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Title: North Dakota - A Guide to the Northern Prairie State
Author: Various
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                         AMERICAN GUIDE SERIES

                             NORTH DAKOTA


      _Written by Workers of the Federal Writers' Project of the
     Works Progress Administration for the State of North Dakota_




                        KNIGHT PRINTING COMPANY
                          FARGO, NORTH DAKOTA


                    Harry L. Hopkins, Administrator
              Ellen S. Woodward, Assistant Administrator
         Henry G. Alsberg, Director, Federal Writers' Project


As Governor of the State of North Dakota, I am happy to write the
foreword to the first comprehensive guidebook that has ever been
written for this State. Compiled by North Dakota writers, the
publication of this book has been made possible by means of Federal and
State funds. The importance of this book lies, not only in calling the
attention of tourists and other outsiders to the picturesque scenery
and the places of historical significance in North Dakota; but in
awakening the consciousness of North Dakota people to the historical,
sociological, and cultural heritage which is theirs.

                               (Signed) WILLIAM LANGER,
                                              Governor of North Dakota.


_North Dakota: a Guide to the Northern Prairie State_ is something new
in this part of the country. For the first time North Dakotans and
their guests have a concise but comprehensive survey of the State,
which tells them what should be seen, and why, and how. Our aim has
been a book not only to be used in touring the State, but to be enjoyed
by fireside travellers and all who would deepen their understanding of
North Dakota.

As one of the volumes in the American Guide Series, written by
the members of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress
Administration, the North Dakota guide has more than State
significance, wide as this is. The National project was designed
primarily to give useful employment to needy writers and research
workers; it has developed into a more ambitious undertaking. The
American Guide Series, covering the forty-eight States, Puerto Rico,
Alaska, and numerous cities and towns, is unrolling a unique and
inspiring panorama of these United States with their lively background
and their vibrant present. The North Dakota guide adds its contribution
to the whole, giving the reader a picture of the State, its land and
resources, its history, people, the cities and towns they have built,
and the principal points of interest. New chapters in North Dakota's
story and other phases of its life and works are still to be told. This
volume--a pioneer enterprise in a State where the records of the past
and the varied life of today had not heretofore been assembled--may
well serve as an incentive and a foundation for further books.

Not ten or fifty or a hundred, but actually hundreds of North Dakotans
helped in the making of the guide, from the many who contributed
information about their own communities or fields of work down to the
handful of editors and writers who brought that information within the
covers of this book. In expressing the Project's appreciation of this
friendly and cooperative help, so generously given, I wish particularly
to thank Mr. Russell Reid, superintendent of the State Historical
Society of North Dakota, and his staff, especially Mrs. Florence
H. Davis and Mr. Arnold Goplen; Mr. George Will and Mr. Robert A.
Ritterbush, of Bismarck; Dr. Irvin Lavine, of the University of North
Dakota; Mr. E. A. Milligan, of Michigan City; Mr. J. A. Patterson, of
Minot; Dr. E. C. Stucke, of Garrison; and Mr. Henry Williams, of Appam.

                                             ETHEL SCHLASINGER
                                                _State Director_


  FOREWORD                                                             v

  By William Langer, Governor of North Dakota

  PREFACE                                                            vii

  By Ethel Schlasinger, State Director, Federal Writers' Project

  ILLUSTRATIONS AND MAPS                                            xiii

  GENERAL INFORMATION                                                 xv

  ANNUAL EVENTS                                                      xix


  CONTEMPORARY NORTH DAKOTA                                            3

  NORTH DAKOTA: ITS NATURAL SETTING                                    5

  INDIANS AND THEIR PREDECESSORS                                      16

  HISTORY                                                             35

  AGRICULTURE AND FARM LIFE                                           59

  INDUSTRY AND LABOR                                                  72

  RACIAL GROUPS AND FOLKWAYS                                          78

  SCHOOLS, CHURCHES, AND SOCIAL CURRENTS                              88

  TRANSPORTATION                                                      95

  PRESS AND RADIO                                                     99

  ARCHITECTURE                                                       102

  RECREATION                                                         106


  (_City Descriptions and Points of Interest_)

  Bismarck                                                           111

  Fargo                                                              126

  Grand Forks                                                        145

  Minot                                                              158


  Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park                                    169

  Roosevelt Regional State Parks                                     173


  TOUR 1 Canadian Line (Winnipeg) to South Dakota Line
  (Watertown). US 81                                                 185

  1A Mayville to Hatton. ND 7 & 18                                   200

  2 Canadian Line (Brandon) to South Dakota Line
  (Aberdeen). ND 4 & US 281                                          202

  3 Canadian Line (Virden) to South Dakota Line
  (Pierre). US 83                                                    207

  3A Garrison to Stanley. ND 37 & 8, unnumbered roads                211

  3B Junction US 83 to Junction US 10. Unnumbered
  roads                                                              215

  4 Canadian Line (Moosejaw) to South Dakota Line
  (Belle Fourche). US 85                                             218

  4A Hanks to Writing Rock State Park. ND 50 and unnumbered
  roads                                                              225

  4B New England to Flasher. ND 21                                   228

  5 Hamilton to Montana Line (Scobey). ND 5                          232

  5A Junction ND 5 to Leroy. ND 32 & 55, unnumbered
  road                                                               243

  6 Minnesota Line (Duluth) to Montana Line (Glasgow).
  US 2                                                               247

  6A Circular tour from Devils Lake. ND 20 & 27, Indian
  Service Roads                                                      263

  6B Junction US 2 to Fort Buford State Park. Unnumbered
  road                                                               269

  7 Carrington to Canadian Line (Estevan). US 52                     272

  8 Minnesota Line (Minneapolis) to Montana Line
  (Glendive). US 10                                                  277

  8A Valley City to South Dakota Line (Aberdeen). ND 1               303

  8B Dazey to Junction US 2. ND 1 & 7                                308

  8C Mandan to South Dakota Line (McLaughlin). ND
  6, 21, & 24                                                        312

  8D Junction US 10 to Junction US 85. ND 25                         318

  9 South Dakota Line (McIntosh) to Montana Line
  (Miles City). US 12                                                323

  10 Medora to Bismarck. Little Missouri and Missouri
  Rivers                                                             328

  CHRONOLOGY                                                         339

  BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                       345

  INDEX                                                              361


  Ring-billed Gulls
  A Modern Indian
  Scaffold Burial, Formerly Used by Some Indian Tribes
                                               _between pages 44 and 45_

  Ancient Indian Turtle Effigy
  Sioux Sun Dance as Originally Performed
  A Modern Sioux Sun Dance Ceremonial
  North Dakota In 1879, From an Old Map of Dakota Territory
                                               _between pages 76 and 77_

  Gen. George A. Custer
  Sitting Bull
  Battle of the Badlands
  A "Little Old Sod Shanty" of Early Days
  State Capitol, Bismarck
  Reviving a Norwegian Folkdance, Esmond, N. Dak.
                                             _between pages 108 and 109_

  An Early School (Oliver County, 1885)
  Administration Building, Agricultural College, Fargo
  Sakakawea, Bismarck
                                             _between pages 140 and 141_

  A Red River Valley Wheatfield
                                             _between pages 172 and 173_

  Law Building, University, Grand Forks
  Roosevelt Monument, Minot
                                             _between pages 204 and 205_

  Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park, Blockhouse of Fort McKeen
  Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park, Slant Indian Village Lodge
  Marquis de Mores
                                             _between pages 236 and 237_

  Rabbit's Ears Near Amidon
  Grand Canyon of the Little Missouri
                                             _between pages 268 and 269_

  Lignite Strip Mining, Velva
  Arikara Woman Pounding Cherries
  Writing Rock Near Grenora
  Lake Upsilon, Turtle Mountains
  Buffalo, Sully's Hill National Game Preserve
                                             _between pages 332 and 333_

  Barnes County Courthouse, Valley City
  Sioux Camp Gathering, Fort Yates Agency
  Sioux Tipis
  Sioux Hoop Dance
  Magpie Rock, Killdeer Mountains
                                             _between pages 340 and 341_


  North Dakota State Map                               Inside back cover

  North Dakota Key Map to Tours                       Inside front cover

  Bismarck                                                           112

  Fargo                                                              127

  Grand Forks                                                        146

  Minot                                                              159


(See State map for routes of highways, railroads, and air lines.)

=Railroads:= Chicago & North Western Ry. (Northwestern); Chicago,
Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific R. R. (Milwaukee); Farmers' Grain &
Shipping Company (Farmers' Line); Great Northern Ry. (G. N.); Midland
Continental R. R. (Midland); Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie
Ry. (Soo); Northern Pacific Ry. (N. P.). Main line of N. P. runs almost
directly E. to W. across the State. Main line of G. N. runs N., then
W., while cut-off runs in northwesterly direction. Soo line runs SE. to

=Highways:= Eight Federal highways, seven of them transcontinental or
with international connections. Inspection at international border.
State highway patrol checks violations of State highway laws and
enforces regulations. Gasoline tax, 3c.

=Motor Vehicle Laws= (digest): Maximum speed, 50 m.; on curves and
at intersections, 20 m.; approaching within 50 ft. of grade crossing
where view obstructed, 20 m.; on any highway in business or residence
district, 25 m.; passing school during recess or while children are
going to or leaving school, 20 m. Time limit for operation of car in
State by nonresident, 90 days. Hand signals must be used for a turn or
stop. Spotlights permitted. Personal injury or property damage ($50 or
over) must be reported to civil authorities.

=Prohibited:= Parking on highways; use of stickers, except those
required by law, on windshield or windows.

=Bus Lines:= Northland Greyhound Lines: Fargo via US 10 to Glendive,
Mont., Fargo via US 81 to Winnipeg. Minot-Crosby Bus Line: Minot to
Crosby via US 52 and ND 5. Checker Greyhound Lines: Noonan via ND 40 to
Regina, Saskatchewan. Studebaker Bus Line: Devils Lake to Jamestown via
US 281 and ND 19. Swanson Bus Line: Jamestown via US 281 to Aberdeen,
S. Dak. Carpenter Bus Line: Williston to Bowman and Hettinger via US
85, ND 25, ND 22, and US 12. Checker Transportation Co.: Fargo to Minot
via US 10, ND 18, ND 7, and US 52; also Fargo to Minot via US 10, ND
18, US 81, and US 2. Interstate Transportation Co.: Bismarck to Minot
via US 83, Minot to Williston via US 2, Minot to Portal via US 52,
Minot to Bismarck via US 52, ND 41, and US 83. Northern Transportation
Co.: Minot to Rolla via US 83 and ND 5, Minot to Watford City via US
83 and ND 23. N. T. Co.: Couteau to Northgate via ND 8 and US 52. Jack
Rabbit Lines: Fargo to Watertown, S. Dak. Triangle Transportation Co.:
Fargo to Grand Forks via US 81. Interstate Transit Co.: Williston to
Culbertson, Mont. via US 2.

=Air Lines:= Northwest Airlines: Chicago to Seattle (stop at Fargo
and Bismarck); Fargo to Winnipeg (stop at Pembina). Hanford Airlines:
Bismarck to Tulsa (stop at Bismarck).

=Airfields:= Forty-six landing fields. Lighted fields: A-1, Fargo and
Bismarck; intermediate, Valley City, Jamestown, Dawson, Glen Ullin,
Dickinson, Golva, Pembina.

=Customs Regulations:= Persons entering United States must report to
U. S. Immigration Office and U. S. Customs Office. Automobiles may be
brought into United States for 90 days without formal customs entry,
provided proper report is made at port of entry. If cars are to be kept
here more than 90 days, bond or deposit must be furnished, together
with guarantee of exportation of car within 6 months of importation.

Those entering Canada must report to Canadian immigration and customs
officers at point of entry. United States citizens should be prepared
to prove citizenship. Persons not citizens should be able to establish
that they are legally resident in the United States and that they will
be readmitted when returning to this country. Cars may be admitted
without charge to Canada for touring purposes and may be operated 60
days under State licenses; on request, period can be extended to 90
days. For period of 90 days to 6 months, bond or cash deposit must be
furnished. Cars returning to United States should be checked out by
Canadian customs officer at border.

=Accommodations:= Accommodations outside of cities and towns are
limited. Nearly every small town has a tourist camp. A few ranches in
the Badlands area accommodate tourists and have horses available for
riding trips. Accommodations at lake resorts offered only during the
summer months. Quarters at lake resorts crowded Fourth of July week.

=Sales and Cigarette Taxes:= Two percent sales tax on all purchases,
payable in cash. Tax of 3c per package of 20 cigarettes.

=Climate and Equipment:= Summer travelers should be prepared for
extremely warm weather. It is advisable, however, to have topcoats of
medium weight as evenings are generally cool. In spring and fall the
days are intermittently cool and warm, and topcoats are a necessity.
Persons unfamiliar with the Northwest should heed weather reports
and bulletins of the State highway department and dress as warmly as
possible during winter travel. What appears as a light flurry of snow
may in a few moments become a blizzard, blocking highways and making
travel impossible. Towns and farms are far apart; temperatures may
suddenly drop far below zero.

=Recreational Areas:= Turtle Mountain area (_Tour 5_): swimming,
fishing, boating, hiking, hunting. Roosevelt Regional State Parks:
riding, motoring, hiking. Sheyenne River Park (_Tour 1_): picnicking,
swimming, hiking; suitable in winter for skiing. Killdeer Mountain area
(_Side Tour 8D_): hiking, riding, picnicking. Turtle River State Park
(_Tour 6_): swimming, camping, picnicking. Large towns have ski and
toboggan slides, skating rinks.

=Fish and Game Laws:= Game fish are defined as black bass, wall-eyed
pike, northern pike, perch, sunfish, crappie, trout, and landlocked

=Open Season for Fishing= (dates inclusive): Bass, crappie, and
sunfish, June 16-Oct. 31; trout and landlocked salmon, May 2-Sept. 30;
pike, any species, and perch, May 16-Oct. 31. Governor has power to
shorten or close season.

=Licenses:= Resident, 50c, nonresident, $3. No license required of
persons under age of 12. Issued by game and fish commissioner, State
capitol, Bismarck, county auditors at county courthouses.

=Limits:= Bass, trout, and landlocked salmon, 5, nor more than 5 of
all combined; wall-eyed pike and northern pike, 10, nor more than 10
of both combined; crappie and sunfish, 15, nor more than 15 of both
combined; perch, 25. No bass, landlocked salmon, trout, or pike less
than 10 in.; no crappie less than 6 in.; no sunfish less than 5 in.
These limits daily; no person to have in possession more than 2-day

=Prohibited:= No use of drugs, lime, fish berries, or explosives.
Unlawful to take fish in any manner except by angling with hook and
line held in hand or attached to rod. (Commercial fishing allowed in
certain sections, under commercial license.)

=Open Season for Hunting:= Dates of hunting season for deer and game
birds vary from year to year as well as the areas where hunting is
allowed. Copy of hunting laws furnished with hunting license.

=Licenses:= Big game: resident, $5, nonresident, $50; hunting:
resident, $1.50, nonresident, $25. Aliens not permitted to hunt.
Licenses issued by game and fish commissioner, deputies, or county

=Limits:= Bass, trout, and landlocked salmon, 5, nor more than 5 of
breasted grouse, ruffed grouse (partridge), Chinese pheasant, Hungarian
partridge; 5 in the aggregate in a day, but number of each species
composing aggregate varies in certain counties; 10 ducks, 4 geese
including brant, 12 coots, and 10 jacksnipe a day. Not more than 1-day
bag of migratory game birds may be possessed at one time. Deer may be
possessed until 90 days after close of season.

Nonresident licensee may carry with him from State under license tag
a 2-day limit of game, if carried openly and labeled with his name,
address, and number of license.

=Camp Fires:= Any person leaving a fire without thoroughly
extinguishing it, so that it burns any wood or prairie, is guilty of a
misdemeanor punishable by fine, imprisonment, or both.

=Poisonous Snakes and Plants:= Rattlesnakes are rare, but are sometimes
found in the following areas: south of Bismarck in Missouri River
vicinity; western Emmons County, along Missouri; in valleys of Heart,
Little Missouri, and Cannonball Rivers; and in Badlands.

Anyone bitten by a rattlesnake should cut wound with a sharp knife and
suck the blood to remove poison. A tourniquet should be placed above
wound, and medical assistance sought at once.

Poison-ivy common in wooded areas. In June it bears loose clusters of
dull green-white blossoms, later in season replaced by glossy opaque
berries of similar color. Poison-ivy vines often are hidden in long
grass and in foliage.

To prevent irritation from contact with poison-ivy, before going into
woods bathe hands and face with a 5-percent solution of ferric chloride
in a half-and-half mixture of alcohol and water or glycerine and water.
If skin should come in contact with the plant, washing with one of
above solutions, or with laundry soap and warm water, is an excellent
treatment. Avoid spreading poison through scratching or rubbing.
Bathing affected areas in hot water will relieve irritation. If there
are open sores do not use sugar of lead or zinc oxide.

=Tourist Information Service:= General information about the
State furnished on request by the secretary, Greater North Dakota
Association, Fargo, N. Dak.


Listed here are events of general interest which occur annually in
North Dakota. Dates may vary from year to year, and should be verified.

                        (n f d = no fixed date)

Jan. 1         Fargo           Ice Carnival
     3rd wk    Fargo           Farmers and Homemakers Week,
                                 Agricultural College
     4th wk    Grand Forks     All-American Turkey Show
     n f d     Valley City     Ski Tournament
     n f d     Williston       Old Fiddlers Contest
     n f d     Varies          State Poultry Show

Feb. 21        Grand Forks     Carney Song Contest, University
     2nd wk    Grand Forks     Winter Sports Carnival
     2nd wk    Grand Forks     Hobby Show
     4th wk    Fort Totten
               Indian Agency   Midwinter Fair
     n f d     Devils Lake     Lake Region Sports Carnival
     n f d     Minot           Winter Sports Carnival
     n f d     Varies          State Class B High School Basketball

Mch. 17        Fessenden       Alfalfa Festival
     n f d     Bismarck        State Class A High School Basketball
     n f d     Park River      Midwinter Fair
     n f d     Park River      Ski Tournament

Apr. 4th Fri.  Grand Forks     Engineers' Day, University

May  17        State-wide      Norwegian Independence Day
     17        Fargo           Northwest Norwegian Whist Tournament
     30        Nishu (Old
               Fort Berthold)  Memorial Day Ceremony
     1st wk    Fargo           May Festival, Agricultural College
     2nd wk    Zap             Lignite Festival
     4th wk    Grand Forks     Interfraternity Sing, University
     n f d     Fargo  Lilac    Festival, Agricultural College
     n f d     Grand Forks     May Festival and High School Week,
     mid month Bismarck        State Art Exhibit, Capitol

June 24        St. John        St. John's Day
     29        Strasburg       SS. Peter and Paul's Day
     1st wk    Williston       Upper Missouri Band Tournament
     n f d     Devils Lake     Rhythm Pageant, Deaf School
     n f d     Devils Lake     Governor's Day, Camp Grafton
     n f d     Fargo           North Dakota State Fair
     n f d     Fargo           Valleyland Music Festival
     n f d     Grand Forks     North Dakota State Fair
     n f d     Grand Forks     State Peony Show
     n f d     Hazelton        Emmons County Breeders Association Stock
     n f d     Nishu           Fort Berthold Indian Reservation Mother Corn
     n f d     Nishu           Fort Berthold Indian Reservation Sage Dance
     n f d     Turtle Mountain
               Reservation     Chippewa Indian Sun Dance

July last wk   Belcourt        St. Ann's Day

Aug.  15       Elbowoods       Indian Congress
      1st wk   Peace Garden    Rededication and Highlander's Frolic
      n f d    Varies          Golden Grain Festival

Sept. 1st wk   Elbowoods       Fort Berthold Indian Reservation Fair
      1st wk   Fort Totten     Indian Agency Fair
      1st wk   Fort Yates      Standing Rock Indian Agency Fair
      3rd wk   Grand Forks     Harvest Festival
      4th wk   Valley City     Barnes County Corn and Lamb Show

Oct.  last wk  Bismarck        State Corn Show
      n f d    Fargo           Harvest Festival, Agricultural Extension
      n f d    Turtle Mountain
                 Reservation   Indian Fair

Dec.  n f d    Fargo           4-H Boys and Girls Club Achievement
                                 Institute, Agricultural College
      n f d    Valley City     Ice Carnival



Nothing, probably, arouses the indignation of a loyal North Dakotan or
South Dakotan more than hearing his State referred to as "Dakota." Just
as an earnest Californian would display indignation at being disposed
of as merely a "Westerner", so the man from North Dakota resents having
his identity fogged over by the blanket term "Dakotan." And rightfully
so; for, while he finds no fault with his neighbors, he is quite
different from them, and quite within his rights in insisting on the
distinct character of his own State.

The person who asks, "What sort of place is North Dakota?" may get
a variety of answers, all of them true, and still be far from a
complete picture of the State. He may be told vaguely, "It's out West
somewhere," or more specifically, "North Dakota is a wheat State," or
"Isn't that where the farmers have this Nonpartisan League?" These
answers are only partly correct, for they barely touch on the two major
problems, economics and politics, in regard to which North Dakota is
now coming of age.

This is a young State. Ruts left by the wagon trains of early
explorers, military expeditions, and home seekers have not yet been
effaced from the prairies. Red men and white men, who hunted buffalo
and fought at the Little Big Horn, who saw the railroads push their
gleaming paths across the Plains, who recall a puny young man named
Theodore Roosevelt hunting in the Badlands with his short-stocked
rifle, still survive to tell their tales. In those fledgling days, the
land was rich with promise. Bonanza farms unfolded their ample acres of
wheat, thousands of cattle roamed unchecked in the gullies and over the
plains of the western counties.

The word spread, and from Europe and the eastern States came men and
women to break the new soil. Sod houses and barns and frame homes and
windmills set their seal on the prairies. Tons of wheat, thousands of
cattle and sheep and horses attested to the fertility of North Dakota.

For more than half a century the soil was exploited recklessly. Then
suddenly exhaustion and drought drove home the growing realization that
this exploitation could not go on. Water conservation, diversified
farming, and dams quickly became part of the agricultural scheme, and
are repairing the damage of unthinking abuse. Huge mineral resources
have been recognized and are being developed commercially, bringing a
new aspect to North Dakota's economy.

Marketing of farm products has had reverberations in the economic
life of the State, and has made its people alert to changing social
trends. Characteristically, in the eastern portion of the State, where
soil is richer, and rainfall more plentiful, the people are more
conservative; while to the west, where the climate is more arid and
the soil less productive, the "isms" flourish, providing a stronghold
for the leftist elements of the State's tumultuous political parties.
Because of antagonism to control of early agrarian activities by
out-of-State business interests, the Nonpartisan League, with its
socialistic platform, was formed, and many of its enterprises have been
established, some successfully, some otherwise. Cooperative economy is
prominent in the social consciousness of agricultural North Dakota,
and such groups as the Farmers' Union emphasize the trend toward
cooperatives, strengthening their position by supplying members with
purely social activities, as well as with hard economic problems into
which to get their teeth.

Freely admitted is the rural character of the State, and there is
seldom an attempt to cover native crudities with a veneer of eastern
culture. The few writers in the State recognize and honor the
possibilities of their native material; and each year finds a scattered
handful of books, usually verse, telling of the North Dakota known to
them and to seven hundred thousand other North Dakotans.

What is the North Dakota they know? A State of unbounded plains
and hills and Badlands--elbowroom. Superb sunsets. High winds and
tumbleweed. Farms and plows and sweeping fields. Gophers flashing
across the road. Little towns crowded on Saturday night, and busy
cities shipping out the products of North Dakota and supplying the
needs of the producers. Sudden blinding, isolating blizzards, and
soft, fragrant spring days with tiny sprouts of grain peering greenly
through the topsoil. Pasque flower and cactus, flame lily, and fields
of yellow mustard. The sad, slow wail of a coyote on the still prairie.
People--Norwegians, Germans, Russians, Poles, Czechs, Icelanders, but
all Americans. Square dances in barn lofts, and college "proms" with
corsages and grand marches. Teachers building fires with numbed hands
in stoves of icy one-room schools. Men in unaccustomed "best clothes"
sitting in majestic legislative halls of a skyscraper statehouse.
Political fires, sometimes smouldering, sometimes flaring, always

Endless facets are apparent in the temper and tenor of life, thought,
and action of the people of this State, still a new people, pioneers--

    "_Brave spirits stirred with strange unrest,
      They found broad waters and new lands,
    And carved the empires of the west._"


North Dakota is a rectangular area of 70,837 square miles, lying in
what the United States Geological Survey has designated the center of
the North American Continent. It is approximately 1,500 miles from the
Atlantic, the Pacific, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Arctic Archipelago
of North America. North to south it extends 210 miles, and east to west
an average of 335 miles. On the north are the Provinces of Manitoba and
Saskatchewan, Canada; on the east, the Red River of the North and the
Bois de Sioux form the boundary between this State and Minnesota; on
the south is South Dakota and on the west, Montana.


The land surface resembles three broad steps of prairie, rising a
half-mile in altitude from the eastern to the western boundary. The
first two steps lie in the Central Lowlands of the Interior Plains, the
third in the Great Plains area.

The lowest step is the fertile, floor-like Red River Valley, once the
bed of glacial Lake Agassiz. Near the Canadian boundary the valley is
about 40 miles wide, but it gradually narrows until near the South
Dakota line it is only 10 miles in width. With its northward slope of
only about one foot to the mile, an even more gradual eastward slope,
and few prominent surface features, the land offers no obstacles to
a view across miles of level checkerboard fields. Natural woods grow
along the Red River and its winding sluggish tributaries, and farmyard
groves dot the landscape.

The Pembina Escarpment, a rise of 300 to 400 feet along the western
edge of the valley, defines the beginning of the central surface-step,
the Drift Prairie, or Drift Plain. At the northern end of the
escarpment, which is a continuation of the Manitoba Escarpment in
Canada, lie the wooded Pembina Mountains, jutting sharply above the
valley floor. South of these hills the rise is less pronounced except
at the southern end, where the hills again become prominent to merge
with the Coteau des Prairies, an escarpment lying chiefly in South

Glacial deposits, or drift, of finely ground rock, sand, and gravel
give the Drift Prairie its name. It is a rolling, fertile plain,
varying from 70 to 200 miles in width, and broken by low ridges of
hills, shallow coulees, and numerous small lakes. To the northwest lies
the Souris River Valley, a small glacial lake bed resembling the Red
River Valley. Devils Lake, largest in the State, lies in the northern
part of the Drift Prairie, and together with Stump Lake forms the
basis of the interior drainage system; near its southern end are the
headwaters of the James and Sheyenne Rivers, both flowing southward,
the James into the Missouri and the Sheyenne into the Red.

The Missouri Escarpment, rising 300 to 400 feet above the Drift Prairie
and cutting across the State diagonally in a northwest-southeast
direction, marks the rise of the third surface-step, the Missouri
Plateau, which extends west to the Rocky Mountains. Lying along the top
of the plateau, in some places not far from the escarpment and at other
points 50 miles west of it, is the Altamont Moraine, a belt of rough,
stony hills, indicating the farthest advance of the Dakota lobe of the
Wisconsin ice sheet. In the north this moraine is a part of the Height
of Land forming the watershed between the north-and south-flowing
streams of the continent.

Between the escarpment and the Missouri River the plateau is known
as the Couteau du Missouri. West of the river it is known locally as
the Missouri Slope. The surface of the plateau, typical of the Great
Plains, is irregular and rolling, dotted with old lake beds--some of
which contain large deposits of sodium sulphate--and underlain with
vast lignite beds and valuable clay and bentonite deposits.

In the Missouri Slope is the most unusual area in the State--the
Badlands of the Little Missouri. Here erosion has formed, and continues
to form, a fantastic array of buttes in which layers of brick-red
scoria and gray, blue, and yellow clays are vividly exposed. Abrupt
buttes and mesas characterize the landscape, increasing in size and
number toward the southwest corner of the State. Among them is Black
Butte, 3,468 feet above sea level, the highest point in North Dakota.


Absence of great variation in physiography gives all portions of
the State an almost uniform climate. North Dakota is situated in a
temperate region of moderate rainfall, and owing to its position in
the center of the North American Interior Plains it has a typically
continental climate.

One of the characteristics of such a climate is a wide range of
temperature, and to this the State can make good claim. North Dakota
has a recorded range from 124° F., registered September 3, 1912 at
Medora, to -60° F., recorded February 15, 1936 at Parshall. These
temperatures are, of course, unusual, but the mercury often reaches
100° F. during the summer, whereas 30° to 40° F. below zero is not
uncommon in winter. The mean temperature for the months of June, July,
and August is 65.7° F., and for December, January, and February, 9.7°
F. Relatively low humidity, averaging 68 percent, makes these extremes
less uncomfortable, however, than if the atmosphere contained more

The sections of the State vary more in the matter of precipitation than
in any other climatic phase. The average is about 18 inches annually,
ranging from about 22 inches in the southeastern corner to about 14
inches in the southwestern corner. Most of the precipitation occurs
in the late spring and summer. During the period of 1925-34, three
years had a rainfall in excess of normal, and seven were deficient in

Long and severe winters are typical of this region. Nevertheless the
summers, though comparatively short, are favorable for agriculture,
owing to the long hours of sunshine. At the maximum, about June 21,
there are as many as 16 hours of sunlight a day; and this, together
with cloudless skies, contributes to the rapid growth and early
maturity of crops.


The surface of North Dakota, comparatively unvaried, is no more simple
than the geological pattern that lies beneath it. Deposited by the seas
of three geologic ages, horizontal layers of rock top each other in
methodical and unintricate succession.

In far-off Paleozoic times, when all creatures of the earth were
invertebrates, strange shellfish, unlike any existing today, lived
among the rich foliage at the bottom of the shallow sea that covered
this region. Hundreds of varieties of fossil plants and shells are
embedded in the sandstone, limestone, and shale which the sea deposited
on the uneven surface of the then-existent crystalline rocks. These
Paleozoic rocks have been encountered in deep wells in eastern North
Dakota, although nowhere in the State are they found at the surface.

Toward the close of the Paleozoic era, changing climatic conditions
caused the death of many forms of life upon the earth, and the
development of new and hardier types. With these, in the Mesozoic era,
came the new lords of the earth, the reptiles. Much of the globe from
the Arctic Ocean to New Mexico was covered by a great sea on whose
swampy shores huge dinosaurs, alligators, and crocodiles made their
homes. Largest of these grotesque creatures was the brontosaurus, with
his long snakelike neck and face and huge body. Struggling with him
for supremacy of the swamps was the armored stegosaurus, whose row of
vertical plates along his backbone from head to tip of tail made him a
formidable enemy. Among the plant and animal life that throve on the
sea bottom were shellfish three feet or more in diameter.

The earliest seas of the Mesozoic era deposited the Dakota sandstone
that underlies all of the State except the Red River Valley. It is a
soft white or gray stone, containing many marine fossils. Although
it does not appear at the surface anywhere in the State, it has
been studied from specimens obtained from deep wells here or from
outcroppings in other States.

Many rivers flowing into the prehistoric seas brought mud and clay to
mix with the soils of the sea bottom, forming the shales that today
underlie most of the Great Plains, including North Dakota. The lowest
of these, Benton shale, is dark gray, almost jet black in places, and
contains bits of pyrite (fool's gold) and gypsum. Over it lies the
bluish-gray Niobrara shale, in which natural cement is found. In the
Pembina Mountains and the Sheyenne Valley, where these rocks appear
at the surface, they have yielded shells of lamellibranchs (ancestors
of today's clams and oysters) and bones of great sharklike fish. Over
these two strata lies the Pierre shale deposit, dark bluish-gray in
color. It is frequently seen in the valleys of streams east of the
Missouri Plateau, but outcrops in only two places west of the Missouri
Escarpment--where the Missouri leaves the State, and in the valley of
the Little Beaver Creek in southwestern North Dakota. In it have been
found fossils of the chambered nautilus, the oyster, and other marine
animals, the crocodile, and the plesiosaur--that ungainly reptile which
had "the body of a turtle strung on a snake."

Once again the sea covered the State and left the rust-colored Fox
Hills sandstone, which is particularly conspicuous along the Cannonball
River where action of underground water has formed it into the
rusty-looking spheres which give the river its name. Similarly formed
cylinders of this sandstone in concretionary form are also found along
the stream, and large cylinders protrude from the top of Cannon Butte
in the Badlands like the barrels of cannon from the turret of a huge

Near the close of the Mesozoic era, the climate of North Dakota became
warmer, almost like that of the South Atlantic States. Through the
swamps roamed horned carnivorous dinosaurs, especially triceratops,
which had "the largest head with the smallest brain of the reptile

Again and again the sea invaded this swampland, depositing the Lance
formation, comprising layers of massive sandstone and shale in which
the luxuriant plant life of the area created thin beds of lignite
coal. The Lance formation underlies most of the Missouri Plateau, and
comes to the surface in two places--in the vicinity of Bismarck, and
near Marmarth. Reptilian fossils are found in both the lignite and the
intervening layers of rock.

At the dawn of the Cenozoic age, as mammalian life began to develop on
the globe, another invasion of the sea left behind it a great plateau
interspersed with swamps, marshlands, rivers, and lakes. On the plain
grew giant sequoia, cypress, juniper, and other semitropical trees.
Over the thick mat of mosses, lichens, and liverwort in the swamps
crept turtles, alligators, lizards, and other reptiles, monstrous in
size. King of this jungle was the titanothere, with its great body,
short stocky neck, and columnar legs. Long-jawed shaggy mastodons and
gigantic rhinoceroses challenged its supremacy. As these titans of
the forest lumbered through the underbrush, herds of _Merycoidodon
culbertsoni_ or ruminating hogs, _Leptomeryx evansi_, dainty deerlike
creatures no larger than jack rabbits, and little three-toed horses
scampered out of their way.

The Fort Union formation, created through successive fresh water
deposits of sediment in the swamps, contained vast quantities of rank
swamp vegetation. In the intervening millions of years this has been
turned into lignite, a very soft coal which has become North Dakota's
most valuable mineral resource. The lignite veins in the formation
indicate that the sea covered this area at least eleven times during
the period when the formation was being deposited. In addition to
lignite, the Fort Union clay shales and sandstones contain pure plastic
clay beds and some bentonite, a claylike mineral of commercial value.

The recession of the seas left a broad and gently rolling plain cut by
sluggish rivers whose wooded valleys were inhabited by the descendants
of the great swamp beasts. When the waters again invaded the plain,
the bones of these monsters were embedded in the deposits which became
the White River formation, youngest bedrock underlying the State.
So numerous are the fossil remains in the lower White River beds
that these strata are called the titanothere beds. Fossils are found
throughout the formation, however, ranging from mammal bones to the
remains of fish and turtles. Erosion has worn away much of the White
River formation in North Dakota, but it is conspicuously revealed on
the summits of White or Chalky Butte, Sentinel Butte, Black Butte, and
the Killdeer Mountains, and also in a few other small isolated areas in
the Missouri Slope.

Gradually, during the time these formations were being laid down, the
winters of this region were becoming more and more severe. Masses of
ice moved slowly southward from the Arctic Region, covering much of the
land and transforming the nearby forests, meadows, and swamps into a
treeless plain of black mucky soil with a permanently frozen subsoil
overgrown with moss, lichens, and dwarf shrubs. Fierce wintry storms
took their toll of the mammoths, rhinoceroses, and reindeer living upon
the tundras.

As the glaciers moved south, the animals were forced to flee to warmer
lands. Soon the ice mass had covered all of North Dakota except a very
small region in the southwest corner beyond the Killdeer Mountains.
When at length it receded, it left in its wake boulders, gravel, and
till--a drift soil composed of clay, sand, gravel, and boulders. Much
of this now has been worn away; on the west side of the Missouri only a
few scattered areas remain, and on the east side the till, though more
continuous, is often merely a veneer a few feet in thickness.

The early glacier was followed by the Wisconsin ice sheet, the Dakota
lobe of which covered a large part of this State, pushing back the
Missouri River, which had previously flowed north into Hudson Bay, into
its present channel.

Eventually this glacier, too, melted and receded, leaving a great lake
about 650 feet deep, nearly 700 miles long, and 200 miles wide, with an
area of not less than 110,000 square miles, including the region now
known as the Red River Valley. This lake has been named Lake Agassiz,
in honor of Louis Agassiz, first prominent advocate of the theory that
drift was formed by land ice. Lake Agassiz existed some 10,000 years
ago, lasted for probably 1,000 years, and covered an area greater than
the present Great Lakes. Its sole remnants today are Lakes Winnipeg,
Winnipegosis, and Manitoba, and Lake of the Woods.

Productive soil and ground water, closely allied resources, are North
Dakota's greatest assets. The Wisconsin glacier and Lake Agassiz are
largely responsible for the fertile soils that cover three-fifths of
the State's surface. Through the Red River Valley the lake left a fine
claylike silt 20 to 30 feet deep. The successive shore lines of the
lake, showing its gradual recession, can be plainly seen in the ridges
of sand and gravel that rise 10 to 25 feet along the western edge of
the valley. Also on the west border of the valley are three extensive
sand plains, the deltas of the Pembina, Sheyenne, and Elk Rivers,
formed by glacial debris mingled with river silt. The Souris glacial
lake bed, in the loop of the present Souris River, resembles the Red
River Valley in geological history, but covers a much smaller area.

Immediately under the silt of the old lake beds and on the surface of
the Drift Prairie is glacial drift or till. In much of the southwestern
part of the State, particularly along the western tributaries of the
Missouri, there are no glacial deposits; the topsoil is composed
largely of shale and sandstone, and, though not so fertile as the old
lake beds and glacial plains to the east, provides fine range country.


Especially valuable to those who depend on the land for their
livelihood are the numerous artesian wells and natural springs which
furnish necessary water supplies. The artesian basin on the southern
border of the State and extending into South Dakota has been designated
by a Federal authority as the most important in America and probably in
the world.

People of the State have been awakened in recent years to a
consciousness of the need for water conservation. Long abuse of
seemingly unlimited artesian supplies resulted in lessening pressure in
the wells. Simultaneously, drought, high winds, and the broken unwooded
plains conspired to deplete the surface waters left by rains and winter
snows. Within 20 years one-third of the lakes in North Dakota became

To counteract these disastrous effects, a program of Federal, State,
and private water and soil conservation has begun. Trees are being
planted to hold the soil and conserve the moisture of rain and snow.
A program of dam construction is under way in every county in the
State. Dry-land farming and supplemental irrigation have been adopted
to conserve the soil and return to it the elements which it has lost
through constant cultivation.

North Dakota is indebted to the ancient seas and glaciers not only
for the fertility of its soil but also for many of its most important
mineral resources. Almost inexhaustible is the vast supply of lignite,
estimated at 600 billion tons, which underlies the western half of the
State. The veins, once the luxuriant plant life of a far distant age,
vary from a fraction of an inch to 40 feet in thickness.

The southwestern corner of the State contains excellent beds of clay,
deposited by the seas and now used for building materials and pottery.
Two beds in the Dickinson vicinity, each containing approximately 29
million cubic yards, yield the finest clays in the State. A layer of
yellow sand clay overlies the whitish plastic variety here; the two
combine to form a number of colors, and have the added advantage of
being free from iron. Plastic clay beds of importance, although not so
valuable commercially as the Dickinson deposits, are found throughout
the southwestern corner of the State. They yield one of the rarest and
most valuable types of clay for pottery and other specialized purposes.
Shales found near the western clay beds are used in the manufacture of
cheaper building materials.

The discovery of two large bentonite fields in southwestern North
Dakota in 1930 opened up a new mineral resource. This claylike mineral
is used as a binding agent and filler in many commercial processes,
such as the manufacture of soaps, paints, and cosmetics. The larger
deposit--in the Little Badlands--covers 25 square miles and contains
about 100 million tons of the mineral, while the Chalky Butte deposit
near Amidon contains about 60 million tons. The beds are easily
accessible, being uncovered in many places.

Extensive sodium sulphate deposits have been formed in old lake beds in
the northwestern corner of the State, where the mineral-bearing waters
have evaporated, leaving a deposit of sodium sulphate crystals. North
of the town of Grenora, 1,150 acres are covered with sodium sulphate
beds ranging from a few inches to more than 30 feet in depth. Miller,
North, and McKone Lakes, near Alkabo, contain more than 20 million
tons. Sodium sulphate, also known as Glauber's salt, is commercially
valuable, especially in the pulp and paper industries. Owing to lack
of knowledge of its existence in this country, it has been imported
largely from Canada.

Although geologists have doubted that oil exists in commercial
quantities in North Dakota, considerable interest has been shown in
the wells near Marmarth in the southwestern corner of the State. Their
proximity to the Montana oil fields increases the possibility of the
success of these wells. Much interest has also been shown in the
development of a potential oil field south of Ray in northwestern North

Hidden beneath the earth's surface are other minerals deposited
during the geologic formation of the various strata. These include
fuller's earth, sandstone, granite, gneiss, and gold; but because of
their limited quantity and inaccessibility, they are commercially
unimportant. The glacial deposits are important because they include
the sand and gravel used extensively for road surfacing. Some of the
eastern lake beds contain marl, a clay from which Portland cement is
made. The extent and purity of the deposits are not definitely known.
(For discussion of industrial development of mineral resources see


North Dakota falls into three distinct zones of plant and animal life:
the Turtle Mountain region and a few scattered areas in the Canadian,
or cold, zone; the Missouri and Little Missouri Valleys in the upper
austral, or warmer, zone; and the remainder of the State in the
transition zone.

Because of its semiarid climate, the State has only 600 square miles of
wooded area. Native forests are found chiefly along streams and lakes,
and in the Turtle and Killdeer Mountains. Despite the limited forested
area, a surprising variety of trees is found. Throughout the Red River
Valley, Turtle Mountains, and Devils Lake region plant life is similar
to the Minnesota type, while such trees as the elm, green ash, box
elder, poplar, and cottonwood are also common.

Although the cottonwood's ability to withstand drought makes it one of
the most desirable species of trees in North Dakota, efforts are being
made in many towns to eradicate the tree because of the ubiquitous soft
white "cotton" which floats from its branches like summer flurries of

During the fall and early winter, the thickets of the northern Red
River Valley are aflame with the highbush cranberry, which lent its
Indian name to Pembina, first permanent white settlement in the State.
Other berries grow profusely along all the eastern streams, and many
families assure themselves of a winter supply of jams and jellies by
picking the June berries, chokecherries, wild plums, and wild grapes.
In the woods along the Missouri and Little Missouri grow trees of the
Missouri type--the broadleaf cottonwoods, willows, ash, elm, buffalo
berry, and flowering currant. A trace of the Rocky Mountain type
of forest is found in the Badlands and on the buttes of the Little
Missouri, where the yellow pine and red cedar grow.

Not only trees but other forms of vegetation differ widely from the
eastern to the western sections of the State. The long Indian-grass and
blue grass typical of the east is replaced on the western ranges by
short buffalo grass and grama grass, the two forming a dense mat over
the ground. Due to differences in rainfall, the western grasses are
much duller and more grayish in color than those of the eastern section.

From early spring to the first frosts of autumn, thousands of wild
flowers brighten the prairies. Many species are general throughout
the State, while others are typical only of certain sections. Before
the last patches of snow are gone, the blue-gray pasque flower, so
like the crocus that it is often called by that name, appears on the
rolling prairies and the northern slopes of hills. It is soon followed
by the wild parsley, Nuttall's or yellow violet, and the vivid plumes
of the purple avens. Most of the spring flowers are of soft, delicate
hues, such as the white meadow rue, parsley, false-Solomon's-seal,
silverberry, squaw-weeds, meadow parsnip, blue-eyed-grass, and harebell.

With the coming of midsummer, the colors become more brilliant. The
fragrant prairie rose, the State flower, blossoms profusely in fields
and along roadsides. The showy oxeye or false-sunflower, the flaming
prairie mallow, wild blue and yellow flax, the vivid flame lily, the
purple coneflower, and the black-eyed Susan emblazon the summer fields.
Along the Pembina and Sheyenne Rivers, and in Sully's Hill National
Game Preserve, grow the wintergreen and ladyslipper. Water lilies float
on pools and shallow streams in the western part of the State. In the
Badlands grow the rabbit brush, butte primrose, false-lupine, and
prickly pear, and the scoria lily which resembles a thistle during the
day and opens its fragile, waxy petals only after the sun has gone down.

Yellow is the color of the prairies in autumn, as amid the fading
foliage the goldenrod, sunflower, aster, and blazing star dominate the

Some wild flowers, such as the wild morning-glory, are so common that
they are regarded as weeds. These are not so obnoxious to the farmer,
however, as the Russian-thistle, pigeon grass, quack grass, pigweed,
mustard, burdock, and sow thistle which often invade the grainfields.
The seeds of most of these plants were brought in with seed grain from
European countries, and their eradication is a difficult process.
Another obnoxious plant, against which a strong campaign has been
conducted by farmers, is the common barberry, on which thrive the
parasitic fungi that cause wheat rust. Many weeds, however, are
considered a valuable asset to the fields and pasture lands where they
grow. These include the American vetch or wild sweet pea, which forms
an important addition to hay, and the white and violet prairie clovers,
which, although too tough to be used for fodder, serve to enrich the

When the first settlers came to this section of the country, they
described the land as being covered with innumerable varieties of
wild flowers. Since that time, cultivation and drought have changed
the picture. Efforts to preserve the native plant life in its natural
setting have met with cooperation from Federal and State agencies
alike. The reserves that have been established are also sanctuaries for
bird and animal life, upon which recent drought and severe winters have
had a disastrous effect.

Under the auspices of the State game and fish commission, 2,700 acres
of land have been set aside as five game and fish farms, while 240,000
acres of privately owned land have been designated as game refuges.
The Federal Government has established some 60 sanctuaries on 225,000
acres, of which about 90,000 acres are privately owned.

Animal life zones in the State are more marked than are plant life
zones. The woods of the Turtle Mountains, at the meeting point of the
Canadian and transition zones, abound with wild life of both regions.
More than 300 varieties of game and song birds live here, including the
Dakota song sparrow, the black-billed cuckoo, the oriole, and the blue
jay. In the deserted holes of badgers, foxes, and gophers live those
queer prairie birds, the burrowing owls. Grebe, ducks, geese, heron,
and occasionally swan inhabit the lakes of the region. Deer, red fox,
rabbits, red squirrels and northern chipmunks are common; and at night
the bright-eyed, mousy Richardson shrew and the silver-haired bat can
be seen. Lynx are occasionally reported.

In the Red River Valley and the central prairies of the State, once
the scene of buffalo hunts, very little large game is found today. A
few buffalo remain in Sully's Hill National Game Preserve, and in the
Sheyenne Valley and the Pembina Mountains deer are still found. Game
birds abound in this region, however, and with the restoration of their
breeding places they are now being propagated in huge numbers on the
many reserves.

Early travelers in the western part of the State were astonished by the
prairie-dog villages which dotted the country. Some of these villages
still exist, in the extreme western sections. Their inhabitants are
typical of the upper austral zone, as are also the coyotes whose
long melancholy wail can be heard across the prairie at twilight or
daybreak. Chipmunks, squirrels, gophers and ferrets also make their
homes here. Along the Missouri and in the forested areas of the
Badlands are both white-tailed and mule deer. The one bird peculiar to
the austral zone is the sage-hen; and the American magpie, commonly
seen here, is rare in other parts of the State.

Birds such as the robin, sparrow, blackbird, swallow, horned lark, and
meadow lark are common to the entire State. The lark is one of the
early spring comers, and its clear sweet whistle can be heard when the
prairies are just beginning to turn green.

One of the most common animals in the State is Richardson's ground
squirrel, otherwise known as the gopher or "flickertail." It is from
this tiny, agile, yellow creature that North Dakota gets its name of
"the Flickertail State." Another familiar prairie animal is the jack

Fish life, like that of plants and animals, has been adversely affected
by recent droughts, but efforts are being made to propagate fish and
to provide sufficient water for their existence. In the larger lakes
and rivers, perch, black and rock bass, pickerel, pike, sunfish, and
catfish are found. Some landlocked salmon have been introduced, but
they are not adapted to North Dakota lakes and streams. Suckers and
carp are common but they are not considered desirable game fish.



Just when and where in the shadowy, endless past the Indians of North
Dakota, or even of the two Americas, began to break away from the
parent stem is not known. Weapons and tools shaped from stone and found
in strata that settled into place near the end of the Pleistocene, or
glacial, period indicate that as much as 15,000 to 20,000 years ago
men wandered along the rivers and through the swamps of those areas
that later became New Mexico, Nebraska, and Minnesota. Very probably,
in long hunts after game, parties of these men penetrated what is now
North Dakota. Stone tools and weapons found in the vicinity of Bismarck
suggest an early occupation of the area, how long ago no one knows.

A great many years nearer the present day, but still possibly a
thousand or more years ago, men were digging busily in the flint
quarries 19 miles north of Hebron and 12 miles northwest of Dodge and
at other points on the Knife River. With the flint obtained here they
fashioned arrowheads and spear points to kill buffalo or to protect
their homes against enemy tribesmen. One of these heavily sodded sites
on the Knife River contains more than 300 pits, most of which are from
8 to 10 feet across, and from 3 to 5 feet deep.

The extensive mounds and earthworks found in the eastern half of North
Dakota have been only imperfectly investigated so far, partly because
archeologists have but recently recognized the possibilities of the
area. The skeletons and the bone and stone manufactured articles lately
discovered, however, as well as the general finds of the region,
suggest the probability of outlining tribal movements of importance.
There is an increasing suggestion that before the time of the historic
tribes the prairies of the eastern half of the State supported large
populations. It is thought that, just as the Cheyenne are known to have
done in the historic period, in prehistoric time the Assiniboin and the
Blackfeet, and preceding them still other tribes, carried on a settled
agricultural life before they became nomadic. Of course the movements
of these tribes were not confined entirely to what is now North Dakota.

Perhaps hundreds of years after the construction of the mounds in
the eastern half of the State--possibly from one to four hundred
years ago--some tribe or tribes, probably the Sioux or certain
of the village-building Indians, were putting together the turtle
effigies frequently encountered on the hills west of the Missouri,
and constructing the more widespread and better-known boulder-ring
effigies. The purpose of these crude outlines on the prairie is not
definitely known. Because the turtle plays a prominent part in medicine
ceremonies of the Mandan Indians, some think the turtle effigies were
made to win the favor of certain spirits. Others claim they were made
to point the weary Indian to good water--a theory which may also apply
to a number of the cairns occasionally seen piled on the tops of high
hills. Other cairns are ceremonial or commemorative.

