sort
more, whose names it would be too long to rehearse. The rereward was
vnder the gouerance of the king of Malorques, & with him were associat
the earls of Arminacke, Dalbreth, Piergort, Gominges, the capitoll of
Buefz, sir Robert Knols, and manie other valiant lords, knights, and
esquiers.

[Sidenote: The order of the Spaniards.]

[Sidenote: The number of ye Spanish armie.]

On the second day of Aprill, the prince with his battell thus ordered,
remoued from Groigne, and marching that day two leagues forward, came
before Nauarret, and there tooke his lodging, within a small distance
from his enemies, so that both parties prepared to giue battell the
next day in the morning, commanding that euerie man at the sounding
of the first trumpet, should apparell themselues, that they might be
readie vpon the next sound to be set in order of battell, and to go
against their enemies. The Spaniards very earlie in the morning drew
into the field, and ordeined thrée battels in this wise. The first was
led by sir Berthram de Cleaquin, wherein were all the Frenchmen and
other strangers, to the number of foure thousand knights and esquires,
well armed and appointed, after the manner of France. In the second
battell was the earle Dom Tielle, with his brother the lord Sanches,
hauing with them fiftéene thousand men on foot, and on horssebacke.
The third battell and the greatest of all was gouerned by king Henrie
himselfe, hauing in that battell seuen thousand horssemen, and
thréescore thousand footmen, with crossebowes, darts, speares, lances,
and other abillements of war: so in all thrée battels he had fourescore
and six thousand men on horssebacke and on foot.

[Sidenote: The duke of Lancaster.]

[Sidenote: The capitall of Beuf.]

The prince of Wales, at the breaking of the daie was readie in the
field with his people arranged in order of battell, and aduanced
forward with them toward his enimies, an hosting pace; and as they
passed a little hill, they might sée as they were descending downe
the same, their enemies comming likewise towards them, in good order
of battell. When they were approached néere togither, and readie to
ioine, the duke of Lancasters battell incountered with the battell of
sir Berthram de Cleaquin, which two battels verie eagerlie assailed
each other so that there was betwixt them a sore conflict, and well
continued. The erle Dom Teille, and his brother the lord Sanches, upon
the first approach of the princes battell towards them, fled out of
the field, and with them two thousand speares, so that the residue of
their battell were shortlie after discomfited, for the capitall of Buz
otherwise Beuf, and the lord Clisson, came vpon them on foot, and slue
and hurt manie of them, so that they brake their arraie, and fled to
saue themselues.

[Sidenote: The archers.]

[Sidenote: King Peter.]

This chance discomforted the hearts of the Spaniards right sore, but
yet king Henrie like a valiant gentleman came forward, and incouraged
his men all that he might, so that there was a cruell battell, and
well foughten a long time. For the Spaniards with slings cast stones
in such fierce manner, that they claue therewith manie an helmet and
bassenet, hurt manie, and ouerthrew them to the earth. On the other
part, the English archers shot freshlie at their enemies, galled and
slue the Spaniards, and brought them to great confusion: yet king
Henrie nothing abashed herewith, wheresoeuer he perceiued his men to
shrinke, thither he resorted, calling upon them, and exhorting them to
remember their estimations and duties, so that by his diligence and
manfull incouragement, thrise that daie did he staie his people, being
at point to giue ouer; and set them in the faces of his enemies againe.
Neither did the souldiers alone manfullie behaue themselues, but the
capteins also stoutlie laid about them. King Peter like a lion pressed
forward, coueting to méet with his brother Henrie, that he might séeke
his reuenge on him with his owne hands. Cruell was the fight, and tried
throughlie with most eger and fierce minds.

[Sidenote: The Spaniards put to flight.]

At length, when the Spaniards were no longer able to susteine the force
and violence of the Englishmen, Gascoignes, & other which were there
against them, they brake their arraie, and fled; so that neither the
authoritie nor bold exhortation of king Henrie, could cause them to
tarrie anie longer: wherevpon, when he saw himselfe forsaken of his
people, and that few abode with him to resist his enemies, he also to
saue himselfe fled out of the field, being fullie persuaded, that if
he had béene taken, no ransome should haue saued his life. The battell
that was best fought, and longest held togither, was that of the
strangers, which sir Berthram de Cleuquin led. For if the Spaniards
had doone halfe their parts as well as the Frenchmen, & other in this
battell, the matter had gone harder against the Englishmen than it did:
yet finally, by the noble courage of the duke of Lancaster, and the
valiant prowesse of sir John Chandois, sir Hugh Caluerlie, & others,
the Frenchmen were put to flight, and their battell quite discomfited.
The slaughter in this battell was great, both of them that were slaine
in the field, and of those that were drowned in the riuer that runneth
by the towne of Nauarret.

[Sidenote: The number slaine at this battell at Nauarret.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

After that the battell was ended, and that such as had followed the
chase were returned, the prince caused the fields to be searched, to
vnderstand what number had béene slaine in the battell: they that were
appointed to take the view, vpon their returne reported, that there
was dead of men of armes five hundred and thréescore, and of commons
about seauen thousand, and five hundred of the English part: there were
slaine of men of name, but foure knights, two Gascoignes, one Almaine,
and the fourth an Englishman, and of other meane souldiers, not past
fortie (as Froissard saith). But others affirme, that there were slaine
of the princes part about sixtéene hundred; which should séeme to be
more like a truth, if the battell was fought so sore and fiercelie, as
Froissard himselfe dooth make report. Howbeit, there be that write, how
the duke of Lancaster wan the field by great fortune and valiancie,
yet the prince came néere to his enimies. But howsoeuer it was, the
Englishmen obtained the victorie in this battell, fought on a saturdaie
being the third of Aprill, in the yeare 1367. There were taken
prisoners, to the number of two thousand, and amongst them the erle of
Dene, sir Berthram de Cleaquin, the marshall Dandrehen or Odenhen, and
manie other men of name.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

After the battell, king Peter went to Burgus, and was receiued into the
citie, and shortlie after, that is to say, on the Wednesdaie folowing,
the prince came thither, and there held his Easter with king Peter, and
tarried there aboue thrée wéekes. In the mean time, they of Asturgus,
Toledo, Lisbone, Cordoua, Galice, Siuill, and of all other places of
the kingdome of Spaine, came in, and homage vnto king Peter, promising
him to be true to him euer after: for they saw that resistance would
not auaile so long as the prince should be in the countrie. After this,
the prince was in hand with king Peter, for the souldiers wages, by
whose aid he was thus restored into his former estate. King Peter went
vnto Siuill, to makeshift for monie accordinglie, promising to returne
againe, within a few wéekes, and to sée euerie man paid, according as
he had couenanted. For when he was driuen out of his realme, and came
to Burdeaux to craue aid of the prince, he promised, that so soone
as he should be restored to his kingdome, he would sée the souldiers
contented of their wages, and bound himselfe thereto, both by his oth
and writing giuen vnder his seale. But when he obteined his purpose,
he forgat all fréendlie dutie, and was so farre from performing his
promise, that he cloaked his ill meaning with a feigned tale, and sent
the prince a message spiced with hypocrisie and vnthankfulnesse, two
foule faults in a priuat man, much more odious in a prince and great
state, as the poet wiselie and trulie saith in this distichon:

    Omne animi vitium tantò conspectius in se
      Crimen habet, quantò maior qui peccat habetur.

[Sidenote: King Peters dissimulation.]

The prince tarried for the returne of king Peter, both wéekes and
moneths, but could not heare anie tidings of him. He therefore sent
vnto him, to vnderstand the cause of the staie: his answer was, that
he had prouided monie, and sent it by certeine of his men toward the
prince, but the companions that serued vnder the prince, had met with
it by the way, and taken it from them that had the conueiance of it: he
therefore required the prince to rid the realme of those snaphances,
and to leaue behind him some of his officers, to whome in name of him
he would make paiment of such monie as was due. This answer pleased
not the prince, but there was no remedie, for other at that present
he could not haue, for anie likeliehood he saw: and therefore, taking
order with king Peter how the paiment should be made, he prepared to
returne into Gascoigne. The order therefore taken betwixt them, was
this. Within foure moneths next insuing, king Peter should paie the one
halfe of the wages due to the soldiers for this iournie, vnto such as
the prince should leaue behind him to receiue the same, and the other
halfe within one yeare.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: The prince put to his shifts for default of paie.]

The prince was compelled to breake his plate, and to make monie thereof
to paie his soldiers, namelie, the companions, which he had called
forth of France, so that he left himselfe bare of all riches, to
kéepe touch with them, although king Dampeter failed in his promise
each waie foorth. For where the prince should haue had in recompense
towards his charges, the countie of Algezara, and other lands, by
the said Dampeters assignment, so that he sent one of his knights to
take seizine of the same lands, he was neuertheles disappointed, for
he could not come by any peaceable possession of those lands, and so
returned greatlie impouerished, hauing spent in this iournie all that
he could make. In the meane time the bastard Henrie, hauing escaped out
of the field by flight, got him into France, and there through fauor
of the duke of Aniou, so purchased for himselfe, that he got togither
a certeine number of Britains and other soldiers, & comming to the
frontiers of the princes land in Gascoigne, got a towne in Bigore,
called Bannieres, and made war upon the princes subjects.

[Sidenote: The prince returneth into Gascoigne.]

[Sidenote: 1368.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 42.]

[Sidenote: A blasing starre.]

[Sidenote: _Polychron._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

The prince obteining passage for himselfe and his men, of the kings
of Aragon and Nauarre, returned to Burdeaux, and then did the bastard
Henrie forsake his garrison at Bannieres, and went into Arragon, and
there got the king of Arragons assistance: & finallie, in the yeare
1369, returning into Spaine, recouered the kingdome, and slue his
brother king Peter, as in the historie of Spaine it may appeare, which
for that it apperteineth not to this historic of England, I doo here
passe ouer. This yeare, in the moneth of March, appeared a blasing
starre, betwixt the north and west, whose beames stretched towards
France as was then marked, threatning (as might bethought) that within
a small time after it should againe be wrapped and set on fire with new
troubles of warre, and euen then, that countrie was not in quiet, but
harried in diuerse parts, by such soldiers as had béene with the prince
in Spaine, & were now out of wages. The leaders of which people were
for the more part Englishmen and Gascoignes, as sir Robert Briquet,
sir John Tresmelle, Robert Cenie, sir Gaollard Vigier, the bourge of
Bertueill, the bourge Camois of Cominges, as Denise Sauage thinketh,
the bourge of Lespare, Nandon or Nawdon of Bargerant, Bernard de la
Salle, Ortigo, Lamut, and manie other.

[Sidenote: The Duke of Clarence goeth into Italie. The ladie Violant.]

[Sidenote: His interteinement in Sauoy.]

In this 42 yeare of king Edwards reigne, his second son the lord
Lionell duke of Clarence and earle of Vlster passed the sea, with a
noble companie of lords, knights, and gentlemen, and went thorough
France into Lombardie, there to marrie the ladie Violant, daughter to
the duke of Millane. He was honorablie receiued in all places where he
came, and speciallie at Paris, by the dukes of Berrie and Burgognie,
the lord Coucie and other, the which brought him to the court, where he
dined and supped with the king, and lodged within the palace. On the
next day he was had to a place where the quéene lodged, and dined with
hir, and after was conueied to the court againe, and supped that night
with the king, and on the morrow following, he tooke his leaue of the
king and quéene the which gaue to him great gifts, and likewise to the
noble men of England that came ouer with him, to the value of twentie
thousand florens and aboue: he was conueied from place to place, with
certeine of the French nobilitie, till he came to the borders of the
realme and then entring into Sauoy, he came to Chamberie, where the
earle of Sauoy was readie to receiue him, and there he remained foure
daies, being highlie feasted amongst the ladies and damosels: and then
he departed, and the earle of Sauoy brought him to Millane, to doo him
the more honor, for his sister was mother to the bride, which the duke
should marrie.

[Sidenote: His receiuing into Millane.]

[Sidenote: _Corio_ in the historie of Millane.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

To speake of the honorable receiuing of him into the citie of Millane,
and of the great feast, triumph, and banketting, and what an assemblie
there was in Millane of high states, at the solemnizing of the mariage
betwixt him and the said ladie Violant, it were too long a processe
to remember. The gifts that the father of the bride, the lord Galeas
gaue vnto such honorable personages as were there present, amounted in
value to an inestimable summe. ¶ The writers of the Millane histories
affirme, that this marriage was celebrated on the fiftéenth daie of
Iune, in the yeare 1367, which being true, the same chanced in the 41
yeare of this kings reigne, and not in this 42 yeare, though other
authors agrée, that it was in the yeare 1368. But to returne to other
dooings where we left.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales constreined to burden his subiects with
a sore subsidie.]

[Sidenote: Coine not to be inhanced nor abased.]

Ye haue heard how the Prince of Wales could get no monie of the king
of Spaine, for the wages of his men of warre, which he had reteined
to serue him in the reducing the said king home into his countrie,
wherefore the prince hauing béene at great charges in that iournie, was
neither able to satisfie them, nor mainteine his owne estate, without
some great aid of his subiects, and therefore he was counselled to
raise a subsidie called a fuage, through all the countrie of Aquitaine,
to run onelie for the space of fiue yeares. To this paiment, euerie
chimnie or fire must haue béene contributorie, paieng yearely one
franke, the rich to haue borne out the poore. And to haue this paiment
granted, all the states of the countrie were called togither at Niort.
The Poictouins, and they of Xainctonge, Limosin, Rouergne, and of
Rochell, agréed to the princes request, with condition, that he should
kéepe the course of his coine stable, for the terme of seuen yeares.

[Sidenote: The demand of this fuage the cause of ye Gascoignes
reuolting to the French king.]

But diuerse of the other parts of Guien refused that ordinance, as the
earles of Arminake, and Gominges, the vicount of Carmaigne, the lords
Dalbret, de la Barde, Cande, Pincornet, and diuerse other great barons:
but yet to depart quietlie from the assemblie, they required a time
to take better aduise, and so they repairing into their countries,
determined neither to returne againe according to their promises, nor
to suffer any fuage to run amongest them at all, and were so much
offended with the motion, that they sought occasion forthwith to reuolt
from the English obeisance and submission, knowing that

    Pastores tondere boni haud deglubere cultris
    Villosum assuescunt pecus.

