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Title: Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (8 of 12)
Author: Holinshed, Raphael
Language: English
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*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "Chronicles of England, Scotland and Ireland (2 of 6): England (8 of 12)" ***

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HENRIE THE THIRD,

the eldest sonne of king Iohn.


[Sidenote: An. Reg. 1.]

[Sidenote: 1216.]

Henrie, The third of that name, the eldest sonne of K. John, a child
of the age of nine yeres, began his reigne ouer the realme of England
the ninetéenth day of October, in the yeare of our Lord 1216, in the
seuenth yeare of the emperour Frederike the second, and in the 36 yeare
of the reigne of Philip the second king of France.

[Sidenote: William Marshall earle of Penbrooke.]

Immediatlie after the death of his father king John, William Marshall
earle of Penbroke, generall of his fathers armie, brought this yoong
prince with his brother and sisters vnto Glocester, and there called a
councell of all such lords as had taken part with king John. Anon after
it was once openlie knowne, that the sonnes and daughters of the late
deceassed prince were brought into a place of safetie, a great number
of the lords and chéefe barons of the realme hasted thither (I meane
not onelie such as had holden with king John, but also diuerse other,
which vpon certeine knowledge had of his death, were newlie reuolted
from Lewes) in purpose to aid yoong king Henrie, to whome of right the
crowne did apperteine.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

Thither also came Vallo or Guallo the popes legat (an earnest defender
of the kings cause) with Peter bishop of Winchester, & Jocelin bishop
of Bath: also Ranulph earle of Chester, William Ferrers earle of
Derbie, John Marshall, and Philip de Albenie, with diuerse other lords
and péeres of the relme, and a great number of abbats and priors, who
by and by fell to councell togither what waie should be best to take,
for the good order of things now in so doubtfull and perilous a time as
this. The péeres of the realme being thus assembled, William earle of
Penbroke, bringing the yoong king into their presence, and setting him
before them, spake these words following.



The earle of Penbroks short and swéet oration as it is borrowed out of
maister Fox.


Behold Right honourable and well beloued, although we haue persecuted
the father of this yoong prince for his euill demeanor, and worthilie,
yet this yoong child whome héere you sée before you, as he is in years
tender, so is he pure and innocent from those his fathers dooings.
Wherefore, in so much as euerie man is charged onelie with the burthen
of his owne works and transgressions, neither shall the child (as the
scripture teacheth vs) beare the iniquitie of his father: we ought
therefore of dutie and conscience to pardon this yoong and tender
prince, and take compassion of his age as yée sée. And now, for so
much as he is the kings naturall and eldest sonne, and must be our
souereigne king, and successour in this kingdome, come and let vs
appoint him our king & gouernour, let vs remoue from vs this Lewes the
French kings sonne, and suppresse his people, which are a confusion and
shame to our nation: and the yoke of their seruitude let vs cast from
off our shoulders.

       *       *       *       *       *

When the barons had heard this earles words, after some silence and
conference had, they allowed of his saiengs, and immediatlie with one
consent, proclaimed the yoong gentleman king of England, whome the
bishops of Winchester and Bath did crowne and annoint with all due
solemnities at Glocester, vpon the day of the feast of the apostles
Simon & Jude, in presence of the legat. Being thus crowned he was
committed to the gouernance of his brother in law, the foresaid William
Marshall earle of Penbroke, who to win the good will of the people
towards the yoong king, sent foorth messengers with letters into all
parts of the realme, to signifie the newes of the kings coronation,
with an offer also of pardon to all such of the barons side as would
turne to his part: and likewise of great rewards to those which hauing
hitherto continued faithfull, would so remaine vntill this trouble
should be ouerpast. By this means it came to passe, that his fréends
greatlie reioised at these newes, and manie of those which till that
time had aided the Frenchmen, reuolted from them, and in hope of pardon
and reward turned to king Henrie.

[Sidenote: The pride of the Frenchmen procureth them hatred.]

It is reported by writers, that amongst other things, as there were
diuerse which withdrew the hearts of the Englishmen from Lewes, the
consideration of the confession, which the [1] viscount of Melune made
at the houre of his death, was the principall. The order whereof, in
the later end of the life of king John, yée haue heard. Truelie how
little good will inwardlie Lewes and his Frenchmen bare towards the
English nation, it appéered sundrie waies. And first of all, in that
they had them in a manner in no regard or estimation at all, but rather
sought by all means to spoile and kéepe them vnder, not suffering them
to beare anie rule, nor putting them in trust with the custodie of
such places as they had brought them in possession of. Secondlie, they
called them not to councell, so often as at the first they vsed to
doo, neither did they procéed by their directions in their businesse,
as before they were accustomed. Thirdlie, in all manner of their
conuersation, neither Lewes nor his Frenchmen vsed them so familiarlie,
as at their first comming: but (as their maner is) shewing more loftie
countenances toward them, they greatlie increased the indignation
of the English lords against them, who might euill abide to be so
ouer-ruled.

[1] Sée pag.

To conclude, where great promises were made at their entring into
the land, they were slowe inough in performing the same, so as the
expectation of the English barons was quite made void: for they
perceiued dailie that they were despised & scoffed at for their
disloialtie shewed to their owne naturall prince, hearing now and then
nips and tawnts openlie by the Frenchmen, that as they had shewed
themselues false and vntrustie to their owne lawfull king, so they
would not continue anie long time true vnto a stranger. Thus all these
things laid togither, gaue occasion to the English barons to remember
themselues, and to take iust occasion to reuolt vnto king Henrie, as
before we haue mentioned. But now to the purpose of the historie.

Ye haue heard how Lewes had spent long time in vaine about the
besieging of the castell of Douer, for although he plagued them within
verie sore, yet Hubert de Burgh and Gerald de Sotigam bare themselues
so manfullie, and therewith so politikelie, that their aduersaries
could not come to vnderstand their distresse & danger within the
castell, in so much that despairing to win it in anie short time, euen
before the death of king John was knowne (as some write) Lewes was
contented to grant a truce to them that kept this castell, till the
feast of Easter next insuing: but (as it appeareth by other) this truce
was not concluded till after the death of king John was signified to
Lewes, who greatlie reioising thereat, supposed now within a short
time, to bring the whole realme vnder his subiection: and therefore
raising his siege from Douer, in hope to compasse enterprises of
greater consequence, he came backe vnto the citie of London.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Hertford castell deliuered to Lewes.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Berkehamstéed surrendred.]

When they within the castell of Douer saw the siege remooued, they
came foorth, and burnt such houses and buildings as the Frenchmen had
raised before the same castell, and comming abroad into the countrie,
got togither such vittels and other necessarie prouision, as might
serue for the furnishing of their fortresse for a long season. After
that Lewes was returned vnto London, he remained not long there, but
with a great armie marched foorth vnto Hertford, where he besieged the
castell, which was in the kéeping of Walter de Godardule seruant in
household vnto Fouks de Brent, who defended the place from the feast of
S. Martine, vntill the feast of S. Nicholas, and then deliuered it by
composition, that he and his people might depart with all their goods,
horsse and armour. From thence Lewes went vnto Berkehamstéed, and
besieged the castell, which was valiantlie defended by a Duch capteine
named Waleron, who with his people behaued himselfe so manfullie, that
a great number of Frenchmen and other of them without, were left dead
in the ditches. At an issue also made vpon the side, towards the north
where the barons lay, they spoiled the carriage and trusse of the said
barons, and tooke therewithall the standard of William Mandeuile.
Finallie about the 20 day of December, they yet yéelded the place vnto
Lewes, bicause they were no longer able to kéepe it; their liues,
goods, horsse and armour saued.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Bernewell._]

[Sidenote: A truce.]

Lewes hauing furnished this castell with a sufficient garrison,
returned backe towards London, and comming to S. Albons, constreined
the abbat to giue vnto him foure score marks of siluer, for a fine, in
recognisance of dooing his homage till the feast of the purification of
our ladie next insuing. Which poore abbat was made to beléeue, that he
ought to take this dealing to be an act of great courtesie, the earle
of Winchester being an earnest meane for him that he might so easilie
escape. About the same time was a generall truce taken betwixt the king
and Lewes, and all their partakers, till the 20 day after Christmasse,
for the obteining of which truce (as some write) the castell of
Berkehamstéed was surrendered vnto the same Lewes, as before ye haue
heard.

[Sidenote: 1218.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

After Christmasse, and whilest the truce yet dured, Lewes and the
barons assembled at the councell which they held at Cambridge, &
the lords that tooke part with the king met likewise at Oxford, and
much talke there was, and great trauell imploied to haue concluded
some agréement by composition betwixt the parties, but it would not
be, nor yet anie longer truce (which was also sought for) could be
granted: wherevpon Lewes besieged the castell of Hidingham, the which
togither with the castels of Norwich, Colchester, and Oxford, were
surrendered vnto him, to haue a truce granted vntill a moneth after
Easter next insuing. And so by this meanes all the east part of the
realme came vnto the possession of Lewes. For the Ile of Elie was woon
by his people a litle before the last truce, whilest he himselfe lay
in siege at Berkehamstéed, except one fortresse belonging to the same
Ile, into the which the souldiers that serued there vnder the king
were withdrawen. But yet although Lewes might séeme thus partlie to
preuaile, in hauing these castels deliuered into his hands, yet being
aduertised that dailie there reuolted diuerse of the barons of England
vnto king Henrie, which before had taken part with him: he stood in
great doubt and feare of the rest, and therefore furnished all those
castels which he had woone with conuenient garrisons, and namelie the
castell of Hertford, and after went to London, there to vnderstand what
further trust he might put in the rest of the English lords and barons:
for as diuerse had alreadie forsaken him, as it is said, so the residue
were doubtfull what they were best to doo.

[Sidenote: The perplexitie in which the barons stood.]

For first they considered, that the renouncing of their promised faith
vnto Lewes, whome they had sworne to mainteine as king of England,
should be a great reproch vnto them: and againe they well saw that
to continue in their obedience towards him, should bring the realme
in great danger, sith it would be hard for any louing agréement to
continue betwéene the French & Englishmen, their natures being so
contrarie. Thirdlie, they stood somewhat in feare of the popes cursse,
pronounced by his legat, both against Lewes and all his partakers.
Albeit on the other side, to reuolt vnto king Henrie, though the loue
which they did beare to their countrie, and the great towardnesse which
they saw in him greatlie mooued them; yet sith by reason of his yoong
yeares, he was not able either to follow the wars himselfe, or to take
counsell what was to be doone in publike gouernement they iudged it a
verie dangerous case. For whereas in wars nothing can be more expedient
than to haue one head, by whose appointment all things may be gouerned:
so nothing can be more hurtfull than to haue manie rulers, by whose
authoritie things shall passe and be ordered.

[Sidenote: S. Albons destroied.]

Wherefore these considerations staied and kept one part of the English
lords still in obedience to Lewes, namelie, for that diuerse of
the confederats thought that it stood not with their honours so to
forsake him, till they might haue some more honorable colour to reuolt
from their promises, or that the matter should be taken vp by some
indifferent agréement to be concluded out of hand betwixt them. Hervpon
they resorted in like maner vnto London, and there with Lewes tooke
councell what was to be doone with their businesse touching the whole
state of their cause. ¶ Here ye shall note, that before the concluding
of this last truce, Fouks de Brent the capteine of the castell of
Bedford gat togither a number of souldiers out of the garrisons of the
castels of Oxford, Northampton, Bedford, and Windsor, and coming with
them, to S. Albons the 22 of Februarie, he spoiled the towne & abbie,
in like maner as he had doone all the townes and villages by the way as
he passed through the countrie, from Bedford vnto S. Albons.

The messengers which Lewes had remaining in the court of Rome,
signified vnto him about the same time, that except he departed out
of England, the sentence of excommunication, which Gualo or Walo the
legat had pronounced against him, should be confirmed by the pope on
Maundie thursdaie next insuing. Wherevpon Lewes was the more inclined
to yéeld to the truce before mentioned, that he might in the meane time
go ouer into France to his father, who had most earnestlie written and
sent in commandement to him, that in any wise he should returne home to
talke with him, and so about midlent after the truce was concluded, he
prepared himselfe, and sailed ouer into France, and as Polydor saith
(but with what authoritie I know not) the king of Scots went also with
him.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Noble men reuolting fr[=o] Lewes.]

After his departure ouer, William earle of Salisburie, William earle
of Arundell, William earle Warren, and diuerse other reuolted to king
Henrie. Moreouer, William Marshall earle of Penbroke so trauelled with
his son William Marshall the yoonger, that he likewise came to take
part with the yoong king: whereby the side of Lewes and his Frenchmen
was sore weakened, and their harts no lesse appalled for the sequele
of their affaires. Lewes returned yet into England before the truce
was expired. The lords that held on the kings part in the absence of
Lewes, were not forgetfull to vse opportunitie of time: for beside that
they had procured no small number of those that before time held with
Lewes to reuolt from him to the kings side, they at one selfe time
besieged diuerse castels, and recouered them out of their aduersaries
hands, as Marleborough, Farneham, Winchester, Cicester, and certeine
other, which they ouerthrew and raced, bicause they should not be taken
and kept againe by the enimie. For ye must vnderstand, that the going
ouer of Lewes now at that time, when it stood him most vpon to haue
béene present here in that troublesome season (which he ought to haue
regarded with singular circumspection, and warilie to haue watched, for

    Virtus est, vbi occasio admonet, dispicere)

brought no small hinderance to the whole state of all his businesse,
in so much that he was neuer so highlie regarded afterwards among the
Englishmen as before.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Chester.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Mountsorell besieged.]

[Sidenote: Henrie Braibroke.]

[Sidenote: Saer de Quincie erle of Winchester.]

About the same time Ranulfe earle of Chester, William earle of
Albermarle, William earle Ferrers, Robert de Veipount, Brian de Lisle,
William de Cantlow, Philip de Marc, Robert de Gaugi, Fouks de Brent,
& others assembled their powers, and comming to Mountsorell beside
Loughborough in Leicestershire, besieged the castell there, the
capteine whereof was one Henrie de Braib. Henrie defended the place
right manfully, and doubting to be in distres by long siege, sent with
all spéed to the earle of Winchester, Saer de Quincie as then being at
London with the Frenchmen, requiring him to send some succour to remoue
the siege. Herevpon the earle of Winchester, to whom that castell
belonged, required Lewes that some conuenient power might be sent,
whereby the siege might be remooued. Wherefore vpon councell taken with
deliberate aduise, it was ordeined that an armie should be sent thither
with all spéed, not onlie to raise the siege, but also to subdue that
countrie vnto the obedience of Lewes. Herwith there went out of London
600 knights, and with them aboue twentie thousand men in armour,
gréedie (as it séemed) to haue the spoile of other mens goods.

[Sidenote: The earle of Chester raiseth his siege.]

Their chiefe capteins were these: Saer de Quincie earle of Winchester,
Robert Fitzwater, and others, and they did set forward vpon the last
of Aprill, which was the mondaie before the Ascension daie, passing
through S. Albons, where they lodged the first night, and so to
Dunstable, and by the waie such souldiers as were vsed to spoile and
pillage, plaied their parts, not sparing to rob and ransacke as well
religious houses as other. From Dunstable kéeping on their iournie
northwards, at length they came to Mountsorell, but the earle of
Chester and the other lords, aduertised of their approch, were retired
before to Notingham, determining there to abide, till they might
vnderstand what waie the enimies would take.

[Sidenote: _Bernewell._]

[Sidenote: The poore estate of the French soldiers.]

In the meane time the earle of Winchester and the other barons, finding
their enimies departed and the siege raised, determined foorthwith to
go vnto Lincolne, where Gilbert de Gaunt and other had kept siege a
long time before the castell, but yet in vaine. For there was a noble
ladie within that castell named Nichola, who demeaned hir selfe so
valiantlie in resisting all assaults and enterprises, which the enimies
that besieged hir could attempt by anie meanes against hir, that
they rather lost than wan honour and estimation at hir hands dailie.
Therefore Robert Fitzwater and the other leaders of this armie, to the
end they might get that castell out of hir and other their enimies
hands, tooke their iournie forward, and passing through the vale of
Beauuere, all things there that came to sight fell into the hands of
the gréedie souldiers. For the French footmen, which were as it had
béene the scum & reffuse of their countrie, leaft nothing vntouched
that they might lay hands vpon, not sparing church or churchyard, nor
hallowed place more than common or prophane. For they were so poore and
ragged, that they had scarse anie tatters to couer their priuie parts
withall. Finallie comming vnto Lincolne, they assaulted the castell
with all maner of engins, and assaied by all waies possible whereby
they hoped to aduance their purpose.

[Sidenote: Summons to raise an armie for the king.]

Thus whiles the barons with the Frenchmen were much busied about the
siege of Lincolne castell, W. Marshall earle of Penbroke, by the aduise
of the legat Gualo or Walo, and of Peter bishop of Winchester, and
other of the councell with king Henrie, caused summons to be giuen to
all capteins and chateleins on the kings part, to be at Newarke vpon
mondaie in Whitsunwéeke, with such power as they might make, from
thence to march to Lincolne, there to raise the siege, and deliuer
the countrie from imminent oppression. Wherevpon there assembled at
the daie and place prefixed, a great puissance of people desirous to
fight for the defense of their countrie against the Frenchmen and
other aduersaries, rebels to the pope, and excommunicated persons, so
that when the muster was taken, there was numbered 400 knights, 250
crossebowes, besides demilances and horssemen in great numbers, which
for néed might haue supplied and serued in stéed of men of armes, being
verie well furnished for the purpose, and armed at all points.

[Sidenote: The capteins of the kings armie.]

The chiefe capteins of this companie were these: William Marshall earle
of Penbroke, and his son William Marshall the yonger, Peter bish. of
Winchester, a man right skilfull in feats of warre, Ranulph earle of
Chester, William earle of Salisburie, William earle of Ferrers, William
earle of Albemarle, besides barons, as William de Albenie latelie
released out of captiuitie, Iohn Marshall, William de Cantlow, and
William his sonne, Fouks de Brent, Thomas Basset, Robert de Veipount,
Brian de Lisle, Geffrey de Lucie, Philip de Albenie, with manie other
chateleins and constables of sundrie castels.

[Sidenote: The legat accurseth Lewes & his complices.]

The legat being there present also on the fridaie in the Whitsunwéeke
aforesaid, reuested in a white albe, accompanied with the clergie,
accursed in solemne wise Lewes the French kings sonne, with all his
fautours and complices, & especiallie those which held siege before
the castell of Lincolne, with all the citie: and the more to incourage
all those that should passe foorth in this armie, to raise the siege,
he granted to them frée remission of all their sins, whereof they were
trulie confessed, and by authoritie which he had from almightie GOD,
and the apostolike sée, he promised to them the guerdon of euerlasting
saluation. Herewith when the armie had receiued absolution, and the
legats blessing, euerie man marched foorth in his order and place
appointed, and comming to Stow, an eight miles from Lincolne, they
lodged there all night.

In the morning they passed foorth towards Lincolne, vnder the conduct
of the said earle of Penbroke as generall of the whole armie, who being
come thither, compassed about the citie with his armie. And to cause
the enimie the sooner to leaue the siege of the castell, he assaulted
the gates of the citie, inforcing his power to beare downe and breake
them open. The Frenchmen perceiuing all the danger to be about the
gates, withdrew a little from the assailing of the castell, and
resorting to the walles of the citie, did their best with shooting and
casting of stones and other things, to driue their aduersaries from the
gates.

[Sidenote: Fouks de Brent.]

[Sidenote: The Frenchmen put to flight at Lincolne.]

Thus whiles they were occupied on both parts, Fouks de Brent entered
into the castell by a posterne gate on the backeside, and a great
number of souldiers with him, and rushing into the citie out of the
castell, he began a fierce battell with the citizens within the citie:
which when the Frenchmen perceiued, by the noise and crie raised at
their backs, they ran to the place where the skirmish was, dooing their
best to beat backe the aforesaid Foukes de Brent with his companie.
But in the meane time the Englishmen, vnder the leading of Sauerie de
Mauleon, a Poictouin (of whom you haue heard in the life of king Iohn)
brake open the gates and entred the citie. Then the fight was sore
increased and mainteined for a time with great furie: so that it was
hard to iudge who should haue the better. But at length the Frenchmen
and those English lords that were with them, being sore laid at on ech
side, began to retire towards the gates, and finallie to turne their
backs and so fled awaie but being beset round about with the kings
horssemen, they were streightwaies either slaine or taken for the most
part of them.

[Sidenote: The earle of Perch slaine.]

[Sidenote: Noble m[=e] taken prisoners.]

[Sidenote: Gilbert de Gaunt by the gift of Lewes.]

Amongst other that were there slaine, the earle of Perch a Frenchman
was one, who being gotten into a churchyard manfullie defended himselfe
till his horsse was killed vnder him, and lastlie himselfe was also
beaten downe and slaine. There were taken of Englishmen, Saer de
Quincie earle of Winchester, and Humfrey de Bohun earle of Hereford,
Gilbert de Gaunt earle of Lincolne by the gift of Lewes, Richard de
Montfichet, William de Mowbraie, William de Beauchampe, William de
Manduit, Oliuer de Harecourt, Roger de Cressie, William de Coleuill,
William de Roos, William de Ropeley, Ralfe Chanduit, and diuerse other:
so that of knights there were taken to the number of foure hundred,
beside such multitude of demilances, and other horssemen and footmen,
as could not well be numbered. Moreouer, all the prouision, trusse, and
baggage loden in carts, clothsackes, and males belonging to the barons
and Frenchmen was taken, and the citie was spoiled, rifled and sacked.

[Sidenote: Lewes his faire.]

[Sidenote: The K. commandeth ye castell of Mountsorell to be raced.]

This enterprise and discomfiture at Lincolne, which was in derision
called Lewes his faire, chanced the 14 kalends of Iune, being saturdaie
in the Whitsunwéeke. Manie honest matrons of the towne were drowned, as
they were got into boates to auoid the danger of their persons, wanting
skill how to guide the same boates. The earle of Penbroke the same daie
before he receiued any repast, rode backe in post to the king, whom
he had left at Stow, and there declared the ioifull newes of his good
spéed, in vanquishing of the enimies. On the next morrow, newes came to
the king, that they which had kept the castell of Mountsorell were fled
out of the same, and had left it void. Wherevpon immediatlie he sent in
commandement vnto the shiriffe of Notinghamshire, that going thither in
his owne person, he should ruinat the said castell, & make it plaine
with the ground.

[Sidenote: Milites.]

The Frenchmen which escaped with life from the slaughter of Lincolne,
as the Marshall of France, the chateleine of Arras, with others, made
towards London with all possible spéed, in hope to escape so well as
they might: but manie of them, and namelie the footmen were slaine by
the countrie people where they passed, and that in great numbers: for
the husbandmen fell vpon them with clubs and swords, not sparing those
whom they got at aduantage. Two hundred knights or men of armes (as we
may call them) getting to London, presented vnto Lewes the sorowfull
report of their misaduenture, and were of him not moaned, but blamed
and sore rebuked, for that they had fled, and shamefullie left the
residue of their companies to be distressed, taken, and slaine by
the aduersaries, where if they had manfullie stood to it, they might
happilie haue saued their fellowes, and obteined victorie.

[Sidenote: _Chr. Dunstab._]

¶ The chronicle of Dunstable sheweth indéed that Simon de Peschie
and Henrie Braibroc, perceiuing that Fouks de Brent was entered into
the citie, and that they were now assailed both afront, and on the
backes, they withdrew, and getting togither 80 French knights or men
of armes (if we shall so call them) departed out of the citie, and
fléeing through the countrie by Lin and saint Edmundsburie, at length
got through to London. Howsoeuer they were welcomed of Lewes, certeine
it is, that the lords that tooke part with king Henrie, were put in
no small hope by the atchiuing of this so great a victorie, to bring
within a short time all the realme to the obedience of king Henrie:
and herevpon marching foorth into the countrie, put the people in such
feare, that they submitted themselues vnto the gouernment of king
Henrie in all places wheresoeuer they came.

[Sidenote: Lewes sendeth to his father for aid.]

[Sidenote: An armie prepared in Fr[=a]ce to come to the succour of
Lewes.]

On the other part, Lewes who all this season remained at London, being
sore dismaied for the losse of his people, began to feare euerie
daie more and more, least by some practise he should be betraied and
deliuered into his enimies hands. Therefore he went about to make
himselfe as strong as was possible, & fortifieng the citie, sent
messengers into France, to require his father to send him more aid. His
father sorie to heare of his sons distress, and loth that he should
take the foile, caused his daughter the wife of Lewes, to prepare
a power of men, that the same might passe with all spéed ouer into
England to the aid of hir husband. For the French king himselfe would
not séeme to aid his sonne, bicause he was excommunicated: but his
daughter in law, hauing licence and commission thereto, gat togither
thrée hundred knights, or men of armes, whome with a great number of
other souldiers and armed men, she sent downe to Caleis, where Eustace
the moonke had prouided a nauie of ships to conueie them ouer into
England. But how they sped you shall heare anon.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The diligence of the earle of Penbroke.]

In the meane time the earle of Penbroke approched towards London,
purposing to assaile the citie now in this opportunitie of time,
letting passe no occasion that might further his procéedings, night and
day studieng how to recouer the realme wholie out of the Frenchmens
hands, and to set the same at libertie: so that what was to be deuised,
he did deuise, and what was to be doone, that he did, not forslowing
anie occasion or opportunitie that might be offered. The English
barons also calling to mind the benefit which they had receiued at the
Frenchmens hands in time of their most néed, sought now by all means
possible, some waie how to procure a peace betwixt king Henrie and
the said Lewes, thinking by that means to benefit themselues, and to
gratifie him in lieu of his former courtesie bountifullie shewed in
a case of extremitie, which bicause it was obteined in a wished time
was the more acceptable, whereas being lingered it had béene the lesse
welcome, as one saith,

[Sidenote: _Auson. in epig._]

    Gratia quæ tarda est ingrata est, gratia námq;
      Quùm fieri properat, gratia grata magis.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Hubert de Burgh assaileth the French fléet.]

[Sidenote: The French fléet is vanquished.]

Hervpon they caused dailie new articles of agréement to be presented
in writing vnto the said Lewes, as from king Henrie. But while these
things were a dooing, the earle of Penbroke and other the lords that
tooke part with king Henrie, hauing aduertisement, that a new supplie
of men was readie to come and aid Lewes, they appointed Philip de
Albenie and Iohn Marshall to associat with them the power of the cinque
ports, and to watch for the comming of the aduersaries, that they might
kéepe them from landing, who on saint Bartholomews day set forth fr[=o]
Caleis, in purpose to arriue in the Thames, and so to come vp the riuer
to London. Howbeit Hubert de Burgh capiteine of the castell of Douer,
togither with the said Philip de Albenie and Iohn Marshall, with other
such power as they could get togither of the cinque ports, hauing not
yet aboue the number of 40 ships great & small, vpon the discouering
of the French fléet, which consisted of 80 great ships, besides other
lesser vessels well appointed and trimmed, made foorth to the sea. And
first coasting aloofe from them, till they had got the wind on their
backs, came finallie with their maine force to assaile the Frenchmen,
and with helpe of their crossebowes and archers at the first ioining,
made great slaughter of their enimies, and so grapling togither, in the
end the Englishmen bare themselues so manfullie, that they vanquished
the whole French fléet, and obteined a famous victorie.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Eustace the moonke taken and beheaded.]

[Sidenote: Richard base sonne to king Iohn.]

[Sidenote: Eustace the moonke what he was.]

Eustace the moonke was found amongst the capteins, who although he
offered great summes of gold for his ransome, so that he might haue
had his life saued, and also to serue king Henrie, yet the English
capiteins would none of that: but Richard the bastard sonne of king
Iohn, tooke him, and cut off his head, and sent it vnto king Henrie his
brother, as a witnesse of this their atchieued victorie. This Eustace
was a Fleming borne, and somtime a moonke, but renouncing his cowle
to receiue such heritage as fell to him by the death of his brethren,
deceassing without issue, he became a notable pirat, and had doone
in his dais much mischéefe to the Englishmen, and therefore was now
rewarded according to his demerits. For

[Sidenote: _Hor. lib. 3. car. od. 2._]

    Rarò antecedentem scelestum
      Deseruit pede poena claudo.

[Sidenote: A rich spoile.]

[Sidenote: An accord betwixt K. Henrie & Lewes.]

[Sidenote: The English chronicle saith a thousand pounds.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris_.]

The spoile and prey of the French ships was verie rich, so that the
Englishmen being loden with riches and honour, vpon their safe returne
home were receiued with great ioy and gladnesse. But Lewes, after he
vnderstood of this mischance happening to his people that came to
his aid, began not a litle to despaire of all other succour to come
vnto him at any time héerafter: wherfore he inclined the sooner vnto
peace, so that at length he tooke such offers of agréement as were put
vnto him, and receiued furthermore a sum of monie for the release of
such hostages as he had in his hands, togither with the title of the
kingdome of England, and the possession of all such castels and holds
as he held within the realme. ¶ The French chronicle (to the which the
chronicle of Dunstable and Matthew Paris doo also agrée) affirmeth
that he receiued fiftéene thousand marks. Moreouer, the popes legat
absolued Lewes and all those that had taken his part in the offense
of disobedience shewed in attempting the warre against the popes
commandement.

Then Lewes with all his complices that had bin excommunicated sware
vpon the holie euangelist, that they should stand to the iudgement
of holie church, and from thencefoorth be faithfull vnto the pope
and to the church of Rome. Moreouer, that he with his people should
incontinentlie depart out of the realme, and neuer vpon euill intent
returne againe. And that so farre as in him laie, he should procure his
father king Philip, to make restitution vnto king Henrie of all the
right which he had in the parts beyond the sea: and that when he should
be king of France, he should resigne the same in most quiet manner.

On the other part, king Henrie tooke his oth togither with the legat,
and the earle of Penbroke gouernour of the realme, that he should
restore vnto the barons of his realme, and to other his subiects, all
their rights and heritages, with all the liberties before demanded,
for the which the discord was mooued betwixt the late king Iohn and
his barons. Moreouer, all prisoners on both parts were released and
set at libertie, without paieng anie ransome: yea and those which had
couenanted to paie, and vpon the same were set at libertie before the
conclusion of this peace, were now discharged of all summes of monie
which then remained vnpaid.

This peace was concluded on the eleuenth day of September, not farre
from Stanes, hard by the riuer of Thames, where Lewes himselfe, the
legat Guallo, and diuerse of the spiritualtie with the earle of
Penbroke lord gouernor of the realme, and others, did méet and talke
about this accord. Now when all things were ordered and finished
agréeable to the articles and couenants of the peace, so farre as
the time present required, the lords of the realme (when Lewes
should depart homeward) attended him to Douer in honorable wise, as
apperteined, and there tooke leaue of him, and so he departed out of
the realme about the feast of saint Michaell.

[Sidenote: The prelats are fined.]

[Sidenote: Anno Reg. 2.]

[Sidenote: What cheuance the legat made.]

King Henrie by this meanes being put in full possession of the
relme, according to the prescript of that article conteined in those
conditions of the peace latelie specified, pardoned all those that had
aided his aduersarie Lewes during the wars, except certeine of the
spiritualtie, which were put to such fines, that they were compelled
to laie all that they had to pledge, to leuie such summes of monie, as
they might with the same obteine the kings fauour again: and beside
that, to sue to Rome for their entier absolution at the popes owne
hands. Amongst other, Hugh bishop of Lincolne returning into England,
was compelled to paie a thousand marks to the popes vse for recouerie
of his bishoprike, & an hundred marks also to the legat of good and
lawfull monie. Such cheuance made the legat amongst them of the church,
as well persons secular as regular, that he got togither twelue
thousand marks towards his charges, whereby it appeared, that he lost
no time in England. But to procéed.

[Sidenote: Fouks de Brent.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

The realme now being quiet and in all outward felicitie, a number of
vnrulie persons, such as delighting in idlenesse, knew not how to liue
in time of peace, assembled themselues togither and (appointing Fouks
de Brent, who was a man of great stomach and more rashnesse, to be
their capteine and ringleder) began to make warre against the king,
and to spoile the townes and countries about them, so that their euill
dooings might haue caused no small perill to haue insued by some great
ciuill sedition, if the earle of Penbroke had not in time preuented
their attempts. For he assembling the kings power, hasted towards the
rebels, and what by his owne authoritie, and by the reuerend regard of
some bishops in his companie; more than by vsing any force of armes, he
staid the matter for that time, so that no further mischéefe followed
of this mutinie.

[Sidenote: The castell of Newarke restored to the bishop of Lincolne.]

Besides the foresaid Fouks de Brent, there were other of the Nobilitie
also which practised the like disorder, as William earle of Albemarle,
Robert de Veipount, Brian de Lisle, Hugh de Balioll, Philip de Marc,
and Robert de Gaugi, the which Robert withheld the castell of Newarke
that belonged to the bishop of Lincolne, and would not deliuer it, till
the king with William Marshall erle of Penbroke had laine at siege
before it an eight daies, in the end of which terme by mediation of
fréends the matter was taken vp, and the bishop recouered his castell,
paieng to the said Robert de Gaugi an hundred pounds sterling for the
victuals which he left within the same castell.

[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Chester goeth into the holie land.]

[Sidenote: Sonne to K. Iohn belike.]

Soone after this, Ranulph earle of Chester was sent into the holie land
by king Henrie, with a goodlie companie of souldiers and men of warre,
to aid the christians there against the infidels, which at the same
time had besieged the citie of Damieta in Aegypt, in which enterprise
the valiancie of the same earle after his comming thither, was to his
great praise most apparant. There went with him in that iournie Saer
de Quincie earle of Winchester, William de Albenie earle of Arundell,
besides diuerse barons, as the lord Robert Fitz Walter, Iohn constable
of Chester, William de Harecourt, and Oliuer Fitzroie sonne to the king
of England, and diuerse other.

[Sidenote: Anno Reg. 3. 1219.]

[Sidenote: The deceasse of the earle of Penbroke.]

[Sidenote: He is buried in the temple church.]

[Sidenote: Pandulph made bishop of Norwich.]

The next yeare, which was after the birth of our lord 1219, William
Marshall the foresaid earle of Penbroke died, gouernour both of the
realme and also of the kings person, a man of such worthinesse both in
stoutnesse of stomach and martiall knowlege, as England had few then
liuing that might be compared with him. He was buried in the new temple
church at London vpon the Ascension day. The same yeare also Wallo or
Guallo the legat returned to Rome, and Pandulph, who (as before is
expressed) did the message so stoutlie from pope Innocent to king Iohn,
was also made bishop of Norwich.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Winchester gouernour to the king.]

[Sidenote: Quéene Isabell married to the earle of Marsh.]

Moreouer, the gouernement of king Henrie after the death of William
Marshall the elder, earle of Penbroke, was committed vnto Peter bishop
of Winchester: for the yoong king was almost destitute of any of his
kindred that were worthie to haue the rule of him: forasmuch as his
mother quéene Isabell was latelie maried to Hugh Brune the earle of
Marsh in France, vnto whome she was promised before king Iohn tooke hir
to wife, as in the life of the same king Iohn is mentioned.

[Sidenote: A parlement and a subsidie.]

[Sidenote: _R. Fabian._]

The bishop of Winchester being now in the possession of the kings
person, doubting least he had taken a greater charge vpon him than he
might well answer, caused diuerse sage and honourable personages to be
admitted of the kings councell, to assist him in the administration of
the common-wealth and good gouernance of the realme. Which being doone,
a parlement was holden at London, wherein a subsidie was granted to the
king of two shillings to be gathered and leuied of euerie ploughland
within his dominions, towards the relieuing of the great charges which
he had susteined by the warres against the foresaid Lewes.

[Sidenote: The new church of Westm. begun.]

[Sidenote: Anno Reg. 4.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Chester returneth home.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: 1220.]

[Sidenote: The K. crowned the second time.]

About the same time also he began the building of the new worke of
the church at Westminster. In which meane time the citie of Damieta
afore mentioned, was woone by the christian princes, and Ranulph
earle of Chester returned home, leauing the earle of Arundell with a
great number of souldiors behind him there in aid of the christians
against the Saracens, which dailie attempted the recouerie of the same.
Moreouer, in the yeare insuing, which was of our lord 1220, and vpon
the seauentéenth day of Maie being Whitsunday, the king was eftsoones
solemnelie crowned at Westminster, to the end it might be said, that
now after the extinguishment of all seditious factions, he was crowned
by the generall consent of all the estates and subiects of his realme.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._]

[Sidenote: A proclamation to auoid strangers.]

[Sidenote: The castles of Chartley & Béeston built.]

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._]

The same yeare also was the bodie of Thomas archbishop of Canturburie
translated and Hugh bishop of Lincolne canonized for a saint. In like
manner in the vigile of Peter and Paule, the king finding the castels
of Rokingham and Sauueie at that present vnpurueied of victuals, tooke
the same into his hands against the will of William of Albemarle which
before held the same. ¶ This yeare also was a proclamation made in
London, and throughout all the realme, that all strangers should auoid
the land before the feast of saint Michaell then next following except
those that came with merchandize. Furthermore Ranulph earle of Chester,
after he was come from the holie land, began to build the castels of
Chartleie and Béeston, and afterward he also builded the abbeie of Dieu
Lencresse, commonlie called Delacresse of the white order. Toward his
charges susteined about the building of which castels and abbeie, he
tooke toll throughout all his lordships of all such persons as passed
by the same with any cattell, chaffre or merchandize.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 5. 1221.]

[Sidenote: Salisburie.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Albemarle.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Biham.]

This yeare deceassed Henrie de Boun earle of Hereford, and Saer de
Quincie earle of Winchester in their iournie which they made into the
holie land. Also the same yeare the préests or canons that inhabited
within the kings castell of old Salisburie, remooued with the bishops
sée vnto new Salisburie, which by the king was made a citie. The bishop
Richard procured this remoouing, through the kings helpe, who was verie
willing therevnto, as it séemed by his charters largelie granted in
that behalfe. After this, king Henrie held his Christmasse at Oxenford,
at what time William de Fortz earle of Albemarle meaning to trouble the
kings peace, and to set things in a new broile, departed from the court
in the night season, without leaue or licence, and hasted with all
spéed vnto the castell of Biham, where he assembled a sort of youthfull
persons, giuen to lewd demeanor, and wearie of quietnesse (as to whome
theft and robberies were verie pleasant) by whose helpe he spoiled
diuers townes and villages about him, as Tenham and Deping, with others.

There were of counsell with him also (as was thought) Fouks de Brent,
Philip de Marc, Peter de Mauleon, Engellard de Athie, and manie other,
who priuilie sent men to his aid, and furthered him in his tumultuous
affaires, that they might participat with him the swéetnesse of the
spoile, which is the marke whereat euerie one shooteth that is

    ----iners & inops, qui viuere luxuriosè
    Vult quamuis nequeat, non respondente crumena,
    Proinde animam vendit pretio, seséque periclis
    Objicit, vt raptis alienis victor ouánsque
    Ad proprios referat prædam & spolia ampla penates.

[Sidenote: The castell of Fodringhey.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Biham yéelded.]

In the meane time the countrie people withdrew to the churches, and
gat their goods into the churchyards. Moreouer, the péeres of the
realme assembled themselues in councell at Westminster where the king
was present, whither the earle of Albermarle was summoned to come, who
faining as though he had meant to haue gone thitherward directlie,
turned suddenlie his waie to the castell of Fodringhey, and tooke it
vpon the sudden, furnishing it also with a garrison of souldiers, to
be kept hereafter to his owne vse. That castell was in the kéeping of
the earle of Chester, who at that instant had but few souldiers there
in garrison, wherby it was the sooner surprised. When these newes
were brought to the king, he raised a power and came with all spéed
to the castell of Biham, vpon the wednesdaie next after the feast of
Candelmasse, and then compassing the same about with a strong siege, he
constreined them within by force of such engins as they vsed in those
daies, that finallie on the eight daie of Februarie they came foorth,
and submitted themselues and all that they had vnto the kings pleasure.
Who caused them to be safelie kept, till he might take further
aduisement what should be doone with them.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Old seruice remembred.]

[Sidenote: The Welshm[=e] begin to stur.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

In the meane while also came the earle of Albemarle, who by the helpe
& means of the archbishop of Yorke, and the legat Pandulph, purchased
peace at the kings hands, the rather indéed bicause he had faithfullie
serued both the king and his father king Iohn in their wars, before
that time. All those men of armes & souldiers also, which had submitted
themselues and remained as prisoners were pardoned. Which ouer-great
clemencie caused other vnrulie persons to attempt the like offense of
rebellion shortlie after. At the very selfe same time the Welshmen
began to sturre, and vnder their prince and leader Leolin they entered
vpon the English marshes, and with great crueltie spoiled and robbed
the same, wherevpon it was determined by the councell, that the king
(as he was comming toward the castell of Biham) should diuide his
armie, and so he did, sending one part thereof against the Welshmen:
whervpon Leolin, after he vnderstood that the kings power came toward
him, as one not able to resist the same, cast off his armour, and
submitted himselfe to his mercie.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Reginald de Breuse.]

[Sidenote: Mountgomerie castle built.]

[Sidenote: Escuage paid.]

There be which write, that where prince Leolin had besieged the castell
of Buet belonging to Reginald de Breuse, the same Reginald besought
the K. to helpe to remooue that siege. The king contented with his
request, came with a puissant armie into those parts, and therewith
the siege was raised, for the Welshmen (according to their accustomed
maner) fled. The king then entring further into the countrie, came to
the place where Mountgomerie now standeth, and perceiuing the site of
the same to serue well for fortification, he caused a castell to be
builded there, to restreine the Welshmen from their accustomed trade of
harrieng the countrie. And so after he had foraied those quarters, and
taken order for the full accomplishment of that castell, he returned,
the Nobles granting to him of euerie knights fée two markes of siluer.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: K. Henrie requireth restitution of his right of the Fr[=e]ch
king.]

Things being thus in quiet, the king (who by dailie experience of
matters grew to more knowledge from time to time) began now of himselfe
to order his affaires for his owne behalfe, namelie touching the estate
of his kingdome: and bicause he was minded to assaie the recouerie of
those places which his father had lost in France, he ordeined Sauerie
de Mauleon to be his lieutenant in Guien, whereof a great part as yet
remained in his hands, and moreouer sent ambassadours vnto the French
king, requiring of him restitution of those places which he had taken
from his father.

[Sidenote: The French kings answer.]

These oratours being come into France, and admitted to the kings
presence, receiued answer, that nothing ought to be restored, which
by law of armes was rightlie conquered: and other redresse at that
time would none be granted. ¶ But a maruell it was to consider here
at home, in how short a space the state of the English common-wealth
was changed, and from a troubled fourme reduced to a flourishing
and prosperous degrée: chiefelie by the diligent héed and carefull
prouision of the king himselfe. So much auaileth it to haue him that
ruleth, to attend that which belongeth to his office.

[Sidenote: _Matt. Westm._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Marriages concluded.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 6 1222.]

[Sidenote: A councell or synod at Oxford.]

[Sidenote: Two dissembling persons apprehended.]

[Sidenote: _Matt. Westm._]

[Sidenote: They are executed.]

[Sidenote: Two women counterfeiting themselues to be, the one our
ladie, the other Marie Magdalene.]

[Sidenote: _Ralfe Cog._]

After this, to the intent that whiles he might be occupied in warres
abroad, he should not be troubled with ciuill discord at home, he
deuised to ioine in affinitie with the Scots, giuing his sister Ione
in mariage vnto Alexander the king of Scotland, and Hubert of Burgh
on the other side married the sister of the same Alexander called
Margaret. These marriages were solemnized at Yorke on the morrow after
the feast of S. Iohn Baptist, in the presence of a great number of the
Nobles both of England and Scotland. A councell also was holden by
the archbishop of Canturburie at Oxford for reformation of the state
ecclesiasticall and the religion of moonks. ¶ In which councell two
naughtie felowes were presented before him, that of late had béene
apprehended, either of them naming himselfe Christ, and preached
manie things against such abuses as the cleargie in those daies vsed.
Moreouer, to prooue their errour to haue a shew of truth, they shewed
certeine tokens and signes of wounds in their bodies, hands and féet,
like vnto our sauiour Iesus that was nailed on the crosse. In the
end being well apposed, they were found to be but false dissemblers,
wherefore by doome of that councell, they were iudged to be nailed vnto
a crosse of wood, and so those to whom the execution was assigned, had
them foorth to a place called Arborberie, where they nailed them to a
crosse, and there left them till they were dead. The one of them was an
Hermophrodite, that is to say, both man and woman. Also there were two
women condemned, of whom the one had taken vpon hir to be that blessed
virgine Marie, and the other fained hir selfe to be Marie Magdalene.

Ralfe Coghshall sheweth this matter otherwise, and saith, that there
were two men and two women brought before the archbishop at this
councell, of the which one of the men being a deacon, was accused
to be an apostata, & for the loue of a woman that was a Iew, he had
circumcised himselfe: & being herof conuicted & disgraded, he was
committed to the secular power, & so burnt by the seruants of Fouks
de Brent. The other being a yoong man, was accused of contemning the
sacraments of the church, & that he suffered himselfe to be crucified,
hauing the prints of the fiue wounds appearing in his bodie, and
counterfeiting himselfe to be Christ, reioised to haue the two women
giue out and spread the rumour abroad, that he was Christ in déed, one
of the which women being verie aged, was also accused of witcherie,
hauing with hir sorcerie and witchcraft brought that yoong man vnto
such wicked follie and madnesse. They two being hereof conuicted, were
closed vp betwixt two walles, where they remained till they died, the
other woman being sister to the yoong man, was pardoned and let go,
bicause she had reuealed the diuelish practise of the other.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: A bell-wedder some saie.]

This yeare also was the building of the stéeple belonging to the church
of S. Paule in London finished. And this yeare also vpon saint James
day the citizens of London kept a plaie of defense and wrestling at
the hospitall of saint James, against other their neighbours of the
suburbes, and the quarters next adioining. In the end whereof it so
fortuned, that the Londoners had the vpper hand: and amongst other that
were put to the foile, the steward of the abbat of Westminster with
his folkes went awaie with the worst, to their great gréefe. Wherevpon
the same steward deuised an other game of wrestling to be holden at
Westminster on Lammas day next following, and that whosoeuer could
get the vpper hand there, should haue a ram for the price, which the
steward had prepared.

[Sidenote: A riot committed vnder pretense of wrestling.]

[Sidenote: Robert Serle maior of London.]

[Sidenote: Constantine, a citizen of London procureth the citizens to
reuenge their cause by waie of rebellion.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

At the day appointed, there was a great assemblie, and the steward had
got togither out of all parts the best wrestlers that might be heard
of, so that there was hard hold betwixt them and the Londoners. But
finallie, the steward vpon desire of reuenge, procured them to fall
togither by the eares without any iust cause, so that the Londoners
were beaten and wounded, and constreined to flée backe to the citie
in great disorder. The citizens sore offended to sée their people so
misused, rose in tumult, and rang the common bell to gather the more
companie to them. Robert Serle maior of the citie would haue pacified
the matter, persuading them to let the iniurie passe, till by orderlie
plaint they might get redresse, as law and iustice should assigne. But
a certeine stout man of the citie named Constantine Fitz Arnulfe, of
good authoritie amongst them, aduised the multitude not to harken vnto
peace, but to séeke reuenge out of hand (wherein he shewed himselfe so
farre from true manhood, that he bewraied himselfe rather to haue had a
womans heart,

    ----quòd vindicta
    Nemo magis gaudet quàm foemina)

still prosecuting the strife with tooth and naile, and blowing the
coles of contention as it were with full bellowes, that the houses
belonging to the abbat of Westminster, and namelie the house of his
steward might be ouerthrowne and beaten downe flat with the ground.

[Sidenote: The lord chéefe iustice taketh inquisition of the riot.]

[Sidenote: Constantine apprehended.]

[Sidenote: He is executed.]

This lewd counsell was soone receiued and executed by the outragious
people, & Constantine himselfe being chéefe leader of them, cried with
a lowd voice, Mount ioy mount ioy, God be our aid and our souereigne
Lewes. This outragious part comming to the notice of Hubert de Burgh
lord chéefe iustice, he gat togither a power of armed men, and came
to the citie with the same, and taking inquisition of the chéefe
offendors, found Constantine as constant in affirming the déed to be
his, as he had before constantlie put it in practise, wherevpon he
was apprehended and two other citizens with him. On the next day in
the morning Fouks de Brent was appointed to haue them to execution:
and so by the Thames he quietlie led them to the place where they
should suffer. Now when Constantine had the halter about his necke,
he offered fiftéene thousand marks of siluer to haue béene pardoned,
but it would not be. There was hanged with him his nephue named also
Constantine, and one Geffrey, who made the proclamation deuised by
the said Constantine. The crie also which Constantine vsed to the
setting forward of his vnlawfull enterprise in the name of Lewes most
of all offended the kings fréends, as the lord chéefe iustice and
others, who not satisfied with the death of the thrée before remembred
persons, but also entring the citie againe with their bands of armed
men, apprehended diuerse of those whome they tooke to be culpable, not
onelie putting manie of them into prison, but also punishing other of
them, as some with losse of a foot, some of an hand, and other of their
eie-sight. The king furthermore to reuenge this matter, deposed all the
magistrats of the citie, and ordeined new in their roomes. Which caused
great hartburning against diuerse of the Nobilitie but chéefelie the
lord Hubert and Fouks de Brent, on whome in time they hoped to haue
reuenge.

[Sidenote: Great tempest.]

[Sidenote: A generall thunder.]

[Sidenote: Great dearth of corne.]

[Sidenote: An other tempest of thunder.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: A comet or blasing star.]

[Sidenote: The losse of the citie of Damieta.]

[Sidenote: William de Albenie earle of Arundell departed this life.]

As this broile vexed the citie of London, so in this yeare there
chanced great tempest of thunder, lightning and raine, whereby much
hurt was doone in diuerse parts of the realme, and at sundrie times,
as by throwing downe of stéeples, churches, and other buildings, with
the rootwalting of trées, as well in woods as orchards, verie strange
to consider, chéefelie on the eight day of Februarie at Grantham in
Lincolneshire, where there chanced (beside the thunder) such a stinke
and filthie sauour to follow in the church, that the people fled out,
for that they were not able to abide it. Likewise in the day of the
exaltation of the crosse, a generall thunder happened throughout the
realme, and thervpon followed a continuall season of foule weather and
wet, till Candelmas next after, which caused a dearth of corne, so as
wheat was sold at twelue shillings the quarter. Likewise on the day
of saint Andrew an other terrible tempest of thunder happened through
the realme, throwing downe and shaking buildings in manie places, in
so much that at Pillerdeston in Warwikeshire, in a knights house, the
ladie thereof and six other persons were destroied by the same. And
a turbarie thereby compassed about with water and marresse was so
dried vp, that neither grasse nor mire remained, after which insued an
earthquake. Moreouer on the euen of saint Lucie, a mightie wind raged,
which did much hurt in sundrie places of the realme. Furthermore, about
this time there appeared in England a woonderfull comet or blasing
starre. The sea also rose with higher tides and springs than it had
béene accustomed to doo. All which woonders were afterward iudged to
betoken and signifie the losse which the christians susteined the
same yeare in Aegypt, when they were constreined to surrender the
citie of Damieta into the Saracens hands, which latelie before (as yée
haue heard) they had woone with long and chargeable siege. After the
yéelding vp of Damieta, William de Albenie earle of Arundell (whome
Ranulfe earle of Chester left behind him in the holie land) with manie
souldiers and men of warre (when he returned from thence) came now
homewards towards England, and died by the waie.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 7.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Scot marrieth the daughter of Leolin prince of Wales.]

[Sidenote: 1223.]

[Sidenote: A councell at London.]

[Sidenote: Note the redinesse of this bish. to broch new contention.]

About the same time Iohn the sonne of Dauid earle of Anguish in
Scotland, sisters sonne vnto Ranulfe earle of Chester, married the
daughter of Leolin prince of Wales, as it were to procure a finall
accord betwéene the said Leolin and Ranulfe. After which marriage,
king Henrie held his Christmasse at Oxenford, and shortlie after the
twelftide came to London: where assembling a councell of his barons, he
was earnestlie required by the bishop of Canturburie and other péeres,
to confirme the liberties, franchises, and frée customes of the realme,
for which the warres in his fathers time had béene mooued: which to
denie (as the archbishop séemed to alledge, & shuld haue béene ashamed
so to open his mouth, to the disaduantage of his souereigne, but that
it is likelie he forgat the old posie, namelie that,

    Imago rex est animata Dei.)

he might not with anie reason, sith he had couenanted (and all the
baronage with him) to sée the same obserued, by the articles of the
peace concluded with Lewes, when the same Lewes departed the realme.

[Sidenote: The answer of William Brewer to the archbishops demand.]

[Sidenote: Ahab accuseth Helias.]

[Sidenote: An inquisition.]

Herevpon William Brewer one of the kings councell, hearing the
archbishop so earnest in these matters, told him, that sith these
liberties were procured & extorted rather by force than otherwise, of
the king being vnder age, they were not to be obserued. Wherevnto the
archbishop replied, that if he loued the king, he would be loth to
séeke to trouble the quiet state of the realme. The king perceiuing the
archbishop to be chafed, & taking the tale himselfe, made a courteous
answer, and further aduise had in the matter, sent foorth writs to the
shiriffe of euerie countie, commanding them by inquirie of a sufficient
iurie impanelled, to make certificat within the quindene of Ester, what
were the liberties in times past of his grandfather K. Henrie, vsed
within the realme of England.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke recouereth his castels taken by the
prince of Wales.]

[Sidenote: The prince of Wales discomfited.]

[Sidenote: A conspiracie against the lord chiefe iustice.]

The same yeare, whiles William Marshall earle of Penbroke was busie in
Ireland in war against Hugh Lacie, Leolin prince (or king) of Wales,
as some haue intitled him, tooke by force two castels that belonged
to the same earle: whereof when he was aduertised, with all spéed
he returned out of Ireland, raised an armie, and recouered the said
castels, putting to death all such as he found in the same, to requite
Leolin with the like damage as he had shewed him before in his absence.
This doone he entered into the land of Leolin, wasting and spoiling the
same, whereof when the said Leolin was informed, he assembled an host
of Welshmen, and comming into the field gaue battell, but the victorie
rested on the earle of Penbroks side: so that there were taken and
slaine in this bickering to the number of 9000 Welshmen. There was in
this yeare a conspiracie also begun by the earle of Chester, and other
Noble men, against Hubert de Burgh lord chiefe iustice of England, by
whose counsell (as it was thought) the king was more streict towards
the nobilitie and other his subiects, in staieng his grant to confirme
the charter of liberties, than otherwise he would haue béene, if the
same Hubert and other had not aduised him to the contrarie.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The king of Ierusalem commeth into England.]

In this season also Iohn de Bren king of Ierusalem, and the lord great
maister of the knights hospitallers came into England, where they were
honorablie receiued of king Henrie, and liberally rewarded. The cause
of their comming was to require aid of the king for the recouerie of
the holie land out of the possession of the Saracens. In like maner
about the same time Leolin prince of Northwals, with certeine English
lords, as Hugh Lacie and others, vpon an hatred which they bare towards
king Henrie for his fathers sake, supposing that so euill a stocke as
they tooke him to be, could not bring foorth anie good branch, sought
by open warres to bring William Marshall earle of Penbroke and other
barons that were faithfull friends to the king vnto their purpose: but
the whole countrie rising against them, they were disappointed to their
owne confusion, and so they could neuer bring that to passe which they
so earnestlie intended.

[Sidenote: The death of the French king.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent into France.]

In this yeare Philip the French king departed this life, and after him
succéeded Lewes his sonne, vnto whom king Henrie sent in ambassage the
archbishop of Canturburie with thrée other bishops, to require, that
(according to his oth made and receiued at his returne out of England)
he would restore and deliuer vp to him the dukedome of Normandie, with
other such lands and possessions as his father in times past had taken
from king Iohn, and still did wrongfullie withhold. K. Lewes answered
herevnto, that he held Normandie & the other lands by good right and
iust title, as he could well prooue and iustifie, if king Henrie would
come to the parlement in France to hear it. And as touching the oth
which he had sworne in England, he affirmed that the same was first
broken by king Henrie, both in that his men which had béene taken
at Lincolne were put to gréeuous ransoms, and also for that their
liberties for which the warre first began, were not obserued, but
denied to the English subiects, contrarie to that which was concluded
at the agréement betwixt them at the same time made.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 8]

Moreouer, king Henrie sent other ambassadours to Rome, who purchased a
bull of the pope, whereby he was adiudged to be of age sufficient to
receiue the gouernement of the kingdome of England into his owne hands,
thereby to order and dispose all things at his pleasure, & by the
aduise of such councellours as he should elect and choose to be about
him. Wherevpon after the said ambassadours were returned, all those
earles, barons and nobles, which held anie castels, honors, manors or
places apperteining to the king, were commanded to deliuer and resigne
the same to his vse, which caused much trouble, as after shall appeare.
For diuerse Noble men, whose harts were filled with couetousnesse,
would not obeie the popes order herein, but sore repined; yet not so
much against the king as against the lord Hubert de Burgh, by whose
councell the king was most led and ruled. And therefore they did put
him in all the blame, as one that should set the king against them, and
staie him from suffering them to inioy those liberties, which they from
time to time so much laboured to haue had to them granted and confirmed.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The king giueth a gentle answer to his lords.]

Vpon this occasion therfore, they sued to the king for the restitution
of the ancient lawes according to his promise, who to pacifie them
for the time, gaue them a gentle answer, assuring them, that he would
perfourme all that he had promised, so soone as opportunitie would
permit and suffer him so to doo. Howbeit, afterwards by the aduise of
certeine old councellours, which had béene of the priuie councell with
king Iohn his father, he found a shift to disappoint them of their
demands, by requiring them on the other side, to restore vnto him
those things which they had in times past receiued of his ancestors.
Furthermore, bicause he would the more easilie obteine his purpose, and
make the residue afraid to follow a suit so displeasant and irkesome,
he thought best to begin with the chiefe authors and first procurers
of the said petitions, and to take from them whatsoeuer they held
belonging to his crowne.

[Sidenote: 1224.]

[Sidenote: The king demanded restitution of parcels of inheritance
belonging to the crowne.]

Herevpon therefore assembling a great power about him, he demanded of
Ranulph earle of Chester the restitution of certeine lordships which
ancientlie apperteined to the crowne of the realme, which earle not
being as then able to resist, readilie obeied the kings pleasure, and
resigned them all. By this entrance of the king into the execution of
his purpose, diuerse of the rest of the barons were brought into such
feare, that they were contented also to doo the like, so that by this
meanes the lords being cut short and weakened in power, surceased as
then from molesting the king anie further with the demand of other
lands or liberties.

The archbishop of Canturburie also threatened them with the dart of
excommunication, if they went about to disquiet the realme with anie
ciuill commotions, though no man was more desirous to haue that matter
go forward than he, as appéered by his diligent trauell therein (hoping
as now in short processe of time, and that by courteous meanes, to
persuade the king to his purpose) but the king droue him off with
faire words, and minded nothing lesse than to alter anie one of the
lawes which he knew to be profitable to himselfe and his successours
after him. Wherevpon diuerse misliking his dealing herein, withdrew
themselues secretlie, some into one place, and some into an other, to
the intent they might auoid the dailie sight of such abuses, as they
for the most part could not well abide to beare.

[Sidenote: Discord betwixt Sauerie de Mauleon and the earle of
Salisburie.]

Whilest king Henrie thus politikelie prouided for his affaires at home,
Sauerie de Mauleon made prouision in Guien to withstand such perils
and dangers as he saw most likelie to issue by the practises of the
Frenchmen. But as he was most busilie occupied about the purueiance of
such things as should be verie necessarie for his dooings, there sprang
a great dissention betwixt him and William the earle of Salisburie,
who was sent ouer into that countrie with commission to surueie the
state thereof, and by colour of the same commission, tooke vpon him to
order all things at his owne pleasure. Whereas the foresaid Sauerie
de Mauleon (being a man of high parentage in those parts where he was
borne) iudged it to be a matter nothing standing with his honour, that
another man should order things at his will and commandement within
the countrie, whereof he himselfe had the chiefe charge, as the kings
lieutenant; and therefore determined not to suffer it anie longer.

[Sidenote: Sauerie de Mauleon reuolteth to the French king.]

Herevpon verelie arose the contention betwixt them, which the English
souldiers that were there, did greatlie increase, fauouring the earle
as the kings vncle, and contemning the lieutenant as a stranger borne,
by meanes whereof the foresaid Sauerie doubting least if he should
fight with his enimies, and through such discord as was now amongst
them, be put to the worse, the fault should be laid wholie on his
necke: he secretlie departed and fled to Lewes the French king, who was
latelie come to the crowne of France by the death of his father king
Philip, as you before haue heard: wherein he dwelt wiselie in respect
of safetie. For

    Quid poterit iusta tutius esse fuga?

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Matt. Westm._]

[Sidenote: Fouks de Brent an enimie to rest and quietnesse.]

About the same time Fouks de Brent, being a man of an vnquiet mind,
readie to mischiefe and loth to liue in peace (as some saie) conspired
against the king of England, and aduertised the king of France that
if he would boldlie begin the warres against king Henrie in France,
he would not faile but raise warre against him here in the middest of
his realme of England, hauing diuerse noble men in a readinesse, that
would willinglie take his part. But howsoeuer it fell out, certeine it
is that this Fouks hauing fortified his castell of Bedford, attempted
manie enterprises greatlie to the preiudice of the kings peace, as well
in robbing and spoiling the countrie about him, as otherwise.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Henrie Braibroke taken by Fouks de Brent, and imprisoned.]

And now fearing to be punished therefore by order of law, he shewed his
malice against such as had the execution of the same lawes chieflie in
their hands. Herevpon he tooke prisoner Henrie Braibroke, one of the
kings iustices of his bench, and led him to his castell of Bedford, and
there shut him vp close as his lawfull prisoner. Indéed the said Henrie
de Braibroke, with Martine de Pateshull, Thomas de Multon, and other
of the kings iustices were come to kéepe their circuit at Dunstable.
Where, vpon information giuen and presented before them, Fouks de Brent
was condemned to the king in great summes of monie. Wherewithall this
Fouks tooke such indignation and displeasure, that he commanded his men
of warre which laie in the castell of Bedford, to ride vnto Dunstable,
and there to apprehend the said iustices, and to bring them vnto
Bedford, where (as he said) he meant to commen further with them. But
they hauing knowledge of his purpose, fled quicklie out of the towne,
séeking to escape euerie man which waie he might best deuise. Howbeit,
the souldiers vsed such diligence, that Henrie de Braibroke fell into
their hands, & and so was brought captiue to Bedford as their maister
had commanded them.

[Sidenote: Bedford castell besieged.]

The king aduertised hereof by the gréeuous complaints of his subiects,
was as then at Northampton (where he had assembled his parlement) and
thervpon hauing gathered spéedilie a power, with all expedition he
hasted towards Bedford. At his comming thither, he besieged the castell
on ech side, and at length after two moneths, though not without much
adoo, he wan it, and hanged them all which taken within, being in
number 80 or aboue: and amongst other William de Brent, the brother
of the said Fouks was one. There were but thrée that escaped with
life, who were pardoned, vpon condition they should passe into the
holie land, there to serue among the Templers. The siege began on the
Ascension éeuen, and continued till the 15 daie of August, being the
feast daie of the assumption of our ladie.

[Sidenote: He was in the borders of Wales, where the earle of Chester
was lord.]

Fouks himselfe, whilest the siege continued, laie aloofe in Cheshire,
and on the borders of Wales, as one watching to doo some mischiefe:
but after the castell was woone, he got him to Couentrie, and there
was yer long apprehended, and brought to the king, of whom he obteined
pardon of life, but yet by the whole consent of the nobles and péeres
of the realme, he was exiled the land for euermore, and then went to
Rome, where he knew to purchase his pardon easilie inough for mony, of
crime whatsoeuer he should be iudged culpable. His wife, bicause she
neuer consented to his dooings, nor yet willinglie to the marriage had
betwixt hir and him, was acquited of all blame, and so likewise was his
sonne Thomas.

[Sidenote: The end of Fouks de Brent.]

Howbeit at length the foresaid Fouks, hauing obteined his purpose
at Rome (by meanes of his chapleine Robert Paslew an Englishman,
who was his sollicitor there) as he returned towards England in the
yeare insuing, was poisoned and died by the waie, making so an end
of his inconstant life, which from the time that he came to yeares of
discretion was neuer bent to quietnes. Which may be reported of him
not to his honour or renowme (for alas what fame is gotten by giuing
occasions of euill) but to his euerlasting shame and infamie, for the
same shall neuer die, but remaine in perpetuall memorie, as one saith
right well,

[Sidenote: _Plaut. in Persa._]

    Hominum immortalis est infamia,
    Etiam tunc viuit cùm esse credas mortuam.

But now to leaue these things and returne to the dooings in France
where we left. Ye shall vnderstand, that after Sauerie de Mauleon was
reuolted to the French king, the said king with all spéed determined to
make warre vpon king Henrie, and to win from him certeine townes and
fortresses within the countrie of Poictou.

[Sidenote: _Dunstable._]

The French writers affirme, that king Lewes recouered out of the
Englishmens hands the townes of Niort, S. Iohns d'Angeli, & Rochell,
before Sauerie de Mauleon reuolted from the French part. In déed, the
chronicle of Dunstable saith, that after the truce tooke end, this
yeare the French king raised an armie, and tooke Niort, and after they
of S. Iohn d'Angeli submitted themselues vnto him. From whence he went
to Rochell, within the which at that present was the said Sauerie de
Mauleon with seuentie knights, and Richard Graie, with Geffrey Neuill,
who had in their retinue sixtie knights. These with the forces of the
towne sallied foorth, & encountring with the French armie, slue manie
of their aduersaries, and lost some of their owne people. Yet after
this, the French K. besieged the towne, and in the end wan it, whilest
the king of England being occupied about the besieging of Bedford
castell, neglected to send them within Rochell necessarie succours.

[Sidenote: The Poictouins send to king Henrie.]

[Sidenote: Rochel woon.]

But Polydor Virgil writeth, that now after that Sauerie de Mauleon was
become the French king his man, the Poictouins sent vnto king Henrie,
signifieng, that they were readie to reuolt from the French kings
subiection, and yéeld themselues vnto him, if he would send vnto them
a power of men to defend their countrie from the French men. Now king
Henrie hauing receiued these letters, interteined them that brought
this message verie courteouslie, and promising them to send ouer aid
with all expedition, he caused his nauie to be made readie for that
voiage. In the meane time the French king sent foorth an armie vnder
the leading of Sauerie de Mauleon, who then tooke Niort and Rochell,
placing in the same sundrie garrisons of souldiers, but chéefelie he
fortified Rochell, which had béene long in the Englishmens hands, and
alwaies serued them to verie good purpose, for the handsome landing of
their people, when any occasion required. The French king therefore
hauing got it, fortified it, and meant to kéepe it, to the intent the
Englishmen should not haue hereafter in time of warre, so necessarie a
place for their arriuall in those coasts.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 9.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: 1225.]

[Sidenote: A fiftéenth granted to the king.]

[Sidenote: Magna Charta and Charta de Forresta confirmed.]

King Henrie holding his Christmasse at Westminster, called his high
court of parlement there the same time, and demanded a reléefe of
monie, toward the maintenance of his warres in France, and had granted
to him the fiftéenth penie in value of all the mooueable goods to be
found within the realme, as well belonging to the spiritualtie as
temporaltie, but vnder condition that he should confirme vnto his
subiects their often demanded liberties. The king vpon desire to haue
the monie, was contented to condescend vnto their requests, and so the
two charters were made, and by the king confirmed, the one intituled
Magna Charta, & the other Chart de Forresta. Thus at this parlement
were made and confirmed these good lawes and laudable ordinances, which
haue béene from time to time by the kings and princes of this realme
confirmed, so that a great part of the law now in vse dependeth of the
same. The same charters also were directed and sent foorth into euerie
countie within the realme to be proclaimed.

[Sidenote: Forrests.]

It was moreouer decréed, that at a certeine daie after Easter, there
should be an inquisition taken by the inquest of a substantiall iurie,
for the seuering of forrests, the new from the old, so as all those
grounds which had béene made forrests, since the daies of king Henrie
the grandfather of this Henrie the third, should be disforrested. And
therevpon after Easter, Hugh de Neuill, and Brian de Lisle, were sent
foorth as commissioners, to take that inquisition. By force whereof,
manie woods were asserted and improoued to arable land by the owners,
and so not onelie men, but also dogs, which for safegard of the game
were accustomed to lose their clawes, had good cause to reioise for
these confirmed liberties.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Thrée hundred saith Gaguin.]