Boulder rings, which sometimes appear in large numbers but more often
present only one or two specimens in a given location, were once
thought to be tipi rings. The fact that many of them appear on the
sides and tops of hills has discredited this assumption, however.

Veneration of the so-called sacred stones of the State probably began
in the effigy-building period, but the origin of the very interesting
writing rocks (_see Side Tours 3B, 4A, 8A, and 8C_) is undoubtedly far
more ancient. The significance of the markings on these rocks has not
yet been determined.


About the time the earlier turtle effigies were made--perhaps 200
years ago--in permanent villages of earth lodges in the valley of
the Missouri dwelt a most interesting group of people, raising many
cultivated plants, building fortified towns, and in general living
a rather ordered existence. These were the Mandan, as far as is
definitely known the first of the historic tribes to enter the State.
Their exact origin is not clear. Certain of their traditions claim
that they long ago lived in the East near a great body of water--most
authorities suggest the East Coast or Gulf of Mexico.

At any rate, many generations before the coming of the whites, the
Mandan--probably crowded by other tribes--began to wander westward.
Apparently their long trek finally brought them and their wives and
children to the junction of the White River with the Missouri in what
is now South Dakota. Grass-grown sites of their old villages along
the benchland of the river show how these people, in quest of a new
and more satisfactory home, moved northward in successive migrations
until in time they arrived at the mouth of the Heart River in the
neighborhood of present Mandan and Bismarck. Here they probably
remained for generations, carrying on a settled agricultural life. They
were visited by the Verendryes in 1738 (_see Tour 8_), at which time
they had six large, well-fortified villages. Estimates of their number
at this time have ranged from 2,500 to 15,000.

They are one of those four North Dakota Indian groups--Mandan, Hidatsa,
Cheyenne, and Arikara--who because of their farming activities are
called the agricultural tribes. While the Mandan were building on the
Missouri, the Hidatsa were probably living somewhat farther north and
east. They have a tradition that they originally came from a large
lake to the east, possibly Devils Lake. Later, probably forced on
by some other tribe, they moved their families over the prairies to
the Missouri in the region of the Heart River, and eventually allied
themselves with the Mandan. Their history thereafter follows very
closely that of the latter tribe.

While the Mandan and Hidatsa were dwelling on the Missouri, the
Cheyenne were migrating westward from the headwaters of the
Mississippi, by way of Lac Que Parle in present Minnesota, Lake
Traverse, and the big bend of the Sheyenne River, to the Missouri,
seeking a place where they could till the soil and rear their children
in peace, free from the harrying of the Sioux.

At the same time the Arikara, doubtless likewise trying to take their
families away from the ravaging Dakota, were ascending the Missouri.
The name of this tribe arose from their custom of wearing in their hair
two pieces of bone which stood up on each side of the head like horns.
They came from the southwest and their language differs only in dialect
from the Pawnee. In 1770 French traders encountered them dwelling along
the river bank somewhat below the mouth of the Cheyenne River in what
is now South Dakota.

The migrations of the Hidatsa, Cheyenne, and Arikara, as those of
the Mandan, are traceable by the old village sites, of which there
are about 75 known locations on the prairies of the State. Arikara
sites predominate lower down the Missouri in South Dakota; the older
Mandan--perhaps constructed as early as 1575-1650--in the Heart River
region; and the Hidatsa, farther north near the Knife River. There
are apparently two types, a newer and an older. The newer, perhaps
less carefully laid out than the older, is found at and above the
mouth of the Heart River. The older type appears to have had better
fortifications than the newer, and the lodges do not seem to have been
so crowded. Because of its greater age it is more heavily sodded, and
thus manufactured articles left by the village dwellers, such as stone
and bone tools and ornaments, are less easily recovered. It seems
to center below the Heart River, with the Huff site, just below the
village of Huff, as perhaps the best example (_see Tour 8_).

Sometime--perhaps a hundred years--after the Mandan first built
about the mouth of the Heart River, the three nomadic North Dakota
tribes--the Sioux, Assiniboin, and Chippewa--were ranging the forests
near the headwaters of the Mississippi. The Chippewa, however, were not
strictly nomadic, as they had more or less permanent camping places,
where they built their distinctive bark shelters.

The Chippewa wandered from the Lake region across Minnesota to the
Turtle Mountains. They cultivated maize and were apparently more or
less at peace with the Sioux until in the early eighteenth century the
coming of the whites brought them firearms. With this advantage they
overcame the Sioux and drove them south and west.

The Assiniboin were a large tribe, whose language, with only a very
slight dialectal difference from that of the Yanktonai tribe of the
Sioux, suggests they had not long been separated from the latter
when first encountered by the whites near the headwaters of the
Mississippi. At the beginning of the eighteenth century they were in
the neighborhood of Lake Winnipeg, whence they drifted southward to the
territory west of the Turtle Mountain region in present North Dakota.

The Sioux apparently once lived in the Ohio Valley, but prior to the
historic period they moved out in several directions. At the coming of
the whites in the middle seventeenth century they were found in the
woods in northern Minnesota. Pressed by the Chippewa, they extended
their range westward over the prairies to the Missouri, and west of
that stream, from the Yellowstone River on the north to the Platte on
the south, to cover a huge block of territory throughout which the name
of this powerful tribe was feared and dreaded by all other Indians.

Of these seven North Dakota peoples--Mandan, Hidatsa, Cheyenne,
Arikara, Sioux, Assiniboin, Chippewa--well-authenticated records exist.
It will be noted that nearly all except the Arikara seem to have come
from the east, particularly from the Lakes region, with the added
suggestion of an earlier residence farther east or south. There is also
in some cases a definite shift from a settled agricultural life to a
nomadic one. They apparently arrived in the State in the following

  Hidatsa, also known as Gros Ventres, Minitari, and Absaroke
  Assiniboin, also called Stone
  Sioux, also called Dakota
  Chippewa, also called Ojibway

Linguistically all the North Dakota tribes are Siouan, except the
Arikara, who are Caddoan, and the Chippewa and Cheyenne, who are


It is interesting to visualize the prairie scene centuries ago when the
Indian ruled the plains. The agricultural tribes usually built their
villages of earth lodges so that one or more sides lay along a high
cliff or next to a river. This afforded partial protection from the
Sioux. In the more ancient types an earthen wall, sometimes built with
bastions, protected the exposed sides. A log palisade topped the wall,
and around the whole a ditch was dug. The number of lodges in a village
varied from 30 or 40 to as high as perhaps 160. Catlin said the lodges
had the appearance of huge inverted kettles, above which rose spears,
and scalp and medicine poles.

The lodges in the older types of villages were arranged with a certain
degree of uniformity. In the Mandan villages the lodges faced the
center, where stood a large barrel or hogshead, called the Big Canoe.
Soon after the Mandan came upon the earth, it is told, a great flood
came and would have destroyed them utterly had not a wise Mandan, the
First Man, with superlative effort and dexterity, built a great canoe
or ark and hurried the surviving people into it. This staunch ark
weathered the fury of the waters and finally came to rest on a high
hill near the Cannonball River (_see Side Tour 8C_). The Big Canoe in
the center of the village was a symbol of this ark.

Uniformity was not so evident in the later types of villages.
Between the lodges only room enough was left for men and women of
the village to pass; consequently, the broad earth roofs served the
additional purpose of verandas. Out upon these roofs, especially in the
summertime, was much activity--children played, old men watched for
enemy tribesmen, sweethearts conversed, neighbors gossiped. Although
the tribes were often ruthless and cruel in war, in their prairie homes
and villages they were very friendly and companionable people. Both men
and women indulged in a great number of games, and spent a good deal
of time in visiting, feasting, and dancing. Catlin upon his departure
after living with the Mandans for months was loaded with gifts and
urged to continue his visit.

Heavy garments were worn in the winter, and at that season the buffalo
robe was very much in evidence both for bedcovering and as an article
of clothing; but in summer time clothing was rather scanty. Both men
and women went down to the grassy shore of the Missouri in the morning
to bathe, often with little regard for dress--a fact that greatly
shocked some early travelers.

As the morning sun flooded the narrow dirt lanes of one of these
villages, braves, clad in breechcloths and moccasins, might have been
seen preparing for a hunt, while naked boys played with scores of
scampering dogs. If the village was Mandan, some of the hunters were
surprisingly Caucasian in appearance--the skin somewhat lighter than
that of the average Indian, the nose not so broad, and the cheekbones
less prominent. Early travelers noted cases of extraordinarily
light complexions, and also instances of brown hair and blue
eyes--characteristics suggesting European blood. By certain of the
first white visitors the Hidatsa were regarded as being rather superior
intellectually, but this was not so apparent in later days.

At their sides the hunters carried knives and bows and arrows in
leather sheaths. If they were going out to kill rabbit, ducks, geese,
beaver, deer, or elk along the river bottom, they might go afoot. If
they sought the wilder bighorn sheep or the buffalo, however, they
brought their ponies from the lodges, where they had been quartered
overnight, as that was the safest place available. Lariats, bridles,
and saddles were of leather. To protect themselves from enemy attack
the hunters had spears, tomahawks, shields, and lances, in addition to
the ever present bows and arrows.

As they threaded their way between the lodges, here and there they
saw some of their women baking pottery of a mixture of clay and
powdered granite or flint--Catlin says they modeled it into a thousand
forms, and that some of their pottery held as much as five gallons.
Other women, using bone awls and needles, were decorating girdles,
fans, moccasins, and dresses with beadwork and embroidery. Clothing,
especially headdress, was elaborate and spectacular on ceremonial
occasions. Still other women were weaving wickerwork, both flat and in
the form of baskets; making bone spoons, ladles, and other household
utensils; fashioning implements for the work in their gardens; and
working over hides stretched on crude frames, in the process of
tanning. In the latter art all the North Dakota tribes were unusually
proficient. Hides prepared by them retained their softness and
resilience even after being subjected to moisture many times.

Farther on, a group of boys hovered about a hoary old man who sat near
the door of a lodge in the soft summer sun and told them the history
and traditions of their tribe. They had just come in from the prairie
outside the village, where the older warriors had been teaching them
the art of war by leading them in a sham battle. The victorious side
had danced the scalp dance, just as their elders did after the actual
taking of scalps, and now all were gathered about this old man to hear
the stories of their people. If the village was Mandan, very possibly
the old man was telling them of the great tribal hero, Good Furred
Robe, who is supposed to have played so large a part in establishing
the Mandan way of living. The narrator would tell them, too, that the
Mandan were the first people created in the world, and that originally
they lived inside the earth, where they raised many vines. Of course,
they were constantly striving and struggling to find a way out of this
dark, underground world. Finally one of their vines pushed its way
through a hole in the earth overhead, and some of their people climbed
up and out into a rich, fine country. A large fat woman, trying to
climb out, broke the vine, however, and the remainder of the Mandans
live underground to this day.

The storyteller also had another version of the beginning of things. At
first the world was entirely water, inhabited by no living creature but
a swan, which in some unaccountable way produced a crow, a wolf, and a
water hen. Through the unsparing efforts of the crow to improve their
situation the water hen was finally sent to the bottom of the waters
to fetch some earth. Taking a small quantity of this in her bill, the
crow made the earth. Later, persevering in her labor of improving their
lot, she assumed the form of an Indian, and made all the beasts, birds,
fishes, and insects, and became the first of all Indians.

If the aged narrator had been an Arikara, his story would have been
similar to that of the Mandan. The Arikara believed that they together
with all other living things existed first in an embryo state deep
within the earth. There they gradually developed, and after many
generations of patient struggle were at last successful in their
attempt to get to the surface. As they emerged, they were directed by
a Voice, which remained with them, comforting and guiding them until
after many hardships and vicissitudes they came to a fair land. Here
there came to them a beautiful woman--the one whose voice had led them.
She was Mother Corn, the protective spirit of the agricultural tribes,
and the one who gave them their staple food grain.

As the hunters passed along they heard through the village the sound of
music--crude flutes, whistles, and drums. All the North Dakota tribes
were musical, even though their product was hampered by the limitations
of their scale, which had only five notes. Frances Densmore has placed
hundreds of their songs in notation, copies of which are published in
the bulletins of the Smithsonian Institution.

Now and then, above the sound of the music, voices raised in wailing
were heard. These came from the scaffold cemetery on the prairie just
outside the village, whither some had withdrawn to lament the death of
loved ones. Great mourning followed upon a death--the wailing could
often be heard for miles. The Mandan slashed themselves until their
bodies were covered with blood, and mourned for a year. In the tree or
scaffold method of burial, the one usually followed by the North Dakota
tribes, the cemetery was ordinarily situated only two or three hundred
paces from the village. The body was wrapped in blankets and placed
upon the scaffold very soon after death--some say before the sun again
sank below the prairies. The Arikara and the Chippewa placed their dead
in the ground, the former resting the body in a sitting posture, or on
its side, with the knees drawn up, in a shallow stone-lined grave. The
latter people believed the spirit followed a wide, beaten path to the
west, at the end of which lay everything an Indian could desire.

The Sioux thought the soul must journey after death toward the land
from which the west wind comes. They believed that the soul did not
leave the body until after nightfall. A horse was killed beneath
the tree or scaffold, in order that the spirit of the animal might
carry the spirit of the Indian to the Milky Way, which was regarded
as the pathway of ghosts. On this pathway the spirit of the dead was
met by the Old Woman with the Stick. If he passed the proper tests,
she directed him down the left fork of the Milky Way to the Northern
Lights, which were regarded as the campfires of the departed heroes and
good people of the tribe. If he could not meet the tests, however, she
pushed him along the right fork over a precipice; and he and his horse
were there changed into beetle bugs forever.

The above-ground type of cemetery undoubtedly contributed to the
spread of disease. Of course, the tribes were subject to a variety of
maladies, smallpox being the most dreaded. From this latter scourge the
agricultural people suffered disastrously; the Mandan were nearly wiped
out by it in the early nineteenth century. In the treatment of disease
certain medicinal herbs were used rather intelligently, and the vapor
bath was of distinct value; but when it came to the more severe forms
of sickness, the primitive sufferers called in the medicine men and
trusted to their incantations.

As the hunters, saddened by the wailing of the mourners, went on
their way, sounds of an altogether different type might have come to
them--sounds of joy--of a wedding in progress. The bridegroom would
have delivered the horses with which he paid for his bride, and the
guests would be gathered at the lodge for the feast, which usually
consummated the relatively simple affairs that courtship and marriage
were among the prairie Indians. Perhaps the groom already had several
wives--the possession of 6 was a common situation, and the great men
of the tribe sometimes had as many as 14. Since the women did much of
the work of field and lodge, the acquisition of another wife was not
an added burden. Despite the existence of polygamy, however, Indian
families were not large.

The babies of the party would be seen strapped to board cradles, where
a good part of infancy was spent in those days--a life that must have
had its pleasant features. In this point of vantage a child could be
set up by the side of the tipi or lodge to enjoy the sunshine, be hung
up in a tree to talk to the birds, or be carried at the side of a horse
or on the back of its mother to look serenely over the far prairies.

At this point a courier might have detained the hunters and delivered
a message requesting the presence of some of them at a council of
the leading men of the tribe, called to consider pressing affairs of
government. Among the Plains Indians, government varied greatly, being
dependent upon a combination of custom and tradition and the personal
fitness and character of the chief. Perhaps the latter element played
a greater part in the swiftly changing life of the nomadic tribes,
while among the more settled agricultural peoples, tradition and the
hereditary rights of chieftainship had more authority. Nearly all the
tribes were divided into a number of clans or bands.

If the supply of meat was running low, and no buffalo had been near
the village for a long time, the big question before the council might
have been whether or not the tribe should conduct the buffalo dance.
The agricultural tribes did not like to go far from the protection of
their villages because of the enemy Sioux, and often resorted to the
buffalo dance, which never failed to bring the buffalo, because it was
danced until buffalo came. The dancers donned buffalo skins, the head
of the dancer being placed in the head of the skin so that the eyes
looked out as the buffalo's had; the horns projected above the head,
and the tail dragged on the ground. Thus garbed, they danced in the
center of the village, going through all the antics of the buffalo.
During the days of the buffalo dance, the yelping of the people and the
beating of drums was continuous and deafening. Each dancer danced until
exhausted, and then the others shot him with blunt arrows; whereupon he
was dragged to one side, and theoretically skinned and cut up. Other
dancers replaced those thus removed, and the dance was kept up until
buffalo came. Sometimes the Sioux out on the prairie put on buffalo
hides and decoyed the villagers forth to be ambushed.

The ceremony of the rain makers was another that was always effective
because it was continued until the desired results were achieved.
Evidently there were droughts in those days, too, and the fields of
Mandan corn withered in the hot summer suns. Catlin tells the story
of one rain maker, who, mounting his lodge and vaunting his powers,
called upon the clouds to bring rain. Just as he was about to retire
in failure and disgrace, out of a clear sky came apparent thunder.
The sound, however, turned out to be a salute fired by the steamer
_Yellowstone_ on her first trip up the Missouri. At first nonplussed,
the rain maker finally made capital out of this coincidence when, later
in the day, a large cloud jutted up on the horizon, and a heavy rain
began and continued far into the night.

The council might have been considering also the conducting of the
yearly feast of Okeepa, the most important of all Mandan ceremonies.
This centered about the legend of the Ark and the First Man, and was
regarded as being an essential part of the origin and existence of the
tribe. It took place in the summertime, usually lasting about four days.

The feast of Okeepa contained many features common to the sun dance
of the other Plains tribes, particularly the element of self-torture.
Skewers were thrust through the loose flesh of the dancer's chest,
thongs attached, and the dancer thereby hauled up toward the roof
of the council lodge until his body was six or eight feet off the
ground. Often other skewers were thrust through the skin of the back,
and weights attached by thongs and allowed to drag over the floor of
the lodge as the dancer swung about the pole. Thus suspended, the
warrior boasted of his prowess and bravery until he was released by the
breaking of the flesh. This torture was thought necessary to secure the
blessings of food, shelter, protection from enemies, and long life.

While the hunters were away, some of the women, engaged in the
immemorial food-getting practice of fishing, went out on the river in
the tublike bullboat--so-called because it was made from the skin of a
single buffalo bull, stretched over a willow frame. Others went along
the bluffs and through the valleys, digging tipsin roots, and gathering
berries, cherries, and plums.

But probably by far their most important occupation economically was
their work in the gardens. As far back as their traditions go, the
tribes of the Missouri Valley seem to have been agriculturists. Along
the river each family kept a field or garden, variously estimated at
from one to four or five acres in size. These fields were held by the
family with a sort of perpetual lease from the community, the term
of the lease being dependent only on the condition that good use be
made of the land. There was apparently no concept of the white man's
practice of fertilizing the soil; when an old field grew impoverished,
a new one was selected. A fence of forked sticks protected the crops
from horses, while here and there on the outskirts of the fields a
sentry brave was on duty to guard the women from the ever dreaded
Sioux. Aiding the women were a few old men, too feeble for the chase.
A variety of tobacco, several varieties of sunflowers, squashes,
pumpkins, and beans, and a dozen varieties of corn grew in the gardens.
Early travelers say the ears of corn were extraordinarily small.

The keepers of the gardens were very faithful in caring for the growing
plants, and took great pride in keeping the soil free from weeds. They
worked among the corn with the willow rake, the antler fork, and,
probably most important of all, the shoulderblade hoe. In each garden
stood a platform or watchtower upon which in certain seasons sat one or
two Indian women, whose duty it was to frighten away marauding crows
and blackbirds. These women also sang watchtower songs to the growing
corn, as a mother sings to her babe.

When the hunters and the berry pickers and the gardeners returned home,
surplus corn, meat, squashes, and other foods were placed on the drying
racks which stood at the doors of the lodges. Corn that was allowed to
ripen was usually stored in underground bottle-shaped caches or storage
pits, the best ears being placed around the edges of the cache, while
in the center were thrown loose corn and strings of dried squash.

As evening came on, within the dome-shaped lodges there was much
feasting, especially if it was the time of the new corn. The doorway of
a lodge was protected by a kind of porch and hung with a buffalo hide.
From behind the windshield just inside the doorway shone the light of
the fire, which was built in a stone-lined depression in the center
of the lodge, with a hole in the roof to carry off the smoke. This
opening also served as a skylight. To the right of the doorway, in a
small corral or stall, were the favorite ponies, safely confined for
the night. Boxlike beds for the master of the house, his wife or wives,
and his children, were arranged along the wall on the other side. These
were made by covering sturdy wooden frames with hides. In the rear
stood an altar--a tall hide-covered structure somewhat resembling a
canopied chair--in which were placed all the sacred objects and most
prized possessions of the head of the house. Over the fire about which
the family or families had gathered--usually two or three families and
their relatives lived in one lodge--were kettles of food cooking for
the evening meal. Catlin says the Indians ate whenever hungry, or about
twice a day. The pot was kept boiling, and each one helped himself.
Anyone in the village who was hungry was free to go into any lodge and
satisfy his hunger, although the lazy and improvident were scorned.

Overhead, the light from the fire flickered on the huge supporting
uprights of the lodge, where hung articles of clothing, tools from the
garden, and weapons for war and hunting. Months before, with infinite
labor and no little ingenuity, and hampered by the imperfections of
the crude tools and equipment at their command, these early Dakota
farmers had cut great cottonwood logs from the Missouri bottomlands and
dragged them to the top of the bluffs, to form the framework for this
earthen home. The lodges varied from 30 to 90 feet in diameter. After a
little sod had been removed from a space of the desired size, to form
a smooth, firm floor, four heavy posts were fixed upright not far from
the center, to support the great roof, while at some distance out from
these a circle of smaller posts was set to hold up the sides. Rafters
of moderate-sized timbers were placed over these supports, after which
the whole was overlaid with willows, hay, and earth--a humble covering
that guarded with all its passive, effective impenetrability against
both the sweltering heat of summer and the intense cold of winter.

Out on the prairies, sometimes along the shores of rivers or lakes,
sometimes on the open plain, stood the tipi villages of the enemy--the
nomadic Assiniboin and Sioux. Against the evening sky the tipis, which
required about 15 buffalo hides each in their construction, rose as
much as 25 feet in height. A tipi approximately 15 feet in diameter
usually accommodated two families.

Not far from the village, and very carefully guarded, grazed the pony
herd. The horse was of great importance in the nomadic way of living.
He carried the tipi and its contents across the plains and sped the
hunters in their pursuit of the buffalo. Every warrior had two, some
many more; and Sioux horsemen were probably as daring and expert as any
the world has known.

The serviceability of the horse was increased by the use of the
travois, a simple implement of transportation consisting of two long
poles, often tipi poles, whose forward ends, joined by a short strap,
rested on the animal's neck, while the rear ends dragged along the
prairie. Camp duffle was strapped to the middle of the poles. A similar
but smaller device was placed on dogs.

Gathered about the campfires were the warriors, men of striking
physique and strong character, perhaps just in from the chase or war
or a pillaging expedition. The clothing of the nomadic tribes was more
extensive than that of the agricultural. Moccasins, separate trouser
legs, breechcloth, and leather shirt were supplemented in cold weather
by buffalo robes. The women wore moccasins, short decorated leggings,
and loose-fitting leather dresses falling to the knees. In winter
both sexes wore a kind of hood over the head. Clothing was commonly
ornamented with bead and quill work.

Here and there about the tipis hung bows with quivers of arrows. As in
the case of the agricultural tribes, the bow and arrow was the chief
weapon, and the Sioux were expert in its use. Ready to hand, too, were
shields, clubs, stone hammers, and spears. It is interesting to note
here that as a means of communication in peace and war the tribes
made good use of the art of signaling with fires and smoke. By this
method messages were transmitted long distances with almost incredible

Not far from the fires some of the women were preparing for drying
the buffalo meat brought in from the chase. Others were storing dried
berries and fruits in caches, in the making and concealing of which the
Sioux were very skillful.

About the big fire near the center of the village the old men and
chiefs were meeting in council over some weighty matter, perhaps the
arrangements for the great annual sun dance. For this a special lodge
was prepared on the prairie, around which the whole village pitched its
camp in the form of a horseshoe facing the east. The ceremony required
several days and involved self-torture similar to that of the Mandan
feast of Okeepa.

In one group about the fire an elderly man was relating the history
of the tribe to a circle of youthful faces. Some of the tribes kept a
chronicle of their history by means of the winter count: the council
met in winter and decided on the outstanding event of the year;
thereafter the year was designated by this event, which was often
pictured symbolically on a buffalo hide.

With the history, of course, as the evening stars came out, were
mingled fancy and legend. On this night the boys and girls heard of
the great monster who breaks up the ice in the Missouri each spring,
of how one of the goose nation was shown in a dream that her people
should go south each autumn in order to avoid the harsh winter, and
of the Iktomi, the little "spidermen," who on moonlight nights, high
on hilltops, can be heard with their tiny hammers, shaping arrowheads
which they place in piles where Indians can find them.

One of the Iktomi, who was a very excellent singer and dancer, was
hungry, continued the storyteller, and went into the woods to catch
some birds. Being unsuccessful in his attempts to bag them, he invited
them into his house to hear him sing. After they had accepted his
invitation, he told them that if they were to hear his sweet voice,
they must keep their eyes closed tightly. He warned them that their
eyes would turn to a blood red if they opened them. Then he sang and
danced. In his dance, however, as he passed each bird, he took it by
the head and wrung its neck. This continued until he came to Siyaka,
the duck. Siyaka opened his eyes just as the Iktomi seized him, and
managed to break away. But where the Iktomi had his hand about his neck
there was a red ring which is there to this day, and Siyaka is now the
ring-necked duck.

The thunderbirds, so ran another tale of the aged storyteller, live
suspended between heaven and earth, their wings supported by lightning.
Above are the dark clouds. Below is the earth. When the thunderbirds
shake their wings favorably, it rains. There was a time when they tired
of living between heaven and earth, and asked the Great Mystery if
they might become men and live on earth. This the Great Mystery gave
them permission to do, but told them that they should become men such
as no other men were. Accordingly, they became giants so large that
one living on the Big Muddy could reach the Atlantic Ocean in a single
step. One of them playfully took up a handful of earth, and the waters
flowing into the depression formed Lake Superior, while the handful of
earth which he tossed aside made a mountain. They dug a ditch to the
Gulf of Mexico, and it is now called the Mississippi River. Such antics
finally produced all the lakes and rivers. At last the thunderbird
men grew old and died, and went back to the spaces between heaven
and earth. Lightning is the fire from their eyes, and thunder the
reverberation from their eggs as they hatch.

While the night settled darker and a breath of cool air stole in from
the prairie, the storyteller told of the great giant who lives in the
North and whose name is Wasiya. The feathers of his bonnet are icicles,
and his clothing is of ice. When he blows his breath, it turns cold and
winter comes.

Later, as strange lights began to play far away in the northern sky,
the narrator told the story, heard from the Chippewa, of the Northern
Lights. A woman in a dream once visited the land where these lights
shine, and discovered that they are ghosts rising and falling in the
steps of a dance. All the women wear gay colors, and the warriors
brandish their war clubs.

The boys and girls heard, too, of the beautiful Indian maiden who came
from the land of the setting sun and brought the Sioux the pipe of
strange red stone, which is the solidified blood of Indians. She told
them to use the pipe only when there is peace, or peace to be made, and
in times of sickness and distress; and urged them to be kind to the
women because they are weak. She is now the morning star, the Indians'
sister, and stands in the heavens, wearing a white buffalo robe. The
boys and girls were told, too, as the darkness deepened out on the
prairies, that the earth is the Indians' Mother, and the sun their
Father. Therefore, they should treat kindly and with reverence all
things in earth and sky, because they are manifestations of Wakantanka,
the Great Mystery, or the Great Spirit, to whom the Indians pray.


Shortly after the Verendrye visit the Mandan seem to have declined.
When Lewis and Clark came up the Missouri in 1804, the villages about
the Heart River were in ruins. Farther up the river, near where it is
joined by the Knife, the explorers found the Mandan, diminished by
smallpox and by wars with the Assiniboin and the Dakota to two small
villages. In 1837 smallpox again broke out, reducing the tribe from
1,600 to 150--some travelers give even a lower figure. At the beginning
of the twentieth century it numbered about 250.

The other agricultural tribes seem to have suffered fates almost as
harsh. The Hidatsa, numbering 2,100 at the time of the Lewis and Clark
visit, had been reduced at the beginning of the present century to
less than 500. In 1804 the Arikara, crowded by the Sioux, had moved
up the river nearer to the other agricultural tribes. Lewis and Clark
found them in three villages between the Grand and Cannonball Rivers in
what is now North and South Dakota. At that time they numbered 2,600,
but this figure had dropped to 380 by the beginning of the twentieth
century. The Cheyenne village on the Missouri, some distance below
the site of Bismarck, was in ruins at the time of the expedition.
Successive migrations finally brought the Cheyenne to the headwaters of
the Cheyenne River in the southwestern part of present South Dakota.

The agricultural tribes on the whole have been very friendly to the
whites. In 1870 a large reservation, which has since been much reduced
in size, was set apart at the junction of the Missouri and the Little
Missouri Rivers for the Mandan, Arikara, and Hidatsa (_see Side Tour
3A_). Since the beginning of the century their numbers have increased
by large percentages and at the present time they number approximately
1,650. The remnant of those Cheyenne who lived in North Dakota are now
on reservations in south central Montana and in Oklahoma.

The nomadic tribes, especially the Sioux, did not take as kindly
to the white invasion as did the agricultural groups. However, the
principal disturbances involving this tribe--the Minnesota Massacre of
1862, which extended to Abercrombie within the limits of present North
Dakota; Sibley's campaign to the Missouri in 1863; Sully's expeditions
into Dakota in 1863-64; and the battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876,
when Gen. George A. Custer and five companies of cavalry were wiped
out--none of these major conflicts involved the Sioux as a whole,
but rather one or more of the seven Council Fires, as they call their
tribal divisions. These seven groups are the Mdewakanton, Wahpekute,
Sisseton, and Wahpeton, who inhabited the region about Lake Traverse
and the Big Sioux River and east to the Mississippi; the Yankton and
Yanktonai, who lived along the course of the James River; and the
Teton, who dwelt west of the Missouri. The four Council Fires first
named were responsible for the uprising and massacre in Minnesota in
1862, in which about 400 settlers and 100 white soldiers lost their
lives. Sibley and Sully were sent into Dakota Territory in 1863-64 to
punish the perpetrators of this massacre, but although they punished
Sioux, they probably did not punish the offending bands (_see_ HISTORY).

While all the Sioux were bitter in their objection to the whites,
it was the Teton, or prairie Sioux, whose seven bands constituted
more than one-half the tribe, who were the most unremitting in their
hostility. These bands were the Ogallala, Brulé, Hunkpapa, Blackfeet,
Minneconjou, Sans Arcs, and Two Kettle. Of these the Hunkpapa and
Ogallala were the most numerous. They were also probably the most
inflexible in their determination not to yield to white sovereignty,
and formed the backbone of the Indian opposition in the disasters at
Fort Phil Kearney in Wyoming and at the Little Big Horn in Montana.

The other North Dakota nomadic tribes did not give the newcomers as
much trouble as did the Sioux. The Assiniboin were a wandering people,
less certain of fixed habitation than the Sioux and Chippewa. In spite
of the uncertainty of their lives and their constant warfare with the
Sioux, in the early part of the nineteenth century they numbered about
1,200 lodges. Not long afterward they were reduced by a plague of
smallpox to less than 400 lodges.

The Chippewa made a treaty with the Government in 1815 after the
border troubles incident to the War of 1812, and have since remained
peaceful, almost all residing on reservations or allotted lands within
their original territory in Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North
Dakota. At the close of the eighteenth century there were perhaps
25,000 Chippewa, while at the beginning of the twentieth there were in
the neighborhood of 30,000, approximately 1,000 of whom were in North

The nomadic tribes now living in North Dakota are on three
reservations. Nearly 1,000 Sioux are at Fort Totten (_see Side Tour
6A_), while Standing Rock (_see Side Tour 8C_) has about 1,600
on the North Dakota side. Six thousand three hundred thirty-four
Chippewas, most of whom are of mixed blood, live on the Turtle Mountain
Reservation (_see Tour 5_). The members of the Assiniboin tribe now
live on reservations in Montana and Canada.


Present-day North Dakota Indian life offers a vastly different picture
from that which the Verendryes saw in 1738, or that which three-fourths
of a century later presented itself to Lewis and Clark. The lives of
the groups on the various reservations bear many points in common. They
have all been brought very quickly from the age of stone and thrust
precipitately into the bright light of the modern world. They are all
survivors of Indian nations whose ranges once extended from the forests
of the Great Lakes to the Rockies, and from the prairies of western
Canada to the Platte. Now on much restricted areas and amid a complex
and alien culture they are endeavoring to build homes and rear children
in a manner that will at once accord with the limitations set by the
dominant white race, and yet retain what they feel is worthy in their
own cultures and traditions.

In spite of these fundamental similarities the material life of the
Indians on the various reserves presents not only a mingling of white
and Indian cultures, but also somewhat wide differences in economic
status. With the exception of that done at Fort Berthold little farming
is carried on, a situation not generally due to lack of land; while
more than 6,000 Indians at Turtle Mountain are crowded into 72 square
miles, and while the present homes of all of the tribes are rather
infinitesimal in comparison with their former wide ranges, most of them
do not lack space for farming. However, particularly at Standing Rock,
a certain antipathy for the white man's settled mode of life, coupled
with semiarid conditions unfavorable to agriculture, have discouraged
efforts along that line.

The land has been allotted in severalty for the most part, and the
concept of individual ownership has in general been adopted, although
there is a movement in the Standing Rock area to return to the communal
form. A small amount of grazing and timber land is held tribally at
Fort Berthold and Standing Rock, and the latter reservation has a
tribal herd of 1,500 cattle. Much Indian land is rented to whites for
grazing or farming.

The relatively superior economic situation of the Fort Berthold
Indians is doubtless due to the ancient agrarian background of the
tribe. Long centuries of farming fitted them for ready adjustment
to the agricultural life of the reservation. A general view of the
farming section of their area presents an aspect not greatly unlike
that of any other farming section in a similar territory. While many
of them live in log houses of two to four rooms, others live in better
buildings than those of the average rural district. Homes on the other
reservations vary from primitive shacks and log cabins to modern
dwellings, and are usually clustered about agencies or subagencies.
In summertime many of the Indians, showing a longing for the old tipi
life, live in tents placed in their yards, and cook over open fires.
Wikiups, improvised shelters of willows, are also used in fair weather.

Although the primitive food-gathering methods of hunting and fishing
have no great economic value at the present time, the Indians still
make use of their traditional knowledge of certain native foods and
simple ways of preserving them. They dry much of their food, especially
meat and vegetables. Among the Fort Berthold Indians one may still be
offered pemmican, corn balls, butter from marrow, sausage, and tripe.
Mint and balm leaves for tea, chokecherries, berries, red bean and
tipsin roots, and wild onions, artichokes, and plums are still added
to the larder. Rattlesnake oil, skunk oil, sweet grass, cedar tree
needles, and wild sage are used as medicines. In addition the Sioux at
Standing Rock make _wakmiza wasna_ by pounding corn meal and raisins
into beef tallow, and forming the whole into small cakes. _Wojapi_ is
made of chokecherries, June berries, and flour, and some women add
a little sugar to make a kind of pudding. Wild beans are taken from
caches where they have been stored by mice, the supplies thus removed
always being replaced with corn. _Kinnikinik_ or _killiklik_, a mixture
used for smoking, is made of dried and shredded red willow bark,
sprinkled with tobacco.

Some basketry is still made, and most of the Indian groups do tanning
and very good beadwork. Porcupine quills, horse hair, and feathers are
employed in the designs in embroidery, and elk teeth, shells, colored
clays, and weasel tails are used for adornments. Objects of Indian art
are on display and for sale at the annual fairs on the reservations,
and usually can be purchased at the agencies or subagencies.

Complicating the struggle for existence for most of the tribes is
the prevalence of tuberculosis, of which one-third of the people at
Standing Rock are said to be victims. Trachoma also is common. In spite
of these facts, however, the tribes are gaining rapidly in numbers,
with an average birth rate more than twice as high as the death rate.

The Government has sought to aid the Indian in his transition to the
new culture by giving him a part in the realm of political relations.
All the reservations have native police, employed by the Government;
and Standing Rock has two Indian police judges, who hear all cases and
pass sentence on all minor Indian violations of law. At Turtle Mountain
there are no Government restrictions in the use of land and stock, and
the tribe has complete charge of property. All the Indian groups except
that at Fort Totten have tribal councils, which, while their legal
powers are not great, have considerable weight in an advisory capacity.

The acceptance by the tribes of the white man's fundamental educational
principle of daily formal schooling has had a large part in their
assimilation. Mission schools established by the various churches
frequently brought the first formal education to the Indians, and
most of the groups are still served by such schools. Small and large
Government schools have been provided to give the Indian child the same
educational opportunity as that afforded the white. Fort Totten and
Turtle Mountain both have consolidated Indian schools, and a boarding
school offering high school work is maintained at Wahpeton.

In spite of their work in these schools and the fact that they are
fast becoming fluent speakers of English, in most instances the
Indians are retaining their native tongues. An exception to this is at
Turtle Mountain, where due to intermarriage of French and Indian the
Algonquian mother tongue of the Chippewa is dying out.

While doubtless many ancient habits and customs are retained, such as
those pertaining to marriage, formal tribal ceremonies do not appear to
be conducted to any great extent at the present time. Marriage assumes
the Christian form, and the Christian religion has been generally
adopted, with the Catholic, Episcopalian, and Congregational faiths
most commonly represented. The ancient tribal religions still exert
a powerful influence, however--a fact especially evident at such
times as the performance of the annual Arikara ceremonies on the Fort
Berthold Reservation and the yearly sun dance of the Chippewa at Turtle
Mountain. The large sun dance held at Little Eagle in South Dakota in
1936 by the Sioux of the Standing Rock Agency was the first conducted
by that tribe in more than 50 years.

The Indians often participate in the social dances, such as the Omaha
grass dance, the rabbit dance, and the hoop dance; and dancing in
native costume can be seen occasionally, particularly during Fourth of
July celebrations and at the annual fairs. The latter are held on most
of the reservations some time in September and October. Music for the
strictly Indian dancing consists of singing accompanied by drums--the
small Indian hand drums or tom-toms, and the white man's big bass drum.
Formerly a large drum of Indian manufacture was used; and rattles,
string bells, and flutelike whistles are still made.

A great many group activities center at the schools and churches,
where take place the usual athletic, social, and religious events and
gatherings found in white communities.


The Atlantic seaboard Colonies still constituted the American frontier
on the April day in 1682 when the intrepid Sieur de la Salle, in the
presence of a company of uncomprehending red men, took possession of
the lands drained by the Mississippi River "in the name of the Most
High, Mighty, Invincible, and Victorious Prince, Louis the Great, by
the Grace of God, King of France and Navarre, Fourteenth of that name."

His words figuratively raised the flag of France over a vast territory
which included more than half of what is now North Dakota. Two other
European nations were to own parts of this State, and it was to be
identified with nine United States Territories before actually becoming
a member of the Union in 1889.

La Salle's _Procès Verbal_ claimed for France the vast lands in the
drainage basins of the Mississippi and its tributaries. All of this
territory was ceded to Spain in 1762, to repay her for losses suffered
as an ally of France. Adjustments of territorial possessions having
been made between Spain and England, however, France "suggested" that
Spain cede back the lands, which she reluctantly did in 1800.

The Louisiana Purchase was negotiated in 1803, and the United
States came into possession of the Mississippi basin, including the
southwestern half of North Dakota. The northeastern part of the State,
drained by the Red and Souris Rivers, was acquired from Great Britain
in 1818, when a treaty fixed the Canadian-United States boundary at the
Forty-ninth Parallel.

As the growth of the Nation extended westward, this State successively
became part of the Louisiana, Great Northwest, Missouri, Michigan,
Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, and finally Dakota Territories.
For the three years from the formation of Minnesota to the creation
of Dakota Territory, from 1858-61, almost all of the present State
lying east of the Missouri was unorganized territory, without formal
government of any kind.

Dakota Territory extended from the Canadian border to the Forty-third
Parallel, and from Minnesota and Iowa to the main ridge of the Rockies.
When Wyoming Territory was created in 1868 the present western boundary
of the Dakotas was fixed, and the southern boundary of the Territory
was settled in 1882. In the general election of 1887 residents voted
that the Seventh Standard Parallel divide Dakota Territory into two
States. President Benjamin Harrison signed the bills admitting North
and South Dakota to statehood November 2, 1889: while he signed them,
both documents were covered except for the signature space, so that it
can never be known which of the twin Dakotas is the elder.

The two States derive their names from the Santee Sioux word _dakota_,
which means "allies."


Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de la Verendrye, was the first
white man known to have entered what is now North Dakota. Like so
many others of his time, Verendrye, a French-Canadian, was in search
of the westward route to India. When the liberal Louis XV came to the
throne of France he granted Verendrye permission to explore and claim
new lands for France, in return for which Verendrye was to receive
exclusive fur trading privileges. With a fur monopoly to back him
Verendrye succeeded in obtaining financial support for his venture, and
in 1731 he and his party left Montreal for the explorations which were
to occupy the remainder of his life.

It was in 1738 that, having established several forts in what later
became Manitoba and Saskatchewan, he decided to visit the Indians
called the Mantannes (Mandans), of whom he had heard. Accordingly he
journeyed south and west, past the Pembina and Turtle Mountains, and
eventually reached a Mandan village located a day's journey from the
Missouri. Until 1936 this village was believed by historians to have
been near Sanish, but in the light of recent discoveries at a site near
Menoken, the latter is now thought by many historians to have been the
village visited by the Verendrye party. This theory is substantiated by
the journal of Verendrye in which he states that he sent his sons to
visit another village on the Missouri, a day's march distant (_see Tour

Of this trip to the Mandans, Verendrye wrote that their village
consisted of 130 earth lodges, and added, "Their fortification ...
has nothing savage about it." The people he described as "of mixed
blood, white and black. The women are rather handsome, particularly
the light colored ones; some have an abundance of fair hair." But
later he records that he reproved his Assiniboin guides for telling
him the Mandans were light-colored, and asserted they had lied to him,
whereupon they said the fair people of whom they spoke wore metal
(armor) and were a summer's journey down the river.

The French party left the Mandan chief a lead tablet claiming the land
in the King's name. What became of the tablet is unknown; a similar
one, buried by a son of Verendrye on an expedition in 1743, was
unearthed in 1913 at Fort Pierre, S. Dak.

This visit of Verendrye to North Dakota was his only trip into the
region. Two of his sons passed through North Dakota again in 1742, on
which expedition they reached either the Black Hills or the Big Horn
Mountains. Unable to make any satisfactory progress toward the ocean,
they returned to their friends the Mandans and thence to Fort la Reine
in Manitoba.

Fifty years elapsed from the visits of the Verendryes to the next
important exploration of North Dakota. In November 1797 David Thompson,
an English geographer in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, was
sent out to survey the boundary and visit the company posts. It was
an unusually cold winter, and the party suffered intensely during the
68-day journey. They explored along the Assiniboine and Souris Rivers
and the west edge of the Turtle Mountains, then turned southwest to the
Missouri, where they visited the Mandans, and Hidatsa.

Thompson in his journal has given a thorough account of the homes,
manners, food, dress, and agricultural activities of these Indians. He
noted that, while their villages were much alike, the Mandans were a
more courteous and better behaved group. Called "the greatest practical
land geographer in history," Thompson later helped survey the boundary
line between Canada and the United States in accordance with the Treaty
of 1818. In commemoration of his exploration of this State a monument
has been erected to him, in the shape of a large masonry sphere, at
Verendrye (_see Tour 7_).

The same year that Thompson explored central North Dakota, Charles
Chaboillez, a fur trader, came to Pembina to establish the first North
West Company post within the present boundaries of this State. Both
the Hudson's Bay and the XY Companies established posts in the same
vicinity in 1801, and with three great companies in deadly competition,
life at Pembina was colorful and dangerous. Excusing their own lack of
scruples on the grounds of competition, the companies bought furs with
liquor, giving rum to the Indians until they agreed to sell or until
they were too stupefied to know when the pelts were taken from them.

Three years after the establishment of Chaboillez's post, Alexander
Henry, a partner in the North West Fur Company, built a post on the
Red River near the mouth of Park River, and shortly afterward moved
down to the mouth of the Pembina. He made frequent trips to the Grandes
Fourches (Grand Forks) and established depots there and in the Hair
Hills, or Pembina Mountains. On one occasion he made a trip to the
Missouri to visit the Mandans, and his journal says of their farming
methods: "The whole view was agreeable and had more the appearance of a
country inhabited by a civilized nation than by a set of savages."

Liquor flowed freely at the Henry post. Traders found it profitable to
deal with Indians who were in a drunken stupor. Henry's journal gives
evidence that brawls were an everyday occurrence. One entry reads:
"Feb. 9, 1806. Men and women have been drinking a match for three days
and nights, during which it has been drink, fight--drink, fight--drink,
and fight again--guns, axes, and knives their weapons--very
disagreeable." Henry left Pembina in 1808 for the Saskatchewan River.

At his post were born North Dakota's first two children of other than
Indian parentage. The first, the daughter of Pierre Bonza, Henry's
Negro servant, who had formerly been a slave in the West Indies, was
born March 12, 1802.

The first white child was born December 29, 1807, to the "Orkney Lad",
a woman who had worked at the post for several years in the guise of
a man, until the birth of the child betrayed her sex. Abandoned by
the father of the child, John Scart, she remained at the post until a
collection was taken up and she and the baby sent back to her home in
the Orkney Islands.

President Jefferson for some time had been eager to have a party
explore the Missouri, cross the Rockies and reach the Pacific. In 1803
the Louisiana Purchase facilitated completion of his plans, and his
secretary, Capt. Meriwether Lewis, with a friend, Capt. William Clark,
started out on the journey of exploration.

On October 13, 1804, the expedition came up the Missouri River into
what is now North Dakota. Near the present site of Stanton, where the
Knife River joins the Missouri, Lewis and Clark discovered villages
of the Mandans and Hidatsa. Having been well received, they decided
to establish winter quarters. Fort Mandan was built and the flag
of the United States of America raised for the first time on North
Dakota soil. It was here that the explorers secured the services of
Charbonneau, the French interpreter, and his wife Sakakawea, the
Shoshone Indian girl who guided them successfully through the Rockies
to the Pacific (_see_ BISMARCK).

After spending the winter with the friendly Indians, the expedition in
April 1805 set out along the river again, following its course into
Montana. Their journey through the mountains to the Pacific, led by
Sakakawea, is one of the most thrilling adventures in American history.

The party returned in September 1806 to the Hidatsa village on the
Missouri where Lewis and Clark, taking leave of their faithful guide,
set out for St. Louis and home. The careful observations recorded in
the journals of their party are a valuable contribution to the history
of this region.

Lewis and Clark were not the only explorers to visit the Missouri
region in the early nineteenth century. A decade before they came
traders were already ascending the river, and in the succeeding year
naturalists and military men added their presence to the growing,
if transient, white population. Among the many who left interesting
records of their explorations and travels were Charles le Raye, who
spent three years as a captive of the Brulé Sioux; Manuel Lisa,
one of the most important fur traders on the upper Missouri; Gen.
William Ashley, Col. Henry Leavenworth, and Gen. Henry Atkinson, who
subdued the Arikara; and Wilson P. Hunt of the Astorian Overland
Expedition. Two royal adventurers visited here: Paul Wilhelm, Prince of
Wurttemberg, who is said to have taken Sakakawea's son back to Germany
with him; and Maximilian, Prince of Wied, who brought with him the
Swiss artist Carl Bodmer, whose paintings preserve much of the life and
customs of the Mandans. George Catlin, a native artist, was aboard the
first steamboat to reach the Yellowstone. He painted and wrote about
the Missouri Indians, and left hundreds of pictures of their life. John
James Audubon, noted naturalist, spent several months in present North
Dakota studying the larger types of North American mammals.


The earliest attempt at colonization in this State was the Selkirk
settlement in 1812 at Pembina in the Red River Valley. The Earl of
Selkirk had arranged for the transportation of a group of evicted
Scotch and Irish peasants to the Hudson Bay region in Canada, and
some of the emigrants had followed the Red River south and settled at
Pembina. The fur traders in that vicinity, however, were not eager
to have the wild country inhabited. They made life miserable for
the Selkirk settlers, and finally succeeded in driving most of the
newcomers out.

Among the fur companies of that time were two famous competitors, the
Hudson's Bay and the North West Companies. Others were the Missouri Fur
Company, Chouteau and Berthold, Northwestern, Columbia, and Sublette
& Campbell, the latter company establishing a post, Fort William, on
the site later occupied by Fort Buford military post. John Jacob Astor
established the American Fur Company, and for years Fort Union, on
North Dakota's western border, was that company's principal post. (_See
Side Tour 6B._)

Some of northeastern North Dakota's most noted pioneers came into
this region as fur traders. Joseph Rolette was sent to Pembina by the
American Fur Company in 1842. A member of the Minnesota Territorial
Legislature, he was responsible for keeping the capital at St. Paul.
Norman Kittson, who established a fur trading post at Pembina in 1843,
became the first postmaster, in 1851, in what is now North Dakota. He,
too, was a member of the Minnesota Territorial Legislature. Charles
Cavileer, while not a fur trader, was a contemporary of these men, and
acted as collector of customs at Pembina.

The coming of settlers marked the decline of the fur trade, but at its
height it had been colorful. Lewis Crawford, a North Dakota historian,
has written:

  "In this early race for empire none except fur seekers entered.
  Their rhythmic paddle blades swished up every stream of the West to
  its rivulet head; every mountain height and forbidding gorge knew
  their intrepid feet.... Every nationality had a part.... These were
  the true pathfinders, the true explorers, the heralds of empire.
  Their fur-laden vessels floating down the familiar waters of the
  Missouri and its tributaries represented the wealth, the adventure,
  the romance of the Northwest."

In the time of the fur trader the Missouri River, the "Smoky Water" of
the Indians, was navigable, though as turbulent and capricious as it is
today. It was the highway of the trader and later of the gold seeker.
The first steamboat to navigate the Missouri through North Dakota was
the _Yellowstone_, which in 1832 ascended the river to Fort Union. To
operate a boat on this river required great skill.

