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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (9 of 12)
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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surnamed Longshanks, the eldest sonne of Henrie the third.

[Sidenote: 1272.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 1.]

Edward, the first of that name after the conquest, began his reigne
ouer this kingdome of England, the 16 day of Nouember, in the yeare
of the world, 5239, of our Lord 1272, of the Saxons 814, after the
conquest 206, the vacation of the empire after the deceasse of
Frederike the second as yet induring (though shortlie after in the
yeare next following, Radulfe of Habspurge was elected emperour) in the
third yeare of Philip the third then reigning in France, and Alexander
the third yet liuing in gouernement of the Scottish kingdome.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: A new seale made.]

[Sidenote: _Chro. Dun._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: 1273.]

[Sidenote: Guy de M[=o]tfort excommunicated.]

This Edward the first, when his father died, being about the age of
35 yeares, was as then in the holie land, or rather in his iournie
homewards: but wheresoeuer he was at that present, the nobles of the
land, after his father was departed this life, assembled at the new
temple in London, and causing a new seale to be made, they ordeined
faithfull ministers and officers, which should haue the treasure in
kéeping, and the administration of iustice for the maintenance of peace
and tranquillitie within the land, and on the 22 day of Nouember he
was proclaimed king. Who after he had remained a time in the holie
land, and perceiued himselfe destitute of such aid as he looked for
at the hands both of the Christians and Tartarians, he left in the
citie of Acon certeine stipendarie soldiers, and taking the sea sailed
homewards, arriuing first in Sicill, where, of Charles K. of that land
he was honorablie receiued and conueied, till he came vnto Ciuita
Vecchia in Italie, where pope Gregorie as then laie with his court, of
whome (as of his old fréend that had béen with him in the holie land)
he obteined that earle Aldebrandino Rosso, and Guy of Montfort, that
had murthered the lord Henrie, eldest sonne to Richard king of Almaine,
might be sent for. Earle Aldebrandino purged himselfe, but Guy de
Montfort was exc[=o]municated, as a violator of the church, a murderer
and a traitor, so as he was disherited euen vnto the fourth generation,
till he had reconciled himselfe to the church, as he was inioined.

After this, it is woonderfull to remember with what great honor king
Edward was receiued of the cities, as he passed through Tuscaine and
Lumbardie. At his comming ouer the mounteins at Chalon in Burgundie, he
was at a iusts and tornie, which then was there holden by the Frenchmen
against the Englishmen, the honor whereof remained with the Englishmen.
In this tornie the fight of the footmen was great: for the Englishmen
being sore prouoked, slue manie of the French footmen, but bicause they
were but rascals, no great accompt was made of them, for they were
vnarmed, gaping for the spoile of them that were ouerthrowen. K. Edward
passing foorth came to the French court, where of his coosine germane
king Philip he was ioifullie receiued. Here king Edward, dooing homage
to the French king for the lands which he ought to hold of him in
France, passed into Guien.

[Sidenote: Anno Reg. 2.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: A disme gr[=a]ted to the king & his brother.]

[Sidenote: 1274.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: King Edward his returne home.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

A tenth was granted of the cleargie to the K. and to his brother Edmund
earle of Leicester and Lancaster by the popes appointment for two
yeares, a chapleine of the pope a Gascoine borne named Reimond being
sent into England for that purpose, who gaue part vnto them, and part
thereof he kept to himselfe towards his charges, but the most part
was reserued to the popes disposing. ¶ Whilest the king remained in
Gascoigne, he had somwhat to do against certeine rebels, as Gaston de
Bierne, and other that were reuolted from him. The castels belonging
to the said Gaston he subdued, but his person he could not méet with.
Finallie, after he had set things in order as well in Guien as in other
places in the parts of beyond the seas, he hasted homewards, and came
to London on the second day of August, where he was receiued with all
ioy that might be deuised. The stréets were hanged with rich cloths of
silke, arras, and tapestrie, the aldermen and burgesses of the citie
threw out of their windowes handfuls of gold and siluer, to signifie
the great gladnesse which they had conceiued of his safe returne: the
conduits ran plentifullie with white wine and red, that ech creature
might drinke his fill. Vpon the 19 day of August, in this second
yeare of his reigne he was crowned at Westminster, togither with his
wife quéene Elianor, by the hands of Robert Kilwarbie archbishop of

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

At this coronation were present Alexander king of Scots, and Iohn earle
of Britaine, with their wiues that were sisters to K. Edward. The king
of Scots did homage vnto king Edward for the realme of Scotland, in
like maner as other the kings of Scotland before him had doone to other
kings of England ancestours to this king Edward. At the solemnitie of
this coronation there were let go at libertie (catch them that catch
might) fiue hundred great horsses by the king of Scots, the earles
of Cornewall, Glocester, Penbroke, Warren, & others, as they were
allighted fr[=o] their backs. ¶ On S. Nicholas euen there chanced
such an earthquake with lightning and thunder, and therewithall the
appearing of the burning drake, and a blasing starre called a comet,
that the people were brought into no small feare vpon consideration
thereof. But now to the point of the historie.

[Sidenote: 1275.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 3.]

[Sidenote: A parlement. The statutes of Westminster. The prince of
Wales Leolin.]

King Edward at the first like a prudent prince chose the wisest and
worthiest men to be of his councell, & to purchase the loue of his
subiects, whose minds were somewhat offended towards his father (by
reason that he refused to kéepe promise with them, touching the
restitution of gentle and fauourable lawes) king Edward shewed himselfe
so gentle towards all degrées of men, that he séemed to excéed the
reasonable bounds of courteous humanitie, much more than became his
roiall estate. After this he reformed diuerse lawes and statutes, and
deuised some new ordinances, greatlie for the wealth of the realme.
He held his first parlement at Westminster, where the ordinances were
made, called the statutes of Westminster the first.

[Sidenote: The king c[=o]meth to Chester.]

To this parlement was Leolin the prince of Wales summoned to come and
doo his homage, hauing béene requested first to come to the kings
coronation, but he refused; and now hauing summons to come to this
parlement, he excused himselfe, affirming that he durst not come for
feare of certeine noblemen that laie in wait for his life, requiring to
haue pledges deliuered for his safe comming and going, the kings sonne,
and Gilbert earle of Glocester, with Robert Burnell the lord chancelor.
The king was greatlie offended with such a presumptuous demand, but
passed it ouer, till after the end of the parlement, & then repairing
to Chester he sent eftsoones messengers to the said Leolin, requiring
of him to come & doo his homage, but he still detracted time, so that
in the end the king raised an armie, meaning to recouer that by force,
which otherwise he could not obteine by quiet meanes. ¶ This yéere the
people paid a fiftéenth to the king of all their temporall goods, which
was said to be granted first to his father.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: Breton bishop of Hereford departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: It rained bloud.]

[Sidenote: 1276.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 4.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Montforts daughter appointed wife to the prince
of Wales taken.]

[Sidenote: Leolin prince of Wales beginneth to make wars.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

The same yéere departed this life Iohn Breton bishop of Hereford, who
being verie expert in the lawes of the land, compiled a booke of them
called Le Breton. The 11 of September, a generall earthquake chanced
betwixt the first houre and the third of the same daie, the church of
S. Michaell on the hill without Glastenburie, was therwith throwne down
to the ground. After this, it rained bloud in the countrie of Wales,
as a prodigious euill token to that nation, with whose bloud shortlie
after that region was in manie places moistened and stained. For as it
chanced shortlie after, Leolin the sonne of Griffin came to haue the
gouernment of Wales, who partlie to raise new seditions in England,
and partlie to purchase him friendship and aliance in France, sent
vnto king Philip, requiring of him that he might haue in marriage the
ladie Elianor daughter to Simon Montfort earle of Leicester, the which
togither with hir mother and brother Emerike, remained as banished
persons in France. The French king granted his request, and sent hir
vnder the conduct of hir said brother to be conueied into Wales vnto
Leolin, who had promised to marrie hir. But yer they approched to
Wales, at the Ile of Sillie both the brother & sister were taken by
foure ships of Bristow, the owners whereof that so tooke them, sent
them vnto king Edward. When Leolin vnderstood that his wife was taken
from him by the waie as she was comming, he was not a little wroth,
and incontinentlie began to make warre vpon king Edwards subiects that
bordered néere vnto Wales, killing the people, spoiling their goods,
and burning vp their townes and houses on each side.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: The excheker and the kings bench remoued to Shrewesburie.]

Herewith the king of England was so mooued, that although the said
Leolin made sute for peace, and offered no small sum of monie to haue
the daughter of the earle of Leicester his fianced wife deliuered to
him, yet would not the king by any meanes consent to that marriage, nor
receiue any monie of him, except he would restore vnto the right owners
such lands as he had inuaded and got into his possession, and further
repaire such castels as he had destroied. Herevpon grew no small grudge
betwixt the Welshmen and Englishmen, so that to represse the inuasion
of the enimies in the parts towards Bristow, Mountgomerie and Chester,
the king sent thrée hundred men in armes on horssebacke. In the
quindene of Easter, the king departing from Westminster, hasted towards
Wales with a mightie power, and caused the courts of the excheker and
of his bench to remooue vnto Shrewesburie, that they might be néere
vnto him, making forward with all conuenient spéed to come to the aid
and succour of his liege people.

[Sidenote: The castell of Rutland taken.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 5.]

[Sidenote: 1277.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Stridewie. Leolin sueth for peace.]

Hervpon entring into Wales he tooke the castell of Rutland, and sent
into Westwales a valiant capteine named Paine de Camureijs, who with
fire and sword wasted that countrie, so that the people offering
themselues to the kings peace, deliuered vnto the said Paine the
castell of Stridewie with the countrie adioining. Then Leolin the
prince of Wales, perceiuing that he was not able to resist the kings
power, and knowing that if he did attempt the conflict against him the
danger would redound to himself & his traine, did as th' old verse

    Peruigili cura semper meditare futura,

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: C[=o]missioners appointed.]

and therefore made suit for peace, in so much that finallie it was
agréed, that commissioners for both parts should talke concerning
certeine articles, and whatsoeuer they concluded, aswell the king as
the said Leolin should hold the same for firme and stable. The king
appointed one of his commissioners, to wit, the lord Robert de Tiptost,
to take an oth for him, & authorised the said Robert Anthonie Beke,
and frier William de Southampton, prior prouinciall of the friers
preachers, commissioners, nominated on his behalfe, to receiue the like
oth of the said Leolin. Which Leolin appointed commissioners for his
part, Tuder ap Edeuenet, and Grono ap Helin, the which commissioners
with good deliberation concluded vpon certeine points and articles, of
which the principall were as followeth.

[Sidenote: 1]

First, that the said Leolin should set at libertie all prisoners which
he held in captiuitie for the king of Englands cause, fréelie and
without all challenge.

[Sidenote: 2]

Secondlie, that to haue peace and the kings of Englands fauour, he
should giue vnto the said king fiftie thousand pounds sterling, the
daies of the paiement whereof to rest in the kings will and pleasure.

[Sidenote: 3]

Thirdlie, that the land of the foure cantreds without all contradiction
should remaine for euer to the king and his heires, with all lands
conquered by the king and his people, the Ile of Anglesey excepted,
which Ile was granted to the prince, so that he should paie for the
same yearelie the summe of one thousand marks, and fiue thousand marks
for an income. Prouided, that if the prince chanced to die without
issue, then the said Ile to reuert againe into the kings hands.

[Sidenote: 4]

Fourthlie, that the prince shall come to Rothelan or Rothland (as it
is commonlie called) there to doo fealtie to the king, and before his
comming thither, he should be absolued and haue the interdiction of his
lands released, and at his being at Rothelan, a daie shall be appointed
him by the king for his comming to London, there to doo his homage.
Herevpon was order taken for his safe conduct, aswell in his comming to
Rothelan, as to London. There be that write that he was appointed to
come vnto London, at the feast of the natiuitie of our Lord.

[Sidenote: 5]

Fifthlie, it was couenanted, that all the homages of Wales should
remaine to the king, except onelie of fiue barons which inhabited néere
vnto the castell of Snowdon: for otherwise the said Leolin could not
conuenientlie call himselfe prince, except he had some barons vnder him.

[Sidenote: 6]

Sixtlie, that he should receiue the title and name of prince so long
as he liued, and after his deceasse the homages of those fiue barons
should reuert to the king and to his heires for euer.

[Sidenote: 7]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Dauid Leolins brother prouided for.]

Seuenthlie the king granted vnto the said Leolin, the lands that
belonged to his brother Dauid, for tearme of the said Leolins life,
and in recompense thereof was contented to satifie the said Dauid with
other lands in some other place, the which after the decease of the
said Leolin or Dauid should reuert to the king and his heires.

[Sidenote: An oth to be receiued.]

For the assurance of which articles and couenants the prince deliuered
for hostages ten persons of the best in Wales, which he could get,
without imprisonment, disheriting, or terme of deliuerance: and of
euerie cantred twentie persons, of the best and most sufficient, to
be chosen by such as the king shall send thither yéerelie, & shall
from yéere to yéere be sworne vpon the euangelists, in presence of the
bailiffes of the said Leolin, that whensoeuer the prince shall breake
any of these articles, and vpon admonition dooth not reforme himselfe,
they shall forsake him, and in all things, being vnto him open enimies,
shall beare him deadlie hostilitie.

[Sidenote: Leolins brethren.]

[Sidenote: Dauid rewarded by king Edward.]

[Sidenote: Dauid preferred in marriage.]

Besides this, the prince shall (as farre as in him may lie) pacifie his
brethren, of the which he had put two in prison, Owen and Roderike: the
third named Dauid, escaping his hands, fled into England, and remained
many yéeres with king Edward, who receiuing him into his seruice,
made him knight in this warre, and gaue vnto him a castell at Denbigh
in Wales, with lands to the yéerelie value of a thousand marks, in
recompense of those possessions which he ought to haue had in Anglesey,
the which (as before is said) the king granted vnto Leolin for tearme
of his life, and after his deceasse to reuert vnto the king and to
his heires. Moreouer, he preferred Dauid to the marriage of a iollie
widowe, that was daughter to the earle of Darbie.

[Sidenote: The article concerning Owen.]

As concerning Owen, through the kings fauour he was deliuered out of
prison, by force of the articles concluded at this present by the
commissioners, vnder this forme and maner: that vpon his being set at
libertie, certeine persons appointed by the king should make offer to
him, to choose whether he would first compound with his brother, and
therevpon come to the king, and beséech him to allow the composition,
or else to put himselfe vnder the safe kéeping of the king, till
according to the lawes and customes of Wales, in the place where he
did transgresse, iudgement should be giuen of the matter: and if he
were acquit, then might he demand his heritage if he thought it so
expedient: and which of these two waies he should choose, the same
should be made firme and stable in the kings presence.

All these articles, with other additions, were accorded by the said
c[=o]missioners at Aberconweie, on the tuesdaie before the feast of S.
Martine, in the yeare 1277, and letters of confirmation made thereof by
the king, dated at Rutland on the tenth daie of Nouember, in the fift
yéere of his reigne. Also the said Leolin, by the name of Leolin ap
Griffin prince of Wales, with letters vnder his seale, confirmed the
abouesaid articles on his behalfe, for the releasing of his right to
the foure cantreds and other things that should remaine to the king,
which letters bare date at Aberconweie, on the foresaid tuesdaie in the
said yéere 1277. Also the K. released to the said Leolin, the said
summe of fiftie thousand pounds, and the said summe of a thousand marks
yéerelie to be paid for the Ile of Anglesey, as by his letters dated at
Rutland on the said 10 daie of Nouember in the said fift yéere of his
reigne more at large it appéereth. Neuerthelesse by his letters dated
at Rutland, on the said eleuenth of the said month of Nouember, it is
euident that he receiued of the said Leolin the summe of two thousand
marks sterling, by the hands of Thomas Beke kéeper of his wardrobe.

[Sidenote: The castell of Lamperdeuaur built.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 6.]

[Sidenote: 1278.]

[Sidenote: Leolins wife restored to hir husband.]

[Sidenote: Statues of Glocester.]

Moreouer, the king in the west part of Wales built at the same time a
castle at Lamperdeuaur, to kéepe vnder the rebellious attempts of the
Welshmen. King Edward gaue in marriage by waie of restitution to the
fore-remembred Leolin prince of Wales the earle of Leicesters daughter,
which was taken (as ye haue heard) at the Ile of Sillie. He also bare
all the charges of the feast at the daie of the marriage, and honoured
the same with the presence of himselfe and the quéene. ¶ A subsidie of
the twentieth part of euerie mans goods was granted to the king towards
his charges susteined in the Welsh warres. Moreouer, in the sixt yéere
of his reigne K. Edward held a parlement at Glocester, in the which
were certeine acts and statutes made for the wealth and good gouernment
of the realme, which vnto this daie are called the statutes of
Glocester. ¶ Alexander king of Scots came into England, to common with
K. Edward, of matters touching his kingdome of Scotland. ¶ Shortlie
after king Edward went ouer into France, and there receiued certeine
townes that were restored to him, but not the moitie of those that were
promised to his father, when he released his title vnto the dutchie of

[Sidenote: The archbish. of Canturburie being made cardinal resigneth
his archbishoprike.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Peckham archbish. of Canturburie.]

[Sidenote: Clippers of monie.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 7.]

[Sidenote: 1279.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

Robert Kilwarbie archbishop of Canturburie, was by pope Nicholas
aduanced to the dignitie of a cardinall, and made bishop of Portua, so
that he went to Rome, and gaue ouer the archbishoprike of Canturburie
to the which through the popes grant frier Iohn Peckham was admitted
archbishop. This yéere there was inquirie made in London for such as
had clipped, washed, & counterfaited the kings coine, wherevpon the
Iewes of the citie and diuerse goldsmiths that kept the exchange of
siluer were indited, and after to the number of two hundreth foure
score and seuentéene persons were condemned, and in diuers places put
to execution. There were but 3. Englishmen among them, all the residue
were Iewes; but diuerse christians that were participants with them in
their offenses were put to their fines, and not without iust cause.

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dunst._]

[Sidenote: The castels of Flint & Rutland built.]

[Sidenote: 1279.]

[Sidenote: Leolin beginneth new war.]

About the same time the king remooued all such shiriffes as were
either préests or strangers, and in their places appointed knights to
be shiriffes, that were of the same countrie were their offices laie.
Moreouer, about this season king Edward builded the castell of Flint,
and fortified the castell of Rutland and others, placing garrisons
of Englishmen in the same to defend the countrie, and to kéepe the
Welshmen vnder obedience. But Leolin so smallie regarded all couenants
made, and benefits receiued, that shortlie after, vpon the death of his
late married wife, being summoned to come to a parlement holden by king
Edward, he disdained to obeie, and vpon a verie spite began to make
new warre to the Englishmen, in wasting and destroieng the countrie:
notwithstanding king Edward had so manie waies doone him good, and had
giuen him iust cause of thankfulnesse, which is the common reward of
benefits, and which little recompense whoso neglecteth to make, being
but a little lip-labour,

    Non est laudari dignus, nec dignus amari.

[Sidenote: He sueth for peace.]

[Sidenote: The statute of Mortmaine.]

But being put in feare with the kings comming towards him with his
power, he laid armor aside, and began eftsoones to require peace, which
the king now the second time did not denie to grant; bicause he would
not lose time to warre with the mounteins, woods and marishes, the
places of refuge for Welshmen in those daies, when they wanted power to
abide battell and kéepe the féelds. About the same time the king gaue
vnto Dauid the brother of Leolin the lordship of Frodesham in Cheshire,
and made him knight. Moreouer, in this yeare the king held a parlement,
in which the statute of Mortmaine was established.

[Sidenote: A synod at Reading.]

Frier Iohn Peckham, whome the pope had alreadie consecrated archbishop
of Canturburie, being the 47 in number that had gouerned the said
sée, came this yeare ouer into England to supplie the roome. ¶ Also
Walter Gifford archbishop of Yorke departed this life, in whose place
succéeded William Wickham, the 37 archbishop there. The archbishop of
Canturburie held a synod at Reading about the latter end of Iulie,
wherin he renewed the constitutions of the generall councell, as thus:
That no ecclesiasticall person should haue aboue one benefice to the
which belonged cure of soule; and againe, that all those that were
promoted to any ecclesiasticall liuing, should receiue the order of
priesthood within one yere after his being promoted therevnto.

[Sidenote: The kings coine amended.]

In this yeare the king tooke order for the amending of his monie
and coine, which in that season was fowlie clipped, washed and
counterfeited by those naughtie men the Iewes, and other, as before
you haue partlie heard. The king therefore in the octaues of the
Trinitie sent foorth commandement to all the shiriffes within the
land, that such monie as was counterfeited, clipped or washed, should
not be currant from thencefoorth: and furthermore he sent of his owne
treasure, good monie and not clipped, vnto certeine cities and townes
in the realme, that exchange might be made with the same till new monie
were stamped. About the third daie of August, the first exchange was
made of the new monie of pence and farthings; but yet the old monie
went all this yeare togither with the new, and then was the old coine
generallie forbidden, and commandement giuen by publike proclamation,
that from thencefoorth it should no more be allowed for currant.
Herewith also halfpence, which had béene stamped in the meane time,
began to come abroad the same day in which the old monie was thus

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 8.]

[Sidenote: 1280.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: A shift to get monie.]

The lord Roger Mortimer kept a great feast at Killingworth, with iusts
and triumphs of an hundred knights and as manie ladies, to the which
resorted lords, knights, & gentlemen from diuerse countries and lands,
to shew proofe of their valiancie in the practise of warlike feats and
exercises. In the meane season king Edward standing in néed of monie,
deuised a new shift to serue his turne, as this: namely that whereas he
was chéefe lord of many lordships, manours, possessions and tenements,
he well vnderstood, that partlie by length and proces of time, and
partlie by casualties during the troubles of the ciuill warres, manie
mens euidences, as their charters, déeds, copies and other writings
were lost, wasted, and made awaie, he therfore vnder colour to put the
statute of (Quo Warranto) in execution which was ordeined this yeare in
the parlement holden at Glocester in August last past (as some write)
did now command by publike proclamation, that all such as held any
lands or tenements of him, should come and shew by what right and title
they held the same, that by such meanes their possessions might returne
vnto him, by escheat as chéefe lord of the same, and so to be sold or
redéemed againe at his hands.

[Sidenote: Ordinances for monie.]

[Sidenote: The saieng of the earle of Surrie.]

This was thought to be so sore a proclamation, as that a more gréeuous
had not lightlie béen heard of. Men in euerie place made complaint and
shewed themselues gréeuouslie offended, so that the king by meanes
thereof came in great hatred of his people: but the meane sort of
men, though they stood in defense of their right, yet it auailed them
but little, bicause they had no euidence to shew, so that they were
constreined to be quiet with losse, rather than to striue against the
streame. Manie were thus called to answer, till at length the lord
Iohn Warren earle of Surrie, a man greatlie beloued of the people,
perceiuing the king to haue cast his net for a preie, and that there
was not one which spake against him, determined to stand against those
so bitter and cruell procéedings. And therefore being called afore the
iustices about this matter, he appeared, and being asked "by what right
he held his lands?" suddenlie drawing foorth an old rustie sword; "By
this instrument (said he) doo I hold my lands, and by the same I intend
to defend them. Our ancestors comming into this realme with William the
Conquerour, conquered their lands with the sword, and with the same
will I defend me from all those that should be about to take them from
me; he did not make a conquest of this realme alone, our progenitors
were with him as participants and helpers."

The king vnderstanding into what hatred of his people by this meanes he
was fallen, and therfore desirous to auoid ciuill dissention and war
that might thereby insue, he left off his begun practise: so that the
thing which generallie should haue touched and béene hurtfull to all
men, was now suddenlie staied by the manhood and couragious stoutnesse
onelie of one man, the foresaid earle, who in his rare act of defending
c[=o]mon equitie against the mightie in authoritie (who spared not to
offer extreme iniurie) shewed himselfe a verie true and naturall branch
of nobilitie,

      ---- cupit quæ grandia semper,
    Vilia contemnit, quæ sursum tendere vt ignis
    Nititur, & summas penetrat velut ardea nubes.

[Sidenote: A synod at Lambeth.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke.]

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburie.]

The archbishop of Canturburie held an other synod at Lambeth, in the
which he receiued and confirmed the orders and constitutions decréed
and established by the legats Otho and Othobone, in councels by them
kept here within this realme, adding diuerse other of his owne: &
in the same councell he went about to adnihilate certeine liberties
belonging to the crowne, as the taking knowledge of the right of
patronages and the kings prohibitions In placitis de catallis, and
such like, which séemed méerlie to touch the spiritualtie. But the
king by some in that councell withstood the archbishop openlie, and
with menaces staied him from concluding any thing that might preiudice
his roiall liberties and prerogatiues. King Edward held a parlement at
London, in the which he demanded a fiftéenth of the cleargie, which
latelie before he had got of the temporaltie. The archbishop of Yorke
was content at the first to grant this fiftéenth to be paid of the
cleargie within his diocesse in two yeares; but the archbishop of
Canturburie held off, and required respit till the next parlement to
be holden after Easter, and then he granted vnto the king the dismes
of all his cleargie for thrée yeares, that in some point he might be
different from the archbishop of Yorke.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.]

[Sidenote: 1281.]

[Sidenote: The feast of the round table holden at Warwike.]

[Sidenote: Dauid the brother of Leolin reuolteth, and becommeth a

[Sidenote: The lord Clifford taken.]

In the ninth yeare of king Edwards reigne, the feast of the round
table was kept at Warwike with great and sumptuous triumph. Whilest
these things were in dooing, Dauid brother to Leolin prince of Wales,
forgetting the great benefits which he had receiued at the hands of
king Edward, became his aduersarie, and caused his said brother the
prince of Wales with a great number of other noble men of that countrie
to rebell: and to incourage them the sooner to attempt the warre, he
began the first exploit himselfe, taking the said lord Roger Clifford
(a right worthie and famous knight) in his castell of Hawardine, vpon
Palmesundaie, the said lord being in no doubt of any such matter.
Diuerse knights and other that were in the same castell at that time,
and made resistance, were slaine.

[Sidenote: The castell of Rutland besieged.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Lamperdeuaux taken.]

[Sidenote: Emericke de Montfort set at libertie.]

[Sidenote: Leolin and other the Welsh rebels accurssed.]

After this the foresaid Dauid returned to his brother the prince, and
therewith assembling an armie, they went both togither and besieged
the castell of Rutland. King Edward at the same time being in the
parts about Salisburie, where he kept his Easter at the Vies, sent out
commissioners to leauie an armie, and commanded such men of warre as he
had then in a readinesse, to hast foorth to the rescue of the castell
of Rutland. And in the meane time, the castell of Lamperdeuaux was
taken by Rice ap Malgone and Griffith ap Meridoc. Also diuerse other
castels were taken by other of the Welsh nobilitie. Moreouer, about
this time by the labour and suit of Iohn the archbishop of Canturburie,
Emericke de Montfort, which had béene reteined in prison (sith that
he was first taken togither with his sister at the Ile of Sillie by
the Bristowmen) was now set at libertie and permitted to returne into
France. The said archbishop of Canturburie was sent into Wales to
persuade Leolin and his brother with the other rebels vnto peace and
quietnesse, but returning into England, without bringing anie thing to
passe, he denounced them accurssed.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.]

[Sidenote: 1282.]

[Sidenote: The king entreth into Wales.]

[Sidenote: The mariners of the cinque ports.]

The king hasted foorth to come to the rescue of his people, wherevpon
Leolin and his brother Dauid retired with their people to Snowdon
hilles, and fortified the castell there with a strong garrison of
men. The king entring into Wales, when he heard that his enimies were
withdrawne into the mounteins, passed foorth till he came néere vnto
them, where he pitched downe his field, and the next day causing his
horssemen to issue foorth of the campe, filled all the plaines which
compasse the foot of those hilles (aswell on the east side as toward
the south) with the same horssemen, and herewith placed his footmen
more aloft on the side of the hilles in couert: this doone he prouoked
his enimie to come foorth to fight, but when he saw this would not be,
then that he might stop them from all places of refuge, he caused his
ships to take the Isle of Anglesey, bicause the Welshmen vsed to flie
thither oftentimes for their safegard, in the which enterprise the
mariners of the cinque ports bare themselues right manfullie.

[Sidenote: Meneth.]

After this, ioining certeine vessels togither, he caused a bridge to
be made in the riuer of Meneth, into the which an other small riuer
falleth that riseth at the roots of those hilles of Snowdone, to kéepe
the enimies from lodging on the further side of that riuer. This bridge
conteining roome for thréescore armed men to passe afront, was made
ouer the riuer of Sient, by the which men saile into the Isle, which by
the course of the sea ebbeth and floweth euerie twelue houres. But so
it came to passe, that before the bridge was well boorded ouer, whilest
the king yet remained at Aberconwaie, diuerse of the English nobilitie,
to the number of seauen banerets with thrée hundreth armed men rashlie
passed ouer, and as they surueied the foot of the mounteine, the tide
began to come in so swiftlie, that where the Englishmen were aduanced
a good prettie waie from the water side, they could not now get backe
againe to the bridge which as yet was not fullie made vp.

[Sidenote: The Englishmen distressed by Welshmen.]

[Sidenote: The lord Clifford.]

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dunst._]

The Welshmen perceiuing this, came downe beside the mounteine, and
assailed the Englishmen verie fiercelie, and with their great multitude
so oppressed them, that for feare the Englishmen were driuen to take
the water, and so by reason they were loaden with armour, manie of
them were drowned: and amongst other, that famous knight sir Lucas de
Thanie, Robert Clifford, sir William Lindsey, and two gentlemen of good
accompt that were brethren to Robert Burnell as then bishop of Bath.
There perished in all (as some saie) thirtéene knights, seuentéene
yoong gentlemen, and to the number of two hundred footmen. Yet sir
William Latimer, as good hap would, escaped, and diuerse other. This
mischance happened on S. Leonards day.

[Sidenote: The earle of Glocester maketh warre on the Welshmen.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 11.]

[Sidenote: Leolin inuadeth the kings fréends.]

[Sidenote: The lord Gifford and Mortimer.]

In this meane time in an other part of the countrie the earle of
Glocester with an armie, made sore warre to the Welshmen, and néere
vnto the towne called Lantilaware, fought a sore battell with them,
in the which manie of the Welshmen being slaine, the earle lost also
fiue knights vpon his partie, as William Valence the yoonger, being
one of that number, who was the kings cousine. The earle of Glocester
then departing from thence, Leolin the prince of Wales entered into
the countrie of Cardigan and Stradwie, destroieng the lands of Rice
ap Meridoc, which now held with the king against the said prince. At
length, prince Leolin going towards the land of Buelth with a small
companie, left his maine armie behind him aloft vpon the top of the
mounteine, néere to the water called Waie, and he had set a number
of his people to kéepe the bridge of Orewin: and so the Welshmen
kept on the one side, and the Englishmen on the other, of whome were
capteins the lord Iohn Gifford and the lord Edmund Mortimer, the which
perceiuing the Welshmen that were readie to defend the bridge, and
a great host of them vpon the top of the mounteine, they consulted
togither what they were best to doo.

[Sidenote: Helias Walewaine.]

[Sidenote: Prince Leolin slaine by Stephan de Franketon.]

At length by the couragious exhortation of one Helias Walewaine they
drew on the one hand alongst the riuer, where was a foord passable in
déed, though not without danger: but yet the Englishmen by the conduct
of the same Helias, got ouer by the same foord, so that it bare the
name long after of Helias way. And so the Welshmen that kept the
bridge (perceiuing the Englishmen to be got ouer vnto that side) fled,
wherevpon the residue of the English armie passed ouer at the bridge,
whereof rose a great noise which Leolin lurking not farre off might
well heare, but yet at the first he could not be brought to thinke that
by any possible means the Englishmen were got ouer to that side of
the water. But yet perceiuing it to be true, he drue backe toward the
heigth of the mounteine againe, neuerthelesse being discouered by one
Stephan de Franketon, named by some writers Sward, he was so narrowlie
pursued of the same Stephan, that he was ouertaken and slaine.

[Sidenote: Leolins head presented to the king.]

Stephan not knowing whome he had slaine, returned to the host, the
which was now mounting vp the hill to ioine with the Welsh armie that
stood still looking for the returne of their prince Leolin (though in
vaine) yet they manfullie abode by their tackle, discharging plentie of
arowes and darts at the Englishmen as they came vp towards them. The
English archers which were mingled amongst the horssemen, paid them
home againe with their shot, so that finallie the English horssemen,
winning the top of the hill, slue manie of them standing stoutlie at
defense, and put the residue to flight. Stephan Sward that had slaine
Leolin, after the victorie was atchieued, rode to the dead bodie which
he had slaine in the beginning of the battell, and vpon vew taken of
him perceiued who he was, of which good hap the Englishmen were verie
ioifull. His head was herewith cut off, which the lord Edmund Mortimer
tooke with him vnto Rutland (where the king as then was lodged) vnto
whome he presented it: and the king sent it vnto London, appointing
that there should be an yuie crowne set vpon it, in token that he was
a prince, and so being adorned, a horsseman carried it vpon the end of
his staffe through Cheapside, holding it as he rode on heigth, that
all men might sée it, till he came to the tower, & there it was pight
vp aloft vpon one of the highest turrets, remaining there a long time

[Sidenote: A prophesie fulfilled.]

[Sidenote: The Gascoigns pursue the Welshmen egerlie.]

Thus was the prophesie fulfilled, which was told to him by an old woman
taken for a southsaier, of whome he required to know how he should
spéed in this warre, wherevnto she answered, that he should boldlie go
forward in them, for he should ride with a crowne on his head through
Cheapside: and so by the deceiuable prophesie he was deluded & brought
to destruction. The incounter wherein the Welshmen were vanquished (as
before ye haue heard) chanced on the fridaie before S. Lucies day. King
Edward being certified thus of the victorie, streightwaies marched
foorth with his people, and appointed at euerie passage certeine bands
of souldiers to lie in wait for the enimies. Also at the foot of the
hilles he left his horssemen, and mounted vp the hilles himselfe, with
the residue of his armie. There were certeine Gascoignes, whome the
lord Iohn Vescie had brought with him out of their countrie, to serue
the king, which burned manie townes, and slue great numbers of the
Welshmen, all that came in their waie, and finallie, giuing an assault
to Snowdon castell, they wan it in fine by force.

In this meane time, the Welshmen, when they saw themselues inclosed,
and stopped from all waies to escape, after the maner of wild beasts,
fled into the thicke woods & caues, some of them making shift to get
downe through the stéepe and broken rocks, and some of them séeking to
escape by flight, fell into their enimies hands, & were either slaine
or taken, and amongst these, about Midsummer was Dauid taken, togither
with his wife, his two sonnes, and seauen daughters, and brought to the
king, who sent them first to Rutland castell, there to be safelie kept.

