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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (10 of 12)
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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the sonne of Edward the first.

[Sidenote: 1307.]

[Sidenote: Continuation of _Matt. West_.]

Edward, the second of that name, the sonne of Edward the first, borne
at Carnaruan in Wales, began his reigne ouer England the seauenth day
of Iulie, in the yeare of our Lord 1307, of the world, 5273, of the
comming of the Saxons 847, after the conquest 241, about the tenth
yeare of Albert emperour of Rome, and the two and twentith of the
fourth Philip, surnamed Le Beau, as then king of France, and in the
third yeare after that Robert le Bruce had taken vpon him the crowne
and gouernement of Scotland. His fathers corpse was conueied from Burgh
vpon Sands, vnto the abbie of Waltham, there to remaine, till things
were readie for the buriall, which was appointed at Westminster.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Couentrie committed to prison.]

[Sidenote: Officers remooued.]

Within thrée daies after, when the lord treasurer Walter de Langton
bishop of Couentrie and Lichfield (thorough whose complaint Péers de
Gaueston had béene banished the land) was going towards Westminster, to
make preparation for the same buriall, he was vpon commandement from
the new king arrested, committed to prison, and after deliuered to the
hands of the said Péers, being then returned againe into the realme,
who sent him from castell to castell as a prisoner. His lands and
tenements were seized to the kings vse, but his mooueables were giuen
to the foresaid Péers. Walter Reignold that had béene the kings tutor
in his childhood, was then made lord treasurer, and after when the sée
of Worcester was void, at the kings instance he was by the pope to that
bishoprike preferred. Also Rafe bishop of London was deposed from the
office of lord Chancellour, and Iohn Langton bishop of Chichester was
thereto restored. Likewise, the barons of the excheker were remooued,
and other put in their places. And Amerie de Valence earle of Penbroke
was discharged of the wardenship of Scotland, and Iohn de Britaine
placed in that office, whom he also made earle of Richmond.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Péers de Gaueston.]

[Sidenote: The yeare next insuing, the Ile of Man was taken by Robert

But now concerning the demeanour of this new king, whose disordered
maners brought himselfe and manie others vnto destruction; we find that
in the beginning of his gouernement, though he was of nature giuen
to lightnesse, yet being restreined with the prudent aduertisements
of certeine of his councellors, to the end that he might shew some
likelihood of good proofe, he counterfeited a kind of grauitie, vertue
and modestie; but yet he could not throughlie be so bridled, but that
foorthwith he began to plaie diuers wanton and light parts, at the
first indéed not outragiouslie, but by little and little, and that
couertlie. For hauing reuoked againe into England his old mate the said
Péers de Gaueston, he receiued him into most high fauour, creating him
earle of Cornewall, and lord of Man, his principall secretarie, and
lord chamberlaine of the realme, through whose companie and societie he
was suddenlie so corrupted, that he burst out into most heinous vices;
for then vsing the said Péers as a procurer of his disordred dooings,
he began to haue his nobles in no regard, to set nothing by their
instructions, and to take small héed vnto the good gouernement of the
common-wealth, so that within a while, he gaue himselfe to wantonnes,
passing his time in voluptuous pleasure, and riotous excesse: and to
helpe them forward in that kind of life, the foresaid Péers, who (as
it may be thought, he had sworne to make the king to forget himselfe,
and the state, to the which he was called) furnished his court with
companies of iesters, ruffians, flattering parasites, musicians, and
other vile and naughtie ribalds, that the king might spend both daies
and nights in iesting, plaieng, blanketing, and in such other filthie
and dishonorable exercises: and moreouer, desirous to aduance those
that were like to him selfe, he procured for them honorable offices,
all which notable preferments and dignities, sith they were ill
bestowed, were rather to be accounted dishonorable than otherwise, both
to the giuer and the receiuer, sith

    Sufficiens honor est homini, cùm dignus honore est,
    Qui datur indigno non est honor, est onus, imò
    Ludibrium, veluti in scena cùm ludius est rex,
    Quippe honor est soli virtuti debita merces.

[Sidenote: A parlement at Northampton.]

[Sidenote: Péers de Gaueston maried.]

About the thirtéenth day of October, a parlement was holden at
Northampton, in the which it was ordeined by the kings appointment,
that the coine of his father king Edward should be still currant,
notwithstanding the basenesse thereof, as some reputed it, and
therefore it was mooued in the parlement to haue it disanulled. ¶
Also, order was taken for the buriall of his fathers corpse, which
was solemnelie conueied from Waltham, and brought to Westminster the
seauen and twentith day of October following, where with all funerall
pompe it was interred. Moreouer, at the same parlement, a marriage was
concluded betwixt the earle of Cornewall Péers de Gaueston, and the
daughter of Gilbert de Clare earle of Glocester, which he had by his
wife the countesse Ioane de Acres the kings sister, which marriage was
solemnized on All hallowes day next insuing.

[Sidenote: The K. passeth ouer into France.]

[Sidenote: 1308.]

[Sidenote: He was married the 28 of Februarie, as _Tho. de la More_

[Sidenote: The king and quéene crowned.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsin._]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Blackwell smoothered and thrust to death.
Continuation of _N. Triuet._]

About the two and twentith of Ianuarie, the king sailed ouer into
France, and at Bullongne in Picardie on the foure and twentith day of
Ianuarie, he did homage to the French king for his lands of Gascoine
and Pontieu, and on the morrow after, maried Isabell the French kings
daughter, and on the seauenth of Februarie he returned with hir into
England, and comming to London, was ioifullie receiued of the citizens,
and on the fiue and twentith daie of Februarie, being Shrouesundaie
in the leape yeare, they were solemnlie crowned by the bishop of
Winchester, bicause that Robert the archbishop of Canturburie was
not as then within the realme. There was such prease and throng of
people at this coronation, that a knight called sir Iohn Bakewell
aliàs Blackwell, was thrust or crowded to death. ¶ On the day of the
circumcision this yeare, a great tempest of thunder and lightning
began about euensong time, that continued the most part of the night

[Sidenote: The order taken for the apprehension of the t[=e]plers.]

On wednesdaie after the Epiphanie, the knights templers in England were
apprehended all in one day by the kings commandement, vpon suspicion
of hainous crimes & great enormities by them practised, contrarie to
the articles of the christian faith. The order of their apprehension
was on this wise. The king directed his writs vnto all and euerie the
shiriffes of counties within the realme, that they should giue summons
to a certeine number of substantiall persons, knights or other men
of good accompt, to be afore them at certeine places within their
gouernements, named in the same writs, on the sunday the morrow after
the Epiphanie then next insuing, and that the said shiriffes faile
not to be there the same day in their owne persons, to execute that
which in other writs to them directed, and after to be sent, should be
conteined. The date of this writ was the fiftéenth of December.

The second writ was sent by certeine chapleins, in which the shiriffes
were commanded vpon the opening of the same, foorthwith to receiue an
oth in presence of the said chapleins, to put in execution all that
was therein conteined, and not to disclose the contents to any man,
till they had executed the same with all expedition, and therewith to
take the like oth of those persons, whom by vertue of the first writ
they had summoned to appeare afore them. An other writ there was also
framed & sent by the same chapleins, by the which the said shiriffes
were commanded to attach by their bodies, all the templers within the
precinct of their gouernements, and to seize all their lands and goods
into the kings hands, togither with their writings, charters, déeds,
and miniments, and to make thereof a true inuentarie and indenture,
in presence of the warden of the place, whether he were brother of
that order, or any other, & in presence of honest men being neighbors;
of which indenture, one part to remaine in the custodie of the said
warden, and the other with the shiriffe, vnder his seale that should so
make seizure of the said goods: and further, that the said goods and
chattels should be put in safe custodie, and that the quicke goods and
cattell should be kept and found of the premisses as should séeme most
expedient, and that their lands and possessions should be manured and
tilled to the vttermost commoditie.

Further, that the persons of the said templers being attached, in
manner as before is said, should be safelie kept in some competent
place out of their owne houses, but not in streight prison, but in such
order, as the shiriffes might be sure of them to bring them foorth when
he should be commanded, to be found in the meane time according to
their estate of their owne goods so seized, and hereof to make a true
certificat vnto the treasurer and barons of the excheker, what they
had doone concerning the premisses, declaring how manie of the said
templers they had attached, with their names, and what lands and goods
they had seized by vertue of this precept. The date of these two last
writs was from Biflet the 20 of December, and the returne thereof to be
made vnto the excheker, was the morrow after the Purification. There
were writs also directed into Ireland, as we haue there made mention,
and likewise vnto Iohn de Britaine earle of Richmond the lord warden of
Scotland, & to Eustace de Cotesbach chamberleine of Scotland, to Walter
de Pederton iustice of Westwales, and to Hugh Aldighle aliàs Audlie
iustice of Northwales, to Robert Holland iustice of Chester, vnder like
forme and maner as in Ireland we haue expressed.

The malice which the lords had conceiued against the earle of Cornewall
still increased, the more indéed through the high bearing of him, being
now aduanced to honour. For being a goodlie gentleman and a stout, he
would not once yéeld an inch to any of them, which worthilie procured
him great enuie amongst the chéefest péeres of all the realme, as sir
Henrie Lacie earle of Lincolne, sir Guie earle of Warwike, and sir
Aimer de Valence earle of Penbroke, the earles of Glocester, Hereford,
Arundell, and others, which vpon such wrath and displeasure as they
had conceiued against him, thought it not conuenient to suffer the
same any longer, in hope that the kings mind might happilie be altered
into a better purpose, being not altogither conuerted into a venemous
disposition, but so that it might be cured, if the corrupter thereof
were once banished from him.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: C[=o]ntinuati[=o] of _N. Triuet._]

Herevpon they assembled togither in the parlement time, at the new
temple, on saturdaie next before the feast of saint Dunstan, and there
ordeined that the said Péers should abiure the realme, and depart the
same on the morrow after the Natiuitie of saint Iohn Baptist at the
furthest, and not to returne into the same againe at any time then
after to come. To this ordinance the king (although against his will)
bicause he saw himselfe and the realme in danger, gaue his consent, and
made his letters patents to the said earles and lords, to witnesse the

The tenour of the kings letters patents.

Notum vobis facimus per præsentes, quòd amodò vsque ad diem dominus
Petrus de Gaueston regnum nostrum est abiuraturus & exiturus, videlicet
in crastino natiuitatis S. Iohannis Baptistæ proximo sequenti: nos
in quantum nobis est nihil faciemus, nec aliquid fieri permittemus,
per quod exilium dicti domini Petri in aliquo poterit impediri, vel
protelari, quin secundum formam à prælatis, comitibus, & baronibus
regni nostri, ordinatam, & per nos libero consensu confirmatam,
plenariè perficiatur. In cuius rei testimonium has literas nostras
fieri fecimus patentes. Datum apud Westm. 18 die Maij. Anno regni
nostri primo.

       *       *       *       *       *

These letters were read, heard, and allowed in the presence of all the
Noble men of this land, the day and yeare abouesaid. ¶ The archbishop
of Canturburie, being latelie returned from Rome, where he had remained
in exile in the late deceassed kings daies for a certeine time, did
pronounce the said Péers accursed, if he taried within the realme
longer than the appointed time, and likewise all those that should aid,
helpe or mainteine him, as also if he should at any time hereafter
returne againe into the land.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 2.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall banished the realme. The kings fauour
towards the earle of Cornwall.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall deputie of Ireland.]

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marle._]

To conclude, this matter was so followed, that at length he was
constreined to withdraw himselfe to Bristow, and so by sea as a
banished man to saile into Ireland.

The king being sore offended herewith, as he that fauoured the earle
more than that he could be without his companie, threatned the lords
to be reuenged for this displeasure, and ceassed not to send into
Ireland vnto Péers, comforting him both with fréendlie mesages, and
rich presents, and as it were to shew that he meant to reteine him
still in his fauour, he made him ruler of Ireland as his deputie there.
A wonderfull matter that the king should be so inchanted with the said
earle, and so addict himselfe, or rather fix his hart vpon a man of
such a corrupt humor, against whome the heads of the noblest houses in
the land were bent to deuise his ouerthrow: but the lesse maruell it is
that the king bare him such a feruant affection, and set his hart vpon
him, considering that

    ---- vetus autorum sententia, mores
    Quòd similes, simile & studium sunt fomes amoris,
    Sic vanus vanum, studiosus sic studiosum
    Diligit, & socios adeunt animalia coetus.

[Sidenote: 1309.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 3.]

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marle._]

The lords perceiuing the kings affection, and that the treasure was
spent as lauishlie as before, thought with themselues that it might be
that the king would both amend his passed trade of life, and that Péers
being restored home, would rather aduise him thereto, than follow his
old maners, considering that it might be well perceiued, that if he
continued in the incouraging of the king to lewdnesse, as in times past
he had doone, he could not thinke but that the lords would be readie
to correct him, as by proofe he had now tried their meanings to be no
lesse. Herevpon to reteine amitie, as was thought on both sides, Péers
by consent of the lords was restored home againe (the king méeting him
at Chester) to his great comfort and reioising for the time, although
the malice of the lords was such, that such ioy lasted not long.

[Sidenote: 1310.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 4.]

[Sidenote: The addition to _Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall placed in Bambourgh castell.]

In the fourth yeare of king Edward was a councell holden at London
against the templers, the which councell indured from the beginning of
Maie, till Iune. In this councell they confessed the fame, but not the
fact of the crimes laid to their charge, except two or thrée ribalds
that were amongst them: but bicause they could not cleare themselues,
they were adiudged vnto perpetuall penance within certeine monasteries.
The king this yeare fearing the enuie of the lords against Péers de
Gaueston, placed him for his more safetie in Bambourgh castell, bearing
the prelats and lords in hand, that he had committed him there to
prison for their pleasures.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

This yeare also there were ordinances made for the state and
gouernement of the realme, by the prelats, earles and barons, which
were confirmed with the sentence of excommunication against all them
that should go about to breake the same. The king neither allowed of
them nor obserued them, although he had confirmed them with his seale,
and sent them to all cathedrall churches and counties, to be registered
in perpetuall memorie thereof. The king indéed was lewdlie led, for
after that the earle of Cornewall was returned into England, he shewed
himselfe no changeling (as writers doo affirme) but through support
of the kings fauour, bare himselfe so high in his doings, which were
without all good order, that he séemed to disdaine all the péeres &
barons of the realme. Also after the old sort he prouoked the king to
all naughtie rule and riotous demeanour, and hauing the custodie of the
kings iewels and treasure, he tooke out of the iewell-house a table, &
a paire of trestels of gold, which he deliuered vnto a merchant called
Aimerie de Friscobald, commanding him to conueie them ouer the sea
into Gascoine. This table was iudged of the common people, to belong
sometime vnto king Arthur, and therefore men grudged the more that the
same should thus be sent out of the realme.

[Sidenote: 1311.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. Southw._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 5.]

[Sidenote: Berwike fortified.]

[Sidenote: The king entred into Scotland.]

The king this yeare raised a great power to go into Scotland. And about
the feast of the Assumption of our ladie, hauing with him Péers de
Gaueston earle of Cornewall, and the earles of Glocester and Warren, he
came to Berwike, which towne he caused to be fortified with a strong
wall, and a mightie déepe ditch, and although the other earles would
not come to serue him in that voiage, by reason of a new variance
risen amongst them, yet he marched foorth into Scotland, to séeke his
aduersarie Robert le Bruce: but Robert refusing the battell, kept
him foorth of the waie, so that the king was driuen to returne to
Berwike againe, without méeting with his enimie. And he was no sooner
come backe, but the said Robert and his people entred into Louthian,
sore molesting such as were yéelded to the king of England. The
king aduertised thereof, followed them, but could doo no good, & so
returned. The earle of Cornewall laie at Rockesbourgh, and the earle of
Glocester at Norham to defend those parts. After Candlemasse, the king
sent the earle of Cornewall, with two hundred men of armes to S. Iohns
towne, beyond the Scotish sea, who receiued to the kings peace all
those that inhabited beyond that sea vp to the mounteins. The king laie
still at Berwike, but the earles of Glocester and Warren, after the
beginning of Lent, rode into the forest of Solkirke, and receiued the
foresters & other the inhabitants there to the kings peace. ¶ In this
fift yeare of the kings reigne, but somwhat before this present, in the
yeare 1310, Henrie Lacie earle of Lincolne gouernour of England in the
kings absence departed this life, in whose place the earle of Glocester
was chosen gouernour, and therefore he returned now into England. This
earle of Lincolne was buried in the new worke at Paules. Lieng on his
death bed, he requested (as was reported) Thomas earle of Lancaster,
who had married his daughter, that in any wise he should stand with
the other lords in defense of the commonwelth, and to mainteine his
quarell against the earle of Cornewall, which request earle Thomas
faithfullie accomplished: for by the pursute of him, and of the earle
of Warwike chéefelie, the said earle of Cornewall was at length taken
and beheaded (as after shall appeare.) Some write that king Edward the
first vpon his death-bed, charged the earles of Lincolne, Warwike,
and Penbroke, to foresée that the foresaid Péers returned not againe
into England, least by his euill example he might induce his sonne the
prince to lewdnesse, as before he had alreadie doone.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marley._]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall banished into Flanders.]

Thomas earle of Lancaster came towards Berwike, to doo homage to the
king for the earledome of Lincolne fallen to him in right of his wife,
now after the deceasse of hir father the late earle of Lincolne. But
he was counselled not to go foorth of the realme to the king, so that
therevpon rose no small displeasure, and great doubt least there
would haue followed ciuill warres about it. Neuerthelesse, at length
the king was persuaded to come ouer the water vnto Hagerston, foure
miles distant from Berwike, and there receiued homage of the earle,
and so they continued fréends, and for that time departed asunder
in louing maner. The lords perceiuing the mischéefe that dailie
followed and increased by that naughtie man (as they tooke it) the
earle of Cornewall, assembled at Lincolne, and there tooke counsell
togither, and concluded eftsoones to banish him out of the realme,
and so therevpon shortlie after, about Christmasse (as some write) or
rather, as other haue, within the quindene of saint Michaell, he was
exiled into Flanders, sore against the kings will and pleasure, who
made such account of him, that (as appeared) he could not be quiet in
mind without his companie, & therefore about Candlemasse he eftsoones
reuoked him home.

[Sidenote: 1312.]

[Sidenote: Maister _Fox._]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall taken.]

But he being nothing at all amended of those his euill manners, rather
demeaned himselfe woorse than before he had doone, namelie towards
the lords, against whom vsing reprochfull spéech, he called the earle
of Glocester bastard, the earle of Lincolne latlie deceased bursten
bellie, the earle of Warwike the blacke hound of Arderne, and the earle
of Lancaster churle. Such lords and other more that were thus abused
at this earle of Cornewals hands, determined to be reuenged vpon him,
and to dispatch the realme of such a wicked person: and therevpon
assembling their powers togither, came towards Newcastell, whither the
king from Yorke was remooued, and now hearing of their approch, he
got him to Tinmouth, where the quéene laie, and vnderstanding there
that Newcastell was taken by the lords, he leauing the quéene behind
him, tooke shipping, and sailed from thence with his dearelie belooued
familiar the earle of Cornewall, vnto Scarbourgh, where he left him in
the castell, and rode himselfe towards Warwike. The lords hearing where
the earle of Cornewall was, made thither with all spéed, and besieging
the castell, at length constreined their enimie to yéeld himselfe into
their hands, requiring no other condition, but that he might come to
the kings presence to talke with him.

[Sidenote: The kings request for his life.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroks suit to the other lords.]

The king hearing that his best beloued familiar was thus apprehended,
sent to the lords, requiring them to spare his life, and that he might
be brought to his presence, promising withall that he would sée them
fullie satisfied in all their requests against him. Wherevpon the
earle of Penbroke persuaded with the barons to grant to the kings
desire, vndertaking vpon forfeiture of all that he had, to bring him
to the king and backe againe to them, in such state and condition as
he receiued him. When the barons had consented to his motion, he tooke
the earle of Cornewall with him to bring him where the king laie, and
comming to Dedington, left him there in safe kéeping with his seruants,
whilest he for one night went to visit his wife, lieng not farre from

[Sidenote: Continuation of _Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Gauers heath or Gauersuch. The earle of Cornewall beheaded.]

The same night it chanced, that Guie erle of Warwike came to the verie
place where the erle of Cornewall was left, and taking him from his
kéepers, brought him vnto Warwike, where incontinentlie it was thought
best to put him to death, but that some doubting the kings displeasure,
aduised the residue to staie; and so they did, till at length an
ancient graue man amongst them exhorted them to vse the occasion now
offered, and not to let slip the meane to deliuer the realme of such
a dangerous person, that had wrought so much mischéefe, and might
turne them all to such perill, as afterwards they should not be able
to auoid, nor find shift how to remedie it. And thus persuaded by his
words, they caused him streitwaies to be brought foorth to a place
called Blackelow, otherwise named by most writers, Gauerslie heath,
where he had his head smitten from his shoulders, the twentith day of
Iune being tuesdaie. A iust reward for so scornefull and contemptuous
a merchant, as in respect of himselfe (bicause he was in the princes
fauour) estéemed the Nobles of the land as men of such inferioritie,
as that in comparison of him they deserued no little iot or mite of
honour. But lo the vice of ambition, accompanied with a rable of other
outrages, euen a reprochfull end, with an euerlasting marke of infamie,
which he pulled by violent meanes on himselfe with the cords of his
owne lewdnesse, and could not escape this fatall fall: for

    Ad mala patrata sunt atra theatra parata.