Famous pilots in the heyday of the steamboat who wrestled with the
wiles of the Missouri included Joseph LaBarge, Grant Marsh, and C. J.
Atkins. In 63 years as a pilot Grant Marsh wrecked but one boat on the
Mississippi and never had a wreck on the Missouri or Yellowstone.

The yellow gleam of gold, discovered in Montana in 1863 and 1864,
drew a rush of prospectors. The railroads had not yet penetrated
this territory, and the Missouri was the pathway to the gold fields.
Precious cargoes of yellow dust floated down through Dakota, bound for
St. Louis. It is said that one boat, the _Luella_, carried gold dust to
the value of $1,250,000 down the river in 1866.

It was not the coming of the railroads to Bismarck in 1873 that marked
the decline of the steamboat on the Missouri, but rather the extension
of the railroad westward to Montana in 1883.

The Red River of the North was the important channel of traffic for
northeastern North Dakota. Steamboats were not as numerous as they were
on the Missouri, nor were they operated at such an early date. Fleets
of barges and scows were used to transport provisions. The steamer
_Selkirk_ commanded by Capt. Alexander Griggs, best known of Red River
pilots, brought passengers down the river to settle at Grand Forks the
year after he and his crew had unexpectedly spent the winter there
(_see_ GRAND FORKS).

In Territorial days United States military posts were numerous but
short-lived. Fort Abercrombie on the west bank of the Red River, about
12 miles north of the site of Wahpeton, was established in 1857.
Supplies for this post were brought from St. Paul. When the Sioux went
on the warpath in 1862, Minnesota settlers sought refuge here during a
seven weeks' siege. The fort was abandoned in 1877 (_see Tour 1_).

Fort Rice, on the west bank of the Missouri, came next. Gen. Alfred
H. Sully's men cut cottonwood trees to build it in 1864. The fort
housed four infantry companies. It was to Fort Rice in 1870 that Linda
Slaughter, young, talented, followed her husband, Dr. Frank Slaughter.
Her writings, depicting the frontier life, found their way into many
eastern papers, and today constitute some of the best material on that
era of State history. At Fort Rice she buried her first-born child,
her only son, in the bitter cold of January. She heard the arrows of
hostile Indians whizzing dangerously near. Her luxuriant hair, which
she always wore long over her shoulders, was coveted as a scalp lock,
and she came near leaving it with the red men on one of her horseback
jaunts from the fort. A woman who could paint, write, or lecture at
will, she could also cook or nurse as the occasion demanded. In later
days she wrote the first telegram that was sent to the world from
Edwinton, the village which became Bismarck.

Fort Rice was dismantled in 1878 when Fort Yates, to the south, took
its place. Fort Ransom on the Sheyenne was established in 1867. In
1872 Fort Seward, first called Fort Cross, was built at Jamestown. The
military reservations of Fort Abercrombie and Fort Seward were opened
to homestead entry in 1880.

Fort Totten, near Devils Lake, was constructed in 1867 and served until
1890, when the buildings were turned over to the Indian school. Fort
Stevenson on the Missouri at the mouth of Douglas Creek was maintained
from 1867-83. Fort Buford was built in 1866 opposite the mouth of the
Yellowstone on the north bank of the Missouri. After his surrender
in 1877 Chief Joseph was taken through Fort Buford en route to Fort
Leavenworth, Kans., and Chiefs Gall and Sitting Bull went there to
surrender after their escape into Canada (_see Side Tour 6B_). The fort
existed officially until 1895, but sometime before its abandonment the
garrison had been transferred to Fort Assiniboine in Montana.

Established on the Red River near the site of Pembina, Fort Pembina
was maintained from 1870 to 1895. Fort McKeen, established in 1872,
became, the same year, part of Fort Abraham Lincoln, garrisoned until
1891. It was from Fort Abraham Lincoln that Custer and his Seventh
Cavalry marched to death and disaster on the banks of the Little Big
Horn in 1876 (_see_ FORT ABRAHAM LINCOLN STATE PARK). After 25 years of
occupation, Fort Yates was abandoned in 1903, when the new Fort Lincoln
was built near Bismarck with facilities for four companies of infantry
and supporting detachments. (_See Tour 8._)

These early forts were established to protect the settlers along the
frontier and to keep the Indians in order. It was after the Sioux
outbreak in Minnesota in 1862 that Gen. Henry H. Sibley was sent
to punish the Sioux. In June of 1863 he headed his army west from
Minnesota toward the Devil's Lake region, where he arrived to find the
Indians had gone south. He pursued them and on July 24 engaged them
in battle at Big Mound about seven miles north of the present town of
Tappen. They retreated, and he followed them to Dead Buffalo Lake,
northwest of Dawson, where July 26 another engagement was fought. Two
days later he met them again at Stony Lake northeast of Driscoll, but
the Sioux retreated rapidly and there was no fighting. Moving on toward
the Missouri, Sibley encamped on Apple Creek, seven miles east of the
present site of Bismarck, and again near its mouth. The Sioux fled
across the river.

Sibley, all along the route, had thrown up defensive earthworks at each
of his camps. All of these camp sites which were not plowed under have
been definitely located under direction of the State historical society.

Gen. Alfred H. Sully was to have met Sibley on the Missouri, but no
contact could be made and Sibley set out for Minnesota on August 1,
1863. Sully came up the river from Sioux City, and was near Long Lake
when he learned that Sibley had gone home and the Sioux had recrossed
the Missouri and departed for the James River. Sully gave chase--he had
been sent out to fight Indians, and fight them he would. The Battle of
Whitestone Hill, near Ellendale, followed. Whether the Indians Sully
fought had taken part in the Minnesota uprising is today regarded as
dubious, but the battle is said to have been the fiercest ever fought
on North Dakota soil. The field is now marked by a monument of a
cavalry trooper (_see Tour 2_).

Sully returned to Sioux City but was sent back the following year to
deal out still more punishment to the Sioux. After Fort Rice had been
established a scouting detachment was sent after the evasive red men,
and soon reported Sioux near Killdeer Mountain. Here an engagement was
fought July 28, 1864, in which the Indians were severely punished,
although afterwards it developed that few of them were Minnesota Sioux.

The troops proceeded up the Little Missouri, where Indians were
discovered near Medora. With difficulty Sully traversed 12 miles of
Badlands buttes and gullies, continually harassed by the sniping fire
of Indians along the route. The fighting of this day is known as the
Battle of the Badlands. Following this encounter Sully reached the
Yellowstone and returned down the Missouri.

Before he arrived at Fort Rice, he was informed that Capt. James
L. Fisk, with a party of immigrants, was in danger. Fisk, who had
made expeditions through North Dakota in 1862 and 1863, on this trip
followed Sully's trail, and in the Badlands was attacked September 1
by Indians, with the loss of several men. During the next few days
several other attacks were made, although no one was killed. Messengers
were sent to Sully for aid, and meanwhile the party threw up what
fortifications they could in the form of sod walls, and, awaited help.
After several days the soldiers arrived and brought the immigrants back
to Fort Rice, whence most of them returned to their homes. The remains
of their impromptu fortification, known as Fort Dilts, can still be
seen (_see Tour 9_).

One of the most valuable expeditions made through this State was the
Stevens Survey of 1853, sent out to discover the most advantageous
routes to the Pacific for future railroads. The party was financed by
a Federal appropriation, and the northern route, through present North
Dakota, was under the direction of Gen. I. I. Stevens.

The guide on this expedition was Pierre Bottineau, one of the
outstanding personalities in the history of North Dakota and Minnesota
during this period. Of him it has been written that

  "It was the guide Bottineau who walked from Winnipeg to St. Paul
  with James J. Hill, it was the scout Bottineau who headed Jay
  Cooke's first Northern Pacific survey across the continent, it was
  the chief Bottineau who gave his name to Bottineau County, and it
  was the gambler Bottineau who had three queens in his hand, staked
  Nicollet Island, and lost."

In 1871 the Whistler expedition went up the Little Missouri and into
Montana in search of the most practical route for a railroad to the
Pacific. Two years later the Stanley expedition, accompanied by a
large military escort, conducted another western survey. Engagements
with Indians cost this expedition a number of men. One Sioux,
Rain-in-the-Face, claimed to have had a part in killing two civilians
on the Stanley Survey, and as a result was imprisoned at Fort Lincoln
until he escaped. He gained his revenge at the Little Big Horn (_see
Side Tour 8C_).

The Northern Pacific Railway received its charter from the Government
in 1864. Magnificent Federal land grants were made: still the road
found it difficult to raise the necessary capital to finance the
venture, and Jay Cooke & Company undertook the sale of Northern Pacific

On the last day of the year 1871 the line was completed to the Red
River at Moorhead, and early in March of the next year it was extended
to Fargo. Cooke went into bankruptcy after the financial panic of
1873, but was able to obtain private funds to complete the road to the
Missouri that year. Bismarck remained the western terminus of the line
until 1879. During the next two years rails were laid to the Montana
border, completing the line across the entire State.

In 1870, just before the advent of the railways, the estimated white
population of present North Dakota was not more than five hundred.
Pembina County, extending the length of the Red River Valley and to the
western population limit, was the only organized county in the State.

The Northern Pacific was completed to the Pacific Coast in 1883.
Squatters preceded the railroad, settlers followed it, trying to guess
future town sites so they could force the company to buy them out at
the most profitable price.

The Great Northern was the second important railroad to come into the
State. By 1882 James J. Hill, the "Empire Builder," had extended a
line up the Dakota side of the Red River to Canada. Hill had a vision
of a great railroad connecting the Pacific Coast with the Great Lakes,
whence produce could be cheaply transported to New York. Construction
began in 1880 and the Great Northern was extended westward across
northern North Dakota and in 1893 reached the Coast.

The railroads linked Dakota with the East and civilization, but to the
west was the frontier. Here Sioux warriors were beginning to resent
the encroaching whites and the appropriation of their hunting grounds.
It was imperative, therefore, that soldiers be kept at Fort Abraham

To understand the campaign of 1876 against the Sioux, in which Gen.
George A. Custer met his tragic end, it is necessary to go back to the
Indian treaty of 1868. The Government by this pact promised to abandon
and destroy Forts Reno and Phil Kearney in Wyoming and Fort Smith
in Montana. This having been done, the Sioux were guaranteed their
freedom in the territory between the North Platte and the Missouri and
Yellowstone Rivers. But, when gold was discovered in the Black Hills
by a Government reconnaissance expedition under Custer in the summer
of 1874, white settlers and prospectors begged for admission to the
coveted territory. Military guards at first attempted to keep them
out, but when the Indians refused in a treaty council in 1875 to sell
or lease land to miners, the Government withdrew the guard and settlers
poured in by thousands.



  _Photo by Russell Reid_]



                                           _Photo by Russell Reid_]



  _Photo by Russell Reid_]



                                           _Photo by Russell Reid_]


Government officials were well aware, when the treaty of 1868 was
violated, that an Indian war was inevitable; but although the
Government had clearly brought the war down on its own head, it sought
the appearance of righteousness.

It was the practice of many Indians to leave their reservations because
they wanted to hunt or visit, or because the practices of dishonest
agents made life on the reservation unbearable. The Department of
the Interior sent out orders for all Indians to be back on their
reservations at a certain date, but for many it was impossible to
return within the time limit set. The Department designated these
people as "hostiles" and turned them over to the War Department, which
now had a pretext for taking punitive action.

The campaign of 1876 was planned to force the Indians onto
reservations, in order to obtain the relinquishment of the Black Hills.
Generals Crook and Gibbon, with their forces, were to meet Generals
Terry and Custer with their troops near the Rosebud River in Montana.
All were then to move southward against the Indians who were in the
hills along the Rosebud and the Little Big Horn.

On the morning of May 17, 1876, the eastern division of the expedition
started out from Fort Abraham Lincoln. The cavalry marched about the
parade grounds to the tune of _Garry Owen_, then set out to the strains
of _The Girl I Left Behind Me_. Mrs. Custer accompanied her husband on
the first day's ride, returning to the fort as the troopers continued

The tragic outcome of the Battle of the Little Big Horn is well known.
Not a man of Custer's immediate command survived. The reasons for the
annihilation have been debated far and wide. Gen. E. S. Godfrey, who
participated in the battle as a lieutenant, in _Custer's Last Battle_
summarizes the affair as follows: "The causes of Custer's defeat were
first, the overpowering number of the enemy and their unexpected
cohesion; second, Reno's panic rout from the valley; third, the
defective extraction of empty cartridge shells from the carbines.... A
battle was unavoidable."

Grant Marsh had pushed his supply steamer, the _Far West_, up the
Big Horn to within 15 miles of the battlefield. Reno's wounded were
placed aboard and Marsh made the trip of 710 miles down to Bismarck
in record time. At midnight July 5 the _Far West_ docked. Colonel
Lounsberry, editor of the Bismarck _Tribune_ and correspondent of the
New York _Herald_, gave the story to the world. Mark Kellogg, special
correspondent of the _Herald_ and the _Tribune_, who had accompanied
the expedition, had been killed with Custer. Twenty-six widows wept at
Fort Lincoln. With Custer's death the frontier era in Dakota history
had ended. Although Sitting Bull's forces were undefeated, they took
refuge in Canada and remained there until 1881, when they voluntarily

They were returned to the reservations. Wishing to keep them there,
the authorities took horses, saddles, and arms from both hostile and
peaceable Sioux. This move, while it did not pacify the Indians, put an
end to the Indian wars.


At the time of the Little Big Horn campaign Dakota's Territorial
Government had functioned for 15 years and was destined to continue 13
years longer. The Territory had been organized in 1861 and President
Lincoln had appointed his family physician, Dr. William Jayne, first
Governor. As first laid out the new Territory included the present
States of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming, but after
a series of changes it was reduced in 1882 to the area of the present

Yankton, in the southern part of the Territory, was the capital city,
and there the first legislature met in 1862. It was an assembly
representative of every type in the Territory--all with great and
varying ideas of how the ship of state was to be kept afloat.

Thirteen members composed the house, while the senate or council had
but nine. In attendance at the session for various reasons were Jim
Somers, frontiersman, "armed like an arsenal"; Father Turner of New
York; George Kingsbury, newspaperman; Dr. Walter Burleigh, later
connected with the Indian Service and the Northern Pacific Railway; and
Gen. T. C. Campbell.

Territorial Dakota displayed no small interest in politics. Campaigns
were periods of great excitement, with long parades of ardent
supporters following the candidates, with cheering and shouting and
bragging and fighting by office seekers and votaries alike. It took
a brave man to campaign in those days. When Moses Armstrong ran for
Congress on the Democratic ticket his friend, Gen. T. C. Campbell,
invited him into his part of the Territory to speak. During the
general's speech his hat was shot off, but his oratory did not falter.
When it came Armstrong's turn to speak he hesitated about addressing
such a boisterous crowd, but the general informed him that the time to
do his praying was before he crossed the county line, not after.

County seat removals were a prime source of political interest, and
the cities in the Territory fought tooth and nail for the privileges
of the county capital. Stuffing ballot boxes was not uncommon, and in
many instances where removal was voted the defeated city would refuse
to give up the county records, and guards would be posted against
nocturnal raids of the courthouse vaults by citizens of the victorious
town. When the Emmons County _Record_ defeated a plan to move the
county seat from Williamsport in 1888, it took full advantage of its
success. Beneath the decoration of a crowing cock heading the column,
these headlines, typical of the county seat controversies, appeared in
the _Record_ November 9 of that year:


        And Billsport Hath The
        Appellation Earned,
      For Lo! She Doth Get There
            With Both Feet.
      And She Moppeth the Earth
    With the Cohorts of the Wicked.
        Yea, Verily, of the Wadites,
        of the Bumstedites, and
            the Vanbekites,
    And They Shall Gnaw a File and
        Flee Into the Mountains
            of Hepsidam.
        FE!  FI!  FO!  FUM!

The entire edition, in celebration of the occasion, was printed in red

Territorial Governors and other high officials were not popular with
the people. They were usually from the East and had no interest in
the country, their salaries or political advancement being their
chief concern. Just after the first legislature had adjourned an
Indian uprising disturbed the settlers. It did not take the Governor
and other officials long to quit the Territory. Moses Armstrong,
later a Congressman, wrote, "With such rapidity do they fly, pale and
breathless, that a boy could play marbles on their horizontal coat

Dakota Territory covered about 150,000 square miles and had 36
representatives in the legislature during the 1880's for its population
of 300,000. Four judges and three prosecuting attorneys administered
matters of Territorial justice.

The second legislative session was no quieter than the first. Because
of disputed delegations there were two houses--one met on the levee by
the Missouri and the other on the hill above the river. After much time
had been lost the differences were compromised and business proceeded.

In 1863 Newton Edmunds of Yankton was appointed Governor of Dakota,
the only resident of the Territory ever to hold that office. The next
Governor was Faulk of Pennsylvania, then followed Burbank of Indiana,
Pennington of Alabama, Howard of Michigan, Ordway of Vermont, Pierce of
New York and Illinois, Church of New York and Indiana, and Mellette of

The northern and southern parts of the Territory had little in common,
and they kept growing farther apart as time went on. In the session of
1883 removal of the capital from Yankton was the big question. Yankton
wanted to keep it, Bismarck, Huron, Mitchell, Pierre, and Chamberlain
wanted to acquire it, and Fargo or Jamestown would have taken it if
offered. A bill was finally passed providing that the Governor appoint
nine commissioners to choose a capital city; they were to accept an
offer of not less than $100,000 and 160 acres of land on which the
capitol was to be built. The land remaining after the capitol grounds
were provided for was to be sold for the benefit of the building fund.

The commissioners named were Milo Scott of Grand Forks County, Burleigh
Spalding of Cass, Alexander McKenzie of Burleigh, Charles Myers of
Spink, George Mathews of Brookings, Alexander Hughes of Yankton, Henry
de Long of Lincoln, John P. Belding of Lawrence, and M. B. Thompson of

The commissioners must, according to law, meet and organize at Yankton.
Feeling ran high; the city did not intend to part with the capital
without a struggle. Yanktonians awaited the commissioners.

But unknown to the citizens of Yankton, the commissioners had
chartered a special train, leaving Sioux City April 3, at 3 a. m.
The commissioners' coach was dimly lighted as the train pulled into
the city limits of Yankton. The meeting was quickly called to order,
officers were chosen, and the meeting adjourned until that afternoon in
Canton. The train had still a half mile to go to the city limits when
the meeting was over. The commissioners had satisfied the law, having
met, organized, and adjourned in Yankton.

The commission thereafter made the rounds of several towns, and was
royally entertained by prospective capital cities. Bismarck's offer of
$100,000 and 320 acres of land was the best bid received. Thus Bismarck
became the Territorial capital.

The cornerstone ceremonies took place September 5, 1883. Many high
officials and prominent citizens from the East were guests of the
Northern Pacific on the Villard "gold spike" excursion, and were
present as guests of honor at the laying of the cornerstone. Among them
were Henry Villard, president of the Northern Pacific Railway; General
Grant; General Haupt; Henry M. Teller, Secretary of the Interior; the
Hon. Sackville West, British Minister; members of the Austro-Hungarian,
the Danish, and the Norwegian-Swedish Legations; the Imperial German
Minister; Territorial Governor Ordway; and numerous United States
Senators, Governors, and mayors.

The next great task was to convince Congress that the Territory was
ready for statehood. As early as 1871 the legislature had requested
Congress to divide the Territory, and in 1874 Moses Armstrong, while
in Congress, had petitioned that the northern part be made into a new
Territory named Pembina. Nearly every year a petition was sent to
Congress praying for admission as two States. In 1860 it was suggested
that the northern part be called North Dakota. The Territorial
legislative assembly in 1889 provided that a constitutional convention
be held for North Dakota, and February 22, 1889, Congress passed an
enabling act for North Dakota, South Dakota, Washington, and Montana.

Delegates to the State convention were elected May 14, 1889, and the
convention met in Bismarck July 4 of that year. A parade in which
Sitting Bull and other famous Indians participated was part of the
entertainment afforded the delegates. Election to approve or disapprove
the proposed constitution was held October 1, 1889, and as it was a
certainty that the constitution would be accepted, legislators, State
officials, and Congressmen were elected at the same time. President
Harrison on November 2, 1889, declared North Dakota a State, and John
Miller at the same moment became first Governor of North Dakota.

Hand in hand with the political development of the Territory had gone
social and economic progress. By the time statehood was attained
farmhouses and towns had broken up the barren loneliness of the
prairies. Sod shanties, the pioneers' first homes, were being replaced
by solid frame structures. Huge bonanza farms were employing hundreds
of men and using advanced farming methods that had not yet been
introduced on farms in the East (_see_ AGRICULTURE & FARM LIFE).
Schools were being built in every community. Six years before statehood
one private college had been established, and the University of North
Dakota had opened its doors and was offering courses in the arts and
sciences to ambitious pioneer youth.


When the constitutional convention for North Dakota completed its work
on August 17, 1889, the product of its labors was a document six times
as long as the Federal Constitution. Based upon a model constitution
drawn up by Prof. James Bradley Thayer of the Harvard Law School, it
contained extremely advanced and enlightened provisions, 217 sections
included in 20 articles. To these have since been added 49 amendments.

The civic pattern adopted was very similar to that in force in the
older States. The legislative branch in North Dakota consists of a
bicameral legislature which meets in January each odd-numbered year.
The executive branch is headed by the Governor, who is elected for
a term of two years. He has the general veto power and authority to
reject any item in an appropriation bill. The judicial department
consists of a supreme court of five members, elected for 10-year
terms; district courts, county courts, and justices of the peace.
The State is divided into six judicial districts, each one under an
elective district judge. County courts are courts of record concerned
with such matters as probate and guardianship, but in counties having
county courts of increased jurisdiction such courts have concurrent
jurisdiction with district courts in certain cases.

The State is divided into counties whose administrative functions
are carried out by boards of commissioners elected every two years.
Any city or village of 500 population or more may choose either the
commission form of government or the mayor and council type.

The framework of government is perhaps not very different from that
in many other States. It is the legislation in North Dakota that has
been anything but a copy of that in any sister State, and the outcome
of some of her political experiments has often been of Nation-wide
interest. The economy of the State is preponderantly rural, and the
tendency has therefore been to try anything that seemed likely to help
in the solution of the farmer's problems.

The legislature of the State of North Dakota met for the first time
November 19, 1889. This session lasted 120 days, but the length of all
subsequent sessions was fixed by the constitution at 60 days. The first
men this State sent to the United States Senate were Gilbert Pierce of
Fargo and Lyman Casey of Jamestown. H. C. Hansbrough of Devils Lake
was the first Congressman. The supreme court had for its chief justice
Guy C. H. Corliss, and Joseph M. Bartholomew and Alfred Wallin were
associate justices.

In this first session the legislature instituted a department of
agriculture for "the promotion of stock-breeding, agriculture,
horticulture, manufactures and domestic arts." A school law enacted
at this session was an enlightened and detailed piece of legislation.
North Dakota had at the beginning of statehood a well-organized school
system of 1,362 public schools with 1,741 teachers; a State university
at Grand Forks; Catholic schools at Fargo, Grand Forks, and Bismarck; a
Congregational college at Fargo; a Presbyterian college at Jamestown;
and at Tower City a Baptist college, which, however, failed to survive.

One of the most exciting battles of the first legislative session
was the bill to license the Louisiana Lottery. Rumors circulated to
the effect that bribery was being practiced, that the lobbyists for
the lottery were making liberal offers for votes. The Governor and
his friends had hired detectives from the Pinkerton Agency to mingle
with the legislators and lobbyists. When the detectives had all the
information they needed, they revealed their identity to the lottery
supporters. Fearing exposure, the lottery enthusiasts gave up the fight
and the bill was killed.

North Dakota was faced with the drought problem during the
administration of Gov. Andrew Burke (1891-92), and the people looked to
the legislature for some solution to their problems. Their petitions
were not at all times considered seriously. One member offered a
resolution praying Congress to pass a law establishing a scientific
rain bureau and a law offering a reward to anyone discovering a
practical system of producing rainfall. The house referred his
resolution to the temperance committee.

At the beginning of statehood North Dakota had been subject to a
rather autocratic form of government in spite of decidedly democratic
constitutional provisions. The State had been economically dependent
on the East. The directing powers in the early State government were
centered in St. Paul and Minneapolis. Eastern wealth had furnished
capital for the railroads, and the railroads had been responsible for
the settlement of the State. Likewise, the farmer's crops had also to
be sold in the East, and his machinery and supplies must necessarily be
purchased there.

At the time North Dakota was admitted to the Union the Republican Party
was in control. Democrats at that time in State history and for long
afterward were few and far between. These two old-line parties were the
only two worthy of note in this early period, although the Populists
polled a large vote in the first Presidential election and North Dakota
divided its first electoral vote, one vote going to the Democratic, one
to the Republican, and one to the Populist candidate.

The railroads and financial interests of St. Paul and Minneapolis had
very early begun interfering in North Dakota politics. Judson LaMoure
and Alexander McKenzie were the lords of this era, both representing
railroad interests in State politics, and the favors they were able to
bestow were a safeguard against legislation hostile to the companies.
In time they came to be the protectors of other interests, including
banks, insurance companies, line elevators, and lumber companies.

The first revolt against this system came in 1892. Gov. Andrew Burke
had vetoed a bill favored by the Farmers' Alliance which would force
railroads to lease sites or rights-of-way for grain elevators and
warehouses. The Farmers' Alliance, Democrats, and Populists fused, and
Eli C. D. Shortridge was elected Governor.

In Governor Shortridge's administration the legislature passed a bill
for highway improvement. Money was appropriated to enlarge the State
capitol building.

The tendency of legislation during the session of 1893 was definitely
toward the principles of the Populist platform. During Shortridge's
administration North Dakota attempted its first State ownership
venture. One hundred thousand dollars was appropriated to build a State
elevator at Duluth, Superior, or West Superior. The panic of 1893 came
on and the plan was not carried out. In 1894 Roger Allin, regular
Republican, was elected Governor, and with that election the first
brief rebellion against Eastern capitalism was ended.

Governor Allin felt it necessary to veto several appropriations in
order to keep within the probable revenue, and State institutions had
practically no funds for operation. In the case of the university,
salary was provided for the janitor but not for the faculty. President
Merrifield and the faculty preferred to serve without any pay rather
than close the institution, and necessary expenditures were met by
private subscription. Other institutions were kept open in the same way.

During the administration of Gov. Frank Briggs (1897-98) the
Spanish-American War broke out. The entire National Guard volunteered
its services, but many members could not be accepted because of the
quota set for North Dakota. North Dakota volunteers took part in 30
engagements and skirmishes during the Philippine insurrection.

Governor Briggs died in July 1898 and his term was completed by the
Lieutenant Governor, Joseph M. Devine, who later served several
years as commissioner of immigration. Both Briggs and Devine were
Republicans, and they were succeeded in 1898 by another member of their
party, Frederick B. Fancher, a leader in the Farmers' Alliance. Fancher
declined a second term, and was succeeded by Maj. Frank White, who had
served in the Philippines. White found the State debt the chief problem
of his administration. He served two terms and yielded his office to E.
Y. Sarles.

Legislation during Sarles' term tended toward control and regulation
of corporations. A board was created to supervise State banks, and the
manner of organizing insurance companies in the State was prescribed.

Sarles was defeated for reelection by "Honest John" Burke, a Democrat,
and the only Governor of this State to serve three terms. From the
governorship he left North Dakota to become United States Treasurer
under President Wilson, later served as chief justice of the North
Dakota Supreme Court, remaining a member of the court until his death
in 1937. Crawford, in his history of North Dakota, has said, "The
legislative history of the Burke administrations is an instructive
illustration of the ideals and motives which were so characteristic
of the [Theodore] Roosevelt era." State institutions were liberally
provided for, a primary election law was enacted, prohibition laws were
enforced, schools were improved, and various regulatory offices and
boards were created.

A second revolution in North Dakota political history was ushered in
with the election of Burke. The Progressive Republicans, enthusiastic
supporters of the so-called "LaFollette reforms," had formed a
coalition with the Democrats to elect this first Democrat Governor of
North Dakota. "It was," according to Judge Andrew Bruce in his book
_The Non-Partisan League_, "the revolution which laid the foundations
for the present Non-Partisan League, for in it the farmers found a new
war cry and new objects of anathema. The war cry was 'North Dakota for
North Dakotans' and the objects of their anathema were 'Big Business,
McKenzie, and McKenzieism.'"

Gov. Louis B. Hanna succeeded Burke in 1913. In 1912, a Presidential
election year, North Dakota's electoral votes went to Woodrow Wilson.
New apportionment gave this State three representatives in Congress
instead of two. Governor Hanna asserted his belief in businesslike
administration of government offices, and revised the accounting
methods in State departments. Throughout this period tendencies in the
State were progressive: social legislation was favored; the State grew
rapidly in population; new towns were springing up; the automobile age
had arrived.

Through all this ran the thread of the second political revolution
which Burke's election had begun, and which was continued through the
Hanna administration. It was directed principally against injustices
in the grain trade. Farmers were incapable of developing their own
marketing facilities. Millions had been invested in the mills and
elevators of St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Duluth, and in the "line"
(corporation) elevator companies throughout North Dakota. The farmers
complained of unfair methods of grading and docking their grain;
they claimed that the Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce was a closed
corporation, and that its members were identified with the big milling
and elevator interests. Even conservative Senator McCumber of North
Dakota protested in 1916 before the United States Senate against abuses
in the grain trade.

The Equity Exchange had been organized in 1909 to act as a farmers'
general selling agency in St. Paul, but had been denied membership in
the Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce. The Society of Equity and the
Equity Exchange tried to get a bill through the 1915 legislature for
the establishment of a State-owned elevator, but the attempt failed.
Indignation at the defeat of the bill resulted in the birth, in
February 1915, of a new political party, the Nonpartisan[1] League.

[1] The party name was originally spelled "Non-Partisan" but through
usage has been changed to its present form.

A. C. Townley, a genius in the art of organization, spread the league
gospel through the State. Townley had begun life in poverty, had
failed in a large-scale flax-growing enterprise, and had for a time
been identified with the Socialist Party. A. C. Bowen suggested the
formation of the league. Charles Edward Russell was the first editor
of the newspaper, the _Non-Partisan Leader_, and Walter Thomas Mills
drafted many of its laws. All three of these men were Socialists.

After winning the support of a prominent farmer, Fred Wood, and his two
sons, the movement spread rapidly. Before the end of the first year the
league had 30,000 members. Its platform embodied five planks:

  1. State ownership of terminal elevators, flour mills, packing
     houses, and cold storage plants.
  2. State inspection of grain and grain dockage.
  3. Exemption of farm improvements from taxation.
  4. State hail insurance on the acreage tax basis.
  5. Rural credit banks operated at cost.

"Practical salesmanship, a program of immediate and forceful action and
the use of the Ford automobile are the factors principally explaining
the rise of the Non-Partisan League," declares Herbert Gaston in his
book _The Non-Partisan League_.

Most of the league membership was Republican; it was therefore an
easy step to the use of the machinery of that party. In the primary
election of June 1916 and again in the fall the league was successful.
Lynn J. Frazier became the first league-elected Governor, and three
league-endorsed candidates, R. H. Grace, James E. Robinson, and L. E.
Birdzell, were placed on the supreme court bench.

Three hundred thousand dollars was appropriated by the legislature
to carry out the provisions of a Terminal Elevator Commission bill,
but Frazier vetoed the act, declaring the appropriation insufficient.
Among the progressive legislation enacted at this session were bills
providing for the creation of a State highway department, land title
registration (never enforced, however), increased funds for rural
schools, reduction of rate of assessments on farm improvements to 5
percent of the true value, and guarantee of deposits in State banks.

Entry of the United States into the World War brought new activities
to North Dakota in the spring of 1917. National Guard units were
sent, a Council of National Defense was created to aid in the work of
mobilization, Liberty Bonds were sold, and the State went $200,000 over
its quota in the United War Work campaign.

The World War interrupted, but did not deter, the progress of the
league program. Governor Frazier was reelected in 1918, and seven
initiated amendments were added to the State constitution, forming
the basis for the league program. The law for initiated petitions was
changed to require only 20,000 signers; the $200,000 debt limit of the
State was abolished and the State was allowed to issue or guarantee
bonds not to exceed $10,000,000.

The league's industrial program was established at the 1919 legislative
session. The industrial commission, composed of the Governor, the
attorney general, and the commissioner of agriculture and labor, was to
manage the industries and enterprises undertaken by the State. Under
authority of the new legislation, the North Dakota Mill and Elevator
Association was established. A small mill was purchased at Drake and
later a mill and elevator were built at Grand Forks with a capacity of
3,000 barrels per day and a storage capacity of 1,659,500 bushels (_see
Tour 1_).

In the March primary of 1920 an unusual initiated measure was the
center of interest. It was the "recall", which provided for the removal
of any elective officers, even judges. The measure became Article 33 of
the constitution.

The elections of 1920 again saw the league victorious. In the
Republican primaries Dr. E. F. Ladd, president of the State
agricultural college, defeated Senator Gronna for the nomination as
United States Senator. William Langer, who had been elected attorney
general in 1916 with the endorsement of the league, opposed Governor
Frazier in the primary and was defeated by a small margin. Frazier and
Ladd were elected in November.

Two important initiated measures were passed, one providing for a board
of auditors to audit the accounts of the State treasurer, the Bank of
North Dakota, and all State industries, the other amending a previous
measure so that although State funds and State institution funds must
be deposited in the Bank of North Dakota, county, township, municipal,
and school district funds need not be deposited there.

In 1920 deflation of the league's boom set in. The United States
Supreme Court declared the grain grading law unconstitutional. The
Independent Voters Association, anti-Nonpartisan, argued that the
cost of government had greatly increased under the Nonpartisans. In
the 1921 session of the legislature committees were appointed to
investigate. The minority of the Senate committee reported that the
industrial commission had practiced a policy of favoritism in affairs
of the Bank of North Dakota in distributing public funds to private
banks, so that the bank could not at that time meet its obligations;
that the commission had failed to exercise proper control of the North
Dakota Home Builders' Association, so that its affairs were hopelessly
muddled; that it had approved contracts between the Drake mill and
private merchants, especially the Consumers United Stores Company, a
subsidiary corporation of the Nonpartisan League, resulting in losses
to the State; that it had approved a policy of the Bank of North Dakota
by which $2,000,000 of a total $5,200,000 in live claims against
solvent banks were against 37 institutions mostly classed as "league
banks" or "friendly" politically; that it had allowed officers of the
bank to deposit public funds in private banks with the result that
$1,400,000 of these funds were tied up in insolvent banks.

The recall was exercised for the first time in the United States
against the governor of a State. In a special election of 1921, Frazier
was defeated by R. A. Nestos, Republican, a member of the Independent
Voters Association, or I. V. A.'s, as they were popularly called.
The other two members of the industrial commission, Attorney General
William Lemke and Commissioner of Agriculture and Labor John Hagan,
were also recalled. But measures initiated to curtail the industrial
program failed; Governor Nestos had to administer a program to which
his party was opposed. Nestos was reelected in 1922. In the same
election former Governor Frazier, running for United States Senator,
defeated J. F. T. O'Connor, Democrat, who later became comptroller of
currency under President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Governor Nestos was defeated by the Nonpartisan candidate, Arthur G.
Sorlie, in the primary of 1924 while I. V. A. Republicans won several
of the State offices. Senator Ladd died in office and a Nonpartisan
newspaperman, Gerald P. Nye, was appointed to fill the vacancy. He
holds that office at the present time (1938). When Governor Sorlie
died, Walter Maddock, Lieutenant Governor, filled out the term.

In 1928 George Shafer, an I. V. A., who had been attorney general under
Nestos, was elected Governor, and in 1930 he was reelected.

The debt limit having been increased at various times, North Dakota's
bonded debt in 1930 was estimated to be $36,357,200; $1,000,000
represented in capital stock of the Bank of North Dakota; $4,000,000
in mill and elevator construction and milling bonds; the remainder in
various real estate bond series.

By 1930 North Dakota's population was 680,845, more than double the
figure at the opening of the century. Large foreign immigrations
accounted for the approximately 88 percent rise in the 1910 census over
that of 1900, and by 1920 the figure had risen to 646,872. Statistics
of the U. S. Bureau of Census show North Dakota to have been the only
spring wheat State having an increase of population during the period
from 1930-35. The growth has been almost entirely rural; from 1920 to
1930 no new urban centers (above 2,500) have appeared in the State.

The State capitol building was destroyed by fire December 28, 1930, and
plans were immediately laid for building a new statehouse. A $2,000,000
building, unique in that it is North Dakota's only skyscraper, today
stands on Bismarck's Capitol Hill.

An initiative measure in the election of 1932 repealed the prohibition
clause in the State constitution, making North Dakota, dry since it
became a Territory, a wet State.

William Langer, who had been elected attorney general on the
Nonpartisan ticket with Frazier and later was defeated as I. V. A.
candidate for governor by Frazier, was elected Governor in 1932, once
more running as a Nonpartisan.

The period following proved a trying one for the rural population of
North Dakota. The farmers suffered because of low market prices for
farm products, low land values, bank failures, and crop failures. The
situation was acute at the beginning of Langer's administration because
many farm mortgages had been based on pre-depression valuations.
Farmers feared foreclosure and the wastage of their life efforts.

To prevent foreclosure Governor Langer declared various farm mortgage
moratoriums by executive order. For a time an embargo was in effect on
agricultural products, forbidding shipment of them from the State in
the hope that prices would be forced up. A law enacted to extend the
period of redemption on real estate mortgages was held unconstitutional
by the North Dakota Supreme Court as applied to existing mortgages. In
1933 laws were passed outlawing crop mortgages and deficiency judgments.

A stormy period in State history ensued when Governor Langer was
removed from office July 18, 1934, having been held disqualified
under the State constitution by the supreme court because of his
conviction on a Federal charge of conspiracy, arising from solicitation
of contributions from State and Federal employes for support of his
political newspaper, the _Leader_. (The Federal Courts later reversed
the conviction.) Ole Olson, Lieutenant Governor, served the remainder
of the term.

Thomas H. Moodie, first Democratic Governor to be elected in 24 years,
took office in January 1935, only to be declared ineligible by the
supreme court February 2, because of insufficient residence in the
State. Walter Welford, Nonpartisan Lieutenant Governor, became acting
Governor, the fourth to occupy the gubernatorial chair in little more
than six months.

The legislature of 1935 created a State Planning Board to make
investigations and surveys relative to the conservation and utilization
of the State's natural resources, and a State Welfare Board to act as
official agency of the State in any social welfare activity initiated
by the Federal Government and to allocate State and Federal funds
available for such purpose. The planning board has since cooperated
with the Federal Government in work which has involved development of
natural resources and building of dams to overcome effects of drought.

Other legislation of the 1935 session provided for a retail sales tax
which resulted in greatly increased revenues for education and public
welfare purposes, a drivers license law, and a two-year mortgage
foreclosure moratorium. Two radical changes in public policy effected
through initiated measures in 1935 were provision for manufacture,
sale, and distribution of beer, and for Sunday motion pictures.

Former Governor Langer, defeated by Acting Governor Welford for
the Nonpartisan nomination for the governorship in 1936, surprised
opponents in both the league and other parties by polling a majority in
the election, the first governor of any State elected in the individual
column on the ballot. In the same election North Dakota put liquor
control in the hands of counties, municipalities, and villages.

Indicative of the increasing responsibilities of State Governments, the
social-minded legislature of 1937 made the largest appropriation for
public welfare in the history of the State--more than $6,100,000 for
the 1937-39 biennium.


Land of supersized farms, of spring wheat and winter rye rippling in
the wind, of gigantic flower gardens of paradise-blue flax--this is
North Dakota, one of the greatest agricultural States of the Nation.

Those who have seen the vast fields in the summer know the meaning
of this land to the farmer and the stock-raiser; for while the
romantically inclined can meditate on the beauties of a bronze
wheatfield under the July sun, or the picturesque qualities of fine
cattle grazing on a hillside, the agricultural statistician can point
out that 87 percent of the land in the State is devoted to agriculture,
and, given sufficient moisture, the richly productive soil will more
than repay the efforts of the farmer or stockman who depends upon it
for his livelihood.

Here in North Dakota were the original bonanza farms--so-called because
of their almost fabulous yields of wheat--some of them two or three
townships in extent. They are gone now, but the size of the farms today
still startles those familiar with agriculture in other States, for
many holdings run as high as 10,000 acres, and the average for the
whole State is 463 acres, as against the United States average of 154.8

Ordinarily the rainfall is sufficient to bring crops of high value,
despite the fact that in the western two-thirds of the State
it is not abundant. In occasional years the moisture is poorly
distributed, resulting in lessened cash values. About twice in a
century the dry-land farming area of the United States, of which
the western two-thirds of this State is a part, is subject to major
drought conditions. At such times farming is difficult and in places
impossible--without irrigation. In the drought of the 1880's there were
few people in North Dakota to suffer. It took the recent major drought
which began in 1929 to impress not only upon North Dakotans, but upon
the Federal Government as well, the necessity for reliance in part upon
irrigation, utilizing the waters that flow so abundantly through the
State--and out of it.

More than a thousand dams are contemplated in the Works Progress
Administration program for the State. Many have already been completed,
and steps are being taken to divert the waters of the Missouri River
into the James and Sheyenne Rivers, and to utilize waters in western
tributaries of the Missouri.

Fortunately, North Dakota has never had a land boom. The result is that
prices of agricultural land are low, and with the returning rains it
is likely that the State will experience a new wave of confidence and

Naturally, in a State where 87 percent of the land is devoted to
agricultural pursuits, farm conditions are of paramount importance to
almost every person. Directly dependent upon the soil are the farm
residents who compose 53.6 percent of North Dakota's population.
Directly dependent upon the wealth of the farmer are the 28.6
percent who live in small rural towns, and, almost as directly, the
17.9 percent who compose the urban population. Of the urban group,
approximately one-third are employed in the processing of agricultural

The same general boundaries that divide the State topographically
also designate the three agricultural belts. The Red River Valley and
Drift Prairie are combined in what is known as the black-earth belt,
the Coteau du Missouri constitutes the farming-grazing belt, and the
Missouri Slope is the grazing-forage belt.

In the black-earth belt the farms are usually small, averaging less
than 400 acres in extent. Here the average annual rainfall varies from
18 to 24 inches, 6 to 8 inches of which falls during the months of May
and June, when it is most valuable to small grains.

The black-earth region was the first part of North Dakota to be
settled. Furs were the object of the earliest white settlers there,
but the value of agricultural pursuits was by no means overlooked
even during that early period. Alexander Henry, Jr., the fur trader
who foresaw that the Red River Valley would be good agricultural land
if the transportation problem could be solved, tells in his diary of
planting a garden as early as 1800 at his trading post at the mouth of
the Pembina River, where he raised carrots, cabbages, beets, potatoes,
and other vegetables. Nor was he free from the evils which beset the
modern farmer: his crop was highly satisfactory for several years, but
in 1808 everything was eaten by the grasshoppers which swarmed across
the land. Henry's agrarian ventures were secondary to his fur trading,
however, and it was not until the friends of Charles Cavileer settled
at Pembina in 1851 that a permanent agricultural colony was established
in the State. An earlier settlement by the Selkirkers of Canada in
1812 had been short-lived. When the Cavileer colony arrived, however,
the Selkirk colonists, now established at Fort Douglas, Winnipeg, not
only provided Cavileer himself with a bride but also supplied his
people with seed wheat, oats, barley, and field peas--an invaluable

For almost 20 years the little settlement at Pembina was the only
farming community in the State. Dakota Territory had been opened to
settlement January 1, 1863, and free lands were offered to anyone over
21 years of age who would cultivate and improve his 160-acre homestead,
and live on it 5 years. If he wished, he could also obtain a tree claim
of 160 acres.

Ten acres of this quarter-section had to be planted in trees, and
proof, substantiated by two reliable witnesses, that the trees had
been growing for eight years was necessary before the settler could
obtain clear title to the claim. The acquisition of tree claims was
sometimes hindered by the perpetration of a cruel hoax on newcomers.
One of a group of unprincipled men, interested in money rather than
in settlement of the land, and unable or unwilling to file claims,
would approach a new settler and offer him a "deal" on a piece of
land, ostensibly planted as a tree claim, with the little green tree
shoots already appearing above the ground. The settler would pay a
substantial sum for the advantage of having trees already planted, and
in good faith would file on the claim, only to find later in the year
that instead of a 10-acre grove he had an excellent but over-abundant
crop of turnips. Notwithstanding such discouragements, many fine groves
were planted which have not only added greatly to the beauty of the Red
River Valley and central North Dakota, but have been invaluable as a
protection against soil erosion.

A third tract of 160 acres could be secured under the preemption laws
which permitted the settler to locate on land before or after it was
surveyed, file declaration of intent to purchase, and pay for the
land within 18 months after filing, at the rate of $2.50 an acre for
railroad property or $1.25 for any other land. Additional land could
be obtained by buying up grants to soldiers in the United States Army.
Military land warrants could be purchased for a nominal price, often as
low as 50 cents an acre.

At first, despite the ease of obtaining land, there was no great influx
of settlers into the new land. The Nation was in the grip of the
Civil War, and Indian troubles in the West not only discouraged new
settlement but frightened out many who had already made their homes
there. Writers who had visited the Territory depicted it as "a land of
blizzards and Indians, drought and grasshoppers."

Moreover, homesteading in the northern part of the Territory was
complicated by the fact that the nearest land office was at Vermilion,
400 miles away, a long and perilous trip in the day of the oxcart and
dogsled. The only surveyed land was in the vicinity of Pembina. Here in
1868 Joseph Rolette, pioneer fur trader and settler, filed the first
homestead in North Dakota, the only one before 1870. In 1871 a few more
claims were filed, but it was not until 1885 that settlement increased
to any great extent. During that year so many "took up" land that
Dakota Territory became known as "the land of the free and the home of
the boomer ... free homesteaders and town site boomers."

The extension of the Northern Pacific across the Red River into North
Dakota was partly responsible for this sudden increase in population.
Immigrants found it easier to reach the lands which the Government
offered them. The Northern Pacific had been given by Government grant
alternate sections of land for a distance of 20 miles on each side
of its right-of-way. The land between these sections was opened to
homesteading; and since the free lands were just as desirable as
its own, the railroad could find no market for its property. It was
decided, therefore, that the only way to profit on its investment was
to encourage settlement, so that there would be an increased need of
transportation in and out of the new country. In lieu of its stocks,
which had slumped in the panic of 1873, the road sold some of its
enterprising stockholders large portions of its land grants for 40 and
50 cents an acre. Among those persuaded to invest were G. W. Cass,
B. P. Cheney, and Oliver Dalrymple. The three formed a company and
placed their 12,000 acres, in the vicinity of Fargo, under Dalrymple's
management. Thus was formed the first bonanza farm, initiating an
important era in the agricultural history of North Dakota.

The chief purpose of the early bonanza farms was to demonstrate on a
spectacular scale the potential wealth of the Red River Valley. The
farms ranged in size from 3,000 acres to the 65,000-acre Grandin farm
which covered more than 100 sections of land. Wheat was the sole crop.
All operations were conducted on a large scale, with dozens of the most
up-to-date farm machines working on the various divisions of the farms
simultaneously, and huge crews of a hundred or more employed during
the harvest season. Tales of the bumper crops were soon spread by the
transient harvest "hands," and visitors and home seekers came from far
and wide to see whether the stories of the fabulous crops were actually

Two new inventions added to the success of the wheat-raising bonanza
farms. The first of these was the purifier, which made it possible to
produce a superior grade of white flour from spring wheat. The second
was a roller simplifying the milling of hard wheat, with the result
that this grain was placed at a premium. In a single year, the value of
the farms was raised from the original 40 and 50 cents to $5 an acre,
and by 1906 the lands were worth from $30 to $40.

Because they raised a single crop, the managers of the bonanza farms
found it easy to systematize and mechanize their work. The newest farm
machines were common in this newly settled area long before they were
introduced in the older States.

Eastern syndicates usually owned the bonanza farms, and resident
managers were engaged to supervise the work. As long as only wheat was
raised, the system was ideal. With the introduction of other crops,
however, difficulties arose, principally because stockholders could
not agree on a plan of operation. Almost all of the large farms were
eventually broken into smaller plots and sold to the immigrants and
easterners whom they had attracted to the West. Today, 51,149 of the
84,606 farms in the State are operated by their owners, 33,122 by
tenants, and only 335 by managers.

Thousands who were attracted by the success of the bonanza farms
and the low railroad rates came west to take up land, and were
aided in their preparation by the _Emigrant's Guide_, published by
the Commissioner of Immigration for Dakota Territory in 1870. This
contained not only such valuable information as data on the land laws,
farming methods, and transportation facilities, but also freight rates
and a list of prices of staple commodities to indicate supplies which
should be brought from the East and those which could be as cheaply
purchased in the new land. Tea was one of the most expensive of pioneer
commodities, ranging in price from $1.25 and $2 a pound. Sugar was also
high--from 12 to 16 cents a pound. For light, the homesteader had a
choice of candles at 25 cents a pound or coal oil at 80 cents a gallon.
Furniture, too, could be purchased by those who did not wish to carry
it across the prairies from their eastern homes. Extension tables sold
for $2 a foot, washstands cost from $4.50 to $10. Ox yokes were $3, a
double harness $45. So many homesteading necessities could be purchased
at the pioneer settlements that after reading Dakota newspapers of this
period a North Carolina editor announced that "the people are fully up
to the highest notch of civilization."

As the lands of the Red River Valley and the Drift Plain were occupied,
settlers were forced to go farther west into the farming-grazing belt
of the Missouri Coteau. Influenced by the fortunes being made in wheat
in the eastern part of the State, they too became wheat farmers. But
although the soil of the Missouri Coteau is almost as rich as that
farther east, it does not have the same advantageous rainfall during
the growing season; and while it produced successfully, it did not have
the spectacular production of the bonanza farms in the black-earth area.

Today, the farms in this region are somewhat larger than those of
the more easterly belt, being from 450 to 600 acres in size, but
the relative production is lower. Although grain farming still
predominates, ideally the farming-grazing region is, especially in dry
years, a livestock section.

To the west of this central region lies the Missouri Slope, which
constitutes the grazing-forage belt. Originally the farms here were
much smaller than those in other parts of the State--with the repeal in
1891 of tree claim and preemption laws, homesteaders were limited to
160 acres of free land. For a few years the settlers on the Missouri
Slope were able to file on desert claims, receiving one section at
$1.25 an acre with the understanding that they would improve the land
by irrigation; but so many people throughout the arid regions of the
United States filed on such claims fraudulently that the act was
finally amended to include the requirement that at least $3 an acre
must be spent for irrigation.