And therefore diuerse lords of them went to the French king, and there
exhibited into the chamber of the péeres of France, their complaints
of the grieuous impositions & wrongs, which the prince went about to
laie vpon them, affirming that their resort ought of speciall duty to
be to the crowne of France, and to the king there, as to their lord
Peramount. The French king, who would not séeme to breake the peace
betwéene him and the king of England, dissembled the matter, and told
them that he would peruse the tenor of the charters and letters of
the peace, and so far foorth as he might by permission of the same,
he would be glad to doo them good. The earles of Arminake, Perigourd,
Gominges, and the lord Dalbret, with other that were come thither about
this matter, were contented with this answer, and so staied in France,
till they might vnderstand further, both of the French kings mind, and
of the princes dooings. ¶ This yéere in October, was Simon Langham
archbishop of Canturburie elected to the dignitie of a cardinall, and
then William Witleslie, bishop of Worcester, was remooued vnto the sée
of Canturburie.

[Sidenote: The earle of Saint Paule.]

[Sidenote: 1369.]

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales appealed to appeare.]

About the same time, the earle of saint Paule, one of the hostages
in England, stale from hence, without taking anie leaue, or saieng
farewell. At his comming into France, he greatlie furthered the sute of
the lords of Gascoigne, & finallie so much was doone on their behalfe,
that the French king was contented that the prince of Wales should be
appealed, and summoned to appeare before the French king as iudge in
that point, for reformation of the wrongs which he offered to them
that had made their resort vnto him, as reason was they should. This
appeale was written and dulie examined.


The tenor of the said prince of Wales his appeale or summons of
appearance before the French king, &c.

Charles by the grace of God king of France, to our nephue the prince
of Wales and Aquitaine, send gréeting. So it is, that diuerse prelats,
barons, knights, vniuersities, communalties, and colledges of the
marches and limits of the countrie of Gascoigne, and the dwellers and
inhabitants in the bounds of our realme, besides diuerse other of the
duchie of Aquitaine, are resorted and come to our court, to haue right
of certeine gréefes, and vnlawfull troubles, which you, by vnaduised
counsell, and simple information, haue purposed to doo vnto them,
whereof we greatlie maruell. Therfore, to withstand, and to redresse
such things, we are so conioined to them that we haue thought good, by
our roiall power, to command you to repaire to our citie of Paris, in
proper person, and there to shew and present your selfe before vs, in
the chamber of our péeres, that you may be constreined to doo right to
your people, concerning the gréefes which they alledge that you are
about to oppresse them with, who claime to haue their resort into our
court: and that you faile not thus to doo, in as spéedie manner as yée
can, immediatlie vpon the sight and hearing of these present letters.
In witnesse whereof, we haue to the same set our seale. Yeuen at Paris,
the fiue and twentith daie of Ianuarie.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 43.]

[Sidenote: The princes answer to the messenger.]

These letters were giuen to a knight and a clerke, to beare and present
to the prince, which according to that they had in charge, went to
Burdeaux, and there getting licence to come before his presence, they
read the letters, wherewith he was not a little chafed, and openlie
told them for a plaine answer, that he meant to accomplish the French
kings request, for his comming to Paris, but that should be with
his helmet on his head, and thréescore thousand armed men, to beare
witnesse of his appearance. The messengers perceiuing the prince to be
sore offended with their message, got them awaie, without taking their
leaue: but before they were passed the limits of the English dominion,
they were staied by commandement of the prince, and committed to
prison, within the citie of Agen.

[Sidenote: The duke of Berrie.]

[Sidenote: The lord Chandois.]

[Sidenote: Chimniage.]

About the same time, the duke of Berrie returned into France, hauing
licence of king Edward for an whole yeare; but he bare himselfe so
wiselie, that he returned not againe at all: for he excused himselfe,
till time that the warre was open. In like manner, the more part of
all the other hostages, by one meane or other were returned into
France, and some indéed were deliuered vpon their ransomes, or other
considerations, so that the French king being deliuered of that
obstacle, was the more readie to breake with the king of England, and
therefore vpon knowledge had of the princes answer, to those that he
sent with the appeale, by such of the messengers seruants as were
returned, and declared how their maisters were delt with, he couertlie
prepared for the warre. The lord Iohn Chandois, and other of the
princes counsell foresaw what would insue of leauieng the fuage, and
therefore counselled the prince, not to procéed any further in it.
But he hauing onlie regard to the reléefe of his souldiers and men
of warre, would néeds go forward with it. ¶ Indéed, if he might haue
brought it to passe, as it was denied, that euerie housholder should
haue paid a franke for chimniage, the summe would haue growne to twelue
hundred thousand frankes by the yeare, which had béene a great reléefe,
and that made him the more earnest, bicause he might haue béene able so
to haue paid his debts.

[Sidenote: A letter published by the prince to appease the Gascoignes.]

Now, when it was perceiued certeinlie that open rebellion would therof
insue, and that king Edward was certified of the whole state of the
matter, and how diuerse of the lords of Aquitaine were withdrawne vnto
the court of France, in manner as before yée haue heard, he deuised
a letter, which he caused to be published through all the parts of
Aquitaine the effect whereof was this; That were the people of that
countrie found themselues gréeued for such exactions as were demanded
of them, he meant therefore vpon examination of their iust complaints,
to sée their wrongs redressed. And further, he was contented to pardon
all such as were withdrawne to the French king, so that within a
moneths space they would returne home; requiring them that in no wise
they should stirre anie seditious tumult, but to remember their oths
of allegiance, and to continue in the same, according to their bounden
duties; and as for him, he would be readie to sée them eased, that
would shew by plaine proofe how they had béene otherwise gréeued than
reason might beare. This was his meaning and this was the aduise of all
his councellours.

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: Philip duke of Burgognie marieth ye erle of Flanders
daughter. The cause of his surname le Hardie.]

But this courteous letter little auailed, for dailie the Gascoignes
reuolted from the prince, and turned to the French part. Moreouer,
another occasion of grudge chanced to renew the malice betwixt the K.
of England, and the French king. For whereas yée haue heard, that the
earle of Flanders had affianced his daughter and heire to the lord
Edmund of Langlie, earle of Cambridge, a shift was made, namelie by
the earles mother the countesse of Arthois, who was all French, that
notwithstanding the same affiance, she was married to Philip duke of
Burgognie, who was surnamed the Hardie, by this occasion, as I. Meir
saith. It chanced, that whilest he was prisoner in England with his
father, he was vpon a time appointed to wait at the table, where his
father and the king of England sat togither at meat. And bicause a
noble man of England that was appointed likewise to attend at the same
table, serued first the king of England before the king of France, this
Philip vp with his fist, and tooke the English lord a blow on the eare,
saieng: "Wilt thou serue the king of England first, where the French
king sitteth at the same table?" The Englishman out with his dagger, &
would haue striken the said Philip, but the king of England streictlie
charged him to the contrarie, and praising the déed of the yoong
stripling, said vnto him, "Vous estes Philip le hardie," Thou art (said
he) the hardie Philip. And so from that daie he bare that name euer
after. There be other that saie, how he tooke that surname, bicause in
the batell of Poictiers he abode still with his father till the end of
the battell, without shewing any token of feare, or faintnes of courage.

[Sidenote: The earles of Arminacke & Perigord.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The L. Wake discomfited.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The French king procéedeth against the prince in iudgement
of the appeale.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

The earles of Arminacke and Perigord, with the other lords of
Gascoigne, that had made their appeale (as ye haue heard) to the
chamber of the péeres of France, when they vnderstood that the prince
had imprisoned the messengers, that brought to him the French kings
letters, began to make warre on the princes lands. The first enterprise
they made, was the discomfiting of the lord Thomas Wake seneshall of
Rouergne, as he was riding from Agen vnto the citie of Rodais, with
thréescore spears, and two hundred archers in his companie. Also the
French king being now prouided for the war, and vnderstanding the
minds of the people within certeine towns vnder the dominion of the
Englishmen, in his high court of parlement holden at Paris, procéeded
in iudgement vpon the appellation before made by the earles of
Arminacke, Perigord, and others, against prince Edward. And moreover
he sent ouer into England the earle of Salisbruch, and a knight
called sir William Dorman, to signifie to the king of England, how he
thought himselfe not honorablie vsed, & that the king of England did
but slenderlie kéepe the couenants of the peace, considering that he
did not find meanes to reforme such of his subiects Englishmen and
Gascoignes, as dailie robbed and wasted the countries & lands belonging
to the crowne of France.

[Sidenote: The French king sent to defie the king of England.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: A parlement assembled. Thrée fiftéens and thrée tenths
granted.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

These ambassadors were staied for the space of two moneths, & still
they complained of the wrongs that the Englishmen had doone contrarie
to the couenants of the peace, but the king made small account thereof,
bicause he perceiued it was a forged matter that they alledged, and
so in the end sent them awaie. At Douer being vpon their returne, met
them a Britaine that was comming with letters of defiance to the king
of England from the French king, and as he had in commandement, he
declared to them the effect of his message, whervpon with all spéed
they passed ouer to Bullongne, and were glad they had so escaped. The
Britaine came to the court, and deliuered the defiance to the king,
according to the instructions which he had receiued. When the king had
heard the letters read, and perceiued by good view taken of the seale
and signet, that the same were of authoritie, he licenced the messenger
to depart, and fell in councell with the péeres of his realme, what he
should doo in so weigthie a matter. Wherevpon it was thought necessarie
by them, that he should assemble his court of parlement, and so he did.
In the which (vpon declaration made how iniuriouslie the French king
after manie wrongfull dealings had now broken the peace, and sent his
defiance vnto the king in so despitefull wise as might be) there was
granted towards the maintenance of the warre thus begun, thrée fiftéens
of the temporaltie, and thrée dismes of the spiritualtie, to be paied
in thrée yeares.

[Sidenote: Sir Nicholas Louaigne taken. The countie of Ponthieu taken
by the French king.]

At the selfe same time that the defiance was made to the king here
in England, the earle of S. Paule, and Guie de Chatillon master of
the crosbowes in France, entered into the countie of Ponthieu, tooke
Abuile, and an English knight called sir Nicholas Louaigne seneshall
of that countrie vnder the king of England, as then being within it.
They tooke also saint Valerie, Crotoie, Rue, Pont saint Renie, and
to be short, reduced the whole countrie of Ponthieu vnder the French
obeisance, which had remained in possession of the Englishmen for the
space of a hundred and twelue yeares, euer since Edward the first had
the same assigned to him in name of a dowrie, with his wife quéene
Elianor, sister to Alfonse K. of Castile. And yet were the people
of that countrie readie now to reuolt to the French dominion, not
withstanding their former long continued obeisance to the Englishmen:
for otherwise could not the Frenchmen so easilie haue come to their
purpose, but that the people were couenanted before to receiue them,
and betraie those few Englishmen that were amongst them.

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales diseased with sicknesse.]

[Sidenote: The citie of Cahors reuolteth.]

About the same time also, it fell so ill for the Englishmen, that the
prince of Wales was troubled with a sore sickenesse, that had continued
long with him, euer since his being in Spaine, by reason whereof his
enimies were the more bold to make attempts against him, and dailie
went about to allure and intise his subiects of the marches of Guien to
reuolt from him, in somuch that the citie of Cahors, and diuerse other
townes thereabout turned to the French part. Thus was the peace which
had béene so suerlie made, and with so manie solemne oths confirmed,
violated and broken, and the parties fallen togither by the eares
againe in sundrie places, and namelie in Aquitaine, where sundrie
armies were abroad in the fields, diuers sieges laid, manie townes
taken, often incounters and skirmishes made, sometime to the losse of
the one part, and sometime of the other, and the countries in the meane
time harried and spoiled, that maruill it is to consider, and too long
a processe it should be to rehearse the tenth part of such chances as
dailie happened amongst them, so that it might well haue béene said of
that sore & tumultuous time:

    O quàm difficiles sunt sint pace dies.

[Sidenote: Succors sent into Gascoigne.]

[Sidenote: Burdille besieged.]

[Sidenote: Sir Hugh Caluerlie.]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Chandois.]

[Sidenote: Burdille wonne.]

King Edward sent ouer into Gascoigne the earls of Cambridge and
Penbroke, with a certeine number of men of armes and archers, the which
arriuing in Britaine, passed through that countrie by licence of the
Duke, and came to the prince as then lieng at Angolesme in Poictou,
by whom they were sent to ouerrun the earle of Perigords lands, and
so they did, and after laid siege to Burdille, hauing with them about
thrée thousand men one and other. There came with them foorth of
England foure hundred men of armes, foure hundred archers, and (as
Froissard saith) beside their capteins, these earles which he nameth,
to wit, the lord of Tabestone (or rather Bradstone as I take it) sir
Brian Stapleton, sir Thomas Balaster, and sir Iohn Triuet: Whilest the
said earles went thus to make warre against the earle of Perigord, sir
Hugh Caluerlie with two thousand men of warre was sent also to ouerrun
the lands of the earle of Arminacke, and of the lord Dalbret; sir Iohn
Chandois laie in the marches of Tholouse at Mountaubon, & afterwards
besieged Terrieres, and in the end wan it; and so likewise did the
earles of Cambridge and Penbroke win Burdille, by reason of a saillie
that they within made foorth, and passed so far from their fortresse,
that the Englishmen got betwixt them and home.

[Sidenote: Sir Robert Knols.]

[Sidenote: _Ba. Gerard._]

Sir Robert Knols came from such lands as he had in Britaine, to serue
the prince now in these warres of Gascoigne, and was by him made chéefe
gouernor of all his men of warre, who bare himselfe right worthilie in
that charge. The first iournie which he made at that time, was into
Quercie, hauing with him beside his owne bands, certeine knights of the
princes retinue, as sir Richard Ponchardon, sir Stephan Gousenton, sir
Noell Loring, sir Hugh Hastings, sir Iohn Triuet, sir Thomas Spenser,
sir Thomas Balaster, sir Nicholas Bond, sir William le Moine seneschall
of Aigenois, sir Baldwin de Freuille, and others. At their comming into
Quercie, they besieged a strong fortresse called Durmell, within the
which were diuerse capteins of the companions, as Aimon d'Ortigo, the
little Mechin, Iaques de Bray, Perot de Sauoie, and Arnaudon de Pons,
the which so valiantlie defended the place, that although the lord
Chandois, accompanied with sir Thomas Felton, the capitall of Beuf,
sir Iohn de Pommiers, sir Thomas Percie, sir Eustace Daubreticourt,
and others came with their retinues from Montaubon, to réenforce that
siege, yet could they not obteine their purpose, but raising from
thence after fiue wéekes siege (constreined thereto through want of
vittels) they marched streight to a towne called Domme, which they
besieged, hauing in their armie fiftéene hundred men at armes, beside
two thousand archers and brigands, so called in those daies, of an
armor which they ware named brigandines, vsed then by footmen, that
bare also targets, or pauoises, and certeine darts or iauelines to
throw at their enimies.

