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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (3 of 6): England (2 of 12)
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (3 of 6): England (2 of 12)" ***

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HENRIE THE FIFT, PRINCE OF WALES,

sonne and heire to Henrie the fourth.


[Sidenote: An. Reg. 1.]

[Sidenote: _Wil. Patten. Buchanan rer. Scoticar. lib. 10._]

Henrie prince of Wales, son and heire to K. Henrie the fourth, borne in
Wales at Monmouth on the riuer of Wie, after his father was departed,
tooke vpon him the regiment of this realme of England, the twentith
of March, the morrow after proclamed king, by the name of Henrie the
fift, in the yeare of the world 5375, after the birth of our sauior,
by our account 1413, the third of the emperor Sigismund: the thrée and
thirtith of Charles the sixt French king, and in the seuenth yeare
of gouernance in Scotland vnder Robert brother to him that (before
entrance into his kingdome 1390) had Iohn to name, which by deuise and
order of the states was changed into Robert the third, who at Rotsaie
(a towne in the Iland of Got, 1406) deceassed by occasion thus. As
vpon hope in this gouernor to himselfe conceiued how to come to the
crowne, he at the castell of Falkland, latelie had famisht his coosine
Dauid the kings elder sonne and heire (a dissolute yoong prince) yet
to his fathers excéeding sorrow, at whose deceasse the father verie
carefull, and casting for the safegard of Iames his yoonger son and
heire, from Basse the rocke in a well appointed ship, vnder charge of
Henrie Saintcléere earle of Orkeneie, into France to his old fréend
king Charles for good education and safetie this yoong prince he sent:
who in the course, whether for tempest or tendernes of stomach, tooke
land in Yorkeshire at Flamborrow, that after by wisedome and good
consideration of the king and his councell was thought verie necessarie
here to be reteined. But by the sudden newes of this staie, the father
(at supper as he sat) so stroken at hart that well nie straight had he
fallen downe dead, yet borne into his chamber, where for gréefe and
pine within thrée daies next he deceassed. The yoong king Iames his
sonne after an eightéene yeares staie, in which time he had béene well
trained in princehood, at last with right honorable marriage at saint
Marie Oueries vnto Ione daughter to the earle of Summerset, coosine
vnto Henrie the sixt then king, and with manie other high gratuities
here beside was sent and set in his rule and kingdome at home.

[Sidenote: Homage doone to K. Henrie before his coronation.]

[Sidenote: The day of king Henries coronation a verie tempestuous day.]

[Sidenote: A notable example of a woorthie prince.]

[Sidenote: _In Angl. præl. sub. Hen. 5._]

Such great hope, and good expectation was had of this mans fortunate
successe to follow, that within thrée daies after his fathers deceasse,
diuerse noble men and honorable personages did to him homage, and sware
to him due obedience, which had not béene séene doone to any of his
predecessors kings of this realme, till they had béene possessed of the
crowne. He was crowned the ninth of Aprill being Passion sundaie, which
was a sore, ruggie, and tempestuous day, with wind, snow and sléet,
that men greatlie maruelled thereat, making diuerse interpretations
what the same might signifie. But this king euen at first appointing
with himselfe, to shew that in his person princelie honors should
change publike manners, he determined to put on him the shape of a
new man. For whereas aforetime he had made himselfe a companion vnto
misrulie mates of dissolute order and life, he now banished them all
from his presence (but not vnrewarded, or else vnpreferred) inhibiting
them vpon a great paine, not once to approch, lodge, or soiourne within
ten miles of his court or presence: and in their places he chose men
of grauitie, wit, and high policie, by whose wise councell he might at
all times rule to his honour and dignitie; calling to mind how once to
hie offence of the king his father, he had with his fist striken the
chéefe iustice for sending one of his minions (vpon desert) to prison,
when the iustice stoutlie commanded himselfe also streict to ward, &
he (then prince) obeied. The king after expelled him out of his priuie
councell, banisht him the court, and made the duke of Clarence (his
yoonger brother) president of councell in his stéed. This reformation
in the new king Christ. Okl. hath reported, fullie consenting with
this. For saith he,

    Ille inter iuuenes paulo lasciuior antè,
    Defuncto genitore grauis constànsq; repentè,
    Moribus ablegat corruptis regis ab aula
    Assuetos socios, & nugatoribus acrem
    Poenam (si quisquam sua tecta reuiserit) addit,
    Atq; ita mutatus facit omnia principe digna,
    Ingenio magno post consultoribus vsus, &c.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: _Thos Walsin._]

[Sidenote: The funerals of King Henrie the fourth kept at Canturburie]

But now that the king was once placed in the roiall seat of the realme,
he vertuouslie considering in his mind, that all goodnesse commeth
of God, determined to begin with some thing acceptable to his diuine
maiestie, and therefore commanded the cleargie sincerelie and trulie
to preach the word of God, and to liue accordinglie, that they might
be the lanternes of light to the temporaltie, as their profession
required. The laie men he willed to serue God, and obeie their prince,
prohibiting them aboue all things breach of matrimonie, custome in
swearing; and namelie, willfull periurie. Beside this, he elected
the best learned men in the lawes of the realme, to the offices of
iustice; and men of good liuing, he preferred to high degrées and
authoritie. Immediatlie after Easter he called a parlement, in which
diuerse good statutes, and wholesome ordinances, for the preseruation
and aduancement of the common-wealth were deuised and established. On
Trinitie sundaie were the solemne exequies doone at Canturburie for his
father, the king himselfe being present thereat.

[Sidenote: S. Georges day made a double feast.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Polychron._]

About the same time, at the speciall instance of the king, in a
conuocation of the cleargie holden at Paules in London, it was
ordeined, that saint George his daie should be celebrate and kept as a
double feast. The archbishop of Canturburie meant to haue honored saint
Dunstaines daie with like reuerence, but it tooke not effect. When the
king had setled things much to his purpose, he caused the bodie of king
Richard to be remooued with all funerall dignitie conuenient for his
estate, from Langlie to Westminster, where he was honorablie interred
with quéene Anne his first wife, in a solemne toome erected and set
vp at the charges of this king. ¶ Polychronicon saith, that after
the bodie of the dead king was taken vp out of earth, this new king
(happilie tendering the magnifience of a prince, and abhorring obscure
buriall) caused the same to be conueied to Westminster in a roiall seat
(or chaire of estate) couered all ouer with blacke veluet, & adorned
with banners of diuers armes round about. All the horsses likewise
(said this author) were apparelled with blacke, and bare sundrie
sutes of armes. Manie other solemnities were had at his interrement,
according to the qualitie of the age wherein he liued and died.

Also in this first yéere of this kings reigne, sir Iohn Oldcastell,
which by his wife was called lord Cobham, a valiant capteine and a
hardie gentleman, was accused to the archbishop of Canturburie of
certeine points of heresie, who knowing him to be highlie in the kings
fauour, declared to his highnesse the whole accusation. The king first
hauing compassion of the noble man, required the prelats, that if he
were a straied shéepe, rather by gentlenes than by rigor to reduce
him to the fold. And after this, he himselfe sent for him, and right
earnestlie exhorted him, and louinglie admonished him to reconcile
himselfe to God and to his lawes. The lord Cobham not onelie thanked
him for his most fauorable clemencie, but also declared first to him by
mouth, and afterwards by writing, the foundation of his faith, and the
ground of his beliefe, affirming his grace to be his supreme head and
competent iudge, and none other person, offering an hundred knights and
esquiers to come to his purgation, or else to fight in open lists in
defence of his iust cause.

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Oldcastell escaped out of the Tower.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._ 1414]

The king vnderstanding and persuaded by his councell, that by order of
the lawes of his realme, such accusations touching matters of faith
ought to be tried by his spirituall prelats, sent him to the Tower of
London, there to abide the determination of the clergie, according to
the statutes in that case prouided, after which time a solemne session
was appointed in the cathedrall church of saint Paule, vpon the thrée
and twentith day of September, and an other the fiue and twentith daie
of the same moneth, in the hall of the Blacke friers at London, in
which places the said lord was examined, apposed, and fullie heard, and
in conclusion by the archbishop of Canturburie denounced an heretike,
& remitted againe to the Tower of London, from which place, either by
helpe of fréends, or fauour of kéepers, he priuilie escaped and came
into Wales, where he remained for a season.

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

[Sidenote: A commotion raised by sir Roger Acton and others.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The rebels surprised.]

After this, the king kéeping his Christmasse at his manor of Eltham,
was aduertised, that sir Roger Acton knight a man of great wit and
possessions, Iohn Browne esquier, Iohn Beuerlie priest, and a great
number of other were assembled in armour against the king, his
brethren, the clergie and realme. These newes came to the king, on the
twelfth dale in Christmasse, wherevpon vnderstanding that they were in
a place called Ficket field beside London, on the backe side of saint
Giles, he streight got him to his palace at Westminster, in as secret
wise as he might, and there calling to him certeine bands of armed men,
he repaired into saint Giles fields, néere to the said place (where
he vnderstood they should fulle méet about midnight) and so handled
the matter, that he tooke some, and slue some, euen as stood with his
pleasure. The capteins of them afore mentioned, being apprehended, were
brought to the kings presence, and to him declared the causes of their
commotion & rising, accusing a great number of their complices.

[Sidenote: Thom. Walsin.]

[Sidenote: By this excessive number it may appeare, that Walsingham
reporteth this matter according to the c[=o]mon fame, and not as that
searched out an exquisite truth.]

The king vsed one policie, which much serued to the discomfiting of the
aduersaries (as Thom. Walsingham saith) which was this: he gaue order,
that all the gates of London should be streictlie kept and garded, so
as none should come in or out, but such as were knowen to go to the
king. Hereby came it to passe, that the chiefest succour appointed to
come to the capteins of the rebels, was by that meanes cut off, where
otherwise suerlie (had it not béene thus preuented and staied) there
had issued foorth of London to haue ioined with them, to the number (as
it was thought) of fiftie thousand persons, one and other, seruants,
prentises, and citizens, confederate with them that were thus assembled
in Ficket field. Diuerse also that came from sundrie parts of the
realme, hasting towards the place, to be there at their appointed time,
chanced to light among the kings men, who being taken and demanded
whither they went with such spéed, answered, they came to méet with
their capteine the lord Cobham.

[Sidenote: William Murlie.]

But whether he came thither at all, or made shift for himselfe to get
awaie, it dooth not appeare; for he could not be heard of that time
(as Thomas Walsingham confesseth) although the king by proclamation
promised a thousand marks to him that could bring him foorth, with
great liberties to the cities or townes that would discouer where he
was. By this it maie appeare, how greatlie he was beloued, that there
could not one be found, that for so great a reward would bring him to
light. Among other that were taken was one William Murlie, who dwelt
in Dunstable, a man of great wealth, and by his occupation a brewer,
an earnest mainteiner of the lord Cobhams opinions, and (as the brute
ran) in hope to be highlie aduanced by him if their purposed deuise had
taken place, apparant by this; that he had two horsses trapped with
guilt harnesse led after him, and in his bosome a paire of gilt spurs
(as it was déemed) prepared for himselfe to weare, looking to be made
knight by the lord Cobhams hands at that present time. But when he
saw how their purpose quailed, he withdrew into the citie with great
feare to hide himselfe; howbeit he was perceiued, taken, and finallie
executed among others.

[Sidenote: Sir Roger Acton & his complices condemned of treason and
heresie.]

To conclude, so manie persons herevpon were apprehended, that all
the prisons in and about London were full, the chiefe of them were
condemned by the cleargie of heresie, and atteinted of high treason in
the Guildhall of London, and adiudged for that offense to be drawen and
hanged, and for heresie to be consumed with fire, gallowes and all,
which iudgement was executed the same moneth, on the said sir Roger
Acton, and eight and twentie others. ¶ Some saie, that the occasion
of their death was onelie for the conueieng of the lord Cobham out of
prison. Others write, that it was both for treason and heresie, and so
it appeareth by the record. Certeine affirme, that it was for feined
causes surmized by the spiritualtie, more vpon displeasure than truth,
and that they were assembled to heare their preacher (the foresaid
Beuerlie) in that place there, out of the waie from resort of people,
sith they might not come togither openlie about any such matter,
without danger to be apprehended; as the manner is, and hath béene
euer of the persecuted flocke, when they are prohibited publikelie the
exercise of their religion. But howsoeuer the matter went with these
men, apprehended they were, and diuerse of them executed (as before ye
haue heard) whether for rebellion or heresie, or for both (as the forme
of the indictment importeth) I néed not to spend manie words, sith
others haue so largelie treated thereof; and therefore I refer those
that wish to be more fullie satisfied herein vnto their reports.

[Sidenote: _Eiton._]

[Sidenote: A disdainefull ambassage.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: Persie restored to the erledome of Northumberland.]

Whilest in the Lent season the king laie at Killingworth, there came to
him from Charles Dolphin of France certeine ambassadors, that brought
with them a barrell of Paris balles, which from their maister they
presented to him for a token that was taken in verie ill part, as sent
in scorne, to signifie, that it was more méet for the king to passe
the time with such childish exercise, than to attempt any worthie
exploit. Wherefore the K. wrote to him, that yer ought long, he would
tosse him some London balles that perchance should shake the walles
of the best court in France. ¶ This yeare, Thom. Arundell archbishop
of Canturburie departed this life, a stout prelat, and an earnest
mainteiner of the Romish religion: Henrie Chichelie bishop of saint
Dauid succéeded the same Arundell in the sée of Canturburie, and the
kings confessor Stephan Patrington a Carmelite frier was made bishop
of S. Dauid. Henrie Persie then but a child, sonne to the lord Henrie
Persie surnamed Hotspur, after his fathers deceasse, that was slaine
at Shrewesburie field, was conueied into Scotland, and there left by
his grandfather, where euer since he had remained: the king therefore
pitied his case, and so procured for him, that he came home, and was
restored to all his lands and earledome of Northumberland, which lands
before had béene giuen to Iohn, the kings brother.

[Sidenote: _W. P._]

[Sidenote: _Le Rosier la second partie._]

A case verie strange, and for manie causes alwaies right worthie of
remembrance, in this yeare 1414, the second of this kings reigne did
befall, which conteining in it so manie matters for knowledge of Gods
great power and iustice of wilfull breaking his diuine lawes, of the
easie slip into ruine where his mercie dooth not staie vs, the busie
bogging of the diuell alwaies, our weakenesse in combat with him, into
what outrage and confusion he haleth where he is not withstood, with
what tyrannie he tormenteth where he vanquisheth, what the will and
power of a souereigne ouer a subiect may force in cases of iniquitie,
where by vertue and grace he be not restrained: the zeale of a parent,
the pangs of a child, but chéeflie the verie plague of Gods wrath and
indignation vpon wilfull and obstinate offendors, all which at those
daies though touched in Naples, yet at all times and euerie where so
well seruing for example and warning, it hath béene thought verie
conuenient the same in our stories also héere to be noted, which was
thus. At this time newes were brought into France, how king Lancelot
(the aduersarie to Lewes king of Sicill) was departed, and in manner
thus. It hapned that he fell in loue with a yoong damosell his owne
physicians daughter (a puzell verie beautifull) and he in hope to
inioy hir the easilier, caused hir father for his consent to be
talked withall in the matter, which he vtterlie refused to grant, and
shewed foorth manie reasons for him; but at last all causes & excuses
reiected, sith (though constreinetl) he must néeds assent, feined
himselfe willing and content. And forceing talke with his daughter
vpon his mind in the matter, chéeflie how méet it were she vsed his
counsell how best with the king to kéepe hir still in grace, he gaue
hir a little box of ointment, and instruction withall, that when the
king should come to haue his will, she should afore with that balme
annoint all hir wombe; the damosell [=o]n good obseruation did after
(at oportunitie) as hir father taught hir. Héerevpon so pittifullie
came it to passe that the verie same night the king laie with hir, his
bellie and hirs were by and by set as it were all on a sindging fier,
with torments of such vnquenchable scorching and burning euen into the
verie entrailes, that he of his kingdome, his life, his loue; and she
of hir princelie promotion, thus soone both togither made a sorrowfull
end. After the plaie of this lamentable tragedie, the physician fled
for his safetie, and straight vpon the newes king Lewes gathered a
great assemblie, wherewith to passe towards Naples, and sent before a
good companie vnder the lord Longnie marshall of France.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 2. 1414]

[Sidenote: A bill exhibited to the parlem[=e]t against the clergie.]

In the second yeare of his reigne, king Henrie called his high court of
parlement, the last daie of Aprill in the towne of Leicester, in which
parlement manie profitable lawes were concluded, and manie petitions
mooued, were for that time deferred. Amongst which, one was, that a
bill exhibited in the parlement holden at Westminster in the eleuenth
yeare of king Henrie the fourth (which by reason the king was then
troubled with ciuill discord, came to none effect) might now with good
deliberation be pondered, and brought to some good conclusion. The
effect of which supplication was, that the temporall lands deuoutlie
giuen, and disordinatlie spent by religious, and other spirituall
persons, should be seized into the kings hands, sith the same might
suffice to mainteine, to the honor of the king, and defense of the
realme, fiftéene earles, fiftéene hundred knights, six thousand and two
hundred esquiers, and a hundred almesse-houses, for reliefe onelie of
the poore, impotent, and néedie persons, and the king to haue cléerelie
to his coffers twentie thousand pounds, with manie other prouisions and
values of religious houses, which I passe ouer.

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburies oration in the parlement
house.]

This bill was much noted, and more feared among the religious sort,
whom suerlie it touched verie néere, and therefore to find remedie
against it, they determined to assaie all waies to put by and ouerthrow
this bill: wherein they thought best to trie if they might mooue the
kings mood with some sharpe inuention, that he should not regard the
importunate petitions of the commons. Wherevpon, on a daie in the
parlement, Henrie Chichelie archbishop of Canturburie made a pithie
oration, wherein he declared, how not onelie the duchies of Normandie
and Aquitaine, with the counties of Aniou and Maine, and the countrie
of Gascoigne, were by vndoubted title apperteining to the king, as to
the lawfull and onelie heire of the same; but also the whole realme of
France, as heire to his great grandfather king Edward the third.

[Sidenote: The Salike law.]

[Sidenote: Mesina.]

Herein did he much inueie against the surmised and false fained law
Salike, which the Frenchmen alledge euer against the kings of England
in barre of their iust title to the crowne of France. The verie
words of that suppose'd law are these, In terram Salicam mulieres ne
succedant, that is to saie, Into the Salike land let not women succéed.
Which the French glossers expound to be the realme of France, and that
this law was made by king Pharamond; whereas yet their owne authors
affirme, that the land Salike is in Germanie, betwéene the riuers
of Elbe and Sala; and that when Charles the great had ouercome the
Saxons, he placed there certeine Frenchmen, which hauing in disdeine
the dishonest maners of the Germane women, made a law, that the females
should not succéed to any inheritance within that land, which at this
daie is called Meisen, so that if this be true, this law was not made
for the realme of France, nor the Frenchmen possessed the land Salike,
till foure hundred and one and twentie yeares after the death of
Pharamond, the supposed maker of this Salike law, for this Pharamond
deceassed in the yeare 426, and Charles the great subdued the Saxons,
and placed the Frenchmen in those parts beyond the riuer of Sala in the
yeare 805.

Moreouer, it appeareth by their owne writers, that king Pepine, which
deposed Childerike, claimed the crowne of France, as heire generall,
for that he was descended of Blithild daughter to king Clothair the
first: Hugh Capet also, who vsurped the crowne vpon Charles duke of
Loraine, the sole heire male of the line and stocke of Charles the
great, to make his title séeme true, and appeare good, though in
déed it was starke naught, conueied himselfe as heire to the ladie
Lingard, daughter to king Charlemaine, sonne to Lewes the emperour,
that was son to Charles the great. King Lewes also the tenth otherwise
called saint Lewes, being verie heire to the said vsurper Hugh Capet,
could neuer be satisfied in his conscience how he might iustlie kéepe
and possease the crowne of France, till he was persuaded and fullie
instructed, that quéene Isabell his grandmother was lineallie descended
of the ladie Ermengard daughter and heire to the aboue named Charles
duke of Loraine, by the which marriage, the bloud and line of Charles
the great was againe vnited and restored to the crowne & scepter of
France, so that more cléere than the sunne it openlie appeareth, that
the title of king Pepin, the claime of Hugh Capet, the possession of
Lewes, yea and the French kings to this daie, are deriued and conueied
from the heire female, though they would vnder the colour of such a
fained law, barre the kings and princes of this realme of England of
their right and lawfull inheritance.

The archbishop further alledged out of the booke of Numbers this
saieng: "When a man dieth without a sonne, let the inheritance descend
to his daughter." At length, hauing said sufficientlie for the proofe
of the kings iust and lawfull title to the crowne of France, he
exhorted him to aduance foorth his banner to fight for his right, to
conquer his inheritance, to spare neither bloud, sword, nor fire, sith
his warre was iust, his cause good, and his claime true. And to the
intent his louing chapleins and obedient subiects of the spiritualtie
might shew themselues willing and desirous to aid his maiestie, for the
recouerie of his ancient right and true inheritance, the archbishop
declared that in their spirituall conuocation, they had granted to his
highnesse such a summe of monie, as neuer by no spirituall persons was
to any prince before those daies giuen or aduanced.

[Sidenote: The earle of Westmerland persuadeth the king to the conquest
of Scotland.]

When the archbishop had ended his prepared tale, Rafe Neuill earle of
Westmerland, and as then lord Warden of the marches against Scotland,
vnderstanding that the king vpon a couragious desire to recouer his
right in France, would suerlie take the wars in hand, thought good to
mooue the king to begin first with Scotland, and therevpon declared how
easie a matter it should be to make a conquest there, and how greatlie
the same should further his wished purpose for the subduing of the
Frenchmen, concluding the summe of his tale with this old saieng: that
Who so will France win, must with Scotland first begin. Manie matters
he touched, as well to shew how necessarie the conquest of Scotland
should be, as also to prooue how iust a cause the king had to attempt
it, trusting to persuade the king and all other to be of his opinion.

[Sidenote: The duke of Excester his wise and pithie answer to the earle
of Westmerl[=a]ds saieng.]

[Sidenote: A true saieng.]

But after he had made an end, the duke of Excester, vncle to the king,
a man well learned and wise, (who had béene sent into Italie by his
father intending that he should haue béen a préest) replied against
the erle of Westmerlands oration, affirming rather that he which would
Scotland win, he with France must first begin. For if the king might
once compasse the conquest of France, Scotland could not long resist;
so that conquere France, and Scotland would soone obeie. For where
should the Scots lerne policie and skill to defend themselues, if
they had not their bringing vp and training in France? If the French
pensions mainteined not the Scotish nobilitie, in what case should they
be? Then take awaie France, and the Scots will soone be tamed; France
being to Scotland the same that the sap is to the trée, which being
taken awaie, the trée must néeds die and wither.

To be briefe, the duke of Excester vsed such earnest and pithie
persuasions, to induce the king and the whole assemblie of the
parlement to credit his words, that immediatlie after he had made an
end, all the companie began to crie; Warre, warre; France, France.
Hereby the bill for dissoluing of religious houses was cléerelie set
aside, and nothing thought on but onelie the recouering of France,
according as the archbishop had mooued. And vpon this point, after
a few acts besides for the wealth of the realme established, the
parlement was proroged vnto Westminster. ¶ Some write, that in this
parlement it was enacted, that Lollards and heretikes with their
mainteiners and fauourers should be Ipso facto adiudged guiltie of
high treason: but in the statute made in the same parlement against
Lollards, we find no such words: albeit by force of that statute it
was ordeined, that persons so conuicted & executed, should lose their
lands holden in fée simple, and all other their goods and cattels, as
in cases of felonie.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors from the Fr[=e]ch king and from the duke of
Burgognie.]

[Sidenote: Creation of dukes.]

[Sidenote: _Harding._]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to Fr[=a]ce.]

During this parlement, there came to the king ambassadors, as well from
the French king that was then in the hands of the Orlientiall faction,
as also from the duke of Burgognie, for aid against that faction;
promising more (as was said) than laie well in his power to performe.
The king shortlie after sent ambassadors to them both, as the bishop
of Durham, and Norwich, with others. Moreouer at this parlement, Iohn
the kings brother was created duke of Bedford, and his brother Humfrie
duke of Glocester. Also, Thomas Beaufort, marquesse Dorset, was created
duke of Excester. Immediatlie after, the king sent ouer into France
his vncle the duke of Excester, the lord Greie admerall of England,
the archbishop of Dubline, and the bishop of Norwich, ambassadors vnto
the French king, with fiue hundred horsse, which were lodged in the
temple house in Paris, kéeping such triumphant chéere in their lodging,
and such a solemne estate in their riding through the citie, that the
Parisiens and all the Frenchmen had no small meruell at their honorable
port.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _In Angl. præl. sub Hen. 5._]

The French king receiued them verie honorablie, and banketted them
right sumptuouslie, shewing to them iusts and Martiall pastimes, by the
space of thrée daies togither, in the which iusts the king himselfe,
to shew his courage and actiuitie to the Englishmen, manfullie brake
speares and lustilie tournied. When the triumph was ended, the English
ambassadors, hauing a time appointed them to declare their message,
admitted to the French kings presence, required of him to deliuer vnto
the king of England the realme and crowne of France, with the entier
duchies of Aquiteine, Normandie and Aniou, with the countries of
Poictiou and Maine. Manie other requests they made: and this offered
withall, that if the French king would without warre and effusion of
christian bloud, render to the king their maister his verie right &
lawfull inheritance, that he would be content to take in mariage the
ladie Katharine, daughter to the French king, and to indow hir with all
the duchies and countries before rehearsed; and if he would not so doo,
then the king of England did expresse and signifie to him, that with
the aid of God, and helpe of his people, he would recouer his right and
inheritance wrongfullie withholden from him, with mortall warre, and
dint of sword. ¶ This in effect dooth our English poet comprise in his
report of the occasion, which Henrie the fift tooke to arrere battell
against the French king: putting into the mouthes of the said king of
Englands ambassadors an imagined spéech, the conclusion whereof he
maketh to be either restitution of that which the French had taken and
deteined from the English, or else fire and sword. His words are these,

    ---- raptum nobis aut redde Britannis,
    Aut ferrum expectes, vltrices insuper ignes.

The Frenchmen being not a little abashed at these demands, thought
not to make anie absolute answer in so weightie a cause, till they
had further breathed; and therefore praied the English ambassadors to
saie to the king their maister, that they now hauing no opportunitie
to conclude in so high a matter, would shortlie send ambassadors into
England, which should certifie & declare to the king their whole
mind, purpose, and intent. The English ambassadors returned with this
answer, making relation of euerie thing that was said or doone. King
Henrie after the returne of his ambassadors, determined fullie to make
warre in France, conceiuing a good and perfect hope to haue fortunate
successe, sith victorie for the most part followeth where right
leadeth, being aduanced forward by iustice, and set foorth by equitie.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: It is not like that in this councell writers meane the
parlement that was adiorned from Leicester to Westminster, where it
began in the octaues of saint Martin, in this second yeare 1415.]

And bicause manie Frenchmen were promoted to ecclesiasticall dignities,
as some to benefices, and some to abbeies and priories within the
realme, and sent dailie innumerable summes of monie into France for the
reléefe of their naturall countrimen and kinsfolke, he therefore in
fauour of the publike wealth of his realme and subjects, in a councell
called at London, about Michaelmas, caused to be ordeined, that no
stranger hereafter should be promoted to anie spirituall dignitie or
degrée within this realme, without his especiall licence, and roiall
consent; and all they that should be admitted, should find sufficient
suerties, not to disclose the secrets of this realme to anie forren
person, nor to minister aid or succour to anie of them with monie, or
by anie other meanes. This was confirmed in a conuocation called at the
same time by the new archbishop of Canturburie.

[Sidenote: The councell of Constance.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike and others sent to the generall
councell.]

Moreouer, such as were to go vnto the generall councell holden at
Constance, were named and appointed to make them readie: for the king
hauing knowledge from the emperor Sigismund, of the assembling of that
councell, thought it not conuenient to sit still as an hearer, and
no partaker in so high a cause, which touched the whole state of the
christian common-wealth, as then troubled by reason of the schisme that
yet continued. Wherefore he sent thither Richard earle of Warwike, the
bishops of Salisburie, Bath, and Hereford, the abbat of Westminster,
and the prior of Worcester, with diuerse other doctors and learned men
of the spiritualtie; besides knights and esquiers. They were in number
eight hundred horsses, so well appointed and furnished, as well the
men as horsses, that all nations maruelled to sée such an honorable
companie come from a countrie so far distant.

[Sidenote: _Enguerant._]

[Sidenote: Great preparation for the French wars.]

Diuerse other things were concluded at that present: for the king
had caused not onelie the lords of the spiritualtie, but also of
the temporaltie to assemble here at London the same time, to treat
speciallie of his iournie that he purposed to make shortlie into
France: and herevpon meanes was made for the gathering of monie;
which was granted with so good a will both of the spiritualtie and
temporaltie, that there was leuied the summe of thrée hundred thousand
markes English: and herewith order was giuen to gather a great hoast
of men, thorough all his dominions. And for the more increasing of his
nauie, he sent into Holland, Zeland, and Frizeland, to conduct and hire
ships for the transporting and conueieng ouer of his men and munitions
of war, and finallie prouided for armour, victuals, monie, artillerie,
cariage, boates to passe ouer riuers couered with leather, tents, and
all other things requisite for so high an enterprise.

The Frenchmen hauing knowledge hereof, the Dolphin, who had the
gouernance of the realme, bicause his father was fallen into his old
disease of frensie, sent for the dukes of Berrie and Alanson, and all
the other lords of the councell of France: by whose aduise it was
determined, that they should not onelie prepare a sufficient armie
to resist the king of England, when so euer he arriued to inuade
France, but also to stuffe and furnish the townes on the frontiers and
sea coasts with conuenient garrisons of men: and further to send to
the king of England a solemne ambassage, to make to him some offers
according to the demands before rehearsed. The charge of this ambassage
was committed to the earle of Vandosme, to maister William Bouratier
archbishop of Burges, and to maister Peter Fremell bishop of Liseur,
to the lords of Yvry and Braquemont, and to maister Gaultier Cole the
kings secretarie, and diuerse others.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 3.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors out of France.]

These ambassadors accompanied with 350 horsses, passed the sea at
Calis, and landed at Douer, before whose arriuall the king was departed
from Windsore to Winchester, intending to haue gone to Hampton, there
to haue surueied his nauie; but hearing of the ambassadors approching,
he tarried still at Winchester, where the said French lords shewed
themselues verie honorablie before the king and his nobilitie. At time
prefixed, before the kings presence, sitting in his throne imperiall,
the archbishop of Burges made an eloquent and a long oration,
dissuading warre, and praising peace; offering to the king of England
a great summe of monie, with diuerse countries, being in verie déed but
base and poore, as a dowrie with the ladie Catharine in mariage, so
that he would dissolue his armie, and dismisse his soldiers, which he
had gathered and put in a readinesse.

When his oration was ended, the king caused the ambassadors to be
highlie feasted, and set them at his owne table. And after a daie
assigned in the foresaid hall, the archbishop of Canturburie to their
oration made a notable answer, the effect whereof was, that if the
French king would not giue with his daughter in mariage the duches of
Aquiteine, Aniou, and all other seigniories and dominions sometimes
apperteining to the noble progenitors of the king of England, he would
in no wise retire his armie, nor breake his iournie; but would with
all diligence enter into France, and destroie the people, waste the
countrie, and subuert the townes with blood, sword, and fire, and neuer
ceasse till he had recouered his ancient right and lawfull patrimonie.
The king auowed the archbishops saieng, and in the word of a prince
promised to performe it to the vttermost.

[Sidenote: A proud presumptuous prelat.]

[Sidenote: The wise answer of the k. to the bishop.]

The archbishop of Burges much gréeued, that his ambassage was no more
regarded, after certeine brags blustered out with impatience, as more
presuming vpon his prelasie, than respecting his dutie of considerance
to whom he spake and what became him to saie, he praied safe conduct
to depart. Which the king gentlie granted, and added withall to this
effect: "I little estéeme your French brags, & lesse set by your power
and strength; I know perfectlie my right to my region, which you
vsurpe; & except you denie the apparant truth, so doo your selues also;
if you neither doo nor will know it, yet God and the world knoweth it.
The power of your master you sée, but my puissance ye haue not yet
tasted. If he haue louing subiects, I am (I thanke God) not vnstored
of the same: and I saie this vnto you, that before one yeare passe, I
trust to make the highest crowne of your countrie to stoope, and the
proudest miter to learne his humiliatedo. In the meane time tell this
to the vsurper your master, that within thrée moneths, I will enter
into France, as into mine owne true and lawfull patrimonie, appointing
to acquire the same, not with brag of words, but with déeds of men,
and dint of sword, by the aid of God, in whome is my whole trust and
confidence. Further matter at this present I impart not vnto you,
sauing that with warrant you maie depart suerlie and safelie into your
countrie, where I trust sooner to visit you, than you shall haue cause
to bid me welcome." With this answer the ambassadors sore displeased
in their minds (although they were highlie interteined and liberallie
rewarded) departed into their countrie, reporting to the Dolphin how
they had sped.

[Sidenote: _Harding._]

[Sidenote: An ouerthrow to the Scots by sir Robert Umfreuill.]

After the French ambassadors were departed, the king like a prouident
prince, thought good to take order for the resisting of the Scots,
if (according to their maner) they should attempt anie thing against
his subiects in his absence. For that point appointed he the earle of
Westmerland, the lord Scroope, the baron of Greistocke, sir Robert
Umfreuill, & diuerse other valiant capteins to kéepe the frontiers &
marches of Scotland, which sir Robert Umfreuill on the daie of Marie
Madgdalen fought with the Scots at the towne of Gedering, hauing in his
companie onelie thrée hundred archers, and seuen score spears, where
he (after long conflict) slue of his enimies sixtie and odde, tooke
thrée hundred and sixtie prisoners, discomfited and put to flight one
thousand and more, whome he followed in chace aboue twelue miles, but
their hands full of preies and prisoners, retired homeward (not vnhurt)
to the castell of Rockesborough, of the which he was capteine.

[Sidenote: The quéene mother gouernour of the realme.]

When the king had all prouisions readie, and ordered all things for
the defense of his realme, he leauing behind him for gouernour of the
realme, the quéene his moother in law, departed to Southampton, to
take ship into France. And first princelie appointing to aduertise
the French king of his comming, therefore dispatched Antelope his
purseuant at armes with letters to him for restitution of that which
he wrongfully withheld, contrarie to the lawes of God and man: the king
further declaring how sorie he was that he should be thus compelled for
repeating of his right and iust title of inheritance, to make warre to
the distruction of christian people, but sithens he had offered peace
which could not be receiued, now for fault of iustice, he was forced
to take armes. Neuerthelesse exhorted the French king in the bowels of
Iesu Christ, to render him that which was his owne, whereby effusion of
Christian bloud might be auoided. These letters chéeflie to this effect
and purpose, were written and dated from Hampton the fift of August.
When the same were presented to the French King, and by his councell
well perused, answer was made, that he would take aduise, and prouide
therein as time and place should be conuenient, so the messenger
licenced to depart at his pleasure.