Despite this land limitation, many new settlers came to western
North Dakota during the "back to the land" movement from 1900 to
1910. Besides the farmers who took up free land, there were many
school teachers, laborers, and business and professional persons who
followed that method, or took a commuted homestead by filing on land,
staying there 14 months, and paying the Government $1.25 an acre. In
this region, where it is estimated that 30 percent of the land is
not suitable for cultivation, it was inevitable that many of these
inexperienced persons should settle on worthless property. Experienced
ranchers and farmers realized that only large farms could be operated
profitably, and purchased homesteads from dissatisfied settlers. In
this manner the size of farms increased, until now they run to 800
acres or more.

The most fertile soil of the western region is in the valley of the
Missouri. It was here that Verendrye, Lewis and Clark, Catlin, and
other early explorers found the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara women
carefully cultivating their neat fields of corn, beans, squash,
pumpkin, melons, and sunflowers.

Lack of rainfall is the chief drawback to successful agriculture in the
grazing-forage belt; but with irrigation, field crops can be raised
dependably. The value of irrigation has been demonstrated by the
success of the 20,319 acres immediately west of the Yellowstone River
in western North Dakota, an area irrigated by the Bureau of Reclamation
project of 1906. Similar projects are proposed in the basins of the
Knife, Heart, and Grand Rivers.

The grazing-forage belt as a whole, however, is not well suited to
agriculture. Texas cattlemen, driving their herds through western
Dakota to furnish beef for frontier military posts, saw its true value
as a cattle country. The nutritive grasses and natural shelters make
this an ideal cattle-raising section.

Among the earliest ranchers were the Deffenbach brothers, who opened a
ranch in the extreme southwestern corner of the present State in 1878.
Others soon followed, including soldiers who had finished their period
of enlistment in the western Army posts and were eager to settle in
the new land. Ranching of cattle and sheep became the industry of the
western part of the State. As the natural range showed inroads of the
new industry, dry-farming was introduced, the chief crops being forage
for winter feed.

The land in the three North Dakota farm belts is still used primarily
for the purpose for which it was settled. The leading spring wheat
State, North Dakota is second only to Kansas in the total wheat
production of an average year. Hard spring wheat, particularly marquis
and ceres, is an important crop, commanding a premium on the market
because of high gluten content. Three-fourths of the Nation's durum, a
hardy wheat used in the making of macaroni, is raised here. During the
period of 1924-33, North Dakota wheat production averaged 78,737,682
bushels a year. The State leads in rye and flax, and is outranked only
by Minnesota in barley production. In production of grain seeds and
cereal crops, respectively, the United States Department of Agriculture
ranks North Dakota third and seventh.

Like the gold of the wheat, the blue of the flax flower has been part
of the North Dakota picture since pioneer days. First planted for an
immediate cash income, flax has proved an ideal secondary crop because
it extends the seeding and harvesting periods, and since 1900 it has
been an established part of the cropping system of the North Central
States. One-half of the flax acreage in the United States is planted
in North Dakota. As early as 1890, the State produced 458,117 bushels.
By 1900, the figure was raised to 13,478,283 bushels, and the 10-year
annual average for 1924-33 was 5,081,157 bushels.

Winter rye is extensively planted because of the protection it affords
against erosion after a wet autumn. During the five years from 1927 to
1931, an average of 1,196,000 bushels was harvested in North Dakota.

A need for more feed crops for the cattle raised in the State has led
to increased production of barley, oats, and emmer, grains which are
used locally for feed. About 85 percent of the yield of barley is
consumed by hogs and lambs. Barley is also useful as a clean-up crop in
the control of annual weeds. The average annual production for 1924-33
was 27,227,284 bushels.

The same desire for an immediate cash crop which was the incentive
to raise flax on the pioneer farms was largely responsible for the
introduction of potatoes and sugar beets. Potatoes had almost always
been raised for local consumption, but no effort was made to produce
them in commercial quantities. Then a few enterprising farmers in
the Red River Valley planted large acreages, and were successful in
marketing the crops outside the State. Because of their high flavor,
mealiness, and large uniform size, these northern potatoes command a
premium on the market. One warehouse specializes in the shipping of
hand-picked, wrapped potatoes, packed like apples or oranges, for sale
to railways and other markets demanding fancy-grade potatoes. It is,
however, for their seed value that North Dakota potatoes are noted.
Their low fiber content makes them ideal seed stock, and under Federal
and State supervision they are certified for this purpose. In 1934
North Dakota produced 6,140,254 bushels of seed potatoes. Exports that
year totaled 8,390 carloads.

Experimentation showed that the soil which was good for northern
potatoes was also excellent for sugar beets. The first crop of beets
large enough to be listed in statistics for the State was 24,474 tons,
harvested in 1924. By 1929 the tonnage had increased to 59,104. This
is one crop which showed an increased production even in the dry year
of 1934, when production totaled 82,304 tons, and beets were raised on
13,466 acres on 485 farms. When the industry was first introduced, most
of the labor was performed by Mexicans. Under contract to beet farmers,
trainloads of these people came north each spring. Not only did they
work for very low wages, but they also developed a quality of work
rarely equaled by white beet workers. The cultivation and weeding of
sugar beets is done almost entirely by hand, a long tedious process in
the blazing sun, which the Mexican worker seemed to mind not at all. In
the fall, most of them would pack their families into second-hand cars
purchased with their summer earnings, and return south. Difficulties
of these workers in adjusting themselves to northern modes of living
discouraged the use of Mexican labor, however, and today only a few of
the larger farms still employ it. Most of the work is now carried on
by local labor, often by school children. In driving through the Red
River Valley, one can tell the farms on which sugar beets are a crop
of many years' standing, for scarcely one of these is without an old
tar-paper shack, a cook car remodeled into a house, or some other crude
dwelling which was once the home of a family of Mexicans. In otherwise
well-kept farmyards, where the buildings are comparatively modern,
these laborers' dwellings are very decrepit and out-of-place.

Although not a cash crop like potatoes and beets, corn has become
increasingly valuable in North Dakota. This is especially true in the
southeastern part of the State, which is the hog-raising area of North
Dakota. During the five-year period of 1927-31, the average annual corn
production was 20,200,000 bushels. Only in rare instances does North
Dakota corn reach the cash markets. It is not husked as in many of
the Corn Belt States; instead, the hogs and sometimes the cattle are
permitted to feed directly on the stocks in the field. This is known as
the "hogging down" method of harvesting corn. About one-half the crop
is cut annually for winter fodder.

Other feed crops are also important on the North Dakota farm. Many
hay and pasture crops, especially red clover and alfalfa, can be
successfully grown in the Red River Valley. In the western sections,
alfalfa is raised for seed. Timothy and brome grass are also valuable
grass crops in the eastern area.

In 1914 sweet clover was cultivated only on demonstration farms;
but by 1929 an average of more than half a million acres was being
seeded annually. Each year production of seed increased, reaching a
high of 171,600 bushels in 1933. Sweet clover replaces nitrogen and
other essential elements in soil which has been badly depleted by
overproduction of wheat. One remarkable feature of this crop is its
immunity to disease and insect pests.

Sheep are found generally throughout the State, although the northern
part of the Red River Valley and the southwestern corner of the
Missouri Slope have proved the best sheep-raising land. The animals
were brought into the State when ranching first began here, and in 1933
there were 706,000 head of sheep and lambs shipped out of the State and
15,000 slaughtered locally. In 1935 North Dakota ranked twenty-second
in the number of sheep on farms and ranges.

A true picture of cattle-raising in North Dakota can scarcely be gained
from present conditions. The native grasses of the western part of
the State were unable to withstand the heat and insects of recent dry
years. As an emergency measure, thousands of cattle were shipped from
western ranches to farms in the eastern and central part of the State,
and even to other sections of the country where sufficient feed was
available to carry them through the winter. The number of cattle and
calves was reduced from 1,835,000 in 1934 to 1,157,000 in 1935. The
decrease in milk cows, since they are raised in the less arid sections
of the State, has been much less than that in beef cattle. In 1934
there were 620,000 milk cows, while in 1935 the number was 596,000--a
drop of only 24,000. Thus, despite reverses, North Dakota was able to
maintain a position as twenty-first in the Nation in the cattle census
of 1935.

Although rarely conducted as an independent enterprise, poultry-raising
has had perhaps the greatest increase of any farm industry. Some type
of fowl is raised on approximately 89 percent of the farms of the
State. In 1929 North Dakota was listed second in the production of
turkeys, twenty-fifth in poultry and eggs, thirteenth in ducks, and
fourteenth in geese.

Poultry organizations are active in the State. The North Dakota State
Poultry Association has held annual shows since 1895, the All-American
Turkey Show is held annually in Grand Forks, and there are numerous
regional and county organizations. The North Dakota Farmers Union
maintains a poultry cooperative at Williston. North Dakota is second
only to Texas in supplying turkeys for the Thanksgiving and Christmas
tables of the Nation.

The multitudes of wild flowers on the North Dakota prairies are an
abundant source of honey; and with this natural incentive to its
development, beekeeping has increased rapidly throughout the State.
Although it can be successfully conducted in almost every part of the
State, the most extensive areas are along the Missouri and in the Red
River Valley. The sweet clover bloom is the chief source of honey, and
yields abundantly in July and August. The number of bee colonies in the
State increased from 32,000 in 1929 to 35,000 in 1932.

All of North Dakota was affected by the prolonged drought in the Great
Plains States which began in 1929 and, except for one year, continued
through 1936. High winds, intensive cultivation, and low rainfall
combined to create the most destructive period of soil erosion known
to the State since its earliest settlement. This combination of
conditions brought production in all farm products far below normal
levels. Even the Red River Valley, though it fared much better than the
western part of the State, had subnormal rainfall and was subjected
to frequent dust storms. To counteract the menace of drought to the
prosperity of a primarily agricultural region, both State and Federal
agencies began promotion of conservation in three forms: water, soil,
and vegetation. Through the combined efforts of private groups and
governmental agencies, ponds, marshes, lakes, and streams are being
restored. Some irrigation projects, both private and public, have
proved fairly successful in the western counties. The contemplated
Missouri River diversion projects, with the Grand, Knife, and Heart
sub-projects, would lead to reclamation of a large area of North
Dakota. Planting hedges and forests to hold moisture in the soil and to
prevent increased erosion constitutes the soil conservation program. To
conserve vegetation, a program of dry-farming is recommended, including
summer fallowing and the planting of drought-resistant crops.

Various agencies are cooperating in a program to educate farmers in
these conservation plans. Extension workers, including county agents
and their assistants, are employed by the United States Department
of Agriculture to assist farmers. The agricultural college at
Fargo, the Northern Great Plains Field Station at Mandan, the State
School of Forestry at Bottineau, and experimental stations and farms
are constantly conducting soil conservation and moisture control
experiments designed to raise North Dakota agriculture to an even
higher rank.


The fact that eastern and central North Dakota has been settled 25
or 30 years longer than the western part of the State is evident
in the appearance of the farms. The average eastern farm home has
well-painted and modernized buildings, surrounded by a neat lawn and
grove. Electricity is in use on many farms, being supplied from either
an individually owned plant or a nearby power line. Telephones, radios,
and cars are generally considered necessities. Since the farms are
small and close together, and small towns are within a few miles of
one another, social contacts are easily maintained. Activities center
in the towns, where farm women are members of clubs, lodges, and
church societies, and the men of fraternal and civic organizations.
Consolidated schools have supplanted many of the one-room buildings,
and parent-teacher groups have a prominent social position. Libraries
are found in many towns, and are patronized by rural as well as city

The farms in central North Dakota are as a rule not as modern as those
in the east, but on the whole are well kept. A somewhat different
picture, however, is presented by the western farms and ranches. The
semiarid climate makes it difficult for even the most ambitious farmer
to improve his place with trees, shrubs, grass, and flowers. Moreover,
since there were no tree claims in this part of the State, early
settlers did not have the incentive to plant groves. Periods of drought
have been felt more severely here, and have prevented many farmers
from making modern improvements on their buildings. On some farms, the
shacks erected to establish residence under the homestead act are still
in use. There is, however, one modern convenience found more frequently
in western rural homes than in those of the east--the furnace. The
chief reason for this is the vast and accessible supply of lignite, a
fuel which does not burn readily in stoves.

Since farms in western North Dakota are large, homesteads are
necessarily far apart and social contacts cannot be made easily. The
majority of homes do not have telephones, because the market is limited
to a few patrons and the cost is therefore prohibitive. The longer
distances to towns result in lack of interest in urban recreational,
social, and church functions.

The one-room school predominates in western North Dakota. Libraries
are few, and most of the people fail to take advantage of loaning
facilities offered by State libraries.

Farm families in all parts of the State participate in various seasonal
activities. During the spring and summer months, school, church,
club, and old settlers picnics are scheduled frequently. When harvest
season arrives the farmer is exceptionally busy, but always has time
to welcome the visitors from town, who come out to watch the threshers
and often stay for a cook-car dinner. Later in the fall, especially in
the eastern counties, young people participate in strawstack parties.
Dances and card parties are held in community halls and barn lofts
during the winter.

Winter activities are limited by heavy snowfalls, which often keep
communities and farms snow-bound for days. Main-traveled highways
are kept open except in unusually bad weather, but side roads are
often drifted over for weeks at a time. Then the radio becomes the
chief source of entertainment in the farm home; radio reception on
the open prairie is exceptionally good. In winter the western farmers
have an advantage over those of the east, for they get less snowfall,
and chinooks (warm dry winds which descend from the Rocky Mountains)
often temper the weather and melt the snow, permitting social life to
continue almost uninterrupted.

In every rural community "fair week" is an important date. Farmers
take their best cattle, hogs, sheep, and poultry to compete with their
neighbors' entries for the prized blue ribbons. Farm women select their
finest handiwork, their choicest jars of jellies, jams, and pickles,
to enter in competition. Cookies, cakes, and pies are baked both to
exhibit and to fill the picnic baskets, for when the family goes to
the fair everyone is prepared to spend the day; one or two hurry home
in the evening to do the chores, and return in time for the grandstand
events at night. Almost every county has its annual fair in June or
July, the oldest being the Pembina County Fair, which has been held
at Hamilton each year since 1894. Even before this Pembina County
Fair, a State fair under State subsidy was being held annually in
Grand Forks, where the citizens had donated 80 acres of land for that
purpose. When the first State legislature met, it created a department
of agriculture, one of the duties of which was to hold an annual
agricultural exhibit. Now State help is also received by the fair
associations at Fargo and Minot.

Increasingly popular in recent years are the harvest festivals in
various towns. These are held in September and October, when the garden
products have reached maturity, and therefore often surpass the earlier
fairs in the quality of exhibits. The junior chambers of commerce of
the State sponsor a Golden Grain Festival which is held the latter part
of August, each year in a different city of the State. In September
comes the Grand Forks Harvest Festival, and the extension division of
the agricultural college sponsors a similar event in Fargo early in
October. Bismarck is the scene of the annual Corn Show in October.

Alfalfa Day at Fessenden in March features displays of alfalfa hay and
seed, and also includes small grains, corn, and potatoes. The midwinter
fair at Park River is sponsored by the Walsh County Agricultural
College, and consists of exhibits from farmers throughout the Red River
Valley. Other outstanding exhibits include the Barnes County Corn and
Lamb Show held in Valley City the fourth week in September, and the
Emmons County Breeders Association Stock Show which takes place in
Hazelton each June.


On any cold winter night in the early 1800's it was not uncommon to
see a fur trader set out from Pembina, with his dogsled loaded with
valuable pelts, to make the long trek to St. Paul or Fort Garry. With
no roads, few landmarks, and the constant danger of Indian attack, such
a night trip was extremely hazardous. Daylight, however, presented
even more dangers, for the reflection of the winter sun upon the snowy
ground often caused snow-blindness; daytime temperatures softened the
drifts so that the dogs sank deep into them, while at night they could
skim easily over the frozen surface. Despite the dangers of the fur
trade, many men engaged in it, taking their cargoes to the frontier
cities and bringing back sled-loads of supplies to be exchanged for the
furs that Indians brought to the trading posts.

The first stores were at these posts, where the Indians came to barter
for blankets, trinkets, food, and alcohol, using the valuable beaver
skin as the standard of reckoning. To avoid long discussions over the
price of goods, the traders devised a system of marking which could be
readily understood by the natives: a single horizontal line drawn on an
article indicated a value of one beaver skin, two parallel lines placed
the price at two skins, and so on. The quality of some English-made
blankets is still designated by a survival of this early system, with
lines known as "points" woven into the border.

From this frontier commerce, North Dakota industry grew. In 1909, a
century after the fur trade began, the State produced goods valued at
$19,150,000; and in 1935 manufactures were valued at $40,076,326, with
325 establishments each doing an annual business of $5,000 or more, and
collectively employing 3,306 workers. Although these figures are small
in comparison with those of essentially industrial States, they are
large in view of the youthfulness of North Dakota and its distinctly
agricultural economy.

The fur trade prospered until the Indian insurrections of 1863-64.
Then trapping became a perilous occupation, and traders and trappers
returned East. Eastward, too, went most of the settlers who had come
to farm. The only ones to remain were Charles Cavileer and his little
colony at Pembina, who staunchly continued to cultivate their level
farms in the face of Indian dangers. With the exception of a few brave
adventurers, they had the entire area virtually to themselves, until
the extension of the Northern Pacific lines into the Red River Valley
in 1871 promoted a period of homesteading. Then, for the first time,
agriculture took its place as the leading occupation of this area.

Many of the industries which were important during the development of
the State are no longer in existence. Because lumber was an expensive
commodity to import, sawmills were established at Grand Forks and Fargo
in the 1870's; and because the North Dakota side of the Red River could
not furnish a large enough supply for the mills, logs were floated down
from the Minnesota woods. Lumberjacking meant cash and wages, and many
homesteaders left their families in possession of their claims while
they went to Minnesota to earn money for seed and machinery and for
building permanent homes on their farms. As traffic on the Red River
increased, construction of steamers became an important industry for
which North Dakota mills supplied much of the lumber.

On the prairies west of the Red River Valley, the homesteaders could
not engage in logging and lumbering to earn money for improving their
farms; but, resourcefully, they found another way to get funds.
Buffalo bones were scattered abundantly upon the land from Devils Lake
westward, and cash prices of eight to ten dollars a carload were paid
by sugar manufacturers who used the bones in a refining process. Many
homes were built and much machinery purchased with the income derived
from gathering and selling this material. Gradually, however, these
pioneer occupations died out. The more efficient railway supplanted the
river steamers. The supply of buffalo bones was soon exhausted. New
occupations, allied with the expanding agriculture of the region, grew
into importance.

The first farmers here found the lack of transportation and marketing
facilities a great problem. Fort Garry and St. Paul were the nearest
markets for grain until 1851. In that year Father Belcourt, who had
established a mission where the town of Walhalla now stands, found that
sufficient power could be obtained from the Pembina River there to
operate a small flour mill. The mill was built, and farmers came from
as far east as Pembina to patronize it. Generally, however, there was a
lack of mills throughout the region. Elevators and shipping points were
far apart, and many farmers had to drive their wagonloads of grain from
25 to 100 miles to market. When the railroads were extended westward,
elevators were built in the towns and at sidings, greatly simplifying
the marketing problem. The new freight lines made it possible for
mills to import fuel from the East, but unfortunately the cost of
shipment was prohibitive. The development of North Dakota lignite
mines, beginning in the 1880's, removed an important handicap to mill
operation, however, and later the lowering of freight rates allowed
importation of other fuel. Although a large proportion of North Dakota
grain is still shipped out, there are now in the State 27 flour mills
which in 1931 had an output valued at $12,000,000. The largest of these
is the State-owned mill and elevator opened at Grand Forks in 1922 as
part of the Nonpartisan League program of State industries.

One of the important industries which has grown out of the agriculture
of North Dakota is seed production. Potatoes, clover, alfalfa,
brome-grass, and corn are shipped out in large quantities. A number of
nurseries ship trees, plants, and shrubs.

A French nobleman, the Marquis de Mores, was the first person to
realize the possibilities of a packing plant in North Dakota. Drawing
upon his own and his father-in-law's resources, he established a plant
at Medora in 1883. The venture failed, partly because his grass-fed
beef, produced at a high cost because of his artless business methods,
could not compete with grain-fed meat; but today modern packing plants
at Grand Forks and West Fargo prove that the marquis was not the
impractical dreamer his contemporaries thought him.

Since most of North Dakota's industry is concerned with the processing
of agricultural products, no large manufacturing centers have been
developed; but mills, warehouses, poultry markets, and creameries have
been established near the areas which they serve--many of the finest
creameries are in sparsely settled rural areas. Fargo is the only city
in the State that manufactures other than agricultural products.

Difficulties in shipping grain to outside markets provided one of the
chief factors in the development of the many cooperatives which are
important in the present economic life of the State. Grain farmers
early realized that by acting independently they could not trade
advantageously with eastern buyers. By 1891 there were ten farmers'
elevators in the State, and the cooperative movement grew until the
Equity Association, the National Producers Alliance, and the Better
Farming Association developed the North Dakota division of the Farmers
Educational and Cooperative Union of America, which at present includes
some 540 buying and consumers' cooperatives in the State. At first
exclusively grain-selling organizations, the cooperatives have expanded
to include the handling of twine, machinery, petroleum products, tires,
electricity, dairy products, and groceries.

The period since the World War has seen the revival of the occupation
of the first white settlers--the fur industry. Some trapping is
done each winter, but the fur sellers today do not rely upon this
nineteenth-century method of getting pelts. Instead they have farms on
which they raise the furbearing animals, usually silver-black foxes.
The climate is well suited to this industry, for the cold winters
produce heavy and valuable furs.

Although agriculture and its allied industries will probably always
predominate, recent years have seen the beginning of the development
of North Dakota's great mineral resources, which lay neglected
or unrecognized for years while farmers attempted to emulate the
phenomenal success of the bonanza wheat growers.

Ranchers in the western counties early discovered large deposits of
lignite, a black or brownish substance in a stage between peat and
bituminous coal, lying at or near the surface of the earth. Lignite
has a conspicuously woody appearance, often showing clearly the grain
of the wood or the shape of the trunks and branches from which it
was formed. It is known to underlie the entire western part of the
State. For many years its use was entirely local, chiefly because it
contains a large amount of moisture which evaporates upon exposure to
the air, causing the coal to crumble. To overcome this difficulty,
shipment is now made in closed boxcars; briquetting of lignite has also
proved successful, and the mineral is now common fuel. Lignite is used
exclusively by State institutions and by many of the manufacturing
concerns in the State. In the eight-month period from November 1, 1935,
to June 30, 1936, the production of 355 mines, amounted to 1,704,983
tons, valued at $2,077,800.15. New mines are continually being opened.
The rapidity with which the industry has been developed is demonstrated
by the fact that there were 67 more mines in operation in 1935 than in
1931, with production in 1935 twice that of 1924 and eight times that
of 1908.

The interest of the university school of mines in lignite
experimentation did not end with the perfecting of the briquet process.
The most recent achievement of the school is the production from
lignite of activated carbon, a substance (hitherto produced largely
from animal bones) used in water purification, sugar refining, rubber
tire manufacture, and other commercial processes. The development of
this product should furnish a new and profitable industry for western
North Dakota.

Western North Dakota has, in addition to its lignite beds, large
deposits of clay. These, like lignite, engaged the interest of the
late Dean E. J. Babcock of the university school of mines, and largely
as a result of his efforts are being developed. Upon his urging, a
ceramics department was created at the university in 1910 to determine
the commercial value of native clays. From experiments conducted,
it was found that certain varieties made excellent brick, tile, and
other building materials, while others were especially suitable for
pottery. Reproductions of fine European pottery and original pieces
of local design turned out at the university have attracted attention
at exhibitions throughout the United States. Large-scale commercial
development of the State's clay deposits is centered at Dickinson,
where both building materials and pottery are produced.

Sodium sulphate and bentonite are two of the more recent mineral
discoveries in North Dakota. In the southwestern part of the State
are large beds of bentonite which, because close to the surface, are
easily accessible for commercial purposes. Bentonite is used in the
manufacture of paint, rubber, soap, cosmetics, dynamite, and a variety
of other products; it has also been found to give rich gold and brown
tones to decorative designs on pottery. The chalky-white crystals
of sodium sulphate, sometimes known as Glauber's salts, are found
in few places in the United States outside of the old lake beds of
northwestern North Dakota. Sodium sulphate is principally used in the
manufacture of paper. Millions of tons of it are easily accessible in
the open lake beds where it has been deposited by springs.

Development of mineral resources should help to solve the unemployment
problem of the State--a problem which is constantly growing. Except in
recent years, residents have had no difficulty in finding work, because
agricultural pursuits usually require the same amount of labor year
after year regardless of agricultural prices. Despite this, new factors
are increasing unemployment. In the period between 1930 and 1935, North
Dakota was the only State in the spring wheat belt to show an increase
in population. Another primary cause of increasing unemployment is the
steadily growing percentage of persons over 40 years of age: in 1900,
18.4 percent of the population was over 40, in 1920 this had increased
to 20.8 percent, and in 1930 to 25.6 percent.

In keeping with the comparative unimportance of the State labor
movement at present is the small number of labor unions in North
Dakota. The State's first labor organization was the Bismarck
Typographical Union, chartered in 1883. In 1906 the American Federation
of Labor granted a charter to the Fargo Trades and Labor Assembly, and
in 1911 the State Federation was officially organized. Branches of the
latter have since been formed in almost all of the larger towns in the

State regulation of labor conditions had its beginning in 1907 with
the passage of a Workmen's Compensation Act. Many revisions have since
been made in this law. A State welfare commission was formed in 1917
to regulate labor conditions; and two years later, partly through the
efforts of this commission, a minimum wage law was passed and placed
under the administration of the Workmen's Compensation Bureau. At
the same time provision was made for regulating the wages and hours
of women laborers. In 1936 North Dakota was the only State having an
eight-and-one-half hour day provision for women in factories, stores,
hotels, laundries, cafes, and telephone and telegraph offices.


                                           ANCIENT INDIAN TURTLE EFFIGY

  _Photo by Russell Reid_]


                                                          SUN DANCE
                                                          AS ORIGINALLY

  _Copy of an old drawing courtesy of Frank Fiske_]


                                    A MODERN SIOUX SUN DANCE CEREMONIAL

  _Photo by Paul S. Bliss_]


The first State child-labor act was passed in 1909. Under the present
law, employment of children under the age of 14 is prohibited. The
proposed child-labor amendment to the Constitution of the United States
was ratified by the North Dakota Legislature at the 1931 session.


International repute as a farming State brought North Dakota a steady
stream of immigration up to the time of the World War. Tales of the
rich wheatlands of Dakota drew a continuous procession of settlers with
their household goods from the eastern States and from across the sea,
to claim a share of the fertile western acres.

Little more than two decades has passed since this influx ceased. The
State presents a patchwork of foreign groups, each still retaining
many Old World customs of speech, dress, and social life. Cultural
assimilation, however, has slowly veneered the life of the State with
an American character which is gradually seeping into and supplanting
the ways of the Old World.

The prevalence of foreign speech and customs seems quite justified by
the 1930 census, which showed 105,148 persons, or 15.5 percent of the
total population of 680,845, to be of foreign birth. In addition to
this number, a still larger portion of the population, 45.4 percent,
is first-generation American, born of foreign parents and therefore in
close contact with the speech and customs of its fathers during its
formative years.

Forty-two countries, most of them European, have contributed to the
foreign-born population of North Dakota. Norway has the largest
representation, followed in order of numbers by Russia, Germany,
Canada, Sweden, and other countries, including the Netherlands,
Denmark, Hungary, Finland, Rumania, and Iceland.

Unfavorable social and economic conditions among the rural population
of Norway, coupled with harsh military regulations, prompted most of
the Norwegian emigration to the United States. North Dakota was the
natural choice of many whose families had, for generations, lived
upon the land. Norwegian stock today constitutes 30 percent of the
population of the State, and persons born in Norway make up 29.8
percent of its foreign-born population. Their settlements have been
made throughout the northern and eastern sections of the State. In
contrast with many other national groups, the Norwegians show little
tendency to localize, and while predominant in many communities they
manifest no aversion to settling where other groups are already

The hospitality of the Norwegians is their greatest distinction. The
coffeepot is always in use, and, coffee and pastries made from Old
Country recipes are served whenever anyone chances into a Norwegian
home, as well as at meals and between meals. The Norwegians have a
charming way of bidding each other "_Tak for sidst_," meaning "Thanks
for the last time I met you."

They retain to a marked degree their native tongue in its various
dialects or _bygdespraag_, widely mixed with the English language. They
are fond of music, and mountain waltz melodies, polkas, and spring
dances, played on the accordion or violin, are enjoyed by young and old
alike. The Hardanger violin, which has eight strings, is still made
and played by the older musicians. The adult Norwegian, being very
independent by nature, does not readily fit into an orchestra or large
chorus; such organizations are more common among the younger people.

The most fantastic of the Norwegian dances is the Halling Dance, still
seen on special occasions. It is reputedly the survival of a "dance
of death" from the days when the knife was the means of avenging
jealousies among the young men of Halling Valley in Norway. When a
man began the intricate acrobatic steps of the Halling Dance, the
other dancers knew he had seen an enemy or rival in the crowd, and
unobtrusively withdrew to the edge of the dance floor, leaving the
enemy, often unsuspecting, in the clear. Then, in a great whirl, the
Halling dancer would send his knife spinning through the air with its
message of death. The dance today is an acrobatic performance which
requires great skill. It includes handsprings, the _Halling-kast_--a
whirling and kicking step--and the _krukeng_, a jiglike step done in a
half-sitting posture with the dancer moving about the floor.

In many Norwegian towns, _Jule Bokke_ or Christmas Fools still make
the rounds of the homes between Christmas and New Year. They are young
people dressed in costume and masked, who call on the neighbors and are
given food and drink at each home visited.

Among the factors which keep alive the Old Country speech and manners
are the _lager_ or societies, each of which represents a district in
Norway. Members are former residents, or descendants of residents, of
the district. At their meetings, native music, dances, and costumes are

A holiday in all Norwegian communities is the Seventeenth of May,
Norway's Independence Day. The festivities usually include speeches,
picnicking, and dancing.

Norwegian influence has been felt in every phase of North Dakota life.
Among prominent figures in the State have been Paul Fjelde, sculptor;
Konrad Elias Birkbough, who discovered a cure for erysipelas; Carl
Ben Eielson, pioneer Alaskan aviator; R. A. Nestos, A. G. Sorlie, and
Ole Olson, who became Governors of the State. In the business world,
the Norwegians have influenced the rapid growth of the cooperative
movement. Skiing, a Scandinavian sport, is a popular winter
recreation. The accordion, favorite of both the Norwegian and the
German, is widely used in concert groups and dance bands. Foods which
are commonly known, although not widely prepared outside the Norwegian
home, include _lutefisk_, which is cod cured in lye; _lefse_, an
unleavened potato bread baked in great flat, rough, gray sheets on top
of an iron range; and _fattigmand_, a pastry fried in deep fat.

In the first two decades of the nineteenth century there occurred
a German migration into Russia which was to be felt later in North
Dakota. Free lands offered by the Russian Government (desirous of
having its people learn German farming methods) drew many Prussians
eager to escape the heavy taxation of their homeland. Throughout
the Black Sea area German colonies grew up; in later years these
contributed heavily to the stream of emigration to America. Today
Russo-Germans dominate the Russian element, which forms 12.8 percent of
the total population of this State.

Because of this Russo-German constituency, the Russian and German
racial groups in the State often overlap. Native Germans form 1.5
percent, and persons of German stock 8 percent, of the population. The
Russo-Germans first came to this State about 1889, settling in the
south-central section, in McIntosh and Emmons Counties. Other Russian
and Russo-German settlements are in the Missouri Slope and in the
central area of the State. German groups are found in the southeastern
part of the State, in Ward County in the northwestern area, and in
Morton in the Slope region. Among outstanding Germans who have taken
part in the development of the State are two Governors, George F.
Shafer and William Langer.

In its residence in Russia, the Russo-German group acquired many
customs which now distinguish them from their German cousins, but
the two groups have much in common. They cling tenaciously to their
native tongue in their homes and churches; the Russo-Germans, however,
speak a dialect which is a result of their Russian residence. Both
groups retain Old Country customs of dress, most noticeable of which
is the use of the _tuch_ or shawl worn by the women in place of a hat.
On Sundays and holidays some of the older women appear in beautiful
handworked _tuecher_ and full-skirted dresses typical of peasant
Europe. White stockings are often worn by the older women on holidays.
The occasional appearance of a fez-like astrakhan cap during the winter
bespeaks the Russian influence.

Although the dress of the older Russo-Germans is rather somber,
their homes are quite the opposite. Floors throughout the house are
invariably painted bright orange, this color scheme often extending to
the back and front porch and steps. The exteriors of the house and
other buildings are likewise sometimes painted in bright colors, with
contrasting trimming. A not uncommon decorative scheme consists of two
or three brilliant hues alternating in diagonal stripes across the
sliding doors of garages, granaries, and barns. The interior of the
summer kitchen (which is to be found back of most farmhouses and many
town homes) is often painted in contrasting bright colors, one shade
being used for a wainscoting effect, another for the top half of the
walls and the ceiling, and a third forming a dividing border. Because
of American influences, the penchant for these bright colors has become
more subdued in recent years.

A popular note in home decoration is the use of bright-colored
artificial flowers, which often adorn curtains, picture frames, and the
organ or piano in the Russo-German home.

A typically Russian note is the common use of glass tumblers instead
of cups for serving hot drinks. Another practice is the use of chicory
as a substitute for coffee. A favorite delicacy of the Russo-Germans,
also typically Russian, is the sunflower seed, known as the "Russian
peanut." They eat these much as Americans eat peanuts. The sunflower
seed is becoming popular as a confection throughout the State, and is
now roasted and packaged for sale, in contrast with the old method of
drying the ripe sunflower in the sun until the seeds could be brushed
from the plant.

One of the most beautiful customs retained by the modern generation
of Catholic Germans and Russo-Germans is the visit of the "Christmas
Angels." Three young girls, trained as a rule by nuns, go dressed as
angels from home to home in the community on Christmas Eve. They knock
for admission, and when this is granted they enter the home, bless it,
and sing one or two Christmas carols. For this service they are given a
small amount of money. Another custom is the observance of "Name Day,"
when, on the day of the saint for whom he is named, each person must
hold open house for his friends. Callers greet the host or hostess with
"Happy Name Day." Birthdays, on the other hand, if they occur on a day
other than the Name Day, are disregarded almost altogether.

Many German families observe December 31 as "Sylvester's Day." On
this day the last person arising is "Sylvester" or the lazy member of
the family for the coming year. Of course everyone in an industrious
German family tries to avoid this stigma. Another New Year's custom
is for all members of the family to leave through a rear door of the
home at midnight and reenter through a front door. The first person to
enter the home after midnight is a herald of the coming year: if he is
fair, the new year will bring good luck; but if he is dark, he augurs

The German people are fond of community music, and numerous bands and
choruses have organized almost spontaneously under leaders. They are
especially fond of song, and when a group of older people gathers for a
social evening their chief pastime is often hymn singing. Much of the
social life centers about the church, although in some communities the
_verein_, or society, has many members and serves to keep alive the
speech and customs of the Old Country, much as does the Norwegian _lag_.

Two interesting German religious sects are the Moravians, represented
in the area near Fargo, and the Dunkards or, as they are now known,
Dunkers, who have a settlement near Cando. One of the beautiful customs
of the Moravians is the "love feast," a survival of an early Christian
custom of breaking bread as an indication of brotherly love. The feast
today generally consists of coffee and doughnuts, but the spirit is

The Dunkers, or German Baptist Brethren, follow their early sectarian
precepts of plain dress and plain living. While few of the women still
wear the "dropped bonnet"--a small grey or black sunbonnet--the prayer
covering or small lace cap is still worn during attendance at church
services. Older members of the colony hold to the early rulings of the
church in carrying no form of insurance. In early October of each year
a harvest festival is held in the form of a religious observance.

From both the Germanic and the Norwegian groups is derived the most
prominent foreign contribution to the language of the State: the
universal use of _ja_ ("yah") for _yes_.

Few group characteristics attach to the Canadians, who constitute
1.5 percent of North Dakota's foreign-born population, and are found
in the northeast counties and the Red River Valley. Many of them are
descendants of the Selkirk colonists who settled from Fort Garry
to Fort Pembina early in the nineteenth century. It is from these
colonists that most of the Scottish people in this State trace their

For the French-Canadians the most important festival of the year is St.
Ann's Day, July 26. A shrine to St. Ann has been built by French and
Indians at Belcourt on the Turtle Mountain Reservation, and here on
the saint's day come the lame, the halt, and the blind, to walk or be
carried in the processional. Many miracles have been claimed.

In French-Canadian communities in the Red River Valley, the colorful
Old Country wedding customs are still observed. As the wedding march is
played the bridal pair and their attendants enter, followed by young
men dressed in highly padded French costumes, and wearing grotesque
masks. They are in both male and female attire, and dance and cavort to
the delight of the guests.

Like their Norwegian neighbors, the Swedes who have come to America
are predominantly a rural people. In North Dakota they constitute 1.2
percent of the total population, and are found in the eastern part of
the State, mainly in Cass County, and in the central section east of
the Missouri in Burleigh and McLean Counties.

Smaller racial groups in the State include Hollanders, in Emmons County
near the south-central border; Danes, in the east-central counties of
Cass, Barnes, and Stutsman; Poles and Icelanders, in the northeast
section; Hungarians, in the Slope area; Czechs, in Richland and Walsh
Counties in the Red River Valley and in Stark County in the Slope area;
and many others, all showing a distinct tendency to localize.

Through their national societies, the Ukrainians in Burleigh, McLean,
and Billings Counties in the western half of the State have retained
much of the music, dances, and costumes of their native land. These are
in evidence at their club meetings and also on holidays. The costumes
are colorful and elaborate, and testify to the embroidering skill of
the girls.

The Bohemians in Richland and Walsh Counties likewise are noted for
their musical organizations, but they do not retain their native
costumes or dances. The _sokol_ or physical culture group is found in
many of the Bohemian communities.

The _sauna_ or steam bathhouse is a characteristic feature of the
Finnish settlements in the southern and western sections of the State.
Water sprinkled on a large brick stove or on heated rocks provides
the steam for these baths, which are stifling on first trial but
soon become a pleasing habit. The Finns, like the Norwegians, serve
coffee to all guests who come to their homes, no matter what the hour.
Coffee is drunk from the saucer, through a lump of sugar held in the
cheek. Two holidays which are still celebrated in Old Country style
are Midsummer's Day and New Year's. Midsummer's Day, June 24, is an
occasion of picnicking, church services, confirmation of scholars,
settling arguments or quarrels, and pitching horseshoes. On New Year's
Eve, fortunes are told by dropping bits of melted soldering metal into
cold water. One piece, melted and hardened before midnight, is a symbol
of the old year; and the process is repeated with another piece after
the stroke of midnight, to foretell the fortunes of the new year.

Both the Irish and the Icelanders continue to hand down their legends
which have been brought from Europe. Icelandic children usually are
well posted on the national sagas, including the _alfa sorgur_, which
tell of the _huldu_ folk or elves; and no Irish child is so poor as to
be deprived of the ghosts, the banshees, the leprechauns, and other
weird creatures of the Emerald Isle.

At Ross, in northwestern North Dakota, is a small colony of Syrians,
most of whom are Ahmadiyya Moslems. They have their own place of
worship, and conduct services each Friday as well as on other holy
days. They retain many food customs of the Near East, one of the most
interesting being the use of a meal made by crushing durum wheat which
has been boiled and dried in the sun. The meal is then stewed with
meats or vegetables or sweet oils.

The sugar beet industry of the Red River Valley has resulted in the
importation of Mexican workers, who provide cheap and skilled labor for
cultivation of the beet fields. The Mexican population is not large,
however, having decreased greatly from the 1930 figure of 600, and
has left no permanent imprint of its folklore or customs. The Negro
population, never large, is also rapidly decreasing. The 1930 census
showed 377 Negroes in the State.

Although not foreign-born, the Indian population constitutes a distinct
racial group. Sioux and Rolette Counties, containing the Standing
Rock and Turtle Mountain groups, have the greater part of the Indian
population and consequently register the highest illiteracy in the
State, from 7 to 8 percent. Other counties usually have an illiteracy
rate of less than 1 percent, and sometimes less than half of 1 percent.

The Indians retain many racial customs and legends despite the
encroachment of the white man's civilization. The metis, of French and
Chippewa blood, were famous as hunters and trappers. Many of them were
found in the upper Red River Valley and adjoining territory about 1850.
Their descendants now live in small clay-plastered log houses, with
much of their household equipment and bedding kept in the yard.

Many of North Dakota's characteristic folkways represent foreign
cultures rather than anything intrinsically American. There is no
lack, however, of native customs which are gradually absorbing and
supplanting the Old World ways.

Because North Dakota is a farm State, many of its customs hinge on
certain matters of rural importance such as the weather and the crops.
Whether or not the farm people are able or inclined to attend is
the greatest factor in the success of most social and civic events.
Saturday night is the farmer's night in town, a welcome holiday after
his week of isolation and work. Shops and garages become social as
well as commercial centers, as friends stop to exchange news, gossip,
and recipes. In many communities, Saturday night dances are held,
and during the summer months a vacant lot will often be the scene of
open-air motion pictures, with the spectators seated in their parked
cars and blowing the horns in lieu of applause when the pictures meet
with approval.

In addition to such general holiday celebrations as Christmas, New
Year, and Memorial Day, in the Norwegian sections of the State,
Norwegian Independence Day, May 17, is also marked by festivity. Among
the Russo-Germans, Ascension Day is an unusually solemn holiday. At
Christmas time, holiday decoration of homes is common, and groups
of young people stroll about the streets or ride in sleighs singing
carols. New Year's Eve brings about the usual noisy gayety, and in many
towns it is customary to fire guns in a salute as the new year comes
in. Watch parties are held in the churches for the more serious-minded.

The Fourth of July is an important holiday, not so much for its
historic meaning as for its local interpretation. For days previously,
the skies are anxiously scanned for signs of inclement weather. As the
Glorious Fourth dawns a salute is fired, usually by ex-servicemen, and
soon in the early morning air the sound of hammers is heard, as booths
and "concessions" rapidly go up to be draped with bunting. Flags appear
on the buildings and homes. Cars begin to pour into town, parking
near Main Street, which has been roped off for the races. The square
is soon filled with a milling crowd, all in their best clothes, the
children clutching their long-hoarded pennies and nickels which they
will exchange for soda pop, ice cream, and firecrackers. The program of
the day includes patriotic speeches, airplane and parachute exhibits,
races, and bowery dances, and in the evening the climax of the exciting
day--a fireworks display.

The Russo-Germans know the holiday simply as "the July," and in a good
year it is an occasion for new clothes for the entire family, commonly
designated "July dresses" and "July suits."

Conviviality often joins with practical necessity to provide social
occasions for North Dakotans. Butchering, sausage making, soap making,
quilting, threshing, burials, illness, all furnish opportunity for
friends to meet and visit while performing some deed of necessity or
kindness. The farmer who is ill during sowing time will often have his
crop put in by his neighbors, and he may be called on in the fall to
help harvest for the recently bereaved widow of one of his friends. The
neighbor who has lost his home by fire or has had some other misfortune
will probably be given a "make-glad" party, at which he will receive
gifts in kind and perhaps in money. After harvest, when there is straw
to be burned, the young people of the locality will hold strawstack
parties, roasting wieners and marshmallows as the burning stacks light
the autumn night with their red gleam.

Sometimes, with the coming of dusk on winter evenings, bobsleighs slide
away from darkened country homes, filled with all the members of the
family, from grandparents down to babies. Often the sleigh will pick up
additional passengers at a nearby homestead, and sometimes it becomes
so crowded that there is scarcely room for the boxes of sandwiches,
carefully wrapped cakes, and jars of pickles among the shuffling feet
and heated rocks and bricks in the bottom of the sleigh. The singing
creak of the sleigh runners accompanies songs that boom out on the
night air. Presently a number of sleighs reach an appointed home, but
they do not pause long. Across the fields the light of a farmhouse
window offers a prelude to their welcome. They become studiously quiet
until they reach the door, then burst in with shouts of "Surprise!"
There follows a confusion of greetings and commands:

"Get a lantern."

"Put your horses in the east stall. John, show Henry where to put
his horses, and--hey, John, turn Jip and Molly out to make room for
Millers' team."

"Bring in them sandwiches I brought, Helen."

"Oh, heavens, you knew all about it--you're all dressed up and ready
for us. With the country line it ain't possible to surprise anyone."

(Even where there is no country telephone line, it is considered
something of a feat to catch the unsuspecting host or hostess napping.
Yet all North Dakotans like surprise parties, and have them on
birthdays, wedding anniversaries, and every other plausible occasion.)

The farmhouse is converted into a dual-purpose hall. The accordion is
placed near the stove to "thaw out," wraps are deposited in corners, on
chairs, and on beds, except the one reserved for the babies. Tables,
the drophead sewing machine, and everything else that will serve the
purpose are arranged for card playing. One room is cleared for dancing.
After the first spurt of conversation lags, the musician takes his
instrument on his knee, the floor is sprinkled with corn meal or grated
paraffin, and soon the house is shaking from studding to rafter.
Someone suggests a quadrille, or square dance, and the room resounds
with the calls:

    "First two gents cross over
    And leave your lady stand,
    Side two gents cross over,
    And take her by the hand.
    Salute your corner lady,
    Salute your partners all,
    Swing the corner lady,
    And promenade round the hall."

    "First couple to the right,
    Birdie in the center and three hands round,
    Birdie fly out and hunter step in.
    Three hands round."

At midnight, after three or four hours of dancing and card playing,
"the ladies" serve lunch. The hat is passed for contributions to the
musician, but he does not take the money until he is through playing,
which is usually about 3 o'clock in the morning. Then, after a general
bedlam of looking for mislaid coats, the babies are carefully wrapped,
the younger children are wakened and rub their eyes sleepily as they
climb into the sleighs, the empty cake plates and pickle jars are
collected, farewells are called, and horses, anxious to return to their
own stalls, speed the drowsy parties home through the cold night.

The young people of the State usually have ample opportunity
for courting at such parties, or at meetings of junior church
organizations, church camps, and junior choirs. Matchmaking still
exists in isolated Russo-German, German, and Norwegian communities,
however. Except in the larger towns--and sometimes even there--the
newly married pair is usually honored by a charivari, or "chivaree,"
with the bridal couple seated conspicuously on some slowly moving
vehicle and taken through the streets to an accompaniment of blaring
automobile horns and clanging tin pans. The bridegroom is expected to
climax this procedure by buying drinks or cigars for the crowd.

Cigars are much in evidence at the birth of a first child, and also
thereafter at the birth of a son. A child born with a caul is believed
by many to have the gift of second sight, and it is also sometimes
thought that the caul is a powerful fire-fighting weapon.

Superstitions attach to many other phases of life, as well as to
births. Most of these beliefs are not peculiar to North Dakota, but
are rather a part of the folklore of the Nation. A dropped spoon means
company is coming, and so does the cat's washing its face. Snakes do
not die before sundown. A horse-hair put in water will turn into a
snake. The number of stars in the ring around the moon show the number
of days before a coming storm. Plants which bear underground should be
planted in the dark of the moon, and those which bear above ground in
the light of the moon. A window shade rolling up when no one is near it
portends a death in the family.

Many of the myriad superstitions are not believed, but nevertheless
continue to be passed on. There is some belief in ghosts and occult
powers, and scarcely any community is without the story of a strange
death and a haunted house--such as the tale of the doctor who was
mysteriously killed on a farm near Wilton and whose ghostly galloping
team disturbed the farmer so much that he was forced to move. These
stories, however, are often not credited but merely passed on for
effect. As for fortune tellers, the most popular prophets are those
who deal, not with tall dark men and long trips, but with isobars
and isotherms, for the interests of agricultural North Dakotans are
inseparable from the weather, which governs their destinies far more
surely than any other factor in their lives.


For many years education and religion in North Dakota were closely
associated, for the earliest schools were organized by priests. The
Scottish Highlanders of North Dakota's first white settlement--the
Selkirk colony at Pembina--were a highly religious peasant people
who keenly felt the absence of churches and schools in the land to
which they had migrated. Their sponsor, Lord Selkirk, also felt that
a church would add to the harmony and stability of the community, and
offered to contribute 25 acres for a church and 20 square miles for a
school and mission if the Bishop of Quebec would approve a church at
Pembina. The bishop acceded, and in 1818 Father Joseph Dumoulin, Father
Joseph Provencher, and William Edge, a catechist, arrived to establish
churches and schools, and study the "savage languages" in order to
"reduce those languages to regular principles so as to be able to
publish a grammar after some years of residence."


The first school in North Dakota, at Pembina, had an enrollment
of 60 children, white and half-breed, and courses in English were
supplemented by lessons in planting small grains, both intended for the
enlightenment of the "savage" Chippewa. The school was conducted until
1823, when, after the determination of the international boundary, many
of the Selkirkers moved north to Canada, thus breaking up the colony.
The missionaries were withdrawn, and the school and chapel remained
closed for a quarter century. When Father George Belcourt came to the
region in 1848, he reopened the Pembina Mission and founded another at
St. Joseph in the Pembina Mountains. A school conducted at St. Joseph
by the Sisters of the Propagation of the Faith received financial
aid from the Federal Government, the first Federal support given to
education in this State.

In the early settlements of the State, a mother would often gather the
children of the neighborhood in her home for instruction, and itinerant
teachers occasionally held classes in the tent cities which sprang
up in the wake of the railroad. As the communities grew, residents
cooperated in hiring teachers and building schools. The railroad
companies assisted by shipping lumber free for schools. Between 1853
and the attainment of statehood in 1889, 1,362 schools were opened,
many of them in country communities, taught by men or women who had
come West to homestead. A teacher's report on one such school, sent
to the superintendent of the Griggs County schools in 1886, recorded
that he had taught a 62-day term, with 15 pupils enrolled and daily
average attendance of 7 7/31; that his salary was $35 a month; and that
the school building and grounds were in good condition, the former
containing a "Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, New 8-Inch Terrestrial
Globe, New Forms and Solids for object Teaching and Two Slate black

By 1883 two institutions of higher education had been founded in the
northern half of Dakota Territory. Jamestown College, the first school
in the State to offer a normal course, had been established by the
Presbyterian Church, and three months later the Territorial assembly
voted to found a University of North Dakota at Grand Forks. Originally
a liberal arts college, this institution extended its curriculum
until, in 1889, it included a law school, a college of mechanical
engineering, and a school of mines. In its first year the university
had an enrollment of 79; during 1936, 2,555 attended classes or took
correspondence work in its six colleges.