[Sidenote: Townes woon by the Englishmen.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Marsh, saith _Matth. Paris._]

In the meane time, and about the feast of the purification, king Henrie
(hauing iust occasion to pursue the warre, for recouerie of those
townes taken, as before you haue heard by the Frenchmen) sent ouer
his brother Richard, whom he had made earle of Cornewall and Poictou,
with a mightie nauie of ships vnto Gascoigne. This earle, hauing in
his companie the earle of Salisburie, Philip de Albenie, and others,
with prosperous wind and weather arriued at Burdeaux with foure hundred
sailes, and there landing his men, went straight vnto the towne of
saint Machaire, situated vpon the banke of Garon, where, vpon his first
comming, he gat the castell, and sacked the towne, and then passing
further, wan diuerse other townes, as Longuile, Bergerat, and other,
and after went with great diligence to besiege and recouer Rochell, or
rather Rioll. The French king aduertised of the earls arriuall, and
of these his atchiued enterprises, sent foorth by and by the earle of
Champaigne with a mightie armie into Guien to aid his people there.

[Sidenote: The Frenchmen taken at aduantage.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall raiseth his siege from the Rioll.]

[Sidenote: The death of the earle of Salisburie.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

The earle of Cornewall vnderstanding of the comming of that French
armie, tooke a part of his host, and therewithall went to méet his
enimies, and lieng in ambush for them by the way, had them at a good
aduantage, and slue great numbers of them. After this, the earle of
Champaigne kéeping his men within their trenches and campe, without
attempting anie other exploit, the earle of Cornewall thought it
sufficient, if he might kéepe the Gascoignes in obedience, which had
alreadie practised a rebellion, by sending letters and messengers for
the same intent vnto the French king, and therefore breaking vp his
siege before the Rioll, he staied a while from exploiting any further
enterprise. About the same time, the earle of Salisburie returning
homwards out of Gascoigne, was so tossed and turmoiled on the seas by
tempests of weather, that he fell sicke therof, and within a few daies
after his arriuall died.

[Sidenote: Préests concubines forbidden christian buriall.]

¶ This yeare also, there came foorth a decrée from the archbishop
of Canturburie, and his suffragans, that the concubines of préests
and clearkes within orders (for so were their wiues then called in
contempt of their wedlocke) should be denied of christian buriall,
except they repented whilest they were aliue in perfect health, or
else shewed manifest tokens of repentance at the time of their deaths.
The same decrée also prohibited them from the receiuing of the pax at
masse time, & also of holie bread after masse, so long as the préests
kept them in their houses, or vsed their companie publikelie out of
their houses. Moreouer, that they should not be purified when they
should be deliuered of child, as other good women were, vnlesse they
found sufficient suertie to the archdeacon, or his officiall, to make
satisfaction at the next chapter or court to be holden, after they
should be purified. And the préests should be suspended, which did
not present all such their concubines as were resident within their
parishes. Also, all such women as were conuict to haue dealt carnallie
with a préest were appointed by the same decrée to doo open penance.
Where the question may be asked, whether this decrée was extended to
préests wiues or no? Wherevnto answer may be made, that as a quadrangle
in geometrie compriseth in it a triangle, and a quaternion in
arithmetike conteineth a ternion; so in logike a vniuersall proposition
comprehendeth a particular. But it is said here, that all such women
as had carnal knowledge with a préest, were to be punished, therefore
some, and consequentlie all préests wiues. But yet this séemeth not to
be the meaning of that decrée, for préests were allowed no wiues, naie
Sericius the pope iudged that all such of the cleargie as had wiues
could not please God, bicause they were in carne, which words he and
the residue of that litter restreined to marriage, admitting in no
case that churchmen should inioy the rights of matrimonie. Wherin they
offer God great iniurie, in séeking to limit that large institution of
wedlocke, wherein all estates are interressed; and they séeme likewise
to bridle nature, and to compell hir within certeine precincts, wherein
they offer intollerable iniurie to all mankind, considering that

    ----ad venerem compellimur exercendam
    Non modò nos, verùm omne animal, terræq; marísq;
    Naturæ imperio: facias peiora necesse est,
    Si non foeminei sorberis ab ore barathri.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 10.]

[Sidenote: A legat from the pope.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

This yeare, or (as some saie) in the next, the king granted to the
citizens of London frée warren, that is to saie, libertie to hunt
within a certeine circuit about London, & that all weires in the Thames
should be plucked vp and destroied. Also in this tenth yeare of his
reigne, king Henrie granted to the citizens of London, that they might
haue and vse a common seale. About the time of the making of which
ordinances, Otho the cardinall of S. Nicholas in Carcere Tulliano came
as legat from pope Honorius into England to king Henrie, presenting him
with letters from the pope. The tenour whereof when the king had well
considered, he declared to the legat, that without the whole assent of
the estates of his realme, he could doo little in that which the pope
as then required.

[Sidenote: A parlement called.]

Herevpon therefore he caused a parlement to be summoned at Westminster,
there to be holden in the octaues of the Epiphanie: this legat also
mooued the king in the behalfe of Fouks de Brent, that he might be
restored to his possessions, and inioy his wife as before time he had
doone: but the king declared that for his manifest treason committed
he was iustlie exiled, and not onlie by his, but by the sentence of
the nobles and other estates of the whole realme: which answer when
the legat had heard, he left off to solicit the king for Fouks, and
from thencefoorth talked no more of that matter. Shortlie after by waie
of proxie, the said legat gathered a dutie which he claimed of the
spiritualtie, that was of euerie conuentuall church within the realme
two markes of siluer.

[Sidenote: 1226.]

[Sidenote: The king is sicke.]

In this yeare the king held his Christmasse at Winchester, and after
comming to Marlebridge, chanced there to fall sicke, so that he laie in
despaire of life for certeine daies togither. In the meane time also
came the daie appointed for the parlement to begin at Westminster,
where the legat and other of the spiritualtie and temporaltie being
assembled, the said Otho shewed the popes letters, and according to
the tenour and purport of the same, was earnestlie in hand to haue
the priests to grant the yearlie paiment of a certeine pension or
tribute to the pope, towards the maintenance of his estate, which they
generallie denied. When he saw that this bait would not take, he onelie
demanded a tenth part of all their spirituall liuings for maintenance
of the wars against the Saracens, which was easilie granted, as more
reasonable than the first.

[Sidenote: _Matt. Westm._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The cardinals request.]

¶ Here by diuerse credible writers of good credit, it should appeare,
that the pope demanded to haue assigned vnto him out of euerie
cathedrall church two prebends, one out of the portion belonging to
the bishop, & an other out of the portion belonging to the deane and
chapiter: and likewise of the abbeies, where there were seuerall
portions, that is to saie, so much of the conuent as belonged to the
finding of one moonke, and as much also of euerie abbats liuing as
should counteruaile the same. The cardinall vsed iollie persuasions to
induce the prelats to assent to this grant, alledging that the church
of Rome was run in great slander for taking of monie in dispatch of
suiters causes, which arose by meanes there was no maintenance of
liuing sufficient for the churchmen there: and therefore he added, how
it was the parts of naturall children to reléeue the necessitie of
their louing mother, and that except the charitable deuotion of them
and other good and well disposed persons were shortlie extended, they
should want necessarie maintenance for the sustentation of their liues,
which shuld be altogither an vnséemlie thing for the dignitie of the
Romane church.

[Sidenote: The answer of Iohn the archdeacon of Bedford.]

The clergie resorting togither to take aduise what answer they should
make, at length vpon their resolute determination, Iohn the archdeacon
of Bedford was appointed to tell the tale for them all: who comming
before the cardinall, declared boldlie vnto him, that the demand which
he had proponed, touched the king especiallie, and generallie all the
nobilitie of the realme, which were patrons of anie churches. He added
furthermore, how the archbishops and bishops, and manie other of the
prelats of England (sithens the king by reason of his sicknesse could
not be there) were also absent, so that they which were there present,
being but as it were the inferiour part of the house, neither might nor
ought to make anie resolute answer as then in this matter. Immediatlie
herewith also came the lord Iohn Marshall, and other messengers from
the king vnto all the prelats that held anie baronies of the king,
streightlie commanding them, that they should in no wise bind and
indanger his lai fée vnto the church of Rome, whereby he might be
depriued of his due and accustomed seruices, and so euerie man herevpon
departed and went home.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: A grant to the citizens of London.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

This yeare, the plées of the crowne were pleaded in the tower of
London. And on the sixtéenth daie of March in this tenth yeare of his
reigne, the king granted by his charter insealed, that the citizens of
London should passe toll frée through all England, and if anie of them
were constreined in anie citie, borough or towne within the realme, to
paie toll, that then the shiriffes of London might attach anie man of
the said citie, borough or towne, where such toll was exacted, being
found within the liberties of London, and him reteine with his goods
and cattels, till the citizens that paid such toll were satisfied, by
restitution of the same, with all costs and charges susteined in the
suit. Howbeit, about the same time, the king constreined the Londoners
to giue vnto him the summe of fiue thousand marks as a fine, for that
they had aided and succoured his aduersarie Lewes against him, and lent
to the said Lewes at his departure out of the realme a like summe. But
it may rather be thought they gaue vnto the king the said fiue thousand
marks for his fauour shewed in granting vnto them the aboue mentioned
fréedome and liberties. At the same time, he had also twelue hundred
pounds of the burgesses of Northampton, besides the fiftéenth, which
not onelie they, but also the Londoners, and all other generallie
through the realme, paid accordinglie as it was granted.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 11. 1227.]

[Sidenote: A parlement at Oxford. The king of lawfull age.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The charters cancelled.]

In Februarie, the king called a parlement at Oxford, in the which
he made open declaration vnto all the assemblie, that he was now of
lawfull age to gouerne of himselfe, without anie to haue rule ouer
him, and so whereas before he was gouerned first by the earle of
Penbroke lord protectour, whilest he liued, & after by the bishop of
Winchester and others, he now remooued them from him by the counsell
of the lord chéefe iustice, taking the regiment wholie to himselfe, &
to such as should please him from thencefoorth to appoint. Also in the
same parlement, he did cancell and disanull the two charters before
mentioned, after that the same had béene vsed through the realme for
the space of two yeares, pretending them to be of no value sith they
were sealed and signed whilest he was vnder age. This déed of the
king was gréeuouslie taken, and all the blame put in the lord chiefe
iustice. Herewith all such also as claimed anie manner charters of
liberties, were appointed to remooue the same (a practise onelie to
get monie) and to get them confirmed with the kings new seale, the old
being made void and pronounced of none effect.

[Sidenote: The death of Lewes the French king.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Marsh commeth ouer to the king and offereth
him his seruice.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

In this yeare died the French king Lewes the eighth, and his son Lewes
the ninth sucéeded him, a child of twelue yeares of age, by reason of
whose infancie diuerse péeres of the realme began to withdraw their
obedience from him, as Theobald earle of Champaigne, Hugh earle of
Marsh, and Peter duke of Britaine. Howbeit, the earle of Champaigne was
easilie reduced againe to his former obedience, by the high wisedome
and policie of the quéene mother, who had the gouernement of hir sonne
the yoong king and his realme committed vnto hir. But the earle of
Marsh constant in his purpose, came ouer to king Henrie, whose mother
he had married, and declared vnto him, that now was the time for him
to recouer those places, which king Philip had vniustlie taken from
his father king Iohn: and to bring the same to passe, he offered
himselfe and all that he could make, in the furthering of this voiage.
The K. being thus pricked forward with the earle of Marsh his words,
determined without delaie to take in hand the warre.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent into France.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

¶ Here authors varie, for some write, that king Henrie sent ouer
certeine persons, as the archbishop of Yorke, the bishop of Careleill,
and the Lord Philip Dalbenie, to vnderstand the minds of the Normans,
the Britains and Poictouins. And for that those that were sent, brought
word againe that the said people were not greatlie minded to forsake
the French gouernment, he surceassed from attempting any exploit at
that time. Others write, that gathering a great summe of monie of his
subiects, towards the maintenance of his charges, he prepared a nauie
of ships, and sailed ouer with the said earle of Marsh into Britaine,
and there wasted the confines of the French dominions, and that when
the French king was readie with an armie to succour his subiects, he
suddenlie retired to his ships, and returned into England, without
atchiuing anie enterprise worthie of remembrance, so that whether he
went himselfe or sent, it forceth not: for certeine it is that he
profited nothing at that seson, either by sending messengers to procure
him fréendship, or by going ouer himselfe to make an entrie to the
warres.

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall returneth home.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall.]

When the French affaires were thus at a staie, within a few moneths
after, Richard earle of Cornewall returned foorth of Gascoigne into
England, and shortlie after, bicause he heard and was crediblie
informed, that a certeine manour place which Walerane the Duchman,
capteine of Berkhamstéed castell held, by the gift and assignement
of king Iohn, apperteined to his earledome of Cornewall, he seized
the castell into his hands. So that Walerane being thus dispossessed,
exhibited his bill of complaint to the king, who incontinentlie sent
to the earle, commanding him to make restitution, which he vtterlie
refused to doo. But foorthwith, comming to the king, and without
reteining any aduocate, he declared his right which he offered
to auerre in open presence, & in any of the kings courts, before
whatsoeuer péeres of the realme should be there assembled.

[Sidenote: He departeth from the court secretlie.]

[Sidenote: He ioineth himselfe with the earles of Chester and Penbroke
and others.]

[Sidenote: They méet at Stamford with an armie.]

This addition [the péeres of the realme] nothing pleased the king and
his councell, namelie the lord chéefe iustice, by whose aduice the
king meant to haue apprehended the earle the same night, after he was
withdrawne to his lodging. But the earle warned thereof, secretlie
departed, accompanied onelie with one man, and neuer drew bridle out
of his horsses mouth, vntill he came to Reading (whither his seruants
resorted to him) and from thence he rode straight to Marlebridge,
where he found his deare fréend William earle Marshall, to whome he
did impart the danger likelie to haue befallen him. Then they drew to
the earle of Chester, & taking order with him for the raising of an
armie, there met shortlie after at Stamford the persons whose names
hereafter insue; Ranulfe earle of Chester, William Marshall earle of
Penbroke, Richard earle of Cornewall the kings brother, Gilbert earle
of Glocester, William earle Warren, Henrie earle of Hereford, William
earle Ferrers, William earle of Warwike, and diuerse barons, lords and
knights, hauing there with them a great puissance of warlike personages.

[Sidenote: A day appointed to méet at Northampt[=o], for a treatie of
pacification.]

[Sidenote: The kings grant to his brother.]

The king hauing vnderstanding as well of their demeanor, as also
what they required by their letters and messengers to him dailie
sent, thought good for a time to pacifie their furie, and therevpon
appointed a day at Northampton, where he would méet, and minister such
iustice vnto them, as should be thought reasonable, and to stand with
their good willes and contentation. Wherevpon, the parties comming to
Northampton at the day assigned, he granted to the earle his brother
(at the instant desire of the lords) all his mothers dowrie, with all
those lands which belonged to the earle of Britaine within England, and
withall, those lands also that apperteined to the earle of Bullongne
deceassed. Thus the matter being pacified, euerie man departed to
his home, whereas if the king had béene froward (as he was mild and
patient, knowing that

[Sidenote: _Val. Flac. lib. 4._]

    ----non solis viribus æquum
    Credere, sæpè acri potior prudentia dextra)

warres had immediatlie béene raised betwixt them, namelie, bicause
manie of the lords bare a secret grudge towards the king, for that he
had reuoked certeine liberties which in the begining of his reigne he
had granted to be holden, though now to take awaie the enuie which
might be conceiued towards him for his dooing, he alledged, that he
did not infringe any thing that he had then granted, but such things
as his gouernours had suffered to passe whilest he was vnder age, and
not ruler of himselfe: he caused them therefore to redéeme manie of the
same priuileges, whereby he gained great finance for the setting to of
his new seale (as before yée haue heard declared.)

[Sidenote: The pope exhorteth the christians to make a iournie against
the Saracens.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ sixtie thous[=a]d.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Moreouer, in this yeare there were sent certeine persons from pope
Gregorie the ninth (that succéeded Honorius) into all the parts of
Europe, to mooue by preaching the christian people to make a iournie
into the holie land against the Saracens. Such a multitude by means
hereof did assemble togither from all parts, and that within a short
time, as the like had sildome times béene heard of. It is said,
that amongst them there should be to the number of fortie thousand
Englishmen, of whome Peter bishop of Winchester, and William bishop
of Excester were the chéefe. Capteins also of that great multitude of
crossed souldiers that went foorth of sundrie countries were these,
Theobald earle of Champaigne, and Philip de Albenie, through whose
negligence the sequele of this noble enterprise came but to small
effect. But to procéed.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 12. 1228.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Weights and measures.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Hubert de Burgh created earle of Kent.]

About this time the king minding the benefit of the common-wealth,
caused the weights and measures generallie within the land to be
reformed after one standard. Furthermore, he created Hubert de Burgh
earle of Kent, the which Hubert how much praise so euer he got at the
beginning for his valiancie shewed in the defending of Douer castell,
and in vanquishing the French fléet that was comming to the succour
of Lewes by battell on the sea, it is certeine, that now he purchased
himselfe double as much hatred and euill will, bicause that being of
secret councell with the king, and thereby after a sort sequestred from
the lords, he was knowne to dissuade the said prince from restoring of
the ancient lawes and customes vnto the people, which the barons oft
required: whereby it came to passe, that the more he grew in fauour
with the prince, the further he came into the enuie of the Nobilitie,
and hatred of the people, which is a common reward to such as in
respect of their maister doo little regard the profit of others, as the
prouerbe saith,

    Plus quis honoratur hostis tum multiplicatur.

[Sidenote: Stephan archbishop of Canterburie departed this life.
Richard Wethersheid elected in his place.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Walter Helmesham.]

Furthermore, vpon the ninth of Iulie Stephan the archbishop of
Canturburie died, after he had gouerned that sée the terme of 21
yeares, after whome succéeded Richard Wethersheid deane of Paules,
who was the thrée and fortith archbishop of that sée. The moonks of
Canturburie had first elected one of their owne conuent, named Walter
Helmesham: which election was made by the same moonks the third daie
of August next insuing the death of their said archbishop Stephan, but
the king would not consent that he should haue the place for diuerse
causes, which he obiected: as first, for that he knew him to be such
a man as should be vnprofitable, both to him and to his kingdome.
Secondlie, bicause his father was a théefe, and thereof being conuict,
suffered death vpon the gallowes. Thirdlie, for that he himselfe had
stood against king Iohn in time of the interdiction.

[Sidenote: A new trouble about the election of the archbishop of
Canturburie.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

On the other side, the bishops suffragans to the church of Canturburie
obiected also against him, that he had vsed the familiar companie of
a nunne, and begot of hir certeine children. Moreouer they alledged,
that no election without their consent, could be good, nor ought to
take place. But the moonke making his appeale, stood in it, and taking
with him certeine of his fellow moonks of Canturburie, went to Rome,
and there made supplication to the pope, that his election by his
authoritie might be ratified and confirmed. Whereof the king and the
other bishops being aduertised, did put their objections in writing
vnder their seales, & sent the same to Rome to be exhibited to the pope
by the bishops of Westchester and Rochester, and Iohn the archdeacon of
Bedford, who vsed such means, that his election was iudged void, & then
the said Richard Wethersheid was out of hand elected & confirmed. In
that yeare also, a grant was made to the citizens of London, that they
should haue and vse a common seale.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The earle of March worketh to induce the Normans &
Poictouins to fauour the king of England.]

[Sidenote: The Normans write to the king of England.]

In this meane while, Hugh the earle of March so laboured with the
Normans and Poictouins in the behalfe of the king of England, that
they began to incline to his purpose: wherevpon he sent his letters by
secret meanes vnto king Henrie, signifieng to him, that if it would
please him to come ouer with an armie to make warre against the French
king, they would be readie to turne vnto his side, and receiue him as
their souereigne. King Henrie taking aduise what to answer and doo
herein, with his welbeloued councellour Hubert of Burgh, thought it not
good to attempt anie thing rashlie in this matter, bicause the dealings
of the Normans were neuer without some fraud: but yet to satisfie the
request of his fréends, he promised to come ouer shortlie vnto them,
if in the meane time he might perceiue that they remained stedfast in
their purpose, giuing them furthermore manie great and hartie thanks
for their good meaning and singular kindnesse towards him.

[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The Welshm[=e] besiege the castell of Montgomerie.]

Now things beyond the sea standing in this order, it happened in the
moneth of August, that the soldiers which laie in garrison within the
castell of Mountgomerie, tooke in hand to stocke vp a wood not farre
from the said castell, through which lay an highwaie, where oftentimes
manie fellonious robberies and murders were committed by the Welsh.
As the souldiers were busie at worke in stocking vp the wood, there
came vpon them an ambushment of Welshmen, which not onlie draue them
awaie from their worke, but also tooke and slue diuerse of them,
constreining the residue to flée into the castell, which immediatlie
the Welshmen inuironed also about with a strong siege, thinking to find
the defendants vnprouided.

[Sidenote: The king with an armie commeth to the succour of them within
the castell.]

They within aduertised Hugh de Burgh, the lord chéefe iustice (to
whome the castell belonged by the kings late gift) of the exploit
and enterprise attempted by their enimies, with all possible hast:
wherevpon the king at request of the said Hubert leuied a power, and
came to raise the siege. But the Welshmen hearing of the kings approch,
fled awaie like shéepe, so that comming to the castell, he found no
resistance: howbeit, for so much as he saw the foresaid wood to be
troublesome and an annoiance to the said castell, he willed it to be
destroied. True it is, that the same wood was verie thicke and rough,
and further it conteined also fiue leagues or fiftéene miles in length:
yet by such diligence as was vsed, the same was wasted, stocked vp,
and quickelie rid out of the waie by fire and other means, so that the
countrie was made plaine a great waie about.

[Sidenote: The abbeie of Cride burnt.]

[Sidenote: The king beginneth to build a castell.]

[Sidenote: He is c[=o]streined to agrée with the Welshmen.]

After this, the king departed foorth into the Welsh confines, and
comming to an abbeie of the white moonks called Cride, caused it to
be burnt, bicause it serued as a refuge for his enimies. Then by the
aduise of the lord chiefe iustice Hubert de Burgh, he set in hand
to build a castell there, bicause the place séemed verie fit for
fortification. But after the king with his armie had laine there
thrée months, through lacke of vittels (the Welshmen still cutting
the Englishmen off as they went abroad to fetch in forrage and other
prouision) he was constreined to fall to agréement with Leolin their
prince, and receiuing of the said prince the summe of thrée thousand
marks, he was contented that so much of the castell as was alreadie
builded, should be raced and made flat againe with the ground, before
his departure from thence. Herevpon, manie men tooke occasion to iest
at the lord chiefe iustice and his dooings about this castell, who at
the beginning named it Huberts follie.

[Sidenote: The lord Willi[=a] de Breuse taken prisoner.]

[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Strange sights in the aire.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Amongst other also that were taken prisoners by the Welshmen, whilest
the king thus vainelie spent his time about the building of that fort,
William de Breuse a right valiant man of warre was one, who being taken
by Leolin prince of Wales, was by him cruellie put to death (as after
shall appear) for the which act, and other such iniuries receiued at
the same Leolins hands, king Henrie at length gréeuouslie punished him.
¶ For the most part of this summer season, great thunders happened
in England: the element also séemed as though it had burned with
continuall flames: stéeples, churches, and other hie buildings were
striken with lightning, and the haruest was sore hindered by continuall
raine. Also in the middest of the day there came a woonderfull
darknesse vpon the earth, that the brightnesse of the aire séemed to be
couered and taken awaie.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 13. 1229.]

[Sidenote: A parlement or a counsell holden.]

[Sidenote: The temporal lords refuse to aid the pope with monie.]

In the thirtéenth yeare of this king, Stephan the popes chapleine and
his Nuncio came ouer vnto king Henrie, requiring to haue towards the
maintenance of the popes warres against the emperour Frederike, a
tenth part of all the mooueable goods within the realmes & countries
of England, Wales, and Ireland, as well of spirituall persons as
temporall. Wherevpon, a parlement or assemblie of the lords was called
at Westminster, on the second sundaie after Easter, which was the 29
of Aprill. At which parlement, when the popes buls were read, and the
matter therein conteined plainelie opened and examined, to the end it
might appeare vpon what necessarie causes the pope was constreined
to pursue the said wars, and to aske reléefe of faithfull christian
people, being members of the holie church: the king, bicause he had
by his procurators at Rome aforehand promised & bound himselfe to
such paiment of tenths, sate still, and answered not to the contrarie
(whereas the hope of a great number was reposed in him, that by his
deniall the popes request shuld haue béene frustrat) so that when by
his silence he was adiudged to consent, yet the temporall lords & laie
men vtterlie denied to agrée vnto such paiment, not willing in any wise
to bind their baronies and temporall possessions vnto the church of
Rome.

[Sidenote: Stephan de Segraue. The tenths of the spiritualtie granted
to the pope.]

Howbeit, the bishops, abbats, priors, and other ecclesiasticall
persons, after they had shewed themselues to rest doubtfull (not
without great grudging and murmuring in the meane time, for the
space of thrée or foure daies togither) at length, for feare of
excommunication, consented to be contributorie, but in such sort,
as they had escaped for a farre more reasonable summe, if Stephan
Segraue one of the kings councell had not by compact (as was thought)
made with the Nuncio, wrought so in the matter, that the tenths were
finallie granted, to the great impouerishment and inestimable damage
of the church and realme of England. After this, the Nuncio shewed the
procuratorie letters, whereby he was authorised to gather those tenths,
and that not after a common manner, but by a verie straight and hard
valuation.

[Sidenote: Vsurers.]

And for the more sure waie of procéeding herein, he had letters of
authoritie from the pope, to excommunicate all such as should withstand
him or his deputies in procéeding with those affaires. He shewed
himself moreouer verie extreame in collecting of this monie, and
namelie towards the prelats of the church, insomuch that appointing him
a certeine day in the which vnder paine of excommunication they should
make paiment, diuers for want of readie monie, were compelled to make
shift with the chalices, and other vessels and ornaments belonging to
their churches, and other were glad to take vp monie vpon interest,
and for that shift there were come ouer with the Nuncio diuerse wicked
vsurers vnder the name of merchants, which when they saw those that
stood in néed like to be excommunicate for want of readie monie, they
would offer themselues to lend vnto any that would borow, after the
rate of one noble for the loane of twentie by the moneth, so bringing
the néedie into their snares, to their irrecouerable losses and
vndooing. Hereby the land was filled with bitter cursings (though in
secret) by those that wished such vnreasonable exactors neuer to sée
good end of the vse of that monie.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Chester wold not permit the tenths to be
gathered within his land.]

From that day forward there wanted not in England certeine vsurers
called Caursini, which sought nothing else but the wealth of such
persons as they might get into their snares, namelie those whome the
church of Rome dooth vex and put to trouble with hir exactions and
paiments. The earle of Chester onlie stood manfullie against the
paiment of those tenths, insomuch that he would not suffer his lands
to be brought vnder bondage, neither wold he permit the religious
men and préests that held of his fée to pay the same, although the
rest of England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland were compelled to be
contributorie thereto, hauing onelie this comfort, that not they
alone, but also other forren regions were driuen to doo the like. Thus
did the locusts of Rome from time to time sucke the swéetnesse of the
land, and all to mainteine the pompe and pride of the same, wherein
what other practises did they vse, than as one truelie testifieth:

    Cuncti luxuriæ atq; gulæ, furtísq; dolísq;
    Certatim incumbunt, &c.

[Sidenote: King Henrie prepareth to passe ouer into France.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent fallen into the kings displeasure.]

But to let this passe: king Henrie purposing to saile ouer into
Britaine and inuade France, came to Portsmouth about Michaelmasse, with
such an armie assembled out of England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland,
as the like for number of people had not béene knowne to haue passed
ouer with any of his ancesters: howbeit when he should come to the
verie point of imbarking his people, with vittels, armor, and other
prouision, there were not ships sufficient to passe ouer the one halfe
of the armie: wherefore when the king saw this default, he was sore
offended, but chéefelie with Hubert the earle of Kent, lord chéefe
iustice, insomuch that he openlie called him old traitor, and laid
to his charge how he had thus vsed the matter of purpose, onelie to
pleasure the quéene of France, of whome (as he said) he had receiued
fiue thousand marks to hinder his procéedings. In this heat if the
earle of Chester and other had not béene at hand, he had suerlie slaine
the chéefe iustice euen there with his drawne sword, who was glad to
auoid his presence, till his angrie mood was somwhat ouerpassed.

[Sidenote: Henrie earle of Britaine.]

[Sidenote: The kings iournie deferred.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 14. 1230.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The king of Scots kept Christmasse with the king of England
at Yorke.]

In the meane time there arriued Henrie earle of Britaine on the ninth
of October, which should haue conducted the king in his countrie. But
sith winter was come vpon them, he aduised him to stay till the next
spring, and so he did. Then euerie man was licensed to depart home, and
the earle of Kent reconciled againe into fauour. The erle of Britaine
in like maner did homage to the king for Britaine, and the king
restored him to all his rights in England, and further giuing him fiue
thousand marks to defend his countrie against the enimies, sent him
home againe in most courteous and louing maner. In this yeare of our
Lord 1230 king Henrie held his Christmasse at Yorke, togither with the
king of Scots, whome he had desired to come thither at that time, that
they might make merrie: and so for the space of thrée daies togither,
there was great banketting and sport betwéene them. On the fourth day
they tooke leaue either of other, the king of Scots with rich gifts
returning towards his countrie, and the king of England towards London.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: A strange tempest at London. Sée Iohn Stow. pag. 261. of his
large collecti[=o] printed 1580.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

Vpon the fiue and twentith day of Ianuarie also, while the bishop of
London was at high masse within the church of S. Paule in London, a
sudden darknesse ouershadowed the quiere, and therewith such a tempest
of thunder and lightning, that the people there assembled thought
verelie the church and stéeple had come downe vpon their heads. There
came moreouer such a filthie sauour and stinke withall, that partlie
for feare, and partlie for that they might not abide the sauour, they
voided the church, falling on heapes one vpon another, as they sought
to get out of the same. The vicars and canons forsooke their deskes,
so that the bishop remained there onelie with one deacon that serued
him at masse. Afterward, when the aire began to cleare vp, the people
returned into the church, and the bishop went forward and finished the
masse.

[Sidenote: The king gathereth monie towards his iournie into France.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The Lord W. de Breuse hanged.]

[Sidenote: The king saileth ouer into France.]

In the meane time the king leuied a great summe of monie of the prelats
of his land towards his iournie into France: he had also a great
reléefe of the citizens of London. And the Iewes were constreined to
giue to him the third part of all their moueable goods. In the moneth
of Aprill, Leolin prince of Wales caused William de Breuse, whom he had
taken prisoner long before (as aboue is mentioned) to be hanged on a
paire of gallowes, for that he was taken (as was reported) in adulterie
with the wife of the said prince. And on the last day of Aprill, the
king with a puissant armie tooke the sea at Portesmouth, and landed at
saint Malos in Britaine on the third day of May, where he was right
ioifullie receiued of Henrie earle of that countrie. After he was thus
arriued in Britaine, he entered into the French dominions, with the
said earle, and the earle of Marsh his father in law, dooing much hurt
within the same. His armie dailie increasing by the great numbers of
Normans and other, which at the fame of the king of Englands arriuall
in those parts, came flocking from diuerse places to aid him.

[Sidenote: Two brethr[=e] of the Paganels or Painelles.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent beginneth now to beare ye blame for
euerie thing amisse.]

Amongst other, there were two brethren that were Normans, Fouke and
William, of the familie and surname of the Paganelles or Painelles,
being men of great birth and estimation in their countrie, which
brought with them thréescore knights or men of armes, right worthie and
valiant in feats of war. These Noble men would faine haue persuaded
the king to haue entred into Normandie, for that (as they affirmed) it
should be an easie matter for him to subdue the whole countrie: whereto
the king would gladlie haue consented, if the earle of Kent had not
aduised him otherwise. After this, they besought him at the leastwise
to grant them two hundred knights or men of armes of his armie, with
whose aid they doubted not to be able (as they said) to expell all the
Frenchmen out of Normandie, but neither would this be obteined, so that
those Norman lords remained without comfort, whilest the French king
caused their castels and manours to be seized vnto his vse.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: He tooke the towne and castell of Angiers, saint Jame,
Bonneroy, & Belesme. The annales of Aquitaine.]

[Sidenote: Poictou and Xantonge.]

[Sidenote: The French get the vpper hand.]

During this time, king Lewes (who a few daies afore had taken from
the duke of Britaine the townes of Ardone, Campanell, and Belesme)
being now certified by his espials, of the landing and inuasion made
by the king of England, hasted foorth with his armie into the countrie
of Aniou, and there by the side of the Loire, incamped, to staie the
king of England, that he should not passe ouer the same riuer into
Poictou, suspecting least the Poictouins (whom he had alwaie in some
gelousie) would revolt vnto him. But the king of England aduertised of
his approch, passed that riuer sooner than anie man would haue iudged,
and incamped first in the countrie of Poictou, and after drew into the
confines of Xantonge, the French king still following, and by the waie
destroieng the townes of Fountney, and Villars, perteining to one Guie
de Rochfort, a capteine belonging to the earle of March. Afterward
also he passed the riuer of Charent, and wasted all the countrie of
Xantonge. Where (if we may belieue some writers) the two kings ioined
battell, which continued a long time right fierce & cruell: but at
length the Englishmen giuing backe, the victorie remained on the French
side, a great number of their aduersaries being slaine and taken.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Mirabeau.]

After this battell, they saie also that a peace was concluded betwixt
them. But other writers haue recorded, that the matter was first taken
vp by a truce without anie battell, bicause both the kings being yoong
men, and as yet not verie skilfull in martiall affaires, were content
to giue eare vnto quéene Blanch, to Philip erle of Bollongne, and to
Ranulfe earle of Chester, which thrée tooke vpon them to intreat a
peace, and prescribe the couenants of agréement, by which meanes they
were at the last accorded. Amongst other things which were concluded at
this present time, the duke of Britaine, and the earle of March were
made fréends againe with the French king, and receiued eftsoones into
his fauour. Thus ceassed the warres for that time betwixt the kings
of England and France, as some haue witnessed. ¶ Howbeit if we shall
beléeue other, which wrote and liued in those daies, there was no peace
at that time concluded: but after that king Henrie had passed through
Aniou and Poictou without battell, he came into Gascoigne, where he
receiued the homages and fealties of manie noble men in those parties,
and returning into Poictou, not onelie had the like also of sundrie
lords and men of honour in that countrie, but also tooke the castell
of Mirabeau by assault, thorough the manhood of the Englishmen, who
chose rather with desperat aduentures to make entrance to honour, than
by timorousnesse or want of courage to purchase reproch; for they knew
verie well, that

    Qui cupiunt fortes fieri, discrimina oportet
    Multa pati, & multos coguntur ferre labores,

and therefore they made triall of their valiantnesse euen with
obteinement of victorie to the discomfiture of the enimie, who gaped
after the conquest.

[Sidenote: King Henrie returneth into Britaine.]

[Sidenote: He saileth home into England.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Chester left the kings lieutenant in Britaine.]

[Sidenote: What feats he wrought.]

[Sidenote: Pontorson burnt.]

This doone, and order taken for the safe kéeping of those quarters,
he returned into Britaine, & comming to the citie of Naunts, remained
a while there, spending the time vainlie in pleasure and banketting.
Finallie in the moneth of October he tooke the sea, and returning into
England after manie perils, landed at Portesmouth, the 27 of October,
leauing behind him in Britaine 500 knights or men of armes, a thousand
yeomen or stipendarie souldiers, for defense of the countrie against
the Frenchmen, and appointed for their capteine the earle of Chester,
the earle Marshall, and the earle of Albemarle, with certeine other
valiant and approued warriours, who after the departure of the king,
made two rodes into the French countries, but first into Aniou, where
they remained 15 daies without battell, taking and destroieng the
castell of Gonner, also Newchatell vpon the riuer of Sart, and finallie
laden with plentie of rich spoiles, they returned into Britaine, from
whence they set foorth. Shortlie after they entred into Normandie,
destroieng the castell of Pontorson, & burning the towne: which
enterprise when they had accomplished at their wils, they returned
eftsoones into Britaine, where they were ioifullie receiued.

[Sidenote: S. James de Bewmeron.]

[Sidenote: A strange eclipse.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 15.]

The erle of Chester in this meane while strengthened & fortified the
castell of S. Iames de Bewmer[=o], which (bicause it belonged to the
right of his wife) the earle of Britaine had (sith the kings comming
ouer) restored vnto him. ¶ In this yeare vpon the 14 of Maie, a
maruellous eclipse of the sunne chanced immediatlie after the rising
thereof, so that the earth séemed as it had béene couered againe with
shade of night. On the 22 daie of Nouember the moone was likewise
eclipsed, being as then 13 daies old.

[Sidenote: The duke of Saxonie c[=o]meth into England.]

[Sidenote: The king of Connagh.]

[Sidenote: Geffrey de Maurish lord chiefe iustice of Ireland.]

[Sidenote: Walter de Lacie, Richard de Burgh.]

Furthermore, whilest the king was in France, there came ouer into
England the duke of Saxonie coosen to the king, and of the citizens of
London was honourablie receiued. He was a man of such high and tall
stature, that men tooke great pleasure to behold him. In the same
yeare also in the moneth of Iulie, an Irish king that was gouernour of
Connagh, vnderstanding that both the king of England, and the earle
Marshall were gone ouer into France, and so Ireland left without anie
great aid of men of warre on the English part, raised a mightie armie,
and with the same entered into the marshes of the English dominion,
spoiling and burning the countrie before him. Whereof when Geffrey de
Maurish lord chiefe iustice of Ireland was aduertised, he called to him
Walter de Lacie and Richard de Burgh, assembling therewithall a mightie
armie, which he diuided into thrée parts, appointing the said Walter de
Lacie, and Richard de Burgh, with the two first parts, to lie in ambush
within certeine woods, thorough the which he purposed to draw the
enimies, and marching foorth with the third, which he reserued to his
owne gouernement, he profered battell to the Irishmen, the which when
they saw but one battell of the Englishmen boldlie assaied the same.

[Sidenote: The Irishm[=e] vanquished by ye Englishmen in battell.]

The Englishmen according to the order appointed, feigned as though they
had fled, and so retired still backer and backer, till they had trained
the Irish within danger of their other two battels, which comming
foorth vpon them, did set on them egerlie, whilest the other which
séemed before to flée returned backe againe, and set vpon them in like
maner, by meanes whereof the Irishmen being in the midst, were beaten
downe on all parts, and vtterlie vanquished, with losse of 20 thousand
men (as it was crediblie reported.) The king of Connagh was also taken
and committed to prison.

[Sidenote: 1231.]

[Sidenote: A fiftéenth and tenth granted to the king.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Englishmen sent to Spain against the Saracens.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Escuage demanded.]

In the meane time king Henrie hauing spent a great deale of treasure in
his iournie made into France, there was granted vnto him a fiftéenth
of the temporaltie, with a disme and a halfe of the spiritualtie,
towards the furnishing out of a new power of men to be sent into Spaine
against the Saracens, which made sore warres vpon the christians in
that countrie, wherevpon king Henrie being required of the K. of Aragon
to aid him with some number of souldiers, he sent a great power thither
with all spéed, and so likewise did the French king. By means whereof
the Spaniards, being ioined with Englishmen and Frenchmen, obteined a
noble victorie, in vanquishing those their enimies. Thus saith Polydor.
But other write that the king on the seauen and twentith of Ianuarie,
holding a parlement at Westminster (where the Nobles both spirituall
and temporall were assembled) demanded escuage of all those that held
any baronies of him, that is to saie, forren knights fée, fortie
shillings, or thrée marks.

[Sidenote: The archb. of Canturburie standeth against the K. in defense
of his cleargie.]

[Sidenote: Contention betwixt the archb. and the earle of Kent.]

Moreouer, the archbishop of Canturburie (as they say) stood against
the king in this demand, mainteining that the cleargie ought not to be
subiect vnto the iudgment of laie men, sith this escuage was granted in
the parts beyond the seas without their consent. Wherevpon the matter
as touching the bishops was deferred till the quindene of Easter,
albeit that all the laitie, and other of the spiritualtie consented to
the kings will. ¶ About this time also there chanced to rise a great
strife and contention betwixt Richard the archbishop of Canturburie,
and Hubert the earle of Kent, who as gardian to the yoong erle of
Glocester had got into his hands the castell of Tunbridge, with the
towne, and certeine other possessions which belonged to the archbishops
sée, and therefore did the archbishop complaine to the king of the
iniurie which he susteined.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

Now when he perceiued no hope likelie to come for any redresse at
the kings hands, he tooke an other way: and first by his pontificall
authoritie accursed all those that withheld the same possessions, and
all their mainteiners (the king excepted) and therewith appealing to
the pope, he went to prosecute his appeale at Rome, whither the king
and the earle sent also their procurators, and made the pope their
arbitratour to iudge of the matter. In the end pope Gregorie hauing
heard the whole processe of the controuersie, iudged the right to
remaine with the archbishop, who hauing then obteined his desire,
hasted toward England: but as he was returning homewards, he died by
the way, not farre from Rome, whereby the popes iudgement tooke no
place: for whilest the sée was void, there was none that would follow
the suit: and such was the end of this controuersie for this time.

[Sidenote: Ralfe Neuill elected arch. of Canturburie.]

After the deceasse of this archbishop Richard, the moonks elected Ralfe
Neuill bishop of Chichester the kings chancellor, an vpright man, and
of iust dealing in all his dooings. In whome also it is to be noted,
he would not giue one halfepenie to the moonks towards the bearing of
their charges in their iournie to Rome, which they should take vpon
them from thence to fetch his confirmation, according to the manner,
least he should burthen his conscience with the crime of simonie which
he greatlie abhorred, although some imputed this to procéed rather of
a cloked spice of couetousnesse. Which practise of his maketh greatlie
to the confounding of the indirect means now vsed to aspire vnto
promotions, for the obteinment whereof no remedie is forborne; no,
though the same be repugnant to reason, and vtterlie against conscience
and honestie. But this is the temptation of auarice and ambition, which
poison the minds of men in such sort, that rather than they will want
their wished aduancement, they will vse these meanes that may further
them most, namelie, fréendship, monie, and mightie mens countenance;
which one noteth verie well in a distichon of neat deuise, saieng,

    Artis, honestatis, recti, præcepta, decus, vim,
    Conculcat, superant, spernunt, fauor, æra, potentes,

[Sidenote: Sim[=o] Langtons report of the conditions of Ralfe Neuill.]

But to the purpose from whence we are digressed. When the moonks came
to the popes presence, vpon inquirie made, and chéefelie by report
of Simon Langton, who (as some thinke) gaped for the dignitie, he
vnderstood that the said Ralfe Neuill should be a man vnlearned, a
courtier, hastie and short of word, and that which most displeased
the pope, it was to be feared, that if he should be preferred to that
roome, he would go about to deliuer the realme of England from the
thraldome of the pope, and the court of Rome (into the which being
made tributorie by king Iohn it had latelie béene brought) that (as
he should alledge) it might serue God and holie church in the old
accustomed libertie.

[Sidenote: Sée before in pag. 307.]

[Sidenote: The Pope maketh void the election.]

To bring this to passe (hauing the king thereto greatlie inclined, and
all the realme readie to assist him in the same) he would not sticke
to put his life in ieopardie, namelie vpon confidence of the right and
appeales of Stephan the late archbishop of Canturburie, made in solemn
wise before the altar of S. Paule in the cathedrall church of London,
when king Iohn resigning his crowne into the hands of the legat, made
that writing obligatorie most execrable to the whole world. When the
pope had heard this tale told, he streit disanulled the election
and request of the confirmation of the said Ralfe Neuill, granting
libertie to the moonks to chose some other which might proue a wholsome
shéepheard for the soule of man, profitable to the church of England,
and a faithfull sonne to the sée of Rome, and so the moonks returning
home, made relation to the couent how they had sped. After this,
the moonks elected the prior of their house named Iohn to be their
archbishop, who going to Rome for his confirmation, was persuaded in
the end to renounce his election: so that at length one Edmund that was
treasurer of the colledge of Salisburie, was elected, confirmed, and
consecrated, a man of great zeale, being the foure & fortith archbishop
that had gouerned that sée.

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall marrieth the countesse of Glocester.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Leolin prince of Wales inuadeth the English borders.]

This yeare the kings brother the earle of Cornewall married the
countesse of Glocester, widow to the late earle Gilbert, and sister to
William Marshall earle of Penbroke, the which erle of Penbroke shortlie
after the same marriage departed this life, and was buried on the
fiftéenth day of Aprill, in the new temple at London, néere vnto his
father. Moreouer, Leolin prince of Wales about this season enterprising
to inuade the English confines, burned and wasted the countrie in
most cruell wise. Whereof the king being aduertised, hasted foorth by
great iournies, with purpose to reuenge such iniuries. But the enimies
hearing of his comming (according to the custome of their countrie)
withdrew into the mounteins, bogs, and marishes. Wherefore the king
(séeing that he could not haue them at his pleasure, and least he
should be thought to spend time in vaine) came backe, and left behind
him a small troope of souldiers to resist their attempts, if they
should happen to rise vp any more.

[Sidenote: The Welshmen put to flight.]

[Sidenote: The king goeth against the Welshmen.]

The Welshmen hauing intelligence that the king was returned home, brake
foorth againe as before into the English marshes, and not onelie tooke
preies and booties, but went about to destroie with fire and sword all
that stood in their way. Howbeit in their returne, and as they ranged
abroad somewhat vnaduisedlie, they were intrapped by the souldiers
which the king had left there for the defense of the countrie, and put
to flight néere the castell of Mountgomerie, with great slaughter &
losse of their people. But Leolin nothing dismaied therwith, assembled
a greater power than he had before, and began foorthwith to rob and
spoile within the English marshes with paganish extremitie. Which
thing when it came to the vnderstanding of the king, he was verie sore
displeased, that so meane a man as Leolin was, should put him to so
much trouble, therefore he raised a farre greater armie than he had
doone at anie time before, and with the same came to the citie of
Hereford.

[Sidenote: _Matt. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The Englishmen distressed.]

[Sidenote: Mawds castell repaired.]

In the meane time Leolin comming néere vnto the said castell of
Mountgomerie, by the practise of a traitorous moonke, trained foorth
the English souldiers which laie in garrison there, and counterfeiting
to flée, till he had laid them vp in bogs and mires with their horsses,
so as they could not helpe themselues, he fell vpon them, and so slue
and tooke a great number of them euen as he could haue wished. The king
aduertised hereof, hasted the faster forward, and comming into those
parts, as he passed by an abbeie of the Cisteaux order (of which house
the moonke was that had betraied the Englishmen of Mountgomerie) he
burned a grange that belonged to the same abbeie, and further spoiling
the same abbeie it selfe, he had set it on a light fire also, if the
abbat therof had not redéemed it with the summe of thrée hundred marks
of siluer. After this, he caused Mawds castell to be repaired and
fortified, which the Welshmen in times past had ouerthrowne, and when
the worke was finished, he left there a strong garrison of souldiers to
kéepe backe the Welshmen from making their accustomed incursions.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Henrie earle of Britaine, and the earle of Chester distresse
the French kings cariages.]

[Sidenote: A truce taken.]

Whilest the king was thus occupied in Wales, there was some busines
in France: for in the moneth of Iune, the French king with an armie
came to inuade the countrie of Britaine, but earle Henrie with the
earle of Chester and the other English capteins found meanes to take
and destroie all the cariages and wagons which came with vittels and
other prouision to serue the French armie. When the Frenchmen perceiued
they could not haue their purpose, by mediation of the archbishop of
Reimes, and the earle of Bollongne on the French part, and by consent
of the earles of Britaine and Chester on the English part, a peace was
concluded, or rather a truce to indure for thrée yeares betwixt the
two kings of England and France. This agréement was made the fift daie
of Iulie, and then the earles of Britaine and Chester, with Richard
Marshall, came ouer into England, and rode to the king, whom they found
at Mawds castell, where he remained till the worke was finished, and
then in the moneth of October returned into England.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 16. 1232.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: An vnorderlie & presumptuous attempt.]

In this meane time no small grudge arose among the people, by reason
that their churches were occupied by incumbents that were strangers,
promoted by the popes and their legats, who neither instructed the
people, nor could well speake anie more English than that which serued
for the collection of their tithes, in somuch that for the insolencie
of such imcumbents as well the Noble men and those of good reputation,
as other of the meaner sort, by an vndiscréet presumption attempted a
disorderlie redresse, confederating themselues togither, and taking
vpon them to write and direct their letters vnto bishops and chapters,
commanding them by waie of inhibition, not to séeme to interrupt those
that should seize vpon the beneficed strangers, or vpon their reuenues.

[Sidenote: The superscription of their letters.]

They also tooke vpon them to write vnto such religious men and others,
which were farmers vnto anie of those strangers, forbidding them to
stand accountable vnto the said strangers, but to reteine the rents
and profits in their hands to answer the same vnto such as they should
appoint for the receipt thereof. The superscription of their letters
was this. ¶ "Tali episcopo, & tali capitulo, vniuersitas eorum, qui
magis volunt mori quàm à Romanis confundi, salutem." That is to say,
"To such a bishop and chapter, all those which had rather die than be
confounded by the Romans, send gréeting." In the seale wherewith the
said letters were sealed, were two swords ingrauen.

[Sidenote: Masking threshers.]

[Sidenote: The pope complaineth to the K. in blaming him.]

This matter went so farre foorth, that there were sundrie persons
armed and disguised like mummers, which enterprised not onelie to take
diuerse of those strangers that were beneficed men, but also came to
their barnes, threshed vp their graine, and either made sale therof,
or gaue it awaie for God his sake, shewing counterfeited letters vnder
the kings seale, which they had procured for their warrant, as they
did pretend. At length the pope vpon complaint made vnto him of such
violent doings, wrote to king Henrie, blaming him not a little for
suffering such disorders to be committed within his realme, commanding
him vpon paine of excommunication to cause a diligent inquirie to
be had of the offenders, and to sée them sharpelie punished, to the
example of others.

[Sidenote: The pope c[=o]mandeth the offenders to be accursed.]

[Sidenote: Inquisitions taken.]

Moreouer he sent letters to the bishop of Winchester, and to the abbat
of saint Edmundsburie, to make the like inquisition, and to accurse all
those that should be found culpable within the south parts of England,
as he did to the archbishop of Yorke, to the bishop of Durham, and to
an Italian named Iohn a canon of Yorke, to doo the like in the north
parts, so that the offenders should remaine accursed, till they came to
Rome, there to fetch their absolution. Herevpon therefore a generall
inquisition was taken, as well by the king as by the bishops, and manie
found guiltie, some in fact, and some in consent: amongst which number
there were both bishops and chapleins to the king, with archdeacons and
deanes, knights, and manie of the laitie.

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent put in blame.]

[Sidenote: Sir Robert de Twing.]

There were some shiriffes and bailiffes also, which by the kings
commandement were arrested and put in prison, and diuerse of all sorts
did kéepe themselues out of the waie, and would not as yet be found.
In like maner, Hubert earle of Kent, lord chéefe iustice, was accused
to be chiefe transgressour in this matter, as he that had giuen foorth
the kings letters patents to those disguised and masking threshers, who
had taken vpon them so to sequester other mens goods, whereto they had
no right. There came also to the king one sir Robert de Twing, a knight
of the north parts, (which named himselfe William Wetherse, and had led
about a companie of the foresaid maskers) protesting that he had doone
it vpon iust cause to be reuenged vpon the Romans, which went about by
sentence of the pope, and manifest fraud to spoile him of the parsonage
of a certeine church which he held, and therefore he said he had rather
stand accursed without iust cause for a time, than to lose his benefice
without due iudgement. Howbeit the king and the other commissioners
counseled him in the end to go to Rome to purchase his absolution, sith
he was fallen in danger of excommunication, and there to sue for his
pardon in the popes consistorie. And to incourage him the better so
to doo, the king wrote also in his fauour to the pope, testifieng the
right which he claimed to the church, whereby at length he obteined his
suit (as after ye shall heare.)

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: A subsidie demanded, and denied.]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Winchesters counsell giuen to the king.]

The king called a parlement at Westminster, wherein declaring what
charges he had béene at diuers waies, he required to haue a subsidie
granted him, for the reléefe of his want, which was flatlie denied,
the Nobles and other estats excusing the pouertie amongst all degrées
of men, by manie euident reasons. Herevpon the bishop of Winchester
being a verie eloquent and faire-spoken man, openlie counselled the
king to fauour his people, whom he had alreadie made poore and bare
with continuall tributes and exactions. And if it were so that he
stood in such néed as was alledged, that then he should take into his
hands againe such possessions and things, which during the time of
his yoong yéeres he had bestowed vpon his seruants, without any good
aduised consideration, for lacke of ripe iudgement and discretion, and
againe to take from certeine couetous persons, who now were become
horsseleches and caterpillers in the common-wealth, all such offices as
they held, and had verie much abused, causing them to yeald vp their
accounts, and to vse them after the manner of sponges, so that where he
had in times past made them full of moisture, he might how wring them
drie, following herein the example of Vespasian. And by this means it
was not to be douted but he should haue inough of his owne, without
dooing iniurie to any man.

[Sidenote: The king followeth the bishop of Winchesters counsell.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Ranulfe Briton, Peter de Riuales.]

The king gaue verie good eare to the bishops words, and following
his counsell, caused his receiuers, treasurers, and other such as
had medled with anie of his receipts to come to a reckoning. And
vnderstanding by the auditors appointed to take their accounts, that
the most part of them had receiued much more and by other means than
they had entered into their reckoning, he compelled them to restore
it out of hand with interest. Also he caused the magistrats to be
called to a reckoning, and manie of them being conuicted of fraud,
were condemned to make restitution. And among other Ranulfe Briton
treasurer of his chamber was put beside his office, and fined at a
thousand marks, in whose place was set Peter de Riuales, or after some
copies de Oruiales, a Poictouin, nephue or rather sonne to the bishop
of Winchester, by whose aduice the king tooke a more strait account of
his officers, and often remooued such as he iudged guiltie.

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent discharged of his office of chéefe
iustice.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent taketh sanctuarie.]

[Sidenote: The citizens of London their good deuotion towards the earle
of Kent.]

At the same time also, Hubert earle of Kent was deposed from the office
of high iustice, and Stephan Segraue appointed in his roome. The
said Hubert (bicause he refused to answer a certeine dutie which was
demanded of him to the kings vse) ran so farre into his displeasure,
that he durst not abide his sight, but for safegard of himselfe got
him to the abbeie of Merton, and there tooke sanctuarie. The king
hearing of this his demeanor, was so highlie offended withall, that he
sent to the Londoners, willing them to go thither and fetch him to his
presence. The Londoners, which in no wise loued him, bicause of the
death of their citizen Constantine, were verie readie to accomplish
this commandement, insomuch that where the maior ouernight late
declared to them the effect of the kings commission, there were twentie
thousand of them in armor gotten forward earlie in the morning towards
Merton, in full hope now to be reuenged of him, for the small good-will
that he had borne, vnto their citie heretofore.

But the king being informed by the earle of Chester and others, that
if the Londoners being thus in armor, and in so great a number, should
commit any other outrage by the way, the matter might grow to some
such inconuenience as would not easilie be staied, he sent to them
a countermand to returne backe to the citie againe, which they did,
though sorie in their hearts that they might not go through with
their desired enterprise. Furthermore (sée héere the mutabilitie of
fortune and hir inconstancie, whereof complaint hath béene made by our
forefathers time out of mind, saieng,

[Sidenote: _Ouid. lib. 2. de trist. 5._]

    Passibus ambiguis fortuna volubilis errat,
      Et manet in nullo certa tenáxq; loco;
    Sed modò læta manet, vultus modò sumit acerbos.
      Et tantùm constans in leuitate sua est.)

now that the erle of Kent was thus out of the kings fauour, there were
few or none of those whome he had before béene beneficiall vnto, that
shewed themselues as fréends and louers vnto him, but all forsooke
& were readie to saie the worst of him, the archbishop of Dubline
excepted, who yet obteined of the king respit for him to make answere
vnto such things as should lawfullie be obiected against him, both
for the debt which should be due to the king, and also vpon points of
treason, which were now laid to his charge. ¶ Wherin we may sée what
hath béene the course of the world in former ages touching fréends,
who in the spring of a mans felicitie like swallowes will flie about
him; but when the winter of aduersitie nippeth, like snailes they kéepe
within their shels: wherevnto the poet verie well alluding, saith.

[Sidenote: _Hor. lib. car. 1. od. 35._]

    ----diffugiunt cadis
    Cum fæce siccatis amici,
    Ferre iugum pariter dolosi.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

After this, as the said Hubert would haue gone to S. Edmundsburie
in Suffolke, where his wife as then remained, he was apprehended at
Burntwood in Essex, within a chappell there (as saith Fabian.) But
(as Matthew Paris saith) sir Robert de Cranecombe, with thrée hundred
armed men was sent to apprehend him by the kings commandement, and so
he was taken in a village belonging to the bishop of Norwich in Essex,
and by the kings commandement cast into prison, but yet afterwards he
was reconciled to the kings fauour, when he had lien foure moneths in
prison, and thirtéene moneths banished the court.

[Sidenote: A subsidie granted in a parlement holden at Lambeth.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 17.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Ranulfe earle of Chester departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: Erle Ranulfe thrice maried.]

[Sidenote: This Clemence was daughter to erle Ferrers.]

In this yeare, on the exaltation of the crosse, at Lambeth, in the
assemblie of the states there, a subsidie was granted to the K. of the
fortith part of euerie mans goods towards the discharge of his debts
which he owght to the earle of Britaine. Also in the beginning of the
seauentéenth yeare of his reigne, Ranulfe earle of Chester and Lincolne
departed this life the six and twentith day of October, whose bodie was
buried at Chester, and his bowels at Wallingford where he died. This
earle Ranulfe was thrice married, first to Constance daughter and heire
to Conan earle of Britaine and Richmund, and so in right of hir was
intituled earle of those two places: which Constance had béene first
married vnto Geffrey the third son of king Henrie the second, by whom
she had issue Arthur (as before yée haue heard.) But by earle Ranulfe
she had no issue at all, but was from him diuorced, and afterwards
married vnto Guy vicount de Towars. Then after earle Ranulfe was so
diuorsed from the said Constance, he married a ladie named Clemence,
and after hir deceasse, he married the third time the ladie Margaret,
daughter to Humfrey de Bohun earle of Hereford and Essex, constable of
England.

[Sidenote: The partition of his lands.]

Howbeit he neuer had issue by any of those his wiues, so that Iohn
Scot his nephue by his sister Mawd succéeded him in the earldome of
Chester, and William Dalbenie earle of Arundell, nephue to him by his
sister Mabell, had the manour of Barrow, and other lands that belonged
to the said Ranulfe, of the yerelie value of fiue hundred pounds.
Robert Quincie, he that married his sister Hauisa, had the earledome of
Lincolne, and so of a baron became an earle who had issue by his wife,
Margerie countesse of Lincolne, that was maried to Edmund Lacie earle
of Lincolne. William earle Ferrers and of Darbie, that had married
Agnes, sister to the said Ranulfe, had the castell and manour of
Chartley, togither with other lands for his pourpart.

[Sidenote: This Roger Lacie is surnamed Helle.]

Here is also to be remembred, that the afore mentioned earle Ranulfe
(or Randulfe whether ye list to call him) atchieued manie high
enterprises in his time, as partlie in this booke ye haue alreadie
heard: he held sore warres against the Welshmen, till at length an
agréement was concluded betwixt him and Leolin prince of Wales. I
remember I haue read in an old record, that vpon a time as this earle
passed into Wales with an armie, his chance was to be ouerset by the
Welshmen, so that he was driuen to retire into a castell, wherein the
Welshmen did besiege him. And as it fortuned at that time, Roger Lacie
the constable of Chester was not then with him, but left behind at
Chester to sée the citie kept in order (for as it should séeme, their
solemne plaies which commonlie are vsed at Whitsuntide were then in
hand, or else their faire which is kept at Midsummer.)

Wherefore the earle sent a messenger in all possible hast vnto his
constable, praieng him with spéed to come to his succour in that
extreame point of necessitie. Lacie made no delaie, but assembling
all the forreners, plaiers, musicians, and others which he could find
within that citie fit to weare armor, went foorth with them, and in
most spéedie maner marched toward the castell, where the Welshmen
kept the earle besieged, who now perceiuing such a multitude of men
comming towards them, incontinentlie left the siege and fled awaie.
The earle then being thus deliuered out of that present danger, came
foorth of the castell, returned with his constable vnto Chester, and
in recompense of that seruice, gaue vnto his said constable Roger
Lacie, the rule, order, and authoritie ouer all the forreners, plaiers,
musicians, and other strangers resorting to Chester at the time, when
such publike plaies (or else faire) should be kept & holden.

Iohn Lacie the sonne of the said Roger married Alice the daughter
of Gilbert de Aquila, and after hir deceasse, he married the ladie
Margaret, the daughter of Robert Quincie earle of Lincolne, of whom
he begat Edmund Lacie constable of Chester, which Edmund after the
deceasse of his father, married Alice the daughter of the marquesse
of Saluces in Italie, which ladie was surnamed the quéene, of whom
he begat Henrie Lacie earle of Lincolne, which Henrie married the
ladie Margaret, daughter to William Long espée earle of Salisburie,
by whom he had two sons, Edmund and Iohn, and two daughters, Alice
and Ioan, which Alice Thomas earle of Lancaster married, who claimed
and had the same rights and priuileges which ancientlie belonged to
the said Roger Lacie, and other the constables of Chester, concerning
the fines of forreners and others. ¶ This haue I the more willinglie
declared, that it may appeare in what estimation and credit the Lacies
constables Chester by inheritance liued in their time, of whose high
valiancie, and likewise of other of that familie, highlie commended for
their noble chiualrie in martiall enterprises ye may read in sundrie
histories at large.

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent kept in prison within the castell of Vées.]

But now to returne and speake of other dooings, which chanced about the
time in which the said Ranulfe earle of Chester departed this life.
The king in the meane while seized into his hands a great portion of
the treasure which Hubert de Burgh earle of Kent had committed to the
kéeping of the templers. But whereas there were that trauelled to haue
had him put to death, the king in respect of the seruice which he
had doone to him and to his predecessors king Richard and king Iohn,
granted him life, with those lands which he had either by purchase, or
by gift of king Iohn, but neuertheless he caused him to be kept in frée
prison at the castell of the Vées, vnder the custodie of foure knights
belonging to the earles of Cornewall, Warren, Penbroke, and Ferrers,
which foure earles were become suerties for him.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: A great thunder.]

[Sidenote: 1233.]

[Sidenote: A wet summer.]

[Sidenote: Foure sunnes beside the accustomed sun.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: A strange woonder.]

This yeare also about the same time, to wit, the morow after S. Martins
daie, chanced great thunder and lightning, which continued for the
space of 15 daies togither, to the great terrour and feare of the
people, and namelie of the Londoners, which haue that kind of weather
so familiar to them, that if there be anie abroad in the land, they
haue their part thereof. Moreouer on the 23 of March, was heard an
other great and terrible tempest of thunder, and after followed a
maruellous wet summer with manie flouds. Also on the 8 daie of Aprill,
in the parts about Hereford and Worcester, there appeared foure sunnes
in the element, beside the naturall sunne, of red colour, and a great
circle of christaline colour, the which compassed with his largenesse
as it had béene the whole circuit almost of the whole realme of
England, from the sides whereof went foorth certeine halfe circles, in
whose sections appeared the said four sunnes. The naturall sunne was
at the same time in the east part of the firmament, for it was about
the first houre of the daie, or betwixt six and seuen in the morning,
the aire being the same time verie bright and cleare. The bishop
of Hereford, and sir Iohn Monmouth knight, and manie others beheld
this woonderfull sight, and testified the same to be most true. And
after this there followed the same yeare in those parts cruell warre,
slaughter, terrible bloudshed, & a generall trouble through England,
Wales, and Ireland. About the same time, to wit, in Iune, in the south
parts of England néere to the sea coast, two huge dragons appeared
fighting in the aire, and after a long fight the one ouercame the
other, and followed him, fléeing into the depth of the sea, & so they
were séene no more.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The king beginneth to fauour strangers.]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Winchester.]

Moreouer in this yeare great variance and strife rose betwixt the
king and his barons, for the king tooke great displeasure against all
other his officers, & so much the more mistrusted them, for that he
found himselfe deceiued in the earle of Kent, to whom he had committed
a further credit than to anie other, and had made him high iustice
of England, onelie for the good will that he alwaies bare to him.
Therefore perceiuing this, he was doubtfull whom he should trust,
discharging the most part of those Englishmen that bare any office
about him, and in their roomes placed strangers, as Poictouins and
Britains, of the which there came ouer vnto him manie knights and
other, to the number of 2000, which he placed in garrisons within
castels of diuerse places of the land, and committed the order of all
things for the most part to the bishop of Winchester, and to his nephue
or sonne Peter de Riuales.

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke.]

[Sidenote: Strangers alwaies odious to ye home borne.]

Herwith he offended so much the minds of his Nobles, that Richard
Marshall earle of Penbroke (chiefe of that familie, & boldest to
speake, now that Ranulfe of Chester was gone) as well in his owne name,
as in the names of other, tooke upon him openlie to reprooue the kings
dooings herein, as pernicious and dangerous to the state of the realme.
Herevnto the bishop of Winchester (whose counsell as it séemed he
followed) made answer, that the king had doone nothing in that behalfe
vnaduisedlie, but vpon good and déepe consideration: for sith he might
perceiue how the English nobilitie had first pursued his father with
malicious hatred & open war, and now that he found diuerse of them whom
he had brought vp and aduanced to high honours, vnfaithfull in the
administration of their offices, he did not without iust cause receiue
into his fauour strangers, and preferre them before those of his owne
nation, which were not so faithfull in his seruice and obedience as
they.

[Sidenote: The lords yt withdrew into Wales.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The king proclaimed them traitors.]

[Sidenote: Strangers sent for.]

This answer of the bishop so pricked and wounded the minds of the
English Nobilitie, that manie of them (amongst whome the said earle
of Penbroke was the chéefe) began an open rebellion, some of them
resorting to one place, and some to an other, to gather people for
their purpose. The names of such barons as stirred vpon this occasion
were these; Richard Marshall earle of Penbroke afore named, Gilbert
Basset and his brethren, men of great honor and right hardie capteins:
also Richard Sward a warlike personage, trained vp in feats of armes
from his youth, with Walter Clifford a worthie knight, and manie
others. The king hauing knowledge of their dooings proclaimed them all
traitors, confiscated their goods, and sent for a great power of men
out of Flanders to serue him in his warre.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent escapeth and taketh sanctuarie.]

[Sidenote: He is fetcht out.]

Whilest king Henrie thus prouided himselfe of an armie, the lords with
their capteine Richard Marshall ioined themselues to Leolin prince of
Wales, & doubting the comming of the king, spoiled all the marshes
next adioining to England, leauing no vittels nor cattell any where
about in those parts wherby the kings armie might haue reléefe, and
further made all things readie for their owne defense so well as they
could deuise. The earle of Kent about the same time, by helpe of two
yeomen that attended vpon him, escaped out of the castell of Vées.
and tooke sanctuarie in the next church: but when those that had the
charge of him and the castell in kéeping, missed him, and heard where
he was, they fetcht both him, and the two yeomen that holpe him to make
the escape out of the church, and bringing them backe to the castell,
imprisoned the earle.

[Sidenote: He is restored to sanctuarie.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 18.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Kent rescued and conueied into Wales.]

And though the bishop of Salisburie came thither and threatened to
accursse them, if they would not deliuer the earle, and restore him to
sanctuarie againe: they made answer, that they had rather the earle
should hang for himselfe, than they for him. And so bicause they would
not deliuer him, the bishop did excommunicate them, and after riding to
the court, and taking with him the bishop of London, and other bishops,
preuailed so much by complaint exhibited to the K. that the earle was
restored to the church againe the eightéenth day of October: but so, as
the shiriffe of the shire had commandement to compasse the church about
with men, to watch that no reléefe came vnto him, whereby he might be
constreined through famishing to submit himselfe. Notwithstanding,
shortlie after there came a power of armed men, and fetcht the said
earle from thence (setting him on horssebacke in faire complet armour)
and so conueied him into Wales, where he ioined with other of the kings
enimies, the thirtith day of October.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The king entreth into Wales with an armie.]