[Sidenote: Aquitaine full of warre.]

The towne and castell of Domme were so strong of themselues, and so
well prouided of men of warre that were appointed to the gard of the
same, with the lord thereof called sir Robert de Domme, that after
the English capteins perceiued they should but lose time to linger
about the winning of that towne, they raised their siege, and marching
further into the countrie, wan Gauaches Freins, Rochmador, and Ville
Franche, vpon the marches of Toulouzain, greatlie to the displeasure of
the duke of Aniou that lay at the same time in the citie of Toulouze,
& could not remedie the matter. ¶ But to recite euerie particular
enterprise, as the same was atchiued by the English capteins and men
of warre in that season, it should be more than the purpose of this
volume might permit, and therefore I passe ouer diuerse things, which I
find registred by Froissard and other writers, onelie aduertising you,
that as the Englishmen thus made sore warres against their aduersaries
abroad in those quarters: so the Frenchmen on the other part had
assembled great numbers of men of warre, not onelie to defend their
frontiers, but also by inuasions to win from the Englishmen towns and
castels, and to wast such countries as would not turne to their side.
Thus were all those countries in troubles of warre.

[Sidenote: The duke of Bauier.]

The two kings also of England and France, signified to their neighbours
the causes of this warre, laieng the fault either to other, and
excusing themselues as cleare and innocent therein. Edward duke of
Gelderland, nephue to the king of England, as sonne to his sister, and
the duke of Gulike cousine to the kings children by their mother that
was daughter to the earle of Heinault, tooke great despite that the
French king had broken the peace, as they were throughlie persuaded,
and that he had defied king Edward (as before yée haue heard.)
Wherevpon they sent their defiance vnto the French king, threatning to
be reuenged on him to the vttermost of their powers. Duke Albert of
Bauier, was once minded also to haue aided king Edward in this warre:
but afterwards such persuasions were vsed on the French kings part,
that he chose to remaine as neuter betwixt them both, refusing to take
anie part.

[Sidenote: The duke of Burbons mother taken.]

Among the soldiers also called companions, which serued the prince in
this season, there were thrée capteins, right hardie and verie expert
men of warre, Ortigo, Bernard de Wiske, & Bernard de la Sale. These
thrée remaining as then in Limosin, hearing that the duke of Burbons
mother, which was also mother to the French quéene, laie within the
castell of Belleperch in Burbonnois, with a small companie about hir,
rode thither in one daie and a night, so that in the morning they
approched the castell, scaled it, and tooke it, with the ladie within
it. And though they were after besieged in the same castell by the duke
of Burbon and other Frenchmen, yet they defended it, till the earls
of Cambridge and Penbroke, with fiftéene hundred speares, and thrée
thousand of other men of warre, came and offered the Frenchmen battell,
lodging afore them fiftéene daies. And when they perceiued that the
Frenchmen would not issue out of the bastide (in which they laie) to
giue battell, the earles of Cambridge and Penbroke caused all them
within the castell to come foorth, and to bring with them the duches of
Burbon, whome they led awaie in sight of hir sonne, leauing the castell
void and frée for him to enioy.

[Sidenote: The French king prepareth a nauie.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Lancaster set into France with an armie.]

The French king prouided a great number of ships to assemble togither
at Harflew, and leuied a great power of men, minding to bestow them
aboord in the same ships, that they might saile into England, and
make warre against king Edward in his owne countrie. Chéefteine of
this armie should haue béene his brother the duke of Burbon, but this
iournie was broken, for the Frenchmen were eased of the paine to come
to séeke the Englishmen at home in England, they comming ouer into
France, and proffering them battell euen at their owne doores. For
the king of England hauing leuied a power of archers, and other men
of warre, sent them ouer vnder the leading of his sonne the duke of
Lancaster. There went with him in this iournie, the earles of Hereford
and Salisburie, the lord Ros, the lord Basset, the lord Willoughbie,
the lord de la Ware, the lord de la Pole, the lord Walter of Mannie,
the lord Henrie Percie, the lord Thomas Grantson, sir Alane Burhul, sir
Richard Sturrie, & diuerse other. They went ouer about Midsummer. And
after they had rested a little, the duke set forward and roded foorth
into the countrie, spoiling and harrieng the same, and when he saw
time, returned againe to Calis.

[Sidenote: The Duke of Lancaster fortifieth his campe.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Burgognie.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

The French king being at Roan, heard of the arriual of this armie
at Calis, and that his countrie of Picardie was in great danger: he
changed his purpose therefore of sending an armie into England, and
with all spéed appointed that his power should with his brother the
duke of Burgognie turne toward Calis, to resist the duke of Lancaster.
Herevpon when the duke of Lancaster heard that the duke of Burgognie
was thus comming toward him, he issued foorth of Calis, and comming
into the vallie beneath the hill of Turneham, there tooke his field,
and fortified the place with strong hedges and rampiers, the better to
be able to resist his enimies if they would assaile him. The duke of
Burgognie came still forward, till he approched verie néere to the duke
of Lancasters campe, and pight downe his field aloft vpon the hill of
Turneham, so that the fronts of both hosts were within lesse than a
mile either of other.

[Sidenote: Sir Robert de Namur.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike.]

There was come to the duke of Lancaster a knight of the marches of
Almaine, called sir Robert de Namur with an hundred speares: but yet
the duke of Lancasters host was but one handfull of men, in respect
of the huge number of the French armie, wherin were (as Froissard
writeth) foure thousand knights beside others. But yet for all his
great puissance and number of men, he would not aduenture to assaile
the Englishmen in their lodgings, as it was thought he would haue
doone, but kept himselfe and his men vpon the hill, from the foure and
twentith of August, vnto the twelfth of September, and then dislodged
not much to his honour, howsoeuer writers doo excuse it, declaring
how his brother had giuen him streight commandement, that in no wise
he should fight with the Englishmen: and that when he had sent to his
brother for commission either to fight, or to remooue, he was commanded
to turne with all spéed vnto Paris, and to breake vp his armie for that
time. Some there be that write, how that after both these hostes had
lien the one against the other a long space, to the reproofe of both
chiefteins, it chanced that the lord Thomas Beauchampe earle of Warwike
came thitherward by sea, to be at the battell, which he heard would
shortlie follow betwéene the two armies: but yer he was come to land,
the Frenchmen for feare durst no longer abide, but secretlie in the
night departed and fled towards Hesdin, and so to Paris, for the which
their flight, the duke of Burgognie was after blamed of his brother the
French king.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The quéene of England departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: Hir thrée petitions to the king.]

In this meane while, that is to saie, on the euen of the Assumption
of our ladie, died that noble princesse, the ladie Philip quéene of
England. It is said that when she perceiued that she must néeds depart
out of this transitorie life, she desired to speake with the king hir
husband, and when he was come to hir with a sorowfull hart to sée hir
in that state, she tooke him by the hand, and after courteous words of
induction, she required of him to grant hir thrée requests.

[Sidenote: 1]

The first request was, that all such merchants, and other men, with
whom she had bargained in any condition, might be answered of all such
debts as she owght them, whether they dwelled on this side the sea or
beyond.

[Sidenote: 2]

The second request was, that all such ordinances and promises, as she
had made to churches, as well within this realme, as in the parts of
the further side the sea, might be performed.

[Sidenote: 3]

The third request was, that it might please him to choose out none
other sepulchre when God should call him out of this world, but beside
hir at Westminster.

[Sidenote: The praise of quéene Philip.]

[Sidenote: The quéenes colledge.]

This quéene, to traine the English youth vnto vertuous conuersation,
& to giue occasion that they might be brought vp in learning and good
instructions, founded a colledge at Oxford, furnishing it with goodlie
buildings, and a church, that they might both serue God, and profit in
their studies, wherevpon it is called the quéenes colledge euen to this
daie.

[Sidenote: The duke of L[=a]caster maketh a iournie into France.]

[Sidenote: S. Riquier.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The master of the crosbowes of France taken.]

But now to returne to the duke of Lancaster. Ye shall vnderstand that
after the departure of the French armie beside the hill of Turneham,
the said duke returned to Calis, and there refreshed himselfe and his
people the space of thrée daies. And then he set forward againe, & with
him as marshals of the host, was the earle of Warwike, and the lord
Roger Beauchampe, with the lords and knights before remembred. They
tooke their iournie to S. Omers, and by Turwin, and then through the
countie of saint Paule, still burning the countrie as they went. They
rode not past thrée or foure leages in a daie, and kéeping on their
waie, they came by saint Riquier, and at the planches vnder Abuile
passed the riuer of Some, and then entered into the countrie of Vimew,
in purpose to go vnto Harflew, and there to burne the French kings
nauie. Thus passing forward thorough Vimew, and the countie of Ewe,
they entered into the archbishoprike of Roan, and marching foorth by
Déepe, came vnto Harflew: but the earle of saint Poule, and the lord
of Fiennes constable of France which had coasted the English armie in
all this iournie, with a great power of men, was gotten before them,
and entred into this towne, so that they knew how they should but lose
their paine, if they did assaile it, and so therefore after they had
lien before it thrée daies, on the fourth day they dislodged, & went
backe againe towards Calis, returning through the countrie of Ponthieu,
and before Abuile chanced to incounter a number of Frenchmen, which
gaue to the duke battell. In the which was taken sir Hugh de Chatellon,
master of the crosbowes of France, with other knights, esquiers, and
burgesses of that towne, and about sixtéene score of the French part
slaine.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The third mortalitie.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Polychron._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwicke departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: 1370.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

There be that write otherwise herof, shewing how the said sir Hugh
Chatellon was taken by an ambush laid by sir Nicholas Louaine, as
the same sir Hugh was come foorth of the towne, with not past ten or
twelue with him, to sée how the passage of Rowraie was kept by them
that had charge thereof. How soeuer it came to passe, taken he was, &
brought to the duke of Lancaster, that reioised greatlie of that good
hap: and so marching forward, he passed the riuer at Blanchetaque, and
drew towards the towne of Rew on the seaside, and so to Montreuill,
and finallie to Calis. Then were the strangers licenced to depart: and
bicause it was far in the winter, as about saint Martines tide, the
duke and the most part of his armie returned into England. In this
yeare chanced the third mortalitie, which was excéeding great both of
men and beasts, that the like had not béene heard of. And amongst other
people that perished of that pestilentiall sickenesse, that worthie
knight and noble capteine the earle of Warwike died at Calis in the
moneth of Ianuarie, after his returne from Harflew. ¶ The countrie of
Aquitaine was full of trouble in this meane time, either part séeking
to grieue other to the vttermost of their powers. ¶ Iohn Hastings earle
of Penbroke, hauing with him certeine bands of men of warre, recouered
diuerse towns and castels in those parts: but when he perceiued how
the enimies that were not far from the place where he was lodged,
shewed manifest tokens of feare, in marching one while vncerteinelie
forward, and an other while fetching great compasses about, he somewhat
vnwarilie setting vpon them in their campe, was discomfited and put
to flight, so that getting him into a place of the Templers, that was
closed about with a wall, he remained there in great danger to be taken
prisoner of his enemies that assailed him, if the lord Iohn Chandois
seneschall of Poictou had not come to the rescue, and pledged him
foorth.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Chandois slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

But shortlie after, the said lord Chandois was slaine by the enemies
(whom first he had ouercome) whilest without good aduise he put off
his helmet, and so receiuing a stroke with a glaiue that entered into
his head, betwixt his nose and his forhead, he neuer after spake word,
not liuing past a day and a night after he was hurt. The death of
this right famous, wise, and valiant knight, was bewailed as well of
the Frenchmen as Englishmen. The French king himselfe, when he heard
that he was slaine, greatlie lamented the mishap, affirming that now
he being dead, there was not any left aliue able to agrée the kings
and realmes of England and France: so much was he feared, estéemed,
and beloued of all men. But alas what auailed all their mourning and
lamenting against the necessitie of death, sith we know that

    Est commune mori, mors nulli parcit honori.

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Percie. A dearth.]

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marle._]

After he was thus slaine, sir Thomas Percie was made seneschall of
Poictou. By reason of the great wet and raine that fell this yeare in
more abundance than had béene accustomed, much corne was lost, so that
the price thereof was sore inhanced, in so much that wheat was sold at
thrée shillings foure pence the bushell. But as concerning the death,
the west parts of the realme was sorest afflicted with this mortalitie,
and namelie at Oxford there died a great number of scholers.

[Sidenote: The duches of Lancaster.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Polychron._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 44.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: _Polychron._]

Somewhat before this time, the ladie Blanch daughter to Henrie duke of
Lancaster, departed this life, and was buried on the north side of the
high altar in the cathedrall church of saint Paule within the citie
of London, where hir husband Iohn of Gant was after also interred.
She ordeined for hir husband and for hir selfe a solemne obit to be
kept yearelie in that church, where the maior being present with the
shiriffes, chamberlaine, and sword-bearer, should offer each of them
a pennie, and the maior to take vp a pound, the shiriffes either of
them a marke, the chamberleine ten shillings, and the sword-bearer six
shillings eight pence, and euerie other of the maiors officers two and
twentie pence, and the number of eight officers belonging vnto the
shiriffes (and by them to be appointed) eight pence a péece. ¶ This
yeare was granted to the king in parlement assembled at Westminster of
the spirituall mens liuings a tenth for the space of thrée yeares, and
a fiftéenth of the temporaltie during the same tearme.

[Sidenote: Sir Robert Knolles with an armie sent into France.]

[Sidenote: Truce with Scots.]

This yeare, after that the king had gotten togither a great summe of
monie, as well by borowing of the clergie as of the laitie, he leuied
an armie, & sent the same ouer to Calis about Midsummer, vnder the
gouernance of that worthie chéefteine sir Robert Knolles, accompanied
with the L. Fitz Walter, the lord Granson, sir Alaine Buxhull, sir Iohn
Bourchier, sir William Meuille, sir Geffrey Wourseley, and diuerse
other noblemen, knights, and worthie capteins. About the same time, the
king of England concluded an abstinence of warre with the Scots for the
tearme of nine yeares, yet so that the Scots might arme themselues,
and at their pleasure serue and take wages, either of the English or
French, by reason whereof, sir Robert Knolles had in his companie an
hundred speares of the realme of Scotland.