Several private colleges were opened prior to 1889, and the Enabling
Act of that year provided for the establishment of an agricultural
college and normal schools. Like the other private institutions,
Jamestown College was forced to close its doors during the financial
panic of 1893. Reopened in 1909, it is now the only endowed liberal
arts college in the State. The effects of the 1893 depression on the
university and normal schools were accentuated by the vetoing of the
appropriations for a two-year period. Weathering this crisis, the State
colleges and university reached an enrollment of 2,000 in 1904, and by
1936 their total registration exceeded 10,000.

Notable in educational history was the affiliation in 1905 of the
university and Wesley College, a Methodist school originally located at
Wahpeton. Similar affiliations were later made among other colleges,
including the North Dakota Agricultural College, where the Wesley
College buildings are now used for an interdenominational school of

To comply with the provision of the Enabling Act requiring
establishment and maintenance of a public school system open to all
children and free from sectarian control, the first legislature set
up an education department administered by three branches--a State
superintendent, county superintendents, and district boards. It also
created a tuition fund from the proceeds of school lands, supplemented
by poll taxes, school taxes levied by general law, and all fines for
violation of State statutes. The money from these sources was made
available to all schools in which the English language was taught.

The school lands to which the law referred were received by the State
in accordance with the plan of the Federal act of 1785 granting each
new State carved from the Ohio Territory section 16 of each township
for public school support. For North and South Dakota, under the
Enabling Act, this grant was doubled, giving the schools one-eighteenth
of all land surveyed. Town site boomers and speculators in other States
commonly took advantage of school land grants to buy property at prices
far below the actual value; but in the Dakotas they were forestalled
by the alert Territorial superintendent of schools, W. H. H. Beadle,
who incorporated into the constitutions of both States the provision
that school lands might not be sold at less than $10 an acre, and might
be leased as hay or grazing lands but not for cultivation, and that
the title of western coal lands included in the grant must always be
retained by the State. Similarly guarded were 750,000 acres of land
granted to other educational institutions. So successful was Beadle's
plan that it has been adopted by almost every other State admitted to
the Union since 1889.

At the State School of Science at Wahpeton, opened in 1903 as a trade
school and junior college, two methods of industrial education have
been originated, the Babcock plan and the North Dakota plan, both of
which have attracted the attention of educators throughout the United
States. The former provides for the establishment of three departments
within the school--a trade school, a junior college, and a business
school, each of which, by a plan of interaction, is made to serve
the others. The North Dakota plan, evolved to solve the problem of
providing industrial education in an agricultural State, concentrates
all trades education in one school, with the exception of night courses
offered at other points in the State under the supervision of the
school of science.

A second junior college was established in 1925 at the school of
forestry in Bottineau. North Dakota is now one of the 27 States which
have junior colleges.

Twenty parochial schools, most of them maintained by the Roman Catholic
or the Lutheran Church, offer grade and high school work, and are
governed by the State department of public instruction.

Under the supervision of the board of administration, the State
supports a school for the deaf at Devils Lake, a school for the blind
at Bathgate, and an institution for feeble-minded at Grafton. The board
also has jurisdiction over the hospital for the insane at Jamestown,
the training school for delinquents at Mandan, the penitentiary at
Bismarck, and a sanatorium at San Haven. Several semi-public homes and
orphanages are operated by churches and other organizations.

It is compulsory for all children between the ages of 7 and 15 to
attend school, and a student who has not completed the eighth grade
must continue in school until he is 17 years of age. Agriculture is a
compulsory course in public schools. Free textbooks are provided for
rural schools, and uniform texts are prescribed for all public schools.

A school census taken in June 1930 showed North Dakota to have a
school-age population of 222,798, of whom 169,277 were enrolled in
public schools--139,580 in elementary, and 29,697 in high schools.

Indian children are given grade and high school education and
vocational training in special schools at Fort Totten, Fort Yates,
Elbowoods, Belcourt, and Wahpeton. Preservation of tribal arts,
including beadwork and pottery, is encouraged.

The North Dakota educational system is greatly influenced by the
agrarian character of the State. Because children are needed for farm
work, most of the country schools are not opened until October, and
operate for a term of only seven or eight months. A survey made in
the winter of 1923-24 showed a sharp decline in attendance records
in rural schools, and consequently legislation was enacted providing
free transportation for pupils living more than two and one-half miles
from school. The legislation affected two-fifths of the rural school
population, and resulted in improved attendance in elementary schools.
The one-room school is still the most common type of educational
institution in the State, although the number of consolidated schools
is being increased annually. Sixty high schools, including the Benson
and Walsh County Agricultural Schools, receive Federal aid through
the Smith-Hughes Act, which provides funds for vocational training
and courses in agriculture. This act also enables the North Dakota
Agricultural College in Fargo to operate extension service and
experimental stations, and to provide a State-wide educational program
for farmers.

Reading facilities in public schools were improved by the 1911
legislative appropriation of $25 to each school district for a
permanent school library. In many communities these school libraries,
supplemented by the loan services offered by the State educational
institutions and the traveling libraries of the State library
commission, are the only sources of reading material. The first public
library in the State was opened in 1897 in Grafton by a group of
clubwomen, and many other towns have received similar benefit from the
efforts of women's clubs to build up library collections.


Through the influence of three prominent men in the Red River
settlement--Joseph Rolette, Norman Kittson, and Anton Gringas--Father
Belcourt was able to maintain his Pembina Mission, establish another at
St. Joseph, and extend his work west to the Turtle Mountains. He held
services for Indians and hunters alike.

Meanwhile, Protestantism was introduced into the State by James Tanner,
a half-breed interpreter from the Cass Lake (Minnesota) Reservation who
had become a Baptist minister. At his request, Rev. Alonzo Barnard came
from the Presbyterian mission at Cass Lake to Pembina and St. Joseph
late in 1848. Barnard remained only a short time, being succeeded
in 1850 by a young Baptist missionary, Elijah Terry, who was killed
by hostile Sioux as he was cutting logs for a chapel. The following
summer Barnard returned, accompanied by his wife, David Spencer and
his family, and John Smith. Despite severe misfortune, including Mrs.
Barnard's death from pneumonia, and the death of Mrs. Spencer, who was
pierced by an Indian arrow as she stood in the window of her cabin with
her baby in her arms, the mission was kept open until 1858.

Except for occasional visits by priests and ministers from Canada to
the Pembina settlement, there was little further religious activity
in North Dakota until 1871, when the Presbyterians again sent a
minister into the Red River Valley. Oscar H. Elmer, who received the
appointment, drove up and down the valley in a homemade cutter, and
was the first to conduct church services in many of the pioneer towns,
including Fargo and Grand Forks.

When the Episcopal Church decided to send a missionary into the newly
settled territory, the board, guided by the stories it had heard of
Dakota winters, recalled Rev. Robert Wainright from his mission in
Labrador, feeling that his experience there should have qualified
him to serve in Dakota. Mr. Wainright took over the northern half of
Dakota Territory, and raised funds to carry on his work by appearing
in Labrador costume and giving exhibitions of his skill with a 40-foot
whip, with which it is said he could flick water out of a glass.

As settlement increased, other church groups sent missionaries and
ministers. At first, services were held in homes, schools, or tents,
and often a building used during the week as a saloon or gambling hall
would become a place of worship on Sunday. The ministerial duties
frequently included janitor work, and since the remuneration usually
consisted of donations from the parishioners, many of the ministers
supplemented this income by operating small farms. The hardships
of pioneer days led to much resourcefulness on the part of early
churchgoers. Gopher tails were saved and placed on the collection plate
by those who had no cash to give, for the church could then claim the
three-cent bounty on gophers offered by the State. As communities grew,
new church buildings were erected, until now some of the most notable
structures in the State are churches. Religious colonies came to North
Dakota to settle, and Mennonite, Dunkard, Moravian, and Mohammedan
are among the approximately 25 creeds represented in the State. Most
influential are the Lutheran (due to the large number of Scandinavian
settlers) and the Roman Catholic.

The actual number of churches is decreasing as parishes are enlarged,
and in smaller towns and rural sections the consolidation of churches
has been found practical.


A movement in 1915 for increased social legislation resulted in the
passage of mothers' pension, juvenile court, and old age pension acts,
and in the abolition of capital punishment except in the case of a
convict already serving a life sentence for murder.

In contrast to the general trend of prison populations throughout
the United States, that of the North Dakota penitentiary has
steadily decreased until in 1935-36 it reached the lowest figure
in 10 years--274. Most of the decline has occurred in the number
of non-residents of the State committed, probably due to the fact
that, with poorer crops, employment of transient farm labor has
been unnecessary, and the annual influx of transients has therefore

Impetus was added to the program against juvenile delinquency in
1921 by the publication of the results of a five-year survey which
showed that more than 500 children were brought into court annually.
Laws regarding juvenile delinquency were made more stringent. The
reform school at Mandan was renamed the State Training School, and
a corresponding change was effected in the methods of handling
delinquents sent there. From a juvenile prison the institution became
virtually a boarding school in which boys and girls between the ages of
12 and 21 supplement regular grade and high school work and vocational
training with such extracurricular activities as music, dramatics,
athletics, and club work.

Since the survey revealed that, while only 5 percent of the child
population of the State lived in three cities having a population of
more than 10,000, these cities reported 45 percent of the delinquency,
social service groups in all cities were enlisted to deal with the
problem. New emphasis was placed on character-building organizations
such as Boy and Girl Scouts, Campfire Girls, Y. M. C. A., and Y. W.
C. A.; playgrounds were opened, and recreational programs promoted.
The American Legion formed a Junior Baseball League for boys under 17
years of age, which was so successful that in many communities boys who
graduated from the junior teams are now receiving civic support in the
organization of intermediate and senior clubs.

North Dakota's moderate temperature and dry air came in for early
prominence in the advertisements of promoters, who assured prospective
settlers that this was one of the most healthful States in the Union.
It was a fortunate circumstance that they were correct, for lack of
transportation facilities and the limited number of doctors often made
it impossible for settlers to obtain medical aid. Today the number
of doctors is adequate for the population, but their tendency to
concentrate in the larger towns leaves many western rural communities,
and a few in the east, with no medical aid within many miles. Despite
this uneven distribution of doctors, North Dakota has always had a good
health record. Since there are no large cities, contagious diseases do
not spread rapidly and epidemics are comparatively rare. In 1935 the
State had a record of 8.0 deaths per thousand of population, while the
figure for the United States as a whole was 10.7. The highest death
rate is among the Indians, tuberculosis being the most prevalent cause.
Largely through the efforts of Dean H. E. French of the university
school of medicine, a State health department was established in 1923,
and has set up a health program and secured passage of laws providing
for medical inspection in public schools, creation of a board of
examiners for nurses, registration of nurses, and employment of county

The work of State agencies for the care of children and aged or
physically handicapped persons is coordinated through the State welfare
board. Under the provisions of revised legislation enacted in 1935, the
board distributed 7,431 old age pensions, and in 1936 inaugurated a
program for the aid of the blind which, within a single year, provided
vocational education and other assistance for 150 people not enrolled
in the State school at Bathgate.

In conjunction with the Children's Bureau, created in 1923, and local
lodge groups throughout the State, the welfare board holds clinics
for physically handicapped children, provides them with medical
care whenever possible, and helps them learn trades. Similar work
with adults is carried on by the State department of vocational
education and rehabilitation organized in 1921. Of the 124 handicapped
individuals who received training through the facilities of the
department in 1935-36, 45 were placed in employment.

Stringent pure food and drug acts were drafted for the State by the
late Dr. Edwin F. Ladd, an outstanding figure in the field of public
health, who as United States Senator from North Dakota drew up some
of the Federal pure food laws. A regulatory department maintains
a laboratory where foodstuffs and other products are tested for
compliance with State laws. The department of public health also has
laboratories throughout the State, and several cities have their own
facilities for testing water supplies.


When in 1738 the intrepid French-Canadian, Pierre Verendrye, his three
sons, and his nephew set out on foot to trudge weary miles across the
prairies to the Mantannes on the Missouri River, they did not dream
that some day man-made birds would flash their silver wings against
the sky and glide smoothly to rest on the level plains. Less than 200
years were to pass before this miracle of transportation progress would
become so commonplace that a native North Dakotan would think nothing
of a trip from Montreal to Bismarck by plane, but would be astonished
at the thought of anyone's walking that distance.

Verendrye, the first white man known to have touched North Dakota
soil, and other explorers who followed in those early years, came on
foot to visit the Indians. They found the Mandans, who lived beside
the Missouri, in possession of unusual means of water transportation.
The dugout canoe, made of a log, was found on all the rivers of
North Dakota, but only in the Missouri Valley did the Indians use
the bullboat, a circular craft of the coracle type which the Indians
made by stretching a buffalo hide over a willow frame. Before the
introduction of the horse, Indians used the dog train for hauling heavy
loads overland, but when the Sioux migrated into this territory from
the south and east they brought the horse with them. Of all tribes the
Sioux were the most graceful and daring riders. The horse travois, a
rather crude means of hauling baggage devised by the Indians, soon gave
way to the white man's wagon as settlers began to pour in.

The covered wagon served to move the immigrant family to its new home,
and furnished immediate living quarters. In the Red River country
before 1820, the oxcart, made entirely of wood with cross sections of a
round log for wheels, was introduced at Pembina. Long creaking trains
of these carts drawn by oxen made their way slowly across the country
carrying settlers and supplies.

Before the coming of modern means of transportation, the Missouri
River formed the most important avenue of entry into what is now North
Dakota. The ascent of the river by the steamboat _Yellowstone_ to Fort
Union in 1832 was an event of importance, because the Big Muddy had
never before been navigated through this territory.

The Indians who witnessed the coming of this first boat found great
significance in it also. According to George Catlin, the artist,
who was aboard the steamer, some of them shot their dogs and horses
in a sacrifice to appease the Great Spirit, whom they thought to
be offended; some ran frightened to their homes; and some among the
Mandans cautiously approached the ship, "the big medicine canoe with
eyes", which in some mysterious way could see its own way to take the
deep water in the middle of the channel.

The frequently changing channel and swift current of the river proved
a severe test for the hardy and resourceful pilots who followed in the
wake of the _Yellowstone_. As the Sioux City (Iowa) _Register_ stated
in 1868, "Of all the variable things in creation the most uncertain are
the action of a jury, the state of a woman's mind, and the condition of
the Missouri River."

The humorist George Fitch, as quoted in Edna LaMoore Waldo's _Dakota_,
describes the stream in these words:

  "There is only one river with a personality, a sense of humor,
  and a woman's caprice; a river that goes traveling sidewise, that
  interferes in politics, rearranges geography and dabbles in real
  estate; a river that plays hide-and-seek with you today, and
  tomorrow follows you around like a pet dog with a dynamite cracker
  tied to his tail. That river is the Missouri."

A pilot familiar with the river, and able to foresee its vagaries,
often received--and was easily worth--$1,000 a month, fabulous as that
salary may now seem.

The Red River was also a highway of traffic in the heyday of the
steamboat. Supplies were carried down it to Grand Forks, Pembina, and
Winnipeg (then Fort Garry). The steamboat could be employed only during
the summer months, however, when the river was open. During the winters
in the 1870's, messages, supplies, and mail were carried by pack
horse and dog sled. Regular mail routes were established between Fort
Abercrombie and Fort Totten, and from St. Paul to Winnipeg, by way of

As news of the vast untouched, wealth of the new Territory drifted back
to eastern capitalists, they turned their eyes westward. Soon survey
parties mapped the projected courses of railroads. By 1871 the Northern
Pacific Railway had been completed as far as Moorhead, Minn. The next
year it crossed the river, and in 1873 reached Bismarck, halting at
the Missouri. It was no easy task to span this treacherous river; and,
with the interruption of the panic of 1873, not until 1879 was there
any further westward extension. Construction work to the Montana border
was finished in 1881, two years before the Northern Pacific became a
transcontinental line. So great was the influence of the railroad in
bringing new settlers to Dakota that in the period from 1870 to 1875
the population of the western half of the Red River Valley doubled.

General Custer's expedition returned from the Black Hills in 1874 with
glowing tales of gold. There was a rush for the Hills, and Bismarck,
the nearest railroad terminus, became temporary headquarters for
parties leaving by stage for the gold fields. The route that Custer
had taken to the Hills from Bismarck was long known as the Territorial

Although James J. Hill was one of the first to sponsor steamboat
traffic on the Red River, it was not until 1880 that he began building
the Great Northern Railway down the Red River Valley to Grand Forks,
and thence westward to Minot in 1887. Other lines of the Northern
Pacific and Great Northern, main and branch lines of the Minneapolis,
St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, and branches of other roads soon entered
the State. In order to build permanent business for their lines, they
brought in new settlers, gave special rates on household and farm
equipment, and in every way encouraged settlement. It was because of
the railroads that bonanza farming, an important phase of North Dakota
history, was introduced. The State is now served by seven railroads,
with more than 5,000 miles of trackage. The Dakota Division of the
Great Northern, with its 1,800 miles of main-line track, is the largest
railroad division in the world.

With the railroads came the telegraph lines, the first of which was
established between Winnipeg and Abercrombie, with offices at Fargo
and Grand Forks, in 1871. Soon all of the young Territory was in
communication with the outside world.

The colorful era of the steamboat had ended with the coming of the
cheaper and speedier transportation by rail, but methods of local
transportation remained unaltered. The horse still furnished the power,
although fashions in wagons and buggies might change.

It was left for the twentieth century to usher in the age of speed. In
the first decade, the wheezing steam automobile chugged with difficulty
over sticky gumbo roads in the Red River Valley, and over scoria trails
in the west. Automobiles were rare, and possession of one marked the
owner as an aristocrat or a public nuisance, according to the point of
view of the observer.

When the internal combustion motor vehicle was improved, road building
began in earnest. Bus companies, established to fill a need for north
and south transportation facilities not provided by the railroads,
opened a campaign for better roads. They were joined by an ever
increasing number of car owners, and as a result road conditions have
been steadily improved since the early 1920's.

The first bus line in the State was begun in 1922, between Bismarck
and Minot. Although the next two years saw the introduction of many
bus and truck lines, these were not regulated by State law until
placed under jurisdiction of the board of railway commissioners by
legislative act in 1925. Immediately, operating permits were required
from all companies, one of the first being granted to the Northland
Transportation Company, forerunner of the Northland Greyhound Line.
Today a network of bus and truck lines covers the State.

The airplane proved admirably suited to this part of the country. The
clear dry atmosphere afforded ideal flying conditions, and almost
every part of the State was suitable for landing fields, even without
improvement. Municipalities became interested in the new mode of
transportation, hangars were built, and runways laid out. Now all of
the larger cities and towns have airports, and almost every small town
has its landing field. Private planes are found at the airports, and
here and there ships are seen on farms, where mechanically minded lads
pilot them in leisure hours for their own pleasure. All planes and
pilots must be licensed under a State law of 1929, as well as conform
to the regulations of the Department of Commerce.

Cheering crowds at Fargo, Grand Forks, and Pembina greeted the
pilots of the first air mail between the Twin Cities and Winnipeg in
1928. Hundreds of letters and cards were carried on this flight for
collectors who desired copies of the special commemorative cancellation
stamp. North Dakotans' air mail letters now reach Washington, D. C. or
Los Angeles 12 hours after mailing. Daily service on the original line
is still maintained, and two other regular lines have been extended
into the State, one between Chicago and Seattle which stops at Fargo
and Bismarck, the other from Bismarck to Tulsa, Okla.

Transportation has advanced with amazing rapidity since the Territory
of Dakota was organized in 1861. Nevertheless, a severe winter such as
that of 1935-36 is capable of halting communication almost completely.
But even then, with automobile traffic at a standstill because of
blocked roads, trains delayed because of mountainous snowdrifts, and
planes grounded because snow and ice made landing too hazardous, the
radio still kept the State in constant touch with the outside world.


Whether or not the first printing press in North Dakota, brought to
St. Joseph (Walhalla) by Rev. Alonzo Barnard in 1848, was ever used in
the State is a matter of conjecture. When Mr. Barnard, a Presbyterian
minister, was transferred to Dakota, he took his press--a gift from
students at Oberlin College--overland from the Cass Lake (Minnesota)
Reservation to Red Lake, by canoe across the lake and down the Red Lake
and Red Rivers to Pembina, then by oxcart to St. Joe. Here he may have
used it, as he did in Minnesota, to publish news letters and pamphlets
for his parishioners, but nothing printed on it in North Dakota has
been preserved.

The first North Dakota publication was probably the _Frontier Scout_,
a short-lived four-page, three-column sheet which made its appearance
at Fort Union in July 1864. In the following year its successor, the
_Pioneer Scout_, was issued at Fort Rice and, according to its editors,
"published weekly by the First U. S. V. Infantry for the edification
of the people of Dacotah, both civilized and savage; and as 'green'
spots and 'green' backs are so few, we will not mention terms, but bid
it, like the grace of God, go free." The editors further declared that
"every article in this paper is original and sees the light of day for
the first time."

Journalistic activity lapsed subsequent to these military literary
efforts, and was not revived until the railroad and the resultant
influx of settlers in 1872 brought the new Territory to the attention
of Minnesota editors. Col. Clement A. Lounsberry, sent by the
Minneapolis _Tribune_ to cover colonization in the Fargo area, went
on to Bismarck where, on July 11, 1873, the first number of his own
paper, the Bismarck _Tribune_, appeared. First a weekly and later a
daily, it has been published continuously since that time, missing only
one edition, and on that occasion newsboys distributed hastily printed
handbills containing formal notice that the _Tribune_ plant had been
destroyed by fire (_see_ BISMARCK).

Early journalism in the Fargo area was stimulated by the offer of the
Wells-Fargo Express Company to give a cash bonus for a paper appearing
under the name of the Fargo _Express_. First and unsuccessful bidder
for the bonus was a sheet bearing the correct name, but printed at
Glyndon, Minn. The prize was awarded in 1874 to a Fargo-printed
publication. Between 1874 and 1891 several other papers were issued, to
be merged finally in the Fargo _Forum_ in 1891.

In 1874 the Grand Forks _Plaindealer_ was founded; five years later
the _Herald_ was also in the field, and eventually absorbed the
_Plaindealer_ (_see_ GRAND FORKS).

With the beginning of settlement newspapers sprang up quickly in the
other new towns of Dakota, so that when North Dakota was admitted to
the Union in 1889, it had 125 periodicals. Many so-called newspapers
were nothing more than a final proof-sheet, printed in order that
settlers might comply with the homesteading law which required
publication of notice of final claim. The cost of establishing such
a paper was slight. Official notices, an occasional advertisement,
and a few local news items were all it contained. If the editor could
win the favor of the United States Land Office registrar, who usually
designated the official paper, he might obtain one hundred or more
notices an issue; these at $5 each made his income quite substantial.
Often the paper was short-lived, but the editor usually remained in the
State, setting up his type cases and presses in some promising small
town and starting an actual weekly paper. Many villages had two or
more rival papers for a time, and the number of publications increased
rapidly; in 1904 there were 265 in the State, and in 1919 a high of 336
was reached. The weekly papers were widely read and often had great
political influence.

Improved transportation facilities, however, led to the retreat of
the weeklies before the increasing circulation of the daily papers.
North Dakota now has 196 publications including 11 dailies and 4 trade

Always active in the political life of the State, the newspapers have
been an especially important factor in the Nonpartisan League fight.
With the daily press usually unanimously opposed to its program, the
league has purchased weeklies through which it has exercised a great
influence on the rural population. Although it does not control as many
weeklies now as it formerly did, it still has a strong hand in the
editorial policies of many papers in the State.

In May 1922, less than two years after the first radio broadcast in
the United States had been put on the air by KDKA in Pittsburgh, WDAY
of Fargo presented the first commercial broadcast in North Dakota. The
State now has seven other stations, situated in Bismarck, Grand Forks,
Minot, Devils Lake, Mandan, Valley City, and Jamestown.

KFJM in Grand Forks is one of the few stations in the United States
owned by a State university. It is leased to private operators with
the provision that its facilities be at the disposal of the school for
special broadcasts and experimental work (_see_ GRAND FORKS).

The radio has made an important contribution to the State service by
broadcasting information on weather conditions whenever necessary.
Lives and thousands of dollars in property have been saved by warnings
of spring floods. During the winter months frequent weather and highway
reports are given, and warnings sent out regarding advisability of
sending children to school during storms or extremely cold weather.
In November 1930 an unusual service was performed by the Fargo and
Bismarck stations. Heavy coatings of sleet had broken down telephone
and telegraph wires throughout the State, and severed all communication
between Fargo and Jamestown, division points on the Northern Pacific.
During the first afternoon of the storm short-wave communication
was established between the Fargo transmitter and an amateur set at
Jamestown, but after sunset interference forced abandonment of this
broadcast. Receiving sets were quickly installed at the studios of the
Fargo and Bismarck stations, making possible a two-way conversation. On
the one available telephone connection between Jamestown and Bismarck
the dispatchers' office in Jamestown was hooked up with the Bismarck
studio, in Fargo the dispatcher was linked with WDAY, and for two days
all trains on the line were dispatched by radio. Between train orders
the facilities of both stations were turned over to the telegraph
offices, and Fargo alone sent out more than 200 messages.

Several amateur stations were in operation before any commercial
broadcasting had been done in North Dakota. When the convention of the
Dakota Division of the American Radio Relay League was held in Fargo in
1936, there were 300 licensed operators in attendance, and each year
finds an increased number of people selecting short-wave broadcasting
as a hobby.


The buildings of North Dakota cling closely to the low, tranquil
landscape of the State, avoiding exposure to the cold northwest winds
that sweep across the snowy prairie in winter. Farms and towns huddle
in valleys or hug the open plain, and only grain elevators dare to
break the comfortable horizontality of the prevailing contours. In the
few cities a tendency can be noted toward height in buildings, but the
number of skyscrapers in North Dakota can be counted on the fingers of
one hand.

Despite this relatively small number one skyscraper, the State Capitol
(designed by Joseph B. DeRemer and William F. Kurke, and Holabird
and Root, associates), has aroused more interest and comment than
any other building in the history of the State. This interest has
not been confined to the borders of North Dakota, for the "slender
shaft of modernity" which dominates the Bismarck skyline represents
a trend in the architecture of State capitols that is gaining the
attention of the entire Nation. Because the basic reasons for the
skyscraper--exaggerated land values and proximity to transportation
centers--are utterly lacking in this capacious prairie State, much
criticism has been directed at the type of statehouse chosen.
Nevertheless the point is made that the character and purpose of the
building as the seat of State government are well expressed in the
impressive height and dignity of its lines, while at the same time the
structure is decidedly utilitarian. (_See_ BISMARCK.)

Utilitarianism characterized the architecture of this region before
even the earliest white explorations took place. When Verendrye
visited the Mandan Indians along the Missouri in 1738 he found them
living in well-built lodges made of earth packed over a framework of
logs, comfortably cool in summer and warm in winter. The lodge was
constructed of native materials and suited the settled agricultural
life of the Mandans. In the same way the easily moved skin tipi of
the nomadic Sioux whom the early explorers found to the east of the
Missouri was well suited to their wandering mode of life.

The fur traders were the first white people to build in this region,
and, like the Indians, they made use of native materials. Their posts,
usually on the rivers where timber was available, were rough affairs of
untrimmed logs, roofed with dirt laid over a timber framework, with
the earth for a floor. Like the Indians of the Missouri Valley, the
traders put up log stockades around their posts to ward off attacks of
hostile natives.

The settlers who followed the traders into this country also made use
of the trees which grew along the streams, but as settlement began
to penetrate the unforested interior of the State the earth itself
provided building material for frontier homes. A furrow some three
inches deep was plowed into a tough sod containing many grass roots,
and the broken sod was cut into lengths the width of the wall, up to
two and a half feet. One row of blocks was laid lengthwise of the
wall and the next crosswise, with the joints staggered as in laying
bricks. The finished wall provided a strong, thick barrier against
summer heat and winter cold. The roof, like that of many log houses,
was of poles covered with brush, often finished with overlapping strips
of sod. Sometimes these sod roofs actually bloomed in the spring as
their many roots came to life, and one pioneer told of the small poles
which formed the framework of his roof leafing out inside the house in

Improved transportation brought lumber into North Dakota, and frame
shanties and houses were built. The red barn took a prominent place
on the farm, and the silo, for storing fodder, reared its vertical
mass, sometimes dwarfing even the windmill its revolving silvery fins.
Except for the more affluent farms, where the homes sometimes boasted
as many as 12 rooms and a porch, the farmhouses followed an uninspired
cycle of rectangular or L-shaped frame structures, often with a lean-to
shed at the back for storing wood or coal. On Russo-German farms in
the southern and western parts of the State a European love of color
asserted itself as houses were painted sky blue or nile green or pink,
and color combinations such as red, white, and blue formed a pattern of
diagonal stripes on the barn or granary door.

In each township appeared the one-room country school, usually white or
light green in color, with its three windows on each side, coal shed
and door in one end, chimney and black board in the other, and possibly
a bell tower over the door. The early school was not only a seat of
learning, it was also the community center, where a Saturday night
basket social might be followed by church services the next morning.

As the stories of rich land and the lure of the frontier brought more
people to this region, small towns grew up on the prairie, most of
them consisting of one business street and a few residential streets.
Along the wooden sidewalks of Main Street the false-front building
predominated, its frame facade rising a half story or more above its
roof. The motive for constructing the false-front building may have
been to provide space for a sign, or it may have been merely to "put on
front" literally as well as figuratively. Often the sole brick building
in the young North Dakota town housed the bank, and the hotel could be
easily identified by its porches. Near the railroad track was the long
gable roof depot of dark red, dark green, or yellow trimmed in red. The
school was a boxlike white frame structure topped with a bell tower,
and every town had at least one rectangular, white, gable roof church
with windows in either side and a steeple and bell on the entrance
facade. Residences varied from tar-paper shanties to the ornate,
gabled, towered mansion of the eighties.

Dominating the silhouette of these little villages were the grain
elevators, those bright sentinels which symbolized the reason for the
towns' founding, and still remain the most typical buildings in the
North Dakota picture today. Like tall men standing head and shoulders
above a crowd, they rise 60 to 70 feet above the low prairie. First
glimpsed as any town comes into sight is the row of wedge-shaped
cupolas, like arrowheads in profile, topping the almost square red,
green, or maroon shafts. On the side opposite the railroad track,
along which the elevators are lined, each building has its one-story
scalehouse, where the trucks and wagons dump their loads of grain. A
few feet from the scalehouse is the small rectangular power house and
office building.

As towns have prospered, brick buildings have come into use in the
business sections, and new homes of bungalow, Colonial, old English,
Spanish, and other modified styles have been built. Leaving behind the
era of metal fronts, towers, and domes, public buildings are emerging
in neoclassic, Gothic, Colonial, and modern architecture. The little
white churches have given way in many instances to stone and brick
structures varying in design from Gothic to modern, the United Lutheran
Church in Grand Forks being an example of the latter. The schools have
shown perhaps the greatest development of any type of building, and
most towns now have well-designed modern schools which often serve as
community centers.

Native building materials are becoming more popular in North Dakota,
and each year an increasing amount of construction utilizes native-made
brick and locally quarried sandstone. An interesting development in
the use of native materials is the rammed-earth building, the walls
of which consist of earth tamped until it is hard as rock. A house
and garage of this construction erected on the Scoria Lily ranch near
Hettinger (_see Tour 9_), because of their unusually low building
cost, have attracted wide attention. The use of native boulders as a
building material is well illustrated in the Cairn, home of Mr. and
Mrs. Clell G. Gannon in Bismarck.

Even with these attempts there is no native North Dakota architecture.
The schools, farms, grain elevators, and false-front business buildings
are common to the entire Midwest. Many of these, although old, do not
mellow, but have an air of impermanence, as though intended to serve
only until something better came along. A few houses, on the other
hand, follow the good, substantial precedent of the older Eastern homes
of the country. New buildings which go up represent a variety of forms,
a constant flux in ideas.

As evinced by buildings ranging from statehouse to filling stations,
North Dakota is architecturally in an irresolute frame of mind,
striving, willing to try anything suggested, yet unable, to date, to
evolve from these many trials a distinctive architectural contribution
of its own.


North Dakota offers many diverse forms of recreation among scenes
varying from the spectacle of the fantastically carved Badlands to the
severe beauty of the far reaching prairies. The Badlands are probably
the best known recreation area of the State. Here the two Roosevelt
Regional State Parks have been set aside, and many miles of bridle
paths and automobile roads are being built. The strangely colored
buttes form one of the most unusual scenic and geologic areas in the
United States, and contain endless treasures of petrified wood and
fossils of prehistoric plant and animal life.

More conventional is the beauty of the wooded Turtle Mountains, where
many attractive lakes provide swimming, fishing, and boating. In the
woods are countless varieties of wild flowers, and many species of song
birds. Of the many lakes in the Turtle Mountains, the largest and best
known are Metigoshe in the northwest part of the hills and Upsilon in
the east. Here well-equipped resorts have been established for the
accommodation of summer visitors.

Lakes are scattered through the region south of the Turtle Mountains,
and provide the main source of summer recreation in that area. Devils
Lake, formerly the principal resort in the State, still attracts
many visitors each year; and other lakes, especially Spiritwood near
Jamestown, are becoming popular. Some North Dakota lakes offer good
fishing, being stocked with pike, crappies, sunfish, black bass, and
rock bass. The rivers also yield pike, perch, and sunfish, as well as
catfish and pickerel.

For the Indians who once inhabited this region, hunting the buffalo was
an activity in which the entire community participated. The buffalo
had almost disappeared when a young man named Theodore Roosevelt came
to Dakota from the East to regain his health; but big game was still
plentiful, for his books tell of hunting not only bison, but also
deer, mountain sheep, elk, antelope, wolf, coyote, and grizzly bear.
Despite the vanishing of the big game, North Dakota still has excellent
hunting. In the wooded areas of the Missouri and Mouse River valleys
and among the Turtle and Pembina Mountains, deer may be hunted during
open seasons. Coyotes are present, as the long dreary wail heard on the
western prairies on a still night testifies; an interesting sport is
shooting them from airplanes. Many such small animals as the prairie
dog, gopher, squirrel, and rabbit provide popular sport; and the alert
hunter may even bag a red fox, for these crafty animals can still be
found in the broken country where there is cover.

Because migratory flocks pass over the State flying south in the
fall, and because the many sloughs, swamps, and shallow lakes form
ideal breeding and feeding places, North Dakota has an abundance
of game birds. Duck hunting is particularly good in the north and
central regions; the southeast section of the State is best for
pheasant hunting; and prairie chicken and grouse are also plentiful
throughout the State. Sportsmen's clubs have taken an active part in
the protection of game birds, providing food for them in winter and
sponsoring projects to give them more adequate shelter. Through the
efforts of these clubs, several artificial lakes have been created: a
typical project is Lake Ardoch, where melted winter snows are impounded
to form a home for migratory waterfowl.

The climate of North Dakota is conducive to winter sports. Skating,
sleighing, and tobogganing have always been popular, and in recent
years many fine ski slides have been built and tournaments held
annually. Hockey and curling have many followers. Figure skating,
formerly regarded as a professional achievement, has also become
popular, and many clubs have been formed. The frozen rivers and
snow-covered fields are excellent for ski and snowshoe hikes. In
the larger cities gala winter-sports carnivals of competitive and
exhibition events are held each year, with entries from this State,
Minnesota, and Canada; they are particularly interesting because of
their international character. Snow modeling is one of the recent items
added to the list of contests, and the varicolored snow statues add a
festive appearance to the parks in which the carnivals are held.

Hiking is a favorite sport the year round, and is the only way many
interesting but otherwise inaccessible spots in the Badlands, the
Turtle and Killdeer Mountains, and in the many State parks can be

On the Indian reservations, glimpses are afforded of a people who,
despite a certain degree of assimilation, remain apart from the white
civilization that has surrounded them. Special dances are performed on
ceremonial occasions and at fairs. The tribal costumes are retained to
some extent, particularly among the older people; many of the ancient
methods of cooking, weaving, beadwork, and basketry can be seen, and
articles of handicraft purchased.

North Dakota is rich in remains of early Indian life. Mounds and
village and camp sites yield arrowheads, stone implements, enigmatic
petroglyphs, beads, and pottery. Old trails of early white explorers,
soldiers, and home seekers can still be traced in many places, despite
the fact that large areas have been plowed up.

Of the numerous fairs and agricultural exhibits held throughout the
State, probably the most interesting to the tourist are those in the
western counties, where rodeos are usually a part of the program. The
rodeo (pronounced ro´-deo in North Dakota) customarily is held in a
large arena surrounded by a stout fence. The most dangerous sports are
riding the "bucking broncs" and "bulldogging"; in the latter, the rider
throws himself from his horse to the neck of a running steer, grasps
its horns and twists its head in an effort to stop the animal and
throw it to the ground, all in the shortest possible length of time.
Other events often included are roping running calves; Roman races,
in which the contestant stands on the saddles of two horses running
double with their bits tied together; and wild-cow milking contests, in
which one contestant must draw a half cup of milk from a wild cow while
his partner holds the animal. Typical rodeos are held each year in
connection with the fairs at Elbowoods and Fort Yates, where interest
is increased by the large number of Indians who participate in the

Spectator sports are to be found in almost every town, and include
baseball, diamond or soft ball, basketball, football, golf, tennis,
track events, boxing tournaments, and horseshoe pitching.

[Illustration: GEN. GEORGE A. CUSTER]

[Illustration: SITTING BULL]

[Illustration: BATTLE OF THE BADLANDS, 1864

Drawing by a soldier who participated in the engagement]


                                                STATE CAPITOL,

                                                  _Photo by Risem_]




_Photo by P. B. Rognlie_]



  =Railroad Stations:= Northern Pacific, Main Ave. bet. 4th and 5th
  Sts., for N. P. Ry.; Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie, 117
  7th St., for Soo Line.

  =Bus Stations:= Union Bus & Truck Terminal, 618 Bdwy., for
  Northland Greyhound Lines and Interstate Transportation Co.; Grand
  Pacific Hotel, Bdwy. and 4th St., Mandan-Bismarck, for local
  intercity line, fare 25c.

  =Airport:= Municipal airport, 2 m. SE. of city on unmarked county
  road, taxi fare 50c, time 10 min., for Northwest and Hanford
  Airlines. Day and night service, no public hangars.

  =Taxis:= Fare 25c in first zone and to Capitol; 35c to outlying

  =City Bus Line:= Busses leave Patterson Hotel, Main Ave. at 5th
  St. and cor. of 4th St. and Bdwy., through residential district to
  Capitol, fare 10c.

  =Traffic Regulations:= No U-turn on through streets, Main Ave. (US
  10) and 6th St. (US 83). Turns in either direction at intersections
  and vehicle to the right has right-of-way. One-way streets border
  Custer Park in W. end of city. Street signs show hour parking
  limits in business district.

  =Accommodations:= 6 hotels; tourist camp adjoining Riverside Park
  at SW. edge of city, reached by turning L. on US 10 just before
  reaching Liberty Memorial Bridge.

  =Information Service:= Association of Commerce, 215 6th St. City
  Hostess maintains office here also.

  =Theaters and Motion Picture Houses:= Bismarck Auditorium, Bdwy.
  at 6th St., occasional road shows and local productions; 3 motion
  picture theaters.

  =Golf:= 18-hole course at Country Club on NW. outskirts of city
  (_greens fee 40c, Sat. and Sun. 75c_).

  =Tennis:= Country Club and Hughes Field, 316 Ave. D, W.

  =Swimming:= Outdoor municipal pool, 323 W. Bdwy.

  =Skating:= Floodlighted rinks at 7th St. and Ave. D, 4th St. and
  Ave. F, Hannafin St. and Ave. A.

  =Hunting and Fishing:= Information can be obtained from State Game
  and Fish Department in the Capitol.

  =Annual Events:= Slope Poultry Show, World War Memorial Bldg.,
  early January; State high school basketball tournament, World
  War Memorial Bldg., 215 6th St., March, no fixed date; State Art
  Exhibit, Capitol, mid-May; City Flower show, World War Memorial
  Bldg., late summer, usually August; State Corn Show, World War
  Memorial Bldg., last week in October.

BISMARCK (1,670 alt., 11,090 pop.), Burleigh County seat, watched
over by its lonely skyscraper statehouse, is the storm center of
the State's widely known progressive politics. Ever since it won
that honor in Territorial days, its chief claim to fame and most
prized possession has been the capitol, which is an integral part of
Bismarck, influencing its development and character more than any other
single feature. From the very first the capital city showed signs of
enterprise that has characterized its growth. Its name was selected
with a view to flattering Germany's Iron Chancellor in the hope of
bringing German capital to the rescue of the financially stricken
Northern Pacific Railway.


Bismarck is in the south-central portion of the State where the
Northern Pacific Railway and US 10 cross the Missouri River. The
natural ford here was long known to Indians and buffalo as one of the
narrowest and least dangerous crossings on the Missouri. A "pay roll"
town because of the State and Federal offices, it is a growing city
despite post-boom years; 87 new homes were built during 1936. Modern
business buildings constitute the downtown area, and comfortable, new,
bungalow-type homes, clean streets, and well-kept lawns can be seen on
the hills which not long ago were the home of Indian tribes.

The generous western spirit of the residents seems reflected in the
structure of the city. Nothing is crowded. On the east bank of the
restless Missouri River the site of the city is hilly, rising to the
north. Gullies and small hills in the residential district have been
filled in and smoothed off as the city has grown. Along the Missouri
near the city cretaceous rocks are exposed. Strata of shale reaching up
almost to the summit of the bank are topped with a thin layer of drift.
Butte-like hills can be seen in the distance north and east of the
city, their flat tops capped with Fox Hills sandstone.

In Bismarck are the headquarters of both of the old-line political
parties and the various progressive groups. Hotels are the unofficial
headquarters of different parties, especially when the legislature is
in session. At such times, although the city is businesslike on the
surface, there is an air of expectancy as it awaits new developments in
the State's changing political creeds.

Pioneers of the city can still remember the first legislative session
in 1889, when the lobbyists for the Louisiana Lottery poured their
money into legislators' pockets, and were shadowed and exposed by
private detectives hired by a Governor and his friends. Nor forgotten
are the machinations of Alexander McKenzie, who represented the
railroad interests in all things political, and who in later years
exercised his peculiar talents in Alaska to such an extent that Rex
Beach accorded him the role of villain in his novel _The Spoilers_
(_see below_). And even the young citizens recall how four governors
succeeded one another in the teakwood gubernatorial office in the
course of a little more than six months.

Long before the arrival of the white man, the Mandan Indians found the
Bismarck-Mandan area a favorable spot for their homes. Their culture
gives this vicinity an interesting archeological background (_see_
INDIANS AND THEIR PREDECESSORS). Several village sites of the Mandans
and Hidatsa are in this vicinity, and a full-sized model of an earth
lodge is constructed on the Capitol grounds. Artifacts, including
implements of warfare and agriculture, pottery, and beads, were
recovered in these sites and are preserved in the museum of the State
historical society.

French fur traders, Lewis and Clark, Prince Paul of Wurttemberg,
Maximilian, Prince of Wied, and many another early adventurer and
explorer passed the site of Bismarck in voyages up the Missouri, but
squatters, anticipating the westward path of the Northern Pacific
Railway, were the first to settle this vicinity, in the winter of
1871-72. During construction of the railroad a settlement called
Burleightown, named for Dr. Walter Burleigh of the Northern Pacific
Company, grew up near where Fort Lincoln stands. At the end of the
railroad grade on the bank of the Missouri, just opposite Fort McKeen,
was a tent-town called Carleton City, later called Point Pleasant, and
known to the soldiers of the fort as Whiskey Point.

The site of the city was originally occupied by Camp Greeley, later
known as Camp Hancock, a military post established in 1872 for the
protection of railroad crews. One of the log buildings of the post is
incorporated into the United States Weather Bureau at 101 Main Avenue,
the original post site, and is the oldest building in Bismarck.

In 1860 river transportation had begun on the upper Missouri, opening
a vast new region to settlement. During this period at least fifty
cargoes were being discharged yearly at Fort Benton in Montana, while
it required a fleet of some thirty or more vessels to transport troops
and carry supplies to the various posts, forts, and Indian agencies in
the Missouri basin. The "Crossing on the Missouri" became a stirring
steamboat port, attracting many rivermen and wood choppers. The latter
served an industry of extensive proportions, since wood supplied all
fuel needs for boats on the river and for the military posts and

The flooding of the flats near Burleightown each spring threatened
danger for the railroad grade, however, and this is thought to have
been the ostensible reason for changing the route in 1873; actually,
the change was probably made to keep land grabbers from obtaining
control of the point at which the road would cross the river. A new
grade was built about one mile north, running past Camp Greeley. The
Lake Superior and Puget Sound Company, a town site location company
auxiliary to the Northern Pacific, was then able to locate another city
site which was named Edwinton for Edwin F. Johnson, Northern Pacific
chief engineer, but was generally known as "The Crossing." When the
Burleightown grade was left unused the town was abandoned and the
inhabitants moved to Edwinton. In 1873 the name Bismarck was chosen,
but the first title of the town persisted. When Mrs. Linda Slaughter
became postmistress in 1874 she found it necessary to point out to
the Post Office Department in Washington that mail should be addressed
to "Bismarck, D. T." rather than to "The Crossing, Northern Pacific
Railroad on the Missouri River, D. T."

Rails were laid into Bismarck on June 4, 1873, and it remained the
terminus of the Northern Pacific until 1879. With the coming of the
railroad the town became the head of navigation on the Missouri. When
river traffic closed in the fall because of low water, no attempt was
made to operate the Northern Pacific west of Fargo until the following
spring, as the company did not have snow-fighting equipment with which
to keep the road open during the winter months. Merchants had to stock
up in the fall with enough goods to last until spring. Mail came once
a week via a Government carrier from Fargo to Fort Abraham Lincoln.
Enterprising persons sometimes came from Minnesota with loads of
dressed poultry and hogs for Thanksgiving and Christmas. The trip from
Fargo to Bismarck took about six days by wagon.

In early days the young town combined the advantages of a river
steamboat port and a western railway terminus. A frontier town, the
life of its residents was necessarily rugged. A story is told of the
young son of a newspaper editor, who questioned a stranger about his
family and learned that the father of the visiting gentleman had died.
The youngster, familiar with the columns of his own father's paper,
said, "Got shot, did he?" The stranger replied that he had not. "Drank
too much whiskey?" Again the visitor replied in the negative. "Well, he
can't be dead then," the boy triumphantly exclaimed, "'cause that's the
only way men die in Bismarck!" There were always the few, however, who
made an effort to preserve the social graces. At the first party given
in Bismarck, honoring Dr. and Mrs. Slaughter on their fourth wedding
anniversary, dancing was part of the entertainment, and the evening
ended with refreshments of champagne and buffalo tongue sandwiches.

The first train arrived in Bismarck June 5, 1873. Part of its cargo
consisted of printing presses for the Bismarck _Tribune_, which was
first issued July 11, 1873, and continues publication as North Dakota's
oldest newspaper. The _Tribune's_ greatest scoop was scored in 1876
when it gave the world the story of the Custer massacre at the Little
Big Horn in Montana. Mark Kellogg, reporter for the _Tribune_ and New
York _Herald_, was killed in the battle, but more than a column of
notes on the battle was found in a buckskin pouch on his body. When
Grant Marsh's steamer _Far West_ brought Reno's wounded and the first
news of the disaster, Col. C. A. Lounsberry, founder-editor of the
_Tribune_, obtained the story, wiring it to the _Herald_ at a reputed
cost of $3,000 for 24 hours use of the telegraph wires.

Bismarck felt the loss of Custer's command keenly, for he and his
Seventh Cavalry officers from Fort Abraham Lincoln had figured
prominently in the social life of the city.

The Bismarck _Sun_, another early newspaper, had a prominent part
in the exposure of Indian and military post corruption which led
to the impeachment of Secretary of War William W. Belknap in 1876.
James A. Emmons, publisher of the paper, issued a handbill entitled
_Pirates of the Missouri_ which alleged that appointments as traders
at military and Indian posts were being bought from the Secretary
of War. The New York _Herald_ sent out a reporter, who obtained a
position at Fort Berthold Indian Agency, incognito, and succeeded in
exposing the dishonesty prevalent at almost all of the Missouri River
posts. The reporter barely escaped with his life when his identity was
discovered; but he returned the next year and succeeded in completing
his investigation. Belknap was impeached on a charge of bribery, and
resigned, but was later acquitted. The episode caused a great furore
throughout the country, but particularly in Bismarck.

Gold was discovered in the Black Hills in 1874, and Bismarck
experienced its first boom. A regular stagecoach and freight line was
maintained to Deadwood, S. Dak. It was more than 200 air line miles
cross country, with no towns between. Stations were established every
20 miles and all freight was hauled into the Black Hills by wagon,
10 or 12 yoke of "wild Montana cattle" being used to pull trains of
two or three wagonloads of freight. Gold seekers flocked to Bismarck,
where they outfitted their supply trains before departing for the gold
fields. The Bismarck _Tribune_ of October 25, 1879, reported:

  "There are no rooms available at the hotels in Bismarck tonight as
  there are many transients in town bound for the Hills. Our freight
  and passenger business to the gold fields has been very heavy
  during the past ten days, amounting to 300,000 pounds of freight
  and seventy passengers. There were also two carloads of horses
  shipped in for the stage coaches. There are at present two and
  sometimes three stages a day."

Gold dust and nuggets brought $20 an ounce in trade in Bismarck. Many
who came to join in the gold rush stayed to take advantage of the
business opportunities.