[Sidenote: Wales diuided into shires.]

[Sidenote: The Vale roiall built by K. Edward the first.]

[Sidenote: Rées ap Bouan yéeldeth himselfe vnto K. Edward.]

King Edward hauing subdued the Welshmen that inhabited in the
mountains, went about all the countrie to conquer the residue,
assembling all his armie togither, and then pursuing his aduersaries,
made great slaughter of them on each side, so that there were slaine
aboue thrée thousand men: then hauing the countrie at his will, he gaue
vnto the English lords townes in the middest of Wales, and diuided the
countrie into shires, ordeined shiriffes, and other officers as then
were vsed in England. At Aberconow he builded a strong castell, where
before was an house of white moonks, the which he remooued to the Vale
roiall in Chesshire, where he builded a faire abbeie of the Cisteaux
order, and endowed it with great lands and reuenues. He also made
and fortified the castell of Carnaruan fast by Snowdon, and repared
againe the towne of Lambaterwhir, otherwise called Abreswich, which
Leolin had before beaten downe. Also he placed English garrisons in
the castels and holds by the sea sides, and made Englishmen lords of
the grounds and possessions belonging to the same. Rées ap Bouan one
of the chéefest and mightiest capteins of all Wales, which during the
warres, had doone more displeasure to the Englishmen than any other,
in spoiling their confines, and making great slaughters vpon them,
vnderstanding now both of the death of prince Leolin, and the taking of
his brother Dauid, and also perceiuing himselfe pursued on each side,
at length yéelded himselfe and his complices to Humfrie de Bohun earle
of Hereford, who straightwaies sent him to the king, and the king sent
him to London, there to be kept prisoner in the tower.

[Sidenote: A parlement at Shrewesburie.]

[Sidenote: Dauid condemned of treason.]

[Sidenote: He is executed.]

Thus king Edward, hauing brought the rebellious Welshmen vnder his
correction, appointed his generall lieutenant there, the lord Robert
Tiptost, and when he had set all things in good order, about Michaelmas
he came to Shrewesburie, where at a parlement by him there holden,
the foresaid Dauid (that was brought thither) as chéefe procurer of
all this warre, was condemned of treason, and was afterward executed,
according to iudgement pronounced against him, that is to saie, he was
hanged drawne and quartered. His head was sent to London, and set vp by
the head of his brother Leolin. His quarters were diuided, and sent to
be set vp on the gates of foure of the chéefest cities of England. This
reward reaped he for his proditorious attempts, before God, angels, and
men: an horrible punishment for an heinous offense; and no maruell, sith

    Ante Dei vultum nihil vnquam restat inultum.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

During these warres, the king had of the temporaltie, the thirtith part
of all their goods, and of the spiritualtie, the twentith part, towards
the maintenance of the same warres.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 12.]

[Sidenote: 1284.]

[Sidenote: Edward the second borne.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

The same yeare also after Michaelmas, the king held a parlement at
Acton Burnell, wherein those statutes were ordeined, which vnto this
daie beare the name of the place where they were made. In the twelfth
yeare of this kings reigne, his eldest sonne Alfonse departed this
life at Windsore, and on S. Markes daie his sonne Edward, that after
succéeded him in the kingdome, was borne at Carnaruan, where the king
had builded a strong castell, and was come thither with the quéene at
that time, to sée the same. ¶ Also this yeare, in the quindene of saint
Michaell, the iustices itinerants began to go their generall circuits.

[Sidenote: A great tempest on Easter daie in the morning.]

On Easter daie, which fell this yeare on the ninth of Aprill, being
also leape yeare, in morning about the rising of the sunne, the element
was shadowed with such darkenesse and thicknesse of aire, that it
séemed to waxe night againe, and suddenlie rose an horrible tempest,
first of haile and raine, and after of snow, that couered all the
earth; and then followed such thunder and lightning, that men were
maruellouslie amazed therewith, considering it séemed to be against
the nature of the season, for scarse in Aprill shall yée heare anie
such thunder. Yet at length it brake vp, and the element recouered hir
accustomed cléerenesse.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 13.]

[Sidenote: 1285.]

[Sidenote: Bristow.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors from the French king.]

[Sidenote: William the archbishop of Yorke deceassed.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Roman archbishop of Yorke.]

[Sidenote: Marton colledge in Oxford built.]

In the thirtéenth yeare of his reigne, king Edward kept his Christmasse
at Bristowe, and held there a priuate councell, but no generall
parlement; and this was the first time that anie English king can be
remembred, to haue kept any solemne feast at Bristow. The king then
leauing his court of chancerie at Bristow, with his children, came to
London, where he had not béene almost of thrée yeares before. Héere
came messengers to him from the French king, requiring him to come
in person, with a certeine number of men of warre, to aid him in the
warres against the king of Aragon, as of right he ought to doo, by
reason of the dutchie of Guien which he held of him. The same yeare
died William the archbishop of Yorke, after he had gouerned that sée
six yeares, and then succéeded one Iohn surnamed Romane. About this
season, was Marton colledge in Oxenford founded by Walter Marton that
was lord Chancellour of England, and after bishop of Rochester. ¶ King
Edward seized the franchises and liberties of London into his hands,
and discharged Gregorie Rokkeslie the maior then being, and appointed
for custos and gardian of the citie, one Stephan Sandwich, the
which from the day of the conuersion of saint Paule, till the monday
following the Purification of our ladie, continued in that office,
and was then discharged, and sir Iohn Breton knight charged therewith
for the residue of the yeare. There is no certeine knowledge left in
records, whie the king tooke such displeasure with the citie, saue that
the said Gregorie Rokkeslie then maior, as the fame went, tooke bribes
of the bakers, and suffered them to sell bread, lacking six or seauen
ounces of weight in a penie lofe. ¶ The new worke of the church of
Westminster, to the end of the quier, begun (as before is shewed) in
the third yeare of king Henrie, was in this yeare fullie finished.

[Sidenote: The death of the Scotish king.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

The ninetéenth of March, died Alexander king of Scotland, by a fall
which he caught as he ran a stirring horsse: he left no issue behind
him, nor any certeine knowne heire to succéed him, by reason wherof
insued great harme to that relme (as in the Scotish historie may more
at large appeare.) The manner of whose death (as in Richard Southwell
I find it reported) I haue thought good bréeflie to touch, for that in
recitall thereof, he somewhat disagréeth from the Scotish historie.
There went (saith he) a common speach through Scotland all this yeare,
before the kings death, that on the same ninetéenth of March the daie
of iudgement should be: wherevpon, as the said king sat at dinner in
the castell of Edenburgh, hauing a dish of excellent good lampries
before him, he sent part thereof to one of the lords that sat at some
other table not far from him, and willed him by the gentleman that bare
it, to be merrie, and haue in mind that this was the day of doome.
The lord sent him thanks againe, and praied the messenger to tell the
king merilie, that if this were the daie of doome, they should rise
to iudgement spéedilie with their bellies filled with good meats and
drinks. After they had dined, and the night began to draw on, he tooke
his horsse, and onlie accompanied with thrée gentlemen, would néeds
ride to Kingorne, where the quéene his new wife then laie, and before
he could get vnto Innerkenin, it was darke night, so that he tooke
there two guides to lead him the waie: but they had not ridden past two
miles, but that the guides had quite lost the waie, so that they were
driuen to giue their horsses libertie to beat it out themselues.

Herewithall the king being seuered from his companie, how he ruled his
horsse it is hard to saie, but downe he was throwne, and immediatlie
died with the vehement fall which he thus caught, either headlong downe
one of the cliffes or otherwise, and thus he came to his end, on a
mondaie, being saint Cuthberts euen the ninetéenth of March (as before
is noted) after he had reigned six & thirtie yeares and nine moneths,
as the same Southwell saieth; who also (contrarie to that which Hector
Boetius writeth) affirmeth, that the same daie was so tempestuous with
wind, snow, haile and raine, that he and manie other that then liued
and felt it, durst not vncouer their faces, in going abroad against the
bitter northerne wind, that droue the snow and sléet most vehementlie
vpon them. And although that such fowle weather might haue staied him
from taking his iournie in that sort, yet he made no accompt thereof,
as he that was accustomed to ride as well in fowle weather as faire,
and spared neither for tempest, waters, nor craggie rocks, thicke
nor thin; for all was one to him, oftentimes taking his iournie in
disguised apparell, accompanied onlie with one seruant. But to returne
vnto the dooings in England.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 14.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: Thomas Piwilesdon a citizen of London.]

[Sidenote: He with other are banished the citie.]

[Sidenote: A new order for merchant strangers.]

[Sidenote: Strangers committed to the towre.]

In this yeare the king tooke escuage, fortie shillings of euerie
knights fée, towards the charges of his last wars in Wales. ¶ A
parlement was holden at Westminster, at the which were made the
statutes called Additamenta Glocestriæ, or rather the statutes of
Westminster the second. In the fouretéenth yeare of king Edward, a
citizen of London named Thomas Piwilesdon, who in time of the barons
warres had béene a great dooer, to stir the people against king
Henrie, was now accused, that he with other should go about to make
new disturbance within the citie: whereof inquirie being made and had
before sir Rafe Standish, then custos or gardian of the citie, the said
Piwilesdon and other, to the number of fiftie, were banished the citie
for euer. ¶ Also, whereas of old time before this season, the merchant
strangers were vsed to be lodged within the dwelling houses of the
citizens of London, and sold all their merchandize by procuration of
their hosts, for the which their said hosts had a certeine allowance,
after the rate of euerie pound: now it was ordeined, that the said
merchant strangers might take houses to hire, for to inhabit therein,
& for stowage of their wares, & no citizen to intermeddle with them
or their wares: by reason whereof they vsed manie deceits, both in
vttering counterfeit wares, and also vniust weights. Moreouer, much of
those wares, which they should haue waied at the K. beame, they weighed
at home within their houses, to the hinderance of the kings custome.
Wherevpon search being made vpon a sudden, and their weights found and
prooued false, twentie of the said strangers were arrested and sent to
the towre, and their weights burnt, destroied and broken to péeces in
Westcheape, on thursdaie before the feast of Simon and Iude. Finallie,
the said merchants were deliuered, being put to a fine of a thousand
pounds, after sore and hard imprisonment.

[Sidenote: 1286.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The king passeth ouer into France.]

The Iewes in one night were generallie apprehended, and put in prison
through all the parts of England, and so kept in durance, till they
had fined at the kings pleasure. ¶ It is reported that the commons
of England granted to the king the fift part of their mooueables,
to haue the Iewes banished out of the land: but the Iewes, to put
the Englishmen fr[=o] their purpose, gaue to the king great summes
of monie, whereby they tarried yet a while longer. King Edward went
ouer into France vpon the fiue and twentith of Maie, passing through
Picardie vnto Amiens, and there the French king, to doo him honor, was
readie to receiue him. Here king Edward did homage vnto the French
king, for the lands which he ought to hold of him in France. And after,
he was also present at a parlement, which the said French king held
at Paris, in the which he obteined manie things for the liberties of
his said lands, as then by diuerse waies wrongfullie oppressed, though
such grant continued not long in force. After Whitsuntide, king Edward
departed from Paris and went into Gascoigne, togither with his wife
quéene Elianor, who was with him in all his iournie.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 15.]

[Sidenote: 1287.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: Bristow faire robbed.]

[Sidenote: Variance betwixt the lord Paine Tiptost and Rice ap Meridoc.]

This yeare the king went into Aragon, where his authoritie auailed
much, in the making of agréement betwixt the kings of Aragon and
Naples; whereby Charles king of Naples was then set at libertie,
vpon certeine contracts or couenants passed and agréed betwixt them.
¶ The kings mother quéene Elianor this yeare forsooke the world,
and tooke vpon hir the habit of a nunne at Ambresburie; but yet she
still reteined and inioied hir dower by the popes authoritie and
dispensation. About this time a squire called Chamberlaine, with his
complices, set fire on the merchants boothes, at S. Butolphes faire;
and whilest the merchants were about to quench the fire, the said
squire and his complices set vpon the said merchants, slue manie of
them, and robbed them of their goods. In this yeare fell variance
betwéene the lord Paine Tiptost, wardeine of certeine castels in
Wales, and a Welsh knight called sir Rées ap Meridoc, so that sundrie
skirmishes were foughten betwixt them, and men slaine on both sides, to
the great disturbance of the countrie.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

The cause of this warre rose chéeflie, for that the said lord Tiptost,
and the lord Alane Plucknet, the kings steward in Wales, would haue
constreined the said Rées to appeare at counties and hundreds, as the
vse in other parts of Wales then was, contrarie to such liberties as
he had obteined of the king as he pretended. But when the king wrote
vnto the same Rées, requiring him to kéepe the peace, till his returne
(at what time he promised to reforme all things in due and reasonable
order). Rées hauing alreadie put armour vpon his backe, would not now
incline to any peace, but to reuenge his cause, assembled a great
multitude of Welshmen, with whose helpe he burnt & destroied manie
townes in Wales so that the K. being then beyond the seas, sent to the
earle of Cornewall, whom in his absence he had appointed his lieutenant
ouer England, requiring him to send an armie into Wales, to resist
the malice and riotous attempts of the Welshmen. The earle shortlie
therevpon prepared an armie, and went with the same into Wales, or
(as other write) the bishop of Elie, the lord prior of S. Iohns, the
earle of Glocester, and diuerse barons of the land went thither, and
chasing the said Rées, dispersed his armie, and ouerthrew and raced his
castels, but by vndermining and reuersing the wals at the castell of
Druslan, with the fall therof, the baron Stafford, and the lord William
de Montchensie, with manie other knights and esquiers, were oppressed
and brused to death. ¶ This yeare, the king at Blankfort in Gascoigne,
tooke vpon him the crosse, purposing eftsoones to make a iournie
against Gods enimies.

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dunst._]

In the winter of this yeare great flouds chanced, by reason of the
excéeding abundance of raine that fell: and the sea alongst the
northeast coasts from Humber to Yarmouth, brake into the land,
ouerflowing the same by the space of thrée or foure leagues in breadth
(as the author of the Chronicle of Dunstable affirmeth) ouerthrowing
buildings, and drowning vp men and cattell that could not auoid the
danger by the sudden comming in thereof, namelie, about Yarmouth,
Dunwich, and Gippeswich. Likewise in the Mers land of Lincolnshire it
did passing great hurt, bringing all the countrie into water. This
chanced in the verie night of the beginning of this yéere, to wit, in
the feast of the circumcision of our Lord, and in December it brake out
againe in Northfolke and Suffolke, where it did much harme, namelie
about Yarmouth.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 16.]

[Sidenote: 1288.]

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dunst._]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: O woonder by thunder!]

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southwell._]

This yeare, and likewise the yeare last past, was such plentie of
graine; that wheat was sold in some places of this land for twentie
pence a quarter, and in some places for sixtéene pence, and pease for
twelue pence a quarter. The summer this yeare excéeded in heat, so that
men thorough the intemperate excesse thereof died in diuers places.
¶ It chanced in Gascoigne, that as the king & quéene sate in their
chamber vpon a bed talking togither, the thunder-bolt comming in at
the window behind them, passed through betwixt them as they sate, and
slue two of their gentlemen that stood before them, to the great terror
of all that were present. ¶ This yeare diuerse of those that robd the
faire at Boston, were executed.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

Moreouer, whereas Rées ap Meridoc continued still in his mischieuous
dooings, at length, the lord deputie of Wales, Robert Tiptost, vsing
both spéedie diligence and timelie counsell, gathered all such power
as he could make, & passed foorth against his aduersaries. Whereof
when sir Rées was aduertised, and vnderstanding that the Englishmen
were farre fewer in number than his Welshmen, he thought to ouerthrow
them at his pleasure, and therefore incouraging his people with manie
comfortable words, to shew their manhood vpon the Englishmens approch,
he hasted to méet them. The Welshmen being for the more part but yoong
souldiers, and not trained to kéepe any order of battell, ran fiercelie
vpon their enimies, assailing them on the front before, on the sides a
flanke, and on the backe behind, inforcing themselues to the vttermost
of their power to breake their arraie.

[Sidenote: The Welsh discomfited. Rées ap Meridoc taken.]

But the Englishmen valiantlie resisted, so that there was a sore
battell for a while, and the more couragiouslie the Welshmen assailed,
the more stoutlie the Englishmen defended, in kéeping themselues close
togither, and beating backe their aduersaries: and at length perceiuing
them to faint and wax wearie, they rushed foorth into the middle of
the Welshmen, & brake them in sunder, so that when they saw themselues
thus repelled by the Englishmen, contrarie vnto all their expectation,
they knew not what to doo, for they durst neither fight nor flée, and
so by that meanes were beaten downe on euerie side. Meridoc himselfe
was taken, but the most part of all his armie was slaine, to the number
of foure thousand men. Thus were the Welshmen woorthilie chastised for
their rebellion. Sir Rées ap Meridoc was had to Yorke, where at length,
after the king was returned out of Gascoigne, he was hanged, drawen and

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 17.]

[Sidenote: 1289.]

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marl._]

[Sidenote: A sore tempest of haile.]

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._]

[Sidenote: A great dearth beginneth.]

This yeare on S. Margarets euen, that is, the 9 daie of Iulie, fell
a woonderfull tempest of haile, that the like had not béene séene
nor heard of by any man then liuing. And after, there insued such
continuall raine, so distempering the ground, that corne waxed verie
deare, so that whereas wheat was sold before at thrée pence a bushell,
the market so rose by little and little, that it was sold for two
shillings a bushell, and so the dearth increased still almost by
the space of 40 yeares, till the death of Edward the second, in so
much that sometime a bushell of wheat London measure was sold at ten

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dun._]

[Sidenote: Thomas Weiland lord chéefe iustice of the kings bench.]

[Sidenote: Robert Malet.]

The king, after he had remained and continued thrée yeares, two
moneths, and fiftéene daies in Gascoine, and in other parts there
beyond the sea, he returned into England on the fourth day of August,
and vpon the euen of the Assumption of our ladie he came to London,
where he was most ioifullie receiued, & so came to Westminster: where
shortlie after were presented vnto him manie gréeuous complaints and
informations against diuerse of his iustices, as sir Thomas Weiland,
Adam Stretton, and others, the which were had in examination, and
thervpon found giltie of manie trespasses and transgressions, in so
much that it was giuen him to vnderstand, that there were among them
that had giuen consent to the committing of murthers and robberies,
and wittinglie had receiued the offendors. Wherevpon, the king
caused streight inquirie to be made by an inquest of 12 substantiall
personages, who found by verdict, that Thomas Weiland lord chéefe
iustice of the kings bench, had caused a murther to be doone by his
seruants, and after succoured and mainteined them: hervpon he was
by the kings officers arrested, but escaping their hands, he tooke
sanctuarie in the church of the friers minors at saint Edmundesburie,
and was admitted into their habit, but within fourtie daies after,
order was giuen by the king that no kind of vittels should be suffered
to be conueied to that house, so that all the friers came foorth,
except thrée or foure, and at length he was constreined to take vpon
him a laie mans apparell, and comming foorth was deliuered to the hands
of Robert Malet knight, who had before the custodie of him, and now
hauing him againe brought him to the towre of London. At length, he was
put to his choise of thrée waies, which soeuer of them he would take,
that is, whether to be tried by his péeres, or to remaine in perpetuall
prison, or to abiure the realme: he chose the last, and so bare-footed
and bare-headed, bearing a crosse in his hand, he was conueied from the
towre to Douer, where taking the sea, he was transported to the further
side of the sea; his goods, mooueable and vnmooueable, being confiscate
to the kings coffers.

[Sidenote: William Brampton. Roger Leicester. Iohn Luneth.]

[Sidenote: Salomon de Roffa. Thomas de Sudington. Richard de Boiland.
Walter Hopt[=o].]

[Sidenote: Rafe de Hingham.]

[Sidenote: Adam de Stratton, L. chéefe baron.]

[Sidenote: Henrie Braie.]

[Sidenote: Iohn de Metingham, and Elias de Bekingham.]

William Brampton, Roger Leicester, Iohn Luneth, associats of the
said Thomas, and iustices of the kings bench: also, Robert Lithburie
chapleine, and maister of the rolles, being accused of wrongfull
iudgements and other trespasses were committed to prison within
the tower, and at length with much adoo, escaped with paieng their
fines, so that he which paied least, gaue a thousand marks. Moreouer,
Salomon of Rochester, Thomas de Sudington, Richard de Boiland, and
Walter de Hopton, iustices itinerants, were likewise punished, and
for the semblable offenses put to their fines. Sir Rafe de Hingham a
iustice also, to whome in the kings absence the ordering of the realme
chéefelie apperteined, being accused of diuerse transgressions, and
committed to the tower, redéemed his offense for an infinit summe of
monie. Adam de Stratton, lord chéefe baron of the excheker, being
conuicted of manie hainous crimes, a man plentifullie prouided both
of temporall possessions, and ecclesiasticall reuenues, lost all his
temporall liuings, and foure and thirtie thousand marks in readie
coine, beside other mooueables, in cattell, iewels and furniture of
houshold, which were all confiscated, and forfeited wholie: and it
was thought he was gentlie dealt with, that he escaped with life, and
such spirituall liuings as to him remained. Henrie Braie escheator,
and the iudges ouer the Iewes, were reported to haue committed manie
gréeuous offenses, but for monie they bought their peace. To conclude,
there was not found any amongst all the iustices and officers cléere
and void of vniust dealing except Iohn de Metingham, and Elias de
Bekingham, who onelie among the rest had behaued themselues vprightlie.
When therfore such gréeuous complaints were exhibited to the king, he
appointed the earle of Lincolne, the bishop of Elie, and others, to
heare euerie mans complaint, and vpon due examination & triall, to
sée them answered accordinglie as right and equitie should require.
In which administration of iustice against euill iusticiaries, the
king performed the charge imposed and laid vpon all such as are in
gouernement and magistracie; namelie,

[Sidenote: _Eob. Hess. in Psal. 2._]

    Nunc igitur reges resipiscite, quærite rectum,
      Quorum iudicijs terra regenda data est.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 18.]

[Sidenote: 1290.]

[Sidenote: _H. Marle._]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The statutes of Westminster the third established.]

[Sidenote: The Iewes banished out of England.]

[Sidenote: Iewes drowned.]

[Sidenote: _Chro. Dun._]

In the eightéenth yeare of his reigne, the king married two of his
daughters, that is to saie, Ioane de Acres vnto Gilbert de Clare earle
of Glocester, and the ladie Margaret vnto the lord Iohn sonne to
the duke of Brabant. ¶ The king ordeined, that all the wooll, which
should be sold vnto strangers, should be brought vnto Sandwich, where
the staple thereof was kept long time after. In the same yeare was a
parlement holden at Westminster, wherein the statutes of Westminster
the third were ordeined. It was also decréed, that all the Iewes
should auoid out of the land, in consideration whereof, a fiftéenth
was granted to the king, and so héervpon were the Iewes banished out
of all the kings dominions, and neuer since could they obteine any
priuilege to returne hither againe. All their goods not mooueable
were confiscated, with their taillies and obligations; but all other
their goods that were mooueable, togither with their coine of gold and
siluer, the king licenced them to haue and conuey with them. A sort of
the richest of them, being shipped with their treasure in a mightie
tall ship which they had hired, when the same was vnder saile, and got
downe the Thames towards the mouth of the riuer beyond Quinborowe,
the maister mariner bethought him of a wile, and caused his men to
cast anchor, and so rode at the same, till the ship by ebbing of the
streame remained on the drie sands. The maister herewith entised the
Iewes to walke out with him on land for recreation. And at length,
when he vnderstood the tide to be comming in, he got him backe to the
ship, whither he was drawne vp by a cord. The Iewes made not so much
hast as he did, bicause they were not ware of the danger. But when
they perceiued how the matter stood, they cried to him for helpe:
howbeit he told them, that they ought to crie rather vnto Moses, by
whose conduct their fathers passed through the red sea, and therefore,
if they would call to him for helpe, he was able inough to helpe them
out of those raging flouds, which now came in vpon them: they cried
indéed, but no succour appeared, and so they were swallowed vp in
water. The maister returned with the ship, and told the king how he had
vsed the matter, and had both thanks and reward, as some haue written.
But other affirme, (and more truelie as should séeme) that diuerse of
those mariners, which dealt so wickedlie against the Iewes, were hanged
for their wicked practise, and so receiued a iust reward of their
fraudulent and mischéeuous dealing. But now to the purpose.

[Sidenote: The eleuenth part of ecclesiasticall reuenues granted to the

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 19.]

[Sidenote: The deceasse of Q. Elianor.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Walsin._]

[Sidenote: The praise of the quéene deceassed.]

[Sidenote: Charing-crosse & other erected.]

In the foresaid parlement, the king demanded an aid of monie of the
spiritualtie, for that (as he pretended) he meant to make a iournie
into the holie land, to succour the christians there: whervpon they
granted to him the eleuenth part of all their mooueables. He receiued
the monie aforehand, but letted by other businesse at home, he went
not foorth vpon that iournie. In the ninetéenth yeare of king Edward
quéene Elianor king Edwards wife died vpon saint Andrews éeuen at
Herdebie, or Herdelie (as some haue) néere to Lincolne, the king being
as then on his waie towards the borders of Scotland: but hauing now
lost the iewell which he most estéemed, he returned towards London
to accompanie the corps vnto Westminster, where it was buried in S.
Edwards chapell, at the féet of king Henrie the third. She was a godlie
and modest princesse, full of pitie, and one that shewed much fauour to
the English nation, readie to reléeue euerie mans gréefe that susteined
wrong, and to make them fréends that were at discord, so farre as in
hir laie. In euerie towne and place, where the corps rested by the
waie, the king caused a crosse of cunning workmanship to be erected
in remembrance of hir, and in the same was a picture of hir ingrauen.
Two of the like crosses were set vp at London, one at Charing, and
the other in Westcheape. Morouer, he gaue in almes euerie Wednesday
wheresoeuer he went, pence a péece, to all such poore folkes as came to
demand the same.

[Sidenote: 1291.]

[Sidenote: The tenth of spirituall reuenues gr[=a]ted to the K.]

About the same time, bicause the king should be the more willing to
go into the holie land, as he had promised to doo, hauing monie to
furnish him foorth, the pope granted vnto him the tenth of the church
of England, Scotland and Ireland, according to the true value of all
the reuenues belonging vnto the same for six yeares. He wrote to the
bishops of Lincolne and Winchester, that the same tenth should be laid
vp in monasteries and abbeies, till the king was entred into the sea,
called Mare Maggiore, forwards on his iournie eastwards, and then to be
paid to his vse. But the king afterwards caused the collectors to make
paiment to him of the same tenth gathered for thrée yeares, and laid vp
in monasteries, although he set not one foot forward in that iournie,
as letted through other businesse.

[Sidenote: Controuersie about the crowne of Scotland.]

Also, by reason of the controuersie which depended as then betwixt
diuerse persons, as competitors of the crowne of Scotland, he went
into the north parts and kept his easter at Newcastell, and shortlie
after, called a parlement at Northampton; where, by the aduise of the
prelats and other of his councell, learned in both the lawes, vpon
knowledge had by search of records, and chronicles of ancient time, he
caused all the prelats and barons of Scotland to be called afore him,
and there in the parish-church of Norham, he declared vnto them his
right to the superioritie of the kingdome of Scotland, and requiring
of them, that they would recognise the same, protesting that he would
defend the right of his crowne, to the shedding of his owne bloud, that
a true certificat and information might come to light of his title and
rightfull claime, vnto the direct and supreme dominion ouer the realme
of Scotland.

He had caused verelie all the histories, chronicles, and monuments that
were to be found within England, Scotland and Wales, to be sought vp
and perused, that it might be knowen what right he had in this behalfe.
Wherevpon it was found by the chronicles of Marianus the Scot, William
of Malmesburie, Roger Houeden, Henrie Huntington, Rafe de Diceto, and
others, that in the yeare of our Lord 910, K. Edward surnamed Senior,
or the elder, subdued to him the kings of Scots and Welshmen, so that
in the yeare 921, the same people chose the said Edward to be their
king and patrone. And likewise in the yeare 926, Athelstan king of
England vanquished Constantine king of Scotland, and permitted him yet
to reigne vnder him. Moreouer, Edred the brother of Athelstan, and king
of England, ouercame the Scots and Northumbers, the which submitted
themselues to him and sware him fealtie. Also Edgar king of England
vanquished Kineth the son of Alpine king of Scotland, who sware fealtie
to him. Likewise Cnute king of England and Denmarke, in the 16 yeare of
his reigne ouercame Malcolme king of Scots, & so became king of foure
kingdoms, England, Scotland, Denmarke, and Norwaie.

Furthermore, that blessed king S. Edward, gaue the kingdome of Scotland
vnto Malcolme the sonne of the king of Cumberland, to hold the same of
him. Againe, William Bastard the Norman conqueror, in the sixt yeare of
his reigne vanquished Malcolme king of Scotland, and receiued of him
an oth of fealtie. Also, Will. Rufus did the like vnto Malcolme king
of Scots, and two of his sonnes that successiuelie reigned ouer that
realme. Also, Alexander succéeded his brother Edgar in the kingdome
of Scotland, by consent of K. Henrie the first. Also Dauid king of
Scotland did homage to K. Stephan, & William K. of Scots did homage to
Henrie, the son of K. Henrie the second, when in his fathers life time
he was crowned; and againe, to Henrie the father in the 20 yeare of
his reigne, as by an agréement made betwixt them two it dooth appeare.
Also, Roger Houeden saith, that William king of Scotland came to his
souereigne lord king Henrie into Normandie, and likewise to king
Richard, and moreouer to king Iohn at Lincolne, dooing to them his
homage. Also, in the chronicles of S. Albons it is found that Alexander
king of Scotland married at Yorke Margaret the daughter of king Henrie
the third, in the 35 yeare of his reigne, and did to him homage.

[Sidenote: K. Edward recognised for superior lord of Scotland.]

And further, when king Edward himselfe was crowned at Westminster, in
the yeare of our Lord 1274, being the second of his reigne, the last
deceassed K. of Scotland, Alexander the third of that name did homage
vnto him at Westminster the morrow after the coronation. All which
homages and fealties thus done by sundrie kings of Scotland, vnto
sundrie kings of England, were directlie and most manifestlie prooued
to be doone for the realme of Scotland, and not onelie for the lands
which they held of the kings of England within England, as the Scotish
writers would séeme to colour the matter. But things being then fresh
in memorie, no such cauillation might be auerred. And so herevpon king
Edwards title being substantiallie prooued, he was recognised superiour
lord of Scotland, of all them that pretended title at that time to that
kingdome, by writings thereof made and confirmed vnder their seales,
the which being written in French conteined matter as here followeth.

The copie of the Charter in French.

A tous ceulx, qui ceste presente lettre verrunt ou orrunt, Florence
counte de Holland, Robert de Brus seigneur du Val Danand, Iehan Baliol
seigneur de Galloway, Iehan de Hastings seigneur de Abergeuenne, Iehan
Comin seigneur de Badenaugh, Patrique de Dunbar counte de la Marche,
Iehan de Vescy pur son pere, Nichol de Seules, & Guilaum de Ros, saluz
en dieu. Come nous entendons d'auger droyt en reaume d'Escoce, & celle
droyt monstrer, chal[=e]ger, & auerer deuant celuy, que plus de poer,
iurisdiction, & réeson, eust de trier nostre droyt, & l'noble prince
sire Edward, par la grace de Dieu, roy d'Angleterre, nous a enforme per
bonnes & suffisaunt réesons, que aluy apent, & auer doit la souerein
seigneurie, du dict reaume d'Escoce, & la cognisaunce de oir, trier
& terminer nostre droyt. Nous de nostre propre volunté, sanz nulle
maniere de force ou destresse, voluns, otrions, & grantons de receiuré
droyt deuaunt luy, come souerein seigneur de la terre. Et voluns ia
lemeins, & promettons, que nous auerons, & tendrons, ferme, & estable
son fait, & que celuy emportera le reaume, a qui droyt le durra deuant
luy. En testimoigne de ceste chose, nous auons mis nous seaules a ceste
escript. Fait & donné a Norham, le mardi prochein apres la Ascension,
l'an de Grace, 1291.

In English thus.

To all them that these present letters shall sée or heare, Florence
earle of Holland, Robert le Bruce lord of Annandale, Iohn Comin lord
of Badenaw, Patrike de Dunbar earle of March, Iohn de Baliol lord of
Gallowaie, Iohn Hastings lord of Abergeuennie, Iohn de Vesey in stead
of his father, Nicholas de Sules, & Walter Ros, send gréeting in our
Lord. Whereas we intend to haue right in the kingdome of Scotland, and
intend to declare, chalenge and proue the same before him that hath the
best authoritie, iurisdiction and reason to examine our right, and that
the noble prince the lord Edward, by the grace of God, king of England,
by good and sufficient reasons hath informed vs, that the superior
dominion of Scotland belongeth to him, and that he ought to haue the
knowledge in the hearing, examining, and defining of our right, we of
our frée willes, without all violence and constraint, will, consent
and grant, to receiue our right before him, as the superior lord of
the land. We will also & promise, that we shal haue and hold his déed
for firme and stable, and that he shall haue the kingdome, vnto whome
before him best right shall assigne the same. In witnesse whereof we
haue to these letters put our seales. Giuen at Norham, the tuesdaie
next after the feast of the Ascension of our Lord, in the yeare of
Grace, 1291.

       *       *       *       *       *

The recognising therefore made of the superioritie and submission of
grant to receiue that, which before the king of England should by law
be defined, the said king required to haue the castels, and the whole
land deliuered vnto his possession, that by peaceable seizine thereof
had, his right of superioritie now recognised by their letters and
writings, might be the more manifest and apparent to the whole world.
They streightwaies agréed to the kings request, and writings thereof
were made and confirmed with their seales, being written in French, as

The copie of the second charter touching the possession of the land, in

A tous iceulx, que ceste presente lettre verrunt ou orront, Florence
counte de Holland, Robert de Brus seigneur du Val Danand, Iehan de
Baliol seigneur de Galloway, Iehan de Hastings seigneur de Abergeuenny,
Iehan Comin seigneur de Badenaw, Patrique Dunbar counte de la Marche,
Iehan de Vescy, pour son pere, Nichol de Seules, & Guilaume de Ros,
saluz en dieu. Come nous aions otrie, & graunte, de nostre bonne
volunté, & commune assent sans nulle destresse, a noble prince sire
Edward, par la grace de Dieu, roy de Angleterre quil come souerein
seig. de la terre de Escoce puisse oir trier, & terminer nos chalenges,
& nos demandes, que nos entendons monstrer, & auerrer pur nostre droyt
en la reaume de Escoces & droyt receiuer deuant luy, come souerein
seigneur de la terre, promettons ia lemains que son fait auerons &
tendrons ferme & estable, & qu'il emportera le reaume, a qui droyt le
durra deuant luy.