[Sidenote: The earle of Cambridge & other lords apprehended for
treason.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

When king Henrie had fullie furnished his nauie with men, munition,
& other prouisions, perceiuing that his capteines misliked nothing
so much as delaie, determined his souldiors to go a ship-boord and
awaie. But sée the hap, the night before the daie appointed for their
departure, he was crediblie informed, that Richard earle of Cambridge
brother to Edward duke of Yorke, and Henrie lord Scroope of Masham
lord treasuror, with Thomas Graie a knight of Northumberland, being
confederat togither, had conspired his death: wherefore he caused
them to be apprehended. The said lord Scroope was in such fauour with
the king, that he admitted him sometime to be his bedfellow, in whose
fidelitie the king reposed such trust, that when anie priuat or publike
councell was in hand, this lord had much in the determination of it.
For he represented so great grauitie in his countenance, such modestie
in behauiour, and so vertuous zeale to all godlinesse in his talke,
that whatsoeuer he said was thought for the most part necessarie to be
doone and followed. Also the said sir Thomas Graie (as some write) was
of the kings priuie councell.

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

[Sidenote: King Henries words to the traitours.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cambridge and the other traitors executed.]

These prisoners vpon their examination, confessed, that for a great
summe of monie which they had receiued of the French king, they
intended verelie either to haue deliuered the king aliue into the
hands of his enimies, or else to haue murthered him before he should
arriue in the duchie of Normandie. When king Henrie had heard all
things opened, which he desired to know, he caused all his nobilitie
to come before his presence, before whome he caused to be brought the
offendors also, and to them said. "Hauing thus conspired the death and
destruction of me, which am the head of the realme and gouernour of the
people, it maie be (no doubt) but that you likewise haue sworne the
confusion of all that are here with me, and also the desolation of your
owne countrie. To what horror (O lord) for any true English hart to
consider, that such an execrable iniquitie should euer so bewray you,
as for pleasing of a forren enimie to imbrue your hands in your bloud,
and to ruine your owne natiue soile. Reuenge herein touching my person,
though I séeke not; yet for the safegard of you, my déere fréends, &
for due perseruation of all sorts, I am by office to cause example to
be shewed. Get ye hence therefore ye poore miserable wretches to the
receiuing of your iust reward, wherein Gods maiestie giue you grace of
his mercie and repentance of your heinous offenses." And so immediatlie
they were had to execution.

This doone, the king calling his lords againe afore him, said in words
few and with good grace. Of his enterprises he recounted the honor
and glorie, whereof they with him were to be partakers, the great
confidence he had in their noble minds, which could not but remember
them of the famous feats that their ancestors aforetime in France had
atchiued, whereof the due report for euer recorded remained yet in
register. The great mercie of God that had so gratiouslie reuealed vnto
him the treason at hand, whereby the true harts of those afore him
made so eminent & apparant in his eie, as they might be right sure he
would neuer forget it. The doubt of danger to be nothing in respect
of the certeintie of honor that they should acquire, wherein himselfe
(as they saw) in person would be lord and leader through Gods grace. To
whose maiestie as chéeflie was knowne the equitie of his demand: euen
so to his mercie did he onelie recommend the successe of his trauels.
When the king had said, all the noble men knéeled downe, & promised
faithfullie to serue him, dulie to obeie him, and rather to die than to
suffer him to fall into the hands of his enimies.

This doone, the king thought that suerlie all treason and conspiracie
had béene vtterlie extinct: not suspecting the fire which was newlie
kindled, and ceassed not to increase, till at length it burst out into
such a flame, that catching the beames of his house and familie, his
line and stocke was cleane consumed to ashes. ¶ Diuerse write that
Richard earle of Cambridge did not conspire with the lord Scroope &
Thomas Graie for the murthering of king Henrie to please the French
king withall, but onelie to the intent to exalt to the crowne his
brother in law Edmund earle of March as heire to Lionell duke of
Clarence: after the death of which earle of March, for diuerse secret
impediments, not able to haue issue, the earle of Cambridge was sure
that the crowne should come to him by his wife, and to his children,
of hir begotten. And therefore (as was thought) he rather confessed
himselfe for néed of monie to be corrupted by the French king, than he
would declare his inward mind, and open his verie intent and secret
purpose, which if it were espied, he saw plainlie that the earle of
March should haue tasted of the same cuppe that he had drunken, and
what should haue come to his owne children he much doubted. Therefore
destitute of comfort & in despaire of life to saue his children, he
feined that tale, desiring rather to saue his succession than himselfe,
which he did in déed: for his sonne Richard duke of Yorke not priuilie
but openlie claimed the crowne, and Edward his sonne both claimed it,
& gained it, as after it shall appeare. Which thing if king Henrie had
at this time either doubted, or foreséene, had neuer béene like to haue
come to passe, as Hall saith.

[Sidenote: The effect of the earle of Cambridges indictement.]

[Sidenote: A iewell.]

But whatsoeuer hath béene reported of the confession of the earle of
Cambridge, certeine it is that indicted he was by the name of Richard
earle of Cambridge of Connesburgh in the countie of Yorke knight, and
with him Thomas Graie of Heton in the countie of Northumberland knight;
for that they the twentith daie of Iulie, in the third yeare of king
Henrie the fifts reigne, at Southampton, and in diuerse other places
within this realme, had conspired togither with a power of men to them
associat, without the kings licence, to haue led awaie the lord Edmund
earle of March into Wales, and then to haue procured him to take vpon
him the supreme gouernment of the realme, in case that king Richard the
second were dead: and herwith had purposed to set foorth a proclamation
there in Wales, in name of the said earle of March, as heire of the
crowne against king Henrie, by the name of Henrie of Lancaster the
vsurper, to the end that by such meanes they might draw the more
number of the kings liege people vnto the said earle; and further to
haue conueied a banner of the armes of England, and a certeine crowne
of Spaine set vpon a pallet, and laid in gage to the said earle of
Cambridge, by the king, togither with the said earle of March into the
parties of Wales aforesaid.

Further, that the said earle of Cambridge, and sir Thomas Graie
had appointed certeine of the kings liege people to repaire into
Scotland, and to bring from thence one Thomas Trumpington; also an
other resembling in shape, fauour, and countenance king Richard, and
Henrie Persie, togither with a great multitude of people to fight
with the king, and him to destroie in open field. Beside this, that
they had meant to win certeine castels in Wales, and to kéepe them
against the king: and manie other treasons they had contriued, as
by the indictement was specified, to the intent they might destroie
the king and his brethren, the dukes of Bedford and Glocester, and
other the great lords & péers of the realme. And Henrie Scroope of
Masham, of Flarflet, in the countie of Yorke was likewise indicted, as
consenting to the premisses. So that it appeareth their purpose was
well inough then perceiued, although happilie not much bruted abroad,
for considerations thought necessarie to haue it rather husht and kept
secret.

About the selfe same time the lord Cobham with his fréends, whether
as one of counsell in the conspiracie with the earle of Cambridge or
not, was determined to haue made some attempt against the lord of
Aburgauennie, who being aduertised thereof, got for his defense from
Worcester, Persore, Teukesburie, and other places thereabout, to the
number of fiue thousand archers, and other armed men, which came to
him vnto his castell of Haneleie: whereof when the lord Cobham was
aduertised, he withdrew againe to such secret places about Maluerne,
as he had prouided for his suertie, to resort vnto: but a priest that
belonged vnto him, was taken, and diuerse other, who disclosed to
the lord Aburgauennie, one of the places where the said lord Cobham
with his men vsed to kéepe themselues close. Vnto that place the lord
Aburgauennie went, where he found indéed monie and armor piled vp
betwixt two wals, handsomelie conueied and framed for the purpose; but
the lord Cobham with his folkes were withdrawne into some other place,
after they once heard, that the earle of Cambridge and the lord Scroope
were executed.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The king saileth ouer into France with his host.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: A charitable proclamation.]

[Sidenote: Princelie and wiselie.]

But now to procéed with king Henries dooings. After this, when the wind
came about prosperous to his purpose, he caused the mariners to weie vp
anchors, and hoise vp sailes, and to set forward with a thousand ships,
on the vigill of our ladie daie the Assumption, and tooke land at
Caur, commonlie called Kidcaur, where the riuer of Saine runneth into
the sea, without resistance. At his first comming on land, he caused
proclamation to be made, that no person should be so hardie on paine of
death, either to take anie thing out of anie church that belonged to
the same, or to hurt or doo anie violence either to priests, women, or
anie such as should be found without weapon or armor, and not readie to
make resistance: also that no man should renew anie quarell or strife,
whereby anie fraie might arise to the disquieting of the armie.

[Sidenote: _Harding._]

The next daie after his landing, he marched toward the towne of
Harflue, standing on the riuer of Saine betwéene two hils; he besieged
it on euerie side, raising bulwarks and a bastell, in which the two
earles of Kent & Huntington were placed, with Cornwall, Graie, Steward,
and Porter. On that side towards the sea, the king lodged with his
field, and the duke of Clarence on the further side towards Rone. There
were within the towne the lords de Touteuill and Gaucourt, with diuerse
other that valiantlie defended the siege, dooing what damage they could
to their aduersaries; and damming vp the riuer that hath his course
through the towne, the water rose so high betwixt the kings campe,
and the duke of Clarence campe (diuided by the same riuer) that the
Englishmen were constreined to withdraw their artillerie from one side,
where they had planted the same.

[Sidenote: The king besieged Harflue.]

The French king being aduertised, that king Henrie was arrived on that
coast, sent in all hast the lord de la Breth constable of France,
the seneshall of France, the lord Bouciqualt marshall of France, the
seneshall of Henault, the lord Lignie with other, which fortified
townes with men, victuals, and artillerie on all those frontiers
towards the sea. And hearing that Harflue was besieged, they came to
the castell of Caudebecke, being not farre from Harflue, to the intent
they might succor their fréends which were besieged, by some policie
or meanes: but the Englishmen, notwithstanding all the damage that the
Frenchmen could worke against them, forraied the countrie, spoiled the
villages, bringing manie a rich preie to the campe before Harflue. And
dailie was the towne assaulted: for the duke of Glocester, to whome the
order of the siege was committed, made thrée mines vnder the ground,
and approching to the wals with his engins and ordinance, would not
suffer them within to take anie rest.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

For although they with their countermining somwhat disappointed the
Englishmen, & came to fight with them hand to hand within the mines,
so that they went no further forward with that worke; yet they were so
inclosed on ech side, as well by water as land, that succour they saw
could none come to them: for the king lieng with his battell on the
hill side on the one partie, and the duke of Clarence beyond the riuer
that passeth by the towne, and runneth into Saine on the other partie,
beside other lords and capteins that were lodged with their retinues
for their most aduantage: none could be suffered to go in, or come
foorth, without their licence; insomuch that such pouder as was sent to
haue béene conueied into the towne by water, was taken by the English
ships that watched the riuer.

[Sidenote: _Harding._]

[Sidenote: _Thos. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: The seuentéenth of September they within Harflue praie
parlée.]

The capteins within the towne, perceiuing that they were not able long
to resist the continuall assaults of the Englishmen, knowing that their
wals were vndermined, and like to be ouerthrowne (as one of their
bulwarks was alredie, where the earles of Huntington and Kent had
set vp their banners) sent an officer at armes foorth about midnight
after the feast daie of saint Lambert, which fell that yeare vpon the
tuesdaie, to beséech the king of England to appoint some certeine
persons as commissioners from him, with whome they within might treat
about some agréement. The duke of Clarence, to whome this messenger
first declared his errand, aduertised the king of their request, who
granting thereto, appointed the duke of Excester, with the lord Fitz
Hugh, and sir Thomas Erpingham, to vnderstand their minds, who at the
first requested a truce vntill sundaie next following the feast of
saint Michaell, in which meane time if no succour came to remooue the
siege, they would vndertake to deliuer the towne into the kings hands,
their liues and goods saued.

[Sidenote: A fiue daies respit.]

The king aduertised hereof, sent them word, that except they would
surrender the towne to him the morow next insuing, without anie
condition, they should spend no more time in talke about the matter.
But yet at length through the earnest sute of the French lords, the
king was contented to grant them truce vntill nine of the clocke the
next sundaie, being the two and twentith of September; with condition,
that if in the meane time no rescue came, they should yéeld the towne
at that houre, with their bodies and goods to stand at the kings
pleasure. And for assurance thereof, they deliuered into the kings
hands thirtie of their best capteins and merchants within that towne
as pledges. But other write, that it was couenanted, that they should
deliuer onelie twelue pledges, and that if the siege were not raised
by the French kings power within six daies next following, then should
they deliuer the towne into the king of England hands, and thirtie of
the chéefest personages within the same, to stand for life or death
at his will and pleasure: and as for the residue of the men of warre
and townesmen, they should depart whether they would, without carieng
foorth either armour, weapon, or goods.

[Sidenote: Harflue yéelded and sacked.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Angl. præl._]

[Sidenote: _sub. Hen. 5_, and _Polychron._]

The king neuerthelesse was after content to grant a respit vpon
certeine conditions, that the capteins within might haue time to send
to the French king for succour (as before ye haue heard) least he
intending greater exploits, might lose time in such small matters. When
this composition was agréed vpon, the lord Bacqueuill was sent vnto
the French king, to declare in what point the towne stood. To whome
the Dolphin answered, that the kings power was not yet assembled, in
such number as was conuenient to raise so great a siege. This answer
being brought vnto the capteins within the towne, they rendered it vp
to the king of England, after that the third daie was expired, which
was on the daie of saint Maurice being the seuen and thirtith daie
after the siege was first laid. The souldiors were ransomed, and the
towne sacked, to the great gaine of the Englishmen. ¶Some writing of
this yéelding vp of Harflue, doo in like sort make mention of the
distresse whereto the people, then expelled out of their habitations,
were driuen: insomuch as parents with their children, yoong maids and
old folke went out of the towne gates with heauie harts (God wot) as
put to their present shifts to séeke them a new abode. Besides that,
king Henrie caused proclamation to be made within his owne dominions
of England, that whosoeuer (either handicraftesman, merchantman,
gentleman, or plowman) would inhabit in Harflue, should haue his
dwelling giuen him gratis, and his heire after him also inioy the like
grace and fauour; insomuch that great multitudes flocked to the sea
coasts, waiting wind and wether for their transportage into Harflue,
where being arriued woonderfull it is to tell, within how short a time
the towne was peopled. This doth Anglorum prælia report, saieng (not
without good ground, I beléeue) as followeth:

    ---- tum flentes tenera cum prole parentes
    Virgineúsque chorus veteres liquêre penates:
    Tum populus cunctus de portis Gallicus exit
    Moestus, inarmatus, vacuus, miser, æger, inópsq;
    Vtque nouas sedes quærat migrare coactus:
    Oppidulo belli potiuntur iure Britanni, &c.

All this doone, the king ordeined capteine to the towne his vncle the
duke of Excester, who established his lieutenant there, one sir Iohn
Fastolfe, with fiftéene hundred men, or (as some haue) two thousand
and thirtie six knights, whereof the baron of Carew, and sir Hugh
Lutterell, were two councellors. And bicause manie of his nobles
whilest this siege laie before Harflue, fell sicke of the flix and
other diseases, diuerse also dead, amongst whom the earle of Stafford,
the bishop of Norwich, the lords Molins and Burnell were foure (beside
others) the king licenced his brother the duke of Clarence, Iohn earle
marshall, and Iohn earle of Arundell, being infected with that disease,
to returne into England.

[Sidenote: Great death in the host by the flix.]

King Henrie, after the winning of Harflue, determined to haue procéeded
further in the winning of other townes and fortresses: but bicause the
dead time of the winter approched, it was determined by aduise of his
councell, that he should in all conuenient spéed set forward, and march
through the countrie towards Calis by land, least his returne as then
homewards should of slanderous toongs be named a running awaie: and
yet that iournie was adjudged perillous, by reason that the number of
his people was much minished by the flix and other feuers, which sore
vexed and brought to death aboue fiftéene hundred persons of the armie:
and this was the cause that his returne was the sooner appointed and
concluded.

[Sidenote: The kings mercifull dealing with the French prisoners.]

But before his departing thence, he entered into the towne of Harflue,
& went to the church of saint Martines, and there offered. All the men
of warre which had not paid their ransoms, he sware them on the holie
euangelists, to yéeld themselues prisoners at Calis by the feast of
saint Martine in Nouember next. There were two strong towers standing
on the hauen side at Harflue, which looking for aid, did not yéeld,
till ten daies after the towne was rendered. When the king had repaired
the walles, bulwarks and rampiers about the towne, and furnished it
with vittels and artillerie, he remooued from Harflue toward Ponthoise,
intending to passe the riuer of Some with his armie, before the bridges
were either withdrawen or broken. Such vittels and other necessaries as
were to be caried with the armie, he appointed to be laid on horsses,
leauing the carts and wagons behind for lesse incombre.

[Sidenote: Corne & vittels destroied where the Englishmen should
passe.]

[Sidenote: A skirmish with the garrison of Ew.]

[Sidenote: _Enguerant._]

The French king hearing that the towne of Harflue was gotten, and that
the king of England was marching forward into the bowels of the realme
of France, sent out proclamations, and assembled people on euerie side,
committing the whole charge of his armie to his sonne the Dolphine
and duke of Aquitaine, who incontinentlie caused the bridges to be
broken, and the passages to be kept. Also they caused all the corne
and vittels to be conueied awaie, or destroied in all places, where it
was coniectured that the Englishmen would passe. The king of England
nothing dismaied herewith, kept his iournie in spite of his enimies,
constreining them within diuerse townes and holds to furnish him with
vittels: but yet as he passed by the towne of Ew, the garrison of the
towne issued foorth, and gaue the Englishmen a skirmish, who beat them
into the towne with losse, namelie of a right valiant man of armes,
named Lancelot Piers. There were manie Englishmen hurt with quarels
shot off from the loops and wals, as they pursued the enimies vnto the
gates.

[Sidenote: Blanchetake.]

At length the king approched the riuer of Some, & finding all the
bridges broken, he came to the passage of Blanchetake, where his great
grandfather king Edward the third a little before had striken the
battell of Cressie: but the passage was now so impeached with stakes in
the botome of the foord, that he could not passe, his enimies besides
there awaie so swarming on all sides. He therefore marched forwards
to Arames, marching with his armie, and passing with his carriage in
so martiall a maner, that he appeared so terrible to his enimies, as
they durst not offer him battell. And yet the lord Dalbreth constable
of France, the marshall Boncequault, the earle of Vendosme great
master of France, the duke of Alanson, and the earle of Richmont, with
all the puissance of the Dolphin laie at Abuile, but euer kept the
passages, and coasted aloofe, like a hauke though eager yet not hardie
on hir preie. The king of England kept on his iournie till he came to
the bridge of saint Marence, where he found aboue thirtie thousand
Frenchmen, and there pitched his field, looking suerlie to be fought
withall.

[Sidenote: Diuerse capteins knights.]

[Sidenote: _W. P._]

[Sidenote: Standing in Picardie betwéene Amiens & Peron all vp[=o] the
riuer of Some.]

[Sidenote: Sir Hugh Stafford lord Bourghchier.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Bromley. He came of a younger brother in the linage of
the right honorable the lord chancelor that now is 1585.]

[Sidenote: The kings standard recouered.]

[Sidenote: 1585.]

Wherefore to incourage his capteins the more, he dubbed certeine of his
hardie and valiant gentlemen knights, as Iohn lord Ferrers of Grobie,
Reginald of Greistocke, Piers Tempest, Christopher Morisbie, Thomas
Pikering, William Huddleston, Iohn Hosbalton, Henrie Mortimer, Philip
Hall, and William his brother, Iaques de Ormond, and diuerse other:
but the French making no semblance to fight, he departed in good order
of battell by the towne of Amiens, to another towne néere to a castell
called Bowes, and there laie two daies looking for their bidding of
battell euerie houre. From thence he came néere to Corbie, where he was
staied that night, for that the common people and pezants mightilie
there assembled, hauing gotten them some head and hartening by meanes
of their number that was great, and by trust of a strength (then ioined
vnto them) made of men at armes (manie too tall and well appointed
for fight) all of the garrison of Corbie: a strong towne well walled
and warded. Herevpon at a streict (which they had preoccupied) they
stoutlie from our armie not onelie kept the passage, but also vpon vs
gaue a proud onset: wherein sir Hugh Stafford knight lord Bourghchier,
cheéfteine of a wing to the king vnder his standard of Guien, and as
then néerest to the enimie, though far inferior in number, yet with
readie and valiant incounter receiued them. The force and slaughter
grew great both on the one side and the other, by the French in
especiall, at first right fiercelie pursued, in so much as with an
hardie charge vpon our men, they had both beat downe the standard, and
also from vs quite woone it awaie, to their hie incouragement, and our
incredible despite and dismaie. Whereat one Iohn Bromley of Bromley in
Staffordshire esquier, a néere kinsman vnto the lord Bourghchier, was
euen streight so pearsed at hart, as he could not conteine him, but by
and by ran eagerlie vpon the French; and with his souldiers (in whom
wrath and téene had alreadie inflamed furie and desire of reuenge) did
so fiercelie set vpon them, that they were not onlie beaten backe, but
also forced to abandon the place. At this push the capteine cutting
through the thickest, strake downe the champion that bare the standard,
and so gloriouslie recouered it againe, and after during the fight
(where as manie of the French lost their liues) couragiouslie ouer his
souldiers aduanced it himselfe. The rest that fled awaie our people
pursued in chasing & slaughter vnto Corbie verie gates. So in victorie,
honor, and great ioy, with our small losse (in comparison) thanks vnto
Gods maiestie, the chéefteine brought his host into his campe and order
againe. The singular prowes of this worthie capteine the noble man
highlie regarding, in an ample testimonie thereof and vpon his owne
honorable consideration, by a faire ancient déed yet extant at these
daies did giue him reward of fortie pounds annuitie for his life. The
monument so plainelie declaring the truth of the matter, with the maner
and dignitie of the feat, as it was doone, hath béene thought verie
méet for the storie in hand here now to place it as followeth.



A copie of the said déed.


    Hoc præsens scriptum testatur, quòd nos Hugo de Stafford
    dominus le Bourghchier concessimus & per præsentes
    confirmauimus prædilecto consanguineo nostro Iohanni Bromley
    de Bromley armigero, pro suo magno auxilio nobis impenso in
    oppugnatione contra Francos prope le Corbie; & præcipuè pro suo
    laudabili seruitio in recuperatione & supportatione vexilli
    domini regis de Guien sub nostra conductione, vnam annuitatem
    siue annualem redditum quadraginta librarum legalis monetæ
    annuatim percipiendum, durante tota vita naturali prædicti
    Iohannis de Bromley, de & in omnibus manerijs, terris, &
    tenementis nostris cum pertinentibus in comitatu Stafford &
    Warwik, ad festa Penthecostes & sancti Martini in hyeme æquis
    portionibus. Et si contingat prædictam annuitatem siue annualem
    redditum quadraginta librarum, à retrò fore in parte vel in
    toto, ad aliquod festum quo solui debeat, tunc bene licebit
    prædicto Ioh[=a]ni & assignatis suis in prædictis manerijs, ac
    in omnibus alijs terris & tenimentis cum suis pertinentibus
    præscriptis, distringere & districtiones effugare & retinere,
    quousque de prædicta annuitate simul cum arreragijs, si quæ
    fuerint, plenariè sibi merit satisfactum & persolutum. Et vt
    hæc nostra concessio, & scripti huius confirmatio (durante
    tota vita prædicti Iohannis de Bromley vt præfertur) rata &
    stabilis permaneat, hoc scriptum impressione sigilli armorum
    meorum roboraui. Hijs testibus, Iohanne de Holland, Richardo le
    Greuyll, Richardo de Horwood, Thoma le Forestar, & alijs. Datum
    apud Madeley decimo die mensis Martij, anno regni regis Henrici
    quinti post conquestum quarto.

[Sidenote: _W. P._]

[Sidenote: King Henrie passeth the riuer of Some with his host.]

[Sidenote: The kings armie but of 15000.]

For that by the armes in the scale it may the better be knowne of
what stem this noble man sproong (a matter which this storie séemes
iustlie to require) vnderstand yée thus were the same. In his shield, a
cheuorne charged with a mullet; his crest, a swans head couped betwéene
two wings displaced all out of a crowne supported by two greihounds;
about the shéeld ingraven, Signa Hugonis de Stafford militis. Héereby
is gathered that he was a third brother of the duke of Buckingham
house. This feat thus well doone, the king the same daie found a
shallow, betwéene Corbie and Peron, which neuer was espied before, at
which he with his armie and carriages the night insuing, passed the
water of Some without let or danger, and therewith determined to make
haste towards Calis, and not to séeke for battell, except he were
thereto constrained, bicause that his armie by sicknesse was sore
diminished, in so much that he had but onelie two thoussand horssemen
and thirtéene thousand archers, bilmen, and of all sorts of other
footmen.

[Sidenote: The English armie sore afflicted.]

[Sidenote: Iustice in warre.]

[Sidenote: Note the force of iustice.]

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

The Englishmen were brought into some distresse in this iornie, by
reason of their vittels in maner spent, and no hope to get more: for
the enimies had destroied all the corne before they came. Rest could
they none take, for their enimies with alarmes did euer so infest them:
dailie it rained, and nightlie it fréesed: of fuell there was great
scarsitie, of fluxes plentie: monie inough, but wares for their reléefe
to bestow it on, had they none. Yet in this great necessitie, the poore
people of the countrie were not spoiled, nor anie thing taken of them
without paiment, nor anie outrage or offense doone by the Englishmen,
except one, which was, that a souldier tooke a pix out of a church,
for which he was apprehended, and the king not once remooued till
the box was restored, and the offendor strangled. The people of the
countries thereabout, hearing of such zeale in him, to the maintenance
of iustice, ministred to his armie victuals, and other necessaries,
although by open proclamation so to doo they were prohibited.

[Sidenote: The French king c[=o]sulteth how to deale with the
Englishmen.]

[Sidenote: Dolphin king of Sicill.]

[Sidenote: The French k. sendeth defiance to king Henrie.]

[Sidenote: K. Henries answer to the defiance.]

The French king being at Rone, and hearing that king Henrie was passed
the riuer of Some, was much displeased therewith, and assembling his
councell to the number of fiue and thirtie, asked their aduise what
was to be doone. There was amongst these fiue and thirtie, his sonne
the Dolphin, calling himselfe king of Sicill; the dukes of Berrie and
Britaine, the earle of Pontieu the kings yoongest sonne, and other high
estates. At length thirtie of them agréed, that the Englishmen should
not depart vnfought withall, and fiue were of a contrarie opinion,
but the greater number ruled the matter: and so Montioy king at armes
was sent to the king of England to defie him as the enimie of France,
and to tell him that he should shortlie haue battell. King Henrie
aduisedlie answered: "Mine intent is to doo as it pleaseth God, I will
not séeke your maister at this time; but if he or his séeke me, I will
méet with them God willing. If anie of your nation attempt once to stop
me in my iournie now towards Calis, at their ieopardie be it; and yet
I wish not anie of you so vnaduised, as to be the occasion that I die
your tawnie ground with your red bloud."

When he had thus answered the herald, he gaue him a princelie reward,
and licence to depart. Vpon whose returne, with this answer, it was
incontinentlie on the French side proclamed, that all men of warre
should resort to the constable to fight with the king of England.
Wherevpon, all men apt for armor and desirous of honour, drew them
toward the field. The Dolphin, sore desired to haue béene at the
battell, but he was prohibited by his father: likewise Philip earle of
Charolois would gladlie haue béene there, if his father the duke of
Burgognie would haue suffered him: manie of his men stale awaie, and
went to the Frenchmen. The king of England hearing that the Frenchmen
approched, and that there was an other riuer for him to passe with
his armie by a bridge, and doubting least if the same bridge should
be broken, it would be greatlie to his hinderance, appointed certeine
capteins with their bands, to go thither with all spéed before him,
and to take possession thereof, and so to kéepe it, till his comming
thither.

[Sidenote: King Henrie rideth foorth to take view of the French armie.]

Those that were sent, finding the Frenchmen busie to breake downe their
bridge, assailed them so vigorouslie, that they discomfited them, and
tooke and slue them; and so the bridge was preserued till the king
came, and passed the riuer by the same with his whole armie. This was
on the two and twentith day of October. The duke of Yorke that led the
vauntgard (after the armie was passed the riuer) mounted vp to the
heigth of an hill with his people, and sent out scowts to discouer the
countrie, the which vpon their returne aduertised him, that a great
armie of Frenchmen was at hand, approching towards them. The duke
declared to the king what he had heard, and the king therevpon, without
all feare or trouble of mind, caused the battell which he led himselfe
to staie, and incontinentlie rode foorth to view his aduersaries, and
that doone, returned to his people, and with chéerefull countenance
caused them to be put in order of battell, assigning to euerie capteine
such roome and place, as he thought conuenient, and so kept them still
in that order till night was come, and then determined to séeke a place
to incampe & lodge his armie in for that night.

[Sidenote: The number of the French m[=e] thrée score thousand.]

[Sidenote: _Enguerant._]

There was not one amongst them that knew any certeine place whither
to go, in that vnknowne countrie: but by chance they happened vpon a
beaten waie, white in sight; by the which they were brought vnto a
little village, where they were refreshed with meat and drinke somewhat
more plenteouslie than they had béene diuerse daies before. Order was
taken by commandement from the king after the armie was first set in
battell arraie, that no noise or clamor should be made in the host;
so that in marching foorth to this village, euerie man kept himselfe
quiet: but at their comming into the village, fiers were made to giue
light on euerie side, as there likewise were in the French host,
which was incamped not past two hundred and fiftie pases distant from
the English. The chéefe leaders of the French host were these: the
constable of France, the marshall, the admerall, the lord Rambures
maister of the crosbowes, and other of the French nobilitie, which came
and pitched downe their standards and banners in the countie of saint
Paule, within the territorie of Agincourt, hauing in their armie (as
some write) to the number of thréescore thousand horssemen, besides
footmen, wagoners and other.

[Sidenote: The battell of Agincourt, the 25 of October, 1415.]

They were lodged euen in the waie by the which the Englishmen must
néeds passe towards Calis, and all that night after their comming
thither, made great cheare, and were verie merie, pleasant, and full
of game. The Englishmen also for their parts were of good comfort, and
nothing abashed of the matter, and yet they were both hungrie, wearie,
sore trauelled, and vexed with manie cold diseases. Howbeit reconciling
themselues with God by hoossell and shrift, requiring assistance at
his hands that is the onelie giuer of victorie, they determined rather
to die, than to yéeld, or flée. The daie following was the fiue and
twentith of October in the yeare 1415, being then fridaie, and the
feast of Crispine and Crispinian, a daie faire and fortunate to the
English, but most sorrowfull and vnluckie to the French.

[Sidenote: The order of the French armie.]

In the morning, the French capteins made thrée battels, in the vaward
were eight thousand healmes of knights and esquiers, foure thousand
archers, and fiftéene hundred crosbowes which were guided by the lord
de la Breth, constable of France, hauing with him the dukes of Orleance
and Burbon, the earles of Ewe and Richmond, the marshall Bouciquault,
and the maister of the crosbowes, the lord Dampier admerall of France,
and other capteins. The earle of Vandosme with sixtéene hundred men of
armes were ordered for a wing to that battell. And the other wing was
guided by sir Guichard Dolphine, sir Clugnet of Brabant, and sir Lewes
Bourdon, with eight hundred men of armes, of elect chosen persons. And
to breake the shot of the Englishmen, were appointed sir Guilliam de
Saueuses, with Hector and Philip his brethren, Ferrie de Maillie, and
Allen de Gaspanes, with other eight hundred of armes.

[Sidenote: As manie in the battell.]

[Sidenote: The French estéemed six to one English.]

In the middle ward, were assigned as manie persons, or more, as were in
the formost battell, and the charge thereof was committed to the dukes
of Bar and Alanson, the earles of Neuers, Vaudemont, Blamont, Salinges,
Grant Prée, & of Russie. And in the rereward were all the other men
of armes guided by the earles of Marle, Dampmartine, Fauconberg, and
the lord of Lourreie capteine of Arde, who had with him the men of
the frontiers of Bolonois. Thus the Frenchmen being ordered vnder
their standards and banners, made a great shew: for suerlie they were
estéemed in number six times as manie or more, than was the whole
companie of the Englishmen, with wagoners, pages and all. They rested
themselues, waiting for the bloudie blast of the terrible trumpet,
till the houre betwéene nine and ten of the clocke of the same daie,
during which season, the constable made vnto the capteins and other
men of warre a pithie oration, exhorting and incouraging them to doo
valiantlie, with manie comfortable words and sensible reasons. King
Henrie also like a leader, and not as one led; like a souereigne, and
not an inferior, perceiuing a plot of ground verie strong & méet for
his purpose, which on the backe halfe was fensed with the village,
wherein he had lodged the night before, and on both sides defended with
hedges and bushes, thought good there to imbattell his host, and so
ordered his men in the same place, as he saw occasion, and as stood for
his most aduantage.

[Sidenote: The order of the English armie and archers.]

[Sidenote: The vaward all of archers.]

First he sent priuilie two hundred archers into a lowe medow, which
was néere to the vauntgard of his enimies; but separated with a great
ditch, commanding them there to kéepe themselues close till they had a
token to them giuen, to let driue at their aduersaries: beside this, he
appointed a vaward, of the which he made capteine Edward duke of Yorke,
who of an haultie courage had desired that office, and with him were
the lords Beaumont, Willoughbie, and Fanhope, and this battell was all
of archers. The middle ward was gouerned by the king himselfe, with his
brother the duke of Glocester, and the earles of Marshall, Oxenford,
and Suffolke, in the which were all the strong bilmen. The duke of
Excester vncle to the king led the rereward, which was mixed both with
bilmen and archers. The horssemen like wings went on euerie side of the
battell.

[Sidenote: Archers the greatest force of the English armie.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Fabian_ pag. 392 and _Polychron._]

[Sidenote: A politike inuention.]

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

Thus the king hauing ordered his battels, feared not the puissance of
his enimies, but yet to prouide that they should not with the multitude
of horssemen breake the order of his archers, in whome the force of
his armie consisted [¶ For in those daies the yeomen had their lims
at libertie, sith their hosen were then fastened with one point, and
their iackes long and easie to shoot in; so that they might draw bowes
of great strength, and shoot arrowes of a yard long; beside the head]
he caused stakes bound with iron sharpe at both ends, of the length of
fiue or six foot to be pitched before the archers, and of ech side the
footmen like an hedge, to the intent that if the barded horsses ran
rashlie vpon them, they might shortlie be gored and destroied. Certeine
persons also were appointed to remooue the stakes, as by the mooueing
of the archers occasion and time should require, so that the footmen
were hedged about with stakes, and the horssemen stood like a bulwarke
betwéene them and their enimies, without the stakes. This deuise of
fortifieng an armie, was at this time first inuented: but since that
time they haue deuised caltraps, harrowes, and other new engins against
the force of horssemen; so that if the enimies run hastilie vpon the
same, either are their horsses wounded with the stakes, or their féet
hurt with the other engins, so as thereby the beasts are gored, or else
made vnable to mainteine their course.

[Sidenote: K. Henries oration to his men.]