The year 1881 saw a serious flood of the Missouri River. Most Bismarck
residents, with their homes up on the hills out of the river's reach,
made light of the occasion, some even to the extent of an excursion.
Capt. William Braithwaite ran his steamer _Eclipse_ to the foot of
Third Street where passengers boarded for a trip to nearby Mandan,
the greater part of which, like the five miles of river bottom land
between the two towns, was under water. It is reported that everyone
on the boat "danced and had a good time." Not so pleasant, however,
were the experiences of those who lived in the lowlands. The flood
came upon them suddenly, drowning their horses and cattle, inundating
their homes, and forcing many to climb trees. Perched above the
muddy, swirling waters and floating cakes of ice, several of these
unfortunates froze their hands and feet or otherwise suffered from
exposure. Wildlife also suffered because of the flood, and deer and
other game could be seen floating down the river on cakes of ice.

The Northern Pacific railroad bridge across the Missouri was completed
in 1882. Previous to this time the trains had crossed the river on
barges in the summer and on tracks laid on the ice in winter.

When the Territorial capital was removed from Yankton, S. Dak., to
Bismarck in 1883 the city experienced a second boom. Land prices
skyrocketed, and blocks of lots often changed hands several times
in an incredibly short period, since it was fondly, if erroneously,
anticipated that Bismarck would have a phenomenal growth and would soon
outrank many well-established and populous cities. The cornerstone
of the capitol building was laid that year at an elaborate ceremony
attended by members of the Golden Spike Excursion who were on their
way west to celebrate the completion of the Northern Pacific Railway.
Headed by ex-President Grant and Henry Villard, president of the
Northern Pacific, there was present a galaxy of prominent Americans
including Sitting Bull and numerous foreign dignitaries and noblemen.
These notable guests spent some time in Bismarck and every effort was
exerted to make their stay eventful. One young woman went so far as
to painstakingly decorate her apple tree with three bushels of apples
purchased at a local grocery store. Showing it to her admiring guests
the next day she asked, "What do you think of this for a fruit-growing
country?" "Magnificent, magnificent!" Grant replied, "I am surprised,
wonderfully surprised!" So were townsmen standing nearby, but they held
their tongues.

Since these early booms the growth of the city has not been remarkable,
but it has been steady. A large factor in the prosperity of Bismarck
has been the numerous Federal and State institutions and offices.

Bismarck's first church service was held on June 15, 1873, although
Mrs. Linda W. Slaughter organized a Sunday school in a Camp Hancock
tent as early as August of the previous year. The first church in the
city was the Presbyterian, at 303 Second Street. When the Catholic
church was built in 1898 the Marquise de Mores gave a large stained
glass window in honor of her late husband. The window, portraying the
Immaculate Conception, bears his name and is in the front of the church
in the choir loft. Fourteen religious denominations are represented in

Two hospitals and several clinics serve both the urban population and
a large rural area. Radio station KFYR, with studios at 200 Fourth
Street, is an associate member of the National Broadcasting Company
and operates on 5,000-watt power during the day and 1,000 at night.
Four newspapers in addition to the _Tribune_ are published in Bismarck:
Two semi-weeklies, the Bismarck _Capital_ and _Der Staats Anzeiger_
(German); and two weeklies, the _Leader_, organ of the Nonpartisan
League, and the Dakota _Freie Presse_ (German). Bismarck and its
surrounding territory have a large German and Russo-German population.

The city was the home of James W. Foley, North Dakota poet, during his
school days, and later he was a member of the Bismarck _Tribune_ staff.
His numerous books include _Prairie Breezes_ and _Voices of Song_.

Although Bismarck is in the heart of the spring wheat region, where
four times more acres are planted in wheat than any other crop, the
city's industrial life is subordinate to its political. Commercially it
is a wholesale distributing point for many State or district offices
of various lines of merchandise. In addition there are flour mills,
creameries, grain elevators, and seed-houses. A pioneer seed-house and
nursery, the Oscar H. Will Company, founded in Bismarck in 1881, is the
largest concern of its kind in the State. Specializing in seed corn, in
which it followed the example of the agricultural Mandan Indians, the
company has propagated many new, and acclimated several established,
varieties of plants, grain, and nursery stock that are exceptionally
hardy, drought resisting, and quick maturing. North of Bismarck are
extensive lignite coal deposits, with one of the largest strip mines in
the State in north Burleigh County, near Wilton.

In 1903 several thousand farmers of German extraction migrated from
Wisconsin to settle the farm lands in the Bismarck territory. They have
made the city a shipping point for a constantly increasing dairy, wool,
honey, and corn output. The drought conditions of the 1930's have cut
into agricultural production, but have intensified recognition of the
need for diversified farming, which is more widely practiced each year.

One of the most notable events of recent years was the burning of
the old capitol in December 1930. The year following there was talk
of capital removal, the most serious contender being the city of
Jamestown, 100 miles to the east. In the election of 1932, however,
popular vote decided in favor of retaining the site at Bismarck, and
on October 8 that year Vice President Charles M. Curtis laid the
cornerstone of the new statehouse.


1. The 19 stories of the STATE CAPITOL (_open weekdays 9-5; guide_),
N. end of 6th St., high on Capitol Hill, overlook the city and the
broad Missouri valley. The white shaft is an impressive sight even to
those who quarrel with the idea of a skyscraper capitol for a prairie
State. Designed in 1932 by two North Dakota architects, Joseph Bell
de Remer of Grand Forks and William F. Kurke of Fargo, with Holabird
and Root of Chicago as associates, its clean hard modern lines are
exponent of the fact that, as the architect F. A. Gutheim has said,
"Domed pseudo-Renaissance state capitols are sinking low on the Western
horizon." North Dakota has followed the example of Nebraska and
Louisiana in building what may be a forerunner of a new and distinctive
style of State capitols.

The possibility of architectural developments from this building does
not, however, deter critics who find it difficult to reconcile the
skyscraper with the prairies. The customary objection is that those
conditions which are the _raison d'etre_ of the skyscraper--high land
values and congestion at transportation centers--are decidedly absent
in Bismarck. The justification of the building, therefore, must lie in
its expression of the dignity and power of the State government.

Despite criticism, the Capitol has its defenders, who feel the strength
and height of the structure to be expressive of its intent. And no
matter what the decision may be on the architectural problem, the
building at any rate fulfills its utilitarian function: it is one
of the most efficiently built government buildings in the country.
It provides space for approximately one thousand State and Federal
employees. The asymmetrical tower arrangement allows complete
separation of the executive and legislative branches of the State, and
despite differences of opinion as to the exterior of the building,
opinion is general that the interior is both remarkable and beautiful.

The building houses State administrative offices in the tower and the
State legislature in the circular three-story wing. The two sections
of the structure are joined by Memorial Hall. The outer walls of
the entire building are faced with Bedford limestone, and the base
is trimmed with a broad ribbon of Rosetta black granite (gabbro), a
relatively rare stone of volcanic origin.

A sweeping flight of steps leads to the plaza, above which rise the
huge bronze-framed windows of Memorial Hall, topped with symbolic
bronze figures representing the Indian, Hunter, Trapper, Farmer, Miner,
and the Mothers of the State. These figures, as well as others in the
interior of the building, are the work of Edgar Miller of Chicago.

The building can be entered from the plaza or on the ground floor
through the porte-cochère. The ground floor corridor is wainscoted in
rosy-tan Montana travertine. In the lobby is the custodian's desk where
visitors register. From this point tours of the building leave hourly.
To the right is the elevator lobby, where the sliding bronze elevator
doors depict the Indian, the Hunter, the Cowhand, and other figures
symbolic of the development of the State. At the end of the elevator
lobby is the capitol café.

Steps ascending from the ground floor in a stairwell of highly polished
black Belgian marble lead directly into Memorial Hall, which, although
342 ft. long, 25 ft. wide, and 42 ft. high, appears even more spacious
with its 10 tall fluted bronze columns lining either side and catching
the sunlight which floods through the tall windows of the facade. The
walls are of polished Montana travertine and the floors of gray-white
Tennessee marble. From the windows in the facade there is a beautiful
view of the city, the winding Missouri, and the hazy blue bluffs beyond.

The legislative foyer, a continuation of Memorial Hall into the
three-story wing, is paneled in rosewood and curly maple. Inlaid
canopies project over upholstered wall seats. Both the House of
Representatives (L) and the Senate Chamber (R) are semicircular
in design. Paneling of matched chestnut adorns the walls of the
House, and the floor and ceiling are blue. An indirect lighting and
ventilation system is concealed in the coves of the ceiling. The Senate
Chamber, somewhat smaller than the House, has been judged one of the
most beautiful rooms in the United States. It is paneled in a rich
brown English oak with bronze cross stripes covering the joinings.
The ceiling and floor are brown and the chairs are upholstered in
cream-colored leather.

At the end of Memorial Hall opposite the legislative foyer are the
offices of the governor, attorney general, and secretary of state. In
the governor's suite the reception room is paneled in laurelwood, the
private office of the governor in teakwood, the corridor in prima vera,
and the conference room in mahogany.

The second floor of the tower is occupied by the supreme court. The
dignified courtroom is paneled in rosewood, the judges' conference room
is finished in walnut, and Honduras mahogany is used in the office of
the chief justice. The supreme court law library of 50,000 volumes
occupies two large rooms. A fine view of Memorial Hall can be obtained
from the supreme court elevator lobby, which faces directly on the hall.

Above the second floor of the tower are other State offices. The
eighteenth floor is designed as an observation tower, which affords a
panoramic view of the entire Bismarck-Mandan vicinity, taking in Fort
Abraham Lincoln State Park, Fort Lincoln, the State Penitentiary, the
curving river with its wooded lowlands, the gray-blue bluffs beyond,
and, all around, the rolling prairie.

2. LIBERTY MEMORIAL BUILDING (_open weekdays 9-5_), SE. of the
Capitol, a memorial to World War dead, designed in 1921 by Keith and
Kurke of Fargo, houses the North Dakota State Library Commission,
State Historical Society of North Dakota, and its museum and library.
A four-story structure of Classic design, with a base of Minnesota
granite and walls of Bedford limestone, its Ionic columns rise
gracefully above the grass-covered terrace.

The massive bronze doors of the west facade lead into a corridor
paneled in Italian travertine with a trim of Kasota stone. The graceful
double stairway which rises across the corridor has marble balustrades
and travertine newel posts.

Left of the stairway is the historical society library exhibit room,
and right is the State library commission which has general supervision
of all public libraries in the State.

On the ground floor are the main offices of the State historical
society library. The offices of the historical society are on the
second floor. This society was founded in 1887, became a State
department in 1905, and in addition to its work in collecting and
preserving historical material has been especially active in building
up the 46 State parks and historical sites.

The HISTORICAL SOCIETY MUSEUM, on the second and third floors of the
Memorial Building, contains excellent collections of North Dakota
material. The Indian collection gives a complete picture of the life
of the North Dakota Indian, showing examples of clothing, cooking
utensils, pottery, knives, drums, saddles, war clubs, bows and arrows,
canoe, and bullboat. It also includes many archeological finds made in
the State.

In the pioneer rooms are relics of early days of white settlement of
the State. A military collection shows many types of guns and cannon in
use since settlement. The natural history rooms contain fine displays
of flora and fauna, fossils and minerals.

An equestrian statue of Theodore Roosevelt, the plaster model by A.
Phimister Proctor for the statue in Roosevelt Park in Minot (_see_
MINOT), is on the third floor, and nearby is the desk which Roosevelt
used for most of his writing at his Badlands ranch. Many models of
early forts, Indian villages, and river steamboats are on display.

A bronze STATUE OF SAKAKAWEA stands on the lawn between the statehouse
and the Liberty Memorial Building. Sakakawea was the Shoshone Bird
Woman who led the Lewis and Clark expedition through the unexplored
mountainous Northwest to the Pacific Ocean. The statue, by Leonard
Crunelle (1910), depicts the Indian woman with her baby strapped to her
back, looking westward toward the country she helped to open.

Unsung during her lifetime, Sakakawea in recent years has been
recognized as the outstanding woman in the development of the
Northwest. Carrying her new-born son, Baptiste, she joined the
expedition at the Mandan village near the present site of Stanton, N.
Dak. She accompanied the party with her husband, Touissant Charbonneau,
who had been engaged as an interpreter. Soon she proved to be the most
valuable member of the party. Her services were those of guide, cook,
and general emissary to the Indian tribes encountered on the journey.
Lewis and Clark credited her with the success of their expedition.

On the return of the exploring party Sakakawea, Baptiste, and
Charbonneau were left at the Mandan village where they had joined the
expedition more than a year earlier. Mystery and controversy obscure
the lives of the Indian woman and her son from this point. Sakakawea
is believed by some to have died on the Shoshone Reservation at Wind
River, Wyo., when almost 100 years of age. Others hold that she died at
Fort Manuel on the Grand River in South Dakota only a few years after
the return of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Painstaking investigation
has definitely proved neither theory.

Of Baptiste it is known that he was educated by Capt. William Clark
at St. Louis. Returning to the Northwest, he became an interpreter
like his father, and met Paul Wilhelm, Prince of Wurttemberg, who was
exploring North America. With the German nobleman he went to Europe,
but on his return his path is lost to the historian. He may have been
with his mother on the Wind River Reservation--if, indeed, she died

The PROW OF THE BATTLESHIP _North Dakota_, mounted on a boulder of
native granite, stands N. of the Memorial Building, near the statue
of Sakakawea. To the south of the building stands a large Krupp gun,
assigned to the State by the Federal Government as a trophy of the
World War. Near these guns lie specimens of Cannonball River sandstone

3. ROOSEVELT CABIN (_open June 15-Sept. 15, weekdays 10-5, Sun. 2-5_),
E. of Memorial Building, was the home of Theodore Roosevelt from 1883
to 1885, when he was a rancher in the North Dakota Badlands. Known as
the Maltese Cross because of its cattle brand, the ranch was renamed by
Roosevelt for nearby Chimney Butte.

The cabin originally had a much steeper, shingle roof, but a later
owner replaced this with a sod one, hoping to make the building warmer.
The interior furnishings are copies of those used by "Teddy," although
the cook stove is thought to be the original. Much Rooseveltiana,
including books and guns, is preserved in the cabin.

In 1904 the Chimney Butte cabin was purchased by the North Dakota
Commission, and sent to the St. Louis World's Fair of that year, to
Portland, Ore., for the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in 1905,
and then to Bismarck where it was placed on the grounds in front of the
Capitol, and after a few years was moved to its present site. An iron
gate, handwrought by Haile Chisholm of the North Dakota Agricultural
College faculty, depicts the initial letters of the various fields of
enterprise in which Roosevelt engaged.

4. EARTH LODGE (_open weekdays 9-5 June 15-Oct. 1_), N. of the
Roosevelt Cabin, is a reproduction of the dwellings of the Mandan,
Arikara, and Hidatsa, the agricultural tribes who inhabited the valley
of the Missouri previous to white settlement of this region. (For
description of the earth lodge see INDIANS AND THEIR PREDECESSORS.) The
lodge was built by the State historical society under the direction of
Scattered Corn, a Mandan woman, the daughter of Moves Slowly, last of
the Mandan Corn priests.

The women of the Indian tribes built the lodges in the river villages,
although the men gave them assistance in placing the heavy timbers
which supported the thick earth walls. A Mandan legend relates that
when the first Mandan village was built under the leadership of the
tribal hero, Good Furred Robe, the First Man told them how to build the
earth lodges.

5. GOVERNOR'S MANSION (_private_), 320 Ave. B, has been the residence
of North Dakota Governors since 1893, when the house was purchased
by the State from Asa Fisher, wealthy brewer. Governor Eli C. D.
Shortridge was the first chief executive to occupy the mansion. Typical
of the architecture of the Territorial day in which it was built, the
two-story white frame building, with its spacious, high-ceilinged rooms
and four fireplaces, has remained unchanged except for the addition of
a front porch. The large elm and box elder trees were planted in 1900.
During early statehood many important social functions were held in the

6. CAIRN (_private_), 912 Mandan St., home of Mr. and Mrs. Clell G.
Gannon, is a small house built largely of native boulders, and designed
by its owners.

7. HOME OF ALEXANDER McKENZIE (_private_), 722 5th St., a large white
frame house built in the indeterminate, unpedigreed style typical of
North Dakota's architecture of the nineties, remains unchanged from
the days when it was the home of Alexander McKenzie (1856-1922),
spectacular figure of early Bismarck and State history, master
politician, ally of the railroads.

Arriving in Bismarck as a young man in the early 1870's, he soon
rose to a position of civic and Territorial importance, becoming an
unofficial representative of the Northern Pacific Railway. How much
McKenzie had to do with moving the Territorial capital from Yankton to
Bismarck will perhaps never be known. However, the fact that a Capital
Commission was named and given power to move the capital, and the
fact that McKenzie secured for himself a place on the commission, are
credited to him as among his most able political maneuvers.

Although he held only one public office--sheriff of Burleigh County for
12 years--his influence and the so-called "McKenzie ring" survived all
attacks by political reformers. He was active in State politics until
his death in 1922.

8. BURLEIGH COUNTY COURTHOUSE, Thayer Ave. between 5th and 6th Sts.,
is a three-story modern-type building designed by Ira Rush of Minot
and constructed of North Dakota concrete-brick faced with Bedford
limestone, with a base of pearl pink granite. In the main floor
vestibule, wainscoted in marble, is a series of murals by Clell. G.
Gannon, Bismarck artist, depicting early county history. A further
native note appears in the balustrading of the stairways, where grilled
nickel silver forms a graceful design using the stalk, ear, and slender
leaf of the corn as motif.

This is the third Burleigh County courthouse to stand on this block.
A marker on the west lawn designates the site of the first, a log
building built in 1873. It was replaced in 1880 by a brick structure.
The present building was erected in 1930.

9. BISMARCK PUBLIC LIBRARY (_open weekdays 10:30-9; Oct.-May Sun.
2-5_), 519 Thayer Ave., a Carnegie institution, is a vine-covered,
red brick Georgian Colonial style building. In addition to having a
large and varied selection of magazines, newspapers, and fiction and
non-fiction books, it maintains a separate children's division with
loan service, reading room, and story hour.

10. FEDERAL BUILDING, NE. corner Bdwy. and 3rd St., a tile-roofed
Indiana limestone building of Italian design, houses the post office,
United States courtroom, and various Federal offices.

11. MARQUIS DE MORES' STORAGE PLANT, 300 Main St., is a plain, somewhat
shabby building used as a restaurant, built by the marquis when he
envisaged a huge meat packing industry in the Badlands (_see Tour 8_).
The building was formerly situated south of the railroad. The walls
consist of two-inch planks laid flat on each other. These, together
with the brick veneer, form a wall about 14 inches thick.

12. UNITED STATES WEATHER BUREAU (_open_), 101 Main St., was begun
as part of the work of Camp Hancock in 1874, and a portion of the
structure, the old log building which was Camp Hancock headquarters,
remains. It is the oldest building in Bismarck, but has been sheathed
in lumber, and additions have been built. The bureau, moved 11 times,
is now permanently established at its first home.

13. WORLD WAR MEMORIAL BUILDING, 215 6th St., which serves as a
community center, is a three-story structure of modern design, built of
white Hebron (N. Dak.) brick and concrete with limestone trim. It was
designed by Liebenberg and Kaplan of Minneapolis in 1930.

14. BANK OF NORTH DAKOTA (_open weekdays 8:30-4:30_), 700 Main St.,
was created by a special referendum election of June 26, 1919, passing
a law providing that "For the purpose of encouraging and promoting
agriculture, commerce and industry, the State of North Dakota shall
engage in the business of banking, and for that purpose shall and
does establish a system of banking, owned, controlled and operated by
it, under the name of the Bank of North Dakota." It is managed and
controlled by the State Industrial Commission. State funds, and funds
of State institutions are deposited here. The bank was one of the
important features in the program of the Nonpartisan League at the time
of its organization, being designed to carry out the fourth plank of
the league platform, the establishment of rural credit banks operated
at cost. The red brick bank building was originally an automobile

STATE REGULATORY DEPARTMENT LABORATORY (_open_), is on the fourth floor
of the Bank of North Dakota Building. North Dakota was a pioneer State
in pure food legislation. A law passed in 1895 paved the way for
the pure food and fertilizer laws of 1903. State inspectors, active
at all times throughout the State, send samples for analysis to this
laboratory, where trained chemists make the tests. Constant inspection
of food and dairy products, feeds, fertilizers, water, oils, and paints
is maintained.

15. ST. MARY'S CEMETERY, NE. edge of the city, contains the graves of
many of the pioneers who played an important part in the development of
the city and State. Among those buried here are Alexander McKenzie and
his son, Alexander, Jr.; and Gen. E. A. Williams, first representative
from Burleigh County to the Territorial Assembly, and his wife.


  State Penitentiary, =2 m.=, Fort Lincoln, =4.5 m.=, Sibley Island,
  =7 m.=, Liberty Memorial Bridge, =1.5 m.= (_see Tour 8_). Fort
  Abraham Lincoln State Park, =9.5 m.= (_see_ FORT ABRAHAM LINCOLN
  STATE PARK). Pioneer Park, =2 m.= (_see Side Tour 3B_).


  =Railroad Stations:= Northern Pacific, Bdwy. at Front St.; Great
  Northern, Bdwy. at 5th Ave. N.; Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul
  (Milwaukee), 1101 2nd Ave. N.

  =Bus Stations:= Union Station, 502 N. P. Ave., for Northland
  Greyhound, Checker, Jack Rabbit, and Triangle Lines; Cole Hotel,
  407-1/2 N. P. Ave., for Liederbach Line.

  =Airport:= Hector Field, NW. outskirts of city, 1/2 m. W. of US
  81, Northwest Airlines, taxi fare 50c, time 10 min.; day and night
  service, public hangars.

  =Taxis:= 25c anywhere in city, 10c for each additional passenger.

  =City Bus Line:= Intra-city, fare 10c.

  =Traffic Regulations:= Front St. and 1st Ave. N. (US 10), 13th St.
  (US 81), 10th, and 4th Sts. are through streets. Watch for stop
  signs and street signals; no U-turn on through streets; turns in
  either direction at intersections. Street signs designate hour
  parking limits in business district.

  =Accommodations:= 30 hotels; Fargo municipal tourist camp,
  Lindenwood Park, marked road 3/4 m. S. of city limits, from S. end
  of 5th St.

  =Tourist Information Service:= Greater North Dakota Association, 13
  Bdwy.; Chamber of Commerce, 504 1st Ave. N.

  =Theaters and Motion Picture Houses:= Little Country Theater,
  agricultural college, 13th St. at 12th Ave. N., college
  productions; Festival Hall, agricultural college, occasional
  touring artists and stock companies; 6 motion picture houses.


  =Golf:= Municipal 18-hole course, Edgewood Park, 3 m. NE. of city
  limits (_greens fee 35c_).

  =Tennis:= Courts at Oak Grove Park, E. end of 6th and 7th Aves. N.;
  Island Park, S. end of Bdwy.

  =Swimming:= Outdoor, Red River bordering Island Park at E. end of
  1st Ave. S.; indoor, Central High School, 3rd Ave. S. bet. 10th and
  11th Sts., open during summer; Y. M. C. A., 632 1st Ave. N.

  =Baseball:= Barnett Field, Fairgrounds, 19th Ave. N. and Bdwy.,
  Northern League.

  =Skating:= Island Park; Pershing Park, 14th St. at 8th Ave. N.

  =Skiing:= Dovre Ski Club, highest artificial jump in United States
  (1936), 1-1/2 m. N. of 19th Ave. on N. Bdwy. Rd.

  =Tobogganing:= Island Park.

  =Hockey:= Island Park, Commercial League and high school teams.

  =Annual Events:= Ice Carnival, Island Park, January 1; Farmers'
  and Homemakers' Week, agricultural college, 3rd week in January;
  Bison Brevities, agricultural college, March, no fixed date;
  May Festival, agricultural college, 1st week in May; Northwest
  Norwegian Whist Tournament in connection with Norwegian
  Independence Day, May 17; Lilac Festival, agricultural college,
  May, no fixed date; State Fair, Fairgrounds, Bdwy. at 17th Ave.
  N., June, no fixed date; Valleyland Music Festival, June, no fixed
  date; State Golf Tournament, Fargo Country Club, July, no fixed
  date; Harvest Festival and Homecoming, agricultural college,
  October, no fixed date; 4-H Club Boys' and Girls' Achievement
  Institute, agricultural college, December, no fixed date.

FARGO (907 alt., 28,619 pop.) is on the Red River of the North at the
entrance of two transcontinental railroads into the State. A small,
youthful city, whose varied activities give its business section a
somewhat disorderly air, it is the largest town in North Dakota. Over
the flatness of an old lakebed, where ten thousand years ago the water
of the melting glacier stood 200 feet deep, the city now widely spreads
its homes, manufacturing plants, wholesale houses, trees and parks,
schools and hospitals.

The trail which in 1871 led west from the Red River ferry, across
the level floor of prehistoric Lake Agassiz, is now Front Street,
which enters Fargo from the east to be greeted by the city's slum
district, where dilapidated, unpainted frame shacks near the river
give way westward to better buildings in a wholesaling district, until
Broadway is reached. Broadway is the very heart of Fargo, a busy,
crowded thoroughfare whose appearance often causes visitors to believe
the city larger than it actually is. From its wide south end where
it intersects Front, Broadway runs north, flanked for six blocks by
two-and three-story store and office buildings. Two of North Dakota's
four "skyscrapers" are on Broadway.

Fargo first appeared on the horizon in the 1870's as an outfitting
point, the last outpost of settlement for those tens of thousands
who pioneered in the State, and through the years of its growth has
retained its first excuse for being, for it still serves as chief
distributing point for a large agricultural area. Farm implements,
foodstuffs, petroleum products, automobiles, and automotive equipment
to the value of more than $45,000,000 are handled annually.

Although from a North Dakota standpoint it is an old city, Fargo is
young enough to have a few of its founders still alive to tell of how
they first advertised their spindly little city by boasting that its
volunteer fire company, the Yerxa Hose Team, was the world's fastest;
or of how, in later years, Fargo gloried in being the "Gateway City"
to the "bread basket of the world," the fertile Red River Valley which
real estate agents compared to the valley of the Nile. The Valley is no
longer the intensive wheat-raising area it was, but the Fargo Chamber
of Commerce will tell you that this very fertile flat land, through
which meanders one of the few rivers that flow north, is literally
a land of milk and honey, and others no less cognizant of their
surroundings have changed the old slogan to the "food basket of the

Because it is the distributing point for an agricultural State, changes
in farming methods have been reflected in the business life of the
city. With the introduction of diversified farming to supplement wheat
growing, Fargo became an important shipping center for grain, potatoes,
dairy, and poultry products. In 1936 it was the largest primary sweet
clover market in the world. Seed companies, creameries, a flour mill,
bakeries, and implement distributors are evidence of the relationship
between the city and the large farming area it serves. As late as
1927 Fargo was the world's third largest farm machinery distributing
point, and, although it undoubtedly does not retain this position,
as a shipping point it has become even more significant. A change in
freight rates granted in 1925 by the Interstate Commerce Commission
boosted Fargo volume. Two of the three railroads into the city are
transcontinental lines which, with their branches, cover almost the
entire State of North Dakota. Several "feeder lines" converge at Fargo
and in addition there are a large number of trucking companies. The
Minneapolis _Star_ said in 1936:

  "Fargo stands in exactly the same relationship to the northwest
  that Minneapolis has always stood.... The significant point is that
  it is some 250 miles nearer the western point of consumption. Goods
  that used to stop at Minneapolis for distribution now flow on to
  Fargo to be piecemealed out."

The largest single part of the wholesale trade is carried on by
automotive distributors, including the Ford and Chevrolet Motor
Companies. Processing accounts for the next largest part of the city's
industry, and, although meat packing and creameries are important,
there is a constant increase in the manufacture of steel, wood, and
glass products. Fargo is likewise a banking and insurance center, and
has the home offices of two insurance companies.

Its situation, at the point where railroads first entered the State,
in what Stuart Chase has characterized as perhaps the richest farming
region in the world, has combined with the North Dakota Agricultural
College to make Fargo the natural agricultural headquarters for North
Dakota. Results of experimental work conducted at the college station
and its substations, extension work through 4-H and Homemakers clubs,
and judging of farm produce at State and county fairs by college
instructors, all contribute to the improvement of agricultural and
rural life in the State.

Fargo's percentage of home ownership is far above the national average.
Homes clustered around the business district are of early twentieth
century frame vintage, while farther out newer cottages and bungalows,
in English and Colonial style, behind small young trees and newly
sprouting lawns, are characteristic of the more recent residential
additions. Some of Fargo's finest homes are on Eighth Street South.

Fargo's public school system consists of 11 elementary schools, 3
junior high schools, and a senior high school; privately owned are
3 Catholic schools, a Lutheran school, 3 business colleges, 2 music
conservatories, and 5 trade schools. The first Protestant church
services in the southern Red River Valley in North Dakota were held in
Fargo, and now more than 30 denominations have churches in the city.
St. Mary's Cathedral is the seat of the diocese of the Roman Catholic
Church for the eastern half of North Dakota, and Fargo is likewise the
seat of the North Dakota diocese of the Episcopal Church.

The city's best-known musical group, the Amphion Male Chorus, composed
of Fargo and Moorhead, Minn., singers, has toured nearby cities and
eastern United States, giving concerts in New York and Philadelphia.
Community singing is popular in Fargo, and during the summer months
Island Park is the scene of outdoor concerts and singing contests. In
June each year the music-minded of the Red River Valley gather in the
city for the Valleyland Music Festival.

The agricultural college, always prominent in the cultural life of the
city, has become even more important in late years with the increased
number of college lyceum programs and the growth of the community
theater movement. The Little Country Theater, the outstanding players'
group in the State, has become a virtual authority on community theater
organization and has received favorable notice nationally.

The city is named for William G. Fargo, a director of the Northern
Pacific Railway and founder of the Wells-Fargo Express Company, and
its early history is closely linked with that of the railroad. In 1871
the announcement that a railroad would be built "from Lake Superior to
the Pacific Ocean" aroused much speculation as to where it would cross
the Red River, and the untouched land along the river suddenly became
populated. Three settlers, Jacob Lowell, Jr., Henry S. Back, and Andrew
McHench, formed a triumvirate and patrolled the Red from the mouth of
the Wild Rice to the Elm River from April to June 29 in an effort to
discover "the first indications of the railroad crossing."

Meanwhile, Thomas H. Canfield of the Lake Superior and Puget Sound
Company, a town site company auxiliary to the Northern Pacific, worked
with the railroad engineers in seeking the best point for the line to
cross the Red, since he wished to secure title to the land for his
company before it was snatched up by some speculator in the hope of
selling it to the railroad for a large sum. He and his engineers chose
the present crossing because it was the highest point on the river
and therefore in the least danger from floods. Andrew Holes, who with
his wife had been touring the country in a covered wagon, was sent to
Alexandria, Minn., to purchase the land on the east side of the river
from its homesteader-owner, Joab Smith. In order to locate on the lands
west of the Red it was necessary to plow a half acre of each section.
Aided by Maj. G. G. Beardsley, Canfield secured the necessary farm
equipment, hid it until Holes returned with the deed to the Minnesota
property, and by moonlight secretly made the required improvements.

On June 29, while on his patrol, Lowell found a "Farmer Brown" squatted
with three Scandinavian settlers on what became the Fargo town site.
Although Farmer Brown was clothed in well worn overalls with a brown
hat and hickory shirt and "sat with such ease and unconcern upon the
handles of his plow," Lowell doubted his being a farmer. He hastily
summoned Back and McHench, and the three, after a consultation,
located near Farmer Brown on July 1 and 2, 1871. Shortly afterwards
Farmer Brown's identity as Beardsley became known and a stampede of
settlers followed. Since Beardsley and his party were in the employ
of the Lake Superior and Puget Sound Company, and were not bona fide
settlers, their prior occupancy was disregarded and later, after much
litigation, the company withdrew its claim to the Fargo land, retaining
only the purchased Moorhead area.

In September 1871 G. J. Keeney was appointed postmaster of Centralia,
the little settlement that sprang up at the railroad crossing. Keeney
was also a lawyer and real estate agent and his office was somewhat of
a community center, according to one author, who wrote,

  "He placed over the door of his 10 × 12 office the sign 'Post
  Office', on the door the sign 'Law Office', and in the window 'Land
  Office.' He raised lettuce on the earth roof of his log shack, and
  decorated the inside walls with papers sent by the folks back home.
  On entering, one was at once impressed with the air of cleanliness
  and comfort which pervaded the sanctum of this enterprising limb of
  the law, and it became a popular reading and rest room, but ... one
  assumed a risk in becoming interested in a story as some chapter of
  it was certain to be found on the ceiling."

During the winter following the location of the site, the settlement
divided into two communities. "Fargo on the Prairie", headquarters
of the Northern Pacific engineering department (near the corner of
Broadway and Front Streets), was a tent town, home of the railroad
engineers and surveyors and their wives and children. Although
crude, the tents of "Fargo on the Prairie" had all the luxuries and
conveniences that money could bring into the frontier settlement. In
sharp contrast to this was "Fargo in the Timber," a town of huts, rough
log houses, dugouts, and caves dug in the river banks, which stretched
along both sides of the trail leading up from the ferry crossing.
The two communities had nothing in common and residents of one would
never be mistaken for residents of the other. The Timber used great
quantities of whiskey, and popping revolvers made the night dangerous.
The postmaster resorted to "double planking" the sleeping bunk of his
tent for safety, and it was well that he did, for in later years he
could show a board of the bunk with a bullet embedded in it.

A typical Timber sense of humor was displayed by the resident who, when
buying a load of wood from two young Moorhead, Minn., men, had them
haul it over to Fargo, and then drew his revolver and ordered the men
back across the river without troubling to pay for the wood.

The difference between Fargo in the Timber and Fargo on the Prairie
engendered a rivalry which both sides seldom neglected to intensify.
Once when a wagonload of potatoes arrived for Gen. Thomas L. Rosser
of the Prairie, residents of the Timber loosened the end-gates of the
wagon and shot off revolvers to frighten the horses. As the team
dashed wildly up the road, the potatoes rolled out of the wagon, to
be picked up with relish by residents of the Timber, for many of whom
those were the only potatoes obtainable all that winter.

On another occasion, as a sleigh-load of dressed turkeys and chickens
bound for military headquarters drove through the one street of the
Timber, with the driver muffled in a heavy buffalo-robe coat, residents
of that community gradually lightened his load, audaciously picking off
the fowls one by one, until all were taken. The driver did not know his
loss until he reached the mess tent.

Whiskey "in a tin cup" was generally supposed to be more enlivening
than if taken otherwise. One Sunday, as the time for church neared, a
disappointed minister found only a small group gathered to hear his
sermon. One of the men assured the clergyman, however, that there
would be more in a few minutes. Taking a bell, he went up and down the
street, ringing it and exhorting all Christians to attend an address by
Rev. O. H. Elmer of Moorhead, "whiskey in a tin cup to be served free
immediately after the service." A large crowd heard the sermon.

The law in early Fargo had its amusing moments. H. S. Back, justice of
the peace, after performing the first wedding ceremony, invested his
$3 fee in drinks for the crowd. The next day he tried his first case,
found the prisoner guilty, and fined him $15 and costs. Informed by the
prisoner's attorney that there was only $5 in sight, he changed the
fine to $5 and no costs.

At this time Fargo was still Indian territory, and the Lake Superior
and Puget Sound Company, hoping to regain possession of the town site,
informed the Government that residents of the Timber were illegally
located on Indian lands, and were also selling liquor. On the evening
of February 16, 1872, troops passed through the city and camped for
the night near General Rosser's headquarters on the Prairie. The
troops, it was said, were on their way west to fight Indians, but a
commotion before daylight the next morning awakened the Timber to find
soldiers stationed before the door of each dwelling. All residents
of the community were arrested and taken to the tent that served as
a temporary jail, and those for whom the soldiers had warrants for
selling liquor were removed to Pembina for trial. The others were
ordered to leave the city lest their property be confiscated and
burned and they be removed by force. They were not so easily defeated,
however, and appealed to the Government for their land rights. A treaty
was made with the Indians whereby the land was opened to settlement
and those residents of the Timber who were guilty of no other offense
were allowed to hold their land according to their original claims.

From a virgin prairie land where the Sioux battled the Chippewa, the
terrain around Fargo became a rich farming country, well peopled
and with acres of land sown to wheat. As late as 1868 the Red River
Valley was generally believed to be a barren country, and in the early
seventies Cass County was still a Sioux reservation. The first wheat
sown by the acre was harvested in 1872, and there was barely enough
grain to make bread for the few people in the vicinity. James Holes,
whose farm was one mile north of the Northern Pacific depot in what is
now Holes' addition to the city of Fargo, complained to the railroad
that the exorbitant freight rate of 30c a bushel from Fargo to Duluth
made wheat raising unprofitable for anything but local consumption.
Freight rates were reduced in 1873, and Holes' 175-acre crop brought
him nearly $5,000 in 1876 and by 1893 he was harvesting a 1,600-acre

Bonanza farms, demonstrating the profit in large scale wheat raising,
were largely responsible for the enormous increase in acreage and the
equally large gain in population through immigration.

The influx of new settlers who came on the first train of the Northern
Pacific across the Red River June 8, 1872 brought law and order to the
city. Even the saloons felt the difference--one of them closed every
Sunday, and an admonition printed on its curtains read, "Remember the
Sabbath and keep it holy."

The Father Genin Mission House on the Red River above Fargo,
established in 1866, was the only place of regular Christian worship
until the Episcopal church was built in 1872. The first school was a
private one, presided over by Miss Mercy Nelson, aged 15.

As the Yuletide season of 1873 approached, Fargo residents laid
plans for a community Christmas celebration. A tree purchased for
the occasion was stolen, however, and at a mass meeting of protest
the suspected culprits, Moorhead, Minn., residents, were hanged in
effigy from the railroad bridge. Next morning a mock funeral was
held; a locomotive and boxcar draped in mourning proceeded slowly to
the bridge, the effigies were cut down and buried in a snowdrift.
That night the tree was returned. It was set up at 27 Front Street,
and decorated with silver half dollars, one for each child under 14.
A locomotive headlight was used to illumine the tree. Most of the
children had never seen a half dollar, as the coins, intended as
souvenirs of the occasion, were new at the time.

Although there was traffic on the Red River as early as 1857, not until
the railroad crossed the Red, and Fargo became the southern terminus
of river transportation, did steamboating boom. In the season of 1872
three steamers of 100-ton capacity reported carrying 1,000 passengers
and 4,000 tons of goods on trips north. Bonanza farming brought greater
need for transportation of grain and merchandise and by 1879 river
traffic was at its height. There were several boatyards at Fargo,
and Government engineers were employed in clearing and improving the
channel of the river. The Kittson Line, owned by the Hudson's Bay
Company, was the largest line on the river. It successfully outlived
all competitors and enjoyed a monopoly a large part of the time. The
income from a single eight-day trip of the steamer _Sheyenne_ from
Fargo to Fort Garry (Winnipeg, Manitoba) is said to have resulted in a
profit large enough to cover the entire cost of building the steamer
and the three barges it towed. Construction of the Great Northern
Railway northward through the Red River Valley in 1880, however,
inaugurated the decline of river transportation at Fargo.

By 1880 the city had a population of 2,693. An interesting
cross-section view of the community is given by Finlay Dun, a British
agricultural expert who toured the Red River Valley in 1879:

  "In Fargo, built of stone and brick, there are already three
  good hotels, and another in contemplation; rather too many
  drinking saloons; a concert and ball room, where recently a grand
  subscription ball was given for which gentlemen's tickets were
  stated to be $25. There is a courthouse and two portly courteous
  judges, and a provost marshall or commandant of police, all those
  important officers holding their appointments from year to year;
  a successful daily newspaper, two corn-merchants, a thriving
  school, while preparations are being made for building churches.
  An Opera-Comique is in successful operation ... (and) from an area
  of many miles the dark-visaged farm-fellows with slouch hats, many
  with blue guernseys, some lumberers in red flannel jackets, and
  occasional Indians, and many half-breeds, congregated in large
  numbers to this opera-house in Fargo.... The immense and varied
  collections of agricultural implements are strikingly indicative of
  the breaking in of new lands. The light wagons are drawn by horses,
  mules, and oxen, but the ox teams are rather the most numerous."

Even as he wrote, Fargo was rapidly changing from a frontier village
to a city, for he says, "But Fargo is a metropolis compared with the
'primordial cells' of towns budding at roadside stations...." While
almost everyone in the city owned a buffalo-robe coat, and one of the
duties of locomotive engineers was to use their steam whistles for fire
alarms, a horse-car line was in operation during the winter of 1879
and 1880; unfortunately the track layers failed to prepare a firm bed
for the rails and when spring came the track disappeared into the mud.

Early in the city's life William G. Fargo offered a premium of $500 for
the establishment of a newspaper to be called the Fargo _Express_. In
order to secure the bonus A. H. Moore and Seth Boney started a paper
under that name in June 1873, but payment was withheld for the reason
that it was printed on the press of the Glyndon, Minn., _Gazette_.
On January 1, 1874, the Fargo _Express_, the first paper actually
printed in Fargo, was published and received the promised bonus. From
a combination of the _Express_ and seven later papers has emerged
the Fargo _Forum_, today leading the newspaper field in Fargo and
the State. The _Normanden_, a Norwegian weekly, successor to the Red
River _Posten_ established in 1886, is the only foreign language paper
published in the city.

Fargo had a private college as early as 1887, but when North Dakota was
preparing for statehood in the late 1880's, and each of the various
cities in the State was trying to annex at least one State-maintained
institution, progressive Fargo citizens succeeded in getting the
promise of an agricultural college. There was one close call, when
only a veto by the governor averted transfer of the school to Valley
City, but in the fall of 1889 Fargo saw the opening of the North Dakota
Agricultural College. The prairie-land which had been designated as
a campus boasted not one building, so rooms were rented from Fargo
College until 1891, when the administration building was erected.

On a hot windy day in June 1893 the most severe fire in the city's
history broke out on Front Street. Burning almost the entire business
section and northeast part of the city, it left many homeless.
Although the four to five million dollar loss was a serious setback,
the fire marked the end of the wooden era, and rebuilding with brick
began at once. For many years a fire festival was held on June 7 to
celebrate the anniversary of the event which resulted in so many civic

Four years later, March 31, 1897, the Red River, dammed by an ice jam
north of Fargo, began rising, and continued until April 7. Conditions
became appalling. Residents who had moved from the first floor of their
homes were forced to leave for still higher spots via second story
windows. Merchants carried their stocks up to top floors and attics,
and groceries and the necessities of life were delivered by boat. When
the Great Northern and Northern Pacific railroad bridges were in danger
of being swept away, locomotives and threshing machines were run out on
them to hold them down. The Fargo _Forum_ wrote,

  "A. N. Hathaway's family left Island Park by crawling out of the
  second story windows. Colonel Morton decided that discretion was
  the better part of valor and retreated ... from his Oak Grove
  residence Saturday night. Passengers from the east this morning saw
  three horses and four cows on the roof of one barn."

Later the paper complained editorially when Congress appropriated only
$200,000 for flood sufferers in the Mississippi and Red River Valleys,
saying, "Fargo before the world begging for a handout.... It wouldn't
buy a good dose of quinine for each resident of the inundated district
to stave off the chill he's sure to have." When the waters had subsided
it was found that 18 blocks of sidewalk and 20 blocks of wooden street
paving had floated away. During the flood and the six weeks while the
debris was being cleared away and the damage repaired, the _Forum_ was
published without interruption. A temporary office was set up with a
threshing machine engine furnishing power to operate the presses, and
deliveries were made by boat.

The attractions of open farm lands and expanding industries brought
thousands of settlers to North Dakota, and by the turn of the century
Fargo had a population of 9,589. Important among the industries listed
in a 1901 paper were two harness and horse collar factories, one of
which issued a 300-page catalogue of its merchandise. One of the larger
wholesale houses was Brown's Bicycle House on Broadway at N. P. Avenue.

The city was taking on a metropolitan air. An opera house, seating
1,000, was built in 1893, and belonged to the "Bread Basket Circuit"
which included Winnipeg, Grand Forks, Crookston, and Brainerd, with
headquarters at Fargo. Fargo was a favorite "stopover" for theater
companies, and among the celebrities who thrilled those early audiences
were Mrs. Fiske in _Becky Sharpe_, and Blanche Walsh and Chauncey
Olcott in _A Run Away Girl_. In 1899 an item in the _Record_, a
magazine published in Fargo, remarked, "It is considered quite the
thing to drop in at the Coffee House on Broadway ... between one and
five p. m. and spend a few moments drinking coffee and chatting, etc."
This fad may have been due to the divorce colony which flourished in
Fargo then. A 90-day divorce law was in effect, and the city became the
temporary abode of many wealthy people who came to establish residence
and obtain a separation from their mates. Lawyers, hotels, cafes, and
bars did a rushing business.

In the 30 years between 1900 and 1930 Fargo tripled its population.
Almost half of its residents are of Norwegian descent. Feeling the
effects of an economic depression in their own country in the late
nineteenth century, thousands of Norwegians, exhorted by transportation
companies and influenced by the glowing tales of their countrymen
in the United States, emigrated to North Dakota. Taking advantage of
the free lands opened to homesteading, they became some of the first
farmers in the upper Red River Valley and helped settle Fargo. Those
who made their homes here are today well mingled with the rest of the
population and few of their Old World customs are kept alive with
the exception of the preparation of Norwegian foods such as _lefse_,
_lutefisk_, _fattigmand_, and _flad broed_. (_See_ RACIAL GROUPS AND
FOLKWAYS.) Not forgotten, however, are important national holidays such
as May 17, Norwegian Independence Day, which is celebrated with parades
and appropriate ceremonies. The Norse influence is further seen in the
statues and sculpture of and by noted Norsemen found throughout the


occupies a level, 100-acre campus in the northwest outskirts of the
city. The large tree-enclosed square is cut by graveled driveways
curving between rows of hedges, trees, and clumps of shrubbery
connecting the irregularly placed, architecturally heterogenous

Under the Enabling Act of 1889 North Dakota, upon entering statehood,
became possessed of a Federal grant of 40,000 acres for an agricultural
college. A year later the first State legislature took advantage of
the earlier Morrill Land Grant Act, and acquired an additional 90,000
acres of Federal lands. Proceeds from these lands, together with
Congressional appropriations, have created an endowment fund that
enables the school to offer courses at a minimum tuition fee and to
conduct extensive agricultural experiments.

A group of only five students under the supervision of eight
instructors gathered October 15, 1890, for the opening classes, held
in quarters rented from Fargo College, but before the end of the term
the enrollment was 122. Elaborate dedication services for the college
were planned in connection with the laying of the cornerstone of the
administration building the following spring. After the program had
begun it was discovered, to the consternation of the participants, that
there was no flag available for the ceremony. A quick-witted student
saved the day by contriving a makeshift pennant from a pair of overalls.

From the entrance at 12th Ave. N. and 13th St., a graveled road makes
a loop through the campus. Past the TENNIS COURTS (R) is a TABLET (L)
of Norwegian granite, in which is set a medallion of Bjornstjerne
Bjornson, Norwegian poet and patriot. Best known as author of the
Norwegian national anthem _Ja vi elsker dette landet_ (Yes, I love
this land), Bjornson was also a prominent exponent of scientific
agriculture. The medallion is the work of Sigvold Asbjornson, Norwegian

ADMINISTRATION BUILDING (R), a two-story red brick and sandstone
structure, shows architectural influence of the Medieval and Romanesque
periods. On the second floor is the LITTLE COUNTRY THEATER, founded
in 1914 as a country-life laboratory by Prof. A. G. Arvold, head of
the department of public discussion and social life. With facilities
available in the average rural community, students are taught to
present entertainments which will provide recreation and education for
the communities in which they expect to live.

The LIBRARY (L), of Classic design, contains nearly 55,000 volumes, and
is a depository for United States Government documents. The ENGINEERING
BUILDING (R), including the engineering and architectural departments,
is a neoclassic structure of pressed brick with sandstone trim. As
the road turns R., SCIENCE HALL, a rambling brick structure, is L.
It houses the schools of science, literature, and education, and the
laboratories of the experimental station where research is conducted
in botany and plant pathology. A three-section GREENHOUSE (L) is
maintained in connection with this department.

The AGRICULTURE BUILDING (L), a three-story tile-roofed structure
showing influences of Roman and Spanish architecture, houses the school
of agriculture, offices of the experimental station, and the extension

Right is the CHEMISTRY BUILDING. FRANCES HALL (L) houses the farm
management division and the school of pharmacy. The DAIRY BUILDING and
the old BARRACKS are R.

At the next curve of the road are the FARM BUILDINGS of the agriculture
division (L and R). Just before reaching 13th St. the road passes the
PHYSICAL EDUCATION BUILDING (L), erected in 1930. It has an indoor
track, swimming pool, and auditorium with seating capacity of 3,600.
Athletic events featured today at the college with its modern gymnasium
and floodlighted football field were impossible during early days at
the school, for even if enough students had been enrolled to allow
football and basketball teams, there was no athletic coach, and lack
of transportation facilities prohibited games with other colleges.
In those days one of the chief pastimes of the students was bronco
busting, facilities for which were readily available.

Right on 13th St. is the MEN'S DORMITORY (R) and the home economics
PRACTICE HOUSE (R). The SCHOOL OF RELIGION (L), of modern design in
white stucco, originally conducted as a branch of Wesley College, has
been turned over to the agricultural college under a 99-year rent-free
lease of its buildings and equipment, together with a charter for
conferring degrees in religion.

Right on a campus road is CERES HALL (R), named for the goddess of
grain, and housing the women's dormitory, gymnasium, and the home
economics department. FESTIVAL HALL (R) is used for R. O. T. C. drill,
college entertainments, proms, and informal dances. The FOOTBALL FIELD
is R. of Festival Hall.

An outstanding organization on the campus is the Gold Star Band which
is part of the college R. O. T. C. unit. Directed since 1902 by Dr.
C. S. Putnam, it participates in special military events, appears at
athletic contests, and has made several tours through North Dakota and

With its campus on the plains of the Red River Valley where great herds
of buffalo once roamed, it is appropriate that the school should have
the bison as its insignia. The college emblem is a green and yellow
shield (the college colors) bearing the letters "N D" surmounted by a
bison. The traditional Homecoming banquet held each fall features a
bison barbecue.