Within a few daies after came the king with his armie, and entring
into Wales, for want of vittels was constreined to retire backe to the
marshes, betwixt Worcestershire & Salopshire, where staieng certeine
daies togither in those parts, his souldiers straied abroad in the
countrie vnaduisedlie, and kéeping no watch nor ward about their campe,
were surprised in the night by their enimies, and slaine on euerie
side. The slaughter had béene greater, but that the residue which
laie in campe, brake foorth about midnight, and in a plumpe togither
fled into a castell which was néere at hand, called Grossemound, in
the which the king himselfe was lodged. There were slaine aboue fiue
hundred men, and all the trusse and baggage of the campe lost. Yet
Matthew Paris saith there were but two knights slaine, which cast awaie
themselues by their owne wilfulnesse, that would néeds stand to it
and make resistance, where the residue being spoiled of all that they
had with them, got awaie by flight, as the bishops of Winchester and
Chichester, the lord chéefe iustice Stephan Segraue, Peter de Riuales
treasurer, Hugh Bigot earle of Norfolke, William earle of Salisburie,
William lord Beauchampe, and William Dalbenie the yoonger, who were
witnesses of this losse amongst the residue.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The king returneth out of Wales.]

Hereof, it came to passe, that manie of the kings armie (speciallie
those which had lost their horsses, armour, monie, and other furniture,
with their vittels) returned into their countrie, to their great
confusion. For the Welshmen and other outlawes, hauing spoiled the
campe, returned with the cariages and sumpters which they had taken,
into places of safe refuge. The king hauing receiued this losse, and
oftentimes tried fortune nothing fauourable vnto him in those parts, by
reason of the streits and disaduantage of the places, thought good to
reserue the reuenge of his receiued iniuries vntill a more conuenient
time, and therevpon returned to Glocester, and furnished diuers castels
and fortresses in the borders of Wales, with garrisons of souldiers,
namelie Poictouins and other strangers to defend the same against
William Marshall, and the other his complices, who vpon occasions
dailie sought to suppresse and distresse the said strangers.

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke in danger.]

[Sidenote: He is rescued.]

[Sidenote: The Poictouins discomfited.]

And beside other encounters, in the which manie of those Poictouins and
other strangers were slaine and oppressed by the said William Marshall
and his adherents, it chanced that vpon saint Katherins day, the said
William Marshall comming néere to the castell of Monmouth to view the
same, was in danger to haue remained prisoner in the enimies hands,
through an issue made by sir Baldwine de Guines, capiteine of that
castell, with his Poictouins and Flemings. But by such rescue as came
to his aid, he was deliuered out of their hands, and the Poictouins
and other of the garrison discomfited. At this skirmish sir Baldwine
himselfe being sore wounded, was borne out of the field into the
castell, losing fiftéene knights of his part, and a great sort of other
which were taken prisoners, besides no small number that were slaine in
the place.

[Sidenote: Dearth.]

[Sidenote: Tempests. An earthquake.]

[Sidenote: A death.]

The same yeare chanced a great dearth, by reason that the growth of all
things was much hindered with the extreame cold weather. Also there
happened about the beginning of Nouember great thunder and lightning,
and therewith folowed an earthquake to the great feare of the
inhabitants of the towne of Huntington and other places thereabouts.
After this, came a great death amongst the people, being commonlie a
néere companion to great famine and dearth.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Iohn Monmouth receiueth an ouerthrow.]

[Sidenote: 1234.]

Richard Marshall erle of Penbroke in this meane time ceassed not to
waste the marshes of England next adioining to Wales, and dailie
diuerse of the English Nobilitie repaired to him, so that the king was
sore troubled in his mind. It chanced at the same time, that one Iohn
of Monmouth a right valiant capteine, who led the kings armie, receiued
a great ouerthrow at the hands of Richard Marshall. For whereas the
foresaid Iohn, hauing assembled a mightie host, made great hast towards
his enimies, in hope to haue come vpon them at vnawares, and therefore
marching by night, that he might be readie to assaile them somewhat
afore the breake of the day, which in the summer season is the most
silent time of all the night, it chanced farre otherwise than he looked
it should haue doone. For the earle of Penbroke, hauing knowledge by
his spies of his aduersaries intent, laie himselfe with his people
within a wood in ambush by the way, where the said Iohn should passe,
and setting vpon him as he approched, put his people in such feare by
the sudden incounter, that they knew not what capteine or ensigne they
might follow, and so immediatlie fell to running awaie. The slaughter
was great on euerie side, both of Poictouins and others. Diuerse of
them fléeing also into the next woods, were receiued by such as were
laid there to cut them off, and so slaine or taken out of hand. Howbeit
their chiefe capteine the forenamed Iohn of Monmouth escaped, with a
few other in his companie. This ouerthrow chanced the morrow after
Christmasse daie.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

The next daie Richard Marshall hauing thus got the victorie, destroied
certeine houses and lordships there in the marshes which belonged to
the said Iohn of Monmouth. About the same time also, Richard Sward
with other outlawes destroied the possessions belonging to the earle
of Cornewall beside Brehull, and burned a place there called Segraue,
where Stephan de Segraue the lord chiefe iustice was borne, and
likewise a village belonging to the bishop of Winchester, not farre
from Segraue aforesaid. This was the maner of those outlawes, that they
hurt no person, but onelie those councellers about the king by whom
they were exiled, and therefore bearing stomach against them, they did
not onlie excogitate but also execute this reuenge; which till they had
obteined, they were no lesse ill appaid, than well pleased when the
same was past, for

    ----minuit vindicta dolorem.

[Sidenote: A part of the towne of Shrewsburie burnt.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Immediatlie within the octaues of the Epiphanie, the earle Marshall
and Leolin prince of Wales wasted and robbed all the marshes betwixt
Wales and Shrewsburie, a part of which towne they also burnt. King
Henrie being hereof certified as yet soiourning at Glocester, was sore
troubled in his mind, and calling togither his councell, asked aduise
what waie he might best take to redresse such iniuries. After sundrie
opinions amongst them declared, they agréed all in one sentence, that
it should be most expedient to appease the minds of the rebels with
gentle offers, to grant them pardon of their offenses, wiselie to winne
them to tractablenesse, and not roughlie afflicting them to exasperat
their fiersenesse, sith,

    ----sæpe acri potior prudentia dextra.

Also to banish from his court diuerse that bare great rule, and
namelie Peter the bishop of Winchester, and his sonne or nephue Peter
de Riuales, by the counsell of which two persons all things had béene
changed in the kings house. Moreouer, to put from him such strangers as
bare offices, and to restore Englishmen againe to the same.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke passeth ouer into Ireland.]

[Sidenote: He is taken prisoner.]

[Sidenote: Geffrey Maurish.]

[Sidenote: The death of the earle of Penbroke.]

The king allowing this aduise to be good, followed it accordinglie,
and first of all discharging the bishop of Winchester of all publike
administration of things, he commanded him to repaire home to his
diocesse, and to sée to the gouernement thereof, as to his dutie
apperteined. He also banished from his presence Peter de Riuales,
Stephan Segraue, Robert Passelew, and diuerse others of his chiefe
councellers, by whose means he had procured the euill will of his
Nobilitie. Then receiued he againe his old seruants & officers, &
finallie sent the archb. of Canturburie, the bishops of Chester &
Rochester vnto the barons in Wales, to offer them peace & pardon of
all iniuries past, if they wold returne to his obedience. Thus in
the end there was a truce taken betwixt the king and the rebels, to
begin at Candlemasse, and to indure vntill Easter next insuing, in
which meane time, Richard the earle of Penbroke, hearing that Maurish
Fitz Gerald, with Walter Lacie, Richard Burgh and others wasted his
lands and possessions in Ireland (according to such commission as they
had receiued of late from king Henrie and his councell) passed ouer
thither, and there incountering with his enimies, was sore wounded and
taken prisoner, hauing entered the battell verie rashlie, and with
a small companie of his people about him, onlie by the traitorous
persuasion of Geffrey Maurish, who with other fled at the first brunt,
and left him in maner alone, to stand to all the danger. Those that
thus tooke him, brought him into his owne castell, the which the lord
chiefe iustice Maurice Fitz Gerald had latelie woone. This incounter,
in which Richard Marshall was thus taken, chanced on a saturdaie, being
the first of Aprill; and on the 16 of the same moneth, by reason of the
wound which he had receiued, he departed this life.

We find also that the bishop of Winchester, and his sonne (or kinsman
as some haue called him) Peter de Riuales had procured the king to send
commission vnder his seale vnto the foresaid noble men in Ireland, that
if the said Richard Marshall earle of Penbroke chanced to come thither,
they should doo their best to take him, and in reward of their paines,
they should inioy all his lands and possessions which he held in that
countrie. But after his death, and when the king had remooued those his
councellers from him, he confessed he had put his seale to a writing,
but that he vnderstood what were the contents thereof he vtterlie
denied. Finallie, this was the end of the worthie earle of Penbroke
Richard Marshall, a man worthie to be highlie renowmed for his approued
valiancie. His death suerlie was greatlie bewailed of king Henrie,
openlie protesting that he had lost the worthiest capteine that then
liued.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Gilbert Marshall earle of Penbroke.]

After this, the lords that had remained in Wales, by safe conduct came
to the king, and through the diligent trauell of the archbishop of
Canturburie, he receiued them into fauour. Amongst them were these men
of name, Gilbert Marshall the brother of the foresaid Richard Marshall,
Hubert earle of Kent, Gilbert Basset, and Richard Sward, beside diuerse
other. Vnto Gilbert Marshall he deliuered his brothers inheritance, and
vpon Whitsundaie made him knight, giuing vnto him the rod of the office
of Marshall of his court, according to the maner, to vse and exercise
as his ancesters had doone before him. And herewith the earle of Kent
Gilbert Basset and Richard Sward were receiued againe into the court,
and admitted to be of the kings priuie councell.

[Sidenote: Officers called to accounts.]

Soone after this, Peter de Riuales, Stephan Segraue, & Robert Passelew
were called to accounts, that it might appeare how the kings treasure
was spent, and how they had vsed themselues with the kings seale. The
two last remembred kept themselues out of the waie, and could not be
found. Stephan Segraue shrowding himselfe in secret within the abbeie
of Leicester, and Robert Passelew feining himselfe sicke, kept within
the new temple at London. Peter de Riuales also, with his father
the bishop of Winchester, tooke sanctuarie at Winchester, for they
were afraid least their bodies should not be in safetie if they came
abroad, bicause they vnderstood that their manours and grange places
were spoiled and burnt by those that bare them displeasure. Howbeit at
length, vnder the protection of the archbishop of Canturburie, they
came to their answer, & were sore charged for their vniust dealing,
traitorous practise, and great falshood vsed in time of their bearing
office, and (as it appeareth by writers) they could but sorilie cleare
themselues in those matters wherewith they were charged: but yet by
reason of their protection they were restored to the places from whence
they came, or else otherwise shifted off the matter for the time, so
that we read not of anie great bodilie punishment which they should
receiue as then. In the end they were pardoned & reconciled to the
kings fauor, vpon paiment of such fines as were assessed vpon them.

[Sidenote: The truce ended.]

[Sidenote: Welshmen sent ouer to the aid of the earle of Britaine.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Britaine submitteth himselfe to the French
king.]

This yeare, bicause the truce ended betwixt the kings of England and
France, king Henrie sent ouer to aid the earle of Britaine, thréescore
knights, and two thousand Welshmen, the which when the French king came
with his armie to enter and inuade Britaine, did cut off and take his
cariage laden with vittels, armor, and other prouision, ouerthrowing
also no small number of the Frenchmen, and taking from them their
horsses, they returned backe in safetie, without any great damage
receiued. Notwithstanding this, the French king inforcing againe his
power, waxed too strong for the earle of Britaine, so that he was
constreined to take a truce to indure till the feast of all saints,
that he might in the meane time vnderstand if the king of England would
come ouer with some puissant armie to his aid or no: but bicause it was
perceiued in the end that the said earle of Britaine sought nothing
else but how to get monie out of king Henries coffers, and to doo him
no pleasure for it, bicause he was in manner at an other agréement
alreadie with the king of France, king Henrie refused to satisfie his
requests at such time as he came ouer vnto him (after the taking of
that truce) for more monie. Herewith also the said erle being offended,
got him backe into his owne countrie, and shortlie after apparantlie
submitted himselfe to the French king, which (as the report went) he
had doone before in secret.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 19. 1235.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

These things being thus brought to passe, and all troubles quieted,
the king as then being at London, there was brought before him by
one Tolie, a complaint exhibited against the [2] Iewes of Norwich,
which had stolen a yoong child, being not past a twelue moneths old,
and secretlie kept him an whole yeare togither, to the end that he
might (when Ester came) crucifie him in despite of our sauiour Iesus
Christ, and the christian religion. The matter as it happened fell out
well for the lad: for within a few daies before that those curssed
murtherers purposed to haue shed this innocents bloud, they were
accused, conuicted and punished, whereby he escaped their cruell hands.
About the same time, to wit the seauenth of Februarie died Hugh de Wels
bishop of Lincolne, a great enimie to moonks and religious men. Robert
Grosted was then preferred to his roome, a man of great learning, and
trained vp in schooles euen from his infancie.

[2] Sée the like in pag. 96.

[Sidenote: The emperor Frederike marieth the king of Englands sister.]

[Sidenote: A great and sumptuous feast.]

The same yeare, the emperour Frederike the second, maried the ladie
Isabell the kings sister. This Isabell was a most beautifull ladie,
of comelie personage, and of age about one and twentie years. She was
affianced by procuracie, about the seauen and twentith of Februarie.
And after Easter, the archbishop of Cullen, and the duke of Louane came
ouer from the emperour, to haue the conueiance of hir vnto the emperors
presence. There was such a feast holden, so sumptuous seruice, so rich
furniture, and roiall banketting kept the day before hir departure
from London towards the sea side, that more could not be imagined. The
same feast was kept at Westminster on the fift day of May, and the day
following she did set forward, and by easie iournies came to Sandwich,
the king bringing hir thither with thrée thousand horsses. Finallie,
she tooke the sea the eleuenth of May, the king taking leaue of hir not
without teares, when they thus departed the one from the other. And so
with prosperous wind and weather shée arriued at Antwerpe, and from
thence passed forward, till shée came to hir husband the emperour, by
whom shée was receiued with great ioy and comfort at Worms, where the
marriage was consummate vpon a sundaie, being the two and twentith day
of Iulie, or (as Matthew Westminster saith) the seauen and twentith of
May, being Whitsunday.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Vsurers called Caorsini, of whome sée more in pag. 364.]

This yeare the bishop of London pronounced the sentence of
excommunication against certeine vsurers called Caorsini. But bicause
the same vsurers shadowed themselues vnder the pretext of the popes
merchants (as they named themselues) they preuailed so much by the
fauour of the court of Rome, that the said bishop being sicke and
féeble, was cited peremptorilie in the parts beyond the seas, before
iudges chosen foorth by the same vsurers, to make answer for such high
iniurie as he had here doone to the popes factors. The bishop willing
by the example of Sem, rather to couer his fathers shame, than to
reueale it to the whole world, did quietlie put vp the matter: and with
commendable patience receiued the proffered wrong, hauing learned this
lesson, that

    Gaudet patientia duris,

[Sidenote: The bishop of London his doctrine.]

and to pacifie the trouble, suffered their wickednesse, commending
in the meane while the cause vnto his patrone S. Paule. And when he
preached of the force of faith, he vttered this saieng: If an angell
preach contrarie doctrine to vs in these things, let him be accurssed.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 20.]

[Sidenote: 1236.]

[Sidenote: King Henrie marrieth the ladie Elianor daughter to the earle
of Prouance.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

In the twentith yeare of king Henries reigne, in the Aduent time,
the noble baron the lord Robert Fitz Water departed this life, and
so likewise did a noble yong man descended of most noble parentage
one Roger de Somerie. On the fouretéenth day of Ianuarie insuing, the
king married the ladie Elianor, daughter to the earle of Prouance
named Raimond. This marriage was solemnised at Canturburie, and in
the octaues of S. Hilarie next insuing being sunday, shée was crowned
quéene of England at Westminster. At the solemnitie of this feast and
coronation of the quéene, all the high péeres of the realme, both
spirituall and temporall, were present there to exercise their offices
as to them apperteined.

[Sidenote: The earle of Chester.]

[Sidenote: The constable of Chester.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Penbroke.]

[Sidenote: The ward[=e]s of the cinque ports.]

The citizens of London were there in great arraie, bearing afore hir
in solemne wise, thrée hundred and thréescore cups of gold and siluer,
in token that they ought to wait vpon hir cup. The archbishop of
Canturburie (according to his dutie) crowned hir, the bishop of London
assisting him as his deacon. The earle of Chester bare the sword of
saint Edward before the king, in token that he was earle of the palace,
and had authoritie to correct the king, if he should sée him to swarue
from the limits of iustice, his constable of Chester attended vpon him,
and remooued where the presse was thicke, with his rod or warder. The
earle of Penbroke high Marshall bare the rod before the king, and made
roome before him, both in the church and in the hall, placing euerie
man, and ordering the seruice at the table. The wardens of the cinque
ports bare a canopie ouer the king, supported with foure speares.

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester.]

[Sidenote: Erle Warren.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Hereford.]

[Sidenote: Lord William Beauchampe.]

[Sidenote: The citizens of London.]

[Sidenote: The citizens of Winchester.]

[Sidenote: A parlement at London.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

The earle of Leicester held the bason when they washed. The earle of
Warren, in the place of the erle of Arundell, bicause he was vnder age,
attended on the kings cup. M. Michaell Bellet was Butler by office. The
earle of Hereford exercised the roome of high Marshall in the kings
house. The lord William de Beauchampe was almoner. The chéefe iustice
of the forrests on the right hand of the king remooued the dishes on
the table, though at the first he was staied by some allegation made to
the contrarie. The citizens of London serued out wine to euerie one in
great plentie. The citizens of Winchester had ouersight of the kitchin
and larderie. And so euerie person (according to his dutie) exercised
his roome: and bicause no trouble should arise, manie things were
suffered, which vpon further aduise taken therin were reformed. The
chancellor and all other ordinarie officers kept their place. The feast
was plentifull, so that nothing wanted that could be wished. Moreouer,
in Tuthill field roiall iustes were holden by the space of eight daies
togither. And soone after the king called a parlement at London, where
manie things were enacted for the good gouernment of the realme, and
therewith the king demanded a subsidie.

[Sidenote: Strange sights.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

¶ About the same time woonderfull strange sights were séene. In the
northparts of England, not farre from the abbie of Roch or Rupie,
there appeared comming foorth of the earth companies of armed men on
horssebacke, with speare, shield, sword, and baners displaied, in
sundrie formes and shapes, riding in order of battell, and incountering
togither: and this sight was séene sundrie daies ech after other.
Sometime they séemed to ioine as it had béene in battell, and fought
sore; and sometime they appeared to iust and breake staues, as it had
béene at some triumphant iusts of tornie. The people of the countrie
beheld them a farre off, with great woonder: for the thing shewed so
liuelie, that now and then they might sée them come with their emptie
horsses sore wounded and hurt: and then men likewise mangled and
bléeding, that pitie it was to sée them. And that which séemed more
strange and to be most maruelled at, the prints of their féet appeared
in the ground, and the grasse troden downe in places where they had
béene séene. The like sight was also séene more apparentlie in Ireland,
and in the parts thereabout.

[Sidenote: Great raine.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: A great thunder.]

[Sidenote: A drie summer.]

Immediatlie followed, or rather precéeded passing great tempests of
raine, which filled the earth full of water, and caused monstruous
flouds: for this raine continued all the space of the moneths of
Ianuarie, Februarie, and a great part of March; and for eight daies it
rained (as some write) in maner without ceassing: and vpon the tenth of
Februarie, immediatlie after the change of the moone, the Thames rose
with such an high tide, that boats might haue béene rowed vp and downe
in Westminster hall. In the winter before, on the twentith of December,
there chanced a great thunder, and on the first fridaie in December,
which was the fift of that moneth, there was a counterfet sunne séene
beside the true sunne. Moreouer, as in the spring precéeding there
happened sore and excéeding great raines, so in the summer following
there chanced a great drouth, continuing by the space of foure moneths
or more.

[Sidenote: Gilbert Norman founder of Merton abbeie.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 21.]

[Sidenote: High tides.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Wisbech people perishing by rage of waters.]

This yeare was a parlement holden at Merton, a towne in Surrie, distant
from London 7 miles, where was an abbeie of regular canons founded by
one Gilbert a lord of Normandie, that came into the realme with William
conquerour. At this parlement, diuerse good & profitable lawes were
made and established, which yet remaine in vse, bearing the name of
the place where they were first ordeined. ¶ In the beginning of the
21 yeare of king Henries reigne, on the morrow after the feast of S.
Martine, and certeine days after, the sea burst out with such high
tides and tempests of wind, that the marrish countries néere to the
same were drowned vp and ouerflowen: and beside great heards and flocks
of cattell that perished, there was no small number of men lost and
drowned. The sea rose continuallie in flowing the space of two daies
and one night, without ebbing, by reason of the mightie violence of
contrarie winds. At Wisbech also, and in villages thereabouts, the
people were drowned in great numbers, so that in one village there were
buried an hundred corpses in one daie. Also the daie before Christmasse
éeue, there chanced a great wind, with thunder and raine, in such
extreame wise, that manie buildings were shaken and ouerthrowen.

[Sidenote: 1237.]

[Sidenote: A subsidie.]

In a parlement holden at Westminster about the octaues of the
Epiphanie, the king required a subsidie of his subiects, which request
was not verie well taken, but yet at length, vpon promise that he would
be good lord vnto them, and not séeke to infringe and disanull the
grants which he had made by pretense of want of the popes confirmation
(as it was thought he meant to doo) they agréed to giue him the
thirtith part of all moueable goods, as well of the spiritualtie as the
temporaltie, reseruing yet to euerie man his readie coine, with horsse
and armour, to be imploied for the profit of the common-wealth. In
consideration of which grant, the king being of perfect age, and in his
owne rule and full gouernance, of his frée and méere good will, at the
request, and by counsell of the lords of his realme, eftsoones granted
and confirmed the liberties and customes conteined in the two charters,
the one called Magna charta, and the other Charta de foresta, with this
addition following added in the end.



The confirmation of the charters, vnder the kings acknowledgement and
subscription of witnesses.


Nvnc autem concessimus, & hac præsenti charta confirmauimus omnibus
prædictis de regno nostro, omnes libertates & liberas consuetudines
contentas in chartis nostris, quas eis fidelibus nostris fieri fecimus
cùm in minori essemus ætate, scilicet in Magna charta nostra, quàm
in charta de Foresta. Et volumus pro nobis, & hæredibus nostris,
quòd præfati fideles nostri, & successores, & hæredes eorum habeant,
& teneant in perpetuum omnes libertates & liberas consuetudines
prædictas, non obstante quòd prædictæ chartæ confectæ fuerint cùm
minoris essemus ætatis, vt prædictum est, hijs testibus, Edmundo Cant.
archiepiscopo, & omnibus alijs in Magna charta nominatis. Dat. per
manum venerabilis patris Cicestriensis episcopi, cancellarij nostri 28
die Ianuarij, Anno Regni nostri 21.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

Beside the confirmation of these charters, the king further to win the
fauour of his people, was contented to remooue and sequester from him
diuerse of his councellours that were thought not to be well minded
towards the aduancement of the common-wealth, and in their places to
admit the earle of Waren, William de Ferrers, and Iohn Fitz Geffrey,
who were sworne to giue to the king faithfull counsell, and in no
wise to go out of the right waie for any respect that might otherwise
mooue them. ¶ About the first daie of March, there began sore raine
and tempestuous weather, whereof insued great flouds, as before in the
beginning of the yeare passed, had chanced, though not dooing so much
hurt as before.

[Sidenote: Iohn Scot earle of Chester departed this life.]

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._]

[Sidenote: His sisters.]

Iohn Scot also earle of Chester and Huntington died at Deren hall the
seuenth daie of Iune, without issue, and was buried at Chester. He was
poisoned by the diuelish practise of his wife daughter to Leolin prince
of Wales (as Matt. Paris saith.) He had foure sisters, of whom the
first named Margaret was married to Allen of Gallowaie, by whom she had
issue a daughter named Deuorgoill; which Deuorgoill was married to Iohn
Balioll, by whom she had issue Iohn Balioll that was afterward king of
Scotland. The second named Isabell, was married to Robert le Bruis.
The third named Mawd, died without issue. And the fourth called Alda,
was married to Henrie Hastings. But bicause the land perteining to the
earledome of Chester, should not go amongst rocks and distaues, hauing
such roiall prerogatiues belonging thereto, the king seized them into
his owne hands, and in recompense assigned other lands to the forsaid
sisters, as it had béene by way of exchange.

Now sith the earles of Chester (I meane those of the line of Hugh
Lupus) tooke end in this Iohn Scot; I haue thought it not impertinent
for the honor of so noble a linage, to set downe the descent of the
same earles, beginning at the foresaid Hugh the first that gouerned
after the conquest, as I haue séen the same collected out of ancient
records, according to their true succession in seauen descents one
after another, as here followeth.



The true genealogie of the famous and most honourable earles of Chester.


Hugh Lou or Lupus, first earle of Chester after the conquest, nephue to
William Conquerour by his sister Margaret, wife to Richard Vicount of
Auranches, married a noble ladie named Armetruda, by whom he had issue
Richard that succéeded him in the earledome, Robert abbat of saint
Edmundsburie, and Otuell. He departed this life about the yéere of our
Lord 1102, when he had béene earle about 40 yéeres.

2 Richard Lupus eldest son to Hugh Lupus, and second earle of Chester,
married Maud the daughter of Stephan erle of Blois, Charters and
Champaigne, and sister to K. Stephan. This Richard with his brother
Otuell was drowned in the seas, in the yéere of our Lord 1120, as
before hath béene shewed, after he had béene earle about nintéene
yeares.

3 Ranulfe or Randulfe the first of that name called Bohun, and
otherwise Mestheins, the sonne of John de Bohun, and of Margaret,
sister to Hugh Lupus, succéeded Richard, as cousin and heire to him
in the earldome of Chester, and was the third earle in number after
the conquest. He married Maud the daughter of Auberie de Vere earle of
Gisney and Oxenford, by whome he had issue Ranulfe surnamed Geruous the
fourth earle of Chester. He died about the yere of our Lord 1130, after
he had continued earle eight yeares.

4 Ranulfe or Randulfe Bohun, the second of that name, and fourth erle
in number after the conquest, surnamed Geruous, succéeded his father,
and married Alice, daughter to Robert erle of Glocester, base sonne to
king Henrie the first by whome he had issue Hugh Keuelocke, the fift
earle of Chester. He deceassed about the yeare of our Lord 1153, when
he had béene earle 29 yeares.

5 Hugh Bohun otherwise Keuelocke, the sonne of the said Ranulfe, was
the first earle of Chester after the conquest, and second of that name.
He married Beatrice, daughter to Richard Lucie lord chéefe iustice
of England, by whom he had issue Ranulfe the third of that name, and
foure daughters, Mawd married to Dauid that was earle of Angus and
Huntington and lord of Galloway, Mabell maried to William Dalbegnie
earle of Arundell, Agnes maried to William Ferers earle of Derbie, and
Hauisa ioined in marriage with Robert Quincie, a baron of great honour.
This Hugh died about the yeare 1181, when he had béene earle eight and
twentie yeares.

6 Ranulfe Bohun the third of that name, otherwise called Blundeuille,
the sonne of Hugh Keuelocke, was the sixt earle of Chester after the
conquest. He was also earle of Lincolne as next cousine and heire to
William Romare earle of Lincolne. He had thrée wiues (as before yée
haue heard) but yet died without issue, about the yeare of our Lord
1232, after he had béene earle 51 yeares.

7 Iohn Scot the sonne of Dauid earle of Angus & Huntington, was in the
right of his mother the seuenth earle of Chester after the conquest.
He died without issue (as before yée haue heard) by reason whereof,
the erldome came into the kings hands in the yeare 1237. Thus much may
suffice (with that which is said before) touching the descent of the
earles of Chester. And now to procéed.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: Cardinall Otho or Othobon.]

[Sidenote: The lords grudge at the king for receiuing the cardinall
without their knowledge.]

The same yeare that Iohn Scot died, cardinall Otho (by some writers
named Othobon) about the feast of S. Peter and Paule came into England
from pope Gregorie. He was receiued with all honour and solemne
reuerence as was decent, yea and more than was decent, the king
méeting him at the sea side. His comming was not signified afore to
the nobles of the realme, which caused them to mislike the matter, and
to grudge against the king, séeing that he did all things contrarie to
order, breaking law, faith, and promise in all things. He hath coupled
himselfe (said they) in mariage with a stranger, without consent of
his fréends and naturall subiects, and now he bringeth in a legat
secretlie, who will take upon him to make an alteration in the whole
state of the realme.

[Sidenote: The legat praised for his sober behauiour.]

But this legat shewed himselfe a verie sober and discréet person, not
so couetous as his predecessors, in so much that he refused diuerse
gifts which were offered vnto him, though some he receiued, and indéed
commanded the other to be reserued for him. He also distributed
liberallie the vacant rents vnto such as he brought with him, as well
persons worthie as vnworthie, and pacified such controuersies as were
sproong betwixt the nobles and péeres of the realme, so that he made
them fréends. ¶ An act memorable & to be kept in record, that the
instrument and seruant of so bad a maister as he serued, namelie the
pope, should be the procurer of so good a worke: considering that from
the sée of Rome full tides and violent streames of seditions haue
flowed, and verie seldome any occasion or means made to plant peace
among men, which is the daughter of loue, and the worthiest thing that
is, as one saith verie well in these words:

    Gignit amor pacem, pax est dignissima rerum.

[Sidenote: A tournie at Blie.]

[Sidenote: Earle Bigot.]

The bishop of Winchester, the earle of Kent, Gilbert Basset, Stephan
Siward & others were by him accorded, who had borne secret grudge ech
to other a long time, which hatred was at point to haue broken foorth,
and shewed it selfe in perilous wise at a tornie holden at Blie in the
beginning of Lent, where the Southernmen stroue against the Northerne
men, and in the end the Southerne men preuailed, and tooke diuerse of
their aduersaries, so that it séemed not to be a triumphant iustes, but
rather a sharpe challenge and incounter betwixt enimies. But amongst
all others, earle Bigot bare himselfe verie stoutlie.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 22.]

[Sidenote: The legat holdeth a synod at London.]

[Sidenote: 1238.]

[Sidenote: The legat commeth to Oxford.]

[Sidenote: A fraie betwixt the legats men, and the scholers of Oxford.]

After that the legat had thus agréed the noblemen, he assembled a synod
at London, the morrow after the octaues of S. Martin, wherein manie
ordinances were newlie constituted for the state of the cleargie, but
not altogither verie acceptable to diuerse yoong préests and scholers
(as some write) in somuch that the legat afterwards comming to Oxford,
and lodging in the abbie of Osnie, it chanced as certeine scholers
pressed to the gates thinking to come in and doo their dutie (as they
tooke the matter) vnto the legat, the porter kept them backe, and gaue
them ouerthwart words, wherevpon they rushed in vpon him, & so began a
fraie betwixt them and the legats men, who would haue beaten them backe.

[Sidenote: A cookes almes.]

[Sidenote: The legats cooke slaine.]

It fortuned in this hurlie burlie, that a poore Irish scholer being
got in néere to the kitchin dresser, besought the cooke for Gods sake
to giue him some reliefe: but the cooke (as manie of that calling are
cholerike fellowes) in a great furie tooke yp a ladle full of hot
broath out of a kettell wherein flesh had béene sodden, and threw it
right vpon the Irishmans face, which thing when another Welsh scholer
that stood by beheld, he cried out; "What meane we to suffer this
villanie," and therewithall tooke an arrow, and set it in his bow,
which he had caught vp in his hand at the beginning of the fraie, and
drawing it vp to the head let flie at the cooke, and so slue him there
outright.

[Sidenote: The legat complaineth to the king.]

[Sidenote: The earle Waren sent to apprehend the offendors.]

Herevpon againe noise and tumult rose round about the house, the legat
for feare got him into the belfraie of the abbeie, where he kept
himselfe close till the darke of the night had staied the vprore, and
then stale foorth, and taking his horsse escaped as secretlie as he
could ouer the Thames, and rode with all spéed to the court, which laie
not farre off at Abington, and there made his complaint to the king, in
such lamentable wise, that he foorthwith sent the earle Waren with a
power of armed men, to fetch awaie the residue of the legats seruants
which remained behind in the abbeie, and to apprehend the chiefe
offenders.

[Sidenote: The legat curseth.]

[Sidenote: The regents of ye Vniuersitie absolued.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor_.]

The earle comming thither, tooke thirtie scholars, with one master Odo
a lawier, and brought them to Wallingford castell, and there committed
them to prison. The legat also in reuenge of the iniurie in this
wise to him doone, pronounced the cursse against the misdooers, and
handled the matter in such wise, that the regents and masters of the
Vniuersitie were at length constreined to come vnto London, & there
to go bare-footed through Cheapeside, vnto the church of S. Paule,
in such wise to aske him forgiuenesse, and so with much adoo they
obteined absolution. This legat among other things demanded soone after
the tenth part of all spirituall mens yearelie reuenues, towards the
maintenance of the wars against the Saracens in Asia.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris_. The emperor of Constantinople c[=o]meth
into England.]

[Sidenote: The countesse of Penbroke, sister to the king married to
Simon de Montford.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Moreouer, the emperour of Constantinople, namelie, Baldwine sonne to
Peter earle of Ausserre, being expelled out of his empire, came this
yeare into England, to sue for aid: but at his first arriuall at Douer,
he was told, that he had not doone well to come so presumptuouslie
into the land of another prince, without his safe conduct. But when
the said emperour séemed to be sorie for his offense, and to excuse
his innocencie and sincere meaning, the king was pacified, & willed
him to come to London, where at his comming thither, being the 22 daie
of Aprill, he was honorablie receiued, and at his departure with rich
gifts highlie honored, so that he had awaie with him to the value
of about seuen hundred marks as was reported. About this time also,
Elianor the kings sister (that was sometime wife vnto William Marshall
earle of Penbroke) was now by the kings meanes married the second time
to Simon Montford, a man of high parentage and noble prowesse.

This Simon was indowed with such vertue, good counsell, courteous
discretion, and other amiable qualities, that he was highly fauoured as
was supposed, both of God and man: in somuch that he might right well,
as for birth, so also for education and good demeanour be counted (as
he deserued) a notable Noble man, for he was so qualified as standeth
with the nature of true nobilitie, according to that of the poet,

    ----non census, nec clarum nomen auorum,
    Sed probitas magnos ingeniúmque facit.

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Canturburie displeased with the marriage.]

Notwithstanding all which noble indowments concurring in him, he was
banished out of France, vpon displeasure, which Blanch the quéene
mother conceiued against him. But now comming into England, he was
ioifullie receiued of king Henrie, who not onelie gaue vnto him (as
aboue is mentioned) his sister in mariage with the earledome of
Leicester in name of a dowrie, but also aduanced him vnto offices of
greatest honour within the realme of England. Howbeit, this marriage
was verie displesant vnto Edmund the archbishop of Canturburie bicause
that the foresaid Elianor, after the death of hir first husband, had
vowed perpetuall chastitie, and betaken hir (as was said) to the
mantell and the ring.

[Sidenote: He goeth to Rome to c[=o]plaine of the king.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall is also offended for the same
marriage.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

As the prelat was not pleased with this match, so the king was as
highlie offended with the archbishop for not fauouring the cause, in
somuch that the archbishop went soone after to Rome, where he not onlie
complained of certeine iniuries receiued latelie at the kings hands,
but also signified the estate of this marriage, to procure a diuorce.
In like manner, Richard the kings brother found great fault with the
king for the same matter, but chieflie, that he stroke it vp without
making him and other of the Nobles of councell therein. To be short,
it was not long yer this grudge grew so far, that ciuill war was verie
likelie to haue followed thervpon. But when the king saw that all
the lords leaned to his brother, he sought to pacifie the matter by
courteous means, and so by mediation of the legat, the king and his
brother were reconciled, to the great griefe of the lords, which had
brought the matter now to that point, that the king could not haue so
resisted their force, but that they were in good hope to haue deliuered
the realme out of bondage from all manner of strangers, as well of
those Romans that were beneficed men, as of anie other.

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester gathereth monie.]

[Sidenote: He goeth to Rome to get a dispensation or rather
confirmation of his marriage.]

Simon the earle of Leicester also perceiuing how the matter went,
made shift another waie to get all the monie he could in prest or
otherwise (insomuch that he had of one burges of Leicester, named Simon
Curleuath, fiue hundred markes) and leauing his wife in the castell
of Kelingworth, he secretlie departed out of the realme, and got him
to Rome, to purchase a confirmation of his marriage which he easilie
obteined, notwithstanding the archbishop of Canturburies former and
verie vehement information against him, and so hauing brought his
purpose about, in the latter end of this yéere, he returned into
England, and was ioifullie receiued, first of the king and after of his
wife, whome he found at Kelingworth, néere to the time of hir trauell,
and shortlie after deliuered of a yoong sonne, whom they called Simon
after the name of his father.

[Sidenote: Aid sent foorth of England to the emperour.]

[Sidenote: Henrie Trubleuille. Iohn Mansell.]

[Sidenote: Wil. Hardell.]

At the same time, Frederike the emperour going into Italie, had a great
number of English souldiers with him, which king Henrie furnished for
his aid, vnder the leading of a right valiant warriour, named Henrie
de Trubleuille, with whome went also Iohn Mansell, whose valiancie in
that iournie well appeared, and William Hardell a citizen of London
was treasurer and paimaister to the souldiers. Herewith the pope was
sore offended, and wrote his mind thereof to the king, who foorthwith
returned an eloquent answer, requiring him to be more fauourable to the
emperour, considering his cause was such as could not iustlie offend
his holinesse. About the same time, or rather (as by some writers
it should appeare) somwhat before, the kings sister Ioane quéene
of Scotland, comming into England to sée hir brother, fell into a
sicknesse, and died.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Winchester departeth this life.]

Moreouer, the archbishop of Canturburie returned into England, who
at his comming to Rome, obteined little or nothing touching the suit
which he had before the pope, for (as some haue written) the legat Otho
being his heauie fréend, had so stopped the popes eares from hearing
any of his complaints, that all his whole trauell did come to none
effect. In like manner, Peter des Roches bishop of Winchester died
this yeare in his manor at Farnham, about the ninth of Iune, which
prelat had gouerned that sée about 32 yeares. He was a man of great
wisedome and dexteritie in ordering of weightie affaires touching the
state of temporall regiment. He builded manie goodlie monasteries, as
the abbeies of Hales, Tikborne and Seleborne with the hospitall at
Portesmouth. He made also a notable testament, and besides his bequests
which were great, he left his bishoprike so stored and throughlie
furnished, that there was not so much diminished of that which he found
at his comming in value, as the cattell that serued to draw the verie
ploughs.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: A naughtie wretch meant to haue destroied the K.]

About this time, a learned esquire, or rather a clearke of the
vniuersitie of Oxenford, bearing some malice toward the king, fained
himselfe mad, and espieng thereby the secret places of his house at
Woodstoke where he then laie, vpon a night by a window he got into
the kings bedchamber, and comming to the beds side, threw off the
couerings, and with a dagger strake diuerse times into a pillow,
supposing that the king had béene there, but as GOD would, that night
the king laie in another chamber with the quéene. In the meane time,
one of the quéenes chambermaids named Margaret Biset, hauing espied
the traitor, made an outcrie, so that the K. seruants which came to
vnderstand what the matter meant, presentlie apprehended the said
clearke, who being conueied to Couentrie, was there arreigned, and by
lawfull proofe had of his malicious intent, was condemned, and executed
as a traitor. At his death he confessed, that he was sent from [3]
William de Marisch the sonne of Geffrie de Marisch to murther the king
by such manner of means, not caring what had become of himselfe so he
might haue dispatched his purpose.

[3] Sée his end in pag. 393.

¶ These practises of treason In summo gradu, which cannot be committed
without irrecouerable detriment to the whole estate (speciallie where
succession is vncerteine) are of an old brewing, though they be
neuer so newlie broched. And truelie if the curssed miscreant which
vndertaketh an enterprise of this qualitie, had the grace to consider
how manie murthers he commiteth by implication in giuing the roiall
person of the prince a deadlie wound; I doubt not, if he were a man and
not a ranke diuell, he would be weaned from that outragious villanie.
For, in wounding and killing the prince, he is guiltie of homicide, of
parricide, of christicide, nay of deicide. And therefore a thousand
woes light on his hart that shall stretch out his hand, naie that
shall once conceiue in thought a murther so heinous, as both God and
nature dooth abhorre; speciallie if it be commensed against a christian
prince, and such a one as to whome true and vndefiled religion is no
lesse pretious and déere than life itselfe. Princes therefore had néed
to sée to the safegard of their persons, sithens the safetie of many
millians dependeth therevpon. For certeine it is, that the state of a
poore priuat man is lesse perillous by manie degrées than the state of
a potentat, which is ment by this true allegorie following.

[Sidenote: _Seneca in Octa. & Hippol._]

    Quatiunt altas sæpè procellæ,
    Aut euertit fortuna domos;
    Minùs in paruis fortuna furit,


[Sidenote: An. Reg. 23. 1239.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Variance betwixt the king and the earle of Penbroke.]

[Sidenote: Simon earle of Leicester fled ouer into France.]

In the thrée and twentith yeare of his reigne, king Henrie held his
Christmasse at Winchester, where a great grudge arose betwixt him and
Gilbert the earle of Penbroke, by reason that the said earle with his
seruants (hauing tipstaues) in their comming to the court, were not
suffered to enter within the gates but were kept backe by the porters
and other. Of which iniurie when he had complained, the king made
him such an ouerthwart answer, that the earle perceiuing him not to
like verie well of his seruice, departed foorthwith, and rode into
the North countrie, so that from that daie foorth, neither he nor his
brother Walter loued the king as they ought to haue doone. Soone after
this departure of earle Gilbert, vpon Candlemas day the king gaue
the earldome of Leicester vnto Simon de Mountford, and inuested him
thereinto, hauing first pacified earle Almerike that was elder brother
to the same Simon. Yet about the beginning of the next August, the
king was so incensed against earle Simon, that both he and his wife
were glad to get them ouer into France, till the kings wrath were more
pacified.

[Sidenote: The birth of king Edward the first.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: A strange star.]

Vpon the sixtéenth day of Iune, the kings eldest sonne named Edward,
and after surnamed Longshanke by the Scots in mockage, bicause he was a
tall and slender man, was borne at Westminster, who after his fathers
decease, succéeded him in the kingdome. ¶ Before the birth of this
Edward, there appeared earlie in the morning certeine daies togither
before the sunne was vp, a star of a large compasse, the which with
swift course was caried through a long circuit of the aire, sometimes
shewing as it had borne fire with it, and sometimes leauing as it were
smoke behind it, so that it was after iudged, that the great déeds
which were to be atchiued by the same Edward, were by this wonderfull
constellation foreshewed and signified.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Ranulfe Briton taken out of his house, and led to the tower.]

About the same time, by reason of an accusation made by a prisoner
against Ranulfe Briton (sometime the kings chancellour, but now leading
a priuat life, being a canon of the cathedrall church of S. Paule in
London) the same Ranulfe (by commandement from the king sent to the
maior of the citie William Ioiner) was taken out of his house, had
to the tower, and there imprisoned, whervpon the deane of Paules,
maister G. Lucie, in absence of the bishop accurssed all those that
had presumptuouslie attempted to laie hands on the said Ranulfe, and
further, he put his owne church of saint Paule vnder interdiction.

[Sidenote: Great raine.]

To conclude, through threatning of excommunication to be pronounced
against the king, and other for this fact by the legat and the
bishops of the realme as namelie, Canturburie and London, the king
was compelled to release and set at libertie the foresaid Ranulfe.
Finallie, the prisoner that had accused the said Ranulfe and other,
being one of the kings purseuants, when for his wicked dooings he came
to suffer death, openlie confessed, how he had accused those persons,
onelie in hope to deferre his owne execution, being conuicted as
accessarie to the treason of the clearke that suffered at Couentrie
the last yeare. He had accused not onelie the said Briton, but diuers
of the nobilitie also to be priuie and giltie of the same conspiracie.
¶ This yeare for the space of foure moneths togither, fell excéeding
great raine, yet at length it began to hold vp about Easter.

[Sidenote: The legat beginneth to looke to his owne c[=o]moditie.]

[Sidenote: Sir Robert de Twing.]

In this while, the lords of the realme practised sundrie drifts
likewise, as men that would faine haue béene rid of the legats
companie: but the king did what he could on the otherside (by sending
to the pope for licence) to haue him remaine still here, who began now
indéed to look to his owne profit, as by waie of procuracies and other
meanes, so that he got togither great summes of monie, although in the
beginning he séemed to forbeare, and not to séeke for anie such gaine.
Also, he tooke vpon him to bestow benefices without consent of the
patrones that were temporall men, wherevpon complaint was made to the
pope, namelie, by one sir Robert de Twing, who claimed as patrone the
presentation of the rectorie of Luthun in Yorkeshire, and could not be
permitted to inioy it, by reason of the popes prohibition, but vpon the
hearing of his title in the popes consistorie, he obteined letters from
the pope to be restored, and also an inhibition, that from thencefoorth
no person should be promoted to anie spirituall benefice or church,
without consent of the patrone. The king and the péeres of the realme
vnderstanding themselues to be touched in this wrong offered to this
knight, had written in his fauour to the pope, so that his suit had the
better successe.

[Sidenote: The Iewes punished by the pursse.]

[Sidenote: A synod holden at London.]

Moreouer, the Iewes in this yeare, for a murther which they had
secretlie committed, were gréeuouslie punished, namelie by the pursse
to buy their peace, & they were glad to giue the king the third part
of all their goods. The legat also assembled a synod of the clergie at
London vpon the last of Iulie, in the which he demanded procuracies,
but the bishops vpon deliberation had in the matter, answered, that
"the importunatnes of the Romane church had so often consumed the
goods of the English church, that they could no longer suffer it," and
therefore said they; "Let them giue you procuracies which vnaduisedlie
haue called you into the realme, if they will, for of vs you shall be
sure to come by none at all," howbeit he got his demand of the abbats
and other religious men.

About the feast of the assumption of our ladie, Thomas earle of
Flanders, vncle to the quéene, arriued at Douer, and was receiued of
the king with great ioy and gladnesse, who rode thitherward to méet
him, and so brought him to London, where the citizens came foorth also,
and méeting him in the waie, brought him into the citie with all honour
that might be deuised. He did homage to the king (as authors write)
and at his departure had in reward fiue hundred marks, and a pension
assured him of as much yearelie out of the escheker of the kings frée
gift. This earle Thomas was sonne to the earle of Sauoy, and a little
before his comming into England, he had married Ione countesse of
Flanders, which had first béene coupled in marriage with Ferdinando, as
in the life of king Iohn may further appeare.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 24. 1240.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: Baldwin de Riuers earle of the Ile of Wight.]

[Sidenote: The woods about Leicester féeld.]

In the 24 yeare of his reigne, king Henrie held his Christmasse at
Winchester, where he made Baldwine de Riuers knight, and inuested him
with the right of the earledome of the Ile of Wight, in the presence of
the earle of Cornewall, who procured him this honour, bicause he had
the wardship of him, and married him to his daughter in law the ladie
Amicia, that was daughter to his wife the countesse of Glocester by hir
former husband. The earle of Leicester also, meaning to go into the
holie land, returned out of France, where he had remained a certeine
time as an exile, but was now receiued honorablie of the king and other
péeres of the realme, and after that he had séene the king and doone
his dutie as apperteined, he went to his possessions to make monie for
his furniture necessarie to be had in that iournie, for the which he
sold at that time his woods about Leicester, vnto the knights of the
Hospitall, and to the canons of Leicester, receiuing of them for the
same about the summe of a thousand pounds.

[Sidenote: Leolin prince of Wales departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: Griffin ap Maddocke.]

About the same time, to wit, the 14 of Aprill, died Leolin prince of
Wales, and then followed contention betwixt his sons Griffin and Dauid
for the principalitie, which at length Dauid obteined through king
Henries support (though he were the yoonger brother) bicause he was
begot in lawful bed on the sister of king Henrie. The whole countrie
of Wales was maruellouslie in trouble about their quarels. At length,
a daie of méeting was appointed betwixt them, to grow by waie of talke
vnto some quiet end; and Griffin meaning no deceit, came in peaceable
wise with Richard bishop of Bangor and others to the place assigned,
where they should haue met. But Dauid by a traine tooke Griffin, and
committed him to prison, wherevpon afterwards, the yeare insuing, by
continuall plaint and earnest sute of the bishop of Bangor, king Henrie
entred Wales with an armie, and constreined Dauid to submit himselfe,
and to deliuer the said Griffin into his hands, and further also to put
in suerties to appeare at London, there to receiue such order in the
kings courts, as to him by law should be orderlie awarded. Griffin ap
Maddocke and diuerse other great lords of Wales ioined with the king in
this iournie against Dauid, as in the next yeare ye shall further heare.

[Sidenote: King Henrie aided the pope with monie against the emperour.]

About the same time, there was great strife and contention still
remaining betwixt the emperour Frederike and pope Innocent the fourth
that succéeded Celestine the fourth, in somuch that sore and mortall
warre followed. But king Henrie by the procurement of the legat Otho,
aided the pope with monie, though he was somewhat loth to doo it,
bicause the said emperour had married his sister. Indéed, the emperour
wrote to the king to staie his hand, but the diligence of that legat
was such in furthering his masters businesse, that the monie was gone
ouer yer the emperours letters came. At this time also, Edmund the
archbishop of Canturburie greatlie disalowed the often exactions and
subsidies which the legat caused dailie to be leuied of the English
clergie. Howbeit, in hope to haue his purpose the rather against the
moonks of Canturburie, with whom he was at variance, he first granted
to the legats request made on the popes behalfe in a synod holden at
Reading, for the hauing of the fift part of spirituall mens reuenues,
and so by his example others were inforced to doo the like.

[Sidenote: Complaint to the king of the collections made for the pope.]

[Sidenote: The answer of the king.]

Furthermore he gaue eight hundred marks to the pope, but whether of
his owne frée will, or by constreint, I cannot saie; but now vtterlie
misliking all things doone by the legat contrarie to his mind, after
he had doone and said what he could for redresse, and when he saw no
hope at hand for anie reformation either in the king or legat, who
estéemed not his words, as a man not longer able to sée his countrie
so spoiled, he went ouer into France, and got him vnto Pontney, there
to remaine in voluntarie exile, after the example of his predecessour
Thomas Becket, whose dooings he did follow in verie manie things.
Verelie the collections of monie, which the pope in these daies by his
legats gathered here in this realme, were great and sundrie, so that
(as it appeareth by historiographers of this time) the cleargie and
other found themselues sore grieued, and repined not a little against
such couetous dealings and vnmeasurable exactions, in so much that
they spake to the king of it, and said; "Right famous prince, whie
suffer you England to be made a prey and desolation to all the passers
by, as a vineyard without an hedge, common to the waifaring man, and
to be destroied of the bores of the field, sith you haue a sufficient
priuilege that no such exactions should be made in this kingdome. And
suerlie he is not worthie of a priuilege which abuseth the same being
granted." The king answered those that went thus about to persuade him,
that "he neither would nor durst gainsaie the pope in any thing:" and
so the people were brought into miserable despaire.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The causes that mooued archbishop Edmund to depart the
realme.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

There be that write how that there were other occasions of the
archbishops departure out of the relme of the which this should be one;
when he saw religion not to be regarded, and that préests were had in
no honor, neither that it laie in his power to reforme the matter,
sith the king gaue no eare to his admonitions, he determined to absent
himselfe till the king (warned by some mishap) should repent him of his
errours, and amend his misdooings. Other ioine an other cause herevnto,
which was this; whereas the king by the insample of other kings (begun
by William Rufus) vsed to kéepe bishops sées, and other such spirituall
possessions in his hands, during the vacation, till a conuenient person
were to the same preferred, the archbishop Edmund, for that he saw
long delaies made oftentimes yer any could be admitted to the roome of
those that were deceassed, or by any other means depriued, he was in
hand with the king, that the archbishop of Canturburie might haue power
onlie to prouide for successors in such roomes as chanced to be vacant,
aboue the tearme of six moneths, which thing the king for a certeine
summe of monie granted: but afterward perceiuing what hinderance he
susteined thereby, he reuoked that grant, so much to the displeasure
of the archbishop, that he thought good no longer to continue in the
realme.

[Sidenote: The death of Edmund archbishop of Canturburie surnamed of
Pontney.]

At his comming to Pontney, he so séemed to despise all worldlie pompe
and honor, giuing himselfe wholie to diuine contemplation, to fasting
and praier, that the former opinion, which men had conceiued of his
vertues, was maruellouslie confirmed. At length being sore vexed with
sicknesse, supposing that he might recouer helth by changing of aire
and place, he caused himselfe to be conueied into an other house of
religion, named Soisie, two daies iournie from Pontney, where finallie
he died the sixtéenth of Nouember, and his bodie was brought againe to
Pontney, and there buried, where also through sundrie miracles shewed
(as they say) at his graue, he was reputed a saint, and at length
canonized by pope Innocent the fourth. He was borne at Abingdon, beside
Oxenford, and thereby some named him saint Edmund of Abingdon, and some
of S. Edmund of Pontney, after the place where he was inshrined. The
sée of Canturburie was void more than thrée yeares after his decease,
till at length by the kings commandement, the moonks of Canturburie
elected one Boniface of Sauoie vncle to quéene Elianor, being the 45
archbishop which ruled that church.

[Sidenote: A Charterhouse moonke apprehended.]

¶ There was this yeare a certeine person of honest conuersation, and
sober, representing in habit one of the Carthusian moonks, taken at
Cambridge, being accused for that he refused to come to the church to
heare diuine seruice, and vpon his examination, bicause he answered
otherwise than was thought conuenient, he was committed to secret
prison, and shortlie after sent vp to the legat to be of him examined.
This man openlie protested, that Gregorie was not the true pope, nor
head of the church, but that there was another head of the church,
and that the church was defiled, so that no seruice ought to be said
therein, except the same were newlie dedicated, and the vessels and
vestments againe hallowed and consecrated; The diuell (said he) is
losed, & the pope is an heretike, for Gregorie, which nameth himselfe
pope, hath polluted the church.

Herevpon (in the presence and audience of the abbat of Euesham, maister
Nic. de Fernham, and diuerse other worshipfull personages) the legat
said vnto him being thus out of the waie; "Is not power granted to our
souereigne lord the pope from aboue, both to lose and bind soules, sith
he executeth the roome of S. Peter vpon earth:" Now when all men looked
to heare what answer he would make, beléeuing his iudgement to depend
vpon the same, he said by waie of interrogation, and not by way of
assertion; "How can I beléeue, that vnto a person spotted with simonie
and vsurie, and happlie wrapt in more gréeuous sins, such power should
be granted as was granted vnto holie Peter, who immediatlie followed
the lord, as soone as he was made his apostle, and followed him not
onelie in bodilie footsteps, but in cléerenesse of vertues." At which
word the legat blushed, & said to some of the standers by; "A man ought
not to chide with a foole, nor gape ouer an ouen."

[Sidenote: Iustices itinerants. William de Yorke, Robert Lexinton
iustices.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall goeth into the holy land.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester goeth thither also.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Albemarle.]

In this season the king sent his iustices itinerants in circuit about
the land, the which vnder pretext of iustice punished manie persons,
and so leuied great summes of monie to the kings vse. Sir William of
Yorke prouost of Beuerley was assigned to visit the south parts, and
sir Robert de Lexinton the north parts. Also Richard earle of Cornewall
the kings brother, with a nauie of ships sailed into Syria, where in
the warres against the Saracens, he greatlie aduanced the part of the
christians. There went ouer with him the earle of Salisburie William
Long espée, and William Basset, Iohn Beauchampe, Geffrey de Lucie, Iohn
Neuill, Geffrey Beauchampe, Peter de Breuse, and William Furniuall.
The erle of Montford also went ouer the same time: but where the earle
of Cornewall tooke the sea at Marsiles, the earle of Leicester passed
through Italie, and tooke the water at Brandize, and with him went
these persons of name, Thomas de Furniuall, with his brother Gerard de
Furniuall, Hugh Wake, Almerike de S. Aumond, Wischard Ledet, Punchard
de Dewin, and William de Dewin that were brethren, Gerard Pesmes, Fouke
de Baugie, and Peter de Chauntenaie. Shortlie after also, Iohn earle
of Albemarle, William Fortis, and Peter de Mallow a Poictouin, men for
their valiancie greatlie renowned, went thither, leading with them a
great number of christian souldiors.

[Sidenote: The dedication of the church of S. Paule in London.]

[Sidenote: The death of Isabell the countesse of Cornewall.]

[Sidenote: The lord Iohn Fitz Robert.]

[Sidenote: A comet. A battell betwixt fishes.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The kings manour at Mortlake.]

[Sidenote: A great wind.]

In this yeare and vpon the day of S. Remigius, was the church of S.
Paule in the citie of London dedicated by Roger bishop of that citie,
the king and a great number of bishops and other Noble men being
present, which were feasted the same day by the said bishop Roger and
the canons. Moreouer, there died the same yeare the countesse Isabell,
wife to Richard earle of Cornewall, and two earles, William earle
Warren, and Iohn earle of Lincolne, also the lord Iohn Fitz Robert, one
of the chéefe barons in all the north parts of the realme. ¶ Also in
Februarie there appeared a comet or blasing starre verie dreadfull to
behold, for the space of thirtie daies togither. Moreouer, on the coast
of England there was a great battell amongst the fishes of the sea, so
that there were eleauen whales or thirlepooles cast on land, beside
other huge and monstruous fishes, which appeared to be dead of some
hurts; and one of those mightie fishes, comming into the Thames aliue,
was pursued by the fishers, and could scarse passe through the arches
of London bridge. At length with darts and other such weapons, they
slue him before the kings manour at Mortlake, whither they followed
him. There was also a great sound heard this yeare in sundrie parts of
England at one selfe time, as if it had béene the noise of some mightie
mountaine that had fallen into the sea. And vpon the seuenth of Maie
there chanced a great boisterous wind that sore troubled the skie.

[Sidenote: An oth receiued.]

[Sidenote: The seneshall of Aquitaine.]

This yeare the king caused the citizens of London, and the gardians
of the cinque ports, and manie other to receiue an oth to be true
and faithfull to his sonne prince Edward. The friers preachers and
minors, and other men of the church that were diuines, absolued such
as had taken on them the crosse, receiuing of them so much monie as
would suffice to haue borne their charges in that iournie, and this
not without slander redounding to the church. The same meanes to get
monie was practised also by the legat Otho, hauing authoritie therto of
the pope. The same yeare the seneshall of Aquitaine came ouer to the
king, and let him know, that if timelie prouision were not had, all
those countries on the further side of the sea wold be lost. No other
incident chanced the same yeare neither in warre abroad, nor in the
state of gouernement of the common-wealth at home, whereof any great
accompt is to be made, but that the legat Otho got great summes of
monie diuerse waies, of religious men to the popes behoofe: wherevpon
certeine abbats made complaints to the king, but in place of comfort
they receiued discomfort, & after knowledge thereof giuen to the legat,
he was more extreame with them than he was before.

[Sidenote: Peter Rosso.]

[Sidenote: Peter de Supino got a vintiesme, that is the 20 part of
préests benefices.]

Shortlie after one of the popes familiars and kinsman named master
Peter Rosso came from Rome, taking England in his waie to go into
Scotland, and vsed in both such diligence in the popes cause, that he
got a fiftéenth granted here, which he spéedilie gathered. About the
same time one Peter de Supino was sent into Ireland, and there likewise
he got a vintiesme, bringing from these the summe of 115 marks, and
aboue. But the collection which Peter Rosso got out of the Scotish
confines doubled that summe, as was thought. In his returne also from
thence, visiting the houses of religion, and searching the consciences
of religious persons, by new shifts he craftilie got yet more monie to
the popes vse, causing them to sweare to kéepe this mysterie secret, as
it were some priuitie of confession for the space of one halfe yeare,
whereby he turned the harts of manie men from the loue of the church of
Rome, wounding them with great gréefe and remorse of conscience to sée
this pillage.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 25. 1241.]

[Sidenote: Boniface de Sauoie elected archb. of Canturburie.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

In the 25 yeare of his reigne, king Henrie kept his Christmasse at
Westminster, at which time the legat was sent for to returne vnto Rome,
and after he had béene honorablie feasted of the king, on the 4 daie of
Christmasse he departed from London towards the sea side, after he had
remained here aboue thrée yeares. Peter of Sauoie that was uncle to the
quéene came into England, and was honorablie receiued and interteined
of king Henrie, who had giuen to him the earledome of Richmont. His
sonne Boniface was this yeare also elected archbishop of Canturburie, a
tall gentleman and of a goodlie personage, but neither so learned nor
otherwise méet for that roome. But such was the kings pleasure, who in
fauour of the quéene, to whom he was coosen germane sought to aduance
him, and getting the popes fauour in that behalfe, procured the monks
& bishops to grant their consents, although much against their minds,
if they might haue had their owne wils.

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall an intercessor for a peace to be had
betwixt the pope and the emperour.]

[Sidenote: He returneth into England.]

The earle of Cornewall returning out of the holie land in safetie,
after he had settled things there, by concluding an abstinence of
warre betwixt the Saracens and christians about the octaues of S. Iohn
Baptist, he arriued in Sicill, and hearing there in what place the
emperour as then soiourned, he repaired vnto him, of whom and of his
sister the empresse he was most ioifullie receiued. Within a few daies
after, he went to the court of Rome, to trie if he might driue some
agréement betwixt the emperour and the pope, but finding the pope too
hard, and nothing conformable, except he might haue had all his owne
will (which was, that the emperour should haue submitted himselfe to
the popes pleasure, and stand vnto what soeuer order the church should
appoint) he returned backe to the emperour without concluding any
thing with the pope, declaring vnto him as he had found. After this he
remained two moneths with the emperour, & then taking his leaue was
honoured with great gifts at his departure, and so returning towards
England, at length arriued at the towne of Douer on the morrow after
the feast of the Epiphanie in the yeare following.

[Sidenote: Warres betwéene the Welshmen.]

About the same time that the earle of Cornewall was in his returne
foorth of the holie land, new wars suddenlie arose in Wales, which
happened well for king Henrie. There were diuerse of the Welshmen that
could not well like of the gouernement of Dauid, and therefore sore
lamenting the captiuitie of his brother Griffin, whom before (as ye
haue heard) he had by a traine taken and kept still as prisoner, began
to make warre vpon the said Dauid, and those that tooke his part, the
which on the other side sought to oppresse their aduersaries, so that
there insued much bloudshed and slaughter betwéene the parties. The
wife also of the said Griffin, and such other noble men as were become
enimies vnto Dauid, sent and writ vnto king Henrie, requiring his aid,
that Griffin might be deliuered out of his brothers hands, promising
him great helpe and furtherance, with large conditions of submission,
and assurance furthermore to be at his commandement, and to receiue him
for their true and souereigne lord.

[Sidenote: King Henrie goeth into Wales with an armie.]

King Henrie vnderstanding all their dooings and intents, thought that
this contention betwéene the two brethren for the title of Wales would
serue verie well for his purpose, and therefore he hasted foorth with
a spéedie armie of men in that countrie, purposing to reduce the same
vnder his obeisance. Herewith Senena or Guenhera, the wife of Griffin
(and other of the Welsh Nobilitie, that tooke part with hir) concluded
a league with king Henrie, vpon certeine conditions as the same are
conteined in an instrument or charter, the tenour whereof beginneth as
followeth.

       *       *       *       *       *

Conuenit inter dominum Henricum tertium regem Anglorum illustrem
  ex vna parte, & Senenam vxorem Griffini, filij Leolini, quondàm
  principis Northwalliæ, quem Dauid frater eius tenet carceri
  mancipatum, cum Owino filio suo, nomine eiusdem Griff. ex altera,
  &c.

Articles of agréement betwéene Henrie the third of that name, king
  of England of the one partie, and Senena the wife of Griffin,
  the sonne of Leolin, sometimes prince of Northwales, whom Dauid
  his brother deteineth in prison, with Owen his sonne, in the name
  of the said Griffin of the other partie.

In primis, the said Senena vndertaketh, that the said Griffin hir
husband will giue vnto the king six hundred markes, vpon condition that
the king doo cause the said Griffin and Owen his sonne to be deliuered
from the prison wherein they are kept, and will stand to the iudgement
of the kings court, whether by law he ought to be imprisoned or no.

2 Item the said Griffin and his heires will stand to the iudgement of
the kings court, for and concerning that portion of the inheritance of
the said Leolin his father, which of right ought to apperteine vnto him.

3 Item the said Senena vndertaketh for the said Griffin and his heires,
that the said Griffin and his heires shall yéeld and paie yearelie to
the king for the same lands, the summe of thrée hundred markes. Whereof
the first third part to be paid in monie, the second in kine, and the
third in horsses, by the estimation of indifferent men, and the same to
be paid yearlie at Michaelmas and Easter by euen portions, by the hands
of the shiriffe of the countie of Salop for the time being.

4 Item the said Senena vndertaketh further for the said Griffin and his
heires, that they and euerie of them shall obserue the peace against
the said Dauid, and suffer him quietlie to inioy such portion of his
fathers inheritance as to him shall be found to be due.

5 Item the said Senena dooth further vndertake for the said Griffin
hir husband and his heires, that in case anie Welshman hereafter shall
happen to rebell against the king, they at their owne costs and charges
shall compell the said offender to make satisfaction to the king for
his disobedience.

6 Item for the performance of the premisses, the said Senena will
deliuer vnto the lord the king, Dauid and Roderike hir sonnes for
pledges, with prouiso that if the said Griffin and Owen or either of
them shall happen to die before their deliuerie out of the said prison,
it shall be lawfull for the said Senena to haue one of hir sonnes
released, the other remaining with the king for pledge.

7 Item the said Senena hath sworne vpon the holie Euangelist, that
the said Griffin hir husband and his heires, and euerie of them shall
accomplish and performe all the premisses on their behalfe, and further
vndertaketh that the said Griffin hir husband, vpon his deliuerie out
of prison, shall take the same oth.

8 Item the said Senena in the name of the said Griffin hir husband,
submitteth hir selfe concerning the obseruation of the premisses vnto
the iurisdiction of the reuerend fathers the bishops of Hereford and
Lichfield, so that the said bishops or either of them at the kings
request shall compell the said Griffin and his heires to obserue
all and singular the premisses on their behalfe, by sentence of
excommunication vpon their persons, and interdiction vpon their lands.

9 Lastlie, the said Senena dooth vndertake and promise (Bona fide) to
sée and procure the full performance of all the premisses, and that
the said Griffin hir husband and his heires shall allow and performe
the same, and thereof shall deliuer his instrument in writing to the
king in forme aforesaid. To this charter both parties put their seales,
Griffin and Senena to that part which remained with the king, and the
K. to that part which remained with Senena.

Finallie, for the performance of the articles in this instrument or
writing conteined, the said ladie in name of hir husband procured
diuerse Noble men to become suerties or pledges, that is to saie,
Ralfe de Mortimer, Walter de Clifford, Roger de Monthualt seneshall of
Chester, Mailgun ap Mailgun, Meredoc ap Robert, Griffin ap Maddoc of
Bromefield, Houwell and Meredoc brethren, Griffin ap Wenuwen: which
persons undertooke for the said ladie, that the couenants on hir part
should be performed, and thervpon they also bound themselues by their
writings obligatorie vnto the said king, in forme following.

Omnibus hoc scriptum visuris Rogerus de monte alto senescallus Cestriæ
salutem. Sciatis quòd ego me constitui plegium, &c.

    To all and singular, to whome this writing shall come, Roger de
    monte alto the steward of Chester sendeth gréeting. Know yée
    that I haue constituted my selfe pledge for Senena the wife of
    Griffin the sonne of Leolin, sometimes prince of Northwales,
    and haue vndertaken for hir to our souereigne lord Henrie king
    of England, that the said Senena shall accomplish and performe
    all and singular those couenants and articles, agréed vpon
    betwéene our said souereigne lord and the said Senena, for and
    concerning the deliuerance of the said Griffin hir husband and
    Owen his sonne out of the prison of Dauid his brother, and the
    portion of inheritance due vnto the said Griffin, which the
    said Dauid kéepeth from him by force. In witnesse whereof to
    this present writing I haue put my seale. Dated at Salop, the
    mondaie before the feast of the Ascension of the blessed virgin
    Marie, in the 15 yeare of his reigne.

[Sidenote: Dauid driuen to his wits end.]