King Henrie, by reason of his small number of people to fill vp his
battels, placed his vauntgard so on the right hand of the maine
battell, which himselfe led, that the distance betwixt them might
scarse be perceiued, and so in like case was the rereward ioined on
the left hand, that the one might the more readilie succour an other
in time of néed. When he had thus ordered his battels, he left a small
companie to kéepe his campe and cariage, which remained still in the
village, and then calling his capteins and soldiers about him, he made
to them a right graue oration, moouing them to plaie the men, whereby
to obteine a glorious victorie, as there was hope certeine they should,
the rather if they would but remember the iust cause for which they
fought, and whome they should incounter, such faintharted people as
their ancestors had so often ouercome. To conclude, manie words of
courage he vttered, to stirre them to doo manfullie, assuring them that
England should neuer be charged with his ransome, nor anie Frenchman
triumph ouer him as a captiue; for either by famous death or glorious
victorie would he (by Gods grace) win honour and fame.

[Sidenote: A wish.]

[Sidenote: A noble courage of a valiant prince.]

It is said that as he heard one of host vtter his wish to another thus:
"I would to God there were with vs now so manie good soldiers as are
at this houre within England! the king answered: I would not wish a
man more here than I haue, we are indéed in comparison to the enimies
but a few, but, if God of his clemencie doo fauour vs, and our iust
cause (as I trust he will) we shall spéed well inough. But let no man
ascribe victorie to our owne strength and might, but onelie to Gods
assistance, to whome I haue no doubt we shall worthilie haue cause to
giue thanks therefore. And if so be that for our offenses sakes we
shall be deliuered into the hands of our enimies, the lesse number we
be, the lesse damage shall the realme of England susteine: but if, we
should fight in trust of multitude of men, and so get the victorie (our
minds being prone to pride) we should thervpon peraduenture ascribe
the victorie not so much to the gift of God, as to our owne puissance,
and thereby prouoke his high indignation and displeasure against vs:
and if the enimie get the vpper hand, then should our realme and
countrie suffer more damage and stand in further danger. But be you of
good comfort, and shew your selues valiant, God and our iust quarrell
shall defend vs, and deliuer these our proud aduersaries with all the
multitude of them which you sée (or at the least the most of them) into
our hands." Whilest the king was yet thus in spéech, either armie so
maligned the other, being as then in open sight, that eueris man cried;
Forward, forward. The dukes of Clarence, Glocester, and Yorke, were of
the same opinion, yet the king staied a while, least anie ieopardie
were not foreséene, or anie hazard not preuented. The Frenchmen in the
meane while, as though they had béene sure of victorie, made great
triumph, for the capteins had determined before, how to diuide the
spoile, and the soldiers the night before had plaid the Englishmen
at dice. The noble men had deuised a chariot, wherein they might
triumphantlie conueie the king captiue to the citie of Paris, crieng
to their soldiers; Haste you to the spoile, glorie and honor; little
wéening (God wot) how soone their brags should be blowne awaie.

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

Here we may not forget how the French thus in their iolitie, sent
an herald to king Henrie, to inquire what ransome he would offer.
Wherevnto he answered, that within two or thrée houres he hoped it
would so happen, that the Frenchmen should be glad to common rather
with the Englishmen for their ransoms, than the English to take thought
for their deliuerance, promising for his owne part, that his dead
carcasse should rather be a prize to the Frenchmen, than that his
liuing bodie should paie anie ransome. When the messenger was come
backe to the French host, the men of warre put on their helmets, and
caused their trumpets to blow to the battell. They thought themselues
so sure of victorie, that diuerse of the noble men made such hast
towards the battell, that they left manie of their seruants and men
of warre behind them, and some of them would not once staie for their
standards: as amongst other the duke of Brabant, when his standard was
not come, caused a baner to be taken from a trumpet and fastened to a
speare, the which he commanded to be borne before him in stéed of his
standard.

But when both these armies comming within danger either of other,
set in full order of battell on both sides, they stood still at the
first, beholding either others demeanor, being not distant in sunder
past thrée bow shoots. And when they had on both parts thus staied a
good while without dooing anie thing, (except that certeine of the
French horsemen aduancing forwards, betwixt both the hosts, were by the
English archers constreined to returne backe) aduise was taken amongst
the Englishmen, what was best for them to doo. Therevpon all things
considered, it was determined, that sith the Frenchmen would not come
forward, the king with his armie imbattelled (as yée haue hard) should
march towards them, and so leauing their trusse and baggage in the
village where they lodged the night before, onelie with their weapons,
armour, and stakes prepared for the purpose, as yée haue heard.

[Sidenote: The English gaue the onset.]

[Sidenote: The two armies ioine battell.]

These made somewhat forward, before whome there went an old knight sir
Thomas Erpingham (a man of great experience in the warre) with a warder
in his hand; and when he cast vp his warder, all the armie shouted,
but that was a signe to the archers in the medow, which therwith shot
wholie altogither at the vauward of the Frenchmen, who when they
perceiued the archers in the medow, and saw they could not come at
them for a ditch that was betwixt them, with all hast set vpon the
fore ward of king Henrie, but yer they could ioine, the archers in the
forefront, and the archers on that side which stood in the medow, so
wounded the footmen, galled the horsses, and combred the men of armes,
that the footmen durst not go forward, the horssemen ran togither
vp[=o] plumps without order, some ouerthrew such as were next them,
and the horsses ouerthrew their masters, and so at the first ioining,
the Frenchmen were foulie discomforted, and the Englishmen highlie
incouraged.

[Sidenote: The vauward of the French discomfited.]

[Sidenote: Their battell beaten.]

When the French vauward was thus brought to confusion, the English
archers cast awaie their bowes, & tooke into their hands, axes, malls,
swords, bils, and other hand-weapons, and with the same slue the
Frenchmen, vntil they came to the middle ward. Then approched the king,
and so incouraged his people, that shortlie the second battell of the
Frenchmen was ouerthrowne, and dispersed, not without great slaughter
of men: howbeit, diuerse were reléeued by their varlets, and conueied
out of the field. The Englishmen were so busied in fighting, and taking
of the prisoners at hand, that they followed not in chase of their
enimies, nor would once breake out of their arraie of battell. Yet
sundrie of the Frenchmen stronglie withstood the fiercenesse of the
English, when they came to handie strokes, so that the fight sometime
was doubtfull and perillous. Yet as part of the French horssemen set
their course to haue entered vpon the kings battell, with the stakes
ouerthrowne, they were either taken or slaine. Thus this battell
continued thrée long houres.

[Sidenote: A valiant king.]

[Sidenote: The French rereward discomfited.]

The king that daie shewed himselfe a valiant knight, albeit almost
felled by the duke of Alanson; yet with plaine strength he slew two of
the dukes companie, and felled the duke himselfe; whome when he would
haue yelded, the kings gard (contrarie to his mind) slue out of hand.
In conclusion, the king minding to make an end of that daies iornie,
caused his horssemen to fetch a compasse about, and to ioine with him
against the rereward of the Frenchmen, in the which was the greatest
number of people. When the Frenchmen perceiued his intent, they were
suddenlie amazed and ran awaie like shéepe, without order or arraie.
Which when the king perceiued, he incouraged his men, and followed so
quickelie vpon the enimies, that they ran hither and thither, casting
awaie their armour: manie on their knées desired to haue their liues
saued.

[Sidenote: The kings campe robbed.]

In the meane season, while the battell thus continued, and that the
Englishmen had taken a great number of prisoners, certeine Frenchmen on
horssebacke, whereof were capteins Robinet of Borneuille, Rifflart of
Clamas, Isambert of Agincourt, and other men of armes, to the number
of six hundred horssemen, which were the first that fled, hearing that
the English tents & pauillions were a good waie distant from the armie,
without anie sufficient gard to defend the same, either vpon a couetous
meaning to gaine by the spoile, or vpon a desire to be reuenged, entred
vpon the kings campe, and there spoiled the hails, robbed the tents,
brake vp chests, and carried awaie caskets, and slue such seruants as
they found to make anie resistance. For which treason and haskardie
in thus leauing their camp at the very point of fight, for winning of
spoile where none to defend it, verie manie were after committed to
prison, and had lost their liues, if the Dolphin had longer liued.

[Sidenote: All the prisoners slaine.]

But when the outcrie of the lackies and boies, which ran awaie for
feare of the Frenchmen thus spoiling the campe, came to the kings
eares, he doubting least his enimies should gather togither againe, and
begin a new field; and mistrusting further that the prisoners would be
an aid to his enimies, or the verie enimies to their takers in déed if
they were suffered to liue, contrarie to his accustomed gentleness,
commanded by sound of trumpet, that euerie man (vpon paine of death)
should incontinentlie slaie his prisoner. When this dolorous decrée,
and pitifull proclamation was pronounced, pitie it was to sée how some
Frenchmen were suddenlie sticked with daggers, some were brained with
pollaxes, some slaine with malls, other had their throats cut, and
some their bellies panched, so that in effect, hauing respect to the
great number, few prisoners were saued.

[Sidenote: A fresh onset.]

[Sidenote: A right wise and valiant challenge of the king.]

When this lamentable slaughter was ended, the Englishmen disposed
themselues in order of battell, readie to abide a new field, and
also to inuade, and newlie set on their enemies, with great force
they assailed the carles of Marie and Fauconbridge, and the lords of
Louraie, and of Thine, with six hundred men of armes, who had all that
daie kept togither, but now slaine and beaten downe out of hand. ¶ Some
write, that the king perceiuing his enimies in one part to assemble
togither, as though they meant to giue a new battell for preseruation
of the prisoners, sent to them an herald, commanding them either to
depart out of his sight, or else to come forward at once, and giue
battel: promising herewith, that if they did offer to fight againe, not
onelie those prisoners which his people alreadie had taken; but also so
manie of them as in this new conflict, which they thus attempted should
fall into his hands, should die the death without redemption.

[Sidenote: Thanks giuen to God for the victorie.]

[Sidenote: A woorthie example of a godlie prince.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

The Frenchmen fearing the sentence of so terrible a decrée, without
further delaie parted out of the field. And so about foure of the
clocke in the after noone, the king when he saw no appearance of
enimies, caused the retreit to be blowen; and gathering his armie
togither, gaue thanks to almightie God for so happie a victorie,
causing his prelats and chapleins to sing this psalme: In exitu Israel
de Aegypto, and commanded euerie man to knéele downe on the ground at
this verse: Non nobis Domine, non nobis, sed nomini tuo da gloriam.
Which doone, he caused Te Deum, with certeine anthems to be soong,
giuing laud and praise to God, without boasting of his owne force
or anie humane power. That night he and his people tooke rest, and
refreshed themsleues with such victuals as they found in the French
campe, but lodged in the same village where he laie the night before.

[Sidenote: The battell of Agincourt.]

In the morning, Montioie king at armes and foure other French heralds
came to the K. to know the number of prisoners, and to desire buriall
for the dead. Before he made them answer (to vnderstand what they
would saie) he demanded of them whie they made to him that request,
considering that he knew not whether the victorie was his or theirs?
When Montioie by true and iust confession had cléered that doubt to
the high praise of the king, he desired of Montioie to vnderstand the
name of the castell néere adioining: when they had told him that it
was called Agincourt, he said, Then shall this conflict be called the
battell of Agincourt. He feasted the French officers of armes that
daie, and granted them their request, which busilie sought throngh the
field for such as were slaine. But the Englishmen suffered them not to
go alone, for they searched with them, & found manie hurt, but not in
ieopardie of their liues, whom they tooke prisoners, and brought them
to their tents. When the king of England had well refreshed himselfe,
and his souldiers, that had taken the spoile of such as were slaine, he
with his prisoners in good order returned to his towne of Calis.

[Sidenote: The same day that the new maior went to Westminster to
receiue his oth, the aduertisement of this noble victorie came to the
citie in the morning betimes yer men were vp from their beds.]

[Sidenote: _Register of maiors._]

[Sidenote: Thrée graues that held fiue thousand and eight hundred
corpses.]

When tidings of this great victorie was blowne into England, solemne
processions and other praisings to almightie God with boune-fires and
ioifull triumphes, were ordeined in euerie towne, citie, and burrow,
and the maior & citizens of London went the morow after the daie of
saint Simon and Iude from the church of saint Paule to the church of
saint Peter at Westminster in deuout maner, rendring to God hartie
thanks for such fortunate lucke sent to the king and his armie. The
same sundaie that the king remooued from the campe at Agincourt towards
Calis, diuerse Frenchmen came to the field to view againe the dead
bodies; and the pezants of the countrie spoiled the carcasses of all
such apparell and other things as the Englishmen had left: who tooke
nothing but gold and siluer, iewels, rich apparell and costlie armour.
But the plowmen and pezants left nothing behind, neither shirt nor
clout: so that the bodies laie starke naked vntill wednesdaie. On the
which daie diuerse of the noble men were conueied into their countries,
and the remnant were by Philip earle Charolois (sore lamenting the
chance, and mooued with pitie) at his costs & charges buried in a
square plot of ground of fiftéene hundred yards; in the which he caused
to be made thrée pits, wherein were buried by account fiue thousand
and eight hundred persons, beside them that were caried awaie by their
fréends and seruants, and others, which being wounded died in hospitals
and other places.

After this their dolorous iournie & pitifull slaughter, diuerse clearks
of Paris made manie a lamentable verse, complaining that the king
reigned by will, and that councellors were parciall, affirming that the
noble men fled against nature, and that the commons were destroied by
their prodigalitie, declaring also that the cleargie were dumbe, and
durst not saie the truth, and that the humble commons dulie obeied, &
yet euer suffered punishment, for which cause by diuine persecution the
lesse number vanquished the greater: wherefore they concluded, that
all things went out of order, and yet was there no man that studied to
bring the vnrulie to frame. It was no maruell though this battell was
lamentable to the French nation, for in it were taken and slaine the
flower of all the nobilitie of France.

[Sidenote: Noble men prisoners.]

[Sidenote: The number slaine on the French part.]

There were taken prisoners, Charles duke of Orleance nephue to the
French king, Iohn duke of Burbon, the lord Bouciqualt one of the
marshals of France (he after died in England) with a number of other
lords, knights, and esquiers, at the least fiftéene hundred, besides
the common people. There were slaine in all of the French part to the
number of ten thousand men, whereof were princes and noble men bearing
baners one hundred twentie and six; to these of knights, esquiers, and
gentlemen, so manie as made vp the number of eight thousand and foure
hundred (of the which fiue hundred were dubbed knights the night before
the battell) so as of the meaner sort, not past sixtéene hundred.
Amongst those of the nobilitie that were slaine, these were the
chéefest, Charles lord de la Breth high constable of France, Iaques of
Chatilon lord of Dampier admerall of France, the lord Rambures master
of the crossebowes, sir Guischard Dolphin great master of France,
Iohn duke of Alanson, Anthonie duke of Brabant brother to the duke of
Burgognie, Edward duke of Bar, the earle of Neuers an other brother to
the duke of Burgognie, with the erles of Marle, Vaudemont, Beaumont,
Grandprée, Roussie, Fauconberge, Fois and Lestrake, beside a great
number of lords and barons of name.

[Sidenote: Englishmen slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. Grafton. Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Anglorum prælijs sub Henr. 5._]

Of Englishmen, there died at this battell, Edward duke Yorke, the earle
of Suffolke, sir Richard Kikelie, and Dauie Gamme esquier, and of all
other not aboue fiue and twentie persons, as some doo report; but other
writers of greater credit affirme, that there were slaine aboue fiue
or six hundred persons. Titus Liuius saith, that there were slaine of
Englishmen, beside the duke of Yorke, and the earle of Suffolke, an
hundred persons at the first incounter. The duke of Glocester the kings
brother was sore wounded about the hips, and borne downe to the ground,
so that he fell backwards, with his féet towards his enimies, whom the
king bestrid, and like a brother valiantlie rescued from his enimies,
& so sauing his life, caused him to be conueied out of the fight, into
a place of more safetie. ¶ The whole order of this conflict which cost
manie a mans life, and procured great bloudshed before it was ended, is
liuelie described in Anglorum prælijs; where also, besides the manner
of disposing the armies, with the exploits on both sides, the number
also of the slaine, not much differing (though somewhat) from the
account here named, is there touched, which remembrance verie fit for
this place, it were an errour (I thinke) to omit; and therefore here
inserted (with the shortest) as followeth.

    ---- equitatus ordine primo,
    Magnanimi satrapæ, post hos cecidere secundo
    Nauarræ comes, & tuus archiepiscopus (ô Sans)
    Præterea comites octo periere cruentis
    Vulneribus, trita appellant quos voce barones
    Plus centum, clari generis plus mille cadebant
    Sexcenti, notiq; decem plus millia vulgi
    Ex Francorum, ter centum perdidit Anglus:
    Et penes Henricum belli victoria mansit.

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

After that the king of England had refreshed himselfe, and his people
at Calis, and that such prisoners as he had left at Harflue (as ye
haue heard) were come to Calis vnto him, the sixt daie of Nouember,
he with all his prisoners tooke shipping, and the same daie landed at
Douer, hauing with him the dead bodies of the duke of Yorke, and the
earle of Suffolke, and caused the duke to be buried at his colledge
of Fodringhey, and the earle at new Elme. In this passage, the seas
were so rough and troublous that two ships belonging to sir Iohn
Cornewall, lord Fanhope, were driuen into Zeland; howbeit, nothing was
lost, nor any person perisht. ¶ The maior of London, and the aldermen,
apparelled in orient grained scarlet, and foure hundred commoners clad
in beautifull murrie, well mounted, and trimlie horssed, with rich
collars, & great chaines, met the king on Blackheath, reioising at his
returne: and the clergie of London, with rich crosses, sumptuous copes,
and massie censers, receiued him at saint Thomas of Waterings with
solemne procession.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The great modestie of the king.]

[Sidenote: The death of the Dolphin of France.]

[Sidenote: Part of those that spoiled the English campe.]

The king like a graue and sober personage, and as one remembring from
whome all victories are sent, séemed little to regard such vaine pompe
and shewes as were in triumphant sort deuised for his welcomming home
from so prosperous a iournie, in so much that he would not suffer
his helmet to be caried with him, whereby might haue appeared to
the people the blowes and dints that were to be séene in the same;
neither would he suffer any ditties to be made and soong by minstrels
of his glorious victorie, for that he would wholie haue the praise
and thanks altogither giuen to God. The news of this bloudie battell
being reported to the French king as then soiourning at Rone, filled
the court full of sorrow. But to remedie such danger as was like to
insue, it was decréed by councell, to ordeine new officers in places
of them that were slaine: and first he elected his chiefe officer for
the wars, called the constable, the earle of Arminacke, a wise and
politike capteine, and an ancient enimie to the Englishmen. Sir Iohn de
Corsie was made maister of the crossebowes. Shortlie after, either for
melancholie that he had for the losse at Agincourt, or by some sudden
disease Lewes Dolphin of Viennois, heire apparant to the French king,
departed this life without issue, which happened well for Robinet of
Bourneuill, and his fellowes, as ye haue heard before, for his death
was their life, & his life would haue béene their death.

[Sidenote: 1416.]

[Sidenote: A sore conflict.]

After the French king had created new officers, in hope to relieue
the state of his realme and countrie, sore shaken by the late great
ouerthrow, it chanced, that Thomas duke of Excester capteine of
Harflue, accompanied with thrée thousand Englishmen, made a great rode
into Normandie, almost to the citie of Rone, in which iournie he got
great abundance both of riches and prisoners: but in his returne, the
earle of Arminacke newlie made constable of France, intending in his
first enterprise to win the spurs, hauing with him aboue fiue thousand
horssemen, incountred with the duke. The fight was handled on both
parts verie hotlie, but bicause the Englishmen were not able to resist
the force of the Frenchmen, the duke was constreined to retire with
losse at the least of thrée hundred of his footmen.

Howbeit being withdrawen into an orchard, which was stronglie fensed
and hedged about with thornes, the Frenchmen were not able to enter
vpon the Englishmen; but yet they tooke from them all their horsses
and spoile, & assaulted them till it was night, and then retired backe
to the towne, not far distant from the place where they fought, called
Vallemont: this was vpon the 14 day of March. In the morning vpon the
breake of the daie, the Englishmen issued foorth of the orchard, where
they had kept themselues all the night, & drew towards Harflue, wherof
the Frenchmen being aduertised, followed them, & ouertooke them vpon
the sands néere to Chiefe de Caux, and there set on them: but in the
end, the Frenchmen were discomfited, and a great number of them slaine
by the Englishmen, which afterwards returned without more adoo vnto
Harflue. The French writers blame the constable for this losse, bicause
he kept on the high ground with a number of men of war, and would not
come downe to aid his fellowes.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 4.]

[Sidenote: The emperor Sigismund commeth into England.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The strange manner of receiuing the emperour at Douer.]

In this fourth yeare of king Henries reigne, the emperour Sigismund,
coosine germane to king Henrie, came into England, to the intent that
he might make an attonement betwéene king Henrie and the French king:
with whom he had béene before, bringing with him the archbishop of
Remes, as ambassadour for the French king. At Calis he was honorablie
receiued by the earle of Warwike lord deputie there, and diuerse other
lords sent thither of purpose to attend him. Moreouer, the king sent
thither thirtie great ships to bring him and his traine ouer. At Douer
the duke of Glocester, and diuerse other lords were readie to receiue
him, who at his approching to land, entered the water with their swords
in their hands drawen; and by the mouth of the said duke declared to
him, that if he intended to enter the land as the kings fréend, and
as a mediator to intreat for peace, he should be suffered to arriue:
but if he would enter as an emperour into a land claimed to be vnder
his empire, then were they readie to resist him. This was thought
necessarie to be doone for sauing of the kings prerogatiue, who hath
full preheminence within his owne realme, as an absolute emperour.

[Sidenote: Albert duke of Holland c[=o]meth into England.]

When the emperour herevpon answered that he was come as the kings
fréend, and as a mediator for peace, and not with any imperiall
authoritie, he was of the duke and other his associats receiued with
all such honor as might be deuised. The king with all his nobilitie
receiued him on Blackheath the seuenth day of Maie, and brought him
through London to Westminster with great triumph. Shortlie after
there came also into England Albert duke of Holland, who was likewise
fréendlie interteined. Both these princes, the emperour and the duke of
Holland were conueied to Windsore to saint Georges feast, and elected
companions of the noble order of the garter, and had the collar and
habit of the same to them deliuered, and sat in their stals all the
solemnitie of the feast. Shortlie after that the feast was finished,
the duke of Holland returned into his countrie; but the emperour
tarried still, and assaied all maner of meanes to persuade the king to
a peace with the Frenchmen.

[Sidenote: The emperor an earnest mediator for peace.]

[Sidenote: Harflue besieged by the French.]

But their euill hap, as they that were appointed by Gods prouidence
to suffer more damage at the Englishmens hands, would not permit his
persuasions to take place: for whereas peace was euen almost entring in
at the gates, the king was suddenlie stirred to displeasure vpon a new
occasion, for he being aduertised of the losse of his men at the late
conflict in the territorie of Rone (as ye haue heard) refused to heare
this word peace once named. The emperour like a wise prince passed
ouer that time till another season, that some fauourable aspect of the
planets should séeme to further his purpose. And when he thought the
same was come, he broched againe the vessell of concord and amitie,
which he put in so faire a cup, and presented it with such effectuous
words, that suerlie the king had tasted it, if word had not béen
brought about the same time that Harflue was besieged of the French
both by water and land, as it was in déed: for the constable of France
incouraged by his last conflict (though the same was not much to his
praise) assembled an armie, and vpon a sudden laid siege to the towne.
At the same instant Iohn vicount of Narbon the vice-admerall of France,
brought the whole nauie to the riuage and shore adioining to the towne,
in purpose to haue entered by the waterside; but the duke of Excester
defeated his intent, and defended the towne verie manfullie.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: A great ouerthrow by sea giuen to the French by the duke of
Bedford.]

King Henrie aduertised hereof, meant at the first to haue gone with his
nauie in person to the succors of his men; but the emperor dissuaded
him from that purpose, aduising him rather to send some one of his
capteins. The king following his louing and reasonable aduertisement,
appointed his brother the duke of Bedford accompanied with the earles
of March, Marshall, Oxford, Huntington, Warwike, Arundell, Salisburie,
Deuonshire, and diuerse barons, with two hundred saile, to passe into
Normandie, for rescue of the towne of Harflue; which vsing great
diligence shipped at Rie, and after some hinderance by contrarie
winds, at length came to the mouth of the riuer of Seine on the daie
of the Assumption of our ladie. When the vicount of Narbon perceiued
the English nauie to approch, he couragiouslie set forward, and gat
the possession of the mouth of the hauen. The duke of Bedford séeing
his enimies thus fiercelie to come forward, set before certeine strong
ships which at the first incounter vanquished and tooke two French
ships, the capteins whereof were too rash and forward.

[Sidenote: The French nauie of fiue hundred vessels vanquished.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: Harflue rescued by the Englishmen.]

The duke followed with all his puissance, and set on his enimies. The
fight was long, but not so long as perillous, nor so perillous as
terrible (for battels on the sea are desperate) till at length the
victorie fell to the Englishmen, so that almost all the whole nauie of
France, in the which were manie ships, hulkes, carikes, and other small
vessels, to the number of fiue was sunke & taken. Amongst other vessels
that were taken, thrée great carikes of Genoa, a citie in Italie, were
sent into England. In the same conflict were slaine of the Frenchmen
no small number, as appeared by the dead bodies, which were séene
euerie daie swimming about the English ships. After this, the duke of
Bedford sailed vp to Harflue, & refreshed the towne both with vittels
and monie; notwitstanding certeine other French gallies did what they
could to haue letted that enterprise. When the earle of Arminacke heard
that the puissant name of France was vanquished, he raised his siege &
returned to Paris.

[Sidenote: Ciuill discord amongst the nobles of France.]

[Sidenote: Charles the French king not of sound memorie.]

After this discomfiture and losse, the puissance of the Frenchmen began
to decaie, for now the princes and nobles of the realme fell into
diuision and discord among themselues, studieng how to reuenge their
old priuat iniuries, & refused to take paine for succour of the publike
weale and safegard of their countrie: wherevpon their power began to
wax slender, their state brought into imminent danger of perpetuall
bondage; which thing no doubt had fallen vpon them if king Henrie
had longer liued. For as vpon once inconuenience suffered, manie doo
follow, so was it in France at that time: for the king was not of sound
memorie, the warre that was toward both doubtfull and perillous: the
princes vntrustie and at discord: with a hundred things more (which
might bring a realme to ruine) out of frame and order in France in
those daies. After that the duke of Bedford was returned backe againe
into England with great triumph and glorie, he was not so much thanked
of the king his brother, as praised of the emperour Sigismund, being
to him a stranger, which said openlie, that happie are those subiects
which haue such a king, but more happie is the king that hath such
subiects.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The emperor entereth into league with king Henrie.]

[Sidenote: The c[=o]tents of the league.]

When the emperor perceiued that it was in vaine to mooue further for
peace, he left off that treatie, and entered himselfe into a league
with king Henrie, the contents of which league consisted chéeflie in
these articles, that both the said emperour and king, their heires, and
successors, should be fréends ech to other, as alies and confederats
against all manner of persons, of what estate or dégrée so euer they
were (the church of Rome, and the pope for that time being onlie
excepted) and that neither they, nor their heires, nor successors
should be present in councell or other place, where either of them,
or his heires or successors might susteine damage, in lands, goods,
honors, states, or persons: and that if anie of them should vnderstand
of losse or hinderance to be like to fall or happen to the others, they
should impeach the same, or if that laie not in their powers, they
should aduertise the others thereof with all conuenient spéed: and
that either of them, and their heires and successors should aduance the
others honor and commoditie without fraud or deceipt. Moreouer, that
neither of them, nor their heires and successors should permit their
subiects to leauie warres against the others, and that it should be
lawfull and frée for ech of their subiects, to passe into the others
countrie, and there to remaine and make merchandize, either by sea
or land, paieng the customes, gabels, and duties due and accustomed,
according to the lawes and ordinances of the places and countries where
they chanced to traffike.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

Furthermore, that neither of the said princes, nor their heires nor
successors should receiue any rebell, banished man, or traitor of the
others wittinglie; but should cause euerie such person to auoid out of
their countries, realmes, dominions, and iurisdictions. Againe, that
neither of the said princes, their heires, nor successors should begin
any wars against any other person, other than such as they had warres
with at that present, without consent of the other his confederate,
except in defence of themselues, their countries and subiects, in case
of inuasion made vpon them. Also, that it should be lawful for the
king of England, to prosecute his warres against the Frenchmen for
recouerie of his right, as should séeme to him expedient; and likewise
to the emperor, for recouerie of any part of his right in France, so
that neither of them did preiudice the others right in that behalfe.
Lastlie, that either of them should assist other, in recouerie &
conquest of their rights, lands, and dominions, occupied, withholden,
and kept from them, by him that called himselfe king of France, and
other the princes and barons of France. This aliance, with other
conditions, agréements, and articles, was concluded & established on
the ninetéenth daie of October, in the yeare of our Lord 1416. This
doone, the emperor returned homewards, to passe into Germanie; and
the king partlie to shew him honor, and partlie bicause of his owne
affaires, associated him to his towne of Calis.

[Sidenote: _Continuation de la chronicles de Flanders._]

[Sidenote: A truce betwéene the k. and the duke of Burgognie.]

During the time of their abode there, the duke of Burgognie offered to
come to Calis, to speake with the emperor and the king, bicause he had
knowledge of the league that was concluded betwixt them: the king sent
his brother the duke of Glocester, and the earle of March to the water
of Graueling, to be hostages for the duke of Burgognie: and also the
earle of Warwike, with a noble companie to conduct him to his presence.
At Graueling foord the dukes met, and after salutations doone, the duke
of Burgognie was conueied to Calis, where of the emperor and the king
he was highly welcomed and feasted. Here is to be noted, that in Iune
last, the king of England had sent the earle of Warwike, and other,
vnto the duke of Burgognie, as then remaining at Lisle, where by the
diligent trauell of those English ambassadors, a truce was concluded
betwixt the king of England and the duke of Burgognie, touching onelie
the counties of Flanders and Arthois, to indure from the feast of
saint Iohn Baptist in that present yeare 1416, vnto the feast of saint
Michaell, in the yeare next insuing. Which truce at the dukes being now
at Calis (when no further agréement could be concluded) was prolonged
vnto the feast of saint Michaell, that should be in the yeare 1419. The
duke of Glocester was receiued at Graueling, by the earle Charolois,
and by him honorablie conueied to saint Omers, and there lodged that
night.

The next day, the earle Charolois came with diuerse noble men, to
visit the duke of Glocester in his lodging, and when he entered into
the chamber, the dukes backe was towards him, talking with some one
of his seruants, and did not sée nor welcome the earle at his first
entrie; but after he said to him shortlie without any great reuerence,
or comming towards him; You be welcome faire cousine, and so passed
foorth his tale with his seruants. The earle Charolois for all his
youth, was not well content therewith, but yet suffered for that time.
When the duke of Burgognie had doone all his businesse at Calis, after
the ninth daie he returned to Graueling, where the duke of Glocester
and he met againe, and louinglie departed, the one to Calis, and the
other to saint Omers; for the which voiage the duke of Burgognie
was suspected to be enemie to the crowne of France. After the dukes
departing from Calis, the emperor was highlie feasted and rewarded, and
at his pleasure sailed into Holland, & so rode towards Beame. The king
likewise tooke ship, and returned into England on saint Lukes euen.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius. W. P._]

[Sidenote: The prerogatiue of the English nation in the generall
councell.]

About the same time, the king sent new ambassadors vnto the generall
councell, which still continued at Constance, whither the emperour
Sigismund also returned, chéefelie for chasing awaie of that pestilent
smoke of schisme then blasted vp betwéene Iohn the thrée and twentith,
Gregorie the twelfth, and Benet the thirtéenth (as they intituled
themselues) the thrée peruerse prelats, that all at once with such
eager malice stroue togither for the sacred sée of papasie Gods
vicarage (that was) who to be highest here in earth. The infectious
smother of this venemous vapor by the spirit of these holie men thus
raised vp thorough faction and parts taking, had béene readie to choke
all christendome, had not by the wisedome and authoritie of the princes
there, the same the sooner béene vented away. Here by the consent also
of all nations it was ordeined in this councell, that this realme
should haue the name of the English nation, and be called and reputed
for one of the fiue principall nations of the councell, which to grant
before that time, through enuie, other nations had vtterlie refused.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: The kings oration.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Bedford regent of England.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

The ninetéenth of October, the parlement that had béene broken vp,
by reason of the emperours comming, began againe at Westminster, and
there the king made to them a short and pithie oration, declaring the
iniuries latelie doone and committed by the French nation, shewing also
the iust and lawful occasion of his warres: signifieng furthermore the
great discord and ciuill dissention which reigned amongst the nobilitie
of France, rehearsing manie things, for the which it were necessarie to
follow the warres now in hand against them, and that without delaie. He
therefore desired them to prouide for monie and treasure, that nothing
should be wanting when néed required: his request héerein was granted,
for euerie man was willing and glad to further that voiage, so that the
cleargie granted two dismes, and the laitie a whole fiftéenth. In this
parlement also Iohn Duke of Bedford was made gouernour or regent of the
realme, to hold and enioie the office so long as the king was occupied
in the French wars. Moreouer, in this parlement, the king gaue to the
duke of Excester a thousand pounds by yeare, to be paid out of his owne
cofers; besides fortie pounds yearelie, which he was to receiue of the
towne of Excester, of the kings reuenues there, and had the same grant
confirmed by authoritie of the parlement, insomuch that some write,
that in this parlement he was made duke of Excester, and not before.

[Sidenote: Libels against the cleargie.]

[Sidenote: 1417]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 5.]

[Sidenote: _Tit. Liuius._]

The king kept his Christmasse at Killingworth, and the morrow after
Christmasse daie were certeine writings cast abroad, in great mens
houses, and almost in euerie inne within the townes of S. Albons,
Northampton, and Reading, conteining sharpe reproofes against all
estates of the church, and it could not be knowne from whence those
writings came, nor who was the author of them. The king verie
earnestlie procured all things to be made readie for the warre, meaning
to passe the next summer ouer into France, to recouer his right by
force, which by no other meane he saw how to obteine. ¶ In this meane
while had the Frenchmen hired a great number of Genowaies and Italians,
with certeine carickes and gallies well appointed, the which being
ioined with the French fléet, laie at the mouth of the riuer of Seine,
and vp within the same riuer, both to stop all succour by sea that
should come to them within Harflue, and also to waft abroad, and doo
what damage they could vnto the English, as occasion serued.

[Sidenote: A great exploit by sea doone by the earle of Huntington.]

[Sidenote: _Tit. Liuius._]

The king therefore yer he passed ouer himselfe, sent the erle of
Huntington to search and scowre the seas. This lustie earle, called
Iohn Holland (sonne to the earle of Huntington, otherwise called duke
of Excester, beheaded at Circester, in the time of king Henrie the
fourth, and cousine to the king) with a great nauie of ships searched
the sea, from the one coast to the other, and in conclusion incountred
with nine of those great carickes of Genes (the which the lord Iaques
the bastard of Burbon had reteined to serue the French king) and set on
them sharplie. The conflict was great, and the fight long (continuing
the more part of a summers daie) but in conclusion, the Frenchmen and
Italians were ouercome and fled. Thrée of the greatest caricks with
their patrons, and monsieur Iaques de Burbon their admerall were taken,
with as much monie as should haue paid the soldiers of the whole fléet
for halfe a yeare, and thrée other caricks were bowged.