The college maintains an extension division and experimental stations.
The extension service includes the formation of agricultural clubs in
rural communities and at the college, and administers Federal funds
allotted the State for agricultural education. A primary function
of the experimental department is the study of plant diseases and
the development of disease-resistant grains. H. L. Bolley, a member
of the faculty, discovered the formaldehyde treatment of seed for
the prevention of smut on wheat and other grains and perfected a
wilt-resistant flax while using these experimental facilities.

and 7-9 p. m._), 19th Ave. at the NE. edge of the city, is generally
referred to as the Veterans' Hospital. Erected in 1929, the three-story
brick veneer hospital contains 100 beds, 92 percent of which are filled
throughout the year. The grounds cover 50 acres; they are beautifully
landscaped, with sunken gardens, ivy arbor, sundial, and Japanese
gates. A rock garden was partially financed by the "40-and-8," a
veterans' organization.

3. BLACK BUILDING, 114-118 Bdwy., is one of the few buildings in North
Dakota of skyscraper proportions. Designed by Lang, Raugland, and Lewis
of Minneapolis, with Brasseth and Houkom of Fargo as associates, it is
constructed of concrete, steel, and white brick faced with blocks of
Indiana limestone with contrasting black spandrels between the windows.
Consisting of eight floors and basement, it rises 122 feet above the








  _Photo by Kermit Overby_]


RADIO STATION WDAY has its studios on the top floor. The oldest
commercial station in North Dakota, it began to function in May 1922,
operating on 100 watts. In March 1931 it became an associate member
of the National Broadcasting Company, and a number of chain programs,
including several from the agricultural college, have originated in its

4. FIRST LUTHERAN CHURCH, 619 Bdwy., is of English Gothic architecture,
a modern adaptation of the cathedrals erected in northern Europe
in the sixteenth century. It was designed by Magney and Tussler of
Minneapolis. The interior appointments are simple and severe, following
the traditional arrangement for formal Lutheran services. In an arched
sanctuary is the altar of golden Sienna marble. The congregation
represents a consolidation of two church groups, the Norwegian
Evangelical Lutheran Church founded in Moorhead in 1874 and moved to
Fargo four years later, and St. Paul's Evangelical Lutheran, organized
in Fargo in 1903.

5. FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, cor. 8th St. and 2nd Ave. N., in modified
English Gothic style, is of Faribault gray sandstone with slate roof,
in cruciform construction. It was designed by Lang, Raugland, and
Lewis of Minneapolis, with William F. Kurke of Fargo as associate. The
altar was hand-carved by a cousin of Anton Lang, the _Christus_ of the
Passion Play at Oberammergau.

The three-manual pipe organ is a gift of Mr. and Mrs. Norman B.
Black of Fargo. A stained glass window, designed by Homer L. Huntoon
and presented by him in 1932 in memory of his wife and infant son,
contains three panels, the central one of which depicts the sacrifice
of motherhood, showing a young mother with her baby kneeling before an
angel who holds the chalice and host, symbols of redemption. Art and
music are represented in the two side panels.

in 1929-30 at a cost of $600,000, is in Italian Renaissance style,
built of reinforced concrete faced with limestone. Ninety tons of steel
were used in the first floor, making it strong enough to support 10
stories in addition to its present three.

7. FARGO'S FIRST HOUSE (_private_), 119 4th St. S., is the home of Mr.
and Mrs. Henry Hector. It was built in 1871 of oak logs cut in what is
now Island Park, and, although used for two years as a hotel, it was
originally intended as the home of A. H. Moore, United States marshall.

8. CASS COUNTY'S FIRST COURTHOUSE, 708 1st Ave. S., has been remodeled
into the DeVolne Flats. This two-story gray frame building has had a
varied existence. Built in 1874, it served for 11 years as the seat of
the county government. It was then moved to the corner of Seventh and
Front Streets and used for a Government land office until October 4,
1886, when the construction of a new Northern Pacific depot made it
necessary that the building be again moved, this time to Eighth Street.
It remained there for a few months, then was sold for $500 and moved to
its present location where it became the first club rooms for the Fargo
Y. M. C. A.

9. MASONIC GRAND LODGE MUSEUM (_open weekdays 9-5_), 501 1st Ave. N.,
houses the Masonic Library, the only lodge library in the State. The
museum includes exhibits ranging from Indian artifacts and historical
relics to religious articles. Fargo's first sewing machine was donated
to the lodge because its owner found it so "noisy to run."

The library specializes in genealogical research for Masonic families.
Originally it was part of the museum and contained only copies of rare
books. The lodge members became interested in a State-wide program of
adult education, and began a lending library of non-fiction books. A
collection of 800 rare volumes, a gift to the library of T. S. Parvin,
secretary of the Iowa grand lodge, was destroyed in the Fargo fire; the
library later bought Mr. Parvin's entire private collection. Important
items include _Orationes Philelphi_ printed in 1491; a collection
of Bibles dating from the time of King Christian III of Denmark
(1503-1559); a copy of the first printed constitution of Freemasonry,
dated 1723; and histories of some of the early guides.

10. MONUMENT TO GANGE ROLF, Bdwy. at 5th Ave. N., stands in the Great
Northern depot park. Rollo, as Gange Rolf was also known, entered
France in 909 with a band of Northmen, and founded Rouen. Two years
later he installed himself Duke of Normandy. His line through William
the Conqueror became the royal house of England in 1066, and the
reigning family of Norway in 1905. The statue, a gift of the Society of
Normandy to the Norse people of America, was unveiled in 1912 on the
1001st anniversary of the founding of Normandy.

11. ISLAND PARK, Bdwy. at Red River, Fargo's first park, was donated
for a recreational center in 1877 by the Northern Pacific Railway. It
was undeveloped until the early 1880's when the city council undertook
the task of landscaping. In the attractive grounds are various athletic
facilities and a building that serves as a community center.

A granite MONUMENT in a fenced plot near the south driveway was
intended for a sundial but was never completed. The oddly phrased
religious sentiments on the sides are by O. W. Lien of Breckenridge,
Minn., donor of the shaft, who said they were dictated to him by a

Near the west drive is a bronze MONUMENT TO HENRIK WERGELAND, a
Norwegian poet noted for his efforts in opening the doors of Norway
to the Jews and the naming of May 17 as Norwegian Independence Day.
The monument is a gift of the Norwegian people to North Dakota and was
presented during the Wergeland centenary in 1908.

12. OAK GROVE PARK (_tennis courts_, _horseshoe courts_, _playground
apparatus_, _soft-ball diamonds_, _wading pool, picnic facilities_),
on the Red River, has entrances at the E. end of 6th and 7th Aves. N.,
known as South and North Terrace. So sharp are the curves of the river
that at one point one can look from North Dakota west into Minnesota.
Oak Grove covers 39 acres.

13. EL ZAGAL PARK (_private_), 1411 Bdwy., is the property of the El
Zagal Shrine Club. On the nine-hole golf course is the El Zagal Bowl,
a natural amphitheater, used during the summer months for concerts and
dramatic presentations. Programs each year include recitals by the
Amphion Male Chorus of Fargo and Moorhead. North from the park are
North Drive, which follows the Red River, and Memorial Drive, leading
to Edgewood Park.

14. DOVRE SKI SLIDE, 1-1/2 m. N. of 19th Ave. on N. Bdwy., when
completed in 1935, was the highest artificial ski scaffold in the
United States. At its highest point it is 140 feet from the ground.
Reaching their maximum speed at the end of the runway, 300 feet from
the top of the slide, skiers land on a hillside leading to the Red
River, and complete their slide in Minnesota.

stands on the site of a log cabin, the birthplace on August 27, 1871,
of Anna Thoresen, later Mrs. Anna Roe, first white girl born in Fargo
and Cass County. The school is housed in the buildings once occupied
by the first college in the city, Fargo College, founded in 1887 as a
Congregational school. The campus and main building had a beautiful
setting overlooking Island Park. A shrinking income closed the school
in 1919. In 1933, sponsored by the Good Samaritan Society, it became
a school for crippled children, a private organization dependent upon
donations from churches, fraternal societies, and other sources. It
operates as a boarding school, with vocational training and academic
courses from the first grade through high school.

16. On the SITE OF THE HEADQUARTERS HOTEL, between Bdwy. and 7th St.
S., N. of the Northern Pacific Railway, stood a large two-story frame
building which was the railroad station, hotel, and social center of
Fargo during its early days. Built by the Northern Pacific in 1872,
the hotel was formally opened April 1 the following year. After a
disastrous fire in 1874 it was rebuilt by Fargo business men at a
cost of $45,000. The new three-story combined hotel and depot was a
prominent landmark, visible for many miles on the flat prairie. Around
it flowed the life and business of the little frontier settlement and
through it filed the men and women who helped make the history of the
West. Its register carried the names of such notables as President
U. S. Grant and Gen. William T. Sherman. Gen. George A. Custer and
Gen. Nelson A. Miles often stayed there on their way to and from
the frontier. A menu preserved from the hotel's Christmas dinner in
1887 lists the following game dishes: "wild turkey, stuffed chestnut
dressing; possum with browned sweet potatoes; partridge with English
bread sauce; baked squirrel; saddle of venison, currant jelly; young
black bear; antelope, game sauce; buffalo steak; reed birds _a la
provencale_; broiled quail on toast"--and any of these for 50 cents.
One of the few buildings to escape the fire of 1893, the hotel burned
in 1899.

17. ST. MARY'S CATHEDRAL, Bdwy. at 6th Ave. N., seat of the diocese
of Fargo since 1891, is a red brick structure showing influences of
Classic and Gothic style. A prominent feature is a 190-foot bell tower
and steeple topped with a bronze cross. On the northeast corner of
the building a small tower forms a niche and canopy for a heroic size
statue of the Virgin Mary. In bas-relief on either side of the east
window over the entrance portals are figures of SS. Peter and Paul. The
cathedral, completed in 1899, was dedicated by Bishop John Shanley,
first Roman Catholic Bishop of North Dakota.


  Armour Packing Plant and Union Stockyards, West Fargo, =5 m.= (_see
  Tour 8_). Wild Rice River, =7 m.=; Holy Cross Cemetery, =8 m.=
  (_see Tour 1_).


  =Railroad Stations:= Great Northern, DeMers Ave. bet. 6th and 7th
  Sts. N., for G. N. Ry.; Northern Pacific, 202 N. 3rd St., for N. P.

  =Bus Stations:= Union Station, Dacotah Hotel Bldg., 1st Ave. N.
  at N. 3rd St., for Checker and Triangle Transportation Companies,
  Northland Greyhound, and Liederbach Lines; Columbia Hotel, 624
  DeMers, for Triangle Transportation Co.

  =Airport:= Municipal airport, 1 m. W. of city, 1/2 m. S. of US 2,
  for Northwest Airlines; taxi fare 75c, time 10 min.

  =Taxis:= Fare 25c first m., 10c additional each 1/2 m., 50c to

  =City Bus:= Throughout city, to university, and East Grand Forks,
  Minn., fare 10c.

  =Traffic Regulations:= Left and inside turns permitted at all
  intersections. N. 5th St. and Belmont Rd. (US 81) and University
  Ave. are through streets. W. from N. 5th St., 60 min. parking limit
  from noon to 6 p.m. No U-turn in business district. Traffic signals
  on DeMers Ave. at 3rd, 4th, and 5th Sts.

  =Accommodations:= 8 hotels; municipal tourist camp, Riverside Park,
  NE. outskirts of city.

  =Tourist Information Service:= Chamber of Commerce in City Hall,
  2nd Ave. N. at 4th St.; Travelers' Aid Bureau (_operating part
  time_), Great Northern depot.

  =Theaters and Motion Picture Houses:= City auditorium, 5th Ave. N.
  at 5th St., and Metropolitan Theater, 116 S. 3rd St., occasional
  road shows, local and university productions, concerts; Masonic
  Temple, Central High School Auditorium, local and university plays,
  concerts; 4 motion picture houses.

  =Golf:= Municipal 18-hole course, Lincoln Park, SE. outskirts
  of city on Belmont Rd. (_greens fee 40c_); Nodak 9-hole course,
  University Ave. at Columbia Rd. (_greens fee 20c for 18 holes_).

  =Tennis:= Courts at Riverside and Lincoln Parks, university campus
  (_small fee_).

  =Swimming:= Outdoor pool, Riverside Park, open June to September,
  charge for adults; indoor, Y.M.C.A., 15 N. 5th St.

  =Hockey:= Winter Sports Bldg., university; Riverside Park; and 1st
  Ave. N. at Washington St.

  =Skiing:= 105 ft. and 30 ft. scaffolds at Lincoln Park. Cross
  country trails through park and up Red River.

  =Tobogganing:= Central Park, S. end of 3rd St., toboggans (_small
  hourly charge_); small slides at Riverside and Lincoln Parks.

  =Skating:= Winter Sports Bldg., university; lighted outdoor rinks
  at Central and Riverside Parks; neighborhood rinks throughout city.

  =Trap Shooting:= Grand Forks Sportsmen's Association, range just
  outside city limits on University Ave.; Eckman rifle range, 1-1/2
  m. N. and 1/4 m. W. of city off US 81.


  =Annual Events:= All-American Turkey Show, City Auditorium, usually
  last week in January; Snow Modeling Contest, city parks, January;
  Winter Sports Carnival, city parks and Winter Sports Bldg.,
  university, 2nd week in February; Carney Song Contest, university
  armory, February 21; Flickertail Follies, March; Engineers' Day,
  university, 4th Friday in April; Norwegian Independence Day, May
  17; Interfraternity Sing, Bankside Theater, university, 4th week in
  May; High School Week, university, May; State Fair, fairgrounds,
  NW. outskirts of city on US 2, June; Water Carnival, Riverside
  Park, July; State Peony Show, June; Harvest Festival, 3rd week in
  September; Homecoming, university, October.

GRAND FORKS (830 alt., 17,112 pop.), seat of Grand Forks County, is
named for its situation at the confluence of the Red River of the North
and Red Lake River. The broad low profile of the city, dominated by the
State Mill and Elevator and the radio station towers, is visible long
before it is reached. Even the many trees do not obstruct the view, for
they grow chiefly along the river, roughly paralleling the highway.

Like other small Midwest cities, Grand Forks is a heterogeneous mixture
of nineteenth century and modern architecture. The south part of town,
along US 81 and its neighboring streets, is the finest residential
district. University Avenue, lined with rooming houses and quiet homes,
culminates in an architectural spectacle along Fraternity Row, an
impressive group of houses vying for prominence and grandeur.

Meat packing, milling, and processing of other agricultural products
constitute the city's chief industries. The largest railroad terminal
between St. Paul and Seattle, Grand Forks is headquarters of the
Dakota Division of the Great Northern Railway, the largest division in
the world, containing more than 1,800 miles of main line track. The
Northern Pacific Railway and several truck lines add to the shipping

The State university is not only a material asset of the city, but is
a vital part of its intellectual and social life. University musical
and dramatic performances are popular with townsfolk, college parties
and proms are leading society events, and athletic contests draw a
large attendance, not only from the city but from the entire northeast
section of the State.

It is thought that the early French-Canadian explorers of North Dakota
may have given this site the name of Grandes Fourches; by this name it
was commonly known to the French fur traders of the late eighteenth
century. In 1801, under direction of Alexander Henry, Jr., John Cameron
established a North West Company depot here. Where Henry's men traded
furs with the Indians, Grand Forks stands, the second largest city
in the State, and hub of a rich agricultural region in the Red River

Nothing is known of the occupants of the first house in Grand Forks, a
tumble-down shack discovered by travelers near the shores of the Red
River in the early 1850's. The site is now occupied by the warming
house of the Central Park skating rink.

In 1868 Nicholas Hoffman and August Loon, carrying mail from Fort
Abercrombie to Fort Pembina, built a log cabin at the present corner of
Eighth Avenue South and Almonte. They used it as an overnight shelter
on the long trip across the prairies.

Following his expedition by dogsled through Dakota in 1860, James J.
Hill, who later built the Great Northern Railway, sent Capt. Alexander
Griggs to explore the Red River. By the fall of 1870 Griggs had built
up a good freighting business, using flatboats to carry his cargoes.
George Winship, later publisher of the Grand Forks _Herald_, also went
into the flatboat freight business and a friendly rivalry developed
between the two commanders and their crews.

On one occasion Winship loaded two flatboats with merchandise at
McCauleyville, scheduled for Pembina. At the same time Captain Griggs
was loading a fleet of flatboats destined for Fort Garry (Winnipeg).
Winship set out a half day before Griggs finished loading, but Griggs'
crew boasted they could overtake the rival fleet. At the Goose Rapids
Winship was forced by low water and the rocky channel to reload his
entire cargo to a "lighter," a two-day task. Toward evening of the
second day shouts up the river announced Griggs' arrival at the head
of the rapids. Confident of keeping their lead, Winship and his crew
tied up for the night. Before morning a violent storm washed overboard
several kegs of beer which were part of their cargo. All were retrieved
but one, which floated unnoticed downstream, to be salvaged by the
Griggs crew. As a result of the ensuing party most of Griggs' men
were incapacitated, and he was forced to tie up his fleet at Grandes
Fourches to await recovery.

Winship reached Pembina safely, but before Griggs could proceed the
river froze, and he was forced to unload his cargo and store it in
improvised sheds. His crew, with no alternative but to spend the winter
here, were the first white people known to have domiciled on the site
of Grand Forks.

Captain Griggs built a squatter cabin at the mouth of the Red Lake
River, and after a trip to St. Paul in 1871 built the first frame house
in the settlement on the bank of the Red River, at the foot of what is
now Kittson Avenue, and brought his family to the new community.

In its early years Grand Forks was a typical river town, developing
into an important station for the heavy river and oxcart traffic on
the St. Paul-Fort Garry trail. Dwellings began to dot the prairie
beside the river, log huts and crude frame structures built from the
product of Captain Griggs' sawmill. A post office was established in
1871, and mail arrived once or twice a week by dog team. In the same
year a telegraph station was established, on the first line in the
State, running between Fort Abercrombie and Winnipeg. It was about this
time that the English pronunciation of the community's name came into
general use.

In the winter of 1872 there was much unemployment and saloons were
filled with idle men. During this winter "Catfish Joe," a half-witted
Frenchman, murdered a local character known as Old Man Stevens who,
while intoxicated, called him uncomplimentary names. The saloon crowd
decided on a lynching, and all through the night plans were discussed,
but with so many rounds of drinks that action was impossible. Catfish
Joe was tried for murder at Yankton, spent two years in prison,
and returned to terrify Grand Forks by strutting about the streets
decorated with a bowie knife and a Winchester. One courageous townsman,
Bert Haney, seized the gun and struck Joe a terrific blow on the head,
breaking the rifle barrel from the stock, but with no damage to Joe's
head. Catfish Joe later went to Montana where he murdered his partner
for refusing to get up in the night and prepare breakfast.

By the spring of 1872 Captain Griggs' sawmill was doing a flourishing
business, turning out lumber for building and repairing river boats
and barges. Logs were cut and floated down the river to Winnipeg.
When Frank Viets opened the first flour mill in the Red River Valley
at Grand Forks in 1877, he added another industry to the growing
settlement. The Hudson's Bay Company operated a store, managed by
Viets, who purchased it when the company moved to Winnipeg in 1877.

Since five families in the city had children of school age in 1873, it
became necessary to establish a school. As some of the families lived
on North Third Street and others in the Lincoln Park area, they could
not agree on a suitable location, and each faction held a school of its
own. Claim shanties served as school buildings, and a drayman, one of
Captain Griggs' hired men, taught the north end school.

There was no dentist in the community in the early days of Grand Forks.
Alex Walstrom, a blacksmith, used a pair of homemade tongs about two
feet long to pull aching teeth.

On October 26, 1875, Captain Griggs filed a plat of the original town
site of Grand Forks, covering 90 acres of his claim. The following
spring Viets filed the plat of his first addition. In 1879 the village
of Grand Forks was organized and three years later was incorporated as
a city.

Although life at the little river post lacked many refinements, the
social aspect was not entirely neglected. Weddings were carried out
with pomp and ceremony, and anniversaries appropriately celebrated. A
popular social custom, New Year calling, was introduced on January 1,
1876. Groups of men rode together in sleighs to call on their friends,
and then drove to the Hudson's Bay Company store, purchased flour,
sugar, tea, and other necessities, which they took to the homes of the

Until 1879 traffic moved by steamboat or stage, but the coming of the
Great Northern Railway in that year brought the rapid decline of both
these early modes of transportation. Their end was hastened by the
extension of the Northern Pacific Railway from Crookston, Minn., to
Grand Forks two years later.

George Walsh founded the _Plaindealer_, the first newspaper northwest
of Fargo, in 1874, and published it without competition for five years
until George Winship started the _Herald_. There began a continuous
quarrel between the two editors which was at times decidedly heated,
although when the plant of the _Plaindealer_ burned in 1884 Winship
shared his equipment with Walsh. While acknowledging the courtesy,
the _Plaindealer_ continued to attack the editorial policies of its
benefactor. Winship eventually purchased his rival's paper and merged
it with the _Herald_, which since 1881 has been published as a daily.
The late J. D. Bacon, when publisher of the _Herald_, established
the Lilac Hedge Farm northwest of Grand Forks to demonstrate the
practicability of diversified agriculture and the value of using
purebred stock.

Colonel Viets' mill on South Third Street was one of the first
industries established in the city, and was the only flour mill until
1882, when John McDonald founded a mill at the present corner of Fifth
Street and Kittson Avenue. This was operated later by the Diamond
Milling Company and then sold to the Russell-Miller Milling Company.

Cream of Wheat was first processed in Grand Forks and was manufactured
locally for a number of years about the turn of the century, before the
manufacturer moved to Minneapolis.

In Grand Forks politics and the weather were of great importance.
Elections were always exciting. When D. M. Holmes ran for mayor in
1886 his friend James J. Hill ordered all Great Northern trains of
the north, south, and west lines to run into Grand Forks so that the
train crews could vote for Holmes. Against such odds Holmes' opponent

A tornado that struck Grand Forks in June 1887 killed two women and
wrecked many buildings. Ten years later the city experienced one
of the worst floods in its history. The Red River made an all-time
record by flowing four miles an hour. Houses along the river flats
were floating or completely submerged. The piers of the west approach
of the Minnesota Avenue bridge were swept by ice, and the Northern
Pacific tracks were under water. When water filled the basement of the
_Herald_ building, the staff was forced to resort to hand composition
to continue publication. Many families lived in second stories, and on
nearby farms platforms were built on the roofs of barns and fenced in
for the livestock, which was fed from boats.

In 1890 a brick plant was established in Grand Forks, and another in
1900. Other industries which sprang up during this period were bottling
works, breweries, and foundries. Besides the Grand Forks _Herald_,
two weeklies were established, the _Red River Valley Citizen_ and the
_Normanden_, the latter in the Norwegian language.

In 1919 a group of farmers and business men from Grand Forks and the
surrounding territory opened the Northern Packing Company, designed
to handle 500 hogs and 150 cattle and sheep daily, with a plant one
and one-half miles north of the city (_see Tour 1_). The State Mill
and Elevator began operation in 1922 (_see Tour 1_). A candy company
that uses locally produced beet sugar has an annual output of about
1,000,000 pounds. A large potato warehouse with laboratory and
experimental department was constructed in 1935 at the corner of North
Third Street and Lewis Boulevard.

The population of Grand Forks has increased from 200 in 1873 to 17,112
in 1930, and is composed of many nationalities, although more than 75
percent of the native whites are of Norwegian or Canadian descent. A
small section of the city bounded by Sixth and Eighth Avenues North and
Twentieth and Twenty-third Streets North is a Scandinavian community
designated locally as "Little Norway." Here Norwegian is spoken almost
exclusively by the older people, although the children have acquired
American speech and habits. Norwegian Independence Day, _Syttende Mai_
(May 17), is celebrated by the residents of this district and their
homes are then decorated with Norwegian flags. Much political activity
of an earlier period centered about this little community, since it
generally voted as a bloc. Politicians of that day believed that the
candidate who was most liberal with ale would receive the community's
vote, and on the eve of election torchlight parades marched through the
streets of this district and candidates for office generously dispensed
both oratory and beer.


1. FEDERAL BUILDING, 1st. Ave. N. at N. 4th St., houses the post
office, United States courtroom, a branch of the United States
Immigration Service, and the Federal Reemployment office. The
superstructure is of white Bedford stone and pressed brick, with a base
of solid granite. It has a 12-foot cornice of stone with carved and
blocked ornaments. The lobby has marble floors and high wainscoting
of marble, contrasting shades being used for borders. Fixtures are of
quarter-sawed oak.

2. CENTRAL HIGH SCHOOL, 1st and 2nd Aves. N. between 4th and 5th Sts.,
has an auditorium unit constructed entirely without windows. It was
the first public building in North Dakota to utilize indirect lighting
throughout. It was erected in 1936-37 with WPA assistance at a cost of
$275,000, and includes a pipe organ, the gift of the Grand Forks Music

3. SORLIE MEMORIAL BRIDGE across the Red River connects Grand Forks, N.
Dak., and East Grand Forks, Minn., on US 2. It is dedicated to the late
A. G. Sorlie, former Governor of the State, and was built in 1929.

4. RADIO STATION KFJM (_open daily 2:30-5 p.m._), top floor of the
First National Bank Bldg., cor. DeMers Ave. and N. 4th St., is one of
the few State-owned university radio stations in the United States. It
is leased to a local company. A studio is maintained at the university.

5. TRIANGLE APARTMENTS, 5th and Chestnut Sts. and 5th Ave. S., mark
the site of two of the most important buildings in early Grand Forks
history. The city's first school building stood across the street
from this triangle, on the courthouse site. In 1883 the old building
was moved into the triangle and converted into the Park Hotel. The
Arlington House, a hotel built by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1873, was
also moved to this lot and in 1906 Col. Andrew Knutson purchased both
buildings and operated them as the Arlington-Park Hotel. This hotel was
torn down in recent years and the lumber used in the construction of
the apartment building that now occupies the site.

6. GRAND FORKS COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 4th and 5th Sts. S. between Kittson
and Bruce Aves., was erected in 1913 and designed by Buechner and Orth
of St. Paul. It is a three-story Indiana limestone building of modified
Classic design, with a figure of Justice surmounting its dome. The
halls are finished in white marble with mural decorations. Embellishing
the upper part of the rotunda are four painted lunettes showing typical
North Dakota scenes.

7. SOLDIER'S MONUMENT, 6th St. S. and Belmont Rd., was donated by
George B. Winship, early newspaper publisher, as a memorial to 168
local Civil War veterans, whose names are engraved on a bronze tablet.
Mounted on a square base of Vermont granite, the monument represents a
Union soldier "at rest."

8. CENTRAL PARK (_picnicking not allowed_), Red River bank, S. end of
3rd St., is a beauty spot and playground. The flower gardens, a mass of
brilliant bloom, are lighted at night. At the bandstand in the center
of the park concerts are presented, usually each week, during the
summer months. In front of the bandstand are millstones from the first
flour mill in the Red River Valley, which was built on the site of the
city waterworks plant in 1877. An outdoor skating rink is lighted for
winter skating. The warming house is on the site of the first building
erected within the present boundaries of the city. Across the drive
from the ball diamond are the toboggan slides, partially hidden from
view by evergreen trees and shrubs.

9. UNIVERSITY PARK (_playground equipment and supervised play_),
University Ave. bet. 24th and 25th Sts., has a children's library at
the clubhouse, and children's band concerts (_weekly, June-July_) are
given by the university band.

10. LINCOLN PARK (_municipal golf links, tennis courts, ski slide,
picnic and play equipment_), Belmont Rd. at S. edge of city, contains
the old Red River Oxcart Trail (_see Tour 1_) which crossed the little
hill on which the clubhouse stands. Later, when the settlement became
a stage station on the St. Paul-Fort Garry Trail, the Stewart House
was built here and housed Grand Forks' first post office. This old log
building is now the kitchen of the clubhouse.

11. UNIVERSITY OF NORTH DAKOTA is at the W. end of University Ave. 2 m.
from the principal business section of Grand Forks. (_University bus at
3rd St. and DeMers Ave., fare 10c._)

The campus facing the avenue is bordered by a low hedge, and the two
main entrances are marked by large brick pylons. Tree-shaded roads
wind past the buildings and along the banks of English Coulee. In the
spring and summer the wide expanses of green lawn are broken by plots
of flowers and clumps of lilacs, spires, and flowering almond. All of
the buildings erected since 1910 are in modern collegiate Gothic style,
a modification of true English Gothic architecture adapted especially
for educational institutions.

The University of North Dakota was established by the Territorial
Legislature before North Dakota became a State. The cornerstone for
"Old Main" was laid October 12, 1883, on the prairie beside the banks
of the winding English Coulee, and September 8, 1884, the university
opened classes with 79 students and a staff of 4 instructors.
Enrollment now numbers almost 3,000 students and the school has more
than 130 instructors.

Selection of a site two miles from the city was opposed by many of the
townspeople who thought the university should be located at the south
end of Third Street, on the present site of Central Park. During the
tornado of 1887 the roof of Old Main, then the only building on the
campus, was blown almost to the south end of Third Street. Agitation
was begun to bring the remainder of the building to join the roof,
but State officials refused to consider the plan, chiefly because the
property originally used was school land. Old Main was remodeled and a
women's dormitory erected near it. That settled the controversy.

For students who were unable to live on the campus, transportation
was a troublesome problem. Only a country road of sticky Red River
Valley gumbo connected the campus with the city, and, except for the
fortunate few who caught rides on horse-drawn vehicles, city students
walked to classes. During severe weather it was often necessary to flag
a freight or passenger train of the Great Northern to make the trip
to town. About 1900 a trolley line was established to the university,
and despite its erratic service it greatly facilitated attendance of
nonresident students.

Although given an endowment of 86,080 acres of public lands in 1889
when it became the University of North Dakota, there were many years
when the school derived no revenue from this source, but had to depend
entirely upon legislative appropriation. In 1895 Governor Allin vetoed
most of the appropriation, leaving money for the janitor's salary but
none for the faculty. The institution was kept open through private
contributions, and President Webster Merrifield and other professors
served without salary during a trying two-year period. Despite
financial difficulties, attendance at the university in its first 15
years increased more than 40 percent and in 1898 President Merrifield
reported to the legislature that the facilities of the institution were
inadequate. Continued expansion added law, premedical, and commerce
schools, and mechanical, electrical, and mining engineering departments
at the university by the end of the 1901 term.

During the first six years of university history there were only two
buildings on the campus. The main building, later known as Merrifield
Hall, contained classrooms, book store, post office, and men's
dormitory. The other building, later named Davis Hall for Hannah E.
Davis, one of its early matrons, housed the girls' dormitory, and, in
the basement, the university dining hall. Alumni of those days relate
that the dining hall was a very popular place. When meals were ready
to be served a napkin was hung out the basement window, and the first
student in the main building who spied the sign, regardless of whether
he happened to be in a class or not, yelled, "Rag's out!" The shout
was taken up and a stampede to the dining room followed. This custom
prevailed for several years. One day President Merrifield was showing
some of his Eastern friends through the institution when suddenly
"Rag's out" reverberated through the halls. The visitors wondered if
there was a riot, and the mortified president realized for the first
time how the dinner call sounded to outsiders. He suppressed it with
difficulty, after many student debates on the sacredness of college

With the advent of football teams, "Odz, odz, dzi," an imitation of
a Sioux war cry, became the college yell, and has continued to the

When a delegation from the first North Dakota legislature visited
the campus on a tour of inspection in 1889, residents of the girls'
dormitory held a tea in their honor. In order to improve upon the
barrenness of the sparsely furnished parlor, pieces were borrowed from
the girls' rooms and from friends. The expedient was more successful
than the girls had anticipated, for the legislators considered the
furnishings more than adequate and thereupon decreased the amount
allowed in the budget for dormitory equipment.

Although the University of North Dakota has been in existence only 55
years (1938), it has had its share of distinguished alumni, among whom
is Maxwell Anderson (class of 1911), playwright, author of _What Price
Glory_, _Mary of Scotland_, _Winterset_, and other dramas. In 1933 his
play _Both Your Houses_ was awarded the Pulitzer Prize.

Vilhjalmur Stefansson, explorer, attended the university from 1899 to
1902, and left at the request of the faculty. His escapades, though
doubtless improved upon with the years, are quite typical of him. It is
said he attended classes as seldom as possible, yet always received the
highest grades. The story goes that he went to his calculus class only
on the first day of the term, then returned for the final examination,
which the professor allowed him to write, with gloomy prophecies of his
ruin. Stefansson's mark was 98. The professor could not help remarking
that he had done well considering that he had attended only one class.
"And," retorted Stefansson, "if I hadn't come here the first day I'd
have got one hundred."

The Arctic explorer has been credited with pranks such as releasing a
small pig on the speaker's platform at convocation, and rolling a keg
of beer across the campus to win a bet when North Dakota was a very dry
State. There was then no trolley from Grand Forks to the campus, and
President Merrifield was driven the two miles to and from town in his
private carriage. One day Stefansson saw the carriage parked downtown.
The driver was old in service, and when Stefansson stepped into the
carriage and said "Home, Peter" in a good imitation of the president's
voice, Peter suspected nothing. Stefansson rode in comfort to the
campus, while President Merrifield, it is said, walked. Expelled in
1902, Stefansson was called back to his Alma Mater in 1930 to have the
LL. D. degree conferred on him in recognition of his contributions to

The east campus road passes the LAW BUILDING, WOODWORTH HALL, CHEMISTRY
BUILDING, and BABCOCK HALL. In Woodworth, the school of education, is
the campus broadcasting studio. The University of North Dakota was
the second university in the United States to offer courses in radio
administration, and engineering students use the KFJM transmitter,
adjacent to the campus, for practical class work in technical radio
instruction. Just S. of the Chemistry Building are the university
tennis courts, and a nine-hole golf course is E. of MEMORIAL STADIUM
(L) erected in 1927. The university athletic department is a member
of the North Central Conference and books games with schools from
coast to coast. The UNIVERSITY MUSEUM on the top floor of Babcock Hall
(_open 9-5 daily_) contains a large collection of Indian artifacts and
geological and historical items.

The road curves back of Babcock and the COMMONS past CAMP DEPRESSION
(L), established in 1933, where railroad cabooses are fitted up for
enterprising students to provide cooperative accommodations at a
minimum cost. Left of Camp Depression is the shiny arched steel WINTER
SPORTS BUILDING. Around the curve is the ARMORY (L) where athletic and
social events and weekly convocations are held. The road to the R.
passes BUDGE HALL (R), men's dormitory, built in 1889; OLD MERRIFIELD
HALL (L), generally known as "Old Main," the first building on the
campus and now occupied by administrative offices, post office, book
store, and offices of the extension division; NEW MERRIFIELD HALL (L),
the liberal arts college building, completed in 1929; SCIENCE HALL (R),
housing the medical school and State Public Health Laboratories; and
the LIBRARY (L), containing 77,000 catalogued books and periodicals and
about 17,500 uncatalogued Government documents.

Curving L., the road passes the PRESIDENT'S HOUSE (R), a spacious
Georgian Colonial brick residence. Next is MACNIE HALL, a cooperative
men's residence hall, named for John Macnie, for 20 years a member of
the faculty, and composer of the university _Alma Mater_. Vine-covered
CHANDLER HALL (R), named for Elwin Chandler, dean emeritus of the
school of engineering, is headquarters during Engineers' Day held the
last Friday in April each year. DAVIS HALL (R), women's dormitory, is
the second oldest building on the campus, erected in 1887. It houses
the home economics department.

ENGLISH COULEE (R), so-called because an Englishman is said to have
drowned in it, borders the campus on the W. Between Davis Hall and the
WOMEN'S GYMNASIUM the stream curves, creating the impression that the
opposite bank is a wooded island. This far bank is the stage of the
BANKSIDE THEATER, and the concave bank facing it is used to seat the
audience. The theater is the scene of an Interfraternity Sing held the
last week in May.

The original Bankside Theater, about one block N. of the present
site, was dedicated in 1914 and is said to have been the first open
air theater to make use of the natural curve of a stream to separate
the stage from the auditorium. The initial performance given here, _A
Pageant of the Northwest_, was written by students of the Sock and
Buskin Society (now the Dakota Playmakers) under the direction of Prof.
Frederick Koch, who is distinguished for his work in American folk

The banks of English Coulee have fostered both drama and romance.
College sweethearts spend their evenings by this stream, admiring the
reflection of the moon in the water. The custom is known locally as

Thirteen social fraternities, including 11 national groups, are
represented at the university, and there are 10 sororities, 9 of them
national. The houses along Fraternity Row on University Avenue and the
other streets near the campus present the architecture of many nations
and periods. A French chateau shouldering a stucco cottage, a graceful
Georgian Colonial residence standing between an English country house
and an Italian mansion, and houses of Spanish and English design form a
quaint architectural democracy that is, perhaps, a fitting background
for the social life of a student body representing various nations.

12. WESLEY COLLEGE, N. of University Ave. opposite the University of
North Dakota, is the first of the Methodist schools in the United
States designated by that name and the first church school to affiliate
with a State university. Its residence halls are open to students of
all church affiliations, as are the classes in religion, music, and
expression. Work in any department of Wesley College is credited toward
university degrees.

The campus contains four buildings, Corwin, Larimore, Sayre, and
Robertson Halls, constructed of white brick with trimmings of white
glazed terra cotta in Grecian style. Robertson Hall, the newest
building, contains the administrative offices, school of religion,
and expression department. This building, costing $40,000, was
made possible by the contribution of an alumnus, John M. Hancock,
and his family of Hartsdale, N. Y., and was completely furnished by
Mrs. Hancock. Corwin Hall houses the well-equipped music department.
Larimore Hall, the women's dormitory, is immediately behind Corwin,
while the men's dormitory, Sayre Hall, adjoins Robertson Hall.


  North Dakota State Mill and Elevator, =1 m.=; Red River Oxcart
  Trail, 1.5 m.; Northern Packing Plant, =1.5 m.=; Grand Forks Silver
  Fox Farm, =4 m.= (_see Tour 1_). American Sugar Refining Co. plant,
  =2 m.= (_see Minn. Tour 7_).


  =Railroad Stations:= Great Northern Station, W. end of Central Ave.
  across viaduct, for G. N. Ry.; Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste.
  Marie Station, 17 N. Main St., for Soo Ry.

  =Bus Stations:= Union Bus Depot, Front at 3rd St. SE., for Checker,
  Interstate, and Northern Transportation Co. bus lines; Stearns
  Bldg., 2nd St. SW. at 1st Ave., for Minot-Crosby Bus Line.

  =Airport:= Municipal airport, 1¼ m. N. of business district on
  outskirts of city, E. of US 83, taxi fare 35c, time 10 min.; no
  scheduled air service, no public hangars.

  =Taxis:= 25c to any point in city, 10c for each additional

  =City Bus Line:= Throughout city, to State Teachers College, fare

  =Traffic Regulations:= Valley St. (US 52), 4th Ave. SE. and SW. (US
  2), 2nd St. SW. and NW. (US 83), are through streets. No U-turn on
  through streets and no left turns out of alleys. Turns may be made
  in either direction at intersections.

  =Accommodations:= 10 hotels; municipal tourist camp, Roosevelt
  Park, 4th Ave. SE. at 11th St.

  =Tourist Information Service:= Association of Commerce, 205-207 1st
  Ave. Bldg.

  =Theaters and Motion Picture Houses:= McFarland Auditorium, State
  Teachers College, 9th Ave. NW., college productions and lyceum
  programs; Minot high school auditorium, 2nd Ave. SE. between 1st
  and 2nd Sts.; 3 motion picture houses.

  =Athletics:= Baseball, football, track, skating, and hockey rinks,
  Roosevelt Park Recreation Field.

  =Golf:= Municipal 9-hole course SW. edge of city on US 2 (_greens
  fee 25c_); Riverside 9-hole course, E. of city limits on US 2
  (_greens fee 25c_).

  =Tennis:= Courts at Oak Park, W. end 3rd Ave. NW.; Lincoln Park,
  4th St. at 5th Ave. NW.; and Roosevelt Park.

  =Swimming:= Municipal outdoor pool. Roosevelt Park.

  =Skating:= Rinks at 2nd St. and 8th Ave. NE., 1st Ave. at 3rd St.
  NW., Lincoln Park, South Hill residential district, and Roosevelt
  Park; all floodlighted.

  =Curling:= Rink near Fairmount Creamery, 701 4th Ave. SE.

  =Annual Events:= Winter Sports Carnival, February, no fixed date;
  Northwest State Fair, fairgrounds E. end of 4th Ave. SE., week of
  July 4; Homecoming, State Teachers College, October, no fixed date;
  _The Messiah_, State Teachers College, December, no fixed date.


MINOT (1,557 alt., 16,099 pop.) is still young and growing, although
past its fiftieth birthday. Its name (pronounced MY-not) was given it
to honor Henry D. Minot, young Eastern capitalist and college friend of
Theodore Roosevelt. Situated in the deep valley of the Souris (Mouse)
River, the town overflows the level mile-wide flood plain to thrust
itself up the south slope of the valley onto the open prairie. Rough,
well worn block pavement in the business section evolves into smooth,
tree-bowered asphalt avenues lined with fine homes in the residential
districts. The twisting, sluggish river winds through the center of
the city, in some sections its banks scarred with piles of refuse, in
others rimmed by trim lawns.

The hills that rim the Souris at Minot are evidences of the mighty
force of the raging waters that during the glacial period poured from
the melting edge of the great Dakota ice sheet to plow deep valleys
and lay the basis for the town's future prosperity. The products of
the geological past yield valuable returns. One, the rich, fertile bed
of glacial Lake Souris, provides good crops. The other is lignite,
the soft brown peat-like coal that underlies much of the northwestern
portion of the State, and for which Minot is an important shipping

James J. Hill's Great Northern Railway was pushing west through Dakota
Territory in 1887 when it was found necessary to stop near here and
build a bridge across a coulee. Where construction halted there
immediately sprang up a large tent town, which was generally assumed to
be the start of a permanent settlement. The railroad company, however,
had selected a town site to the east, on the Souris River, and when
this became known the exodus was sudden and complete; almost overnight
the tent town was transplanted to the new location. This mushroom-like
appearance, coupled with an almost phenomenal growth to 5,000
population during its first year, earned the new frontier settlement
the title of the Magic City.

The first white man to settle on the ground now incorporated into
the city of Minot was Erik Ramstad, who in May 1885 had come from
Grafton, N. Dak., and settled by squatter's right on a quarter section
bisected by the Souris. Late in the summer of 1886 he relinquished
40 acres south of the river to the town site people, and this land
together with another 40 acres to the south became the original site
of Minot. On July 16, 1887, less than a year after settlement, Minot
was an incorporated city. A few weeks later an entire slate of city
officers was selected in a campaign which set a high standard for many
heated city elections of later years. Principal interest centered
about the candidates for mayor, and with typical frontier camaraderie
the defeated man was the first to sign the bond of office for his
victorious opponent. At its initial meeting the newly elected city
council selected as the city's first police chief William Flumerfelt, a

When Minot's first Christmas arrived, in 1887, not a church graced the
town. To observe the season a Christmas tree was set up in Jack Doyle's
saloon, which stood on the site of the present Woolworth store at the
corner of Central Avenue and Main Street. Most of the town turned out
for the celebration, gifts were hung on the tree, and everyone was
given candy.

Many early residents were buried in a cemetery in southwest Minot,
although no markers remain. This burial place on one occasion almost
saw the interment of a person who, by virtue of being very much alive,
was quite undeserving of inclusion here. It happened that a local
character known as Spider had gone to his reward, and "the boys" had
taken over his obsequies, stopping on the way to the cemetery to
fortify themselves at a saloon. Reaching the grave, they attempted to
lower the coffin, but one end dropped down and the other caught on the
side of the grave. John J. Powers, a well-known rancher, was selected
to straighten the coffin, but in getting down he was caught between it
and the wall of the grave. Disregarding his protests, the high-spirited
pallbearers proceeded to shovel in dirt, and he was covered except for
his head and shoulders when passersby, hearing his cries, arrived on
the scene and effected a rescue.

It was events like this that earned Minot the name of a wild town; and,
considering the type of people who flocked into the new city--transient
railroad workers and hangers-on, horse and cattle thieves who at that
time infested the west and northwest sections of the State, gamblers
who saw opportunity in the new settlement, and criminals who had
escaped across the boundary from Canada--it is hardly remarkable that
the town soon had a reputation for lawlessness and iniquity. Many
pioneer residents of Minot still remember a certain railway passenger
conductor who would call the name of the station, "MINOT, this is
M-I-N-O-T, end of the line. Prepare to meet your God!"

In spite of the disreputable element, many dependable citizens selected
the boom town for their permanent homes, and to them the development of
the city has been due. As early as 1887 Marshall McClure was publishing
the first newspaper, the weekly Minot _Rustler-Tribune_. The city had
its first wooden sidewalk in 1888, and the same year Main Street was
lighted with kerosene lamps. The city council passed an ordinance
against speeding with horses, the limit being set at eight miles per
hour. Apparently the council of that day believed that actions speak
louder than words, for on one occasion it adjourned to go out in a body
to grub stumps and fix a road that needed repair. In 1889 this same
progressive body voted that the city pay 50 cents per barrel for the
first 10 barrels of water delivered at any fire in the city. The first
fire wagon was John Strommen's dray, which was used to haul water every
time an alarm was turned in.

Burlington (_see Tour 7_), the first community in the Souris region,
had confidently expected that the Great Northern would be routed past
its door, but instead the road chose the Minot site. The Magic City
thereupon set out to deprive its rival of the county seat as well.
Arrangements were made for the railroad company to sidetrack an old
freight car at Lonetree 28 miles west of Minot. Telegraph wires were
strung into it, and the roadmaster presented an affidavit to the county
commissioners stating that a station had been opened. Burlington
protested: Lonetree belonged in the Burlington precinct, it claimed,
and there were not enough residents to open the polls. The railroad
installed two operators, a station agent and a helper; Lonetree was
declared a precinct, and it is said that railroad crews as far west as
Glasgow, Mont., voted. Minot became the county seat.

Settlers rushed into "Imperial Ward" County when it was surveyed and
opened to homesteading in 1896. The origin of the county's nickname
is apparent from the following description in Colonel Lounsberry's
_Record_: "... a small sized empire of 5,000 square miles rich in soil,
clays, coal, and the energy of its people, immigration unequaled,
steady and firm like the flow of a river." Land entries at Minot during
the first nine months of 1905 were said to be greater than at any other
U. S. land office in the country. Homesteaders slept on the floor of
the office to avoid losing their turn in filing for land.

Imperial Ward remained intact until 1910, when its ample acres were
carved into Renville, Burke, Mountrail, and present Ward Counties.

Deer, antelope, prairie and timber wolves, foxes, mink, otter, beaver,
ducks, and geese provided early settlers of the Minot area with food,
furs, and sport. In the winter, when water holes were opened in the
frozen river for stock, fish would come up to the openings in such
numbers that they could easily be speared with pitchforks, and it was
not uncommon at these watering places to see fish frozen and stacked up
like cordwood.

Since the Souris winds through Minot for a distance of eight miles,
its overflow can cause great damage, and several times there have been
severe floods. The worst occurred in 1882, 1904, 1916, 1923, and 1927.
The 1904 flood took the town by surprise, as there were no telephones
in the territory upstream from Minot by which the alarm could be given,
and small houses were torn from their foundations as the crest of the
flood hit the city. Railroad tracks were under water and traffic on the
Great Northern and Soo was at a standstill. The flood continued for
about three weeks, and children rejoiced as school was discontinued.
People went about their business in boats, using their front porches
for piers. Many north side residents moved in with friends living on
the higher south side.

In recent years dikes have been built to keep the Souris within
bounds, and Federal works on the river above the city, the subsistence
homestead project at Burlington, and the Upper Souris migratory
waterfowl project (_see Tour 7_) have constructed dams which enable
engineers to control the flow of water.

While the Great Northern was responsible for Minot's origin and early
growth, several factors have shared in the city's later development.
Extension of the railroad westward added to the trade territory, all
of which is agricultural, and the city became the logical wholesale
distribution point for northwest North Dakota. The arrival of the
Soo in 1893 tapped untouched areas southeast and northwest, again
enlarging the trade region. The first bus line in the State began
operation between Minot and Bismarck in 1922. Truck and bus lines
now radiate from Minot to serve the many outlying communities not on
the transcontinental railroads. The city is a center for an area of
22,500 square miles, extending north to the Canadian line and west
into Montana. In 1930 Minot had the second largest volume of wholesale
business in the State, with transactions totaling $18,500,000.

Its location in an extensive agricultural area has established Minot
as a farm market. During both pre-war and post-war periods of heavy
crop yields and high prices, Minot boomed as a grain shipping point.
Two flour mills have been a factor in maintaining cash grain prices
at higher levels than in other communities. Processing of dairy and
poultry products has become an important industry, and a cash livestock
market has brought additional returns and marketing facilities in the
past few years. A plant of the poultry cooperative maintained by the
North Dakota Farmers Union is situated in Minot. The recent droughts
lessened grain marketing, but pushed forward in another direction the
production and stability of diversified farm products, as indicated
by the expansion of one and the erection of another creamery and
processing plant.

Like other cities, Minot has felt the depression period, but outwardly
there remains only one prominent scar--"Sparrow Hotel," the steel
skeleton of a 10-story hotel building. Begun in 1929, construction was
halted by the market crash of that year, and the framework now houses
only a multitude of twittering, chirping sparrows.

Its rail facilities have helped to make Minot a natural shipping
point for the great quantities of lignite mined in this vicinity. The
Truax-Traer Company, with headquarters here, is one of the largest
lignite strip mining companies in the United States, and operates the
three largest strip mines in the State.

Out of the _Rustler-Tribune_, which reported Minot's earliest events,
there grew the Minot _Optic Reporter_, which is now the Minot _Daily
News_. The _Democrat_, a political publication, has grown into the
_Dakota State Journal_, and the weekly Ward County _Independent_ is
also published in Minot. A radio station, KLPM, maintains studios in
the Fair Block on South Main Street.

With improved transportation facilities and good roads, Minot has
become a medical center for the northwest section of the State. Two
large hospitals, two smaller private hospitals, and medical and dental
clinics are maintained.


1. MINOT STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, 9th Ave. NW. between 2nd and 8th Sts.,
with an average quarterly enrollment of 525, is the largest normal
school in the State. It is an accredited four-year college with a
teachers training school in connection.

Its 70-acre campus, 60 acres of which were donated by Erik Ramstad,
Minot's first settler, lies at the foot of the hills bordering the
Souris valley on the N. and contains six brick buildings of modern
construction, including a main educational building with auditorium
and gymnasium, two dormitories, two training school buildings, a
powerhouse, and a floodlighted athletic field.