Mes pour ce que lauandict roy de Ang. ne puist nulle manier conusance
faire ne a complier sauns iugement, ne iugement doit estre sauns
execution, ne execution ne peult il faire duement, sauns la possession,
& seysine de mesme la terre, & de chasteaux. Nous volons, otrions, &
grantons, qu'il come souereine seigneur, a parfaire les choses auant
dictes, ait la seysine de toute la mesme terre, & de chasteaux de
Escoce, tant que droyt soit feit & perfourme, as demandans en tiel
maniere, que auant ceo qu' il eit le seysine auant dict face bone
seurte, & suffisante as demandants & as gardiens, & a la commune
du reaume d' Escoce, a faire la reuersion de mesme le reaume, & de
chasteaux, oue toute la royauté, dignité, seignourie, franchises,
coustomes, droitures, leys, vsages, & possessions, & touz manieres des
apurtenances, en mesme le estate, quils estoient quant la seysine luy
fust bailleé, & liuereé a celuy que le droyt emportera par iugem[=e]t
de sa royauté, sauue au roy d' Anglterre le homage de celuy, qui serra
rey. Yssint quela reuersion soit feit dedans les deux moys apres le
iour que le droyt sera trieé & affirme. Et que les yssues de mesme
la terre en le moyne temps resceus, soient sauuement mis en depos &
bien gardées par la main le chamberleyn d' Escoce que ore est, & de
celuy qui serra assigne a luy de par le rey d' Angleterre, & de sous
leur seaus sauue renable sustinance de la terre, & des chasteaux &
des ministres du royaume. En testimoigne de cestes choses auandicts,
nous auons mis nos seaules a ceste escript. Fait & donné a Norham le
mecredie prochein apres l'Ascension, l'an de Grace, 1291.

The same in English.

To all them that these present writings shall sée or heare, Florence
earle of Holland, Robert le Bruce lord of Annandale, Iohn de Balioll
lord of Galloway, Iohn Hastings lord of Abergeuenny, Iohn Comin lord
of Badenaw, Patrike de Dunbarre the earle of March, Iohn de Vescy in
stead of his father, Nicholas de Sules, William de Ros, send gréeting
in our lord. Bicause that of our good will and common assent, without
all constraint, we doo consent and grant vnto the noble prince the lord
Edward, by the grace of God king of England, that he as superiour lord
of Scotland, may heare, examine, define and determine our claimes,
chalenges, and petitions, which we intend to shew and prooue for
our right, to be receiued before him as superiour lord of the land,
promising moreouer, that we shall take his déed for firme and stable,
and that he shall inioy the kingdome of Scotland, whose right shall by
declaration best appeare before him.

Whereas then the said king of England cannot in this manner take
knowledge, nor fulfill our meanings without iudgement, nor iudgement
ought to be without execution, nor execution may in due forme be
doone without possession and seizine of the said land and castels of
the same; we will, consent, and grant, that he as superiour lord to
performe the premisses may haue the seizine of all the land and castels
of the same, till they that pretend title to the crowne be satisfied
in their suit, so that before he be put in possession and seizine, he
find sufficient suertie to vs that pretend title, and to the wardens,
and to all the communaltie of the kingdome of Scotland, that he shall
restore the same kingdome with all the roialtie, dignitie, seigniorie,
liberties, customes, rights, lawes, vsages, possessions, and all and
whatsoeuer the appurtenances, in the same state wherein they were
before the seizine to him deliuered, vnto him to whome by right it is
due, according to the iudgement of his regalitie, sauing to him the
homage of that person that shall be king: and this restitution to be
made within two moneths after the daie in the which the right shall be
discussed and established, the issues of the same land in the meane
time shall be receiued, laid vp, and put in safe kéeping, in the hands
of the chamberlaine of Scotland which now is, and of him, whome the
king of England shall to him assigne, and this vnder their seales,
reseruing and allowing the reasonable charges for the sustentation of
the land, the castels and officers of the kingdome. In witnesse of all
the which premisses, we haue vnto these letters set our seales. Giuen
at Norham the wednesday next after the feast of the Ascension of our
Lord, in the yeare of Grace, 1291.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: _Rich. Routh._]

These two letters the king of England sent vnder his priuie seale
vnto diuerse monasteries within his realme, in the 19 yéere of his
reigne, that in perpetuall memorie of the thing thus passed, it might
be registred in their chronicles. Thus by the common assent of the
chéefest of the lords in Scotland, king Edward receiued the land into
his custodie, till by due and lawfull triall had, it might appéere who
was rightfull heire to the crowne there. The homage or fealtie of the
nobles of Scotland was expressed in words as followeth.

The forme and tenor of the homage doone by the Scots.

Bicause all we are come vnto the allegiance of the noble prince Edward
king of England, we promise for vs and our heires, vpon all the danger
that we may incurre, that we shall be faithfull, & loiallie hold of
him against all maner of mortall men, and that we shall not vnderstand
of any damage that may come to the king, nor to his heires, but we
shall staie and impeach the same to our powers. And to this we bind our
selues & our heires, and are sworne vpon the euangelists to performe
the same. Besides this, we haue doone fealtie vnto our souereigne lord
the said king in these words ech one by himselfe; I shall be true and
faithfull, and faith and loialtie I shall beare to the king of England
Edward and his heires, of life, member, and worldlie honour against all
mortall creatures.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Master Stephansons booke of Records. Wardens of the realme
of Scotland appointed by K. Edward.]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Catnesse elected Chancellor of Scotland.]

[Sidenote: He receiveth his seale.]

[Sidenote: He is sworne.]

The king hauing receiued as well the possessions of the realme,
castels, manours, as other places belonging to the crowne of Scotland,
he committed the gouernement and custodie of the realme vnto the
bishops of S. Andrews and Glasco, to the lords Iohn Comin, and Iames
Steward, who had put him in possession, so that vnder him they held
the same, in maner as they had doone before. But in diuerse castels he
placed such capteines as he thought most méetest to kéepe them to his
vse, till he had ended the controuersie, & placed him in the kingdome,
to whom of right it belonged. He also willed the lords of Scotland to
elect a sufficient personage to be chancellour of the realme, which
they did, naming Alane bishop of Catnesse, whom the king admitted,
ioining with him one of his chapleins, named Walter Armundesham, so
that on the 12 of Iune, vpon the gréene ouer against the castel of
Norham, néere to the riuer of Twéed, in the parish of Vpsetelington,
before Iohn Baliol, Robert Bruce, the bishops of S. Andrews and
Glasco, the lords Comin and Steward, wardens of Scotland; the bishop
of Catnesse receiued his seale, appointed him by the king of England
as supreme lord of Scotland, and there both the said bishop & Walter
Armundesham were sworne trulie to gouerne themselues in the office.

[Sidenote: The ward[=e]s sworne.]

[Sidenote: The Scotish nobilitie dooth fealtie to king Edward.]

The morrow after were the wardens sworne and with them as associated
Brian Fitz Alane, and there all the earles and lords of Scotland that
were present sware fealtie vnto king Edward, as to their supreme
souereigne lord, and withall there was peace proclaimed, and publike
edicts set foorth in the name of the same king, intituled supreme
lord of the realme of Scotland. The residue of the Scotish nobilitie,
earles, barons, knights, and others, with the bishops and abbats, vpon
his comming into Scotland, sware fealtie either to himselfe in person,
or to such as he appointed his deputies to receiue the same, in sundrie
towns and places, according to order giuen in that behalfe. Such as
refused to doo their fealties, were attached by their bodies till they
should doo their fealties as they were bound. Those that came not, but
excused themselues vpon some reasonable cause, were heard, and had day
giuen vntill the next parlement: but such as neither came, nor made any
reasonable excuse, were appointed to be distreined to come.

The bishop of S. Andrews, and Iohn lord Comin of Badenoth, with Brian
Fitz Alane, were assigned to receiue such fealties at S. Iohns towne.
The bishop of Glasco, Iames lord steward of Scotland, and Nicholas
Seagraue were appointed to receiue them at Newcastell of Are. The earle
of Southerland, and the shiriffe of that countrie, with his bailiffes,
and the chatellaine of Inuernesse were ordeined to receiue those
fealties in that countie: the chatellaine first to receiue it of the
said earle, and then he with his said associats to receiue the same of
others. The lord William de Saintclare, and William de Bomille, were
appointed to receiue fealtie of the bishop of Whitterne, and then the
said bishop with them to receiue the fealties of all the inhabitants of
Gallowaie. Amongst other that did their homage to the king himselfe,
was Marie quéene of Man, and countesse of Stratherne, vpon the 24 daie
of Iulie, the king being thus in S. Iohns towne, otherwise called
Perth. To conclude, he was put in full possession of the realme of
Scotland & receiued their homages and fealties (as before ye haue
heard) as the direct and supreme lord of that land.

[Sidenote: The king's mother deceassed.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 20.]

[Sidenote: 1292.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

This doone, and euerie thing ordered as séemed most expedient, king
Edward returned into the south parts of his realme, to be at his
mother's buriall, that in this meane time was departed this life. Hir
hart was buried in the church of the Graifriers at London, & hir bodie
at Ambresburie in the house of the nunnes. ¶ After the funerals were
ended, king Edward returned into the north parts againe: he staied a
while at Yorke, and during his abode there, Rées ap Meridoc (of whom
ye haue heard before) was by order of law condemned & executed. ¶ This
yeare after Easter, as the fléet laie before S. Matthewes in Britaine,
there rose certeine discord betwixt the Norman mariners, and them of
Baion, and so farre the quarel increased, that they fell to trie it by
force, the Englishmen assisting them of Baion, and the French kings
subiects taking part with the Normans, and now they fraught not their
ships so much with merchandize as with armour & weapon. At length the
matter burst out from sparkes into open flame, the sequele whereof
hereafter shall appeare, as we find it reported by writers.

[Sidenote: Iohn Balioll obteineth the kingdome of Scotland.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

But now touching the Scotish affaires. At length the king comming
into Scotland, gaue summons to all those that claimed the crowne, to
appeare before him at the feast of the natiuitie of S. Iohn Baptist
next insuing, that they might declare more at large by what right they
claimed the kingdome. Hervpon, when the daie of their appearance was
come, and that king Edward was readie to heare the matter, he chose
out the number of 40 persons, the one halfe Englishmen, and the other
Scotishmen, which should discusse with aduised deliberation and great
diligence the allegations of the competitors, deferring the finall
sentence vnto the feast of S. Michaell next insuing, the which feast
being come, after due examination, full triall, and assured knowledge
had of the right, the kingdome by all their assents was adiudged vnto
Iohn Balioll, who descended of the eldest daughter of Dauid king of
Scotland. Robert le Bruce, betwixt whom and the same Balioll at length
(the other being excluded) the question and triall onlie rested, was
descended of the second daughter of king Dauid, though otherwise by one
degrée he was néerer to him in bloud. Thus writeth Nicholas Triuet.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

But others affirme, that after long disputation in the matter, by
order of king Edward, there were appointed 80 ancient and graue
personages, amongst the which were 30 Englishmen, vnto whom (being
sworne and admonished to haue God before their eies) authoritie was
giuen to name him that should be king. These 80 persons, after they
had well considered vnto whome the right apperteined, declared with
one voice, that Iohn Balioll was rightful king. King Edward allowed
their sentence, and by his authoritie confirmed vnto the same Iohn, the
possession of the kingdome of Scotland, with condition that if he did
not gouerne that realme with iustice, then vpon complaint, the king of
England might put vnto his hand of reformation, as he was bound to doo
by his right of superioritie, that in him was inuested. Herevpon king
Edward awarded foorth his writ of deliuerie of seizine at the suit of
the said I. Balioll, to William and Robert, bishops of S. Andrewes and
Glasco, to Iohn lord Comin, Iames lord Steward of Scotland, and to the
lord Brian Fitz Alane, wardens of Scotland, commanding them to deliuer
vnto the said Iohn Balioll the seizine and possession of that realme,
sauing the reléefes and debts due to him of the issues and profits of
the same realme, vnto the day of the date of the writ, which was the
ninetéenth day of Nouember, in the twentie yere of his reigne. Also
there was another writ made, and directed to such as had the kéeping of
the castels in their hands, in forme as followeth.

The copie of the writ for the deliuerie of the castels.

Edwardvs Dei gratia rex Angliæ, dominus Hiberniæ, dux Aquitaniæ, &
superior dominus regni Scotiæ, dilecto & fideli suo Petro Burdet,
constabulario castri de Berwike salutem. Cùm Iohannes de Baliolo
nuper in parlamento nostro apud Berwicum super Tuedam, venisset coram
nobis, & petiuisset prædictum regnum Scotiæ sibi per nos adiudicari,
& seisinam ipsius regni vt propinquiori hæredi Margaretæ filiæ regis
Norwegiæ dominæ Scotiæ iure successionis liberari, ac nos auditis
& intellectis petitionibus & rationibus diligentur examinatis,
inuenerimus præfatum Iohannem de Baliolo esse propinquiorem hæredem,
prædictæ Margaretæ, quo ad prædictum regnum Scotiæ obtinendum: propter
quod idem regnum Scotiæ, & seisinam eiusdem, saluò iure nostro,
& heredum nostrorum, cum voluerimus inde loqui, prædicto Iohanni
reddidimus: tibi mandamus quòd seisinam prædicti castri de Beruico
cum omnibus pertinentijs suis, vnà cum alijs omnibus rebus tibi per
chirographum traditis, secundum quod in prædicti castri tibi commissa
custodia res huiusmodi recepisti, sine dilatione præfato Iohanni de
Baliolo, vel attornatis suis has litteras deferentibus, deliberari
facias. Teste meipso apud Beruicum super Tuedam 19 die Nouembris, Anno
regni nostri 20.

In English thus.

Edward by the grace of God, king of England, lord of Ireland, duke
of Aquitaine, and superiour lord of the realme of Scotland, to his
welbeloued and faithfull seruant Peter Burdet conestable of the castell
of Berwike, sendeth gréeting. Where Iohn de Balioll late in parlement
holden at Berwike vpon Twéed, came before vs, and demanded the said
realme of Scotland to be adiudged to him by vs, and seizine of the same
realme to be to him deliuered as next heire to Margaret daughter to the
king of Norwaie, ladie of Scotland by right of succession. We hauing
heard and vnderstood the same petitions; and reasons being diligentlie
weighed and examined, we find the said Iohn Balioll to be next heire
vnto the said Margaret, as to obteine the said kingdome of Scotland,
whervpon we haue deliuered to him the said kingdome of Scotland, and
the seizine thereof, sauing the right of vs and our heires, when it
shall please vs to speake thereof. We therefore command you, that you
deliuer vp vnto the said Iohn Balioll, or to his attornies, that shall
bring with them these our present letters, the seizine of the said
castell of Berwike, with all the appurtenances, togither with all other
things to you by indenture deliuered accordinglie as you did receiue
the same, with the custodie of the said castle to you committed: and
this without delaie. Witnesse our selfe at Berwike vpon Twéed the
ninetéenth day of Nouember, in the twentith yeare of our reigne.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: The seals broken.]

In the same forme of words were writs awarded forth, to all and euerie
other the kéepers of castels and manors belonging to the crowne of
Scotland, and being at that time in K. Edwards hands, the names of
places and the persons that had them in custodie onelie changed. On the
same day also in the castell of Berwike was the seale broken, which had
béene appointed to the gouernors, during the time that the realme was
vacant of a king. It was broken into foure parts, and put into a pursse
to be reserued in the treasurie of the king of England, in further and
more full token of his superioritie and direct supreme dominion ouer
the realme of Scotland.

These things were doone in presence of the said Iohn Balioll then king
of Scotland, Iohn archbishop of Dubline, Iohn bishop of Winchester,
Anthonie bishop of Duresme, William bishop of Elie, Iohn bishop of
Carleil, William bishop of S. Andrewes, Robert bishop of Glasco, Marke
bishop of Man, and Henrie bishop of Aberdene, with diuerse other
bishops, besides abbats and priors of both the realmes; Henrie earle
of Lincolne, Humfrie earle of Hereford, Roger earle of Norffolke, Iohn
earle of Buchquane, Douenald earle of Mar, Gilbert earle of Angus,
Patrike earle of March, and Malisius earle of Stratherne; with the
foure and twentie auditors of England, and the foure score auditors of
Scotland: chapleins also, Henrie de Newmarke deane of Yorke, Iohn Lacie
chancellour of Chichester, William de Gréenefield canon of Yorke, and
Iohn Ercurie notarie, and manie other. Iohn Balioll being thus created
K. of Scotland, on the twentith day of Nouember, in the castell of
Norham, did fealtie to king Edward for the kingdome of Scotland, in
maner as followeth.

The forme of the fealtie of Iohn Balioll king of Scots to the king of
England in protestation.

This heare you my lord Edward king of England, souereigne lord of the
realme of Scotland, that I Iohn de Balioll king of Scotland, which I
hold and claime to hold of you, that I shall be faithfull and loiall,
and owe faith and loialtie to you, I shall beare of life and member,
and of earthlie honour, against all people, and lawfullie I shall
acknowledge and doo the seruices which I owe to doo to you, for the
realme of Scotland aforesaid. So God me helpe and his holie euangelists.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 21.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Balioll crowned king of Scotland.]

Hereof also he made letters patents, witnessing that he had thus doone
fealtie vnto king Edward, which letters he sealed and deliuered in
presence of William bishop of saint Andrews, Robert bishop of Glasco,
Iohn earle of Bouchquane, William earle of Ros, Patrike earle of March,
Walter earle of Menteth, Iames lord steward of Scotland, Alexander de
Ergay, Alexander de Balioll lord of Caures, Patrike de Graham, and
William de Saintclere. This doone, king Edward appointed Anthonie
bishop of Duresme, and the lord Iohn saint Iohn to passe with Balioll
into Scotland, and there to put him into the corporall possession of
the same realme of Scotland, which they did, and so he was crowned at
Scone vpon saint Andrews day, being placed in the marble chaire within
the abbeie church there. The solemnitie of which coronation being
ended, he returned into England, and comming to Newcastell vpon Tine,
where K. Edward in that yeare kept his Christmasse, he there did homage
vpon saint Stephans daie vnto the said king Edward, in forme of words
as followeth.

The forme of the king of Scots homage to king Edward, in action.

My lord, lord Edward king of England, superiour lord of Scotland, I
Iohn de Balioll king of Scotland, doo acknowledge and recognise me
to be your leigeman of the whole realme of Scotland, with all the
appurtenances, and whatsoeuer belongeth thereto, the which kingdome I
hold and ought of right and claime to hold by inheritance of you and
your heires kings of England, and I shall beare faith and loialtie
to you and to your heirs kings of England, of life, of member, and
earthlie honour, against all men, which may liue and die.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: 1293.]

[Sidenote: Richard Bagley.]

[Sidenote: A prisoner rescued.]

[Sidenote: The offenders lost their hand.]

[Sidenote: A great snow and tempest of wind in Maie.]

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburie deceasseth.]

[Sidenote: The kings daughter married to the earle of Bar.]

This homage in forme aforesaid did king Edward receiue, his owne and
others right saued. Then did the king of England without delaie restore
vnto the said Iohn Balioll the kingdome of Scotland, with all the
appurtenances. This yeare, as one Richard Bagley an officer of the
shiriffes of London led a prisoner towards the gaile, thrée persons
rescued the said prisoner, and tooke him from the officer, the which
were pursued and taken, and by iudgement of law then vsed, were brought
vnto Westcheape, and there had their hands striken off by the wrists.
On the 14 daie of Maie fell a woonderfull snow, and therewith blew such
an excéeding wind, that great harme was doone thereby in sundrie places
of England. In the same yeare died frier Iohn Peckham archbishop of
Canturburie, and then was Robert of Winchelsie elected archbishop the
48 in number that had ruled that sée. About the middle of September
following, the earle of Bar a Frenchman, married the ladie Elianor the
kings daughter in the towne of Bristow. ¶ This yeare wheat was sold at
London for two shillings a bushell.

[Sidenote: War betwixt England and France.]

[Sidenote: Two English ships taken.]

[Sidenote: The lord admerall of England setteth vp[=o] the Norman

This yeare also the war was begun betwéene the kings of England
and France. For whereas king Edward had furnished foorth six ships
of warre, and sent them vnto Burdeaux for defense of the coasts
thereabouts, two of them as they sailed alongst the coast of Normandie,
and fearing no hurt by enimies, were taken by the Norman fléet, and
diuerse of the mariners hanged. The lord Robert Tiptost that was
admerall of the English fléet aduertised thereof, got togither a great
number of ships, and directed his course with them streight towards
Normandie, and finding no ships of the Normans abroad in the seas, vpon
a desire to be reuenged, entered the mouth of the riuer of Saine, and
set vpon the Norman ships that laie there at anchor, slue manie of the
mariners, & tooke six ship awaie with him, and so returning to the sea
againe, cast anchor not far off from the land, to prouoke the Frenchmen
to come foorth with their fléet to giue battell. And as he laie at
anchor, it chanced that certeine Norman ships fraught with wine came
that waies, as they returned out of Gascoigne. The lord Tiptost setting
on them, tooke them with little adoo, and sleaing néere hand the third
part of all the mariners, sent the ships into England.

[Sidenote: Charles earle of Valois procureth warre betwixt England and

The Frenchmen to reuenge this act, prepared a nauie, and furnishing
the same with souldiers went foorth to the sea, to incounter the
Englishmen: but yer they met, messengers were sent to and fro, the
Englishmen accusing the Frenchmen of truce-breaking, and the Frenchmen
againe requiring restitution of their goods taken from them by
violence. And now forsomuch as this businesse had béene mooued rashlie
betwixt the Englishmen and the Normans, without any commission of their
princes, their minds therefore were not so kindled in displeasure, but
that there had béen good hope of agréement betwixt them, if Charles
earle of Valois the French kings brother (being a man of a hot nature &
desirous of reuenge) had not procured his brother to séeke reuengement
by force of armes. Wherevpon the French fléet made toward the
Englishmen, who minding not to detract the batell, sharplie incountred
their enimies in a certeine place betwixt England and Normandie, where
they had laid a great emptie ship at anchor, to giue token where they
meant to ioine. There were with the Englishmen both Irishmen and
Hollanders, and with the Normans there were Frenchmen and Flemings, and
certeine vessels of Genowaies.

[Sidenote: The Englishmen victors by sea.]

[Sidenote: K. Edward summoned to appeare at Paris.]

The fight at the first was doubtfull, and great slaughter made, as in
the méeting of two such mightie nauies must néeds insue. Yet in the end
the victorie fell to the Englishmen, and the French ships put to the
chase and scattered abroad. The number of ships lost is not recorded by
such writers as make report of this conflict, but they write that the
losse was great. King Philip being aduertised of this discomfiture of
his fléet was sore displeased, and as though he would procéed against
king Edward by order of law, he summoned him as his leigeman to appeare
at Paris, to answer what might be obiected against him; but withall
bicause he knew that king Edward would not come to make his appearance
he prepared an armie.

[Sidenote: Edmund earle of Lancaster sent to the French king.]

[Sidenote: K. Edward condemned in the French kings court.]

[Sidenote: Arnold de Neale sent into Gascoigne with an armie.]

In the meane time king Edward sent his brother Edmund earle of
Lancaster to be his attornie, and to make answer for him before all
such iudges as might haue hearing of the matter: but the iudges meaning
nothing lesse than to trie out the truth of the cause, admitted no
reasons that the earle could alledge in his brothers behalfe, and
so pronounced king Edward a rebell, and decréed by arest, that he
had forfeited all his right vnto the duchie of Guien. These things
thus doone, he sent priuie messengers vnto Burdeaux, to procure the
citizens to reuolt from the Englishmen, and appointed constable of
France the lord Arnold de Neale to follow with an armie, who coming
thither easilie brought them of Burdeaux vnder the French dominion,
being alreadie minded to reuolt through practice of those that were
latelie before sent vnto them from the French king for that purpose.
After this, the said constable brought the people néere adioining
vnder subiection, partlie moued by the example of the chéefe and head
citie of all the countrie, and partlie induced therevnto by bribes
and large gifts. The Englishmen that were in the countrie, after they
perceiued that the people did thus reuolt to the French king, withdrew
incontinentlie vnto the townes situat néere to the sea side, but
speciallie they fled to a towne called the Rioll, which they fortified
with all spéed. Thus saith Polydor.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Henrie earle of Lincolne.]

Nicholas Triuet, writing hereof, declareth the beginning of this warre
to be on this manner. The English merchants being diuerslie vexed vpon
the seas, made complaint to the king for losse of their merchandize.
The king sent Henrie Lacie earle of Lincolne vnto the French king,
instantlie requiring, that by his assent there might some waie be
prouided with spéed by them and their councell, for some competent
remedie touching such harmes and losses by sea as his people had
susteind. In the meane time whilest the earle taried for answer, a
nauie of the parts of Normandie conteining two hundred ships and aboue,
being assembled togither, that they might the more boldlie assaile
their enimies, and the more valiantlie resist such as should encounter
them, sailed into Gascoigne, determining to destroie all those of their
aduersaries that should come in their waie. But as these Normane ships
returned backe with wines, glorieng as it were that they had got the
rule of the sea onelie to themselues, they were assailed by thréescore
English ships, which tooke them, & brought them into England the friday
before Whitsunday: all the men were either drowned or slaine, those
onelie excepted which made shift to escape by botes. The newes hereof
being brought into France, did not so much mooue the king and the
councell to woonder at the matter, as to take thereof great indignation.

[Sidenote: The bishop of London sent with an answer vnto the French

Ambassadors were appointed to go into England which on the behalfe of
the French king, might demand of king Edward restitution of those ships
and goods thus taken by his subiects, and conueied into his realme,
without all delaie, if he minded to haue any fauour in the French court
touching his affairs that belonged to his countrie of Gascoigne. The
king of England hearing this message, tooke therein deliberation to
answer, and then sent the bishop of London, accompaned with other wise
and discréet persons into France, to declare for answer vnto the French
king and his councell as followeth; that is, "Whereas the king of
England hath his regall court without subiection to any man, if there
were therefore any persons that found themselues hurt or indamaged by
his people, they might come to his court, and vpon declaration of their
receiued iniuries, they should haue spéedie iustice, and to the end
they might thus doo without all danger, whosoeuer minded to complaine,
he would giue vnto them a safe conduct to come and go in safetie
thorough his land: but if this waie pleased not the French king, then
he was content there should be arbitrators chosen on both sides, who
weieng the losses on both parts, might prouide how to satisfie the
complaints: and the king of England would for his part enter into bonds
by obligation to stand to and abide their order and iudgement herein,
so that the French king would likewise be bound for his part, and if
any such doubt fortuned to arise, which could not be decided by the
said arbitrators, let the same be reserued vnto the kings themselues
to discusse and determine, and the king of England vpon a sufficient
safe conduct had, would come ouer to the French K. if he would come
downe vnto any hauen towne néere to the sea coast, that by mutuall
assent an end might bée had in the businesse: but if neither this waie
should please the French king nor the other, then let the matter be
committed to the order of the pope, to whom it apperteined to nourish
concord among christian princes; or bicause the sée was as then void,
let the whole colledge of cardinals or part of them take order therein,
as should be thought necessarie, that strife and discord being taken
awaie and remoued, peace might againe flourish betwixt them and their
people," as before time it had doone, and bring with it the blessings
therevpon depending; namelie, althings that may make an happie &
fortunat state, according to the nature of peace, whereof it is said,

    Pax est cunctorum mater veneranda bonorum,
    Fit sub pace forum, fit felix cultus agrorum,
    Pax pietas mentis, pax est pincerna salutis.

[Sidenote: The king of England cited to appéere.]

[Sidenote: Sentence giuen against the king of England.]

The French councell weied nothing at all these offers, and would not
so much as once vouchsafe to giue an answer to the English ambassadors
earnestlie requiring the same. Finallie, the French K. sent vnto the
citie of Aniou, which is knowne to belong vnto the dutchie of Guien,
where he there caused the king of England to be cited to make his
appéerance at Paris, at a certeine daie, to answer to the iniuries and
rebellions by him doone in the countrie of Gascoigne, at the which daie
when he appéered not, the French king sitting in the seat of iudgement
in his owne proper person, gaue sentence there against the king of
England, for making default, and withall commanded the high conestable
of France to seize into his hands all the duchie of Guien, and either
to take or to expell all the king of Englands officers, souldiers, and
deputies, which were by him placed within the said duchie. The king a
little before had sent thither a valiant knight, named the lord Iohn
saint Iohn, which had furnished all the cities, townes, castels, and
places, with men, munition, and vittels, for defense of the same.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 22.]

[Sidenote: 1294.]

[Sidenote: The peace of the quéenes.]

In the mean time the king of England, desirous to be at quiet with the
Frenchmen, appointed his brother Edmund earle of Lancaster, as then
soiourning in France, to go vnto the French kings councell to procure
some agréement, which both might be allowed of the French king, and
not be dishonorable vnto him. But when the earle could not preuaile in
his sute, he tooke his iournie towards England, vtterlie despairing to
procure any peace. But yer he came to the sea side, he was sent for
backe againe by the two quéenes of France, Ione wife to king Philip,
and Marie his mother in law, which promised to frame some accord
betwéene the two kings, and so therevpon after diuerse communications
by them had in the matter with the said earle of Lancaster, at length
it was accorded, that for the sauing of the French kings honour, which
séemed to be touched by things doone by the king of Englands ministers
in Gascoigne, six castels should remaine at the said kings pleasure,
as Sanctes, Talemond, Turnhim, Pomeroll, Penne, and mount Flaunton.
Also there should be set a seruant or sergeant in the French kings
name, in euerie citie and castell within all the whole duchie of Guien,
except Burdeaux, Baion, and the Rioll. And further, hostages should be
deliuered at the French kings pleasure, of all ministers to be placed
by the king of England in Gascoigne and other places through all the
country. These things doone, the French king should reuoke the summons
published and pronounced in the court of Paris against the king of
England. Also he shuld restore all the castels (his seruants being
remooued which he had placed in the same) togither with the pledges
incontinentlie, at the request of the same quéenes, or of either of
them. The king of England hauing a safe conduct should come to Amiens,
that there méeting with the French king, peace and amitie might be
confirmed betwixt them. Then were there writings made and ingrossed
touching the forsaid articles of agréement, one part deliuered to the
earle, sealed with the seales of the quéenes, and other remained with
the foresaid quéenes sealed with the seale of the earle.

[Sidenote: Letters patents.]

The king of England certified hereof, sent his letters patents,
directed vnto all his officers and ministers in Gascoigne, commanding
them to obeie in all things the French kings pleasure. These letters
patents were first sent vnto the earle of Lancaster, that he might
cause them to be conueied into Gascoine when he should sée time. The
earle hauing receiued those letters, doubting whether the French K.
would obserue the agréement which the quéenes had made and concluded,
or not; required of them that he might heare the French king speake the
word, that he would stand vnto that which they had concluded. Wherevpon
in the presence of the said earle and his wife Blanch quéene of Nauar,
mother to the French quéene, also of the duke of Burgoigne, Hugh Véere
sonne to the earle of Oxenford, and of a chapline called sir Iohn
Lacie, the French king promised by the faith of a prince, that he would
fulfill the promises of the said quéenes, and the couenants by them

[Sidenote: Sir Geffrey Langley.]

Herevpon a knight of the earles of Lancaster, called sir Geffrey de
Langley, was spéedilie sent into Gascoigne with letters from the French
king, directed to the conestable, to call him back againe from his
appointed enterprise. And the foresaid chapleine sir Iohn Lacie was
sent also thither with the letters patents of the king of England,
directed vnto his officers there, in forme as is aboue mentioned,
whervpon the lord Iohn saint Iohn the king of Englands lieutenant in
Gascoigne, vnderstanding the conclusions of the agréement, sold all
such prouisions as he had made and brought into the cities, townes, and
fortresses for the defense of the same, and departing out of Gascoigne,
came towards Paris to returne that waie into England.

[Sidenote: The French kings mind changed.]

[Sidenote: His vniust dealing.]

But behold what followed; suddenlie by the enimie of peace was the
French kings mind quite changed. And where the king of England was come
vnto Canturburie, and kept his Easter there, that immediatlie vpon the
receipt of the safe conduct he might transport ouer the seas, and so
come to Amiens, according to the appointment made by the agréement;
now not onelie the safe conduct was denied, but also the first letters
reuocatorie sent vnto the conestable to call him backe, by other
letters sent after were also made void, and he by the latter letters
appointed to kéepe vpon his iournie, so that the conestable entring
into Gascoigne with a power, found no resistance, the capteins and
officers submitting themselues with the townes and fortresses at his
pleasure according to the tenor of the letters patents latelie to them
deliuered. All the officers and capteins of the fortresses were brought
to Paris as captiues and pledges.

[Sidenote: The French K. renounceth what he had said.]

[Sidenote: Hugh of Manchester a frier sent to the French king.]

[Sidenote: The king of England renounceth the French king.]

Within a few daies after, the earle of Lancaster required the quéenes,
that they would call vpon the king to grant his safe conduct for the
king of England, to reuoke the citation or summons, to restore the
lands taken from him; and to deliuer the pledges: but the French king
by the mouths of certeine knights sent vnto the earle, renounced all
such couenants as before had béene concluded. The earle of Lancaster
then perceiuing that both he and his brother king Edward were mocked
thus at the French kings hands, returned into England, and informed the
king & his councell from point to point of all the matter. Herevpon
a parlement being called at Westminster, at the which the king of
Scotland was present, it was decréed by the states, that those lands
which were craftilie taken so from the K. should be recouered againe
by the sword. And the king herewith sent vnto the French king a frier
preacher named Hugh of Manchester, and a frier minor called William
de Gainesbourgh, both being wise and discréet men, and doctours of
diuinitie, to declare vnto him, that sith he would not obserue such
agréements as had béene concluded betwixt their ancestours; and further
had broken such couenants as were now of late agréed vpon betwixt them,
by the trauell of his brother Edmund earle of Lancaster: there was no
cause whie he ought to account him being king of England, and duke of
Guien, as his leigeman, neither did he intend or meane further to be
bound vnto him by reason of his homage.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent into Germanie.]

[Sidenote: Wolles staied.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: A subsidie raised of wols.]