[Sidenote: _Tit. Liuius._]

The earle returning backe with this good lucke, found the king at
Hampton, who receiued him with thankes, as he had well deserued.
Shortlie after, vpon the thrée and twentith of Iulie, the king tooke
his ship at Portesmouth, accompanied with the dukes of Clarence and
Glocester; the earls of Huntington, Marshall, Warwike, Deuonshire,
Salisburie, Suffolke, and Summerset; the lords Rosse, Willoughbie, Fitz
Hugh, Clinton, Scroope, Matreuers, Burchier, Ferreis of Grobie, and
Ferreis of Chartleie, Fanhope, Graie of Codnore, sir Gilbert Umfreuile,
sir Gilbert Talbot, and diuerse other; and so hauing wind and weather
to his desire, the first daie of August he landed in Normandie, néere
to a castell called Touque, where he consulted with his capteins, what
waie was best for him to take concerning his high enterprise.

[Sidenote: The number of the armie 16400, of his owne purueiance.]

[Sidenote: _Tit. Liuius._]

His armie conteined the number of sixtéene thousand and foure hundred
soldiers and men of warre of his owne purueiance, beside others. The
duke of Clarence had in his retinue a hundred lances, and thrée hundred
archers: and beside him, there were thrée earles, which had two hundred
and fortie lances, and seauentéene hundred and twentie archers. The
duke of Glocester foure hundred and seauentie lances, and fouretéene
hundred and ten archers. The earles of March, Marshall, Warwike,
and Salisburie, each of them one hundred lances; and thrée hundred
archers a péece. The earle of Huntington fortie lances, and six score
archers. The earle of Suffolke thirtie lances, and fourescore and ten
archers. Beside these, there were thirtéene lords, as Aburgauennie,
Matreuers, Fitz Hugh, Clifford, Graie, Willoughbie, Talbot, Courtnie,
Burchier, Roos, Louell, Ferrers of Chartlie, and Harington, the which
had in their retinue the number of fiue hundred and six lances, and
fiftéene hundred and fourescore archers. Also, there were in this armie
thréescore and seauentéene knights, which had vnder them nine hundred
and fortie fiue lances, and two thousand eight hundred and fiftie two
archers; so that in all, there were fiue and twentie thousand, fiue
hundred, and eight and twentie fighting men: of which number euerie
fourth man was a lance. Beside the soldiers and men of warre, there
were a thousand masons, carpenters, and other labourers.

[Sidenote: The Normans flée to the walled townes.]

[Sidenote: Touque castell beseiged by the Englishmen & taken.]

[Sidenote: Amberuilliers castell taken.]

The Normans hearing of the kings arriuall, were suddenlie striken with
such feare, that they fled out of their houses, leauing the townes and
villages, and with their wiues and children, bag and baggage, got them
into the walled townes, preparing there to defend themselues, & with
all spéed sent to the French king, requiring him to prouide for the
defense and preseruation of his louing subjects. Héerevpon, the men
of war were appointed to resort into the strong townes, to lie within
the same in garrisons, to resist the power of the Englishmen, so that
all the walled townes and castels in Normandie were furnished with
men, munition, and vittels. The king of England, when he had resolued
with his councell for his procéeding in his enterprises, laid siege
vnto the castell of Touque. The duke of Glocester that led the fore
ward, had the charge of that siege, the which by force of assaults,
and other warlike meanes, brought to that point, that they within
yéelded the place into his hands, the ninth daie of August. The earle
of Salisburie, who led the battell, tooke the castell of Amberuilliers,
the which was giuen to him by the king, and so this earle was the first
that had anie territorie giuen him of the king in this new conquest.
The king made at the winning of Touque eight and twentie knights, and
left sir Robert Kirkelie capteine there.

After this, on deliberate aduise taken how to procéed, the k. set
forward toward the towne of Caen in most warlike order, wasting the
countrie on euerie side as he passed. Which towne standeth in a
plaine fertile countrie, no stronger walled, than déepe ditched, and
as then well vittelled and replenished with people: for the citizens
fearing the kings comming, had there prouided all things necessarie
and defensible. But his maiestie doubting least the Frenchmen, vpon
their vnderstanding of his approch to the towne, would haue burned the
suburbs and buildings without the walles, sent the duke of Clarence
with a thousand men before him, to preuent that mischéefe. The duke
comming thither, found the suburbs alreadie set on fire, but vsed such
diligence to quench the same, that the most part was saued. He also wan
the abbeie church of saint Stephan, which the Frenchmen were in hand to
haue ouerthrowne, by vndermining the pillers; but the duke obteining
the place, filled vp the mines, and so preserued the church. He also
wan a cell of nunnes, verie stronglie fensed, after the manner of warre.

[Sidenote: Caen besieged.]

[Sidenote: _Tit. Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The order of the assault.]

Then came the king before the towne, who caused foorthwith to be cast
a déepe trench, with an high mount, to kéepe them within from issuing
foorth, and that doone, began fiercelie to assault the towne: but they
within stood manfullie to their defense, so that there was sore and
cruell fight betwixt them, and their enimies. But when king Henrie
perceiued that he lost more than he wan by his dailie assaults, he left
off anie more to assault it, and determined to ouerthrow the wals, with
vndermining. Wherefore with all diligence, the pioners cast trenches,
made mines, and brought timber: so that within a few daies, the wals
stood onelie vpon posts, readie to fall, when fire should be put to
them. The king meaning now to giue a generall assault, caused all the
capteins to assemble before him in councell, vnto whome he declared his
purpose, commanding them not before the next daie to vtter it; till
by sound of trumpet they should haue warning to set forward towards
the wals, least his determination being disclosed to the enimies,
might cause them to prouide the better for their owne defense. He also
prescribed vnto them, what order he would haue them to kéepe, in giuing
the assault, and that was this; that euerie capteine deuiding his band
into thrée seuerall portions, they might be readie one to succéed in an
others place, as those which fought should happilie be driuen backe and
repelled.

In the morning next following, being the fourth of September, somewhat
before the breake of the daie, he caused his people to approch the
wals, and to shew countenance, as though they would giue a generall
assault; and whilest they were busied in assailing and defending on
both sides, the Englishmen pearsed and brake thorough the wals by
diuerse holes and ouertures made by the pioners, vnder the foundation:
yet the king vpon diuerse respects, offered them within pardon of life
if they would yéeld themselues and the towne to his mercie; but they
refusing that to doo, the assault was newlie begun, and after sore
fight continued for the space of an houre, the Englishmen preuailed,
and slew so manie as they found with weapon in hand, readie to resist
them.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: Caen taken by the Englishmen.]

The duke of Clarence was the first that entred with his people, and
hauing got the one part of the towne, assailed them that kept the
bridge, & by force beating them backe, passed the same, and so came to
the wals on the other side of the towne, where the fight was sharpe
and fierce betwixt the assailants and defendants; but the duke with
his people setting on the Frenchmen behind, as they stood at defense
on the wals, easilie vanquished them, so that the Englishmen entred
at their pleasure. Thus when the king was possessed of the towne, he
incontinentlie commanded all armours & weapons of the vanquished, to be
brought into one place, which was immediatlie doone.

[Sidenote: Diuision of spoile.]

Then the miserable people came before the kings presence, and knéeling
on their knées, held vp their hands, and cried; Mercie, mercie: to
whome the king gaue certeine comfortable words, & bad them stand vp.
All the night following, he caused his armie to kéepe themselues in
order of battell within the towne, and on the next morning called all
the magistrats & gouernors of the towne to the senat house, where some
for their wilfull stubbornesse were adiudged to die, other were sore
fined and ransomed. Then he calling togither his souldiers and men of
warre, not onelie gaue them great praises and high commendations for
their manlie dooings, but also distributed to euerie man, according to
his desert, the spoile and game gotten in the towne, chéeflie bicause
at the assault they had shewed good proofe of their manhood and valiant
courages.

[Sidenote: The capteine of the castell held out.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: Caen castell yéelded.]

After that the towne was thus woone, the lord Montainie, capteine of
the castell, would not yéeld, but made semblance, as though he meant
to defend the place, to the vtterance: but after that he was sharplie
called vpon by king Henrie, either to yéeld it, or else that he should
be assured to haue all mercie and fauour sequestred from him, he tooke
better aduise, and therevpon being in despaire of reléefe, made this
composition, that if he were not rescued of the French power by a
certeine daie, he should render the fortresse into the kings hands,
with condition, that he and his souldiers should be suffered to depart
with all their goods, the habiliments of warre onelie excepted.
Herevpon twelue hostages were deliuered to the king, and when the daie
came, being the twentith of September, they within rendred the castell
into the kings hands; and thus, both the towne and castell of Caen
became English.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The Scots inuade the English borders.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: A great armie to resist the Scots.]

[Sidenote: Thom. Walsin.]

[Sidenote: The Scots recoile home.]

Whilest the king was thus occupied about his warres in Normandie, the
Scots in great number, entring England, wasted the countrie with fire
and sword whersoeuer they came. The English lords that were left in
trust with the kéeping of those parties of the realme, raised the whole
power of the countries, so that there came togither the number of an
hundred thousand men vpon Baw moore, where the generall assemblie was
made, and as it chanced, the duke of Excester, vncle to the king, who
had latelie before mustered a certeine number of men to conueie them
ouer to the king as a new supplie to his armie there, was the same time
in the north parts on pilgrimage at Bridlington; and hearing of this
inuasion made by the Scots, tooke vpon him to be generall of the armie
prepared against them, and to giue them battell. Also, the archbishop
of Yorke, although he was not able to sit on horssebacke by reason of
his great age, caused himselfe to be caried foorth in a charet in that
iournie, the better to incourage other. But the Scots hearing that
the Englishmen approched toward them with such puissance, withdrew
backe into their countrie, and durst not abide the bickering; either
because they mistrusted an infortunat euent on their side, by reason
of the English prowesse; or else for that they had learned by others
ouerthrowes to auoid the like, wherein standeth a profitable point of
wisedome, as the poet verie sententiouslie saith,

    Feliciter sapit qui in alieno periculo sapit.

[Sidenote: _Plautus._]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Oldcastell.]

[Sidenote: The seruants of the abbot of S. Albons go about to catch the
lord Cobham.]

The same time, the lord Cobham, sir Iohn Oldcastell, whilest he shifted
from place to place to escape the hands of them, who he knew would be
glad to laie hold on him, had conueied himselfe in secret wise into an
husbandmans house, not farre from S. Albons, within the precinct of
a lordship belonging to the abbat of that towne. The abbats seruants
getting knowledge hereof, came thither by night, but they missed their
purpose, for he was gone; but they caught diuerse of his men, whome
they caried streict to prison. The lord Cobham herewith was sore
dismaied, for that some of them that were taken were such as he trusted
most, being of counsell in all his deuises. In the same place, were
found books written in English, and some of those books in times past
had béene trimlie gilt, limned, and beautified with images, the heads
whereof had béene scraped off, and in the Letanie they had boltted
foorth the name of our ladie, and of other saints, till they came to
the verse Parce nobis Dommine. Diuerse writings were found there also,
in derogation of such honor as then was thought due our ladie. The
abbat of saint Albons sent the booke so difigured with scrapings &
blottings out, with other such writings as there were found, vnto the
king; who sent the booke againe to the archbishop, to shew the same in
his sermons at Paules crosse in London, to the end that the citizens
and other people of the realme might vnderstand the purposes of those
that then were called Lollards, to bring them further in discredit with
the people.

[Sidenote: Commendation of the Dolphin of France.]

In this meane time that the king of England was occupied about Caen,
the Frenchmen had neither anie sufficient power to resist him, nor
were able to assemble an host togither in their necessitie, by reason
of the dissention among themselues: for their king was so simple, that
he was spoiled both of treasure and kingdome, so that euerie man spent
and wasted he cared not what. Charles the Dolphin being of the age
of sixtéene or seauentéene yeares, bewailed the ruine and decaie or
his countrie, he onelie studied the reléefe of the common-wealth, and
deuised how to resist his enimies; but hauing neither men nor monie,
was greatlie troubled and disquieted in mind. In conclusion, by the
aduise and counsell of the earle of Arminacke the constable of France,
he found a meane to get all the treasure & riches which his moother
quéene Isabell had gotten and hoorded in diuerse secret places: and for
the common defense and profit of his countrie he wiselie bestowed it in
waging souldiers, and preparing of things necessarie for the warre.

[Sidenote: The yoong Dolphin fléeced his old moother of hir treasure,
what mischéefe rose vpon it.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Burgognie chéefe dooer in France.]

The quéene forgetting the great perill that the realme then stood in,
remembring onelie the displeasure to hir by this act doone, vpon a
womanish malice, set hir husband Iohn duke of Burgognie in the highest
authoritie about the king, giuing him the regiment and direction of the
king and his realme, with all preheminence & souereigntie. The duke of
Burgognie hauing the sword in his hand, in reuenge of old iniuries,
began to make warre on the Dolphin, determining, that when he had tamed
this yoong vnbrideled gentleman, then would he go about to withstand,
and beat backe the common enimies of the realme. The like reason mooued
the Dolphin, for he minded first to represse the authours of ciuill
discord, before he would set vpon forreine enimies, and therefore
prepared to subdue and destroie the duke of Burgognie, as the chéefe
head of that mischéefe, whereby the realme was vnquieted, decaied, and
in manner brought to vtter ruine. Thus was France afflicted, and in
euerie part troubled with warre and diuision, and no man to prouide
remedie, nor once put foorth his finger for helpe or succour.

[Sidenote: Baieux tak[=e].]

[Sidenote: Liseaux taken.]

[Sidenote: Caen peopled with English inhabitants.]

[Sidenote: A worthie & rare example of equitie in king Henrie.]

King Henrie in the meane time following victorie and his good
successe, sent the duke of Clarence to the sea coast, where (with
great difficultie) he got the towne of Baieux, whereof the lord
Matreuers was appointed capteine. The duke of Glocester also finding
small resistance, tooke the citie of Liseaux, of which citie sir Iohn
Kirkleie was ordeined capteine. King Henrie himselfe taried still at
Caen, fortifieng the towne and castell, and put out fiftéene hundred
women and impotent persons, replenishing the towne with English people.
Where while the king soiourned, he kept a solemne feast, and made manie
knights; beside that, he shewed there an example of great pitie and
clemencie: for in searching the castell, he found innumerable substance
of plate and monie belonging to the citizens, whereof he would not
suffer one penie to be touched, but restored the same to the owners,
deliuering to euerie man that which was his owne.

[Sidenote: The Normans willinglie sworne English.]

When the fame of his mercifull dealing herein, of his bountie to
captiues, and of his fauourable vsing of those that submitted
themselues to his grace, was spred abroad, all the capteins of the
townes adioining, came willinglie to his presence, offering to
him themselues, their townes, and their goods, whervpon he made
proclamation, that all men, which had, or would become his subiects,
and sweare to him allegiance, should inioy their goods, and liberties,
in as large or more ample maner, than they did before: which gentle
interteining of the stubborne Normans, was the verie cause, why they
were not onlie content, but also glad to remooue and turne from the
French part, and become subiects to the crowne of England.

[Sidenote: The castell of Courfie rendered.]

[Sidenote: Argenton builded.]

[Sidenote: The voluntarie subiection of the French.]

[Sidenote: Sées yéelded.]

When the king had set Caen in good order, he left there for capteins,
the one of the towne, the other of the castell, sir Gilbert Umfreuill
earle of Kime or Angus, & sir Gilbert Talbot, and made bailiffe there
sir Iohn Popham, and so departed from Caen the first of October, and
comming to the castell of Courfie, within thrée daies had it rendred
to him. From whence, the fourth of October, he came vnto Argenton;
they within that towne and castell offered, that if no rescue came by
a daie limited, they would deliuer both the towne and castell into the
kings hands, so that such as would abide and become the kings faithfull
subiects should be receiued, the other to depart with their goods and
liues saued whither they would: the king accepted their offer. When the
daie limited came, and no succours appeared, they yéelded according
to the couenants, and the king performed all that on his behalfe was
promised. The lord Graie of Codnor was appointed capteine there. After
this, resorted dailie to the king, of the Normans, people of all
sorts and degrées, to sweare to him fealtie and homage. The citie of
Sées which was well inhabited, and wherein were two abbeies of great
strength, one of them yéelded to the king, and so likewise did diuerse
other townes in those parties, without stroke striken.

[Sidenote: Alanson besieged and yéelded vp.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

The towne of Alanson abode a siege for the space of eight daies;
they within defending it right valiantlie at the first; but in the
end, considering with themselues, what small hope there was for anie
succours to come to remooue the siege, they grew to a composition, that
if within a certeine daie they were not reléeued, they should yéeld
both the towne and castell into the kings hands, which was doone: for
no succours could be heard of. The king appointed capteine of this
towne, the duke of Glocester, and his lieutenant sir Ralfe Lentall. The
duke of Britaine vnder safe conduct came to the king, as he was thus
busie in the conquest of Normandie, and after sundrie points treated
of betwixt them, a truce was taken, to indure from the seuenth daie
of Nouember, vnto the last of September, in the yeare next following,
betwixt them, their souldiers, men of warre, and subiects. The like
truce was granted vnto the quéene of Ierusalem and Sicill, & to hir
sonne Lewes, for the duchie of Aniou, and the countie of Maine, the
duke of Britaine being their deputie for concluding of the same truce.

[Sidenote: A truce taken betwéene king Henrie and the duke of Britaine.]

[Sidenote: Faleis besieged.]

About the same time also, at the sute of Charles the Dolphin, a
treatie was in hand at Touque, for a finall peace, but it came to
none effect. From Alanson the king set forward towards the towne and
castell of Faleis, meaning to besiege the same, where the Frenchmen
appointed to the kéeping of it, had fortified the towne by all meanes
possible, and prepared themselues to defend it to the vttermost. The
earle of Salisburie was first sent thither before with certeine bands
of souldiers to inclose the enimies within the towne, & to view the
strength thereof. After him came the king with his whole armie, about
the first of December, and then was the towne besieged on ech side. The
king lodged before the gate that leadeth to Caen, the duke of Clarence
before the castell that standeth on a rocke and the duke of Glocester
laie on the kings right hand, and other lords & noble men were assigned
to their places as was thought expedient. And to be sure from taking
damage by anie sudden inuasion of the enimies, there were great
trenches and rampiers cast and made about their seuerall campes, for
defense of the same.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Oldcastell taken.]

The Frenchmen notwithstanding this siege, valiantlie defended their
wals, and sometimes made issues foorth, but small to their gaine:
and still the Englishmen with their guns and great ordinance made
batterie to the wals and bulworks. The winter season was verie cold,
with sharpe frost, & hard weather; but the Englishmen made such shift
for prouision of all things necessarie to serue their turns, that they
were sufficientlie prouided, both against hunger and cold: so that in
the end, the Frenchmen perceiuing they could not long indure against
them, offered to talke, and agréed to giue ouer the towne, if no rescue
came by a certeine daie appointed. About the same season was sir Iohn
Oldcastell, lord Cobham taken, in the countrie of Powes land, in the
borders of Wales, within a lordship belonging to the lord Powes, not
without danger and hurts of some that were at the taking of him: for
they could not take him, till he was wounded himselfe.

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Oldcastell executed.]

At the same time, the states of the realme were assembled at London,
for the leuieng of monie, to furnish the kings great charges, which he
was at about the maintenance of his wars in France: it was therefore
determined, that the said sir Iohn Oldcastell should be brought, and
put to his triall, yer the assemblie brake vp. The lord Powes therefore
was sent to fetch him, who brought him to London in a litter, wounded
as he was: herewith, being first laid fast in the Tower, shortlie after
he was brought before the duke of Bedford, regent of the realme, and
the other estates, where in the end he was condemned; and finallie was
drawen from the Tower vnto saint Giles field, and there hanged in a
chaine by the middle, and after consumed with fire, the gallowes and
all.

[Sidenote: 1418]

[Sidenote: Faleis rendered vp to king Henrie.]

When the daie was come, on the which it was couenanted that the towne
of Faleis should deliuered, to wit, the second of Ianuarie, because no
succours appeared, the towne was yéelded to the king: but the castell
held out still, into the which the capteine and gouernour both of the
towne and castell had withdrawne themselues, with all the souldiers;
and being streictlie besieged, the capteine defended himselfe and the
place right stoutlie, although he was sore laid to, vntill at length,
perceiuing his people wearied with continuall assaults, and such
approches as were made to and within the verie wals, he was driuen
to compound with the king, that if he were not succoured by the sixt
of Februarie, then should he yéeld himselfe prisoner, and deliuer
the castell; so that the souldiers should haue licence to depart,
with their liues onelie saued. When the daie came, the couenants were
performed, and the castell rendered to the kings hands, for no aid
came to the rescue of them within. The capteine named Oliuer de Mannie
was kept as prisoner, till the castell was repared at his costs and
charges, because the same, through his obstinat wilfulnesse, was sore
beaten and defaced, with vnderminings and batterie. Capteine there, by
the king, was appointed sir Henrie Fitz Hugh.

[Sidenote: _Histoir des ducs de Normandie._]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsin. Titus Liuius._]

After this, king Henrie returned to Caen, and by reason of a
proclamation which he had caused to be made for the people of
Normandie, that had withdrawne themselues foorth of the baliwicks of
Caen and Faleis, he granted awaie to his owne people the lands of those
that came not in vpon that proclamation, and in speciall, he gaue to
the duke of Clarence, during his life, the vicounties of Auge, Orbec,
and Ponteau de Mer, with all the lands of those that were withdrawne
foorth of the same vicounties. This gift was made the sixtéenth of
Februarie, in this fift yeare of this kings reigne. All the Lent
season, the king laie at Baieux with part of his armie, but the residue
were sent abroad, for the atchiuing of certeine enterprises, because
they should not lie idle.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Fabian_ pag. 397 and _Iohn Stow._ pag.
598.]

[Sidenote: Slaughter and bloudshed in S. Dunstans church on Easter day.]

[Sidenote: Women full of mischéefe.]

¶ In this yeare 1418, and in the first yeare of the reigne of this
victorious king, Henrie the fift, on Easter daie in the after noone
(a time which required deuotion) at a sermon in saint Dunstans in
the east of London, a great fraie happened in the said church, where
through manie people were sore wounded, and one Thomas Petwarden
fishmonger that dwelt at Sprots keie was slame outright; as they
(vpon a good intent) did what they could (to their owne perill as
vnfortunatlie it befell) to appease the turmoile, and to procure the
kéeping of the kings peace. Herevpon the church was suspended, and the
beginners of the broile, namelie the lord Strange and sir Iohn Trussell
knight (betwéene whome such coles of vnkindnesse were kindled (at the
instigation of their wiues, gentlewomen of euill disposition and at
curssed hatred one with another) that their husbands ment at their
méeting in the said church to haue slaine one another) were committed
to the counter in the Pultrie. Two wise gentlemen (I wisse) and well
aduised (no doubt) who without regard of day, place, people, preacher,
or perill that might insue; were so forward to become the instrument of
their mischieuous wiues malice; the fulfilling wherof they would haue
forborne, if with discretion they had pondered the verdict of the poet
concerning the said sex:

    Foemina lætalis, foemina plena malis.

[Sidenote: _Record. Cant._]

[Sidenote: The principall offendors punishment.]

The archbishop of Canturburie, when he had intelligence giuen of this
outragious prophanation of the church, caused the offendors to be
excommunicat, as well at Paules, as in all other parish churches of
London. Shortlie after, to wit on the one and twentith of Aprill, the
said archbishop sat at saint Magnus, vpon inquisition for the authors
of the said disorder, and found the fault to consist speciallie in the
lord Strange and his wife. So that vpon the first daie of Maie next
following in Paules church, before the said archbishop, the maior of
London, and others, the said offendors submitted themselues to doo
penance, and sware to doo it in such sort as to them it was inioined;
namelie, as followeth. That immediatlie all their seruants should (in
their shirts) go before the parson of saint Dunstans, from Paules to
the said saint Dunstans church; and the lord Strange bare headed, with
his ladie barefooted; Reignold Kenwood archdeacon of London following
them. Also it was appointed them, that at the consecrating or hallowing
of the said church (which they had prophaned) the ladie should fill all
the vessels with [1] water, and offer likewise to the altar an ornament
of ten pounds; and the lord hir husband a pix of siluer of fiue pounds.
Which doone by waie of a satisfactorie expiation, it is likelie they
were absolued: but the lord Strange had first made the wife of the said
Petwarden slaine in the fraie, large amends: as Fabian saith, though in
what sort he maketh no mention.

[1] Not teares of hir c[=o]plaint (I trust) for sorrow of hir sinne.

[Sidenote: A sore t[=e]pest.]

[Sidenote: A violent tempest of wind.]

Whilest the king of England wan thus in Normandie, his nauie lost
nothing on the sea, but so scowred the streames, that neither Frenchmen
nor Britons durst once appeare; howbeit, on a daie there arose such a
storme and hideous tempest, that if the earles of March and Huntington
had not taken the hauen of Southampton, the whole nauie had perished;
& yet the safegard was strange, for in the same hauen, two balingers,
and two great carickes, laden with merchandize were drowned, and the
broken mast of another caricke was blowen ouer the wall of the towne.
When the furie of this outragious wind and weather was asswaged, and
the sea waxed calme, the earles of March and Huntington passed ouer
with all their companie, and landing in Normandie, they marched through
the countrie, destroieng the French villages, and taking preies on each
hand, till they came to the king where he then was.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 6.]

[Sidenote: Townes in Normandie yéelded to K. Henrie.]

In the sixt yeare of king Henries reigne, he sent the earle of Warwike,
and the lord Talbot, to besiege the strong castell of Dampfront. The
duke of Clarence was also sent to besiege and subdue other townes, vnto
whome, at one time and other, we find, that these townes vnderwritten
were yéelded, wherein he put capteins as followeth. In Courton Iohn
Aubin, in Barney William Houghton, in Chambis Iames Neuill, in
Bechelouin the earle Marshall, in Harecourt Richard Wooduill esquier,
in Fangernon Iohn S. Albon, in Creuener sir Iohn Kirbie to whom it was
giuen, in Anuilliers Robert Hornebie, in Bagles sir Iohn Arthur, in
Fresnie le vicont sir Robert Brent.

The duke of Glocester the same time, accompanied with the earle of
March, the lord Greie of Codner, and other was sent to subdue the
townes in the Ile of Constantine, vnto whome these townes hereafter
mentioned were yéelded, where he appointed capteins as followeth. At
Carentine the lord Botreux, at Saint Lo Reginald West, at Valoignes
Thomas Burgh, at Pont Done Dauie Howell, at the Haie de Pais sir Iohn
Aston, at saint Sauieur le vicont sir Iohn Robsert, at Pontorson sir
Robert Gargraue, at Hamberie the earle of Suffolke lord of that place
by gift, at Briqueuill the said earle also by gift, at Auranches sir
Philip Hall bailiffe of Alanson, at Vire the lord Matreuers, at S.
Iames de Beumeron the same lord.

[Sidenote: Chierburgh besieged by the English.]

After that the duke had subdued to the kings dominion, the most part
of all the townes in that Ile of Constantine, Chierburgh excepted,
he returned to the king, and forthwith was sent thither againe to
besiege that strong fortresse, which was fenced with men, munition,
vittels, and strong walles, towers, and turrets, in most defensible
wise, by reason whereof it was holden against him the space of fiue
moneths, although he vsed all waies and meanes possible to annoie them
within, so that manie fierce assaults, skirmishes, issues, and other
exploits of warre were atchieued, betwixt the Frenchmen within, and the
Englishmen without: yet at length, the Frenchmen were so constreined by
power of baterie, mines, and other forceable waies of approchings, that
they were glad to compound to deliuer the place, if no rescue came to
raise the siege, either from the Dolphin, that then was retired into
Aquitane, or from the duke of Burgognie that then laie at Paris, within
the terme of thrée score and two daies (for so long respit the duke
granted) but they trusting further vpon his lenitie and gentlenesse
hoped to get a far longer terme.

Now were the Dolphin and the duke of Burgognie growen to a certeine
agréement, by mediation of cardinals sent from the pope, so that the
Englishmen suerlie thought that they would leauie a power, and come
downe to rescue Chierburg. The duke of Glocester therefore caused his
camps to be stronglie intrenched, and manie defensible blockehouses
of timber to be raised, like to small turrets, that the same might be
a safegard to his people, and to conclude, left nothing vnforeséene
nor vndoone, that was auailable for the defense of his armie. The
king doubting least some power should be sent downe, to the danger of
his brother, and those that were with him at this siege, caused two
thousand men to be imbarked in thirtie ships of the west countrie, by
order sent vnto certeine lords there.

[Sidenote: Chierburgh yéelded to the Englishmen.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Dampfront yéelded.]

[Sidenote: W. P.]

The Frenchmen within the towne, perceiuing those succors to approch
néere to the towne, thought verelie that there had béene a power of
Frenchmen comming to their aid: but when they saw them receiued as
fréends into the English campe, their comfort was soone quailed; and
so when the daie appointed came, being the ninetéenth of October,
or rather about the later end of Nouember (as the historic of the
dukes of Normandie hath) they rendred vp both the towne and castell,
according to the couenants. The lord Greie of Codnore was made the
kings lieutenant there, and after his deceasse, sir Walter Hungerford.
About the same time, or rather before, as Titus Liuius writeth, to
wit, the two and twentith of Iune, the strong castell of Dampfront
was yéelded into the hands of the earle of Warwike, to the kings vse.
But the historie writen of the dukes of Normandie affirmeth, that it
was surrendred the two and twentith of September, after the siege had
c[=o]tinued about it from Aprill last. The king by honorable report of
other, and of his owne speciall knowledge, so rightlie ascerteined of
the great valure that (for feats at armes and policie in warre) was
alwaies found in the person of that Iohn Bromley esquier (spoken of a
little here before) for which his maiestie so sundrie waies roiallie
rewarded him againe; some specialtie yet of the gentlemans merits
togither with the souereignes bountie to him among other, séemes here
(at mention of this Dampfront, whereof shortlie after he was capteine)
verie well to deserue a place: and to that purpose as the king in Iulie
went ouer againe, and this Iohn Bromley in Iune the same yeare, with
conduct of charge was sent afore, imploieng himselfe still in venturous
actiuitie with great annoie to the enimie: his highnesse for good
liking of the same, and for hartening and example to other (in Aprill
next following) gaue fourtie pounds land to him and his heires males by
letters patents in words as followeth, and remaining yet of record in
the Tower of London.



A copie of the said letters patents.


HENRICUS Dei gratiâ rex Angliæ & Franciæ & dominus Hiberniæ, omnibus
ad quos præsentes litteræ peruenerint salutem. Sciatis quòd de gratiâ
nostra speciali & pro bono seruitio quod dilectus seruiens noster
Iohannes Bromley nobis impendit & impendet in futurum: dedimus &
concessimus ei hospitium de Molay Bacon, infra comitatum nostrum
de Baieux, ac omnes terras, tenementa, redditus, hæreditates, &
possessiones infra ducatum nostrum Normandiæ, quæ fuerunt Alani de
Beaumont nobis rebellis, vt dicitur. Habendum & tenendum præfato
Iohanni & hæredibus suis masculis de corpore suo procreatis, hospitium,
terras, & tenementa, redditus, hæreditates, & possessiones supradictas,
vna cum omnimodis franchesijs, priulegijs, iurisdictionibus, wardis,
maritagijs, releuijs, eschetis, forisfacturis, feodis militum,
aduocationibus ecclesiarum, & aliorum beneficiorum ecclesiasticor[=u]
quorumcúnq; terris, pratis, pasturis, boscis, war[=e]nis, chaseis,
aquis, vijs, stagnis, mol[=e]dinis, viuarijs, moris, mariscis, ac alijs
c[=o]moditatibus quibuscúnq; dictis hospitio, terris, tenementis,
redditibus, hæreditatibus, & possessionibus pertinentibus siue
spectantibus, ad valorem quadraginta librarum sterlingorum per annum,
tenendis de nobis & hæredibus nostris per homagium, &c.: ac reddendo
nobis, & eisdem hæredibus nostris apud castrum nostrum de Baieux
vnam zonam pro lorica, ad festum Natuitatis sancti Iohannis Baptistæ
singulis annis: nec non faciendo alia seruitia, &c. Reseruato, &c.
Prouiso semper, &c. Castro seu ciuitati nostro de Baieux, &c. Qudóq;
prædictum hospitium, &c. In cuius rei, &c. Teste me ipso apud dictam
ciutatem nostram de Baieux, 18 die Aprilis, anno regni nostri sexto,
per ipsum regem.

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Bromley made capteine of Dampfr[=o]t.]

Yet héereat the noble prince not staieng his bountie, but rather
regarding euer how iustlie new merits doo deserue new dignities, and
peraduenture the more mooued somewhat to reare vp the degrée of this
esquire, toward the state of his stocke, who a long time before had
béene indued with knighthood, and also bicause that vnto the duke of
Buckingham he was of bloud, which his behauiour alwaies had from staine
so farre preserued, as rather brought to it some increase of glorie,
did (in the most worthie wise which to that order belongeth) dub him
knight of warfare in field, made him also capteine generall of this
strong castell of Dampfront, seneshall and great constable of Bosseuile
le Rosse, with other offices and titles of worship, as partlie may
appeare by a déed, in which this knight taking patterne at his princes
benignitie had giuen an annuitie of twentie pounds to his kinsman
Walter Audeley.



A copie of that writing sundrie waies so well seruing to the truth of
the storie was thought right necessarie héere to be added, thus.


Omnibus ad quos hoc præsens scriptum peruenerit, Ioh[=a]nes de
Bromley miles, capitaneus generalis de Dampfront, senescallus &
magnus constabularius de Bosseuile le Rosse & March ibidem, salutem.
Sciatis quòd pro bono & fideli seruitio quod dilectus consanguineus
meus Gualterus de Audeley mihi fecerit, tam infra regnum Angliæ
quàm extra, & præcipuè contra Francos: dedisse & concessisse, & hac
præsenti charta mea confirmasse eidem Gualtero vnum annualem redditum
viginti librarum, exeuntem de manerio meo de Bromley, & omnibus alijs
terris & tenementis meis infra regnum Angliæ, vna cum herbagio pro
quatuor equis habendo infra boscos meos de Bromley & Willoughbridge,
& octo carucatis foeni capiendis infra prata mea de Shurlebrooke &
Foordsmedo annuatim, durante tota vita prædicti Gualteri, in festo
sancti Iacobi apostoli. Et si contingat prædictum annualem redditum, a
retrò fore in aliquo festo, durante termino prædicto; tunc bene licebit
eidem Gualtero, in manerio meo, & omnibus alijs terris meis prædictis
distringere, & districtiones inde captas penes se retinere, quousq; de
redditu prædicto, vna cum arreragijs (si quæ fuerint) plenariè fuerit
persolutum & satisfactum. Et vlteriùs volo, quòd prædictus Gualterus
habebit liberum egressum & regressum cum equis suis prædictis, & ad
asportandum foenum predict[=u], quandocunq; voluerit, per omnes semitas
& vias, sine aliqua contradictione mei prædicti Iohannis, aut hæredum
meorum aliquali. Reddendo inde mihi ipsi Gualtero annuatim in festo
sancti Georgij martyris, si tunc fuerim infra regnum Angliæ, vnum
par calcarium deauratorum, pro omnibus. Et etiam volo & concedo quòd
prædictus Gualterus liber sit, durante tota vita sua, ad volandum,
venandum, piscandum, & alias commoditates percipiendum, tam infra
manerium meum de Bromley quàm in omnibus alijs manerijs, terris, &
tenementis meis infra regnum Angliæ, sine aliqua contradictione vel
impedimento mei præfati Iohannis de Bromley militis, hæredum, aut
assignatorum meorum aliquali. Et vt fidele testimonium præsentibus
habeatur, sigillum meum apposui: hijs testibus Roberto de Bruyn milite,
Iohanne de Holland, Gulihelmo de Brereton, Richardo le Greuill, Iohanne
de Egerton, Richardo le Beston, Thoma le Creu, & alijs. Datum apud
Dampfront prædicto, 12 die mensis Augusti, anno regni regis Henrici
quinti post conquestum sexto.