But now to our purpose. When Dauid vnderstood of the kings approach
with so puissant an armie, he was brought into great perplexitie, and
the more in déed, not onelie bicause there chanced the same yeare
for the space of foure moneths togither a great drouth, so that the
marishes and bogges were dried vp and made passable for the kings
people, but also for that manie of the Welsh Nobilitie, as chéefelie
Griffin Maddoc and others, sought his destruction in fauour of his
brother Griffin (whose deliuerance they earnestlie wished) and for that
he stood excommunicate by the pope. All which things well considered,
caused him to doubt of a further mischéefe to hang ouer his head:
wherevpon he sent to the king, signifieng that he would deliuer his
brother Griffin fréelie into his hands, but letting him withall to wit
by manie good reasons, that if he did set him at libertie, he should
minister manie new occasions of continuall warres.

[Sidenote: Dauid deliuereth his brother to the K.]

Moreouer, this couenant Dauid required at the kings hands, that the
king should reserue him so to his peace vnder the bond of fidelitie
and hostages, that he should not disherit him: which when as the
king courteouslie granted, Dauid sent vnto him his brother Griffin,
to dispose of him as he should thinke requisite. The king receiuing
him, sent him to London, vnder the conduct of sir Iohn de Lexinton,
togither with other men (whome he had receiued as hostages both of
Dauid and others the Nobles of Wales) appointing them to be kept in
safetie within the tower there. There was also a charter or déed made
by the same Dauid vnto king Henrie, conteining the articles, couenants,
and grants made betwixt the said prince and the foresaid Dauid, as
followeth.



The charter of the articles of Dauids submission to the king.


Omnibus Christi fidelibus, ad quos præsentes literæ peruenerint, Dauid
filius Leolini salutem. Sciatis quòd concessi domino meo Henrico regi
Angliæ illustri, &c.

1 To all christian people, to whom these present letters shall come,
Dauid the sonne of Leolin sendeth gréeting. Know ye that I haue granted
and promised to deliuer vnto the lord Henrie the noble king of England,
Griffin my brother with his sonne and heire whom I kéepe in prison,
and all other prisoners, who by occasion of the said Griffin lie in
durance.

2 Item I shall stand to the iudgement of the kings court, as well in
that case, whether the said Griffin ought to be deteined prisoner or
no, as also for and concerning the part of the inheritance of the said
Leolin my father, claimed by the said Griffin according to the customes
of Wales: so that the peace be mainteined betwéene me and the said
Griffin.

3 Item I and the said Griffin, and either of vs shall hold our portions
of land, of our said souereigne the king in Capite, acknowledging him
chiefe lord therof.

4 Item I shall restore vnto Roger de monte alto steward of Chester, his
land of Montalt or Mould, with the appurtenances.

5 Item I shall likewise restore to all other barons, all such lands,
lordships and castels, as were taken from them since the beginning of
the warres betwéene the lord Iohn king of England, and the said Leolin
prince of Wales my father, sauing the right of all couenants and grants
by writing, to be reserued vnto the iudgment and determination of the
kings courts.

6 Item I shall giue and restore vnto our souereigne lord the king all
his charges in this present voiage laid out.

7 Item I shall make satisfaction for all damages & iniuries doone by
me, or anie of my subiects vnto the king or his, according to the
consideration of the kings court, and shall deliuer such as shal be
malefactours in that behalfe.

8 Item I shall restore vnto the said lord the king all the homages,
which the late king Iohn his father had, & which the said lord the king
of right ought to haue, especiallie of all the noble men of Wales: and
if the king shall set at libertie anie of his captiues, the possessions
of that man shall remaine to the king.

9 Item the land of Elsmer with the appurtenances shall remaine to the
lord the king and his heires for euer.

10 Item I shall not receiue or suffer to be receiued within my countrie
of Wales, any of the subiects of England, outlawed or banished by the
said lord the king, or his barons of Mercia.

11 Item for confirmation and performance of all and singular the
premisses on my behalfe, I shall prouide by bonds and pledges, and by
all other waies and means as the said lord the king shall award, and
will accomplish the commandement of the said king, and will obeie his
lawes.

In witnesse whereof to this present writing I haue put my seale:
dated at Alnet by the riuer of Elwey, in the feast of the decollation
of S. Iohn Baptist, in the fiue and twentith yéere of the reigne of
the said king. For the obseruation of these 11 articles, the said
prince Dauid and Edniuet Vachan were sworne. Also the said prince
Dauid submitted himselfe to the iurisdiction of the archbishop of
Canturburie, and of the bishops of London, Hereford, and Couentrie,
for the time being. That all, or one of them, whom the king shall
appoint, may excommunicate him, and interdict his land vpon breach of
anie of the said articles. And therevpon he procured the bishops of
S. Bangor, and S. Asaph to make their charters to the lord the king,
whereby they granted to execute and denounce all sentences, as well of
excommunication as of interdiction sent from the foresaid archbishop,
bishops, or anie of them.

The said Dauid also sent priuilie to the king, to desire him that he
would suffer him being his nephue, and the lawfull heire of Leolin his
father, to inioy the principalitie of Wales rather than Griffin, which
was but a bastard, and no kin vnto the king. Giuing him withall to
vnderstand, that in case he did set Griffin at libertie, he should be
sure to haue the war renewed. Whervpon the king knowing these things to
be true, and vnderstanding also that Griffin was a valiant stout man,
and had manie fréends and fauorours of his cause, inclined rather to
assent vnto Dauids request than otherwise to be in danger of further
troubles, & therfore willinglie granted the same.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ page, 765.]

Shortlie after Dauid did send his brother Griffin vnto the king, and
other pledges for himselfe, for performance of the said articles, whom
the king sent foorthwith to the towre of London, there to be safelie
kept, allowing to Griffin a noble a daie for his finding. And within
few dais after Michaelmas, prince Dauid comming to the kings court did
his homage, and swore fealtie, who for so dooing, and in that he was
the kings nephue, was sent home againe in peace. When Griffin saw how
all things went, and that he was not like to be set at libertie, he
began to deuise waies and meanes to escape out of prison.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ page, 830.]

Wherefore deceiuing the watch one night, he made a long line of
hangings, couerings, and shéets, and hauing gotten out at a window, let
downe himselfe by the same from the top of the towre: but by reason
that he was a mightie personage and full of flesh, the line brake with
the weight of his bodie, and so falling downe headlong of a great
height, his necke and head was driuen into his bodie with the fall:
whose miserable carcasse being found the morow after, was a pitifull
sight to the beholders. The king being certified thereof, commanded
Griffins sonne to be better looked vnto, and punished the officers for
their negligence.

[Sidenote: Iohn Mansell.]

About the same time there chanced a controuersie to rise betwixt the
king and the bishop of Lincolne, for the bestowing of the benefice
of Thame, the which Iohn Mansell the kings chapleine had gotten in
possession by the kings fauour through prouision granted of the pope,
where the bishop alleging priuileges to the contrarie, had granted it
to an other. At length the king hauing his fathers trouble before his
eies, and doubting the bishops words, threatning some euill mishap to
follow, if he should stand long in the matter against the said bishop,
gaue ouer his tenour: and therewithall prouided Iohn Mansell of a farre
more rich benefice, that is to saie, of the personage of Maidstone,
whereinto the bishop spéedilie inuested him.

[Sidenote: Death of noble men.]

[Sidenote: Lacie left no issue male behind him, so yt his daughters
inherited his lands.]

This yeare manie noble men ended their liues, as well such as were
gone with the earles of Cornewall and Leicester into the holie land,
and others remaining still at home. Amongst which number were these:
William Fortz earle of Albemarle, Walter Lacie, one of the chiefest
nobles in all Ireland, Stephan de Segraue, Gilbert de Basset and his
sonne and heire named also Gilbert. Moreouer, Iohn Biset high iustice
of the forrests, and Peter de Mallow, Hugh Wake, Robert Marmion, Peter
de Bruis, Guischarde Laider, Eustace Stoutuill, Eudo Hamon surnamed
Peccham, Baldwin de Betun, Iohn Fitz Iohn steward in household to
earle Richard, Iohn de Beaulieu, Gerard de Furniuall. There died also
the ladie Elianor the countesse of Britaine, wife vnto Geffrey, that
was sometime earle of Britaine (which countesse had béene long kept
prisoner at Bristow) with diuerse other.

[Sidenote: Cardinall Somercote an Englishman.]

[Sidenote: An eclipse.]

[Sidenote: The death of the empresse Isabell.]

Moreouer, there died this yeare Roger bishop of London, and Hugh bishop
of Chester. Also Gilbert Marshall earle of Penbroke in a torneie which
he had attempted at Hereford against the kings licence, was by an
vnrulie horsse cast, and so hurt that immediatlie he died thereof.
Neither was this yeare onelie mournefull to England for the losse of
such high estates, but also in other places manie notable personages
departed out of this transitorie life. As two popes, Gregorie the ninth
and his successour Celestine the fourth, besides cardinals: amongst the
which, Robert Somercote an English man was one. ¶ About the later end
of this 25 yeare, the sixt daie of October, there appeared a right sore
eclipse of the sunne, verie strange to the beholders. ¶ In the 26 yeare
died the empresse Isabell, wife vnto Frederike the emperour.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 26.]

[Sidenote: 1242.]

[Sidenote: Wars renued betwixt the kings of England & France.]

[Sidenote: The earle of March.]

[Sidenote: _Gaguinus._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

In this yeare also began the wars againe betwixt king Henrie and Lewes
the king of France for the quarell of Hugh earle of March, who refused
to doo homage vnto Alfonse the brother of king Lewes, which Alfonse had
married the onelie daughter and heire of Raimund earle of Tholouse, and
therefore should succéed the same earle in his estate and inheritance.
His brother king Lewes had also giuen vnto him the earledome of
Poictou, with all the lands of Aluergne: and bicause the earle of March
would not doo homage vnto him, king Lewes made warre vpon the earle of
March, who thervpon sought to procure king Henrie (whose mother he had
married) to come ouer with an armie vnto his aid.

[Sidenote: Sundrie opinions in the kings councellers.]

King Henrie being sollicited with letters, not onelie from his
father in law, but also from diuerse other noble men of Poictou, who
willinglie would haue béene vnder his gouernement, asked aduise of his
councell what he ought to doo in the matter. Some were of opinion,
that sith there had béene a truce taken betwixt the kings, it were not
reason in anie wise to breake the same: but some other thought, that
sith the Frenchmen in times past had taken from king Iohn his lawfull
heritage in Normandie and Poictou, and wrongfullie deteined the same
still in their possession without restitution, it could not be at anie
time vnlawfull vpon occasion giuen to recouer the same out of their
hands. This opinion was allowed for good, and the best that might be
both of the king & also of the earle of Cornewall, who was latelie
returned from his iournie which he had made into the holie land.

[Sidenote: Charugage a certeine dutie for euerie plowland.]

But now all the staie rested in gathering of monie, which being
earnestlie demanded in a parlement begun at Westminster the tuesdaie
before Candlemasse, was as stifflie denied, alledging in excuse their
often paiments of subsidies and reléefes, which had béene gathered sith
the comming of the king to his crowne, as the thirtéenth, fiftéenth,
sixtéenth and fortieth parts of all their moueable goods, besides
charugage, hidage, and sundrie escuages, namelie the great escuage
granted for the marriage of his sister the empresse: and also beside
the thirtieth within foure yeares last past, or thereabouts, granted
to him, which they thought remained vnspent, bicause it could not be
vnderstood about what necessarie affaires for the common-wealth it
should be laid foorth and imploied, whereas the same was leuied vpon
condition, that it should remaine in certeine castels, and not to be
expended but by the aduise of foure péeres of the realme, as the earle
of Warren, and others. Moreouer, they alledged, that the escheats and
amercements which had béene gathered of late were such as must néeds
fill the kings coffers: & so to conclude, they would not consent to
grant any subsidie.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Durham sent into Scotland.]

[Sidenote: The king of Scots warden of the English marshes.]

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke gouernor of the realme.]

Howbeit the king so handled the matter with the richer sort, and
namelie those of the spiritualtie, that partlie by gift and partlie by
borrowing, he got togither a great masse of treasure and so prepared an
armie and ships to passe ouer into Gascoine with all conuenient spéed.
In the meane time bicause he would leaue things in more suertie at
home, he sent the bishop of Durham into Scotland, by whose diligence a
marriage was concluded betwixt the lord Alexander eldest sonne to the
king of Scots, and the ladie Margaret daughter to king Henrie. Moreouer
the marshes of England adioining to Scotland were committed to the king
of Scots as warden of the same, to kéepe and defend whilest king Henrie
should abide in the parts beyond the seas. The archbishop of Yorke, in
the kings absence, was also appointed chéefe gouernour of the realme.

[Sidenote: Thirtie barrels of English coine.]

When this prouision was once readie, about the middest of Maie, the
king tooke the sea, togither with the quéene his wife, his brother
Richard earle of Cornewall, and seauen other earles, and about thrée
hundred knights or men of armes. The Poictouins had written to him that
he néeded not bring ouer with him any great armie of men, but rather
plentie of monie to reteine such as he should find there readie to
serue him at his comming. Wherevpon he tooke with him thirtie barrels
of sterling coine: and at length (but not without contrarie winds) he
arriued on the coast of Gascoine, in the mouth of the riuer of Garon,
and taking land, was ioifullie receiued of the people, and namelie of
Reignold lord of Pons.

[Sidenote: The king passeth ouer into France.]

[Sidenote: The French king inuadeth the earle of Marches land.]

[Sidenote: The number of the English armie.]

The French king aduertised that the king of England was come ouer
into France, to the aid of the earle of March, and other his subiects
against him, prepared a mightie armie, in the which were reckoned to be
to the number of foure thousand men of armes, well prouided and armed
at all points, besides twentie thousand esquires, gentlemen, yeomen
and crossebowes: and with the same immediatlie he entred the dominions
of the earle of March, and tooke from him diuerse townes and castels,
as Fountney, wherein he tooke one of the earls sonnes: also Meruant
with diuers other. In the meane while the king of England was aduanced
forward and come néere vnto Tailborge, lieng with his armie in the
faire medow by the riuer side of Charent fast by the castell of Thonay:
& he had there with him in campe sixtéene hundred knights, or rather
men of armes, and twentie thousand footmen, with seauen hundred that
bare crossebows. He made there his two halfe brethren, the sonnes of
the earle of March knights, and gaue to the one of them fiue hundred
marks, and to the other six hundred marks yearelie, to be paid out of
his escheker, till he had otherwise prouided for them in lands and
reuenues equall to that pension.

[Sidenote: Tailborge.]

[Sidenote: Xainctes. An encounter betwixt the English and the French.]

Now the French king being aduertised that king Henrie laie thus néere
to Tailborge, marched thitherwards with all his puissance latelie
réenforced with new supplies, and approching to Tailborge, had the
towne deliuered vnto him. This chanced about the latter end of Iulie.
Then after the French king had gotten possession of Tailborge, he ment
to passe the water, and if by mediation of a truce politikelie procured
by the earle of Cornewall (and as it were at a narrow pinch) the king
of England had not found means to remooue in the night season, he had
béene in great danger to haue béene taken, through want of such aid
as he looked to haue had at the hands of the Poictouins and other his
confederats. But yet he got awaie (though with some staine of honour)
and withdrew to Xainctes, whither also the French king folowed, and
comming néere to the towne, there was a sharpe incounter begun betwixt
the French and the English, wherein the Englishmen were victors, and
in which by the Frenchmens owne confession, if the English power had
béene like to theirs in number, they had fullie atchiued the honour of
a foughten field, and for a light skirmish a sound and perfect victorie.

[Sidenote: The valiancy of the earle of Leicester and others.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Mansell.]

[Sidenote: Sir Iohn Barris. Wil. de Sey. Gilbert de Clare slaine.]

The high prowesse and valiancie of the earles of Leicester, Salisburie,
Norfolke, with other Noble men, as Iohn de Burgh, Warren de Mount
Chenill or Cheincie, Hubert Fitz Matthew, and Ralfe Fitz Nicholas did
in this fight right well appeare: and likewise other of the English
nation bare themselues so manfullie, that they deserued no small
commendation. Amongst other also sir Iohn Mansell the kings chapleine,
and one of his priuie councell did right worthilie, taking prisoner
with his owne hands one Peter Orige a gentleman in good place. There
was moreouer taken on the French part sir Iohn de Barris a man of good
accompt, by William de Sey, beside sundrie others. On the English part
was slaine Gilbert de Clare, and Henrie Hasting taken prisoner, with
other, to the number of twentie knights, or men of armes, if I may so
call them.

[Sidenote: The earle of March is reconciled to the French king.]

After this incounter, by reason the French armie increased by new
bands still resorting to their king, the earle of March secretlie
sought meanes to be reconciled vnto him: and finallie by the helpe of
the duke of Britaine, his old acquaintance and fréend at néed, his
peace was purchased, so that he had his lands againe to him restored,
except certeine castels; which for further assurance the French king
reteined in his hands by the space of thrée yeares. The king of
England, perceiuing himselfe too much deceiued in that he had put such
confidence in the earle of March and others of that countrie, which
should haue aided him at this present, and againe aduertised, that the
French king meant to besiege him within the citie of Xainctes, departed
with all spéed from thence, and came to Blaie, a towne in Gascoigne,
situat néere to the riuer of Garon, & distant seuen leagues from
Burdeaux.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The countesse of Bierne.]

[Sidenote: Sée Vol. I. pag. 495, 496, 497, 498, & pag. 681, of the
historie of England.]

Now whilest he laie here at Blaie, there came vnto him the countesse
of Bierne (a woman monstruous big of bodie) bringing with hir to
serue the king, hir sonne, and thrée score knights, in hope to get
some of his sterling monie, whereof she knew him to haue plentie: and
so couenanting for hir interteinment, remained still with him, and
receiued euerie daie 13 pounds sterling, and yet she neuer pleasured
him the woorth of a groat, but rather hindered him, in making him bare
of monie, which she receiued, purssed vp and tooke awaie with hir when
she departed from him. But if to hir making and stature she had bin
indued with the courage of Voadicia, whom she excéeded (as it should
seeme) in proportion, or with the prowesse of Elfleda, hir seruice
had béene no lesse beneficiall to the K. than anie skilfull capteins
marching vnder his banner. So that we sée in this woman a desire rather
to satisfie hir hydropicall humour of couetousnesse, than anie true
affection to set forward the kings affaires; therefore it may well be
said of hir in respect of hir gréedinesse to get from the king for hir
owne commodities sake, that she was

    Vt mare, quod das deuorat, nunquam abundat,
    Nunquam rependit.

[Sidenote: The reuolting of other French lords.]

[Sidenote: Death in the French camp.]

[Sidenote: Truce renued betwixt the two kings.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

In the meane time the lords de Pons, Mirabeau and Mortaigne suddenlie
reuolted, & submitted themselues to the French king, with the vicount
of Towars, and all other the lords and knights of Poictou, and the
marches therabouts, that not long before had procured king Henrie to
come ouer to their aid. The citie of Xainctes was likewise rendred
to him immediatlie vpon king Henries departure from thence. At which
season the French king meant to haue followed him to Blaie, but by
reason of a great death which chanced in his armie, he was constreined
to alter his purpose. Suerlie, as authors haue recorded, what through
pestilence and vnwholesomnesse of the aire, a great manie of Frenchmen
died at that time, and dailie more fell sicke. The number of them
that died (as Matth. Paris, & Matth. Westminster affirme) amounted to
twentie thousand persons, beside fourescore of the Nobilitie that bare
banners or penons. King Lewes himselfe also began to waxe diseased and
crasie, so that he was constreined to renew the truce with king Henrie
& therewith departed home.

[Sidenote: The quéene of England deliuered of a daughter.]

[Sidenote: William Marisch executed.]

[Sidenote: Sée pag. 385.]

King Henrie remained at Blaie vntill the feast of the Assumption of
our ladie, and then went to Burdeaux to visit the quéene, who in this
meane while was brought to bed about midsummer of a yoong ladie, whom
they named Beatrice after the quéenes mother. Now whilest king Henrie
was thus occupied in Poictou and Gascoine, William Marisch the sonne of
Geffrie Marisch (by commandement sent from the king) was put to death
at London, with sixtéene of his complices on the euen of S. Iames the
apostle. This William Marisch falling in to the kings displeasure, got
him to the sea, and plaied the rouer, kéeping the Ile of Lundaie in the
west countrie, till finallie he was taken and brought prisoner vnto the
towre, where he was charged with sundrie articles of treason, as that
he should hire that counterfeit mad man which sought to haue murthered
the king at Woodstoke, as before ye haue heard. Howbeit when he should
die, he vtterlie denied that euer he was priuie to anie such thing.
He was first had from Westminster to the towre, & from thence drawne
to the gibet, and there hanged till he was dead, and after being cut
downe, had his bowels ripped out and burned, and when his head was cut
off, the bodie was diuided into foure quarters, and sent vnto foure
of the principal cities of the realme. His complices were also drawne
through the citie of London vnto the same gibet, and there hanged.

[Sidenote: The seas trobled with men of warre.]

[Sidenote: Escuage gathered 20. shillings of euerie knights fée.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: Death of noble men.]

In the time of this warre also betwixt England and France, there
was much hurt doone on the sea betwixt them of the cinque ports and
the Frenchmen of Normandie, and other: as the Caleis men and the
Britons, which did make themselues as strong as they could against the
Englishmen by sea. Wherevpon diuerse incounters chanced betwixt them,
but more to the losse of the Englishmen, than of the Frenchmen: in
somuch that they of the ports were constreined to require aid of the
archb. of Yorke the lord gouernour of the realme. About which time, and
after the king was withdrawen to Burdeaux, diuerse noble men, as the
earles of Norffolke and Winchester, with others, got licence to returne
into England. Soone after whose arriuall, escuage was gathered through
the realme towards the bearing of the kings charges. Moreouer, in this
yeare of the king there died sundrie noble men of naturall infirmities,
as the earle of Warwike, Gilbert de Gaunt, Baldwine Wake, Philip de
Kime, and Roger Berthram of the north, with diuerse other. Howbeit
the king himselfe returned not home, but laie all the winter time at
Burdeaux, meaning to attempt manie enterprises, but he brought none to
passe, sauing that in protracting the time, he spent much monie, and to
little purpose.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 27.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornwal and other returne home.]

About the beginning of the seuen and twentith yeare of his reigne, his
brother the earle of Cornewall, misliking the order of things which he
saw dailie in the king his brothers procéedings, would néeds returne
backe into England, but chieflie when he perceiued that his councell
& aduise could not be heard. The king was sore offended herewith, but
he could not well remedie the matter, nor persuade him to tarie. And
so the said earle of Cornewall, togither with the earles of Penbroke
and Hereford, and diuerse other noble men tooke the sea, and after
manie dangers escaped in their course, at length on S. Lucies daie
they arriued in Cornewall, though some of the vessels that were in the
companie were driuen by force of the tempestuous weather vpon other
contrarie coasts. ¶ About this season also, that is to saie, on the day
of S. Edmund the king, there happened a maruellous tempest of thunder
and lightening, and therwith followed such an excéeding raine (which
continued manie daies togither) that riuers rose on maruellous heigth,
and the Thames it selfe, which sildome riseth or is increased by land
flouds, passing ouer the banks, drowned all the countrie for the space
of six miles about Lambeth, so that none might get into Westminster
hall, except they were set on horssebacke.

[Sidenote: Prouision of graine and victuals taken vp and sent to the
king.]

[Sidenote: 1243.]

[Sidenote: The king led by strangers.]

[Sidenote: He is euill spoken of.]

About the same time the king sent ouer into England to the archbishop
of Yorke lord gouernour of the realme, to cause prouision of graine
and bakon, to be conueied ouer vnto him, which he appointed to be
taken out of the possessions of the archbishoprike of Canturburie,
and other bishoprikes that were vacant, and out of other such places
as séemed to him good to appoint. Herevpon were sent ouer to him ten
thousand quarters of wheat, fiue thousand quarters of otes, with as
manie bakons. Also there was sent vnto him great prouision of other
things, as cloth for apparell and liueries, but much of it perished in
the sea by one meane or other, that little thereof came to his vse, who
remained still at Burdeaux to his great cost and charges, and small
gaine, sauing that he recouered certeine townes and holds there in
Gascoigne that were kept by certeine rebels. At which time, bicause
he was inclined rather to follow the counsell of the Gascoignes and
other strangers than of his owne subiects, and gaue vnto them larger
enterteinment, not regarding the seruice of his owne naturall people:
he was maruellouslie euill spoken of here in England, and the more
in déed, bicause his iournie had no better successe, and was yet so
chargeable vnto him and all his subiects. The Noble men that remained
with him, as the earles of Leicester and Salisburie, with other, were
constreined to borrow no small summes of monie to beare out their
charges: and so likewise the king himselfe ran greatlie in debt, by
taking vp monie towards the discharging of his importable expenses.

[Sidenote: A truce taken for fiue years.]

[Sidenote: Nicholas de Mueles his lieutenant in Gascoigne.]

At length by mediation of such as were commissioners a truce was
concluded betwixt him and the French king for fiue yeares, and then he
returned toward England, but he arriued not there till the ninth of
October, although the truce was concluded in March vpon S. Gregories
day; for beside other occasions of his staie, one chanced by such
strife and debate as rose amongst the Gascoignes, which caused him to
returne to land, that he might pacifie the same when he was alreadie
imbarked, and had hoised his saile immediatlie to set forward. He left
in Guien for his lieutenant one Nicholas de Mueles or Moles, to defend
those townes, which yet remained vnder his obeisance, for he put no
great confidence in the people of that countrie, the which of custome
being vexed with continuall warre, were constreined not by will, but by
the change of times, one while to hold on the French side, and an other
while on the English. Indéed the townes, namelie those that had their
situation vpon the sea coastes, were so destroied and decaied in their
walles and fortifications, that they could not long be any great aid to
either part, and therefore being not of force to hold out, they were
compelled to obeie one or other, where by their willes they would haue
doone otherwise.

This was the cause that the K. of England, oftentimes vpon trust of
these townes, which for the most part were readie to receiue him, was
brought into some hope to recouer his losses, and chéefelie for that
he was so manie times procured to attempt his fortune there, at the
request of the fickle-minded Poictouins, who whilest they did séeke
still to purge their offenses to the one king or to the other, they
dailie by new treasons defamed their credit, and so by such means the
king of England oftentimes with small aduantage or none at all, made
warre against the French king, in trust of their aid, that could, or
(vpon the least occasion conceiued) quickelie would doo little to his
furtherance. And so thereby king Henrie as well as his father king
Iohn, was oftentimes deceiued of his vaine conceiued hope.

[Sidenote: Death of Noble men.]

[Sidenote: Hugh Lacie.]

In this seauen and twentith yeare of king Henries reigne, diuerse
noble personages departed this life, and first about the beginning of
Ianuarie, deceassed the lord Richard de Burgh, a man of great honour
and estimation in Ireland, where he held manie faire possessions,
by conquest of that noble gentleman his worthie father. Also that
valiant warriour Hugh Lacie, who had conquered in his time a great
part of Ireland. Also the same yere on the seauenth of Maie, Hugh de
Albenie earle of Arundell departed this life, in the middest of his
youthfull yeares, and was buried in the priorie of Wimundham, which his
ancestours had founded. After his deceasse, that noble heritage was
diuided by partition amongst foure sisters.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Stars fallen after a strange manner.]

About the same time, to wit, on the twelfth day of Maie, Hubert de
Burgh earle of Kent departed this life at his manor of Banstude, and
his bodie was conueied to London, and there buried in the church
of the Friers preachers, vnto the which Friers he had béene verie
beneficiall. Amongst other things, he gaue vnto them his goodlie palace
at Westminster adioining néere to the palace of the earle of Cornewall,
which the archbishop of Yorke afterwards purchased. The moonks of the
Cisteaux were this yeare somewhat vexed by the king, bicause they had
refused to aid him with monie towards his iournie made into Gascoigne.
Also the plées of the crowne were kept and holden in the towre of
London. And in the night of the six and twentith day of Iulie, starres
were séene fall from the skie after a maruellous sort, not after the
common manner, but thirtie or fortie at once, so fast one after another
and glansing to and fro, that if there had fallen so manie verie
starres in déed, there would none haue béene left in the firmament.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 28.]

[Sidenote: The countesse of Prouance mother to the quéene commeth ouer
into England.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall maried to the ladie Sanctia.]

In the eight and twentith yeare of king Henries reigne, the quéenes
mother the ladie Beatrice countesse of Prouance arriued at Douer on
the fouretéenth day of Nouember, bringing with hir the ladie Sanctia
hir daughter, and in the octaues of S. Martine they were receiued
into London in most solemne wise, the stréets being hanged with rich
clothes, as the maner is at the coronations of princes. On S. Clements
day, Richard earle of Cornewall the kings brother married the said
ladie Sanctia, which marriage was solemnized in most roiall wise, and
with such sumptuous feasts and banketings, as greater could not be
deuised. Finallie, the quéens mother the countesse of Prouance, being
a right notable and worthie ladie, was honored in euerie degrée of hir
sonne in law king Henrie in most courteous and sumptuous manner, and at
hir departure out of the realme, which was after Christmasse, shée was
with most rich and princelie gifts honourablie rewarded.

[Sidenote: William Ralegh bishop of Norwich.]

[Sidenote: He is consecrated bish. of Winchester by the pope.]

About the same time also, whereas William de Ralegh was requested
to remooue from the sée of Norwich vnto Winchester, and consenting
therevnto, without the kings licence, obteined his confirmation of the
pope: the king was highly displeased therewith, bicause he ment it to
another. Wherevpon when the said William Ralegh was returned from Rome
to be installed, the king sent commandement to the maior and citizens
of Winchester, that they should not suffer him to enter the citie.
Wherevpon he being so kept out, accurssed both the citie and cathedrall
church with all the moonks and others that fauoured the prior, which
had intruded himselfe onelie by the kings authoritie, and not by
lawfull election and means, as was supposed.

[Sidenote: 1244.]

[Sidenote: He steleth out of the realme.]

[Sidenote: He giueth to the pope 6000 marks.]

At length the said bishop vpon gréefe conceiued that the king should
be so heauie lord vnto him, got into a ship at London, and stale
awaie into France, where he was well receiued of the French king, and
greatlie cherished. Also he found such means that the pope in fauour
of his cause wrote letters both to the king and to the quéene, naming
hir his coosen, but which waie that kindered should come about, as
yet it was neuer knowen. The bishop to shew himselfe thankefull for
such fréendship, gaue the pope aboue six thousand marks (as is said)
and the pope bicause he would not be accompted a disdainefull person,
turned not backe one pennie of that which was so gentlie offered him.
At length partlie at contemplation of the popes letters, and partlie
by reason the bishop humbled himselfe in answering the articles which
the king had obiected against him in cause of the controuersie betwixt
them, he granted him his peace, and receiued him into the land,
restoring to him all that had béene taken and deteined from him.

[Sidenote: Martine the popes collectour.]

Moreouer, in this meane while the pope trusting more than inough vpon
the kings simplicitie and patience, who indéed durst not in any case
séeme to displease him, had sent an other collector of monie into
England named Martine, not adorned with power legantine, but furnished
with such authorities and faculties as had not béene heard of. He
was lodged in the temple, where he shewed what commission he had to
gather vp the popes reuenues, and to exact monie by sundrie maner
of meanes, and so fell in hand therewith, vsing no small diligence
therein, vnto the great gréefe and hurt of conscience of manie: he
had power to staie the bestowing of benefices, till he was satisfied
to the full contentation of his mind. Benefices of small value he
regarded not greatlie, but such as were good liuings in déed felt his
heauie and rauenous hands extended towards them. He had power also to
excommunicate, to suspend, and to punish all such as should resist his
will, although neuer so wilfullie bent, in so much that it was said, he
had sundrie blankes vnder the popes bulled seale, bicause that vpon the
sudden he brought foorth such as séemed best to serue for his purpose.
He vsed this his vnmeasurable authoritie to the vttermost, and therein
did not forget his owne profit, but tooke palfries and other presents
of religious men.

¶ But to declare all the practises of this the popes agent, as it would
be too long and tedious a processe, so it is nothing strange that
these his landloping legats and Nuncios haue their manifold collusions
to cousen christian kingdoms of their reuenues. For if they were not
furnished with foxlike fraud and wooluish rauine, they were no fit
factors for him; sith it is required that like maister haue like man.
And therefore he is aptlie described in the likenesse of a man, his
head and face excepted, wherein he resembleth a woolfe; besides that,
he is set foorth with a crosiers staffe in his hand, at the hooke
whereof hangeth his Iudas pursse, wherein are powched vp his pilfered
Peter pence, and I wot not what extorted paiments and pretended duties.
As for his deceits and crafts, he hath more varietie of them, than the
cat of the mounteine hath spots in his skin, or the pecocke hath eies
in his taile. Wherevpon it is trulie said of a late poet,

[Sidenote: _Antithesis de Christi & papæ facinorb. sub authore
anonymo._]

    Sydera nemo potest quot sunt numerare polorum,
      Quot neq; vere nouo gramina campus habet,
    Sic quoq; nemo potest vafri ludibria papæ
      Eius & innumeros commemorare dolos:
    Huic scopus immensum seducere fraudibus orbem,
      Huic scopus humanum ludificare genus.

[Sidenote: The nobles complaine to the king of the popes collector.]

[Sidenote: The king writeth to the pope.]

But to procéed, when men saw such vnreasonable couetousnes and polling,
by the popes procurement; some of the nobility of the realme, not
able longer to beare it, came to the king, and exhibited to him their
complaint hereof, namelie for that the popes procurator bestowed
diuers rich prebends and other rooms in churches vpon strangers knowne
to be infamed for vsurie, simonie, and other heinous vices, which
had no respect to preaching, nor to kéeping of any hospitalitie, for
maintenance whereof their ancestors had giuen foorth their lands to the
inriching of the church, not meaning to haue the same bestowed on such
maner of persons. The king vnderstood that truth it was which was told
him, and therefore writ to the pope in humble wise, beséeching him of
his fatherlie care to take order for some redresse therein.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: The king asketh counsell how to procéed in his warres
against the French king.]

[Sidenote: The possessions of the Normans confiscated.]

About this time the king began to renew his imagination for the
following of the warres against the French king, and therefore asked
the aduise of his councell how he might best attempt the recouerie of
those lands in France which were wrongfullie deteined from him. The
most part of all his ancient councellors were of this opinion, that to
make warre againe in trust of others aid, as had béene attempted so
often before without any profit, should be no wisdome, and therefore
he ought either to forbeare, or els so to prouide himselfe of power
sufficient, without trusting to the support of strangers, as he might
be able with his owne puissance and force to atchiue his enterprise,
for otherwise his trauell should prooue but vaine and to verie small
effect. The king persuaded with these sound reasons, thought not good
to attempt any thing more touching the said warre vnaduisedlie: and
to the end it should not be said how he trusted in vaine vpon the aid
of strangers, he caused all such possessions as the Normans held in
England to be confiscated, to the intent that as well the Normans as
Britons and Poictouins might well vnderstand, that he minded not from
thencefoorth to credit the false promises of rebels, as he that would
now vse onelie the seruice of his owne people the Englishmen, which in
respect of others painted promises he had before contemned.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The occasion why the Normans were disherited.]

The occasion that mooued the king so to disherit the Normans, did
chéefelie rise of the French kings dealing, who about the same time
calling to him all those that had lands in England, required them
either to sticke vnto him inseparablie, either else to the king of
England, sith no man might serue two maisters. Wherevpon some forsaking
their lands in England, liued on those which they had in France, and
other forsooke those liuings which they had in France, and came ouer
into England to liue on those possessions which they had here. But in
the French kings dooings was no inforcing of men, either to forsake
the one or the other: wherfore the procéedings of the king of England
séemed somewhat more iniurious, and partlie sounded to the breach of
the truce. Howbeit all was passed ouer without apparant trouble.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Matt. West._]

[Sidenote: Dauid prince of Wales meaneth to submit himselfe to the
pope.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ pag. 880.]

Whilest all things were thus in quiet, and the king himselfe not
troubled with any outward wars, the Welshmen (who though they were
subdued, yet could not rest in quiet) receiued againe the fornamed
Dauid to their prince, the which for a policie determined himselfe to
make offer to the pope to hold his land of him, yéelding therefore
yearelie vnto him the summe of fiue hundred marks (as is said) to
the end that vnder the wings of the popes protection he might shadow
himselfe, and be defended against all men. At length by large gifts
of no small summes of monie he purchased letters of the pope in his
fauour, to the preiudice of the crowne of England, as touching the
right which the king of England had to the dominion of Wales, as by the
tenour thereof it may appeare, beginning as here insueth. Illustri viro
domino Henrico Dei gratia regi Angliæ, &c.

[Sidenote: The Welshmen discomfited.]

[Sidenote: Dauid fled into Scotland.]

[Sidenote: He prouoketh the king of Scots to make warre against
England.]

Thus Dauid being incouraged herewith and such other of the Welshmen
as tooke his part, at time appointed did set vpon the kings capteins
as they stragled abroad, whom at the first brunt they put to flight,
and slue manie of them here and there as they tooke them at aduenture.
The Englishmen when night was come, and that the Welshmen withdrew to
rest, assembled themselues againe togither, and in the morning with
new recouered force both of mind and bodie, came vpon the Welshmen,
and began with them a new battell, which continued the space of thrée
houres togither, till at length the Welshmen, which rashlie had entred
the fight, began to shrinke backe, and fled to their woonted places
of refuge, the woods and mareshes. Their chiefe capteine Dauid fled
into Scotland, hauing lost in that battell the most part of all his
souldiers which he had there with him. At his comming into Scotland,
and whilest he there remained, he incensed king Alexander against king
Henrie to his vttermost power, putting into his head how reprochfullie
the Englishmen did speake of the Scots, reprouing them of cowardnes &
lacke of stomach; also that they liued according to the prescript of
the English nation, as subiects to the same: and manie other things
he forged, which had béene able to haue mooued a most patient man vnto
indignation and displeasure.

[Sidenote: The king of Scots inuadeth Engl[=a]d.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: King Henrie requireth an aid of monie of his subiects.]

Finallie, either by the prouoking of this Dauid, or by some other
occasion, king Alexander meant to make warres vpon king Henrie indéed,
and in raising an armie made a rode into England, and did some hurt by
incursions, and further signified to king Henrie, as some write, that
he neither ought nor would hold anie part or portion of Scotland of the
king of England. King Henrie sore offended herewith, purposed in time
to be reuenged, and shortlie after called a parlement at Westminster,
in the which he earnestlie mooued the lords and other states to aid him
with monie towards the furnishing of his coffers, being emptied (as
they knew) by his excéeding charges in his last iournie into Gascoigne.
He would not open his meaning which he had to make warre to the Scots,
bicause he would haue his enterprise secretlie kept, till he should be
readie to set forward.

[Sidenote: New orders deuised by the lords.]

But although the king had got the pope to write in his fauour vnto the
lords both spirituall and temporall, to aid him in that his demand of
monie, there was much adoo, and plaine deniall made at the first, to
grant at that time to anie such paiment as was demanded: and eftsoones
they fell in hand with deuising new orders, and namelie to renew againe
their suit for the confirmation of the ancient liberties of the realme,
so as the same might be obserued, according to the grant thereof before
made by the kings letters patents, without all fraud or contradiction.
They also appointed, that there should be foure lords chosen of the
most puissant and discréetest of all other within the realme, which
should be sworne of the kings councell, to order his businesse iustlie
and trulie, and to sée that euerie man had right without respecting of
persons. And these foure chiefe councellors should be euer attending
about the king, or at the least thrée or two of them: also that by
the view, knowledge and witnesse of them, the kings treasure should
be spent and laid foorth, and that if one of them chanced to fall
awaie, an other should be placed in his roome by the appointment of the
residue.

[Sidenote: Vnreasonable requests.]

They would also that the lord chiefe iustice and the lord chancellour
should be chosen by the generall voices of the states assembled, and
bicause it was néedfull that they should be oftentimes with the king,
it was thought they might be chosen out of the number of those foure
aboue rehearsed conseruators of iustice. And if the king at anie time
chanced to take the seale from the lord chancellour, whatsoeuer writing
were sealed in the meane time should be of none effect. They aduised
also, that there should be two iustices of the benches, two barons of
the excheker, and one iustice for the Iewes; and these for that present
to be appointed by publike voices of the states, that as they had to
order all mens matters and businesse, so in their election the assents
of all men might be had and giuen: and that afterwards, when vpon anie
occasion there should be anie elected into the roome of anie of these
iustices, the same should be appointed by one of the afore mentioned
foure councellors.

[Sidenote: The pope sendeth for some aid of monie to mainteine wars
against the emperour.]

[Sidenote: Escuage gr[=a]ted the king.]

But as the Nobles were busie in thrée wéekes space about the deuising
of these ordinances and other, to haue béene decréed as statutes, the
enimie of peace and sower of discord, the diuell, hindred all these
things by the couetousnesse of the pope, who had sent his chapleine
master Martin, with authoritie to leuie also an aid of monie for his
néed to mainteine his wars withall against the emperour; and the
emperour on the other part sent ambassadours to the king, to staie him
and his people from granting anie such aid vnto the pope: so that there
was no lesse hard hold and difficultie shewed in refusing to contribute
vnto this demand of the popes Nuncio, than vnto the kings. At length
yet in another sitting, which was begun thrée wéekes after Candlemasse,
they agréed to giue the king escuage to run towards the marriage of
his eldest daughter, of euerie knights fée holden of the king twentie
shillings to be paid at two termes, the one halfe at Easter, and the
other at Michelmasse.

[Sidenote: The K. with an armie goeth towards Scotland.]

[Sidenote: The king of England and Scotland made fréends.]

After this, the king minding to inuade the Scots, caused the whole
force of all such as ought to serue him in the wars to assemble, and
so with a mightie host he went to new castell vpon Tine, meaning from
thence to inuade the same, in reuenge of such iniuries as the Scots had
doone vnto him and his subiects, and namelie, for that Walter Cumin a
mightie baron of Scotland and other noble men had built two castels
néere to the English confines, the one in Galowaie, and the other in
Louthian, and further had receiued and succoured certeine rebels to
the king of England, as Geffrey de Marisch or Mareis an Irish man,
and others. The king of Scots was aduertised of king Henries approch,
and therefore in defense of himselfe and his countrie, had raised an
huge armie. Herevpon certeine noble men vpon either side, sorie to
vnderstand that such bloudshed should chance as was like to follow (and
that vpon no great apparant cause) if the two kings ioined battel,
tooke paine in the matter to agrée them, which in the end they brought
to passe, so that they were made fréends and wholie reconciled. There
was a publike instrument also made thereof by the king of Scots vnto
king Henrie, signed with his seale, and likewise with the seales of
other noble men, testifieng his allegiance which he owght to the king
of England, as superiour lord, in forme following.



The charter of Alexander king of Scotland made to Henrie the third.


Alexander Dei gratia rex Scotiæ, omnibus Christi fidelibus hoc
scriptum visuris vel audituris, salutem. Ad vestram volumus venire
notitiam, nos pro nobis & hæredibus nostris concessisse, & fideliter
promisisse charissimo & ligio domino nostro Henrico tertio Dei gratia
regi Angliæ illustri domino Hiberniæ, duci Normaniæ & Aquitaniæ, &
comiti Andegauiæ, & eius hæredibus, quòd in perpetuum bonam fidem ei
seruabimus, pariter & amorem. Et quòd nunquam aliquod foedus iniemus
per nos vel per aliquos alios ex parte nostra, cum inimicis domini
regis Angliæ vel hæredum suorum, ad bellum procurandum vel faciendum,
vnde damnum eis vel regnis suis Angliæ & Hiberniæ, aut cæteris terris
suis eueniat, vel possit aliquatenus euenire: nisi nos iniustè
grau[=e]t: stantibus in suo robore conuentionibus inter nos & dictum
dominum regem Angliæ initis vltimo apud Eboracum in præsentia domini
Othonis tituli S. Nicholai in carcere Tulliano, diaconi cardinalis,
tunc apostolicæ sedis legati in Anglia. Et saluis conuentionibus super
matrimonio contrahendo inter filium nostru & filiam dicti domini regis
Angliæ.

Et vt hæc nostra concessio & promissio pro nobis & hæredibus nostris
perpetuæ firmitatis robur obtineant, fecimus iurare in animam
nostram Alanum Ostiarium, Henric[=u] de Baliol, Dauid de Lindesey,
Wilhelmum Gifford, quòd omnia prædicta bona fide firmiter & fideliter
obseruabimus. Et similiter iurare fecimus venerabiles patres, Dauid,
Wilhelmum, Galfridum, & Clementem sancti Andreæ Glasconiensem,
Dunkeldensem, Dublin[=e]sem episcopos: & præterea Malcolmum comitem de
Fife, fidelis nostros, Patricium comitem de Dunbar, Malisium comitem de
Strathern, Walterum Cumin comitem de Menteth, Wilhelmum comitem de Mar,
Alexandrum comitem de Buchquhan, Dauid de Hastings comitem de Athol,
Robertum de Bruis, Alanum Ostiarium, Henricum de Baliol, Rogerum de
Mowbray, Laurentium de Abirnethiæ, Richardum Cumin, Dauid de Lindesey,
Richardum Siward, Wilhelmum de Lindesey, Walterum de Morauia, Wilhelmum
Gifford, Nicholaum de Sully, Wilhelmum de veteri Ponte, Wilhelmum de
Brewer, Anselmum de Mesue, Dauid de Graham, & Stephanum de Suningam.

Quòd si nos vel hæredes nostri, contra concessionem & promissionem
prædictam (quod absit) venerimus, ipsi & hæredes eorum nobis &
hæredibus nostris nullum contra concessionem & promissionem prædictam
auxilium vel consilium impendent, aut ab alijs pro posse suo impendi
permittent. Imò bona fide laborabunt erga nos & hæredes nostros, ipsi
& hæredes eorum, quòd omnia prædicta à nobis & hæredibus nostris nec
non ab ipsis & eorum hæredibus firmiter & fideliter obseruentur in
perpetuum. In cuius rei testimonium tam nos quàm prædicti prælati,
comites & barones nostri præsens scriptum sigillorum suorum appositione
roborauimus. Testibus prælatis, comitibus & baronibus superiùs
nominatis, Anno regni nostri, &c.



The same in English.


Alexander by the grace of God, king of Scotland, to all faithfull
christian people that shall sée or heare this writing, sendeth
gréeting. We will that it be knowne to you, that we for vs and our
heires haue granted and faithfullie promised to our most deare and
liege lord Henrie the third, by the grace of God, the noble king of
England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandie and Guien, and earle of
Aniou, and to his heires, that we will beare and kéepe vnto him good
faith and loue for euer, and that we shall not enter into any league
with our selues, or by others in our behalfe with the enimies of our
said souereigne lord the king of England, or of his heires, to procure
or make warre, whereby any damage may happen to come to them or to
their kingdoms of England and Ireland, or to their other lands, except
vniustlie they doo molest and oppresse vs. The couenants alwaies
standing in force, which were concluded betwixt vs at our last being
togither at Yorke, in the presence of Otho decon cardinall of saint
Nicholas In carcere Tulliano, then legat of the sée apostolike in
England, and sauing the couenants made vpon the contract of the mariage
betwixt our sonne & the daughter of the said king of England.

[Sidenote: The lords sweare to sée the couenants performed.]

And that this promise and grant for vs and our heires may haue the
force and confirmation of an euerlasting assurednesse, we haue caused
these to sweare on our behalfe: Alan Porter, Henrie de Balioll, Dauid
de Lindesey, Wil. Gifford, that we shall in good faith obserue all the
premisses faithfullie and substantiallie, and we haue likewise caused
to sweare the reuerend fathers, Dauid, William, Geffrey, & Clement,
Bishops of S. Andrewes, Glascew, Dunkeld, and Dublane: and furthermore
our faithfull subiects Patrike earle of Dunbar, Malcolme earle of Fife,
Malisius earle of Stratherne, Walter Cumin earle of Menteth, William
earle of Mar, Alexander earle of Buchquhan, Dauid de Hastings earle
of Athol, Robert de Bruis, Alan Porter, Henrie de Balioll, Roger de
Mowbraie, Laurence de Abirnethi, Richard Cumin, Dauid de Lindesey,
Richard Siward, William de Lindesey, Walter de Murraie, William de
Gifford, Nicholas de Sully, William de Veipont, William de Brewer,
Anselme de Mesue, Dauid de Graham, and Stephan de Suningham.

And if that either we or our heires, against the foresaid grant and
promise, shall doo anie thing to the breach therof (which God forbid)
they and their heires shall not imploie either aid or counsell against
the said grant and promise, nor shall suffer other to imploie any such
aid or counsell, so far as they may hinder them therein: yea rather
they and their heires shall in good faith and plaine meaning endeuour
against vs and our heires, that all the premisses may firmelie and
faithfullie be obserued and kept of vs and our heires, and likewise
of them and their heires for euer. In witnesse whereof as well we our
selues, as the said prelats, our earles and barons haue confirmed this
writing by putting their seales vnto the same, the prelats earles and
barons before rehearsed béeing true witnesses therevnto, In the yeare
of our reigne, &c.

       *       *       *       *       *

The seales of king Alexander himselfe, of William de Brewer, William de
Veipont, William de Lindesey, Stephan de Suningham, and the seales of
the rest were set to afterwards, and the writing sent ouer to the king
of England at Christmasse next insuing, by the prior of Tinmouth, who
had trauelled diligentlie and faithfullie in this negotiation to the
honour of both parts. This writing also was sent to the pope, that he
might confirme the same in manner as followeth.



A request made to the pope that he would vouchsafe to confirme the
foresaid charter.


Sanctissimo In Christo patri I. Dei gratia summo pontifici, Alexander
eadem gratia rex Scotiæ, comes Patricius, comes de Strathern, comes
Leuenox, comes de Anegui, comes de Marra, comes de Atholia, comes
de Ros, comes de Catnes, comes de Buth, Rogerus de Mowbray, Rogerus
de Abirnethiæ, Petrus de Mauuere, Richardus Cumin, Wilhelmus de
veteri Ponte, Robertus de Bruis, Rogerus Auenel, Richardus de Sully,
Wilhelm. de Murray de Dunfel, Wilhelmus de Muref de Petin, Iohannes
Biset iuuenis, Wilhelmus de Lindesey, Iohannes de Vallibus, Dauid de
Lindesey, Wilhelmus Gifford, Duncanus de Ergatilia, I. de Matreuers,
Hemerus filius eius, Rogerus comes Wintoniensis, H. comes Oxoniensis,
W. de Vescy, Richardus Siward, Wilhelmus de Ros, Rogerus de Clere,
Henricus filius comitis de Brettere, Eustacius de Stoutville,
Malcolmus de Fif come de Mentethshire, Walterus filius Alani, Walterus
Olifar, Barnardus Fraser, Henricus de Bailliol, Dauid Cumin, Dauid
Mareschallus, Dauid filius Ranulfi, Wilhelmus de Fortere, Ioannes
de Bailliol, & Robertus de Ros, salutem & debitam cum omni honore
reuerentiam.

Sanctitati vestræ significamus, nos sacramentum corporaliter
præstitisse coram venerabili patre Othone, tituli S. Nicolai in
carcere Tulliano diacono cardinalium, in Anglia, Scotia, & Hibernia,
nunc Apostolicæ sedis legato, ac chartam nostram confecisse, quæ ita
incipit: Sciant præsentes & futuri, quòd ita conuenit in præsentia
domini Othonis sancti Nicholai, &c. Quæ charta penes dominum regem
Angliæ, & nos remanet chyrographata. Item aliam quæ sic incipit: Ad
omnium vestrum notitiam volumus peruenire. Cum vt ex forma præcedentium
nostrarum pateat obligationum subiecimus nos iurisdictioni vestræ, vt
nos & hæredes nostros, per censuram ecclesiasticam possitis coërcere,
si aliquo tempore contra memoratam pacem venerimus.

Et si nonnunquam continget, quòd quidam nostrum omnes vel vnus
contrauenire temerè præsumpserint vel præsumere nituntur vel nitentur;
& ex hoc tam animabus nostris quàm hæredum nostrorum graue possit
generari periculum, & corporibus nostris & rebus non minimum immineret
detrimentum: sanctæ paternitati vestræ supplicamus, quatenus alicui
suffraganeorum archiepiscopi Cantuariensis detis in mandatis, vt nos
& hæredes nostros ad præfatæ pacis obseruationem compellat, prout in
instrumentis inde confectis pleniùs continetur. Aliàs super eadem pace
quod canonicum fuerit auctoritate vestra statuat contradictores, &c.
Et ad istius petitionis nostræ consummationem præsenti scripto sigilla
nostra apposuimus.



In English thus.


[Sidenote: The letter of the lords to pope Innocent.]

To Our holie father in Christ I. by the grace of God, the highest
bishop, Alexander by the same grace king of Scotland, earle Patrike,
the earle of Stratherne, the earle of Leuenox, the earle of Angus,
the earle of Mar, the earle of Athole, the earle of Ros, the earle of
Catnesse, the earle of Buch, Roger de Mowbray, Laurence de Abirnethie,
Peter de Mauuere, Richard Cumin, William de Veipont, Robert de Bruis,
Roger Auenel, Nicholas de Sulley, William de Murray de Dunfel, William
de Murray de Petin, Iohn Biset the yoonger, William de Lindesey, Iohn
de Valeis, Dauid de Lindesey, William Gifford, Duncan de Ergile, Iohn
de Matreuers, Eimere his sonne, Roger earle of Winchester, Hugh earle
of Oxford, William de Vescy, Richard Siward, William de Ros, Roger de
Clere, Henrie Fitz conte de Brettere, Eustace de Stouteuille, earle
Malcolme of Fife, the erle of Mentethshire, Walter Fitz Alaine, Walter
Olifard, Barnard Fraser, Henrie de Baillioll, Dauid Cumin, Dauid
Mareschall, Dauid Fitz Randulfe, William de Fortere, Iohn de Bailioll,
and Robert Ros, send gréeting and due reuerence with all honour.

We doo signifie vnto your holinesse, that we haue receiued a corporall
oth before the reuerend father Otho, deacon cardinall of S. Nicholas
In carcere Tulliano, legat to the sée apostolike, in England, Scotland
and Ireland, and haue made our charter or déed, which beginneth thus;
Sciant præsentes, &c. Which charter or déed indented and sealed,
remaineth with the king of England, and with vs. Also another déed
or writing that beginneth thus; Ad omnium vestrum notitiam volumus
peruenire. Whereas therefore by the forme of our precedent déeds
obligatorie, we haue submitted our selues to your iurisdiction, that
you may bridle and restraine vs, and our heires by the ecclesiasticall
censures, if at any time we go against the said peace.

And if it happen at any time, that any of vs all, or one of vs,
shall fortune to presume rashlie and vnaduisedlie to go against it,
or be about, or herafter shall be about so to presume, and therby
may procure great perill as well to the soules of our owne selues,
as of our heires, & no small danger may also be readie through the
same our default to light vpon our bodies & goods, we beséech your
holie fatherhood, that you will giue in commandement vnto some of the
suffragans of the archbishop of Canturburie, that he doo compell vs and
our heires vnto the obseruing of the same peace, accordinglie as in
the instruments thereof more fullie is conteined, or else to order by
your authoritie vpon the same peace, that which shall be agréeable to
the canons, &c. And to the performance of this our petition, we haue to
this present writing set our seales.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: The Welshmen stirre coles.]

When all things were throughlie concluded, and order taken in what
sort the assurances of this accord should passe, the king of Scots
returned into the inner parts of his realme, and the king of England
likewise returned to London. At the same time also the Welshmen were
verie busie: for hearing that the kings of England and Scotland were
agréed, they doubted least all the burthen of the warre would be turned
against them. Wherefore (as it were to preuent the matter) they began
to wast the English confines. The king aduertised thereof, sent Hubert
Fitz Matthew with thrée hundreth knights or men of armes to defend the
English marshes against the Welshmen, that made dailie war against
those that dwelled on the marshes, and namelie against the erle of
Herford, which chéeflie occasioned this warre, by deteining the land
which apperteined vnto the wife of prince Dauid, as in the right of hir
purpartie.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The deceasse of the bishop of Cicester.]

Wherevpon when the Welshmen vnderstood that the king had broken vp
his armie and was returned to London, they inuaded their enimies,
namelie the said earle of Herfords men and the Mortimers, sleaing and
cutting in péeces two valiant and noble knights, and maiming the third,
they slue and ouerthrew of the footbands about an hundred, so that
all the English armie was disordered, and the Welshmen with victorie
returned to their places of refuge. Which when the foresaid Hubert Fitz
Matthew vnderstood, the morrow after he made foorth with his thrée
hundred waged men of armes, in hope to hem in and take the Welshmen
at aduantage: but he was preuented and by them distressed, in so much
that he was constreined with losse of men and horsses to returne to
his holds, and scarse could be suffered to remaine there in safetie.
This yeare Rafe Neuill bishop of Cicester and chancellour of England
departed this life.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 29. P. V.]

[Sidenote: A subsidie of the richer sort.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The citizens of London.]

[Sidenote: The seneshall of Gascoine vanquished the king of Nauarre.]

[Sidenote: Anno, 1242.]

[Sidenote: as _Matt. West._ saith, & _Matth. Paris._]

In the 29 yeare of his reigne, king Henrie hauing spent much treasure
with the great preparation of wars which he had taken in hand against
the Scots, and also bicause he was constreined to be at further charges
for the Welsh wars, he called a parlement to begin on the third daie of
Nouember, in the which he demanded a great reliefe of monie, but the
same being generallie denied of all men, he exacted it in particular of
the richer sort of his subiects, & amongst other he caused the citizens
of London to giue vnto him 15 hundred marks for a fine, bicause they
had receiued a banished man, one Walter Bukerell into their citie,
contrarie to the law and order: but this they denied, affirming that
his brother had got his pardon, as by the kings owne letters patents
they could prooue, but they were answered, that the king was vnder age
when these letters were purchased, and therefore were of none effect.
About the same time, sir Nicholas de Molis or Mules seneshall of
Gascoigne, hauing warres against the king of Nauarre, got the victorie
in battell. ¶ About the midst of Nouember, great thunder and lightning
chanced, with a maruellous vntemperat season for the space of 15 daies
togither, as a signe of some misfortune to succéed.

[Sidenote: 1245.]

On S. Hughs daie died Margaret countesse of Penbroke the widow of
Gilbert Marshall late earle of Penbroke, & sister to the king of Scots,
and shortlie after the bishop of Excester William de Brewer likewise
deceased, as yet being in his florishing age, a man in manners,
parentage, and knowledge right honorable, and highlie commended. ¶ On
the daie of S. Marcellus was the quéene deliuered of a man child, which
at the font was named Edmund.

[Sidenote: Dauid king or prince of Wales.]

In Lent following néere to the castell of Mountgomerie in Wales, thrée
hundred Welshmen were slaine by them that lay in garrison there by a
policie of the capteine, which faining a counterfeited flight, drew
the Welshmen within danger of an ambush, which he had laid to surprise
them vnawares as it came euen to passe according to his deuise. Dauid
that tooke himselfe for king of Wales, coueting to be reuenged of this
displeasure, ceassed not daie nor night to make incursions and to
exploit enterprises to the damage of the marchers, the which valiantlie
resisted the enimies, and droue them oftentimes into the mounteines,
woods, bogs, and other places of refuge, and oftentimes the enimies
hauing the aduantage of place, did much displeasure to the Englishmen.

[Sidenote: Sir Hubert Fitz Matthew slaine.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Monthault taken by the Welshmen.]

[Sidenote: A generall councell.]

Vpon a time as they (being got to the heigth of an hill, to cast downe
stones and throw darts vpon the Englishmen that assailed them beneath)
chanced amongst other to slea with a mightie stone (which they threw
downe by the side of the hill) sir Hubert Fitz Matthew a right valiant
knight, and a man of great accompt for his knowledge and seruice in
warres. Thus the wars continued betwéene the parties, and oftentimes
the Welshmen by the sudden inuasions got the better: their prince
Dauid comming to the castell of Monthault besieged it, and within a
short time wan it, slaieng or taking all those whome he found within
it. The owner thereof the lord Roger de Monthault by chance was not
at home, which happened well for him, where otherwise he had béene in
great danger: but néere to the castell of Mountgomerie the Welshmen
yet were eftsoons ouerthrowne and 200 of them slaine by an ambush that
brake forth vpon their backs. About the middest of Lent the prelats of
England were summoned to come to a generall councell, the which pope
Innocent had appointed to be holden at the feast of S. Iohn Baptist
next following.

[Sidenote: The popes letters staied.]

It chanced that about this time, a post comming from the pope with
letters to his Nuncio maister Martin, conteining instructions how he
should procéed for the gathering of monie, was staied at Douer, by the
practise of such noble men as were gréeued to sée anie such summes of
monie to be conueied out of the realme in sort as was vsed. He was had
into the castell and his letters taken from him, wherein such secrets
were conteined for the getting of monie, as ought not to haue béene
reuealed. Maister Martin hearing that the post was thus staied and
imprisoned, made a gréeuous complaint vnto the king, so that the post
was set at libertie, had his letters to him restored, & so came vnto
master Martin, and deliuered them vnto him that he might vnderstand the
popes pleasure, which others to his griefe vnderstood now as well as
himselfe.

[Sidenote: The valuati[=o] of benefices taken, that perteined to
strangers.]

[Sidenote: This Gilbert was erle of Glocester, Hereford & lord of
Clare.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to the generall councell.]

[Sidenote: These were barons.]

The king this yeare caused inquisition to be made through euerie
countie within the realme, to vnderstand the true valuation of all
such benefices and spirituall promotions as were in the hands of
anie incumbents that were strangers borne, and such as had béene
preferred by the court of Rome, and the whole summe of all their
reuenues was found to be sixtie thousand marks. On Whitsundaie the
king made the earle of Glocester, Gilbert de Clare knight, and 40
other yoong gentlemen that attended vpon him. And perceiuing by the
late inquisition what great reuenues the beneficed strangers had and
possessed within the realme, and againe considering the excéeding great
summes of monie which the court of Rome had recouered of his subiects,
he began to detest such couetous dealing. And herevpon a letter was
deuised by the whole bodie of the realme, wherein were conteined, the
sundrie extortions and manifold exactions of the popes legats, and
other of his chapleines, which vnder colour of his authoritie they
had vsed. There were appointed also to go with these letters vnto
the generall councell, certeine honorable and discréet personages,
as Roger Bigod earle of Northfolke, Iohn Fitz Geffrey, William de
Cantlow, Philip Basset, and Ralfe Fitz Nicholas, with other, the which
presenting the same letters vnto the said assemblie, should declare
the gréefe of the whole realme, and require some redresse and easement
therein.

[Sidenote: A iusts and tornie appointed, and by the kings commandement
disappointed.]

[Sidenote: Fouke Fitz Warren commandeth the popes Nuncio to auoid the
realme.]

Moreouer, it chanced that there was a great number of lords,
knights, and gentlemen assembled togither at Dunstable and Luiton,
to haue kept a martiall iusts, and triumphant tornie, but they had a
countercommandement from the king, not to go forward with the same:
wherevpon, when they were disappointed of their purpose héerin. Vpon
occasion of their being altogither, on the morrow after the feast
of Peter & Paule, they sent from them Fouke Fitz Warren, to declare
vnto maister Martine the popes Nuncio, as then lodging at the temple
in London, in name as it were of all the whole bodie of the realme,
that he should immediatlie depart out of the land. Fouke dooing the
message somewhat after a rough manner, maister Martine asked him what
he was that gaue foorth the said commandement, or whether he spake it
of himselfe or from some other? This commandment (saith Fouke) is sent
to thée, from all those knights and men of armes which latelie were
assembled togither at Dunstable and Luiton.

[Sidenote: The kings answer vnto the popes Nuncio.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: The popes Nuncio sent out of the realme.]

Maister Martine hearing this, got him to the court, and declaring to
the king what message he had receiued, required to vnderstand whether
he was priuie to the matter, or that his people tooke it vpon them
so rashlie without his authoritie or no? To whome the king answered,
that he had not giuen them any authoritie so to command him out of
the realme: but indéed (saith he) my barons doo scarselie forbeare to
rise against me, bicause I haue mainteined and suffered thy pilling
and iniurious polling within this my realme, and I haue had much adoo
to staie them from running vpon thée to pull thée in péeces. Maister
Martine hearing these words, with a fearefull voice besought the king
that he might for the loue of God, and reuerence of the pope, haue
frée passage out of the realme: to whome the king in great displeasure
answered, The diuell that brought thée in carrie thée out, euen to the
pit of hell for me. Howbeit at length, when those that were about the
king had pacified him, he appointed one of the marshals of his house,
called Robert North or Nores, to conduct him to the sea side, and so he
did, but not without great feare, sithens he was afraid of euerie bush,
least men should haue risen vpon him and murthered him. Wherevpon, when
he came to the pope, he made a gréeuous complaint, both against the
king and others.

[Sidenote: S. Peters church at Westminster.]

[Sidenote: The English ambassadors come to the counsell.]

[Sidenote: The English ambassadors threaten the pope, that he should
not haue any tribute out of England.]

The church of saint Peter at Westminster was inlarged, and newlie
repared by the king, speciallie all the east part of it, the old wals
being pulled down, and builded vp in more comelie forme. ¶ The generall
councell, according to the summons giuen, was holden this yeare at
Lions, where it began about midsummer, in which the English ambassadors
being arriued, presented to the pope their leters, directed from the
whole bodie of the realme of England, requiring a redresse in such
things, wherewith (as by the same letters it appeared) the realme found
it selfe sore annoied. The pope promised to take aduise therein, but
sith the matter was weightie, it required respit. Finallie, when they
were earnest in requiring a determinate answer, it was giuen them to
vnderstand, that they should not obteine their desires, wherevpon in
great displeasure they came awaie, threatening and binding their words
with oths, that from thencefoorth they would neuer paie, nor suffer to
be paid, anie tribute to the court of Rome, nor permit the reuenues of
those churches, whereof they were patrones, to be pulled awaie, by anie
prouision of the same court.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

The pope hearing of these things, passed them ouer patientlie, but he
procured the English bishops to set their seales vnto that charter,
which king Iohn had made concerning the tribute, against the mind of
the archbishop of Canturburie Stephan Langton, who at that time, when
king Iohn should seale it, spake sore against it. When king Henrie was
informed hereof, he was gréeuouslie offended; and sware in a great
chafe, that although the bishops had doone otherwise than they ought,
yet would he stand in defense of the liberties of his realme, and would
not so long as he had a day to liue, paie anie dutie to the court of
Rome, vnder the name of a tribute. In this meane while, the king with a
puissant armie inuaded the Welsh rebels, to reduce them to some quiet,
whereas with their continuall incursions and other exploits, they had
sore harried, vexed, and wasted the lands of the kings subiects.

[Sidenote: The king inuades Wales. He buildeth a castell at Gannoke.]

Herevpon the king being entred the countrie, inuaded the same, vnto
the confines of Snowdon, and there he began to build a strong castell
at a place called Gannoke, remaining there about the space of ten
wéeks, during the which, the armie suffered great miserie through want
of vittels and other prouisions namelie apparell, and other helps to
defend themselues from cold, which sore afflicted the souldiers and
men of warre, bicause they laie in the field, and winter as then began
to approch. Moreouer, they were driuen to kéepe watch and ward verie
stronglie, for doubt to be surprised by sudden assaults of the enimies,
the which watched vpon occasion euer to doo some mischéefe.

[Sidenote: The deceasse of the countesse of Oxford, and of the earle of
Deuonshire. Geffrey de March deceaseth.]

[Sidenote: The decease of Raimond earle of Prouance.]

[Sidenote: The decease of the lord Humfreuile.]

The morrow after the Purification of our ladie, Isabell de Boulbec
countesse of Oxenford departed this life, and likewise the morrow
after saint Valentines day died Baldwine de Riuers earle of Deuonshire
and of the Wight. Moreouer, Geffrey de March, a man sometime of great
honour and possessions in Ireland, after he had remained long in exile,
and suffered great miserie, ended the same by naturall death. Also
Raimond earle of Prouance, father to the quéenes of England and France
deceassed this yeare, for whome was kept in England a most solemne
obsequie. Also in the wéeke after Palmesundaie, died a right noble
baron, and warden of the north parts of England, the lord Gilbert
Humfreuile, leauing behind him a yoong sonne, the custodie of whome the
king forthwith committed to the earle of Leicester, not without the
indignation of the earle of Cornewall, who desired the same.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 30.]

[Sidenote: The king returneth foorth of Wales.]

[Sidenote: Irishmen destroied Anglesey.]

[Sidenote: A dearth.]

Finallie, after that the king had lien at Gannoke about the fortifieng
of the castell there, the space of ten wéekes, and saw the worke now
fullie finished, he appointed foorth such as should lie there in
garison, and therewith, on the morrow after the feast of Simon and
Iude, he raised his field, and returned towards England, leauing the
Welshmen in great miserie, and like to starue for want of necessarie
food. For the Ile of Anglesey, which is as a nursse to the Welshmen,
those Irishmen that came to the kings aid, had vtterlie wasted and
destroied. Againe, the king of purpose had consumed all the prouision
of corne and vittels which remained in the marshes, so that in
Cheshire, and other the parts adioining, there was such dearth, that
the people scarse could get sufficient vittels to susteine themselues
withall.