[Sidenote: _Iac. Meir._]

[Sidenote: The number of men of war in this armie.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

When this armie had lien and rested in Calis about the space of seauen
daies, sir Robert Knolles caused euerie man to depart the towne, and
to take the fields, marching the first daie néere to the castell of
Fiennes, and there lodged for that night. The whole number of this
armie was not aboue twelue thousand men. Froissard saith, they were
but fiftéene hundred speares, & foure thousand archers. Within the
castell of Fiennes was the constable of France, that was lord thereof,
with such a number of souldiers and men of warre, that the Englishmen
thought they should but lose their labour to assaile it. And so they
passed foorth by Turrouane, and toward Arras, riding not past foure
leages a daie, bicause of their cariages and footmen. They tooke their
lodging euer about noone, and laie néere vnto great villages.

[Sidenote: The suburbs of Arras burnt.]

[Sidenote: The towne of Roy burnt.]

[Sidenote: The French m[=e] withdraw into their fortresses & str[=o]g
townes.]

The French king had furnished all his townes and fortresses in Picardie
with strong garrisons of souldiers, to defend the same against all
chances that might happen either by siege or sudden assault. The
Englishmen therefore thought not good to linger about the winning of
anie of the strong townes, but passed by them, wasting or ransoming
the countries. At Arras they shewed themselues before the barriers,
and when none would issue to skirmish with them, they set fier on the
suburbs, & departed. From thence they tooke the waie by Baupalmes, and
so came into Vermendois, and burnt the towne of Roy. Then went they to
Han in Vermendois, into the which all the people of the countrie were
withdrawne, with such goods as they might carie with them. And in like
manner had those doone which inhabited about S. Quintine, Peronne, and
other strong townes, so that the Englishmen found little abroad, sauing
the barnes full of corne for it was after haruest.

[Sidenote: The Englishmen before Paris.]

Thus they rode faire and easilie, two or thrée leages a daie, and
sometime to recouer monie of their enimies, they would compound with
them within strong townes, to spare the countrie from burning and
destruction, for such a summe as they agréed vpon, by which meanes
sir Robert Knolles got in that voiage aboue the summe of an hundred
thousand frankes. For the which he was after accused to the king of
England, as one that had not dealt iustlie in so dooing. In this sort
passing the countrie, they came before Noion, and after they had rested
a while afore the towne, they went foorth wasting and burning the
countrie, and finallie passed the riuer of Marne, and so entered in
Champaigne, and passed the riuer of Aube, and also diuerse times they
passed to and fro ouer the riuer of Saine: at length drawing toward
Paris, and comming before that citie, they lodged there in the field a
day and two nights, and shewed themselues in order of battell before
the citie. This was on the twentie fourth daie of September.

The French king was at the same time within the citie, & might behold
out of his lodging of S. Paule, the fiers and smokes that were made
in Gastenois, through burning the townes and villages there by the
Englishmen, but yet he would suffer none of his people to go foorth
of the citie, although there was a great power of men of warre within
the citie, both of such as had coasted the English armie in all this
iournie, and also of other which were come thither by the kings
commandement, beside the burgesses, and inhabitants of the citie.
When sir Robert Knolles perceiued that he should haue no battell, he
departed and drew toward Aniou, where they wan by strength the townes
of Vaas and Ruellie. But now in the beginning of winter, there fell
such discord amongst the English capteins, through couetousnesse and
enuie, that finallie they diuided themselues in sunder, greatlie to the
displeasure of sir Robert Knolles their generall, who could not rule
them.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: Sir Simon Minsterworth.]

There was a knight among them named sir Iohn Minsterworth, that had
the leading of one wing of this armie, a good man of his hands (as we
call him) but peruerse of mind, and verie deceitfull, and to sir Robert
Knolles (to whome he was much beholden) most vnfaithfull. This knight,
perceiuing the wilfull minds of certeine yoong lords and knights there
in the armie, that repined at the gouernement of sir Robert Knolles,
as the Romans did sometime at the gouerance of Camillus (the chéefe of
whome were the lord Grantson, the lord Fitz Walter, and others) did his
best to pricke them forward, sounding them in the eare, that it was a
great reproch for them being of noble parentage, to serue vnder such an
old rascall as he was, ech of them being able to guide their enterprise
of themselues, without his counsell, by which flattering of them, and
disgracing of him, the said Minsterworth did much mischéefe, for

    Lingua loquax, odiosa, procax, parit omne molestum.

[Sidenote: Bermondsey. Sir Robert Knolles borne in Cheshire.]

[Sidenote: Sir Robert Knolles counsell not followed.]

[Sidenote: Discord what commeth of it.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

Indéed this sir Robert Knolles was not descended of anie high linage,
but borne in the countie of Chester of meane ofspring, neuerthelesse
through his valiant prowesse, and good seruice in warre, growne to such
estimation, as he was reputed worthie of all honour due to a noble
and skilfull warriour, so that it was thought the king could not haue
made his choise of one more able or sufficient to supplie the roome of
a chéefteine, than of him: but yet, although this was most true, his
aduise could not be heard, nor the authoritie appointed him by the king
beare anie swaie. For where he counselled that they should now vpon the
approching of winter draw foorth of France into Britaine, and there
remaine for the winter season, they would not so agrée, nor obeie his
will. Wherevpon it came to passe, that sir Berthram de Cleaquin, at
that time newlie made constable of France, vnderstanding this diuision
to grow amongst the Englishmen, and that they were diuided into parts,
set vpon them so much to their disaduantage, that he distressed them,
and tooke or slue the more part of them: but sir Robert Knols with
the flower of the archers and men of warre went into Britaine, and
there saued himselfe, and those that followed him. ¶ Here you may sée,
how those that before through amitie and good agréement were of such
force as their enimies durst not once assaie to annoie them, now by
strife and dissention among themselues were slaine or taken by the same
enimies, and brought to confusion. To which purpose it is properlie and
trulie said,

    Lis odium gignit, charos concordia stringit.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The citie of Limoges besieged.]

In this meane time that sir Robert Knols made this voiage through
the realme of France, the prince of Wales laid siege to the citie of
Limoges, which was reuolted to the Frenchmen. There were with him at
the laieng of this siege, his brethren, the duke of Lancaster, and
the earle of Cambridge, sir Guichard Dangle, sir Lois de Harecourt,
the lord of Pons, the lord of Partenaie, the lord of Pinane, the lord
of Tannaibouton, sir Perciuall de Coulongne, sir Geffrie de Argenton,
Poictouins: and of Gascoignes, the lord of Mountterrant, the lord de
Chaumount, the lord de Longueren, sir Amerie de Tharse, the lords of
Pommiers, Mucident de l'Esparre, the Souldich de Lestrade, the lord of
Gerond, and manie other: of Englishmen there were, sir Thomas Percie,
the lord Ros, the lord William Beauchampe, sir Michaell de la Pole, sir
Stephan Goussenton, sir Richard Pontchardon, sir Baldwin Freuille, sir
Simon Burlie, sir Dangousse, sir Iohn Deuereux, sir William Menille
or (as some copies haue) Neuille, and manie other. There was also sir
Eustace Dambreticourt, and of the companions, sir Perducas Dalbreth,
who in the beginning of these warres being turned French, was by the
persuasion of sir Robert Knols procured to returne againe to the
princes seruice before the siege of Durmelle.

[Sidenote: Limoges taken by force.]

The prince being thus accompanied, with these worthie capteins and men
of armes, to the number of twelue hundred, beside a thousand archers
and other footmen, indeuored by all waies he could deuise to indamage
them within. In the end he caused the walles to be vndermined, and
quite reuersed into the ditch, & then giuing assault, entered by the
breach, and made an huge slaughter of them within, in somuch that of
men, women, and children (for none were spared in respect of age or
sex) there were slaine and beheaded that daie aboue thrée thousand.
The bishop with certeine knights and capteins were taken and had their
liues granted, though the bishop was in great danger to haue lost his
head, bicause he was a chéefe dooer in yéelding the citie before vnto
the Frenchmen.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The prince returned into England.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

Whilest the prince laie at siege before Limoges (a litle before he wan
it) thither came to him his brethren, the duke of Lancaster, and the
earle of Cambridge, the lord Ros, sir Michael de la Pole, sir Robert
Rous, sir Iohn Saintlo, and sir William Beauchampe, with a faire
number of men of war, spears, and archers. The prince then after he
had woone Limoges, and executed some crueltie there to the terrour of
other; his maladie which still continued vpon him, rather increased
than diminished, so that he was aduised by physicians to returne into
England, in hope that change of aire should restore him to health. For
the which consideration and other causes of businesse which he had to
doo with his father, touching certeine weightie affaires he tooke the
sea, and came ouer into England, leauing the gouernement of Aquitaine
vnto his brother the duke of Lancaster, as his lieutenant there: he
landed at Plimmouth in the beginning of Ianuarie.

[Sidenote: The king of Nauarre c[=o]meth ouer into England.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The king of Nauars constancie suspected.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: 1371.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 45.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: A subsidie.]

[Sidenote: Spirituall men deposed.]

Moreouer in this 44 yeare of king Edward, the king of Nauarre came
ouer into England, and at Claringdon found the king, and there talked
with him of such matters as they had to conclude betwixt them two.
But for that the king of Nauarre could not assure the king of such
couenants as should haue passed betwixt them two, it was not thought
méet by the kings councell to worke too far vpon his bare word, that
had before time shewed apparant proofes of his inconstant dealing. And
suerlie this doubt arose not without cause, as his dooings shortlie
after declared: for although he séemed now at this present to be a
verie enimie to the French king, yet shortlie after he was reconciled
to him againe, and became his great fréend for the time it lasted. This
yeare in the moneth of Februarie was a parlement called, in the which
there was demanded of the spiritualtie a subsidie of fiftie thousand
pounds, and as much of the laitie. The temporall men soone agréed to
that paiment, but the cleargie excused themselues with faire words and
shifting answers: in somuch that the king tooke displesure with them,
and deposed certeine spirituall men from their offices of dignitie, as
the chancellor, the priuie seale, the treasuror, and such others, in
whose roomes he placed temporall men.

[Sidenote: Cardinals appointed to treat of peace.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

The bishop of Winchester, and the bishop of Beauuois being both
cardinals, were put in commission by pope Gregorie the eleuenth to
treat betwixt the kings of England and France for a peace. But albeit
they did their indeuour therein, and mooued both kings to the vttermost
of their powers, yet their motions tooke none effect, and therefore
was the warre pursued to the vttermost betwixt the parties, & namelie
in Aquitaine, where the fortresses were so intermedled one with an
other, some English, and some French, that one knew not how to beware
of another, nor to auoid the danger, so that the countrie of Poictou
and other the marches thereabout were in great tribulation. Sir Robert
Knols, sir Thomas Spenser, sir Iohn Triuet, and sir Hugh Hastings,
diuiding their powers insunder, went to recouer townes, some in one
quarter, and some in an other, and certeine they assaied, but preuailed
not: the inhabitants doubting to be punished for their vntruths, made
such stout resistance.

[Sidenote: The feare which the enimies had of sir Ro. Knols, Sir
Berthr[=a] de Cleaquin.]

After this, the duke of Lancaster appointed sir Robert Knols to repaire
againe to Calis, and by the waie (if occasion serued) to attempt the
recouerie of Ponthieu. Sir Robert taking his iournie through France by
Paris, came into the marches of Picardie: and bicause in comparison
to this man, all the English capteins were litle feared of the
Frenchmen, sir Berthram de Cleaquin, the constable of France, leauing
the fortresses in the marches of Aquitaine sufficientlie stuffed with
men of warre and munition, followed sir Robert Knols, still readie to
assaile the hindermost companies, or else to set on the sides of his
enimies. So that there chanced manie skirmishes betwixt them, & manie
men were slaine on both parts; but at length, when sir Robert Knols saw
no likelihood to atchiue his purposed intent in recouerie of the townes
of Ponthieu, as Abuile and other, he drew streight to Calis, and the
constable retired backe into France.

[Sidenote: 1372.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 46.]

In this 46 yeare, sir Robert Ashton was sent into Ireland as lord
deputie there, and in the same yeare, the duke of Lancaster being as
then a widower, maried the ladie Constance eldest daughter to Peter
king of Spaine, which was slaine by his bastard brother Henrie (as
before ye haue heard.) ¶ Also the lord Emund earle of Cambridge
maried the ladie Isabell, sister to the same Constance. ¶ Their other
sister named Beatrice, affianced to Don Ferdinando, son to Peter king
of Portingale, was departed this life a little before this time at
Baionne, where they were all thrée left as hostages by their father,
when the prince went to bring him home into his countrie (as before yée
may read.) Froissard writeth, that the duke married the ladie Constance
in Gascoigne, and that shortlie after he returned into England with
his said wife and hir sister, leauing the capitall de Bueffz, and
other lords of Gascoigne and Poictou in charge with the rule of those
countries. By reason of that marriage, the duke of Lancaster, as
in right of his wife being the elder sister, caused himselfe to be
intituled king of Castile, and his said wife quéene of the same realme.

The earle of Hereford being sent to the sea, with certeine ships
of warre, was incountered by the Flemish fléet, before an hauen in
Britaine called the Baie, where was fought a sore battell, and long
continued for the space of thrée houres: howbeit finallie the victorie
abode with the Englishmen, notwithstanding that the Flemings were more
in number, and better prouided for the matter. There were taken of them
fiue and twentie ships, with their Admerall Iohn Peterson. They had
béene at Rochell for wine, and now were come to the Baie for salt vpon
their returne homeward, and hearing that the Englishmen would come that
waie, staied for them, and first gaue the onset. For yée must remember,
that by reason that the earle of Flanders had married his daughter
to the duke of Burgognie, which he had first promised to the earle
of Cambridge, there was no perfect fréendship betwixt the realme of
England, and the countries of the said earle of Flanders.

[Sidenote: Sir Guichard Dangle made knight of the Garter.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke s[=e]t into Guien.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

Sir Guichard Dangle a knight of Poictou, that was come ouer with the
duke of Lancaster, to procure the king to send some new aid into
Aquitaine, was for his approoued valiancie and tried truth to the king
of England, made knight of the garter. And moreouer at his instance the
king rigged a nauie of ships, and appointed the earle of Penbroke as
generall, to saile with the same into Aquitaine, and there to remooue
the siege which the Frenchmen had laid to Rochell. The earle according
to his commission tooke the sea with a fléet of fortie ships prepared
for him: but yer he could enter the hauen of Rochell, he was assailed
by an huge fléet of Spaniards, and there vanquished, taken prisoner,
& led into Spaine. The Spaniards had for capteins foure skilfull
warriours, Ambrose Bouquenegre, Cabesse de Vake or Vakadent, Dom Ferand
du Pion, and Rodigo de la Rochell, who had vnder their gouernement
fortie great carrauels, and thirtéene trim barkes throughlie furnished
and appointed with good mariners and men of warre.