[Sidenote: The kings displeasure.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 6.]

[Sidenote: K. Edward ye third borne.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The Spensers.]

When the king had knowledge hereof, he was woonderfullie displeased
with those lords that had thus put the said earle vnto death, making
his vow that he would sée his death reuenged, so that the rancour
which before was kindled betwixt the king and those lords, began
now to blase abroad, and spred so farre, that the king euer sought
occasion how to worke them displeasure. This yeare, the thirtéenth of
Nouember, the kings eldest sonne named Edward (which succéeded his
father in the kingdome by the name of Edward the third) was borne at
Windsore. King Edward now after that the foresaid Piers Gaueston the
earle of Cornewall was dead, nothing reformed his maners, but as one
that detested the counsell and admonition of his Nobles, chose such to
be about him, and to be of his priuie councell, which were knowne to
be men of corrupt and most wicked liuing (as the writers of that age
report) amongst these were two of the Spensers, Hugh the father, and
Hugh the sonne, which were notable instruments to bring him vnto the
liking of all kind of naughtie and euill rule.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The L. Hugh Spenser the sonne at the first not fauored of
the K.]

By the counsell therefore of these Spensers, he was wholie lead and
gouerned: wherewith manie were much offended, but namelie Robert the
archbishop of Canturburie, who foresaw what mischéefe was like to
insue: and therefore to prouide some remedie in time, he procured that
a parlement was called at London. In the which manie good ordinances
and statutes were deuised and established, to oppresse the riots,
misgouernance, and other mischéefes which as then were vsed: and to
kéepe those ordinances, the king first, and after his lords receiued a
solemne oth, that in no wise neither he nor they should breake them.
By this means was the state of the realme newlie restored, and new
councellours placed about the king. But he neither regarding what he
had sworne, neither weieng the force of an oth, obserued afterwards
none of those things, which by his oth he had bound himselfe to
obserue. And no maruell: for suerlie (as it should séeme by report
of Thomas de la More) the lords wrested him too much, and beyond the
bounds of reason, causing him to receiue to be about him whome it
pleased them to appoint. For the yoonger Spenser, who in place of the
earle of Cornwall was ordeined to be his chamberleine, it was knowne
to them well inough, that the king bare no good will at all to him at
the first, though afterwards through the prudent policie, and diligent
industrie of the man, he quicklie crept into his fauour, and that
further than those that preferred him could haue wished.

[Sidenote: Continuation of _Triuet._]

[Sidenote: 1313.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Whitherne consecrated at Yorke by the bishop
of Carleill.]

But now to our purpose. About the same time, to wit, vpon the eleauenth
of Maie, the aforesaid Robert archbishop of Canturburie departed this
life, ninetéene yeares after his first entrance into the gouernment of
that sée. After him was Walter bishop of Worcester translated vnto the
sée of Canturburie, and was the nine and fortith archbishop that had
ruled the same. ¶ Also William the archbishop of Yorke deceassed, and
one William Melton succéeded him the two & fortith archbishop that had
gouerned that sée. This archbishop Melton, though he was most studious
of things perteining to religion, bestowing almost his whole time
about the same, yet neuerthelesse he was not forgetfull of that which
belonged to the aduancement of the common-wealth, and therefore being
at London vpon a time, Simon the elect bishop of Whitherne came to
Yorke, that he might be consecrated of him: wherefore this archbishop
gaue commandement to Iohn the bishop of Carleill, to consecrate the
said Simon, and in his name to receiue of him his oth of obedience,
which commandement the said bishop of Carleill did dulie execute.

[Sidenote: Continuation of _Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 7.]

[Sidenote: _Record. Tur._]

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marle._]

[Sidenote: Mariages.]

[Sidenote: 1314.]

[Sidenote: The successe of Robert Bruce.]

The king and quéene this yeare in Maie went ouer into France, where
they were present in Paris on Whitsundaie at the coronation of Philip
sonne to the French king, created that day king of Nauarre. ¶ Iohn
de Drokensford bishop of Bath and Welles was appointed warden of the
realme till the kings returne. In Iulie the king returned backe from
his iournie into France, and landed at Sandwich the mondaie before
the feast of S. Margaret, hauing dispatched his businesse with the
French king in good and honorable maner, for his lands and countrie of
Gascoine. ¶ About this season Maurice fitz Thomas, and Thomas fitz Iohn
maried two sisters that were daughters to Richard earle of Vlnester. In
this meane time, Robert Bruce recouered the most part of all Scotland,
winning out of the Englishmens hands such castels as they held within
Scotland, chasing all the souldiers which laie there in garrison, out
of the countrie, and subduing such of the Scots as held on the English

[Sidenote: The king of England passeth into Scotland.]

[Sidenote: The English men chased.]

King Edward to be reuenged herof, with a mightie armie brauelie
furnished, and gorgiouslie apparelled, more séemelie for a triumph,
than méet to incounter with the cruell enimie in the field, entred
Scotland, in purpose speciallie to rescue the castell of Sterling, as
then besieged by the Scotishmen. But at his approching néere to the
same, Robert Bruce was readie with his power to giue him battell. In
the which king Edward nothing doubtfull of losse, had so vnwiselie
ordered his people, and confounded their ranks, that euen at the
first ioining, they were not onelie beaten downe and ouerthrowne, by
those that coped with them at hand, but also were wounded with shot a
farre off, by those their enimies which stood behind to succour their
fellowes when néed required, so that in the end the Englishmen fled
to saue their liues, and were chased and slaine by the Scots in great

[Sidenote: The king escapeth. The battell of Banokesborne.]

The king escaped with a few about him, in great danger to haue béene
either taken or slaine. Manie were drowned in a little riuer called
Banokesborne, néere to the which the battell was foughten. There were
slaine of noble men, Gilbert earle of Glocester, Robert lord Clifford,
the lord Giles Argentine, the lord Paine Tiptost, the lord William
Marshall, the lord Reginald Daincourt, the lord Edmund of Mauley the
kings steward, with other lords and barons to the number of 42, and of
knights and baronets to the number of 67.

[Sidenote: The great slaughter of Englishmen.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Croxden._]

[Sidenote: Addition to _Triuet_ and _Matth. Paris._]

There were slaine of all sorts vpon the English part that daie about
ten thousand men, ouer and beside the prisoners that were taken.
Amongst the which were accounted 22 men of name, as the earle of
Hereford, the lord Iohn Segraue, William lord Latimer, Maurice lord
Berkley, and others. He that listeth to heare more of this discomfiture
may read thereof further at large in the Scotish historie.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 8.]

[Sidenote: A councell holden at Yorke. Sir Peter Spalding.]

[Sidenote: 1315.]

[Sidenote: The Scots in Ireland.]

The king of England hauing escaped from this battell, which was fought
on Midsummer day in the yéere aforesaid, came to Yorke, where he held
a councell of his lords, to haue their aduise by what means he might
best restore his armie, and reuenge the losse which he had susteined
at the hands of his enimie R. Bruce. And shortlie after was sir Peter
Spalding sent vnto Berwike, with a crew of souldiers to defend the
towne against the said Bruce, who intended shortlie to laie siege to
that towne, as the king had certeine vnderstanding. Also the Scotishmen
aduanced highlie in their minds for the late gotten victorie, passed
ouer into Ireland, vnder the conduct of Edward Bruce, the brother of
Robert Bruce, sore afflicting that countrie, by spoile, sword, and
fire: the villages were robbed, the townes and castels which they wan
were sacked, and after fired, so vtterlie to deface them.

[Sidenote: The lord Berminghâ.]

[Sidenote: Great slaughter of Scots in Ireland.]

The Irishmen being put in great feare herewith, assembled togither, and
ioined themselues with such Englishmen as laie there in garrisons, ouer
the which the lord Iohn Bermingham as deputie had the chéefe charge.
Thus being ioined togither, they made earnest resistance against the
attempts of their enimies in defense of the countrie. And so by that
means they warred and fought one against an other, with great slaughter
on both sides, the Scotishmen on their part dooing their best to
obteine the gouernement of the countrie, hauing alreadie obteined no
small portion thereof, and created Edward Bruce king there; and the
Irishmen on the other part, inforcing their whole indeuor to beat the
enimie backe, and to rid him out of the countrie. But at length the
inuincible obstinatnesse of the Irishmen preuailed, through aid of the
Englishmen (as after shall appeare.) Neuerthelesse in the meane while,
as some English chronicles make mention, there died of the Scots in
these warres to the number of thirtie thousand, and aboue fiftéene
thousand Irishmen.

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southw._]

[Sidenote: The bishoprike of Durham spoiled by the Scots.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.]

[Sidenote: Rob. Bruce inuadeth England.]

[Sidenote: Carleill beseiged.]

[Sidenote: The siege raised.]

The Scots not onelie thus inuaded Ireland, but also continued their
rage against England. For the same yeare about the feast of Peter
and Paule, they entered into the bishoprike of Durham, & spoiled the
countrie vnto Hartilpoole, which towne they robbed of all the goods
which they there found, the inhabitants being fled with their ships
to the sea. About Maudelentide following, the king of Scots entred
England with a mightie armie on the west borders, and comming to
Carleill besieged the citie, remaining before it ten daies, but they
within so valiantlie defended themselues and their wals, that the
Scots lost more than they wan, sauing that during their abode at this
siege, they robbed and wasted the countries of Allerdale, Copeland,
and Westmerland. The 11 day after their comming thither, when they
had assaied all their force and policie to win the citie, and saw
themselues nothing to preuaile, but to lose their men and trauell, they
raised their field, and returned into Scotland with dishonor, leauing
behind them all their engines of warre, so that besides the dishonour
which he susteined by the repulse, in lieu of lucre he suffered losse,
and therefore this lesson by exemplification would be learned and
practised, that

    Res bene quisque gerens lucra fit inde ferens.

[Sidenote: Iohn de Murrey taken.]

Now as they went their waie, certeine Englishmen following them, tooke
Iohn de Murrey, who in the battell of Striueling had for his part 13
English knights prisoners, beside esquiers and others. They tooke also
with him one Robert Berdolfe a great enimie of the Englishmen.

[Sidenote: Great raine.]

[Sidenote: Iohn of Eltham borne.]

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marle._]

[Sidenote: Dundalke burnt.]

[Sidenote: The battell of Comeran.]

This yeare there fell excéeding great raine and abundance of wet, in
the moneths of Iulie and August, that the husbandmen of the countrie
could not get in that small crop which then stood on the ground, and
that which they inned, yéelded not the hoped quantitie, as when it came
to the threshing well appeared. ¶ On the day of the Assumption of our
ladie, Iohn the kings second sonne was borne at Eltham. ¶ A knight of
Lancashire called sir Adam Banister raised war in this yeare of king
Edwards reigne, against his lord the earle of Lancaster; but about the
feast of saint Martine he was taken and beheaded. ¶ Also this yeare,
Edward de Bruce brother to the king of Scots, entred into the north
parts of Vlnester with a great armie, vpon the day of S. Augustine in
Maie, and afterwards burnt Dundalke, and a great part of Argile. The
Irishmen also burnt the church of Athird. Moreouer in the battell of
Comeran in Vlnester, Richard earle of Vlnester fled, and sir Richard
Bourgh, & sir Iohn Mandeuile, and sir Alane fitz Waren were taken
prisoners. The castell of Norbrough was also taken, & at Kenils in Meth
the lord Roger Mortimer was discomfited by the foresaid Edward Bruce,
and manie of the said sir Rogers men were slaine and taken.

[Sidenote: A blasing star dearth and death. The decease of Guie earle
of Warwike.]

[Sidenote: _Croxden._]

[Sidenote: 1316.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

Also in the ninth yeare of king Edwards reigne, before Christmasse, a
blasing starre or comet appeared in the north part of the element, by
the space of a moneth togither, and after followed dearth and death (as
after shall appeare.) Guie earle of Warwike, a man of great counsell
and skilfull prouidence, departed this life this yeare, and was buried
at the abbeie of Bordisley. ¶ About Midsummer the Scots eftsoones
entred into England, dooing much mischéefe with fire and sword, in
like sort as they had vsed to doo before time, not sparing (as some
write) so much as those houses wherin women laie in childbed. At their
comming to Richmond, the gentlemen of the countrie that were got into
the castell to defend it, compounded with the enimies for a great summe
of monie, to spare the towne and countrie about it, without dooing
further damage thereto at that iournie.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.]

[Sidenote: The dearth increased.]

The Scots hauing receiued the monie, turned their march toward the west
parts, and iournieng thréescore miles, came to Fourneis, burning all
the countrie thereabouts, and tooke awaie with them all the goods and
prisoners, both men and women which they might laie hands on, and so
returned, reioising most of such iron as they had got in that iournie,
for they had great want in Scotland of that kind of metall in those
daies. The dearth by reason of the vnseasonable weather in the summer
and haruest last past still increased, for that which with much adoo
was inned, after when it came to the proofe, yéelded nothing to the
value of that which in sheafe it séemed to conteine, so that wheat
and other graine which was at a sore price before, now was inhanced
to a farre higher rate, the scarsitie thereof being so great, that
a quarter of wheat was sold for fortie shillings, which was a great
price, if we shall consider the allaie of monie then currant. ¶ Also by
reason of the murren that fell among cattell, béefes and muttons were
vnresonablie priced.

[Sidenote: The lord Beaumont discomfited.]

[Sidenote: 1317.]

[Sidenote: Lewes Beaumont taken by sir Gilbert Middleton.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: Sir Gilbert Middleton proclaimeth himselfe duke.]

About this season, the lord Henrie Beaumont a man of high valiancie
and noble courage, hauing gotten togither a power of men, entred
into Scotland, and after he had taken great booties and spoiles in
the countrie, he being intrapped by sir Iames Dowglas, lost the most
part of his men, togither with the prey which they had gotten. The
displeasure of these mishaps was increased with the naughtie and
bold presumption of sir Gilbert Middleton knight, who being offended
that maister Lewes Beaumont was preferred vnto the bishops sée of
Durham, and Henrie Stamford put from it, that was first elected and
after displaced by the kings suit made vnto the pope, tooke the said
Lewes Beaumont and his brother Henrie on Winglesdon moore néere
vnto Darington, leading the bishop to Morpath, and his brother the
lord Beaumont vnto the castell of Mitford, and so deteined them as
prisoners, till they had redéemed their libertie with great sums
of monie. Herewith the said sir Gilbert being aduanced in pride,
proclaimed himselfe duke of Northumberland, and ioining in fréendship
with Robert Bruce the Scotish king, cruellie destroied the countie of
Richmond. With such traitorous parts William Felton, and Thomas Heton,
being not a little stirred, first wan by force the castell of Mitford,
and after apprehended sir Gilbert Middleton, with his companion Walter
Selbie, and sent them vp to London, where shortlie after they were
drawne, hanged and quartered.

[Sidenote: Gancellino and Flisco cardinals.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The cursse pronounced against the Scots.]

Some write that the said sir Gilbert was put to death for robbing
two cardinals, to wit, Gancellino the popes chancellour, and Lucas
de Flisco, that were sent from pope Iohn the two and twentith, to
consecrate the foresaid Lewes Beaumont bishop of Durham, and to intreat
a peace betwixt the realms of England and Scotland, and also to make an
agréement betwixt the king and the earle of Lancaster. The which being
met with vpon Winglesdon moore in Yorkeshire by the said Gilbert, were
robbed of such stuffe & treasure as they brought with them, but yet
escaped themselues and came to Durham, and from thence sent messengers
to Robert Bruce, to persuade him to some agréement. But whereas he
would not condescend to any reasonable conditions of peace at that
time, they determined to go into Scotland to talke with him themselues:
but before they came to the borders, king Robert, who iudged it not to
stand with his profit to haue any peace in that season, sent certeine
of his people to forbid the cardinals the entrie of his realme. The
cardinals being thus iniuriouslie handled, pronounced the Scots by
their legantine power accursed; and interdicted their whole realme.
And bicause they saw nothing lesse than any hope to doo good with king
Robert touching any composition or agréement to be had, they returned
againe to the pope, without any conclusion of that for the which they
were sent.

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

After that Edward Bruce had atchiued such enterprises in other parts
of Ireland, as in the last yéere yée haue heard, he went vnto Fenath,
and to Skeres in Leinister, and there the lord chéefe iustice Edmund
Butler rose against him, with the lord Iohn fitz Thomas, that was after
erle of Kildare, sir Arnold Power, and diuerse other, with a great
armie. But by reason of discord that chanced amongst them, they scaled
their armie, and departed out of the field on the 26 daie of Februarie.
Edward Bruce then burned the castell of Leis, and after returning into
Vlnester, he besieged the castell of Knockfergus, and slue Thomas
Mandeuile, and his brother Iohn, at a place called Down, as they came
thither out of England. After this the foresaid Edward returned into

[Sidenote: A pitiful famine.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: A sore mortalitie of people.]

In this season vittels were so scant and déere, and wheat and other
graine brought to so high a price, that the poore people were
constreined thorough famine to eat the flesh of horsses, dogs, and
other vile beasts, which is woonderfull to beléeue, and yet for default
there died a great multitude of people in diuers places of the land.
Foure pence in bread of the courser sort would not suffice one man a
daie. Wheat was sold at London for foure marks the quarter and aboue.
Then after this dearth and scarsitie of vittels insued a great death
and mortalitie of people, so that what by warre of the Scots, and what
by this mortalitie and death, the people of the land were woonderfullie
wasted and consumed. O pitifull depopulation!

Edward Bruce before the feast of Easter returned againe into Ireland,
with the earle of Murrey and other noble men of Scotland, hauing with
them a great armie, and besieged the castell of Knockfergus, and after
they went to another castell where they tooke a baron prisoner: & there
Edward Bruce laie for a season. Also Richard earle of Vlnester lay in
saint Maries abbie by Dublin, where the maior and communaltie of the
citie tooke him, and put him in prison within the castell of Dublin.
They also slue his men, and spoiled the abbie. After this the foresaid
Edward Bruce went to Limerike, after the feast of saint Matthew the
apostle, and there soiourned till Easter was past.

[Sidenote: Iohn fitz Thomas erle of Kildare.]

[Sidenote: _Croxden._]

In the meane while Roger de Mortimer the kings deputie arriued at
Waterford with a great armie, by reason whereof Edward le Bruce for
feare departed, and got him into the vttermost parts of Vlnester, and
Iohn fitz Thomas was made earle of Kildare. Also Occoner of Conneigh,
and manie other Irishmen of Connagh and Meth were slaine néere to Aurie
by the Englishmen of those parts. There was a great slaughter also made
of the Irishmen néere vnto Thistildermote, by the lord Edmund Butler,
and an other also at Baliteham of Omorth by the same Edmund. The lord
deputie deliuered the earle of Vlnester out of prison, and after
Whitsuntide banished out of Meth sir Walter Lacie, and sir Hugh Lacie,
giuing their lands awaie from them vnto his knights, and they went ouer
into Scotland with Edward Bruce, who returned thither about that time.
The death still increased as by some writers it should appeare.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 11.]

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southwell._]

[Sidenote: 1318.]

[Sidenote: Berwike betraied to the Scots. Castels woon by the Scots.]

[Sidenote: Northalerton and Bourghbridge burnt.]

In the eleuenth yeare of king Edward the second his reigne, vpon the
saturdaie night before Midlent sundaie, the towne of Berwike was
betraied to the Scots, through the treason of Peter Spalding. The
castell held good tacke a while, till for want of vittels they within
were constreined to deliuer it into the Scotishmens hands, who wan
also the same time the castell of Harbotell, Werke, and Medford, so
that they possessed the more part of all Northumberland, euen vnto
Newcastell vpon Tine, sauing that certeine other castels were defended
against them. In Maie they entred with an armie further into the land,
burning all the countrie before them, till they came to Ripon, which
towne they spoiled, and tarieng there thrée daies, they receiued a
thousand marks of those that were got into the church, and defended it
against them, for that they should spare the towne, and not put it to
the fire, as they had alreadie doone the townes of Northalerton and
Bourghbridge as they came forwards. In their going backe they burnt
Knaresbourgh, and Skipton in Crauen, which they had first sacked, and
so passing through the middest of the countrie, burning and spoiling
all before them, they returned into Scotland with a maruellous great
multitude of cattell, beside prisoners, men and women, and no small
number of poore people, which they tooke with them to helpe to driue
the cattell.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 12.]

[Sidenote: Additions to _Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The king & the earle of Lancaster made friends.]

[Sidenote: Rob. Bruce pronounced accursed.]