[Sidenote: Brine pits destroied in Wales.]

[Sidenote: The lord Maurice chéefe iustice of Ireland.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Fitz Geffrey lord iustice of Ireland.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The decease of Walter erle Marshall.]

The king also gaue foorth commandement, that no prouision of corne
or vittels should be conueied vnto the Welshmen, out of any parts,
either of England or Ireland, on paine of forfeiting life, lands &
goods. Moreouer, he caused the brine pits in Wales to be stopped vp
and destroied. The king hauing thus ordered his businesse, returned
into England, and shortlie after, taking displeasure with the lord
Maurice, chéefe iustice of Ireland, bicause he had not made such
spéed as had béene conuenient in bringing the Irishmen to his aid,
he discharged him of the office of chéefe iustice, and placed in his
roome Iohn Fitz Geffrey. In this thirtith yeare of king Henries reigne,
Walter earle Marshall and of Penbroke departed this life: and shortlie
after, to wit, thrée daies before Christmasse, his brother Anselme
that succéeded him in the inheritance, deceassed also without issue:
and so all the fiue sonnes of the great earle William Marshall, being
departed this world without heires of their bodies begotten, the whole
heritage descended to the sisters, and so was diuided amongst them as
coparteners.

[Sidenote: 1246.]

The king this yeare held his Christmas at London, and had there with
him a great number of the nobilitie of his realme, which had béene
with him in Wales, that they might be partakers of pastime, mirth and
pleasure, as they had béene participants with him in suffering the
diseases of heat, cold, and other paines abroad in the fields and high
mounteines of Wales, considering with himselfe (as the truth is) that

[Sidenote: _Mal. Pal. in suo Cap._]

    ----vita est quàm proxima letho,
    Quàm meritò spernenda animum si nulla voluptas
    Mulceat, atq; leuent solatia nulla laborem.

[Sidenote: The pope requireth the French king to make war against
England.]

[Sidenote: The French king refuseth to gratifie the pope therein.]

But that no plesure shuld passe without some staine of gréefe, there
was a rumor spred abroad, that the pope conceiued fresh rankor in his
stomach against the king and realme of England, for the complaints
which had béene exhibited in the councell at Lion by the English
orator, for the oppression doone to the church of England: that
therevpon, minding now to be reuenged, as was said, he earnestlie
mooued the French king to make warre against the Englishmen and to
subdue them vnder his dominion: which enterprise the French king
vtterlie refused, both for that he and the king of England were
coosens, and againe, bicause the king of France had no iust title or
right to make claime to England.

[Sidenote: The countesse of Prouance dealeth vniustlie with the king of
England hir sonne in law.]

Further, there was as then a truce betwixt England and France, and
before that England could be subdued, much giltlesse bloud should be
spilt. Also, the christians in the holie land were sore oppressed, and
looked dailie for the arriuall of the king of France, and therefore
he would be loth to attempt any new enterprise to hinder his iornie
thither. But about the feast of the Epiphanie, other news came out
of Prouance, that troubled the king of England worse than the other
before, as thus, That the countesse Beatrice his wiues mother had
deliuered vp the countie of Prouance into the French kings hands,
togither with sixtéene castels, which in right of the quéene ought to
haue remained vnto the king of England. For the safe kéeping wherof
to his vse, the said countesse Beatrice had receiued yéerelie for the
terme of fiue yeares last past, the summe of foure thousand marks
of the king of England, and yet now in the deliuering of them, with
the residue of the countrie vnto the French king, she neuer made any
mention of his right.

[Sidenote: Charles the French kings brother is made earle of Prouance.]

[Sidenote: The archb. of Canturburie purchaseth grant of the pope to
leuie monie.]

Shortlie after also, Charles the French kings brother maried the ladie
Beatrice, yoongest daughter of earle Raimond, and had with hir the
same countie of Prouance, and so was intituled earle thereof, as in
the French historie appeareth. Moreouer, the archbishop of Canturburie
procured a grant from the pope to recouer for one yeare the first
fruits of all cures that chanced to be void within the citie, diocesse,
and prouance of Canturburie, by and during the tearme of seauen yeares
then next following, till the summe of ten thousand marks were leuied,
towards the discharge of the said archbishops debts. The collection
of the which ten thousand marks was assigned by the popes bulles vnto
the bishop of Hereford, who should also leauie two thousand marks of
the reuenues belonging to the church of Canturburie, to be conuerted
to the same vse. The king at the first was sore offended herewith, but
shortlie after, he was pacified and so the archbishop had his will.

[Sidenote: Dauid prince of Wales departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: Ap Griffin chosen prince of Wales.]

[Sidenote: Iews robbed in Oxenford.]

[Sidenote: The Londoners paie a talage.]

After this, about the beginning of the next spring, Dauid prince of
Wales departed this life, after great pensifenesse of mind, for the
destruction and miserie into the which his countrie had béene brought
through the present warres with the Englishmen. After his deceasse,
the Welshmen elected to succéed in his place, the sonne of Griffin,
whom king Henrie had reteined in seruice, and honourablie vsed, euen
of a child: but now that he heard that the Welshmen had elected him to
their prince, he stale away, and fled into Wales. ¶ On the day of the
purification of our ladie, a robberie was committed vpon certeine Iewes
at Oxenford, for the which fact, fiue and fortie of the offenders were
put in prison, but at the suit of Robert bishop of Lincolne, they were
deliuered by the kings commandement, bicause no man impeached them of
anie breach of peace, or other crime. The citizens of London also about
the beginning of the spring, were compelled to paie a talage, wherewith
they found themselues sore aggréeued.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: A statute against hunters.]

About the middest of Lent, there was a parlement holden at London,
wherein diuerse statutes and ordinances were deuised, as penalties
for those that offended in other mens parks and warrens: but the
chéefest occasion of assembling this parlement, was to take aduise in
matters touching the gréefes wherewith the church of England séemed
to be oppressed by the pope and the court of Rome. The pope indéed
to quiet the English ambassadors, and to put the king and realme in
some good hope of reléefe and deliuerance out of such oppressions, as
were opened vnto him in the face of the whole councell, did not onelie
promise largelie, but also caused diuerse priuileges to be made and
deliuered vnto the said ambassadors verie fauorablie, in the behalfe
of their request. But yet the same notwithstanding, sith the breaking
vp of the said generall councell, and return to the ambassadors, manie
things were doone, to the increasing and continuation of the former
gréefes, so that they stood in doubt of further oppressions to follow,
rather than in hope of the promised redresse. Herevpon they concluded
eftsoones to write vnto the pope, and to the cardinals, both in name of
the king, of the bishops and prelats, of the earles, barons, and other
estates of the temporaltie, and of the abbats and priors. In the meane
time, the pope for a while somewhat relented in the point of bestowing
benefices here in England, for when any of his fréends or kinsmen was
to be preferred to any benefice within this realme, he would sue to the
king for his grant and good will, that such a one might be admitted,
and not séeme of himselfe to grant it without the kings consent.

[Sidenote: The earle of Sauoy dooth homage to the K. of England.]

[Sidenote: Roger Bigod intitled to the office of earle Marshall.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Harold king of Man.]

[Sidenote: Welshmen receiued to the kings peace, vpon their submission.]

The earle of Sauoy in the presence of the archbishop of Canturburie,
and the bishop of Hereford and others, did homage to the king of
England, acknowledging to hold of him certeine fées, as those of Suse,
Auillian, S. Maurice de Chablais, and the castell of Bard, which he
might well doo, not preiudicing the right of the empire, sith he held
nothing of the same empire, except Aigues and the passages. This yeare,
the office of the earle Marshall was giuen to Roger Bigod, earle
of Northfolke, in right of his wife the countesse, that was eldest
daughter vnto the great earle William Marshall. ¶ Moreouer, in this
yeare the king holding his Easter at London, honored Harold king of Man
with the order of knighthood. About the same time, diuerse noble men of
Wales submitted themselues, and were receiued vnto the kings peace. ¶
On saint Markes day was a great frost and snow, which nipped the leaues
of trées and hearbes in such extreame wise, that for the more part they
withered and faded awaie.

[Sidenote: A decrée of the pope.]

Furthermore, bicause the pope vnderstood, that diuerse rich beneficed
men were of late dead in England intestate, as Robert Hailes the
archdeacon of Lincolne, Almerike the archdeacon of Bedford, and Iohn
Hotospe archdeacon of Northhampton, he ordeined a decrée, that all
such spirituall persons as died intestate, their goods should remaine
to the pope. The execution of which decrée he commanded to the friers
preachers and minors: but the king would not suffer it to take place,
bicause he saw that it should redound to the preiudice of him and
his kingdome. Wherein the popes oppression and wrong offered to the
dead (by whose deceasse their suruiuing fréends should be benefited)
and his cruell couetousnes extending to the verie senseles corpse
dooth manifestlie appeare, so that it was verified of him, by waie of
comparison,

    Carniuorax tumidis vt gaudet hyæna sepulchris,
      Sic instat putidis ille cadaueribus.

Also, where the pope required a talage of the clergie, the king flatlie
forbad it by his letters inhibitorie.

[Sidenote: A proclamation inhibiting monie to be sent to the pope.]

In this meane while, William Powis chapleine, and sir Henrie de Lamere
knight, which were sent with the second letters, deuised in the
late parlement (as ye haue heard) to be preferred vnto the pope and
cardinals, returned againe without obteining anie towardlie answer,
but rather (as they declared) they found the pope sharp and rough in
spéech, saieng, "The king of England which now kicketh against the
church, & beginneth to plaie Frederikes part, hath his counsell, & so
likewise haue I, which I intend to follow." Other answer they cold
not obteine. Againe, the Englishmen that were sutors in the court
of Rome, were strangelie vsed, and could not get anie dispatch in
their businesse, but were rather put backe as schismatikes, and with
rebukes reuiled. Herevpon the king called a parlement at Winchester,
to haue the aduise of his lords in this matter, where how soeuer they
agréed, proclamation was immediatlie set forth, and published in euerie
shire & countie through the realme, that no man should consent to the
popes contribution, nor send anie monie out of the realme to his aid.
When the pope heard of this, he wrote verie sharplie to the bishops,
commanding them on paine of excommunication and suspension, to satisfie
his Nuncio remaining at the new temple in London, before the feast of
the Assumption of our ladie. And whereas the king minded to haue stood
in the matter through threats of his brother the earle of Cornewall,
and of certeine prelats, namelie, the bishop of Worcester (who had
authoritie as was said to interdict the land) he yéelded and suffered
the pope to haue his will, to the great griefe and discomfort of manie.

[Sidenote: A sore tempest of haile.]

[Sidenote: Isabell the kings mother departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: Roger de Quincie earle of Winchester. Iohn lord Neuill
departed this life with diuers other.]

On S. Margarets daie, there fortuned a maruellous sore tempest of
haile, raine, thunder and lightning, which being vniuersall through
the realme, did much hurt, & continued the space of 16 houres togither
without ceassing. This yéere, sundrie noble personages departed this
world, as Isabell the kings mother, wife to the earle of March in
Poictou. Also, the countesse of Albemarle, the daughter of Alaine
of Galloway, and sister to the countesse of Winchester: wherevpon,
a great part of Gallowaie that belonged to hir (for that she died
without issue) remained to Roger de Quincie earle of Winchester, that
married the eldest sister. Moreouer, Iohn lord Neuill died this yeare,
which had béene chiefe forrester of England: but he was not onelie put
out of that office for certeine transgressions, but also out of the
kings fauor before he died, where (at first) none was more estéemed
in the court than he. The bishop of Salisburie, named master Robert
de Bingham, died also this yeare, and sir Richard de Argenton knight,
a right noble personage, which in the holie land had shewed good
proofe of his high valiancie, manhood, & prowesse: likewise sir Henrie
Bailioll of the north, and diuerse other.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 31.]

[Sidenote: 1247.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Intollerable exactions.]

[Sidenote: Peter de Sauoy earle of Richmond.]

In the beginning of the one and thirtith yeare of king Henries reigne,
the pope sent into England to haue the third part of one yeares
profit of euerie beneficed man that was resident, and of euerie one
not resident the one halfe. The bishop of London should haue séene
this aid and collection leuied, but it would not be granted. And in a
parlement called this yeare on the morrow after the Purification of our
ladie, it was ordenied, that new letters sealed with the common seale
of the citie of London should be sent by sufficient messengers, from
all the estates of the realme, vnto the pope and cardinals, requiring
a moderation to be had in such exactions as were intollerable for the
realme to beare. Whilest this parlement yet lasted, there came ouer the
lord Peter of Sauoy earle of Richmond, bringing with him certein yoong
ladies and damsels, to be bestowed in marriage on such yoong lords and
gentlemen as were wards to the king.

[Sidenote: An earthquake.]

[Sidenote: A strange woonder.]

[Sidenote: Continuall raine.]

On S. Valentines euen, a great earthquake happened here in England,
and namelie about London, on the Thames side, with the which manie
buildings were ouerthrowen. These earthquakes, the seldomer they
chance in England, the more dreadfull the same are, and thought to
signifie some great alteration. A litle before this earthquake, the
sea had ceassed from ebbing and flowing for the space of thrée moneths
togither, by a long tract néere to the English shore, to the great
maruell of many, for either it flowed not at all, or else so little
that it might not be perceiued. And after the earthquake, there
followed such a season of foule weather, that the spring séemed to be
changed into winter for scarse was there anie daie without raine, till
the feast of the translation of S. Benet.

[Sidenote: Acts made to restraine presumptuous authoritie of the
spiritualtie.]

[Sidenote: The popes collectors.]

[Sidenote: A shift by forbearing the name of legat.]

There were at this time diuerse ordinances decréed and enacted by waie
of prohibition, to restreine the authoritie of spirituall persons,
as that no ecclesiasticall iudge should determine in causes of anie
temporall man, except touching causes of matrimonie and testaments.
They were also prohibited to sue anie actions touching tithes, before
anie spirituall iudge, and the writ whereby they were prohibited, was
called an Indicauit. Sundrie other such ordinances were deuised, which
for bréefenesse we omit. What spéed or answer so euer the messengers
had that were sent to Rome with the letters deuised in the late
parlement, truth it is, that the pope sent ouer into England such of
his agents as gathered no small sums of monie amongst the cleargie, as
one Marinus, and an other named Iohannes Anglicus a frier minor, the
which were not intituled by the name of legats, to saue the priuileges
which the king had, that no legat might come into the realme without
his licence. The comming ouer of these men, bicause it was to gather
monie, contented not manie mens minds, as well appeared in a parlement
called at Oxford about reformation thereof, but yet notwithstanding it
was there agréed, that the pope should haue eleuen thousand marks to
be leuied amongst them of the spiritualtie, exempt persons and places
reserued.

[Sidenote: The emperor of Constantinople commeth into England.]

[Sidenote: A cardinall c[=o]meth into England, receiuing an oth not to
preiudice ye realme.]

[Sidenote: The kings halfe brethren came to sée the king.]

[Sidenote: The cardinall maketh shift for monie.]

About the same time, Baldwine naming himselfe emperour of
Constantinople, came againe into England, to procure some new aid of
the king, towards the recouerie of his empire, out of the which he was
expelled by the Gréekes. ¶ Also, there arriued in England a cardinall
that was bishop of Sabine, hauing first receiued an oth, that he came
not for anie hurt to the king or his realme, for otherwise being a
legat he might not be suffered to enter the land: he came this waie
to passe ouer into Norwaie, whither he went to crowne and annoint
Hacon king of that realme. There arriued here with him the thrée
halfe brethren to the king, Guy de Lucignan, William de Valence, &
Athelmare a préest, with their sister Alice. All these were begotten
by Hugh Brun earle of March, of quéene Isabell the kings mother, and
were therefore ioifullie receiued of the king, with faithfull promise,
that he would be to them a beneficiall good brother, which his saiengs
with effectuall déeds he after fullie performed. The cardinall hauing
saluted the king, tooke leaue of him and came to Lin, where he staied
at the point of thrée moneths, making such purchase amongst religious
men, that what by procuracies and other shifts, he got as was thought,
a foure thousand marks towards his charges, and so departed. Edmund
Lacie earle of Lincolne, and Richard de Burgh, as then wards to the
king, were married vnto two of those yoong ladies of Prouance, which
Peter de Sauoy earle of Richmond brought ouer with him, whereat manie
of the English nobilitie grudged.

[Sidenote: William de Valence marrieth lord Montch[=e]cies daughter.]

[Sidenote: Gaston de Bierne maketh war against the kings lieutenant.]

[Sidenote: Préests of the prouince of Canturburie suspended.]

[Sidenote: Sir Fouke de Newcastell the kings coosen by his mother
departeth this life.]

Also, about the thirtéenth of August, the ladie Ione daughter to the
lord Guarine de Montchencie, was married vnto William de Valence the
kings halfe brother. The same ladie was heire to hir fathers lands,
by the death of hir brother the sonne of the said lord Guarine.
Sir William de Bueles knight a Norman borne, was made seneshall of
Gascoigne about this season, and was sore vexed with wars by Gaston
the sonne of the countesse of Bierne and others, which Gaston shewed
himselfe verie vnthankefull, for the king had giuen both to him and to
his mother (a woman of a monstrous stature) verie large interteinement
to serue him in his wars at his last being in that countrie (as before
ye haue heard.) The archbishop of Canturburie suspended the préests of
his prouince, bicause they would not consent (according to the grant
which he had purchased of the pope) that he should haue the first
fruits for one yeare, of euerie benefice that chanced to be vacant
within the same prouince. The earles of Cornewall and Penbroke got much
monie by waie of a collection, towards the reliefe of the warres in the
holie land, hauing purchased of the pope certeine buls of indulgence
for the same. Sir Fouke de Newcastell a valiant knight, and coosen
germane to the king on the mothers side died at London, during the time
of the parlement.

[Sidenote: Pardon granted by bishops.]

On the thirtéenth of October was a portion of the holie bloud of Christ
(as it was then supposed) shewed in most reuerent wise in a solemne
procession, for the king comming to the church of S. Paule in London,
receiued there the same bloud conteined in a christalline glasse, the
which he bare vnder a canopie supported with four staues, through the
stréets, vnto the abbeie church of Westminster. His armes were also
supported by two lords as aids to him all the waie as he went. The
masters of the Templers and Hospitallers had sent this relike to the
king. To describe the whole course and order of the procession and
feast kept that daie, would require a speciall treatise. But this is
not to be forgotten, that the same daie the bishop of Norwich preached
before the king in commendation of that relike, pronouncing six years
and one hundred and sixtéene daies of pardon, granted by the bishops
there present, to all that came to reuerence it.

[Sidenote: Knights made.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 32.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Winchester besieged in Galloway by his owne
tenants.]

Also the same daie and in the same church, the king made his halfe
brother William de Valence, and diuerse other yoong bachelors, knights.
Vnto the said William de Valence, for his further aduancement and
maintenance, he gaue the castell of Hertford, and the honor therto
belonging, with great treasure: & to the elder brother Guy de Lucignan,
which about the same time returned into France, he gaue verie great
and honorable gifts, lading his sumpters with plate and treasure of
sterling monie, which in those daies in all countries was verie much
estéemed. The earle of Winchester remaining in Gallowaie, where he
had faire possessions in right of his wife, was besieged of his owne
tenants, within a castell wherein he lodged, and being in danger either
to die through famine, or else at the discretion of the enimies, he
burst forth, and making way with his sword, escaped, and comming to the
king of Scots, complained of the iniurie doone to him by his people,
wherevpon the king tooke such order, that the rebels were punished, and
the earle set in quiet possession of his lands againe.

[Sidenote: William earle Ferrers departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: 1248.]

[Sidenote: The countesse of Prouance commeth into England.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

Toward the latter end of Nouember, William earle Ferrers & of Derbie
departed this life, a man of great yeares and long troubled with
the gout, a iust man and a peaceable. The same moneth the countesse
his wife died also, a woman of yeares, vertue and fame like to hir
husband: Thomas Becket the archbishop of Canturburie did minister the
priests office at their marriage. Their eldest sonne William succéeded
his father in the earledome, a good man and a discréet, but vexed
with the gout verie pitifullie, hauing that disease also as it were,
by inheritance from his father. There died likewise other of the
nobilitie, as Richard de Burgh, and William Fitz Ham. Beatrice the
countesse of Prouance mother to the quéene and Thomas de Sauoy late
earle of Flanders, came into England to visit the king and quéene and
were honorablie receiued, and at their departure backe towards home,
richlie rewarded. This yeare in the octaues of the Purification, a
parlement was holden at London, where all the nobilitie of the realme
in manner was present. There were nine bishops, as the archbishop of
Yorke, with the bishops of Winchester, Lincolne, Norwich, Worcester,
Chichester, Elie, Rochester and Carlell, with the earles of Cornewall,
Leicester, Winchester, Hereford, Northfolke, Oxford, Lincolne, Ferrers,
and Warwike, with Peter de Sauoy earle of Richmond, besides lords and
barons. The archbishop of Canturburie was at the court of Rome, & the
bishop of Duresme was letted by sicknesse.

[Sidenote: A subsidie demanded.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The king charged for his immoderate inriching of strangers.]

[Sidenote: The parlem[=e]t proroged.]

In this parlement king Henrie earnestlie required a subsidie, in
reliefe of the great charges which he had diuerse waies susteined,
wherevpon he was streightwaies by the péeres of the realme noted both
of couetousnesse, vnthankfulnesse, and breach of promise, bicause he
neuer ceassed gathering of monie, without regard had to his people: and
where he had promised manie things, as that he would not be burdenous
vnto them, and such like; he had performed verie little of those his
gaie promises. Manie misdemeanors, and wrongfull dooings, to the
gréeuance of his people were opened and laid before him, as cherishing
and inriching of strangers, & vsing his prerogatiues too largelie, to
the great decaie & hinderance of the common-wealth. The king abashed
herewith, and supposing that the confession of his fault should
make amends, & aswage the displesure which his Nobles and other had
conceiued at his misgouernance, to content them all with one answer,
he promised that he would reforme all that was amisse, and so quieting
the minds of his barons, the parlement was proroged till the quindene
of the natiuitie of S. Iohn Baptist. Wherein his prudence and wisedome
was to be commended, but his patience deserueth excéeding great
praise, whereby he shewed himselfe princelike-minded, in that he could
tollerate the exprobation and casting of his faults in his face, euen
by such as should rather haue concealed than disclosed them: wheras
it had stood with his roialtie to haue giuen them the counterchecke,
and in angrie mood to haue tamed their malapertnese: but that he
prouidentlie considered that

          ----parit ira furorem,
    Turpia verba furor, verbis ex turpibus exit
    Rixa, ex hac oritur vulnus, de vulnere lethum:
          ----patientia virtus,
    Qua quicúnq; caret, careat probitate necesse est.
    Qui nil ferre potest, hominum commercia vitet.

[Sidenote: An ordinance for monie.]

[Sidenote: Inquirie made for washers & clippers of monie.]

About the same time, by reason that the sterling monie was generallie
so clipped, that the inscription was cut off for the most part euen
to the inner circle, a proclamation was set foorth, that no péeces
thereof should passe from one to an other, nor be receiued as currant
and lawfull monie, except the same were of iust weight and fashion.
Herewith also inquirie was made for those that had so defaced it, and
sundrie Iewes bankers, and cloth-merchants of Flanders were found
giltie. Also, the French king caused serch to be made within his realme
for the same offendors, and such as were found giltie, were hanged, so
that he was more seuere in punishing those falsifiers of the king of
Englands coine, than the king of England was himselfe.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The parlem[=e]t dissolued.]

[Sidenote: The king driuen to sell his plate.]

The parlement began againe at the day appointed, but nothing to accompt
of was then concluded, but rather a displeasure kindled betwixt the
king and his barons, for that they looked for a reformation in his
dooings, and he for monie out of their coffers, which would not be
granted, and so that parlement brake vp. The king herevpon for want
of monie, was driuen to so hard a shift, that he was constreined to
sell his plate and iewels (which the Londoners bought) so much to his
hinderance, that diuers péeces (the workemanship whereof was more
woorth than the value of the stuffe) were sold notwithstanding after
the rate as they weied.

[Sidenote: S. Edwards faire at Westminster.]

This yeare, the king caused a faire to be kept at Westminster at saint
Edwards tide, to indure for fiftéene daies, and to the end that the
same should be the more haunted with all manner of people, he commanded
by proclamation, that all other faires, as Elie, and such like holden
in that season, should not be kept, nor that any wares should be shewed
within the citie of London, either in shop or without, but that such
as would sell, should come for that time vnto Westminster: which was
doone, not without great trouble and paines to the citizens, which had
not roome there, but in booths and tents, to their great disquieting
and disease, for want of necessarie prouision, being turmoiled too
pitifullie in mire and dirt, through occasion of raine that fell in
that vnseasonable time of the yeare. The bishop of Elie complained sore
of the wrong doone to him by suspending his faire at Elie aforesaid.

[Sidenote: Sir Richard Sward deceasseth.]

[Sidenote: Death of bishops.]

[Sidenote: An eclipse.]

[Sidenote: Newcastell burnt by casuall fire.]

[Sidenote: The archb. of Cant. curseth.]

Sir Richard Sward died this yeare, after he had laien a long time vexed
with the palsie, which sir Richard had in his daies béene a right
worthie and famous knight. There died also the bishops of Bath and
saint Dauids. In the first day of Iune, the moone immediatlie vpon the
setting of the sunne, was almost wholie eclipsed, so that little of hir
might appeare. The towne of Newcastell vpon Tine was almost whollie
consumed with fire, togither with the bridge there. The archbishop of
Canturburie remaining still with the pope by his procurator the deane
of Beauueis, denounced all them accurssed which went about to impeach
him of receiuing the first fruits of benefices that voided, which he
had by the popes grant, the king and quéene, with their children, and
the kings brother the earle of Cornewall onelie excepted out of that
cursse.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 33.]

[Sidenote: An erthquake.]

[Sidenote: 1249.]

There chanced another earthquake foure daies before Christmasse,
namelie in the west countrie about Bath and Welles, which shooke and
ouerthrew some buildings, speciallie the tops and summets of stéeples,
turrets and chimnies were shaken therewith, and not the bases or lower
parts. ¶ In Christmasse following, the earle of Leicester returned out
of Gascoigne, where he had béene as generall against Gaston de Bierne,
whom he had so afflicted and put to the worse, that the same Gaston was
glad to sue for an abstinence of warre, where before he had doone much
hurt to the kings subiects. The said earle had also with the aid of the
kings subiects apprehended an other rebell, one William Berthram de
Egremont who had doone much hurt in the parts of Gascoigne, and in the
confines there, whome he had left in prison within the castell of the
Rioll.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Durham resigneth his bishoprike.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The king practiseth to get monie.]

[Sidenote: A nest of théeues brok[=e].]

This yeare a little before Candlemas, the bishop of Durham being a
man of great yeares, by licence obteined of the pope, resigned his
miter, reseruing to himselfe onelie thrée manors, Houeden with the
appurtenances, Stocton and Euerington. The king hauing the last yeare
receiued of his subiects a deniall of a generall subsidie to be granted
him, practised this yeare to get some reléefe at their hands, in
calling each of them apart: but first he got two thousand marks of the
citie of London, and after fell in hand with the abbats and priors, of
whome he got somewhat, though sore against their willes. By occasion of
two merchant strangers of Brabant, which chanced to be robbed about the
parts of Winchester, whilest the king was there, vpon their importunate
suit and complaint, there was a great nest of théeues broken, amongst
the which were manie wealthie persons and fréeholders, such as vsed
to passe on life and death of their owne companions, to whom they
were fauourable inough you may be sure: also, there were some of the
kings seruants amongst them. About thirtie of those offendors were
apprehended, and put to execution, besides those that escaped, some
into sanctuarie, and some into voluntarie exile, running out of and
vtterlie forsaking the countrie.

[Sidenote: The archbish. of Rone.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Great raine.]

About Easter, the archbishop of Rone came ouer into England, and
dooing homage for such reuenues as belonged to his church here within
this realme, had the same restored vnto him. In Iune there fell such
abundance of raine, speciallie about Abington, that the willow trées,
milles, and other houses standing néere to the water side, were borne
downe and ouerturned, with one chapell also: and the corne in the field
was so beaten to the ground, that bread made thereof after it was ripe,
séemed as it had béene made of bran.

[Sidenote: The earle of Salisburie & other go into the holie land.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The spite of the French towards the Englishmen.]

About the same time, William de Longespée earle of Salisburie, and
Robert de Véer, with other Englishmen, to the number of two hundred
knights, hauing taken on them the crosse, went into the holie land, the
said earle being their chéefe capteine, and had so prosperous spéed
in their iornie, that they arriued safe and sound in the christian
armie, where (the French king being chéefe thereof) they were receiued
ioifullie. But yet (as Matthew Paris writeth) the pride and disdaine
of the Frenchmen was so great, that vpon spite and enuie conceiued at
the Englishmens glorie, which bare themselues right worthilie, the
Frenchmen vsed the Englishmen nothing fréendlie; & namelie the earle of
Arras sticked not to speake manie reprochfull words against the said
William de Longespée and his people, whereat they could not but take
great indignation.

[Sidenote: Peter de Geneure.]

[Sidenote: The decease of Roger Fitz Iohn.]

[Sidenote: The death of Hugh le Brun.]

Also the same season, the earle of Leicester, who had likewise
receiued the crosse, deferred his iournie for a time, and sailing
into Gascoigne, mightilie there subdued the kings enimies, as Gaston
de Bierne, also one Rusteine, and William de Solares. This yeare died
Peter de Geneure, a Prouancois borne, whome the king had preferred in
marriage vnto the ladie Maud, daughter and heire of Walter Lacie a man
of faire possessions in Ireland. Of which marriage there came issue
a sonne and a daughter. Also about Whitsuntide died a noble baron of
the north parts, named the lord Roger Fitz Iohn, whose sonne and heire
being yoong, was giuen in wardship to William de Valence the kings
halfe brother. Also this yeare Hugh earle of March, father to the same
William de Valence died in Cipres, whilest the French armie wintered
there, as then going into the holie land.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 34.]

[Sidenote: The archb. of Canturburie inthronized.]

[Sidenote: A tornie holden at Brackley, or (as some copies haue) at
Barkley.]

[Sidenote: 1250.]

[Sidenote: Edmond son to Richard earle of Cornwall borne.]

[Sidenote: An ambassage sent to the pope.]

In the feast of All saints, the archbishop Bonifacius was inthronized
at Canturburie, and kept a solemne feast, at the which the king and
quéene, with the more part of all the prelats of the land were present.
About this season was a great tornie and iusts holden at Brackley,
where the earle of Glocester (contrarie to his accustomed maner)
fauoured the part of the strangers, whereby they preuailed. In somuch
that William de Valence handled one sir William de Odingesselles verie
roughlie, the same sir William being a right woorthie knight. About the
same time, the countesse of Cornewall at Berkehamstéed was deliuered
of a sonne named Edmund. This yeare about the beginning of the spring,
the kings brother the earle of Cornewall with other Noble men of the
realme, as the earle of Glocester, Henrie Hastings baron, & Roger
Thurkebie, went ouer into France in princelie arraie and furniture to
visit the pope, who held his court still at the citie of Lions. The
bishop of Lincolne also and the bishop of Worcester went thither. For
what cause the other went, it was not openlie knowne. But the bishop of
Lincolne went thither about such businesse as he had in hand against
the Templers, Hospitalers, and such other which had appealed from him
to the court of Rome, where he could not bring his purposse to passe,
for his aduersaries with monie had purchased the iudges fauour. And so
the bishop returned, hauing spent his trauell and monie in vaine.

[Sidenote: The king taketh on him the crosse.]

[Sidenote: The lord Roger de Monthault.]

On the 6 of March being sundaie, the king tooke vpon him the crosse,
with his brother de Valence, and a great number of other Noble men, and
amongst other the abbat of Burie, to the preiudice (as was thought)
of his order. Roger de Monthault, a baron of great honour, meaning
verelie to go in that iournie, to recouer monie towards his necessarie
furniture, set and sold the most part of his liuings. His woods and
possessions, which he had about Couentrie, he sold and let to fée farme
vnto the couent there. The like chieuance was made by sundrie noble
men, which prepared themselues to go in that iournie.

[Sidenote: Gaston de Bierne submiteth himself to the king.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester his seruice in Gascoigne.]

Vpon the 27 day of Aprill those that had taken on them the crosse,
assembled at Bermondsey besides London, to treat of their setting
forward, determining that the same should be at Midsummer next: but
by the popes letters which the king procured, they were commanded to
staie till the king himselfe went. Thus their iournie for that time
was disappointed. There was of them and their retinues that meant thus
to haue gone, fiue hundreth knights, besides yeomen or demilances and
other common souldiers in great numbers. Gaston de Bierne was so driuen
to his shifts by the high prowesse of the earle of Leicester, that
in the end he was constreined to come ouer into England, and submit
himselfe to the king, whom he found at Clarendon, where he gat such
mercie at the kings hands, that he was pardoned and restored to his
lands. But the earle of Leicester put the king in possession of the
castels of Fronsacke, Egremount, and others, and banished Rustein, and
William de Solares, with diuerse other stubborne and disloiall rebels,
depriuing them of their lands and inheritance in that countrie.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Lincolne.]

[Sidenote: An inhibition procured by the king of the pope.]

The bishop of Lincolne did excommunicat a préest within his diocesse,
that was accused of incontinencie. And bicause the same préest
continued fortie daies without séeking to be reconciled, the bishop
sent to the shiriffe of Rutland, within whose bailiwike the same préest
dwelled, to apprehend him as a disobedient and rebellious person: but
the shiriffe winked at the matter, and would not execute the bishops
commandement, wherevpon the bishop did also excommunicat the shiriffe:
whereof the king being informed, tooke displeasure, and sending to the
pope, procured an inhibition, that no archbishop nor bishop should
compell anie officer belonging to the king, to follow anie suit afore
them, for those things that apperteined to the kings iurisdiction, or
giue sentence against them for the same.

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornwall returneth from the pope.]

[Sidenote: The king spareth to bring himselfe out of debt.]

The mondaie before the Rogation wéeke, Richard the kings brother earle
of Cornewall, returned from the court of Rome, where he had béene about
certeine businesse unknown to most men: but whatsoeuer the same was,
the pope gaue him most courteous and honorable interteinement for his
welcome, and made him great cheare during his abode at Lions, where the
popes court as then laie. ¶ About this season, the K. to rid himselfe
out of debt, wherein he was indangered to certeine merchants, lessened
the charges of his houshold, and kept but a meane port, diminishing
euen the accustomed almesse of the poore, and also the great number
of tapers and lights in his chappell, so that he was noted with the
blame of too much niggardlie sparing and pinching: but in that he
discharged his debt to the merchants, he was thought to doo wiselie and
charitablie, for that he would not sée them hindered to whom he was so
indebted; besides the opinion that he had concerning himselfe, namelie
that

    Profectum faciunt rarum quos debita stringunt.

[Sidenote: The Iewes constreined to helpe the king with monie.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: A generall chapter of ye friers preachers.]

About the same time also, he caused the Iewes to giue vnto him a great
portion of their goods, so that they were greatlie impouerished. There
was one of them named Aaron borne in Yorke, the which since the kings
last returne out of Gascoigne, had paied to the king the summe of
thirtie thousand markes, ouer and besides two hundred marks which he
had giuen to the quéene, as the same Aaron protested to Matthew Paris,
vpon his faith and truth which he bare to his law. In the Whitsunwéeke
was a generall chapter holden of the friers preachers at London in
Holborne, where out of sundrie parts of the world were assembled aboue
foure hundred of them, and they had meat and drinke found them of
almesse, bicause they possessed nothing of their owne. On the first
daie the king came into their chapter, that he might be partaker of
their praiers, and found them meat and drinke that day, and dined
there with them, to doo them the more honour. Another day the quéene
likewise fed them, and afterwards the bishop of London, the abbats of
Westminster, S. Albon, and Waltham, with others.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Strife betwixt the L[=o]doners and the abbat of Westminster.]

[Sidenote: William de Kilkennie kéeper of the great seale.]

About the same season the citizens of London found themselues gréeued
verie sore, for such liberties as the king granted to the abbat of
Westminster, to the great hinderance and decaie of the franchises of
their citie. The maior and communaltie resisted all that they might
against those liberties, and finallie by the good helpe and fauour of
the lords, as the earles of Cornewall and Leicester, they obteined
their purpose. This yeare maister William de Kilkennie, a sober,
faithfull and learned man, was made kéeper of the great seale. ¶ The
same yeare vpon inquisition made by Geffrey de Langley, one of the
kings councell of transgressors in forrestes and chases, manie that had
offended were presented, and most gréeuouslie punished by imprisonment,
fines, and excéeding great amercements, and namelie in the north
countrie.

[Sidenote: Robert de Lexinton departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: The lord Henrie Hastings deceaseth.]

[Sidenote: Robert Muschampe.]

[Sidenote: Athelmarle the kings half brother made bishop of Winchester.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Salisburie slaine by the Saracens.]

On the ninetéenth of Maie died Robert de Lexinton clearke, the which
hauing continued a long time in the office of a iudge, purchased to
himselfe great fame, and also most large possessions. But certeine
yéeres before his death, bicause he was diseased with the palsie, he
gaue ouer that office, and drew himself into a quiet trade of life, so
ending his daies in praiers and dooing of almesdéeds. About the feast
of S. Margaret died Henrie Hastings a noble baron, and one Robert
de Muschampe a man of great renowne in the north parts. Also Walter
bishop of Winchester departed this life, about the feast of S. Matthew,
in whose place (through the kings earnest suit) his halfe brother
Athelmare was promoted to succéed. Moreouer, in the east parts, that
valiant erle of Salisburie William de Longespée, with Robert de Véer,
and others, was slaine in that vnfortunate battell in the which the
Saracens vanquished the christian armie, and tooke Lewes the French
king prisoner.

[Sidenote: A mightie wind.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The sea séemeth to burne.]

[Sidenote: Ships lost. Hertburne. Winchelsey.]

On the first day of October, the moone vpon hir change, appearing
excéeding red and swelled, began to shew tokens of the great tempest of
wind that followed, which was so huge and mightie, both by land & sea,
that the like had not bene lightlie knowne, and sildome or rather neuer
heard of by men then aliue. The sea forced contrarie to hir naturall
course, flowed twice without ebbing, yéelding such a roring noise, that
the same was heard (not without great woonder) a farre distance from
the shore. Moreouer, the same sea appeared in the darke of the night
to burne, as it had béen on fire, and the waues to striue and fight
togither after a maruellous sort, so that the mariners could not deuise
how to saue their ships where they laie at anchor, by no cunning nor
shift which they could deuise. At Hertburne thrée tall ships perished
without recouerie, besides other smaller vessels. At Winchelsey,
besides other hurt that was doone in bridges, milles, breakes and
banks, there were thrée hundred houses, and some churches drowned with
the high rising of the water course. The countrie of Holland beyond the
sea, and the marish land in Flanders, susteined inestimable damage, and
in manie other places; by reason that riuers beaten backe and repelled
(by the rising of the sea) swelled so high that they ouerflowed their
chanels, and much hurt was doone in meadowes, bridges, milles, and
houses.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 35.]

[Sidenote: The practise of the bishops to disappoint the archbi. of
Canturburie of his purpose.]

About the beginning of the fiue and thirtith yeare of king Henries
reigne, the bishops of England, vnderstanding that the archbishop of
Canturburie was about to purchase of the pope a grant to gather monie
through his whole prouince of the cleargie and people for synods
and procuracies, they thought to preuent him, and therefore made a
collection euerie one through his owne diocesse, of two pence in euerie
marke which any beneficed man might dispend, which money so collected,
they ment to imploie about charges in the popes court, for the staie of
the archbishops suit, that the grant should not passe.

[Sidenote: An erthquake at S. Albons.]

[Sidenote: The pope sueth for licence to soiorne at Burdeaux.]

[Sidenote: The popes presence more like to impaire than amend things.]

About, the same time, to wit, vpon saint Lucies day, there was a great
earthquake at S. Albons, and in the parts thereabouts with a noise
vnder the ground, as though it had thundred. This was strange and
maruellous, bicause the ground there is chalkie and sound, not hollow
nor loose, as those places be where earthquakes for the most part
happen. Doues, rookes, and other birds that sat vpon houses, and in
boughes of trées fearing this strange wonder, flickred vp, and flue
to and fro, shewing a token of feare as if a goshauke had béene ouer
their heads. The pope required by solemne messengers sent to the king
of England, that he might come to the citie of Burdeaux in Gascoigne, &
there for a time remaine. The king wist not well what answer to make,
for loth he was to denie anie thing that the pope should require and
againe he was not willing for sundrie respects, that the pope should
come so néere vnto him. Indéed, manie were in doubt, least if he came
to Burdeaux, he would also come into England, and rather impaire the
state thereof than amend it by his presence, sith by such vsurers and
licentious liuers as belonged to him, the realme had alreadie béene
sore corrupted. Howsoeuer the matter went there was delaie and such
meanes deuised and made, that the pope came not there at that time.

[Sidenote: 1251.]

[Sidenote: Thunder and lightening.]

[Sidenote: Guy de Lusignan brother to the king.]

On Christmasse day in the night, great thunder and lightning chanced
in Northfolke and Suffolke past measure, in token as was thought of
some euill to follow. ¶ The king kept his Christmasse at Winchester,
but without any great port or liberalitie, for hospitalitie with
him was greatlie laid aside. About this time, Guy de Lusignan the
kings halfe brother came ouer into England, after his returne out of
the holie land, and was of the king ioifullie receiued. Towards the
reléefe of his expenses made in that iournie, the king gaue him fiue
hundred pounds which he got of the Iewes. Moreouer, he gaue to his
brother Geffrey the custodie of the baron Hastings lands, and so by
such liberall and bounteous gifts as he bestowed on them and other
strangers, he greatlie incurred the hatred of his naturall people the
Englishmen.

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester returneth.]

[Sidenote: He had of the king 3000 marks.]

[Sidenote: Rutters.]

On the day of the Epiphanie, the earle of Leicester came to the king
in great hast out of Gascoigne giuing him to vnderstand, that the
Gascoignes were reuolted in such number, that, if spéedie succour
were not prouided, the whole countrie would fall from the English
subiection. Héerevpon the king furnished him with monie, and the earle
himselfe got all that he could make of his owne reuenues, and likewise
of the Vmfreuilles lands, the heire whereof he had in custodie. He
made no long abode, but with all spéed returned, and reteined two
hundred Rutters out of the duke of Brabants countries, and with them
certeine crosbowes. These were eger souldiers, and bloudie, but yet
the Gascoignes prepared themselues to resist them all that they might:
howbeit the earle put them still to the worse. Before his last returne
from thence, he had raced the castell of Fronsacke flat with the
ground, and likewise left desolate the castell of Egremount.

[Sidenote: A iustice accused for taking bribes.]

About this season, one of the kings iustices named Henrie de Bath
fell in the kings displeasure, bicause he was accused that he had not
exercised his office vprightlie, but to his owne priuat gaine, and
peruerted iustice through bribes, vpon occasion, of a suit mooued
betwixt him and one Euerard de Trumpington: he was appealed of
falsehood and treason by sir Philip Darcie knight. His wife was of kin
to the Bassets and Samfords, the which procured him great fréendship
at the hands of the earle of Cornewall, and of Iohn Mansell, and other
of the kings councell. But for all that they could doo, he was in
great danger to haue lost his life at the parlement holden that yeare,
and begun on the sixtéenth day of Februarie. For the king was so sore
mooued against him, that he caused proclamation to be made, that if any
man had any thing to laie against the said Henrie de Bath, they should
come foorth, and their information should be heard. Herevpon diuerse
came and presented their complaints, and amongst other, one of his
owne fellowes, that was a iustice also, declared that he had suffered
an offendor conuict, to escape vnpunished, for a bribe, which he
receiued to the preiudice of the king, and the danger of his associats
the other iustices, whereas it is required of one put in trust with
the administration of lawes, to be vncorrupt and sound in iudgement,
according to this true position,

    Iudicis est recti nec munere nec prece flecti.

[Sidenote: Henrie de Bath put to his fine.]

The king herewith rose vp in a great fume, and said openlie: "If
any man will slea Henrie of Bath, he shall not be impeached for his
death: for I doo here planelie declare him acquit and guiltlesse for
the same." Herewith diuerse would haue run vpon him to haue murdered
him, but that Iohn Mansell staied their outrage, shewing them that
the king might well herafter repent the words which he spake thus in
his furie, and those that should doo any violence vnto the man, were
not like to escape punishment: for both the bishop of London would
suerlie accurse them, and other of his fréends would not faile to séeke
reuenge by temporall force: and thus was Henrie of Bath in the kings
high displeasure for the time. Howbeit at length, through intercession
of the earle of Cornewall, and the bishop of London, he was put to his
fine, and pardoned.

[Sidenote: Athelmare or Odomare bishop of Winchester confirmed.]

[Sidenote: A conuocati[=o] of the bishops.]

[Sidenote: Six thousand marks giuen to the pope.]

About the same time, Athelmare the kings halfe brother was confirmed
bishop of Winchester by the pope, although he was thought scarselie
sufficient to haue the place, for lacke of learning and ripe yeares.
About this time also, the bishops assembling at Dunstable, tooke aduise
togither, how to preuent the archbishop of Canturburie, that he should
not visit: and in the end they concluded to send their procurator vnto
the court of Rome, to trie what purchase might be made there for monie
to staie the licence, and not to sticke for the disbursing of foure
thousand marks, if néed required. Their procurator did so much in
the matter, that he found the pope fauourable vnto his cause, though
no determinate answer was giuen of a long time, till at length, to
gratifie the archbishop and his kin, as the duke of Sauoy and other,
the pope granted him licence to visit, but not generallie: for he might
not visit anie parish church, except the person required him thereto.
And whereas he had libertie to visit conuentuall churches, yet might he
not receiue for procuracies aboue foure marks. For this moderation to
be had, the procurator for the bishops gave vnto the pope six thousand
marks.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Lincolne visiteth abbeies.]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Lincolne suspended by the pope.]

[Sidenote: Wales subiect to the English lawes.]

[Sidenote: Alain lord Zouch.]

[Sidenote: Vsurers called Caorsini.]

The same yeare the bishop of Lincolne visited the religious houses
within his diocesse, to vnderstand what rule was kept amongst them,
vsing the matter somewhat strictlie (as they thought:) for he entred
into the chambers of the moonks & searched their beds. And comming to
the houses of the nuns, he went so néere as to cause their breasts to
be tried, that he might vnderstand of their chast liuings. In Lent
following he was suspended by the pope, bicause he would not suffer
an Italian that had no skill of the English toong to inioy a prebend
in his church, which the pope had giuen to the same Italian. In this
season, Wales was brought to be subiect vnto the English lawes, and
that part which ioineth to Cheshire, was committed to the custodie of
Alain lord Zouch, the which gaue, for hauing of the profits thereof to
farme, 11 hundred marks, and supplanted lord Iohn Graie which should
haue had it for fiue hundred. Certeine vsurers and strangers borne
called Caorsini, had bought faire houses at London, and so remained
there as inhabitants, occupieng their trade without controlment,
for the prelats durst not speake against them, bicause they alleged
themselues to be the merchants of the popes highnesse: and the citizens
durst not trouble them bicause they were defended by certeine noble
men, whose monie (as was said) they occupied, to gaine after the manner
of the court of Rome. Howbeit at length they were called before the
ciuill magistrate by the kings procurement, and grieuouslie accused
for their vnlawfull occupieng of vsurie, and some of them committed to
prison, the residue hid themselues out of the way, till at length for a
summe of monie they were licenced to be at rest, and so continued for a
season. The Iewes reioised hereat, to haue fellowes with them in their
miserie.

[Sidenote: Controuersie betwixt prelats.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester prospereth in Gascoigne.]

In this season also there depended a controuersie betwixt the
archbishop of Canturburie with the bishop of London and his canons of
Paules, so that the said bishop of London & the deane of Paules, and
other of the canons were excommunicated. But the bishop perceiuing
which way the world went, reconciled himselfe: as for the deane, he
stood long in the matter, & at length went himselfe to the pope to
vtter his gréefe. This controuersie hanged long betwixt them, and was
handled in such wise, that laie men laughed at their dooings, for now
and then whom the pope commanded to be absolued, their aduersaries by
colour of the popes authoritie would command to be excommunicated. The
first daie of Iulie the earle of Leicester in Gascoigne ouercame manie
of the kings enimies, and tooke from them a fortresse called Chattellon.

[Sidenote: A sore tempest of thunder & lightning.]

[Sidenote: Windsore.]

[Sidenote: High tides.]

On S. Dunstans day there was a maruellous sore tempest of weather, the
aire being darkened on euerie side from the foure corners thereof, and
withall chanced such a thunder as few the like had béene heard of.
First it began as it had béene a great way off, but after it burst out
with such terrible crackes as was woonderfull. But one amongst the rest
excéeded, and withall such lightening flashed foorth, as put men in
great feare and terror. The chimnie of the chamber, wherein the quéene
and hir children then were, was beaten downe to dust, and the whole
building sore shaken. This was at Windsore, where in the parke, okes
were rent in sunder, and turned vp by the roots, and much hurt doone;
as milles with the millers in them, shéepfolds with their shepheards,
and plowmen, and such as were going by the way were destroied and
beaten downe. About the same time the sea on the coasts of England
arose with higher tides than the naturall course gaue, by the space of
six féet.

[Sidenote: The nunrie of Marran founded.]

[Sidenote: Paul Peiuer.]

[Sidenote: The lord Will. Graie marrieth the wife of Paule Peiuer.]

About Michaelmasse quéene Dowager of Scotland, that was daughter to
Monsieur de Cousie a Frenchman, came through England to returne into
France where she was borne, and was of the king honorablie receiued
and welcomed. This yeare the nunrie of Marran not farre from Lin was
founded by the ladie Isabell countesse of Arundell. ¶ Also this yeare
the lord William de Cantlow departed this life, in whose heritage his
sonne also named William succéeded. ¶ Moreouer, Iohn Cobham & Geffrey
Spenser (that was a man of great fame, and one of the kings councell)
departed this life, Cobham before Easter, and Spenser shortlie after
the same feast. Also in the octaues of Pentecost, Paul Peiuer or Peure
departed this life, he was one of the kings chéefe councellors, and
lord steward of his house. This man at the first was not borne to anie
great possessions, but by purchase atteined to great reuenues. The
ladie Ione his wife compounded with the king for the marriage of hir
son named Paule, after his father, but the lord Iohn Graie paied the
monie, being fiue hundred marks, and so discharging hir of that debt,
maried hir sonne to one of his daughters at his manor of Eiton, and
afterwards at London married the mother of his sonne in law, wherewith
the king was sore displeased, for he had giuen the marriage of hir vnto
a stranger, one Stephan de Salines, so that the lord Graie was glad to
giue to the king the summe of fiftie marks, by way of a fine to haue
his good will.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 36.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The church of Hales dedicated.]

[Sidenote: The charges of the building of the church of Hales.]

[Sidenote: Tournies and iusts in those daies were handled in more rough
manner than is vsed in our time.]

In the six and thirtith yéere of king Henries reigne, the church of
Hales was dedicated of the foundation of Richard earle of Cornewall.
At which dedication he kept a solemne feast on the euen of saint
Leonard being Sunday. There was present the king and the quéene, and
almost all the Nobilitie of England, both spirituall and temporall. The
building of that church, all charges accounted, stood the earle in ten
thousand marks, as he himselfe confessed vnto Matthew Paris. ¶ About
the same time the earle of Leicester and Guie de Lusignan the kings
halfe brother came into England out of France, and landed at Douer,
whom the king receiued with great ioy and gladnesse. He gaue to his
brother at his returne great rewards, as he was euer accustomed. In the
feast of the Conception of our ladie at a iustes holden at Rochester,
the strangers were put to the worse, and well beaten by the English
batchlers and men of armes, so that the dishonour which they did to
the Englishmen at Brakley was now recompensed with interest. For the
strangers fléeing to the citie for succour, were met by the way by the
English knights seruants and yeomen, which fell vpon them, beat them
sore with clubs and staues, and handled them verie euill. Hereof sprang
a great hatred betwixt the Englishmen and strangers, which dailie grew
and increased more and more, the rather bicause the king had them in so
good estimation, and reteined so manie of them within the realme.

[Sidenote: 1252.]

[Sidenote: The house of Coucie]

[Sidenote: The king of Scots did homage to the K. of England.]

The king did celebrate the feast of Christmasse at Yorke, whither
came Alexander the yoong king of Scots, and was there made knight by
the king of England, and on saint Stephans day he married the ladie
Margaret, daughter to the king of England, according to the assurance
before time concluded. There was a great assemblie of noble personages
at that feast. The quéene Dowager of Scotland mother to king Alexander,
a French woman of the house of Coucie, had passed the sea, & was
present there with a faire companie of lords and gentlemen. The number
of knights that were come thither on the king of Englands part were
reckoned to be at the point of one thousand. The king of Scots had with
him thrée score knights, and a great sort of other gentlemen comparable
to knights. The king of Scots did homage to the king of England at that
time for the realme of Scotland, and all things were doone with great
loue and fauour, although at the beginning some strife was kindled
about taking vp of lodgings.

[Sidenote: Sir Robert Norice, and sir Stephan Bausan.]

[Sidenote: An excéeding great wind.]

[Sidenote: The bishop of Rochest. bull.]

This assemblie of the princes cost the archbishop verie déerelie, in
feasting and banketting them and their traines. At one dinner it was
reported he spent at the first course thréescore fat oxen. ¶ At request
of the K. of Scots, the K. of England receiued Philip Lunell againe
into fauour, or rather Louell (as I take it) one of his councell,
against whome he had conceiued displeasure in the yeare last past, for
such briberie as he was thoght to be giltie of for shewing fauour to
the Iewes. The king of Scots when he should depart, tooke his leaue in
most courteous maner, and led with him his new married wife, on whome
attended sir Robert Norice knight marshall of the kings house, and
sir Stephan Bausan, and also the ladie Mawd, the widowe of the lord
William Cantlow, with others. On the octaues of the Epiphanie chanced
an excéeding great wind, which did much hurt in diuerse places of the
realme. The bishop of Rochester returning fr[=o] the court of Rome,
brought with him a bull, authorising him to receiue to his own vse the
fift part of the reuenues of all the beneficed men within his diocesse.

[Sidenote: The Gascoignes make warre against the English subiects.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester dauteth his enimies.]

In this meane while the earle of Leicester remaining in England, the
Gascoignes made sore warre against such as he had left behind him,
and withall gaue information to the king that the earle of Leicester
was a traitor, and one that had spoiled the kings subiects: and
furthermore by his uniust dealings had giuen to the Gascoignes cause
of rebellion. The king to boult out the truth of this matter, sent
first his chapleine Henrie Wingham, and afterwards sir Nicholas de
Moles de Valence, as commissioners to inquire of the earles dooing,
who went and returned without finding any manifest crime in the earles
demeanor. The earle was much offended that his innocencie should
be thus suspected; but at length being appointed to returne into
Gascoigne, he obeied and hauing a great summe of monie, he reteined
a power of men of warre, as well Frenchmen as others, and meaning to
be reuenged of those that had giuen the information against him, he
strengthened himselfe with the aid of the king of Nauarre, and of the
earle of Bigorre and other, so that he oppressed his aduersaries on
ech hand, and so abated their pride, that if conuenientlie they might,
they would haue yéelded themselues to some other prince, and vtterlie
haue renounced the K. of England for euer. Whereby it should séeme that
he was throughlie reuenged of them euen to their no small smart, not
in word and threatning, but with sword and bloud-shedding, defending
his innocencie, and manfullie shewing his warlike mind. But yet he had
purchased to himselfe a greater portion of praise, if he had not with
weapon but with wisedome made a conquest of the enimie: according to
this sound counsell of a sage writer;

[Sidenote: _Mal. Pal. in suo cap._]

    Ingenio studeas magè quàm superare furore,
    Ingenio vires cedunt, prudentia victrix
    Cuncta domat.

[Sidenote: A strange wonder of the new moone.]

[Sidenote: A great drought.]

On the thirtéenth day of March, the new moone was séene, whereas
the prime change by naturall course should not haue béene till the
sixtéenth day following; and for the space of fiftéene daies that
then next insued, the sunne, the moone, and starres appeared of a red
colour. And herewith the whole face of the earth séemed as it had
béene shadowed with a thicke mist or smoke, the wind notwithstanding
remaining north and northeast. Then began a sore drought, continuing
a long time, the which togither with morning frosts, and northerlie
winds, destroied the fruits and other growing things, which were
blasted in such wise, that although at the first it was a verie forward
yeare, and great plentie towards of corne and fruit, yet by the means
aforesaid, the same was greatlie hindered and speciallie in the summer
season, when the sunnes heat increased, and the drought still continued.

[Sidenote: Manie diseases reigned.]

[Sidenote: A murren of cattell.]

The residue of such fruits as then remained, withered awaie, so that
scarse a tenth part was left, and yet there was indifferent store. For
if the abundance which the blossomes promised had come forward, the
trées had not béene able to haue borne the same. The grasse was so
burned vp in pastures and medowes, that if a man tooke vp some of it
in his hands, and rubbed the same neuer so little, it streight fell
to poulder, and so cattell were readie to starue for lacke of meat.
And bicause of the excéeding hot nights, there was such abundance of
fleas, flies, and gnats, that people were vexed and brought in case
to be wearie of their liues. And herewith chanced manie diseases, as
sweats, agues, and other. In the haruest time fell there a great death
and murren amongst cattell, and speciallie in Northfolke, in the fens
and other parts of the south. This infection was such, that dogs and
rauens féeding on the dead carrens, swelled streightwaies and died, so
that the people durst eat no béefe, least the flesh happilie might be
infected.

[Sidenote: The cause of the death of cattell.]

Also this was noted not without great woonder, that yoong heifers and
bullockes followed the milchkine, & as it had béene calues sucked
the same kine. Also appletrées and pearetrées, now after the time of
yéelding their ripe fruit, began againe to blossome, as if it had
béene in Aprill. The cause of the death of cattell was thought to come
hereof. After so great a drought (which had continued by all the space
of the moneths of Aprill, Maie, Iune, and Iulie) when there folowed
good plentie of raine, the earth began to yéeld hir increase most
plentiouslie of all growing things, though not so wholesome nor of such
kindlie substance, as in due time and season she is accustomed to bring
foorth, and so the cattell which before were hungerstarued, fed now so
gréedilie of this new grasse sproong vp in vndue season, that they were
suddenlie puffed vp with flesh, and such vnnaturall humors, as bred
infections amongst them, whereof they died.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Lincolne.]

[Sidenote: The Gascoigns meane to complaine of the earle of Leicester.]

[Sidenote: The earle disproueth the allegations of his accusers.]

The bishop of Lincolne would haue inforced all the beneficed men within
his diocesse to be préests, but they purchased a licence from Rome,
to remaine at the Vniuersities for certeine yeares, without taking
the order of préesthood vpon them. ¶ The king meaning to go (as he
pretended) into the holie land, had grant of the pope to leuie a tenth
of his subiects both spirituall and temporall. The Gascoignes sore
repining at the earle of Leicester his streict gouernance (who handled
them more roughlie than they had béene accustomed) sent the archbishop
of Burdeaux ouer into England to exhibit a complaint against him in
all their names. The earle of Leicester aduertised thereof, followed
him, and comming to the court, found the archbishop readie to aduouch
the information which he had made against the said earle, chéefelie
in that he had sought the destruction of those to whom the earle of
Cornewall when he was ruler there, had granted life and peace, and
whom sir Henrie Trubleuile, and Waleran the Dutchman, late stewards of
Gascoigne, vnder the king, had cherished and mainteined. With manie
other things the archbishop charged him, the which the earle wittilie
refelled and disprooued, so as he was allowed in his iustification by
those that stood by, as the earle of Cornewall and others.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Lincolns authoritie to institute vicars in
churches impropriate.]

The bishop of Lincolne got authoritie of the pope to institute
vicarages in churches impropriat to religious men, where no vicars
were; and where such were as séemed too slenderlie prouided of
sufficient allowance, to augment the same as he thought expedient:
which his authoritie he vsed more largelie than stood with the pleasure
of religious persons, bicause he shewed great fauour to the vicars.
The copie of the letters which the bishop had procured of the pope,
authorising him herein, followeth as we find the same in the chronicles
of Matthew Paris.



The tenor of the Popes grant.


Innocentius episcopus, &c. Cùm sicut accepimus in tua ciuitate &
diocoesi, nonnulli religiosi & alij collegiati ecclesias perochiales
in proprios vsus obtineant, in quibus nimis exiles aut nullæ taxatæ
sunt vicariæ; fraternitati tuæ per authoritatem summam mandamus,
quòd in ijsdem ecclesijs de ipsarum prouentibus vicarias instituas,
& institutas exiles adaugeas vice nostra: prout iuxta consuetudinem
patriæ secund[=u] Deum videtur expedire, non obstantibus si prædicti
exempti sint, aut aliàs muniti apostolicis priuilegijs siue
indulgentijs, per quæ id impediri vel differri possit; & de quibus
speciale oporteat in præsentibus fieri mentionem: contradictores per
censuras ecclesiasticas apostolica potestate compescendo. Datum Lugduni
7 Octob. pontificatus nostri, An. 8.

       *       *       *       *       *

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester sent eftsoones into Gascoigne.]

[Sidenote: Rusteine taken.]

[Sidenote: The kings eldest son Edward created duke of Aquitaine.]

[Sidenote: Sir Arnold de Monteinie slaine.]

The earle of Leicester was eftsoones sent into Gascoigne by the king,
who had not cared if he had fallen into his enimies hands, as should
appeare. But the earle hired souldiers in France, and comming into
Gascoigne, preuailed against his enimies, though in one conflict he
was in danger of loosing both life and the honour of the field. But
yet through his good hap, Gods fauour, and the valiancie of himselfe
and some of his retinue, he got the vpper hand, and put his enimies to
flight, taking Rusteine, one of the chéefe ringleaders, whom he caused
to be presented to the king. At the same time had the king inuested his
son Edward with the duchie of Aquitaine to the offense of the earle of
Cornewall, to whom by charter he had before giuen and confirmed the
same. In a iusts holden at Walden, sir Arnold de Monteinie a right
valiant knight was slaine by sir Roger de Lemborne, for which mischance
all the Nobles there assembled made great lamentation, and namelie
the said sir Roger: but yet he was suspected to be in blame, bicause
the socket of his staffe was polished, & not abated. Hereby it should
appeare, that in qualitie of weapon, and not in maner of their running
togither, these iusts and tornies in those daies practised differed
from the verie order of warre.

[Sidenote: The church of Elie dedicated.]

[Sidenote: A parlement. The king demandeth the tenths of the
spiritualtie.]

The 17 of September the cathedrall church of Elie was dedicated, which
the bishop of that sée named Hugh had builded of his owne proper
costs and charges, togither with the palace there. The king and a
great number of the péeres & nobles of the realme both spirituall and
temporall were present at this solemne feast, which was kept in most
plentifull manner. The 13 day of October, the king held a great feast
at London, and had called the states of the realme, then and there to
assemble in parlement, wherein he opened to them the popes grant, which
he had obteined of the tenths due to the church, to be receiued by him
for thrée yeares, towards his charges in his iournie which he meant to
make into the holie land. The bishops, and namelie Lincolne, vtterlie
refused to be contributarie to his grant.

[Sidenote: The bishops refuse to yéeld to the popes grant.]

[Sidenote: The king highlie offended with the bishops.]

They alledged sundrie reasons for their excuse, as the pouertie of the
English church being alreadie made bare, with continuall exactions and
oppressions; but chéeflie they excused themselues by the absence of the
archbishops of Canturburie and Yorke, of whom the one was beyond the
sea, and the other at home in the north parts. All th'other English
bishops were there, except Hereford & Chester, which Chester was
sicke, and therefore without the consent of those that were absent,
and namelie their primat the archbishop of Canturburie, they could
not conclude vpon any generall point touching the kings demand. And
although the king fretted and stormed against them, yet could he not
bring them to his purpose, so that the parlement for that time was
dissolued. Yet before their departure from London, he communed with
the bishops apart, to sée if he might persuade them to giue him some
portion of monie towards his charges: but they had tuned their strings
all after one note, discording all from his tenor, so that not a penie
could be got of them: wherefore he tooke high displeasure against them,
reuiling them in most reprochfull maner, and amongst other he vpbraided
his halfe brother (the elect of Winchester) of great vnthankefulnesse,
who also amongst the residue stood against him.

[Sidenote: The king assaieth to get monie of the lords temporall.]

[Sidenote: The Londoners helpe at a pinch.]

The king hauing this repulse at the bishops hands, began to fall in
talke with the lords of the temporaltie touching the troubles in
Gascoigne, where things were in broile by the hard dooings or the earle
of Leicester, against whom the Gascoignes ceassed not to make warre
still, and of late hauing besieged him in the castell of Mountalbon,
droue him to such shift, that to escape the present danger he was glad
to set at libertie certeine rebels, which he had before taken captiues.
Therefore to reduce that countrie vnto quietnesse, the king determined
to go thither himselfe, and to remooue the earle of Leicester out of
his office: but when he came to the pith of the matter, which was to
desire their aid both of men and monie, the lords would not agrée to
grant him anie. And where he sought to burthen the erle of Leicester
with misgouerning things against his honour, they excused the same
earle, and so the lords also departed in displeasure of the king as
well as the bishops. Howbeit the king got of the Londoners by way of
princelie praier twentie thousand marks of gold at that time. And to
their further gréefe for better meane to be reuenged against the bishop
of Elie, he caused the said Londoners to kéepe saint Edwards faire for
fiftéene daies togither at Westminster, and in the meane time to kéepe
their shops shut through all the citie. Which thing (by reason of the
foule weather chancing at that time) was verie gréeuous vnto them,
albeit there was such repaire of people thither, that London had not
béene fuller to the iudgement of old ancient men neuer at anie time in
their daies to their remembrance.

[Sidenote: The death of sir Nicholas Samf]

[Sidenote: The countesse of Hereford departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The deceasse of the countesse de Lisle de Wincht.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 37.]

[Sidenote: The pope offereth the kingdome of Sicill vnto the earle of
Cornewall.]

This yeare died sir Nicholas Samford knight, a man of great reputation
and valiancie. Also on the twentith day of October, the countesse
of Winchester daughter to the earle of Hereford departed this life
at Grobie, a manour place belonging to hir husband the earle of
Winchester, a little besides Leicester, and was buried at Braklie. The
said earle shortlie after married an other wife in hope of issue. For
neither by this his last wife, neither by his first that was daughter
to the lord Alane de Galowaie had he any children. Also the same yeare,
that noble ladie Margaret countesse of Lisle surnamed Riuers, somtime
wife to Fouks de Brent, departed out of this world, about the second
day of October. In the seauen and thirtith yeare of king Henries
reigne, one of the popes notaries called Albert came into England to
offer vnto Richard earle of Cornewall the kings brother, the kingdoms
of Naples and Sicill. But the earle supposing it not to stand with his
honour, to depriue his nephue Henrie, sonne to the emperor Frederike
the second, by his wife the empresse Isabell that was sister to the
said erle, refused to take that honour vpon him.

About the same time, that is to say, on the octaues of saint Martin,
Boniface the archbishop of Canturburie arriued in England, comming
from the court of Rome, where he had béene long resident. ¶ At the
same time there chanced a great occasion of strife betwixt the said
archbishop, and the bishop of Winchester. For where maister Eustace
de Lin, officiall to the said archbishop had first excommunicated,
and after for his contumacie caused to be attached a préest which by
authoritie of the elect of Winchester as diocesane there, was entred
into possession of an hospitall in Southwarke, as gouernour thereof,
by the name of prior, without consent of the officiall: who pretended
title as patrone in his maisters name. The said elect of Winchester
caused a riotous sort of persons after the maner of warre to séeke
reuenge hereof, the which after manie outrages doone, came to Lambeth,
and there by violence tooke the said Eustace out of his owne house, and
led him to Farnham, where he was kept as prisoner.