[Sidenote: An armie sent to Gascoigne.]

About the same time did the king of England send the archbishop of
Dubline, and the bishop of Duresme into Germanie, about the concluding
of a league with Adolph king of Romans, to whome was giuen a great
summe of monie (as was said) vpon couenants, that he should aid the
king of England against the French king, with all his maine force, and
that neither of them should conclude peace with the said French king
without consent of the other. About the Ascension tide, king Edward
staied the woolles of this land, as well belonging to spirituall men as
temporall men, till the merchants had fined with him for the same, so
that there was a subsidie paied for all sarpliers of wooll that went
out of the relme, and in semblable wise for felles and hides. He also
sent an armie by sea into Gascoigne, vnder the conduct of his nephew
Iohn of Britaine that was earle of Richmond, appointing to him as
councellors, the lord Iohn saint Iohn, and the lord Robert Tiptost; men
of great wisdome, and verie expert in warlike enterprises.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Thrée fléets appointed to the sea.]

[Sidenote: A dearth.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: The English armie passeth to Gascoigne.]

[Sidenote: Towns won.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

He also caused thrée seuerall fléets to be prepared, and appointed to
them thrée sundrie admerals, for the better kéeping of the seas. To
them of Yarmouth and other of those parts, he assigned the lord Iohn
Botetourt: to them of the cinque ports, William de Leiborne: and to
them of the west countrie, and to the Irishmen, he appointed a valiant
knight of Ireland as their chéefteine. This yeare in England was a
great dearth and scarcitie of corne, so that a quarter of wheat in
manie places was sold for thirtie shillings: by reason whereof poore
people died in manie places for lacke of sustnance. About Michaelmas,
the English fléet tooke the sea at Portesmouth, and after some
contrarie winds, yet at last they arriued within the riuer of Garon,
and so passing vp the same riuer, wan diuers townes, as Burge, Blaines,
Rions, and others.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: A shift for monie.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The treasurer accused.]

[Sidenote: The K. excuseth himselfe.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The spiritualtie called to a councell.]

The kings coffers by reason of furnishing foorth of this armie, and
other continuall charges which he had susteined, were now in maner
emptie: for remedie whereof, William March one of the kings treasurers,
purposed with other mens losses to supplie that want. He knew that
in abbeies and churches was much monie kept in store, the which if
he commanded to be taken from thence, he thought that he should not
commit any offense, but rather doo a good déed, that the monie might
come abroad to the vse of the people, whereby the souldiers might be
satisfied for their wages. Such capteins therefore, as he appointed
to worke the feat, placing their souldiers in euerie quarter through
the realme, made search at one time, in Iulie, at thrée of the clocke
in the afternoone, for all such monie as was hid and laid vp in all
hallowed places, and taking the same awaie, brought it vnto the king,
who dissembling the matter, as he that stood in néed, excused the
act doone by his treasurer so well as he could, to auoid the enuie
of the people; and not content herewith, he called togither shortlie
after, to wit, on saint Matthewes day the apostle, at London, all
the archbishops, bishops, deanes, & archdeacons, not in their proper
persons, but by two procurators of euerie diocesse. Here when they were
once assembled, the king declared vnto them the warres which he was
driuen to mainteine against the Frenchmen, & the charges which he was
at for the same. He also shewed them, that the earles, barons & knights
of the realme, did not onlie aid him with their goods, but put their
persons forward to serue him in defense of the land, whereof they were
members, euen to the shedding of their bloud, and oftentimes with losse
of their liues. Therfore (saith he) you which may not put your persons
in perill by seruice in the warres, it is good reason you should aid vs
with your goods.

[Sidenote: Their offer not liked.]

[Sidenote: The halfe part of spirituall liuings granted to the king.]

[Sidenote: _R. Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

The cleargie hauing no speciall head, by reason that the sée of
Canturburie was void, wist not well how to gouerne themselues. At
length Oliuer bishop of Lincolne, required in all their names to
haue thrée daies respit to make answer to the matter, the which
time expired, they offered to the king two dismes to be paid within
one yeare. The which when the king heard, he tooke great disdaine
therewith, and threatned by some of his men of war to put the cleargie
out of his protection, except they would grant to him the halfe of
their goods. The cleargie put in feare herewith, and some of them also
desirous to win the kings fauour, granted his request, and so the king
at that time got the halfe part of euerie spirituall mans liuing and
benefice for one yeares extent, to be paid in portions within thrée
yeares next insuing, beginning at twentie marks benefice, & so vpwards.
And the sooner to induce them herevnto, he promised the bishops to
grant some thing that might be beneficiall to the cleargie, if they
would demand it.

[Sidenote: The prelates require to haue the statute of Mortmain

[Sidenote: The K. shifteth them off.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

The bishops taking councell togither, required of him that the statute
of Mortmain might be repealed, which they saw to be most preiudiciall
to their order. But the king answered them, that without the whole
consent of a parlement he could not breake that ordinance, which by
authoritie of parlement had béene once established, and therefore he
wished that they would not require that thing which laie not in him to
grant, and so by that means he shifted them off. The spiritualtie was
not onelie charged with this subsidie, but they of the temporaltie were
also burthened. For the citizens and burgesses of good townes gaue to
the king the sixt part of their goods, and the residue of the people
gaue the tenth part.

[Sidenote: The Welshmen are busie.]

[Sidenote: Madoc.]

[Sidenote: Carnaruan burnt.]

[Sidenote: Malgon.]

[Sidenote: Morgan driueth the earle of Glocester out of Glamorganshire.]

[Sidenote: The earles of Lancaster & Lincolne vanquished by the

Moreouer, about the same time, the Welshmen eftsoones rebelled against
the king, and in diuerse parts made diuerse rulers amongst them.
Those of Northwales which inhabited about Snowdon hils, hauing to
their capteine one Madoc, of the line of their former prince Leolin,
burned the towne and castell of Carnaruan, sleaing a great multitude
of Englishmen, which doubting no such matter, were come thither to the
faire. Those of the west part hauing chosen to their ruler one Malgon
on the parts of Penbroke and Carmardin shires, did much mischéefe. And
one Morgan hauing them of Southwals at his commandement, expelled and
droue the earle of Glocester out of his countrie of Glamorgan, which
earle had before time disherited the ancestors of the same Morgan. The
king therefore to represse the Welshmens attempts, called backe his
brother Edmund earle of Lancaster, and the earle of Lincolne, being
readie to haue sailed ouer into Gascoine, the which earles as they
approched néere vnto the castell of Denbigh vpon saint Martins day, the
Welshmen with great force incountred them, and giuing them battell,
droue them backe and discomfited their people. Polydor iudgeth that
this ouerthrow happened to the Englishmen, the rather for that the
armie was hired with such monie as had béene wrongfullie taken out of
the abbeis and other holie places, howbeit it is but his opinion onelie.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 23.]

[Sidenote: 1295.]

[Sidenote: Baion yéelded to the Englishmen.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Baion won.]

[Sidenote: Two French gallies taken.]

[Sidenote: Saint Iohn de Sordes.]

[Sidenote: The Gascoigns aid the Englishmen.]

The king kept his Christmasse at Aberconwey in Wales, and hearing that
the new archbishop of Canturburie, doctor Robert Winchelsey, being
returned from Rome (where, of pope Celestine he had receiued his pall)
was comming towards him, he sent one of his chapleines named Iohn
Berwike with a power of souldiers to conduct him safelie vnto his
presence. And after the archbishop had doone his fealtie to the king,
accordinglie as of dutie and custome he was bound, he was licenced to
returne with great honour shewed vnto him at the kings hands. Vpon the
day of the circumcision of our Lord, was the citie of Baion rendred
vnto the lord Iohn saint Iohn, the which the day before had béene taken
by the mariners by force of assault. Manie of the citizens which were
knowne to be chéefe enimies vnto the king of England, were apprehended
and sent into England. The castell was then besieged, and after eight
daies taken. The lord of Aspermont with diuerse others that held it,
were committed to prison. There were also taken two gallies, which
the French king had caused to be made, and appointed to be remaining
there vpon defense of that citie. Shortlie after the towne of saint
Iohn de Sordes was deliuered vnto the Englishmen, who wan manie other
townes and fortresses, some by surrender of their owne accord, and
some by force and violence. The English armie greatlie increased
within a while, after the deceit of the Frenchmen once appeared, for
the Gascoins returned vnto the English obedience, in such wise that
foure thousand footmen and two hundred horsemen came to aid the English

[Sidenote: The king entreth into Wales.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

In the meane time, the king of England passing ouer the riuer of
Conwey, with part of his armie to go further into Wales towards
Snowdon, lost manie carts and other cariages which were taken by the
Welshmen, being loden with the prouisions of vittels, so that he with
his people indured great penurie, and was constreined to drinke water
mixt with honie, and eat such course bread and salt flesh as he could
get, till the other part of the armie came vnto him. There was a small
quantitie of wine amongst them, which they would haue reserued onelie
for the king, & therfore refused to tast therof. But least they should
repine at his extraordinarie and seuerall fare, and so by conceits of
discontentment for not hauing the like, he considered in a sympathie,

    Quæ mala cum multis patimur, leuiora videntur,

saieng, that in time of necessitie all things ought to be common, and
all men to be contented with like diet. For as touching him (being the
cause and procurer of their want) he would not be preferred before
any of them in his meats and drinks. The Welshmen compassed him about
in hope to distresse him, for that the water was so risen, that the
residue of his armie could not get to him. But shortlie after, when the
water fell, they came ouer to his aid, and therewith the aduersaries

[Sidenote: The earle of Warwike.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The Welshmen ouerthrowne by the earle of Warwike.]

The earle of Warwike, hearing that a great number of Welshmen was
assembled togither, and lodged in a vallie betwixt two woods, he chose
out a number of horssemen, with certeine crossebowes and archers, and
comming vpon the Welshmen in the night, compassed them round about, the
which pitching the ends of their speares in the ground, and turning
the points against their enimies, stood at defense so to kéepe off
the horssemen. But the earle hauing placed his battell so, that euer
betwixt two horssemen there stood a crosbow, a great part of the
Welshmen which stood at defense in maner aforesaid with their speares,
were ouerthrowne and broken with the shot of the quarels, and then the
earle charged the residue with a troope of horssmen, and bare them
downe with such slaughter, as they had not susteined the like losse of
people (as was thought) at anie one time before.

[Sidenote: The woods in Wales cut downe.]

[Sidenote: Beaumarise built.]

[Sidenote: Madoc taken prisoner.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: Welshmen imprisoned.]

In the meane while, king Edward to restreine the rebellious attempts
of those Welshmen, caused the woods of Wales to be cut downe, wherein
before time the Welshmen were accustomed to hide themselues in time of
danger. He also repared the castels and holds in that countrie, and
builded some new, as the citie and castell of Bewmarise with other,
so that the Welshmen constreined through hunger and famine, were
inforced within a while to come to the kings peace. Also at length
about the feast of saint Laurence, the Welshman Madoc, that tooke
himselfe for prince of Wales was taken prisoner, and being brought to
London was committed to perpetuall prison. ¶ By some writers it should
appeare, that Madoc was not taken, but rather after manie aduentures &
sundrie conflicts, when the Welshmen were brought to an issue of great
extremitie, the said Madoc came in and submitted himselfe to the kings
peace, and was receiued, vpon condition that he should pursue Morgan
till he had taken him and brought him to the kings prison, which was
doone, and so all things in those parts were set in rest and peace,
and manie hostages of the chéefest amongst the Welsh nobilitie were
deliuered to the king, who sent them to diuerse castels in England
where they were safelie kept almost to the end of the warres that
followed with Scotland.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Charles de Valois chaseth the Englishmen.]

[Sidenote: The Earle of Richmond.]

[Sidenote: Rion besieged.]

About the same time Charles de Valois brother to the French king, being
sent with an armie into Gascoine, and comming vpon the sudden, found
the Englishmen wandering abroad in the countrie out of order, by reason
whereof taking them at that aduantage, he caused them to leaue their
booties behind them, slue part of them, and chased the residue, the
which fled to their ships, or to such hauen townes as were in their
possession. The capteins of the Englishmen, as Iohn de Britaine earle
of Richmond, and the lord Iohn saint Iohn, after they had got togither
their souldiers which had béene thus chased, sent two bands vnto
Pontesey to defend that towne against the enimies: also other two bands
vnto saint Seuere: and they themselues went to Rion to fortifie that
place. Charles de Valois aduertised hereof, thought he would not giue
them long respit to make themselues strong by gathering any new power,
and therfore appointed the conestable sir Rafe de Neale, (who had woone
the citie of Burdeaux from the Englishmen latelie before) to go vnto
Pontesey and besiege that towne, whilest he went vnto Rion, which he
besieged and fiercelie assaulted. But the Englishmen and Gascoins did
not onelie defend the towne stoutlie, but also made an issue foorth
vpon their enimies, though (as it happened) the smaller number was not
able to susteine the force of the greater multitude, and so were the
Englishmen beaten backe into the towne againe.

[Sidenote: Pontsey won.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Rion wone.]

Whilest they tried their manhood thus at Rion, the constable woone
Pontesey or Pontsac vpon Dordone, and came to ioine with the earles de
Valois at Rion, and so inforced both their powers to win that towne.
The Englishmen and Gascoins, though they were put in some feare, yet
they shewed their approoued valiancie in defending the towne, till at
length when they saw they could defend it no longer, and were in no
hope of succour from anie part, they fled out about midnight, and made
toward their ships: but diuerse of them were taken by the waie, for the
Frenchmen hauing knowledge of their intent, forlaie the passages, and
taking some of them that first sought to escape thus by flight, slue
them, but there was not manie of those. For all the residue, when they
perceiued that the Frenchmen had laid betwixt them and their ships,
making vertue of necessitie, stood still in defense of the towne, till
the Frenchmen entred it by force of assault the friday in Easter wéeke.

[Sidenote: Englishmen taken.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: Sir Adam Kreting kild.]

[Sidenote: Sir Walter Gifford.]

Some write, that the same night, in which they so ment to flée to their
ships, there chanced a great tumult and mutenie betwixt the footmen
and horssemen, so that they fought togither, or else might the whole
number of them haue escaped. The horssemen that got foorth left their
horsses behind them readie brideled and sadled, which the Frenchmen
vpon entring the towne in the morning tooke, after they had slaine the
most part of the footmen. The Frenchmen hauing got a bloudie victorie,
saued onelie the capteins and gentlemen, and slue the other, aswell
Englishmen as Gascoins. There was taken of knights, sir Rafe Tannie,
sir Amis de saint Amand, with his brother sir Rafe de Gorges marshall
of the armie, sir Roger Leiborne, sir Iohn Kreting, sir Iames Kreting,
sir Hen. Boding, sir Iohn Mandeuile, sir Iohn Fulborne, sir Robert
Goodfield, sir Thomas Turberuile, & sir Walter, with thrée & thirtie
esquiers, which were sent all vnto Paris. Sir Adam Kreting was killed,
a right valiant knight, by reason of one sir Walter Gifford a knight
also, which had dwelled in France manie yeares before as an outlaw.

[Sidenote: Saint Seuere taken.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Hugh Véer.]

[Sidenote: Charles de Valois.]

[Sidenote: Saint Seuere besiged.]

[Sidenote: Saint Seuere yéelded by composition.]

[Sidenote: Charles de Valois returneth into France.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

On the same day was the towne of saint Seuere deliuered vnto the
Englishmen, the which Hugh or (as Abington saith) Robert Véer, brother
to the earle of Oxenford tooke vpon him to kéepe as capteine there
with two hundred men of armes. Charles de Valois aduertised thereof,
departed from Rion with all spéed, to besiege the foresaid towne of
saint Seuere, yer the Englishmen should haue time to fortifie it. But
the foresaid Hugh Véer kept him out the space of thirtéene or (as
Abington saith) nine wéekes, to the great losse of the Frenchmen, no
small part of their people dieng in the meane time, both of pestilence
and famine. At length, when vittels began to faile within, a truce was
taken for fiftéene daies, within the which it might be lawfull for them
within the towne to send vnto Baion for succour, which if it came not
within that tearme, the towne should be yéelded vnto the Frenchmen, and
so it was vpon these conditions, that the Englishmen and other that
would depart, should haue libertie to take with them their armour and
goods, and be safelie conueied two daies iornie on their waie from the
French armie. Also that those which were minded to remaine still in
the towne, should not susteine any losse or damage in their bodies or
goods. The pledges also which aforetime were taken out of that towne
by the French kings seneshall, should returne in safetie to the towne,
and haue their goods restored vnto them. This doone, Charles de Valois
appointed a garrison of soldiers to remaine there for the kéeping of
the towne, and then returned backe into France. The Englishmen, which
escaped out of those places from the Frenchmens hands, repaired vnto
Baion, to defend that towne with their capteins the foresaid earle of
Richmond and the lord Iohn de S. Iohn, the which of some are vntruelie
said to haue béene slaine at Rion. Shortlie after that Charles de
Valois was departed and gone out of the countrie, the towne of saint
Seuere was recouered by the Englishmen.

[Sidenote: The earle of Oxford then liuing hight Robert Véer; and not
Hugh Véer.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

¶ It should appeare by report of some writers, that Hugh Véer (whome
they wronglie name to be earle of Oxenford) was sent ouer as then
from king Edward to the aid of his capteins in Gascoine, and at his
first comming, recouered the towne of saint Seuere, and afterwards so
valiantlie defended it against the Frenchmen, that honorable mention is
made of him, both by Nicholas Triuet, and also by some French writers,
for his high manhood therin shewed. But whether he were brother or
sonne to the earle of Oxford, I can not saie; howbeit about the 27
yeare of this king Edwards reigne, we find one Hugh Véer, that was a
baron, whom I take to be this man, but earle I thinke he was not. For
(as Euersden saith) one Robert Véer that was earle of Oxford deceassed
in the yeare next insuing, and after him succéeded an other earle that
bare the same name (as by records it may appeare.) Polydor speaking of
the siege of S. Seuere, rehearseth not who was capteine as then of the
towne, but in the yéelding of it vnto Charles de Valois, after he had
laine more than thrée moneths before it, he agréeth with other writers.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Cardinals sent to the kings of England and France to treat a

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: The cardinals gather monie.]

In the same yeare Berard bishop of Alba and Simon archbishop of
Bourges, two cardinals of the Romane sée, were sent vnto the kings
of England and France, to mooue them to conclude a peace. They first
came into France, and after into England, but perceiuing the minds of
the kings nothing inclined to concord, they returned to Rome without
any conclusion of their purpose, but not without monie gathered of
religious men to beare out their expenses, for they had authoritie by
the popes grant to receiue in name of procuracies and expenses, six
marks of euerie cathedrall and collegiat church thorough the realme,
besides diuerse other rewards. And where any poore chapiter of nunnes
or religious persons were not able of themselues, the parish churches
next adioining were appointed to be contributorie with them.

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Turberuiles promise to the French king.]

At the same time sir Thomas Turberuile a knight, and one of those (as
before ye haue heard) which were taken at Rion, to saue his life, and
to deliuer himselfe out of captiuitie, though he was neuer proued false
before, promised king Philip that if he would suffer him to returne
into England, he would so worke with king Edward, that he might be made
by him admerall of the seas; which thing brought to passe he would
deliuer the English nauie into the hands of the said king Philip.
Herevpon was he set at libertie, and ouer he came into England. And
for as much as he had knowne to be a man of singular and approued
valiancie, king Edward receiued him verie courteouslie, who remembring
his promised practise to the French king, fell in hand by procuring of
fréends to be made admerall of the seas. But king Edward (as God would
haue it) denied that sute.

[Sidenote: The French king sendeth foorth a fléet against England.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: French men slaine.]

[Sidenote: A gallie burnt.]

The French king in the meane time hauing prepared his nauie, conteining
thrée hundred saile, what with the gallies and other ships (for he
had got diuerse both from Merselles and Genoa) sent the same foorth
to the seas, that vpon such occasion the king of England might also
send foorth his fléet. But the French nauie comming néere to the coast
of England, and lieng at anchor certeine daies, looking for Thomas
Turberuile; when he came not at the day prefixed, the capteines of the
French fléet appointed one of their vessels to approch néere to the
shore, and to set on land certeine persons that knew the countrie,
to vnderstand and learne the cause of such staie. They being taken
of the Englishmen and examined, could make no direct answer in their
owne excuse, and so were put to death. Some write that they sent fiue
gallies towards the shore to suruey the coast, of the which gallies one
of them aduansing foorth afore hir fellowes, arriued at Hide néere to
Romney hauen, where the Englishmen espieng hir, to draw the Frenchmen
on land, feined to flie backe into the countrie, but returning
suddenlie vpon the enimies, they slue the whole number of them, being
about two hundred and fiftie persons. They set fire on the gallie also
and burned hir.

[Sidenote: Douer robbed by the French.]

[Sidenote: The Frenchmen chased to their ships.]

[Sidenote: Frenchmen slaine about Douer.]

The admerall of the French fléet kindled in anger herewith, sailed
streight vnto Douer, and there landing with his people, robbed the
towne and priorie. The townesmen being striken with terror and feare of
the sudden landing of their enimies, fled into the countrie, and raised
people on euerie side, the which being assembled togither in great
numbers, towards euening came to Douer, and inuading such Frenchmen as
were straied abroad to séeke preies, slue them downe in sundrie places.
The French admerall which had béene busie all the day in pilfering the
towne, hearing the noise of those Frenchmen that came running towards
the sea side, streightwaies got him to his ships with such pillage as
he could take with him. The other Frenchmen, which were gone abroad
into the countrie to fetch preies, and could not come to their ships
in time, were slaine euerie mothers sonne. Some of them hid themselues
in the corne fields, and were after slaine of the countrie people.
There was little lesse than eight hundred of them thus slaine by one
meane and other at that time. There were not manie of the men of Douer
slaine, for they escaped by swift flight at the first entrie made by
the Frenchmen: but of women and children there died a great number,
for the enimies spared none. There was also an old moonke slaine named
Thomas, a man of such vertue (as the opinion went) that after his
deceasse, manie miracles through him were shewed.

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Turberuile executed.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

Sir Thomas Turberuile, being troubled in his mind that he could
not bring his traitorous purpose to passe, began to assaie another
waie, which was to procure Iohn Balioll king of Scotland to ioine in
league with the French king, but yer any of his practises could be
brought about, his treason was reuealed, who being thereof euidentlie
conuicted, was put to execution. Nich. Triuet saith, that he had
promised the French king to cause Wales to reuolt from king Edward,
and that by procurement of the prouost of Paris, he consented to worke
such treason. And (as some write) he did not onelie homage vnto the
French king, but also left two of his sonnes in pledge for assurance to
worke that which he had promised. His secretarie that wrote the letters
vnto the French king, conteining his imagined treasons, with other
aduertisements touching king Edwards purposes, fearing least the matter
by some other means might come to light (as the old prouerb saith,

    Quicquid nix celat solis calor omne reuelat)

as well to his destruction as his maisters for concealing it, disclosed
all to the king. Now he hauing knowledge that he was bewraied by his
seruant, fled out of the court, but such diligence was vsed in the
pursuit of him, that he was taken within two daies after, and brought
backe againe to London, where he was conuicted of the treason so by
him imagined, and therefore finallie put to death. ¶ This yeare the
cleargie gaue to the king the tenth part of their goods, the citizens
a sixt part, and the commons a twelfth part, or rather (as Euersden
saith) the burgesses of good townes gaue the seuenth, and the commons
abroad the eleuenth penie.

[Sidenote: The death of noble men.]

[Sidenote: Sir Rafe Monthermer wedded the countesse of Glocester.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 24.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: 1296.]

The same yeare died Gilbert de Clare earle of Glocester, which left
issue behind him, begot of his wife the countesse Ione the kings
daughter (beside thrée daughters) one yoong sonne named also Gilbert to
succéed him as his heire. The countesse his wife, after hir husbands
deceasse, married a knight of meane estate, borne in the bishopricke
of Duresme, named sir Rafe Monthermer, that had serued the earle hir
first husband in his life time. The king at the first tooke displeasure
herewith, but at length through the hie valiancie of the knight, oft
times shewed and apparantlie approued, the matter was so well taken,
that he was intituled earle of Glocester, and aduanced to great honor.
¶ Iohn Romane archbishop of Yorke also this yeare died, after whome one
Henrie de Newmarke deane of the colledge there succéeded. ¶ Moreouer
the same yeare William de Valence earle of Penbroke departed this life,
and lieth buried at Westminster, and then Aimer his sonne succéeded him.

[Sidenote: The king of Scots concludeth a league with the French king.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

Iohn king of Scotland affianced his sonne Edward Balioll with the
daughter of Charles du Valois brother to the French king, and concluded
with the said French king a league against the king of England. Nothing
mooued the Scotish king so much hereto, as the affection which he bare
towards his natiue countrie, for he was a French man borne, and lord of
Harecourt in Normandie, which segniorie was after made an earledome by
Philip du Valois king of France. The Scotishmen had chosen 12 péeres,
that is to saie, foure bishops, foure earles, and foure barons, by
whose aduise and counsell the king should gouerne the realme, by whome
he was induced also to consent vnto such accord with the French men,
contrarie to his promised faith giuen to king Edward when he did homage
to him.

[Sidenote: K. Edwards request made to the Scots is denied.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The disloiall dealing of the Scots.]

King Edward not fullie vnderstanding the conclusion of this league,
required aid of the Scotish king for the maintenance of his warres
against France, and receiuing a doubtfull answer, began to suspect
the matter: whervpon he required to haue thrée castels, as Barwike,
Edenburgh, and Rokesburgh, deliuered vnto him as gages till the end
of the warre, and if the Scotishmen continued faithfull vnto him, he
would then restore the same castels to them againe when the warres were
ended. This to do the Scotishmen vtterlie denied, alledging that their
countrie was frée of it selfe, and acquit of all seruitude or bondage,
and that they were in no condition bound vnto the king of Scotland, and
therefore they would receiue the merchants of France, of Flanders, or
any other countrie without exception, as they thought good.

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Lancaster sent into Gascoine.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

There were in the hauen of Berwike at the same time, certeine English
merchants, vpon whome the Scots made assault, and wounded some of them,
and some of them they slue, and chased the residue, the which returning
into England, made complaint, and shewed in what euill maner they had
béene dealt with. King Edward héerevpon perceiuing the purposes of the
Scots, determined to make warre vpon them with all spéed, & to conquer
the whole countrie, if they could not cleare themselues of such euill
dealing as of them was reported and thought to be put in practise.
About the conuersion of saint Paule in Ianuarie, king Edward sent ouer
into Gascoine his brother the lord Edmund earle of Lancaster, with the
earle of Lincolne and other, to the number of 26 banerets, and 700 men
of armes, besides a great multitude of other people. They arriued at
Blay, about the midst of Lent, and staied there till towards Easter. In
which meane season, a great sort of Gascoins and other people resorted
vnto them, so that they were two thousand men of armes.

[Sidenote: The castell of Lespar deliuered vnto him.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The Frenchmen forced to retire.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Vpon Cene thursdaie, the castell de Lesparre was deliuered vnto the
earle of Lancaster, and after that diuers other castels. At his
approching néere vnto Burdeaux, vpon the thursdaie in Easter wéeke, as
he rested to refresh himselfe and his armie in a little village called
Kekell, an armie of French men issuing out of Burdeaux, ment to come on
the Englishmen at vnwares: but hauing warning, they prepared themselues
to battell, so well as the shortnes of time would permit, and so
therevpon incountring with their enimies, and fighting a sore battell,
at length constreined the French men to returne vnto the citie, and
pursuing them as they fled, two English knights being brethren to sir
Peter de Mallow and an other that was a Gascoine, entred the citie
with two standard bearers belonging to the earle of Richmond, & to the
lord Alane de la Zouch, whom the Frenchmen tooke, closing them within
the gates. The other Englishmen being shut out, first fell to the
spoile of the suburbs, and then set fire vpon the same. After this were
certeine of the citizens that secretlie were at a point with the earle
of Lancaster, to haue deliuered the citie into his hands, but their
practise being espied, they were taken and executed yer they could
performe that which they had promised.

[Sidenote: The earle of Lancaster departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: Aques besieged.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Arthois sent with an armie to Gascoine.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

Then the earle perceiuing he should but lose his labor to staie any
longer there, vpon certeine weightie occasions returned vnto Baionne,
where he shortlie after fell sicke and died. He left behind him thrée
sonnes, Thomas that succéeded him in the earldome of Lancaster, Henrie
lord of Monmouth, and Iohn whome he had begot of his wife Blanch, the
which before had béene married vnto Henrie earle of Champaigne, and
king of Nauar, by whome shée had but one onelie daughter, that was
married vnto the French king Philip de Beau. After this the English
armie besieged the citie of Aques, but thorough want of vittels he
was constreined to raise thence and breake vp the siege. The earle of
Arthois being sent of the French king with an armie into Gascoine,
incountred with the Englishmen, and chased them with the slaughter of a
great number, and after recouered diuers townes and fortresses in the

[Sidenote: Burg besieged.]

[Sidenote: The lord Simon de Montagew his enterprise to rescue the
garrison of Burg.]

[Sidenote: The siege is raised.]

Those Englishmen that kept the towne of Burg, being compassed about
with a siege by Mounseur de Sully, obteined truce for a certeine
space, during the which they sent vnto Blaines for some reléefe of
vittels, and where other refused to bring vp a ship loden with vittels,
which was there prepared, the lord Simon de Montagew, a right valiant
chéefetaine, and a wise, tooke vpon him the enterprise, and through the
middle of the French gallies, which were placed in the riuer to stop
that no ship should passe towards that towne, by helpe of a prosperous
wind, he got into the hauen of Burgh, and so relieued them within of
their want of vittels, by meanes whereof, Mounseur de Sully brake vp
his siege, and returned into France.

[Sidenote: The king of England concludeth a league with the earle of

[Sidenote: He concludeth a league also with the earle of Bar.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Bar inuadeth Champaigne.]

In the meane time, king Edward not sléeping his businesse, procured
Guie earle of Flanders to ioine with him in league against the
Frenchmen. This Guie was the son of Margaret countesse of Flanders,
whom she had by hir second husband William lord of Dampire in
Burstoine. Also king Edward procured Henrie earle of Bar, to whome (as
before ye haue heard) he had giuen his daughter Eleanor in marriage,
to make warre vpon the Frenchmen, so that at one time the erle of Bar
inuaded the countrie of Champaigne, and the earle of Flanders made
incursions vpon those countries of France which ioine vnto Flanders.
King Philip hereof aduertised, sent forth one Walter de Cressie with a
great armie against the earle of Bar, so that besieging the chéefest
towne of Bar, he constreined the said earle to leaue off his enterprise
in Champaigne, and to returne home, for doubt to lose more there than
hée should win abroad.

[Sidenote: A mariage concluded.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders arrested.]

But now to touch more at large the circumstances of the occasion that
mooued the earle of Flanders to make war against the French king.
I find (in Iacob Meir) that there was a marriage concluded betwixt
the lord Edward the eldest son of king Edward, and the ladie Philip
daughter to the foresaid Guie earle of Flanders, which marriage was
concluded by Henrie bishop of Lincolne, and the earle Warren, being
sent ouer as ambassadours by king Edward, vnto the said earle Guie for
the same purpose. In the yeare following, the said earle of Flanders,
togither with his wife, comming to visit the French king at Corbeill,
were arrested, and sent to Paris, there to remaine as prisoners,
bicause that the earle had affianced his daughter to the French kings
aduersarie, without his licence neither might they be deliuered, till
by mediation of the pope (who must néeds meddle in the matter by
virtue of his peremptorie power, & all christendome must veile the
bonnet to his holinesse, or rather abhominablenesse,

    Ille etenim toto sese iubet orbe colendum,
      Cui nisi parueris, crede perire licet)

[Sidenote: The pope intermedleth in the matter.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders forced to agrée with the French king.]

and suertie had vpon the promise of Amedie earle of Sauoy, they were
set at libertie, with these conditions, that they should deliuer into
the French kings hands their daughter, which was so affianced vnto K.
Edwards sonne, and further couenanted, not to conclude any league with
the king of England, but in all points t'obserue a certeine peace which
was concluded with Ferdinando earle of Flanders, in the yeare 1225. And
if earle Guie brake the same peace, then should he be excommunicated,
and all his countrie of Flanders interdicted by the archbishop of
Reims, and the bishop of Senlis, iudges appointed herein by authoritie
of the pope.

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders released returneth home.]

[Sidenote: The French kings answer to the pope.]

[Sidenote: A new league betwixt the K. of England, the emperour and
others against the French king.]

The earles daughter being sent for, and brought vnto Paris, the earle
and his wife were released, and suffered to returne into Flanders,
and shortlie after, the earle made earnest suit to haue his daughter
restored vnto him againe, insomuch that he procured pope Boniface to
be a meane for him to the French king; but all would not serue, no,
though as some say the pope accurssed the French king for reteining
hir, answer being made, that matters perteining to worldlie gouernment,
belonged not to the pope to discusse. Finallie, earle Guie, perceiuing
he could not preuaile in that suit, to haue his daughter againe, vpon
high displeasure concluded to ioine in league with king Edward & his
confederats. Herevpon, at an assemblie or councell kept at Gerardmount,
there was a solemne league made and agréed betwixt Adolph the emperour
of Almaine, Edward king of England, Guie earle of Flanders, Iohn duke
of Brabant, Henrie earle of Bar, both sonnes in law to king Edward, and
Albert duke of Austrich, against Philip king of France, and Iohn earle
of Henault his partaker.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

The merchants of Flanders procured the earle to conclude this league
with king Edward, as some write, the rather in respect of the great
commodities which rose to their countrie, by reason of the intercourse
of merchandize vsed betwixt England and Flanders, and for that through
aid of the Englishmen, they might the better withstand the malice,
both of the French and of all other their enimies. This league being
proclaimed in England, there were sent ouer into Flanders, the
treasurer of the excheker, and diuerse other noble men, to fetch
hostages from thence, and to giue to the earle fiftéene thousand pounds
of siluer, towards the fortifieng of his castels and holds. King Philip
being hereof aduertised, by counsell of the péeres of his realme,
sent two honorable personages, as the capteine of Mounstrell, and the
capteine of Belquerke, which should attach the earle of Flanders by his
bodie, and summon him to yéeld himselfe prisoner at Paris, within the
space of fiftéene daies next insuing.

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders defieth the French king.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders accurssed.]

[Sidenote: His sonne appealeth from the interdiction.]