In the 12 yeare of Edward the seconds reigne, in August, the king
and the earle of Lancaster came to talke togither in a plaine beside
Leicester, where they were made fréends to the outward shew, so that
in the yeare next following, the said earle went with the king to
the siege of Berwike. About the feast of the Natiuitie of our ladie,
the two cardinals, which were yet remaining in England, sent foorth
commandements vnto all the prelats and priests within the realme,
that thrée times in euerie solemne masse, they should denounce Robert
Bruce that called himselfe king of Scotland accursed, with all his
councellors and fautors, and on the behalfe of the pope, they depriued
him by denunciation of all honour, and put all his lands vnder
interdiction, disabling all their children [to the second degrée]
that held with him, as vnworthie & vnfit to receiue or take vpon them
any ecclesiasticall function. They denounced also all the prelats of
Scotland and men of religion, exempt, and not exempt, excommunicate and

[Sidenote: _Hen. Marl._]

[Sidenote: _Th. Walsing._]

[Sidenote: Continuation of _Triuet._]

The lord Roger Mortimer returned againe into England, and Alexander
Bicnor was made chéefe iustice of Ireland. ¶ Also Edward Bruce, with
sir Walter and sir Hugh Lacie, bringing with them a great armie,
returned out of Scotland, and arriued at Dundalke, on the day of saint
Calixt the pope. But néere to the same place sir Iohn Brimingham,
Richard Tute, and Miles of Verdon, with a power of 1324 men incountred
them, and slue the said Edward le Bruce, and aboue the number of 8200
men, or (as other haue) but 5800. The said sir Iohn Birmingham brought
the head of Edward le Bruce ouer into England, and presented it to the
king. Wherevpon the king in recompense of his seruice, gaue vnto him
the earledome of Louth, to hold to him and his heires males, and the
baronie of Athird to him and his heires generall.

About this season, or somewhat before, about Midsummer (as Southwell
saith) a naughtie fellow called Iohn Poidras, or (as some books haue)
Ponderham, a tanners son of Excester comming to Oxford, and there
thrusting himselfe into the kings hall that stood without the wals,
gaue foorth that he was sonne and right heire of king Edward the first,
and that by means of a false nursse he was stolne out of his cradle,
and this Edward the second being a carters son was brought in and laid
in his place, so that he by reason thereof was afterwards hardlie
fostered and brought vp in the north part of Wales. At length being
laid for, he fled to the church of the white friers in Oxford, trusting
there to be safe through the immunitie of the place, bicause king
Edward the first was their founder. But when he could not kéepe his
toong, but still fondlie vttered his follie, and stood in his opinion,
so that great rumor thereof was raised, he was at length taken out of
that church, & caried to Northampton, where he was there arreigned,
condemned, and had foorth to a place in the countrie called the copped
oke, where he was drawne, hanged, and as a traitour bowelled. At the
houre of his death he confessed, that in his house he had a spirit in
likenesse of a cat, which amongst other things assured him that he
should be king of England.

[Sidenote: 1319.]

[Sidenote: Murren of cattell.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 13.]

[Sidenote: The king goeth to Berwike. The Scots come into the parts of

In this season, to wit, in the yeare 1319, a great murreine and death
of cattell chanced through the whole realme, spreading from place to
place, but speciallie this yeare it reigned in the north, where as in
the yeares before it began in the south parts. The king desirous to be
reuenged of the Scots, made preparation to leuie a mightie armie; and
for want of sufficient numbers of men in other places towards the north
parts, the king caused much people to come vnto him out of the south
and east parts of the realme, amongst the which the citie of London was
constreined to find at their costs and charges two hundred men, sending
them to Yorke, where the generall assemblie of the armie was made. From
thence, after he had receiued his men from sundrie countries and good
townes of his realme, he went to Berwike, & laid siege to the towne. In
which meane time the Scots being assembled, came to the borders, passed
by the English host, and entring into England, came in secréet wise
downe into the marches of Yorkeshire, and there slue the people, and
robbed them in most cruell wise.

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: The discomfiture of Mitton vpon Suale.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Wherefore the archbishop of Yorke, meaning in time of such necessitie
to doo his indeuour in defense of his countrie, assembled such power
as he could get togither, of clearkes, moonks, canons, and other
spirituall men of the church, with husbandmen and such other vnapt
people for the warres: and thus with a great number of men and few
warlike or discréet chéefeteins, he togither with the bishop of Elie,
as then lord chancellour, came foorth against the Scots, and incountred
with them at a place called Mitton vpon Suale, the twelfth day of
October. Here as the Englishmen passed ouer the water of Suale, the
Scots set fire vpon certeine stacks of haie, the smoke whereof was so
huge, that the Englishmen might not sée where the Scots laie. And when
the Englishmen were once got ouer the water, the Scots came vpon them
with a wing in good order of battell, in fashion like to a shéeld,
egerlie assailing their enimies, who for lacke of good gouernement
were easilie beaten downe and discomfited, without shewing any great
resistance: so that there were slaine to the number of two thousand and
the residue shamefullie put to flight.

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

The archbishop, the lord chancellor, and the abbat of Selbie, with
helpe of their swift horsses escaped, and diuerse other. The maior of
Yorke named Nicholas Fleming was slaine, & sir William Diremin préest
taken prisoner. Manie were drowned, by reason that the Scots had
gotten betwixt the Englishmen and the bridge, so that the Englishmen
fled betwixt that wing of the Scots and their maine battell, which had
compassed the Englishmen about on the one side, as the wing did vpon
the other. And bicause so manie spirituall men died in this battell, it
was after named of manie writers the white battell. The king of England
informed of this ouerthrow giuen by the Scots to the Northerne men, he
brake vp his siege incontinentlie, and returned to Yorke.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The enuie of the lords towards the Spensers.]

Thus all the kings exploits by one means or other quailed, and came
but to euill successe, so that the English nation began to grow in
contempt by the infortunate gouernment of the prince, the which as one
out of the right waie, rashlie and with no good aduisement ordered his
dooings, which thing so gréeued the noblemen of the realme, that they
studied day and night by what means they might procure him to looke
better to his office and dutie; which they iudged might well be brought
to passe, his nature being not altogither euill, if they might find
shift to remooue from him the two Spensers, Hugh the father, and Hugh
the sonne, who were gotten into such fauour with him, that they onelie
did all things, and without them nothing was doone, so that they were
now had in as great hatred and indignation (sith

    ---- liuor non déerit iniquus
    Dulcibus & lætis, qui fel confundat amarum)

both of the lords and commons, as euer in times past was Péers de
Gaueston the late earle of Cornwall. But the lords minded not so much
the destruction of these Spensers, but that the king ment as much their
aduancement, so that Hugh the sonne was made high chamberleine of
England, contrarie to the mind of all the noblemen, by reason whereof
he bare himselfe so hautie and proud, that no lord within the land
might gainsaie that which in his conceit séemed good.

[Sidenote: 1320.]

[Sidenote: Additions to _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: tenth of the ecclesiasticall liuings granted to the K.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 14.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: Scots eftsoons accursed.]

In this thirtéenth yeare of his reigne, in Iune king Edward went
ouer into France, where at Amiens he found the French king, of whome
he receiued the countie of Pontieu, which the said French king vpon
his comming to the crowne had seized into his hands, bicause the
king of England had not doone to him his homage due for the same.
Also this yeare the pope granted to the king of England the tenth of
ecclesiasticall reuenues for one yeare, as before that time he had
likewise doone. ¶ About this season, pope Iohn, being informed of the
great destruction and vnmercifull warre which the Scots made vpon
the Englishmen, and namelie for that they spared neither church nor
chapell, abbeie nor priorie, he sent a generall sentence vnder his
bulles of lead vnto the archbishop of Canturburie and Yorke, appointing
them that if Robert le Bruce the Scotish king would not recompense
king Edward for all such harmes as the realme of England had by him
susteined, and also make restitution of the goods that had béene
taken out of churches and monasteries, they should pronounce the same
sentence against him and his complices.

Wherevpon when the Scots tooke no regard to the popes admonition, the
archbishop procéeded to the pronouncing of the foresaid sentence, so
that Robert Bruce, Iames Dowglas, and Thomas Randulfe earle of Murrey,
and all other that kept him companie, or them in any wise mainteined,
were accurssed throughout England euerie day at masse thrée times.
Howbeit, this nothing holpe the matter, but put the king and the realme
to great cost and charge, and in the meane season the commons of the
realme were sore oppressed by sundrie waies and means, diuerse of them
lost their goods and possessions, being taken from them vpon surmised
and feined quarels, so that manie were vtterlie vndoone, and a few
singular and misordered persons were aduanced.

[Sidenote: 1321.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: The Scots inuade England.]

After the Epiphanie, when the truce failed betwixt the two realmes of
England and Scotland, an armie of Scots entred England, and came into
the bishoprike of Durham. The earle of Murrey staied at Darington,
but Iames Dowglas and the steward of Scotland went foorth to waste
the countrie, the one towards Hartlepoole and Cleueland, and other
towards Richmond: but they of the countie of Richmond (as before they
had doone) gaue a great summe of monie to saue their countrie from
inuasion. The Scots at that time remained within England by the space
of fiftéene daies or more. The knights and gentlemen of the north
parts did come vnto the earle of Lancaster that laie the same time at
Pomfret, offering to go foorth with him to giue the enimies battell, if
he would assist them: but the earle séemed that he had no lust to fight
in defense of his prince, that sought to oppresse him wrongfullie (as
he tooke it) and therefore he dissembled the matter, and so the Scots
returned at their pleasure without encounter.

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

[Sidenote: The chéefe cause of the variance betwixt ye lords and the

About this season, the lord William de Bruce that in the marches of
Wales enioied diuerse faire possessions to him descended from his
ancestors, but through want of good gouernement was run behind hand,
offered to sell a certeine portion of his lands called Gowers land
lieng in the marches there, vnto diuerse noble men that had their lands
adioining to the same, as to the earle of Hereford, and to the two
lords Mortimers, the vncle & nephue, albeit the lord Mowbraie that had
maried the onelie daughter and heire of the lord Bruce, thought verelie
in the end to haue had it, as due to his wife by right of inheritance.
But at length (as vnhap would) Hugh Spenser the yoonger lord
chamberleine, coueting that land (because it laie néere on each side to
other lands that he had in those parts) found such means through the
kings furtherance and helpe, that he went awaie with the purchase, to
the great displeasure of the other lords that had béene in hand to buie

Hereby such hartburning rose against the Spensers, that vpon complaint
made by the erle of Hereford vnto the earle of Lancaster, of their
presumptuous dealing, by ruling all things about the king as séemed
best to their likings, it was thought expedient by the said earles
that some remedie in time (if it were possible) should be prouided.
Wherevpon the said earls of Lancaster and Hereford, with the lords
Roger Tuchet, Roger Clifford, Iocelin Deieuille, Roger Bernsfield, the
two Mortimers, Roger the vncle and Roger the nephue, William de Sullie,
William de Elmbrige, Iohn Gifford of Brimesfield, and Henrie Tieis,
all barons; the which with diuerse other lords and knights, and men of
name, assembling togither at Shierborne in Elmedone, sware each of them
to stand by other, till they had amended the state of the realme. But
yet notwithstanding this their oth, the most part of them afterwards
forsaking the enterprise, submitted themselues to the king.

[Sidenote: The lords take armes vpon them against the Spensers.]

Neuerthelesse, whether for that the king by a proclamation set foorth
the sixtéenth of March, had commanded (as some write) that the lords
Mowbraie, Clifford, and Deieuille for disobeieng to make their
personall appearance before him, should auoid the land within ten
daies next insuing, or for that they meant with all spéed to put their
enterprise in execution, we find that the earle of Hereford, the lords
Mortimer, the vncle and nephue, the lord Roger Damorie, the lord Iohn
Mowbraie, the lord Hugh Audelie, and his sonne named also Hugh, the
lord Clifford, the lord Iohn Gifford of Brimesfield, the lord Morice
Berkeley, the lord Henrie Tieis, the lord Iohn Matrauers, with manie
other that were alied togither, hauing the consent also of the earle
of Lancaster, on the wednesdaie next after the feast of the Inuention
of the crosse, hauing with them to the number of eight hundred men of
armes, fiue hundred hoblers, and ten thousand men on foot, came with
the kings banner spread vnto Newport in Wenloks lands, where they tooke
the castell that belonged vnto the lord chamberleine Hugh Spenser the

[Sidenote: They inuade the Spensers lands.]

They also tooke Kaerdie, Kersillie, Lantrissane, Taluan, Lamblethian,
Kenefegis, Neoth, Drusselan, and Diuenor; part of his men which in
the foresaid places they found, they slue, as sir Iohn Iwain, and sir
Matthew de Gorges knights, with 15 other of his men that were Welshmen:
part they tooke and put them in prison, as sir Rafe or Randulfe de
Gorges being sore wounded, sir Philip Ioice, sir Iohn de Frissingfield,
sir Iohn de Dunstable, William de Dunstable, and manie other, of the
which the most part were put to their ransome. They tooke, spoiled
and destroied so much in value of his goods as amounted vnto two
thousand pounds. They tooke vp in such debts as were owing to him in
those parts, to the summe of thrée thousand pounds, and of his rents
to the value néere hand of a thousand pounds. They burnt 23 of his
manors which he had in those parts of Wales, with his barnes, and did
what hurt they could deuise, burning or taking awaie all his writings
and euidences. After they had remained 15 daies there, they came into
England, with the like force and disorder inuading his castels, manors
and possessions, so that the damage which they did here vnto the said
lord chamberleine, amounted to the value of ten thousand pounds.

[Sidenote: The king sendeth to the lords.]

[Sidenote: The lord Badelismere reuolteth to the side of the barons.]

The king aduertised of their dooings, sent vnto them the archbishop
of Canturburie, and the lord Bartholomew de Badelismere lord steward
of his house, to request them to desist and leaue off from such their
outragious dooings, and comming to the parlement which he had alreadie
summoned, they might put in their complaints and grieuances, & he would
sée that they should haue iustice, according as equitie should require.
The lord Badelismere forsaking the king, became one of the confederacie
with the barons, and so the archbish. was glad to returne alone,
leauing the L. Badelismere behind him, who sent the king word by the
archbishop, that till they had expelled the Spensers out of the realme,
they would not giue ouer their enterprise. On saint Barnabies day they
came to a manour of Hugh Spenser the father called Fasterne, in the
countie of Wiltshire, and spoiled the same with diuerse and manie other
manors, as well in Wiltshire, as else where, to wit, in Glocestershire,
Dorsetshire, Hamshire, Barkeshire, Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire,
Surrie, Cambridgeshire, Huntingtonshire, Leicestershire, Lincolnshire,
Chesshire, and Warwikeshire, making such hauocke of all such goods
or cattell as belonged to the said Hugh Spenser the father, that he
was thought to be indamaged to the value of thirtie thousand pounds,
burning his houses, beating, maiming and ransoming his men.

Furthermore not contented to spoile those places which belonged to
him, but hearing that in the abbeie of Stanlie he had laid vp monie
and euidences, they brake into that abbeie, and tooke out thereof a
thousand pounds in readie coine, beside euidences and writings, to the
indamaging of him to the value of six thousand pounds, and likewise
entring into the castell of Marleburgh, where the said Hugh Spenser
the father had laid vp in wooll to the number of 36 sacks, they tooke
the same and other of his goods, as well in plate as apparell, to the
value in all of six thousand pounds. And they did not onelie spoile the
possessions, houses, goods, and cattels of the two Spensers, whersoeuer
they could heare that the same were to be found, but also they vsed
the like disorder against all such as were knowne to be fréends or
well-willers, to either the father or sonne, sending commissions vnto
such as should sée the same executed to the most extremitie, so that in
this rage of enuie and hot reuenge there was no parcialitie, but that
one with another, the innocent with the nocent, the guiltlesse with
the guiltie went to wracke, and (as the old prouerbe saith concurring
with common practise

    Quòd sus peccauit succula sæpe luit)

[Sidenote: The barons raise the people and came in armes towards the

[Sidenote: They send to the king.]

[Sidenote: Their requests.]

finallie, after they had satisfied their desires in such riotous sort,
they raised the people, and constrained them to sweare to be of their
accord, and so came forward with the like force towards the parlement
that was summoned to be holden at London thrée wéeks after Midsummer.
At their comming to S. Albons, they sent the bishops of London,
Salisburie, Elie, Hereford, and Chichester, to the king with their
humble suit in outward apperance, though in effect and verie déed more
presumptuous than was requisite. Their chéefe request was that it might
please his highnesse to put from him the Spensers, whose counsell they
knew to be greatlie against his honour, and hereof not to faile if he
tendered the quiet of his realme. They also required letters patents of
him, containing a generall pardon for the indemnitie of themselues, and
all those that had béene in armes with them, so as they should not be
impeached by the king for any transgressions past or present, in time
hereafter to come.

[Sidenote: The kings answer.]

The king herevnto answered, that as concerning Hugh Spenser the father,
he was abroad on his busines beyond the seas, and that Hugh the sonne
was on the sea for the safe kéeping of the cinque ports, as by his
office he was bound, and that they ought not by any right or custome
to be banished, before they haue made answere to the crimes obiected
against them. He added further, that their request wanted foundation
of law and reason. And if it might be proued that the Spensers had in
any wise offended against the statutes and ordinances of the land, they
were alwaies readie to make their answere as the lawes of the realme
should require. Lastlie he added this with an oth, that he would not
be forsworne contrarie to that which at his coronation he had taken
vpon him by oth, through granting letters of peace and pardon to such
notorious offenders in contempt of his person, and to the trouble and
disquieting of the whole realme.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: The order which the lord maior of London tooke.]

The barons vpon knowledge had what answer the king made to their
requests, foorthwith got them to armour, and with a great power of men
of armes and other, came to the parlement, which the king had summoned
to begin at Westminster thrée wéekes after Midsummer. Their retinue
were apparelled in a sute of iakets or coats of colours demie, partie
yellow and gréene with a band of white cast ouerthwart. By reason
whereof that parlement long after was called The parlement of white
bands. Then to sée the kings peace kept within the citie, the maior
caused a thousand men well armed to watch dailie in diuerse wards, & at
diuerse gates of the citie, which watch began at foure of the clocke
in the morning, and so continued till six at night, and then as manie
were appointed to the night watch, continuing the same till the houre
of fiue in the morning. And for the more suertie that this night watch
should be well and sufficientlie kept, two aldermen were assigned
nightlie to ride about the citie with certeine officers of the towne,
to sée the watchmen well and discréetlie guided. The gates were shut
at nine of the clocke & opened againe at seauen in the morning. Also
euerie citizen was warned to haue his armour by him, that he might be
readie vpon anie occasion when he should be called.

[Sidenote: _Matt. West._]

[Sidenote: The Spensers banished by the decrée of the barons.]

Neuerthelesse the barons being come in forceable wise (as yée haue
heard) vnto this parlement, they constreined the earle of Richmond,
Arundell, Warren, and Penbroke, to agrée vnto their purpose; and
likewise some of the bishops they compelled through feare to take an
oth to ioine with them in their purpose, for the expelling of the
Spensers out of the realme, and so comming all togither before the
king, they published certeine articles against the said Spensers, both
the father and sonne, wherevpon they made an award, that they should
be disherited and banished the land during their liues, if by the king
and consent of all the lords in parlement assembled, they should not
be restored. They had day and place appointed where to passe foorth of
the land, to wit, at Douer, and not elsewhere, betwixt the daie of his
award made, and the feast of the decollation of saint Iohn Baptist,
that day to be counted for one. Diuers articles (as before is said)
were laid to the charge of those Spensers.

[Sidenote: Articles wherwith the barons charged the Sp[=e]sers.]

1 Amongst other things it was alledged; First that Hugh Spenser the
sonne, being on a time angrie and displeased with the king, sought to
allie and confederate himselfe with the lord Gifford of Brimesfield,
and the lord Richard Gray to haue constreined and forced the king by
strong hand to haue followed his will and pleasure.

2 Secondlie it was alledged, that the said Spensers as well the father
as the sonne, had caused the king to ride into Glocestershire, to
oppresse and destroie the good people of his land, contrarie to the
forme of the great charter.

3 Thirdlie, that where the earle of Hereford, and the lord Mortimer
of Wigmore, had gone against one Thlewillin Bren, who had raised a
rebellion against the king in Glamorganshire, whiles the lands of the
earle of Glocester were in the kings hands, the same Thlewillin yéelded
himselfe to the said earle, and to the lord Mortimer, who brought him
to the king, vpon promise that he should haue the kings pardon, and so
the king receiued him. But after that the said earle and lord Mortimer
were out of the land, the Spensers taking to them roiall power, tooke
the said Thlewillin and led him vnto Kardif, where after that the
said Hugh Spenser the sonne had his purpartie of the said earle of
Glocesters lands, he caused the said Thlewillin to be drawne, headed
and quartered, to the discredit of the king, and of the said earle of
Hereford and lord Mortimer, yea and contrarie to the lawes and dignitie
of the imperiall crowne.

4 Fourthlie, the said Spensers counselled the king to foreiudge sir
Hugh Audlie, sonne to the lord Hugh Audlie, and to take into his hands
his castels and possessions. They compassed also to haue atteinted the
lord Roger Damorie, that thereby they might haue enioied the whole
earledome of Glocester.