[Sidenote: These foure last remembered came forth of Rochell to aid the
earle.]

The earle of Penbroke had with him nothing the like number of ships,
nor men: for (as Froissard writeth) he had not past two and twentie
knights with him, or (as other haue) not past twelue, being for
the more part of his owne retinue or houshold: and yet those few
Englishmen and Poictouins that were there with him, bare themselues
right valiantlie, and fought it out to the vttermost. There were slaine
sir Simon Houssagre, sir Iohn de Mortague, and sir Iohn Tuchet; and
there were taken prisoners, besides the earle himselfe, sir Robert
Buffort, sir Iohn Curson, sir Othes de Grandson, sir Guichard Dangle,
the lord of Pinane, sir Iohn de Griueres, sir Iaques de Surgieres, the
lord of Tannaibouton, sir Iohn de Hardane, and others. This battell
was fought on Midsummer euen, in this six and fortith yeare of king
Edwards reigne. The earle had (as Froissard writeth) treasure with him,
to haue waged thrée thousand men of warre, which neuer did anie man
good, for (as he was informed) the ship wherein he was aboord, perished
with diuerse other being burnt or sunke. ¶ The English writers saie,
that it was no maruell though this mishap chanced vnto him, bicause he
had in parlement spoken against men of the church, in giuing counsell
that they might be constreined to paie gréeuous subsidies, towards the
maintenance of the kings warre, and that no lesse heauie paiments and
subsidies, should be imposed vpon them, than vpon the secular sort.
Wherein he séemed to bewraie a malicious mind against the clergie,
who as in no age they haue wanted foes, so in his time they found few
fréends, being a generation appointed and ordeined in their cradels to
be contemned of the world, speciallie of great men, of whose fauour and
goodwill it is truelie & rightlie said,

    Gratia magnatum nescit habere statum.

By reason of this misfortune thus happened to the English fléet, the
Frenchmen recouered manie townes and castels out of the Englishmens
hands, in the countries of Poictou, Xaintonge, Limosin, and other the
marches of Aquitaine.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Yuans a Welsh gentleman. Sir Edmund Rous.]

[Sidenote: The prosperous successe of the Frenchmen in Poictou.]

About the same time the French king sent foure thousand men to the
sea, vnder the guiding of one Yuans a banished Welsh gentleman, the
which landing in the Isle of Guernesey, was incountered by the captein
of that Ile called sir Edmund Rous, who had gathered eight hundred
men of his owne souldiers togither, with them of the Ile, and boldlie
gaue battell to the Frenchmen: but in the end the Englishmen were
discomfited, and foure hundred of them slaine, so that sir Edmund Rous
fled into the castell of Cornet, & was there besieged by the said
Yuans, till the French king sent to him to come backe from thence, and
so he did, leauing the castell of Cornet, and sir Edmund Rous within
it as he found him. The Frenchmen this yeare recouered the citie of
Poictiers, Rochell also, and the most part of all Poictou, and finallie
laid siege to Towars in Poictou, wherein a great number of the lords
of that countrie were inclosed, the which fell to a composition with
the Frenchmen to haue an abstinence of warre for themselues, and their
lands, till the feast of saint Michaell next insuing, which should
be in the yeare 1362. And in the meane time they sent to the king of
England their souereigne lord, to certifie him what conditions they
had agréed vnto, that if they were not aided by him, or by one of his
sonnes within the said tearme, then they to yéeld them and their lands
to the obeisance of the French king.

[Sidenote: Towars in danger to be lost.]

[Sidenote: _Th. Walsing._]

Not long before this, the capitall of Bueffz was taken prisoner, and
sir Thomas Percie, with diuerse other Englishmen and Gascoignes before
Soubise by sir Yuans of Wales and other French capteins, so that the
countries of Poictou and Xaintonge were in great danger to be quite
lost, if spéedie succours came not in time. Where vpon king Edward
aduertised of that agréement which they within Towars had made, raised
an armie, rigged his ships, and in August tooke the sea, purposing to
come before the daie assigned, to the succours of that fortresse: but
the wind continued for the space of nine wéekes so contrarie vnto his
intent, that he was still driuen backe and could not get forward toward
the coast of Rochell, where he thought to haue landed, so that finallie
when the daie of rescuing Towars came, he nor anie of his sonnes could
appeare in those parts, and so to his great displeasure he returned
home, and licenced all his people to depart to their houses. By this
means was Towars deliuered to the Frenchmen, which ceassed not in such
occasions of aduantage to take time, and follow the steps of prosperous
fortune.

[Sidenote: 1373.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 47.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Britaine.]

About this season the duke of Britaine being sore displeased in his
mind, that the Englishmen susteined dailie losses in the parts of
Aquitaine, would gladlie haue aided their side, if he might haue got
the nobles of his countrie to haue ioined with him, but the lords
Clisson and de la Vale, with the vicount of Roan, and other the lords
and barons of Britaine, so much fauoured the French king, that he
perceiued they would reuolt from him, if he attempted any thing against
the Frenchmen. He therefore meaning by one way or other to further
the king of England his quarell, and fearing to be attached by his
owne subiects, and sent to Paris, dispatched messengers to K. Edward,
requiring him to send some power of men of warre into Britaine, to
defend him against the malice of such as were altogither French and
enemies to England.

[Sidenote: The lord Neuill sent into Britaine.]

[Sidenote: Englishmen discomfited by the constable of France.]

[Sidenote: Townes woone by him.]

[Sidenote: The constable of Fr[=a]ce sent into Britaine.]

King Edward forthwith sent ouer the lord Neuill, with foure hundred men
of armes, and as manie archers, the which arriuing at saint Matthewes
de fine Poterne, remained there all the winter. Wherevpon the Britaines
being sore offended therewith, closed their townes and fortresses
against their duke, and shewed much evil towards him. The constable
of France sir Berthram de Cleaquin, laieng siege to the towne and
castell of Sireth in Poictou, discomfited a number of Englishmen that
came to raise his siege, by meanes whereof he got not onelie Sireth,
but also Niort, Lucignen, and all other the townes and fortresses
which the Englishmen held till that day within Poictou, Xaintonge, and
Rochellois. Shortlie after this, the constable returned into France,
and was appointed by the king there to go with an armie of men of warre
into Britaine, and there to take into his hands all such townes and
fortresses as belonged to the duke of Britaine, bicause he had alied
himselfe with the king of England, and receiued Englishmen into his
countrie, to the preiudice of the realme of France.

[Sidenote: Sir Robert Knols.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Britaine c[=o]meth ouer into England.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Salisburie.]

The duke being aduertised of the constables comming, was counselled by
sir Robert Knols (whom the king of England had sent to aid him) that
he should passe ouer into England, and there to be a suter in his owne
cause for more aid to be sent into Britaine, to resist the Frenchmen
that now sought to bring the whole countrie into their possession.
The duke inclining to this aduise, went ouer into England, and in the
meane time the constable came and wan the most part of all the townes
and fortresses of that duchie, except Brest, where sir Robert Knols
was, and certeine other. The earle of Salisburie with a great nauie
of ships, well furnished with men of armes and archers, laie vpon the
coast of Britaine all that time, and greatlie comforted them within
Brest, in so much that he came on land, and offered battell to the
constable if he would haue come forward & receiued it.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The duke of Lancaster sent over into France with an armie.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Noble men that went with him in that iournie.]

In the moneth of Iulie in this seuen and fourtith yeare of King Edwards
reigne, the duke of Lancaster was sent ouer vnto Calis with an armie
of thirtie thousand men (as some write) but as Froissard saith, they
were but thirtéene thousand, as thrée thousand men of armes, and ten
thousand archers. This voiage had béene in preparing for the space of
thrée yeares before. The duke of Britaine was there with them, and
of English nobilitie, beside the duke of Lancaster that was their
generall, there were the earles of Warwike, Stafford and Suffolke,
the lord Edward Spenser that was constable of the host, the lords
Willoughbie, de la Pole, Basset, and diuerse others. Of knights, sir
Henrie Percie, sir Lewes Clifford, sir William Beauchampe, the Chanon
Robertsart, Walter Hewet, sir Hugh Caluerlie, sir Stephen Cousington,
sir Richard Ponchardon, and manie other.

[Sidenote: They passed through the countrie without assaulting any
townes.]

When they had made readie their cariages and other things necessarie
for such a iournie which they had taken in hand, that is to say, to
passe through the realme of France vnto Burdeaux, they set forward,
hauing their armie diuided into thrée battels. The earles of Warwike
and Suffolke did lead the fore ward: the two dukes of Lancaster and
Britaine, the middle ward or battell, and the rereward was gouerned by
the lord Spenser constable of the host. They passed by S. Omers, by
Turrouane, and coasted the countrie of Arthois, and passed the water of
Some at Corbie. They destroied the countries as they went, and marched
not past thrée leages a day. They assailed none of the strong townes,
nor fortresses. For the French king had so stuffed them with notable
numbers of men of warre, that they perceiued they should trauell in
vaine about the winning of them. At Roy in Vermandois, they rested them
seuen daies, and at their departure set fire on the towne, bicause they
could not win the church which was kept against them. From thence they
drew towards Laon, and so marched forward, passing the riuers of Ysare,
Marne, Saine, and Yonne. The Frenchmen coasted them, but durst not
approch to giue them battell.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The Frenchmen meant not to fight with the Englishmen.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The order of the duke of Lancasters armie in marching.]

[Sidenote: He c[=o]meth into Burdeaux.]

Néere to Ribaumount, about 80 Englishmen of sir Hugh Caluerlies band
were distressed by 120 Frenchmen: & likewise beside Soissons, 120
English speares, or (as other writers haue) fiftie speares, and twentie
archers were vanquished by a Burgonian knight called sir Iohn de Vienne
that had with him thrée hundred French speares. Of more hurt by anie
incounters I read not that the Englishmen susteined in this voiage.
For the Frenchmen kept them aloofe, and meant not to fight with their
enemies, but onelie to kéepe them from vittels, and fetching of forrage
abroad, by reason whereof the Englishmen lost manie horsses, and were
in déed driuen to great scarsitie of vittels. When they had passed
the riuer of Loire, and were come into the countrie of Berrie, they
vnderstood how the Frenchmen laid themselues in sundrie ambushes to
distresse them, if they might espie the aduantage: but the duke of
Lancaster placing his light horssemen, with part of the archers in
the fore ward, and in the battell the whole force of his footmen with
the men at armes, diuided into wings to couer that battell, wherein
he himselfe was, the residue of the horssemen with the rest of the
archers he appointed to the rereward, and so causing them to kéepe
close togither, marched foorth till he came into Poictou, & then in
reuenge of the Poictouins that had reuolted from the English obeisance,
he began a new spoile, killing the people, wasting the countrie, and
burning the houses and buildings euerie where as he passed, & so
finallie about Christmasse came to Burdeaux.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: The archb. of Rauenna sent from the pope.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: Messengers sent to the pope about reseruations of benefices.]

Whilest the duke of Lancaster was thus passing through the realme of
France, pope Gregorie the eleuenth sent the archbishop of Rauenna and
the bishop of Carpentras as legats from him, to treat for a peace
betwixt the realms of England and France. They rode to & fro betwixt
the French king and his brethren, and the duke of Lancaster: but the
duke and the Englishmen kept on their waie, and so finallie kéeping
forwards about Christmasse came to Burdeaux. The legats pursued their
treatie, but the parties were so hard, that no reasonable offers would
be taken. The two dukes of Lancaster and Britaine laie in Burdeaux all
the residue of the winter, and the Lent following. The same yeare that
the duke of Lancaster made this iournie thorough France, the king of
England sent certeine ambassadors to the pope, requiring him not to
meddle with the reseruations of benefices within his realme of England,
but that those which were elected bishops might enioy their sées, and
be confirmed of their metropolitaine and archbishop, as of ancient time
they had béene accustomed.

[Sidenote: Cathedrall churches.]

[Sidenote: C[=o]missioners appointed to méet and commune of peace.]

The pope would not at that present determine anie thing herein, but
commanded them that were sent, that they should certifie him againe
of the kings pleasure and further meaning, in those articles and
other touching him and his realme. Also this yeare it was decréed in
parlement, that cathedrall churches might inioy the right of their
elections, and that the king should not hinder them that were chosen,
but rather helpe them to their confirmations. ¶ In the same parlement
was granted to the king a disme of the cleargie, and a fiftéenth of the
laitie. ¶ Moreouer at the sute of the popes legats, a respit of war
was granted betwixt the kings of England and France, but so that the
Englishmen lost in Gascoine a great number of castels and townes, by
reason of a composition made before, that if they were not rescued by
the middest of August, they should then yéeld themselues French: and
bicause the truce was agréed vpon to indure till the last of August,
the Englishmen tooke no héed to the matter. It was further agréed vpon,
that in the beginning of September, there should méet in the marches
of Picardie, the duke of Lancaster, and other of the English part, as
commissioners to intreat of peace; and the duke of Aniou and other on
the French part, the popes legat to be there also as mediator. When
this agréement was thus accorded, the duke of Lancaster, and the duke
of Britaine, with the earls of Warwike, Suffolke and Stafford, the
lords Spenser, Willoughbie and others, tooke the sea at Burdeaux the
eight of Iulie, and returned into England.

[Sidenote: Death of the archb. of Can.]

[Sidenote: Simon Sudberie elected archbishop.]

This yeare the fifth of Iune, died William Wittelsey archbishop of
Canturburie, after whose death the moonks chose to that sée the
cardinall of Winchester, with which election the king was nothing
contented, so that after much monie spent by the moonks to obteine
their purpose, at length they were disappointed, and doctor Simon
Sudberie was admitted to that dignitie, who before was bishop of
London, being the seauen and fiftith archbishop that had ruled that
sée. He was chosen by the appointment of the king, and consent of
the pope. For alredie was that decrée worne out of vse, whereby
the elections of bishops haue rested in the voices of them of the
cathedrall church: for not onelie this Simon archbishop of Canturburie,
but other also were ordeined bishops from thencefoorth, by the will
and authoritie of the popes and kings of this realme, till at length
it came to passe, that onelie the kings instituted bishops, and the
bishops ordeined other gouernours vnder them of meaner degrées.