This attachment made, and summons giuen, the earle of Flanders sent
his full defiance vnto the French king by the abbats of Gemblois,
and Senefles, vnto whome he gaue sufficient letters procuratorie, to
authorise them thereto, dated at Male in the yeare of Grace 1296, after
the accounts of the chronicles of Flanders, which begin their yere at
Easter: and so this chanced in the fiue and twentith yeare of king
Edwards reigne, the Wednesdaie next after the feast of the Epiphanie.
Herevpon was the earle accurssed, & Flanders interdicted by the
archbishop of Reims, and the bishop of Senlis comming vnto Terwane for
that purpose, about the fiftéenth day of Iune, in the yeare 1297. But
the lord Robert the earles sonne appealed from that interdiction to the
pope, and so the Flemmings tooke themselues frée & out of danger of the
same. Earle Guie also obteined of king Edward, that it might be lawfull
for them of Bruges to buy wools, through England, Scotland and Ireland,
as fréelie as the Italians might by their priuilege and grant.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to the K. of Scots.]

But to returne now to the dooings of king Edward, who in this meane
time, hauing a perfect knowledge of the league concluded betwixt the
king of France and the king of Scotland, prepared an armie, and first
sent ambassadors into Scotland, to giue summons to king Iohn to appeare
at Newcastell within certeine daies, that he might there shew the cause
whie he had broken the league: and further, to declare vnto him that he
was deceiued, if he thought he might serue two maisters, contrarie to
the words of the gospell, and according to the old saieng which seldome
neuer faileth in consequence,

    Deficit ambobus qui vult seruire duobus.

For how much fauour as he purchased at the hands of the French king,
so much displeasure might he assure himselfe to procure at the
hands of the king of England, whome to obeie, it should be most for
his aduantage. The ambassadors that were sent, did their message
throughlie, but king Iohn was so farre off from answering anie thing
that might sound to the maintenance of peace, that shortlie after
he sent letters of complaint vnto king Edward, for wrongs which he
alledged he had susteined by his means and at his hands. Herevpon king
Edward, by aduise of his councell, determined to set forward with his
armie into Scotland.

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The lord Ros reuolteth to ye K. of Scots.]

[Sidenote: William de Ros continueth faithfull to the king of England.]

[Sidenote: Englishmen distressed.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

In the meane time, Robert Ros, capteine of Warke castell, reuolted
to the Scotish king, mooued therevnto through the loue of a Scotish
gentlewoman, whome he meant to marrie, notwithstanding he had sworne
fealtie vnto king Edward. Wherevpon, his brother William de Ros giuing
knowledge to king Edward, required to haue some aid, whereby he might
defend the castell against the Scotishmen. King Edward sent vnto him a
thousand souldiers, (Polydor saith an hundred) the which as they lodged
one night in a towne called Prestfen, were slaine by the Scotishmen
of the garison of Rockesborough, that were led and guided by the said
Robert Ros: some of them although but few escaped awaie by flight. King
Edward aduertised hereof, hasted foorth, and came to the said castell,
glad of this (as is reported) that the Scotishmen had first begun the
warre, meaning, as it should séeme by their procéedings, to follow the
same, for vpon Good friday, diuerse Scotishmen entring the borders,
burnt sundrie villages, and spoiled the abbeie of Carham.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The Scots inuade England.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The Scots raise their siege from Carleil.]

Furthermore, whilest king Edward kept his castell at Warke, seauen
earles of Scotland, as Bouchan, Menteth, Stratherne, Lennox, Ros,
Atholl, and Mar, with Iohn Comin the maister of Badenaw, hauing
assembled an armie togither of fiue hundred men of armes on
horssebacke, and ten thousand footmen in Annandale, vpon monday in
Easter wéeke entred England, and putting all to fire and sword,
approched to Carleill, and laid siege therevnto on each side, passing
the water of Eden by a foord vnder Richardston, and did so much
preuaile, that they burned the suburbes, and assaulted the gates, at
which enterprise, a gentleman of Galloway as he ventured somewhat néere
to the gate, was drawne vp by an iron hooke, of those that stood aloft
vpon the gates to defend the same, and there slaine, and thrust through
with speares. In the meane time, a spie, the which had béene taken and
committed to prison, set fire on the house wherein he was inclosed,
and so the flames catching hold vpon the other buildings, a great part
of the citie was thereby burned. Yet the men and the women getting
themselues to the wals, droue their enimies backe, and so defended the
citie from taking. Whervpon, the Scotish lords perceiuing they could
not preuaile, left their siege on the thursdaie in Easter wéeke, and
returned againe into Scotland.

[Sidenote: Berwike summoned.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The English fléet.]

[Sidenote: Foure English ships lost.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

On the same thursdaie, king Edward with his armie passed the riuer of
Twéed, and so entring into Scotland, sent to the burgesses of Berwike,
offering them peace vpon certeine conditions, and staied a whole day
for an answer: but when he could haue none that liked him, nor that
sounded in anie thing to peace, he approched the towne, and lodged in
the monasterie of Caldestreime. His armie consisted as some write of
foure thousand men of armes on horsbacke, and thirtie thousand footmen,
besides fiue hundred men of armes on horssebacke, and a thousand
footmen of the bishoprike of Durham. At the same time, there came
foure and twentie English ships, the mariners whereof, beholding where
the English armie was placed in battell raie, vpon a plaine, the king
making there certeine knights, they thought his meaning was to haue
giuen forthwith an assalt, and so entring the hauen, and approching
to the land, began to fight with the townesmen, where they lost foure
of their ships, and were constreined to withdraw with the residue,
with helpe of the falling water. Some haue written that they lost but
thrée ships which were consumed with fire, and that the mariners and
souldiers of one of those ships, after they had defended themselues
by great manhood from the first houre of the daie, till eleuen of the
clocke, escaped awaie, some by the bote of that ship, and some leaping
into the water, were saued by the botes of other ships that made in to
succour them.

[Sidenote: Berwike woone.]

[Sidenote: This sir Richard Cornewall was brother to the erle of

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

The rumor of the mariners attempt being bruted through the armie, the
king passing forward towards the towne, got ouer a ditch, which the
Scots had cast to impeach his passage, and so comming to the towne,
wan it not losing any man of renowme, sauing sir Richard Cornewall,
the which was slaine by a quarell which a Flemming shot out of a
crossebowe, being in the red hall, which the merchants of Flanders held
in that towne, and had fortified it in manner of a tower: but when
they would not yéeld, and could not easilie otherwise be woone, the
house towards euening was set on fire, and so they being thirtie in
number were burned to death within it. Vpon the same night, the king
lodged in the castell, which was yéelded vnto him by them that kept it,
their liues and limmes saued, and receiuing an oth, that they should
not from thencefoorth beare armour against the king of England, they
were permitted to depart whither they thought good, their capteine sir
William Dowglas excepted, whom the king still kept with him, till the
end of the warres. Some write that there should be slaine of Scotishmen
at this winning of Berwike, aboue the number of twentie thousand men,
Abington saith 8000, but Richard Southwell saith 15000 at the least
one with an other, with small losse of Englishmen, not past eight and
twentie of all sorts. Yée may read more hereof in the Scotish historie.

[Sidenote: _Abraham Fleming._]

[Sidenote: _R. Grafton_, pag. 176.]

[Sidenote: _G. Buchanan rer. Scotic. lib. 8. pag. 243, prope finem._]

¶ But before I passe ouer this slaughter, so lamentable and
woonderfull, I haue bethought my selfe of a promised apologie for and
in the behalfe of Richard Grafton, mentioned before in the reigne of
Henrie the second, page 194 where I shewed how vnaduisedlie and with
vnséemelie modestie for a man of learning, George Buchanan the Scot
dooth shoot his bolts at the said Grafton, as now by occasion of the
matter conuenientlie occurrent shall be shewed. The said Grafton in his
large volume of English chronicles, falling vpon the affaires betwéene
king Edward the first, and Iohn Balioll king of Scotland, among other
things there remembred, maketh report that in the said battell of
Berwike, the slaughter was so great, that a mill might well haue béene
driuen by the space of two daies, with the streames of bloud which at
that time ouerranne the ground. At which words George Buchanan giueth a
snatch, emboldened so to doo, bicause the said Grafton referreth this
record to Hector Boetius in his fourtéenth booke and second chapter.

Iesu, how the Scot taketh vp the Englishman for halting in his
allegation, first for the chapter, conuincing him that Hector Boetius
diuided not his booke into chapters, and therefore, where is the second
chapter, sith the whole fourtéen booke is a continued discourse without
distinction by chapters? Secondlie the said Grafton hath the checke,
for setting a lie aflote, Buchanan flatlie affirming that Hector
Boetius hath no such matter once mentioned in his annales. Touching
the first fault, wherewith the Scot chargeth the Englishman, this is
note-worthie, that it should séeme to anie man of meane iudgement,
that Buchanan of a prepensed malice and purposed wilfulnesse hath
sharpened his stile in this nipping sort against Grafton. For sith it
was Graftons meaning to record the truth, so farre foorth as he was
warranted by the auerment of writers; why should he be cast in the
téeth with Effrænis maledicendi libido, or dishonestlie termed Indoctus
& impudenter mendax? Which opprobrious epithets, if they were deserued
by an vntrue report of the author; then should Buchanan haue sharpened
his toong against Belenden his countriman, the translator of Hector
Boetius into their mother toong, from whom Grafton hath deriued his
words; sense for sense vnmangled (as he found the same written.)

Now who knoweth not that Bellenden distinguished Hectors annales into
chapters, vpon whose authoritie Grafton relieng, and citing his
authoritie according to the quotation of his diuision, whie should
he rather than Bellenden be barked at, who is the principall in this
controuersie? Againe, it could not be hidden from Buchanan, that
Bellenden had distributed Boetius into chapters; considering that they
were ~synchronoi~, both liuing in the reigne of Iames the fift of that
name king of Scots: so that it might haue pleased him to haue tried
Grafton by the Scotish Boetius, and so to haue béene resolued for the
second chapter of the fouretéenth booke, according to the archdeacon of
Murries translation.

[Sidenote: _Hector Boetius, pag. 294, lib. impress. Parisijs à Iacobo
du Puys, 1574._]

Now for the matter itselfe, touching the effusion of bloud, wherewith a
mill might well haue béene driuen for two daies space; Hector Boetius
his owne words are these; Riui sanguinis toto oppido adeo fluxere, vt
cum æstu decurrente minor aqua quàm ad molendina circumagenda fuerit,
adiuuante aquam sanguine aliqua circumagi sponte coeperint. Which
place, Bellenden hath interpreted after this manner; So lamentabl'
slaughter wes throw all the parts of the toun, that ane mill might haif
gane two daies ithandlie be stremis of blude. Now examine Graftons
words by Bellenden, and Bellendens by Boetius (besides that, marke
what Grafton annexeth to the report of this slaughter, who saith that
he will not inforce the credit therof vpon any man, but counteth it a
Scotish lie rather than a matter of truth) and then conclude according
to equitie, that Grafton is altogither excusable and fautlesse, and
Buchanans curious & furious challenge reproueable. But admit Grafton
had fetcht his report from Boetius, as he had it from Bellenden;
séemeth it a lie or an vnlikelihood, that the bloud gushing out of
the bodies of 25000, or (as Hector Boetius saith) 7000, would not
increase to a streame sufficient & able to driue a mill or two about,
without any water intermingled therwithall. The Latine copie hath Riui
sanguinis, riuers of bloud, noting by the word the abundance and also
the streaming course of the same, which was able with the violent
current thereof to beare awaie the verie bodies of the slaine. To
conclude this matter, & to set our Englishman by the truth, and let the
Scot go with his lieng toong, which I would he had had the modestie to
haue tempered, & to haue proffered a practise of that which himselfe
paraphrasticallie preacheth and teacheth others to obserue, saieng;

[Sidenote: _In paraph. super psal. 39._]

    (Linguæ obseraui claustra fræno, pertinax
      Obmutui silentio,
    Ac temerè ne quid os mali profunderet,
      Verbis bonis clausi exitum.)

[Sidenote: K. Edward fortifieth Berwike.]

[Sidenote: A scotish frier sent to king Edward.]

[Sidenote: The Scotish king renounceth his homage and fealtie vnto the
king of England.]

And now to the storie. K. Edward remaind at Berwike 15 daies, & caused
a ditch to be cast about the towne of 80 foot in breadth, & of the
like in depth. In the meane time, about the beginning of Aprill, the
warden and reader of the frier minors of Rockesborough called Adam
Blunt, came vnto him with letters of complaint from king Iohn, for the
wrongs doone and offered vnto him and his realme, as well in claiming
an vniust superioritie, and constreining him to doo homage by vndue and
wrongfull meanes, as also by inuading his townes, slaieng and robbing
his subiects: for the which causes he testified by the same letters,
that he renounced all such homage and fealtie for him and his subiects,
as he, or any of them owght for any lands holden within England. The
king hearing the letters red receiued the resignation of the homage,
and commanded his chancellor, that the letter might be registred in
perpetuall memorie of the thing.

[Sidenote: The Scots inuade the English borders.]

[Sidenote: Harbotell.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Boghan. The crueltie of the Scots.]

The earles of Scotland before remembred, being assembled togither with
their powers at the castell of Iedworth, entred into England the eighth
of Aprill, and with fire and sword did much hurt in the countries as
they passed. In Riddesdale they besieged the castell of Harbotell by
the space of two daies, but when they could not preuaile, they remoued,
and passing foorth by the east part of the riuer of Tine, thorough
Cokesdale, Riddesdale, and Northumberland, vnto Hexham, they did much
mischéefe by burning and harrieng the countries. At Hexham they spoiled
the abbeie church, and got a great number of the cleargie, as well
moonks, priests, as scholers, and others, whom they thrust into the
schoolehouse there, and closing vp the dores, set fire on the schoole,
and burned all them to ashes that were within it. It is wonderfull to
read, what beastlie crueltie the Scots vsed in that road which they
made at that time in two seuerall parts. For the earle of Boghan, with
them of Galloway, entred by Cumberland in like manner as the other did
in Riddesdale, burning and murthering all that came in their waie.
For whereas all those that were of able age and lustie to get awaie,
fled, & escaped their hands; the aged & impotent creatures, women in
childbed, and yoong children that could not shift for themselues, were
vnmercifullie slaine, and thrust vpon speares, and shaken vp in the
aire, where they yéelded vp their innocent ghosts in most pitifull wise.

[Sidenote: The nunrie of Lamelaie burnt.]

Churches were burned, women were forced without respect of order,
condition or qualitie, as well the maids, widowes and wiues, as nunnes
that were reputed in those daies consecrated to God, and when they had
béene so abused, manie of them were after also murthered, and cruellie
dispatched out of life. At length, they came to the nunrie of Lamelaie,
& burned all the buildings there, sauing the church, and then returned
backe into Scotland with all their pillage and booties by Lauercost,
an house of moonks, which they likewise spoiled. So that the cruell
& bloudie desolation whereof Lucan speaketh in his second booke of
ciuill warres, may aptlie be inferred here, as fitlie describing the
mercilesse murther of all states and sexes without parcialitie vnder
the hand of the enimie: for saith he,

[Sidenote: _Luc. lib. 2._]

    Nobilitas cum plebe perit, latéque vagatur
    Ensis, & à nullo reuocatum est pectore ferrum,
    Stat cruor in templis, multáque rubentia cæde
    Lubrica saxa madent, nulli sua profuit ætas,
    Non senis extremum piguit vergentibus annis
    Præcipitasse diem, non primo in limine vitæ
    Infantis miseri nascentia rumpere fata.

[Sidenote: The castel of Dunbar rendred to the Scots.]

[Sidenote: Beside 2000 barded horsses they had in that armie 10000

[Sidenote: _N. Trivet._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: A sore battell fought at Dunbar. The number slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

Patrike earle of Dunbar came to the king of England, and submitted
himselfe, with all that he had into his hands; but the castell of
Dunbar vpon saint Markes day, being assieged of the Scots was rendered
vnto them, by treason of some that were within it, of whome, the
countesse (wife to the same erle) was the chéefest; for recouerie
whereof king Edward sent Iohn earle of Warren, Surrey and Sussex, &
William earle of Warwike with a great power, the which laieng siege to
that castell, a great host of Scotishmen came vpon them to the rescue
of them within, so that there was foughten a verie sore and terrible
battell. At length, the victorie abode with the Englishmen, and the
Scotishmen were put to flight, the Englishmen following them in chase
eight mile of that countrie, almost to the forrest of Selkirke: the
slaughter was great, so that (as was estéemed) there died of the
Scotishmen that day, to the number of ten thousand.

[Sidenote: Rockesborough yéelded.]

The morrow after being saturdaie, which was the eight and twentith day
of Aprill, at the kings comming thither the castell was surrendred
vnto him. There were taken in the same castell thrée earles, Menteth,
Cassels, and Ros; six barons, Iohn Comin the yoonger, William Sanclere,
Richard Siward the elder, Iohn Fitz Geffrey, Alexander de Morteigne,
Edmund Comin of Kilbird, with thirtie knights, two clearks, Iohn de
Someruile, and William de Sanclere, and thrée and thirtie esquires,
the which were sent vnto diuerse castels in England, to be kept as
prisoners. After the winning of Dunbar the king went to the castell of
Rockesborough, which incontinentlie was yéelded by the lord Steward of
Scotland, the liues and members of all such as were within it at the
time of the surrender.

[Sidenote: _Rich. Southw._]

Then went king Edward vnto Edinburgh, where he planted his siege about
the castell, and raised engines, which cast stones against and ouer
the walles, sore beating and brusing the buildings within. But as it
chanced, the king writing letters, to aduertise his councell at home
of his procéedings, and concerning other businesse, deliuered that
packet vnto a Welshman named Lewin, commanding him to go with the same
to London in all hast possible, for he knew him to be a verie spéedie
messenger and a trustie also (as he tooke it.) But hauing the letter
thus deliuered him, togither with monie to beare his charges, he got
him to a tauerne, where riotouslie c[=o]suming the monie (which he had
so receiued) in plaie, & making good chéere, in the morning he caused
one of his companions to take a target, and beare it afore him in
approching the castell, for that he meant (as he colourablie pretended)
not to depart, vntill he had wrought some displeasure to them within
with his crossebow, which he tooke with him for that purpose, so that
comming vnto the castell gates, he called to the wardens on the walles
to cast downe to him a cord, that they might plucke him vp to them
therewith, for that he had somwhat to say to their capteine touching
the secrets of the king of England.

They fulfilling his desire, when he came in, and was brought afore the
captein sitting then at breakfast, he said vnto him: "Behold sir, here
ye may peruse the king of Englands secrets," and withall raught to
him a box, wherein the packet of the kings letters were inclosed, and
"appoint me (saith he) to some corner of the wall, and trie whether I
can handle a crossebow or not, to defend it against your aduersaries."
Héere when others would haue opened the box, and haue read the letters,
the capteine would in no wise consent thereto, but going into a turret,
called to the Englishmen béelow, and willed them to signifie to the
king, that one of his seruants being fled to him, sought to bewraie
his secrets, wherevnto he would by no means agrée, and therefore meant
to restore both the traitor and the letters. Herevpon, the lord Iohn
Spenser, comming to heare what the matter might meane, the capteine
caused Lewin to be let downe to him, togither with the letters safe,
and not touched by him at all.

[Sidenote: A Welshman hanged.]

When the king vnderstood this, he much commended the honest respect of
the capteine, and whereas he had caused engins to be raised to annoie
them within (as yée haue heard) he commanded the same to ceasse, and
withall, vpon their capteins suit, he granted them libertie to send
vnto their king Iohn Balioll, to giue him to vnderstand in what sort
they stood. As touching the Welshman, he was drawne and hanged on a
pair of high galowes, prepared for him of purpose, as he had well
deserued. A notable example of a traitorous villaine, so to offer the
secrets of his souereigne to be known to his enimies: and no lesse
excellent a president of an honest and faithfull harted foe, that
would not himselfe nor let anie other haue a sight of the contents
therein written; a rare point of good meaning and vpright dealing in a
souldier, and speciallie in an enimie; but

    ---- multo optimus ille
    Militiæ cui postremum est primúmq; tueri
    Inter bella fidem.

[Sidenote: Striueling castel left void.]

[Sidenote: Edenburgh castell deliuered to the king of England.]

Now while the messengers were on their waie to Forfair, where the
Scotish king then laie, king Edward with a part of his armie went vnto
Striueling, where he found the castell gates set open, and the keies
hanging on a naile, so that he entred there without any resistance, for
they that had this castle in gard, were fled out of it for feare before
his comming. The messengers that were sent from them within Edenburgh
castell, comming to their king, declared to him in what case they stood
that were besieged. King Iohn, for that he was not able to succor them
by any manner of means at that present, sent them word, to take the
best waie they could for their owne safetie; with which answer the
messengers returning, the castell was immediatlie deliuered vnto the
lord Iohn Spenser, that was left in charge with the siege, at the kings
departure towards Striueling, with the like conditions as the castell
of Rockesborough had yéelded a little before.

Thus was that strong castell of Edenburgh surrendred by force of siege,
to the king of Englands vse, on the 15 daie, after he had first laid
his siege about it. A place of such strength by the heigth of the
ground whereon it stood, that it was thought impregnable, and had not
béene woone by force at any time, since the first building therof,
before that present, so farre as anie remembrance either by writing or
otherwise could be had thereof.

[Sidenote: Saint Iohns towne.]

[Sidenote: The king of Scots sueth for peace.]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Durham.]

[Sidenote: The king of Scots submitteth himselfe to the K. of England.]

Here at Edenburgh, or rather at Rockesborough (as Abington saith) a
great number of Welshmen came vnto the king, who sent home the like
number of English footmen, of those that séemed most wearie. Moreouer,
at Striueling, there came to the king the earle of Ulster, with a
great number of Irishmen. Then passing ouer the riuer of Forth, the
king came vnto saint Iohns towne about Midsummer, and there tarried
certeine daies. Whilest these things were a dooing, Iohn king of
Scotland, perceiuing that he was not of power to resist king Edward,
sent ambassadors vnto him to sue for peace: king Edward was content
to heare them, and therevpon appointed, that king Iohn should resort
vnto the castell of Brechin, there to commen with such of his councell
as he would send thither within fiftéene daies next ensuing, to treat
of an agréement. King Edward sent thither Anthonie bishop of Durham,
with full commission to conclude all things in his name. And within the
appointed time came king Iohn, and diuers of his nobles vnto him, the
which after many & sundrie treaties holden betwixt them and the said
bishop, at length they submitted themselues and the realme of Scotland,
simplie and purelie into the hands of the king of England, for the
which submission to be firmelie kept and obserued, king Iohn deliuered
his son in hostage, and made letters thereof, written in French as

The instrument of the said submission.

Iehan per la grace de Dieu, roy de Escoce, à tous ceulx quæ cestes
præsentes letres verront ou orront, saluz, &c. Iohn by the grace of
GOD king of Scotland, to all those that these present letters shall
sée or heare, sendeth gréeting. Bicause that we through euill counsell
and our owne simplicitie, haue gréeuouslie offended our souereigne
lord, Edward by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, and
duke of Aquitane, in many things; that is to saie, in that, whereas we
béeing and abiding vnder his faith and homage, haue bound our selues
vnto the king of France which then was his enimie and yet is, procuring
a mariage with the daughter of his brother Charles du Valois, and that
we might gréeue our said lord, and aid the king of France with all our
power by warre and other means, we haue at length by aduise of our
peruerse counsell defied our said lord the K. of England, and haue put
our selues out of his allegiance and homage, & sent our people into
England, to burne houses, to take spoiles, to commit murther, with many
other damages, and also in fortifieng the kingdome of Scotland, which
is of his fée, putting and establishing armed men in townes, castels,
and other places, to defend the land against him, to deforce him of his
fée, for the which transgressions our said souereigne lord the king,
entring into the realm of Scotland with his power, hath conquered and
taken the same, notwithstanding al that we could do against him, as by
right he may do, as a lord of his fée, bicause that we did render vnto
him our homage, and made the foresaid rebellion. We therfore as yet
being in our full power and frée will, doo render vnto him the land
of Scotland, and all the people therof with the homages. In witnesse
whereof, we haue caused these letters patents to be made. Yeuen at
Brechin the tenth day of Iulie, in the fourth yeare of our reigne,
sealed with the common seale of the kingdome of Scotland.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: K. Edward passeth forward through Scotland.]

[Sidenote: K. Edward bringeth the marble stone out of Scotland.]

[Sidenote: The nobilitie of Scotland submit themselues to the king.]

After this, king Edward went forward to sée the mounteine countries
of Scotland, the bishop of Durham euer kéeping a daies iournie afore
him. At length, when he had passed through Murrey land, and was come
to Elghin, perceiuing all things to be in quiet, he returned towards
Berwike, and comming to the abbeie of Scone, he tooke from thence the
marble stone, wherevpon the kings of Scotland were accustomed to sit as
in a chaire, at the time of their coronation, which king Edward caused
now to be transferred to Westminster and there placed, to serue for
a chaire for the priest to sit in at the altar. The king comming to
Berwike, called thither vnto a parlement all the nobles of Scotland,
and there receiued of them their homages, the which in perpetuall
witnesse of the thing, made letters patents thereof, written in French,
and sealed with their seales, as the tenor here followeth.

The instrument of the homages of the lords of Scotland to K. Edward.

[Sidenote: The forme of their homage.]

[Sidenote: The words of K. Edward accepting it.]

A tous ceux que cestes lettres verront ou orront, &c. To all those that
these present letters shall sée or heare, we Iohn Comin of Badenaw,
&c. Bicause that we at the faith and will of the most noble prince,
and our dearest lord, Edward by the grace of God king of England, lord
of Ireland, and duke of Aquitaine, doo vow and promise for vs and our
heires, vpon paine of bodie and goods, and of all that we may haue,
that we shall serue him well and trulie against all men which may liue
and die, at all times when we shall be required or warned by our said
lord the king of England or his heires, and that we shall not know of
any hurt to be doone to them, but the same we shall let and impeach
with all our power, and giue them warning thereof: and those things to
hold and kéepe, we bind vs, our heires, and all our goods, and further,
receiue an oth thereof vpon the holie euangelists: and after all, we
and euerie of vs haue done homage vnto our souereigne lord the king of
England in words as followeth; I become your liegeman of life, members,
and earthlie honour, against all men which may liue and die. And the
same our souereigne lord the king receiued this homage vnder this forme
of words; We receiue it for the land of the which you be now seized,
the right of vs, or other saued, and except the lands which Iohn
Balioll sometime king of Scotland granted vnto vs, after that we did
deliuer vnto him the kingdome of Scotland, if happilie he hath giuen to
you any such lands.

Moreouer, all we, and euerie of vs by himselfe haue done fealtie to
our said souereigne lord the king in these words; I as a faithfull &
liege man, shall kéepe faith and loialtie vnto Edward king of England,
and to his heires, of life, member and earthlie honor, against all men
which may liue and die, and shall neuer for any person beare armour,
nor shall be of counsell nor in aid with any person against him, or his
heires in any case that may chance, but shall faithfullie acknowledge,
and doo the seruice that belongeth to the tenements the which I claime
to hold of him, as God me helpe and all his saints. In witnesse wherof,
these letters patents are made and signed with our seales. Yeuen at
Warke the foure and twentith of March, in the 24 yeare of the reigne of
our said lord the king of England.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Officers appointed in Scotland by king Iohn.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Balioll sent to London.]

[Sidenote: A parlement at saint Edmundsburie.]

[Sidenote: A subsidie granted.]

Then was Iohn Warren earle of Surrey and Sussex made by king Edward
warden of Scotland, Hugh Cressingham treasurer, and William Ormesbie
high iustice, whome the king commanded, that he should call all those
before him which held any lands of the crowne, and to receiue of them
in his name their homages and fealties. Iohn Balioll the late king of
Scotland was sent to London, and had a conuenient companie of seruants
appointed to attend him, hauing licence to go any whither abroad, so
that he kept himselfe within the circuit of twentie miles néere to
London. Iohn Comin of Badenaw, and Iohn Comin of Lowan, and diuerse
nobles of Scotland were brought into England on the south side of
Trent, being warned vpon paine of death not to returne into Scotland,
till the king had made an end of his wars with France. After this,
at his returne into England, king Edward held a parlement at saint
Edmundsburie, which began the morrow after the feast of All saints,
in which the citizens & burgesses of good townes granted vnto him an
eighth part of their goods, and of the residue of the people a twelfth

[Sidenote: The pretended excuse of the cleargie.]

The cleargie by reason of a constitution ordeined and constituted the
same yeare by pope Boniface, prohibiting vpon paine of excommunication,
that no talages nor other exactions should be leuied or exacted of the
cleargie in any manner of wise by secular princes or to be paid to
them of things that perteined to the church, vtterlie refused to grant
any manner of aid to the king, towards the maintenance of his wars.
Wherevpon the king, to the intent they should haue time to studie for a
better answer, deferred the matter to an other parlement to be holden
on the morrow after the feast of saint Hilarie.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 25.]

[Sidenote: 1297.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Holland marrieth Elizabeth the kings daughter.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The archbishop his words.]

This yeare after the feast of the Epiphanie, Elizabeth the kings
daughter was married vnto king Iohn earle of Holland. Humfrey de Bohun
earle of Hereford and Essex was sent to conueie them into Holland,
there to take possession of the earledome, as then descended vnto the
said Iohn, by the death of his father latelie before slaine by his
owne subiects, bicause he would haue disherited this Iohn, and made a
bastard sonne which he had to be his heire. ¶ The day appointed for
the parlement to be holden at London being come, and the cleargie
continuing in their deniall to grant any subsidie, the king excluded
them out of his protection, for the redéeming whereof, manie by
themselues, and manie by mediators, did afterwards giue vnto the king a
fift part of all their goods. The archbishop of Canturburie being found
stiffe in the matter, the king seized all his lands, and commanded
all such debts as were found of his in the rolles of the excheker, to
be leuied with all spéed of his goods and cattell. Some write, that
when the archbishop of Canturburie in name of all the residue, had
declared to them whom the king had appointed commissioners to receiue
the answer, that whereas they of the cleargie had two souereigne
lords and gouernours, the one in spirituall matters and the other in
temporall, yet they ought rather to obeie their spirituall gouernour
than their temporall. Neuerthelesse, to satisfie the kings pleasure,
they would of their owne charges send to the pope, that by his licence
and permission, they might grant the king some aid, or else receiue
some answer from him, what to doo therein: "for (saith the archbishop)
we beléeue that the king feareth the sentence of excommunication, and
would be as glad to auoid it as we."

[Sidenote: The declaration of the lord chéefe iustice.]

When the commissioners heard this answer, they required that they would
appoint some of their owne companie to beare this message vnto the
king, for they durst not report it to him: which being doone as the
commissioners had required, the king in his furie procéeded against
them, in such rigorous manner as ye haue heard, in somuch that the lord
chéefe iustice sitting vpon the bench, spake openlie these words; "You
sirs that be attornies of my lords the archbishops, bishops, abbats,
priors, and all other the cleargie, declare vnto your masters, and tell
them, that from hencefoorth there shall no iustice be doone vnto them
in the kings court for any manner of thing, although neuer so heinous
wrong be doone vnto them: but iustice shall be had against them, to
euerie one that will complaine and require to haue it."

[Sidenote: The clearkelie handling of the matter by the archbi. of
Yorke his suffragans.]

[Sidenote: The miserie of churchmen.]

Henrie de Newarke the elect bishop of Yorke, with the bishops of
Durnam, Elie and Salisburie, with certeine other, fearing the kings
indignation thus kindled against them, ordeined to laie downe in the
churches, a fift part as ye haue heard, of all their goods, towards
the defense of the realme, and maintenance of the kings warres in such
time of great necessitie, and so the king receiuing it, they were
restored to the kings protection againe. The fréends of the bishop of
Lincolne found means, that the shiriffe of the shire leuied and tooke
the fift part of all his goods, and restored to him againe his lands
and possessions. Also, all the monasteries within his diocesse, and
within the whole prouince of Canturburie, were seized into the kings
hands, and wardens appointed, which onelie ministred necessarie finding
vnto the moonks and other religious persons, and conuerted the ouerplus
vnto the kings vse. Wherevpon the abbats and priors were glad to follow
the court, and sued to redéeme, not their sins, but their goods, with
giuing a fourth part thereof. The cleargie suffered manie iniuries in
that season, for religious men were spoiled and robbed in the kings
high waie, and could not haue any restitution nor remedie against
them that thus euill intreated them, till they had redéemed the kings
protection. Persons and vicars, and other of the cleargie, when they
rode foorth any whither, were glad to apparell themselues in laie mens
garments, so to passe through the countrie in safetie.

[Sidenote: The archbish. of Canturburie his goods confiscate.]

[Sidenote: The obstinate maner of the archbishop of Canturburie.]

The archbishop of Canturburie lost all the goods that he had, for he
would neither agrée to giue any thing, nor to laie any thing downe in
the church, that the king might receiue it. Wherevpon he was brought
to such extreme miserie, that all his seruants went from him, &
commandement was giuen foorth, that no man should receiue him, neither
within monasterie nor without, and so not hauing any one place of all
his bishoprike where to laie his head, he remained in the house of a
poore person, onelie with one priest and one clearke: yet he stiffelie
stood in the matter, affirming certeinlie, that all those which granted
any thing, either to the king, or to any other temporall person without
the popes leaue, ran without doubt into the danger of the sentence
pronounced in the canon.

[Sidenote: A parlement at Salisburie.]

About the feast of S. Matthew in Februarie, the king called a
parlement of his nobles (not admitting thereto any of the cleargie)
at Salisburie, and there required certeine of his Nobles to passe
ouer into Gascoine, but euerie of them séemed to excuse himselfe,
whereat the king being mooued, threatened that they should either go,
or he would giue their lands to other that would go, with which words
manie of them were gréeuouslie offended, in so much that the earles
of Hereford and Marshall, Humfrie Bohun, and Roger Bigod, declared
that they would be readie to go with the king if he went himselfe, or
else not. And when the earle Marshall was eftsoones required to go, he
answered, "I will willinglie go with the king, and march before him in
the fore ward, as by right of inheritance I am bound." "Yea (saith the
king) and you shall go with other though I go not." "I am not so bound
(saith the earle) neither doo I purpose to take the iournie in hand
with you."

[Sidenote: The disloiall demeanor of the two erles.]

The king then in a great chafe burst out & sware, "By God sir earle,
either thou shall go or hang." "And I sweare (saith the earle) the
same oth, that I will neither go nor hang:" and so he departed from
the king without leaue taking. Immediatlie herevpon those two earles
assembled manie noble men, and other of their fréends togither to the
number of thirtie banerets and aboue, so that in all they were found to
be fiftéene hundred men of armes appointed and readie for battell, and
herewith they withdrew into their countries, and kept such stir there,
that they would not permit the kings officers to take neither wools,
leather, nor any thing against the owners will, but forbad them on
paine of loosing their heads to come within their roomes, and withall
prepared themselues to resist if néed were.