The archbishop thus serued at his first comming ouer, and taking the
same but for a homlie welcome, was maruellouslie offended, and comming
to London accompanied with the bishops of Chichester and Hereford,
in the church of saint Marie bowe, being reuested in pontificalibus,
pronounced all those accurssed, which were authours or fauourers of
such a rash and presumptuous déed, and further commanded all the
bishops within his prouince, by vertue of their obedience, to denounce
the same in their churches euerie sundaie and holie day. The bishop
of Winchester on the other part, sent commandement to the deane of
Southwarke, to resist the archbishop to his face, and to denounce his
cursse to be void, vaine, and of no force, but deuised of a craftie
purpose and wicked meaning. The archbishop continuing in his conceiued
displeasure, went to Oxenford, and there on the morrow after saint
Nicholas day, renewed the same cursse in solemne wise before all the
learned men, students, and scholers of the Vniuersitie.

[Sidenote: 1253.]

[Sidenote: The archb. of Canturburie and the bishop of Winchester made
fréends.]

[Sidenote: William de Valence, and Iohn de Warren.]

[Sidenote: The value of spirituall liuings in strangers hands.]

Howbeit, at length the matter was taken vp betwixt them, for the king
in his brothers cause, and the quéene for hir vncle the archbishop,
tooke some paine to agrée them: and so in the octaues of the Epiphanie
they were made fréends, and those absolued that were excommunicated, in
which number William de Valence, and Iohn de Warren were thought to be
conteined, as those that should be present in vsing the force against
the officiall (as before ye haue heard.) By inquirie taken about this
time by the diligence of the bishop of Lincolne, it was found that
the yéerlie profits and reuenues of spirituall promotions and liuings
resting in strangers hands preferred by the popes prouisions, amounted
to the summe of thréescore and ten thousand marks, which was more by
two third parts, than the kings reuenues belonging to his crowne.

[Sidenote: The new moone appeared before hir time.]

The earle of Glocester and the lord William de Valence went ouer into
France in most triumphant manner, to conclude a marriage betwixt
the sonne of the said earle of Glocester, and the daughter of the
lord Guie of Engolesme. Which marriage the king had motioned for the
affection which he bare towards the aduancement of his linage, by
the mothers side. Whereat bicause they were strangers, the English
nobilitie somewhat repined. And whereas like lustie yoong gentlemen
they attempted a iusts and tornie to shew some proofe of their valiant
stomachs, they were well beaten by the Frenchmen, that disdained to sée
yoong men so presumptuous, to prouoke old accustomed warriours to the
triall of such martiall enterprises. About the beginning of Lent, the
new moone was séene foure daies before shée ought to haue appeared by
hir due and common course.

[Sidenote: Running at the quintine.]

[Sidenote: The Londoners called Barons.]

The king by a shift got of the Londoners 1000 marks. For as it happened
about the same time the youthfull citizens (for an exercise and triall
of their actiuitie) had set foorth a game to run at the quintine, and
whosoeuer did best, should haue a peacocke which they had prepared for
a prise. Certeine of the kings seruants, bicause the court laie then at
Westminster, came (as it were in spite of the citizens) to the game,
and giuing reprochfull names to the Londoners (which for the dignitie
of the citie and ancient priuileges which they ought to haue inioied
were called barons) the said Londoners not able to beare so to be
misused, fell vpon the kings seruants, and bet them shrewdlie, so that
vpon complaint, the king caused the citizens to fine for their rash
dooings. Wherein the Londoners followed the counsell of him that in a
case of strife, said

    Tu ne cede malis sed contra audentior ito,
    Audaces fortuna iuuat.

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester resigneth his gouernment of
Gascoigne.]

[Sidenote: The Rioll, S. Million, townes in Gascoignes.]

[Sidenote: Knights to be made.]

Moreouer, about the same time, the king vpon displeasure conceiued
against the earle of Leicester, had caused him to resigne his office of
the wardenship of Gascoigne: and bicause the earle had it by patent,
the king not able to find any iust cause of forfeiture, agréed to paie
vnto him for the resignation no small portion of monie. And whereas
the Gascoignes had charged the earle with too much streict handling of
them, whereby they were occasioned to raise tumults, the matter was
now nothing at all amended. For after the earle had resigned, they
continued still in rebellion, so that the Rioll with S. Millions and
other places were taken by the aduersaries out of the kings hands,
and great slaughter of people made in those parts: wherefore the king
minding to go thither, caused musters to be taken, and men put in a
redinesse according to the custome, that he might vnderstand what
number of able men furnished for the warre were to be had. He also
tooke order that euerie man that might dispend yéerlie fiftéene pounds
in lands should be made knight.

[Sidenote: An ordinance against robbers.]

[Sidenote: The cause yt mooued the Gascoignes to rebellion.]

Moreouer, for the better preseruation of peace and quietnesse amongst
his people, he appointed watch to be kept by night in cities and
borough townes. And further by the aduise of the Sauoisines, which were
about him, he ordeined that if any man chanced to be robbed, or by
any meanes damnified by any théefe or robber, he to whom the kéeping
of that countrie chéefelie apperteined where the robberie was doone,
should competentlie restore the losse: and this was after the usage of
Sauoy, but was thought more hard to be obserued here, than in those
parts, where are not so manie bypaths and starting corners to shift out
of the waie. ¶ The Gascoignes continued in their seditious dooings, and
namelie Gaston de Bierne, who renouncing his dutie and obedience to
the king of England ioined himselfe to the king of Spaine, through his
helpe to be the stronger & more able to annoie the English subiects.
The euill intreating vsed towards the Gascoignes which brought hither
wines, in that the same were oftentimes taken from them by the kings
officers, and other, without readie monie allowed for the sale, gaue
occasion to them to grudge and repine against the king.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: A tenth granted of the spiritualtie. Escuage granted.]

[Sidenote: _Magna charta._]

In the quindene of Easter a parlement began at London, in which all
the states being assembled, the matter was mooued for aiding the king
with some reléefe of monie towards the iournie which he ment to make
into the holie land: and so at length it was agréed that a tenth part
of all the reuenues belonging to the church was granted to him for
thrée yeares space, and that escuage should be leuied for that yeare,
after thrée markes of euerie knights fée, and the king on the other
part promised faithfullie to obserue and mainteine the grant of the
great charter, and all the articles conteined within the same. For
further assurance whereof, on the third day of Maie, in the great hall
at Westminster, in the presence and by the assent of the king and the
earles of Norfolke, Hereford, Oxford, Warwike, and other Noble men, by
the archbishop of Canturburie as primate, and by the bishops of London,
Elie, Lincolne, Worcester, Norwich, Hereford, Salisburie, Durham,
Excester, Carliell, Bath, Rochester, and S. Dauies, reuested and
apparelled in pontificalibus, with tapers, according to the maner, the
sentence of excommunication was pronounced against all transgressors of
the liberties of the church, and of the ancient liberties and customes
of the realme of England, and namelie those which are conteined in the
great charter, and in the charter of forrest.

[Sidenote: Godlie counsell no doubt.]

Whilest the sentence was in reading the king held his hand vpon his
breast with glad and chéerefull countenance, and when in the end they
threw awaie their extinct and smoking tapers, saieng, "So let them be
extinguished and sinke into the pit of hell which run into the dangers
of this sentence;" the king said, "So helpe me God, as I shall obserue
and kéepe all these things, euen as I am a christian man, as I am a
knight, and as I am a king crowned and annointed." But afterward when
he through other counsell brake his promise therein, he was aduised by
some to giue a portion of that monie which he got at this time, to the
Pope, that he might of him be absolued.

[Sidenote: The king purposeth to go himselfe into Gascoigne.]

Immediatlie after the breaking vp of the parlement, that is to saie,
about the first of Iune, the king being earnestlie called vpon by
messengers sent from the Gascoignes to prouide in time for the defense
and safegard of that countrie, sith otherwise he stood in danger to
loose it, with all spéed he resolued to go thither; and therevpon
caused summons to be giuen to all those that held of him by knights
seruice, to prepare to be at Portesmouth, with horsse and armour in the
octaues of the Trinitie. Herewith he made great prouision of ships, the
which being assembled, and the armie likewise come togither, through
lacke of conuenient wind he was inforced to stay a long time, to his
great gréefe and no lesse charges.

[Sidenote: He taketh the sea.]

[Sidenote: He arriueth at Burdeaux.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent into Spaine.]

Finallie, on the 6 of August he tooke the sea, leauing his brother the
earle of Cornewall, and the quéene in charge with gouernance of the
realme, and of his sonne the lord Edward. There departed with him from
Portesmouth thrée hundred sailes of great ships, besides a number of
other smaller vessels. And thus accompanied, he tooke his course to
Gascoigne, & about our ladie day named hir Assumption, he arriued at
Burdeaux, where he was of the citizens honorablie receiued. Immediatlie
after his arriuall there, he caused the towne of the Rioll to be
compassed about with a strong siege, within the which a great number of
rebels were inclosed, which valiantlie defended the place in hope of
rescue, which Gaston de Bierne that was fled to the king of Spaine had
promised to procure for them. But the king of England to preuent them
in that point, sent the bishop of Bath, and his trustie chapleine sir
Iohn Mansell vnto the said king of Spaine, to conclude fréendship and
aliance with him, so that the lord Edward his eldest sonne might marrie
the king of Spaine his daughter.

[Sidenote: A marriage concluded betwixt the K. of Englands sonne & the
K. of Spaines daughter.]

[Sidenote: A dearth in the kings campe.]

After long treatie, by the diligence of the said ambassadors, a full
conclusion followed of their motion. And whereas the king of England
had giuen and assigned the dominion of Gascoigne to his said sonne the
lord Edward, the king of Spaine in the instrument that conteined the
couenants of the marriage, resigned and quite claimed all the right and
title within Gascoigne which he had or might haue by the gift of king
Henrie the second, and by confirmation of the kings, Richard and Iohn.
In this meane while, the townes and castels which the rebels held,
were won and deliuered into the kings hands, and herewith followed a
great dearth in the kings armie, so that a hen was sold for six pence
sterling, a pound weight in bread was at two pence or thrée pence, a
gallon of wine at two shillings, a coome of foure bushels of wheat at
twentie shillings, so that a knight with his esquire, and coistrell
with his two horsses, might scarse be competentlie found for two
shillings in siluer. Wherefore the king to relieue his people there
with him on that side the sea, sent the prior of Newbourgh with other
into England, to cause prouision of vittels and other necessaries to be
conueied and brought vnto him into Gascoigne, and so there was a great
quantitie of graine and powdred flesh taken vp and sent awaie with all
conuenient spéed.

[Sidenote: The Gascoigns begin to humble themselues.]

The earle of Leicester came to the king, bringing with him out of
France where he had remained for a time a faire companie of souldiers
and men of warre to the kings aid, and was verie courteouslie receiued.
The Gascoignes then perceiued the kings power to increase, and saw how
not onelie the castels wherein they trusted to haue refuge were woone
and gotten out of their hands by the king of England, but also that
their vines (wherein chéeflie consisted their hope of sustentation)
were burned vp and destroied, they began to humble themselues, and so
by little and little returned to their due obedience, after that the
authors of their seditious tumults were either apprehended, or chased
out of the countrie.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Chichester Richard Witz and Grosted b. of
Lincolne depart this life.]

[Sidenote: The praise of Grosted.]

This yeare died Richard Witz the bishop of Chichester, a man of
great vertue and singular knowledge. Also that famous clearke Robert
Grosted bishop of Lincolne departed this life on the day of S. Denise
in the night, at his manor of Bugdon, whose learning coupled with
vertue and vprightnesse of life wan to him perpetuall commendation.
He was a manifest blamer of pope and king, a reproouer of prelats, a
corrector of moonks, a director of préests, an instructor of clearkes,
a susteinor of scholers, a preacher to the people, a persecutor of
incontinent liuers, a diligent searcher of the scriptures, a contemnor
and a verie mallet of such strangers as sought preferment in this
realme by the popes prouisions: in housekéeping liberall, in corporall
refection plentifull, and in ministring spirituall food, deuout and
godlie affected: in his bishoplike office diligent, reuerend, and neuer
wearied: a singular example of a bishop, speciallie in those daies, and
at whose life our reformed bishops may fetch light to abandon their
darkenesse, and to amend that which is amisse in them, sith

[Sidenote: _Leo papa._]

    Validiora sunt exempla quàm præcepta,
    Et pleniùs docemur vita quàm verbo.

[Sidenote: The L. Wil. Vescie departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: Great wet.]

[Sidenote: Great drout.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 38.]

[Sidenote: The ladie Katherin the kings daughter borne.]

Moreouer there died in Gascoigne, William de Vescie a baron of great
fame in the north parts. Also in the spring and summer of this yeare
was a great drought, and in the haruest season fell such wet, that
great floods by the rising of the riuers, and ouerflowing their banks,
did much hurt in sundrie places of the realme. Againe in the later end
of haruest about Michaelmasse, there was eftsoones such a drought,
that men could get no grinding at the milles, but were constreined to
go in some places a daies iournie off, to haue their corne groond. In
the eight and thirtith yeare of king Henries reigne, the quéene was
deliuered of a daughter which was called Katherin, bicause the same was
borne on saint Katherins daie.

[Sidenote: Winter thunder.]

[Sidenote: 1254.]

[Sidenote: The quéenes liberalitie towards the K. A strang sight in the
aire.]

[Sidenote: Redborne.]

[Sidenote: A death of shéepe.]

On S. Lucies daie, there fell a great snowe, and withall a winters
thunder, for a token of some euill to follow. The king to settle the
state of the countrie of Gascoigne in better order, tarried there all
the winter, and repared certeine decaied townes and castels. The quéene
kept hir Christmasse at London, where she laie in child-bed, and was
purified on the euen of the Epiphanie, making a roiall feast, at the
which manie great lords were present, as the archbishop of Canturburie,
the bishop of Elie, the earls of Cornewall and Glocester, and manie
other. She sent ouer at the same time to hir husband for a new yéers
gift the summe of fiue hundred marks of hir owne reuenues, towards the
maintenance of his warres. On the euen of the Circumcision of our Lord,
in the night season, whilest the aire was most cleare and bright with
shining starres, the moone being eight daies old, there appeared in
the element the perfect forme and likenesse of a mightie great ship,
which was first séene of certeine moonks of saint Albons, who remaining
at saint Amphibalus, were got vp to behold by the starres, if it were
time for them to go to mattens; but perceiuing that strange sight, they
called vp such of their acquaintance as lodged néere at hand, to view
the same. At length it séemed as the bourds and ioints thereof had
gone in sunder, and so it vanished awaie. There followed a maruellous
sore later end of a winter, through cold and ouersharpe weather, which
continued till the feast of S. Gregorie in March next insuing. Also
there chanced the same yeare a great murren and death of shéepe and
déere, so that of whole flocks and heards scarse the one halfe escaped.

[Sidenote: The king demandeth a subsidie.]

Whilest the king remained still in Gascoigne, he sent for his wife
quéene Elenor, with his eldest sonne Edward, but bicause he could not
make an end of all his businesse that winter, he continued there the
summer also. And forsomuch as he stood in néed of monie, to haue some
reasonable pretense to demand a subsidie, in the beginning of March, he
sent to his brother Richard the earle of Cornewall (which was come ouer
before chéefelie for that purpose) certeine instructions, to declare
how there was like to follow great warre, by means of Alfonse the tenth
of that name king of Castile, who manaced verie shortlie to inuade the
confines of Gascoigne perteining to the English dominion, and therefore
he required of his faithfull subiects some aid of monie, wherby he
might be able to resist his aduersarie the said K. of Castile. Earle
Richard did what he could to persuade the people to this paiment, but
he cast his net in vaine before the face of the feathered foule, as the
old prouerbe saith,

    Apparens rete fugêre volucria quæq;.

For though he set forth the matter to the vttermost in the presence of
the Nobles and other estates, yet would they not heare of anie paiment
to be made, as those that smelled out the feined fetch and forged
tale of the kings néed. For they had intelligence that there was an
agréement concluded betwixt him and the king of Spaine. And for the
same cause the quéene and the lord Edward were gone ouer, that the
king of Spaine might haue a sight of him, as he had required, when the
couenants of the marriage were accorded.

[Sidenote: The king offended with them that refused to helpe him with
monie.]

[Sidenote: Edward the kings sonne is sent to the K. of Castile.]

The states of the realme were twise assembled at London about the grant
of this paiment, but all in vaine; so that they were constreined to
passe it ouer with silence, and to surceasse in the matter to their
great gréefe, and namelie the earle of Cornewall, who had taken great
paines therein. Yet for that he would not returne with emptie hand, he
leuied by rigorous means a great summe of the Iewes (of whom a maine
multitude inhabited at that season in London) and therewith returning
to his brother king Henrie, shewed him how he had sped. The king was
not a little offended with them that thus had denied to helpe him
with monie, insomuch that vpon euerie light occasion, he was readie
to reuenge his displeasure towards them, in taking awaie such grants
of priuileges and liberties as before he had made. But now to auoid
suspicion of his feined pretense of war betwixt him and king Alfonse,
he sent his sonne Edward into Castile vnto the same Alfonse, vnder a
color to compound with him for peace, wheras the verie occasion of his
going thither, was to purchase him the ladie Elenor to wife, that was
sister to the said king Alfonse.

[Sidenote: He marrieth the ladie Elenor daughter to K. Alfonse.]

[Sidenote: _Ran. Higd._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: Edward the kings sonne created prince of Wales, and earle of
Chester.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Edmund the kings yoonger sonne created duke of Lancaster.]

At his comming to the court of Spaine, he was verie honorablie receiued
of the king, and in the end, vpon conference had of his message,
obteined his suit, so that king Alfonse was content to bestow vpon
him his daughter in marriage, with the countie of Pontieu in France,
which she held in right of hir mother quéene Ione, the second wife of
Ferdinando the king of Castile, father vnto this king Alfonse, which
Ione was the onelie daughter and heire of Simon earle of Pontieu, and
had issue by hir husband the said Ferdinando two sonnes, Ferdinando
and Lewes, with one daughter; to wit, the foresaid Elenor, the which
by reason hir brethren died yoong, was heire to hir mother. The lord
Edward hauing dispatched his businesse according to his desire,
returned with a ioifull hart to his father, and declared to him what he
had doone. His father most glad thereof, for an augmentation of honour,
created him prince of Wales and earle of Chester, and appointed him to
be his deputie and generall lieutenant both in Guien and in Ireland,
and gaue to him the townes of Bristow, Stamford and Grantham. Hereof
came it, that euer after the kings eldest sonne was made immediatlie
vpon his birth prince of Wales and earle of Chester. He created also
his other sonne named Edmund earle of Lancaster.

[Sidenote: Ships of a strange mold.]

About this season were certeine ships driuen by force of wind and
weather into certeine hauens on the north coasts of England towards
Barwike, which ships were of a verie strange forme and fashion, but
mightie and strong. The men that were aboord the same ships were
of some farre countrie, for their language was vnknowne, and not
vnderstandable to any man that could be brought to talke with them. The
fraught and balast of the ships was armour and weapon, as habergeons,
helmets, speares, bowes, arrowes, crosbowes and darts, with great store
of vittels. There laie also without the hauens on the coast diuerse
other ships of like forme, mold and fashion. Those that were driuen
into the hauens were staied for a time by the bailiffes of the ports.
But finallie, when it could not be knowne what they were, nor from
whence they came, they were licenced to depart without losse or harme
in bodie or goods.

[Sidenote: Gaston de Bierne attempteth to take the citie of Baion.]

[Sidenote: A mutinie in the English armie.]

About Candlemasse, Gaston de Bierne, assembling togither a multitude of
the kings enimies, thorough the intelligence of some of the citizens
of Baion that fauoured not the king, wrought so, that certeine of
his number entred that citie, meaning to haue bereft the king of the
dominion thereof. But other of the citizins (namelie those of the
meaner sort which fauoured the king) made such resistance, that the
enimies which were entred, were apprehended, and diuerse of them
suffered punishment, as they had well deserued. After this, there
chanced a mutinie in the English armie, bicause the kings brethren and
the bishop of Hereford tooke vpon them to punish certeine Welshmen,
for that without commission they had béene abrod to spoile within
the French confines. Therfore in asmuch as the punishment séemed to
excéed the degrée and qualitie of the offense; and againe, for that the
earle of Hereford being constable of the host by inheritance ought to
haue had the order of all corrections in cases of such offenses, the
Englishmen were in mind to haue slaine all the Poictouins in despite of
the kings brethren, if the king had not in humble wise sought to haue
appeased their furie.

[Sidenote: A mightie storme of haile.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 39.]

[Sidenote: The king returneth homewards thorough France.]

[Sidenote: The countesse of Cornewall.]

The wind continuing this yeare for the space of thrée moneths and
od daies northerlie, did greatlie hinder the growth and increase of
floures and fruits: and about the first of Iulie there fell such a
storme of haile and raine, as the like had not béene séene nor heard
of in those daies, breaking downe the tiles and other couerings of
houses, with boughes of trées, by the violent aboundance and force of
the water and hailestones, which continued aboue the space of an houre
powring and beating downe incessantlie. After this, when the king
had remained a whole yeare in Guien, he returned homewards through
France, and comming vnto Charters, was honorablie there receiued of
Lewes the French king, as then latelie returned out of the holie land,
and from thence he was roiallie by the same king Lewes brought vnto
Paris. The countesse of Cornewall went ouer with a noble traine of
lords, gentlemen, and others, to be present at the méeting of hir two
sisters, the quéenes of England and France, so that the roialtie of the
assemblie on ech part was great.

[Sidenote: 1255.]

After that king Henrie had continued there for his pleasure certeine
daies, he returned to England, landing at Douer in Christmasse wéeke.
This iournie into Gascoigne was verie costlie, and to small purpose (as
writers haue recorded) for the kings charges amounted to the summe of
27 hundred thousand pounds and aboue, except lands and rents, which he
gaue vnaduisedlie to those which little deserued, but rather sought the
hinderance both of him and his realme, besides the gift of 30 thousand
marks, which he bestowed vpon his halfe brethren by the mothers side,
not reckoning the lands nor rents, neither yet the wards nor the
horsses, nor iewels which he gaue to them besides, being of price
inestimable. Thus in two iournies which he made, the one into Poictou,
which countrie he lost; and the other into Gascoigne, which he hardlie
preserued; he spent more treasure than a wise chapman would haue giuen
for them both if they had béene set on sale (as Matthew Paris writeth)
so that it might be verified in him that is meant by the old prouerbe,

    Qui procul excurrit, sed nil mercatur ibidem,
    Si via longa fuit, rediens tristatur hic idem.

[Sidenote: The pope offereth ye kingdome of Sicill vnto the king of
England.]

[Sidenote: The K. maketh great shift for monie to send to the pope.]

Moreouer to increase the kings vaine charges, so it fell out, that pope
Innocent bearing grudge towards Conrade king of Sicill, offered that
kingdome (as before is partlie touched) to Richard duke of Cornewall,
who refused the offer, as well for other causes, as chieflie for that
the pope would not agrée to such conditions as earle Richard thought
necessarie for his assurance. Wherevpon the pope granted that kingdome
vnto king Henrie, with manie goodlie promises of aid to his furtherance
for atteining the possession thereof. King Henrie ioifullie receiued
that grant, and called his sonne Edmund openlie by the name of K. of
Sicill, and to furnish the pope with monie for the maintenance of his
war against Conrade, he got togither all such sums as he could make, as
well out of his owne coffers, and out of the excheker, as by borrowing
of his brother earle Richard, and likewise what he could scrape
from the Iewes, or otherwise extort by the rapine of the iustices
itinerants: all which he sent to the pope, who not content herwith
(when he began eftsoons to want) wrote againe to the king for more.

[Sidenote: He sendeth to the pope a warant to take vp monie.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The pope is liberall of an others mans pursse.]

[Sidenote: Manfred proclaimed king of Sicill.]

The king through the instinct of the diuell, to answer the popes
auarice, sent him letters patents obligatorie, signed with his roiall
seale, by which he might take by way of lone such summes of monie, as
would largelie serue his turne of the merchants Italians, willing him
not to sticke at the disbursing of treasure, nor at the great quantitie
of the interest rising vpon the vsurie, for he would discharge all:
and herevnto he bound himselfe vnder paine to forfeit his kingdome
and other his heritages. The pope consenting herevnto, accepted this
large offer. If he did well herein (saith Matthew Paris) the Lord the
iudge of all iudges iudge it, to whom apperteineth the care of all
things. To conclude, much monie was spent, for the pope spared not the
king of Englands pursse, though little good was doone therewith. At
length Conrade died, not without suspicion of poison. The pope being
aduertised of his death, reioised greatlie, as he well vttered in
plaine words, saieng; "Let vs all that be the children of the Romish
church reioise, for now two of our greatest enimies are dispatched out
of the waie; the one a spirituall man, that is to saie, Robert bishop
of Lincolne; and the other a laie-man, that is Conrade king of Sicill."
But yet the pope missed of his purpose, for Manfred the bastard sonne
of the emperour Frederike the second, was shortlie after proclaimed
king of Sicill, and so the second errour was greater than the first.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The states refuse to grant a subsidie.]

About the quindene of Easter, there was a parlement holden at London,
at the which were assembled all the states of the realme in greater
number than had béene commonlie séene. This parlement was chéefelie
called, to let them vnderstand the kings necessitie of monie for
discharging of his debts, and to require them of their aid towards
the same. But whereas he requested more than was thought stood with
reason, they would not agrée therevnto, but desired that he would
confirme, and without all cauillation sweare to obserue the liberties
which by the charter he had promised to hold. Moreouer they required,
that by the common councell of the realme they might choose to them the
chéefe iustice, the chancellour and treasuror, but they were answered
plainelie by some of the priuie councell, that this request would at no
hand be granted.

[Sidenote: The parlem[=e]t adiourned.]

[Sidenote: Rob. de Ros & Iohn Bailioll accused.]

[Sidenote: Reignold de Bath a physician.]

Furthermore, the prelats complained, that they were driuen to paie the
tenths which they promised conditionallie, as it were now by constreint
and of dutie, to the preiudice of the liberties of the church. The
Nobles also found themselues gréeued for the exactions which they saw
at hand, but finallie, after manie things had béene debated touching
these matters, the parlement was adiourned till Michaelmas next, and
euerie man departed to his home, with no great trust of the kings
good will towards them, nor anie hartie thanks receiued of him for
their paines, as may be thought by that which writers haue recorded.
Two Noble men, to whom the custodie and guiding of the king and
quéene of Scots was committed, that is to say, Robert de Ros, and
Iohn de Bailioll, were accused, for misusing themselues in the trust
and charge which they had taken vpon them. King Henrie was the same
time at Notingham. The information came foorth by a physician, who
was sent from the quéene of England, vnto hir daughter the quéene of
Scots, to be about hir for gard of hir health, but bicause the same
physician (whose name was Reignold of Bath) perceiued the quéene of
Scots to be impaired in health through anguish of mind, by reason of
the misdemeanor of such as had the gouernement of hir and hir husband,
he sticked not to blame and reprooue them in their dooings, for the
which he was poisoned, as some thinke: for the truth was, he shortlie
after sickened and died, signifieng vpon his death-bed vnto the quéene
of England what he misliked and thought amisse in those that had the
dooings about hir daughter and hir husband the Scotish king.

[Sidenote: An eclipse.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Glocester & Iohn Mansell sent into Scotland.]

The moone suffered a maruellous eclipse on the night following the day
of S. Margaret in Iulie. It began afore midnight, and continued foure
houres. The king in the behalfe of his daughter the quéene of Scots
raised a power, and drew northwards, sending before him the earle of
Glocester, and Iohn Mansell that was his chapleine and one of his
councell. These two so vsed the matter, that they came to Edenburgh,
where the king and quéene of Scots then laie in the castell, into the
which they entred, and altered the order of the houshold, so as stood
with the contentation of the king and quéene, which were in such wise
vsed before that time, that they were not suffered to lie togither, nor
scarse come to talke togither.

[Sidenote: Robert de Ros summoned to appeare.]

Robert de Ros was summoned to appeare before the king of England, to
answer to such things as might be laid to his charge. At the first he
withdrew himselfe, but afterwards he came in, and submitted himselfe
to the kings pleasure. Diuerse of the nobles of Scotland tooke it not
well, that the earle of Glocester and Iohn Mansell should thus come
into the castell of Edenburgh, and order things in the kings house in
such sort at their pleasure: wherevpon they assembled a power, and
besieged the castell, but at length perceiuing their owne error, they
raised their siege and departed. Iohn de Bailioll being accused of the
like crime that was laid to the charge of his fellow Robert de Ros, for
a péece of monie bought his peace and was pardoned, but the lands of
Robert de Ros were seized into the kings hands. Finallie, the king and
quéene of England came to an enteruiew with the king of Scots and the
quéene their daughter, and setting all things with them in such order
as was thought conuenient, they returned towards the south parts.

[Sidenote: A shift to get monie of the bishops deuised by the bish. of
Hereford.]

In the meane season, the bishop of Hereford deuised a shift to helpe
the K. with monie, towards the paiments of his debts, by obteining
certeine autentike seales of the prelats of this land, wherewith he
signed certeine instruments and writings, wherein was expressed, that
he had receiued diuerse summes of monie for dispatch of businesse
perteining to them and to their churches, of this and that merchant of
Florence or Siena, whereby they stood bound for repaiment thereof by
the same instruments and writings so made by him their agent in their
names. This shift was deuised by the said bishop of Hereford, with
licence obteined therevnto of the king, and also of the pope, vnto
whome for the same intent the said bishop was sent, with sir Robert
Walerane knight. The pope was the sooner persuaded to grant licence for
the contriuing of such manner of shift, bicause the monie should go
to the discharging of the kings debts, into the which he was run, by
bearing the charges of the warres against the king of Sicill.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: Richard earle of Cornewall standeth against his brother for
the grant of a subsidie.]

[Sidenote: The liberties of London seized into the kings hands.]

About the feast of saint Edward, the parlement began againe at London,
in which the states treated of a subsidie to be granted to the king,
but they could not conclude thereof, neither would Richard earle of
Cornewall disburse anie monie at that season to his brother the king,
bicause he allowed not the maner of laieng it out for the warres
against Manfred, being taken in hand without his consent. The same
yeare, the king by the procurement of his brother Richard earle of
Cornewall, had seized the liberties of the citie of London into his
owne hands, vnder colour that the maior had not doone his dutie in the
iust punishing of bakers for breaking of the assises of their bread.
Herevpon, where the maior and communaltie of the citie had by the
kings grant the citie to farme, with diuerse customes and offices, at
a certeine rate and stinted summe of monie; now the king set officers
therein at his pleasure, which were accomptable to him for all the
reuenues and profits that grew within the citie.

[Sidenote: The shiriffes of London imprisoned.]

But whereas the malice which the earle of Cornewall bare to the citie,
was, for that they would not exchange with him certeine grounds that
belonged to their communaltie, they were glad to agrée with him, and
paie vnto him six hundred marks. After which agréement concluded, about
the nintéenth daie of Nouember, they were shortlie after restored to
their liberties. This chanced before the kings comming ouer, who at
his comming to London, lodged in the tower, and vpon new displeasure
conceiued against the citie for the escape of a prisoner (being a
clearke conuict) out of Newgate, which had killed a prior, that was
of aliance to the king, as cousine to the quéene, the king sent for
the maior and the shirifs to come before him to answer the matter.
The maior laid the fault from him to the shiriffes, for so much as to
them belonged the kéeping of all the prisoners within the citie: and
so the maior returned home againe, but the shiriffes remained there as
prisoners by the space of a whole moneth or more, and yet they excused
themselues, in that the fault chéefelie rested in the bishops officers:
for whereas the prisoner was vnder his custodie, they at his request
had granted him licence to imprison the offender within their ward of
Newgate, but so as his officers were charged to sée him safe kept. The
king notwithstanding demanded of the citie thrée thousand marks for a
fine.

[Sidenote: The king demandeth monie of the Iewes.]

[Sidenote: The kings debt 300000 marks.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Cornewall lendeth the king monie.]

Moreouer, whereas he stood in great néed of monie, he required by
way of a tallage eight thousand marks of the Iewes, charging them
on paine of hanging, not to deferre that paiment. The Iewes sore
impouerished with gréeuous and often paiments excused themselues by the
popes vsurers, and reprooued plainelie the kings excessiue taking of
monie, as well of his christian subiects as of them. The king on the
other side, to let it be knowne that he taxed not his people without
iust occasion, and vpon necessitie that droue him thereto, confessed
openlie, that he was indebted by his bonds obligatorie, in thrée
hundred thousand marks: and againe, the yearelie reuenues assigned
to his sonne prince Edward, arose to the summe of fiftéene thousand
marks and aboue, where the reuenues that belonged vnto the crowne
were greatlie diminished, in such wise, that without the aid of his
subiects, he should neuer be able to come out of debt. To be short,
when he had fléeced the Iewes to the quicke, he set them to farme vnto
his brother earle Richard, that he might pull off skin and all; but
yet considering their pouertie, he spared them, and neuerthelesse, to
relieue his brothers necessitie, vpon a pawne he lent him an huge masse
of monie. These shifts did the king vse from time to time, not caring
with what exactions and impositions he burthened the inhabitants of his
land, whereby he procured vnto himselfe the name of an oppressor and
couetous scraper. But what woonder is it in a king sith

[Sidenote: _Hor. lib. 2. serm._]

    Maxima pars hominum morbo iactatur eodem?

[Sidenote: An elephant sent to the K.]

[Sidenote: An ewer of pearle, peraduenture an agat.]

[Sidenote: Strange wonders. High tides. A comet.]

[Sidenote: The decease of Walter archbishop of Yorke.]

About the same time, Lewes the French king sent vnto king Henrie
for a present an elephant, a beast most strange and woonderfull to
the English people, sith most seldome or neuer any of that kind had
béene séene in England before that time. The French quéene also sent
for a present vnto the king of England an ewer of pearle like to a
peacocke in forme and fashion, garnished most richlie with gold,
siluer, and saphires to furnish him foorth in all points of fine and
cunning workemanship, to the verie resemblance of a liuing peacocke.
¶ Manie woonders chanced about this time. The sea rose with most high
tides, riuers were so filled with abundance of water, by reason of the
great continuall raine, that maruellous flouds followed therevpon. A
comet also appeared, and manie high buildings were striken by force
of tempests. The death of Walter archbishop of Yorke followed these
prodigious wonders, who had gouerned that sée the space of fortie
yeares. After him succéeded one Seuall the 34 archbishop of that citie.

[Sidenote: Elianor the wife of prince Edward c[=o]meth to the citie.]

[Sidenote: The liberties of the citie restored to the Londoners.]

About the feast of S. Etheldred, the ladie Elianor wife of prince
Edward the kings son, came to London, where she was honorablie receiued
of the citizens, & conueied through the citie to S. Iones without
Smithfield, and there lodged for a season, and yer long she remooued to
the Sauoy. It was not long after, that the king seized the liberties of
the citie of London into his hands, for certeine monie which the quéene
claimed as due to hir of a certeine right to be paid by the citizens,
so that about the feast of S. Martine in Nouember, they gaue vnto the
king foure hundred marks, and then had their liberties to them againe
restored, and the kings vnder-treasuror discharged, which for the time
was made custos or kéeper of the citie.

[Sidenote: A legat from the pope named Ruscand a Gascoigne.]

[Sidenote: Tenths gathered for the pope.]

[Sidenote: The crosse preached against Manfred.]

About the same time came another legat from the pope, namelie, one
Ruscand a Gascoigne borne, to whom, with the archb. of Canturburie,
and the bishop of Hereford, the pope had granted authoritie to collect
and gather the tenths of the spiritualtie within England, Scotland,
and Ireland, to the vse of the pope and the king, notwithstanding all
priuiledges, for what cause or vnder what forme of words so euer the
same had passed. This Ruscand also absolued the king of his vow made to
go into the holie land, to the end he might go against Manfred king of
Sicill. He also preached the crosse against the same Manfred, promising
all those remission of their sins which should go to war against
Manfred, as well as if they should go into the holie land, to warre
against Gods enimies there, whereat faithfull men much maruelled, that
he should promise as great méed for the shedding of christian bloud, as
the bloud of infidels.

[Sidenote: A councell called at London by the legat.]

The craftie and slie fetches which were vsed in this season by this
Ruscand, the bishop of Hereford, and other their complices, to get
monie of the prelats and gouernors of monasteries within this realme,
were wonderfull, & verie gréeuous to those that felt themselues
oppressed therewith; and namelie, for the debt which the said bishop of
Hereford had charged them with, they being not priuie to the receipt,
nor hauing any benefit thereby. Ruscand called a councell at London,
& propounded great causes why the prelats ought to aid the pope, and
so therevpon demanded great summes of monie. Amongst other summes, he
demanded six hundred marks of the house of S. Albons.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The churchmen being pinched by their pursses, fret and fume
against the popes procéedings in that behalfe.]

[Sidenote: The bishops would rather become martyrs, than lose their
monie.]

To conclude, his demands were estéemed vnreasonable, so that the
bishops and abbats were in a maruellous perplexitie, perceiuing into
what miserable state by reason of immoderate exactions the church of
England was brought. The bishop of London sticked not to saie, that
he would rather lose his head, than consent that the church should
be brought to such seruitude as the legat went about to inforce.
And the bishop of Worcester openlie protested, that he would sooner
suffer himselfe to be hanged, than to sée the church subiect to such
oppression by their examples. Other also taking a boldnesse vnto
them, affirmed, that they would follow the steps of Thomas sometime
archbishop of Canturburie, which for the liberties of the church
suffered himselfe to haue his braines cut out of his head. Yet were
those prelats euill troubled, for the king was against them on the one
side, and the pope gaping after monie was become their vtter enimie on
the other: neither were the Noble men much mooued with pitie towards
the church their mother (as the terme then went) now thus in miserie.

[Sidenote: Ruscand c[=o]plaineth to the king of the frowardnesse of the
prelats.]

[Sidenote: The bishop of London his saiengs.]

Finallie, the prelats appealed from Ruscand, vnto the popes presence,
and would not obeie the wilfull and violent oppressions of the same
Ruscand, so that much adoo there was, and a great complaint made to
the king by Ruscand, of the stubborne disobedience of the prelats, and
namelie of the bishop of London. The king was in a great chafe with
him, and threatned that he would cause the pope to punish him according
to that he well deserued: but the bishop answered thereto; "Let the
pope and king (saith he) which are stronger than I am, take from me my
bishoprike, which by law yet they cannot doo: let them take awaie my
miter, yet an helmet shall remaine."

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 40.]

[Sidenote: Edmund the kings sonne inuested king of Sicill and Naples.]

[Sidenote: _Chro. Dun._]

This yeare after S. Lukes daie, the king assembled a great number of
the nobilitie at London, and thither came the bishop of Bologna la
grasse from the pope, bringing with him a ring, with the which he
inuested Edmund the kings sonne king of Sicill and Naples. About the
same time, the burgesse of Darbie obteined of the king for a summe
of monie to haue the iustices itinerants to hold their assises at
Darbie for the countie of Darbie, and likewise the shiriffes to kéepe
their tournies there, and not at Nothingham, as before they had béene
accustomed for both the shires. But now to returne to the bishops.

[Sidenote: The councell proroged.]

[Sidenote: The K. lieth in wait for mens goods.]

In the meane time, the bishop of Hereford and Ruscand sought to set
variance and discord amongst the English prelats, whereby being diuided
in parts, and not consenting togither, they should be lesse able to
giue true information to the pope, how the verie truth rested. But
finallie, bicause the archbishop of Canturburie was in the parts beyond
the sea, and for that also the sée of Yorke was vacant, and diuerse
bishops were absent, the councell was proroged till the feast of S.
Hilarie, and so they departed euerie man to his home in a maruellous
doubt what waie were best for them to take, sith they saw themselues in
great distresse, if Ruscand did suspend or excommunicate any of them
either iustlie or otherwise. For sure they were, that the king as a
lion lieng in wait whome he might deuoure (to get monie) after fortie
daies were past, if they submitted not themselues, would spoile them
of all their goods as forfeited. So that the pope and the king séemed
as though the shéepheard and woolfe had béene confederate togither to
the destruction of the poore flocke of shéepe, threatning euerie mans
vndooing, to their owne inriching: and not ceasing, till with fulnesse
they were forced to fall from the flesh, much like bloudsucking
horsléeches of whose nature it is notablie noted, that

    Non missura priùs carnem, quàm plena cruoris,
      Quando hæret teneræ mollis hirudo cuti:
    Sic ignara dolis emungitur ære caterua,
      Imbelles populi quid nisi præda manent?

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The Lord Gray forsaketh the court.]

Thus by reason of couetous gréedinesse to get monie for the furnishing
of the popes warres against Manfred king of Sicill, both the pope and
the king of England ran in slander and hatred of the English nation,
namelie, of the spiritualtie, so that such as recorded the acts
and dooings of that time, spared not to make manifest to the world
by their writings, how iniuriouslie they were handled, blaming the
practises of the court of Rome in plaine terms, and affirming that the
pope had power in those things which worke to edification, and not
to destruction. About this season, Iohn lord Grey, being one of the
chéefe councellors to the king, a right honourable knight, and for his
good demeanor and high valiancie greatly commended of all, withdrew
himselfe from the court, either by reason of age that desireth rest,
or rather (as was thought) for that he doubted to beare blame for such
errors as were dailie committed by them that bare rule about the king,
which could not but bring the authors into great infamie at length,
and therefore was he loth to be partaker with them of such slander as
might haue redounded to him also, if he had still continued and taried
amongst them.

[Sidenote: Iewes accused & executed for crucifieng a child at Lincolne
named Hugh.]

[Sidenote: Eightéene Iews hanged.]

Also, vpon the two and twentith of Nouember, were brought vnto
Westminster a hundred and two Iews from Lincolne, that were accused for
the crucifieng of a child in the last summer, in despight of Christes
religion. They were vpon their examination sent to the towre. The child
which they had so crucified was named Hugh, about an eight yeares of
age. They kept him ten daies after they got him into their hands,
sending in the meane time vnto diuerse other places of the realme,
for other of their nation to be present at the crucifieng of him. The
murther came out, by the diligent search made by the mother of the
child, who found his bodie in a well, on the backe side of the Iews
house, where he was crucified: for she had learned, that hir sonne was
lastlie séene plaieng with certeine Iews children of like age to him,
before the dore of the same Iew. The Iew that was owner of the house,
was apprehended, and being brought before sir Iohn de Lexinton, vpon
promise of pardon, confessed the whole matter. For they vsed yearelie
(if they could come by their preie) to crucifie one christian child
or other. The king vpon knowledge had hereof, would not pardon this
Iew that had so confessed the matter, but caused him to be executed
at Lincolne, who comming to the place where he should die, opened
more matter concerning such as were of counsell and present at the
crucifieng of the poore innocent. Wherevpon at length also eightéene
of them that were so brought to London, were conuinced, adiudged and
hanged, the other remained long in prison.

[Sidenote: 1256.]

[Sidenote: The prolocutors answer to the popes legat.]

[Sidenote: The prelats appeale.]

[Sidenote: Marke the cause of martyrdome.]

When the feast of saint Hilarie was come, the cleargie met againe at
London, and fell to intreat of their former businesse, at what time
one maister Leonard aliàs Reignold that was chosen prolocutor for all
the prelats, amongst other answers made to the legat Ruscand, when
the same Ruscand alledged that all churches were the popes; "Truth it
is," said Leonard, "to defend, and not to vse and appropriate them to
serue his owne turne; as we saie, that all is the princes, meaning
that all is his to defend, and not to spoile: and such was the intent
of the founders." Ruscand sore offended herewith, said, he would that
euerie man should speake afterwards for himselfe, that as well the pope
as the king might vnderstand what euerie man said in their businesse
and matters. The prelats were striken in a dumpe herewith, for they
perceiued how the matter went: they appealed yet against the demands
that were made by Ruscand, who would not change a word of that he had
written, in which was conteined, that the prelats had acknowledged
themselues to haue borrowed of the merchant strangers, no small summes
of monie, and the same to be conuerted to the vse of their churches,
which was most vntrue as all men well vnderstood: wherevpon the prelats
affirmed, and not without reasonable cause, that there was a greater
occasion in this cause of martyrdome, than in that of Thomas sometime
archbishop of Canturburie.

[Sidenote: The deane of saint Paules sent to Rome on the behalfe of the
prelats.]

Ruscand at length, perceiuing their manner, became somewhat more mild,
and promised that he would talke with the pope of this matter. But
first there was sent to Rome the deane of Pauls in London, and certeine
others, as attornies or agents for the whole cleargie of England.
These sped so in their suit, that the pope tooke order that if the
prelats paid the monie by force of the contriued writings, whereby they
stood bound for them, their houses, and churches; then, to ease their
burthen, they might reteine in their hands such parcell of tenths as
they ought to paie to the king, for furnishing of his wars against the
Saracens, amounting to the summe which they should be constreined to
paie for the bonds made to the merchants, by the bishop of Hereford (as
before is recited.)

[Sidenote: Mens deuotion towards the pope waxeth cold.]

In this season the deuotion, which manie had conceiued of the pope
and the church of Rome, began to wax cold, reputing the vertue which
he shewed at his entring into the papasie, to be rather a colourable
hypocrisie, than otherwise, sith his procéedings answered not to his
good beginnings: for as it was manifest, where sutors brought their
complaints into the court of Rome, such sped best as gaue most bribes,
and the two priors of Winchester, the one expelled, and the other
got in by intrusion, could well witnesse the same: and all the world
knoweth that the viperous generation of Romanists, reckoning from the
ringleader to the simplest shaueling, haue made gaine the scope of
their holinesse, and as it is truelie said,

[Sidenote: _Antith. de precl. Christi, &c._]

    Quæ libet arripiunt, lucri bonus est odor ex re
      Qualibet, imponunt, hos scelus omne iuuat:
    Accipiunt quoduis, si non sonat ære crumena,
      Siue siligo adsit, sordida siue pecus, &c.

[Sidenote: The b. of Salisburie departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: Suit of court when it was first receiued for a law.]

This yeare died William of Yorke bishop of Salisburie, which had béene
brought vp in the court, euen from his youth. This bishop first caused
that custome to be receiued for a law, whereby the tenants of euerie
lordship are bound to owe their suit to the lords court, of whom they
hold their tenements.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Magnus king of Man.]

In the feast of Easter this yeare, the king adorned Magnus king of
Man, with the order of knighthood, and bestowed vpon him great gifts
and honors. ¶ The countesse of Warren Auesia or Atesia (as some bookes
haue) sister to the king by his mother, departed this life in hir
flourishing youth, vnto the great griefe of hir brother, but speciallie
of hir husband Iohn earle of Waren that loued hir intierlie. ¶ About
the midst of Maie, the Iewes that were in the towre, and in other
prisons for the murther of the child at Lincolne, and had béene indited
by an inquest vpon the confession of him that had suffered at Lincolne,
were now dismissed and set at libertie, to the number of foure and
thirtie of them. ¶ In Whitsuntide was holden a great iusts at Blie,
where the lord Edward the kings eldest sonne first began to shew proofe
of his chiualrie. There were diuerse ouerthrowen and hurt, and amongst
other William de Longspée was so brused, that he could neuer after
recouer his former strength.

[Sidenote: A proclamation for knighthood.]

[Sidenote: A sore tempest of wind and raine.]

The king caused a proclamation to be set foorth, that all such as
might dispend fiftéene pounds in lands, should receiue the order of
knighthood; and those that would not or could not, should paie their
fines. This yeare, thrée daies after the feast of S. Ciricus, a
maruellous sore tempest of wind, raine, haile, and thunder chanced,
that did excéeding much hurt. Mill-whéeles by the violence of waters
were carried away, and the wind-milles were no lesse tormented with
the rage of wind. Arches of bridges, stackes of haie, houses that
stood by water sides, and children in cradels were borne awaie, that
both woonderfull and no lesse pitifull it was to sée. At Bedford the
riuer of Ouse bare downe six houses togither, and did vnspeakeable hurt
thereabouts.

[Sidenote: The king of Scots commeth into England.]

[Sidenote: Iohn Mansell feasted the two kings.]

Alexander the third king of Scots with his wife quéene Margaret, came
about the beginning of August into England, and found the king at his
manor of Woodstoke, where he solaced him a season, and had the lands
of the earle of Huntington restored vnto him, which his grandfather
king William in his time lost and forfeited. Here he did homage to
king Henrie. Upon the daie of the decollation of S. Iohn, the two
kings with their quéenes came to London, where they were honorablie
receiued, and so conueied vnto Westminster. On the day of S. Augustine
the bishop, being the eight and twentith of August, Iohn Mansell the
kings chapleine besought the two kings, and other states, to dine with
him on the morrow following, which they granted, and so he made a
maruellous great dinner. There were seuen hundred messes serued vp, but
the multitude of ghests was such, that scarse the same sufficed; his
house was not able to receiue them all, and therefore he caused tents
and booths to be set vp for them. The like dinner had not béene made
by any chapleine before that time. All those that came were worthilie
receiued, feasted and interteined, in such sort, as euerie man was
satisfied.

[Sidenote: Orders deuised for the appearance of shiriffes.]

[Sidenote: The shiriffes fined.]

[Sidenote: The king of Scots returneth into his countrie.]

About foure daies before the feast of S. Edward, K. Henrie came into
the excheker himselfe, & there deuised order for the appearance of
shiriffes, and bringing in of their accompts. At the same time also,
there was fiue marks set on euerie shiriffes head for a fine, bicause
they had not distreined euerie person that might dispend 15 pounds
land, to receiue the order of knighthood, as was to the same shiriffes
commanded. The king of Scots, after he had remained a while with the
king of England, returned backe into Scotland, and left his wife behind
with hir mother till she should be brought to bed, for she was as then
great with child.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 41.]

[Sidenote: Richard earle of Cornewall elected emperour.]

[Sidenote: 1257.]

[Sidenote: The great treasure of Richard king of Almaine.]

In the 41 yeare of the reigne of king Henrie, his brother Richard earle
of Cornewall was elected emperour, by one part of the Coruosters: and
diuerse lords of Almaine comming ouer into this land (vpon the daie
of the innocents in Christmasse) presented vnto him letters from the
archbishop of Colen, and other great lords of Almaine, testifieng their
consents in the choosing of him to be emperour, and withall, that it
might stand with his pleasure to accept that honor. Finallie, vpon good
deliberation had in the matter, he consented therevnto: whervpon the
lords that came with the message, being right glad of their answer,
returned with all spéed to signifie the same vnto those from whom
they had béene sent. The treasure of this earle Richard now elected
king of Almaine, was estéemed to amount vnto such a summe, that he
might dispend euerie day a hundred marks, for the terme of ten yeares
togither, not reckoning at all the reuenues which dailie accrewed to
him of his rents in Almaine and England.

[Sidenote: The Welshmen choose them a gouernour, and rebell against the
king.]

In this meane time the vnquiet Welshmen, after the death of their
prince Dauid, chose in his stéed one Leolin, that was son to the same
Griffin that brake his necke as he would haue escaped out of the towre
of London; and herewith they began a new rebellion, either driuing
out such Englishmen as laie there in garisons within the castels and
fortresses, or else entring into the same by some traitorous practise,
they slue those which they found within them, to the great displeasure
of their souereigne lord Edward the kings eldest sonne, who coueting
to be reuenged of their rebellious enterprises, could not bring his
purpose to passe, by reason of the vnseasonable weather and continuall
raine which fell that winter, so raising the waters & setting the
marishes on flouds, that he could not passe with his armie.

[Sidenote: The king wanteth monie.]

[Sidenote: Sir Geffrey de Langlies hard dealing, cause of the Welshmens
rebellion.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The number of the Welsh enemies.]

[Sidenote: The Welshmen diuide their power into two parts.]

Moreouer, his father the king wanted monie and treasure to furnish
him withall, howbeit prince Edward borrowed of his vncle erle Richard
four thousand marks towards the maintenance of that war. The rebellion
of the Welshmen speciallie rose by the hard dealing of sir Geffrey de
Langlie knight, the kings collector amongst them, who handled them so
streightlie, that in defense of their countrie, lawes, and liberties
(as they pretended) they put on armour. They tooke and destroied the
lands and possessions which were great and large, of Griffin Brunet,
being fled for safegard of his life vnto the king of England. There
were of those Welsh rebels at the point of twentie thousand men, and
of them ten thousand were horssemen, the which perceiuing the season
to make for their purpose, defended themselues so manfullie, that they
droue backe prince Edward and his armie, & so continuing the wars, did
much hurt to the English marishes. Their power so increased, that at
length they diuided the same in two equall parts, the better to recouer
vittels, and in either armie there were estéemed thirtie thousand armed
men, after the maner of their countrie, of the which there were fiue
hundred men of armes in either host, with barded horsses all couered
in iron. Thus being of such puissance, they did much mischéefe to
the Englishmen that inhabited on the marshes, neither were the lords
marchers able to resist them, although the earle of Glocester aided the
same lords all that he might.

[Sidenote: _Nic. Treuet._]

[Sidenote: Stephan Bauzan, aliàs Baucan.]

[Sidenote: Englishmen ouerthrowne.]

[Sidenote: Northwales and Southwales ioined togither in league.]

King Henrie being hereof aduertised, sent with all spéed Stephan
Bauzan, a man skilful in feats of warre, with a great number of
soldiers into Wales, against the rebels who comming into that countrie,
and entring into the lands of a Welsh lord named Rise Vaughan, was
intrapt by such ambushments as his enimies laid for him, and thereby
was slaine with the more part of his armie. This ouerthrowe chanced by
the treason of Griffin de Brunet, who at that present reuolting from
the English side to his countrimen, instructed them in all things,
how they might vanquish their enimies. At that time, Northwales and
Southwales ioined in league and fréendlie amitie togither, which
commonlie was not séene in those daies, they being for the more part at
variance, the one rather séeking still how to indamage the other: but
now in defense of their liberties (as they pretended) they agréed in
one.

[Sidenote: The king passeth himselfe in person into Wales.]

[Sidenote: The lord Mortimer the kings lieutenant in Wales.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

The king sore mooued herewith, determined to go himselfe into Wales,
that he might take worthie punishment of those his aduersaries, that
could neuer be sufficientlie chastised. Wherevpon raising a great
power, he hasted foorth, and comming into Wales, put the rebels in such
feare, that they withdrew to their accustomed places of refuge, I meane
the woods and mareshes. The king would faine haue had them foorth, that
he might haue punished them according to their deserts, and therefore
to bring his purpose the better to passe, he sent for an armie of
soldiers into Ireland, and tarried for their comming at the castell
of Brecknoke, but the yeare was farre spent yer his people could be
gathered, so that by the aduise of his lords he strengthened certeine
castels, and so returned for that yeare into England, leauing the lord
Roger Mortimer his lieutenant in Wales, to resist the rebels. But now
let vs speake of other dooings which chanced in the meane while that
the warres thus continued and lasted betwixt England and Wales.

[Sidenote: A legat from Rome.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: A new order of Friers.]

Yée shall vnderstand, that in the Lent season, the archbishop of
Messina came as legat from the pope hither into England, with letters
of procuration, to demand and receiue, and also with power, to punish
such as should denie and séeme to resist, and so being here arriued
with a great traine of seruants and horses, he sent foorth his
commandements in writing to euerie prelat, to prouide him monie by
way of proxie so that of the house of S. Albons, and of the celles
that belonged therevnto, he had one and twentie marks, and when the
moonks of S. Albons came to visit him in his house, they could not
be permitted to depart, but were kept as prisoners, till they had
satisfied his couetous demand: for whereas they alledged that they had
not brought any monie with them, he asked them whie they were such
beggers, and further said, "Send yée then to some merchant, that will
lend you monie," and so it was doone: for otherwise they might not haue
libertie to depart. This archbishop was of the order of the Friers
preachers, in whome (saith Matthew Paris) we had hoped to haue found
more abundant humilitie. About the same time, there appeared at London
a new order of Friers, not knowen till those daies, hauing yet the
popes autentike bulles, which they openlie shewed, so that there séemed
a confusion of manie orders, as the same Matthew Paris recordeth, and
bicause they were apparelled in sackecloth, they were called sacked
Friers.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

About the middest of Lent, there was a great parlement holden, to the
which the maisters of the Vniuersitie of Oxford were summoned, that
peace might be concluded betwixt them and the bishop of Lincolne,
which had them in suit about their liberties. There came to the same
parlement, the earle of Glocester, and sir Iohn Mansell, latelie
returned out of Almaine, where they had béene on ambassage from Richard
the elect king of Almaine. Thither came also the same elect king of
Almaine, and almost all the Nobilitie of the realme, so that scarse
might the citie of London receiue the number that repaired to that
parlement. The king of Almaine meant to take his leaue at that time
of the lords and péeres of the realme, purposing shortlie after, to
take his iournie towards Almaine, and to ordeine the bishop of London
gouernor of all his lands and possessions within England.

[Sidenote: The lord Edmund the kings sonne.]

[Sidenote: A subsidie demanded.]

[Sidenote: The offer of ye spiritualtie.]

In this parlement, the lord Edmund the kings yoonger sonne was shewed
as king of Naples and Sicill, for the obteining of the possession
of which dominions and kingdoms, his father king Henrie demanded no
small subsidie and aid of monie, both of the temporaltie and also
of the spiritualtie, but namlie, he required to haue the tenths of
spirituall mens liuings for the terme of fiue yeares, according to the
new taxations without any deductions to be allowed except necessarie
expenses: also, the fruits for one yeare of benefices that chanced
to fall void within the said terme of fiue yeare. Moreouer, sundrie
other duties he required to haue of the spirituall men, sore to their
gréeuance, and speciallie, bicause they knew that such tyrannie first
tooke beginning from the pope. In the end (though loth they were to
consent) yet conditionallie that the king would confirme the liberties
conteined in the great charter, and obserue the same throughlie, now
after it had béene so manie times brought out and redéemed, they
offered to giue him towards his instant necessitie two and fiftie
thousand marks, to the irrecouerable danger of impouerishing the
church. And yet, as it is said, the king refused the gift, as that
which he thought not to be sufficient.

¶ Truelie it should séeme, that there was a great vntowardlie
disposition in the subiects of that time, for the helping of their
king with necessarie aid of monie, towards such great charges as he
had béene diuers waies occasioned to be at, since his first comming
to the crowne. But bicause it was perceiued that he bestowed no
small quantitie of his treasure to the aduancing of his kinsfolke
and aliance, namelie strangers, and againe defraied great summes in
vaine hope to obteine the kingdoms of both the Sicils which the pope
offered to him fréelie inough in words, as before yée haue heard, the
English subiects conceiued a great misliking of the whole gouernement,
and namelie, for that he séemed to be led and ruled by the aduise
and counsell of those strangers, who being not throughlie acquainted
with the nature of the English people, nor fullie instructed in the
lawes and customes of the realme, caused him to doo manie things, that
procured both to him and them much ill will as well of the hie states
as of the commons, which as occasion serued, they were readie inough
to discouer, and therefore they were verie inquisitiue, both to learne
what he receiued, and also in what sort he bestowed that which he did
receiue and take.

It was therefore knowne, that since he first began to waste his
treasure, his charges amounted vnto the summe of 950000 marks, as
the bookes of accompts remaining in the hands of the clearks of his
closet plainelie witnessed, and yet of all those vaine expenses no
great aduantage was growne thereby to the king or realme, but rather
disaduantage, as the most part of men then tooke it, and no maruell:
for there was such hartburning amongst the nobilitie, one enuieng an
others aduancement, & repining at each others dooings, that it was not
possible to bring any good drift forward amongst men so far at ods
togither. But we will let this passe as a thing manifest inough to them
that shall well consider the course of that time, and will returne to
the parlement aboue mentioned.

[Sidenote: The archbish. of Cullen and other ambassadors of Almaine.]

Before the end of this solemne assemblie of states, the archbishop of
Cullen with a duke, & an other bishop came ouer out of Almaine, vnto
their elect king Richard, to whome they did fealtie and homage, as to
their souereigne liege lord and gouernor, which thing once doone, he
gaue to the said archbishop fiue hundred marks to beare his charges,
with a rich miter set with stones, & furnished with plates of beaten
gold; which miter when the archbishop had set it vpon his head; "He
hath (saith he) giuen a rich gift to me and to my church, and verelie,
euen as I haue put this miter on my head, so will I set on his head
the crowne of the kingdome of Almaine; he hath mitered me, and I will
crowne him." The other lords of Almaine, which at the same time did
homage vnto earle Richard, were also presented with great and rich
gifts.

[Sidenote: Six archbish. present at London in time of the parlement.]

[Sidenote: The elect K. of Almaine taketh his leaue of the king his
brother.]

[Sidenote: He landeth at Dordreigh.]

Héere is further to be noted, that there were present at this parlement
six archbishops, Canturburie, Yorke, Dubline, Messina, Tarento and
Cullen. The archbishop of Messina was come to the king to set him on
dotage for the businesse about the conquest of Naples and Sicill. At
the feast of Ester next following, the archbishop of Cullen returned
into his countrie, and the third day after Easter, the elect king of
Almaine tooke his leaue and departed toward Yarmouth, where he purposed
to take the sea, to saile ouer into Almaine, but by reason of contrarie
winds he was driuen to remaine there a long time, to his great gréefe
and inestimable charges before he could passe ouer; yet finallie, about
the latter end of Aprill, he got foorth to the sea, and landed at
Dordreigh the first of Maie next insuing.

[Sidenote: A synod.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

About the same time, the archbishop of Canturburie called a synod of
the bishops and abbats inhabiting within his prouince, that inuocating
the grace of the Holie-ghost, they might foresée some redresse for
reléefe of the English church, now in these late yeares sore disquieted
by new oppressions, more gréeuous than had béene accustomed: for the
king by counsell, or rather by the whispering of some flatterers and
enimies to the realme, was so induced, that he permitted certeine euill
customs, as thornie brembles to increase in the fruitfull garden of
pleasure, and to choke vp the trées that brought foorth fruit in great
plentie. Moreouer in this yeare, king Henrie caused the walles of the
citie of London, which were sore decaied and destitute of turrets, to
be repared in more séemelie wise than before they had béene, at the
common charges of the citie.

[Sidenote: A decrée made by the pope.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The moonks of Durham that were exc[=o]municated are now
absolued.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

There was an ordinance made at Rome by the pope and his cardinals
(which verie diligentlie foresaw to aduance their temporall
commodities, not much passing for other mens aduantages) that euerie
one which should be chosen an exempt abbat, should come to the court of
Rome to be there confirmed, and receiue the popes blessing, by which
heinous ordinance, religion was laid open to great danger, and the
church depriued of temporall prosperitie (as saith Matthew Paris) for
by this means (saith he) it was néedfull for religious men, to choose
to their gouernour a man not religious, but rather halfe temporall,
and such a one as to whome rather Iustinians lawes than Christes
which conuerteth soules should be familiar. The moonks of Durham, who
onlie with the canons of Gisborne resisted the wicked procéedings of
the popes exactors, and stood therefore interdicted a long time, at
length, after manie altercations, were absolued. Oh (saith Matth.
Paris) if in that their tribulation they might haue had fellows, and in
their constant doings aidors, how happilie had the church of England
triumphed ouer hir tormentors and oppressors!

You haue heard how Richard earle of Cornewall being elected king of
Almaine, sailed thither, where on the Ascension day last, he was
crowned king by the archbishop of Cullen, of whom, and diuerse other
great princes of Germanie he was holden for their lawfull king and
gouernour (as in the Dutch histories you may find more largelie
expressed) though other of them had chosen Alfonse king of Castile,
the which Alfonse wrote to the king of England, as his confederate and
alie, requiring aid of him against the said Richard that was his owne
brother, to the which vnreasonable request the king would in no wise
consent.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: An information against the lord maior of London.]

[Sidenote: The lord maior and shiriffes of London discharged.]

[Sidenote: The lord maior and shiriffes fined.]

Moreouer, in this fortie one yeare of king Henries reigne, by reason of
a roll closed in gréene wax and found in the kings Wardrobe at Windsor,
conteining as it were an information against the maior and shiriffes
of London, for oppression and wrongs doone to the communaltie of the
citie, the king tooke great displeasure, and caused streit inquisition
to be made, as well by Fouke Moots, as Ward Moots, & diuerse other
means. At length, the maior and shiriffes, with the chamberlaine of
the citie, were discharged by Iohn Mansell, one of the kings iustices,
afore whom and other the kings councell, the inquisition was taken,
and then was the custodie of the citie assigned vnto the constable
of the tower, and in place of the shiriffes were appointed Michaell
Tonie, and Iohn Audrian. At length, the maior, shiriffes and Aldermen
that were accused, perceiuing the kings displeasure towards them,
submitted themselues wholie to his mercie, sauing to them and to all
other the citizens their liberties & franchises, and so in the excheker
chamber at Westminster afore the king, there sitting in iudgement
vpon the matter, they were condemned to paie their fines for their
offenses committed, and further, euerie of them discharged of his
ward and office. Shortlie after was William Fitz Richard by the kings
commandement made maior, and Thomas Fitz Thomas, and William Grapisgate
shiriffes.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The archbish. of Yorke accursed.]

[Sidenote: The constancie of the archbishop of Yorke.]

The archbishop of Yorke was accurssed by the popes commandement
through all England, with booke, bell and candle, that by such terror
his constancie might be weakened. But the archbishop (saith Matthew
Paris) informed by the example of Thomas Becket, and by the example
and doctrine of saint Edmund sometime his instructor, and also taught
by the faithfulnesse of blessed Robert, late bishop of Lincolne,
despaired not of comfort from heauen, in bearing patientlie the popes
tyrannie; neither would he bestow the wealthie reuenues of his church
vpon Italians, being vnworthie persons and strangers; neither would
he obeie and incline to the popes will like a faint-harted person, by
leauing and setting apart the rigor of the law, least thereby he might
séeme to result from his pastorlike office, and animate the woolfe of
Rome to breake into the shéepfold of the church, whose purpose was to
sucke the verie bloud quite and cleane out of euerie veine, yea to bite
out bowels and all. Which qualitie to rest in him, wofull experience
hath taught, and the testimonie of written verities hath shewed, among
which this one for the truth thereof is worthie to be reported euen to
the praise of the deuiser for his prettie deuise therein comprised, and
here set downe as fit for the purpose:

    Non pontifex sed potifex,
    Non potifex sed panifex,
    Non panifex sed carnifex,
    Est papa pater pontifex.

[Sidenote: The lord Audelie warreth vpon the Welshmen.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent into France.]

[Sidenote: The marshes of Wales some impouerished.]

About the beginning of the two and fortith yeare of king Henries
reigne, the lord Iames Audelie that had béene ouer with the king of
Almaine, and was latelie returned home in companie of the lord Henrie,
sonne to the said king (who came backe from his father about the feast
of saint Michaell last past) vnderstanding how the Welshmen in his
absence had burnt, wasted, and destroied his lands, possessions, and
castels, which belonged vnto him in the confines of Wales, he meant
to be reuenged of those injuries, and inuading them, he slue a great
number of them, so reuenging the death of those his fréends, seruants
and tenants, whome they before had murthered. The Welshmen were not
so discouraged herewith, but that they brake vpon him out of their
starting-holes and places of refuge through the marishes, and slaieng
their enimies horsses, put them backe to their power, & ceassed not
to doo what mischéefe they could, by spoiling, killing, and burning
houses and castels where they might come vnto them, and so the realme
of England was dailie put to losses & hinderances. For out of Wales,
England was accustomed to be furnished with horsses, cattell, and other
things, to the great profit of both the countries. About the same time
there was an ambassage sent from the king of England to the French
king by the bishop of Worcester, the elect of Winchester, the abbat of
Westminster, the earle of Leicester, & Hugh Bigod earle Marshall, with
Peter de Sauoy, and Robert Walcron. The effect of their message was to
require restitution of those countries, lands, cities, and townes which
had bene euicted out of the hands of king Iohn and others, apperteining
by right of inheritance to the king of England. These lords did their
message, but as was thought, they had no towardlie answer, but rather
were put off with trifling words & scornefull tawnts, so that they
returned shortlie again all of them, the abbat of Westminster onelie
excepted, who remained there behind for a fuller answer, not onelie to
those requests exhibited on the part of the king of England, but also
on the behalfe of the king of Almaine. The marshes towards Wales in
this season were brought almost desert, by reason of the continuall
wars with the Welshmen, for what with fire & sword, neither building
nor liuing creature, nor any other thing was spared, that fire & sword
might bring to ruine.

[Sidenote: A great dearth.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: 1258.]

[Sidenote: The gréedie dealing of the Londoners to the hurt of the
c[=o]mon-welth.]