Thus the popes within a while lost all their authoritie, which they had
before time within this realme in the appointing of bishops, and other
rulers of churches; and in like manner also they lost shortlie after
their authoritie of leuieng tenths of spirituall promotions, the which
they in former times had vsed, to the great detriment of the realme,
which lost nothing by this new ordinance: for the English people were
not compelled afterwards to depart with their monie vnto strangers,
so largelie as before, to content the gréedinesse of that coruorant
generation of Romanists, whose insatiable desires would admit no stint,
as infected with the dropsie of filthie auarice, for

    Omnia des cupido, sua non perit inde cupido,
      Quò plus sunt potæ plus sitiuntur aquæ.

[Sidenote: The begining of the statute of Premunire.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

This restraining reformation concerned the benefit of the whole land
verie much: for K. Edward the third was the first that caused an act
to be made, that none vnder a great penaltie should séeke to obteine
anie spirituall promotions within this realme of the pope, or bring
anie sutes to his court, except by waie of appeale: and that those that
were the aiders of any such offendors against this act, should run in
danger of the same paine, which act by those kings that succéeded was
not onelie commanded to be kept, but also confirmed with new penalties,
and is called the statute of Premunire.

[Sidenote: 1375.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 49.]

[Sidenote: The commissioners méet at Bruges.]

[Sidenote: A truce taken betwixt England & Fr[=a]ce.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

[Sidenote: An armie sent ouer into Britaine with the duke.]

About Candlemasse there met at Bruges as commissioners for the king
of England, the duke of Lancaster, the earle of Salisburie, and
the bishop of London. For the French king, the dukes of Aniou, and
Burgognie, the earle of Salebruce, and the bishop of Amiens with
others. Finallie, when they could not agrée vpon anie good conclusion
for peace, they accorded vpon a truce, to indure to the first of Maie
next insuing in all the marches of Calis, and vp to the water of
Some; but the other places were at libertie to be still in warre: by
report of other writers, the truce was agréed vpon to continue till
the feast of All saints next insuing. About the same time that the
foresaid commissioners were at Bruges intreating of peace, the duke of
Britaine did so much with his father in law king Edward, that about
the beginning of Aprill he sent ouer with him into Britaine the earles
of Cambridge, March, Warwike, and Stafford, the lord Spenser, sir
Thomas Holland, sir Nicholas Camois, sir Edward Twiford, sir Richard
Ponchardon, sir Iohn Lesselles, sir Thomas Grandson, sir Hugh Hastings,
and diuerse other worthie capteins with a power of thrée thousand
archers, and two thousand men of armes, all verie well furnished to
fight.

[Sidenote: Townes woon.]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Deureux.]

[Sidenote: This truce was c[=o]cluded to indure from midsummer in this
1375, vnto midsummer in ye yeare next insuing.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

They landed at saint Matthews or Mahe de fine Poterne, where they tooke
the castell by force, and the towne by surrender. From thence they went
to Pole de Lion, and wan it likewise by force of assault, and then went
to Brieu de Vaux, a towne stronglie fensed, and well manned. In hope
yet to win it, the duke of Britaine and the English lords laid siege
to it, but hearing that an English knight, one sir Iohn Deureux was
besieged in a fortresse which he had newlie made, by the vicount of
Roan, the L. Clisson, and other of the French part, they raised from
Brieu de Vaux, and hasted forward to the succor of sir Iohn Deureux,
ernestlie wishing to find their enimies in the field, that they might
giue them battell: but the British lords hearing that the duke and the
Englishmen approched, made no longer abode, but got them with all spéed
vnto Campellie a towne of great strength not farre off, and therein
closed themselues for their more safetie. The duke of Britaine hearing
that they were fled thither, followed them, and laid siege round about
the towne, inforcing himselfe to obteine the place, and so had doone in
déed by all likelihood verie shortlie, if at the same time, by reason
of a truce taken for twelue moneths, he had not béene commanded by the
duke of Lancaster, without delaie to ceasse his war, and breake vp his
campe: as he did.

[Sidenote: The duke of Britaine disappointed by the truce.]

There were sundrie méetings of the commissioners for this treatie of
peace, and still they tooke longer time for continuance of the truce.
And bicause that Britaine and all the other countries of France (as
should séeme) were included in this truce, it séemeth that this was
some second truce, and not the first truce, which included onelie
the marches of Calis, and those parts vp to the water of Some. But
howsoeuer it was, the duke of Britaine being in a great forwardnesse
to haue recouered his duchie out of the Frenchmens hands, and to haue
reduced his rebellious subjects vnder due obeisance againe, was now by
this truce concluded out of time, greatlie disappointed, and so breake
vp his siege from before Campellie, and sent home the English armie. He
went himselfe to Aulroie, where his wife was; and taking order for the
fortifieng and kéeping of those places, which were in his possession,
he came backe againe into England, and brought his wife with him.

[Sidenote: S. Sauiour le vicount yéelded.]

A litle before the concluding of this truce, the Englishmen and
others within the fortresse of saint Sauiour le vicount, in the Ile
or rather Close (as they called it) of Constantine, which had béene
long besieged, made a composition, that if they were not rescued by a
certeine daie, then should they yéeld vp the place to the Frenchmen.
Now bicause this truce was agréed before the daie appointed for the
rescue of that place, with condition that either part should inioy
and hold that which at that present they had in possession, during
the terme of the truce; the Englishmen thought that saint Sauiour le
vicount should be saued by reason of that treatie: but the Frenchmen
to the contrarie auouched, that the first couenant ought to passe the
last ordinance. So that when the daie approched, the French king sent
thither six thousand speares, knights, and esquiers, beside other
people: and bicause none appeared to giue them battell, they had the
towne deliuered to them.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The lord Spenser departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke deceasseth.]

[Sidenote: _Iohn Stow._]

¶ In this 49 yeare of K. Edwards reigne, a great death chanced in this
land, and in diuerse other countries, so that innumerable numbers of
people died and perished of that contagious sickenesse. Amongst other
the lord Edward Spenser died the same yeare, a man of great renowme
and valiantnesse. Also the earle of Penbroke, hauing compounded for
his ransome, as he was vpon his returne from Spaine, comming homewards
through France, he fell sicke, and being brought in an horsselitter
to Arras, he died there, on the 16 daie of Aprill, leauing a sonne
behind him not past two yeares of age, begot of the countesse his wife
called Anne, daughter vnto the lord Walter de Mannie. Polydor mistaking
the matter, saith that Marie the countesse of Penbroke, who builded
Penbroke hall in Cambridge, was wife to this Iohn Hastings earle of
Penbroke, whereas in déed she was wife to his ancestor Aimer de Valence
earle of Penbroke (as Iohn Stow in his summarie hath trulie noted.)
She was daughter to Guy earle of saint Pole, a worthie ladie and a
vertuous, tendering so much the wealthfull state of this land (a great
part wherof consisteth in the good bringing vp of youth, and training
them to the knowledge of learning) that for maintenance of students she
began the forsaid commendable foundation, about the yeare of Christ
1343, vpon a plot of ground that was hir owne, hauing purchased licence
thereto of the king, to whom she was of kin.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Commissioners eftsoones met to common of peace.]

[Sidenote: The dem[=a]ds on both parts.]

During that gréeuous mortalitie and cruell pestilence before
remembered, the pope at the instant request of the English cardinals,
granted vnto all those that died in England, being shriuen and
repentant of their sinnes, cleane remission of the same, by two buls
inclosed vnder lead. The duke of Lancaster about the feast of All
saints met with the French commissioners againe at Bruges. There was
with him the duke of Britaine, the earle of Salisburie, and the bishop
of London. For the French king there appéered the duke of Burgognie,
the earle of Salebruch, and the bishop of Amiens. And at saint Omers
laie the duke of Aniou, the archbishop of Rauenna, and the bishop of
Carpentras tooke great paine to go to and fro betwéene the parties: but
they were sofar at ods in their demands, and as it were of set purpose
on the French behalfe, that no good could be doone betwixt them. The
French king required to haue Calis raced, and to haue againe fourtéene
hundred thousand franks, which were paid for the ransome of king Iohn.
The king of England demanded to haue all the lands restored to him in
Gascoigne and Guien cléerelie exempt of all resorts. So when nothing
could be concluded touching a final peace, the truce was renewed to
indure till the feast of S. Iohn Baptist next insuing, which should be
in the yeare 1376.

[Sidenote: 1376]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 50.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The lord Latimer. Dame Alice Perers. Sir Richard Sturrie.
The request of the commons.]

In this fiftith yeare, king Edward assembled his high court of
parlement at Westminster, in the which was demanded a subsidie of the
commons for the defense of the kings dominions against his enimies.
Wherevnto answer was made by the common house, that they might no
longer beare such charges, considering the manifold burthens by them
sustained in time past. And further they said, it was well knowne
the king was rich inough to withstand his enimies, if his monie and
treasure were well imploied: but the land had béene of long time euill
guided by euill officers, so that the same could not be stored with
chaffer, merchandize, or other riches. The commons also declared whom
they tooke and judged to be chéefe causer of this disorder, as the
duke of Lancaster, & the L. Latimer lord chamberleine to the king;
also dame Alice Perers, whom the king long time kept to his concubine;
and also one named sir Richard Sturrie, by whose sinister meanes and
euill counsell the king was misled, and the land euill gouerned.
Wherefore the commons by the mouth of their speaker sir Péers de la
Mere, required that those persons might be remooued from the king, and
other more discréet set in their roomes about his person, and so put in
authoritie, that they might sée to his honour and weale of the realme,
more than the other had doone before them.

This request of the commons by support of the prince was allowed, and
granted, so that the said persons and other of their affinitie were
commanded to depart the court, and other (such as were thought méet by
the prince, and the sage péeres of the realme) were placed in their
stéeds. ¶ Shortlie after, the commons granted to the king his whole
request, so that he had of euerie person, man and woman, being aboue
the age of fourtéene yeares, foure pence, poore people that liued of
almesse onelie excepted. ¶ Likewise the cleargie granted, that of
euerie beneficed man, the king should haue twelue pence, and of euerie
priest not beneficed foure pence (the foure orders of friers onelie
excepted.) But yer this monie could be leuied, the king was constreined
to borrow certeine great summes in sundrie places, and therefore he
sent to the citie of London for foure thousand pounds. And bicause Adam
Staple the maior was not diligent in furthering that lone, he was by
the kings commandement discharged on the 22 daie of March, and Richard
Whitington mercer chosen in his place.

[Sidenote: The blacke prince departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: He is buried at Canterburie.]

On the eight of Iune being Trinitie sundaie (the parlement yet
continuing) that noble and famous prince Edward the kings sonne
departed this life within the kings palace at Westminster. His bodie
was conueied to Canturburie with great solemnitie, and there honorablie
buried. He died in the 46 yeare of his age: a prince of such excellent
demeanour, so valiant, wise and politike in his dooings, that the verie
and perfect representation of knighthood appeared most liuelie in his
person, whilest he liued, so that the losse of him stroke a generall
sorrow into the harts of all the English nation. For such was his
towardnesse, or rather perfection in princelie gouernement, that if he
had liued and atteined to the crowne, euerie man iudged that he would
suerlie haue excéeded the glorious renowme of all his ancestors. This
princes death is bréefelie touched by C. Okland, who (after mention
made of the great victories atchiued by his father the king against his
enimies, and concluding him to be verie happie and fortunate in the
issue of his attempts) saith

    ---- inclytus ille monarcha
    Vn['d]iq; ter ['f]oelix, nisi quòd trux Atropos occat
    Ante diem gnati fatalia stamina vitæ.

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Sir Péers de la Mere.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The truce prolonged.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

The French king kept his obsequie in most reuerend wise, in the chapell
of his palace at Paris. After his death, the king called to him againe
the foresaid persons, that had béene from him remooued, and the said
sir Péers de la Mere that was speaker in the parlement (as before yée
haue hard) for his eloquence shewed in reprouing the misgouernment of
the said persons (and namelie of the said dame Alice Peres) was now
committed to prison within the castell of Notingham. About the same
time the truce was againe prolonged till the first daie of Aprill
next following. ¶ King Edward, after the deceasse of his sonne prince
Edward, created the lord Richard, sonne to the said prince, as heire
to him, prince of Wales, and gaue to him the earledomes of Chester
& Cornewall. ¶ Moreouer, bicause the king waxed féeble and sicklie
through langor (as some suppose) conceiued for the death of his sonne,
he appointed the rule of the relme to his sonne the duke of Lancaster,
ordeining him as gouernour vnder him, and so he continued during his
fathers life.

[Sidenote: A riot.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: The nobles sworne to the prince of Wales.]

A great riot happened betwixt the seruants of the earle of Warwike, and
the tenants of the abbat of Euesham, so that manie of the said abbats
seruants were slaine and hurt. The fish-ponds and warrens belonging
to the abbie were broken and spoiled, so that greater hurt would haue
followed thereof, if the kings letters had not béene sent downe to the
earle, commanding him to staie his men from such misdemeanours. All
the nobles of the realme were caused to sweare, that after the kings
decease they shuld admit and mainteine Richard prince of Wales for
their king and souereigne lord. And vpon Christmasse day, the king
caused him to sit at his table aboue all his owne children, in high
estate, as representing the personage of the heire apparant to the
crowne.

[Sidenote: 1377.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 51.]

[Sidenote: _Froissard._]

[Sidenote: Comissioners s[=e]t to Bruges.]

[Sidenote: C[=o]missioners sent to Montreuill.]

[Sidenote: Truce eftsoones prolonged.]

This yeare being the one and fiftith and last of king Edwards reigne,
there were sent againe to Bruges as commissioners to treat of peace
on the part of king Edward, Iohn lord Cobham, the bishop of Hereford,
and the maior of London. And for the French part thither came the
earle of Salebruch, monsieur de Chatillon, and Phillibert Lespoit. And
still the two legats were present as mediatours betwixt the parties,
moouing a mariage to be had, betwixt Richard prince of Wales, and
the ladie Marie, daughter to the French king. But they departed in
sunder for this time without anie conclusion. But shortlie after in
Lent following, there was a secret méeting; appointed to be had at
Montreuill by the sea, whither came from the king of England, sir
Richard Dangle a Poictouine, sir Richard Stan, & Geffrie Chaucer. For
the French king there appeared the lord Coucie, and others. These
commissioners treated a long season concerning the mariage, and when
they had vnderstanding and felt each others meaning, they departed
and made report of the same to their maisters. The truce was againe
prolonged till the first daie of Maie.