[Sidenote: They had with them 600 men of armes, and 10000 footmen as
_Abington_ saith.]

[Sidenote: Battell betwixt the earle of Lincolne and the earle of
Arthois, who had with him 1500 men of armes, as _Abingt[=o]_ saith.]

In this meane time the warre was prosecuted in Gascoine. ¶ The
thursdaie before the Purification of our ladie, Henrie earle of
Lincolne, and the lord Iohn saint Iohn departing from Baion towards
Bellegard, a place besieged as then by the earle of Arthois, to succour
them within the same with vittels, (whereof they stood in néed) as
they approched to a wood distant from the fortresse thrée miles, they
diuided themselues into two seuerall battels, the lord Iohn saint Iohn
leading the first, and the earle of Lincolne the second. The lord saint
Iohn therefore hauing passed the wood with his battell, and entring
into the plaine fields, was incountred by the earle of Arthois, who
tarried there for him with a great power, where immediatlie at the
first ioining of the battels, the earle of Lincolne retired backe: so
that the lord Iohn saint Iohn and his companie ouerset with preasse of
enimies were vanquished: and the said lord saint Iohn with sir William
de Mortimer, sir William Burmengham and other to the number of eight
knights, and diuerse esquires were taken, the which were sent to Paris
as prisoners.

Other write somewhat otherwise of this battell, as that vpon the first
incounter the Englishmen droue backe one regiment of the earle of
Arthois his men of armes, whom he diuided into foure parts; but when
they once ioined with the second regiment, to the which they were
beaten backe, forward they came againe, and so charging the Englishmen,
with helpe of their third squadron, which was now come to them also,
they easilie put the Englishmen oppressed with multitude vnto flight,
& followed them in chase. After this came the Englishmen which were in
the rereward, and incountring with the fourth squadron or regiment of
the Frenchmen, streightwaies brake the same. Herewith was the night
come vpon them, so that one could not know an other, a fréend from an
enimie, and so both the Englishmen and Frenchmen were dispersed till
the moone rose, and the Frenchmen withdrew to their fortresses, and
amongst them certeine Englishmen were mingled, which being discouered
were taken prisoners, as the lord Iohn saint Iohn, and others.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

The slaughter was not great, for there were no footmen on either
part, to spoile or kill the men of armes that were throwne beside
their horsses: for the English footmen remained in the wood, or were
withdrawne backe, as before ye haue heard, without attempting any
exploit worthie of praise. Indéed some laie the blame in the Gascoine
footmen for the losse of this battell, bicause that they withdrew
backe, and left the English horssemen in danger of the enimies which
had compassed them about on euerie side. Thrée hundred of the men of
armes came through to the towne of Bellegard, but bicause it was night,
so that they could not be discerned whether they were frends or foes,
they within the towne would not suffer them to enter: wherevpon they
departed, and went to S. Seuere foure leagues off. Yet further in the
night, other of the Englishmen were receiued into Bellegard, which came
thither after the other, and so in the morning they of the garison with
their assistance issued foorth, and comming to the place where the
battell had béene, gathered the spoile of the field, and conueied into
their towne such prouision of vittels as they found there.

[Sidenote: The earle of Lincolne escaped.]

[Sidenote: He commeth home.]

[Sidenote: He inuadeth the countrie about Tholouse.]

The earle of Lincolne with a great manie of other wandred a great part
of the night and knew not whither to go. At length about thrée of
the clocke in the morning he came to Perforate, where he had lodged
with his armie the night before, & there found a great number of his
people right glad of his comming and happie escape out of danger. From
thence he returned vnto Baion with the earle of Richmond sir Iohn de
Britaine and all his companie that were left. And such was the hap of
this iournie. In Lent following, those that were dispersed here and
there abroad, resorted to the earle of Lincolne, soiourning at Baion,
and in the summer season made a iournie towards Tholouse, spoiling and
wasting the countries of Tholouse and other there abouts, and remoued
also the siege which those of Tholouse had laid vnto a fortresse
called S. Kiternes, in chasing them from the same siege: and towards
Michaelmasse they returned to Baion, and there laie all the winter till
after Christmasse, and then by reason of the truce concluded, as after
appeareth, betwixt the two kings of England & France, they returned
home into England.

[Sidenote: The custome of wool raised.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: _Euersden._]

[Sidenote: Prouision for the kings iournie into France.]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: The French king inuadeth Flanders.]

In the same yeare the king raised the custome of wooll to an higher
rate than had béene paid at any time before: for he tooke now fortie
shillings of a sacke or sarpler, where before there was paid but half a
marke. Moreouer he commanded, that against his iournie which he meant
to make ouer into France, there should be two thousand quarters of
wheat, and as much of oates taken by the shiriffe in euerie countie
within the realme to be conueied to the sea side, except where they
had no store of corne, and there should béeues and bakons be taken to
a certeine number. In the meane time the earle of Flanders was sore
vexed by war which the French king made against him, being entred into
Flanders with an armie of thrée score thousand men, as some authors
haue recorded.

[Sidenote: Lisle besieged.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Arthois vanquisheth the Flemings in battell.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

About the feast of the natiuitie of S. Iohn Baptist, he laid siege to
Lisle, and shortlie after came the earle of Arthois, being returned
out of Gascoine with his power vnto that siege, and was sent foorth to
kéepe the Flemings and others occupied, which laie at Furneis, and in
other places thereabouts in low Flanders, with whome he fought and got
the victorie. King Edward therefore, to succour his fréends prepared to
go ouer into Flanders, and therevpon summoned all those that owght him
any seruice, & such also as held lands to the value of twentie pounds
and aboue, to be readie with horsse and harnesse at London about Lammas
to passe ouer with him in that iournie.

[Sidenote: A rebellion in Scotland by the means of one William Waleis.]

[Sidenote: Englishmen slaine in Scotland.]

In the meane time about the moneth of Maie, there began a rebellion in
Scotland by the setting on of William Waleis: for the king of Englands
iustice William Ormsbie, accordinglie as he had in commission, confined
and put to outlawrie a great sort of such Scotishmen, as refused to doo
fealtie and homage vnto the king of England, the which Scotishmen being
thus condemned as outlawes, elected the foresaid William Waleis for
their capteine, with whome William Douglas being once associated, the
number of them increased hugelie. The earle of Surrey and the treasurer
being in England, those outlawes purposed to haue taken the iustice at
Scone: but he being warned though almost too late, escaped himselfe
with much adoo, leauing the most part of his people as a spoile to the
enimies. For William Waleis and his companie killed as manie Englishmen
as fell into his hands, and taking certeine religious men, he bound
their hands behind them, and constreined them to leape into the riuer,
taking pleasure to behold how they plunged.

[Sidenote: The vnfaithfull dealing of the Scots.]

The king sent the bishop of Durham into Scotland, to vnderstand the
certeintie of this rebellion, who returning from thence, informed him
of the truth. The king not minding to breake his iournie which he had
purposed to make into Flanders, appointed that the earle of Surrey
should haue the leading of all such men of warre as might be leuied
beyond Trent, to represse the Scotish rebels, and also wrote vnto Iohn
Comin earle of Boughan, that remembring their faith and promise, they
should returne into Scotland, and doo their best to quiet the countrie:
they according to his commandement, went into Scotland, but shewed
themselues slow inough to procure those things that perteined to peace
and quietnesse.

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: Robert Bruce.]

[Sidenote: Thomas Beckets sword.]

In the meane time, whilest these things were a doing, the bishop of
Carleill, and other which laie there vpon the gard of that citie and
castell, hauing some mistrust of the loialtie in Robert Bruce the
yoonger, that was earle of Carrike by his mother, they sent him word to
come vnto them at a certeine daie, bicause they had to talke with him
of matters touching the kings affairs. He durst not disobeie but came
to Carleill togither with the bishop of Gallowaie, & there receiued a
corporall oth vpon the holie and sacred mysteries, and vpon the sword
of Thomas Becket, to be true to the king of England, and to aid him
and his against their enimies in all that he might: and further to
withstand that the said king receiued no hurt nor damage so far as in
him might lie.

[Sidenote: Robert Bruce reuolteth to the rebels.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Thrée hundreth men of armes, and fiftie thousand footmen
saith _Abington._]

[Sidenote: Henrie Percie sent before.]

[Sidenote: Irwin.]

This doone, he returned againe into Scotland, and for a colour entred
into the lands of William Douglas, and burnt part of them, bringing the
wife and children of the same William backe with him into Annandale:
but shortlie after, he conspired with the Scotish rebels, and ioined
himselfe with them, not making his father priuie to the matter, who in
the meane while remaind in the south parts of England. He would haue
persuaded such knights, gentlemen and other as held their lands of his
father in Annandale, to haue gone with him, but they would not breake
their faith giuen to the king of England, and so left him. The earle
of Surrey assembling togither his power in Yorkeshire, sent his nephue
the lord Henrie Percie with the souldiers of the countrie of Carleill
before into Scotland, who passing foorth to the towne of Aire, went
about to induce them of Gallowaie into peace, and hearing that an armie
of Scotishmen was gathered togither at a place about foure miles from
thence called Irwin, he made thitherward, and comming néere to the
Scotish host, might behold where the same was lodged beyond a certeine
lake. In that armie were capteins, the bishop of Glasco, Andrew de
Murreie steward of Scotland, and William Waleis which (as it should
séeme) were not all of one mind.

[Sidenote: Discord in the Scotish armie. Sir Richard Lundie.]

[Sidenote: The Scots sue for peace.]

There was in the same armie a knight named sir Richard Lundie, which
neuer yet had doon homage to the king of England, but now flieng from
his companie, he came to the English armie, and submitted himselfe with
his retinue vnto the king of England, saieng that he ment not to serue
amongst them any longer that could not agrée togither. The residue of
the Scotishmen sued for peace, vpon condition to haue liues, members,
goods, cattels and lands saued, with a pardon of all offenses past. The
lord Percie vpon pledges & writings héerof deliuered, was contented to
grant their requests, so that the king his maister would be therewith
pleased, who being hereof certified, bicause he would not gladlie be
staied of his iournie into Flanders, granted vnto all things that were
thus required.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Glasco and William Douglas.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

Then after that the earle of Surrie was come to the English campe,
bicause William Waleis ceassed not in the meane time to assemble
more people, the Englishmen doubting some treason, resolued to giue
battell, but whilest they were in mind thus to do, the bishop of Glasco
and William Douglas to auoid the note of disloialtie and treason,
came and submitted themselues: and so the bishop was committed to
ward within the castell of Rokesborough, and William Douglas in the
castell of Berwike. It is to be noted, that euen in the verie time
that the treatie was in hand betwixt the lord Percie and the Scotish
capteins, the Scots of Gallowaie and other set vpon that part of the
English campe, where the trusse and baggage laie, which they spoiled
and ransacked, slaieng aboue fiue hundreth persons, what of men, women
and children, but the alarum being raised, the Englishmen came to the
rescue, and chasing the Scots, slue aboue a thousand of them, and
recouered the most part of their owne goods, with more which they tooke
from their enimies.

[Sidenote: The archbish. of Canturburie receiued into fauour.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Gardians appointed to the kings sonne in his fathers

[Sidenote: Earles Marshall and Hereford refuse to go ouer with the king
into Flanders.]

In this meane time king Edward at the feast of Lammas held a councell
at London, where he receiued the archbishop of Canturburie againe into
his fauor, restoring vnto him all his goods and lands. He appointed him
and the lord Reinold Grey to haue his eldest sonne prince Edward in
kéeping, till his returne out of Flanders. But Nicholas Triuet writeth,
that the said prince Edward being appointed to remaine at home, as
lieutenant to his father, there were appointed vnto him as councellors,
Richard bishop of London, William earle of Warwike, and the forenamed
lord Reinold Grey, with the lord Iohn Gifford, and the lord Alane
Plokenet, men of high wisedome, grauitie and discretion, without making
mention of the archbishop of Canturburie in that place. The two earles
Marshall and Hereford being commanded to attend the king into Flanders,
refused, excusing themselues by messenger.

[Sidenote: Sir Rafe Monthermer released.]

[Sidenote: Scotishmen released.]

[Sidenote: The lord Berkley.]

[Sidenote: A libell deliuered to the king from the earles of Hereford
and Marshall.]

After this, the king caused sir Rafe Monthermer (whom his daughter the
countesse of Glocester, in hir widowhood had taken to husband without
knowledge of hir father) to be deliuered out of the castell of Bristow,
wherein he had béene kept prisoner a certeine time vpon displeasure
for the marriage: but now he was not onelie set at libertie, but also
restored to his wife, and to all the lands perteining to the earledome
of Glocester, appointing him to find 50 men at armes to serue in that
iournie into Flanders. He also deliuered the earles of Cassels and
Menteth, Iohn Cumin, and diuers other Scotishmen, appointing them
also to go with him into Flanders. Finallie hauing assembled his
armie, ouer the which he made the lord Thomas Berklie constable, and
Geffrey Ienuille marshall, he went to Whinchelsey, and whilst he laie
there before he tooke the sea, there was presented vnto him from the
earles a writing, which conteined the causes of the gréefe of all the
archbishops, bishops, abbats, earles, lords, barons, and of all the
communaltie, as well for summoning them to serue by an vndue meane, as
also for the vnreasonable taxes, subsidies, impositions & paiements
which they dailie susteined, and namelie the impost augmented vpon the
custome of wooll séemed to them verie gréeuous. For whereas for euerie
sacke of whole wooll there was fortie shillings paid, and for euerie
sacke of broken wooll one marke: it was well knowne, that the wooll of
England was almost in value estéemed to be woorth halfe the riches of
the realme, and so the custome thereof paid, would ascend to a fift
part of all the substance of the land.

[Sidenote: The kings answer.]

[Sidenote: The king passeth ouer into Flanders.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: Debate and fighting betwixt the mariners of the cinque ports
and others.]

The kings answer therevnto was, that he could not alter any thing,
without the aduise of his councell, of the which part were alreadie
passed ouer into Flanders, and part were at London; and therfore he
required the said earles, that if they would not attend him in that
iournie into Flanders, they would yet in his absence doo nothing that
might be preiudiciall to the realme: for he trusted by Gods fauour to
returne againe in safetie, and set all things in good order. At length,
about the 21 daie of August, the king tooke the sea, and landed in
Flanders néere to Sluice, about the 27 day of the same moneth. He was
no sooner on land, but that through old enuie and malice depending
betwéene the mariners of the cinque ports, and them of Yermouth and
other quarters, a quarell was picked, so that they fell togither, and
fought on the water in such earnest sort, notwithstanding the kings
commandement sent to the contrarie, that there were 25 ships burnt and
destroied of theirs of Yermouth, and other their partakers: also thrée
of their greatest ships, part of the kings treasure being in one of
them, were tolled foorth into the high sea, and quite conueied awaie.

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: Lisle yéelded to the French king.]

[Sidenote: Charles de Valois sent to Bruges.]

The king from Sluice first went to Bruges, and after to Gaunt, finding
the countrie in euill state, by reason that the good towns were not all
of one mind: for diuers of them misliked with the dooings of the earle,
in that he had alied himselfe with the French kings aduersaries. About
the beginning of September was Lisle yéelded vnto the French king, and
after that they of Doway, Curtray, and Bruges, did likewise submit
themselues to the same king. Then was Charles earle of Valois sent
to Bruges to fortifie that towne, and to take the English nauie that
laie at anchor in the hauen of Dam: but the Englishmen hauing warning
thereof, got foorth with their vessels into the sea, and so the earle
of Valois being disappointed of that preie, set in hand to fortifie
Bruges and Dam. But the earle of Austrich, & Robert de Neuers son to
earle Guy, being sent with a power of Englishmen, Flemings, and other
souldiors vnto Dam, fought with the Frenchmen, slue foure hundreth of
them, besides diuers that were taken, and recouered the towne. They
might also haue recouered Bruges, as was thought, if the Englishmen and
Flemings had not fallen at strife, & fought togither about diuiding of
the preie.

[Sidenote: The emperor Adulfe breaketh promise.]

Finallie, after this, the French king came to Bruges, and when the king
of England and the earle of Flanders had long looked and all in vaine
for the emperor Adulfe, who had promised to come to their aid with a
great armie; for the charges and wages wherof he had receiued great
summes of monie both of the king of England, and also of the earle of
Flanders: they concluded in the end (when they perceiued he would not
come) to make some agréement with the French king: and so first was a
truce taken, from the middest of October, vnto the calends of December,
and after by mediation of Charles (surnamed Claudius) king of Sicill,
the same truce was prolonged as hereafter ye shall heare.

In this meane while, to wit, about the end of August, the earle of
Surrey, when he saw that the Scotishmen would not performe promise
touching the deliuerie of the pledges, and that William Waleis still
mooued the people to rebellion, he assembled his armie, & with the
same entring Scotland, came vnto Striueling. Then the lord steward of
Scotland, and also the earle of Lenox came vnto him, requiring him
to staie till they might haue leasure to sée if they could bring the
people of Scotland vnto the kings peace. But when they could not doo
it, they returned on the tenth day of September, promising to bring to
the aid of the earle of Surrey on the morrow after fortie horssemen,
vpon the which day two friers of the order of preachers were sent vnto
William Waleis, and to the other Scotishmen lieng beyond the hill aboue
the monasterie of Scambeskin, to mooue them to the kings peace. But
their answer was, that they were not come to haue peace, but to trie
the matter by battell.

[Sidenote: The pride of Hugh Cressingham.]

[Sidenote: The Scots assaile the Englishmen.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The valiancie of sir Marmaduke Thweng.]

The English armie without good aduise, thorough the presumptuous pride
of the lord Hugh Cressingham, preased to the bridge, and hasting
to passe the same, the Scotishmen came vpon them yer the one halfe
could get ouer, and so fiercelie assailed them, that the Englishmen
were beaten backe and slaine downe. For the Scots, after they saw so
manie of the Englishmen to haue passed the bridge, as they thought
themselues able to distresse, they made downe to the bridge foot, and
with a number of their spearemen on foot, closed it vp, that no more
should come ouer to the aid of their fellowes, nor those that were
alreadie passed, should returne againe: yet one sir Marmaduke Thweng
a right valiant knight, which was one of the first among the men of
armes that came ouer, after that he and his companie had driuen downe
one wing of their aduersaries, & had followed them in a chase a good
waie, as purposing to haue gotten the conquest against them, at length
perceiuing the companie behind distressed by the Scots, he returned
with those few that were about him, and purposing to repasse the
bridge, rushed in among the Scots that stood before him with such
violence, that he passed thorough them, making waie for himselfe and
his folks by great manhood, sauing one of his nephues also which was
set on foot & wounded, after his horsse had béene killed vnder him.

[Sidenote: The Englishmen discomfited.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Surrey returneth in hast to Berwike.]

[Sidenote: The Scots enter Berwike.]

[Sidenote: The castell holdeth tacke against them.]

At length the discomfiture was such, that the Scots preassed so
earnestlie to win the bridge also of these Englishmen, which were not
yet passed, that at length the earle of Surrey commanded to breake
that end of the bridge, where they stood at defense to kéepe backe the
Scots, for else had there few of the Englishmen escaped. There were
slaine (as some haue written) to the number of six thousand men, and
amongst other was slaine sir Hugh Cressingham, whose skin (as hath
béene reported) the Scots stripped off his dead carcasse, for the
malice which they bare toward him. This discomfiture chanced on the
11 day of September. The earle of Surrey, leauing in the castell of
Striueling the said sir Marmaduke Thweng, promised him to come to his
aid at all times when néed should be, within ten wéekes space, and
herewith taking his horsse, rode in such hast to Berwike, that after
his comming thither, his stéed being set vp in the stable of the friers
minors, neuer after tasted meat, but died: after this, the said earle
making no long aboad in Berwike, rode vp to London vnto prince Edward,
and left the towne of Berwike as a preie to the Scotishmen: but those
yet that had the castell in kéeping, defended it manfullie against
the Scots, the which assembled togither in campe vnder the leading of
Alexander earle of Murrey: and their capteine William Waleis came to
Berwike, and finding the towne void of all defense, entred it, but they
could not win the castell by any meanes.

[Sidenote: The Scots inuade Northumberland, and spoile the countrie.]

The Northumberland men conueied their wiues, their children, their
cattell, & other goods, which might be remooued, out of the countrie
for feare of the enimies inuasion: but when the Scots lingered time,
and entred not within the English borders for a season, they brought
their goods againe, in hope that the Scots would not come foorth of
their owne marches at that time. But the Scots hauing aduertisement
thereof, about the feast of S. Luke entred the English borders, and
did much hurt within the countrie of Northumberland, so that to
auoid the danger, all the religious men fled out of the monasteries
situat betwixt Newcastell vpon Tine, and Carleill. The Scots spoiled,
harried, and burnt vp the countrie, till the feast of S. Martine, and
in the octaues of the same feast they drew togither, and went towards
Carleill, which towne they summoned, as you shall heare.

[Sidenote: The forest of Inglewood.]

[Sidenote: The towne of Riton burnt.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 26.]

[Sidenote: The Scots returne home.]

They sent a préest to them that kept it, commanding them to yéeld: but
receiuing a froward answer, they fell to and wasted all that countrie,
passing thorough the forrest of Inglewood, Cumberland, and Allerdale,
till they came vnto Derwent and Cokermouth, not sparing either church
nor chappell. Their meaning was to haue gone into the bishoprike of
Durham, but what through sore weather of haile, snow and frost, & what
through vain feare of wrong information giuen by their spials, that
the countrie was well prouided of men of warre for defense, they brake
off that iournie, and yet there were not past a hundred men of armes,
and thrée thousand footmen in that countrie, which were then also
dispersed thorough irksomenesse of long staieng for the enimies. The
Scots therefore drew vnto Hexham, and there lodged, not without vexing
the canons, although they had granted letters of protection vnto the
prior and couent of the same house, to indure for one whole yeare: and
likewise letters of safe conduct to passe and repasse for one canon,
one squire, and two seruants, when soeuer they should send to them
during that terme: which letters were giuen foorth vnder the name of
the said earle of Murrey, and William Waleis. From thence they went
towards Newcastell, and burnt the towne of Riton. Finallie, perceiuing
they could not preuaile in attempting to win the towne of Newcastell,
they diuided their spoiles and returned home.

[Sidenote: The lord Clifford inuadeth Annandale.]

[Sidenote: Annankirke. Scots slaine.]

[Sidenote: 1298.]

[Sidenote: Annankirke burnt.]

About the same time, to wit, a little before Christmasse, the lord
Robert Clifford, with the power of the citie of Carleill, entred
Annandale, committing all to the spoile of the footmen, of whome there
was a great number. The men of armes on horssebacke, being not past
an hundred in all, kept togither, and finding their enimies assembled
néere to Annankirke, gaue a charge vpon them, and chased them into a
marish, within the which they kept them, till the footmen came in, and
assailing them, slue 308 persons, and tooke diuerse of them prisoners,
and returning againe to their market, burnt ten villages, and on
Christmasse euen returned with their preie and booties vnto Carleill.
In the beginning of Lent they made an other rode, in the which they
burnt the church of Annan.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The froward dealing of the erles of Hereford & Marshall.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: A subsidie granted.]

Whilest these things were in hand, prince Edward the kings eldest son,
and other, which had the rule of the realme in the kings absence,
sought meanes to pacifie the earles Marshall and Hereford: but they
would not agrée, but vpon such conditions as pleased themselues to
prescribe, which were, that the king should confirme the great charter,
and the charter of forrests, with certeine new articles to be included
in the same great charter, and that from thenceforth the king should
not charge his subiects so fréelie at his pleasure as before time he
had doone, without consent of the states of parlement, and that he
should pardon his displeasure and malice conceiued against them for
denieng to go with him into Flanders. Manie other articles they would
that the king should grant, confirme, pardon and establish. The which
were all sent ouer into Flanders to the king, that he might peruse
them, and declare whether he would agrée or disagrée to the same.
He as one being driuen to the wall, thought good to yéeld vnto the
malice and iniquitie of the time, to reconcile the offended minds of
the péeres and barons of his realme, and granted vnto all the said
articles, confirming the same with his charter vnder his great seale.
In consideration wherof, the nobles of the realme and commons granted
to the king the ninth penie of all their goods: the archbishop of
Canturburie, with the cleargie of his prouince, the tenth penie; and
the elect of Yorke and those of his prouince, granted the fift penie;
towards the maintenance of the war against the Scots, bicause they were
next vnto the danger.

[Sidenote: A parlement at Yorke.]

[Sidenote: Magna charta.]

The king also by his speciall letters required the nobles of the
realme, that if they continued in their due obedience to him, as they
promised at his departure out of the realme to doo, that then they
should resort and appeare at his parlement, to begin at Yorke the
morrow after the feast of saint Hilarie, without all excuse or delaie:
for otherwise he would accompt them as enimies to the commonwelth of
the realme. At which day appeared the earles of Warren and Glocester,
with the countesse of Glocester his wife daughter to the king, the
earles Marshall, Hereford, and Arundell, Guie sonne to the earle of
Warwike in his fathers roome: and of barons, the lord Henrie Percie,
the lord Iohn Wake, and the lord Iohn Segraue, with manie of the
nobilitie, the which being assembled togither, would that it should to
all men be notified, in what manner the king had confirmed the great
charter, and the charter of forrests; wherevpon the same being read
with the articles therevnto added, and put in, the bishop of Carleill,
adorned in pontificalibus, did pronounce all them accurssed, that went
about to violate and breake the same. And bicause the Scotish lords
appeared not, being summoned to be there, it was decréed that the armie
should come togither at Newcastell vpon Tine, in the octaues of the
feast of saint Hilarie next insuing, so that the generall musters might
then and there be taken.

[Sidenote: Debate betwixt ye kings men and the Gantners.]

The king laie the most part of this winter at Gant, in the which meane
time there chanced sedition betwéene th' Englishmen & the Gantners,
insomuch that the Welshmen had set fire on the towne, if the king had
not staied the matter. But the Flemish writers saie, the Englishmen
set fire in foure parts of the towne indéed, that they might the more
fréelie haue robbed in other parts thereof, whilest the townesmen had
gone about to quench the fire. But the townesmen bent on reuenge,
assembled togither in great numbers, and falling on the Englishmen slue
thirtie of their horssemen and of their footmen to the number of seuen
hundred, or thereabouts. They had also slaine the king, if a knight of
Flanders had not made shift to saue him. ¶ In déed (as should appeare
by the same writers) the English footmen had doone much hurt in the
countrie, and namelie one day they spoiled the towne of Dam, and slue
two hundred worthie personages, who had yéelded themselues to the king
at his first comming into the countrie.

And although the king caused certeine of those that had doone this
outrage to be hanged: yet the Flemings bare this & other iniuries in
their minds, & meant to be reuenged thereof, before the Englishmen
departed out of their countrie, and therefore there drew out of sundrie
parts into the citie of Gant by small companies, to the number of foure
thousand men of armes, besides a great multitude of footmen, and when
they perceiued themselues strong inough (as they tooke the matter) at
the day amongst them appointed, and considered in their minds, that

    ---- vnita potentior est vis
    Quælibet, at partes in plures secta peribit,

[Sidenote: The Flemings set vpon the Englishmen in their lodgings.]

they clustered togither, and vnder the leading of the earles sonnes,
William and Robert, they did first set vpon the Englishmen that were
in their lodgings, of whom they slue diuerse, and after comming foorth
into the stréets, they ment to haue made slaughter of all the residue:
but by the noise that was raised, the king had warning in what state
the matter stood, and therewith getting him to armour, came foorth
of his lodging, and streightwaies his people flocked about him. And
furthermore, the footmen which were lodged in the suburbes, hearing of
this tumult, got them to armour, & approching the gates, found them
shut: but with fire which they kindled with straw, wood, butter and
tallow, and other such things, they burnt vp the same gates and so got
in, losing not past six persons that were slaine at the first entring.

[Sidenote: The earle of Flanders pacifieth his people.]

Herewith the earle of Flanders came to the king, and besought him to
staie his people from committing further outrage: but the king as he
had reason so to doo, blamed him for the outragious attempt of his
people, and bad him go to appease them, or he would take paine with
them himself to his owne suertie, though not greatlie to their ease.
The earle went, and preuailed so much, that at length he quieted them,
and then was order giuen for restitution of such things as had béen
taken from any man wrongfullie, according to the order and direction
prescribed by certeine discréet persons appointed as commissioners
in that behalfe. The king perceiuing himselfe in some danger, and
that without the fauour of the Flemings he might hardlie escape out
of their countrie, bare manie things, and spake courteouslie, making
partlie amends for the harms doone by his people, as well abroad in the
countries as in the towns. And finallie about Midlent he returned into
England, as after ye shall heare.

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: An armie assembled at Yorke.]

[Sidenote: The Scots besiege Rockesborough.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Surrey entreth Scotland.]

In this meane time, by the kings appointment, the earle of Surrey lord
warden of Scotland, with other earles and noble men to him associat,
about the feast of saint Hilarie, had assembled an armie at Yorke,
hauing first summoned the lords of Scotland to appeare there at the
same day, who yet came not, but contrarilie had besieged the castell
of Rockesborough. Wherevpon the earle of Surrey hasted thitherwards,
so that William Waleis and other of the Scotishmen which laie there at
siege, raised the same, and departed from thence. The earle of Surrey
comming to Rockesborough, and relieuing them that kept it with such
things as they wanted, passed foorth to Kelsow, and came afterwards
to the towne of Berwike, which the Scotishmen had left void. Here
came letters vnto them from king Edward, signifieng that he had taken
truce with the French king, and that he meant shortlie to returne
into England, and therefore commanded them not to make any further
enterprise than the defending of the frontiers, and the recouerie of
Berwike till his comming ouer. Herevpon was a great part of the armie
discharged, and such onelie remained in Berwike as might suffice for
defense thereof.

[Sidenote: K. Edward returneth homewards.]

[Sidenote: The Scots summoned to the parlement at Yorke, refused to

King Edward hauing made an end of his businesse in Flanders, as before
ye haue heard, returned now towards England, and came to a towne called
Ardenburge, where the most part of such Scotishmen as he had brought
with him into Flanders slipped from him, and went vnto Paris. The king
being returned into England, remooued the barons of the excheker, and
the iustices of the bench vnto Yorke, calling a parlement thither,
and gaue summons vnto the lords of Scotland to come to the same: but
making default in their appearance, he sent foorth his commission and
letters to warne his subiects to be readie with horsse and harnesse at
Rockesborough in the feast of the Natiuitie of S. Iohn Baptist next
insuing. They obeieng his commandement, assembled there at the day

[Sidenote: An armie raised.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The number of men armed in this armie.]

[Sidenote: Welshmen and Irishmen. Gascoins.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The earles of Hereford and Marshall mistrust the king.]

There were in this armie now assembled at Rockesborough togither with
those of the bishoprike, about thrée thousand men of armes mounted on
barded horsses, besides foure thousand other armed men on horssebacke
without bards. There were also a great number of footmen, and yet none
but such as came vpon their owne good willes, the which were almost all
Welshmen or Irishmen. There came also afterwards fiue hundred men of
armes well apparelled, furnished and mounted out of Gascoine, of the
which a certeine number were sent to Berwike by the king: where after
the battell fought with the Scots, they remained in garison. The earle
of Hereford, and the earle Marshall were present with their retinues
amongst other in this armie here assembled at Rockesborough, the
which vpon suspicion conceiued of that they had heard, thought it not
sufficient to haue the kings letters patents touching the confirmation
of the two charters, and other the articles aboue mentioned, signed
by him, whilest he was out of the realme, and therefore required that
he would now within his owne land confirme the same againe. Here the
bishop of Durham, Iohn earle of Surrie, William earle of Warwike, and
Rafe erle of Glocester, vndertooke for the king, that after he had
subdued his enimies; and should be againe returned into the realme, he
should satisfie them in that behalfe, and confirme the same articles.

[Sidenote: Castels woon by the bishop of Durham.]

This doone, the king marching foorth with his armie, came to Temple
Histon, and sent foorth the bishop of Durham to take certeine castels
therabouts, as Orinton or (as some copies haue) Drilton, and other two,
which enterprise the bishop spéedilie accomplished. The English fléet
that should haue come from Berwike, and kept alongst the coast to haue
furnished the armie with victuals, was staied and holden backe with
contrarie winds, so that the armie began to be in great necessitie of
victuals. The Scotishmen were aduertised hereof, and supposing that
the Englishmen by reason of such want of victuals, had not béene able
through féeblenesse to make anie great resistance, assembled their
powers togither, and came towards the place where the king with his
armie was lodged.

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: A fraie betwixt the Welsh and Englishmen.]

[Sidenote: The Englishmen stand in doubt of the Welshmen.]

At the same time two of the English ships arriued there with victuals,
the which being bestowed amongst the souldiors, reléeued them greatlie
of their hunger. Amongest other the Welshmen had two tunnes of wine
deliuered to them for their share, the which they tasted so gréedilie,
that ouercome therewith they fell to quarrelling with the Englishmen,
and begun a fraie, in the which they slue eightéene, and hurt diuerse.
The English horssemen herewith being kindled with displeasure, got them
to armor, and setting vpon the Welshmen, slue of them to the number of
fourescore, and put the other to flight: wherevpon the next morning
it was said that the Welshmen vpon wrath conceiued hereof meant to
depart to the Scots: but yet when the campe remooued, they followed the
armie though a farre off, and apart by themselues, insomuch that manie
doubted least if the Englishmen had chanced to haue had the worsse at
the Scotishmens hands, they would haue ioined with them against the
Englishmen. This bloodie broile sprang of intemperancie, and surfeiting
drunkennesse, which is worthie to be thus disclaimed,

    ---- ---- imæ lethum, & vitiorum
    Nutrix ac scelerum, quid non mortalia cogis
    Pectora? Quid per te non audent? Iurgia, litès,
    Prælia dira moues, & gaudes sanguine fuso,
    Sordidior quæ res, quæ bellua vilior? &c.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The battell of Foukirke.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The order of the Scotish battels.]

The king now hearing that the Scots were comming towards him, raised
his field, and went foorth to méet them, lodging the next night in a
faire plaine. In the morning verie earlie, a great alarme was raised,
so that euerie man got him to armour, supposing the Scots to be at
hand. The horsse appointed for the kings saddle that day, as the king
should haue got vpon him, frighted with some noise, started aside,
and threw the king downe with such violence, that he brake two of his
ribbes, as the report went. Other write, that his horsse trod on him
in the night, as he and his people rested them, kéeping their horsses
still bridled, to be readie the sooner vpon occasion of any necessitie:
but howsoeuer he came by his hurt, he staied not to passe forward in
his purposed iournie, but mounting vpon an other horsse, went foorth
with his armie till he came to a place called Foukirke, where both the
armies of England and Scotland met and fought.