These and other articles of misdemeanour in the Spensers were
exhibited, to persuade the king and others, that they were vnprofitable
members in the common-wealth, and not worthie of those places which
they occupied. Now after that their disheriting and banishment was
concluded in manner as before is said, the earle of Hereford and other
the lords that had prosecuted the quarell against them, came before
the king, and humblie on their knées besought him of pardon for all
things which they had committed against him, his lawes, or any other
person in the pursuit of the said Spensers. The king, being brought
into a streict, durst not but grant vnto all that which they requested,
establishing the same by statute.

[Sidenote: The king goeth to Canturburie.]

[Sidenote: He commeth to talke with the lord chamberlaine.]

The parlement being thus ended, the king and quéene went to
Canturburie, there to visit the shrine of Thomas Becket somtime
archbishop there. From thence he went to the Ile of Tenet, that he
might méet with his deare & welbeloued councellour Hugh Spenser the
yoonger, whome he had of late sent in ambassage vnto the French king,
and now being returned by sea into those parts, he was desirous to sée
him, that he might haue conference with him: and so comming togither,
they spent certeine daies in commoning of such matters as they thought
good. The king calling to him the mariners of the cinques ports,
committed to them the custodie of the said Hugh, who for a time kept
him with them in their ships, and the king sailing alongst the coast to
Porchester, conferred with him of manie things.

[Sidenote: The quéene not suffered to lodge in the castell of Léeds.]

From Porchester the king ment to returne vnto London, there to méet the
quéene, who in hir returne from Canturburie would haue lodged one night
in the castell of Léeds, which the lord Bartholomew de Badelismere late
steward of the kings house had by exchange of the king for other lands,
and now taking part with the barons, had left his wife and children
with other of his fréends and treasure in the same castell. Those that
were put in trust with kéeping this castell, would neither permit
quéene nor other to enter therein, without expresse commandement from
their lord and maister, and so they signified not onelie to the quéenes
seruants that came before to make prouision for hir, but also declared
the same to hirselfe comming thither in person.

[Sidenote: The king besiegeth the castell of Léeds.]

This chanced verie vnluckilie for the barons: for where the quéene had
euer sought to procure peace, loue and concord betwixt the king and his
lords, shée tooke such displeasure with this deniall made to hir for
one nights lodging in that castell, that vpon hir gréeuous complaint
sent to the king, he foorthwith raised a mightie armie out of Kent and
Essex, from the cinque ports, and of the Londoners, and hauing with him
his brethren, Thomas earle Marshall, and Edmund earle of Kent, also the
earls of Richmond, Penbroke, Arundell, and Atholl, he hasted thither,
& laid siege about the castell; constreining them within by all meanes
that might be deuised.

[Sidenote: The lords came with a power to raise the siege.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Léeds yéelded.]

[Sidenote: Walter Culpepper executed.]

In the meane time, at the suit of the lord Badelismere, the earle
of Hereford, and other lords of the confederacie, came with a great
power vnto Kingstone, about the feast of Simon and Iude, and there
staieng certeine daies for some of their companie that were to come
vnto them, they sent vnto the king the archbishop of Canturburie, and
the bishop of London, with the earle of Penbroke, requiring him to
remooue his siege, till by parlement some order might be taken: but
the king would not giue eare to their suit, but continued his siege
till the castell was yéelded to him. For those that were at Kingstone
cowardlie leuing their enterprise, came not forward, but returned backe
againe. They that were within the castell, hauing simplie submitted
themselues to the king, caused twelue or thirtéene of them to suffer
death. Amongst other was one Walter Culpepper reckoned for the chéefe
of them that defended the castell against the king. The wife of the
lord Badelismere, with his nephue Bartholomew de Burwash was sent to
the tower of London, but his sister was sent to Douer castell, there
to remaine in safe kéeping. The castell of Léeds being thus yéelded to
the king, he entred the same on All halowes daie, and shortlie after
the castell of Chilham was deliuered, and the castell of Tunbridge
left void by them that had it in kéeping. The king thus bestirring
him, came into Essex, and seized into his hands the lands of the lord
Badelismere, and likewise the lands of such as were his mainteiners,
abbettors, fréends, fauourers, and furtherers; of the which such as he
could méet with he put in prison, and herewith summoned an armie to
méet him at Cirencester about saint Lucies day the virgine. And then
about saint Andrews tide he came to London, where the archbishop of
Canturburie had called a prouinciall councell.

[Sidenote: The lord ch[=a]berleine yéeldeth himselfe to the law.]

At the same time Hugh Spenser the sonne, being latelie come from the
sea, yéelded himselfe prisoner to the kings ward, beséeching the king
that he might haue right ministred to him, concerning the wrongs and
iniuries to him doone by the barons in maner as before ye haue heard,
speciallie for the award which in parlement they had procured to be
enacted against him, the errours committed in the processe, whereof
he besought the king that he might be admitted to shew: as first,
in that they made themselues iudges: secondlie, in that he was not
called to answer: thirdlie, for that the same award was made without
the assent of the prelats, who are péeres of the parlement as well as
the temporall lords: fourthlie, in that the said barons had no record
in their pursuit vpon the causes conteined in that award: fiftlie,
in that the award was made against the forme of the great charter of
franchises, wherein is conteined that none shall be foreiudged nor
destroied but by lawfull iudgment of his péers, according to the law of
the land. Further, he alledged that it was to be considered, how the
said barons and great men being summoned to come in due maner vnto that
parlement, they came in forceable wise with all their powers. A like
petition was also exhibited on the behalfe of Hugh Spenser the father,
for redresse to be had of the wrongs and losses, which in like case he
had susteined.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 15.]

[Sidenote: The king asketh the opinions of the prelats.]

[Sidenote: The declaration of the prelats.]

[Sidenote: The declaration of the earles.]

The king fauouring inough the causes and petitions of the Spensers,
granted their requests, and deliuered the petitions vnto the archbishop
of Canturburie and his suffragans, the which at the same time were
there assembled in their prouinciall councell aforesaid, requiring to
haue their aduise and opinion therein. He likewise requested of the
earles and barons that were then with him, and of the councellors in
law, what they thought of this matter. The prelats vpon deliberation
had declared that in their opinion, the said award as touching the
disheriting and banishing of the Spensers, the father and sonne was
erronious, and not rightlie decréed, and for themselues they denied
that they either did or could thinke it reason to consent therevnto,
and therefore they required that it might be repealed, and the kings
brother Edmund earle of Kent, Iohn de Britaine earle of Richmond, Aimer
de Valence earle of Penbroke, and Edmund earle of Arundell, then being
in presence of the king, and likewise of the foresaid prelats, affirmed
that the said award pronounced against the Spensers was made contrarie
to law and right, and therefore as the prelats requested, that the same
might be repealed.

Further, the said earles alledged, that the assent which they gaue
in the said award, was for doubt of the vnlawfull force which the
barons brought vnto the said parlement, when they made that award, and
for that the said earles that now were with the king, had counselled
him to suffer the said award to passe, for feare of the said force,
and confessed they had doone euill, and besought him of pardon for
their offenses in so doing. The king thus hauing caused the prelats,
earles, barons, and lawiers there present to vtter their iudgements
in maner aforesaid, he iudiciallie reuoked and quite disanulled the
processe of the said award, made as well touching the banishment, as
the disheriting of the Spensers, and restored them to his peace and
allegiance, and to their former estates, in all conditions as they
inioied the same before the making of the said award, notwithstanding
certeine letters to the contrarie of the earle of Lancaster, and other
lords of his faction, which for the approuing and ratifieng of the said
processe they directed vnder their seales to the king as yet remaining
at London.

[Sidenote: The barons againe get to armour.]

[Sidenote: The lord saint Iohn.]

They wrote also to the prelats, iustices, and barons of the excheker,
to induce the king to giue his assent to that which in the tenor of
their letters was conteined. The earle of Hereford, the lord Roger
Mortimer of Cherke, & the lord Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, entring the
marches of Wales, came to Glocester, and tooke that citie. The castell
was also deliuered vnto them by the constable thereof. The king hauing
his people comming dailie vnto him, whereby his armie was hugelie
increased, about the feast of saint Nicholas he set foorth from London,
and with him there went his brother Edmund earle of Kent, Iohn earle
of Richmond, Edmund earle of Arundell, and manie other great lords and
barons. The quéene with hir children he left in the tower of London.
The lord Iohn de saint Iohn comming to submit himselfe vnto the king,
at the intercession of diuerse noble men, with much adoo had his pardon
at length granted him.

[Sidenote: The lord Tieis.]

[Sidenote: Cirencester.]

[Sidenote: The K. writeth to the erle of Lancaster.]

The king passing forward, seized into his hands the townes, castels,
manors, and goods of them that were against him. But in the meane time
the lord Henrie de Tieis, with certeine other that were entred into
Glocestershire (hearing that a great multitude of people was assembled
out of the countrie of Cirencester by the kings commandement) came
thither and chased them home to their houses, putting them in feare of
their liues, if they should offer to resist him. The king comming to
Crikelade after the feast of saint Lucie the virgin, wrote to the earle
of Lancaster an answer of his letters, which he had receiued from him
at London, modestlie reprouing him, for that he had so gréeuouslie and
vndutifullie reproched him, without respect had to his roiall estate,
and also presumed to assigne a daie within the which he should reforme
those things which he misliked in him, as if he were his subiect and
vnderling, & beside this was now ioined with his aduersaries against
him, where on his behalfe there had béene no let nor staie at any time,
but that they might be fréends & remaine in quiet togither. Wherein
though he did more than stood with the dignitie of his roiall title, in
somuch as he had the earles life at his commandement, yet for that he
tollerated such insolencie of behauiour, as was vnséemelie to be shewed
against the person of his prince, the kings clemencie and patience is
highlie therein to be commended; though his forbearing and séeking
means of quietnesse did neuer a whit amend the malignant mind of the
earle, whose hart was so inchanted with ambition and supereminent
honour, that he quite forgat this good lesson of submission and due

    Vt nequeas lædi maiori semper obedi.

[Sidenote: The K. kéepeth his Christmasse at Crikelade. Earles that
came to the king to Crikeland.]

[Sidenote: 1322.]

[Sidenote: The Scots inuade Northumberland. Castels taken by the

From Crikelade the king went to Cirencester, where he held the feast
of Christmasse, the earles of Norffolke, Penbroke, Surrie, and other
great lords comming thither to ioine their powers with his. Thither
came also a great strength of footmen, part of the which vnder the
leading of one Robert Aquarij a right famous capteine, tooke the
castell of Bromfield, those that had the kéeping of it fléeing foorth
of it. The king comming to Worcester about Newyeres tide, caused the
walles of the citie to be repared, committing the custodie thereof
vnto William de Longchampe. After the Epiphanie he passed on the side
of Seuerne towards Shrewsburie, where, at his comming thither he was
honourablie receiued by the burgesses that came foorth to méet him in
armor, and so conueied him into their towne being stronglie fensed. In
this meane time the Scots now that the truce was ended, entring with
a strong power into England, destroied all the countrie to Newcastell
vpon Tine with fire and sword. The Welshmen with their capteine Griffin
Loitis tooke the castels in Wales, which were kept by the people of the
lord Mortimer the elder. They tooke also the castels of Mole, Chirke,
and Olono, the kéepers whereof comming vnto the king to Shrewsburie
submitted themselues to him, who shortlie after sent them to the tower
of London. The lord Hugh Audelie the elder, the lord Iohn de Hastings,
and diuerse other comming in, and submitting themselues to the king
were likewise committed to ward. The lord Roger Damorie entring into
the citie of Worcester destroied all that which the K. had appointed to
be doone, about the fortification thereof.

[Sidenote: The earle of L[=a]caster writeth to the erle of Hereford.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Hereford c[=o]meth to ioine with the earle of

The earle of Lancaster lieng at Pomfret, and hearing of all this
businesse, wrote to the earle of Hereford, and other lords that were
with him, that they should make hast to come to him at Pomfret,
promising from thencefoorth to be their generall and leader. The earle
of Hereford reioising at these newes, togither with all those that were
about him, leauing Glocester and all other strengths which they held in
those parts, set forward to passe through the middest of the realme,
spoiling by the way mens cattell and goods verie disorderlie, and so
came through to the earle of Lancaster. The king getting into his hands
all the castels of his aduersaries in those parts, went to Hereford,
where he was honorablie receiued of the cleargie and citizens. His
armie increased dailie, many comming in vnto him, that before durst
not for feare of his aduersaries. The bishop of Hereford was sharplie
checked, bicause he had taken part with the kings enimies.

[Sidenote: The lord Berkley submitteth himselfe to the K.]

[Sidenote: They appointed to méet at Couentrie.]

[Sidenote: _Wil. Sutton._]

[Sidenote: Killingworth holden against the K. Tikehil castle besieged.
Letters intercepted.]

The king sent from hence the lord Iohn Hastings into Southwales, to
take in his name the seizine of the castels belonging to the earle
of Hereford, the lord Roger Damorie, and the lord Hugh Spenser the
yoonger, which the barons had the last yeare got into their hands, all
which being now taken to the kings vse, were furnished with faithfull
garrisons. ¶ The king, after this, comming to Glocester, condemned
the shiriffe of Hereford to be hanged, for that he had taken part
against him with the barons. The lord Maurice Berkley came to the
king to Glocester, submitting himselfe to the kings pleasure. After
this the king came by Weston vnder edge towards Couentrie, where he
had appointed as well such as he had latlie licenced to depart to
their homes to refresh themselues for a time, as also diuerse other,
to assemble with their powers to go with him from thence against his
aduersaries. The day of this assemblie was the friday next after the
first sundaie in Lent. The king from Couentrie went to Meriuall, and
there lodged in the abbeie for his more ease, writing to William Sutton
vnder-constable of Warwike castell, commanding him to be attendant on
the shiriffe of Warwike, in helping him to watch the entries and issues
to and from the castell of Killingworth that was holden against him.
In the meane time certeine of the lords that were gone to the earle
of Lancaster besieged Tickehill castell fiftéene daies togither, but
preuailed not.

[Sidenote: King Arthur a name feined of purpose.]

There were letters intercepted about the same time, which a messenger
brought foorth of Scotland, thrée closed and thrée open, for there were
six in all. The king sent them to the archbishop of Canturburie, who by
his commandement published them in open audience at London. The first
was closed with the seale of the lord Thomas Randulfe earle of Murrie,
lord of Annandale and of Man, lieutenant to Robert le Bruce king of
Scotland, which conteined a safe conduct for sir Thomas Topcliue
chapleine, and one to be associate with him to come into Scotland, and
to returne from thence in safetie. The second was sealed with the seale
of sir Iames Dowglas for a like safe conduct for the same persons.
The third was closed with the seale of the said earle of Murrie for
the safe conduct of the lord Iohn de Mowbraie, and the lord Iohn de
Clifford, and fortie horsses with their pages for their safe comming
vnto the said erle into Scotland, and for their abiding there and
returning backe. The fourth was closed with the seale of Iames Dowglas,
directed to king Arthur. The fift was closed with the seale of Iames
Dowglas directed vnto the lord Rafe Neuill. The sixt had no direction,
but the tenour thereof was this as followeth.

The tenour of the said sixt letter lacking a direction.

You shall vnderstand my lord, that the communication before hand had
is now brought to effect. For the earle of Hereford, the lords Roger
Damorie, Hugh de Audelie the yoonger, Bartholomew de Badelismere,
Roger de Clifford, Iohn Gifford, Henrie Teis, Thomas Manduit, Iohn de
Willington, and all other are come to Pomfret and are readie to make
you good assurance, so that you will perform couenant with them, to wit
for your comming to aid vs, and to go with vs into England and Wales,
to liue and die with vs in our quarell. We therefore beséech you to
assigne vs day and place, where we may méet, and we will be readie to
accomplish fullie our businesse: and we beséech you to make vs a safe
conduct for thirtie horsses, that we may in safetie come to your parts.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: _Record Tur._]

[Sidenote: The king setteth forward towards his enimies.]

[Sidenote: He made a proclamation.]

The king, when such earles and lords as he had licenced for a time were
returned (his brother the earle of Northfolke excepted) & that the most
part of those men of warre were assembled that had summons, although
diuerse came not at all; about the first sundaie in Lent he set forward
towards his enimies, hauing with him to the number of sixtéene hundred
men of armes on horssebacke, and footmen innumerable; with this power
passing foorth towards his aduersaries, he caused proclamation to be
made, that he was readie to receiue all men to his peace, that would
come and submit themselues, those excepted which had béene at the siege
of Tikehill castell, or at the taking of the citie of Glocester, or at
the inuasion made vpon his men at Bridgenorth.

[Sidenote: Burton vpon Trent.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Surrie.]

[Sidenote: Peraduenture at Wichnore.]

At his comming to a little village called Caldwell, he sent afore him
certeine bands to Burton vpon Trent, where he ment to haue lodged:
but the earles of Lancaster and Hereford, the lords Roger Damorie,
Hugh Audelie the yonger, Iohn de Mowbraie, Bartholomew de Badelismere,
Roger de Clifford, Iohn Gifford de Bremesfield, Henrie Tieis, and many
other, being gotten thither before, kept the bridge, and assailing the
kings people which he had thus sent before, some of them they slue, and
some they wounded, so defending the bridge, that none could passe, and
by reason that the waters, and speciallie the riuer of Trent through
abundance of raine that was latelie fallen, were raised, there was no
meane to passe by the foords, wherevpon the king was constreined to
staie the space of thrée daies, in which meane time, the earles and
their complices fortified the bridge at Burton, with barriers and such
like defenses, after the maner of warre, but the king at length vpon
deliberate aduise taken how to passe the riuer, ordeined that the earle
of Surrie with certeine armed men, should go ouer by a bridge that was
thrée miles distant from Burton, that he might come vpon the backes of
the enimies, as they were fighting with those that should assaile them

[Sidenote: The earles of Richmond & Penbroke.]

[Sidenote: Robert Aquarie.]

[Sidenote: The K. passeth by a foord.]

[Sidenote: The earles of Lancaster & Hereford flée and set fire on the

The earles of Richmond and Penbroke were appointed to passe by a foord,
which they had got knowledge of, with thrée hundred horssemen in
complet armour, and the king with his brother the earle of Kent should
follow them, with the residue of the armie, sauing that Robert Aquarie
or Waters, with certeine bands of footmen was commanded to assaile the
bridge, which he did verie manfullie, causing the archers & crossebowes
to annoie them that kept it, so as he might draw the whole power of
the enimies that waie, till the king and the earles were passed by the
foord. But after that the earles of Lancaster and Hereford with their
complices, heard that the king was passed with his armie, they came
foorth with their people into the fields, and put them in order of
battell: but perceiuing the great puissance which the king had there
readie to encounter them, without more adoo they fled setting fire on
the towne, and leauing all their vittels and other things behind them.
The kings people comming spéedilie forward, and entring the towne,
quenched the fire, and fell to the spoile of such things as the enimies
for hast had left behind them. The king kept nothing to himselfe, but
onelie a faire cup that belonged to the earle of Lancaster, a péece
estéemed to be of some great value.

[Sidenote: The K. commeth to Tutburie.]

[Sidenote: Hue and crie.]

On the same night, being wednesdaie, the king came to Tutburie, and
lodged in the castell, sending foorth the next day with all spéed,
letters to the shiriffe of Derbishire and Notinghamshire, aduertising
him both of the successe he had against his enimies, and withall,
pronouncing them and all their adherents, rebels and traitors to
him and his realme, and that for such they should be reputed, taken
and vsed. Wherefore he commanded in the same letters or writs, vpon
forfeiture of all that the said shiriffe might forfeit, he should
pursue the said rebels, that is, the earles of Lancaster and Hereford,
the lords Roger Damorie, Hugh Audelie the yoonger, Iohn de Mowbraie,
Bartholomew de Badelismere, Roger de Clifford, Iohn Gifford de
Brimesfield, Henrie Tieis, and all and euerie other person or persons
that were of their confederacie, or in their companies; causing hue
and crie to be raised vpon them, in what part soeuer they might be
heard of, and in all places where the said shiriffe should thinke it
expedient, and to inioine and streightlie command all and singular
persons, the said rebels and enimies to pursue, take and arrest, and
them to deliuer vnto the said shiriffe, and that such as were not
able to pursue them, yet with hand or horne they should leuie hue and
crie against them, in paine that being found negligent herein, to be
accompted for fauourers and adherents to the said rebels and traitors,
and that the said shiriffe should therevpon apprehend them, and put
them in prison. The writ was dated at Tutburie the eleuenth of March,
and the like writs were directed and sent foorth to all other shiriffes
through the realme, and likewise to the bishop of Durham, and to the
iustice of Chester.

[Sidenote: Proclamations made for the peace to be kept.]

Beside this, he directed also other writs to the said shiriffes and
others, that although he had béene constreined to passe in forceable
wise through diuerse parts of his realme, and the marches of Wales, to
suppresse the malicious rebellion of diuerse his subiects, and that
as yet he was constreined to continue his iournie in such forceable
wise, neuertheles his pleasure was, that the peace should be mainteined
and kept throughout his realme, with the statutes, lawes and customes
inuiolated, and therfore he commanded the said shiriffes, that they
should cause the same to be proclaimed in places where was thought
most expedient, as well within liberties as without, inhibiting that
any maner of person, of what state or condition soeuer he was, vpon
paine that might fall thereon, to attempt any thing to the breach of
peace; but that euerie man should séeke to mainteine and preserue the
peace and tranquillitie of the people, with the statutes, lawes and
good customes of the land, to the vttermost of his power: this alwaies
obserued, that the rebels, wheresoeuer they might be found, should be
arrested, and committed to safe custodie. The daie of this writ was at
Tutburie aforesaid on the twelfth of March.