[Sidenote: Sir Hugh Caluerlie lieutenant of Calis.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Minsterworth beheaded.]

And in the meane time, the earle of Salisburie, the bishop of saint
Dauie lord chancellour of England, and the bishop of Hereford went
ouer to Calis. In like case the lord of Coucie, and sir William Dorman
chancellor of France came to Montreuill. But they durst not méet at
anie indifferent place on the frontiers, for the doubt that either
partie had of other, for anie thing the legats could saie or doo. Thus
these commissioners abode in that state till the truce was expired.
And when the warre was open, then sir Hugh Caluerlie was sent ouer
to Calis, to remaine vpon safe kéeping of that towne, as deputie
there. The earle of Salisburie, and the other commissioners returned
into England, and with them the duke of Britaine. On the twelfth day
of Aprill this yeare, one sir Iohn Minsterworth knight, was drawne,
hanged, headed, and quartered at Tiborne, being first condemned and
adiudged to suffer that execution before the maior of London, and other
the kings iustices in the Guildhall, for treason by him committed, in
defrauding souldiers of their wages: for where he had receiued great
summes of monie to make paiment thereof to them, he reteined the same
to his owne vse.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

Moreouer (as in the fortie foure yeare of this king yée haue heard) he
was the chéefe procurer and setter forward of the dissention that rose
in the armie, which vnder the leading of sir Robert Knolles was sent
into France. And when in that iournie he had lost most of his men, and
was escaped himselfe into England, he laid all the blame on sir Robert
Knolles, accusing him to the king of heinous treason; so as the king
tooke no small displeasure against the said sir Robert, insomuch that
he durst not returne into England, till he had pacified the kings wrath
with monie, and that the knowne fidelitie of the man had warranted him
against the malicious and vntrue suggestions of his enimies. Wherevpon
the said Minsterworth perceiuing his craft to want the wished successe,
he fled to the French king, and conspiring with him to annoie the
realme of England by bringing the Spanish nauie to inuade the same, at
length he was taken in the towne of Pampilona in Nauarre, and brought
backe into England, where he tasted the deserued fruit of his contriued
treason (as before yée haue heard.)

[Sidenote: _Thom. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: Iohn Wiclife.]

About this season, there rose in the vniuersitie of Oxenford a learned
man Iohn Wiclife, borne in the north parts, who being a secular préest,
and a student in diuinitie, began to propone certeine conclusions
greatlie contrarie to the doctrine of the church in those daies
established, speciallie he argued against moonks, and other men of
religion that inioied great riches, and large possessions. There were
diuerse that gaue good eare to him, insomuch that sundrie learned
men of that vniuersitie preached and set foorth the doctrine that he
taught. ¶ Amongst other articles which they held, these were the chéefe
and principall.

[Sidenote: The chéefest articles preached by Wiclife.]

1 That the sacrament of the altar, after consecration, was not the
bodie of Christ, but a figure thereof.

2 That the church of Rome was no more head of the vniuersall church
than any one other, nor more authoritie was giuen by Christ vnto Peter,
than to anie other of the apostles, and that the pope had no more power
in the keies of the church than anie other préest whatsoeuer.

3 That temporall lords might both lawfullie and meritoriouslie take the
temporall goods and reuenues from the church, if it offended; and if
anie temporall lord knew the church to offend, he was bound vnder paine
of damnation to take from it the temporalties.

4 That the gospell is sufficient in this life to direct by rule euerie
christian man.

5 That all other rules of saints, vnder the obseruing whereof diuers
religious doo liue, ad no more perfection to the gospell, than washing
ouer with lime dooth the wall.

6 That the pope, nor anie other prelat of the church, ought to haue
anie prisons wherein to punish offendors.

[Sidenote: Wiclife & his felowes mainteined by certeine lords.]

These and manie other opinions did these men hold and mainteine, and
diuerse lords and great men of the land fauoured their cause. But when
these conclusions were brought before the pope, he condemned the number
of 23 of those articles as vaine and hereticall, directing his buls to
the archbishop of Canturburie, and to the bishop of London, that they
should cause the said Wiclife to be apprehended, and examined vpon the
said conclusions, which they did in presence of the duke of Lancaster,
and the lord Percie, and hearing his declaration, commanded him to
silence, and in no wise to deale with those matters from thencefoorth,
so that for a time, both he and his fellowes kept silence: but after at
the contemplation of diuerse of the temporall lords, they preached and
set foorth their doctrine againe.

[Sidenote: The duke of Lancaster in danger by the Londoners.]

[Sidenote: The lord Percie.]

The same day that Wiclife was conuented thus at London, before the
bishops and other lords, thorough a word spoken in reproch by the duke
of Lancaster vnto the bishop of London, streightwaies the Londoners
getting them to armour, meant to haue slaine the duke, & if the bishop
had not staid them, they had suerlie set fire on the dukes house at
the Sauoie: and with much adoo might the bishop quiet them. Among
other reprochfull parts which in despite of the duke they committed,
they caused his armes in the publike stréet to be reuersed as if he
had béene a traitor, or some notorious offender. The duke and the lord
Henrie Percie, whom the citizens sought in his owne house to haue
slaine him, if he had béen found, hearing of this riotous stur and
rebellious commotion, forsooke their dinner and fled to Kenington,
where the lord Richard, sonne to the prince, togither with his mother
then remained, exhibiting before their presence, a grieuous complaint
of the opprobrious iniuries doone vnto them, by the wilfull outrage of
the Londoners. For this and other causes, the citizens were sore hated
of the duke, in so much that he caused the maior & aldermen that then
ruled to be discharged of their roomes, and other put in their places.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: The deceasse of K. Edward the third.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian_, pag. 262, 263.]

The king being more grieuouslie vexed with sickness from daie to daie,
either increasing by the course therof, or renewed by some new surfet,
finallie this yeare departed out of this transitorie life at his manour
of Shéene, now called Richmond, the 21 daie of Iune, in the yeare of
our Lord 1377, after he had liued 65 yeares, & reigned fiftie yeares,
foure moneths, & 28 daies. His corpse was conueied from Shéene by his
foure sonnes, namelie Lionell duke of Clarence, Iohn of Gant duke of
Lancaster, Edmund of Langlie duke of Yorke, and Thomas of Woodstoke
earle of Cambridge, with other nobles of the realme, and solemnelie
interred within Westminster church, with this epitaph in his memoriall:

    Hîc decus Anglorum, flos regum præteritorum,
    Forma futurorum, rex clemens, pax populorum,
    Tertius Edwardus, regni complens inbileum,
    Inuictus pardus, pollens bellis Machabeum.

[Sidenote: His issue.]

He had issue by his wife quéene Philip 7 sonnes, Edward prince of
Wales, William of Hatfield that died yoong, Lionell duke of Clarence,
Iohn of Gant duke of Lancaster, Edmund of Langlie earle of Cambridge
& after created duke of Yorke, Thomas of Woodstoke erle of Buckingham
after made duke of Glocester, and an other William which died likewise
yoong. He had also thrée daughters, Marie that was maried to Iohn of
Mountford duke of Britaine, Isabell wedded to the lord Coucie earle of
Bedford, and Margaret coupled in mariage with the earle of Penbroke.

[Sidenote: His praise.]

[Sidenote: His proportion of bodie.]

This king, besides other his gifts of nature, was aided greatlie by
his séemelie personage. He had a prouident wit, sharpe to conceiue and
vnderstand: he was courteous and gentle, dooing all things sagelie
and with good consideration, a man of great temperance and sobrietie.
Those he chiefelie fauoured and aduanced to honour, and roomes of
high dignitie, which excelled in honest conuersation, modestie, and
innocencie of life, of bodie well made, of a conuenient stature, as
neither of the highest nor lowest sort: of face faire and manlike,
eies bright and shining, and in age bald, but so as it was rather
a séemelinesse to those his ancient yeares than any disfiguring to
his visage; in knowledge of martiall affaires verie skilfull, as the
enterprises and worthie acts by him atchiued doo sufficientlie witnesse.

In what estimation he was had among strangers it may appeare, in that
he was not onelie made vicar of the empire by the emperour Lewes of
Bauiere, but also after the decease of the same emperour, diuerse of
the electours, as Lewes marques of Brandenbourgh, Robert or Rupert
count Palatine of the Rhene, and the yoong duke of Saxonie, with Henrie
archbishop of Mentz, elected him to succéed in place of the said
emperour Lewes. Neuerthelesse, he giuing them hartie thanks for the
honour which they did vnto him herein, refused to take the charge vpon
him, alledging that he could not haue time to supplie the roome, by
reason of the warres that he had in France, to recouer his right which
he had to that realme.

[Sidenote: Prosperitie vnstable.]

This is noted by writers to be a token of great wisedome in this noble
king, that would not go about to catch more than he might well gripe.
Examples of bountious liberalitie, and great clemencie he shewed manie,
and the same verie notable; so that in maner he alone amongst all
other kings was found to be one, subiect to none, or at the least, to
verie light and small faults. But yet he was not void of euill haps:
for whereas, during the terme of fortie yeares space he reigned in
high felicitie, and as one happie in all his dooings: so in the rest
of his time that followed, he felt a wonderfull change in fortune
(whom writers compare to the moone for hir variablenesse, and often
alterations, as neuer at a staie, saieng,

    Vultus fortunæ variatur imagine lunæ,
    Crescit, decrescit, in eodem sisterè nescit)

shewing hirselfe froward to him in most part of his procéedings: for
such is the state of this world, seldome dooth prosperitie continue,
and guide the sterne of our worldlie dooings, as it well appeared by
this noble prince. For in the first yeares of his reigne, after he once
began to gouerne of himselfe, he recouered that which had béene lost in
Scotland, by great victories obteined against his aduersaries in that
land, and passed further into the same, than euer his grandfather king
Edward the first had doone before him, subduing the countrie on each
hand, so that he placed gouernors, and bestowed offices, lands, and
liuings in that realme at his pleasure.

[Sidenote: _Iohn Stow_ vpon conference referreth this to the last yeare
of king Edward the first.]

¶ Amongst other (as I remember) there is yet remaining a charter
vnder his great seale conteining a grant made vnto Iohn Eure and
his heires for his good seruice doone in those parts, of a manour
called Ketnes in the countie of Forfar (which lieth in the north of
Scotland) with a market euerie mondaie, and a faire for thrée daies
togither at Michaelmasse, as the euen, the daie, and the morrow after.
Also he granted to the same Iohn Eure, frée warren thoroughout the
same lordship. This Iohn Eure was ancestor vnto the lord Eure that
now liueth, who hath the same charter in his possession. ¶ As for
this kings victories in France, the same were such as might séeme
incredible, if the consent of all writers in that age confirmed not the
same. But as these victories were glorious, so yet they prooued not so
profitable in the end: for whereas he had sore burdened his subiects
with taskes and subsidies, at length they waxed wearie, and began to
withdraw their forward minds to helpe him with such summes as had
béene requisit for the maintenance of the warres, which the Frenchmen
prolonged of purpose, and refused to trie their fortune any more in
pight fields, wherby when he was constreined to be at continuall
charges in such lingering warres, to defend that which he had erst
gotten by force, and couenants of the peace; the sinewes of warre, to
wit monie, began to faile him, and so the enimies recouered a great
part of that which before time they had lost, both on the further side
the seas, and likewise in Scotland.

This must néeds be a great gréefe vnto a prince of such a stout
and valiant stomach, namelie sith he had béene so long time before
accustomed to find fortune still so fauourable vnto him in all his
enterprises. But finallie the thing that most gréeued him, was the
losse of that most noble gentleman, his déere sonne prince Edward, in
whom was found all parts that might be wished in a worthie gouernour.
But this and other mishaps that chanced to him now in his old yeares,
might séeme to come to passe for a reuenge of his disobedience shewed
to his father in vsurping against him, although it might be said, that
he did it by constraint, and through the aduise of others. But whether
remorse hereof, or of his other offenses mooued him, it may séeme (as
some write) that the the consideration of this worlds mutabilitie,
which he tried to the full, caused him (as is thought) to haue in mind
the life in the world to come, and therefore of a pure deuotion founded
the church and colledge of saint Stephan at Westminster, and another at
Cambridge called The Kings hall, giuing therevnto lands and reuenues,
to the maintenance of them that would giue themselues vnto learning.

[Sidenote: Mines of gold & siluer.]

Towards the maintenance of his warres, and furnishing foorth of
such other charges and expenses as he tooke in hand to beare out,
he had some helpe by the siluer mines in Deuonshire and Cornewall,
in like manner as his grandfather king Edward the first had. For
one Matthew Crowthorne kéeper of his mines in those parts, yéelded
diuerse accounts of the issues and profits of the same, betwéene the
second and fiftéenth yeare of his reigne, as well for the siluer as
for the lead, after the siluer was fined from it. Also Iohn Moneron
succéeding in the same office, accomptant of the profits of the same
mines, from Michaelmasse in the ninetéenth yeare of his reigne, vnto
the second of Nouember in the thrée and twentith yeare, yéelded vpon
his accounts, both the siluer and the lead thereof remaining. Moreouer
he let by indenture in the two and thirtith yeare of his reigne, vnto
Iohn Ballancer, and Walter Goldbeater, his mines of gold, siluer, and
copper, in the countie of Deuonshire, for terme of years. There is
an account thereof remaining, and by the same (as it appeareth) was
answered for the first yeare twentie markes. The second yeare the
patentées died, and the king then disposed the same to others. In the
eight and twentith yeare of his reigne, he committed by indenture his
said mines in Deuonshire, to one maister Iohn Hanner, and one Herman
Rainesthorpe of Boheme, minors, yéelding to the king the tenth part of
the oare, as well of the gold and siluer, as of the lead and copper
that should be gotten foorth of the said mines.

In this kings daies, there liued manie excellent men, both in learning,
in vertue, and in martiall prowesse, as partlie is touched in this
discourse of his reigne; and first, the said noble and most valiant
king, the prince of Wales his sonne surnamed the blacke prince, the
duke of Lancaster Iohn of Gant sonne to the king, and his father in
law duke Henrie, Edmund earle of Cambridge, and after duke of Yorke;
the earles of Warwike, Huntington, Salisburie, Stafford, Northampton,
Arundell and others; the lord Reginald Cobham, the lord Basset, the
lord Thomas Holland, the lord Walter de Mannie and Henuier, the lord
Edward Spenser, the lord Iohn Chandois, the lord Iames Audeley, sir
Iohn Copland, sir Thomas Felton, sir Robert Knolles, who (as I haue
said) being born in Cheshire of meane parentage, through his manlie
prowesse, and most skilfull experience in the warres, grew to be right
famous.