[Sidenote: The earles Marshall, Hereford, and Lincolne led the fore

[Sidenote: The bishop of Durham led the second ward.]

[Sidenote: The lord Basset of Draitons words to the bishop of Durham.]

The Scots were diuided in foure schiltrons, as they termed them, or as
we may saie, round battels, in forme of a circle, in the which stood
their people that carried long staues or speares, which they crossed
iointlie togither one within another, betwixt which schiltrons or
round battels were certeine spaces left, the which were filled with
their archers and bowmen, and behind all these were their horssemen
placed. They had chosen a strong ground, somewhat sideling on the
side of a hill. The earles Marshall, Hereford, & Lincolne, which led
the fore ward of the Englishmen, at the first made directlie towards
the Scots, but they were staied, by reason they found a marish, or an
euill fauoured mosse betwixt their enimies and them, so that they were
constreined to fetch a compasse towards the west side of the field.
The bishop of Durham ruling in the second battell of the Englishmen,
consisting of six and thirtie standards or banners, knowing the let
of that mosse or marish toward the east side, hasted foorth to be the
first that should giue the onset: but yet when they approched néere to
the enimies, the bishop commanded his people to staie till the third
battell, which the king led, might approach. But that valiant knight
the lord Rafe Basset of Draiton said to him: "My lord bishop, you may
go and say masse, which better becommeth you, than to teach vs what
we haue to doo, for we will doo that which belongeth to the order and
custome of warre."

[Sidenote: The Scotish horssemen flée.]

[Sidenote: Their archers slaine.]

[Sidenote: These Scotish spearemen were of Gallowaie as _Euersden_

Herewith they hasted foorth on that side to charge the first schiltron
of the Scots, and the earles with their battell on the otherside, and
euen vpon the first brunt the Scotish horssemen fled, a few onelie
excepted, which staied to kéepe the footmen in order. And amongst other
was the brother of the lord steward of Scotland, who as he was about
to set in order the bowmen of Selkirke, by chance was vnhorssed, and
slaine there amongst the same bowmen, and manie a tall mans bodie with
him. The Scotish archers thus being slaine, the Englishmen assailed
the spearemen; but kéeping themselues close togither, and standing
at defense with their speares like a thicke wood, they kept out the
English horssemen for a while, & fought manfullie, though they were
sore beaten with shot of arrowes by the English archers on foot: &
so at length galled with shot; and assailed by the horssemen on ech
side, they begun to disorder and shrinke from one side to another, and
herewith the horssemen brake in amongst them, and so they were slaine
and beaten downe in maner all the whole number of them.

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._ saith fourtie thousand.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The towne of S. Andrews.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Aire.]

Some saie there died of the Scots that daie (being the two & twentith
of Iulie, and the feast of Marie Magdalene) aboue twentie thousand.
Other write that there were slaine at the least to the number of 15
thousand. The Scotish writers alledge that this battell was lost by
treason of the Comins and other, as in the Scotish historie ye may more
plainlie perceiue, with more matter touching the same battell: after
this was the towne of saint Andrews destroied, no man being within
to make resistance. And from thence the English armie came through
Selkirke forrest vnto the castell of Aire, which they found void:
and after they came by the towne of Annan, and tooke the castell of
Lochmaben, and so returned into England by the west marches, and came
to Carleill.

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: Irish lords. The Ile of Araine.]

[Sidenote: Tomas Biset requireth the Ile of Araine.]

[Sidenote: The euill opinion of the earles Marshall & Hereford towards
the king.]

About the same time certeine Irish lords, and amongst other as chéefe,
one Thomas Biset landed in the Ile of Araine, the inhabitants whereof
yéelded themselues vnto the same Thomas, who (as was iudged) meant to
haue aided the Scots: but now hearing of the victorie which king Edward
had gotten in a pight field, he sent vnto him to giue him to vnderstand
that he was come in his aid, & had woon the said Ile of Araine, and
therfore besought him that it might please him to grant it vnto him and
his heires for euer. Which request the king granted: whereof when the
earles Marshall and Hereford were aduertised, they thought this a rash
part of the king, considering that he had promised to doo nothing anew
without their consents and counsell.

[Sidenote: The kings liberalitie towards his nobles.]

Therefore the king being (as ye haue heard) returned to Carleill, they
got licence to depart home with their people, leauing the king still
at Carleill, where he remained a time, and held a parlement there, in
the which he granted vnto manie of his nobles, the lands and liuings
of diuers noble men of the Scots, as to the earles earledomes, to the
barons baronies; but Gallowaie and Annandale, with certeine other
counties, he assigned to none, reseruing the same (as was thought) vnto
the foresaid two earles, least they should thinke themselues euill
dealt with, if they had no part bestowed on them amongst the residue.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 27.]

[Sidenote: Cotingham.]

[Sidenote: 1299.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The lords call vpon the king to performe promise.]

[Sidenote: His answer.]

[Sidenote: The addition put in the c[=o]clusion of the articles.]

The king after this went to Durham, and from thence thought to haue
returned streight towards London, but hearing that the Scots meant
to make some inuasion, he went to Tinmouth, and remained there till
towards Christmasse. Now when the king had laine a certeine time at
Tinmouth, he departed from thence, and drew southward, and comming to
Cotingham, a little from Beuerlie, held his Christmasse there, and
after drew towards London, where in the beginning of Lent, he held
a parlement, at the which he was required to kéepe promise for the
confirmation of the two charters and articles concluded with the earles
of Hereford and Marshall. The king was nothing contented that this
matter should be so earnestlie called vpon, for loth he was to grant
their full requests; and againe to denie them, he stood in doubt how
it might be taken: he therefore prolonged time, & would make no answer
either to or fro. But when the lords vrged him so sore to giue them
answer, he got him out of the citie, not making them priuie of his
departure, and when they followed him, and séemed not well contented
that he should so dissemble with them, he excused himselfe by blaming
the aire of the citie to be against his health, and therefore bare
them in hand, that he onelie sought to refresh himselfe in some better
aire in the countrie more agréeable to his nature: and as for answer
to their requests, he willed them to repaire againe to the citie, and
they should haue answer by his councell, so farre as should stand
with reason to content them. They returned as he willed them, and had
the charters confirmed according to their requests, sauing that this
addition was put in the latter end of the same, Saluo iure coronæ
nostræ. With which addition the lords were offended, and turned home to
their houses in as great displéeasure towards the king as before.

[Sidenote: The articles red in Paules churchyard.]

The councell doubting some seditious stir to arise hereof amongst the
people, deliuered the charters (so sealed and signed as they were) vnto
the shiriffes of London, that the same might be read openlie before the
people, which was doone in Paules churchyard in presence of a great
assemblie there, come togither and gathered for that purpose. The
people (than whom the sea in ebbing and flowing is not more inconstant,
nor in iudgment more rash, heddie, sudden, and vnaduised, as one saith
verie well, and to purpose,

    Iudicium vulgi insulsum, imbecilláque mens est,
    Quandoquidem inuisa est vulgo sapientia, &c.)

[Sidenote: The perambulations of forrests.]

at the first before they heard the addition, gaue manie blessings to
the king for those grants: but when they heard with what words he
concluded, they cursed as fast as before they had blessed. Before
this parlement was dissolued, the lords had warning to returne againe
shortlie after Easter, and then they had all things granted and
performed as they could wish or desire. The perambulations of forrestes
were appointed vnto thrée bishops, thrée earles, and thrée barons.

[Sidenote: A bishop sent from the pope.]

About the latter end of Iune there came ouer a bishop sent from pope
Boniface as his Nuncio, and diuerse other with him, to declare the
order which the pope as arbitrator indifferentlie chosen betwixt the
kings of England and France, for the deciding of all controuersies
depending betwixt them, had giuen foorth & decréed, which was in effect
as followeth.

[Sidenote: The popes decrée of peace betwixt the kings of England &

1 First that king Edward being then a widdower should marrie the
French kings sister named Margaret, notwithstanding the degrées of
consanguinitie, for the which the pope would dispense.

2 That the lord Edward the kings eldest sonne should at conuenient time
take to wife the ladie Isabell the French kings daughter.

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The popes request for the releasing to libertie of Iohn

3 That the king of England should make satisfaction for the French
ships which his men had taken at the beginning of the war, and that
sundrie townes in Gascoine should be put into the popes hands, till it
might be vnderstood vnto whome the right apperteined. But those two
last articles tooke small effect, the French king refusing to deliuer
any of those townes which he had gotten in possession. Moreouer, these
messengers in the popes behalfe required the king that he would set
Iohn Balioll, sometime king of Scotland at libertie, and restore those
lands vnto his sonne Edward Balioll, which he ought to hold within the
realme of England, promising and vndertaking in the popes behalfe to
preserue and saue the realme harmelesse from all hurt and damage that
might insue by the deliuerie of the said Iohn Balioll.

[Sidenote: Iohn Balioll deliuered out of prison at the popes suit.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: He departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The king marieth the Fr[=e]ch kings sister.]

[Sidenote: A parlement at Yorke.]

[Sidenote: The deceasse of the archbishop of Yorke.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 28.]

[Sidenote: 1300.]

King Edward vnderstanding that there was great danger in setting him at
libertie, was contented to deliuer him vnto the pope, but he refused to
make restitution vnto Balioll of the lands which he demanded. The popes
ambassadours receiuing Iohn Balioll at king Edwards hands, tooke him
ouer with him into France, and there left him in the custodie of the
bishop of Cambrie, the popes deputie in that behalfe, where shortlie
after he died. After this, according to the couenants of agréement
made betwixt the two kings of England and France, the captiues vpon
either part were deliuered. In the feast of the natiuitie of our
Ladie, the king married the ladie Margaret sister to the French king
at Canturburie with great solemnitie. About the feast of S. Martine in
winter the king held a parlement at Yorke, meaning to haue gone from
thence into Scotland, to haue rescued the castell of Striueling, which
the Scotishmen had besieged, and had it surrendred vnto them, yer the
king could set forward to come to raise the siege. The same yeare died
Henrie Newarke archbishop of Yorke, and Thomas Corbridge a doctour in
diuinitie succéeded him.

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: A proclamation for monie.]

In the eight and twentith yeare of his reigne, in the Christmasse
season king Edward set foorth a proclamation, forbidding and
prohibiting all forren coins to be receiued and paid as sterling monie
within his dominion, commanding by the same proclamation, that two
péeces of them should go for one sterling, vntill the feast of Easter.
There were diuerse monies in those daies currant within this realme,
as pollards, crocards, staldings, eagles, leonines, sléepings, and all
these were white monies, artificiallie made of siluer, copper, and
sulphur, so that it was an ill time for base monies, & much chopping
and changing was vsed in buieng and selling of things.

[Sidenote: Forren monies forbidden to go as currant.]

At Easter following the king vtterlie forbad that any of those monies
should be currant at all, and held his exchange in sundrie places, and
to be rid of them, men gaue fiue or six of them for one sterling, not
caring for them, bicause of their basenesse, and yet within a yeare
after that men had learned the skill by proofe how to trie mettall
with melted lead in the fire, they found that two péeces of those
base monies were in value worth one sterling, and many became rich by
the exchange, which had bought good store of them, when they were so
smallie estéemed: but the king caused inquirie to be made of them that
vsed such exchange without his licence, and put them to their fines.

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The king goeth with an armie into Scotland.]

[Sidenote: Thomas of Brotherton borne the first of Iune.]

At a parlement holden at London in Lent this yeare, the king renewed
the confirmation of the charters, and made certeine new statutes
concerning fines and goale deliueries, verie profitable to the
commonwealth. About the feast of saint Iohn Baptist, king Edward went
with an armie into Scotland, and there granted a truce to the Scots
that inhabited the mounteine countries to indure for eleuen moneths,
that is to saie, till Whitsuntide next insuing. As the king was vpon
his iournie forewards in the north parts, his late married wife quéene
Margaret was deliuered of hir first sonne at Brotherton, a place in
Yorkeshire not farre from Pontfret; he was named Thomas, and tooke the
surname of Brotherton, of the place where he was borne.

Moreouer pope Boniface at the sute of the Scots wrote his letters
vnto king Edward, commanding him by the same and by the archbishop of
Canturburie, whome he appointed to deliuer the same letters by other
letters to him directed, that he should not onelie release and set at
libertie all such Scots as he had in prison, but also giue ouer his
warres which he made against the realme of Scotland: and if he meant
to make anie claime to the same, then to send his procurators vnto the
court of Rome, and there to shew what euidence he could for his right
thereto, where the mater (as he mainteined) was to be heard, decided,
and iudged; and not elsewhere. The archbishop, according to the popes
commandement, did the message, and presented the popes letters vnto
the king, who deferred the answer vnto the assemblie of the estates in
parlement, and hereof the archbishop aduertised the pope accordinglie,
as in the letters to him directed he was commanded; which he durst
not but satisfie, bicause he was persuaded the popes authoritie to
haue béene so ample and peremptorie, that there was no resisting or
gainesaieng of him, sith,

[Sidenote: _Antith. Christ. & Antichrist. pag. 24._]

    Vt medijs ludunt in aquis immania coete,
      Et patulo pisces quoslibet ore vorant:
    Sic tenet imperium mortales inter, & omnes
      Diripit, illicita subdit & arte duces,
    Omnibus insultans, sic subijcit impius orbem,
      Implicat atque suo regia colla iugo.

[Sidenote: _Euersden._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 29.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: _Croxden._]

[Sidenote: 1301.]

This yeare also on saint Remigius daie, which is the first of October,
died Edmund earle of Cornewall, the sonne of earle Richard, that was
also king of Almaine; and bicause he left no issue behind him to
inherit that earledome, the same returned to the crowne. In the 29
yeare of king Edwards reigne, on saint Oswalds day, or (as some haue
written) the friday after the feast of Peter Ad Vincula, his wife
quéene Margaret was deliuered of hir second sonne that had to name
Edmund of Woodstoke, surnamed so of the place where he was borne. ¶ The
king also this yeare after Christmasse held a parlement at Lincolne, to
the which the earls and barons of the realme came in armour, to the end
(as it is said) that they might procure of the king the more spéedie
execution of the charter of forrests, which by him had hitherto béene
delaied, but now that he perceiued their earnestnesse and importunate
suit, he condescended to their willes in all things.

[Sidenote: Pope Boniface prohibiteth the king of England further to vex
the Scots.]

Pope Boniface being sollicited by the instant suit of the Scotishmen,
and offended also that the lands in England, which belonged vnto Edward
Balioll sonne of Iohn Balioll, were not to the same Edward restored, he
eftsoones wrote to king Edward; forbidding him from thence foorth any
further to vex the Scots by wars, bicause that the kingdome of Scotland
was surrendred alreadie into his hands by the generall consent of the
Scotishmen themselues, and therefore was it in his power to bestow and
take away the same to whom or from whom soeuer it should please him.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

¶ There were reasons alledged why the king of England séemed to do
wrong in challenging as then the kingdome of Scotland: and amongst
other, one was, that such homage as had béene done of ancient time
to the kings of England, by the kings of the Scots, was onelie meant
for Tindale, Penreth, and such other lands as the Scotish kings held
within England, and not for the realme of Scotland. And whereas the
kings of Scotland had aided the kings of England in their warres
against the rebels of the realme of England, and béene present at
their coronation, the same was doone of speciall fauour, and not
of dutie. K. Edward hauing receiued the popes prescript, and well
considered the whole contents therof, sent in writing his answer at
large, proouing by euident reasons that the right of proprietie in the
kingdome of Scotland, did most iustlie apperteine vnto him, and that
the allegations were not true, but forged, which had béene by surmised
information presented against him.

Beside the kings letters, which he wrote in his owne behalfe, there was
an other letter deuised and written by all the lords temporall of the
land, assembled in parlement at Lincolne, in which letter they answered
in name of all the estates there gathered, vnto that point wherein
the pope pretended a right to be iudge for the title of the realme of
Scotland, protesting flatlie, that they would not consent that their
king should doo any thing that might tend to the disheriting of the
right of the crowne of England, and plaine ouerthrow of the state of
the same realme, and also hurt of the liberties, customs, and lawes of
their fathers, sith it was neuer knowne, that the kings of this land
had answered or ought to answer for their rights in the same realme,
afore any iudge ecclesiasticall or secular.

The tenour of the foresaid letter indited and directed to pope Boniface.

[Sidenote: Hastings I take it.]

[Sidenote: Whiteminster I thinke.]

[Sidenote: Thus far out of M. Parkins of the inner temple.]

To our most holie father in Christ, Boniface by Gods prouidence high
bishop of the Holie Romane and vniuersall church, his deuout sonnes
Iohn earle Warren, Thomas erle of Lancaster, Rafe de Monthermer
earle of Glocester and Hereford, Humfrey de Bohun earle of Hertford
and Essex and constable of England, Roger Bigod earle of Norfolke,
and mareschall of England, Guie earle of Warwike, Richard earle of
Arundell, Adomare de Valence lord of Monterney, Henrie de Lancaster
lord of Monmouth, Iohn de Hastings lord of Bergeuennie, Henrie de
Percie lord of Topclife, Edmund de Mortimer lord of Wigmor, Robert
Fitz Walter lord of Wodham, Iohn de S. Iohn lord of Hannake, Hugh de
Véer lord of Swanestampe, William de Breuse lord of Gower, Robert
de Monthault lord of Hawarden, Robert de Tateshall lord of Wokeham,
Reignold de Grey lord of Ruthin, Henrie de Grey lord of Coduore, Hugh
Bardolfe lord of Wormegaie, Robert de Clifford chatellaine of Appelbie,
Peter de Malowe lord of Mulgréene, Philip lord of Kime, Robert Fitz
Roger lord of Clauerings, Iohn de Mohun lord of Dunester, Almerike de
S. Amound lord of Widehaie, William de Ferrers lord of Grobie, Alane
de Zouche lord of Ashbie, Theobald de Verdon lord of Webbeley, Thomas
de Furniuall lord of Schefield, Thomas de Multon lord of Egremont,
William Latimer lord of Torbie, Thomas lord Berkley, Foulke Fitz
Warren lord of Mitingham, Iohn lord Segraue, Edmund de Eincourt lord
of Thurgerton, Peter Corbet lord of Caus, William de Cantelowe lord of
Rauensthorpe, Iohn de Beauchampe lord of Hacche, Roger de Mortimer lord
of Penkethlin, Iohn Fitz Reignold lord of Blenleueny, Rafe de Neuill
lord of Rabie, Brian Fitz Alane lord of Bedale, William Marshall lord
of Hengham, Walter lord Huntercombe, William Martin lord of Cameis,
Henrie de Thies lord of Chilton, Roger le Ware lord of Isefield, Iohn
de Riuers lord of Augre, Iohn de Lancaster lord of Grisedale, Robert
Fitz Paine lord of Lainnier, Henrie Tregoz lord of Garinges, Robert
Hipard lord of Lomford, Walter lord Fancomberge, Roger le Strange lord
of Ellesmer, Iohn le Strange lord of Cnokin, Thomas de Chances lord of
Norton, Walter de Beauchampe lord of Alecester, Richard Talbot lord
of Eccleswell, Iohn Butetourt lord of Mendesham, Iohn Engain lord of
Colum, Hugh de Poinz lord of Corneualet, Adam L. of Wels, Simon L.
Montacute, Iohn L. Sulle, Iohn de Melles or Moelles L. of Candeburie,
Edmund baron Stafford, Iohn Louell lord of Hackings, Edmund de N.
lord of Elchunhonokes, Rafe Fitz William L. of Grimthorpe, Robert de
Scales lord of Neusels, William Tuchet lord of Lewenhales, Iohn Abadan
lord of Deuerston, Iohn de Hauerings lord of Grafton, Robert la Ward
lord of Whitehall, Nicholas de Segraue lord of Stow, Walter de Tey
L. of Stongraue, Iohn de Lisle lord of Wodton, Eustace lord Hacche,
Gilbert Peche L. of Corbie, William Painell lord Trachington, Rog de
Albo monasterio, Foulke le Strange lord of Corsham, Henrie de Pinkenie
lord of Wedon, Iohn de Hodeleston lord of Aneis, Iohn de Huntingfield
lord of Bradenham, Hugh Fitz Henrie lord of Raueneswath, Iohn le
Breton lord of Sporle, Nicholas de Carrie lord of Mulesford, Thomas
lord de la Roche, Wal. de Muncie lord of Thornton, Iohn Fitz Marmaduke
lord of Horden, Iohn lord of Kingston, Robert Hastings the father
lord of Chebessey, Rafe lord Grendon, William lord of Leiborne, Iohn
de Greistocke lord of Morpath, Matthew Fitz Iohn lord of Stokenham,
Nicholas de Neuell lord of Wherlton and Iohn Painell lord of Ateli,
with all humble submission.

[Sidenote: Out of maister Fox, pag. 427.]

The holie mother church, by whose ministerie the catholike sée is
gouerned, in hir déeds (as we throughlie beléeue and hold) procéedeth
with that ripenesse in iudgement, that she will be hurtfull to none,
but like a mother would euerie mans right be kept vnbroken, aswell in
another, as in hir selfe. Whereas therfore in a generall parlement
called at Lincolne of late, by our most dread lord Edward by the grace
of God the noble king of England; the same our lord caused certeine
letters receiued from you to be read openlie, and to be declared
seriouslie afore vs, about certeine businesse touching the condition
and state of the realme of Scotland; we did not a little muse and
maruell with our selues, hearing the meanings concerning the same, so
wondrous and strange as the like we haue not heard at any time before.
For we know most holie father, and it is well knowne aswell within this
realme of England (as also not vnknowne to other persons besides) that
from the first beginning of the realme of England, the certeine and
direct gouernment of the realme of Scotland in all temporall causes
from time to time belonged to the kings of the same relme of England
and relme of Scotland, aswell in the times both of the Britains as also
Englishmen, yea rather the same realme of Scotland of old time was in
fée to the ancestours of our foresaid lords kings of England, yea and
to himselfe.

Furthermore, the kings of Scots and the realme haue not béen vnder any
other than the kings of England, and the kings of England haue answered
or ought to answer for their rights in the foresaid relme, or for anie
his temporalities before anie iudge ecclesiasticall or secular, by
reason of frée preheminence of the state of his roiall dignitie and
custome kept without breach at all times. Wherefore, after treatie had,
and diligent deliberation of the contents in your foresaid letters,
this was the common agréement & consent with one mind, and shall be
without faile in time to come by Gods grace, that our foresaid lord
the king ought by no meanes to answer in iudgement in any case, or
should bring his foresaid rights into doubt, nor ought not to send any
proctors or messengers to your presence, speciallie séeing that the
premises tend manifestlie to the disheriting of the right of the crowne
of England, and the plaine ouerthrowe of the state of the said realme,
and also hurt of the liberties, customes and lawes of our fathers, for
the kéeping & defense of which we are bound by the duetie of the oth
made, and we will mainteine them with all power, and will defend them
(by Gods helpe) with all strength; and furthermore, will not suffer our
foresaid lord the king to doo or by anie means attempt the premisses
being so vnaccustomed, vnwont, and not hard of afore. Wherefore we
reuerentlie and humblie beséech your holinesse, that yée would suffer
the same our lord king of England, (who among other princes of the
world sheweth himselfe catholike and deuout to the Romish church)
quietlie to inioy his rights, liberties, customes, and lawes aforesaid;
without all impairing and trouble, and let them continue vntouched. In
witnesse whereof, we haue set our seales to these presents, as well
for vs, as for the whole communaltie of the foresaid relme of England.
Dated at Lincolne the twelfth of Februarie, in the yeare of our Lord
1301, Et anno Edwardi primi 29.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: The K. goeth to Scotland.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 30.]

[Sidenote: 1302.]

[Sidenote: A truce granted to the Scots.]

The pope when he heard and deliberatelie pondered the kings answer,
with this letter directed to him from the English barons, waxed cold in
the matter, and followed it no further. The truce betwixt the king and
the Scots being once expired, the king assembled his armie, and went
into Scotland, about the feast of saint Iohn Baptist, and tarieng there
all the summer and winter following, his souldiers lost manie of their
great horsses for lacke of forrage, which could not be gotten in the
cold winter season. He kept his Christmas at Lithquo, and at length at
the request and sute of his brother in law the French king, he granted
eftsoones a truce to the Scotishmen, vntill the feast of All saints
next insuing.

[Sidenote: The king returneth into England.]

[Sidenote: The pope exhorteth the K. of England to make war against

Then hauing ordered his business for that time in Scotland, he returned
into England, and about midlent called a parlement at London. Also
this yéere pope Boniface vpon displeasure conceiued against the French
king, sent vnto king Edward, exhorting him to make warres against the
same French king, and to persuade him the more easilie therevnto, he
promised him great aid: but the king of England hauing prooued the said
pope, not the surest man in friendship towards him, forbare to attempt
anie forceable exploit against the French king, trusting by some other
meanes to recouer his right.

[Sidenote: The deceasse of the earle of Hereford.]

[Sidenote: _Re. Tur._]

[Sidenote: Tournies prohibited.]

[Sidenote: Townes restored to the K. in Gascoine.]

This yéere Humfrey Bohun earle of Hereford departed out of this life,
after whome succéeded his sonne Humfrey, who afterwards maried the
kings daughter, Elizabeth countesse of Holland, after that hir first
husband was dead. Tournies, iustes, barriers, and other warlike
exercises, which yoong lords and gentlemen had appointed to exercise
for their pastime in diuerse parts of the realme, were forbidden by
the kings proclamations sent downe to be published by the shirifs in
euerie countie abroad in the realme: the teste of the writ was from
Westminster the sixtéenth of Iulie. ¶ The citizens of Burdeaux could
not bare the yoke of the French bondage, and therefore this yéere about
Christmasse expelled them out of their citie. ¶ Shortlie after the
French king doubting least the king of England, by the setting on of
the pope, should make warres against him for wrongfull deteining of
Gascoine, to purchase his fauor, restored to him all that which he held
in Gascoine, and so then they of Burdeaux also submitted themselues to
the king of England of their owne accord.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The lord Segraue s[=e]t with an armie into Scotland.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Now after that the truce with the Scots was expired, which tooke end at
the feast of All saints last past, the king sent the lord Iohn Segraue,
a right valiant knight (but not so circumspect in his gouernment as
was necessarie) with a great armie into Scotland, to haue the rule
of the land as lord warden of the same: with him was ioined also
Rafe Confreie, treasurer of the armie. These two capteins comming to
the borders, and hearing that the Scotishmen alreadie were in armes,
they entered into Scotland, and in order of battell passed foorth to
Edenburgh, and hearing nothing of their enimies which kept them still
in the mounteins, they deuided their armie into thrée seuerall battels,
two of the which came behind the fore ward vnder the leading of the
said Rafe Confreie, the third (that is to say) the fore ward, the
lord Segraue led himselfe, in such order that there was the distance
of foure miles betwixt their lodgings. This they did to be the more
plentiouslie serued of vittels.

But the Scots vnderstanding this order of their enimies, became the
more hardie, and therevpon hauing knowledge where the lord Segraue was
lodged with his companie, a good way off from the other two parts of
the armie, they hasted forwards in the night season, and came néere
vnto the place where the same lord Segraue was incamped, a little
before daie, making themselues readie to assaile the Englishmen in
their campe. But the lord Segraue hauing knowledge of their comming,
though he was counselled by some of them that were about him, either
to withdraw vnto the other battels, or else to send vnto them to come
to his aid, he would follow neither of both the waies; but like a
capteine more hardie than wise in this point, disposed his companies
which he had there in order to fight, and incouraging them to plaie the
men, immediatlie vpon the rising of the sunne, and that his enimies
approched, he caused the trumpets to sound to the battell, and gaue
therewith the onset.

[Sidenote: The English men vanquished by the Scots.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: Rafe C[=o]freie was slaine at this incounter, as _Abington_

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The earle Marshall resigneth his lands vnto the king.]

The fight was sore and doubtfull for a while, till the Englishmen
ouercome with the multitude of their enimies began to be slaine on
ech side, so that few escaped by flight. To the number of twentie
worthie knights were taken, with their capteine the said lord Segraue
being sore wounded, but he was by chance rescued and deliuered out
of the enimies hands, by certeine horssemen, which vnder the leading
of the lord Robert Neuell a right valiant knight (vpon hearing the
noise of them that fled) came on the spurs out of the next campe to
the succour of their fellowes. Rafe Confreie after this mishap (as
Polydor saithe) brought backe the residue of the armie into England,
not thinking it necessarie to attempt any further enterprise at that
time against the enimies, ouermatching him both in strength and number.
This incounter chanced on the first sundaie in Lent. ¶ I remember the
Scotish chronicles conteine much more of this enterprise greatlie to
their glorie, and more (haplie) than is true, as by conferring the
place where they intreat of it, with this that I haue here exemplified
out of our writers it may well appeare. The earle marshall hauing
spent largelie whilest he stood in contention against the king, who
was now earnestlie called vpon to repaie such summes of monie as he
had borowed of his brother Iohn Bigod, who was verie rich by reason
of such benifices and spirituall liuings as he had in his hands, the
earle bicause he had no children, to whom he might leaue his lands,
meant to haue left them vnto his said brother: but when he saw him
so importunate in calling for the debts which he owght him; he tooke
such displeasure therewith, that to obteine the kings fauour, and to
disappoint his brother of the inheritance, he gaue vnto the king all
his possessions, vpon condition that the king adding thereto other
lands in value woorth a thousand markes by yeare, should restore
them to him againe to inioy during his life, the remainder after his
deceasse to come vnto the king, and further, the king should paie and
discharge him of all his debts.

[Sidenote: A subsidie.]

[Sidenote: The king goeth in person into Scotland.]

[Sidenote: Cathnes.]

[Sidenote: The Scots submit themselues to the king.]

King Edward being aduertised of the losse which his men had susteined
in Scotland, streightwaies called a parlement, wherein by assent of
the states a subsidie was granted, towards the maintenance of his
warres, and then the same being leuied he assembled his people, and
shortlie after about Whitsuntide entred into Scotland to reuenge
the death of his men. The Scots hearing of the kings comming, fled
into the mounteins, mosses, and marish grounds, not once shewing any
countenance to fight any set battell with the English host, so that
the king in maner without resistance passed through the countrie euen
vnto Cathnes, which is the furthest part of all Scotland. Manie of the
Scots perceiuing their lacke of power to resist the English puissance,
came to king Edward, and submitted themselues, with condition that they
should inioy their lands which he had giuen awaie to his lords, they
redéeming the same with conuenient fines, which was granted.

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: William Waleis.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Hect. Boetius._]

[Sidenote: _Ia. Meir._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 32.]

[Sidenote: Striueling castell besieged.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: 1304.]

[Sidenote: Enging to cast stones.]

But Will. Waleis with certeine other, kéeping themselues in places
where no armie could come to pursue them, would neuer giue eare to any
conditions of agréement: so that neither with feare, neither with offer
of rewards could this Waleis be induced to follow or behold the English
K. ruling the realme of Scotland. King Edward returning backe, came to
the castell of Striueling (which the Scotishmen held against him) and
besieged it. The king himselfe laie at Dunfersing the most part of the
winter: and whilest he laie there, the quéene which had lien a long
time at Tinmouth came to him, and when the winter was once past, the
king himselfe came to the siege, and caused certeine engins of wood
to be raised vp against the castell, which shot off stones of two or
thrée hundred weight: but yet would not they within once talke of any
surrender. And where the Englishmen filled the ditches with wood and
boughs of trées, they set the same on fire, and burnt them to ashes:
at length the ditches were filled with stones and earth, so that then
the Scots within perceiuing themselues in euident perill to loose the
castell, on saint Margarets daie they yéelded themselues simplie into
the kings hands, as the English writers affirme, though the Scotish
writers record the contrarie.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke lord warden of Scotland.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: A fiftéenth granted.]

Finallie, when the king had ordered all his businesse in Scotland at
his pleasure, he returned into England leauing in Scotland for warden
the lord Iohn Segraue, or (as other writers haue) sir Aimer de Valence
earle of Penbroke. At his comming to Yorke he caused the iustices of
his bench, and the barons of the excheker to remoue with their courts,
and all their clearks and officers, togither with the lord chancellor
and his court to London, that the termes might be kept there, as in
times past they had béene, whereas now the same had remained at Yorke
aboue the space of six yeares, vpon this consideration, that the king
and his councell might be néere vnto Scotland to prouide for the
defense thereof, as occasion from time to time should require. From
Yorke he came to Lincolne, and there remained all the winter, holding
a councell, in the which he eftsoones confirmed the articles of Magna
charta, touching the liberties, priuileges and immunities of his
subiects, the which to declare their thankfull minds towards him for
the same, granted to him for the space of one yéere the fiftéenth part
of all their reuenues. Others write that the king had in this yeare of
citizens and of the burgesses of good townes, the sixt penie according
to the valued rate of their goods.

[Sidenote: The deceasse of the archbishop of Yorke.]

[Sidenote: Wil. Gréenefield made archbishop of Yorke.]

[Sidenote: Robert Bruce earle of Carrike departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Inquisitions taken of the misdemeanors of iustices.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: Iustices fined.]

About the same time, Thomas Colebrugh or Corbridge archbishop of Yorke
departed this life, and one William Gréenefield doctour of both the
lawes succéeded him. ¶ There died about the same time that valiant
knight the lord W. Latimer. ¶ Also Iohn Warren earle of Surrey and
Sussex died this yéere & was buried at Lewes. His nephue by his son
(named also Iohn) succéeded him, obteining to wife the kings néece by
his daughter Elianor that was married to the earle of Bar, as before
ye haue heard. Likewise Robert Bruce earle of Carrike, the fift of
that name died this yeare, who was father to that Robert Bruce that
was after K. of Scots. ¶ Moreouer, about this season the king ordeined
certeine commissioners of iusticiaries, to make inquisitions through
the realme, by the verdict of substantiall iuries vpon all officers,
as maiors, shiriffes, bailiffes, exchetors, and other that had
misused themselues in their offices, either by extortion, briberie,
or otherwise, to the gréeuance of the people, contrarie to that they
rightlie might doo and iustifie by vertue of their offices: by meanes
of which inquisitions manie were accused and found culpable, and
therevpon put to gréeuous fines.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: Intrusions punished, and other offenses against the kings
peace and iustice.]

[Sidenote: Forfeits.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Traile baston.]