The old armes of the house of Bromley being quarterlie gules and ore
per fesse indented, had in the seale to this déed, an inscutchen
charged with a griffin surgiant; his creast, out of a crowne, a
demilion supporting a standard charged with a lion passant gardant;
about the shield was ingrauen, Sigillum Iohannis de Bromley militis.
That inscutchen and creast (as like is) giuen him in laudable
remembrance for his valiant recouerie of the standard at the sharpe and
bloodie skirmish by Corbie. The earle of Warwike, and the lord Talbot,
after the winning of this fortresse, made spéed to come vnto the siege
of Rone, where they were imploied, as after shall appeare. And in
like manner, the duke of Glocester, hauing once got the possession of
Chierburgh, hasted towards the same siege: for the better furnishing
of which enterprise, he had first caused an armie of fiftéene thousand
men to be brought ouer to him vnder the leading of his vncle the duke
of Excester, who imbarking with the same, about the feast of the holie
Trinitie, was appointed by the king to besiege the citie of Eureux, as
the earle of Angus, otherwise called earle of Kime, was sent to win the
castell of Millie Leuesche. These townes being deliuered to the kings
vse, the duke ordeined capteine of Eureux sir Gilbert Halsall knight.

The king now determining with all spéed to besiege Rone, prepared all
things necessarie for his purpose. Into this citie the Normans had
conueied out of euerie part their monie, iewels, and houshold stuffe,
as into the most sure and strongest place of the whole duchie. For
since his arriuall, they had not onlie walled that citie, and fortified
it with rampiers and strong bulworks, but also furnished it with
valiant capteins, and hardie soldiers, to the number of foure thousand,
beside such of the citizens as were appointed for the warre, according
to their estates, of the which there were at the least fiftéene
thousand readie to serue in defense of the citie, as soldiers, and men
of warre in all places where they should be assigned. King Henrie to
haue the countrie frée, before he would besiege this citie, thought
good first to win such townes as laie in his waie, and therefore
departing from Caen (where he had kept the feast of saint George) the
ninth daie of Iune, he marched streight vnto the towne of Louiers, and
laid his siege about the same.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: Louiers besieged.]

[Sidenote: Louiers yéelded vp.]

They within the towne, being well furnished of all things necessarie
for the defending of a siege, manfullie resisted the Englishmens
inforcements, which spared not to deuise all waies and means how to
approch the walles, and to batter the same with their great artillerie,
till at length they brought the Frenchme[=n] to that extremitie, that
they were contented to yéeld the towne on these conditions; that if by
the thrée and twentith of Iune there came no succour from the French
king to raise the siege, the towne should be deliuered into the kings
hands, the soldiers of the garrison should serue vnder the king for a
time, and the townesmen should remaine in their dwellings as they did
before, as subiects to the king: but the gunners that had discharged
anie péece against the Englishmen should suffer death. When the daie
came, and no aid appeared, the couenants were performed accordinglie.
From thence went the king with all spéed vnto Point de Larch, standing
vpon the riuer of Seine, eight miles aboue Rone towards Paris: he came
thither about the seauen and twentith of Iune.

[Sidenote: The English armie passeth the riuer of Seine.]

When the Frenchmen which kept the passage there heard of the kings
approach, they gathered togither a great number of men of warre,
minding to defend the passage against him, appointing an other band
of men (if they failed) to kéepe the further side of the bridge; and
to watch, that neither by boate nor vessell he should come ouer the
riuer by anie maner of meanes. At his comming néere to the towne, he
perceiued that it was not possible to passe by the bridge without great
losse of his people, and therfore he retired almost a mile backeward,
where, in a pleasant and commodious place by the riuer side he pitched
his campe, and in the night season, what with boates and barges, and
what with hogsheads and pipes, he conueied ouer the broad riuer of
Seine a great companie of his soldiers, without anie resistance made by
his enimies. For they which were on the hither side of Seine, thinking
that the Englishmen had gone to winne some other place, followed them
not, but studied how to defend their towne, which was inough for them
to doo.

[Sidenote: A good policie.]

And to put the French men in doubt, least the Englishmen should séeke
passage somewhere else, the king appointed certeine of the soldiers
which had skill in swimming, to go to a place thrée miles from the
siege by the riuer side, and there to enter into the water, making
great clamor and noise, as though they had meant to haue passed; but
they had in commandement not to trauerse past halfe the riuer, so
to procure the Frenchmen to make thitherwards, whilest the king in
one place, and his brother the duke of Clarence in another, got ouer
their men, and that in such number, before the Frenchmen had anie
vnderstanding thereof, that when they made towards them, and perceiued
that they were not able to incounter them, they fled backe, and durst
not abide the English footmen, which would faine haue béene dooing with
them.

[Sidenote: Pont de larch rendred vp to the Englishm[=e].]

When the king saw that his men were on the other side of the water, he
(the next daie earlie) returned to the towne, & assaulted it on both
sides. When the inhabitants therefore saw themselues compassed on both
sides, contrarie to their expectation, with humble heart and small
ioy they rendered vp the towne vnto the kings hands. After this, the
king hauing no let nor impediment, determined foorthwith to besiege
the citie of Rone, and first sent before him his vncle the duke of
Excester, with a great companie of horssemen & archers to view the
place, & thervpon with banner displaied came before the citie, and sent
Windsore an herauld at armes to the capteins within, willing them to
deliuer the citie vnto the king his maister, or else he would pursue
them with fire and sword. To whome they proudlie answered, that none
they receiued of him, nor anie they would deliuer him, except by fine
force they were therevnto compelled: and herewith there issued out of
the towne a great band of men of armes, and incountered fiercelie with
the Englishmen, the which receiuing them with like manhood, and great
force, draue the Frenchmen into the towne againe to their losse, for
they lett thirtie of their fellowes behind prisoners and dead in the
field.

[Sidenote: Rone besieged by K. Henrie.]

The duke returned with this good spéed and proud answer of the
Frenchmen vnto the king, who remained yet at Pont de Larch, and had
giuen the towne of Louiers to his brother the duke of Clarence, which
made there his deputie sir Iohn Godard knight. After that the duke of
Excester was returned to Pont Larch, the French capteins within Rone
set fire on the suburbs, beat downe churches, cut downe trées, shred
the bushes, destroied the vines round about the citie, to the intent
that the Englishmen should haue no reléefe nor comfort either of
lodging or fewell. When the king heard of these despitefull dooings,
he with his whole armie remooued from Pont Larch, and the last daie
of Iulie came before the citie of Rone, and compassed it round about
with a strong siege. This citie was verie rich in gold, siluer, and
other pretious things, in so much that when the same was taken and
seized vpon by the English, the spoile was verie great and excéeding
aduantagable: which the compiler of Anglorum prælia hath verie well
noted, in a few lines, but pithie; saieng

[Sidenote: _Angl. præl. sub._]

[Sidenote: Hen. 5.]

    Vltima Rothomagus restat, quæ mercibus, auro,
    Argento, vasis pretiosis diues abundat:
    Rothomagus capitur, iámq; Anglus adeptus opimas
    Prædas, in patriam perpulchra trophæa remittit.

[Sidenote: Before Pont S. Hiliarie.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The order of the siege.]

[Sidenote: Before the gate called Markeuile.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: Salisburie & Huntington on the other side of the riuer of
Seine.]

The king laie with a great puissance at the Chartreux house, on the
east side of the citie, and the duke of Clarence lodged at S. Geruais
before the port of Caux on the west part. The duke of Excester tooke
his place on the north side: at port S. Denis, betwéene the dukes of
Excester and Clarence, was appointed the earle marshall, euen before
the gate of the castell; to whome were ioined the earle of Ormond,
and the lords Harington and Talbot, vpon his comming from Dampfront:
and from the duke of Excester toward the king were incamped the lords
Ros, Willoughbie, Fits Hugh, and sir William Porter, with a great band
of northerne men, euen before the port of saint Hilarie. The earles
of Mortaigne and Salisburie were assigned to lodge about the abbie
of saint Katharine. Sir Iohn Greie was lodged directlie against the
chappell called mount S. Michaell: sir Philip Léech treasurer of the
warres kept the hill next the abbeie, and the baron of Carew kept the
passage on the riuer of Seine, and to him was ioined that valiant
esquier Ienico Dartois.

[Sidenote: The lord Talbot.]

[Sidenote: W. P.]

On the further side of the riuer were lodged the earles of Warren and
Huntington, the lords Neuill and Ferrers, sir[2] Gilbert Umfreuile with
a well furnished companie of warlike soldiers directlie before the gate
called Port de Pont. And to the intent that no aid should passe by
the riuer toward the citie, there was a great chaine of iron deuised
at Pont Larch, set on piles from the one side of the water to the
other: and beside that chaine, there was set vp a new forced bridge,
sufficient both for cariage and passage, to passe the riuer from one
campe to another. The erle of Warwike that had latelie woone Dampfront,
was sent to besiege Cawdebecke, a towne standing on the riuer side,
betwéene the sea and the citie of Rone. A memorable feat in seruice
néere to that place was doone at that time by a well minded man then
noted soone after in writing: which matter vnable to be better reported
than by him that had so well marked it, nor like to be more trulie
expressed than by the ancient simplicitie (and yet effectuall) of the
selfe same words wherein they were written, therefore thought méetest
to haue them rehearsed as they were in order, thus.

[2] Umfreuile.



The truth of the said memorable feat as it was reported in writing.


[Sidenote: A conflict néere to Cawdebecke.]

[Sidenote: The L. of Estrisles slaine.]

[Sidenote: George Umfreuile slaine.]

[Sidenote: Walter Audeley sore wo[=u]ded.]

MEMORANDUM, that my lord the earle of Warwike did send out my cosin sir
Iohn Bromley and my cosin George Umfreuile with an hundred archers,
and about two hundred soldiers a strett, to kéepe at a little castell
called the Stroo néere to Cawdebeke, where they wearen met with aboue
eight hundred Frenchmen & the fraie betwéene them long yfought, and
the Englishmen in great dread and perill: till at length by the might
of God and saint George, the féeld did fall to our Englishmen, and
the Frenchmen wearen put to flizt, and thear wearen yslaine aboue two
hundred Frenchmen, and as manie ytaken prisoners, and their capteine
who was ycalled the lord of Estrisles was thear also yslaine, and thear
wearen yslaine of our Englishmen my said cosin George Umfreuile and
about twentie mo: on whose solles Iesus haue mercie, and thear wearen
hurt in the face my said cosin sir Iohn Bromley & my cosin Walter
Audeley sore wounded and maimed in the right arme of his bodie, he then
being but of the age of eightéene yeares. But thankes be giuen to the
blessed Trinitée, thear wearen manie noble victories ywoon by the said
noble erle of Warwike and his folke, as in his officiall booke (written
by maister Iohn le Tucke then present with the said noble earle) is
amply recorded. My said cosin Walter Audeley died at Warwike the
seauentéenth daie of Iulie[3] anno Domini one thousand foure hundred
and twentie, and was buried at Acton in Cheshire, néere the bodie of my
said cosin sir Iohn Bromley: on whose solles Iesus haue mercie. By me
sir Richard Braie, chapleine to my ladie the old countesse of Warwike;
Iesus Maria, Amen, Pater noster, Aue Maria.

[3] And this sir Iohn Bromley departed from this life the fourth day
of Sept. 1419, which was in anno reg. 7, as by the office tak[=e]
after his death remaining of record in the castell of Chester dooth
manifestlie appeare.

After this conflict, this towne was so hardlie handled with fierce
and continuall assaults, that the capteins within offered to suffer
the English nauie to passe by their towne without impeachment, vp to
the citie of Rone. And also if Rone yéelded, they promised to render
the towne without delaie. Héerevpon the English nauie, to the number
of an hundred sailes, passed by Cawdebecke, and came to Rone, and so
besieged it on the water side. There came also to this siege the duke
of Glocester, with the earle of Suffolke, and the lord Aburgauennie,
which had taken (as before yée haue heard) the towne of Chierburgh, &
lodged before the port of S. Hilarie, néerer to their enimies by fortie
rodes than any other person of the armie.

[Sidenote: The lord of Kilmaine capteine of the Irishmen.]

[Sidenote: The good seruice of the Irishmen at this siege.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The king of Portingale sendeth aid to king Henrie.]

During this siege also, there arriued at Harflue the lord of Kilmaine
in Ireland, a band of sixtéene hundred Irishmen, in maile, with darts
and skains after the maner of their countrie, all of them being tall,
quicke and nimble persons, which came and presented themselues before
the king lieng still at the siege, of whom they were not onelie
gentlie receiued & welcomed; but also because it was thought that the
French king and the duke of Burgognie would shortlie come, and either
attempt to raise the siege, or vittell and man the towne by the north
gate, they were appointed to kéepe the north side of the armie, and
speciallie the waie that commeth from the forest of Lions. Which charge
the lord of Kilmaine and his companie ioifullie accepted, and did so
their deuoir therein, that no men were more praised, nor did more
damage to their enimies than they did: for suerlie their quicknesse
& swiftnesse of foot did more preiudice to their enimies, than their
barded horsses did hurt or damage to the nimble Irishmen. Also the
kings coosine germane and alie (the king of Portingale) sent a great
nauie of well appointed ships vnto the mouth of the riuer of Seine, to
stop that no French vessels should enter the riuer, and passe vp the
same, to the aid of them within Rone.

[Sidenote: The number within Rone.]

Thus was the faire citie of Rone compassed about with enimies, both by
water and land, hauing neither comfort nor aid of King, Dolphin, or
Duke. And yet although the armie was strong without, there lacked not
within both hardie capteins and manfull souldiers. And as for people,
they had more than inough: for as it is written by some that had
good cause to know the truth, and no occasion to erre from the same,
there were in the citie at the time of the siege, two hundred and ten
thousand persons. Dailie were issues made out of the citie at diuerse
gates, sometime to the losse of the one partie, and sometime of the
other, as chances of warre in such aduentures happen. The Frenchmen in
déed preferring fame before worldlie riches, and despising pleasure
(the enimie to warlike prowesse) sware ech to other neuer to render or
deliuer the citie, while they might either hold sword in hand or speare
in rest.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

The king of England aduertised of their haultie courages, determined to
conquer them by famine, which would not be tamed with weapon. Wherefore
he stopped all the passages, both by water and land, that no vittels
could be conueied to the citie: he cast trenches round about the wals,
and set them full of stakes, and defended with archers, so that there
was left neither waie for them within to issue out, nor for anie that
were abroad to enter in without his licence. To rehearse the great
paines, trauell and diligence, which the king tooke vpon him in his
owne person at this siege, a man might woonder. And because diuerse of
the souldiers had lodged themselues for their more ease, in places so
farre distant one from an other, that they might easilie haue béene
surprised by their enimies, yer anie of their fellowes could haue come
to their succors; he caused proclamation to be made, that no man vpon
paine of death should lodge without the precinct appointed them, nor go
further abroad from the campe than such bounds as were assigned.

[Sidenote: King Henrie his iustice.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: Thrée great victories on the English side within a short
time togither.]

Now as it chanced, the king in going about the campe, to surueie and
view the warders, he espied two souldiers that were walking abroad
without the limits assigned, whom he caused straightwaies to be
apprehended and hanged vpon a trée of great height, for a terrour to
others, that none should be so hardie to breake such orders as he
commanded them to obserue. Whilest the king laie thus with his power
about the mightie citie of Rone, the Frenchmen sought to indamage as
well those that were at that siege, as other of the Englishmen that
laie in garrisons within the townes that were alreadie in the king
of Englands possession, insomuch that (as some haue written) within
the octaues of the Assumption, thrée notable victories chanced to the
Englishmen in thrée seuerall places. First an hundred Englishmen at
Kilbeuf tooke thrée great lords of the Frenchmen, besides fourescore
other persons, and put thrée hundred to flight.

Also vpon the thursdaie within the same octaues, foure hundred
Frenchmen that were entered within the suburbes of Eureux were repelled
by eleuen Englishmen, that tooke foure of those Frenchmen prisoners,
slue twelue of them, and tooke fortie horsses. On the saturdaie
following, the Frenchmen tooke in hand to steale vpon them that laie
in garrison within Louiers, in hope to surprise the towne earlie in
the morning: but the capteine perceiuing their purpose, sallied foorth
with a hundred of his men, and putting the Frenchmen to flight, being a
thousand, tooke an hundred and fourescore of them being all gentlemen.
But to returne to them before Rone. The siege thus continuing from
Lammas, almost to Christmas, diuerse enterprises were attempted,
and diuerse policies practised, how euerie part might indamage his
aduersaries; no parte greatlie reioised of their gaine. But in the
meane time vittels began sore to faile them within, that onelie vinegar
and water serued for drinke.

[Sidenote: Extreme famine within Rone.]

If I should rehearse (according to the report of diuerse writers) how
déerelie dogs, rats, mise, and cats were sold within the towne, and
how gréedilie they were by the poore people eaten and deuoured, and
how the people dailie died for fault of food, and yoong infants laie
sucking in the stréets on their moothers breasts lieng dead, starued
for hunger; the reader might lament their extreme miseries. A great
number of poore sillie creaturs were put out at the gates, which were
by the Englishmen that kept the trenches beaten and driuen backe againe
to the same gates, which they found closed and shut against them. And
so they laie betwéene the wals of the citie and the trenches of the
enimies, still crieng for helpe and reléefe, for lacke whereof great
numbers of them dailie died.

[Sidenote: A vertuous and Charitable prince.]

Howbeit, king Henrie mooued with pitie, vpon Christmasse daie, in
the honor of Christes Natiuitie, refreshed all the poore people with
vittels, to their great comfort and his high praise: yet if the duke
of Burgognies letters had not béene conueied into the citie, it was
thought they within would neuer haue made resistance so long time as
they did; for by those letters they were assured of rescue to come.
Diuerse lords of France hauing written to them to the like effect,
they were put in such comfort herewith, that immediatlie, to expresse
their great reioising, all the bels in the citie were roong foorth
chéerefullie, which during all the time of the siege till that present
had kept silence. In déed by reason of a faint kind of agréement
procured betwixt the Dolphin and the duke of Burgognie, it was thought
verelie that a power should haue béene raised for preseruation of that
noble citie, the loosing or sauing thereof being a matter of such
importance.

[Sidenote: _Chron. S. Alb._]

[Sidenote: A large tr[=e]ch without the campe.]

The king of England, to preuent the enimies purpose, caused a large
trench to be, cast without his campe, which was pight full of sharpe
stakes, with a great rampire fensed with bulworks, and turnepikes, in
as defensible wise as might be deuised. Sir Robert Bapthorpe, knight,
was appointed comptroller, to sée this worke performed, which he did
with all diligence accomplish; in like case as he had doone, when the
other trench and rampire stronglie staked and hedged was made at the
first betwixt the campe and the citie, to restreine such as in the
begining of the siege rested not to pricke foorth of the gates on
horsse backe. And so by this meanes was the armie defended both behind
and before.

[Sidenote: 1419]

Finallie, the whole number of the Frenchmen within the citie were
brought to such an extremitie for want of vittels, that they were in
danger all to haue starued. Wherevpon being now past hope of reléefe,
they determined to treat with the king of England, and so vpon
Newyeares euen there came to the wals such as they had chosen amongst
them for commissioners, which made a signe to the Englishmen lieng
without the gate of the bridge, to speake with some gentleman, or other
person of authoritie. The earle of Huntington, which kept that part,
sent to them sir Gilbert Umfreuile; vnto whom they declared, that if
they might haue a safe conduct, they would gladlie come foorth to
speake with the king. Sir Gilbert reparing to the duke of Clarence, and
other of the kings councell, aduertised them of this request.

[Sidenote: They within Rone demand parlée.]

Herevpon the duke of Clarence with the other councellors resorted
to the kings lodging, to informe him of the matter, and to know his
pleasure therein; who after good aduisement and deliberation taken,
willed sir Gilbert to aduertise them, that he was content to heare
twelue of them, which should be safelie conueied into his presence.
This answer being brought to the Frenchmen by the said sir Gilbert, on
the next daie in the morning, foure knights, foure learned men, and
foure sage burgesses, all clothed in blacke, came foorth of the citie,
and were receiued at the port saint Hilarie by sir Gilbert Umfreuile,
accompanied with diuerse gentlemen and yeomen of the kings houshold,
commonlie called yeomen of the crowne, by whome they were conueied
to the kings lodging, whome they found at masse, which being ended,
the king came out of his trauerse, sternelie, and princelie beholding
the French messengers, and passed by them into his chamber. And
incontinentlie after he commanded that they should be brought in before
his presence, to heare what they had to say.

[Sidenote: A presumptuous orator.]

One of them séene in the ciuill lawes, was appointed to declare the
message in all their names, who shewing himselfe more rash than wise,
more arrogant than learned, first tooke vpon him to shew wherin the
glorie of victorie consisted, aduising the king not to shew his manhood
in famishing a multitude of poore, simple, and innocent people, but
rather suffer such miserable wretches as laie betwixt the wals of the
citie, and the trenches of his siege, to passe through the campe, that
they might get their liuing in other places, and then if he durst
manfullie assault the citie, and by force subdue it, he should win both
worldlie fame and merit great méed at the hands of almightie God, for
hauing compassion of the poore, néedie, and indigent people.

[Sidenote: The kings answer to this proud message.]

When this orator had said, the king who no request lesse suspected,
than that which was thus desired, began a while to muse; and after
he had well considered the craftie cautell of his enimies, with a
fierce countenance, and bold spirit he reprooued them, both for their
subtill dealing with him, and their malapert presumption, in that they
should séeme to go about to teach him what belonged to the dutie of a
conquerour. "And therefore since it appeared that the same was vnknowne
vnto them, he declared that the goddesse of battell called Bellona, had
thrée handmaidens, euer of necessitie attending vpon hir, as blood,
fire, and famine. And whereas it laie in his choise to vse them all
thrée; yea, two, or one of them at his pleasure, he had appointed
onelie the méekest maid of those thrée damsels to punish them of that
citie, till they were brought to reason.

"And whereas the gaine of a capteine atteined by anie of the said thrée
handmaidens, was both glorious, honourable, and woorthie of triumph:
yet of all the thrée, the yoongest maid, which he meant to vse at
that time was most profitable and commodious. And as for the poore
people lieng in the ditches, if they died through famine, the fault
was theirs, that like cruell tyrants had put them out of the towne, to
the intent he should slaie them; and yet had he saued their liues, so
that if anie lacke of charitie was, it rested in them, and not in him.
But to their cloked request, he meant not to gratifie them within so
much, but they should kéepe them still to helpe to spend their vittels.
And as to assault the towne, he told them that he would they should
know, he was both able and willing thereto, as he should sée occasion:
but the choise was in his hand, to tame them either with blood, fire,
or famine, or with them all, whereof he would take the choice at his
pleasure, and not at theirs."

[Sidenote: A truce for eight daies.]

This answer put the French ambassadors in a great studie, musing much
at his excellent wit and hawtinesse of courage. Now after they had
dined (as his commandement was they should) with his officers, they
vpon consultation had togither, required once againe to haue accesse
to his roiall presence, which being granted, they humbling themselues
on their knées, besought him to take a truce for eight daies, during
the which they might by their commissioners take some end and good
conclusion with him and his councell. The king like a mercifull
prince granted to them their asking, with which answer they ioifullie
returned. After their departure were appointed and set vp thrée tents,
the one for the lords of England, the second for the commissioners of
the citie, and the third for both parties to assemble in, and to treat
of the matter.

[Sidenote: C[=o]missioners appointed.]

The commissioners for the English part were the earles of Warwike and
Salisburie, the lord Fitz Hugh, sir Walter Hungerford, sir Gilbert
Umfreuile, sir Iohn Robsert, and Iohn de Vasques de Almada. And for the
French part were appointed, sir Guie de Butteler, and six others. These
commissioners met euery daie, arguing and reasoning about a conclusion,
but nothing was doone the space of eight daies nor so much as one
article concluded: wherfore the Englishmen tooke downe the tents, & the
Frenchmen tooke their leaue: but at their departing they remembering
themselues, required the English lords (for the loue of God) that the
truce might indure till the sunne rising the next daie, to the which
the lords assented.

When the French commissioners were returned into the citie without
any conclusion of agréement, the poore people ran about the stréets,
crieng, and calling the capteins and gouernors murtherers and
manquellers, saieng that for their pride and stiffe stomachs all this
miserie was happened, threatning to flea them if they would not agrée
vnto the king of Englands demand. The magistrats herewith amazed,
called all the townesmen togither to know their minds and opinions.
The whole voice of the commons was, to yéeld rather than to sterue.
Then the Frenchmen in the euening came to the tent of sir Iohn Robsert,
requiring him of gentlenes to mooue the king, that the truce might be
prolonged for foure daies. The king therevnto agréed, and appointed the
archbishop of Canturburie, and the other seuen before named for his
part, and the citizens appointed a like number for them.

[Sidenote: The articles c[=o]cerning the yéelding vp of Rone.]

The tents were againe set vp, and dailie they met togither, and on the
fourth daie they accorded on this wise, that the citie and castell of
Rone should be deliuered vnto the king of England, at what time after
the middest of the ninetéenth daie of that present moneth of Ianuarie,
the said king willed the same; and that all the capteins and other men
whatsoeuer, dwelling or being within the said citie and castell, should
submit them in all things to the grace of the said king: and further,
that they should paie to the said king thrée hundred thousand scutes
of gold, whereof alwaies two should be woorth an English noble, or in
stead of euerie scute thirtie great blankes white, or fiftéene grotes.

[Sidenote: Luca Italico]

Moreouer it was accorded, that euerie soldier and stranger, being in
the said citie and castell, should sweare on the euangelists before
their departure, not to beare armour against the king of England
before the first daie of Ianuarie next to come. Also they within the
towne should suffer all the poore people lieng in ditches, or about
the ditches of the citie, which for penurie were chased out, to enter
the citie againe, and to find them sufficient food till the said
ninetéenth daie of Ianuarie. There were diuerse other articles, in
all to the number of two and twentie agréed as well on the behalfe of
the citizens, as of king Henrie, who granted, that all the souldiers,
strangers, and other within the said citie and castell at that time,
being not willing to become his lieges, should depart, after that the
citie and castell was once yéelded, fréelie without let, leauing to
the said king all their armors, horsses, harnesse, and goods, except
the Normans, which if they should refuse to become lieges to him, were
appointed to remaine as his prisoners, togither with one Luca Italico,
and certeine others.

[Sidenote: The vicar generall of the archbishoprike of Rone for
denouncing the king accursed was deliured to him and deteined in prison
til he died.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: One Alane Blanchart was likewise deliuered to him, & by his
c[=o]mandement put to death.]

[Sidenote: Tr[=a]slator of _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: King H[=e]ries entrie into Rone.]

When the daie of appointment came, which was the daie of saint
Wolstane, sir Guie de Buttler, and the burgesses, deliuered the keies
of the citie and castell vnto the king of England, beséeching him of
fauour and compassion. The king incontinentlie appointed the duke of
Excester, with a great companie to take possession of the citie, who
like a valiant capteine mounted on a goodlie courser first entered into
the citie, and after into the castell. The next daie being fridaie, the
king in great triumph, like a conquerour, accompanied with foure dukes,
ten earles, eight bishops, sixtéene barons, and a great multitude of
knights, esquiers, and men of warre entered into Rone, where he was
receiued by the cleargie, with two and fourtie crosses; and then met
him the senat, and the burgesses of the towne, offering to him diuerse
faire and costlie presents.

In this manner he passed through the citie to our ladie church, and
there hauing said his orisons, he caused his chapleins to sing this
antheme: Quis est tam magnus dominus: Who is so great a lord as our
God. This doone, he came to the castell, where he continued a good
space after, receiuing homages and fealties of the burgesses and
townesmen, and setting orders amongst them. He also réedified diuerse
fortresses, and townes, during which time he made proclamation, that
all men which would become his subiects, should enioy their goods,
lands & offices, which proclamation made manie townes to yéeld, and
manie men to become English the same season.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: A league concluded betwéene king Henrie and the duke of
Britaine.]

The duke of Britaine, vnderstanding that if the king of England should
continue in possession of Normandie, his countrie could not but be in
great danger, if he prouided not to haue him his fréend, vpon safe
conduct obteined for him & his retinue, came to Rone with fiue hundred
horsses, and being honorablie receiued of the king, after conference
had betwixt them of diuerse things, at length they agréed vpon a
league on this wise, that neither of them should make warre vnto the
other, nor to any the others people or subiects, except he that meant
to make war denounced the same six moneths before. Thus this league
being concluded, the duke tooke leaue of the king and so returned into
Britaine.

About the same time, at the sute of certeine bishops and abbats of
Nomandie, the king confirmed vnto them their ancient priuileges,
granted by the former dukes of Normandie and kings of France, except
such as were granted by those whome he reputed for vsurpers, and no
lawfull kings or dukes. He also established at Caen the chamber of
accounts of the reuenues of his dukedome of Normandie. In Rone he
begun the foundation of a strong tower behind the castell, that from
the castell to the tower, and from the tower to his palace, the men
of warre appointed there in garrison, might passe in suertie without
danger of the citie, if perhaps the citizens should attempt any
rebellion.

[Sidenote: She was c[=o]mitted to the safe kéeping of Pelham, who
appointed hir nine seruants to attend hir & conueied hir to the castell
of Pompsey.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsin._]

[Sidenote: Frier R[=a]doll.]

In this sixt yeare, whilest these things were adooing in Normandie,
quéene Ione late wife of king Henrie the fourth, and mother in law to
this king, was arrested by the duke of Bedford the kings lieutenant
in his absence, and by him committed to safe kéeping in the castell
of Léeds in Kent, there to abide the kings pleasure. About the same
time, one frier Randoll of the order of Franciscanes that professed
diuinitie, and had béene confessor to the same quéene, was taken in the
Ile of Gernesey; and being first brought ouer into Normandie, was by
the kings commandement sent hither into England, and committed to the
Tower, where he remained till the parson of the Tower quarelling with
him, by chance slue him there within the Tower ward. It was reported
that he had conspired with the quéene by sorcerie and necromancie to
destroie the king.

[Sidenote: Vernon and Mante taken by the English.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: Hunflue tak[=e].]

Whilest the king remained in Rone, to set things in order for the
establishment of good policie in that citie, he sent abroad diuerse
of his capteins, with conuenient forces to subdue certeine townes &
castels in those parties, as his brother the duke of Clarence, who wan
the strong towne of Vernon and Mante. In Vernon was sir William Porter
made capteine, and in Mant the earle of March. The earle of Salisburie
wan Hunflue, after he had besieged it from the fourth of Februarie
vntill the twelfth of March. This towne was giuen afterwards vnto the
duke of Clarence. Also the said earle of Salisburie wan the townes
of Monster de Villiers, Ew, Newcastell, and finallie all the places
in that quarter, which till that present were not vnder the English
obeisance. At Newcastell sir Philip Léech was made capteine.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 7.]

[Sidenote: Roch Guion rendered vp.]

After Candlemasse, the king departed from Rone to go to Eureux, whither
he promised to come in like case, as the Dolphin promised to be at
Dreux, to the end that they might aduise vpon a conuenient place where
to méet, to intreat of peace to be concluded betwixt the two realms.
But the Dolphin by sinister persuasion of some enimies to concord,
brake promise, and came not. When the king saw that thorough default
of his aduersarie, no treatie would be had, he remooued to Vernon, and
there a while remained. Now from Eureux the king had dispatched the
earle of Warwike vnto the siege of la Roch Guion, which fortresse he so
constreined, that it was yéelded into his hands, the sixt of Aprill,
in the beginning of this seuenth yeare of king Henries reigne, and
giuen to sir Guie Buttler late capteine of Rone, of the kings frée and
liberall grant.

[Sidenote: Chateau Galiard besieged.]

[Sidenote: Yuri taken by assault.]

About the same time, the duke of Excester laid siege vnto Chateau
Galiard, which siege continued from the last of March, vnto the latter
end of September, or (as some write) vnto the twentith of December,
as after shall appeare. The duke of Glocester being sent to win the
towne and castell of Yuri, tooke the towne by assault, and the castell
was deliuered by composition after fortie daies siege. After this the
Englishmen ouerran the countrie about Chartres, and did much hurt
to their enimies in all places where they came. The hearts of the
Frenchmen were sore discouraged with the losse of Rone, and the other
townes which yéelded one after another thus to the Englishmen, so that
such as loued the wealth of their countrie sore lamented the imminent
mischéefes, which they saw by the diuision of the nobilitie, like
shortlie to fall on their heads, namelie bicause they saw no remidie
prepared.

But who euer else was disquieted with this matter, Iohn duke of
Burgognie raged and swelled, yea and so much freated therewith, that he
wist not what to saie, and lesse to doo: for he knew well that he was
neither frée from disdaine, nor yet deliuered from the scope of malice,
bicause that he onelie ruled the king, and had the whole dooings in all
matters about him. And therefore he considered, that all such mishaps
as chanced to the state of the common-wealth would be imputed to his
negligence and disordred gouernement. To find some remedie against
such dangers at hand, he thought first to assaie, if he might by any
reasonable means conclude a peace betwixt the two mightie kings of
England and France, which if he might bring to passe, he doubted not to
reuenge his quarell easilie inough against the Dolphin Charles, and to
represse all causes of grudge and disdaine.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent on either side.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

Herewith intending to build vpon this fraile foundation, he sent
letters and ambassadors to the king of England, aduertising him, that
if he would personallie come to a communication to be had betwéene him
and Charles the French king, he doubted not but by his onelie meanes,
peace should be brought in place, and bloudie battell cléerelie exiled.
King Henrie giuing courteous eare to these ambassadors, sent with them
the earle of Warwike as his ambassador, accompanied with two hundred
gentlemen to talke with the duke, as then remaining in the French court
at the towne of Prouince. The earle was assailed by the waie as he
iournied, by a great number of rebellious persons, gotten into armour
of purpose to haue spoiled him of such monie and things as he and his
companie had about them. But by the high valiancie of the English
people, with the aid of their bowes, the Frenchmen were discomfited and
chased.

[Sidenote: Creation of earles.]

The earle at his comming to Prouince was honorablie receiued, and
hauing doone the effect of his message, returned; and with him the
earle of saint Paule, and the sonne and heire of the duke of Burbon
were also sent as ambassadors from the French king, to conclude
vpon the time and place of the méeting, with all the circumstances.
Wherevpon the king of England agréed to come to the towne of Mante,
with condition that the duke of Burgognie, and other for the French
king should come to Pontoise, that either part might méet other in a
conuenient place betwixt those two townes néere to Meulan. According
to this appointment, K. Henrie came to Mante, where in the feast of
Pentecost he kept a liberall house to all commers, and sate himselfe in
great estate. Vpon the which daie, either for good seruice alreadie by
them doone, or for the good expectation of things to come, he created
Gascoigne de Fois, otherwise called the captau or captall de Buef a
valiant Gascoigne, earle of Longueuile; and sir Iohn Greie earle of
Tankeruile, and the lord Bourchier, earle of Ew.