Moreouer, sir Hugh Caluerlie borne in the same shire, the capitall de
Beufe a Gascoigne, sir Thomas Percie, sir Hugh Hastings, sir Baldwine
Freuill, sir Iohn Harleston, sir Iames Pipe, sir Thomas Dagworth, &
that valiant English knight sir Iohn Hawkewood, whose fame in the
parts of Italie shall remaine for euer, where (as their histories
make mention) he grew to such estimation for his valiant atchiued
enterprises, that happie might that prince or common-wealth accompt
themselues, that might haue his seruice, and so liuing there in such
reputation, sometimes he serued the pope, somtimes the lords of
Millane, now this prince or common-wealth, now that, and other whiles
none at all, but taking one towne or other, would kéepe the same, till
some liking enterteinment were offered, and then would he sell such a
towne, where he had thus remained, to them that would giue him for it
according to his mind. Barnabe lord of Millane gaue vnto him one of his
base daughters in marriage, with an honorable portion for hir dower.

This man was borne in Essex (as some write) who at the first became a
tailor in London, & afterwards going to the warres in France, serued in
the roome of an archer, but at length he became a capteine and leader
of men of war, highlie commended and liked of amongst the souldiers,
in so much that, when by the peace concluded at Bretignie, in the
yeare 1360, great numbers of soldiers were discharged out of wages,
they got themselues togither in companies, and without commandement of
any prince, by whose authoritie they might make warre, they fell to
of themselues, and sore harried and spoiled diuerse countries in the
realme of France, as partlie yée haue heard: amongst whome this sir
Iohn Hawkewood was one of the principall capteins, & at length went
into Italie, to serue the marques of Montferrato, against the duke of
Millane; although I remember that some write, how he came into that
countrie with the duke of Clarance, but I thinke the former report be
true: but it may well be, that he was readie to attend the said duke at
his comming into Italie. And thus much concerning such famous capteins
as serued this noble king Edward the third, although for bréefeness I
passe ouer diuerse other, no lesse famous and worthie for their high
manhood and tried valiancie to be remembred, than these afore mentioned.

Of learned men, these we find by Iohn Bale registered in the Centuries;
Iohn Baconthrop borne in Blackney in Northfolke, a frier Carmelite,
and prouinciall of his order, so excellentlie learned, as well in
diuinitie, as in both the ciuill and canon lawes, that he procéeded
doctor in either facultie at Oxenford and Paris, and wrote diuerse
treatises, to his high and singular commendation; William Ockam, Iohn
Bloxham a Carmelite frier, Nicholas Triuet borne in Northfolke, sonne
to sir Thomas Triuet knight, & one of the kings iusticiers, prooued
excellentlie learned, and wrote diuerse treatises, and amongst other,
two histories, and one booke of annales, he was by profession a
blacke frier, and departed this life about the second yeare of this
king Edward the third, in the yeare of Christ 1328; William Alnewike
borne in Northumberland, in the towne whereof he tooke name, a frier
Minor; Iohn Tanet borne in the Ile of Tanet, an excellent musician,
and a moonke in Canturburie; Hugh of saint Neot, a Carmelite frier in
Hertfordshire, a notable diuine as those daies gaue; William Alton
borne in Hampshire, a blacke frier and a diuine.

Furthermore, Richard Stradley borne in the marches of Wales, a moonke
and a diuine, writing certeine treatises of the scripture; William
Herbert a Welshman and a frier Minor, wrote also certeine goodlie
treatises of diuinitie; Richard Comington a frier of the order of the
Cordeliers, a preacher, and a writer of diuinitie; William Exeter a
doctor of diuinitie, and a prebendarie canon in Exeter, whereas it is
thought he was borne; Lucas Bosden a westerne man, and by profession a
Carmelite frier; Thomas Walleis a Dominike frier, a great diuine, as
by such bookes as he wrote it may appeare; Thomas Pontius a moonke of
Canturburie, Iohn Ridewall a graie frier, Henrie Costesay or Cossey a
frier Minor, Geffrie Aleuant borne in Yorkeshire, a frier Carmelite;
Iohn Euersden, a moonke in Burie in Suffolke, an historiographer; Simon
Burneston, a doctor of the Vniuersitie of Cambridge, and prouinciall
of the friers Dominike or blacke friers, as they called them here
in England; Walter Burlie a doctor of diuinitie, who in his youth
was brought vp, not onlie in Martine college in Oxford, but also in
the Vniuersities and schooles abroad beyond the seas, in France and
Germanie, & afterwards for his wisedome, good demeanor, & learning, he
was reteined with the bishop of Vlmes in Suabenland, a region in high
Germanie.

Amongst other treatises which he compiled, being manie, and namelie
of naturall philosophie, he wrote a commentarie of the ethikes of
Aristotle, and dedicated the same vnto the said bishop, a worke which
hath béene highlie estéemed, not onelie in the Vniuersities of Italie,
Germanie and France, but also here in our Vniuersities of England. To
conclude, such was the fame of this doctor Burlie, that when the ladie
Philip, daughter to the earle of Heinault should come ouer into England
to be married to king Edward, this doctor Burlie was reteined by hir,
and appointed to be hir almoner, and so continued in great estimation,
in so much that after Edward prince of Wales, eldest sonne to king
Edward commonlie called the blacke prince, was borne, and able to
learne his booke, the said Burlie among other was commanded to be one
of his instructors.

By reason hereof, sir Simon Burlie, of whom I haue made some mention
heretofore in this kings life, and more intend to speake, as occasion
serueth in the next king, being sonne to sir Iohn Burlie, néere kinsman
to the said doctor Burlie, was admitted among other yoong gentlemen,
to be schoolefelow with the said prince, by occasion whereof he grew
in such credit and fauour with the said prince, that afterwards when
his son Richard of Burdeaux, that succéeded king Edward his father, was
borne, the said prince for special trust and confidence which he had
in the said sir Simon Burlie, committed the gouernance & education of
his son the said Richard vnto him, whereby he was euer after highlie
in fauour with the said Richard, and no lesse aduanced by him, when he
came to inioy the crowne of this realme.

But now to other learned men of that age. Iohn Barwike a frier Minor,
and reader to his fellowes of that order in Oxford; William Notingham,
Roger Glacton, borne in Huntingtonshire, an Augustin frier; Iohn
Polestéed borne in Suffolke, a Carmelite frier in Ipswich or Gippeswich
as they write it; Walter Kingham a frier also of the order of those
Dominikes, which they called pied friers; Roger of Chester a moonke
of that citie and an historiographer: Thomas de Hales a frier Minor,
Robert Eliphat a graie frier, Geffrie Grandfield an Augustine or Blacke
frier, Hugh Wirlie a Carmelite frier of Norwich, William Eincourt a
blacke frier of Boston, Hugh Ditton borne in Cambridgeshire a frier
preacher, Adam Carthusianus a doctor of diuinitie, Iohn Luttrell an
excellent philosopher and well séene in the mathematicals, Walter
Cotton and Thomas Eckleston both graie friers, Iohn Folsham a Carmelite
frier in Norwich, Benet of Northfolke, William Southhampton so called
of the towne where he was borne, a blacke frier.

Moreouer, Iohn Burgh a moonke wrote an historie, and certeine
homilies; Adam Nidzard a master of art, Edmund Albon, Robert Counton
a graie frier, William Lissie a frier Minor, Iohn Repingale borne
in Lincolneshire a Carmelite or white frier, as they called them;
Christopher Mothusensis a blacke frier, Richard Aungeruile borne in
Suffolke, who was bishop of Duresme, and lord chancellor of England;
Iohn Manduith, Walter Heminford a canon of Gisborne an historiographer,
Iohn Olnie borne in Glocestershire, in an Ile so called, whereof he
tooke his surname a Chartreux moonke; Thomas Staueshaw a frier Minor in
Bristow, Robert of Leicester taking that surname of the towne where he
was borne, a Franciscane or graie frier; Iohn of Northhampton borne in
that towne, and a Carmelite frier, an excellent mathematician.

Adde to the foresaid learned men, Robert Worsop borne in Yorkeshire,
and a blacke frier in Tickill; William Bruniard a blacke frier, Richard
Chichester, a moonke of Westminster wrote an excellent chronicle,
beginning the same at the comming in of the Saxons about the yeare
of our Lord 449, and continued it till the yeare 1348; Richard Rolle
aliàs Hampole an excellent diuine wrote manie treatises; Iohn Guent a
Welshman, a Franciscane frier, and prouinciall of the order; Rodulph
Radiptorius a frier Minor, Robert Holcoth a blacke frier, borne in
Northampton, excellentlie learned, and wrote manie works, both of
diuinitie and other arguments; William Miluerlie a logician or rather
a sophister, Iohn Teukesburie, Thomas Bradwardin borne in Hartfield,
a towne within the diocesse of Chichester, archbishop of Canturburie
succéeding Iohn Offord, he wrote against the Pelagians; Richard
Wetherset, William Breton a graie frier, a Welshman borne, as Bale
supposeth; Iohn of saint Faith, borne in Northfolke, a Carmelite frier
of Brumham.

[Sidenote: Pope Vrban the fift.]

Furthermore, Iohh Goodwicke borne also in Northfolke, an Augustine
frier of Lin; William Rothwell a blacke frier, Geffrie Waterton moonke
of Burie, Richard Fitz Rafe, whome some take to be an Irishman, but a
student in Oxford, and scholer to Iohn Baconthrope profited highlie,
& wrote manie treatises, he was first archdeacon of Lichfield, and
after chancellor of the Vniuersitie of Oxford, and at length archbishop
of Ardmachan in Ireland; Richard Kilington a doctor of diuinitie,
William Grisant a notable physician, surnamed of the countrie where
he was borne Anglicus, he led the later end of his life at Marseilles
in Prouance, & had a son that was abbat of the regular canons of that
citie, who at length was aduanced to gouerne the sée of Rome, & named
Vrbane the fift; Iohn Paschall borne in Suffolke, a Carmelite frier
in Gippeswich, and by K. Edward the third preferred to the bishoprike
of Landaffe; Adam Woodham a frier Minor, Simon Henton a blacke frier,
William de Pagula; of Iohn Wicliffe ye haue heard before.

Moreouer, Geffrie Hardebie a blacke frier of Leicester, William Binham,
Roger Counwey a Welshman borne in Counwey a grey frier, Richard
Billingham, William Doroch a lawier, Iohn Killingworth an excellent
philosopher, astronomer, and physician; Willam of Couentrie a frier
Carmelite, professed and borne in the same citie; Ranulfe Higden a
moonke of Chester and borne in those parts, an historiographer; Iohn
Eastwood aliàs Aschenton an excellent philosopher, Thomas Ratclife
borne in Leicester, and an Augustine frier in Leicester towne;
Bartholomew Glanuille descended of noble parentage, as of the linage
of those Glanuilles that were sometimes earles of Suffolke, as Bale
saith; Robert Computista a moonke of Burie, Iohn Wilton a moonke of
Westminster, Simon Wichingham a frier Carmelite of Norwich, Iohn Deir a
northerne man borne a notable diuine.

Furthermore, Simon Islep, founder of Canturburie colledge of Oxenford,
wrote diuerse treatises, he was archbishop of Canturburie, as before
yée haue heard; George Chadley, Iohn of Tinmouth vicar of that towne
in the bishoprike of Durham, Peter Babion, Walter Wiborne or Wimborne,
Nicholas de Lin borne in the towne of that name in Northfolke, a
Carmelite frier by profession, but as excellent an astronomer as was
in those daies: Iohn Ridington borne in Lincolneshire a frier minor
in Stafford, Adam a moonke of the Cisteaux order, Roger Wihelpedale a
mathematician, Simon de Feuersham parson of Birton in Kent, Matthew
Westmonasterienses, who wrote the booke called Flores historiarum;
Iohn Elin a Carmelite borne in Northfolke, liued in these daies, but
departed this life in king Richard the seconds daies; Thomas de Sturey
an Augustine frier, Sertorious Gualensis a Welshman borne.

Moreouer, Simon de Tunstéed a gray frier, borne in Northfolke,
prouinciall of the gray friers in England; Thomas Stubs borne in
Yorkeshire a blacke frier, Robert Langland a secular préest borne
in Salopshire in Mortimers Cliberie, Lewes Kaerleon a Welshman an
excellent astronomer and mathematician, Iohn Garanson, Nicholas Durham
a Carmelite frier of Newcastell, William Fléet an heremite wrote
sundrie treatises, exhorting his countrimen of England to repentance,
to auoid the vengeance else likelie to come; Iohn Stafford a frier
minor, borne in Stafford, whereof he tooke name; Thomas Rugstéed a
blacke frier, Rafe Stride an excellent logician, William de sancta
Fide, or of saint Faith, so called of the towne in Northfolke, where he
was borne, a Carmelite frier.

To conclude, Iohn Mandeuille knight, that great traueller, liued in
those daies, and departed this life at Liege, the seuentéenth of
Nouember, in the yeare 1372. Thomas of Douer a moonke of the abbeie
there, Henrie Knighton wrote an historie intituled De gestis Anglorum,
Iohn Stokes borne in Suffolke an Augustine frier, Iohn Hornebie a frier
Carmelite of Boston, Henrie Bederike or (as other rather will) of Burie
an Augustine frier, Simon Alcocke a diuine, Vtred Balton borne in the
marches of Wales a moonke of Durham, William Iordan an Augustine frier,
Iohn Hilton a frier minor, William de Lincolne a Carmelite, borne and
professed in that citie, whereof he tooke his surname; Adam Saxlingham
a frier of the same order, but borne in Northfolke; Simon Mepham a
prebend of Chichester, and a great diuine; Iohn Bamton a Carmelite, and
student in Cambridge; Iohn Wichingham a gray frier: and diuerse other,
which for that we are not certeine in what age they liued, we here
passe ouer.

Thus farre Edward the third, sonne to Edward the second
and quéene Isabell.



    Transcriber's Notes:


    Simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors were
    corrected.

    Punctuation normalized.

    Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed.

    The author's usage of accents was inconsistent. Specifically
    accented "ée" is far more prevalent than "ee" even for the same
    word. Changed all instances of "ee" to "ée"

    Italics markup is enclosed in _underscores_.

              Proofreading Symbols for Diacritical Marks
        (In the table below, the "x" represents a letter with a
                          diacritical mark.)
  diacritical mark             sample      above        below
  macron (straight line)         ¯         [=x]         [x=]





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