[Sidenote: The lord Damorie departed this life.]

[Sidenote: Sir Gilbert de Ellesfield & sir Robert Holland submit
themselues to the king.]

[Sidenote: The earles of Lancaster & Hereford came to Pomfret.]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: Sir Andrew Herkley.]

The lord Roger Damorie laie sicke in his bed at the same time in the
priorie of Tutburie, who after he had heard what iudgement the king
had pronounced against him, departed this life within two daies after.
But the earles of Lancaster and Hereford, with other in their companie
that fled from the discomfiture at Burton, lost manie men and horsses
in their flieng away, by reason of such pursuit as was made after them.
Diuerse of them that had taken part with the lords against the king,
came now and submitted themselues vnto him, amongst the which were sir
Gilbert de Ellesfield, and sir Robert Holland knights. The king yet had
the said Holland in some suspicion, bicause he had promised to haue
come to him before. The earle of Lancaster had sent him at this time
to raise his tenants in Lancashire, and to bring them vnto him, but
he deceiued him, and came not to him at all, wherevpon the earles of
Lancaster and Hereford, with the other barons, being come vnto Pomfret
fell to councell in the Friers there, and finallie, after much debating
of the matter, and considering how by the vntrue dealing of the said
Robert Holland, their side was much weakened, it was concluded, that
they should go to the castell of Dunstanborough, and there remaine
till they might purchase the kings pardon, sith their enterprise thus
quailed vnder their hands: and herewith setting forward that waie
foorth, they came to Borough bridge, where sir Andrew de Herkley with
the power of the countesse of Cumberland and Westmerland had forlaid
the passage, and there on a tuesdaie being the 16 of March, he setting
vpon the barons, in the end discomfited them, and chased their people.

[Sidenote: The earle of Hereford slaine.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Lancaster taken. Bar[=o]s taken.]

[Sidenote: The battell of Borough bridge.]

In this fight was slaine the earle of Hereford, the lord William de
Sullie, with sir Roger de Bourghfield, and diuerse others. And there
were taken Thomas earle of Lancaster, the lord Roger Clifford son
to that lord Roger which died in the battell of Bannockesborne in
Scotland, the lord Gilbert Talbot, the lord Iohn Mowbraie, the lord
Hugh de Willington, the lord Thomas Manduit, the lord Warren de Lisle,
the lord Philip Darcie, the lord Thomas Wither, the lord Henrie de
Willington, the lord Hugh de Knouill, the lord Philip de Beche, the
lord Henrie de Leiborne, the lord Henrie de Bradborne, the lord Iohn
de Beckes, the lord Thomas Louell, the lord William fitz William,
Robert de Wateuille, Iohn de Strikeland, Odnell Heron, Walter Pauelie
of Stretton, and a great number of other esquires and gentlemen. This
battell was fought on the fiftéenth day of March, in the yeare 1322
after the accompt of them that begin the yeare at the Circumcision,
which was in the said fiftéenth yéere of this kings reigne.

[Sidenote: The castell of Pomfret is rendred to the king.]

The bodie of the earle of Hereford was sent to Yorke, two friers of
the order of preachers being appointed to looke to it, till the king
tooke order for the burieng of it. The lord Clifford also, bicause he
was wounded with an arrow, was sent vnto Yorke. At the same time, the
lord Henrie Percie tooke the lord Henrie Tieis, and Iohn de Goldington
knight, with two esquires, and within a few daies after, Donald de Mar
tooke the lord Bartholomew de Badelismere, the lord Hugh Audelie the
yoonger, the lord Iohn Gifford, the lord William Tuchet, and in maner
all those which escaped by flight from this battell were taken in one
place or other, by such of the kings seruants and fréends as pursued
them. Vpon the one and twentith of March, came sir Andrew de Harkley
vnto Pomfret, bringing with him the earle of Lancaster and other
prisoners. The king was come thither a few daies before, and had the
castell yéelded to him by the constable, that not manie daies past was
appointed to the kéeping thereof by the earle, which earle now being
brought thither captiue, was mocked, scorned, and in derision called
king Arthur.

[Sidenote: The earle of Lancaster arreigned.]

[Sidenote: He is found giltie.]

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southwell._]

[Sidenote: He is beheaded.]

On the morrow after being mondaie, the two and twentith of March, he
was brought before these noble men, Edmund earle of Kent, Iohn earle of
Richmond, Aimer earle of Penbroke, Iohn erle of Surrie, Edmund earle
of Arundell, Dauid earle of Atholl, Robert earle of Anegos, the lord
Hugh Spenser the father, the lord Robert de Malmesthorp iustice, and
others with them associate, before whome he was arreiegned of high
treason, for that he had raised warre against the king, and defended
the passage of Burton bridge, for the space of thrée daies togither
against him, and after when it was perceiued that the king had passed
the riuer, he with Humfrie de Bohun earle of Hereford, and other their
complices like traitors, set fire on the said towne, and cruellie burnt
part of the houses and men of the same towne, and after, the said earle
of Lancaster with his complices, arranged himselfe in field with his
armie and banners displaid readie to fight against the king, till that
perceiuing the kings power to be ouerstrong for him & his partakers
to resist, he togither with them fled, committing by the waie diuerse
felonies and roberies, till they came to Burrough bridge, where finding
certeine of the kings faithfull subiects readie to resist them, they
assailed the said faithfull subiects with force of armes and banners
displaied, slaieng diuerse of them, till finallie the said earle of
Lancaster was caught, and other of his complices, some taken, some
slaine, and the residue put to flight, so that there wanted no good
will in the said earle of Lancaster and others, whie the king should
not haue béene vanquished. Which treasons, murthers, burning of houses,
destroieng of the kings people, being plainlie & manifestlie knowne to
the earls, barons, lords, and other people of the land, the said earle
of Lancaster was therevpon adiudged to die, according to the law in
such cases prouided, that is, to be drawne, hanged, and headed. But
bicause he was the quéenes vncle, and sonne to the kings vncle, he was
pardoned of all saue heading, and so accordinglie therevnto suffered at
Pomfret the two and twentith of March.

Thus the king séemed to be reuenged of the displeasure doone to him
by the earle of Lancaster, for the beheading of Péers de Gaueston
earle of Cornewall, whom he so déerelie loued, and bicause the earle
of Lancaster was the chéefe occasioner of his death, the king neuer
loued him entirelie after. ¶ So that here is verified the censure of
the scripture expressed by the wisedome of Salomon, that the anger and
displeasure of the king is as the roring of a lion, and his reuenge
ineuitable. Wherefore it is an hie point of discretion in such as
are mightie, to take héed how they giue edge vnto the wrath of their
souereigne, which if it be not by submission made blunt, the burthen of
the smart insuing will lie heauie vpon the offender, euen to his vtter
vndooing, and losse (perhaps) of life. In this sort came the mightie
earle of Lancaster to his end, being the greatest péere in the realme,
and one of the mightiest earles in christendome: for when he began to
leauie warre against the king, he was possessed of fiue earledomes,
Lancaster, Lincolne, Salisburie, Leicester, and Derbie, beside other
seigniories, lands, and possessions, great to his aduancement in honor
and puissance. But all this was limited within prescription of time,
which being expired, both honour and puissance were cut off with
dishonour and death, for (O mutable state!)

    Inuida fatorum series, summisq; negatum
    Stare diu.

[Sidenote: Lords executed.]

On the same day, the lord William Tuchet, the lord William fitz
William, the lord Warren de Lisle, the lord Henrie Bradborne, and the
lord William Chenie barons, with Iohn Page an esquire, were drawne
and hanged at Pomfret aforesaid, and then shortlie after, Roger lord
Clifford, Iohn lord Mowbraie, and sir Gosein d'Eeuill barons, were
drawne and hanged at Yorke. At Bristow in like manner were executed
sir Henrie de Willington, and sir Henrie Montfort baronets; and at
Glocester the lord Iohn Gifford, and sir William Elmebridge knight;
and at London the lord Henrie Teies baron, at Winchelsie, Sir Thomas
Culpepper knight; at Windsor, the lord Francis de Aldham baron; and
at Canturburie, the lord Bartholomew de Badelismere, and the lord
Bartholomew de Ashbornham, barons. Also at Cardiffe in Wales, sir
William Flemming knight was executed: diuerse were executed in their
countries, as sir Thomas Mandit and others.

[Sidenote: _Auesburie._]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

But now touching the foresaid earle of Lancaster, great strife rose
afterwards amongst the people, whether he ought to be reputed for a
saint or no. Some held, that he ought to be no lesse estéemed, for that
he did manie almesdéeds in his life time, honored men of religion,
and mainteined a true quarell till his liues end. Also, his enimies
continued not long after, but came to euill end. Others conceiued
an other opinion of him, alledging, that he fauoured not his wife,
but liued in spouse-breach, defiling a great number of damosels and
gentlewomen. If anie offended him, he slue him shortlie after in his
wrathfull mood. Apostataes and other euill dooers he mainteined, and
would not suffer them to be punished by due order of law. All his
dooings he vsed to commit vnto one of his secretaries, and tooke no
héed himselfe thereof: and as for the manner of his death, he fled
shamefullie in the fight, and was taken and put to death against his
will, bicause he could not auoid it: yet by reason of certeine miracles
which were said to be doone néere the place both where he suffered, and
where he was buried, caused manie to thinke he was a saint; howbeit, at
length, by the kings c[=o]mandement, the church doores of the priorie
where he was buried, were shut and closed, so that no man might be
suffered to come to the toome to bring any offerings, or to do any
other kind of deuotion to the same. Also, the hill where he suffered
was kept by certeine Gascoignes, appointed by the lord Hugh Spenser the
sonne then lieng at Pomfret, to the end that no people should come and
make their praiers there in worship of the said earle, whome they tooke
verelie for a martyr.

[Sidenote: A parlement at Yorke.]

[Sidenote: The record touching the banishing of the Spensers reuersed.]

[Sidenote: Creation of earls.]

[Sidenote: The lord Audelie pardoned.]

When the king had subdued the barons, shortlie after, about the feast
of the Ascension of our Lord, he held a parlement at Yorke, in which
parlement, the record and whole processe of the decrée or iudgement
concerning the disheriting of the Spensers, ordeined by the lords in
parlement assembled at London the last summer, was now throughlie
examined, and for their errours therein found, the same record and
processe was cléerelie adnihilated and reuersed, and the said Spensers
were restored to all their lands and offices, as before. And in the
same parlement the lord Hugh Spenser the father was made earle of
Winchester, and the lord Andrew de Herklie earle of Carleill. Moreouer,
in the same parlement, all such were disherited as had taken part with
the earls of Lancaster & Hereford, except the lord Hugh Audelie the
yoonger, and a few other, the which lord Hugh was pardoned, bicause
he had married the kings néece, that was sister to Gilbert de Clare
earle of Glocester which was slaine in Scotland, at the battell of
Bannockesborne, as before is mentioned.

[Sidenote: Robert Baldocke is made lord chancellour.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The quéene giueth good counsell. The kings eldest sonne
created prince of Wales.]

At this time also master Robert Baldocke, a man euill beloued in the
realme, was made lord chancellour of England. This Robert Baldocke, and
one Simon Reding were great fauourers of the Spensers, and so likewise
was the earle of Arundell, whereby it may be thought, that the Spensers
did helpe to aduance them into the kings fauour, so that they bare
no small rule in the realme, during the time that the same Spensers
continued in prosperitie, which for the terme of fiue yeares after that
the foresaid barons (as before is expressed) were brought to confusion,
did woonderfullie increase, and the quéene for that she gaue good and
faithfull counsell, was nothing regarded, but by the Spensers meanes
cléerelie worne out of the kings fauour. Moreouer, we find, that in
this parlement holden at Yorke, the kings sonne Edward was made prince
of Wales, and duke of Aquitaine.

[Sidenote: Statutes.]

[Sidenote: A subsidie.]

[Sidenote: Addition to _Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke arrested.]

Also the king caused the ordinances made by the earles and barons to be
examined by men of great knowledge and skill, and such as were thought
necessarie to be established, he commanded that the same should be
called statutes, and not ordinances. Beside a great subsidie granted
to the king by the temporaltie, the cleargie of all the prouince
of Canturburie granted fiue pence of euerie marke, and they of the
prouince of Yorke foure pence. Aimer earle of Penbroke, being returned
home from this parlement holden at Yorke, was arrested by certeine
knights, sent with authoritie therevnto from the king, who brought him
backe to Yorke, where at length thorough suit of certeine noble men, he
was vpon his oth taken to be a faithfull subiect, and in consideration
of a fine which he paied to the king, set at libertie. The occasion of
his imprisonment came, for that he was accused and detected to be a
secret fauourer of the barons cause against the Spensers in time of the
late troubles.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

Moreouer, shortlie after the king gathered the sixt penie of the
temporall mens goods thorough England, Ireland and Wales, which had
béene granted to him at the foresaid parlement holden at Yorke,
towards the defending of the realme against the Scots. This tax was
not gathered without great murmur and grudge, the realme being in such
euill and miserable state as it then was. ¶ This yeare also the sunne
appeared to mans sight in colour like to bloud, and so continued six
houres, to wit, from seuen of the clocke in the morning of the last
daie of October, vntill one of the clocke in the afternoone of the same

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The Scots inuade the bishoprike of Durham.]

Here is to be noted, that during the time whilest the ciuill warre was
in hand betwixt king Edward and his barons, the Scots and Frenchmen
were not idle, for the Scots wasted & destroied the countrie of the
bishoprike of Durham (as before ye haue partlie heard) & the Frenchmen
made roades & incursions into the borders of Guien, alledging that they
did it vpon good and sufficient occasion, for that king Edward had not
doone his homage vnto the king of France, as he ought to haue doone,
for the duchie of Aquitaine, and the countie of Pontieu. But the true
occasion that mooued them to attempt the warres at that present, was
for that they were in hope to recouer all the lands which the king of
England held within France, cléerelie out of his hands, for so much
as they vnderstood the discord betwixt him and his barons, and how
infortunatlie he had sped against the Scots, by reason whereof they
iudged the time to serue most fitlie now for their purpose.

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: Rob. Bruce inuadeth England.]

[Sidenote: Sée more hereof in Scotland.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 16.]

[Sidenote: The king goeth into Scotland with an army.]

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southw._]

[Sidenote: _Merimouth._]

In the octaues of the natiuitie of saint Iohn Baptist, Robert Bruce
entring into England by Carleill, kept on his waie through Cumberland,
Coupeland, Kendall, and so into Lancashire, till he came to Preston
in Andernesse, which towne he burnt, as he had doone others in the
countries through which he had passed. There were some of the Scots
that forraied the countrie fiue miles on this side Preston southwards,
and thus being fourescore long miles within England, they returned
homewards, and entred againe into Scotland without incounter, after
they had béene at this time within England the space of thrée wéeks
and thrée daies. King Edward being thus beset with two mischiefes both
at one time, thought good first to prouide remedie against the néerer
danger, which by the Scots was still at hand, and therefore he meant to
go against them himselfe, and to send his brother Edmund earle of Kent
into Guien, to defend that countrie from the Frenchmen. Herevpon now in
the sixtéenth yeare of his reigne, after that the Scots were returned
home with a great bootie and rich spoile, he got togither a wonderfull
great armie of men, and entring into Scotland, passed far within the
countrie, not finding any resistance at all (as the most part of our
writers doo agrée) but at length, through famine and diseases of the
flix and other maladies that fell amongst the Englishmen in the armie,
he was constreined to come backe, and in his waie besieged the castell
of Norham, which fortresse he wan within ten daies after he had begun
to assault it.

Robert Bruce immediatlie after the English armie was retired home,
raised a power, and entring into England by Sulwaie sands laie at a
place called Beaumond, not past thrée miles fr[=o] Carleill, by the
space of fiue daies, sending in the meane time the most part of his
armie abroad to spoile and harrie the countrie on euerie side, and
afterwards remouing from thence, he passed towards Blackamore, hauing
knowledge by diligent espials, that king Edward was in those parts,
giuing himselfe more to pastime in hunting there within the woods
about Blackamore, than to the good ordering of his people which he had
then about him. Wherevpon the Scotish king Bruce, entring into that
wild and moorish countrie, where he had not béene afore, conueied his
enterprise so warilie, and with such diligent industrie, that on saint
Lukes daie, comming vpon the English armie at vnwares, he put the same
to flight, so that the king himselfe was in great danger to haue béene
taken prisoner. For (as some authors write) the Scots had almost taken
him at dinner in the abbeie of Beighland. Sir Iohn Britaine earle of
Richmond was taken at this battell, and the kings treasure was spoiled
and carried awaie, with the prouision and ordinance that belonged to
the host.

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: Yorkeswoll spoiled by the Scots. Beuerlie ransomed. The
earle of Carleill raiseth an armie.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

The king escaping awaie, got to Yorke, and the Scots hauing thus the
vpper hand, after they had spoiled the monasterie of Riuale, and taken
their pleasure there, they passed foorth into Yorkeswold, destroieng
that countrie euen almost vnto Beuerlie, which towne they ransomed,
receiuing a summe of monie for sparing it, least they should haue burnt
it, as they did other. The earle of Carleill being commanded by the
king to raise the powers of Cumberland, Westmerland, and Lancashire,
did so, and according to that he had in commandement, bringing them
belowe the countries vnto Yorke, found the K. there in no plight to
giue battell to his enimies, all things being brought about him into
great confusion: wherevpon he licenced his people to depart to their
homes againe, and the Scots so returned without battell home into their
countries, entring into Scotland the morrow after All hallowes daie,
after they had remained in England at this time, one whole moneth
and foure daies. Some write, that in their returne, they spoiled
Northalerton, and diuerse other townes and places as they passed.

[Sidenote: A conspiracie to set prisoners at libertie.]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Goldington.]

In the same yeare, there was a great conspiracie practised by certein
persons that had taken part with the barons in the late warres,
purposing to set at libertie in one selfe night, all those noble men
and others, that were by the king kept in prison for that quarrell.
Certeine therefore of those conspirators came to the castell of
Walingford, within the which the lord Maurice Berkelie, and the lord
Hugh Audlie remained as prisoners. The conspirators found shift to
enter the castell by a posterne gate towards the Thames side, howbeit
not so secretlie but that the townesmen hauing knowledge thereof,
assembled togither, and besieged them that were so entred the castell,
till the earles of Kent and Winchester came with a great power to
réenforce the siege, so that in the end, they that had made this
attempt fled into the chappell of the castell, in hope to be saued
through sanctuarie of the place, but they were (against the willes
of the deane and préests of the colledge there that sought to defend
them) taken foorth by force, so that sir Iohn de Goldington knight, sir
Edmund of the Bech chapleine, and an esquire called Roger Walton, were
sent to Pomfret, and there put in prison; the esquire was after sent to
Yorke, and there drawne and hanged. This enterprise caused all other
prisoners to be more streightlie looked vnto.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Rich. Southw._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

In this yeare was begun a wicked practise of treason vpon this
occasion. Where K. Edward hauing assaied fortune so froward towards
him, in chance of warre against the Scots at sundrie times, was therby
taught to doubt the triall thereof any further, and rather to séeke for
peace, he appointed Andrew Herklie earle of Carleill, to séeke some
means, whereby a peace might be concluded betwixt him and king Robert.
The earle by the kings commandement, going into Scotland, and comming
vnto king Robert, whome he found at Loghmaban, intreated with him of
warre, and not of peace; for whether it were so that he despaired of
the state of king Edwards businesse, which prospered neither at home
nor abroad; chéefelie by reason of his owne wilfull negligence (as some
write) or whether of his owne nature this earle delighted in nothing so
much, as in deceipt, craft, and treason: he concluded vpon points with
the Scotish king, how, when, and where king Edward should be betraied,
and to the end that couenanted faith on either side might be the more
suerlie kept and obserued, the sister of K. Robert was affianced vnto
the said earle of Carleill: a verie beautifull ladie and as comelie as
was anie where to be séene or found.

[Sidenote: Treason will euer come to light by one meane or other.]

[Sidenote: 1323.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Carleill put to death.]

This practise being thus contriued, shortlie after the king got
knowledge thereof, though by whome it was not certeinlie knowne: so
hard a thing it is for man to conceale and kéepe secret that thing
which he goeth about, though he studie neuer so much so to doo, namelie
in matters of treason, which hath a thousand féet to créepe abroad,
and which way soeuer it goeth, it leaueth a thousand prints of the
footsteps behind it, by the which it may be discouered to the world.
When therefore the earle came backe againe to Carleill, he was arrested
by commandement from the king, and straightwaies being arreigned of the
treason, he was thereof condemned and put to execution. His head was
sent vnto London, and there set vpon the bridge, or rather vpon some
turret of the tower. So hard a matter it is for traitors to escape the
hands of the executioner; vnder whose hatchet they submit their heads
to be hewen from their shoulders, euen then when they haue conceiued
their traitorous attempts in hart, for God who hath placed princes in
thrones of roialtie, to this end hath vouchsafed them a superlatiue
degrée of dignitie, that they might be obeied, neither will his
iustice permit impunitie to the disloiall enterprises and complots of
malefactors, common peace-disturbers, hautie-harted Nemrods; ambitious
Hamans, or anie lewd malcontent: for

    Acer Dei est oculus ad omnia videndum,
    Eius poenas non effugit mortalis,
    Viuere volens ergo ne faciat morte digna.