[Sidenote: Either part was appointed to bring with them not past two
thousand and fiue hundred men of warre as _Tit. Liu._ saith.]

After this solemne feast ended, the place of enteruiew and méeting was
appointed to be beside Meulan on the riuer of Seine, where in a faire
place euerie part was by commissioners appointed to their ground.
When the daie of appointment approched, which was the last daie of
Maie, the king of England accompanied with the dukes of Clarence, and
Glocester, his brethren, the duke of Excester his vncle, and Henrie
Beauford clerke his other vncle, which after was bishop of Winchester
and cardinall, with the earles of March, Salisburie, and others, to the
number of a thousand men of warre, entered into his ground, which was
barred about and ported, wherin his tents were pight in a princelie
maner.

[Sidenote: A treatie of peace.]

[Sidenote: Seuen times the last being on the last day of Iune.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

Likewise for the French part came Isabell the French quéene, bicause
hir husband was fallen into his old frantike disease, hauing in hir
companie the duke of Burgognie, and the earle of saint Paule, and she
had attending vpon hir the faire ladie Katharine hir daughter, with
six and twentie ladies and damosels; and had also for hir furniture
a thousand men of warre. The said ladie Katharine was brought by hir
mother onelie to the intent that the king of England beholding hir
excellent beautie, should be so inflamed and rapt in hir loue, that he
to obteine hir to his wife, should the sooner agrée to a gentle peace
and louing concord. But though manie words were spent in this treatie,
and that they met at eight seuerall times, yet no effect insued, nor
any conclusion was taken by this fréendlie consultation, so that
both parties after a princelie fashion tooke leaue ech of other, and
departed; the Englishmen to Mante, and the Frenchmen to Pontoise.

[Sidenote: _Chro. of Flanders._]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

Some authors write that the Dolphin to staie that no agréement should
passe, sent sir Taneguie de Chastell to the duke of Burgognie,
declaring that if he would breake off the treatie with the Englishmen,
he would then common with him; and take such order, that not onelie
they but the whole realme of France should thereof be glad and reioise.
Howsoeuer it came to passe, truth it is that where it was agréed, that
they should eftsoones haue met in the same place on the third of Iulie;
the king according to that appointment came: but there was none for the
French part, neither quéene nor duke that once appeared; so that it was
manifest inough how the fault rested not in the Englishmen, but in the
Frenchmen. By reason wherof no conclusion sorted to effect of all this
communication, saue onlie that a certeine sparke of burning loue was
kindled in the kings heart by the sight of the ladie Katharine.

The king without doubt was highlie displeased in his mind, that this
communication came to no better passe. Wherefore he mistrusting that
the duke of Burgognie was the verie let and stop of his desires, said
vnto him before his departure: "Coosine, we will haue your kings
daughter, and all things that we demand with hir, or we will driue
your king and you out of his realme. Well (said the duke of Burgognie)
before you driue the king and me out of his realme, you shall be well
wearied, and thereof we doubt little." Shortlie after, the duke of
Burgognie and the Dolphin met in the plaine fields besides Melun, and
there comming togither, concluded apparantlie an open peace and amitie,
which was proclamed in Paris, Amiens, and Pontoise.

[Sidenote: An agréement betwéene the duke of Burgognie & the Dolphin.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: A conspiracie in Rone.]

This agréement was made the sixt of Iulie in the yeare 1419. It was
ingrossed by notaries, signed with their hands, and sealed with their
great seales of armes: but as the sequele shewed, hart thought not
what toong spake, nor mind meant not that hand wrote. Whiles these
things were a dooing, diuerse of the Frenchmen in Rone went about
a conspiracie against the Englishmen, whereof the king being well
aduertised, sent thither certeine of his nobles, which tried out these
conspirators, caused them to be apprehended, had them in examination,
and such as they found guiltie were put to death; and so setting the
citie in quietnes, returned to the king, who counted it great honor to
kéepe the countries which he woone by conquest in obedience and aw;
sith such victories are not obteined without sore labour and toile,
both of prince and people, as the poet rightlie saith:

[Sidenote: _In Angl. præl. sub Hen. 5._]

    Quærere regna, labor; virtus est parta tueri
    Maxima.

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

[Sidenote: These bands belonged to the earle of Longueuile & to the
lord de Lespar Gascoignes.]

[Sidenote: _Hist. des ducs de Normand_]

[Sidenote: The king plaieth the porters part.]

The king of England, perceiuing, by this new aliance, that nothing
was lesse to be looked for, than peace at the hands of the Frenchmen,
deuised still how to win townes and fortresses, which were kept against
him: and now that the truce was expired, on the thirtith daie of Iulie,
he being as then within the towne of Mante, appointed certeine bands of
souldiers in the after noone to passe out of the gates, giuing onelie
knowledge to the capteins what he would haue them to doo. And to the
intent that no inkling of the enterprise should come to the enimies
eare, he kept the gates himselfe as porter. These that were thus sent
foorth being guided by the earle of Longueuile, otherwise called the
captau de Buef, were commanded in secret maner as they could to draw
toward the towne of Pontoise, and to kéepe themselues in couert till
the darke of the night, and then approch the walles of that towne, and
vpon espieng their aduantage to enter it by scaling, hauing ladders and
all things necessarie with them for the purpose.

[Sidenote: This captau was brother to the earle of Fois.]

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

[Sidenote: Pontoise surprised by the Englishmen.]

Moreouer, about the closing of the daie and night in the euening,
he sent foorth the erle of Huntington with other bands of soldiers,
to succor and assist the other, if they chanced to enter the towne
according to the order taken. Those that were first sent foorth
(according to their instructions) conueid themselues so closelie
to their appointed places, that the enimies heard nothing of their
dooings. Wherevpon when the night was come, they came in secret wise
vnder the walles, and there watched their time till the morning began
to draw on. In the meane time, whilest the watch was departed, and
before other were come into their places to relieue it, the Englishmen
setting vp their ladders, entered and brake open one of the gates to
receiue the other that followed.

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

The Frenchmen perceiuing that the walles were taken, and their enimies
entered into the towne, at the first were sore amazed: but after
perceiuing the small number of the Englishmen, they assembled togither
and fiercelie assailed them, so that they were constreined to retire
to the walles and turrets which they had taken, and with much adoo
defended the same; some leaping downe into the diches, and hiding
them in the vines, till at length the earle of Huntington, with his
companies came to their succors, and entring by the gate which was
open, easilie did beat backe the enimies, & got the market place. Which
when the lord Lisle Adam capteine of the towne perceiued, he opened the
gate towards Paris, by the which he with all his retinue, and diuerse
of the townesmen to the number of ten thousand in all, (as Enguerant de
Monstr. recounteth) fled towards Paris, taking awaie with them their
coine, iewels, and plate. Some of them fléeing towards Beauuois were
met with, and stripped of that they had, by Iehan de Guigni, and Iehan
de Claw, two capteins that serued the Orlientiall faction.

There were within the towne of Pontoise at that time when it was
thus taken by the Englishmen, a thousand lances, and two thousand
arcubalisters, as Thomas Wilsingham affirmeth, and of Englishmen and
Gascoignes that went first foorth of Mante with the captau de Buef,
not past fiftéene hundred, as Hall reporteth: although Enguerant de
Monstrellet saith, they were about thrée thousand. But how manie soeuer
they were, they durst not at the first, by reason of their small number
(as may be thought) once diuide themselues, or deale with booties, till
about the houre of prime, that the duke of Clarence came to their aid
with fiue thousand men, who much praising the valiantnesse of the earle
and his retinue that had thus woone the towne, gaue to them the chéefe
spoile of the which there was great plentie.

[Sidenote: The duke of Clarence c[=o]meth before Paris with his armie.]

[Sidenote: The Irishm[=e] spoil the Ile of France.]

Then went the duke foorth towards Paris, and comming thither, lodged
before it two daies and two nights, without perceiuing anie proffer
or issue to be made foorth against him by his enimies, and therefore
séeing they durst not once looke vpon him, he returned to Pontoise, for
the taking of which towne the whole countrie of France, and speciallie
the Parisians were sore dismaied: sith now there was no fortresse able
to withstand the English puissance; for that the Irishmen ouerran all
the Isle of France, did to the Frenchmen damages innumerable, (as their
writers affirme) brought dailie preies to the English armie, burst vp
houses, laid beds on the backes of the kine, rid vpon them, carried
yoong children before them, and sold them to the Englishmen for slaues.
These strange dooings so feared the Frenchmen within the territorie of
Paris, and the countrie about, that the sorie people fled out of the
villages with all their stuffe into the citie.

The French king, and the duke of Burgognie lieng at saint Denis, in
this season, departed from thence with the quéene and hir daughter,
and went to Trois in Champaigne, there to consult of their businesse,
hauing left at Paris the earle of S. Paule, and the lord Lisle Adam,
with a great puissance to defend the citie. The king of England
immediatlie after that Pontoise was woone (as before yée haue heard)
came thither in person, as well to giue order for the placing of a
sufficient garrison there for defense thereof; as to procéed further
into the countrie for the getting of other townes and places: and so
after he had well prouided for the good gouernment, & safe kéeping
thereof, the eightéenth daie of August he departed out of the same with
his maine armie.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The castell of Vaucon Villers besieged and taken.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

And bicause they of the garrison that laie in the castell of Vaucon
Villers had doone, and dailie did diuerse and sundrie displeasures to
the Englishmen, he pight downe his field néere to the same, the better
to restraine them from their hostile attempts, and withall sent part of
his armie to besiege the castell, which put them in such feare, that
they despairing of all reléefe or succour, and perceiuing they should
not be able long to defend the place against the kings puissance,
yéelded the place, with all their coine and other goods into the kings
hands. The soldiers of that garrison, and the inhabitants, at the
contemplation of a certeine ladie there amongst them, were licenced by
the king to depart without armor or weapon, onelie with their liues
saued. Iohn of Burgh that was after bailiffe of Gisours, was appointed
capteine of this castell.

[Sidenote: Gisours besieged and yéelded to the Englishmen.]

After this, all the townes and castels within a great circuit offered
to yéeld themselues vnto the English obeisance; the strong towne and
castell of Gisours onelie excepted, which still held out, & would
shew no token of will to yéeld. Héerevpon the king the last of August
began to approch the same, but at the first he could not come néere,
by reason of the marishes and fennes: but yet such was the diligence
of the Englishmen, aduanced by the presence of the king, readie in all
places to commend them that were forward in their businesse, and to
chastise such as slacked their duetie, that dailie they came néerer and
néerer, although the Frenchmen issued foorth dailie to encounter them,
giuing them manie sharpe skirmishes. For the towne being double walled
and fensed with those broad marishes, so incouraged them within, that
they thought no force had béene able to haue subdued them.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: Duke of Clarence saith _Rich. Grafton._]

But at length calling to remembrance, that the king of England came
before no towne nor fortresse, from which he would depart before he
had brought it vnder his subiection, they offered to come to a parlée,
and in the end compounded to render the towne into the kings hands the
eight daie of September next insuing, and the castell (bicause it was
the stronger péece) they couenanted to deliuer the foure and twentith
of the same, if in the meane time no rescue came to raise the siege.
Herevpon when no such reléefe could be heard of, at the daies limited,
the soldiers of the garrison, and the more part of the townsmen also
submitted themselues, and receiued an oth to be true subiects to the
king, and so remained still in their roomes. The earle of Worcester was
made capteine there.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: Normandie brought into the kings subiection, that had béene
lost & deteined a long time fr[=o] the English.]

About the same time, to wit, the thrée and twentith of September (as
some write) was castell Galiard surrendred to the hands of the duke of
Excester, which had béene besieged euer since the last daie of March
(as before yée haue heard.) But others write that it held out seauen
moneths, and was not deliuered vp till the twentith of December. This
castell was not onelie strong by situation, standing vpon the top of a
stéepe hill, but also closed with mightie thicke walles, and furnished
with men and all maner of munition and things necessarie. The king
appointed the lord Ros capteine of it. After that Gisours and castell
Galeard were thus yéelded to the English obeisance, all the other
townes and castels thereabout, and in the countrie of Veulquessin,
shortlie after yéelded to the king, as Gourneie, Chauniount, Neaufle,
Dangu, and other small fortresses. Of Gourneie, was sir Gilbert
Umfreuile made capteine; at Neaufle, the earle of Worcester; and at
Dangu, Richard Wooduile. Shortlie after was the castell Daumall yéelded
to the earle of Warwike, to whome it was giuen. And thus was the whole
duchie of Normandie (Mont saint Michael onelie excepted) reduced to the
possession of the right heire, which had béene wrongfullie deteined
from the kings of England euer since the daies of king Iohn, who lost
it about the yeare one thousand two hundred and seauen.

To satisfie those that be desirous to know what capteins were appointed
by the king in diuerse townes that were yéelded to him (of which we
haue made no mention heretofore but in generall) here their names doo
follow, and of the townes, as we find them in the chronicles of maister
Hall. At Crewleie sir Henrie Tanclux an Almaine; at Torignie, sir Iohn
Popham, to whome it was giuen; at Chamboie, the lord Fitz Hugh; at
Vernueil in Perch, sir Iohn Neuill; at Essaie, sir William Huddleston
bailiffe of Alanson; at Crulie sir Lois Robsert; at Conde Norean sir
Iohn Fastolfe; at Cawdebecke, sir Lois Robsert; at Déepe, William lord
Bourchier earle of Eu; at Aubemarle, the earle of Warwike, and his
deputie thereof William Montfort; at Bellincombre, sir Thomas Ramston
lord thereof by gift; at Longueuille, the capitall de Beuf or Buz,
earle thereof by gift; at Danuille, sir Christopher Burden; at Couches,
sir Robert Marburie; at Chierburg, sir Iohn Gedding; at Bacqueuille,
the lord Ros; at Arques sir Iames Fines, bailiffe of Caux; at Monceaux,
sir Philip Léech; at Estrie Pagnie, Richard Abraham; at Sentler Surget,
William Basset; at Bretueill, sir Henrie Mortimer bailiffe of Hunflew.

[Sidenote: The duke of Burgognie murthered.]

But now to returne where we left. The wise and graue personages of
the realme of France, sore lamenting & bewailing the miserie of their
countrie, saw they had puissance inough to defend their enimies, if
they were of perfect concord amongst themselues. And therefore to
remooue all rancor and displeasure betwixt the Dolphin, and the duke of
Burgognie, they procured a new méeting, which was appointed to be at
Monstreau ou fault Yonne, where the two princes at the daie assigned
met. But such was the fortune of France, that the duke of Burgognie was
there murthered, as he knéeled before the Dolphin: wherevpon insued
greater debate than before. For Philip earle of Charolois, the sonne
and heire of the said duke, tooke the matter verie gréeuouslie, as he
had no lesse cause, and determined to be reuenged on the Dolphin, and
other that were guiltie of the murther: so that now there was great
expectation of slaughter and bloudshed, but no hope for the most part
of tranquillitie & peace. France therefore, what with ouerthrowes giuen
by the English, & diuision among themselues, was verie sore afflicted;
insomuch that one miserie riding on anothers necke, the whole land was
in danger of desolation by ciuill dissention & mutuall mutinies; as the
poet noteth:

[Sidenote: _Anglorum prælia sub Henr. 5._]

    ---- accessit ad ista
    Tunc mala Celtarum Burgundio fraude peremptus
    Sparsaq; ciuilis tota dissensio terra.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to king Henrie.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: A wise and princelie caution.]

[Sidenote: The castell of S. Germane in Laie and Montioie yéelded to
the Englishmen.]

When he had well considered of the matter, and taken aduise with his
councell, he first sent ambassadours to the king of England, then lieng
at Gisours to treat and conclude a truce betwéene them both for a
certeine space, that they might talke of some conclusion of agréement.
King Henrie receiued the ambassadors verie courteouslie, and granted
that communication might be had of peace, but vtterlie denied anie
abstinence from warre, bicause he would not lose time, if the treatie
sorted not to good effect. Herevpon hauing his armie assembled at
Maunt, he diuided the same into thrée parts, appointing the duke of
Glocester with one part to go vnto the castell of S. Germane in Laie,
and to laie siege therevnto. The duke according to his commission,
comming before that castell, within a while constreined them within
by continuall skirmishes and assaults to diliuer vp the place into
his hands. An other part of the armie was sent vnto the castell of
Montioie, which likewise by such fierce assaults and manfull approches,
as the Englishmen made thereto, was shortlie giuen ouer and yéelded.
The third part of the hoast went to Meulanc, a verie strong towne
compassed about with the riuer of Seine.

[Sidenote: A policie for redie bridges.]

[Sidenote: The strong town of Meulanc yéelded to the English.]

But the king deuised to fasten botes and barges togither, and to rere
vp certeine frames of timber aloft on the same for defense of his
soldiers, that should by that meanes approch the walles, wherewith
those that had the towne in kéeping were so put in feare, that their
capteine was glad to come to a communication, & agréed to deliuer the
towne into the kings hands, if no rescue came before the thirtith daie
of October next insuing. On which daie, for that no succours appeared,
the towne (according to the couenants) was giuen vp into the kings
hands. Sir Thomas Ramston was made capteine there, and after him sir
Iohn Fastolfe. The king, whilest these places were besieged, and thus
brought vnder his subiection, continued for the most part at Maunt;
but yet oftentimes he went foorth to visit his campes, and to sée that
nothing should be wanting, that might further the spéedie dispatch of
his enterprises.

[Sidenote: 1420 An. Reg. 8.]

[Sidenote: A great victorie on the English side.]

About the same time, there came againe ambassadours to him from Charles
the French king, & from the yoong duke of Burgognie to treat with him
of some good conclusion of peace to be had; who had no such trust in
their sute, but that he doubted their meaning, and therefore ceassed
not to procéed in the winning of townes and castels, as he was in
hand. Now when Christmasse approched, the king withdrew to Rone, and
there kept the solemnization of that feast, appointing in the meane
time his men of warre to be occupied as occasion serued. The earle of
Salisburie was sent to besiege the towne of Fresneie, the which after
stout resistance made at the first, shortlie after was deliuered to
him to the kings vse. The earles Marshall and Huntington, sir Iohn
Gréene Cornewall, sir Philip Léech, and diuerse other, were sent into
the countrie of Maine, where, not farre from the citie of Mens they
were incountered by a power of Frenchmen, which the Dolphin had sent
against them. There was at the first a sharpe bickering betwixt them,
but in the end the victorie remained with the Englishmen; so that manie
of the Frenchmen were slaine, and taken, and the residue chased out of
the field. There were slaine (as Thomas Walsingham saith) at the point
of fiue thousand, and two hundred taken prisoners, among whome was the
marshall de Rous, and diuerse other of good account. The two English
earles remained there as victors, in the countrie which was by the king
to them assigned.

[Sidenote: King Henrie condescendeth to a treatie of peace.]

Whilest these victorious exploits were thus happilie atchiued by the
Englishmen, and that the king laie still at Rone, in giuing thanks to
almightie God for the same, there came to him eftsoones ambassadours
from the French king and the duke of Burgognie to mooue him to peace.
The king minding not to be reputed for a destroier of the countrie,
which he coueted to preserue, or for a causer of christian bloud still
to be spilt in his quarell, began so to incline and giue eare vnto
their sute and humble request, that at length (after often sending
to and fro) and that the bishop of Arras, and other men of honor had
béene with him, and likewise the earle of Warwike, and the bishop of
Rochester had béene with the duke of Burgognie, they both finallie
agréed vpon certeine articles, so that the French king and his commons
would thereto assent.

[Sidenote: A truce tripartite.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors from K. Henrie to the French king.]

Now was the French king and the quéene with their daughter Katharine
at Trois in Champaigne gouerned and ordered by them, which so much
fauoured the duke of Burgognie, that they would not for anie earthlie
good, once hinder or pull backe one iot of such articles as the same
duke should séeke to preferre. And therefore what néedeth manie words,
a truce tripartite was accorded betwéene the two kings and the duke,
and their countries, and order taken that the king of England should
send in the companie of the duke of Burgognie his ambassadours vnto
Trois in Champaigne sufficientlie authorised to treat and conclude of
so great matter. The king of England, being in good hope that all his
affaires should take good successe as he could wish or desire, sent
to the duke of Burgognie his vncle, the duke of Excester, the earle
of Salisburie, the bishop of Elie, the lord Fanhope, the lord Fitz
Hugh, sir Iohn Robsert, and sir Philip Hall, with diuerse doctors, to
the number of fiue hundred horsse, which in the companie of the duke
of Burgognie came to the citie of Trois the eleuenth of March. The
king, the quéene, and the ladie Katharine them receiued, and hartilie
welcomed, shewing great signes and tokens of loue and amitie.

[Sidenote: The articles of the peace concluded betwéene king Henrie and
the French king.]

After a few daies they fell to councell, in which at length it was
concluded, that king Henrie of England should come to Trois, and marie
the ladie Katherine; and the king hir father after his death should
make him heire of his realme, crowne and dignitie. It was also agréed,
that king Henrie, during his father in lawes life, should in his stéed
haue the whole gouernment of the realme of France, as regent thereof,
with manie other couenants and articles, as after shall appéere. To the
performance whereof, it was accorded, that all the nobles and estates
of the realme of France, as well spirituall as temporall, and also the
cities and commonalties, citizens and burgesses of townes, that were
obeisant at that time to the French king, should take a corporall oth.
These articles were not at the first in all points brought to a perfect
conclusion. But after the effect and meaning of them was agréed vpon
by the commissioners, the Englishmen departed towards the king their
maister, and left sir Iohn Robsert behind, to giue his attendance on
the ladie Katharine.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

King Henrie being informed by them of that which they had doone, was
well content with the agréement and with all diligence prepared to go
vnto Trois, and therevpon hauing all things in readinesse, he being
accompanied with his brethren the dukes of Clarence and Glocester,
the earles of Warwike, Salisburie, Huntington, Eu, Tankeruile, and
Longuile, and fiftéene thousand men of warre, went from Rone to
Pontoise; & departing from thence the eight daie of Maie, came to saint
Denis two leagues from Paris, and after to Pontcharenton, where he
left a strong garison of men, with sir William Gascoigne, to kéepe the
passage; and so then entering into Brie, he tooke by the waie a castell
which was kept against him, causing them that so kept it, some to be
hanged, and the residue to be led foorth with him as prisoners. And
after this kéeping on his iournie by Prouins, and Nogent, at length he
came to Trois.

[Sidenote: King Henrie commeth to Trois to the French king.]

[Sidenote: King Henrie affieth the French kings daughter.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

The duke of Burgognie accompanied with manie noble men, receiued him
two leagues without the towne, and conueied him to his lodging. All
his armie was lodged in small villages thereabout. And after that he
had reposed himselfe a little, he went to visit the French king, the
quéene, and the ladie Katharine, whome he found in saint Peters church,
where was a verie ioious méeting betwixt them (and this was on the
twentith daie of Maie) and there the king of England, and the ladie
Katharine were affianced. After this, the two kings and their councell
assembled togither diuerse daies, wherein the first concluded agréement
was in diuerse points altered and brought to a certeinetie, according
to the effect aboue mentioned. When this great matter was finished,
the kings sware for their parts to obserue all the couenants of this
league and agréement. Likewise the duke of Burgognie and a great number
of other princes and nobles which were present, receiued an oth, the
tenor whereof (as the duke of Burgognie vttered it in solemne words)
thus insueth, accordinglie as the same is exemplified by Titus Liuius
De Foro Liuisiis in Latine.



The oth of the duke of Burgognie.


Ego Philippus Burgundiæ dux, per me meósque hæredes, ad sacra Dei
euangelia domino regi Henrico Angliæ, Franciæque, pro Carolo rege
regenti iuro, quòd humiliter ipsi Henrico fidelitérq; cunctis in rebus;
quæ rempublicam spectant & Franciæ coronam, obediemus, & statim post
mortem Caroli domini nostri, domino Henrico regi suisque successoribus
in perpetuum ligei fideles erimus; nec alium quempiam pro domino nostro
supremo Franciæ rege, quàm Henricum & suos hæredes habebimus, néque
patiemur. Non erimus præterea in consilio vel consensu cuiuscquam damni
regis Henrici, suorúmue successorum, vbi quicquam detrimenti patiantur
capitis siue membri, vel vitam perdant; sed prædicta (quantum in nobis
fuerit) quàm citissimis literis vel nuntijs, vt sibi meliùs prouidere
valeant, eis significabimus.



The same in English.


I Philip duke of Burgognie, for my selfe, and for mine heires, doo
here sweare vpon the holie euangelists of God, to Henrie king of
England, and regent of France for king Charles, that we shall humblie
and faithfullie obeie the said Henrie in all things which concerne the
common-wealth and crowne of France. And immediatlie after the deceasse
of our souereigne lord king Charles, we shall be faithfull liegemen
vnto the said king Henrie, and to his successors for euer. Neither
shall we take or suffer anie other souereigne lord and supreme king
of France, but the same Henrie and his heires: neither shall we be of
councell or consent of anie hurt towards the said king Henrie or his
successors, wherby they may suffer losse & detriment of life or lim,
but that the same so farre as in vs may lie, we shall signifie to them
with all spéed, by letters or messengers, that they may the better
prouide for themselues in such cases.

       *       *       *       *       *

The like oth a great number of the princes and nobles both spirituall
and temporall which were present, receiued at the same time. This
doone, the morow after Trinitie sundaie, being the third of Iune,
the mariage was solemnized and fullie consummate betwixt the king
of England, and the said ladie Katharine. Herewith was the king of
England named and proclamed heire and regent of France. And as the
French king sent the copie of this treatie to euerie towne in France:
so the king of England sent the same in English vnto euerie citie and
market towne within his realme, to be proclamed and published. The true
copie whereof, as we find it in the chronicles of maister Hall, we
haue thought good here to set downe, for the more full satisfieng of
those that shall desire to peruse euerie clause and article thereof as
followeth.



The articles & appointments of peace betwéene the realmes of England
and France.


Henrie by the grace of God king of England, heire and regent of France,
lord of Ireland, to perpetuall mind of christian people, and all those
that be vnder our obeisance, we notifie and declare, that though there
hath béene here before diuerse treaties betwéene the most excellent
prince Charles our father of France and his progenitors, for the peace
to be had betwéene the two realmes of France and England, the which
heretofore haue borne no fruit: we considering the great harmes, the
which haue not onelie fallen betwéene those two realmes, for the great
diuision of that hath béene betwéene them, but to all holy church; we
haue taken a treatie with our said father, in which treatie betwixt our
said father and vs, it is concluded & accorded in the forme after the
manner that followeth.

1 First, it is accorded betwéene our father and vs, that forsomuch as
by the bond of matrimonie made for the good of the peace betwéene vs
and our most déere beloued Katharine, daughter of our said father, & of
our most déere moother Isabell his wife; the same Charles and Isabell
béene made our father and moother: therefore them as our father and
moother we shall haue and worship, as it fitteth and séemeth so worthie
a prince and princesse to be worshipped, principallie before all other
temporall persons of the world.

2 Also we shall not distrouble, diseason or let our father aforesaid,
but that he hold and possede as long as he liueth, as he holdeth and
possedeth at this time, the crowne and dignitie roiall of France, with
rents and profits for the same, of the sustenance of his estate and
charges of the realme. And our foresaid moother also hold as long as
she liueth, the state and dignitie of quéene, after the manner of the
same realme, with conuenable conuenient part of the said rents and
profits.

3 Also that the foresaid ladie Katharine shall take and haue dower in
our realme of England as quéenes of England here tofore were woont for
to take and haue, that is to saie, to the summe of fortie thousand
scutes, of the which two algate shall be a noble English.

4 And that by the waies, manners, and meanes that we without
transgression or offense of other made by vs, for to speake the lawes,
customes, vsages and rights of our said realme of England, shall done
our labour and pursuit, that the said Katharine, all so soone as it
maie be doone, be made sure to take, and for to haue in our said realme
of England, from the time of our death, the said dower of fortie
thousand scutes yearelie, of the which twaine algate be worth a noble
English.

5 Also if it happe the said Katharine to ouerliue vs, we shall take
and haue the realme of France immediatlie, from the time of our death,
dower to the summe of twentie thousand franks yearelie, of and vpon the
lands, places and lordships that held and had Blanch sometime wife of
Philip Beasaill to our said father.

6 Also that after the death of our said father aforesaid, and from
thence forward, the crowne and the realme of France, with all the
rights and appurtenances, shall remaine and abide to vs, and béene of
vs and of our heires for euermore.

7 And forsomuch as our said father is withholden with diuerse
sickenesse, in such manner as he maie not intend in his owne person for
to dispose for the néeds of the foresaid realme of France: therefore
during the life of our foresaid father, the faculties and exercise
of the gouernance and disposition of the publick & common profit of
the said realme of France, with councell, and nobles, and wisemen of
the same realme of France, shall be and abide to vs; so that from
thencefoorth we maie gouerne the same realme by vs. And also to admit
to our counsell and assistance of the said nobles, such as we shall
thinke méet. The which faculties and exercise of gouernance thus being
toward vs, we shall labour and purpose vs spéedfullie, diligentlie,
and trulie, to that that maie be and ought for to be vnto the worship
of God, and our said father and moother, and also to the common good
of the said realme, and that realme with the councell & helpe of the
worthie and great nobles of the same realme for to be defended, peased
and gouerned after right and equitie.

8 Also that we of our owne power shall doo the court of parlement in
France to be kept and obserued in his authoritie and souereignetie,
and in all that is doone to it in all manner of places that now or in
time comming is or shall be subiect to our said father.

9 Also we to our power shall defend and helpe all and euerie of the
péeres, nobles, cities, townes, communalties, and singular persons, now
or in time comming, subiects to our father in their rights, customes,
priuileges, fréedomes, and franchises, longing or due to them in all
manner of places now or in time comming subiect to our father.

10 Also we diligentlie and truelie shall trauell to our power, and doo
that iustice be administred and doone in the same realme of France
after the lawes, customes, and rights of the same realme, without
personall exception. And that we shall kéepe and hold the subiects of
the same realme in tranquillitie and peace, and to our power we shall
defend them against all manner of violence and oppression.

11 Also we to our power shall prouide, and doo to our power, that able
persons and profitable béene taken to the offices as well of iustices
and other offices belonging to the gouernance of the demaines, and of
other offices of the said realme of France, for the good right and
peaceable iustice of the same, and for the administration that shall
be committed vnto them; and that they be such persons, that after the
lawes and rights of the same realme, and for the vtilitie and profit of
our said father, shall minister, and that the foresaid realme shall be
taken and departed to the same offices.

12 Also that we of our power, so soone as it may commodiouslie be
doone, shall trauell to put into the obedience of our said father, all
manner of cities, townes, and castels, places, countries, and persons
within the realme of France, disobedient, and rebels to our said
father, holding with them which béene called the Dolphin, or Arminacke.

13 Also that we might the more commodiouslie, suerlie and fréelie
doone, exercise, & fulfill these things aforesaid, it is accorded that
all worthie nobles and estates of the same realme of France, as well
spirituals as temporals, and also cities notable and communalties,
and citizens, burgesses of townes of the realme of France, that béene
obeisant at this time to our said father, shall make these othes that
followen.

14 First to vs hauing the facultie, exercise, disposition,
and gouernance of the foresaid common profit to our hests and
commandements, these shall méekelie & obedientlie obeie and intend in
all manner of things concerning the exercise of gouernance of the same
realme.

15 Also that the worthie, great, and noble estates of the said
realme as well spirituals as temporals, and also cities and notable
communalties, and citizens and burgesses of the same realme, in all
manner of things well and trulie shall kéepe and to their power shall
doo to be kept of so much as to them belongeth, or to anie of them, all
those things that béene appointed and accorded betwéene our foresaid
father and moother and vs, with the counsell of them whome vs list to
call to vs.

16 And that continuallie from the death, and after the death of our
said father Charles, they shall be our true liegemen, and our heires;
and they shall receiue and admit vs for their liege and souereigne and
verie king of France, and for such to obeie vs without opposition,
contradiction, or difficultie, as they béene to our foresaid father
during his life, neuer after this realme of France shall obey to man
as king or regent of France, but to vs and our heires. Also they shall
not be in counsell, helpe, or assent that we léese life or limme, or
be take with euill taking, or that we suffer harme, or diminution in
person, estate worship, or goods; but if they know anie such thing for
to be cast or imagined against vs, they shall let it to their power,
& they shall doone vs to wéeten thereof, as hastilie as they maie by
themselfe, by message, or by letters.

17 Also that all maner of conquests that should be made by vs in France
vpon the said inobedients, out of the duchie of Normandie, shall be
doone to the profit of our said father; and that to our power we shall
doo, that all maner of lands and lordships that béene in the places so
for to be conquered, longing to persons obeieng to our foresaid father,
which shall sweare for to kéepe this present accord, shall be restored
to the same persons to whom they long to.

18 Also that all manner of persons of the holie church, beneficed in
the duchie of Normandie, or any other places in the realme of France,
subiect to our father, and fauouring the partie of the dukes of
Burgognie, which shall sweare to kéepe this present accord, shall inioy
peaceablie their benefices of holie church in the duchie of Normandie,
or in other places next aforesaid.

19 Also likewise, all maner of persons of holie church, obedient to
vs and beneficed in the realme of France, and places subiect to our
father, that shall sweare to kéepe this present accord, shall inioy
peaceablie their benefices of holie church in places next abouesaid.

20 Also that all maner of churches, vniuersities, and studies generall,
and all colleges of studies, and other colleges of holie church, being
in places now or in time comming subiect to our father, or in the
duchie of Normandie, or other places in the realme of France subiect
to vs, shall inioy their rights and possessions, rents, prerogatiues,
liberties, & franchises, longing or due to them in any maner of wise in
the said relme of France, sauing the right of the crowne of France, and
euerie other person.

21 Also by Gods helpe, when it happeneth vs to come to the crowne of
France, the duchie of Normandie, and all other places conquered by vs
in the realme of France, shall bow vnder the commandement, obeisance,
and monarchie of the crowne of France.

22 Also that we shall force vs, & doo to our power, that recompense
be made by our said father without diminution of the crowne of France
to persons obeieng to him, and fauoring to that partie that is said
Burgognie, to whom longeth lands, lordships, rents, or possessions in
the said duchie of Normandie, or other places in the realme of France,
conquered by vs hithertoward giuen by vs in places and lands gotten, or
to be gotten, and ouercome, in the name of our said father vpon rebels
and inobedients to him. And if so be that such maner of recompense
be not made to the said persons, by the life of our said father, we
shall make that recompense in such maner and places, of goods, when
it happeneth by Gods grace to the crowne of France. And if so be that
the lands, lordships, rents, or possessions, the which longeth to such
maner of persons in the said duchie and places be not giuen by vs, the
same persons shall be restored to them without any delaie.