In this yeare was an excéeding great dearth, in so much that a quarter
of wheat was sold at London for foure and twentie shillings, whereas
within two or thrée yeares before, a quarter was sold at two shillings.
It had béene more déerer, if great store had not come out of Almaine,
for in France and in Normandie it likewise failed. But there came
fiftie great ships fraught with wheat and barlie, with meale and bread
out of Dutchland, by the procurement of Richard king of Almaine, which
greatlie reléeued the poore; for proclamation was made, and order taken
by the king, that none of the citizens of London should buy any of that
graine to laie it vp in store, whereby it might be sold at an higher
price vnto the néedie. But though this prouision did much ease, yet the
want was great ouer all the realme. For it was certeinelie affirmed,
that in thrée shires within the realme, there was not found so much
graine of that yeares growth, as came ouer in those fiftie ships. The
proclamation was set foorth, to restreine the Londoners from ingrossing
vp that graine, and not without cause: for the wealthie citizens were
euill spoken of in that season, bicause in time of scarsitie they would
either staie such ships as fraught with vittels were comming towards
the citie, and send them some other way foorth; or else buy the whole,
that they might sell it by retaile at their plesure to the néedie.
By means of this great dearth and scarsitie, the common people were
constreined to live vpon hearbs & roots, and a great number of the
poore people died through famine, which is the most miserable calamitie
that can betide mortall men, and was well marked euen of the heathen,
but notablie by Ouid, who making a description of famine, setteth
hir foorth in most ouglie and irkesome sort, intending thereby the
dreadfulnes of that heauie plague, saieng:

[Sidenote: _Ouid. lib. 8. Meta. fab. 11._]

    Quæsitámque famem lapidoso vidit in antro,
    Vnguibus & raris vellentem dentibus herbas,
    Hirtus erat crinis, caua lumina, pallor in ore,
    Labra incana situ, scabri rubigine dentes,
    Dura cutis, per quàm spectari viscera possent,
    Ossa sub incuruis extabant arida lumbis,
    Ventris erat pro ventre locus, pendêre putares
    Pectus & à spinæ tantummodo crate teneri,
    Auxerat articulos macies, genuúmque tumebat
    Orbis, & immodico prodibant tubere tali, &c.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Hurtred, a messenger fr[=o] the pope.]

[Sidenote: The Welshmen spoile Penbrokeshire.]

This yeare after Easter a parlement was holden at London, in the which
manie weightie matters were intreated of touching the kings causes,
namelie, about the conquest of the realme of Naples, the pope having
sent a messenger named Hurtred for the discharge of monie, which the
pope had receiued of merchants, as it were to the kings vse, and
entred bonds for the paiment thereof. Also, whereas the king was sore
disquieted for the warre which the Welshmen made against him, he
asked aduise of the states, how he might procéed to séeke his iust
reuenge of them, who by reason of their good hap were become verie
stout and loftie, and had of late by the expiring of a truce which
had béene accorded betwixt them, spoiled and wasted the most part of
Penbrokeshire, of which iniurie the earle of Penbroke, namelie William
de Valence, sore complained.

[Sidenote: Variance betwixt the earle of Penbroke and others.]

But whereas the king knowing him to be rich, willed him to lay out
some great portion of monie, towards the maintenance of his wars, the
erle tooke great displeasure therewith, as though the king had made
that request by the suggestion and setting on of some of the English
lords, in somuch that words passed in displeasant sort betwixt him and
the earles of Glocester and Leicester, so far foorth, that the earle
of Penbroke called the earle of Leicester traitor, who therewith made
towards him, to haue reuenged the iniurie, and so would haue doone
indéed, if the king had not béene moderator betwixt them. Finallie at
this parlement the lords told the king that they might not aid him with
any great summes of monie, except it should redound to their great
impouerishment: they told him also, that he had not doone wiselie to
enter into couenants, for the purchase of the kingdome of Naples for
his sonne, without their consents.

[Sidenote: The archbishop of Yorke depriued of his crosse.]

[Sidenote: Mansuetus the popes Nuncio.]

They also declared to him, what articles it should be good for him to
propone vnto the pope, if he would haue him to continue in bearing
the charges of the wars against Manfred. But when those articles were
afterwards presented to the pope, he allowed them not, & so the matter
remained without any certeine assurance of the promises, which had
béene and still were from time to time made to set the king on dotage.
The archbishop of Yorke had his crosse taken from him by the popes
commandement, but the archbishop would not yet bow his knée vnto Baall,
to bestow the benefices of his church vpon aliens, and such as were
vnworthie persons, as it had béene to cast pearles vnto swine. ¶ There
came from the pope as his Nuncio, vnto king Henrie, a frier minor named
Mansuetus, furnished with great power and authoritie, in somuch that he
tooke vpon him to absolue men for changing their vowes, and to iustifie
those that were exc[=o]municated persons, false periured, and such
like. Wherevpon, manie of euill disposition presumed to offend: for
easinesse to purchase pardon bred boldnesse in manie, howbeit the wise
séemed to laugh at such dooings.

[Sidenote: The parlement proroged.]

The parlement still continued, till the sundaie after the Ascension
day, with hard hold betwixt the king and the lords, who laid it
sore to his charge, that he had not performed the promises which
he made touching the obseruing of the liberties conteined in the
great charter. They also complained greatlie of his misgouernance,
in that he so much aduanced the Poictouins and other strangers, to
the impouerishment of himselfe, and the whole realme, and further,
mainteined them so far foorth, that they were readie to offer wrong
vnto other, vpon presumption of his favour and bearing with them, he
hauing by commandement restreined that no processe should passe out of
the chancerie against certeine of them that were his coosins, as the
earle of Penbroke and others. Finallie, when the lords were in doubt
which way to worke for their owne safeties, they caused the parlement
to be proroged till the feast of saint Barnabe, then to begin againe
at Oxford. In the meane time the lords of the realme, as the earles
of Glocester, Leicester, Hereford and Northfolke, with other, did
confederate themselues togither, bicause they stood in feare to be
intrapped by the kings subtill sleights, and by the craftie wiles of
those strangers whom he reteined against them.

[Sidenote: A late growth.]

[Sidenote: A dearth accompanied with a death.]

In the same yeare by the wind, which continuallie certeine months
togither kept northerlie, the flours, with other growing things, were
so hindered, that scarselie they appeared to anie purpose, till the
most part of Iune was past, wherevpon the hope of receiuing the fruits
of the earth was quite taken away, & so vpon the great dearth that
happened, a sore death and mortalitie followed, for want of necessarie
food to susteine the pining bodies of the poore people. They died so
thicke, that there were great pits made in churchyards to laie the dead
bodies in one vpon an other.

[Sidenote: Seuall archb. of Yorke departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The kings halfe brethren.]

About the feast of the Ascension, Seuall the archbishop of Yorke
departed this life, who constantlie had resisted the tyrannie of the
court of Rome, in defense of his church, suffering in this world
manie gréeuous tribulations, but now was remooued from thense vnto
the kingdome of heauen, to be crowned with the elect for his good
deseruings, as was then certenlie beléeued. About this time a great
number of Poictouins were come into England, by reason of their
aliance and coosinage to the king, the which by the kings fauour being
highlie aduanced, began to wax proud thereof, and to require to be
restored vnto such lands and liuings as before time they had possessed:
namelie the kings halfe brethren, Athelmare or Odomare, that was a
préest, with William, Geffrey and Guie, these were the sonnes of
Hugh le Brun earle of Marsh, by his wife quéene Isabell, the mother
of king Henrie, and being come into England, they shewed themselues
verie loftie & high-minded, partlie, bicause of their coosinage to
the king, & partlie by reason of his courteous interteining of them,
insomuch that forgetting themselues, they began to despise (vpon a
presumptuous pride) the English nobilitie, looking still for preferment
of honor aboue all other. And surelie Odomare obteined at the first
a great péece of his purpose, being made by the kings gift bishop of
Winchester, and by that means bare a stout port, and greatlie holpe and
mainteined his other brethren.

[Sidenote: _Insanum parliamentum._]

[Sidenote: The demand of the lords.]

The English barons not well able to suffer such presumption in
strangers, who séemed to haue them in derision, complained to the
king, in so much that at length, as well for a reformation hereof, as
in other things, a parlement was called (as before you haue heard)
first at London, and after reiorned to Oxenford, there to be assembled
about the feast of saint Barnabe in the moneth of Iune. This (of
some writers) is named Insanum parliamentum, that is to say, The mad
parlement; for at this parlement (to the which the lords came with
great retinues of armed men, for the better safegard of their persons)
manie things in the same yeare enacted contrarie to the kings pleasure,
and his roiall prerogatiue. For the lords at the first determined to
demand the confirmation of the ancient charter of liberties, which his
father king Iohn had granted, and he himselfe had so often promised to
obserue and mainteine, signifieng plainelie, that they meant to pursue
their purpose and intent herein, not sparing either for losse of life,
lands or goods, according to that they had mutuallie giuen their faiths
by ioining of hands, as the manner in such cases is accustomed. Besides
the grant of the great charter, they required other things necessarie
for the state of the common-wealth, to be established and enacted.

[Sidenote: Ordinances made.]

[Sidenote: An oth exacted of the king.]

It was therefore first enacted, that all the Poictouins should auoid
the land, togither with other strangers, and that neither the king nor
his sonne prince Edward should in anie secret manner aid them against
the people. Moreouer, that the king & his sonne should receiue an
oth, to stand vnto the decrées and ordinances of that parlement, and
withall spéed to restore the ancient lawes and institutions of the
realme, which they both did, rather constreined therevnto by feare,
than of anie good will. Thus not onelie the king himselfe, but also his
sonne prince Edward receiued an oth, to obserue the ordinances of that
parlement. But Iohn earle Warren, and the kings halfe brethren, namelie
the earle of Penbroke refused that oth; and likewise the lord Henrie,
sonne to the king of Almaine, excused himselfe by his fathers absence,
without whose consent he would not receiue it, vnto whome this answer
was made, that if his father would not consent to the agréement of the
baronage, he should not possesse one furrowe of land within this realme.

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester threateneth the earle of Penbroke.]

[Sidenote: The kings halfe brethren shift awaie.]

[Sidenote: They depart the Realme.]

Also, whereas the earle of Leicester resigned the castels of
Killingworth and Odiham into the kings hands, which he had latelie
receiued by his gift, and newlie repaired, the earle of Penbroke and
his other brethren sware déepelie, that they would for no mans pleasure
giue ouer such castels, rents, and wardships of theirs, as they had of
the kings gift. But the earle of Leicester told the earle of Penbroke
flatlie and plainlie, that he should either render them vp, or else
he should be sure to lose his head. This saieng was confirmed by the
generall voices of all other the barons, bicause it was a speciall
article concluded amongst other in that parlement. The kings halfe
brethren, perceiuing which waie the world went, stood in doubt of
themselues, and secretlie therevpon departing from Oxenford, first
withdrew vnto Winchester, where Odomare, one of the same brethren was
bishop, through whose support, and by reason of the strength of such
castels as he held, they trusted to be in more safetie: but finallie,
perceiuing themselues not to be so out of danger, sith the barons
minded to pursue them, about the eightéenth daie of Iulie they departed
the realme with a great number of other of their countriemen; and
amongest those, William de saint Herman the kings caruer was one.

[Sidenote: Henrie M[=o]ntfort pursueth the kings half brethren.]

[Sidenote: They sent to the French K.]

[Sidenote: Richard Gray capteine of Douer castell, and lord warden of
the ports.]

Henrie Montfort, sonne to the earle of Leicester, vnderstanding of
their departure out of the realme, followed; and hearing that they were
arriued at Bullogne, he landed in those parts, & by such fréendship
as he found there amongst those that bare good will vnto his father,
he got togither a power, and after a manner besieged the Poictouins
within Bullogne, laieng watch for them in such sort, both by sea and
land, that there was no waie left for them to escape. When they saw
themselues in that danger, they sent a messenger with all post hast to
the French king, requiring his safe conduct, to passe fréelie through
his realme, as they trusted he would be content to grant vnto such, as
for refuge and safegard of life should repaire vnto him for comfort.
The French king courteouslie granted their request, and so they were in
safetie permitted to passe quietlie through the countrie. In the meane
while one Richard Gray, chatellaine of Douer castell, a right valiant
man and a faithfull, suffered no man to passe that waie vnsearched,
according to that which he had in commandement: wherevpon he tooke &
seized into his hands a great portion of treasure, which was brought
thither to be transported ouer to the Poictuins that were fled out of
the realme. Also, there was found a great quantitie of treasure in the
new temple at London, which they had gathered & hoorded vp there, which
also was seized to the kings vse.

[Sidenote: _Matt. West._]

[Sidenote: Foure and twentie gouernurs.]

[Sidenote: The abuses of those gouernurs.]

But now to returne vnto the dooings in the parlement holden at Oxford.
It was ordeined (as some write) that the king should choose twelue
persons of the realme, and the communaltie of the land should choose
other twelue, the which hauing regall authoritie in their hands,
might take in charge, the gouernance of the realme vpon them, &
should from yeare to yeare prouide for the due election of iustices,
chancellors, treasurors, and other officers, and sée for the safe
kéeping of the castels which belonged to the crowne. These foure and
twentie gouernours appointed as prouiders for the good gouernement of
the realme, began to order all things at their pleasure, in the meane
time not forgetting to vse things chéeflie to their own aduantages, as
well in prouiding eschets and wards for their sonnes and kinsfolks,
as also in bestowing patronages of churches (belonging to the kings
gift) at their pleasures, so that these prouiders séemed to prouide all
for themselues, in so much that neither king nor Christ could receiue
ought amongst them: and as for iustice they regarded nothing lesse,
their minds were so rauished with desire of priuat wealth; which who so
hunteth after, being in place of magistracie, he must néeds neglect the
law and course of equitie, and therefore this counsell is good which a
good writer giueth in this behalfe, saieng;

[Sidenote: _M. Pal. in Virg. Fabian._]

    Si iustus vult esse aliquis non vtile quærat,
    Iusticia est multis laudata, domestica paucis.

There be that write, how there were but twelue of these gouernours
chosen; whose names were as followeth. First, the archbishop of
Canturburie, the bishop of Worcester, Roger Bigod earle of Northfolke
and marshall of England, Simon de Mountfort earle of Leicester, Richard
de Clare earle of Glocester, Humfrey Bohun earle of Hereford, the
earles of Warwike and Arundell, sir Iohn Mansell chéefe iustice of
England, sir Roger lord Mortimer, sir Hugh Bigod, sir Peter de Sauoy,
sir Iames Audeley, and sir Peter de Mountfort. To these was authoritie
onelie giuen to punish and correct all such as offended in breaking of
any the ordinances at this parlement established.

[Sidenote: Contention betwixt the earles of Leicester and Glocester.]

[Sidenote: The lords come to the Guildhall to haue their ordinances
confirmed.]

It was not long after the finishing of this parlement, but that
strife and variance began to kindle betwéene the king and the earles
of Leicester and Glocester, by reason of such officers as the said
earles had remooued, and put others in their roomes: among the which
Iohn Mansell was discharged of his office, and sir Hugh Bigod, brother
to earle Marshall, admitted in his roome. Also bicause the foresaid
gouernours had knowledge that the king minded not to performe the
ordinances established at Oxford, they thought to make their part
as strong as was possible for them to doo, and therefore vpon the
morrow after the feast of Marie Magdalene, the king as then being at
Westminster, the earle Marshall, the earle of Leicester, and diuerse
other came to the Guildhall of London, where the maior and aldermen,
with the commons of the citie were assembled, and there the lords
shewed the instrument or writing sealed with the kings seale, and
with the seales of his sonne prince Edward, and of manie other lords
of the land, conteining the articles of those ordinances which had
béene concluded at Oxford, willing the maior and aldermen to set also
therevnto their common seale of the citie. The maior and aldermen vpon
aduise amongst them taken, required respit till they might know the
kings pleasure therein, but the lords were so earnest in the matter,
and made such instance, that no respit could be had; so that in the
end the common seale of the citie was put to that writing, and the
maior with diuerse of the citie sworne to mainteine the same, their
allegiance saued to the king, with their liberties and franchises,
according to the accustomed manner.

[Sidenote: A proclamation against purueiers.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The iustices sit at S Sauiours.]

[Sidenote: Bailiffes and other officers punished.]

[Sidenote: Bakers punished.]

Vpon the ninth day of August, proclamation was made in diuerse places
of the citie, that none of the kings takers should take any thing
within the citie, without the will of the owner, except two tunnes of
wine, which the king accustomablie had of euerie ship comming from
Burdeaux, paieng but 40 shillings for the tun. By meanes of this
proclamation, nothing was taken by the kings officers within the citie
and liberties of the same, except readie paiment were made in hand,
which vse continued not long. Herevpon the king held a parlement at
Westminster, and another at Winchester, or else proroged and remoued
the same thither. Also sir Hugh Bigod lord chéefe iustice, with Roger
Turksey, and other called Itinerarij, kept the terme for plées at saint
Sauiours: for you must vnderstand, that in those daies they were kept
in diuerse places of the realme, which now are holden altogither at
Westminster, and iudges ordeined to kéepe a circuit, as now they kéepe
the assises in time of vacation. The foresaid iudges sitting on that
maner at saint Sauiours, punished bailiffes, and other officers verie
extremelie, which were conuict afore them for diuerse trespasses, and
speciallie for taking of merciaments otherwise than law gaue them.
After this, the same sir Hugh came vnto the Guildhall, and there sat in
iudgement, and kept plées without order of law; yea contrarie to the
liberties of the citie, he punished bakers for lacke of true size, by
the tumbrell: where before they were punished by the pillorie, & manie
other things he vsed after such manner, more by will than good order of
law.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The Poictouins suspected to haue poisoned ye English
lords.]

[Sidenote: Walter Scotonie arreigned and condemned.]

[Sidenote: He suffereth.]

There was a bruite raised (whether of truth or otherwise we leaue to
the credit of the authors) that the Poictouins had practised to poison
the most part of the English nobilitie. Indéed diuers of them were
gréeuouslie tormented with a certeine disease of swelling and breaking
out, some died, and othersome verie hardlie escaped, of which number
the earle of Glocester was one, who laie sicke a long time at Sunning a
place besides Reading. At length he recouered: but his brother William
died of the same disease, and vpon his death-bed laid the fault to
one Walter Scotenie, as the occasioner of his death, which afterwards
cost the said Walter his life. For although he was one of the chéefe
councellors, and steward also to the said earle of Glocester, yet
being had in suspicion, and thervpon apprehended and charged with
that crime, when in the yeare next following in Iune he came to be
arreigned at Winchester, and put himselfe to be tried by a iurie, the
same pronounced him guiltie: and when those that were impanneled vpon
that iurie were asked by the iudges how they vnderstood that he should
be giltie, they answered, bicause that where the said Walter was neuer
indebted, that they could heare of, either to William de Valence, or
to any of his brethren, they were fullie certified that he had of late
receiued no small sum of monie of the said W. de Valence to poison both
his maister and other of the English nobilitie as was to be thought,
sith there was no other apparant cause why he should receiue such a
gift at the hands of their enimie the said William de Valence, and so
was the said Walter executed at Winchester aforesaid.

[Sidenote: A late haruest.]

[Sidenote: Dearth of corn increaseth.]

[Sidenote: Fasts & processions vsed.]

The haruest was verie late this yeare, so that the most part of the
corne rotted on the ground, and that which at length was got in,
remained yet abrode till after Alhallowentide, so vntemperate was the
weather, with excessiue wet and raine beyond all measure. Herevpon
the dearth so increased, that euen those which had of late reléeued
other, were in danger to starue themselues. Finallie solemne fasts
and generall processions were made in diuerse places of the realme
to appease Gods wrath, and (as it was thought) their praiers were
heard, for the weather partlie amended, and by reason the same serued
to get in some such corne as was not lost, the price thereof in the
market fell halfe in halfe. A good and memorable motiue, that in such
extremities as are aboue the reach of man to redresse, we should by
and by haue recourse to him that can giue a remedie against euerie
casualtie. For

    Flectitur iratus voce rogante Deus.

[Sidenote: Richard Gray, lord warden of the ports.]

[Sidenote: Erlotus the popes Nuncio returneth home.]

Richard Gray the chattellaine of Douer looking diligentlie vnto his
charge, tooke a thousand marks which the bishop of Winchester had sent
thither to haue béene transported ouer into France. Erlotus the popes
Nuncio perceiuing the trouble that was like to insue within the realme
would no longer tarie, but wiselie departed and got him home. Herewith
certeine wise personages were sent to Rome on the part of the king and
baronage, to informe the pope in what state the realme stood, and to
giue him to vnderstand how gréeuouslie the people had béene handled by
the practise of certeine Romane prelats promoted in this land.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: The lord of Kedwellie slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

This yeare néere to Carmardin Patrike of Chauton lord of Kedwelli, Hugh
de Viun, and diuerse other both horsmen and footmen were slaine through
treason by the Welshmen: yet it should appeare by Matthew Paris that
the Englishmen procured this mischéefe to light on their owne heads,
through their disloiall dealing. For where they were come to the place
to talke of an agréement, some of the marchers supposing they had béene
too strong for the Welshmen, persuaded the said lord of Kedwellie to
assaile them vpon the sudden, in hope to haue destroied them all: but
in the end the Englishmen were distressed through the valiancie of
Dauid one of the sonnes of the great Leolin and other capteines of
the Welsh nation. Neuerthelesse Matthew Westminster saith brieflie,
that the English men were treasonablie slaine: so that it séemeth that
Matthew Paris speaketh rather of an affection and good will which he
bare to the Welsh procéedings in those daies, than otherwise.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._ not well affected towards the gouernement of
the realme as it then stood.]

For who so marketh the course of his historie, shall perceiue that he
had no good liking of the state in those daies, neither concerning the
ecclesiasticall nor temporall policie, in somuch that he sticketh not
to commend the Welshmen greatlie for their holding togither, against
the oppression (as he meaneth it) of the English gouernement, and no
doubt there was cause that mooued him to such misliking, namelie the
often paiments and collections of monie by the popes agents, and other
such misorders as dailie were permitted or rather mainteined to the
impouerishing of both estates spirituall and temporall.

[Sidenote: Godfrey de Kinton archbishop of Canturburie.]

[Sidenote: An ordinance against extortion.]

Godfrey de Kinton was consecrated archbishop of Canturburie at Rome,
about the feast of Christmasse last past, and so returned from thence
home to his cure. There was an ordinance made about this time, for
punishment to be had of the extortion of shiriffes, so that as well the
receiuer as the giuer of bribes was punishable. Which law if it were
now executed vpon all officers & occupiers whatsoeuer, there would not
be so much wealth and substance, so great riches and treasure raked
vp togither in the possession of some few men, as the old sage saieng
importeth,

    Quisquis ditatur rapidos miluos imitatur.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 43.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to the councell at Cambrey.]

The bishops of Worcester and Lincolne, with the earles of Norfolke
and Leicester, were sent ouer in ambassage vnto a councell holden at
Cambrey, for a league and peace to be concluded betwixt the kingdoms of
England and France, and also the empire: but bicause the French king
looked to haue the king of England there, when he heard that the same
king came not, he also staied at home, and so no conclusion followed at
that assemblie.

[Sidenote: Ione countesse of Penbroke.]

[Sidenote: A great tempest of lightning and thunder.]

[Sidenote: Guy de Rochford banished.]

[Sidenote: Variance and debat betwixt the stud[=e]ts of Oxford.]

[Sidenote: The Welshmen séeke to agrée with the king.]

[Sidenote: Henrie de Wingham elected bishop of Winchester.]

Ione countesse of Penbroke, the wife of William de Valence the kings
halfe brother, demanded hir right of dower, in such lands as belonged
to hir by title of inheritance. At length she had to the value of
fiue hundred marks assigned hir of the same lands, notwithstanding
hir heritage amounted to the sum of a thousand marks and aboue of
yearelie reuenues, but for that she should not aid hir husband with
part thereof, the one halfe was thought sufficient for hir maintenance.
About Aduent next insuing, she went ouer vnto hir husband, either for
the desire she had to inioy his personall presence, or for that she
thought hirselfe not well dealt with, to be abridged of those reuenues,
which by right of inheritance were hir owne. In the first night of
December, there chanced a maruellous sore tempest of lightning and
thunder, with mightie winds and raine, as a token and signe of the
troubles that after followed, the more noted, for that thunder in the
winter season is not commonlie heard of. Guy de Rochford a Poictouin,
to whom about two yeares before the king had giuen the castell of
Rochester, was now banished the realme, and depriued of all that he
held in this land. About this season there rose great variance amongst
the scholers of Oxford being of sundrie countries, as Scotishmen,
Welshmen, Northern men, and Southern men: who fell so farre at square,
that they raised baners one against an other, and fought togither, in
somuch that diuerse were slaine, and manie hurt on both parties. ¶ The
Welshmen this yeare, notwithstanding their good successe had in these
late wars, considered with themselues, that if the barons of England
did once ioine in one knot of fréendship, they would with maine force
easilie subdue them, wherefore to preuent that which might chance vnto
them by stubborne resistance, they made suit to be receiued into the
kings peace, offering to giue vnto him the summe of foure thousand
markes, and to his sonne the lord Edward thrée hundred marks, and to
the quéene two hundred marks. Yet the king would not accept those
offers, and so the matter depended in doubtfull balance a certeine
time. The Welshmen in the meane season attempted not any exploit,
but rather sate still in hope to come at length to some reasonable
agréement. ¶ The moonks of Winchester meaning to prouide themselues
of a bishop, now that Athelmare aliàs Odomare the kings halfe brother
was banished the realme, elected one Henrie de Wingham the kings
chancellor, in hope that the K. would be contented with his election,
and so he was, but yet conditionallie, that if the pope would allow his
said halfe brother for bishop, then should the other giue place.

[Sidenote: 1259.]

[Sidenote: Ambassadors sent to the K. of Almaine.]

[Sidenote: His protestation to their demand.]

About the feast of S. Hilarie, when knowledge was giuen that king
Richard of Almaine meant to returne into England, there were sent ouer
vnto him the bishop of Worcester, the abbat of saint Edmundsburie,
Peter de Sauoy, and Iohn Mansell, as ambassadours from the baronage
and communaltie of the realme, to require of him an oth, to stand vnto
and obeie the ordinances of the late parlement holden at Oxenford.
When the said ambassadors came before his presence, and declared to
him the effect of their message, he beheld them with a sterne looke,
and frowning countenance, saieng (and binding it with an oth) that he
would neither be sworne, nor kéepe any such ordinances as had béene
made without his consent; neither would he make them of counsell how
long his purpose was to staie within the realme, which the ambassadours
required also to vnderstand. Herevnto he further added, that he had
no péere in England, for he was the sonne of the deceased king, and
brother of the king that now reigned, and also earle of Cornewall, and
therefore if the barons of England ment to reforme the state of the
kingdome, their duetie had béene first to haue sent for him, and not
to haue procéeded so presumptuouslie in such a weightie cause, without
his presence or consent. When one of the ambassadours was about to haue
made answer somewhat roundlie, and also nippinglie vnto this spéech
vttered by the king of Almaine, he was staied by one of his associats.
And so the ambassadours vnderstanding his mind, returned with all
conuenient spéed.

[Sidenote: He changeth his purpose and commeth ouer into England.]

[Sidenote: He receiueth an oth not to infringe the statutes of Oxford.]

The king of Almaine had assembled a great host of men on the further
side the sea, meaning with all expedition to haue passed hither into
England: but when he had aduertisement giuen that there was a power
raised in England, and bestowed both by sea and land to resist him,
he changed his purpose by aduise of his fréends, so that he consented
to receiue such manner of oth as the barons required, and herewith
taking the sea, he arriued at Douer on saint Iulians daie with his owne
houshold seruants, bringing with him no traine of strangers, except
onelie two earles of Almaine, which brought with them but onelie thrée
knights, and he himselfe had but eight knights: his brother king Henrie
was readie to receiue him, and brought him from Douer vnto Canturburie,
for neither of them was suffered to enter into the castell of Douer,
the lords hauing them in a gelousie, least they should be about to
breake the ordinances which were concluded. On the morow after, the
king of Almaine receiued the oth in the presence of Richard earle of
Glocester and others, within the chapter house of Canturburie. And on
the day of the Purification of our ladie, the two kings with their
quéenes and a great number of noble personages made their entrie and
passage into the citie of London.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: A peace concluded vpon betwixt the kings of England &
France.]

[Sidenote: The countesse of Leicester.]

[Sidenote: Contention betwixt the earles of Glocester and Leicester.]

In the octaues of the said Purification, the parlement began at London,
to the which came the earle of Leicester from the parts of beyond the
sea, where he had for a certeine time remained. There came also an
ambassador from the French king, one that was deane of Burges, and
so there was an earnest treatie had touching a peace to be concluded
betwixt the two kings of England and France, which on the day of saint
Valentine was accorded and put in articles, with condition that the
same should remaine firme and stable, if the kings would assent to that
which had béene talked of and agréed vpon by their speciall and solemne
agents. For the further perfecting of this agréement and finall peace
betwixt the kings of England and France, about the begining of Aprill,
the earls of Glocester and Leicester, Iohn Mansell, Peter de Sauoy,
and Robert Valerane were sent ouer into France, hauing also with them
letters of credence, to conclude in all matters as had béene talked of
by their agents. But when the countesse of Leicester would not consent
to quite claime and release hir right in such parcels of Normandie as
belonged to hir, which king Henrie had couenanted with the residue to
resigne vnto the French king. The earle of Glocester fell at words with
the earle of Leicester, about the stubborne demeanor which his wife
shewed in that matter, and so by reason that either of them stood at
defiance with the other (although by meane of fréends they staied from
further inconuenience) they returned backe without concluding any thing
in that whereabout they were sent.

[Sidenote: The friers preachers begin to inhabit at Dunstable.]

[Sidenote: The moonks hindred by the comming of the friers.]

About the same time there was a certeine mansion house by waie of
deuotion giuen vnto the friers that are called preachers within the
towne of Dunstable, so that certeine of them thrusting themselues in
there, began to inhabit in that place, to the great annoiance of the
prior and conuent of Dunstable, & as it were by the example of the
other order called minors (which in the last precéeding yeare, at
saint Edmundsburie in Suffolke had practised the like matter against
the willes of the abbat and conuent there) they began to build verie
sumptuous houses, so that in the eies of the beholders such chargeable
workes of building, so suddenlie aduanced by them that professed
voluntarie pouertie, caused no small woonder. The said friers building
them a church with all spéed, and setting vp an altar, immediatlie
began to celebrate diuine seruice, not once staieng for the purchase of
anie licence. And so building from day to day, they obteined great aid
of such as inhabited néere vnto them, of whome the prior and conuent
ought to haue receiued the reuenues that were now conuerted to be
imploied on the said friers towards their maintenance. Thus by how much
more their house increased, by so much more did the prior and conuent
decrease in substance and possessions: for the rents which they were
accustomed to receiue of the messuages and houses giuen to the friers,
were lost, and likewise the offerings (which were woont to come to
their hands) now these friers being newlie entred by occasion of their
preachings, vsurped to themselues.

[Sidenote: Richard Gray discharged of his office of lord warden.]

[Sidenote: Walascho a frier sent from the pope.]

Richard Graie constable of the castell of Douer, and lord warden of the
cinque ports was this yeare remooued by the lord chéefe iustice Hugh
Bigod, who tooke into his owne hands the custodie of the said castell
and ports. The cause whie the said Richard Graie was discharged, we
find to haue fallen out by this means. He suffered a frier minor
called Walascho, comming from the pope (bicause he had the kings
letters vnder the great seale) to enter the land, not staieng him, nor
warning the lords of his comming, contrarie (as it was interpreted)
vnto the articles of their prouisions enacted at Oxenford. This frier
indéed was sent from the pope to haue restored Athilmarus or Odomarus
(as some write him) the kings halfe brother, vnto the possessions of
the bishoprike of Winchester, to the which he had béene long before
elected. But the lords were so bent against him, that vpon such
suggestions as they laid foorth, Walascho refrained from dooing that
which he had in commandement, and returned to make report what he
vnderstood, so that Odomarus was now as farre from his purpose as
before.

[Sidenote: The bishop of Bangor sent fr[=o] the prince of Wales to king
Henrie.]

[Sidenote: The Welshmen offer to resort vnto Chester.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 44.]

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: The statutes of Oxenford read, and the breakers of the same
denounced accurssed.]

[Sidenote: Escuage granted.]

[Sidenote: Knights fées how manie were then in England.]

About the feast of saint Michaell, the bishop of Bangor was sent from
Leolin prince of Wales vnto the king of England, to make offer on the
behalfe of the said Leolin and other the lords of Wales, of sixtéene
thousand pounds of siluer for a peace to be had betwixt the king and
them, and that they might come to Chester, and there haue their matters
heard and determined, as in time past they had béene accustomed. But
what answer at his returne was giuen to this bishop by the king and
his nobles, it is vncerteine. In the fortie and fourth yeare of king
Henries reigne, the fridaie following the feast of Simon and Iude,
in a parlement holden at Westminster, were read in presence of all
the lords and commons, the acts and ordinances made in the parlement
holden at Oxenford, with certeine other articles by the gouernours
therevnto added and annexed. After the reading whereof the archbishop
of Canturburie being reuested with his suffragans to the number of nine
bishops, besides abbats and others, denounced all them accurssed that
attempted in word or déed to breake the said statutes, or anie of them.
In the same parlement was granted to the king a taske called scutagium,
or escuage, that is to saie, forty shillings of euerie knights fée
throughout England, the which extended to a great summe of monie. For
as diuerse writers do agrée, there were in England at that time in
possession of the spiritualtie and temporaltie beyond fortie thousand
knights fées, but almost halfe of them were in spirituall mens hands.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: A folkemote.]

[Sidenote: The king asketh licence to passe the seas.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: The king saileth ouer into France.]

[Sidenote: 1260.]

[Sidenote: He compoundeth all differences with the French K.]

Vpon the sixt day of Nouember the king came vnto Paules, where by his
commandement was the folkemote court assembled, and the king (according
to the former ordinances made) asked licence of the communaltie of the
citie to passe the sea, and promised there in the presence of a great
multitude of people, by the mouth of Hugh Bigod his chéefe iustice,
to be good and gratious lord vnto the citie, and to mainteine the
liberties thereof vnhurt. Herewith the people for ioy made a great
shout. The eight day of Nouember he rode through the citie towards the
sea side, and vpon the thirtéenth daie of Nouember, he tooke the sea at
Douer and arriued at Whitsand, and so from thence he rode vnto Paris,
where, of the French king he was most honorablie receiued. The cause of
his going ouer was chéefelie to conclude some assured peace with the
French king, that he should not néed to doubt any forren enimies, if he
should come to haue warre with his owne people, whereof he saw great
likelihoods, and therefore he made such agréement with king Lewes (as
in the French historie more at large appeareth) which (to be short) I
here omit.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Wil. Risang._]

[Sidenote: _Matt. West._]

This one thing is here to be noted, that besides the monie which king
Henrie had in hand, amounting to the summe of an hundred and fiftie
thousand crownes for his resignation then made vnto Normandie, Aniou
and Maine, it was accorded, that he should receiue yearelie in name of
a tribute the sum of ten thousand crownes. ¶ Others write that he had
thrée hundred thousand pounds of small Turon monie, which he receiued
in readie paiment, and was promised restitution of lands to the value
of twentie thousand pounds of yearelie rent: and that after the decease
of the French king, that then was, the countrie of Poictou should
returne vnto the English dominion. Some write that immediatlie after
king Henrie had concluded his agréement, he began to repent himselfe
thereof, and would neuer receiue penie of the monie, nor leaue out
of his stile the title of duke of Normandie. But it is rather to be
thought that such an agréement was at point to haue béene concluded,
or at the leastwise was had in talke, but yet neuer concluded nor
confirmed with hands and seales, as it ought to haue béene, if they had
gone through with it.

[Sidenote: Dissention betwixt prince Edward and the earle of Glocester.]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward and the earle of Glocester are not suffered to
come within the citie of London.]

In the meane time that king Henrie was thus occupied in France,
dissention fell in England betwéene prince Edward and Richard earle
of Glocester, for the appeasing whereof a parlement was called at
Westminster, to the which the lords came with great companies, and
speciallie the said prince and earle. They intended to haue lodged
within the citie: but the maior going vnto the bishop of Worcester,
to sir Hugh Bigod, and to sir Philip Basset (vnto whome, and to the
archbishop of Canturburie, the K. had committed the rule of the land
in his absence) required to know their pleasure herein. Wherevpon they
thought it good to haue the aduise of Richard the king of Almaine, and
therevpon went to him, where they concluded, that neither the said
prince nor earle nor anie of their partakers should come within the
citie, the gates whereof were by the maiors appointment closed and kept
with watch and ward both day and night. Soone after also, for the more
safegard of the citie, the gates were by the maiors appointment closed
and kept with diligent watch and ward both day and night. Soone after
also for the more safegard of the said citie, and sure kéeping of the
peace, the king of Almaine with the said sir Hugh and sir Philip came
and lodged in the citie with their companies, and such other as they
would assigne, to strengthen the citie if néed required. Wherin their
prouident consent to withstand so foule a mischéefe as sedition might
haue bred in the citie, deserueth high commendation, for it was the
next waie to preserue the state thereof against all occasions of ruine,
to vnite harts and hands in so swéet an harmonie, which the law of
nature teacheth men to doo, and as by this sage sentence is insinuated
and giuen to vnderstand,

    Manus manum lauat & digitus digitum,
    Vir virum & ciuitas seruat ciuitatem.

[Sidenote: The king returneth into England.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Glocester confederateth himselfe with the earle
of Leicester.]

Shortlie after, the king returned out of France, and about the feast
of S. Marke came to London, and lodged in the bishops palace. And
bicause of certeine rumors that were spred abroad sounding to some
euill meaning, which prince Edward should haue against his father,
the king brought ouer with him a great power of men in armes being
strangers, howbeit he brought them not into the citie, but left them
beyond the bridge in the parts of Surrie, notwithstanding being entred
the citie, he so kept the gates and entries, that none was permitted to
enter, but such as came in by his sufferance. The earle of Glocester
by his appointment also was lodged within the citie, and the prince in
the palace at Westminster. Shortlie after by the kings commandement
he remooued to S. Iohns, & all the other lords were lodged without
the citie, and the king of Almaine remooued againe to Westminster.
In which time a direction was taken betwéene the said parties, and a
new assemblie and parlement assigned to be kept in the quindene of S.
Iohn Baptist, and after deferred or proroged till the feast of saint
Edward, at the which time all things were pacified a while, but so as
the earle of Glocester was put beside the roome which he had amongst
other the péeres, and so then he ioined in fréendship with the earle
of Leicester, as it were by way of confederacie against the residue,
and yet in this last contention, the said earle of Leicester tooke part
with the prince against the earle of Glocester.

[Sidenote: _Chr. Dunstab._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: A Iew at Teukesburie falleth into a iakes.]

This yeare the lord William de Beauchampe the elder deceassed. ¶ The
lord Edward the kings sonne, with a faire companie of knights and other
men of armes, passed the seas to exercise himselfe in iusts, but he
himselfe and his men were euill intreated in manie places, so that
they lost horsse, armour, and all other things to his great griefe and
disliking (as may be estéemed) yet (as some write) he returned home
with victorie in the iusts. This yeare at Teukesburie, a Iew falling by
chance into a iakes vpon the saturdaie, in reuerence of his sabboth
would not suffer any man to plucke him foorth, wherof the earle of
Glocester being aduertised, thought the Christians should doo as much
reuerence to their sabboth which is sundaie, and therefore would suffer
no man to go about to take him foorth that day, and so lieng still till
mondaie, he was there found dead.

[Sidenote: _Matt. Westm._]

[Sidenote: Death of Noble men.]

[Sidenote: Bach rather.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 45.]

[Sidenote: The king of Scots commeth to London.]

[Sidenote: _Matt. West._]

Diuers Noble men departed this life in this yeare, as the earle of
Albemarle, the lord William Beauchampe, Stephan de Longespée lord
chéefe iustice of Ireland, and Roger de Turkeby one of the kings
chéefe councellors and iustices of the land, William de Kirkham bishop
of Durham, and Iohn de Crakehale treasurer of England, a spirituall
man, but rich beyond measure: also Henrie de Ba another of the kings
iustices of the bench. In the 45 yeare of king Henries reigne,
Alexander king of Scotland came to London anon after the feast of St.
Edward, with a faire companie of Scotishmen, and shortlie after his
wife the quéene of Scots came thither also. Moreouer king Henrie kept a
roiall feast at Westminster, where he made to the number of foure score
knights, amongst whome, Iohn sonne to the earle of Britaine, who had
maried the ladie Beatrice, one of the kings daughters was there made
knight. Shortlie after was sir Hugh Spenser made lord chéefe iustice.

[Sidenote: 1261.]

[Sidenote: _Chro. Dun._]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: A folkemote holden at Pauls crosse.]

[Sidenote: An oth to be true to the king.]

After Christmasse the K. comming into the towre of London, fortified it
greatlie, & caused the gates of the citie to be warded, sending forth
commandement to his lords that they should come to the towre, there to
hold a parlement; but they denied flatlie so to doo, sending him word
that if it pleased him, they would come to Westminster, where vsuallie
the parlement had béene kept, and not to anie other place, whervpon
there rose dissention betwixt him and the barons. After the feast of
the Purification, at a folkemote holden at Paules crosse (where the
king was present in person, with the king of Almaine, the archbishop of
Canturburie, and diuerse other of the Nobles) commandement was giuen
to the maior, that euerie stripling of the age of 12 yeares and aboue,
should before his alderman be sworne to be true to the king and his
heires kings of England, and that the gates of the citie should be kept
with armed men, as before by the king of Romans was deuised.

[Sidenote: The lord Spenser discharged of his office.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 46.]

[Sidenote: The presumptuous procéedings of the bar[=o]s against the
king.]

[Sidenote: 1262.]

[Sidenote: A bull read at Pauls crosse.]

About Easter the barons of the land with consent of the péeres,
discharged sir Hugh Spenser of his office of chéefe iustice, and placed
in his roome sir Philip Basset without the kings assent, he being not
made priuie therevnto. Wherevpon a new occasion of displeasure was
ministered to kindle debate betwixt the king and his lords, but by the
policie of the king of Almaine and some prelats, the matter was quieted
for a time, till after at Hallowentide next insuing, which was the 46
yeare of K. Henries reigne. At that time the barons tooke vpon them to
discharge such shiriffes as the king had elected & named gardians of
the countries and shires, and in their places put other shiriffes, and
besides that would not suffer the iustice which the king had admitted,
to doo his office in kéeping his circuit, but appointed such to doo it,
as it pleased them to assigne, wherwith the king was so much offended,
that he laboured by all means to him possible about the disanulling of
the ordinances made at Oxford, and vpon the second sundaie in Lent,
he caused to be read at Paules crosse a bull, obteined of pope Vrbane
the fourth, as a confirmation of an other bull before purchased of his
predecessour pope Alexander, for the absoluing of the king, and all
other that were sworne to the maintenance of the articles agréed vpon
at Oxford. This absolution he caused to be shewed through the realmes
of England, Wales & Ireland, giuing streight charge that if any person
were found that would disobeie this absolution, the same should be
committed to prison, there to remaine till the kings pleasure were
further knowne.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: Many gouernors pernicious to a common-wealth.]

Suerlie the most part of those péeres which had the rule of the king
and kingdome thus in their hand, perceiuing the enormitie that dailie
grew of so manifold heads and gouernours, were minded of themselues to
dissolue those prouisions and ordinances so made at Oxford, in somuch
that there were but fiue which stiffelie stood in defense of the same,
that is to saie, the bishop of Worcester, and the earles of Leicester
and Glocester, with Henrie Spenser, and Peter de Montfort, the which
by no meanes could be brought to confesse that they might with a safe
conscience go contrarie to those ordinances which they had confirmed
with their solemne oth, notwithstanding the popes dispensation;
whereas the same oth was rather a bond of iniquitie (as saith Matth.
Westminster) deuised to conspire against Christ and his annointed, that
is to saie, their naturall liege lord and lawfull king, than any godlie
oth aduisedlie taken, or necessarie to be receiued of good meaning
subiects, yea and of such a friuolous oth it is said, that

    In aqua scribitur & in puluere exaratur.

[Sidenote: The king of Almaine goeth ouer into Germanie.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The king hauing licence passeth ouer into France.]

[Sidenote: He falleth sick of a feuer quartane.]

[Sidenote: _Chro. Dun._]

[Sidenote: Death of noble men.]

In Iune the king of Almaine tooke shipping and sailed ouer into
Dutchland, and king Henrie at a folkemote holden at Paules crosse
the sundaie after S. Peters day, had licence to saile into France
and the morrow after he departed from London towards the sea side,
with the quéene and other lords, his two sonnes prince Edward and the
earle of Lancaster being at that present in Guien. When he had béene
a season in France, he went vnto Burdeaux, and there fell sicke of a
feuer quartane, by occasion whereof he taried in those parties till
S. Nicholas tide next following. There were few that went ouer with
him that escaped frée without the same disease, so that in maner all
his companie were taken and sore handled therewith. Manie died thereof
to the number of thréescore, and amongst them as chéefe were these,
Baldwine de Lisle earle of Deuonshire, Ingram de Percie, and William de
Beauchampe.

[Sidenote: The earle of Glocester departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 47.]

[Sidenote: Iewes slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: The Welshmen warre against ye lord Mortimers tenants.]

[Sidenote: He séeketh his reuenge against them.]

In this yeare died Richard the Clare earle of Glocester, and his sonne
sir Gilbert de Clare was earle after him, vnto whome his father gaue
great charge that he should mainteine the ordinances of Oxford. In the
47 yeare of king Henries reigne, by reason that a Iew had wounded a
christian man at London within Colechurch, in the ward of cheap, not
onelie the said Iew was slaine by other christians that followed him
home to his house, but also manie other Iewes were robbed and slaine
in that furie and rage of the people. The Welshmen with their prince
Leolin made wars against the men and tenants of Roger de Mortimer;
and tooke two of his castels (the one called Kenet) and raced them
both to the ground. The said Roger being sore gréeued herwith, got
such assistance as he could of other lords there in the marches, and
watching the Welshmen at aduantage, distressed diuerse companies of
them, sometime thrée hundred, sometime foure hundred, and other whiles
fiue hundred. But at one time he lost thrée hundred of his footmen that
were entred the countrie, and so inclosed that they could make no shift
to escape.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: 1263.]

[Sidenote: Thames frosen.]

[Sidenote: Variance betwixt the citizens of London and the constable of
the towre.]

Vpon the euen of S. Thomas the apostle, the king landed at Douer, and
came to London the Wednesdaie before the twelfe day in Christmasse. In
this yeare the frost began about S. Nicholas daie, and continued for
the space of a moneth and more, so extreamelie, that the Thames was
frosen, so that men passed ouer on horssebacke. ¶ The same winter the
kings little hall at Westminster, with manie other houses therevnto
adioining, was consumed with fire, by negligence of one of the kings
seruants. Variance rose betwixt the citizens of London, and the
constable of the towre, for that contrarie to the liberties of the
citie he tooke certeine ships passing by the towre with wheat and other
vittels into the towre, making the price thereof himselfe. The matter
was had before sir Philip Basset lord chéefe iustice and others, who
vpon the sight and hearing of all such euidences and priuiledges as
could be brought foorth for the aduantage of both the parties, tooke
order that the constable should (when he lacked prouision of graine or
vittels) come into the market holden within the citie, and there to
haue wheat two pence in a quarter within the maiors price, and other
vittels after the same rate.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward goeth against the Welshmen.]

[Sidenote: The archb. of Canturburie goeth to Rome.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The lord maior of London sworne to be true to the king.]

Prince Edward the kings sonne returning from the parts beyond the
sea, went with a great power (as well of Englishmen as strangers)
against the Welshmen towards Snowdon hils: but the enimies withdrawing
themselues to their strengths within the woods and mounteines, he could
not much indamage them, wherevpon after he had fortified certeine
castels in those parts, with men, munition, and vittels, he returned
being sent for backe of his father. The archbishop of Canturburie
foreséeing the trouble that was like to insue betwixt the king and his
barons, got licence of the king to go vnto Rome, about such businesse
as he fained to haue to doo with the pope, and so departed the land,
and kept him awaie till the trouble was appeased. Vpon midlent sundaie,
at a folkemote holden at Paules crosse, before sir Philip Basset and
other of the kings councell, the maior of London was sworne to be true
to the king, and to his heires kings of England, and vpon the morrow
at the Guildhall euerie alderman in presence of the maior tooke the
same oth. And vpon the sundaie following, euerie inhabitant within the
citie, of the age of 12 yeares and aboue, before his alderman in his
ward was newlie charged with the like oth.

[Sidenote: Cloked malice bursteth out.]

[Sidenote: The barons raise people. The lord Clifford.]

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dun._]

Then began the displeasure betwéene the king and his barons to appeare,
which had béene long kept secret, diuers of whom assembling togither
in the marches of Wales, gathered vnto them a power of men, and sent a
letter vnto the king, vnder the seale of sir Roger Clifford, beséeching
him to haue in remembrance his oth and manifold promises made for the
obseruing of the statutes ordeined at Oxford. But although this letter
was indited and written verie effectuallie, yet receiued they no answer
from the king, who minded in no wise to obserue the same statutes, as
by euident tokens it was most apparant. Wherevpon they determined to
attempt by force to bring their purpose to passe. The king and the
quéene for their more safegard got them into the towre of London, and
prince Edward laie at Clerkenwell, but in such necessitie and discredit
for monie, that neither had they anie store to furnish their wants,
neither was there anie man that would trust them with a groat.

[Sidenote: Prince Edward taketh monie out of ye treasurie of the
temple.]

Prince Edward not able to abide such dishonor, in the feast of the
apostle Peter and Paule, taking with him Robert Waleran, and certeine
others, went to the new temple, and there calling for the kéeper of
the treasure-house, as if he meant to sée his mothers iewels, that
were laid vp there, to be safelie kept, he entred into the house, and
breaking the coffers of certeine persons that had likewise brought
their monie thither, to haue it in more safetie, he tooke away from
thence the value of 1000 pounds.

[Sidenote: _Mart. lib. 11. Hor. lib. car. 3. ode 24._]

    ----ô quantum cogit egestas!
    Magnum pauperies opprobrium iubet
        Quiduis & facere & pati,
    Virtutísque viam deserit arduæ.

[Sidenote: The Londoners rob the house of the lord Gray.]

The citizens of London were so offended herewith that they rose in
armour against him and other of the kings councell, in somuch that they
assailed the lodging of the lord Iohn Gray without Ludgate, and tooke
out of his stables 32 horsses, and such other things as they might laie
hold vpon, kéeping such stur that the lord Gray himselfe was forced to
flie beyond Fléetbridge. The like rule they kept at the house of Iohn
de Passelew.

[Sidenote: Iohn M[=a]sell fléeth into France.]

Iohn Mansell departing foorth of the towre to the Thames, with the
countesse de Lisle, and other ladies that were strangers borne, sailed
into France, and landed at Whitsand, where the said Mansell hearing
that the lord Henrie, sonne to the king of Almaine, that then held with
the barons was in those parts, he caused the lord Ingram de Fines to
staie him as prisoner, and so he remained, till king Henrie vpon the
agréement betwixt him and the barons, found meanes to get him released,
and so then he returned into England.

[Sidenote: The barons that rose against the king.]

[Sidenote: Their chéefe capteins.]

[Sidenote: The barons that tooke part with the king.]

But now touching the barons, they procéeded in their businesse which
they had in hand with all earnest diligence of whom these were the
chéefe that vndertooke this matter: yoong Humfrie de Boun, the lord
Henrie son to the king of Almaine, Henrie Montford, Hugh Spenser,
Baldwin Wake, Gilbert Gifford, Richard Gray, Iohn Ross, William
Marmion, Henrie Hastings, Haimon le Strange, Iohn Fitz Iohn, Godfrey
Lucie, Nicholas Segraue, Roger de Leiborne, Iohn Vesie, Roger de
Clifford, Iohn de Vaus, Gilbert de Clare, Gilbert de Lacie, and
Robert Vepont, the which with one generall consent elected for their
chéefe capteins and generall gouernours, Simon de Mountfort earle of
Leicester, Gilbert of Clare earle of Glocester, and Robert Ferries
earle of Darbie, and Iohn earle of Warren. On the kings part these
persons are named to stand with him against the other. First, Roger
Bigod erle of Norffolke and Suffolke, Humfrie de Boun earle of
Hereford, Hugh Bigod lord chéefe iustice, Philip Basset, William de
Valence, Geffrey de Lucignan, Peter de Sauoy, Robert Walrand, Iohn
Mansell, Geffrey Langley, Iohn Gray, William Latimer, Henrie Percie,
and manie other. The barons notwithstanding hauing assembled their
powers, resolued to go through with their purpose.

[Sidenote: _Risanger_ noteth this to be 1264.]

[Sidenote: The barons make hauoch]

The first enterprise they made was at Hereford, where they tooke the
bishop of that sée named Iohn Breton, and as manie of his canons as
were strangers borne. After this they tooke sir Matthew de Bezilles
shiriffe of Glocester, a stranger borne; and kéeping on their waie
towards London with baners displaied, so manie as came within their
reach, whom they knew to be against the maintenance of the statutes
of Oxford, they spoiled them of their houses, robbed them of their
goods, and imprisoned their bodies, hauing no regard whether they were
spirituall men or temporall. In diuerse of the kings castels they
placed such capteins and soldiers as they thought conuenient, and
displaced others whom they either knew or suspected to be aduersaries
to their purpose.

[Sidenote: The diligence of the lord maior of London.]

About Midsummer when they drew néere to London, they sent a letter
to the maior and aldermen vnder the seale of the earle of Leicester,
willing to vnderstand whether they would obserue the acts and statutes
established at Oxford, or else aid and assist such persons as meant the
breach of the same. And herewith they sent vnto them a copie of those
articles, with a prouiso, that if any of them were preiudiciall, or in
any wise hurtfull to the realme and common-wealth, that then the same
by the aduise of discréet persons should be amended and reformed. The
maior bare this letter and the copie of the articles vnto the king,
who in this meane time remained in the towre of London, togither with
the quéene and the king of Almaine, latelie returned out of Almaine;
also his sonne prince Edward, and manie other of his councell. The king
asked of the maior what he thought of those articles? Who made such
answer as the king séemed well pleased therewith, and so permitted the
maior to returne againe into the citie, who toke much paine in kéeping
the citie in good quiet now in that dangerous time.

[Sidenote: The misdemeanor of lewd persons toward the quéene.]

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dunst._]

All such the inhabitants as were strangers borne, and suspected to
fauour either of the parties, were banished the citie, but within
a while after, prince Edward set them or the most part of them in
offices within the castell of Windsore. On the saturdaie next after the
translation of saint Benet, as the quéene would haue passed by water
from the tower vnto Windsore, a sort of lewd naughtipacks got them to
the bridge, making a noise at hir, and crieng; Drowne the witch, threw
downe stones, cudgels, dirt, and other things at hir, so that she
escaped in great danger of hir person, fled to Lambeth, and through
feare to be further pursued, landed there, and so she staied till
the maior of London with much adoo appesing the furie of the people,
repaired to the quéene and brought hir backe againe in safetie vnto the
tower. And (as some write) bicause the king would not suffer hir to
enter againe into the tower, the maior conueied hir vnto the bishop of
Londons house by Paules and there lodged hir.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dunst._]

[Sidenote: Bishops trauell to make peace.]

The barons in this meane time hauing got the citie of Worcester and
Bridgenorth, with other places, were come into the south parts, to
the end that they might win the castell of Douer, and find some
meanes to set the lord Henrie (sonne to the king of Almaine that was
prisoner beyond the seas) at libertie. In the meane time the bishops
of Lincolne, London and Chester, trauelled betwixt the king and barons
for a peace; but the barons would not agrée, except that the king and
quéene would first cause the lord Henrie to be set at libertie, and
deliuer into their hands the castels of Windsore, Douer, and other
fortresses, and send awaie all the strangers, and take such order that
the prouisions of Oxenford might be obserued, as well by the king as
others.

[Sidenote: Strangers kéepe the castell of Windsore.]

The king although these conditions séemed verie hard and displeasant
to his mind, yet was he driuen to such an extremitie that he granted
to accept them, and so an agréement was made and had betwixt him and
the lords. But now all the difficultie was to appease the lord Edward,
and to remooue the strangers which he had placed in the castell of
Windsore, which they had not onelie fortified, but also in manner
destroied the towne, and doone much hurt in the countrie round about
them. There were to the number of an hundred knights or men of armes
(as I may call them) beside a great number of other men of warre. But
now after that the king had agréed to the peace, the barons entred the
citie on the sundaie before S. Margarets daie; and shortlie after the
king came to Westminster with the quéene, and those of his councell.
And immediatlie herevpon, by consent of the king and the barons, sir
Hugh Spenser was made chéefe iustice and kéeper of the tower. During
the time that the lords remained in London, manie robberies and riots
were doone within the citie, and small redresse had in correcting the
offendors, they were so borne out and mainteined by their maisters and
others.

[Sidenote: The great disorder in the citie of London.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Treuet._]

The commons of the citie were farre out of order, for in the assemblies
and courts, as well at Guildhall as in other places, the matters and
iudgement of things went by the voices of the simple and vndiscréet
multitude, so that the substantiall and worshipfull citizens were not
regarded. The barons on the morrow following the feast of saint Iames,
departed from London toward Windsore, in which meane while prince
Edward was gone to Bristow, & there thinking himselfe to be out of
danger, by mishap there rose variance betwixt the citizens & his men,
so that the whole citie reuolted from him, and prepared to besiege
him in the castell, not doubting but easilie to win it. When he saw
how the world went, he sent to the bishop of Worcester that was of
the barons side, promising that he would agrée with the barons, if he
would helpe to deliuer him out of the Bristow mens hands. The bishop
taking his promise conueied him foorth in safetie toward the court;
but when he came néere vnto Windsore, he turned thither, greatlie to
the misliking of the bishop: yet neuerthelesse when the barons came
forward to besiege that castle, the lord Edward met them not farre
from Kingston, offering them conditions of peace. Some write that he
was staied and not suffered to returne againe to Windsore, after he
had ended his talke with the barons: but howsoeuer it was, the castell
was surrendred, with condition that those that were within it should
safelie depart, and so they did, and were conducted to the sea by
Humphrey de Bohun the yoonger. ¶ About the same time, Leolin prince
of Wales destroied the lands of prince Edward in Cheshire, and the
marshes thereabouts. The two castels of Disard and Gannoc he tooke and
destroied, being two verie faire fortresses.

[Sidenote: A parlement.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: The kings protestation against the articles at Oxenford.]

About the feast of the Natiuitie of our ladie, there was a parlement
holden at London, at the which all the nobles of the realme both
spirituall and temporall were present; and then the citie of London,
and the cinque ports ioined in league as confederats with the barons:
but the king plainly protested before all the assemblie, that by the
statutes and prouisions (as they termed them) made at Oxenford, he was
much deceiued. For contrarie to that which the barons had promised, he
felt himselfe rather charged with more debt than anie thing reléeued:
and therefore sith he had obteined of the pope an absolution of the
oth both for himselfe and his people, his request was to be restored
vnto his former estate of all such prerogatiues as in time past he had
inioied. The barons on the other side stiffelie mainteined, that they
could not with safe consciences go against their oth, and therefore
they meant to stand in defense of the articles aforesaid euen so long
as they had a daie to liue.

[Sidenote: The matter put to the French king.]

[Sidenote: The French king giueth sentence against the barons.]

Thus whilest both parts kept so farre from all hope of agréement, and
were now in point to haue departed in sunder, through mediation of
some bishops that were present a peace was concluded, and the parties
so agréed, that all matters in controuersie touching the articles,
prouisions, and statutes made at Oxenford should be ordered and iudged
by the French king, whom they chose as arbitrator betwixt them.
Herevpon, on the thirtéenth of September, both the king and quéene,
with their sonnes, and diuerse other of the nobles of this land, tooke
shipping, and sailed ouer to Bullongne, where the French king as then
was at a parlement, with a great number of the nobles and péeres of
France. The earle of Leicester also with diuerse of his complices went
thither, and there the matter was opened, argued, and debated before
the French king, who in the end vpon due examination, and orderlie
hearing of the whole processe of all their controuersies, gaue express
sentence, that all and euerie of the said statutes and ordinances
deuised at Oxford, should be from thencefoorth vtterlie void, and all
bonds and promises made by king Henrie, or anie other for performance
of them, should likewise be adnihilated, fordoone, and clearelie
cancelled.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 48.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

The barons highlie displeased herewith, refused to stand to the French
kings award herein, bicause he had iudged altogither on the kings
side. Wherevpon after they were returned into the realme, either
partie prepared for warre: but yet about the feast of S. Edward, the
king and the barons eftsoones met at London, holding a new parlement
at Westminster, but no good could be doone. Then when the king of
Almaine and prince Edward, with others of the kings councell saw that
by rapine, oppression, and extortion practised by the barons against
the kings subiects, as well spirituall as temporall, the state of the
realme and the kings honour was much decaied, and brought in manner
vnto vtter ruine, they procured the king to withdraw secretlie from
Westminster vnto Windsore castell, of which his sonne prince Edward had
gotten the possession by a traine. From Windsore he went to Reading,
and from thence to Wallingford, and so to Oxford, hauing a great power
with him.

[Sidenote: The lords that reuolted to the king.]

At his being at Oxford there came vnto him the lord Henrie, son to the
king of Almaine, Iohn earle Warren, Roger Clifford, Roger Leiborne,
Haimond le Strange, and Iohn de Vaux, which had reuolted from the
barons to the kings side, Iohn Gifford also did the like: but he
shortlie after returned to the barons part againe. The kings sonne the
lord Edward had procured them thus to reuolt, promising to euerie of
them in reward by his charter of grant fiftie pounds lands to aid the
king his father and him against the barons.

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dun._]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: 1264.]

[Sidenote: The king goeth again ouer to the French king.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

After this the king went to Winchester, and from thence came backe vnto
Reading, and then he marched foorth with his armie vnto Douer, where
he could not be suffered to come into the castell, being kept out by
the lord Richard Gray that was capteine there. Herevpon he returned
to London, where the barons againe were entred, through fauour of the
commoners, against the will of the chéefe citizens, and here they fell
eftsoones to treat of agréement, but their talke profited nothing. And
so in the Christmasse wéeke the king, with his sonne prince Edward
and diuerse other of the councell sailed ouer againe into France, and
went to Amiens, where they found the French king, and a great number
of his nobles. Also for the barons, Peter de Montford, and other were
sent thither as commissioners, and as some write, at that present, to
wit on the 24 daie of Ianuarie, the French king sitting in iudgement,
pronounced his definitiue sentence on the behalfe of king Henrie
against the barons: but whether he gaue that sentence now, or the yeare
before, the barons iudged him verie parciall, and therefore meant not
to stand vnto his arbitrement therein.

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Castels gotten by prince Edward.]

The king hauing ended his businesse with the French king, returned
into England, and came to London the morrow after S. Valentines day.
And about seuen or eight daies after, the lord Edward his eldest sonne
returned also, and hearing that the barons were gone to the marshes of
Wales (where ioining with the Welshmen, they had begun to make warre
against the kings fréends, and namelie against his lieutenant Roger
lord Mortimer, whome they had besieged in the castell of Wigmore)
the lord Edward therevpon, with such power as he could get togither,
marched thitherwards to raise their siege: but the lord Mortimer
perceiuing himselfe in danger, fled priuilie out of the castell, and
got to Hereford, whither the prince was come. The barons inforced their
strength in such wise that they wan the castell. Prince Edward on the
other side tooke the castels of Haie and Huntington that belonged vnto
the earle of Hereford yoong Henrie de Boun.

[Sidenote: Winchester taken.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: The citie of Glocester recouered and put to fine.]

The castel of Brecknoc was also deliuered into his hands, which he
béetooke to the kéeping of the lord Roger de Mortimer, with all the
territorie thereto belonging. Robert earle of Darbie that tooke part
with the barons, besieged the citie of Worcester, and tooke it by the
old castell, sacked the citizens goods, and constreined the Iewes to
be baptised. The citie of Glocester also was taken by the barons: but
prince Edward following them and reparing the bridge ouer Seuerne,
which the barons had broken downe after they were come ouer, he entred
the castell of Glocester with his people. The next day by procurement
of Walter bishop of Worcester, a truce was taken betwixt prince Edward
and the barons that had taken the towne, during the which truce the
barons left the towne, and the burgesses submitted themselues vnto
prince Edward: and so he hauing the castell and towne in his hands,
imprisoned manie of the burgesses & fined the towne at the summe of a
thousand pounds. Then he drew towards his father lieng at Oxford or at
Woodstoke, gathering people togither on ech hand.

[Sidenote: The c[=o]moners of the citie of London agrée with the
Barons.]

[Sidenote: _R. Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The manor of Thistleworth spoiled.]

[Sidenote: The chéefe cause that set the K. of Almaine so sore against
the barons.]

In the meane time the lords drew towards London, and the new assurance
by writing indented was made betwéene the communaltie of the citie and
the barons, without consent of any of the rulers of the citie. The
commoners herewith appointed of themselues two capteins, which they
named constables of the citie, that is to saie, Thomas Piwelsdon &
Stephan Bukerell, by whose commandement and tolling of the great bell
of Paules all the citie was warned to be readie in harnesse, to attend
vpon the said two capteins. About the beginning of Lent the constable
of the towre sir Hugh Spenser, with the said two capteins, and a great
multitude of the citizens and others went to Thistleworth, and there
spoiled the manour place of the king of Almaine, and then set it on
fire, and destroied the water milles, and other commodities which he
there had. This déed was the cause (as some haue iudged) of the warre
that after insued. For where before this time the said king of Almaine
had béene, by reason of the alliance betwixt him and the earle of
Glocester, continuallie an intreater for peace, he was now euer after
this time an vtter enimie vnto the barons, and vnto their side, so
farre as laie in his power.

[Sidenote: The lords that followed the king.]

The king hearing of this riotous act, and being informed that Peter
de Mountfort was at Northampton, assembling people to strengthen the
barons part, he got togither such men of warre as he could from all
places, and so he had with him his brother Richard king of Almaine,
his eldest sonne the lord Edward, William de Valence his halfe brother
on the mothers side, & Iohn Comin of Ward in Scotland with a great
number of Scots, Iohn Ballioll lord of Gallowaie, Robert Bruis lord of
Annandale, Roger Clifford, Philip Marmion, Iohn Vaux, Iohn Leiborne,
Henrie Percie, Philip Basset, and Roger Mortimer.

[Sidenote: Northampton taken by force.]

Thus the king hauing these Noble men about him, with his armie sped him
towards Northampton, and comming thither tooke the towne by force, slue
diuerse, and tooke prisoners Peter Mountfort, and Simon Mountfort the
earle of Leicesters son, William Ferries, Baldwin Wake, with Nicholas
his brother, Berengarius de Wateruile, Hugh Gubiun, Robert Buteuilein,
Adam of Newmarch, Robert Newton, Philip Dribie, Grimbald Pauncefoet,
Roger Beltram, Thomas Mansell, and diuerse other, to the number of 80
knights (or as Matthew Westminster hath 15 barons, and 60 knights)
besides a great number of esquires and burgesses, the which were
bestowed abroad in sundrie prisons. The towne (as some write) was taken
by this meanes. Whilest diuerse of the capteins within were talking
with the king on the one side of the towne towards the meadowes, the
lord Philip Bassett approched the walles néere vnto the monasterie of
S. Andrew, and there with his people hauing spades, mattocks, and other
instruments prouided for the purpose, vndermined a great paine of the
wall, and reuersed the same into ditches, making such a breach, that
fortie horssemen might enter afront. Some put the blame in such moonks
of the abbeie as were strangers, as though they should prepare this
entrie for the enimie: but howsoeuer it was, the king got the towne out
of his enimies hands.

[Sidenote: Scholers fight against the king.]

[Sidenote: Some write that Iohn de Balioll and Robert de Bruis, and
Peter de Bruis, came to him here and not before.]

This also is to be remembred, that where by reason of variance, which
had chanced that yere betwixt the scholers of Oxford and the townesmen,
a great number of the same scholers were withdrawen to Northampton and
there studied. They had raised a banner to fight in defense of the
towne against the king, and did more hurt to the assailants than anie
other band; wherevpon the king threatened to hang them all, and so
had he doone indéed, if by the persuasion of his councell he had not
altered his purpose, doubting to procure the hatred of their fréends,
if the execution should haue béene so rigorouslie prosecuted against
them: for there were amongst them manie yoong gentlemen of good houses
and noble parentage. Thus was the towne of Northampton taken on a
saturdaie being Passion sundaie euen, and the morrow after the daie
of S. Ambrose which is the fift of Aprill. On the monday following,
the king led his armie towards Leicester, where the burgesses receiued
him into the towne at his comming thither. From thence he marched to
Notingham, burning and wasting the houses and manors of the barons and
other of his enimies, and speciallie those that belonged to the earle
of Leicester. Here he also gathered more people, and so increased his
power: in somuch that diuerse Noblemen, as Roger Clifford, Henrie
Percie, Richard Gray, Philip Basset, Richard Sward, and Hubert earle
of Kent, doubting the lacke of power in their companions, reuolted
incontinentlie to the kings side.