[Sidenote: _Ri. Southwell._]

¶ But there be that write otherwise (as it may well be) thus, that this
earle of Carleill, perceiuing the miserie of his countrie, without
consent of the king of England, made peace with the king of Scots,
vnder this forme, as by Richard Southwell we find recorded. First, the
earle promised faithfullie for him and his heires, that they should
with all their force and means possible, séeke to mainteine the said
king of Scots, his heires and successors, in the peaceable possession
of the kingdome of Scotland, and that to their powers they shuld
fight against all those that would not agrée vnto that couenant, as
against them that should séeme to be enimies vnto the common-wealth of
both the realmes of England and Scotland. The king of Scots promised
faithfullie for his part, to defend the said earle, his heires, and
adherents in the said couenant or paction, and not onelie to kéepe
peace with England, but also to build a monasterie within Scotland,
assigning reuenues thereto, to the value of fiue hundred marks, to
celebrate diuine seruice, and to pray continuallie for the soules of
them that were dead, by occasion of the passed warres betwixt England
and Scotland; and further, that he should giue to the king of England
within ten yeares, fortie thousand pounds of siluer; and that the king
of England should haue the king of Scots eldest sonne, to marrie him
vnto some ladie of his bloud, as he should thinke expedient. To the
performance of all which couenants well and truelie to be obserued,
Thomas Randulfe earle of Murrey sware on the behalfe of the king of
Scots, and the earle of Carleill sware for himselfe: and héerewith
certeine writings indented were drawne and ingrossed, to the which
interchangeablie they set their hands and seales.

[Sidenote: The lord Lucie.]

After that the earle of Carleill was returned home, he called to
Carleill all the chéefe persons of the countrie, as well spirituall as
temporall, and there rather through feare, than otherwise, constrained
them to receiue an oth, that they should aid & assist him to their
powers, to sée all the couenants as abouesaid performed and kept. After
that these things were knowne to the king and the realme, although some
of the communaltie liked well inough of the matter, bicause they hoped
thereby to remaine in peace, especiallie those of the north parts,
the king yet and his councell (not without cause) were sore offended,
for that he whom the king had so latelie aduanced, should confederate
himselfe with the Scots, to the preiudice of the king and his crowne,
concluding any couenants of peace without his consent, wherevpon
reputing him for a ranke traitor, the king sent vnto the lord Antonie
Lucie, to apprehend the said earle by some meanes if he might, and for
his paines he should not faile to be well rewarded.

The lord Lucie watching his time, when the earles men were gone some
whither abroad, and but few left about him, the morrow after the feast
of saint Matthew the apostle, he entred the castell of Carleill, as
it were to talke with the earle of some businesse, as his manner was
at other times to doo. He had with him sir Hugh Lowther, sir Richard
Denton, and sir Hugh Moricebie knights, and foure esquiers, beside
other priuilie armed, so that leauing some at euerie gate and doore as
he entred, he came into the hall, and there finding the earle inditing
letters, arrested him. Herewith when certeine of the earles seruants
made a noise, and cried, Treason, treason, the porter of the inner gate
would haue shut it vpon them that were thus entred, but sir Richard
Denton slue that porter with his owne hands, and there was not one more
slaine by them in the apprehension of the earle, for all other his
seruants yéelded themselues and the house vnto the said lord Lucie,
without more resistance.

[Sidenote: Michaell de Herkley.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Carleils iudgement.]

Howbeit one of his seruants that saw these dooings, got awaie, and
with all spéed ran to the péele of Heihead, and shewed to the earles
brother Michaell Herkeley what was chanced to the earle, wherevpon the
said Michaell foorthwith fled into Scotland, and with him sir William
Blunt knight, a Scotishman, and diuerse other that were of the earles
priuie councell. The lord Lucie streightwaies sent a messenger to
the king vnto Yorke, aduertising him how he had taken the earle, and
therefore required to vnderstand further of the kings pleasure. The
king foorthwith sent the lord Geffrey Scroobe iustice, with a number of
armed men vnto Carleill, the which came thither on saint Chaddes daie,
and the morrow after, being the third of March, he sat in iudgement
vpon the said earle, in the castell of Carleill, and there (as out
of the kings mouth) he pronounced sentence against him in this wise;
first, that he should be disgraded of his earledome, by the taking
awaie from him the sword which the king had gird him with, and likewise
of his knighthood, by cutting off his spurs from his héeles, and that
after this, he should be drawen from the castell through the citie
vnto the place of execution, where felons were accustomed to suffer,
and there to be hanged, afterwards headed, and then his head to be
sent vnto London, there to be set aloft vpon one of the turrets of the
tower, and his quarters to be diuided, one to be set vp at Carleill, an
other at Newcastell vpon Tine, the third at Bristow, & the fourth at

[Sidenote: His constancie at his death.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

When he had heard this iudgement, he said; "You haue diuided my
bodie at your pleasure, and I commit my soule vnto God:" and being
according to the iudgement drawen to the place where he suffered, he
neuer shranke at the matter, but boldlie behaued himselfe, declaring
at the verie houre of his death, that his intention in concluding the
agréement with the Scots was good, and procéeding not of any euill
meaning, but tending onelie to the wealth and quietnes of the realme.
Neither could such friers as were permitted to come to him before
his arreignement to heare his confession, get any thing more of him,
but that his meaning was good, and that which he had concluded with
the king of Scots was not doone vpon any euill purpose, whereby any
hurt might insue, either to the king or to the realme. ¶ Thus haue
we thought good to shew the cause of this earles death, as by some
writers it hath béene registred; although there be that write, that the
ouerthrow at Beighland chanced through his fault, by misleading a great
part of the kings host, and that therefore the king being offended with
him, caused him to be put to death, albeit (as I thinke) no such matter
was alleged against him at the time of his arreignement.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: Commissioners méet to intreat of peace.]

[Sidenote: A truce concluded.]

About this season was the foundation begun of S. Michaels colledge
in Cambridge, by one sir Henrie Stanton knight, chancellour of the
excheker. About the feast of the Ascension, there came as commissioners
from the king of England vnto Newcastell, Aimerie earle of Penbroke,
and the lord chamberlaine Hugh Spenser the yoonger, and other foure
personages of good accompt. And from the king of Scots, there came the
bishop of saint Andrews, Thomas Randulfe earle of Murrey, and other
foure of good credit to treat of peace, or at the leastwise of some
long truce, and through the good will and pleasure of God, the author
of all peace and quietnesse, they concluded vpon a truce, to indure for
thirtéene yeares, and so about the feast of saint Barnabe the apostle,
it was proclaimed in both realmes, but yet so, that they might not
traffike togither, bicause of the excommunication wherewith the Scots
were as yet intangled, although as some write, about the same time, the
interdict wherein the realme of Scotland stood bound, was by pope Iohn

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Hect. Boetius._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 17.]

[Sidenote: Messengers from the French king.]

[Sidenote: The French king taketh townes in Aquitane.]

The French K. being latelie come to the crowne, sent certeine
ambassadors vnto king Edward, to wit, the lord Beouille, and one
Andreas de Florentia a notarie, to giue summons vnto him from the
French king, to come and doo homage for the lands which he held in
France, as for the duchie of Aquitaine, and the countie of Pontieu.
And though the lord chamberleine Hugh Spenser the sonne, and the lord
chancellour Robert Baldocke did what they could to procure these
ambassadors, not to declare the cause of their comming to the king, yet
when they should depart, they admonished the king to come and doo his
homage vnto the French king, and vpon this admonition the said Andreas
framed a publike instrument, by vertue whereof, the French king made
processe against the king of England, and seized into his hands diuerse
townes and castels in Aquitaine, alledging that he did it for the
contumacie shewed by the king of England, in refusing to come to doo
his homage, being lawfullie summoned, although the king was throughlie
informed, that the summons was neither lawfull, nor touched him anie
thing at all.

[Sidenote: The lord Mortimer breaketh out of the towre.]

About the same time, the lord Roger Mortimer of Wigmor, giuing his
kéepers a drinke that brought them into a sound and heauie sléepe,
escaped out of the tower of London where he was prisoner. This escape
of the lord Mortimer greatlie troubled the king, so that immediatlie
vpon the first news, he wrote to all the shiriffes of the realme, that
if he chanced to come within their roomes, they should cause hue and
crie to be raised, so as he might be staied and arrested, but he made
such shift, that he got ouer into France, where he was receiued by a
lord of Picardie, named monsier Iohn de Fieules, who had faire lands
in England, and therefore the king wrote to him, reprouing him of
vnthankfulnesse, considering he had béene euer readie to pleasure him,
and to aduance his profits and commodities, and yet notwithstanding he
did succour the said lord Mortimer, and other rebels that were fled out
of his realme.

[Sidenote: 1324.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Hereford arrested.]

[Sidenote: _Thom. de la More._]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

In Lent this yeare, a parlement was holden at London, in the which
diuerse things were intreated, amongst other the chéefest was, to
determine for the sending of some honorable ambassage to the French
king, to excuse the king for not comming to him to doo his homage,
according to the pretended summons. ¶ In the same parlement, Adam
bishop of Hereford was arrested, and examined vpon points of treason,
for aiding, succouring, and mainteining the Mortimers, and other of
the rebels. This bishop was reckoned to be wise, subtill, and learned,
but otherwise, wilfull, presumptuous, and giuen to mainteine factions.
At the first, he disdeined to make anie answer at all, and finallie,
when he was in manner forced thereto, he flatlie told the king, that
he might not make any answere to such matters as he was charged with,
except by the licence and consent of his metropolitane the archbishop
of Canturburie, and other his péeres. Héerevpon, the said archbishop
and other bishops made such sute, that he was committed to the kéeping
of the said archbishop, with him to remaine, till the king had taken
order for his further answer.

[Sidenote: The presumtuous demeanor of prelats.]

Within few daies after, when the king called him againe before his
presence, to make answere to the matters laid against him, the
archbishops of Canturburie, Yorke, Dublin, and ten other bishops came
with their crosses afore them, and vnder a colour of the priuiledge
and liberties of the church, tooke him awaie, before he had made anie
answere, forbidding all men on paine of excommunication, to laie anie
hands vpon him. The king greatlie offended with this bold procéeding
of the prelats, caused yet an inquest to be impanelled, to inquire of
the bishop of Herefords treasons, and vpon the finding of him giltie,
he seized into his hands all the temporalties that belonged to his
bishoprike, and spoiled his manours and houses most violentlie, in
reuenge of his disloiall dealings.

[Sidenote: _Ra. Tur._]

[Sidenote: Lands bel[=o]ging to the templers.]

[Sidenote: License to burie the bodies of the rebels.]

[Sidenote: _Record. Tur._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Moreouer, in this parlement, the lands and possessions that belonged
sometime to the Templers, and had béene deliuered vnto the knights
Hospitalers, otherwise called knights of the Rodes by the king in the
seauenth yeare of his reigne (according to the decrée of the councell
of Vienna) were by authoritie of this parlement assured vnto the said
knights, to enioy to them and their successors for euer. Also it was
concluded, that the earle of Kent, and the archbishop of Dubline should
go ouer as ambassadours into France, to excuse the king for his not
comming in person to the French king, to doo his homage for the lands
he held in France. Moreouer, in the same parlement, the king granted,
that all the dead bodies of his enimies and rebels that had suffered
and hanged still on the gallowes, should be taken downe, and buried in
the churchyards next to the places where the same bodies were hanging,
and not elsewhere, by such as would take paine to burie them, as by
his writs directed vnto the shiriffes of London, and of the counties
of Middlesex, Kent, Glocester, Yorke, and Buckingham it appeared. And
not onelie this libertie was granted at that time for the taking down
of those bodies, but (as some write) it was decréed by authoritie in
the same parlement, that the bodies of all those that from thenceforth
should be hanged for felonies, should incontinentlie be buried, which
ordinance hath béene euer since obserued.

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent into France.]

[Sidenote: The lord Basset.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 18.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Aniou sent into Guien.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent.]

The earle of Kent, and the archbishop of Dubline going ouer into
France, could not light vpon anie good conclusion for the matter about
the which they were sent, bicause the same time, or rather somewhat
before, the lord Rafe Basset of Draiton, being the kings seneshall
in Guien, had ouerthrowne a certeine towne, newlie fortified by the
Frenchmen on the frontiers, for that the inhabitants, trusting on the
French kings fauour and maintenance, refused to obeie the lawes and
ordinances of the countrie of Aquitaine, and séemed to despise and set
at naught the authoritie of the said lord Basset in that countrie,
contrarie to all right, good order or reason. Neuerthelesse, the
French king tooke the matter so gréeuouslie, that except the lord
Basset might be constreined to come vnto Paris, and there make answer
to his offense, he would not hearken to anie other satisfaction. And
therevpon, when the ambassadours were returned, he sent his vncle the
lord Charles de Valois earle of Aniou, with a mightie armie, against
the English subiects into Guien, where entring into Agenois, he tooke
and seized all that countrie into the French kings hands. The earle of
Kent being now gotten into those parts, with a great number of other
capteins and men of warre sent thither by the king of England, resisted
the enimies verie manfullie, in so much that vpon their approch to the
Rioll, a strong towne in those parts, the earle of Kent as then being
within it, did issue foorth, and giuing them battell, slue (as some
write) fouretéene hundred of their men, so that they were glad to lodge
at the first somewhat further off the towne.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The king of England writeth to the duke of Britaine.]

[Sidenote: _Record. Tur._]

Whilest this siege remained before the towne of the Rioll, the king of
England wrote his letters to the duke of Britaine, as one of the péeres
of France, declaring the iniurious dealing of the French king, who had
sent his vncle the earle of Aniou with an armie against his people in
Agenois, where he had taken manie townes, destroied his people, and now
had besieged his nephue Edmund earle of Kent, within the towne of the
Rioll, inforsing his whole puissance wrongfullie to bereaue him of all
the duchie of Guien, and against all reason, and the prerogatiue of the
péeres of France, to an euill president or example in time to come of
the perpetuall seruitude of the said péeres. "And although" saith the
king of England, "that the French alledge that we haue béen lawfullie
summoned to come and doo homage, and haue refused so to doo, that is
not so: for we were neuer in due order required as was conuenient,
neither could we doo homage, by reason of the great iniuries and hard
dealings practised against vs, from the feast of Easter last, till the
date of those his present letters (which was the sixt of October, in
this eightéenth yeare of his reigne) and yet," saith he, "there was
neuer anie lawfull processe had against vs before our péeres, in the
great chamber at Paris, as had béene requisite."

[Sidenote: The lord of Biskie.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

[Sidenote: A truce tak[=e].]

Herevpon he requested the duke of Britaine, that for the preseruation
and maintenance of the honorable estate of the péeres of France, & for
iustice sake he would helpe to aid him, either by waie of request, or
other conuenient meanes, so as the said streict dealings and iniurious
wrongs may ceasse, and the estate of the péereship may be mainteined
as was requisite. He wrote likewise to the lord Iohn the infant, the
lord of Biskie, and to the ladie Marie of Biskie gouernesse of the king
of Castile and Leon, and to Iames king of Aragon, requesting them to
aid him with men of warre, as well horssemen as footmen, against his
aduersarie the French king, that most vniustlie went about to depriue
him of his inheritance. But howsoeuer the matter went, no aid came
to the earle of Kent from any part, till at length, the Frenchmen so
reinforced the siege, that the towne was deliuered to the earle of
Aniou, and a truce taken vpon certeine conditions, that further talke
might be had, for the conclusion of some peace.

[Sidenote: The lord de Sullie sent into France in ambassage.]

[Sidenote: The pope sendeth ambassadors to the kings of England and

[Sidenote: 1325.]

[Sidenote: Other ambassadors sent ouer into France.]

Then were sent ouer other ambassadors, as the lord Iohn de Sullie a
Frenchman borne, and one maister Iohn de Shordich, but the lord Sullie
had so strange interteinment for some displeasure which the French king
conceiued against him, that if the French quéene had not the beter
intreated for him, he had lost his head; and as for the other, he had
also returned home without bringing any thing to passe, of that for the
which he was sent. After this, the pope sent the archbishop of Vienna,
and the bishop of Orange, to the princes of either realme, to exhort
them to some agréement, but they could doo no good, and so taking monie
of the cleargie for their expenses, they returned. After this, about
the twentith daie after Christmasse, there was a parlement called at
London, in the which the king required to haue the aduise of the lords,
how he might worke for sauing of the duchie of Guien, sore molested by
the French. Hervpon it was concluded, that the bishops of Winchester
and Norwich, and Iohn de Britaine earle of Richmond, should go ouer as
ambassadors to the French king, who comming into France, after manie
argumentations, allegations, and excuses, made on both parts, at length
receiued a certeine forme of pacification at the French kings hands,
with the which the bishop of Winchester was sent backe to England, the
bishop of Norwich, and the earle of Richmond remaining there, till it
might be knowen how the king of England would like thereof.

[Sidenote: The quéene is sent ouer into France to talke with hir
brother the French king.]

[Sidenote: A peace and concord agréed vpon.]

Finallie it was thought good, that the quéene shuld go ouer to hir
brother the French king, to confirme that treatie of peace vpon some
reasonable conditions. She willinglie tooke vpon hir the charge, and
so with the lord Iohn Crumwell, & other foure knights, without any
other great traine, taking sea, she landed in France, where of the
king hir brother she was ioifullie receiued, and finallie she being
the mediatrix, it was finallie accorded, that the K. of England should
giue to his eldest sonne the duchie of Aquitaine, and the countie of
Pontieu, and that the French king receiuing homage of him for the same,
he should restore into his hands the said countie, and the lands in
Guien, for the which they were at variance, and for those countries
which had béene forraied and spoiled, the earle of Aniou should fullie
sée him satisfied, as right did require.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 19.]

Vpon the couenants the French king wrote his letters patents into
England, and other letters also of safe conduct, as well for the sonne
as for the king himselfe, if it should please him to come ouer himselfe
in person. Upon which choise great deliberation was had, as well at
Langdon, as at Douer, diuerse thinking it best that the king should
go ouer himselfe: but the earle of Winchester and his sonne the lord
chamberleine, that neither durst go ouer themselues with the king, nor
abide at home in his absence, gaue contrarie counsell, and at length
preuailed so, that it was fullie determined that the kings eldest
sonne Edward should go ouer, which turned to their destruction, as it
appeared afterward.

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales is sent into France.]

Herevpon the king made a charter of grant vnto his sonne, of the
duchie of Guien, and countie of Pontieu, to haue and hold to him & his
heires kings of England, with condition, that if he chanced to depart
this life whilest his father liued, those lands should returne to his
father againe, so as the French king might not marrie the kings sonne
at his pleasure, nor appoint vnto him any gardians or gouernours. This
ordinance was made at Douer by the kings charter, with consent of the
prelats and other noble men of the realme there present, the morrow
after the Natiuitie of our ladie, and on the thursdaie following, the
kings sonne tooke the sea, and with him Walter bishop of Excester
and others in competent number, and about the feast of saint Matthew
the apostle, he did homage to his vncle the French king at Bois de
Vincennes, vnder certeine protestations made, as well on the one part
as the other.

[Sidenote: A drie summer.]

[Sidenote: Cattell died.]

[Sidenote: The king sendeth for his wife and son to returne home.]

[Sidenote: The womans dissimulation.]

The summer this yeare prooued excéeding hot and drie, so that springs
and riuers failed to yéeld their accustomed course of waters, by reason
whereof great numbers of cattell and beasts, both wild and tame died,
through lacke of conuenient liquor to asswage their vehement thirst.
In the beginning of the next spring, king Edward sent into France vnto
his wife and sonne, commanding them, now that they had made an end of
their businesse, to returne home with all conuenient spéed. The quéene
receiuing the message from hir husband, whether it was so that she was
staied by hir brother, vnto whome belike she had complained after what
manner she was vsed at hir husbands hands, being had in no regard with
him: or for that she had no mind to returne home, bicause she was loth
to sée all things ordered out of frame by the counsell of the Spensers,
whereof to heare she was wearie: or whether (as the manner of women is)
she was long about to prepare hir selfe forward, she slacked all the
summer, and sent letters euer to excuse hir tarriance. But yet bicause
she would not run in any suspicion with hir husband, she sent diuerse
of hir folkes before hir into England by soft iournies. A lamentable
case, that such diuision should be betwéene a king and his quéene,
being lawfullie married, and hauing issue of their bodies, which ought
to haue made that their copulation more comfortable: but (alas) what
will not a woman be drawne and allured vnto, if by euill counsell she
be once assaulted? And what will she leaue vndoone, though neuer so
inconuenient to those that should be most déere vnto hir, so hir owne
fansie and will be satisfied? And how hardlie is she reuoked from
procéeding in an euill action, if she haue once taken a taste of the
same? As verie truly is reported by the comedie-writer, saieng,

[Sidenote: _Plaut. in Truc._]

    Malè quod mulier incoepit nisi efficere id perpetrat,
    Id illi morbo, id illi senio est; ea illi miseræ miseria est:
    Si bene facere incoepit, eius eam citò odium percipit,
    Nimísq; paucæ sunt defessæ, malè quæ facere occoeperint;
    Nimísq; paucæ efficiunt, si quid occoeperint benefacere;
    Mulieri nimiò malefacere melius est onus, quàm bene.