23 And during the life of our father, in all places now or in time
comming subiect to him, letters of common iustice, and also grants
of offices and gifts, pardons or remissions, and priuileges shall be
written and procéed vnder the name and seale of our said father. And
for somuch as some singular case maie fall, that maie not be foreséene
by mans wit, in the which it might be necessarie and behoouefull, that
we doo write our letters; in such maner case, if any hap for the good
and suertie of our father, and for the gouernance that longeth to vs,
as is beforesaid; and for to eschewen perils that otherwise might fall,
to the preiudice of our said father, to write our letters, by the which
we shall command, charge, and defend after the nature and qualitie of
the néed, in our fathers behalfe and ours as regent of France.

24 Also, that during our fathers life, we shall not call nor write vs
king of France; but verelie we shall absteine vs from that name, as
long as our father liueth.

25 Also that our said father, during his life shall name, call,
and write vs in French in this maner: Nostre treschier filz Henry
roy d'Engleterre heretere de France. And in Latine in this maner:
Præclarissimus filius noster Henricus rex Angliæ & hæres Franciæ.

26 Also that we shall put none impositions or exactions, or doo
charge the subiects of our said father without cause reasonable and
necessarie, ne otherwise than for common good of the realme of France,
and after the saieng and asking of the lawes and customes reasonable
approoued of the same realme.

27 Also that we shall trauell to our power to the effect and intent,
that by the assent of the thrée estates of either of the realmes of
France and England, that all maner of obstacles maie be doone awaie,
and in this partie, that it be ordeined and prouided; that from the
time that we or any of our heires come to the crowne of France, both
the crownes, that is to saie, of France and England perpetuallie
be togither in one & in the same person, that is to saie, from our
fathers life to vs, and from the tearme of our life thenceforward in
the persons of our heires, that shall be one after an other, and that
both realmes shall be gouerned from that we or any of our heires come
to the same, not seuerallie vnder diuerse kiugs in one time, but vnder
the same person which for the time shall be king of both realmes, and
our souereigne lord (as it is before said) kéeping neuerthelesse in
all maner of other things to either of the same realmes, their rights,
liberties, customes, vsages, and lawes, not making subiect in any maner
of wise one of the same realmes, to the rights, lawes, or vsages of
that other.

28 Also that thenceforward, perpetuallie, shall be still rest, and that
in all maner of wise, dissentions, hates, rancors, enuies and wars,
betwéene the same realmes of France and England, and the people, of the
same realmes, drawing to accord of the same peace, may ceasse and be
broken.

29 Also that there shall be from henceforward for euermore, peace,
and tranquillitie, & good accord and common affection, and stable
friendship betwéene the said realmes, and their subiects before said.
The same realmes shall kéepe themselues with their councell, helps,
and common assistance against all maner of men that inforce them for
to dooen or to imagine wrongs, harmes, displeasures, or grieuances to
them or either of them. And they shall be conuersant and merchandizen
fréelie and suerlie togither, paieng the custome due and accustomed.
And they shall be conuersant also, that all the confederats and alies
of our said father and the realme of France aforesaid, and also our
confederats of the realme of England aforesaid, shall in eight moneths
from the time of this accord of peace, as it is notified to them,
declare by their letters, that they will draw to this accord, and will
be comprehended vnder the treaties and accord of this peace, sauing
neuerthelesse either of the same crownes, and also all maner actions,
rights and reuenues, that longen to our said father and his subiects,
and to vs and our subiects, against all maner of such alies and
confederats.

30 Also neither our father, neither our brother the duke of Burgognie
shall begin, ne make with Charles, cleping himselfe the Dolphin of
Viennes, any treatie, or peace, or accord, but by councell and assent
of all and ech of vs thrée, or of other the thrée estates of either of
the said realmes aboue named.

31 Also that we with assent of our said brother of Burgognie, and other
of the nobles of the realme of France, the which thereto owen to be
called, shall ordeine for the gouernance of our said father sekerlie,
louinglie, & honestlie, after the asking of his roiall estate and
dignitie, by the maner that shall be to the worship of God, and of our
father, and of the realme of France.

32 Also all maner of persons, that shall be about our father to doo him
personall seruice, not onelie in office, but in all other seruices,
aswell the nobles and gentlenes as other, shall be such as hath béene
borne in the realme of France, or in places longing to France, good,
wise, true, and able to that foresaid seruice. And our said father
shall dwell in places notable of his obedience, and no where else.
Wherefore we charge and command our said liege subiects, and other
being vnder our obedience, that they kéepe and doo to be kept in all
that longeth to them, this accord and peace, after the forme and maner
as it is accorded; and that they attempt in no maner wise, any thing
that may be preiudiciall or contrarie to the same accord and peace,
vpon paine of life and lim, and all that they may forfeit against vs.
Yeuen at Troes, the thirtith day of Maie, 1420, & proclamed in London
the twentith day of Iune.

33 Also that we for the things aforesaid, and euerie one of them, shall
giue our assent by our letters patents, sealed with our seale vnto
our said father, with all approbation and confirmation of vs, and all
other of our bloud roiall, and all other of the cities and townes to
vs obedient. Sealed with our seales accustomed. And further, our said
father, besides his letters patents sealed with our great seale, shall
make or cause to be made letters approbatorie, and confirmations of the
péeres of his realme, and of the lords, citizens, and burgesses of the
same, vnder his obedience. All which articles we haue sworne to kéepe
vpon the holie euangelists.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

[Sidenote: A league betwéene king Henrie & the duke of Burgognie.]

On the fourtéenth of Iune being fridaie, there was a solemn procession
at London, and a sermon at Paules crosse, in which the preacher openlie
declared the effect of the kings mariage, and the articles concluded
vpon the same, by reason whereof (he said) there must be a new great
seale deuised, and the old broken, and in the new the kings name with
a new addition of his title as regent of France, and heire apparant of
that kingdome was to be ingrauen. Beside the league thus concluded by
king Henrie with the French king, and the whole bodie of the realme of
France, there was a priuat league accorded betwixt him and the duke of
Burgognie, the effect wherof was comprehended in articles as followeth.

1 First, that the duke of Burgognie should procure this peace latelie
before concluded, to be obserued firme and stable in all couenants and
points therof, so far as he by any meanes might further the same: in
consideration whereof, one of the brethren of king Henrie should take
to wife one of the said duke of Burgognies sisters. 2 That king Henrie
should euer haue in singular fauour the said duke of Burgognie, as
his most déere brother, and support him in all his rights. 3 That the
said duke, after the deceasse of king Charles, should take an oth of
fealtie to be true to K. Henrie & his heires, according to the forme
& tenor thereof before expressed, & should in all things be friend to
king Henrie and his heires for euer. 4 That king Henrie should doo his
vttermost indeuour, that due punishment might be had for the murther of
duke Iohn, father to the said duke of Burgognie, aswell vpon Charles
that named himselfe Dolphin, as vpon others that were guiltie and
priuie to that murther.

5 If the said Dolphin chanced to be taken, in battell or towne
besieged, or if anie other chanced so to be taken, that should be
prooued guiltie or priuie to the murther of the said duke Iohn, he
should not be deliuered without iust punishment for his déeds, nor
without the consent of the two kings Charles and Henrie, & of the thrée
estates of both the realmes. 6 In consideration of the great diligence,
and painfull trauell susteined by the duke of Burgognie, it was also
agréed, that he should haue by patent granted of king Charles and
quéene Isabell a fée of twentie thousand pounds Parisien, of yéerelie
reuenues, assigned foorth néere to the confines of his countrie, to
inioy the same to him and to his wife the duches Michaell, and to the
heires males betwixt them two, lawfullie begotten, to the obteining
whereof, king Henrie should shew all his furtherance; & if it might not
be brought to passe till king Henrie had obteined the crowne of France,
then should he sée the same performed, vpon the receiuing of his homage.

[Sidenote: The effect of king Henries oration to the French king.]

The king of England, after all the articles of the said treaties and
agréements were concluded, passed and sworne vnto, made to the French
king, the duke of Burgognie, and other the French lords, a sumptuous
banket; and before they departed from the same, he sadlie and with
great grauitie made to them a right pithie and sententious oration,
declaring to them both how profitable the ioining of the two kingdomes
should be to the subiects of the same, and also the right that he
had thereto, being by lineall descent of the womans side (which is
the surest) rather a Frenchman than an Englishman. And though he was
an Englishman borne, yet he assured them to tender the wealth of the
realme of France, as much as he would the aduancement of his owne
natiue countrie of England.

Herewith, he inueied against Charles the Dolphin, being the head and
onelie mainteiner of all the ciuill discord, whose wicked nature, and
cruell disposition, did well appeare in the murther of the late duke of
Burgognie. He therefore willed them, according to their dutie, oth, and
agréement, to stand with him, and helpe to reduce such a stubborne and
disloiall sonne vnto the obeisance of his father king Charles, that he
might shew himselfe conformable vnto such orders and decrées, as they
had taken, appointed, and agréed vpon: and for his part, he promised
to worship, loue, and honor his father in law the said K. Charles, in
place of his owne father, according to the true mening of this concord
and agréement, trusting the same to be a peace finall.

[Sidenote: It was rendered vp the tenth of Iune.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius_ Sens & M[=o]streau beseiged and taken.]

[Sidenote: The siege was laid the 16 of Iune.]

And to conclude, he promised, that if they shewed themselues true and
loiall to him, according to the same agréement; the Ocean sea should
sooner ceasse to flow, and the bright sunne lose his light, than he
would desist from dooing that which became a prince to doo to his
subiect, or a father to his naturall child. When he had thus persuaded
the nobilitie, and dispatched his businesse at Troies, he with all his
armie, hauing with him the French king, and the duke of Burgognie,
departed from thence the fourth of Iune; and vpon the seauenth daie of
the same moneth, came before the towne of Sens in Burgognie, which held
on the Dolphins part: but after foure daies siege, it was yéelded vnto
the king, and there he made capteine, the lord Genuille. From thence,
he remooued to Monstreau ou fault Yonne, which towne was taken on the
thrée and twentith daie of Iune, by assault, so that manie of the
Dolphins part were apprehended, before they could get to the castell.

Whilest the siege laie there, and before the towne was entred, the
duke of Bedford came thither vnto the king, bringing with him a faire
retinue of soldiers out of England. After the getting of the towne,
the castell being well vittelled and manned, denied to render, and
therefore was it enuironed with a strong siege. During the which, the
duke of Burgognie was informed, in what place of the towne the duke
his father was buried, who was slaine there (as before you haue heard)
and now his corps was taken vp againe by his sonnes appointment, and
seared, and so conueied vnto Digeon in high Burgognie, and there buried
by his father Philip: to the end that the remembrance of him should
remaine to posterities, by the reseruation of some monument abiding in
the place of his interment, after that his bodie was consumed, and his
naturall countenance forgotten. Which is the last point of reuerend
dutie (as we may well thinke) which pietie of children towards their
parents dooth require; namelie, that they be decentlie buried when they
be departed; and that their graues or toome stones may put vs that
are aliue in mind of going the same waie, and to set no more by this
flitting life, than standeth with the vncerteintie and shortnesse of
the same; as one right well saith:

    Cùm tumulum cernis, cur non mortalia spernis?
    Esto memor mortis, quo viuis tempore fortis.

[Sidenote: It held not out so long as should appeare by Tit.]

[Sidenote: Liuius, who saith, that it was rendred the fourth of Iulie.]

Bicause they within the castell of Monstreau, gaue opprobrious words
vnto the kings herald that was sent to them, the king caused a gibet
to be set vp before the castle, on the which were hanged twelue of
those spitefull offenders, all gentlemen & fréends to the capteine
named monsieur de Guitrie, who at length, perceiuing that by no means
he could be succoured; and fearing to be taken by force, began to
treat with the king of England, who for the space of eight daies would
hearken to none of his offers; but in conclusion, he and his rendred
themselues simplie, their liues onelie saued, six wéekes after they had
béene besieged. The earle of Warwike was made capteine, both of the
towne and castell, who fortified it with men, munition, and vittels.

[Sidenote: _W. P. Buchan. lib._ 10.]

[About this time Robert the gouernour of Scotland, the fiftéenth
yéere after his brothers reigne, and in the thirtith yeare of his
owne regiment deceassed, in whose stéed and office his sonne Mordac
duke of Albanie was by and by chosen, who had sonnes thrée, Walter,
Alexander, and Iames, whereof the two eldest beginning betimes to be
obstinate, grew soone after verie graceles and wicked: that in one
flagitious feat among the rest by this Walter verie impiouslie against
his parents was vttered. The gouernour had a faire, a gentle, and well
flieng falcon, whereby he set great store. The sonne verie desirous of
the same, made manie meanes and motions to haue hir, not without note
of malapert importunitie and lacke of reuerence toward his parents
pleasure, which the father dissembling to sée, would not yet in anie
wise forgo his hawke. Whereat this child reiecting regard of dutie,
and receiuing an vnnaturall hate and heat by broth of iniquitie set
a boiling in his brest, came in on a time, where standing a while
at a sudden braid, pluckt awaie the bird from his fathers fist, and
straight before his face wrang of hir necke. The gouernour héereat sore
astonied, for verie gréefe gaue a great grone; "Well sonne (quod he)
since yée cannot bridle your brunts for dutie and reuerence toward me
your parent and souereigne, I will bring in one that shall bridle vs
both." Héerevpon soone after, he with one Calen Campbell, a noble man &
of much authoritie (vnto whome this Walter had doone a great despight)
and with other of the nobilitie fell straight in consultation about the
calling home of their king. Which all with one assent they did right
well allow, whereby soone after (as is touched afore, and followeth
more at large) he was by them in his kingdome right roiallie placed.
But this came of it. These mischéefous children Walter and Alexander,
the verie cause of their fathers confusion and their owne, within few
yeares after condemned by law, vpon a hill by Sterling castell, had
their heads chopt off at once. Walters wife with hir two sonnes, Andrew
and Alexander, ran for refuge awaie into Ireland; thus for their long
iniquities their hires iustlie paid all in a daie.]

[Sidenote: Melun besieged by king Henrie.]

[Sidenote: The king of Scots in K. H[=e]ries armie.]

[Sidenote: Eightéene wéekes haue the chronicles of Flanders.]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: Monsieur de Barbason a vali[=a]t captein.]

Now to procéed in our processe of France. After the thus winning of the
towne and castell of Monstreau; the king departing from thence, came to
Melun vpon Seine, the thirtéenth daie of Iulie, and besieged it round
about, hauing then in companie with him the French king, and the yoong
king of Scots, the dukes of Burgognie, Clarence, Bedford, Glocester,
and Bar, the prince of Orajnge, and one and twentie earles, besides
lords, barons, & knights, equal to lords in degrée, to the number of
seauen and fiftie, what of England and France; and beside also fiftéene
maister soldiers. This siege continued the space almost of seuen
moneths, or (as Thomas Walsingham saith) fouretéene wéekes, and foure
daies, with skirmishing, scaling assaulting, and defending, to the
losse (no doubt) of both parts. Capteine of this towne was one monsieur
de Barbason, a Gascoine of such experience and approoued valiancie in
wars, that his renowme and fame was spred through the world.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

At the first laieng of the siege, he called all the soldiers there in
garrison, and likewise the townesmen afore him, and warned them all on
paine of death, that none of them should be so hardie, as to treat, or
once to motion anie word of surrendring the towne, or of comming to
anie composition or agréement with the two kings; except they made him
being their capteine priuie thereto, before they attempted anie such
thing. ¶ In the meane season, the French quéene, the quéene of England,
and the duches of Burgognie, lieng at Corbeill, came diuers times to
visit their husbands, and to sée their fréends; whome the king of
England highlie feasted and louinglie interteined, that euerie creature
reported great honour of him. This towne of Melun séemed verie strong,
both by reason of the riuer of Seine, which compassed part thereof, and
also by strong walles, turrets, ditches, and bulworks made about it.

[Sidenote: The duke of Bauiere, commeth to king Henrie with a number
of horssemen.]

The king therefore, to take awaie all the issues and entries from
them within, made a bridge ouer the riuer, able to beare horsses and
carriage: and againe, appointed diuerse botes furnished with men of
warre, to kéepe the streame; so that they within should haue no waie
to come abroad, either by water or land; yet on a daie, the Frenchmen
sailed foorth, and assailed the English lodgings, where the earle of
Warwike was incamped on the east side of the towne, not farre from the
duke of Burgognie; but by the valiant prowesse and manlie courage of
the Englishmen, the enimies were easilie beaten backe and constreined
to retire into the towne againe with their losse. Héere is to be
remembred, that during this siege before Melun, there came to the king
the duke of Bauiere, the kings brother in law (but the kings sister
that had béene married to him, was not then liuing) and brought with
him seauen hundred well appointed horssemen, which were reteined to
serue the king, and right worthilie they bare themselues, and therefore
most liberallie recompensed at the kings hand, for the time they
continued in his seruice.

[Sidenote: The tr[=a]slator of _Tit. Liuius._]

[Sidenote: K. Henrie and m[=o]sieur Barbason fight hand to hand.]

The king inforced this siege by all waies and meanes possible, to
bring the towne into subiection, as well by mines as otherwise, but
they within the towne so valiantlie behaued themselues, as well by
countermines (whereby at length they entered into the kings mines) as
by other waies of resistance, that by force of assaults it was not
thought anie easie matter to win the same. It fortuned on a daie, that
whilest there rose a contention betwixt two lords of the kings host,
who should haue the honor to go first into the mine, to incounter with
the Frenchmen, that now had brought their mine through into the English
mines, and made barriers betwixt, that they might safelie come and
fight with the Englishmen: the king (to auoid the strife) entered the
mine himselfe first of all other, and by chance came to fight hand to
hand with the lord Barbason, who was likewise entered the mine before
all other of them within the towne.

[Sidenote: It was surrendred about Alhalontide, as Thom.]

[Sidenote: _Wal._ noteth.]

[Sidenote: Melun yéelded vp to king Henrie.]

After they had fought a good season togither, at length they agréed to
discouer either to other their names; so as the lord Barbason, first
declaring what he was; the king likewise told him, that he was the king
of England. Wherevpon, Barbason perceiuing with whome he had fought,
caused the barriers foorthwith to be closed, and withdrew into the
citie, and the king returned backe to his campe. At length, vittels
within the towne began to faile, and the pestilence began to wax hot,
so that the lord Barbason began to treat; and in conclusion, about
the middest of Nouember (as Fabian saith) the towne was yéelded vpon
certeine conditions, whereof one was, that all that were consenting to
the death of the duke of Burgognie, should be deliuered to the king of
England, of whome the lord Barbason was suspected to be one. The king
sent them vnder the conduct of his brother the duke of Clarence, to the
citie of Paris, whereof the French king made him capteine, and so at
his comming thither, he tooke possession of the Bastill of S. Anthonie,
the Loure, the house of Néelle, and the place of Bois de Vincennes.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

Monsieur de Barbason was accused by the duke of Burgognie, and his
sisters as guiltie to their fathers death; but he in open court
defended himselfe as not guiltie of that crime, granting indéed and
confessing, that he was one of the familiar seruants to the Dolphin,
but that he was priuie or consenting to the death of the duke of
Burgognie, he vtterlie denied. Wherevpon he was not condemned, neither
yet acquited, by reason of such presumptions and coniectures as were
alledged and brought against him, so that he remained in prison at
Paris and else-where, the space of nine yeares, till at length, being
brought vnto castell Galliard, it chanced that the same castell was
woone by those of the Dolphins part, and he being as then prisoner
there, escaped out of danger, and so by that means was set at libertie,
as after shall appeare.

[Sidenote: Note this appeale.]

[Sidenote: A note in law of armes.]

[Sidenote: _W. P._]

Some write, that he had béene put to death, if he had not appealed from
king Henries sentence, vnto the Judgement of the officers at armes;
alledging, that by the lawe of armes, no man hauing his brother in
armes within his danger, afterwards ought to put him to death for any
cause or quarell. And that he was the kings brother in armes he prooued
it, for that he had fought with him hand to hand within the mines (as
before yée haue heard) which combat was thought of equall force by
the heralds, as if he had fought with the king bodie to bodie, within
solemne lists. The credit of this matter we leaue to the consideration
of the readers. The earle of Huntington was made capteine of Melum.
In defense of this towne and castell, the French had gotten vnto them
manie Scots. At the siege héere the king kept with him yoong Iames of
Scotland, who sent to those Scots, that they should come put and yéeld
them vnto him, and not to stand in armes against their liege lord and
king; but they gaue word backe againe, they could not take him for
king, that was in the power of another, and so kept them in hold and in
their armor still. King Henrie vpon winning of these forts, for their
rebellion against their prince, which they would haue to be counted
constancie, and for their contemptuous answer vnto him, twentie of the
proudest, in example of the rest, caused he there to be hanged at once.

[Sidenote: King Henrie is receiued in at Paris.]

From thence the king departed with his armie vnto Corbeill, where the
French king and the two quéenes then soiourned; and after, both the
kings, accompanied with the dukes of Bedford, Burgognie, Glocester, and
Excester, and the earls of Warwike and Salisburie, with a great number
of noble men and knights, set foorth towards Paris, whome the citizens
in good order met without the gates, and the cleargie also with solemne
procession. All the stréets were hanged with rich clothes, the two
kings rode togither (the king of England giuing the vpper hand to his
father in lawe) though the great citie of Paris, to our ladie church,
where after they had said their deuotions, they departed vnto their
lodgings; the French king to the house of S. Paule, and the king of
England to the castell of Louer.

[Sidenote: The duchess of Burgognie hir appeale.]

The next daie, the two quéenes made their entrie and were receiued
with like solemnities, as their husbands were the day before. During
all the season that these two kings laie in Paris, there was a great
assemblie called, as well of the spiritualtie, as of the nobles of
the temporaltie, in the which, the kings set as iudges, before whom
the duches of Burgognie by hir proctor, appealed the Dolphin, and
seauen other, for the murther of duke Iohn hir husband. To the which
appeale, the counsell of the other part made diuerse offers of amends,
as well of foundations of chantries for préests, to praie for the
soule, as recompense of monie to the widow and children; for the finall
determination whereof, the kings, to take further aduise and counsell
therein, appointed another daie.

[Sidenote: The oth of the thrée estates of Fr[=a]ce.]

At this same time, the thrée estates of the realme of France assembled
at Paris, and there euerie person seuerallie sware vpon the holie
euangelists, to kéepe, support, mainteine and defend the treatie and
finall accord, which was concluded betwéene the two kings and thereto
euerie noble man, spirituall gouernour and temporall ruler, set to
their seales, which instruments were sent to the kings treasurie of his
eschecker at Westminster safelie to be kept, where they yet remaine.
The French king at the same time being in good and perfect state of
health, openlie there in parlement declared, that peace was concluded,
accorded, and made by his frée assent, and with the aduise of all the
councell of France, and that he would for his owne part and that his
successors ought for their parts, obserue and kéepe the same, with all
the articles therein conteined. And likewise, that all his subiects
were bound for euer, to obserue and kéepe the same, without breaking or
dooing anie thing preiudiciall therevnto.

[Sidenote: King Henrie taketh vpon him the office of regent of France.]

[Sidenote: The coine salute.]

During the time that the two kings thus soiourned in Paris, the French
king kept a small port, verie few, and those of the meaner sort
resorting vnto his court; but the king of England kept such a solemne
state, with so plentifull an house, and shewed himselfe so bountifull
in gifts, and setting foorth of warlike shewes and princelie pastimes,
that all the noble men and other resorted to his palace to sée his
estate, and to doo him honor. He tooke vpon him as regent of France, to
redresse causes, remooue officers, reforme things that were amisse, and
caused a new come to be made, called a salute, wherein were the armes
of France, and the armes of England and France quarterlie stamped.
Also, to set all things in quiet, he constituted sir Gilbert Umfreuile
capteine of Melun, with a good number of valiant soldiers, to remaine
there in garrison, and the earle of Huntington (coosine germane to
the king) was deputed capteine at Bois de Vincenes; and the duke of
Excester, with fiue hundred men of warre, was assigned to kéepe Paris.
Thus had king Henrie (when he was constituted gouernour of the land)
the disposing of prouinces, townes, and castels at his pleasure; and
the making of lawes and ordinances, standing with the drift of his
policie to kéepe both people in due obedience; as Anglorum prælia
bréefelie noteth; saieng:

    Rectorem patriæ postquam rex Gallus & omnes
    Vnanimes proceres Henricum constituerunt;
    Plantageneta dabat princeps iam iura duabus
    Gentibus, effrænes ductis cohibebat habenis.

[Sidenote: The duke of Bauier & his troope with the kings fauor
departeth.]

The duke of Bauier about the same time, with the kings licence,
departed into his countrie, both he and his retinue, receiuing large
gifts or the kings great liberalitie, and amongst other things, the
king gaue him a cup of gold, garnished and set with pretious stones
of great price and value. Moreouer, he had a pension giuen him of a
thousand markes by yeare, vnder the kings letters patents, to be had
and receiued of the kings frée and liberall grant, during the life of
the said duke. A right roiall reward & worthie the maiestie of a king,
bestowed vpon the said duke, and his retinue, partlie in respect of the
aliance betwixt the king and him (for he had maried the kings sister)
but speciallie for the notable seruice which they did him at the
siege before Melun. So that hereby is commended vnto vs an example of
gratitude and beneficence; teaching vs, that to such as haue béene good
and gratious vnto vs, we should be alwaies forward with a right hand
and readie mind to make amends in some proportion and measure.

[Sidenote: 1421]

[Sidenote: Sentence against the Dolphin.]

When the king had thus ordered his businesse, he with the quéene his
wife, the princes, & nobles of the realme departed from Paris, the
sixt of Ianuarie, and came to Rone, but first before his departing,
he caused processe to be made and awarded foorth against Charles the
Dolphin, commanding him to appéere at the marble table at Paris; where
for lacke of appearance, he was with all solemnitie in such case
requisite, denounced guiltie of the murther and homicide of Iohn duke
of Burgognie, and by the sentence of parlement banished the realme; but
the Dolphin withdrew into Languedoc, and after to Poictiers, getting
to him such fréends as he could; and namelie, he found the earle of
Arminacke verie faithfull to him, not onelie aiding him with men, but
also with his owne person he continuallie serued him against all his
aduersaries.

[Sidenote: These counties they inioied of the kings gift.]

[Sidenote: He landed at Douer vpon Candlemasse ieue saith _Tho.
Walsingham._]

The king of England comming to Rone, soiourned there a certeine time,
and receiued the homage of all the nobles of Normandie, amongst whome,
the earle of Stafford did homage for the countie of Perch, and Arthur
of Britaine likewise for the countie of Yurie. He also ordeined his
lieutenant generall, both of France and Normandie, his brother Thomas
duke of Clarence; and his deputie in Normandie was the earle of
Salisburie. When the feast of Christmasse was passed, he departed from
Rone, with the quéene his wife, and by Amiens came to Calis, where he
tooke ship the morow after Candlemasse daie, and landed at Douer, and
came to Canturburie and from thence to Eltham, and so through London to
Westminster. I passe ouer to write what ioy and triumph was shewed by
the citizens of London, and of all other his subiects in euerie place
where he came.

[Sidenote: King Henrie returneth into England with his new wife.]

[Sidenote: _Thomas Walsingham_ saith, she was crowned the first in Lent
which that yere, fell vpon the ninth of Februarie.]

[Sidenote: The coronation of quéene Katharine.]

The king himselfe, to render vnto God his most humble & hartie thanks,
caused solemne processions to be obserued and kept fiue daies togither
in euerie citie and towne. After that doone, he made great purueiance
for the coronation of his quéene & spouse, the faire ladie Katharine:
which was doone the daie of S. Matthew, being the twentie fourth
of Februarie, with all such ceremonies and princelie solemnitie as
appertained. Which because it was full of roialtie and honour (the
qualitie of the principall personages requiring no lesse) and recorded
by writers of former ages, it séemeth necessarie and conuenient in
this place to report it, in such sort as it is found at large in
some, though others glansinglie passe by it, as a matter of no great
obseruation. But it is worth the noting, to consider and take a view of
the goodlie order and reuerend dutifulnesse exhibited on all sides to
the new quéene; of whome Anglorum prælia saith,

    More coronatur maiorum regia coniux,
    Ingeminans rex ô viuat, regináque vulgus,
    Altisonis suprema ferit clamoribus astra.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Fabian_ pag. 402, 409.]

[Sidenote: A roiall banket.]

¶ After the great solemnization at the foresaid coronation in the
church of saint Peters at Westminster was ended, the quéene was
conueied into the great hall of Westminster, and there set to dinner.
Vpon whose right hand sat at the end of the table the archbishop of
Canturburie, & Henrie surnamed the Rich cardinall of Winchester. Vpon
the left hand of the quéene sat the king of Scots in his estate, who
was serued with couered messe, as were the forenamed bishops; but yet
after them. Vpon the same hand and side, néere the boords end, sat the
duchesse of Yorke and the countesse of Huntingdon. The earle of March,
holding a scepter in his hand, knéeled vpon the right side: the earle
marshall in like manner on the left of the quéene. The countesse of
Kent sat vnder the table at the right foot, and the countesse marshall
at the left. The duke of Glocester sir Humfrie was that daie ouerséer,
and stood before the quéene bareheaded. Sir Richard Neuill was that
daie caruer to the quéene, the earles brother of Suffolke cupbearer,
sir Iohn Steward sewar, the lord Clifford pantler in the earle of
Warwikes stéed, the lord Willoughbie buttler in stéed of the erle of
Arundell, the lord Graie Ruthin or Riffin naperer, the lord Audleie
almoner in stéed of the earle of Cambridge, the earle of Worcester was
that daie earle marshall in the earle marshals absence; who rode about
the hall vpon a great courser with a multitude of tipped staues about
him, to make and keépe roome in the said hall. Of the which hall the
barons of the cinque ports began the table vpon the right hand, toward
saint Stephans chappell; and beneath them at the table sat the vowchers
of the chancerie. Vpon the left hand next to the cupboord sat the
maior and his brethren the aldermen of London. The bishops began the
table against the barons of the cinque ports; and the ladies against
the maior. Of which two tables, for the bishops, began the bishop of
London and the bishop of Durham; and for the ladies, the countesse of
Stafford, and the countesse of March.

[Sidenote: The first course.]

The feast was all of fish, for the ordering of the seruice whereof
were diuerse lords appointed head officers, as steward, controller,
surueior, and other honourable officers. For the which were appointed
the earles of Northumberland and Westmerland, the lord Fitz Hugh, the
lord Furneuall, the lord Graie of Wilton, the lord Ferres of Grobie,
the lord Poinings, the lord Harrington, the lord Darcie, the lord
Dacres, and the lord de la Ware. These with others ordered the seruice
of the feast as followeth; and thus for the first course. Brawne and
mustard, éeles in burneur, frument with balten, pike in herbarge,
lamprie powdered, trowt, codling, plaice fried, martine fried, crabs,
léech lumbard flourished, tartes; and a deuise called a pellican,
sitting on hir nest with hir birds, and an image of saint Katharine
holding a booke, and disputing with doctors, holding this poesie in hir
right hand, written in faire and legible letters, Madame le Royne; and
the pellican answering.

    C'e est la signe & du roy, pour tenir ioy,
    Et a tout sa gent, elle mette sa entent.

[Sidenote: The second course.]

The second course was: gellie coloured with columbine flowers, white
potage or creame of almonds, breame of the sea, coonger, soles, cheuen,
barbill and roch, fresh salmon, halibut, gurnard, rochet broiled,
smelts fried, creuis or lobster; léech damaske, with the kings poesie
flourished therevpon, vne sans plus; lamprie fresh baked, flampeine
flourished with a scutchion roiall, and therein thrée crownes of gold
planted with flourdeluces and floure of camomill wrought of confection:
with a deuise of a panther, and an image of saint Katharine with a
whéele in one hand, & a scroll with a poesie in the other, to wit,

    La royne ma file, in cesta ile,
    Per bon resoun, aues renoun.

[Sidenote: The third course.]

The third course was, dates in compost, creame motle, carpe deore,
turbut, tench, pearch with goion, fresh sturgion with welks, porperous
rosted, mennes fried, creuisse de eau doure, pranis, éeles rosted with
lamprie, a léech called the white léech flourished with hawthorne
leaues & red hawes; a marchpane garnished with diuerse figures of
angels, among which was set an image of S. Katharine, holding this
poesie,

    Il est escript, pur voir & eit,
    Per marriage pure, cest guerre ne dure.

And lastlie a deuise of a tiger looking in a mirror, and a man sitting
on horssebacke all armed, holding in his armes a tigers whelpe with
this poesie; Per force sans resounie ay prise ceste best: and with his
owne hand making a countenance of throwing of mirrors at the great
tiger, which held this poesie; Gile che mirrour ma feste distour.
Thus with all honour was finished the solemne coronation, after which
the quéene soiourned in the palace of Westminster till Palmesundaie
following; and on the morow she tooke hir iournie towards Windsor;
where the king and she held their Easter.

[Sidenote: Iustice ministered by king Henrie in progresse.]

After the solemne feast of the coronation was ended, the king as well
to visit certeine places for deuotion by waie of pilgrimage, as also
to sée in what state and order diuerse parts of his realme stood,
departed from the quéene, appointing daie and place where she should
méet him, and so iournied foorth from place to place, thorough sundrie
countries, as well of Wales as England, and in euerie quarter where he
came, he heard with diligent eare the complaints of sutors, and tooke
order for the administration of iustice both to high and low, causing
manie misdemeanours to be reformed. At length he came to the towne
of Leicester, where he found the quéene according to the appointment
before taken. Here at Leicester, he held the feast of Easter.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._]

¶ How then standeth this with the report of Fabian, who saith, that the
king and quéene kept their Easter at Windsor; and that when the said
festiuall time was expired, the king made prouision for his warres in
France, during the tearme of Richard Whitinghams meraltie of London,
which was in the eight yeare of this king Henries reigne: Suerlie
there must néeds be an errour, either in mistaking the yeare or the
place: vnlesse we will grant the king and quéene (with their court of
attendants) to haue béene Hîc ibi simul, which priuilege is granted to
none but Ubiquitaries.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Clarence made a rode into Aniou.]

[Sidenote: Viell Baug[=e] or Baugie.]

But while these things were thus adooing in England, the duke of
Clarence, the kings lieutenant in France and Normandie, assembled
togither all the garrisons of Normandie, at the towne of Bernaie, and
from thence departed to the countrie of Maine, and at Pont le Gene he
passed the riuer of Yonne, and rode through all the countrie to Lucie,
where he passed the riuer of Loire, and entered into Aniou, and came
before the citie of Angiers, where he made manie knights, that to saie,
sir William Ros, sir Henrie Goddard, sir Rowland Rider, sir Thomas
Beaufort, called the bastard of Clarence, and diuerse other; and after
that he had forraied, burnt, and spoiled the countrie, he returned with
preie and pillage to the towne of Beaufort in the vallie, where he
was aduertised, that a great number of his enimies, Frenchmen, Scots,
Spaniards, and other were assembled togither, at a place called Viell
Bauge, that is Old Baugie, with the duke of Alanson, calling himselfe
lieutenant generall for the Dolphin.

[Sidenote: Forgusa, a Lumbard betraieth the duke of Clarence.]

The duke of Clarence had a Lombard resorting vnto him, reteined with
the part aduerse (his name was Andrew Forgusa) of whom the duke
inquired the number of his enimies, to whome he reported, that their
number was but small, & not of puisance to match with halfe the power
of his strong armie, intising him with assurance of victorie, to set on
the Frenchmen. The duke like a couragious prince, assembled togither
all the horssemen of the armie, and left the archers vnder the guiding
of the bastard of Clarence, and two Portingales, capteins of Fresnie le
vicount, saieng, that he onelie and the nobles would haue the honor of
that iournie. When the duke was passed a certeine streict and narrow
passage, he espied his enimies ranged in good order of battell, by
the monition of the Lombard, which had sold him to his enimies, & his
aduersaries had laid such ambushments at the streicts, that the duke by
no waie without battell could either retire or flée.