[Sidenote: _Matt. West_.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Tutburie defaced.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Warwike taken.]

[Sidenote: The castell of Warwike raced.]

[Sidenote: The Iewes are killed.]

He sent his sonne prince Edward into Darbishire and Staffordshire with
a strong power, where he wasted the manours and possessions of Robert
de Ferrers earle of Darbie, and namelie he ouerthrew and defaced the
castell of Tutburie. Wheresoeuer the kings armie, or that which his
sonne prince Edward led, chanced to come, there followed spoiling,
burning, and killing. The barons on the other side sate not still, for
the lord Iohn Gifford, with others that were appointed by the earle
of Leicester to kéepe Killingworth castell (which was furnished with
all things necessarie, maruellouslie, and with such strange kind of
engines as had not béene lightlie heard of nor séene in these parts)
tooke by a policie the castell of Warwike, and William Manduit earle
of Warwike, with his wife and familie within it; and leading them to
Killingworth, there c[=o]mitted them to prison. The cause was, for that
they suspected him that he would take part with the king against them.
The castell of Warwike they raced downe, least the kings people should
take it for their refuge. In the Passion wéeke the Iewes that inhabited
in London being detected of treason, which they had deuised against the
barons and citizens, were slaine almost all the whole number of them,
and great riches found in their houses, which were taken and caried
awaie by those that ransacked the same houses.

[Sidenote: Rochester besieged.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: The kings halfe brethren come out of France to his aid.]

[Sidenote: The king incampeth at Lewes.]

After Easter the earle of Leicester, hauing London at his commandement,
went to Rochester and besieged that citie, but the capteine thereof
Iohn earle of Warren did manfullie resist the enimies; till the king
aduertised thereof, with the power of the marshes of the north parts
and other came and remooued the siege. This doone, he left a conuenient
garrison within the citie to defend it, and comming to Tunbridge, wan
the castell, and taking the countesse of Glocester that was within
it, permitted hir to depart. This doone, he repaired to the sea side
towards France, to staie there till his brethren, Geffrey and Guie, the
sonnes of the earle of Marsh should arriue with some band of souldiers,
for whom he had now sent and reuoked into the realme, being latelie
before banished by the Nobles, as before yée haue heard. They shortlie
after landed, wherevpon the king hauing his power increased, came to
Lewes, and pight downe his field not farre from that towne.

[Sidenote: The barons send a letter to the king.]

[Sidenote: The answer to ye barons.]

[Sidenote: He defieth them.]

In the end of Aprill the barons hearing where the king was, departed
from London with a great multitude of the citizens, whom they placed in
the vantward, and marched foorth towards the king, and comming néere
to the place where he was lodged, set downe their tents, and incamped
themselues a little beside him. Either here or by the waie as they
came forward, the barons deuised a letter, and sent it vnto the king,
conteining an excuse of their dooings, and a declaration of their well
meanings, both towards him, and the wealth of the realme; and herewith
accused those that were about him; and with euill counsell misinformed
him, both against them, against the publike wealth of the land, and his
owne honor. This letter was dated the tenth of Maie, and subscribed
with the names of a great number of noble men, of the which the more
part doo here insue, but yet not all; Sir Simon de Montfort earle of
Leicester and high steward of England, sir Gilbert de Clare earle of
Glocester, Robert Ferrers earle of Darbie, Hugh Spenser lord chéefe
iustice, & Henrie Montfort sonne and heire to the earle of Leicester,
Richard Grey, Henrie Hastings, Iohn Fitz Iohn, Robert de Véepont, Iohn
Ginuile, Robert Roos, William Marmion, Baldwine Wake, Gilbert Gifford,
Nicholas de Segraue, Godfrey de Lucie, Iohn de Veisie, William de
Mountchensie, with other. The king answered this letter, in charging
them with rebellion, and moouing of open war against him, to the great
disquieting of the realme. Also he laid vnto their charge, the burning
of the manours, houses and places of his nobles and councellors; and
herewith defied them by the same answer, which was dated at Lewes
aforesaid on the twelfth of Maie.

[Sidenote: _Math. West._]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The ordering of the battels.]

Also the king of Romanes, and prince Edward sent their defiance to the
barons at the same time in writing vnder their seales, for that the
barons in their letter to the king, had burthened them and other with
misleading the king with vntrue informations and sinister counsell.
Thus as they writ to and fro such nipping letters, all the treatie of
peace was forgotten and laid aside, so that they prepared to battell.
The king had indéed the greater number of armed men, but manie of them
were vnfaithfull, and cared not greatlie though the losse fell to his
side, and so whilest they went to it without order, & vnaduisedlie,
they fought at aduenture, & continued but faintly. His capteines made
thrée battels of their armie, the lord Edward led the foreward, and
with him William de Valence earle of Penbroke, and Iohn de Warren erle
of Surrey and Sussex. In the second, the K. of Almaine, with his sonne
Henrie were chéeftaines. The third the king gouerned himselfe.

[Sidenote: The battels ioine.]

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dunst._]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward pursueth the Londoners.]

The barons diuided their host into foure battels, the first was vnder
the gouernment of the lord Henrie de Montfort and others. The second
was led by the lord Gilbert de Clare, the lord Iohn Fitz Iohn, and the
lord William de Mountchensie. The third, in which the Londoners were
placed, the lord Nicholas de Segraue ruled. The fourth was led by Simon
Montfort earle of Leicester himselfe, and one Thomas de Peuelston. Thus
being ordered, on the fourtéenth of Maie being Wednesdaie, they ioined
in fight, and at the first incounter, the L. Henrie de Hastings, the
lord Geffrey de Lucie, & Humfrey de Bohun the yoonger were wounded,
and the Londoners forthwith were beaten backe: for prince Edward so
fiercelie assailed them, that they were not able to abide the brunt. He
hated them indéed aboue all other, namelie for that of late they had
misvsed his mother, reuiling hir, and throwing durt and stones at hir,
when she passed the bridge (as before ye haue heard) which wrong and
abuse by them committed was peraduenture on their parts forgotten, but
of prince Edward (as it séemeth) remembred, for

    Puluere qui lædit, sed læsus marmore scribit.

[Sidenote: The kings part put to the worse.]

[Sidenote: _Matt. West._]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Paris._]

[Sidenote: Seuen hundred hath _Abington._]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward commeth backe to his father.]

Herevpon prince Edward now to be reuenged of them, after they began
to flie, most egerlie following them, chased & slue them by heaps.
But whilest he separated himselfe by such earnest following of the
Londoners too farre from the residue of the kings armie, he was the
onelie cause of the losse of that field: for the earle of Leicester,
perceiuing that the prince with the chiefest force of the kings armie
was thus gone after the Londoners (of whom he made no great account)
he exhorted his people to shew their valiancie at that instant, and so
comming vpon his aduersaries with great courage, in a moment put them
to flight. There were taken the king of Almaine, the lords Iohn de
Burgh and Philip Basset with all other the chiefest that were about the
king, but the king himselfe retired with those few about him that were
left, into the priorie of Lewes, and other there were that withdrew
into the castell. The barons pursuing them, entered the towne, and
tooke or slue so manie as they found within the castell and priorie. At
length, prince Edward returned from the chase of the Londoners, whom he
had pursued for the space of foure miles, and finding the field lost,
began a new battell: but the earle of Surrie, William de Valence, and
Guy de Lucignan, with Hugh Bigod and others, hauing with them thrée
hundred armed men, streightwaies fled vnto the castell of Pemsie.
Prince Edward then perceiuing slaughter to be made on each hand, cast
about the towne, and with his companie got into the priorie to his
father.

[Sidenote: Friers suborned to treat a peace.]

In the meane time the barons gaue assault to the castell, but they
within valiantlie defended themselues, with whose hardie dooings
prince Edward incouraged, gathered his people togither againe, and
meant eftsoones to giue battell; but the subtill head of the earle of
Leicester beguiled them all, for he caused certeine friers to take in
hand to be intreators betwixt them, which comming to the king and to
the prince his sonne, declared that the barons, to auoid that more
christian bloud should not be spilt, would be contented to haue the
matter put in compromise of indifferent persons; but if it were so,
that the king and his sonne would néeds stand to the vttermost triall
of battell, they would not faile but strike off the heads of the king
of Almaine and other prisoners, which they would set vpon the ends of
their speares in stéed of standards.

[Sidenote: An agréement taken.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

The king and his people hauing the respect of pitie before their eies,
changed their purposed intent to fight, and falling to a parle (which
continued for the most part of all the night next following) at length
it was agréed vpon, that the French king with thrée prelats and thrée
other noble men of the temporaltie, should choose foorth and name two
noble men of France, which comming into England should take a third
person to them whom they thought good, and they thrée should haue the
hearing of all controuersies betwixt the king and the barons, and
what order so euer they tooke therein, the same should stand, and be
receiued for a perfect conclusion and stable decrée. This agréement was
confirmed, and prince Edward and Henrie sonne to the king of Almaine
were appointed to remaine as hostages with the barons.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: Lords taken on the kings side.]

¶Other write otherwise of this battell at Lewes, affirming, that not
onelie the king of Romans, but also king Henrie himselfe, hauing his
owne horsse thrust through on both sides, was taken, and likewise his
sonne prince Edward with other on their side, to the number of fiue
and twentie barons and bannerets: and that moreouer, there died on the
kings side that day in the battell and chase, six thousand and fiue
hundred men, as Polydor noteth: howbeit, Richard Southwell saith, there
died on both parts onlie 3400. But Matth. Westminster waiteth, that as
the report went, there died fiue thousand on both sides, and amongst
other, these he nameth as chéefe, William de Wilton one of the kings
iustices, & the lord Fouke Fitz Waren a baron that tooke the kings
part. On the barons side, the lord Rafe Heringander a baron also, and
William Blunt the earles standard bearer. Of them that were taken on
the kings side, beside such as before are recited, we find these named,
Humfrie de Bohun earle of Hereford, William lord Bardolfe, Robert lord
of Tatshale, Roger lord Somerie, Henrie lord Percie, Iohn de Balioll,
Robert de Bruis, and Iohn Comin, with other barons of Scotland, hauing
lost all their footmen whom they had brought with them to the kings aid.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

Moreouer, it should appeare by some writers, that the king being thus
in captiuitie, was constreined to make a new grant, that the statutes
of Oxford shuld stand in force, and if any were thought vnreasonable,
the same should be reformed by foure Noble men of the realme of France,
two of the spiritualtie and two of the temporaltie. And if those foure
could not agrée, then the earle of Aniou and the duke of Burgoigne
shuld be iudges in the matter. ¶ But if either those or the other
were appointed to be arbitrators, like it is, that the former report
touching the successe of the battell is true; for if both the king and
his sonne had béene taken prisoners in the field, the barons would
suerlie haue constreined him to haue consented to the obseruance of the
statutes, without putting the same in compromise, to be altered at the
discretion of any arbitrators, and namelie strangers.

[Sidenote: Peace proclaimed.]

[Sidenote: A new deuise of the barons.]

But howsoeuer it was, on the tuesday before the Ascension day, peace
was proclaimed in London, betwéene the king and the barons; and whereas
the king either by constreint for safegard of himselfe or his fréends,
either vpon assurance of the barons promise, committed himselfe vnto
the companie of the same barons, at their comming with him to London
they went from this last agréement, and foorthwith deuised other
ordinances as thus. They ordeined, that two earles and a bishop, which
being elected out by the communaltie, should choose to them nine other
persons, and of these, thrée of them should still remaine about the
king, and by their order and the other nine, all things should be
gouerned both in the court and in the realme. They constreined the
king and his sonne prince Edward (menacing to depose the one, and to
kéepe the other in perpetuall prison) to consent and agrée to this last
ordinance: and so the earles of Leicester and Glocester, and the bishop
of Chichester were ordeined there the chéefe rulers, and letters sent
with all spéed vnto the cardinall Sabinensis the popes legat, and to
the king of France, to signifie to them, that the compromise agréed
vpon at Lewes was vtterlie reuoked, and that a new peace in fréendlie
wise was concluded.

But although the bishops of London, Winchester, and Worcester
instantlie required the said legat, that he would helpe to further the
same peace, yet he sore rebuked them, in that they would giue their
consent, so much to abase and bring vnder the kings roiall power. And
bicause he might not be suffered to enter the realme, he first cited
them to appeare before him at Bullongne. And whereas they séemed to
contemne his authoritie, and appeared not, he both suspended the said
thrée bishops, and excommunicated the said earles of Leicester and
Glocester, and their complices, with the citie of London, and the
cinque ports: but the foresaid bishops, earles and barons, feigning to
make their appeales to the popes consistorie, or if néed were, vnto a
generall councell and so foorth, though indéed trusting more to the
temporall sword, than fearing the spirituall, they did not forbeare to
saie and heare diuine seruice in churches and else-where, as before
they had doone, till the comming of the cardinall Othobone.

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The Londoners spoiled at Croidon.]

The capteines and men of warre, whom the king had left at Tunbridge,
immediatlie vpon the agréement concluded betwixt the king and the
barons, were commanded by the K. to depart, & repaire euerie man to his
home; but they fearing the malice of their enimies, would not breake
in sunder, but kéeping togither, went straight to Bristowe, and there
remained, till the lord Edward the kings sonne was escaped out of
captiuitie. But this is to be remembred, that before their departure
from Tunbridge, when by report of William de Saie, who escaping from
the battell at Lewes, was come thither, they vnderstood how the matter
had passed on both sides, and that the Londoners being chased out of
the field, were lodged at Croidon, about the euening tide they came
thither, and assailing them in their lodgings, slue manie, and wan a
great spoile. The earle of Leicester and the barons hauing the rule
of the king and realme in their hands, sought to oppresse all such as
they knew to be against them, and not to like of their procéedings;
namelie, the northerne lords, and those of the marshes of Wales, as the
lord Mortimer and others: but waxing herewith wilfull, they vsed things
with small discretion, which at length brought them to confusion. For
the foure sonnes of the earle of Leicester, Henrie, Guie, Simon, and an
other Henrie, which had serued right worthilie indéed on the daie of
the battell, began to waxe so proud, that in comparison of themselues,
they despised all others.

[Sidenote: _Matt. West._]

[Sidenote: The earle of Darbie commeth to Chester with 20 thousand men.]

The lords of the marshes of Wales, as Roger de Mortimer, Iames de
Audelie, Roger de Clifford, Roger de Leiborne, Haimon le Strange, Hugh
Turberuile, and other that had escaped from the battell at Lewes,
began to make against them that had thus vsurped the rule of the land,
vnder colour of hauing the king in their hands. The earle of Leicester
aduertised hereof, ioined in league with Leolin prince of Wales, and
comming with the king into those parts, entered into the castell of
Hereford, into the which he remooued the lord Edward from Douer, where
he was first kept in ward, after he had yéelded himselfe at Lewes.
After this, the earle of Leicester recouered the castell of Haie, and
wasting the lands and manours of the lord Mortimer, constreined Hugh
Mortimer to yéeld himselfe, so that his castell called Richar, and
other his possessions, were committed to the kéeping of the lord Iohn
Fitz Iohn. Robert de Ferrers earle of Darbie, with a great puissance
of horssemen and footmen came to Chester, in fauour of the earle of
Leicester, against whome although William de Cousche, and Dauid brother
to the prince of Wales, taking the contrarie part with the lord Iames
Audelie and other, came to incounter, yet they durst not abide him, but
fled, and lost an hundred of their men.

[Sidenote: The lords Mortimer and Audelie banished.]

[Sidenote: An armie lodged on Barham-downe.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: 1265.]

[Sidenote: _Chr. Dunstab._]

In the meane time, the earle of Leicester procéeding in his businesse,
wan the castell of Ludlow, and after marching towards Montgomerie,
whither the lords Roger de Mortimer, and Iames Audelie were withdrawne,
he constreined them at length to a feigned agréement, so that they gaue
hostages, promising to come to the next parlement that was appointed
to be holden, where they were banished the land for a twelue moneths,
and all the castels on the marshes, in manner from Bristow to Chester,
were deliuered to the earle. After this (as by Nicholas Triuet it
appeareth) there was a great assemblie of men of warre made out of all
parts of the realme, to resist such strangers as the quéene (remaining
in the parts beyond the seas) had got togither, meaning to send them
into England to aid the king against the barons, and for that purpose
had caused a great number of ships to be brought into the hauen of
Dam. But now that the king was in the barons hands, and that such a
multitude of horssemen and footmen were assembled on Barham-downe (as
a man would not haue thought had béene possible to haue found within
the whole relme) to resist the landing of those strangers, the said
strangers were sent home againe, without hauing doone anie pleasure to
the quéene, other than spent hir monie. The king held his Christmas
at Woodstoke; and the earle of Leicester, who séemed then to rule the
whole realme, kept his Christmasse at Killingworth.

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

After this a parlement was holden at London in the octaues of saint
Hilarie, and manie things were concluded, couenants accorded, and oths
taken for performance by the K. and his sonne prince Edward, which
shortlie after came to little effect. Yet prince Edward, and Henrie
the sonne and heire of the king of Almaine, which had béene kept as
pledges about the tearme of nine moneths and od daies, were in the Lent
following set at libertie, vpon assurance made, that the said prince
Edward should remaine in the kings court, and not depart from thence
without licence of the king and certeine of the barons. He was also
constreined to giue vnto the earle of Leicester the countie Palantine
of Chester before he might obteine to haue so much libertie. Betwéene
Easter and Whitsuntide, the earles of Leicester and Glocester fell at
variance, through the presumptuous demeanour of the earle of Leicesters
sonnes, and also bicause the earle of Leicester would not deliuer
the king of Almaine and other prisoners vnto the earle of Glocester,
requiring to haue the custodie of them, bicause he had taken them in
the battell at Lewes.

[Sidenote: Prince Edward escapeth awaie.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

The earle of Glocester, perceiuing himselfe not well vsed, secretlie
entred into confederacie with the lord Mortimer, and other of the
marshes: wherevpon the earle of Leicester hauing thereof some inkeling,
came to Hereford, in purpose to haue taken the earle of Glocester, and
to haue put him in safe kéeping, as latelie before he had serued the
earle of Darbie. But by the practise of the lord Mortimer, shortlie
after the lord Edward or prince Edward (whether yée list to call him)
assaieng abroad in the fields an horsse or two, such as he should vse
at iusts and tornies, which were appointed to be holden, he mounted at
length vpon a light courser, which the said lord Mortimer had sent to
him; and bidding the lord Robert Roos and other (that were appointed
to attend on him, as his kéepers) farewell, he galloped from them, and
could not be ouertaken of them that pursued him, till at length he came
to the lord Mortimer, who with a great troope of men was come foorth
of his castell of Wigmore to receiue him. This was on the thursdaie in
Whitsunwéeke.

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicesters sonne raiseth an armie. He wan
Winchester.]

About the same time, the earle of Warren, with William de Valence
earle of Penbroke, the kings halfe brother, and others, who (as yée
haue heard) fled from the battell at Lewes, were now returned into
the realme, landing first in Southwales with a power of crossebowes
and other men of warre, the which hearing that the lord Edward was
thus escaped out of captiuitie, came to Ludlow, and there ioined with
him, and so likewise did the earle of Glocester. Now after they had
communed togither, and were made fréends and confederats, they caused
all the bridges to be broken, that the enimies should not come to
oppresse them, till they had assembled all their forces, and passing
forward towards Glocester, wan the citie, and still came people vnto
them from all sides, namelie those lords and capteins, which all the
time sincce the battell of Lewes had laine in Bristow. After this they
came to Worcester, and entred there also. When the earle of Leicester
was hereof aduertised (who in all this meane time by order taken, was
about the king, and ruled all things in the court) he sent in all hast
vnto his sonne Simon de Montfort to raise a power of men, the which
accordinglie assembled to him much people, and comming with the same
vnto Winchester, wan the citie by surrender, spoiled it, and slue the
more part of the Iewes that inhabited there. Then he laid siege to the
castell, but hearing a feigned rumor that prince Edward was comming
thither with his power, he departed from thence with his companie, and
went to Killingworth.

[Sidenote: The armie of the earle of Leicesters sonne is discomfited.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: The castell of Monmouth taken.]

[Sidenote: The battell of Euesham.]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

On the last day of Iulie, prince Edward with his host came to
Killingwoorth aforesaid, and there fighting with the said Simon de
Montfort and his armie, with little slaughter discomfited the same, and
tooke prisoners the erle of Oxford, the lords William de Montchensie,
Adam de Newmarch, Baldwine Wake, and Hugh Neuill, with diuers others:
the lord Simon himselfe fled into the castell, and so escaped. In this
meane while the earle of Leicester hauing raised his power, came to the
castell of Monmouth, which the earle of Glocester had latelie taken
and fortified: but they that were within it being driuen to yéeld, it
was now raced downe to the ground. This doone, the earle of Leicester
entring into Glamorganshire, and ioining his power with the prince of
Wales, wasted and burned the lands of the said earle of Glocester: but
hearing what his aduersaries went about in other places, he returned
from thence, and came forward towards the said prince Edward, who
likewise made towards him, and at Euesham they met on the sixt day of
August, where was fought a verie fierce and cruell battell betwixt the
parties.

[Sidenote: The Welshmen fled.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Leicester slaine.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

¶ Some write that the earle of Leicester placed king Henrie in the
front of his battell, whom he had there with him as captiue, and had
arraied him in his owne cote-armour, that if fortune went against him,
whilest the enimies should be earnest to take the king bearing the
semblance of the chéefe capteine, he might himselfe escape: but king
Henrie, when they came to ioine, fought not, but called to his people,
and declared who he was, whereby he escaped the danger of death, for
being knowne of them he was saued. The Welshmen which in great numbers
the earle of Leicester had there on his side, at the first onset fled
and run awaie; which their demeanor, when the earle saw, he exhorted
those that were about him to plaie the men, and so rushing foorth into
the prease of his enimies, he was inclosed about and slaine, togither
with his sonne Henrie. Herevpon, his death being knowne, his people
tooke them to flight as men vtterlie discomfited. There died in that
battell about 4000 men (as Polydor saith.) But Richard Southwell saith,
there were killed of knights or rather men of armes 180, and of yeomen
or rather demilances 220, of Welshmen 5000, and of such footmen as were
of the earle of Leicesters owne retinue 2000, so that there died in all
to the number of ten thousand men, as the same Southwell affirmeth.
Among whom of noblemen, these are reckoned, Hugh Spenser lord chéefe
iustice, the lord Rafe Basset, the lord Peter de Montfort, the lord
Iohn Beauchampe, sir William Yorke, the lord Thomas de Esterlie, the
lord Walter de Creppings, Guie de Balioll a Frenchman, the lord William
de Mandeuill, the lord Roger S. Iohn, the lord Robert Tregoz, and
others.

[Sidenote: The pride of the earle of Leicesters sons bringeth the
barons to confusions.]

This ruine fell to the barons by the discord which was sproong latelie
before, betwixt the earles of Leicester and Glocester, through the
insolencie and pride of the earle of Leicesters sonnes, who (as I said
before) despising other of the nobilitie, and forgetting in the meane
time the nature of true and vnstained noblenesse, wherof it is said and
truelie remembred, that

    Nobilitas morum plus ornat quàm genitorum,

spake manie reprochfull words by the said earle of Glocester, and vsed
him in such euill sort, that he vpon displeasure thereof, had not
onelie procured the scape of prince Edward, but ioined with him in aid,
against the said earle of Leicester, and other of the barons, to the
vtter confusion, both of them and of their cause. The bodie of the same
earle was shamefullie abused & cut in péeces, his head and his priuie
members were cut off, and fastened on either side of his nose, and
presented vnto the wife of the lord Roger Mortimer.

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

The people conceiued an opinion, that this earle being thus slaine,
fighting in defense of the liberties of the realme, & performance of
his oth, as they tooke it, died a martyr: which by the bruted holinesse
of his passed life and miracles ascribed to him after his death,
was greatlie confirmed in the next age. But the feare of the kings
displeasure staied the people from hastie honouring him as a saint
at this time, where otherwise, they were inclined greatlie thereto,
reputing him for no lesse in their conscience, as in secret talke they
would not sticke to vtter. There were wounded & taken, besides the
other that were slaine at that battell of Euesham, Guie de Montfort,
the earle of Leicesters sonne, the lords Iohn Fitz Iohn, Henrie de
Hastings, Humfrie de Bohun the yoonger, Iohn de Vescie, Peter de
Montfort the yoonger, and Nicholas de Segraue with others. The king
being deliuered out of his aduersaries hands, and likewise the king of
Romans, went vnto Warwike, and there increasing his power, determined
to pursue his enimies.

[Sidenote: A parlement at Winchester.]

But first, about the Natiuitie of our ladie was a parlement holden
at Winchester, where the statuts of Oxford were cléerelie repealed.
Also, all such as had fauoured the barons, and were as then either
in prison or abroad, should be disherited. It was also ordeined at
this parlement, that the wealthiest citizens of London should be cast
into prison, and that the citie should be depriued of hir liberties.
Also, that the stulps and cheins, wherewith the stréets were fensed,
should be had awaie, bicause that the citizens had aided the earle of
Leicester against the king and his realme. All this was doone, for the
chéefe citizens were committed to ward within the castle of Windsore,
till they had paid no small summes of monie for their fines. The
liberties of the citie were suspended, and the towre of London was made
stronger by the stulps and cheins which were brought into it out of the
citie. Moreouer, bicause Simon de Montfort might not agrée with the
king, being come to this parlement vpon assurance, he was restored to
the castell of Killingworth.

[Sidenote: A parlement at Westminster.]

[Sidenote: Erle Ferrers.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 50.]

[Sidenote: The citie of London submitteth hirselfe to the K.]

[Sidenote: The Londoners put to their fine.]

After this, in the feast of the translation of S. Edward, a parlement
was holden at Westminster, and the sentence of disheriting the kings
aduersaries was pronounced against them, whose lands the king forthwith
gaue vnto his trustie subiects, where he thought good. Some of the
disherited men redéemed their possessions, with a portion of monie,
in name of a fine. Other of them flocking togither, got them into the
woods and desart places, where kéeping them out of sight as outlawes,
they liued by spoiles and robberies. The chéefest of them was Robert
erle of Ferrers, who neuerthelesse was restored to his lands, but yet
with condition, that if afterwards he fell into the like crime, he
should forfeit his earldome for euer. The Londoners with much adoo,
at length, obteined pardon of the king. The maior and aldermen of the
citie were glad to submit themselues, though the commons, without
consideration of the great perill which they were in, would haue stood
still at defiance with the king, and defended the citie against him.
It was no maruell though they were of diuerse and contrarie opinions,
for in those daies, the citie was inhabited with manie and sundrie
nations which then were admitted for citizens. At length, vpon their
submission, the king tooke them to mercie, vpon their fine, which was
seized at twentie thousand marks.

[Sidenote: Cardinal Othobone the popes legat.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian_.]

[Sidenote: One Othon made gardian of the citie of London.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

About Alhallowentide, cardinall Othobone came from the pope into
England as his legat; to helpe towards some agréement to be had betwixt
the king and his barons. He was committed to prison (as some write)
by the Londoners, for that he spake against their dooings, when they
shut their gates against the king; but he was shortlie released as
should appeare. On the sixt day of Nouember in the fiftith yeare of his
reigne, king Henrie came to Westminster, and shortlie after, he gaue
awaie the number of thréescore houses, with the household stuffe in
the same conteined, so that the owners were compelled to redéeme them
againe of those his seruants, to whome he had giuen the said houses,
togither with all such lands, goods and cattels, as the same citizens
had within any part of England. Then was one called sir Othon made
custos or gardian of the citie, who was also conestable of the tower,
he chose to be bailiffes, and to be accomptable to the kings vse, Iohn
Adrian, and Walter Henrie, citizens of the same citie. The king also
tooke pledges of the best mens sonnes of the citie, which pledges he
caused to be put in the tower, and there kept at the costs of their
parents. ¶The king by aduise of his councell ordeined, that within
euerie shire of the relme, there should be a capteine or lieutenant
appointed with necessarie allowance of the king for his charges, the
which, with the assistance of the shiriffe, should punish and kéepe
downe the wicked outrage of théeues and robbers, which in time of
the late ciuill warres were sproong vp in great numbers, and growen
to excéeding great boldnesse; but now, through feare of deserued
punishment, they began to ceasse from their accustomed rapine, and the
kings power came againe in estimation, so that peace after a manner
tooke new root and increase.

[Sidenote: _Nic. Treuet._]

[Sidenote: The legat holdeth a synod at Northampton.]

[Sidenote: _Matt. West._]

[Sidenote: This suspension was pronounced in a councell holden by the
said cardinall at Paules as _Fabian_ saith.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

Vpon S. Nicholas euen, the king departed from Westminster, towards
Northampton, where the cardinall Othobone held a synod, and according
to that he had in commandement, pronounced all the kings aduersaries
accurssed, and namelie all the bishops which had aided the barons
against the king, in time of the late warres, of whome afterward he
absolued the most part. But Iohn bishop of Winchester, Henrie bishop of
London, and Stephan bishop of Chichester were sent to Rome, to purchase
their absolution of pope Clement the fourth, as well for other points
of disobedience, as chéeflie for that, where the quéene had procured a
cursse of pope Vrbane the fourth, that was predecessor to this Clement,
to accursse all the barons and their supporters, which warred against
the king hir husband: the said bishops (to whome the commission was
sent to denounce that cursse) for feare of the barons deferred the
execution. Walter bishop of Worcester, chancing to fall sicke at that
time, died about the beginning of Februarie, confessing first, that he
had gréeuouslie erred, in mainteining the side of the erle of Leicester
against the king, and therefore directed his letters to the popes
legat, requiring to be absolued, which his petition the legat granted.
Moreouer, in this councell at Northampton, there was published by the
cardinall a grant, made to the king by the pope, of the dismes of the
english church for one whole yeare then next insuing.

[Sidenote: The Londoners pard[=o]ed.]

[Sidenote: 1266.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

A little before the kings departure from London now in this last time,
he ordeined sir Iohn Linde knight, and maister Iohn Waldren clearke,
to be gardians of the citie and tower, by the names of seneshals or
stewards: but such earnest suit was made to the king, to obteine a
perfect pardon for the Londoners, that at length after the aforesaid
seneshals had taken suerties for the paiment of their fine, the K.
caused his charter of pardon to be made vnder his broad seale, and
sent it vnto them, wherein all former trespasses committed by them in
the last warres was cléerelie pardoned; certeine persons, whose bodies
and goods were giuen vnto his eldest sonne Edward, excepted out of the
same pardon. This charter was dated at Northampton, the tenth day of
Ianuarie, in the fiftith yere of king Henries reigne. Then also were
discharged the foresaid seneshals, and the citizens of themselues chose
for maior, William Fitz Richard; and for shiriffs, Thomas de la Fourd,
and Gregorie de Rockesleg.

[Sidenote: Simon de Montfort.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: _Polydor._]

Whilest the king laie at Northampton, the lord Simon de Montfort put
himselfe vpon the doome and order of the legat Othobone, and was
therefore permitted to be at large in the kings court: but at the kings
comming to London, he suddenlie departed out of the court, and rode
to Winchelsie, where he associated himselfe with rouers, and after
some prices taken, departed from them, and went into France, where he
offered his seruice to the French king, and was receiued. Thus saith
Matthew Westminster, and other. But Polydor saith, that by Othobons
means, he was reconciled to the kings fauour; and therevpon to auoid
occasion of further displeasure, he commanded, that the castell of
Killingworth should be restored vnto the king, which the capteine
refused to deliuer, hauing fortified it with all manner of prouision,
and things necessarie to defend a siege.

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: The wardens of the fiue ports reconciled to the king.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: Douer castell deliuered to the king.]

[Sidenote: Winchelsie won by force.]

The wardens of the cinque ports, which (during the time of the barons
warre) had doone manie roberies on the sea, as well against the
Englishmen as other, were at length reconciled to the king, who was
faine to agrée with them vpon such conditions as they thought good,
bicause at that time (as the c[=o]mon fame went) they had the dominion
of the sea in their owne hands. But in some writers we find it thus
recorded, that when certeine prisoners which were kept by the barons
of the cinque ports in the castell of Douer, heard how all things
prospered on the kings side, they got possession of a tower within
the same castell, and tooke vpon them to defend it against their
kéepers; whereof when aduertisement was giuen to the king and to his
sonne the lord Edward, they hasted forth to come & succour their
fréends. The kéepers of the castell, perceiuing themselues beset with
their enimies, sent to the king for peace, who granting them pardon
of life and limme, with horsse, armour, and other such necessaries,
the castell was yéelded vnto his hands. From thence, prince Edward
departing, visited the sea coasts, punishing diuerse of the inhabitants
within the precinct of the cinque ports, and putting them in feare,
receiued diuerse to the king his fathers peace. The inhabitants of
Winchelsie onelie made countenance to resist him, but prince Edward
with valiant assaults entred the towne, in which entrie much guiltie
bloud was spilt, but yet the multitude by commandement of prince Edward
was spared. And thus hauing woone the towne, he commanded that from
thencefoorth they should absteine from piracies, which they had before
time greatlie vsed. Thus were the seas made quiet, and those of the
cinque ports brought to the kings peace, and throughlie reconciled.

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: The Ile of Oxholme.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: Lincolne taken.]

[Sidenote: _N. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: Killingworth castell fortified against the king.]

[Sidenote: The kings purseuant had his hand cut off.]

In this meane while diuerse of the disherited gentlemen, sore repining
at the sentence and order giuen against them, had taken the Ile of
Oxholme in Lincolneshire, whither a great number of euill dooers
immediatlie resorted, and began to doo mischéefe in all the countries
next adioining. They tooke and sacked the citie of Lincolne, spoiled
the Iewes, and slue manie of them, entred their synagog, and burnt
the booke of their law. At length prince Edward, or (as other saie)
his brother earle Edmund, was sent against them, who compelled them
by force to come to the kings peace, which to obserue, they receiued
an oth shortlie after at London, but neuerthelesse were as soone
readie to breake and renounce the same, and began a new broile in
sundrie parts of the realme. Diuerse of them fortified the castell of
Killingworth, prouiding themselues of all things necessarie for defense
out of the countries adioining. The king aduertised hereof, sent vnto
them a purseuant, commanding them to cease fr[=o] such rebellious
attempts, but the messenger had one of his hands cut off, and so with a
contemptuous answer was sent backe againe.

[Sidenote: Adam Gurdon.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: The battell of Chesterfield.]

Prince Edward in passing through the forrest of Aulton, got sight of
sir Adam Gurdon one of the disherited men, with whome he coped and
tooke him prisoner with his owne hand, yet sauing him, and pardoning
the offence of rebellion, in respect of the valiancie which he tried
by proofe to rest in him: but his soldiers and complices being there
taken, he caused to be hanged vpon trées within the same forrest.
Robert earle Ferrers contrarie to his oth of late receiued, accompanied
with the lord d'Euille and others, did much hurt by way of open war
against the kings fréends in the north parts. Against whom the lord
Henrie, sonne to the king of Almaine was sent with a great power: the
which comming to Chesterfield fell vpon his enimies in such wise on
the sudden, that they had not time to arme themselues, and so were
distressed and ouercome.

[Sidenote: _Euersden._]

Yet the lord Iohn d'Euille brake out, and incountring with sir Gilbert
Hansard, ouerthrew him, and escaped out of danger. Great slaughter
was made on ech hand, and in the meane while the Nobles and gentlemen
sought to get out of perill by flight. The earle of Darbie got into a
church, but he was descried by a woman, and so was taken. There were
manie other also taken: & amongst them the lord Baldwine Wake, and sir
Iohn de la Haie with much paine escaped. This battell was foughten
about the midst of Maie, or vpon Whitsun éeue, as the Chronicle of
Dunstable saith. Those that escaped, as the lord d'Euille and others,
gaue not ouer yet, but assembling themselues togither in companies,
kéeping within woods and other desert places, brake out oftentimes, and
did much mischéefe. On the ninth of August they tooke the Ile of Elie,
and so strengthned it, that they held it a long time after, spoiling
and robbing the countries round about them, as Norffolke, Suffolke, and
Cambridgeshire.

[Sidenote: Norwich sacked.]

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dunst._]

[Sidenote: The siege of Killingworth castell beginneth.]

[Sidenote: The lord Hastings.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 51.]

[Sidenote: Killingworth castell deliuered to the K.]

The bishop of Elie had vndertaken to kéepe the Ile to the kings vse,
but being now dispossessed thereof, he got him awaie, and fell to
cursing them that were thus entred against his will, but they séemed
to passe litle vpon his thundering excommunications. On the 16 of
December, they came to the citie of Norwich; and spoiling it, tooke
manie of the wealthie citizens, and ransomed them at great summes of
monie. The lord Henrie Hastings and Simon de Pateshull, with diuerse
others, got them into the castell of Killingworth, and dailie went
forth at their pleasures, spoiling and wasting the townes about them,
or causing them to fine with them to be spared. And this they forced
not to doo, although the lord Edmund the kings sonne laie in Warwike,
to cut them short of such their licentious doings. The king therfore
mening to haue the said castels of Killingworth by force, began his
siege about the same vpon the éeuen of S. Iohn Baptist. But the lord
Henrie Hastings, the capteine of that castell, and other his complices
defended it so stronglie, that though the king inforced his power to
the vttermost to win it of them, yet could he not anie thing preuaile,
till at length vittels began to faile them within, and then vpon
the éeuen of saint Thomas the apostle before Christmasse, the lord
Henrie Hastings deliuered the said castell into the kings hands, vpon
condition that he and all other should haue life and limme, horsse
and armour, with all things within the place to them belonging. And
thus this siege had continued from the 26 of Iune vnto the 20 day of
December.

[Sidenote: Dictum de Killingworth.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

[Sidenote: 1267.]

[Sidenote: A parlement at Westminster.]

[Sidenote: Earle Ferrers disherited.]

¶ Here is to be remembred, that at the beginning of the siege, there
were within the castell a thousand and seuen hundred armed men, and
eight score women, beside lackies and coisterels. Here is also to be
remembred, that whilest the siege laie before Killingworth, by the
aduise of the kings councell, and of the legat Othobone, there were
twelue péeres appointed and chosen foorth, which should deuise and
make ordinances touching the state of the realme, and the disherited
persons, who according to their commission, ordeined certeine
prouisions, the which are conteined within the statute intitled Dictum
de Killingworth. The king after that the castell of Killingworth
was deliuered to his hand, left therein his sonne Edmund, and went
himselfe to Couentrie or (as other haue) to Oxford, and there held his
Christmasse. Shortlie after comming to Westminster he held a parlement
there, studieng to set a quietnesse in all matters and controuersies
depending betwixt him and the barons. In this parlement sentence was
giuen against earle Ferrers for the forfeiture of his earledome: then
was Edmund the kings yoonger sonne put in possession both of the
earledome of Darbie and Leicester.

[Sidenote: The earle of Glocester with an armie commeth to London.]

On the sixt of Februarie being sundaie, the king came to S.
Edmundsburie, and staieng there till the two and twentith of the same
moneth, set foreward that day towards Cambridge, where he laie with
his armie, the better to bridle them that kept the Ile of Elie against
him. He laie there all the Lent season. And in the meane time the earle
of Glocester taking great displeasure, for that he might not haue his
will, as well for the banishing of strangers, as for restitution to be
made vnto the disherited men of their lands, he began a new sturre,
and assembling a great power in the marshes of Wales came néere vnto
London, pretending at the first as though he had come to aid the king,
at length he got licence of the maior and citizens to passe through the
citie into Southwarke, where he lodged with his people, and thither
came to him shortlie sir Iohn d'Euille, by Southerie side, bringing
with him a great companie.

[Sidenote: The legat admonisheth the earle of Glocester to obeie the
king.]

The maior caused the bridge and water side to be kept and watched both
day and night with armed men, and euerie night was the drawbridge
drawne vp: but within a while the earle vsed the matter so, that he
was permitted to lodge within the citie with certeine of his men, by
reason whereof, he drew more and more of his people into the citie, so
that in the end he was maister of the citie, and in Easter wéeke tooke
the keies of the bridge into his hands. The legat comming foorth of the
towre, repaired to the church of S. Paule, vnder a colour to preach the
croisey, but in the end of that his exhortation, he turned his words
to the earle of Glocester, admonishing him to obeie the king as he
was bound by his allegiance. And further, whereas the earle had giuen
commandement that no victuals should be suffered to be brought into the
tower where the popes legat was lodged, he thought himselfe euill vsed
in that behalfe, sith he was a mediator for peace, and no partaker.
But when the earle séemed to giue small regard to his words, he got
him secretlie againe into the tower, with certeine noble men the kings
fréends, meaning to defend it vnto the vttermost of their powers.

[Sidenote: The legat & other meane to defend the tower against the
earle of Glocester.]

[Sidenote: The citizens of London in vprore chose new officers.]

[Sidenote: Prisoners set at libertie.]

There entred also into the tower a great number of Iewes with their
wiues and children, vnto whome one ward of the tower was committed to
defend, which they did in that necessitie verie stoutlie. Manie of
the citizens fearing a new insurrection, auoided out of the citie,
whose goods the earle seized into his owne vse, or suffered his men to
spoile the same at their pleasures. The most part of all the commons
of the citie tooke part with the earle, and in a tumult got them to
the Guildhall, and there chose for their maior or custos of the citie,
Richard de Colworth knight, and for bailiffes, Robert de Linton and
Roger Marshall, discharging the old maior and shiriffes of their
roomes. Diuerse aldermen were committed to prison, and their goods
sequestred, and much part thereof spoiled. Also all such persons as
were prisoners in Newgate, Ludgate, Creplegate, or in any other prison
about the citie, for the quarrell of the barons warre, were set at
libertie.

[Sidenote: The legat accurseth ye troublers of the kings peace.]

[Sidenote: The king laie at Cambridge.]

[Sidenote: Ramsey.]

The legat perceiuing such disorder, accurssed generallie all such as
thus troubled the kings peace, shewing themselues enimies to the king
and the realme. He also interdicted all the churches within the citie
and about it, licencing onlie diuine seruice to be said in houses of
religion, and without ringing of any bell or singing: and whilest
seruice was in hand, he appointed the church doores to be shut, bicause
none of them that stood accurssed, should enter and be present. The
king in the meane time laie at Cambridge to defend the countries about
from iniuries, which were dailie attempted by them that held the Ile
of Elie against him, of whome at one time he distressed a certeine
number at Ramsey. And bicause now after that the earle was thus come
to London, another companie of them brake out to rob and spoile, and
were stopped by the kings power from entring into the Ile againe, they
repaired streight to London, dooing mischéefe inough by the waie.

[Sidenote: The king maketh hard shift for monie to hire soldiers & men
of war to assist him.]

[Sidenote: The K. remooueth towards Windsore.]

[Sidenote: The king commeth to Stratford.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: _Matth. Westm._]

The earle of Glocester greatlie incouraged by their assistance, fell in
hand to assaile the tower, within the which the popes legat Othobone,
and diuerse other were inclosed, taking vpon them to defend it against
the earle and all his puissance. The king vpon the first newes of the
earle of Glocester his commotion, ingaged the shrines of saints, and
other iewels and relikes of the church of Westminster vnto certeine
merchants for great summes of monie, with the which sending into France
and Scotland, he reteined men of warre to come to his aid. Herevpon
his sonne prince Edward came to his succour vnto Cambridge, bringing
thither with him thirtie thousand able men out of the north parts,
Scots and other. The king then leauing a conuenient number to defend
Cambridge, marched from thence toward Windsore. After his comming
thither, his armie dailie increased. The earle of Glocester and his
complices began to feare the matter, and sent to him for peace, which
could not be granted: wherevpon they appointed to giue him batell vpon
Houndslow heath. The king comming thither in the morning, found no
man there to resist him, and therefore, after he had staied there a
certeine space, he marched foorth and came to Stratford, where he was
lodged in the abbeie: his host incamped and laie at Ham and therabouts.

[Sidenote: Westminster spoiled.]

[Sidenote: Soldiers sacked and throwen into the Thames.]

This chanced about thrée wéekes after Easter. The souldiers which laie
in London and in Southwarke, did much hurt about in the countrie of
Southerie, & else-where. They also spoiled the towne of Westminster,
and the parish-church there: but the moonks and the goods belonging
to the abbeie they touched not, but made hauocke in the kings palace,
drinking vp & destroieng his wine, breaking the glasse windowes, and
defacing the buildings most disorderlie, yea scarse forbearing to set
the house on fire. Also there were of them that brake vp & robbed
certeine houses in London, of the which misgouerned persons there were
foure taken, that ware the cognisance of the earle of Darbie, whome the
earle of Glocester caused to be put in sackes, and so throwne into the
Thames.

[Sidenote: The earles of Bullongne & S. Paule.]

[Sidenote: A fléet of Gascoins come to the kings aid.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: A peace concluded.]

[Sidenote: The Londoners pardoned.]

As the king thus laie at Stratford, there came vnto him from the parts
of beyond the sea, the earle of Bullongne, and S. Paule, with two
hundred men of armes, and their suit of other souldiers. Also there
ariued in the Thames a fléet of great vessels fraught with Gascoins,
and laie afore the tower, abiding the kings pleasure. ¶ The earle of
Glocester had caused bulworks and barbicans to be made betwixt the
tower and the citie; and also in sundrie places where néed required
ditches and trenches were cast, so that the citie was stronglie
fortified. Howbeit now that the said erle and his complices perceiued
themselues in manner as besieged, they sought for peace. And by
mediation of the king of Almaine, the lord Philip Basset and the legat
Othobone, the same was granted, the ordinance of Killingworth in euerie
condition obserued. The Londoners were pardoned of their trespasse for
receiuing the earle, though they were constreined to paie a thousand
marks to the king of Romans, in recompense of the hurts doone to him in
burning of his house at Thistleworth.

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dun._]

[Sidenote: Buderesch.]

[Sidenote: The lord Graie.]

Whilest the earle of Glocester kept the citie of London against the
king, one Henrie de Guderesch, steward to the said earle, departing
from London, came to the manour house of Geffrey saint Leger at Offeld,
which he burnt, and turning from thence came to Brickhill. The lord
Reignold Graie that held of the knights part, aduertised hereof,
followed him with his retinue of men of warre, and comming vpon his
enimie at vnwares, tooke the said Henrie, and slue thirtie of the
chéefest of his companie, some he tooke, howbeit manie escaped. But
now to our purpose. By this agréement concluded betwixt the king &
the earle of Glocester, he also accepted to his grace the lord Iohn
Eineley, the lord Nicholas de Segraue, the lord William Marmion, the
lord Richard de Graie, the lord Iohn Fitz Iohn, and the lord Gilbert
de Lucie, with others: so that all parts of the realme were quieted,
sauing that those in the Isle of Elie would not submit themselues: yet
at length by mediation of prince Edward they were reconciled to the
king, and all the fortresses and defenses within that Isle by them
made, were plucked downe and destroied.

[Sidenote: _Euersden._]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 52.]

But it appeareth by other writers, that immediatlie after the agréement
concluded betwixt the earle of Glocester, prince Edward the kings
sonne, by setting workemen in hand to make a caussie through the
fens with boords and hurdels, entred vpon them that kept the Ile of
Elie, so that manie of them got out, and fled to London vnto the said
earle of Glocester, and other their complices. The residue submitted
themselues, as the lord Wake, Simon Montfort the yoonger, the Pechées
and other, vpon condition to be pardoned of life and member: and
further, that prince Edward should be a meane to his father to receiue
them into fauour. But by other it may rather séeme, that some of them
kept and defended themselues within that Ile, till after the agréement
made betwixt the king and the earle of Glocester. By order of which
agréement there were foure bishops and eight lords chosen foorth, which
had béene first nominated at Couentrie, to order and prescribe betwixt
the king and the disherited men a forme of peace and redemption of
their lands. And so in the feast of All saints, proclamation was made
of a full accord and agréement, and what euerie man should paie for his
ransome for redéeming his offense against the king.

[Sidenote: A parlement at Marleborough.]

[Sidenote: 1268.]

[Sidenote: The legat Othobone returneth to Rome. Othobone chosen as
pope.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

In the octaues of S. Martine, the king held a parlement at
Marleborough, where the liberties conteined in the booke called Magna
charta were c[=o]firmed, and also diuerse other good and wholesome
ordinances concerning the state of the common-wealth were established
and enacted. ¶ In the moneth of Aprill there chanced great thunder,
tempestuous raine, and flouds, occasioned by the same, verie sore &
horrible, continuing for the space of fiftéene daies togither. The
legat Othobone, after he had in the synods holden at Northampton and
London, deuised and made manie orders and rules for churchmen, and
leuied amongst them great summes of monie, finallie in the moneth of
Iulie, he tooke leaue of the king and returned to Rome, where after the
deceasse of Innocent the fift, about the yeare of our Lord 1276 he was
chosen pope, and named Adrian the fift, liuing not past 5 daies after.
He went so néere hand to search out things at his going awaie, that
he had inrolled the true value of all the churches and benefices in
England, and tooke the note with him to Rome.

[Sidenote: Prince Edward receiueth the crosse.]

[Sidenote: _Fabian._]

[Sidenote: A fraie in L[=o]don betwéene the goldsmiths and tailors.]

Prince Edward the kings sonne, and diuerse other great lords of England
before this legats departure out of the realme, receiued the crosse
at his hands in Northampton on Midsummer day, meaning shortlie after
according to promise there made, to go into the holie hand to warre
against Gods enimies. In this yeare fell great variance betwéene the
corporations or fellowships of the goldsmiths and tailors within the
citie of London, wherevnto euill words flowing from the toong gaue
originall, for

    Pondus valde graue verbosum vas sine claue,

so that one euening there were assembled to the number of fiue hundred
in the stréets in armour, and running togither made a fowle fraie, so
that manie were wounded and some slaine. But the shiriffes hearing
thereof, came & parted them, with assistance of other trades, and
sent diuerse of them being taken vnto prison, of the which there were
arreigned to the number of thirtie, and thirtéene of them condemned and
hanged.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 53.]

[Sidenote: Thames frosen.]

[Sidenote: 1269.]

In the fiftie & third yeare of king Henries reigne, there was such an
excéeding great frost, beginning at saint Andrewes tide, and continuing
till it was néere candlemasse, that the Thames from the bridge
vpwards was so hard frosen, that men and beasts passed ouer on féet
from Lambeth to Westminster, and so westward in diuerse places vp to
Kingston. Also merchandize was brought from Sandwich and other places
vnto London by land. For the ships by reason of the yce could not enter
the Thames. ¶ And about the feast of S. Vedast, which falleth on the 6
of Februarie, fell so great abundance of raine, that the Thames rose
so high, as it had not doone at any time before, to remembrance of men
then liuing: so that the cellars and vaults in London by the water side
were drowned, and much merchandize marred & lost.

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: A parlement holden at London.]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward appointeth the maior and shiriffes of London.]

About S. Georges day there was a parlement holden at London, for
the appeasing of a controuersie depending betwixt prince Edward the
kings son and the earle of Glocester: at the which parlement were
present almost all the prelats and péeres of the realme. At length
they put the matter in compromise, into the hands of the king of
Almaine, vndertaking to be ordered by him high and low touching all
controuersies: and likewise for the iournie to be made into the holie
land, but the king of Almaine did little in the matter to any great
effect. ¶ In the beginning of Lent the king gaue to his sonne prince
Edward the rule of the citie of London, with all the reuenues and
profits thereto belonging. After which gift, the said prince made
sir Hugh Fitz Othon constable of the towre and custos of the citie
of London. ¶ Vpon the ninth day of Aprill, Edmund the kings sonne,
surnamed Crouchbacke, married at Westminster Auelina the daughter of
the earle of Aumarle. Prince Edward commanded the citizens of London to
present vnto him six citizens, of the which number he might nominate
two shiriffes, and so appointed William de Hadstocke and Anketill de
Alberne, which were sworne to be accomptants as their predecessours had
béene.

[Sidenote: An aid granted to the king.]

[Sidenote: The liberties of the citie confirmed.]

[Sidenote: The rent of the farme of the shiriffes of London increased.]

[Sidenote: _Chron. Dunst._]

In those daies a new custome or toll was vsed to be paid, which prince
Edward let to farme vnto certeine strangers, for the summe of twentie
marks by yeare. Wherefore the citizens being gréeued therewith, bought
it of him for two hundred marks. Also this yeare there was granted to
the king towards his iournie by him purposed into the holie land, the
twentith penie of euerie mans mooueable goods thoroughout the realme
of the laie fée, and of the spiritualtie was granted by the assent of
pope Gregorie the tenth, thrée dismes to be gathered within the terme
of thrée yeares. This yeare the kings sonne the lord Edward obteined
a confirmation for the citie of London of the charter of the ancient
liberties, so that the citizens did then choose vnto them a maior and
two shiriffes, which shiriffes by vertue of the same charter, had their
office to farme, in maner as before time was accustomed: sauing that
where they paid afore but thrée hundred and fiftie pounds, they paid
now foure hundred and fiftie pounds. After which confirmation granted
and passed vnder the kings broad seale, they chose for their maior Iohn
Adrian, and for shiriffes Walter Potter and Iohn Tailor, the which were
presented the 16 day of Iulie vnto the king at Westminster by his sonne
prince Edward, and there admitted and sworne. Then was sir Hugh Fitz
Othon discharged of the rule of the citie. The citizens of their owne
fréewill gaue vnto the king an hundred marks, and to his sonne prince
Edward fiue hundred markes. There was no great disorder attempted this
yeare to the disquieting of the realme, sauing that certeine of the
disherited gentlemen that belonged to the earle of Darbie, withdrew
vnto the forrest of the Peake in Darbishire, and there making their
abode, spoiled and wasted the countries next adioining.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 54.]

[Sidenote: 1270.]

[Sidenote: _Wil. Risham._]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward setteth forward towards the holie land.]

[Sidenote: _Matth. West._]

[Sidenote: The king sick.]

In the moneth of Maie, prince Edward the kings sonne set forward on his
iournie towards the holie land, and taking the sea at Douer, passed
ouer into France, and came to Burdeaux, where he staied a while, and
after went to Agues Mortes, and there tooke shipping, first sailing
(as some write) vnto Thunis, where the christian armie, which Lewes
the French king as then deceassed had brought thither, was readie to
depart, and so prince Edward, with the new French king Lewes and other
princes passed ouer into Sicill, where he soiourned for the winter
time. In this yeare the king was vexed with a gréeuous sicknesse: and
the Irishmen in rebellion slue a great sort of Englishmen, as well
magistrats as others in that countrie.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 55.]

[Sidenote: 1271.]

[Sidenote: Prince Edward arriueth at Acres.]

[Sidenote: _Abington._]

[Sidenote: Arsacide, of some named Assassini. Prince Edw. is
traitorouslie wounded.]

When the spring of the yeare began to approach, prince Edward eftsoones
tooke the sea, and finallie arriued at Acres with a thousand chosen men
of warre, though there be writers that affirme, how there arriued with
him of sundrie countries fiue thousand horsemen, and double the same
number of footmen. But amongst those that went out of England with him,
these we find as principall, Iohn de Britaine, Iohn de Vescie, Otes de
Grantson, and Robert de Bruse, besides other. Of his noble chiualrie
there atchiued, yée shall find a bréefe note in the description of the
holie land, and therefore here we omit the same. Howbeit this is to be
remembred, that whilest the lord Edward soiorned there in the citie of
Acres, he was in great danger to haue béene slaine by treason: for a
traitorous Saracen of that generation which are called Arsacidæ, and
latelie reteined by the same lord Edward, and become verie familiar
with him, found means one day as he sat in his chamber, to giue him
thrée wounds, which suerlie had cost him his life, but that one of the
princes chamberleins staied the traitors hand, and somewhat brake the
strokes, till other seruants came to the rescue, and slue him there in
the place.

[Sidenote: Part Iapha.]

[Sidenote: The generation of the Arsacide, or Assassins.]

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 56]

¶ There be that write, how prince Edward himselfe, perceiuing the
traitor to strike at his bellie, warded the blowe with his arme: and as
the Saracen offered to haue striken againe, he thrust him backe to the
ground with his foot, and catching him by the hand, wrested the knife
from him, and thrusting him into the bellie, so killed him, though in
strugling with him, he was hurt againe a little in the forhead: and
his seruants withall comming to helpe him, one of them that was his
musician, got vp a trestill and stroke out the braines of the traitor,
as he laie dead on the ground, and was blamed of his master for
striking him, after he saw him once dead before his face, as he might
perceiue him to be. Some write, that this traitor was sent from the
great admerall of Iapha, on message to the prince Edward, and had béene
with him diuerse times before, & now making countenance to take forth
letters, got foorth his knife, and attempted so to haue wrought his
feat. Whatsoeuer the man was, the prince was in great danger, by reason
of the enuenimed knife wherewith he was wounded, so that it was long
yer he could be perfectlie whole. These Saracens called Arsacidæ, are a
wicked generation of men, infected with such a superstitious opinion,
that they beléeue heauenlie blisse is purchased of them, if they can
by anie means slea one of the enimies of their religion, & suffer
themselues for that fact the most cruell death that may be deuised.
¶ Prince Edward, after he was whole and recouered of his wounds,
perceiuing that no such aid came into these parts out of christendome,
as was looked for, tooke a truce with the enimies of our faith, and
returned towards England, as hereafter shall be shewed.

[Sidenote: 1272.]

[Sidenote: _Nic. Triuet._]

[Sidenote: _Matt. West._]

[Sidenote: The decease of the king of Almaine.]

[Sidenote: His issue.]

[Sidenote: Edmund, erle of Cornewall.]

On the fourth nones of Aprill (as some saie) or in the moneth of
Februarie (as other write) in the six and fiftith yeare of K. Henries
reigne at Berkhamstéed, died Richard king of Almaine and earle of
Cornewall, and was buried in the abbeie of Hailes which he himselfe had
founded: he was a worthie prince, and stood his brother king Henrie
in great stead; in handling matters both in peace and warre. He left
behind him issue begotten of his wife Sanctla two sonnes, Edmund and
Henrie. This Edmund was he that brought the blood of Hailes out of
Germanie: for as he was there vpon a time with his father, it chanced
that as he was beholding the relikes, and other pretious monuments
of the ancient emperors, he espied a box of gold: by the inscription
whereof he perceiued (as the opinion of men then gaue) that therein was
conteined a portion of the bloud of our sauiour.

[Sidenote: The blood of Hailes.]

[Sidenote: Ashrug abbeie built.]

[Sidenote: Bonhommes.]

He therefore, being desirous to haue some part thereof, so intreated
him that had the kéeping of it, that he obteined his desire, and
brought it ouer with him into England, bestowing a third part thereof
after his fathers deceasse in the abbeie of Hailes, as it were to
adorne and inrich the same, bicause that therein both his father and
mother were buried; and the other two parts he did reserue in his owne
custodie, till at length mooued vpon such deuotion as was then vsed;
he founded an abbeie a little from his manour of Berkhamstéed: which
abbeie was named Ashrug, in the which he placed moonks of the order of
Bonhommes, being the first that euer had béene séene of that order here
in England. And herewith he also assigned the two other parts of that
bloud to the same abbeie. Wherevpon followed great resort of people to
those two places, induced therevnto by a certeine blind deuotion.

[Sidenote: The L. Henrie sonne to the K. of Almaine murdered in
Italie.]

[Sidenote: Robert Kilwarbie archbh. of C[=a]turburie.]

Henrie the brother of this Edmund, and sonne to the foresaid king of
Almaine, as he returned from Affrike, where he had béene with prince
Edward, was slaine at Viterbo in Italie (whither he was come about
businesse which he had to doo with the pope) by the hand of Guie de
Montfort, the sonne of Simon de Montfort earle of Leicester, in reuenge
of the same Simons death. This murther was committed afore the high
altar, as the same Henrie knéeled there to heare diuine seruice. The
foresaid Guie vpon that murther committed, fled vnto his father in law,
the earle of Anguilare, then gouernour of Tuskain. There was at Viterbo
the same time Philip king of France, returning homewards from the
iournie which his father made into Affrike, where he died. Also Charles
king of Sicill was there present, whome the said Guie then serued. Both
those kings were put in much blame, for that the murther and wilfull
escape was doone and suffred in their presence and no pursuit made
after the murtherer. Boniface the archbishop of Canturburie, when he
had ruled the sea seauen and thirtie yeares, departed this life: and
after his deceasse, about two yeares or more, was one Robert Kilwarbie
appointed in his place by pope Gregorie, which Robert was the six and
fortith archbishop that had gouerned the sée of Canturburie.

[Sidenote: A fraie betwixt the moonks and citizens of Norwich.]

[Sidenote: Thirtie of the citizens of Norwich hanged and burnt.]

About the moneth of Iune there fell great debate and discord betwixt
the moonks of Norwich and the citizens there; which increased so
farre, that at length the citizens with great violence assaulted the
monasterie, fired the gates, and forced the fire so with réed and drie
wood, that the church with the bookes, and all other ornaments of the
same, and all houses of office belonging to that abbeie were cleane
burned, wasted, and destroied, so that nothing was preserued except
one little chapell. The king hearing of this riot, rode to Norwich,
and causing inquirie to be made thereof, thirtie yoong men of the
citie were condemned, hanged and burnt, to the great gréefe of the
other citizens, for they thought that the priour of the place was the
occasion of all that mischéefe, who had got togither armed men, and
tooke vpon him to kéepe the belfraie and church by force of armes:
but the prior was well inough borne out, and defended by the bishop
of Norwich, named Roger, who (as it is likelie) was the maister of
the mischéefe, though hands were not laid vpon him nor his adherents:
perhaps for feare, peraduenture for fauour; & no maruell though the
lesse faultie lost their liues as most guiltie, for

    ----rarus venator ad vrsos
    Accedit, tutos conseruat sylua leones,
    Debilibus robusta nocent, & grandia paruis,
    Ales fulminiger timidos infestat olores,
    Accipiter laniat turdos mollésq; columbas,
    Versicolor coluber ranas miserásq; lacertas,
    Irretit muscas transmittit aranea vespas.

[Sidenote: A iusts and tornie holden at Chalons.]

The king returning by saint Edmundsburie, after he had doone his
deuotions to S. Edmunds shrine, began to waxe somewhat crasie: but
after hauing a little recouered his health, he called a councell
there, wherein he went about to haue taken order for the punishment of
rebels: but his sicknesse againe renewing, he brake vp the assemblie,
and with all spéed hasted to London. Prince Edward vpon his returne
out of the holie land came to Chalons in Burgogne, & at the request of
the earle he did attempt with his companie panic to hold a iustes and
tournie against the said earle & all other commers. And though through
disdaine and spite there was homelie plaie shewed, vpon purpose to put
the Englishmen to the foile & reproch; yet by high valiancie prince
Edward and his companie bare themselues so worthilie, that in the end
the aduersaries were well beaten, and constreined to leaue the honor
of that enterprise to the said prince Edward and his partakers. After
this, he kept on his iornie till he came vnto Paris, where he was
honourablie receiued of the French king, and from thence he went to
Burdeaux, and there remained till after his fathers death.

[Sidenote: An. Reg. 57.]

[Sidenote: King Henrie departeth this life.]

[Sidenote: The earle of Glocester.]

[Sidenote: The issue of king Henrie the third.]

In this meane time king Henrie, being returned to London from saint
Edmundsburie (as before yée haue heard) his sicknesse so increased
vpon him, that finallie he departed at Westminster on the sixtéenth
day of Nouember, in the yeare of our Sauiour 1272, after he had liued
thréescore and fiue yeares, and reigned fiftie and six yeares, and
seauen and twentie daies. A little before his death, when he perceiued
that he could no longer liue, he caused the earle of Glocester to
come before him, and to be newlie sworne to kéepe the peace of the
land, to the behoofe of his sonne prince Edward. His bodie was buried
at Westminster. He had issue by his wife quéene Elianor two sonnes,
the foresaid Edward, prince of Wales, that succéeded him; and Edmund
earle of Lancaster, by some authors surnamed Crouchbacke, though (as
other affirme vntrulie) that this Edmund was the elder brother: but
bicause he was a deformed person, therefore his yonger brother Edward
was preferred to the kingdome, which was deuised of purpose to conueie
a right to king Henrie the fourth, which fetched the descent from the
said Edmund, and by force vsurped and held the crowne, as after it
may appeare. Moreouer, king Henrie had thrée daughters by the said
Elianor, as Margaret maried to Alexander king of Scots, Beatrice whom
the duke of Britaine had to wife, and Catharine which died before she
was mariable.

[Sidenote: His proportion of bodie.]

[Sidenote: His conditi[=o].]

He was of bodie well cast and strong, of a good stature in heigth,
well fauoured of face, with the lid of one of his eies comming downe,
so as it almost couered the apple of the same eie. Of nature he was
courteous, and of stomach rather noble than stout; a deuout prince and
liberall towards the poore and néedie. Yet he wanted not dispraise
in some points, namelie for that in ordering of things and weightie
affaires, he vsed small consideration. He was also noted to be a great
taker of monie by loanes, taxes, and subsidies: but therevnto he was
inforced by necessitie, to beare the charges of warre and other publike
affaires, than of any couetous mind or purpose to serue his owne turne.
¶ What capteins of honour among the nobilitie liued in his time, it may
appeare by the course of the historie of his age.

Of sundrie learned men these we find mentioned in maister Bales
centuries and others. Walter of Couentrie an historiographer: Radulphus
Niger that wrote both histories and other treatises, Geruasius de
Melkelie, Albricius of London, Robert Curson a man excellentlie learned
both in diuine and humaine letters, so that comming to the court of
Rome he there grew in such estimation, that he became a cardinall, of
whom we find this recorded by Matthew Westminster and Matthew Paris.
[At the taking of Damiate, a citie in Aegypt, there was with Pelagius,
the cardinall of Alba, the popes legat, master Robert Curson an
Englishman a most famous clerke, borne of a noble house, and cardinall
of the church of Rome.] These are reported to florish in the daies both
of king Iohn and king Henrie his sonne.

In the said kings time also there liued other learned men, as these;
Hugh Kirkestéed, Richard of Elie, Peter Henham, Iohn Giles or de Sancto
Egidio an excellent physician, Caducan a Welshman borne and bishop
of Bangor, Alexander a singular learned man that wrote diuerse and
manie treatises as well in diuinitie as philosophie and humanitie,
both in verse and prose; also Stephan Langton, that for his singular
knowledge was made high chancellor of the vniuersitie of Paris, and
at length was admitted archbishop of Canturburie, against the will of
king Iohn, in which quarell so great trouble insued, as before yée
haue partlie heard; Rafe Coggeshall also liued in king Henries daies,
that wrote the appendix vnto the chronicle of Ralfe Niger, he was
abbat of Coggeshall abbeie in Essex, whereof he tooke his surname:
William Lanthonie, Peter of S. Sauior, a canon of the house called S.
Sauior, or of the trinitie by London; Alexander Hailes a frier of the
order of the minors, who wrote manie treatises in diuinitie; Richard
surnamed Medicus a most learned physician, and no lesse expert in
philosophie and the mathematicals. There be also remembred by maister
Bale, Randulfe the earle of Chester, the third and last of that name,
who hauing great knowledge and vnderstanding in the lawes of this land,
compiled a booke of the same lawes, as a witnesse of his great skill
therein: Alexander Wendocke bishop of Chester, Iohn Blund, Edmund Rich,
Robert Rich, Henrie Bracton, that excellent lawier, who wrote the booke
commonlie called Bracton after his name, intituled De consuetudinibus
Angiicanis; Richard surnamed Theologus, Walter de Euesham, Ralfe
Fresborne, Laurence Somercote, brother as it is thought to Robert
Somercote, at that time a cardinall of the Romane church; Nicholas
Fernham a physician, Robert Bacon a notable diuine, Simon Langton,
brother to the archbishop of Canturburie Stephan Langton; Richard
Fisaker, Simon Stokes, Iohn of Kent or Kantianus, William Shirwood,
Michaell Blaunpaine, Iohn Godard, Vincent of Couentrie, Alberike Véer,
Richard Wich, Iohn Basing aliàs de Basingstoke, Roger Waltham, William
Seningham, Robert Crosted that learned bishop of Lincolne, whose
memorie amongst the learned will remaine while the world lasteth.

Thus farre Henrie the third.



    Transcriber's Notes:


    Simple spelling, grammar, and typographical errors were
    corrected.

    Punctuation normalized.

    Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed
    except as noted below.

    The author's usage of accents was inconsistent. Specifically
    accented "ée" is far more prevalent than "ee" even for the same
    word. Changed all instances of "ee" to "ée"

    Italics markup is enclosed in _underscores_.

    P. 341 footnote is actually "Sée pag." in the original. As it
    doesn't appear cutoff this must have been a typo by omission.

                     Symbols for Diacritical Marks
        (In the table below, the "x" represents a letter with a
                          diacritical mark.)
  diacritical mark             sample      above        below
  macron (straight line)         ¯         [=x]         [x=]





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