[Sidenote: A proclamation.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

But to the purpose. King Edward not a little offended with king
Charles, by whose meanes he knew that the woman thus lingered abroad,
he procured pope Iohn to write his letters vnto the French king,
admonishing him to send home his sister and hir sonne vnto hir husband.
But when this nothing auailed, a proclamation was made in the moneth of
December, the ninetéenth yeare of this kings reigne, that if the quéene
and hir sonne entred not the land by the octaues of the Epiphanie next
insuing in peaceable wise, they should be taken for enimies to the
realme and crowne of England. ¶ Here authors varie, for some write,
that vpon knowledge had of this proclamation, the quéene determined to
returne into England foorthwith, that she might be reconciled to hir

[Sidenote: 1326.]

Others write, and that more truelie, how she being highlie displeased,
both with the Spensers and the king hir husband, that suffered
himselfe to be misled by their counsels, did appoint indéed to returne
into England, not to be reconciled, but to stir the people to some
rebellion, wherby she might reuenge hir manifold iniuries. Which (as
the proofe of the thing shewed) séemeth to be most true, for she being
a wise woman, & considering that sith the Spensers had excluded, put
out, and remooued all good men, from and besides the kings councell,
and placed in their roomes such of their clients, seruants and fréends
as pleased them, she might well thinke that there was small hope to be
had in hir husband, who heard no man but the said Spensers, which she
knew hated hir deadlie. Wherevpon, after that the tearme prefixed in
the proclamation was expired, the king caused to be seized into his
hands, all such lands, as belonged either to his sonne, or to his wife.

[Sidenote: Sir Robert Walkfare.]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Excester c[=o]meth from the quéene.]

About the same time, one sir Robert Walkfare knight, a right hardie man
of his hands, but craftie and subtill (who being taken in the warres
which the lords raised against the king, had béene committed to prison
in the castell of Corfe) found means now to kill the constable of that
castell most cruellie, and escaping awaie, got ouer to the quéene into
France, and so the number of them that ran out of the realme vnto hir
dailie increased. This sir Robert Walkfare was a great procurer of the
discord betwixt the king and the lords, and a chéefe leader, or rather
seducer of that noble man Humfrie de Bohune earle of Hereford: and
whilest other gaue themselues to séeke a reformation in the decaied
state of the common-wealth, he set his mind vpon murders and robberies.
Diuerse other about the same time fled out of the realme vnto the
quéene, and vnto hir sonne the earle of Chester. But in the meane time,
Walter Stapleton bishop of Excester, which hitherto had remained with
the quéene in France, stale now from hir, and got ouer into England,
opening to the king all the counsell and whole mind of the quéene:
which thing turned first of all vnto his owne destruction, as shall
after appeare.

[Sidenote: Sir Oliuer de Ingham lieutenant of Gascoine.]

[Sidenote: Agenois recouered out of the Frenchmens hands.]

[Sidenote: Ships of Normandie taken.]

About the same time, one sir Oliuer de Ingham, a yoong, lustie, and
valiant knight, was by the kings sonne the duke of Aquitaine (not
without his fathers consent) established lord warden of the marches
of Guien, the which sir Oliuer gathering an armie of hired soldiers,
Spaniards, Aragons, and Gascoins, inuaded the countrie of Agenois
(which the French king held yet in his hands contrarie to couenant)
and recouering it from the French, cléerelie reduced it to the English
dominion. Moreouer, sir Iohn Oturum, sir Nicholas Kiriell, and sir Iohn
Felton, admerals by the kings appointment, with the fléets of the east,
south, and west parts, went to the sea, to apprehend such Frenchmen as
they might méet withall. They according to their commission bestirred
themselues so, that within few daies they tooke six score saile of
Normans, and brought them into England, wherevpon the displeasure sore
increased betwixt the two realmes.

The king of England stood not onelie in doubt of the Frenchmen, but
more of his owne people that remained in France, least they thorough
helpe of the French should inuade the land, and therefore he commanded
the hauens and ports to be suerlie watched, lest some sudden inuasion
might happilie be attempted, for it was well vnderstood, that the
quéene meant not to returne, till she might bring with hir the lord
Mortimer, and the other banished men, who in no wise could obteine anie
fauour at the kings hands, so long as the Spensers bare rule. ¶ The
pope lamenting this matter, sent two bishops into England, to reconcile
the king and quéene, and also to agrée the two kings. These bishops
were reuerentlie receiued, but more than reuerence here they obteined
not, and so departed as they came.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 20.]

[Sidenote: The lord Beaumont of Heinault.]

[Sidenote: The quéene of England with hir son goeth into Heinault.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

King Edward vnderstanding all the quéenes drift, at length sought the
French kings fauour, and did so much by letters and promise of bribes
with him and his councell, that quéene Isabell was destitute in manner
of all helpe there, so that she was glad to withdraw into Heinault,
by the comfort of Iohn the lord Beaumont, the earle of Heinault his
brother, who being then in the court of France, and lamenting quéene
Isabels case, imagined with himselfe of some marriage that might be had
betwixt the yoong prince of Wales, and some of the daughters of his
brother the earle of Heinault, and therevpon required hir to go into
Heinault, and he would be glad to attend hir. She gladlie consenting
hereto, went thither with him, where she was most ioifullie receiued
with hir sonne, and all other of hir traine.

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

The Spensers (some write) procured hir banishment out of France, and
that she was aduised by the earle of Arthois chéefelie to repaire into
Heinault. Also I find, that the Spensers deliuered fiue barrels of
siluer, the summe amounting vnto fiue thousand marks, vnto one Arnold
of Spaine a broker, appointing him to conueie it ouer into France, to
bestowe it vpon such fréends as they had there of the French kings
counsell, by whose means the king of France did banish his sister out
of his relme. But this monie was met with vpon the sea by certeine
Zelanders, and taken, togither with the said Arnold, and presented to
the earle of Heinault, vnder whose dominion the Zelanders in those
daies remained, of which good hap the earle and quéene Isabell greatlie

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: A marriage concluded.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: Prouision made in England to resist the quéene.]

In the time that the quéene and hir sonne laie in the court of the
earle of Heinault, a marriage was concluded betwixt the prince of
Wales, and the ladie Philip, daughter to the said earle, vpon certeine
conditions, whereof one was, that the said erle should at his proper
costs set ouer into England the said prince of Wales, with a crue of
foure hundred men of armes. But whether there was any such mariage
as then concluded, and that in consideration thereof, the earle of
Heinault aided quéene Isabell and hir sonne, it may be doubted, bicause
other writers make no such report. Neuerthelesse, certeine it is, that
the earls brother sir Iohn de Heinault lord Beaumont, was appointed
with certeine bands of men of arms, to the number of foure hundred
or fiue hundred, to passe ouer with the said quéene and hir sonne
into England, and so therevpon began to make his purueiance for that
iournie, which thing when it came to the knowledge of king Edward and
the Spensers, they caused musters to be taken through the realme, and
ordeined beacons to be set vp, kept and watched, as well in the vallies
by the sea side, as within the countries, vpon hilles and high grounds,
that the same vpon occasion of the enimies arriuall, might be set on
fire, to warne the countries adioining to assemble and resist them.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsin._]

[Sidenote: The quéene with hir son land in Suffolke.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: The readinesse of the prelats to assist the quéene.]

But quéene Isabell and hir sonne, with such others as were with hir in
Heinault, staied not their iournie for doubt of all their aduersaries
prouision, but immediatlie after that they had once made their
purueiances, and were readie to depart, they tooke the sea, namelie
the quéene, hir sonne, Edmund of Wodstoke earle of Kent, sir Iohn de
Heinault aforesaid, and the lord Roger Mortimer of Wigmore, a man of
good experience in the warres, and diuerse others, hauing with them a
small companie of Englishmen, with a crue of Heinewiers and Almains,
to the number of 2757 armed men, the which sailing foorth towards
England, landed at length in Suffolke, at an hauen called Orwell
besides Harwich, the 25 daie of September. Immediatlie after that the
quéene and hir sonne were come to land, it was woonder to sée how fast
the people resorted vnto them; and first of all, the earle Marshall,
in whose lands she first came on shore, repaired vnto hir, so did the
earle of Leicester, and diuerse barons & knights of those parts, with
all the prelats in manner of the land, as the bishops of Lincolne,
Hereford, Dubline, and Elie, the which being ioined with the quéene,
made a great armie. The archbishop of Canturburie and others aided hir
with monie.

[Sidenote: The answer of the Londoners to the king.]

After that she had refreshed hir people a little space at saint
Edmundsburie, she marched foorth to séeke the aduersaries of hir and
of the realme, as she bruted it; but they still kéeping themselues
néere to the kings person, that vnder the shadow of the wings of his
protection they might remaine in more safegard, durst not depart from
his presence. At the time of the quéenes landing he was at London, and
being sore amazed with the newes, he required aid of the Londoners.
They answered, that they would doo all the honour they might vnto the
king, the quéene, and to their sonne the lawfull heire of the land: but
as for strangers & traitors to the realme, they would kéepe them out of
their gates, and resist them with all their forces: but to go foorth of
the citie further than that they might returne before sunne-setting,
they refused, pretending certeine liberties in that behalfe to them
granted in times past, as they alledged.

[Sidenote: The king forsaketh London, and goeth towards the marches of
Wales. A proclamation set forth by the king.]

[Sidenote: The quéenes proclamation.]

The king not greatlie liking of this answer, fortified the tower, and
leauing within it his yoonger son Iohn of Eltham, and the wife of
the lord Chamberleine Hugh Spenser the yoonger that was his néece,
he departed towards the marches of Wales, there to raise an armie
against the quéene. Before his departure from London, he set foorth
a proclamation, that euerie man vnder paine of forfeiting of life &
goods, should resist them that were thus landed, assaile, and kill
them, the quéene, his sonne Edward, and his brother the earle of Kent
onelie excepted; and whosoeuer could bring the head or dead corps of
the lord Mortimer of Wigmore, should haue for his labour a thousand
marks. The quéenes proclamations on the other part willed all men to
hope for peace, the Spensers publike enimies of the realme, and the
lord chancellor Robert Baldocke, with their assistants onlie excepted,
through whose meanes the present trouble was happened to the realme.
And it was forbidden, that no man should take ought from any person,
and who so euer could bring to the quéene the head of Hugh Spenser the
yoonger, should haue two thousand pounds of the quéenes gift.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Excester left in charge with the citie of

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

The king at his departure from London, left maister Walter Stapleton
the bishop of Excester behind him, to haue the rule of the citie of
London. Then shortlie after, the quéene with hir son, making towards
London, wrote a letter to the maior, and the citizens, requiring to
haue assistance for the putting downe of the Spensers, not onelie
knowne enimies of theirs, but also common enimies to all the realme
of England. To this letter no answer at the first was made, wherefore
an other was sent, dated at Baldocke the sixt daie of October, vnder
the names of Isabell by the grace of God quéene of England, ladie of
Ireland, and countesse of Pontieu, and of Edward eldest sonne to the
king of England, duke of Guien, earle of Chester, of Pontieu and of
Muttrell. This letter being directed to the maior and communaltie of
London, conteining in effect, that the cause of their landing and
entring into the realme at that time, was onelie for the honor of the
king and wealth of the realme, meaning hurt to no maner of person,
but to the Spensers, was fastened vpon the crosse in Cheape, then
called the new crosse in Cheape, on the night before the ninth daie of
October. Diuerse copies of the same letter were set vp, and fastened
vpon windowes and doores in other places of the citie, and one of the
same copies was tacked vpon the lord maiors gates.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Walsi._]

[Sidenote: The lord maior forced to take an oth.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Marshall taken & beheaded.]

After which letter thus published in the citie, a great number of
artificers, and other that loued not to sit in rest vpon such occasion
of discord offered, now that things were in broile in other parts of
the realme, assembled in great numbers, & with weapon in hand came to
the lord maior of the citie, whom they knew to fauour the kings part, &
therefore they forced him through feare of some iniurious violence, to
receiue an oth to stand to their ordinance, which was to put to death
all those that were aduersaries to the quéene, or had by any meanes
procured the hinderance of the cities liberties, vnder pretext of which
oth they ran and tooke one of the citizens, called Iohn Marshall,
who bicause he was verie familiar with the earle of Glocester, and
therefore suspected to haue accused the citizens, they stroke off his
head, and spoiled all his goods.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Excester beheaded.]

On the same day, being the fourtéenth of October, continuing their
rage, they ran to the house of the bishop of Excester, Walter de
Stapleton, and setting fire on the gates, they entred and spoiled
him of all his plate, iewels, monie and goods. And as it chanced
in an infortunate houre for him, the bishop being at the same time
returning from the fields, would not séeme to shrinke, although he was
admonished of these outragious attempts of the people; but sitting on
horssebacke, came to the north doore of S. Paule, where foorthwith the
furious people laid violent hands on him, threw him downe, and drew him
most outragiouslie into Cheapeside, where they proclamed him an open
traitor, a seducer of the king, and a destroier of their liberties. The
bishop had vpon him a certeine cote of defense, which was called an
aketon, the same therefore being plucked beside his backe as all other
his garments, they shore his head from his shoulders, and to the like
death they put two of his seruants, the one an esquire, and the other
a yeoman. The bishops head was set on a pole for a spectacle, that the
remembrance of his death, and the cause thereof might continue. His
bodie was buried in an old churchyard of the pied friers, without any
manner of exequies of funerall seruice doone for him.

The chiefest cause of the enimitie which the Londoners bare towards
this bishop, rose hereof. He being lord treasuror, procured that the
iustices itinerants did sit in the citie of London, and where manie
of the citizens were found offendors, and iustlie punished, as well
by loosing their fréedoms, as by paieng their fines, and suffering
corporall punishments, they conceiued a great displeasure towards
him. Moreouer, it was said, that he had raised a great multitude of
armed men against the quéene, and hir son the duke of Aquitaine, and
therefore did the Londoners (as they affirmed) séeke to preuent his
procéedings. ¶ The morrow after that they had thus beheaded the bishop
of Excester, they tooke by chance sir Iohn Weston constable of the
tower, and from him they tooke the keies of the same tower, and so
entering the tower, they set all the prisoners at libertie, and in like
case all those that were imprisoned in maner through the land were
permitted to go at large, and all the banished men and outlawes were
likewise restored home.

[Sidenote: The king sailed into Wales.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: His fauour towards the Welshmen.]

The Londoners hauing the tower thus at their commandement, remooued all
the officers therein placed by the king, and put other in their roomes,
in the name of the lord Iohn de Eltham the kings son, whom they named
warden of the citie and land. And yet they ceassed not to commit manie
robberies & other outragious & most insolent parts. In the meane time,
the king being come to Bristow, left that citie in the kéeping of the
earle of Winchester. And with the earles of Glocester and Arundell, and
the lord chancellor sir Robert Baldocke, he sailed ouer into Wales,
there to raise a power of Welshmen in defense of himselfe against the
quéene and hir adherents, which he had good hope to find amongest
the Welshmen, bicause he had euer vsed them gentlie, and shewed no
rigor towards them for their riotous misgouernance. Againe, he drew
the rather into that part, that if there were no remedie, he might
easilie escape ouer into Ireland, and get into some mounteine-countrie,
marish-ground, or other streict, where his enimies should not come at

[Sidenote: The quéene following the king commeth to Oxenford.]

[Sidenote: _Tho. de la More._]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Hereford maketh an oration to the quéenes

But now to speake of the quéene, yée most vnderstand, that after she
had receiued knowledge from the Londoners, that they were wholie at
hir deuotion, she being glad thereof, turned hir iournie toward Wales
to follow the king, and comming to Oxenford, staied there a while, and
still came people to hir from all sides. Héere Adam de Torleton the
bishop of Hereford, which latelie before had béene sore fined by the
king, for that he was accused to stirre the people to rebellion, and
to aid the barons (as yée haue heard) made a pithie oration to the
armie, declaring that the quéene and hir sonne were returned onelie
into England, to the intent to persecute the Spensers, & reforme the
state of the realme. And sith then that they now were come in maner to
an end of the tyrannie of most naughtie men, and of the danger that
might growe dailie thereof, he exhorted them with patient minds to
beare the small trauell that remained in pursuit of the enimies; and as
for reward, they might looke for all things by the victorie, and the
quéenes liberalitie, whose loue was such towards the common-wealth, as
she onelie applied all hir endeuours and dooings to the aduancement

[Sidenote: The quéene goeth to Glocester.]

These words spoken, the quéene accompanied with a great power, departed
from Oxenford, and went straight vnto Glocester, and sent before
hir vnto Bristow the earle of Kent, the kings brother, sir Iohn of
Hennegew, with other, to take the earle of Winchester. They did their
endeuour with such diligence, that the townesmen, compounding to be
saued harmlesse in bodie and goods, deliuered the towne and castell
vnto the quéene, & to hir sonne the prince. In the meane time, there
came to the quéene at Glocester, the lord Percie, the lord Wake, and
diuerse other, as well from the north parts, as foorth of the marches
of Wales, so that hir armie hugelie increased.

[Sidenote: The lord Berkley.]

[Sidenote: The quéene commeth to Bristow.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Winchester executed.]

From Glocester she passed by Berkley, and restored the castell of
Berkley (which the earle of Glocester, Hugh Spenser the yoonger had
held) vnto the lord Thomas Berkley, heire to the lord Maurice Berkley
latelie before deceassed in prison, within the castell of Wallingford,
togither with all the appurtenances to the honor of Berkley belonging.
From thence she went to Bristow, and the morrow after hir thither
comming, being the euen of the apostles Simon and Iude, through the
instant calling vpon of the people, the earle of Winchester was drawne
foorth in his cote armor vnto the common gallows, and there hanged. His
head was after cut off, and sent to Winchester, whereof he was earle.

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Blunt, lord Steward to the king, reuolteth to the

The king in this meane time kept not in one place, but shifting
hither and thither, remained in great care. Wherevpon sir Thomas
Blunt, an ancient knight, and lord steward of the kings house, tooke
his seruants, with vittels, horsses, and armour in great plentie,
and came to the quéene, of whome, and likewise of hir sonne he was
ioifullie receiued, and diuerse of them which he brought with him were
reteined, and the other had letters of protection, and were sent awaie
in louing manner. ¶ The king with the earle of Glocester, and the
lord chancellor, taking the sea, meant to haue gone either into the
Ile of Lundaie, or else into Ireland, but being tossed with contrarie
winds for the space of a wéeke togither, at length he landed in
Glamorganshire, and got him to the abbeie and castell of Neith, there
secretlie remaining vpon trust of the Welshmens promises. ¶ Hugoline
Spenser, the sonne of the earle of Glocester, defended the castell of
Kersilie, against the power of the quéene and of hir sonne till easter
following, and then compounding for the safetie of his owne life, and
all theirs within that castell, and likewise for the inioieng of their
goods, he yéelded it to the hands of the men of warre that held siege
before it in the quéenes name, and of hir sonne.

[Sidenote: A councell at Hereford.]

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales made lord warden of the realme.]

[Sidenote: A new chancellor and treasuror.]

But now touching the king, whilest he was thus abroad, and no man wist
where he was become, proclamations were made in the quéenes armie
dailie, in the which he was summoned to returne, and to take the rule
of the relme into his hands, if he would be conformable to the minds
of his true liege men; but when he appeared not, the lords of the land
assembled in councell at Hereford, whither the quéene was come from
Bristow, and there was the lord Edward prince of Wales and duke of
Aquitaine made warden of England, by common decrée, vnto whome all men,
as to the lord warden of the realme, made fealtie, in receiuing an oth
of allegiance to be faithfull and loiall to him. After this, they made
the bishop of Norwich lord chancellor, and the bishop of Winchester
lord treasuror.

The quéene remained about a moneths space at Hereford, and in the meane
while sent the lord Henrie erle of Leicester, and the lord William
la Zouch, and one Rice ap Howell, that was latelie deliuered out of
the tower where he was prisoner, into Wales, to sée if they might
find means to apprehend the king by helpe of their acquaintance in
those parts, all thrée of them hauing lands thereabouts, where it was
knowne the king for the more part kept. They vsed such diligence in
that charge, that finallie with large gifts bestowed on the Welshmen,
they came to vnderstand where the king was, and so on the day of saint
Edmund the archbishop, being the sixtéenth of Nouember, they tooke
him in the monasterie of Neith, néere to the castell of Laturssan,
togither with Hugh Spenser the sonne called earle of Glocester, the
lord chancellour Robert de Baldocke, and Simon de Reading the kings
marshall, not caring for other the kings seruants, whome they suffered
to escape.

[Sidenote: The king is brought to Killingworth.]