Also the iustices, which were assigned to take these inquisitions,
extended the same according to their commission against such as had
made intrusions into other mens lands, and for doubt to be impleaded
for the same had made alienations ouer into the hands of great men;
also against such barretors as vsed to take monie to beat any man, and
againe would not sticke to take monie of him whom they had so beaten,
to beat him that first hired them to beat the other. The malice of such
maner people was now restreined by force of these inquisitions: for
such as were found culpable, were worthilie punished, some by death,
and some by ransoms: diuerse also for feare to come to their answers
fled the realme: also forfeits against the crowne were streightlie
looked vnto, found out, and leuied; by reason whereof great summes
of monie came to the kings coffers, which holpe well towards the
maintenance and charges of his warres. This kind of inquisition was
named commonlie Traile baston, which signifieth, Traile or draw the
staffe. And forsomuch as the procéeding in this wise against such
misdemenors as then were vsed, brought so great a benefit to the realme
in restreining such malefactors, which greatlie (as should séeme)
disquieted the state of the commonwealth, I haue thought good to set
downe the substance of the same, as followeth.

An extract of the foresaid writ, as it is registred in the booke that
belonged to the abbeie of Abington.

Rex dilectis & fidelibus suis, Radulfo filio Wilhelmi, & Iohanni de
Barton de Riton salutem. Quia quàm plures malefactores, & pacis nostræ
perturbatores, homicidia, deprædationes, incendia, & alia damna quàm
plurima nocte diéq; perpetrantes, vagantur in boscis, parcis, & alijs
locis diuersis, tam infra libertates quàm extra, in comitatu Eoracensi,
& ibidem receptantur in maximum periculum tam hominum per partes illas
transeuntium, quàm ibidem commorantium, in nostri contemptum, ac pacis
nostræ læsionem manifestam, vt accepimus: per quorum incursum poterunt
peiora peioribus de facili euenire, nisi remedium super hoc citiùs
apponatur, nos eorum malitiæ in hac parte obuiare, & huiusmodi damnis
& periculis præcauere volentes, assignamus vos ad inquirendum per
sacramentum tam militum quàm aliorum proborum & legalium hominum, de
contemptu prædicto, tam infra libertates quàm extra, per quos ipsa
veritas meliùs sciri poterit, qui sint illi malefactores & pacis
nostræ perturbatores, & eos conduxerunt & conducunt ad verberandum,
vulnerandum, malè tractand[=u], & interficiendum, plures de regno
nostro in ferijs, mercarijs, & alijs locis in dicto comitatu, pro
inimicitia, inuidia, aut malitia. Et etiam pro eò quòd in assisis
iuratis, recognitionibus, & inquisitionibus factis de felonijs
positi fuerant, & veritatem dixerunt: vnde per conditionem huiusmodi
malefactorum, iuratores assisarum, iurationum, recognitionum, &
inquisitionum illarum, pro timore dictorum malefactorum, & eorum
minarum, sæpiùs veritatem dicere, seu dictos malefactores indictare
minimè ausi fuerunt, & sunt. Et ad inquirendum de illis qui huiusmodi
munera dederunt, & dant, & quantum, & quibus, & qui huiusmodi munera
receperunt, & à quibus & qualiter, & quo modo, & qui huiusmodi
malefactores fouent, nutriunt, & manutenent in comitatu prædicto, & ad
ipsos malefactores tam per vos, quàm per vicecomitem nostrum comitatus
prædicti arrestandos, & prisonæ nostræ liberandos, & saluò & securè
in eadem per vicecomitem comitatus prædicti custodiendos, ita quòd ab
eadem prisona nullo modo deliberentur, sine mandato nostro speciali.

Et ideo vobis mandamus, quòd ad certos diem & locum, quos ad hoc
prouideritis, inquisitiones illas faciatis. Et assumpto vobiscum
sufficienti passe comitatus prædicti, si necesse fuerit, dictos
malefactores coram vobis sic indictatos, arrestetis, & ipsos prisonæ
nostræ liberetis, in forma prædicta: & etiam omnia bona, & catalla
ipsorum malefactorum qui se subtraxerint, & fugam fecerint, postquam
de felonijs aliquibus coram vobis solenniter indictati fuerint, per
vicecomitem comitatus prædicti, in manum nostram capiatis, & ea ad opus
nostrum saluò custodire faciatis, donec aliud inde vobis præceperimus.
Mandamus enim vicecomiti nostro comitatus prædicti, quòd ad certos diem
& locum, quos vos prouidere duxeritis, venire faciat, coram vobis tot
& tales, tam milites quàm alios, quos habere decreueritis, de comitatu
illo, tam infra libertates, quàm extra, per quos ipsa veritas meliùs
sciri poterit, & inquiri. Et quòd omnes illos quos per inquisitionem
culpabiles inuenire contigerit, & quos vos sic liberaueritis, à
nobis recipiantur & quorum nomina eis scire faciatis, assumpto secum
sufficienti posse comitatus prædicti, sine dilatione arrestari, & in
prisona nostra saluò & securè custodire faciat in forma prædicta, &
communitati dicti comitatus, quod simul cum vicecomite prædicto, vobis
quotienscúnq; opus fuerit in præmissis pareat, assistat, & intendat,
prout eis iniungetis ex parte nostra. In cuius rei testimonium, &c. ¶
Héerevnto were annexed certeine articles by way of instructions, of
what points they should inquire, as partlie aboue is noted out of the
addition to Matthew West., but not so fullie, as in the said chronicle
of Abington is found expressed, and héere for bréefenesse omitted.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 33.]

[Sidenote: 1305.]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward c[=o]mited to ward.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: William Waleis taken & put to death.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

In the thrée and thirtith yeare of his reigne, king Edward put his
sonne prince Edward in prison, bicause that he had riotouslie broken
the parke of Walter Langton bishop of Chester; and bicause the prince
had doone this déed by the procurement of a lewd and wanton person,
one Péers Gauaston an esquire of Gascoine, the king banished him the
realme, least the prince, who delighted much in his companie, might
by his euill and wanton counsell fall to euill and naughtie rule.
Moreouer, the same yeare, William Waleis was taken, and deliuered
vnto king Edward, who caused him to be brought to London, where
on S. Bartholmewes euen, he was conueied through the stréets vnto
Westminster, and there arreigned of hie treason, and condemned, and
therevpon hanged, drawne and quartered, his head was set ouer London
bridge, his right side ouer the bridge at Newcastell vpon Tine, his
left side was sent to Berwike and there set vp, his right leg was sent
to S. Iohns towne, and his left vnto Aberden, in which places the same
were set vp for an example of terror to others.

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Flemings banished the land, at contemplation of the king of

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburie accused by the K.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: He is suspended.]

Also, about the same time, the king of France required the king of
England by messengers and letters sent vnto him, that he would banish
all the Flemings out of his realme, in like manner as at his instance
he had latelie before banished all the Scotishmen out of France. The
king of England was contented so to doo, and by that means were all
the Flemings auoided out of this land at that season, but shortlie
after, they returned againe. King Edward accused Robert archbishop
of Canturburie vnto the pope, for that he should go about to trouble
the quiet state of the realme, and to defend and succour rebellious
persons, wherevpon the said archbishop being cited to the popes
consistorie, was suspended from executing his office, till he should
purge himselfe by order of law, of such crimes as were laid and
obiected against him. The king also obteined an absolution of the pope,
of the oth which against his will he had taken, for the obseruing of
the liberties exacted by force of him, by the earls and barons of his
realme, namelie, touching disforrestings to be made.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 34.]

[Sidenote: 1306.]

[Sidenote: Iohn lord Comin slaine by Robert Bruce.]

[Sidenote: The countesse of Boughan set the crowne on Robert Bruce his

[Sidenote: She is taken.]

[Sidenote: Hir punishment.]

This yeare, Robert Bruce, contriuing waies how to make himselfe king
of Scotland, the nine & twentith day of Ianuarie, slue the lord Iohn
Comin at Dunfrice, whilest the kings iustices were sitting in iudgement
within the castell there, and vpon the day of the Annunciation of our
ladie, caused himselfe to be crowned king of Scotland at Scone, where
the countesse of Boughan, that was secretlie departed from hir husband
the earle of Boughan, and had taken with hir all his great horsses, was
readie to set the crowne vpon R. Bruces head, in absence of hir brother
the earle of Fife, to whom (being in England) soiourning at his manor
of Whitwike in Leicestershire, that office of right apperteined. This
countesse being afterwards taken the same yeare by the Englishmen,
where other would haue had hir put to death, the king would not grant
thervnto, but commanded that she should be put in a cage made of wood,
which was set vpon the walles of the castell of Berwike, that all such
as passed by might behold hir; too slender a punishment for so great an
offense. But the king counted it no honour to be seuere against that
sex whom nature tendereth, though malefactors, and therfore was content
with a mild correction tending rather to some shame than smart, to
recompense hir offense, whereby she procured against hir selfe no lesse
reproch than she susteined, agréeable to the old saieng,

    Sæpe suum proprium fecit puer ipse flagellum.

[Sidenote: An armie sent into Scotland.]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward made knight.]

[Sidenote: Thrée hundred saith _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward sent into Scotland.]

There were present at his coronation foure bishops, fiue earles, and
a great multitude of people of the land. Immediatlie vpon the newes
brought to the king of Bruces coronation, he sent foorth a power of
men, vnder the conduct of the earle of Penbroke, and of the lord
Henrie Percie, the lord Robert Clifford, and others, to resist the
attempts of the Scots, now readie to worke some mischéefe, through
the incouragement of the new king. Edward prince of Wales was made
knight this yeare at London vpon Witsundaie, & a great number of other
yoong bachelers with him (297 as Abington writeth) the which were sent
streightwaies with the said prince towards Scotland, to ioine with the
earle of Penbroke, to resist the attempts of the new king Robert le
Bruce and his complices. King Edward himselfe followed. The generall
assemblie of the armie was appointed at Carleill, fiftéene daies after
the Natiuitie of saint Iohn Baptist, from thence to march foorth vnder
the guiding of the prince into Scotland.

[Sidenote: Robert Bruce.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: It was the next sundaie after midsummer daie.]

[Sidenote: Rob. Bruce put to flight by the earle of Penbroke.]

In the meane time, Robert le Bruce went abroad in the countries of
Scotland, receiued the homages of manie Scotishmen, and got togither an
armie of men, with the which he approched néere to saint Iohns towne,
into the which the earle of Penbroke was a little before entred to
defend it, with thrée hundred men of armes, beside footmen. Then R.
Bruce sent to the earle to come out and giue battell, the earle sent
vnto him word againe, that he would not fight that daie being sundaie,
but vpon the next morow he would satisfie his request. Robert Bruce
herevpon withdrew a mile backe from the towne, determining to rest
himselfe and his people that night. About euening tide came the earle
foorth of the towne with his people in order of battell, and assailing
his enimies vpon a sudden, slue diuerse yer they could get their
armour on their backs. Robert Bruce and others that had some space to
arme themselues made some resistance for a while, but at length the
Englishmen put them to the worsse, so that they were constreined to

[Sidenote: Rob. Bruce fled into Kentire.]

[Sidenote: His wife and brother are taken.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Atholl taken.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

The earle following the chase, pursued them euen into Kentire, not
resting till he vnderstood that a great number of them were gotten
into a castell, which he besieged, in hope to haue found Robert Bruce
within it, but he was fled further into the countrie. Howbeit, his wife
and his brother Nigell or Neall, with diuerse other were taken in this
castell, and sent in safetie vnto Berwike. Also shortlie after, the
earle of Atholl was taken, being fled out of the same castell. ¶ But
some write, that this earle was taken in the battell last remembred,
after long fight and great slaughter of Scots, to the number of seuen
thousand, and also that in the chase, the lord Simon de Friseill was
taken, with the bishops of saint Andrews and Glasco, the abbat of
Scone, and the said earle of Atholl, named sir Iohn Chambres. The
bishops and abbat, king Edward sent vnto pope Innocent, with report of
their periurie: but others write, that the foresaid bishops and abbat
being taken indéed the same yeare, were brought into England, and there
kept as prisoners within sundrie castels.

[Sidenote: Bruces wife whose daughter she was.]

[Sidenote: The saieng of Robert Bruces wife.]

The wife of Robert le Bruce being daughter to the earle of Vlster, was
sent vnto the manour of Brustwike, and there honorablie vsed, hauing
a conuenient number of seruants appointed to wait on hir. The earle
of Vlster hir father, in the beginning of these last wars, sent vnto
king Edward two of his owne sonnes to remaine with him, in such wise
as he should thinke conuenient, to assure himselfe of him, that he
would attempt nothing against the English subjects. Also it was said,
that the ladie hirselfe, the same daie hir husband and she should be
crowned, said, that she feared they should proue but as a summer king
and quéene, such as in countrie townes the yoong folks choose for sport
to danse about maipoles. For these causes was she the more courteouslie
vsed at the kings hands, as reason no lesse required.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: Methfen.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Lochdore taken, and Christopher Seiton within

It should appeare by Robert Fabian, that the king was present himselfe
at this battell: but other affirme, that prince Edward was there
as generall and not his father, and that the battell was fought at
Dunchell vpon the riuer of Tay. But neither the Scotish chronicles nor
Nicholas Triuet (whom in the historie of this king Edward the first, we
haue most followed) make any mention, that either the king or prince
should be at the foresaid battell, but that the earle of Penbroke with
Robert lord Clifford, and Henrie lord Percie were sent before (as ye
haue alreadie heard) with an armie, by whome as appeareth this victorie
was obteined, at a place called Methfen. After this was the castell of
Lochdore taken, and within it Christopher Seiton, that had married the
sister of Robert le Bruce; and bicause he was no Scot but an Englishman
borne, the king commanded that he should be led vnto Dunfrise, where he
had killed one of the kings knights, and there to be hanged, drawen and

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: He is executed.]

[Sidenote: His lands giuen awaie by the king.]

[Sidenote: The lands of Rob. Bruce giuen awaie.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Hereford.]

[Sidenote: Lord Clifford.]

[Sidenote: The lord H[=e]rie Percie.]

[Sidenote: Rafe de M[=o]thermer.]

The wife of this Christopher Seiton, he appointed to be kept in the
monasterie of Thixell in Lindsey; and the daughter of Robert le Bruce,
which was also taken about the same time, was sent to the monasterie of
Waiton. Moreouer, the manour of Seiton in Whitebestroud he gaue vnto
the lord Edmund de Mauley, and those other lands that belonged vnto the
said Christopher Seiton in Northumberland he gaue vnto the lord William
Latimer. The lands that belonged to the new Scotish king he bestowed
in this wise, to Henrie Bohun earle of Hereford, which had married one
of king Edwards daughters, he gaue the lordships of Annandale; Hert &
Hertnes he gaue vnto the lord Robert Clifford, sauing alwaies the right
yet that belonged to the church of Durham, Totenham, and Totenhamshire;
and the maner of Wrothell in the south parts he gaue to other noble
men; and the earledome of Carrike which R. Bruce had holden, as by
inheritance from his mother, the king gaue to the lord Henrie Percie,
the earledome of Atholl he gaue to Rafe de Monthermer earle of
Glocester, who had also married (as before yée haue heard) an other of
the kings daughters, after the decesse of hir first husband Gilbert de
Clare earle of Glocester.

[Sidenote: The L. Percie put to flight by the Scotish king Bruce.]

[Sidenote: Nigell or Neall Bruce condemned and executed.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Atholl executed.]

About the feast of saint Michaell, the new Scotish king Robert le Bruce
returned foorth of the Iles (into the which he had fled) with manie
Irishmen and Scots in his companie, and remained a certeine time in
Kentire, he sent certeine of his officers, to leuie and gather vp the
rents of the fermes due at the feast of saint Martine for such lands
and possessions as they held in that countrie, wherof the lord Percie
being aduertised, hasted thither; but the new king comming vpon him,
slue certeine of his men, tooke his horsses and plate, with other
things, and droue him into a castell, within the which he besieged him,
till at length by a power sent from king Edward, Bruce was constreined
to depart. The king in this meane time was come to Lauercost néere
to Carleill, and there remained a long time. From thence he sent his
iustices vnto Berwike, where they sate in iudgement vpon Nigell Bruce,
and the other prisoners taken with him, which were condemned to die,
and so they were hanged, drawen and quartered. The earle of Atholl was
conueied to London, and although he sued for pardon in respect of that
he was of kin to the king, yet was he hanged vpon a gibbet higher than
all the residue, his bodie burned vnder the same gibbet, and his head
first cut off, was set vpon a pole ouer London bridge for example sake
that traitors should looke for no pardon.

[Sidenote: The summes of monie which the pope had of the archbish. of

The elect archbishop of Yorke William Gréenefield was confirmed this
yeare by pope Clement the fift, at the citie of Lions in France, where
the same pope was crowned about the same time, and held his court
there, liuing chéeflie by the monie which he got of bishops that came
to him for their confirmations: he had of the said archbishop of Yorke
within one yeare, nine thousand and 500 markes, besides the expenses
which he was at whilest he laie there, and so when this archbishop was
returned into England, through pouertie he was driuen to gather monie
of the persons, préests, and religious men within his prouince at
two sundrie times in one yeare, as first, in name of a courtesie and
gratious beneuolence, and the second time by waie of an aid.

[Sidenote: The great reuenues of Anthonie B. of Durham.]

Moreouer, pope Clement ordeined Anthonie bishop of Durham, patriarch of
Ierusalem, dispensing with him, so as he held still the bishoprike of
Durham, notwithstanding his other promotion; and this was, bicause the
bishop was rich, and the pope poore. For this bishop might dispend in
yearelie reuenues by purchases & inheritances, besides that belonged
to his miter, aboue fiue thousand marks, and he gaue great rewards to
the pope, and to his cardinals, by means whereof he obteined in suit
against the prior of Durham, so that he had the charge and ouersight
of the monasterie of Durham, both the spirituall gouernement and
temporall, through informing the pope, that the prior was not able in
discretion to rule the house. At his returning home, he caused a crosse
of siluer and gilt, adorned with an image of the crucifix, to be borne
afore him.

[Sidenote: He is kept out of the abbeie at Durham.]

[Sidenote: He is summoned to appéere before the K. and refuseth.]

But where he appointed certeine persons as his deputies to enter into
the priorie of Durham, and to take charge thereof in place of the
prior, the moonks shut the gates against them, appealing to the pope,
and pretending the kings protection, which they had purchased. But
those that thus came in the bishops name, accursed the moonks, & so
departed. The king héerewith was highlie offended, so that he caused
them to answer the matter afore the iustices of his bench, and for
their presumption in pronouncing the cursse, without making the king
priuie to their dooings, they were put to their fines. And whereas the
bishop was summoned to appeare before the king in person at a certeine
daie, he made default, and departing out of the realme, got backe
againe to the pope, contrarie to the kings prohibition: wherevpon the
liberties of the sée of Durham were seized into the kings hands, and
the king placed his iustices and chancellor there, and in the yeare
next insuing, he exacted of the tenants of the archbishoprike, the
thirtéenth penie of their goods, and otherwise vexed them with sundrie

[Sidenote: The conclusion of the strife betwixt the bishop and moonks
of Durham.]

[Sidenote: Bernards castell giuen to the earle of Warwike.]

The conclusion of this matter was this, that the prior was cited by
the pope, to appeare at his consistorie, whither he went, hauing the
kings letters in his fauour directed to the pope; wherevpon, when the
pope had examined the matter, and heard the prior speake in his owne
person, he perceiued him to be otherwise than he was informed (a sober
and discréet man) and therefore restored him againe to the gouernment
of his house; but he remained in the popes court, till after the kings
death, and finallie died there himselfe in the yeare 1307. But now to
returne to other dooings of king Edward. We find, that whilest he lay
still at Lauercost, he gaue to the earle of Warwike Bernards castell,
the which he had by escheat, through forfeiture thereof made by Iohn
Balioll late king of Scotland. He also tooke and seized into his hands
Penreth with the appurtenances.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 35.]

[Sidenote: 1307.]

[Sidenote: A parlement at Carleill. William Testa the popes chapleine
inhibited to leuie monie.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

In the octaues of S. Hilarie, the king held a parlement at Carleill,
in the which, by the péeres of the realme, great complaint was made of
the oppressions doone to churches, abbeies, and monasteries, by reason
of paiments latelie raised and taxed by one maister William or Guilelmo
Testa the popes chapleine. Commandement therefore was giuen to the
same chapleine, that from thencefoorth he should not leauie anie such
paiments; and for further remedie, messengers were made foorth vnto
the pope, to declare vnto him the inconuenience thereof. This Testa
was sent from pope Clement into England with bulles, in the contents
whereof it appeared, that the pope had reserued to himselfe the first
fruits of one yeares reuenues of euerie benefice that fell void by
anie manner of meanes within the realme of England, Scotland, Wales,
and Ireland, and likewise of all abbeies, priories, and monasteries;
so that it may well be said of him & his retinue, according to the
processe of all their actions, as it was said of old,

    Curia Romana non quærit ouem sine lana.

But the king and lords of the land thought it against reason, that
the pope should take and receiue the profits of those abbeies and
monasteries, which had béene founded by their predecessors for
the seruice of God, and the maintenance of almesdéeds, and good
hospitalitie to be kept: and so the pope changed his purpose, touching
abbeies, but granting to the K. the tenth of the English churches
for two yéers, he obteined the first fruits of the same churches for
himselfe, as before he required. In the same parlement were statutes
made concerning religious men, which had their head and chéefest houses
in forren regions.

[Sidenote: A statute against the religious persons.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Petrus Hispanus a cardinall sent fr[=o] the pope.]

[Sidenote: The cause of his comming.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: His demand of monie of religious houses.]

[Sidenote: The cardinall preacheth.]

[Sidenote: He accursed Rob. Bruce.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

There came also at the same time, a cardinall from the pope, named
Petrus Hispanus to procure the consummation of the mariage, betwixt
the prince of Wales, and the French kings daughter; for the same was
delaied, by reason that all couenants were not kept on the French kings
behalfe, touching the deliuerie of the townes in Gascoine. For whereas
in times past, the French king had giuen one of those townes that
were taken from the Englishmen, named Mauleon, vnto a French knight;
he kept the same still, and would not deliuer it now at the French
kings commandement, where-through (as was said) the marriage had béene
hitherto deferred. The same cardinall by vertue of his bull, would
haue had of euerie cathedrall church, colledge, abbeie, and priorie,
twelue marks of sterling monie; and of euerie person of parish churches
eight pence of euerie marke of his reuenues. But the English cleargie
appealed from this exaction, so that by the king and his councell it
was ordeined, that he should haue no more than in times past cardinall
Othobon did receiue, that is to saie, the halfe of his demand.
Moreouer, this cardinall being at Carleill, and hauing made a sermon in
praise of peace, vpon the conclusion of marriage betwixt the prince of
Wales and the French kings daughter, in the end he reuested himselfe
and the other bishops which were present, and then with candels light,
and causing the bels to be roong, they accursed in terrible wise Robert
Bruce the vsurper of the crowne of Scotland, with all his partakers,
aiders and mainteiners.

[Sidenote: Thomas Bruce and Alexander Bruce taken.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: Tho. Bruce executed. Alexander Bruce & Reginald Crawford

Neuerthelesse, Robert Bruce in this meane while slept not his
businesse, but ranging abroad in the countrie, slue manie that would
not obeie him, and sent foorth his two brethren, Thomas that was a
knight, and Alexander that was a préest, with part of his armie into an
other quarter of the countrie, to allure the people vnto his obedience,
partlie with gentlenesse, and partlie with menaces. But the Englishmen
came vpon them in the night and tooke them both, so that being brought
before the iustices they were condemned, and therevpon hanged, drawen
and quartered. ¶ Some write, that Duncan Magdoill, a man of great
power in Galloway, tooke these two brethren prisoners, togither
with Reginald Crawford, (being the principall) on the ninth daie of
Februarie, as they with certeine other capteins and men of war came by
sea, and landed in his countrie, vpon whome being seuen hundred men,
he with thrée hundred or few aboue that number boldlie gaue the onset,
and not onelie tooke the said thrée persons prisoners, sore wounded
as they were, with diuerse other, but also slue Malcolme Makaile a
lord of Kentire, and two Irish lords, whose heads, and the foresaid
prisoners, he presented vnto king Edward, who caused Thomas Bruce to
be hanged, drawen and quartered, but the other two were onelie hanged
and quartered at Carleill, where their heads were set vp aloft on the
castell and gates of the citie.

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke put to flight. Bruce besiegeth the
earle of Glocester. He is chased fr[=o] that siege.]

After Easter their brother Robert Bruce, calling himselfe king of
Scotland, and hauing now augmented his armie with manie souldiers of
the out Iles, fought with the earle of Penbroke and put him to flight,
and slue some of his men though not manie. Within a few daies after,
he chased also the earle of Glocester, into the castell of Aire, and
besieged him within the same, till an armie was sent from king Edward
to the rescue: for then the said Robert was constreined to flée, and
the Englishmen followed, till he got into the woods and marishes, where
they might come néere him without manifest danger, to cast themselues
awaie. ¶ The king of England, minding to make a full conquest of the
Scots, and not to leaue off vntill he had wholie subdued them, sent his
commissions into England, commanding all those that owght him seruice,
to be redie at Careleill within thrée wéekes after Midsummer. He sent
his sonne Edward into England, that vpon knowledge had what the French
king did touching the agréement, he might accordinglie procéed in the
marriage to be made with his daughter.

[Sidenote: The death of K. Edward the first.]

[Sidenote: He is buried at Westminster. His issue.]

After the prince was departed from the campe, his father king Edward
was taken with sore sicknesse, yet he remooued from Carleill, where the
same sickness first tooke him, vnto Burrough vpon Sand, and there the
daie after being the seuenth daie of Iulie, he ended his life, after
he had reigned 34 yeares, six moneths and one and twentie daies. He
liued 68 yeares and twentie daies. His bodie was conueied to London,
and in the church of Westminster lieth buried. He had issue by his
first wife quéene Elianor, foure sons, Iohn, Henrie, Alfonse, & Edward
which succéeded him, the other died long before their father. Also
fiue daughters; Elianor, Ione, Margaret, and Elizabeth, were bestowed
in marriage as before in this booke is expressed: the fift named Marie
became a nunne. By his second wife quéene Margaret, he had two sonnes,
Thomas of Brotherton, and Edmund of Woodstoke, with one daughter named
Margaret after hir mother.

[Sidenote: His stature and forme of bodie.]

[Sidenote: His qualitie of mind.]

[Sidenote: He misliked the pride of prelats.]

He was tall of stature, somewhat blacke of colour, strong of bodie,
and leane, auoiding grosenesse, with continuall exercise, of comelie
fauour, and iettie eies, the which when he waxed angrie, would
suddenlie become reddish, and séeme as though they sparkled with fire.
The haire of his head was blacke and curled, he continued for the most
part in good health of bodie, and was of a stout stomach, which neuer
failed him in time of aduersitie. Moreouer, he had an excellent good
wit, for to whatsoeuer he applied his studie, he easilie atteined to
the vnderstanding thereof: wise he was and vertuous, an earnest enimie
of the high and presumptuous insolencie of préests, the which he iudged
to procéed chéeflie of too much wealth and riches: and therefore, he
deuised to establish the statute of Mortmaine, to be a bridle to their
inordinate lusts and riotous excesse. He built the abbeie of the vale
roiall in Cheshire, he was a constant fréend, but if he once tooke
displeasure or hatred against any person, he would not easilie receiue
him into fauour againe: whilest he had any vacant time from weightie
affaires, he spent lightlie the same in hunting.

[Sidenote: Siluer mines.]

[Sidenote: The same Wimondham also receiued 82 pounds, for 26 founders
of lead, out of the which the siluer was tried, as appeareth by his

Towards the maintenance of his warres and other charges, besides the
subsidies which he leuied of his people, and other reuenues comming
to his coffers, he had great helpe, by reason of the siluer mines
which in his daies were found in Deuonshire, and occupied greatlie to
his profit, as in the records remaining in the excheker, concerning
the accompts and allowances about the same it dooth and may appeare.
For in the accompts of master William de Wimondham, it is recorded,
that betwixt the twelfth daie of August, and the last of October, in
the 22 yeare of this king Edwards reigne, there was tried and fined
out at Martinestowe in Deuonshire by times, so much of fined siluer,
as amounted to the summe of 370 pounds weight, which being brought
to London, was there refined by certeine finers, that plate might be
forged thereof, for the ladie Elianor duches of Bar, and daughter to
the said king, married in the yeare then last past to the duke of Bar,
as before ye haue heard.

[Sidenote: Betwixt the 10 day of Iulie, and the 20 day of October the
same yeare.]

In the 23 yeare of his reigne, there was fined at the place aforsaid
521 pounds & ten shillings weight of siluer by times, which was also
brought to London. In the 24 yeare of his reigne, there were taken
vp 337 miners, within the wapentake of the Peake in Darbishire, and
brought into Deuonshire, to worke there in those siluer mines, as
appeareth by the allowance demanded by the said master William de
Wimondham in his roll of accounts, deliuered that yeare into the
excheker: and there was brought from thence to London the same yeare
of siluer fined and cast in wedges 700 foure pounds, thrée shillings,
one penie weight. In the 25 yeare of his reigne, there were thrée
hundred and fourtie eight miners brought againe out of the Peake into
Deuonshire, and out of Wales there were brought also 25 miners, which
all were occupied about those siluer mines, beside others of the selfe
countrie of Deuonshire, and other places. Also Wil. de Aulton clearke,
kéeper of the kings mines in Deuonshire and Cornewall, was accomptant
of the issues and profits of the kings mines there, from the fourth of
March, Anno 26 of his reigne, till the eightéenth of Aprill, Anno 27,
and yéelded vp his account, both of the siluer and lead.

But now to conclude with this noble prince king Edward the first, he
was sure not onelie valiant but also politike, labouring to bring this
diuided Ile, into one entier monarchie, which he went verie néere to
haue atchiued, for whereas he was fullie bent to make a conquest of
Scotland, in like case as he had alreadie doone of Wales, if he had
liued any longer time to haue dispatched Robert le Bruce, that onelie
stood in his waie, it was verie likelie that he should haue found none
other to haue raised banner against him about the quarrell or title to
the claime of that realme. For as he was a right warlike prince of him
selfe, so was he furnished with capteins and souldiers answerable to
his desire, who being able to lead and command them of himselfe, had
them at length obedient inough to serue him, although (as partlie yée
haue heard) some of the péeres shewed themselues at times disobedient
and stubborne, whom yet in the end he tamed well inough, as the earles
of Hereford and Northfolke, the which in the thirtith yeare of his
reigne resigned their castels and manours into his hands, as by the
records of the tower it further may appeare.

Now to follow, as in other kings I haue doone heretofore for learned
men, these I find to haue flourished in this kings daies, Henrie
de Henna a Carmelite frier, Goodwine the chantor of the church of
Salisburie, Adam de Marisco or Mareis borne in Summersetshire, an
excellent diuine as he was reputed in those daies, Gregorie Huntington
a monke of Ramesey verie expert in the toongs; Seuall archbishop of
Yorke a man singularlie learned and stout in defending the cause of
his cleargie against the pope, Haimo de Feuersham, Peter Swanington,
Helias Trickingham, Helias de Euesham, Radulfe Bocking born in Sussex,
Alphred surnamed Anglicus, Iames Cisterciensis, William of Ware,
Robert Oxenford, Thomas Docking, Iohn surnamed Grammaticus, Robert
Dodeford: but the more part of these are rather to be ascribed vnto
the time of Henrie the third, the father of this king Edward, where
these that follow are thought to flourish in the time of king Edwards
reigne, after the deceasse of his father king Henrie, Thomas Spot a
chronographer, Peter de Ickeham a Kentishman borne as Bale thinketh,
Iohn Beckton a doctor of both the lawes, William Hanaberge a Carmelite
frier, prouinciall gouernour of his order héere in England; Robert
Kilwarbie bishop of Canturburie, and after made a cardinall and bishop
of Portua; Gilbert surnamed Magnus, a moonke of the Cisteaux order;
Helias Ros, Walter Recluse, Hugh le Euesham, Iohn Eursded a writer of
annales, whome I haue partlie followed in this kings life; William
Pagham, Henrie Esseborne, Iohn de Haida, Roger Bacon a Franciscane
frier, an excellent philosopher, and likewise a mathematician,
Iohn Derlingon a dominike frier, Iohn Chelmeston, Thomas Borstale
a Northfolke man borne, Gregorie Cairugent a moonke of Glocester a
writer of annales, Gregorie de Bridlington, Thomas Bungey a frier
minor borne in Northfolke, an excellent mathematician, prouinciall
ruler of his order héere in England, he flourished in the daies of
king Edward the first, although there were another of the same name
that liued in the time of king Edward the third, Hugh de Manchester a
Dominike frier, & prouinciall gouernour of his order héere in England,
Richard Knapwell a Dominike frier, Iohn Peckham borne in the dioces
of Chichester, a Franciscane frier, excellentlie learned, as by his
workes it appeareth, he was aduanced by pope Honorius the third, to the
archbishops sée of Canturburie; Thomas de Hey a Suffolke man borne,
and a white or Carmelite frier in the house of Gippeswich, Michaell
surnamed Scot, was borne in the bishoprike of Durham (as Leland saith)
an excellent physician, and likewise verie expert in the mathematicals,
Hugh de Newcastell a frier minor, professed in the same towne, Thomas
Sutton a blacke frier, that is of the order of S. Dominike, Iohn
Read an historiographer, William de la Mare a frier minor, Thomas
Wicke a chanon of Osney in Oxenford, Simon de Gaunt, William Hothun,
prouinciall of the friers Dominiks in England, Iohn de Hide a moonke
of Winchester, Robert Crouch, a cordelier, or a Franciscane frier,
Richard Midleton a frier minor, Thomas Spirman a blacke frier, William
Lidlinton a doctor of diuinitie, and a Carmelite frier in Stamford,
Iohn Fiberie or Beuer, a moonke of Westminster, William Makelesfield
borne in Cheshire, in a market towne, whereof he beareth the name, a
blacke frier by profession, and an excellent philosopher.

Thus farre Edward the first, surnamed Longshanks.

    Transcriber's Notes:

    Simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors were

    Punctuation normalized.

    Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed.

    The author's usage of accents was inconsistent. Specifically
    accented "ée" is far more prevalent than "ee" even for the same
    word. Changed all instances of "ee" to "ée"

    Italics markup is enclosed in _underscores_.

    Greek markup is enclosed in ~tildes~.

              Proofreading Symbols for Diacritical Marks
        (In the table below, the "x" represents a letter with a
                          diacritical mark.)
  diacritical mark             sample      above        below
  macron (straight line)         ¯         [=x]         [x=]

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