[Sidenote: The Englishmen discomfited.]

[Sidenote: The duke of Clarence and diuerse nobles of England slaine.]

The Englishmen séeing this, valiantlie set on their enimies, who were
foure to one, by reason whereof at length the Englishmen were oppressed
with multitude, and brought to confusion. There were slaine, the
duke of Clarence, the earle of Tankeruile, the lord Ros, sir Gilbert
Umfreuile earle of Angus, and sir Iohn Lomlie, sir Robert Verend, and
almost two thousand Englishmen: & the earles of Summerset, Suffolke,
and Perch, the lord Fitz Water, sir Iohn Berkelie, sir Rafe Neuile,
sir Henrie Inglis, sir Wiliam Bowes, sir Wiliam Longton, sir Thomas
Borough, and diuerse other taken prisoners. And of the Frenchmen were
slaine aboue twelue hundred of the best men of warre they had, so that
they gained not much.

The bastard of Clarence which tarried at Beaufort, being informed of
the great number of the Frenchmen, made forward with all the archers,
to come to the succor of the duke, but they came too late. For the
Frenchmen, hearing of the approching of the archers, fled with their
prisoners, and left the bodie of the duke, and other the dead carcases
behind them. The archers buried them all sauing the dukes corpse, which
with great solemnitie was sent to England, and buried at Canturburie
beside his father. After this the Englishmen burnt and spoiled the
countrie of Maine, and so returned to Alanson, and after departed
euerie man to his garrison. This battell was fought on Easter euen, in
the yeare 1421. But now to returne to the king.

[Sidenote: The earle of Mortaignie made lieutenant of Normandie.]

After he had kept his Easter at Leicester, he with the quéene remooued
and went northward, till they came to Yorke, where they were receiued
with great ioy of the citizens, and other the nobles and gentlemen of
the countrie. The king went vnto Beuerlie, to visit the shrine of saint
Iohn, and immediatlie vpon his departure from thence, the sorowfull
newes of his brother the duke of Clarences death, came to him, for
which he was right pensife. But sith mourning would not auaile, he
called to remembrance what he had to doo, and therevpon without delaie,
sent Edmund earle of Mortaigne, brother to the earle of Summerset into
Normandie, giuing to him like authoritie and preheminence, as his
brother the late deceassed duke of Clarence had before enioied.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Winchester lent the king 20000.]

[Sidenote: King Henrie saileth into France againe.]

After this, he called his high court of parlement, in the which he
declared with such great wisedome & grauitie, the acts which had béene
doone in France, the state of the time present, and what was necessary
to be prouided for the time to come (if they would looke to haue that
iewell and high kingdome, for the which had so long laboured and
sought) that the communaltie gladlie granted a fiftéenth, & the clergie
beneuolentlie offred a double disme. And bicause no delaie should be
in the kings affaires for lacke of paiment, the bishop of Winchester
the kings vncle lent vnto him twentie thousand pounds, to be paid him
againe of the same dismes. When all things necessarie for this iournie
were readie and prepared, he sent his brother the duke of Bedford
before him to Calis with all his armie, being (as some write) foure
thousand men of armes, and twentie thousand archers and others; though
some haue written, that the whole armie passed not twelue thousand of
one and other.

[Sidenote: He tooke sea at Douer the fourth of Iune, as _Titus Liuius_
saith, and so saie the chronicles of Flanders.]

The king himselfe shortlie after, about the middle of Maie, passed
the seas to Calis, and so from thence he marched through the countrie
vnto Boies de Vincennes, where the French king and the quéene as
then soiourned. The duke of Burgognie also that had receiued him at
Monstruell, attended him to Dowast in Ponthieu, and there hauing taking
leaue of him for six daies, returned now againe to him, according to
his promise. Then did they consult togither about their affaires, and
appointed in all hast to fight with the Dolphin, and to raise the
siege of Chartres which he had there planted. Herevpon, the king of
England with all his puissance, came to the towne of Mante, and thither
repaired the duke of Burgognie; but yer they departed from thence, they
had knowledge, that the Dolphin hearing of the puissant armie of the
king of England approching towards him, was recoiled with his people
towards Towers in Touraine.

[Sidenote: The king of Scots serueth king Henrie. Dreux besieged &
rendred to the Englishmen.]

Herevpon the king of England incontinentlie, did not onelie send
backe the duke of Burgognie into Picardie, to resist the attempts
of sir Iaques de Harecourt, which made war in that countrie for the
Dolphin; but also appointed the king of Scots, with the duke of
Glocester, to besiege the towne of Dreux. They comming thither about
the eightéenth of Iulie, planted siege on euerie side, both of the
towne and castell; and what with power of batrie, and other forcible
meanes, so constreined them within, that on the eight daie of August
they compounded, that if no sufficient rescue came to raise the siege,
before the end of twelue daies next insuing, both the towne and
castell should be deliuered to the king of Englands vse, so as the
soldiers might depart with their goods whither they would, except one
Englishman, which was knowen to be amongst them, being fled for treason
out of the kings dominions.

On the twentith daie of August, which was the day of the appointment,
the king of Scots receiued the towne and castell to the behoofe of
his souereigne lord the king of England, who (during all the time of
the siege) laie at Moraumall. The townesmen that would remaine still
in their houses, were sworne to be true subiects to the king; and the
other which refused, departed with the souldiers. The Englishman that
was excepted, was deliuered according to the couenants; and after
executed, as he had deserued. The earle of Worcester was made capteine
of Dreux, and sir Henrie Mortimer bailiffe there. This doone, the king
hearing that the Dolphin should be at Baugencie, assembling his power,
hasted thitherwards: but at his comming into those parties, he found no
appearance of enimies in the field, and so he remained there fiftéene
daies.

[Sidenote: King Henrie pursueth the Dolphin.]

[Sidenote: The Dolphin, why called king of Berrie.]

In which meane while, the earle of Suffolke was sent foorth to discouer
the countrie, and the king wan by assault the towne of Baugencie, and
after when vittels began to faile, he marched forward, meaning to
pursue the Dolphin. But the Dolphin douting the English puissance,
conueied all the vittels foorth of those quarters, and retired himselfe
to Burges in Berrie, choosing that place as his first refuge, &
therefore determined there to remaine, till fortune turning hir whéele
shuld looke on them with a more fauorable countenance, hereof in scorne
was he commonlie called king of Berrie. The king of England followed,
till vittels and forrage began sore to faile on all sides, and then
returning, passed towards Orleance, taking the castell of Rouge Mont by
assault.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: _Les histories des ducz de Normandie._]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._]

He staied thrée daies before Orleance, and from thence, for want of
vittels, marched through Gastinois, till he came to Vignie sur Yonne,
where he remained for a season, to refresh his people that were sore
trauelled, in that painefull passed iournie: in which the king lost
not onelie manie of his men for lacke of vittels, but also a great
number of horsses and carriages. Some haue written, that about the same
time, he should win the citie of Sens, otherwise called the kings new
towne by surrender; but after he had remained for a time at Vignie,
we find that he remoued to Paris, where he was honorablie receiued. ¶
For he came among them as one hauing empire and dominion in his hand,
so that to him they were no lesse forward in submission for feare of
his indignation, than readie to giue him all the interteinement that
they could deuise for the kéeping of his fauour: the lacke whereof they
knew stood with the hazard of their safetie, as the contrarie tended to
their welfare.

[Sidenote: The strong towne of Meaux besieged by the Englishmen.]

Shortlie after, considering with himselfe that the towne of Meaux in
Brie, being replenished with enimies, was not to be suffered to remaine
in that state, in the middes of his new gotten subiects; he determined
to take awaie the open scruple that might poison and infect the
members, dwelling hard by: wherefore with a great number of earles and
barons in his companie, he came to besiege it. This towne was no lesse
well vittelled than manned, and no better manned than fortified; so
that the king could neither haue it to him deliuered at his pleasure,
nor gaine it by assault, without the great losse of his people: yet
neuerthelesse, he determined not to depart till he had got it by one
meane or other. The riuer of Marne diuided this towne into two parts,
so that there was no enterie from the one into the other, but by a
bridge, raised vp, and made ouer the riuer, susteined with manie
arches. The one part is called the citie, and the other la March being
the strongest and best fortified. The king first lodged a mile off in a
castell, and sent the duke of Excester to begin the siege, which he did
according to his instructions, vpon the sixt of October.

[Sidenote: A parlement called by the duke of Bedford, the king being in
France.]

Shortlie after, the king himselfe came, and lodged in the abbeie of
Pharon, the duke of Excester in the abbeie de Chage, the earle of March
at the greie friers, and the earle of Warwike directlie against that
part that is called la March. They within defended themselues right
valiantlie, so that the Englishmen were not all at their ease, but
specialie through lacke of vittels manie died, and manie fell sicke, by
reason whereof, no small number returned home into England; wherein the
meane time, on the first of December, a parlement was called and holden
at Westminster, by the duke of Bedford, gouernour of the realme in the
kings absence. ¶ In this parlement, a fiftéenth was granted to the king
towards the maintenance of the warres, the one moitie to be paid at
Candlemasse, and the other at Martinmasse, of such monie as at the time
of the grant was currant.

[Sidenote: Windsore. The birth of king Henrie the sixt.]

[Sidenote: King Henrie prophesieth of his sonne.]

This yeare at Windsore on the daie of saint Nicholas in December, the
quéene was deliuered of a sonne named Henrie, whose godfathers were
Iohn duke of Bedford, and Henrie bishop of Winchester, and Iaquet, or
(as the Frenchmen called hir) Iaqueline of Bauier, countesse of Holland
was his godmother. The king being certified hereof as he laie at siege
before Meaux, gaue God thanks, in that it had pleased his diuine
prouideuce to send him a sonne, which might succéed in his crowne and
scepter. But when he heard reported the place of his natiuitie; were
it that he warned by some prophesie, or had some foreknowledge, or
else iudged himselfe of his sonnes fortune, he said vnto the lord Fitz
Hugh his trustie chamberleine these words; "My lord, I Henrie borne
at Monmouth, shall small time reigne, & much get; and Henrie borne at
Windsore, shall long reigne, and all loose: but as God will, so be it."

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: 1422]

The king held his Christmasse at the siege before Meaux, for he would
not giue ouer that siege, although his armie was greatlie diminished,
by reason of lacke of vittels, extreame cold, foule weather, and other
discommodities that bred great store of diseases and sickenesse among
his people; notwithstanding, all the helps and means that might be,
he deuised to remedie the same: so that beside such as died, as well
of sickenesse as by the enimies hand, manie returned home into their
countries. But yet he ceassed not to continue the siege, beating the
walles with his ordinance, and casting downe bulworkes and rampiers
on ech side the towne, made approches as well by water as land, with
mightie engines deuised of boords to defend the Englishmen, as they
approched the walles, and gaue assaults. The walles also were in
diuerse places vndermined.

After this, the Englishmen found meanes, by bridges made of boats, to
passe the riuer; but yet the souldiers and other within defended their
rampiers and breaches most stoutlie, and with guns and quarrels still
shot at the Englishmen, of whome they slue manie; and among other the
earle of Worcester was slaine, with a bullet of the great artillerie,
& the lord Clifford with a quarrell of a crossebow; yet the Englishmen
still wan ground, and got néerer and néerer to the walles. They also
woone the chiefest part of a bridge from the enimies, and kept watch
and ward vpon and about the same. The earle of Warwike had also taken a
Vaumure from them of the market place, built on the southside thereof,
able to receiue and lodge a good number of men, which seruing to good
purpose, for the better brideling of them within, he caused to be kept,
and thus were they within Meaux sore oppressed on euerie side.

[Sidenote: Meaux taken by assault.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.]

[Sidenote: Quéene Katharine saileth into France.]

Herevpon in Februarie, the capteins doubting least the citie could
not be defended long, caused all the vittels and goods to be conueied
into the market place, and retired all the men of warre into the same,
leauing none in the other part of the citie, but the commons, and such
as were not able to doo any auaileable seruice in the warre. The king
aduertised hereof commanded in all hast to assault the citie, which
was quicklie doone; so that the citie by fine force was within thrée
houres taken and spoiled; and the same daie the market place besieged
round about, and a mill woone adioining vnto the same. In Aprill, the
quéene passed ouer into France, with a faire retinue of men, vnder the
conduct of the duke of Bedford, the duke of Glocester remaining lord
gouernour of the realme in his place. At hir comming thither, she was
so welcommed and honorablie receiued, first of hir husband, and after
of hir father and mother, that she appeared to be no lesse loued of hir
noble husband, than of hir déere and naturall parents.

[Sidenote: Oliuer Mannie.]

Whilest the siege still continued before Meaux, Oliuer Mannie a valiant
man of warre of the Dolphins part (which before was capteine of Faleis,
and yéelding it, sware neuer to beare armour against the king of
England) assembled a great number of men of warre, as well Britaines as
Frenchmen, that is to saie, the lord Monthorchier, the lord of Coinon,
the lord of Chatelgiron, the lord Tintignace, the lord de la Howssaie,
and diuerse other, which entered into the countrie of Constantine in
Normandie, and robbed and killed the Englishmen, where they might
either espie or take them at their due aduantage. But the earle of
Suffolke kéeper of the marches, hearing of their dooings, sent for the
lord Scales, sir Iohn Aston bailiffe of Constantine, sir William Hall,
sir Iohn Banaster, and many other, out of the garrisons within that
territorie, the which incountred with their enimies at a place called
Le parke leuesque, in English, The bishops parke.

[Sidenote: A sore conflict.]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._]

There was a sore fight and a long betwixt them, but finallie the
Frenchmen were put to flight, so that in the conflict and chace were
slaine, the lord of Coinon, the lord of Chatellgiron, and thrée hundred
other: and there were taken prisoners, the lord de la Howssaie, and sir
Oliuer Mannie, with thréescore others. The king pardoned sir Oliuer
Mannie his life, though he ill deserued so great a benefit, for that
he had broken his oth and promise, but he was sent into England, there
to learne to speake English, and so being brought to London, shortlie
after died, being as then a verie aged man, & was buried in the white
friers. ¶ But here note (by the waie) the roiall hart of this king, who
as he tempered all his actions with singular circumspection; so with a
pitifull mind he pondered the miserie of his enimies; so that when he
might (Iure belli, by the law of armes) haue spoiled them of goods and
life, he diuerse times spared both; with clemencie c[=o]monlie making
conquest of them, who séemed by open hostilitie scarse conquerable.

The king lieng still before the market place at Meaux in Brie (as ye
haue heard) sore beat the wals with his ordinance, and cast downe
bulworkes and rampiers on euerie side the towne, so that he had made an
open breach for his people to enter. Wherof the lord of Offemont being
aduertised, with a companie of chosen persons sent by the Dolphin,
assaied in the night season to enter the towne, to the succours of
them within. But though diuerse of his people got ouer the walles, by
helpe of ladders which they had set vp; yet such was his chance, that
as he passed a planke, to haue come to the walles, he fell into a déepe
ditch; and in the meane time, the Englishmen perceiuing by the noise
what the matter meant, came running to the ditch, tooke the lord of
Offemont, and slue diuerse of his companie that stood in defense.

[Sidenote: _Continuation de la chronicles de Flanders._]

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The conditions of the surrender of Meaux into the kings
hands.]

The capteins within, perceiuing in what case they stood, by reason
their succours were thus intercepted, and doubting to be taken by
assault, for that they wanted munition and weapon, began to treat
with the king of England, who appointed the earle of Warwike, and the
lord Hungerford, to commune with them; and in conclusion an accord
was taken, and so the towne and market place with all the goods were
deliuered into the king of Englands hands, the tenth daie of Maie, in
the yeare 1422. The appointment taken with them of this towne was this,
that they should yéeld themselues simplie vnto the kings pleasure,
their liues onlie saued: and herevpon manie of them were sent ouer into
England, amongst whome was the bishop of that towne, which shortlie
after his arriuall here fell sicke and died.

There were also foure persons excepted, against whome the king might
by order of law and iustice procéed as he saw cause, for their faults
and trespasses committed. As first, the capteine of the towne, named
the bastard of Vaureu, the which had doone manie gréeuous oppressions
to the people of the countrie thereabouts, in spoiling them of their
goods and ransoming them at his pleasure. He had also put diuerse to
death most cruellie, when they were not able to paie such finance and
ransomes as he demanded. Wherevpon, being now put to death himselfe,
his bodie was hanged vpon a trée that stood on an hill without the
towne, on the which he had caused both husbandmen and townesmen, with
other prisoners, to be hanged before time. His standard also, which was
woont to be borne before him in battell, was set vp in the same trée.
The bailiife also of the towne, and two of the chéefest burgesses that
had béene of counsell with him in his vnlawfull dooings, were likewise
executed. Also beside these, there were found in this towne diuerse
that were accused to be guiltie of the duke of Burgognies death,
wherefore they were put to their triall, in the parlement at Paris, and
some of them being found guiltie, were executed.

[Sidenote: The roiall port of the K. of England.]

When the deliuerie of the strong towne of Meaux was published thorough
out the countrie, all the townes and fortresses in the Ile of France,
in Lannois, in Brie, & in Champaigne, yéelded themselues to the king
of England, which appointed in the same valiant capteins, and hardie
soldiers. After that he had thus got possession of Meaux, and the
other fortresses, he returned againe to Bois de Vincennes, and being
there receiued of the king and quéene of France, and of the quéene his
wife the thirtith daie of Maie, being Whitsun éeuen, they remooued all
togither vnto Paris, where the king of England lodged in the castell of
Loure, and the French king in the house of saint Paule. These two kings
kept great estate with their quéenes, at this high feast of Pentecost,
but the king of Englands court greatlie excéeded, so that all the
resort was thither. The Parisiens that beheld his princelie port & high
magnificence, iudged him rather an emperour then a king, and their
owne king to be in respect of him like a duke or marquesse.

[Sidenote: Cosneie besieged by the Dolphin.]

[Sidenote: The king falleth sicke.]

[Sidenote: Cosneie rescued by the duke of Bedford.]

The Dolphin hauing knowledge by espials where the king of England and
his power laie, came with all his puissance ouer the riuer of Loire,
and besieged Cosneie, a towne situate vpon that riuer, a six score
miles distant from Paris, and appointed part of his armie to waste
and destroie the confines of the duchie of Burgognie, to the intent
to diuide the power of the king of England, from the strength of the
duke of Burgognie, supposing (as it came to passe indéed) that the duke
would make hast towards Burgognie, to defend his owne lands. In the
meane time they within Cosneie were so hard handled, that they promised
to render their towne to the Dolphin, if they were not rescued by the
king of England within ten daies. King Henrie hearing these newes
would not send anie one creature, but determined to go himselfe to the
raising of that siege, and so with all diligence came to the towne
of Corbeill, and so to Senlis, where (whether it were with heat of
the aire, or that he with his dailie labour were féebled or weakened)
he began to wax sicke, yea and so sicke, that he was constreined to
tarrie, and send his brother the duke of Bedford to rescue them of
Cosneie, which he did to his high honor. For the Dolphin hearing that
the duke of Bedford was comming to raise his siege departed thence into
Berrie, to his great dishonor, and lesse gaine.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: The duke of Britaine sendeth ambassadors to the K. of
England.]

[Sidenote: The king of England is brought sicke to Bois de Vincennes.]

About the same time, the duke of Britaine sent his echancellor
the bishop of Maunts, with the bishop of Vannes, and others of
his councell, as ambassadors from him vnto king Henrie, with full
commission, to ratifie and allow for him and his people the peace
concluded at Troies: but by reason of the kings gréeuous sicknesse,
nothing was then doone in that matter. Neuerthelesse, the duke himselfe
in person came afterwards to Amiens, and there performed that which he
had appointed his ambassadors at this time, in his name, to haue doone
and accomplished. In the meane season, king Henrie waxed sicker and
sicker, and so in an horsselitter was conueied to Bois de Vincennes, to
whome shortlie after repaired the dukes of Bedford and Glocester, & the
earles of Salisburie and Warwike, whome the king louinglie welcomed,
and séemed glad of their presence.

[Sidenote: His aduise vpon his death bed.]

Now, when he saw them pensife for his sicknesse, and great danger
of life wherein he presentlie laie, he with manie graue, courteous,
and pithie words, recomforted them the best he could, and therewith
exhorted them to be trustie and faithfull vnto his sonne, and to sée
that he might be well and vertuouslie brought vp. And as concerning
the rule and gouernance of his realms, during the minoritie and yoong
yeares of his said sonne, he willed them to ioine togither in fréendlie
loue and concord, kéeping continuall peace and amitie with the duke of
Burgognie, and neuer to make treatie with Charles that called himselfe
Dolphin of Vienne, by the which anie part either of the crowne of
France, or of the duches of Normandie and Guien may be lessened or
diminished; and further, that the duke of Orleance, and the other
princes should still remaine prisoners, till his sonne came to lawfull
age, least returning home againe, they might kindle more fire in one
daie than might be quenched in thrée.

[Sidenote: _Titus Liuius._]

[Sidenote: Chéeflie Chichelie archb. of Cantur. for dashing the bill
against the cleargie, as appeares before, pag. 65.]

He further aduised them, that if they thought it necessarie, that it
should be good to haue his brother Humfreie duke of Glocester to be
protector of England, during the nonage of his sonne, and his brother
the duke of Bedford, with the helpe of the duke of Burgognie to
rule and to be regent of France, eommanding him with fire and sword
to persecute the Dolphin, till he had either brought him to reason
and obeisance, or else to driue and expell him out of the realme of
France. And herewith he protested vnto them, that neither the ambitious
desire to inlarge his dominions, neither to purchase vaine renowme and
worldlie fame, nor anie other consideration had mooued him to take the
warres in hand; but onelie that in prosecuting his iust title, he might
in the end atteine to a perfect peace, and come to enioie those péeces
of his inheritance, which to him of right belonged: and that before
the beginning of the same warres, he was fullie persuaded by men both
wise and of great holinesse of life, that vpon such intent he might and
ought both begin the same warres, and follow them, till he had brought
them to an end iustlie and rightlie, and that without all danger of
Gods displeasure or perill of soule.

[Sidenote: He departed this life the last of August 1422.]

[Sidenote: The comm[=e]dation of king Henrie the fift as is expressed
by maist.]

[Sidenote: _Hall._]

The noble men present, promised to obserue his precepts, and to
performe his desires; but their hearts were so pensife, and replenished
with sorrow, that one could not for wéeping behold an other. Then he
said the seauen psalmes, and receiued the sacrament, and in saieng
the psalmes of the passion ended his daies héere in this world, at
Bois saint Vincent, the last of August, in the yeare a thousand foure
hundred twentie and two. This Henrie was a king, of life without spot,
a prince whome all men loued, and of none disdained, a capteine against
whome fortune neuer frowned, nor mischance once spurned, whose people
him so seuere a iusticer both loued and obeied (and so humane withall)
that he left no offense vnpunished, nor fréendship vnrewarded; a
terrour to rebels, and suppressour of sedition, his vertues notable,
his qualities most praise-worthie.

In strength and nimblenesse of bodie from his youth few to him
comparable, for in wrestling, leaping, and running, no man well able to
compare. In casting of great iron barres and heauie stones he excelled
commonlie all men, neuer shrinking at cold, nor slothfull for heat; and
when he most laboured, his head commonlie vncouered; no more wearie
of harnesse than a light cloake, verie valiantlie abiding at néeds
both hunger and thirst; so manfull of mind as neuer séene to quinch at
a wound, or to smart at the paine; nor to turne his nose from euill
sauour, nor close his eies from smoke or dust; no man more moderate
in eating and drinking, with diet not delicate, but rather more méet
for men of warre, than for princes, or tender stomachs. Euerie honest
person was permitted to come to him, sitting at meale, where either
secretlie or openlie to declare his mind. High and weightie causes as
well betwéene men of warre and other he would gladlie heare, and either
determined them himselfe, or else for end committed them to others. He
slept verie little, but that verie soundlie, in so much that when his
soldiers soong at nights, or minstrels plaied, he then slept fastest;
of courage inuincible, of purpose vnmutable, so wisehardie alwaies,
as feare was banisht from him; at euerie alarum he first in armor and
formost in ordering. In time of warre such was his prouidence, bountie
and hap, as he had true intelligence not onelie what his enimies did,
but what they said and intended; of his deuises and purposes few,
before the thing was at the point to be done, should be made priuie.

He had such knowledge in ordering and guiding an armie, with such a
gift to incourage his people, that the Frenchmen had constant opinion
he could neuer be vanquished in battell. Such wit, such prudence, and
such policie withall, that he neuer enterprised any thing, before
he had fullie debated and forecast all the maine chances that might
happen, which doone with all diligence and courage he set his purpose
forward. What policie he had in finding present remedies for sudden
mischéeues, and what engines in sauing himselfe and his people in
sharpe distresses: were it not that by his acts they did plainlie
appeare, hard were it by words to make them credible. Wantonnesse of
life and thirst in auarice had he quite quenched in him; vertues in
déed in such an estate of souereigntie, youth, and power, as verie
rare, so right commendable in the highest degrée. So staied of mind
and countenance beside, that neuer iolie or triumphant for victorie,
nor sad or damped for losse or misfortune. For bountifulnesse and
liberalitie, no man more frée, gentle, and franke, in bestowing rewards
to all persons, according to their deserts: for his saieng was, that he
neuer desired monie to kéepe but to giue and spend.

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Angl. præl. sub. Hen. 5._]

Although that storie properlie serues not for theme of praise or
dispraise, yet what in breuitie may well be remembred, in truth would
not be forgotten by sloth, were it but onlie to remaine as a spectacle
for magnanimitie to haue alwaies in eie, and for incouragement to
nobles in honourable enterprises. Knowen be it therefore, of person
and forme was this prince rightlie representing his heroicall affects,
of stature and proportion tall and manlie, rather leane than grose,
somewhat long necked and blacke haired, of countenance amiable,
eloquent and graue was his spéech, and of great grace and power to
persuade: for conclusion, a maiestie was he that both liued & died
a paterne in princehood, a lode-starre in honour, and mirrour of
magnificence: the more highlie exalted in his life, the more déepelie
lamented at his death, and famous to the world alwaie. Peter Basset (a
chéefe man in his chamber) affirmed that he deceassed of a pleurisie,
though the Scots and French set it downe to be of saint Feacres
disease, that they saie was a palsie with a crampe, which Enguerant
reports to be saint Anthonies fire, but neither of them trulie. ¶
Anglorum prælia saith, that it was a sharpe feuer, which happening vnto
him (wearied with the broiles of warre) in a verie vnseasonable time of
the yeare, namelie the dogdaies, tormented him the sorer, and grew to
be not onelie dangerous, but also desperat; for it left him not till
life was extinguished: the poets report is, as followeth:

    Interea fractúmq; æstu nimióq; labore
    Corripit Henricum languentem febris acuta,
    Coeli intemperies, sextili Sirius ardens
    Virus[4] pestiferi fecit ingrandescere[4] morbi

[4] A pestilent feuer.

[Sidenote: Lord Crumwell.]

His bodie imbalmed and closed in lead, was laid in a chariot roiall,
richlie apparelled with cloth of gold. Vpon his coffin was laid a
representation of his person, adorned with robes, diadem, scepter, &
ball, like a king; the which chariot, six horsses drew richlie trapped,
with seuerall appointments; the first with the armes of S. George,
the second with the armes of Normandie, the third of king Arthur, the
fourth of saint Edward, the fift of France, and the sixt with the armes
of England and France. On this same chariot gaue attendance Iames K.
of Scots, the principall mourner, king Henries vncle Thomas duke of
Excester, Richard earle of Warwike, the earle of March Edmund, the
earle of Stafford Humfrie, the earle of Mortaigne Edmund Beaufort, the
lord Fitz Hugh Henrie, the lord Hungerford Walter, sir Robert Robsert
lord Bourchier, sir Iohn Cornwall lord Fanhope, and the lord Crumwell
were the other mourners. The lord Louell, the lord Audeleie, the lord
Morleie, the lord Sowch bare the baners of saints and auoouries, as
then they were called; the baron of Dudleie bare the standard, and
the earle of Longuile the baner. The hachments were caried onelie by
capteins to the number of twelue; and round about the chariot rode fiue
hundred men of armes all in blacke armour, their horsses barbed blacke,
and they with the but ends of their speares vpwards.

The conduct of this dolorous funerall was committed to sir William
Philip, treasuror of the kings houshold, and to sir William Porter, his
chéefe caruer, and others. Beside this, on euerie side of the chariot
went thrée hundred persons, holding long torches, & lords bearing
baners, banerols, and penons. With this funerall appointment was he
conueied from Bois de Vincennes, to Paris, and so to Rone, to Abuile,
to Calis, to Douer, from thence thorough London to Westminster, where
he was interred with such solemne ceremonies, mourning of lords, praier
of priests and such lamenting of commons, as neuer before then the
like was séene in England. Shortlie after this solemne buriall, his
sorowfull quéene returned into England, and kept hir estate with the
yoong king hir sonne.

[Sidenote: _W. P._]

[Sidenote: _Abr. Fl._ out of _Angl. præl._]

Thus ended this puissant prince his most noble and fortunate reigne,
whose life (saith Hall) though cruell Atropos abbreuiated; yet neither
fire, malice nor fretting time shall appall his honour, or blot out the
glorie of him that in so small time had doone so manie and roiall acts.
[In this yeare, the one and twentith of October deceassed the gentle
and welbeloued Charles French king the sixt of that name, who was
buried at S. Denis.] ¶ So that betwéene the death of these two kings,
namelie the one of England, the other of France, there was no great
space of time; sith Charles departed in October, and Henrie in August:
by the priuation of whose liues, which of the two realmes susteined
the greater losse, it is a question not to be discussed. Certeine it
is that they were both souereigns tenderlie loued of their subiects,
as they were princes greatlie fauouring their people. Finallie, in
memorie of this Henrie the fift, a king of a roiall hart, and euerie
waie indued with imperiall vertues, I find so fit a report conspiring
in truth with his properties and disposition, that I thinke it verie
conuenient here to be inserted in place of an epitaph:

    Henrici illustris properans mors occupat artus,
    Ille suæ patriæ decus immortale per æuum
    Venturum, virtutis & indelebile lumen,
    Celso animo prorsus, leni quoque pectore ciues
    Non solùm, atiustos hostes fideíque probatæ
    Dilexit, niueo rarò iracundior ore.

Of learned men and writers, these I find remembred by Bale and others,
to haue liued in the daies of this noble and valiant king Henrie the
fift. First. Alaine de Lin, borne in Lin, and professed a Carmelite
frier in that towne, he at length became prior of that conuent,
procéeded doctor of diuinitie in Cambridge, and wrote manie treatises;
Thomas Otterborne that wrote an historie of England, is thought to
liue about this season, he was a Franciscan or graie frier, as they
called them, a great student both in diuinitie and philosophie: Iohn
Seguard an excellent poet, and a rhetorician, kept a schoole, and read
to his scholers in Norwich, as is supposed, writing sundrie treatises,
reproouing as well the profaning of the christian religion in monks
and priests, as the abuse of poetrie in those that tooke vpon them to
write filthie verses and rimes; Robert Rose a frier of the Carmelites
order in Norwich commonlie called the white friers, both an excellent
philosopher, and diuine, procéeded doctor at Oxenford, promoted to
be prior of his house, and writing diuerse treatises: amongst all
the sophists of his time (as saith Bale) he offended none of the
Wickleuists, who in that season set foorth purelie the word of God, as
maie appeare by his workes.

[Sidenote: _W. P._]

Moreouer, Iohn Lucke, a doctor of diuinitie in Oxenford, a sore enimie
to the Wickleuists; Richard Caister borne in Norfolke, vicar of saint
Stephans in Norwich, a man of great holinesse and puritie in life,
fauouring (though secretlie) the doctrine of the Wickleuists, and
reproouing in his sermons, the vnchast manners and filthie example that
appeared in the cleargie. Of sir Iohn Oldcastell lord Cobham ye haue
heard before; William Walleis a blacke frier in Lin, and prouinciall
of his order here in England, made a booke of moralizations vpon Ouids
Metamorphôseis, comparable to postils vpon Aesops Fables; Richard
Snetisham, a student in Oxenford, where he profited so greatlie in
learning and wisedome, that he was accounted the chéefest in all
that vniuersitie, in respect whereof he was made chancellor of the
same, chosen also to be one of the twelue to examine and iudge vpon
Wickliffes doctrine by the archbishop of Canturburie; Iohn Langdene
a monke of Christes church in Canturburie, an other of those twelue;
William Tailor a priest, and a master of art in Oxenford, a stedfast
follower of Wickliffes doctrine, & burnt for the same in Smithfield at
London, the second day of March, in the yeare of our Lord 1422, & last
of king Henrie the fift his reigne.

Furthermore, Richard Grasdale student in Oxenford, one of those twelue
also; William Lindwood a lawier excellentlie learned, as well in the
ciuill as canon lawes, aduanced to the seruice of this king, and made
by him kéeper of the priuie seale, sent in ambassage both to the kings
of Spaine and Portingale, about businesse of most weightie importance.
It is said that he was promoted to the bishoprike of saint Dauid;
Bartholomew Florarius, supposed (as Bale saith) by Nicholas Brigham, to
be an Englishman, wrote a treatise called Florarium, whereof he tooke
his surname; and also an other treatise of abstinence, in which he
reprooueth certeine corrupt manners in the cleargie, and the profession
of friers mendicants; Adam Hemmelington, a Carmelite frier, studied
both in Oxenford and Paris; William Batecombe is placed by Bale about
the time of other learned men that liued in this kings time, he was an
excellent mathematician, as by the title of his works which he wrote it
should appeare.

Titus Liuius de Fora Luuisiis liued also in these daies, an Italian
borne: but sith he was both residant here, and wrote the life of this
king, I haue thought good to place him among other of our English
writers. One there was that translated the said historic into English,
adding (as it were by waie of notes in manie places of that booke)
sundrie things for the more large vnderstanding of the historie; a
copie whereof I haue séene belonging to Iohn Stow citizen of London.
There was also about the same time an other writer, who (as I remember)
hath followed the said Liuius in the order of his booke, as it were
chapter for chapter, onelie changing a good, familiar and easie
stile, which the said Liuius vsed, into a certeine poeticall kind of
writing: a copie whereof I haue séene (& in the life of this king
partlie followed) belonging to master Iohn Twine of Kent, who (as I was
informed) meant to leaue to posteritie some fruits of his labours for
the due vnderstanding thereof.

 Thus farre Henrie the fift sonne and successor to Henrie the fourth.



    Transcriber's Notes:


    Simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors were
    corrected.

    Punctuation normalized.

    Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed.

    The author's usage of accents was inconsistent. Specifically
    accented "ée" is far more prevalent than "ee" even for the same
    word. Changed all instances of "ee" to "ée"

    Italics markup is enclosed in _underscores_.

                     Symbols for Diacritical Marks
        (In the table below, the "x" represents a letter with a
                          diacritical mark.)
  diacritical mark             sample      above        below
  macron (straight line)         ¯         [=x]         [x=]





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