[Sidenote: Hugh Spenser the yonger executed.]

The king was deliuered to the earle of Leicester, who conueied him by
Monmouth and Leadburie, to Killingworth castle, where he remained the
whole winter. The earle of Glocester, the lord chancellor, and Simon de
Reading, were brought to Hereford, and there presented to the quéene,
where on the foure & twentith of Nouember, the said earle was drawne
and hanged on a paire of gallowes of fiftie foot in height. Then was
his head striken off, his bowels taken out of his bodie and burnt, and
his bodie diuided in quarters. His head was sent to London, and set
vpon the bridge with other, & his quarters were sent to foure seuerall
parts of the realme, and there pight vpon poles, to be séene of the
people. He was drawne in his owne cote armour, about the which there
were letters embrodered plaine to be read, conteining a parcell of the
52 psalme, as followeth.

  1 QVID gloriaris in malitia potens?
  2 Iniquitatem tota die, iniustitiam cogitauit lingua tua, sicut
    nouacula acuta fecistidolum,
  3 Dilexisti malitiam super bonitatem, iniustitiam magis quàm
    loqui iustitiam,
  4 Dilexisti omnia verba demersionis lingua dolosa,
  5 Propterea Deus destruat te in finem, euellat te & emigrare te
    faciat de tabernaculo tuo, & radicem tuam de terra viuentium,
  6 Videbunt iusti & timebunt, & super eum ridebunt, & dicent,
  7 Ecce homo qui non posuit Deum adiutorem suum, sed sperauit in
    multitudine diuitiarum suarum, & præualuit in vanitate sua.

  1 WHY boastest thou that thou canst do mischiefe?
  2 Thy toong imagineth wickednesse, & with lies thou cuttest
    like a sharpe rasor,
  3 Thou hast loued vngratiousnesse more than goodnesse, and to
    talke of lies more than righteousnesse,
  4 thou hast loued to speake all words that may doo hurt ô thou
    false toong,
  5 Therefore shall God destroie thée for euer, he shall take
    thée, and plucke thée out of my dwelling, and roote thée out of
    the land of the liuing,
  6 The righteous also shall sée this, and feare, and shall laugh
    him to scorne,
  7 Lo this is the man that tooke not God for his strength,
    but trusted vnto the multitude of his riches, & strengthned
    himselfe in his wickednesse.

[Sidenote: Simon de Reading executed.]

[Sidenote: _Caxton._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Arundell taken.]

[Sidenote: _Th. Walsing._]

[Sidenote: Execution.]

[Sidenote: The fauour in which the lord Mortimer was with the quéene.]

On the same daie was Simon de Reading drawne and hanged on the same
gallowes, but ten foot lower than the other. This Reading being
marshall of the kings house, had vsed the quéene very vncourteouslie,
giuing hir manie reprochfull words, which now were remembred, and
therefore may serue for an example, how dangerous a thing it is to
speake euill of the higher powers. The common fame went, that after
this Hugh Spenser the sonne was taken, he would receiue no sustenance,
wherefore he was the sooner put to death, or else had he béene conueied
to London, there to haue suffered. Iohn earle of Arundell was taken
on S. Hughs day, in the parts about Shrewesburie, and the same day
seuennight before the execution of the earle of Glocester, Hugh Spenser
the yoonger, as well the said earle, who had béene euer a great fréend
to both the Spensers, as also Iohn Daniell, and Thomas de Milcheldoure
were put to death at Hereford, by procurement of the lord Mortimer of
Wigmore, that hated them extreamelie, by reason whereof they were not
like to spéed much better, for what he willed the same was doone, and
without him the quéene in all these matters did nothing.

[Sidenote: Robert Baldocke ended his life.]

[Sidenote: 1327.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The king is deposed by act of parlement.]

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburie preacheth.]

The chancellour Robert de Baldocke being committed to the custodie
of Adam de Torleton bishop of Hereford, remained at Hereford in safe
kéeping till Candlemasse next, and then the bishop being at London,
appointed him to be brought vp, where not without the bishops consent
(as was thought) he was taken out of his house by violence, and laid
in Newgate, where shortlie after through inward sorow and extreame
gréefe of mind he ended his life. Thus the quéene and hir companie
hauing compassed their businesse in so happie maner as they could
wish, she with hir sonne and a great companie of lords and gentlemen
repaired vnto Wallingford, where they kept Christmasse togither with
great ioy and triumph, the king in the meane while remaining (as ye
haue heard) at Killingworth, in a kind of honorable estate, although
he was prisoner. ¶ After Christmasse, the quéene with hir son and
such lords as were then with them, remooued to London, where at
their comming thither, which was before the feast of the Epiphanie,
they were receiued with great ioy, triumph, and large gifts, and so
brought to Westminster, where the morrow after the same feast, the
parlement which before hand had béene summoned began, in which it was
concluded and fullie agréed by all the states (for none durst speake
to the contrarie) that for diuerse articles which were put vp against
the king, he was not worthie longer to reigne, and therefore should
be deposed, and withall they willed to haue his sonne Edward duke of
Aquitaine to reigne in his place. This ordinance was openlie pronounced
in the great hall at Westminster by one of the lords, on the feast day
of saint Hilarie being tuesdaie, to the which all the people consented.
The archbishop of Canturburie taking his theame, Vox populi, vox Dei,
made a sermon, exhorting the people to praie to God to bestow of his
grace vpon the new king. And so when the sermon was ended, euerie man
departed to his lodging. But the duke of Aquitaine, when he perceiued
that his mother tooke the matter heauilie in appearance, for that
hir husband should be thus depriued of the crowne, he protested that
he would neuer take it on him, without his fathers consent, and so
therevpon it was concluded, that certeine solemne messengers should go
to Killingworth to mooue the king to make resignation of his crowne and
title of the kingdome vnto his sonne.

[Sidenote: _Thom. de la More._]

[Sidenote: _Thom. Wals._]

There were sent on this message (as some write) thrée or (as other
haue) two bishops, two earles, two abbats, two or (as Tho. de la More
and Walsingham haue) foure barons, and for euerie countie, citie,
and burrough, and likewise for the cinque ports, certeine knights
and burgesses. The bishops that were sent were these (as T. de la
More noteth) Iohn de Stratford bishop of Winchester, Adam de Torleton
bishop of Hereford, and Henrie bishop of Lincolne. The two earles
(as Southwell hath) were Lancaster and Warwike: the two barons, Rose
and Courtney: beside these (as he saith) there were two abbats, two
priors, two iustices, two friers of the order of preachers, two of the
Carmelits, two knights for the commons on the north side of Trent, and
two for the other on the south side of the same riuer: two citizens for
London, two burgesses for the cinque ports, so as in all there went of
this message (as Southwell saith) thrée and twentie or rather foure and
twentie persons of one degrée and other.

None of the frier minors went, bicause they would not be the bringers
of so heauie tidings, sith he had euer borne them great good will.
The bishops of Winchester and Lincolne went before, and comming to
Killingworth, associated with them the earle of Leicester, of some
called the earle of Lancaster, that had the king in kéeping. And hauing
secret conference with the king, they sought to frame his mind, so as
he might be contented to resigne the crowne to his sonne, bearing him
in hand, that if he refused so to doo, the people in respect of the
euill will which they had conceiued against him, would not faile but
procéed to the election of some other that should happilie not touch
him in linage. And sith this was the onlie meane to bring the land in
quiet, they willed him to consider how much he was bound in conscience
to take that waie that should be so beneficiall to the whole realme.

[Sidenote: _Rich. South._]

[Sidenote: The kings answer.]

The king being sore troubled to heare such displeasant newes, was
brought into a maruelous agonie: but in the end, for the quiet of the
realme and doubt of further danger to himselfe, he determined to follow
their aduise, and so when the other commissioners were come, and that
the bishop of Hereford had declared the cause wherefore they were
sent, the king in presence of them all, notwithstanding his outward
countenance discouered how much it inwardlie grieued him; yet after he
was come to himselfe, he answered that he knew that he was fallen into
this miserie through his owne offenses, and therefore he was contented
patientlie to suffer it, but yet it could not (he said) but gréeue
him, that he had in such wise runne into the hatred of all his people:
notwithstanding he gaue the lords most heartie thanks, that they had
so forgotten their receiued iniuries, and ceassed not to beare so much
good will towards his sonne Edward, as to wish that he might reigne
ouer them. Therefore to satisfie them, sith otherwise it might not
be, he vtterlie renounced his right to the kingdome, and to the whole
administration thereof. And lastlie he besought the lords now in his
miserie to forgiue him such offenses as he had committed against them.
Ah lamentable ruine from roialtie to miserable calamitie, procured by
them chéefelie that should haue béene the pillers of the kings estate,
and not the hooked engins to pull him downe from his throne! So that
here we sée it verefied by triall, that

    ---- miser átq; infoelix est etiam rex,
    Nec quenquam (mihi crede) facit diadema beatum.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Meredith._]

The ambassadours with this answer returning to London, declared the
same vnto all the states, in order as they had receiued it, whervpon
great ioy was made of all men, to consider that they might now by
course of law procéed to the choosing of a new king. And so thervpon
the nine and twentith day of Ianuarie in session of parlement then at
Westminster assembled, was the third king Edward, sonne to king Edward
the second, chosen and elected king of England, by the authoritie of
the same parlement, first (as before is said) confirmed by his fathers
resignation: and the first day of his reigne they agréed to be the
fiue and twentith of Ianuarie, in the yeare 1326 after the account of
the church of England, beginning the yeare the fiue & twentith day
of March, but by the common account of writers, it was in the yeare
1327. ¶ On the same daie sir William Trusell procurator for the whole
parlement did renounce the old king in name of the whole parlement,
with all homages and fealties due to him, so that the same fiue and
twentith day of Ianuarie hath béene reputed and taken for the first
day of the beginning of king Edward the third his reigne, so that
whatsoeuer chanced before that day, is ascribed to be doone during the
reigne of his father.

[Sidenote: _Thom. de la More._]

But now to make an end of the life, as well as of the reigne of king
Edward the second, I find that after he was deposed of his kinglie
honour and title, he remained for a time at Killingworth, in custodie
of the earle of Leicester. But within a while the quéene was informed
by the bishop of Hereford, (whose hatred towards him had no end) that
the erle of Leicester fauoured hir husband too much, and more than
stood with the suertie of hir sonnes state, wherevpon he was appointed
to the kéeping of two other lords, Thomas Berkley, and Iohn Matreuers,
who receiuing him of the earle of Leicester the third of Aprill,
conueied him from Killingworth vnto the castell of Berkley, situate
not farre off from the riuer of Seuerne, almost the midwaie betwixt
Glocester and Bristow.

[Sidenote: Sir Thomas Gourney.]

But forsomuch as the lord Berkley vsed him more courteouslie than his
aduersaries wished him to doo, he was discharged of that office, and
sir Thomas Gourney appointed in his stead, who togither with the lord
Matreuers conueied him secretlie (for feare least he should be taken
from them by force) from one strong place to another, as to the castell
of Corfe, and such like, still remoouing with him in the night season,
till at length they thought it should not be knowne whither they had
conueied him. And so at length they brought him backe againe in secret
maner vnto the castell of Berkley, where whilest he remained (as some
write) the quéene would send vnto him courteous and louing letters
with apparell and other such things, but she would not once come néere
to visit him, bearing him in hand that she durst not, for feare of
the peoples displeasure, who hated him so extreamelie. Howbeit, she
with the rest of hir confederats had (no doubt) laid the plot of their
deuise for his dispatch, though by painted words she pretended a kind
of remorse to him in this his distresse, & would séeme to be faultlesse
in the sight of the world; for

    Proditor illudit verbis dum verbera cudit.

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent conspireth to deliuer his brother.]

But as he thus continued in prison, closelie kept, so that none of
his fréends might haue accesse vnto him, as in such cases it often
happeneth, when men be in miserie, some will euer pitie their state,
there were diuerse of the nobilitie (of whome the earle of Kent was
chéefe) began to deuise means by secret conference had togither, how
they might restore him to libertie, discommending greatlie both quéene
Isabell, and such other as were appointed gouernours to the yoong
king, for his fathers streict imprisonment. The quéene and other the
gouernours vnderstanding this conspiracie of the earle of Kent, and
of his brother, durst not yet in that new and gréene world go about
to punish it, but rather thought good to take awaie from them the
occasion of accomplishing their purpose. And herevpon the quéene and
the bishop of Hereford wrote sharpe letters vnto his kéepers, blaming
them greatlie, for that they dealt so gentlie with him, and kept him no
streictlier, but suffered him to haue such libertie, that he aduertised
some of his fréends abroad how and in what manner he was vsed, and
withall the bishop of Hereford vnder a sophisticall forme of words
signified to them by his letters, that they should dispatch him out of
the waie, the tenor whereof wrapped in obscuritie ran thus:

    Edwardum occidere nolite timere bonum est:
    To kill Edward will not to feare it is good.

Which riddle or doubtfull kind of spéech, as it might be taken in two
contrarie senses, onelie by placing the point in orthographic called
C[=o]ma, they construed in the worse sense, putting the Comma after
Timere, and so presuming of this commandement as they tooke it from
the bishop, they lodged the miserable prisoner in a chamber ouer a
foule filthie dungeon, full of dead carrion, trusting so to make an
end of him, with the abhominable stinch thereof: but he bearing it out
stronglie, as a man of a tough nature, continued still in life, so as
it séemed he was verie like to escape that danger, as he had by purging
either vp or downe auoided the force of such poison as had béene
ministred to him sundrie times before, of purpose so to rid him.

[Sidenote: _Tho. Wals._]

[Sidenote: _Thom. de la More._]

[Sidenote: K. Edward the second murthered.]

Wherevpon when they sawe that such practises would not serue their
turne, they came suddenlie one night into the chamber where he laie
in bed fast asléepe, and with heauie featherbeds or a table (as some
write) being cast vpon him, they kept him down and withall put into
his fundament an horne, and through the same they thrust vp into his
bodie an hot spit, or (as other haue) through the pipe of a trumpet a
plumbers instrument of iron made verie hot, the which passing vp into
his intrailes, and being rolled to and fro, burnt the same, but so as
no appearance of any wound or hurt outwardlie might be once perceiued.
His crie did mooue manie within the castell and towne of Berkley to
compassion, plainelie hearing him vtter a wailefull noise, as the
tormentors were about to murther him, so that diuerse being awakened
therewith (as they themselues confessed) praied heartilie to God to
receiue his soule, when they vnderstood by his crie what the matter

[Sidenote: The fond opinion of the ignorant people.]

[Sidenote: The nature & disposition of king Edward the second.]

The quéene, the bishop, and others, that their tyrannie might be
hid, outlawed and banished the lord Matreuers, and Thomas Gourney,
who flieng vnto Marcels, thrée yeares after being knowne, taken,
and brought toward England was beheaded on the sea, least he should
accuse the chiefe dooers, as the bishop and other. Iohn Matreuers,
repenting himselfe, laie long hidden in Germanie, and in the end died
penitentlie. Thus was king Edward murthered, in the yeare 1327, on the
22 of September. The fame went that by this Edward the second, after
his death manie miracles were wrought. So that the like opinion of him
was conceiued as before had béene of earle Thomas of Lancaster, namelie
amongst the common people. He was knowne to be of a good and courteous
nature, though not of most pregnant wit.

And albeit in his youth he fell into certeine light crimes, and
after by the companie and counsell of euill men, was induced vnto
more heinous vices, yet was it thought that he purged the same by
repentance, and patientlie suffered manie reproofes, and finallie death
it selfe (as before ye haue heard) after a most cruell maner. He had
suerlie good cause to repent his former trade of liuing, for by his
vndiscréet and wanton misgouernance, there were headed and put to death
during his reigne (by iudgement of law) to the number of 28 barons
and knights, ouer and beside such as were slaine in Scotland by his
infortunate conduct.

All these mischéefes and manie more happened not onlie to him, but
also to the whole state of the realme, in that he wanted iudgement and
prudent discretion to make choise of sage and discréet councillors,
receiuing those into his fauour, that abused the same to their
priuate gaine and aduantage, not respecting the aduancement of the
common-wealth, so they themselues might atteine to riches and honour,
for which they onelie sought, in somuch that by their couetous rapine,
spoile, and immoderate ambition, the hearts of the common people &
nobilitie were quite estranged from the dutifull loue and obedience
which they ought to haue shewed to their souereigne, going about by
force to wrest him to follow their wils, and to séeke the destruction
of them whome he commonlie fauoured, wherein suerlie they were worthie
of blame, and to tast (as manie of them did) the deserued punishment
for their disobedient and disloiall demeanors. For it was not the waie
which they tooke to helpe the disfigured state of the common-wealth,
but rather the readie meane to ouerthrow all, as if Gods goodnesse had
not béene the greater it must néeds haue come to passe, as to those
that shall well consider the pitifull tragedie of this kings time it
may well appeare.

[Sidenote: His issue.]

[Sidenote: Oriall & S. Maries hall in Oxford.]

But to procéed with that which remaineth touching this infortunate
prince. He had issue by his wife quéene Isabell two sonnes, Edward
which was made king whilest he was yet aliue, and Iohn which died
yoong: also two daughters, Elianor which died before she came to yeares
able for mariage; and Ione which was after giuen in marriage vnto
Dauid king of Scotland. He was indifferentlie tall of stature, strong
of bodie, and healthfull, neither wanted there in him stoutnesse of
stomach, if his euill councellors had béene remooued, that he might
haue shewed it in honorable exploits, which being kept backe by them,
he could not doo. So that thereby it appeareth of what importance it
is to be trained vp in youth with good and honest companie. ¶ It is
said that he was learned, insomuch that there remaine verses, which (as
some haue written) he made whilest he was in prison. Certeine it is he
fauoured lerning, as by the erection of Oriall colledge in Oxford, & S.
Maries hall, which were of his foundation, it may well be gathered.

[Sidenote: _Ex centuria 4 Bale._]

[Sidenote: Sée in Scotland.]

Learned men we find recorded by Bale, to liue in this kings time
these as follow. Iohn Duns that subtill logician, borne (as Leland
hath gathered) in a village in Northumberland called Emildune, thrée
miles distant from Alnwike, although other hold the contrarie, the
Scots claiming him for their countrieman, and the Irishmen for theirs;
Robert Walsingham a Carmelite frier that writ diuerse treatises,
Iohn Wilton an Augustine frier, Walter Winterborne, Rafe Locksley,
Nicholas Stanford, William Whitley, Thomas Ioice, Walter Ioice, William
Gainesburgh, Robert Baston borne not farre from Notingham a Carmelite
frier of Scarburgh, the same whome king Edward tooke with him into
Scotland to write some remembrances of his victories, although being
taken by the Scots, he was constreined by Robert Bruce to frame a
dittie to a contrarie tune; Iohn Horminger a Suffolke man borne,
William Rishanger a moonke of S. Albons an historiographer, Rafe
Baldocke bishop of London wrote also an historie, which was intituled
Historia Anglica; Richard Bliton a Lincolnshire man borne a Carmelite
frier, Iohn Walsingham borne either in Walsingham or Brunham (as
Bale supposeth) a Carmelite frier also, and wrote diuerse treatises;
Thomas Chabham a canon of Salisburie and a doctor of diuinitie, Robert
Plimpton borne in Deuonshire a regular canon, Thomas Castleford a
moonke of Pomfret, William Mansfield, Iohn Canon, Robert Grime, William
Askettle of Beuerley, Geffrey of Cornewall, Iohn Gatisdene, Theobald
Anglicus, Stephan Eiton or Edon, Iohn Goldstone borne in Yorkeshire;
Iohn Winchelsey, Nicholas de Lyra a Iew by birth of those that had
their habitations in England, who wrote verie manie treatises, to
his great commendation for his singular knowledge and zeale, which
he shewed in disprouing the Rabines that still sought to kéepe the
Iewish nation in blindnesse and vaine hope, in looking for another
Messias; Rafe Acton an excellent diuine, Iohn Dumbleton a logician,
Thomas Langford borne in Maldon in Essex a logician, Osbert Pickenam
a Carmelite frier of Lin in Norfolke, Nicholas Okeham a graie frier,
William Ockam a frier minor that wrote diuerse treatises, and namelie
against Iohn Duns, and likewise against Iohn the thrée and twentith
pope of that name in fauour of the emperour Lewes of Bauier, Richard
Walingford, Thomas Haselwood a canon of Léeds in Kent wrote a chronicle
called Chronicon compendiarium, Robert Karew, Robert Perscrutator borne
in Yorkeshire a blacke frier and a philosopher or rather a magician,
Richard Belgraue a Carmelite, Brinkley a minorite; and others.

Thus far infortunat Edward the second

    Transcriber's Notes:

    Simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors were

    Punctuation normalized.

    Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed.

    The author's usage of accents was inconsistent. Specifically
    accented "ée" is far more prevalent than "ee" even for the same
    word. Changed all instances of "ee" to "ée"

    Italics markup is enclosed in _underscores_.

                     Symbols for Diacritical Marks
        (In the table below, the "x" represents a letter with a
                          diacritical mark.)
  diacritical mark             sample      above        below
  macron (straight line)         ¯         [=x]         [x=]

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