The college offers a two-year standard teachers course as prescribed by
State law, a two-year junior college course, and a four-year curriculum
leading to a B.A. degree in education. In the training school a model
primary, grade, and high school is maintained, enabling prospective
teachers to secure actual experience in their profession. Many children
in the northwest section of the city attend the college school.

2. WARD COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 3rd St. SE. between 3rd and 4th Aves., was
dedicated May 31, 1930. It is said to be the first North Dakota public
building of modern design. A motto inscribed upon the front elevation
reads: "Let Us Develop the Resources of Our Land, Call Forth Its Power,
Build Upon Its Institutions and Promote All Its Great Interests."

This austere spacious structure, designed by Tolz, King and Day
of Minneapolis, and erected at a cost of $450,000; succeeded an
old-fashioned brick courthouse built in 1891 and razed in 1928. The old
courthouse, built after Minot had won the county seat from Burlington,
was by no means adequate, but the commissioners feared to submit the
question of a new courthouse to a vote, since the county as a whole
was not reconciled to Minot's county seat victory. As the law allowed
repairs without popular approval, the commissioners "repaired" the
$8,000 courthouse to the extent of a new $25,000 addition.

3. PUBLIC LIBRARY (_open 9-9, except July and Aug., 9-6_), 101-107 2nd
Ave. SE., is a buff brick Carnegie institution containing more than
18,000 volumes.

4. ROOSEVELT PARK (_swimming pool, playgrounds, picnic grounds,
athletic field, tennis courts, tourist camp_), E. end of 4th Ave. SE.,
on the S. bank of the Souris River, is an 85-acre tract beautified
by rustic bridges, lagoons, flower beds, and sunken gardens. A Zoo
containing many species of foreign and domestic animals attracts
thousands of visitors annually.

depicting him as a Rough Rider. The base of the statue is a
reproduction of the Badlands formations along the Little Missouri River
where Roosevelt once lived. This memorial, designed by A. Phimister
Proctor of New York and presented to the city in 1924 by Dr. Henry
Waldo Coe, pioneer North Dakota physician and life-long friend of
Roosevelt, is dedicated to the school children who contributed the cost
of the base.

COE DRIVE, a scenic two-mile route through the woods bordering a loop
of the Souris River, connects with a mile drive through Roosevelt Park.
It is reached by driving one block into the park from the entrance and
turning right.

5. OAK PARK, W. end of 3rd Ave. NW., has more than 50 acres of wooded
land. Provided with tennis courts, wading pool, and picnic tables, it
is a favorite spot for Sunday picnickers from the surrounding country.

6. ROSEHILL CEMETERY, 3rd St. SE. at 11th Ave., contains the nine-foot


  Burlington underground lignite mines, =8 m.=; Burlington
  Subsistence Homestead Project, =8 m.=; Velva lignite strip mine,
  =32 m.= (_see Tour 7_).



  =Entrance:= 4.5 m. S. of Mandan on graveled road (_see Tour 8_).

  =Points of interest in park:= Fort McKeen, Slant Indian Village,
  site of old Fort Abraham Lincoln.

  =Regulations:= Park open during daylight hours only; parking cars
  on highway prohibited.

The 750 acres of Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park lie on the west bluffs
of the Missouri River, encompassing three sites of historical and
archeological interest--a Mandan Indian village and two old military
posts. The park is being developed by the State Historical Society of
North Dakota in cooperation with the National Park Service.

As the roadway enters the park, the bluffs rise steeply to the right,
while below on the left is spread a beautiful view of the Missouri
winding away to the distant hills, tracing the outlines of Sibley
Island, the Heart River below, flowing into the Missouri, and Bismarck
and the capitol set against the background of the valley rising on the
other side of the river.

Fort McKeen is on the river bluffs, and the Indian village is below on
the river bank, slightly higher than Fort Abraham Lincoln, the cavalry
post, on the broad ancient plain near the mouth of the Heart.

Left as the highway enters the park is a crude log palisade that guards
the old SLANT VILLAGE. Before these prairies saw the invasion of the
white men, perhaps two centuries ago, a group of Mandan Indians,
seeking a new location in their advance up the Missouri Valley,
selected this narrow point of land which had such excellent natural
protection. On the east was the Heart River and on the south a deep
coulee. Along the exposed sides the Indians built a palisade and dug a
moat to secure their little town.

Depressions in the earth show that the settlement contained 68 lodges.
Five have been restored by the park administration, four of them
homes and the other the large ceremonial lodge. All have been placed
as nearly as possible on their original sites, and in some cases the
locations made by park workers were so accurate that remains of the
old lodges were found in excavating for the restoration work. The five
lodges have been carefully reproduced in every detail. (A general
description of the construction and equipment of the typical Indian
earth lodge will be found under INDIANS AND THEIR PREDECESSORS.)

Crude tools such as the inhabitants of this town used in domestic and
agricultural work are on display in one lodge. Hoes and shovels were
flat bones fastened to wooden handles, and brooms were bunches of brush
bound together. A short post with a hollowed center served as a mortar,
a club about the size of a baseball bat as a pestle, and with this
apparatus corn was ground for meal.

Furnishings in the lodge include the horse corrals, beds, and altars
which were part of the domestic scene. There are specimens of dog and
horse travois, and an Indian bullboat, made by stretching a green
buffalo hide over a wooden frame and drying it. The result resembled
nothing so much as an ungainly washtub, but the awkward-looking craft
would carry two or three persons quite safely across the treacherous
currents of the Missouri.

The ceremonial lodge, with a diameter of 84 feet, has been restored
in its original position in the center of the village court, and the
interior of this surprisingly large building furnishes an index of the
architectural advancement of these supposedly savage people. In this
lodge tribal ceremonies were held, and the site doubtless witnessed
many enactments of the most holy Mandan religious service, in which
the young men of the tribe were inducted into manhood with bloody and
gruesome torture rites.

Right of the highway, almost opposite the entrance to the village,
the restored and graveled military road branches steeply upward to
where FORT McKEEN commands a far view of the plains and the twisting
Missouri. Although Bismarck, the two bridges across the river, and
many other marks of settlement are now part of the scene, the entire
view from this point was one wild, untouched, verdant picture when
Army engineers came from Fort Rice in 1872 in search of a location for
an infantry post to protect the surveyors, engineers, and workmen who
prepared the way for the gleaming intrusion of the Northern Pacific
rails. This site was selected, as the Mandan 200 years before had
selected the one below, for its natural protection. The fort was built
in 1872, and was named for Col. Henry Boyd McKeen of the Eighty-first
Pennsylvania Volunteers, but on November 19, 1872, the name was
officially changed to Fort Abraham Lincoln in honor of the martyred
President. A triangular area was fortified, with a blockhouse at each
corner and palisade walls connecting them on two sides. The steep face
of the bluff protected the remaining side. Within the stockade were
officers' quarters, barracks, kitchens, hospital, and laundry. The
scouts' headquarters and the laundry were built of cottonwood logs cut
along the river, while most of the other buildings were of lumber.

The soldiers stationed at the fort led a varied life, the monotony of
frontier existence being tempered by fighting the Sioux, maintaining
order among the lawless element which followed the progress of the
railroad, and even building smudges to protect the workers from the
tormenting swarms of bloodthirsty mosquitoes.

The three blockhouses and the palisade have been restored, so that the
fort looks much as it must have looked more than 50 years ago when it
crowned this bluff, guarding its prominent position on the river. None
of the buildings within the enclosure is left, but the sites of all are

To avoid confusion, the restored fort is commonly referred to as Fort
McKeen, distinguishing it from the later Fort Abraham Lincoln, although
the latter included both posts. The FORT ABRAHAM LINCOLN SITE is right
of the park road just south of the Indian village. Markers indicate the
sites of the various structures, and holes partly filled with debris
also show where the buildings of the Northwest's strongest fortress
once stood. A row of cottonwoods, which grew along Officers' Row,
stands in lonesome splendor.

When Gen. George A. Custer and his spirited Seventh Cavalry came to
Fort Abraham Lincoln in 1873 it became a nine-company cavalry and
infantry post, with the cavalry established on the level plain below,
where a good drill and parade ground was available. Custer, with his
long sandy-colored hair and restless vivacity, was one of the most
personable and interesting military men of his time. He and his wife,
a young and talented woman, soon drew about themselves a social circle
that was widely known and aspired to. Balls, musicales, and other
entertainments drew people from the surrounding territory, including
the new town of Bismarck across the river. The social life at Fort
Abraham Lincoln would have been a credit to any city, as, beneath
crystal chandeliers, to the music of the Seventh's band, stately
couples moved in the graceful figures of the dance.

For the soldiers, life consisted chiefly of maintaining order among the
Indians and the incoming white population. At one time the guardhouse
at the fort had a distinguished occupant, Rain-in-the-Face, the Sioux
warrior. He had been heard boasting of "counting coup" on the bodies
of two white men killed on the Stanley expedition in 1873, and Tom
Custer, brother of General Custer, was sent to take him into custody
at Standing Rock Agency (_see Side Tour 8C_). Rain-in-the-Face was
arrested and imprisoned at Fort Abraham Lincoln, but escaped in a
jailbreak engineered by friends of some of the other prisoners, and
joined Sitting Bull.

Life at the post often grew monotonous for the troopers, who in winter
found their activities hampered by the severe cold, and in the summer
suffered from the torments of the heat and the mosquitoes.

When the routine of military life palled too greatly on the soldiers,
they took refuge in the activities of the Point, a little settlement
of dance halls, saloons, and similar places of entertainment, that
flourished on the opposite bank of the river directly across from the
fort. Since there was no bridge across the Missouri the Point could
be reached only by ferry or on the ice. At the time of the spring
break-up, however, even the ferry could not be used, and many of the
soldiers missed the customary recreational and liquid facilities
afforded by the Point. One spring, as the ice was going out, a young
man, whose fine physique was equalled only by his foolhardy daring,
offered to cross the river for some liquor. Crossing a river on
breaking ice has been known as a daring feat since even before the
days of Eliza and the bloodhounds, but crossing the Missouri is a
particularly hazardous exploit, for this river, always maliciously
menacing, is even more so in the spring, with great ice blocks eddying
and whirling, crunching violently together, then flung apart by the
swift current. The slightest misstep or miscalculation meant death to
the young, thirsty soldier, but with the greatest nonchalance he made
the crossing and the return, bringing his precious burden back with
him, and great and twofold was the rejoicing when he safely reached the
home shore.

Three years of existence left Fort Abraham Lincoln in comparative
quiet, with only an occasional Indian skirmish. Then events on the
frontier conspired to bring the Indian troubles to an end. The campaign
of the Little Big Horn was planned (_see_ HISTORY). One day in 1876 the
Seventh, with bands playing and colors flying, marched away along the
Heart in pursuit of the Sioux. On a stifling night early in July the
residents of Bismarck were awakened from their sleep by loud sounds
of shouting, of wagons and horses moving, at the river. Capt. Grant
Marsh had arrived from the Little Big Horn with his steamer, the _Far
West_, loaded with the wounded of Major Reno's command, survivors of
the Battle of the Little Big Horn. But more than the wounded, he bore
news--news of the death of 267 men, of the annihilation of Custer and
his immediate command. Twenty-six of the waiting wives at Fort Abraham
Lincoln were widows.

The only living thing left of Custer's command was Comanche, Capt.
Myles Keogh's horse. Through the rough country filled with hostile,
victorious Sioux, Reno's wounded men had been carried to the _Far
West_, and Captain Marsh had made his epic 54-hour run to Bismarck and
the fort 700 miles away.





Captain Marsh's story of how he learned of the Custer tragedy is
strange, and almost unreal. He related later that, as he waited on
the river for word from the military commanders, a Crow Indian peered
from the brush along the shore and signed that he wished to board the
boat. On deck the Indian, unable to speak a word of English, squatted
and began to make signs. He drew a group of dots, designated them with
the Crow word for "white men." Then he showed a circle of dots around
the white men, and for them spoke the word for "Sioux." And then, with
a sweep of his hand, he wiped out the inner group of dots. In this
simple, abrupt manner, Marsh related, the tragedy was first told to the

The story of Custer's annihilation was put on the telegraph wires by
Col. C. A. Lounsberry. James W. Foley, North Dakota poet laureate, has
commented: "It was, for stark tragedy, horror and surprise, perhaps the
greatest news story ever flashed over a telegraph wire to a stunned and
stricken country, in the history of the United States."

The Little Big Horn disaster was the beginning of the end of the era
of Indian fighting in this region, and troops were withdrawn from Fort
Abraham Lincoln in 1891, after which the buildings were carried off
piecemeal by the settlers in the vicinity. A new infantry post, known
as Fort Lincoln, was later established across the river (_see Tour 8_).

Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park is being developed for recreational and
historical purposes by the Federal Government in cooperation with the
State historical society. The grounds are being landscaped, foot trails
laid out, and picnic shelters built. Under construction between the
Indian village and the Fort Lincoln site is a museum which will house
some archeological material being unearthed on the sites of the old
earth lodges and historical material dealing with Fort McKeen and Fort
Abraham Lincoln.


  =Season:= Open year round. June to September most favorable period.

  =Tourist Information:= State Historical Society of North Dakota,
  Liberty Memorial Building, Bismarck, N. Dak.

  =Admission:= Free.


  _North Park._ Entrances: E. entrance, US 85 (_see Tour 4_); N.
  entrance--less desirable--dirt road from Arnegard (_see Tour 4_).
  Branch of Great Northern Ry., Fairview, Mont., to Watford City;
  Carpenter Bus Line from Williston.

  Roads: 14 m. gravel and scoria highway; 10 m. horse or hike trail.
  No guide service.

  _South Park._ Entrances: E. entrance, W. entrance, US 10 (_see Tour
  8_). Main line Northern Pacific Ry. and Northland Greyhound Bus
  Line to Medora (_see Tour 8_).

  Roads: 10 m. gravel and scoria highway; 10 m. graveled truck trail;
  5 m. horse or hike trail.

  Guide service: Buddy Ranch, 1.5 m. E. of Medora on US 10.


  _North Park._ Hotel accommodations at Watford City (_see Tour 4_);
  camping and trailer facilities at Squaw Creek Picnic Area (_see
  North Roosevelt Regional State Park Tour below_).

  _South Park._ Hotel accommodations at Medora (_see Tour 8_).

  Camping and trailer facilities at camping area in park (_see South
  Roosevelt Regional State Park Tour below_).

  Meals, cabins, and horses at Buddy Ranch, 1.5 m. E. of Medora.
  Horse rates for resident guest, $1.50 per day, guide provided with
  party of 5; for nonresident guest, $1.50 for one-half day, $2.50
  per day, guide provided with party of 5.

  =Climate, clothing, and equipment:= Summer tourists should prepare
  for hot days and cool evenings and for sudden rain or dust storms.
  Those who expect to tramp in the Badlands should dress for walking
  through brush and soft, clayey soil. Breeches and high-top boots
  are in order, the latter serving the additional purpose of
  protection against snake bite.

  =Medical service:=

  _North Park._ Watford City (_see Tour 4_).

  _South Park._ Belfield (_see Tour 8_).

  =Special regulations:= No hunting allowed. Camping permitted at
  points where facilities are provided. Fires allowed only at points

  =Warnings:= Avoid low places during heavy rainstorms. Horse trails
  should not be attempted after rains until trail makers have had an
  opportunity to repair. Use only native horses. Rattlesnakes are
  encountered only infrequently (_see_ GENERAL INFORMATION).

  =Summary of attractions:= Badlands views, petrified forests,
  horseback riding, camping.

  Theodore Roosevelt's biographer, Herman Hagedorn, writes:

  "Between the prairie lands of North Dakota and the prairie lands
  of Montana there is a narrow strip of broken country so wild and
  fantastic in its beauty that it seems as though some unholy demon
  had carved it to mock the loveliness of God. On both sides of a
  sinuous river rise ten thousand buttes cut into bizarre shapes by
  the waters of countless centuries. The hand of man never dared to
  paint anything as those hills are painted. Olive and lavender,
  buff, brown, and dazzling white mingle with emerald and flaming
  scarlet to make a piece of savage splendor that is not without an
  element of the terrible. The buttes are stark and bare. Only in
  the clefts are ancient cedars, starved and deformed. In spring
  there are patches of green grass, an acre here, a hundred acres
  there, reaching up the slopes from the level bottom-land; but there
  are regions where for miles and miles no green thing grows, and
  all creation seems a witch's caldron of gray bubbles tongued with
  flame, held by some bit of black art forever in suspension."

Here in this broken country, known as the Badlands of the Little
Missouri, the Roosevelt Regional State Parks are being developed to
preserve parts of the strange area as scenic and recreational centers,
and at the same time to establish a memorial to the former President,
who as a young man spent part of each year from 1883 to 1886 ranching
here. (_See Tours 8 and 10._) To view the freakish, tumbled, unearthly
valley is to appreciate and at the same time be amused by Gen. Alfred
Sully's oft-quoted characterization of the region as "hell with the
fires out." It must be remembered that the general received his
impressions as he jolted along in a wagon, sick, while his troops
fought Sioux through the confused, uncertain terrain all one hot day
in August 1864. Others visiting it under more favorable circumstances,
especially during the freshness of spring, concede the unparalleled
fantasy of the landscape, and agree on its strange, wild, potent
beauty. Twenty years after Sully fought the Sioux here Roosevelt wrote,
"I grow very fond of this place ... it ... has a desolate, grim beauty,
that has a curious fascination for me." Since then many noted travelers
and writers have marveled at its beauties and deplored the fact that
its attractions have not been made more widely known.

The traveler approaching the Badlands from the rolling prairies on
either side suddenly finds himself overlooking a valley cut abruptly
into the heart of the plain, a valley filled with a strange welter of
bare ridges and hillocks, buttes and domes, pyramids and cones, forming
one of the most extraordinary topographies on the surface of the earth.
In broad horizontal stripes across the varied shapes of the buttes are
the browns, reds, grays, and yellows of the sand and clay laid down
centuries ago when during successive ages arms of the sea covered large
parts of the North American Continent. Where today the visitor stands
and looks out over the naked buttes once lay a mighty sea in which
swam monsters whose fossilized skeletons are embedded in the strata
laid down by the primordial waters.

Here and there, standing out against the lighter coloring of the sands
and clays, are black veins of lignite. Ages ago dense forests, rivaling
those of the tropics of today, rose over the swamps of the receding
seas. The motorcar speeds through a region where the giant hog, the
three-toed horse, and the saber-toothed tiger roamed among lofty trees.
The cast-off growth of the forest fell into the swamps below, where,
shut away from the air by water and mud, it turned into peat. Centuries
later the seas returned to crush it with heavy layers of shale and
clay, until pressure and heat drove out most of the volatile oils of
the wood, leaving carbon or coal. It is not surprising to find that
lignite coal has the same cellular formation as wood, and that it at
times bears the imprint of leaves or of whole trunks of trees. The
forms of stumps 15 feet in diameter have been found in the coal beds of
the State.

Lighting up the dull strata of the buttes are the ever present
pinks and reds of scoria--clay burnt into a brick-like shale by the
centuries-old fires of burning coal veins. Some of these burning
veins still exist in the Badlands, being more easily discoverable in
the wintertime, when the heat from combustion causes steam to rise.
This burning has been one of the major factors in the production of
the present Badlands topography, for as the fires have eaten into the
coal veins in the cliffs, the earth has crumbled and been carried away
by the rains and streams. These fires were an awesome sight to the
Indians, who believed the hills were on fire.

The chief agent, however, in the formation of the Badlands has been
the Little Missouri River, which centuries ago began to carve its way
down through the soft shales and sandstones with which the early seas
had covered the area. Aided by the eroding action of wind, frost, and
rain, by huge landslides, and by burning coal veins, the once swift,
always silt-laden river and its tributaries have floated away all the
age-old clays of the region except these buttes and domes piled in
indescribable confusion along the valley floor. The Indians, called the
valley "The-place-where-the-hills-look-at-each-other," and the first
white explorers, impeded in their travel, named it "bad lands to travel
through," a phrase inevitably shortened to Badlands.

Adding to the bizarre coloring of this unusual valley are the blue-gray
and silver of the sage, so often remarked by Roosevelt, the light green
of the sparse grasses of butte top and valley, and the darker green
of the cedars which cling to the shady sides of buttes. Cottonwood,
ash, box elder, elm, bull pine, dogwood, and flowering currant grow
along the Little Missouri, while gooseberries, buffalo berries, and
chokecherries ripen in the gullies. In June the large, white, open
flowers of the low-growing gumbo lily, also known as the cowboy lily
and the butte primrose, appear in the otherwise barren soil at the foot
of the buttes, to be followed shortly by the purple-centered white
and lavender Mariposa and creamy white yucca lilies. In midsummer the
small, wine-colored flowers of the ball cactus and the large, waxy,
lemon-yellow and brown blossoms of the prickly pear cactus show on the
drier soil of the buttes, and the scoria lily, with its thistle-like
foliage, opens its large, white flower only after sundown. In addition
to these striking, gaudy blooms, a great variety of more common North
Dakota flowers also appear in the valley of the Little Missouri,
especially in the springtime.

When white men first visited the region, it was rich in wild life.
Beaver and otter swam the streams, flocks of game birds hid in the
breaks, droves of elk, deer, and antelope fed along the Little
Missouri, and huge herds of buffalo often darkened the prairie above
the valley. In Roosevelt's ranching days game was still abundant, and
grizzlies and mountain lions were encountered occasionally. Rocky
Mountain, or bighorn, sheep were killed as late as 1906. Bobcats and
coyotes are found occasionally even today. The valley harbors more than
300 species of birds, including many game birds and the golden eagle.

On patches of dry grassland here and there, down in the bottoms or
up on the buttes, there are prairie-dog towns--areas sometimes as
much as a hundred acres in extent, thickly dotted with the small
mounds of their cunning inhabitants. Prairie dogs, somewhat larger
than good-sized rats, are burrowing rodents allied to the marmot. In
digging their burrows they throw the earth up into little mounds, upon
which, whenever anything has aroused their curiosity or fear, they sit
to chatter, barking like very small dogs, or perhaps more like gray

Interesting in connection with any description of the origin of the
Badlands is the Sioux legend of their formation. Unknown centuries
ago, it is said, the Badlands were a fertile plain, covered with rich
grasses and abounding with game. Every autumn the plains tribes came
here to get meat for winter and to hold friendly councils beneath the
trees which grew along the rivers. Tribes, hostile at other times and
in other places, while here greeted each other in peace.

This happy arrangement continued for many years, but one season a
fierce tribe came from the mountains to the west and drove the plains
tribes from their hunting grounds. Being unsuccessful in their attempts
to dislodge the invaders, the plains people finally called a great
council and fasted and prayed. Many days passed, however, and no answer
came from the Great Spirit, and they began to despair.

Then suddenly a great shudder convulsed the earth, the sky grew black
as midnight, and lightning burned jagged through the gloom. Fires
hissed from the earth and the once pleasant land rolled and tossed like
the waves of the sea, while into its flaming, pitching surface sank the
invading tribe, the streams, the trees, and all living things. Then
just as suddenly as it had begun, the upheaval and the conflagration
ceased, leaving the plain fixed in grotesque waves.

In this way the Great Spirit destroyed the prize that had stirred up
strife among his children, and the Badlands were created.


East entrance (_see Tour 4_)--Sperati Point (_see Tour 10_), 14 m.

The North Roosevelt Regional State Park, which has an area of
approximately 40 square miles, presents many of the best Badlands
features, including a petrified forest and the remarkable views of the
Grand Canyon of the Little Missouri River from Sperati Point.

From the eastern entrance the winding graveled and scoria park highway
proceeds in a general westerly direction along the northern side of the

Just inside the entrance are the blue-gray buildings of the permanent
CCC CAMP (L), which houses the 200 men assigned to putting trails
through the area and building rustic equipment at the picnic and
camping areas in the park.


Right on this trail which affords an opportunity for a ride of =5
m.= among the buttes and along the edge of the higher land above the
brush-filled gullies or breaks. Some parts of the trail are cut through
groves of aspen, ash, elm, and cedar on the north side of buttes, while
other parts move over the face of the cliffs or on high and narrow
ridges with precipitous canyon walls 300 ft. or more in depth dropping
on either side. Petrified stumps are along the trail.

The highway, continuing W. more directly than the river, which here
makes a deep bend to the S., skirts patches of woodland along the
bottoms to reach SQUAW CREEK PICNIC AREA, =5 m.=, the best-developed
camping center in the two parks. This picnic area on the banks of the
Little Missouri has excellent grass and shade. Its one-way road leads
among aspen, aromatic sumac, oak, poplar, and cottonwood to a number
of individual camp sites. In addition to a stone and log shelter and
numerous fireplaces, the area has 4 wells and 45 tables. At the east
edge of the area a rustic footbridge leads over a little ravine, to
clean, grassy picnic grounds.

Northwest of Squaw Creek Picnic Area the road passes along the edge of
the breaks overlooking the river to a junction with CEDAR CANYON HORSE
TRAIL at =5.8 m.=

Left on this 5-mile trail, which is very similar in character to the
Chaloner Creek Horse Trail, are lookout points affording excellent
views. In spring portions of the trail show a profusion of wild flowers.

The highway proceeds NW. to the junction with a graded road.

Right at this junction on a road disclosing very good views; it leads
NW. along the west side of dry SQUAW CREEK to the northern boundary of
the park, =6 m.= Beyond lies ARNEGARD, =20 m.= (_see Tour 4_), by which
the Badlands and the park can be entered from the N.

At =7 m.= is CEDAR CANYON LOOKOUT, which commands an exceptionally good
view to the S. across the Little Missouri River and beyond, where as
far as the eye can reach stretch the tumbled outlines of the buttes.

Northwest of Cedar Canyon the road moves out upon the plateau above the
Badlands and then turns W. and SW. in a large arc along the edge of
the breaks to SPERATI POINT, =14 m.= (_see Tour 10_), a high shoulder
of the plateau, overlooking the spectacular GRAND CANYON OF THE LITTLE
MISSOURI. Lying just W. of the bend of the Little Missouri where it
turns E. toward the Missouri, the point affords views up and down the
canyon, which in places is 600 ft. deep. It is proposed to make this a
completely developed recreational center, with cabins, stables, lodge,
and a store.

From Sperati Point an unmarked and indefinite trail, which should not
be tried without a guide, leads SW.

Left on this trail to a PETRIFIED FOREST, =2 m.=, one of those Badlands
areas, often many acres in extent, which abound with petrified logs
and stumps. Petrified stumps are a common sight throughout the valley
of the Little Missouri, suggesting that at one time it must have
been heavily forested. When the originals of these stone trees died,
their trunks, either standing or fallen, soaked up soil water holding
mineral matter in solution. As the water evaporated, the mineral matter
was left behind, filling the pores of the wood and the tiny cavities
produced by decomposition. In time decay removed all the wood and
the trees became stone, or, popularly, petrified wood. Some of the
logs--for, of course, the trees are not now standing--are as much as 35
ft. in length and 2 ft. in diameter. In some places the soil has been
washed and blown away from beneath the stumps, leaving odd formations
shaped like toadstools.


East entrance (_see Tour 8_)--Hell's Hole--West entrance (_see Tour
8_), 10 m.

The South Roosevelt Regional State Park comprises an area of
approximately 90 square miles, lying along the Little Missouri just N.
of US 10. In addition to the fantastic beauty of the Badlands buttes,
it contains a petrified forest, and one of the largest burning coal
mines in the Badlands.

From the eastern entrance the route leads NW. over the broad, pale-pink
ribbon of the graveled and scoria park highway.

HELL'S HOLE (L), =4 m.=, was named for a burning coal mine once
situated in this valley. The mine burned out, causing the earth to
crumble and destroy a tiny lake which lay under the cliff.

At =7 m.= three trails form a triangle on a level area adjacent to the
LITTLE MISSOURI RIVER. Here it is proposed to develop a recreational
center with full tourist accommodations, including cabins, store,
lodge, and stables. At the north end of the proposed area is the
old PEACEFUL VALLEY RANCH, which served tourists many years. It has
been acquired by the park, and the ranch house and corrals are to be
preserved as a recreational center. At Peaceful Valley Ranch are the
junctions with an unimproved trail, a graveled truck trail, and an
unmarked and indefinite horse trail.

1. Right from the ranch on the unimproved trail to PADDOCK CREEK, =0.4
m.=, which like all the creeks here is dry except in rainy seasons. Up
the creek, one on the L. bank at =1 m.= and the other on the R. at =1.5
m.= are the mounds of two PRAIRIE-DOG TOWNS.

2. Right from the ranch on the truck trail which crosses JONES CREEK,
=0.8 m.=, and turns E. just before reaching CATHEDRAL BUTTE, =2 m.=, an
old landmark on the trail.

Left from Cathedral Butte =0.5 m.= on an unimproved trail to WIND
CANYON, a narrow, deep valley leading down to a broad elbow of the
Little Missouri. Its name was suggested by the striking examples of
erosion by winds, which, whipping at the buttes for centuries, have
worn them into odd shapes. From Wind Canyon the trail passes NW. along
the river to SHELL BUTTE, =0.8 m.=, a high butte into which the river
has cut deeply, revealing large deposits of marine shells.

East of Cathedral Butte on the main side route following the truck
trail for about a mile and then NE. across JUEL CREEK, =3.3 m.=, to
GOD'S GARDENS (R), =4.5 m.=, an unusually attractive stretch of butte
and lowland, from which the road leads NW. across GOVERNMENT CREEK,
=5.3 m.=, where to the R., one on either side of the creek, are two
PRAIRIE-DOG TOWNS. At the crossing of Government Creek is the junction
with an unimproved trail (_do not follow without guide_).

Right on this trail =3 m.= to a BURNING COAL MINE, which is one of the
largest in the Badlands. The burning of the coal causes cracks to form
in the earth above the vein; one guide says he has brought water to a
boil in 15 min. by placing it above one of these cracks. As the vein is
consumed, the earth crumbles and falls, and the rains carry it away to
the streams.

Amid some of the finest Badlands scenery the truck trail continues in a
general northwesterly direction to the north boundary of the park, =10

3. Left from the ranch on the unmarked and indefinite horse trail to a
PETRIFIED FOREST, =5.5 m.=, considered one of the best examples of a
petrified forest (_see North Roosevelt Regional State Park Tour above_)
in the Badlands. The trip to this forest, which makes a nice day's
outing, requires a guide.

Southwest of Peaceful Valley Ranch, the route runs along the east bank
of the winding, shallow Little Missouri to a CAMPING AREA (R), =8 m.=,
sheltered by trees along the stream. It is furnished with tables,
fireplaces, and wells, and several individual camping spaces have been
developed along the road that circles through it.

At =8.5 m.= the route fords the river--a passage which in times of
high water cannot be effected by motorcars--and, turning SW. along the
western bank, reaches a permanent CCC CAMP (L), =9 m.=, with its low,
trim, slate-blue buildings lying next the stream on a level piece of
bottom land overshadowed by lofty buttes.

At =9.5 m.=, is a junction with a graveled road leading uphill away
from the river.

Right on this trail is a PICNIC SHELTER, =0.5 m.=, built over a spring
and provided with a fireplace.

Right from this shelter =5 m.= on a marked HORSE TRAIL, which winds
among the buttes in a figure eight. At some points on the trail the
tops of Square (Flat Top) and Sentinel Buttes (_see Tour 8_) are
visible far away to the SW. At the center of the figure eight, forming
a pleasant place for lunch, is a clump of trees with a spring flowing
down over little sandstone terraces.

At =9.8 m.= is the sandstone portal of the west entrance, beyond which
is the junction with US 10 (_see Tour 8_), =10 m.=



  (Winnipeg, Man., Can.)--Pembina--Grand
  Forks--Fargo--Wahpeton--(Watertown, S. Dak.). US 81.

  Canadian boundary to South Dakota Line, 256.5 m.

  N. P. Ry. parallels route between Canadian border and Joliette; G.
  N. Ry. between Hamilton and Fargo; Milwaukee R. R. between Fargo
  and South Dakota Line. Winnipeg-Fargo route of Northwest Airlines
  parallels route between Canadian border and Fargo. Graveled roadbed
  except about 31 m. bituminous-surfaced. Accommodations of all types
  in principal towns.

US 81 crosses North Dakota along its eastern boundary from the Canadian
to the South Dakota border, and passes through the rich low valley of
the Red River of the North, a wide level plain that was once the bed of
the great prehistoric Lake Agassiz. The route parallels the Red River
to Wahpeton, and the Bois de Sioux River between that city and the
South Dakota Line. Constantly in sight to the left of the road are the
heavily wooded river banks, but except for crossing several timbered
tributaries the route runs through almost unbelievably flat green
fields, broken here and there by an occasional farmstead.

During the early settlement of this region the Red River provided
transportation into the newly opened Northwest, and beside its course
slow-moving trains of creaking oxcarts preceded the steamboat into
the new land. It was in the Red River Valley that the first white
settlements in the State were made. Here in the last quarter of the
nineteenth century flourished the bonanza farms--those huge land tracts
entirely devoted to the growing of wheat that earned for this valley
the title of "the bread basket of the world." Today the Red River
Valley produces many other crops--potatoes, sugar beets, alfalfa--in
addition to wheat. Its natural endowments of rich soil and good
rainfall combine with the man-made facilities of transportation to
constitute the most prosperous section of North Dakota.

US 81 crosses the Canadian border =64.5 m.= S. of Winnipeg, Can.

PEMBINA (Chippewa, _highbush cranberry_), =3 m.= (792 alt., 551 pop.),
named for the berries that lend their flaming color to the nearby woods
in autumn, is the cradle of North Dakota white settlement. Here, at
the confluence of the Red and Pembina Rivers, the earliest trading
posts and the first white colony in the State were established. Charles
Chaboillez, representing the North West Co., built the first fur post
on North Dakota soil on the south bank of the Pembina River within the
present site of Pembina in 1797-98. Rudely constructed and of short
duration, it had already disappeared when Alexander Henry, Jr., also
of the North West Co., came up the Red River in 1800. The following
year he built a post on the north side of the Pembina, and in the same
year both the XY and the Hudson's Bay Co. opened posts at the mouth
of the river. The three competing companies, with their free rum and
unscrupulous trading, brought about a lawless social condition in
the new settlement. Drinking bouts and brawls were continuous as the
Indians were plied with liquor by the conscienceless traders, who
excused their conduct on grounds of competition.

It was during this time that the first child of other than Indian blood
was born on North Dakota soil. The child was not white, but Negro, the
daughter of Pierre Bonza, Henry's personal servant. The first white
child in the State was born at Henry's post in 1807, the illegitimate
son of the "Orkney Lad", a woman who had worked at the post for several
years in the guise of a man. Her imposture was not generally known
until the birth of her child, after which a collection was taken up and
she and the child were sent back to her home in the Orkney Islands.

During the middle of the nineteenth century Pembina was the rendezvous
for white and metis hunters, and the town was the starting point for
the great Pembina buffalo hunts (_see Side Tour 5A_).

The fur trade brought some white settlers to this area, but it was
not until 1812 that systematic colonization was attempted. In that
year William Douglas, Earl of Selkirk, brought a group of dispossessed
Scottish peasants to the Red River Valley to farm under an agreement
with the Hudson's Bay Co. Untrained for the rigors of frontier
life, and persecuted by the fur traders of the rival North West
Co. who did not want settlers in their lucrative area, many of the
Selkirk colonists moved to Canada in 1818 after establishment of the
international boundary defined Pembina as United States soil. The next
30 years saw a slow influx of settlers into the Red River Valley and
by 1851 Pembina had become a fairly important river port. In that year
Norman Kittson, a fur trader, was named postmaster, the first in North
Dakota; and Charles Cavileer, for whom the town and county of Cavalier
were later named (_see Tour 5_), was appointed collector of customs
at Pembina. Cavileer became postmaster in 1852, and, as under his
influence newcomers arrived to farm, the fur trade declined and there
developed the first permanent agricultural community in the State.

Pembina appears from a distance more like a grove of trees than a town.
Most of its buildings are old, reflecting the rococo architecture of an
earlier day.

On the Red River at the eastern end of Rolette St. is MASONIC PARK,
where a marker commemorates the site of the first Masonic lodge in the
State, organized at Pembina in 1863. Each year, both on July 1, which
is Dominion Day (the Canadian holiday similar to the U. S. Independence
Day) and on July 4, the flag of the United States and the Canadian
Union Jack fly together from the park flagpole, a practice illustrating
the neighborliness of the border States and Provinces. The Canadian
flag is a gift of the Masonic Grand Lodge of Manitoba.

The highway crosses the Pembina River, which in dry seasons is likely
to appear more like mud than water. Left on the highway is PEMBINA
STATE PARK (_good water, firewood, kitchens, and tables_), which
includes the site of the Chaboillez trading post.

A bridge over the Red River connects Pembina with St. Vincent, Minn.,
situated on US 59 (_see Minn. Tour 17_).

At =4 m.= is the PEMBINA AIRPORT (R), airport of entry operated by the
Northwest Airlines. It is on part of the former military reservation
of Fort Pembina, established in 1870. The reservation was turned over
to the U. S. Department of the Interior in 1895 and sold at public
auction. The fort was situated a mile and a half S. of the city of
Pembina on the Red River.

JOLIETTE, =14.5 m.= (796 alt., 100 pop.), is a French-Canadian
community named for Joliette, Quebec.

At =16.4 m.= is the junction with ND 44, a graveled highway and an
alternate route of shorter distance between Joliette and Manvel (_see

Left on ND 44 is BOWESMONT, =8.6 m.= (794 alt., 125 pop.), named for
William Bowes, the first storekeeper. It lies on the level land just W.
of the Red River, its treeless streets more like a western North Dakota
prairie town than the usual Red River Valley village. The story is told
that Bowes won the opportunity to name the town in a game of cards.
Bowesmont was first built on the banks of the river, but settlers
experienced great hardships when the stream overflowed its banks each
spring, and the buildings were moved.

Near Bowesmont in the spring of 1860 occurred an event illustrative of
the hardships suffered by the missionaries to this region. The Rev.
Joseph Goiffon, assistant at the Pembina Catholic Mission, returning
from a trip to St. Paul, left his party behind in an effort to reach
the mission in time to conduct a certain Mass. A driving rain had been
falling and this suddenly turned to a swirling snowstorm. In a short
time the ground was covered with six or seven inches of snow, and the
driving wind made it impossible for him to continue. The blizzard did
not abate, and in two days his horse had died from exposure and his
own legs had frozen so that he was unable to walk. For five days he
remained on the prairie, living on the flesh of his horse, until the
storm subsided and a passer-by heard his feeble cries for help. It was
found necessary to amputate parts of both legs, but in spite of this he
returned to the Pembina mission, and was later transferred to St. Paul
and Mendota, where he served until his death in 1910.

DRAYTON, =18.5 m.= (800 alt., 509 pop.), first known as Hastings
Landing, was given its present name by settlers who came west from
Drayton, Ont., Canada. In contrast with its neighbor Bowesmont, Drayton
is situated directly in the timber on the banks of the Red. Its 42-acre
city park is unusual in that it lies in another State, across the river
in Minnesota. The bridge leading to the park is also unusual; it is a
drawbridge, built in 1911, when the high stage of the Red aroused hope
of reviving steamboating. After the bridge had been completed the river
stage fell, and has never risen, so that the draw has not been lifted
since it was built.

Drayton is an active sports town, especially interested in curling, and
10 teams compete in the large enclosed rink each winter.

Left on ND 44 to ACTON HALL, =29.5 m.=, a community building.

On ND 44 to the junction (R) with a graveled road, =36.5 m.= In a
triangle formed by the junction is a CRUCIFIX. On a base of natural
boulders, in summer the clear, marble-like whiteness of the cross
and canopied figure stands out in contrast with the green of the
surrounding countryside.

At =50 m.= is the junction with US 81 (_see below_).

HAMILTON, =24.5 m.= (830 alt., 151 pop.), also a Canadian settlement,
is named for Hamilton, Ont. The oldest State bank in North Dakota,
organized in 1886, is operated here. The Pembina County Fair,
established in 1894, is held here (_June or July_) each year. In
Hamilton is the junction with ND 5 (_see Tour 5_).

In GLASSTON, =31.5 m.= (843 alt., 70 pop.), named for Archibald Glass,
first postmaster, and ST. THOMAS, =37 m.= (846 alt., 595 pop.), named
for St. Thomas, Ont., are the homes of many retired farmers. The latter
is also a potato and sugar-beet shipping center.

AUBURN, =46.5 m.= (848 alt., 50 pop.), was larger than its neighbor
GRAFTON, =52.5 m.= (833 alt., 3,136 pop.), until the latter became
a railroad junction. Named by early settlers for Grafton County, N.
H., Grafton is on the Park River in the center of a rich farming
area. It was the first city in this part of the Northwest to maintain
a municipal light plant, and had the first public library in North
Dakota, established by a women's club in 1897. A SPANISH-AMERICAN
WAR MEMORIAL, one of the few in the State, is on the Walsh County
Courthouse grounds. On a hill W. of the town is the GRAFTON STATE
SCHOOL for the feeble-minded. Opened in 1904, the institution in 1937
had 778 inmates and a faculty and staff of 110. The grounds, including
the school farm, cover 20 acres.

Left from Grafton on ND 17, a graveled highway, to the junction with ND
18, =10 m.=

Right on this highway =8.5 m.= is HOOPLE, (901 alt., 325 pop.), one
of the largest primary potato-shipping points in the State. More than
a thousand carloads of Red River Valley potatoes are loaded here each
year. The town is named for Allen Hoople, an early settler. U. S.
Senator Lynn J. Frazier, former Governor of the State (1917-1921),
lives on a farm NE. of here.

On ND 17 is PARK RIVER, =16.5 m.= (1,000 alt., 1,131 pop.), on the PARK
RIVER, probably named by early explorers for the buffalo parks along
the stream. The Indians had no weapons which were effective on buffalo
at long range, so they constructed corrals of brush into which the
animals could be herded for killing. Whenever possible these corrals,
which the first white explorers called buffalo parks, were built near
the bank of a river or edge of a hill so that the buffalo would charge
over the edge and be killed or badly injured in the crushing fall. The
institution, is located in the town. In Park River are offices of the
SOUTH BRANCH PARK RIVER PROJECT of the Soil Conservation Service, which
has a demonstration area of 51,000 acres in central Walsh County on
which contour farming and wind strip cropping are practiced. Sinclair
Lewis, the novelist, owns a farm 1 m. S. of Park River, which he has
never seen.

William Avery Rockefeller, father of John D. Rockefeller, the late oil
magnate, lived on a Park River farm for some time. In 1881 an elderly
man who gave his name as Dr. William Levingston homesteaded on a
quarter section of land just E. of the town, where he lived each summer
for 15 years. He later purchased an adjoining quarter, but the deed to
this land was in the name of Pierson W. Briggs, a son-in-law of William
Rockefeller and then purchasing agent for the Standard Oil Company. In
1895 George W. Towle, former Park River banker, who transacted much of
Dr. Levingston's business, saw a picture of the senior Rockefeller in a
copy of _McClure's Magazine_, and recognized it as that of his former
client, Levingston. William A. Rockefeller was not a doctor, but sold
patent medicines and acted as a cancer specialist.

MINTO, =63 m.= (826 alt., 565 pop.), originally settled by Canadians
and named for an Ontario town, is now a Czech and Polish settlement.
The Feast of St. Wenslaus, September 28, and Czechoslovakian
Independence Day, October 28, are occasions of festivity. Minto is
situated on the FOREST RIVER. There is a park by the stream S. of the
town (_swimming pool, recreational area, and campgrounds._)

ARDOCH, =69 m.= (830 alt., 110 pop.), also named for an Ontario town,
is now predominantly Polish. LAKE ARDOCH, a large artificial lake
constructed as a water conservation and migratory waterfowl project,
adjoins the town on the E.

At =80.5 m.= is the second junction with ND 44 (_see above_).

MANVEL, =81.5 m.= (826 alt., 183 pop.), is named for Gen. A. A. Manvel
of the G. N. Ry. Originally known as the Turtle River station, it
was one of six stops on the Fort Abercrombie-Fort Garry trail in
the 1860's. The stage station was a crude log hut, roofed first with
prairie sod and later with a thatch of weeds when the rain washed the
sod away. The hut had one window and one door. Cooking was done on a
fireplace made of clay dobes or hand-made bricks. For meals, served on
an improvised table, the traveler paid 50 cents, and for the same price
he had the privilege of sleeping on the dirt floor. These stations were
comfortable, however, in the coldest weather, with great fires roaring
in the fireplaces to warm and cheer the traveler.

At =92.5 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Left on this road to the GRAND FORKS SILVER FOX FARM, =2 m.= (_visitors
allowed Jan. 1-June 1; arrange with manager_). About 200 pair of foxes
are kept at the farm each winter.

Left at =93 m.= is a stone memorial marking a point on the old RED
RIVER OXCART TRAIL between St. Paul, Minn., and Fort Garry (Winnipeg),
Canada. During the late summer and fall most of the traffic through the
region was on this trail. It was first used by traders at Fort Garry to
transport furs to St. Paul. The exact route is not known today, but it
is believed to have run through Grand Forks on 3rd St., turned S. at
the present corner of S. 3rd St. and Minnesota Ave., whence it followed
approximately the route of US 81 to the Lincoln Park golf course. Here
it is believed to have turned E. toward the river, which it followed to
Frog Point (_Belmont, see below_), and thence up the valley. Mr. and
Mrs. Charles Cavileer, pioneer settlers at Pembina, made a romantic
honeymoon journey to St. Paul on this trail in 1840.

At =93 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Left on this road to the NORTHERN PACKING COMPANY PLANT (_open_), =0.3
m.=, which in its 15-year existence (1937) has purchased more than
$20,000,000 worth of livestock.

At =93.5 m.= (R) is the NORTH DAKOTA STATE MILL AND ELEVATOR (_open
weekdays 9-5; conducted tours_), a State-owned plant. A product of
the Nonpartisan League's industrial program, this institution has
played an important role in State politics since its opening in 1922.
As early as 1915 the Society of Equity and the Equity Exchange had
attempted to establish a State-owned elevator, but had failed, and
this failure hastened the formation of the Nonpartisan League. By
1919 the league was strong enough in the legislature to establish its
industrial program, part of which was a State mill and elevator. The
State Industrial Commission governs the mill and elevator. Managership
is generally considered a political plum. Whether or not the mill is a
paying venture is a perennially hotly debated question. Its opponents,
taking into consideration the original cost of the mill, an amount
in excess of $3,000,000, cannot see how it will ever pay for itself,
while those who favor its operation maintain that it makes a profit,
and assert further that the creation of a market within the boundaries
of the State is of invaluable benefit to the farmers. Salesmen for
the State sell the mill's product in eastern States, and one of the
accusations repeatedly hurled at the mill manager during political
campaigns is that Dakota Maid Flour retails at a lower price in the
East than in North Dakota.

A State law requires all official State documents to be stamped "Buy
'Dakota Maid' Flour."

The mill and elevator consists of six steel-and-concrete fire-proof
buildings. The mill proper has three storage wings, and contains three
mills, each with a daily capacity of 1,000 bbl. The elevator, equal in
height to the average 12-story skyscraper, has a capacity of 1,659,600
bu. Thirty-two storage tanks each have a capacity of 50,000 bu. The
elevator is operated independently of the mill, which buys in the open
market and pays a rental to the elevator for storage space. In addition
to Dakota Maid Flour the mill manufactures cereals, oatmeals, and
poultry feeds.

GRAND FORKS, =94.5 m.= (834 alt., 17,112 pop.) (_see_ GRAND FORKS)

  _Points of Interest_: University of North Dakota, Wesley College.

At N. 16th St. and Skidmore Ave. N. is the junction with US 2 (_see
Tour 6_).

At =105.5 m.= is the junction with ND 15, a graveled highway.

Right on this road is THOMPSON, =2 m.= (972 alt., 273 pop.), the center
of a large potato-farming area.

At =116.5 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Right on this road is REYNOLDS, =2 m.= (915 alt., 351 pop.), named for
Dr. Henry Reynolds, an early settler and temperance apostle. The town
is on the Grand Forks-Traill County line and many of the residents have
their business places in one county and their homes in the other.

At =121.5 m.= is the junction with a graveled spur.

Right on this spur is BUXTON, =1 m.= (935 alt., 410 pop.), a
Scandinavian town named for Thomas Buxton, a business associate of
Bud Reeves, the town site owner. Reeves, active in State politics,
was one of the leaders in the drive to obtain funds for maintenance
of State colleges after veto of the appropriation bill in 1895 (_see
Side Tour 1A_). When Reeves campaigned for election to Congress on
the Democratic ticket in 1894 he traveled over the State in what was
probably the first house trailer ever used here, and one of the first
used in the region. He had a log cabin built on wheels, and in this
he visited every part of the State, a large cowbell attached to the
cabin announcing his arrival in each town. No mean patriot, during his
speeches he had with him on the platform the American flag and a live

Several important personages have been residents of Buxton, including
two Governors of the State, R. A. Nestos (1877-) and A. G. Sorlie
(1874-1928); U. S. Senator A. J. Gronna (1858-1922), one of the six
members of the Senate who opposed entrance of the United States into
the World War; and Dr. Lila M. O'Neale (1886-), anthropologist and
ethnologist who has engaged in research work in Guatemala under the
auspices of the Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, and is now a faculty
member at the University of California.

At =123.5 m.= is the junction with a dirt road.

Right on this road is BELMONT, =11.5 m.=, a ghost town which in the
1870's was a booming river port known as Frog Point. It was named by
Capt. Sam Painter, one of the first Red River pilots, on an early
trip down the river, probably in 1860. Finding the shores almost
covered with frogs, he is said to have erected a rude sign reading
"Frog Point", and through the rise and fall of the town which grew up
there the name remained. In 1871 the Hudson's Bay Co. established a
trading post on the point. A year later, because of the fall of the
river, Frog Point became head of navigation, and in short order was a
rendezvous for boatmen, trappers, hunters, teamsters, and drifters,
all living in tents or hastily constructed buildings. Teamsters
hauling freight overland from the S. in their heavy, eight-horse,
high-wheeled "jumpers", and trappers and Indians with their catches,
here boarded the Hudson's Bay Co. steamer _International_, and James
J. Hill's _Selkirk_. The town, cut from the woods on the bank of the
Red, and towered over by tall oaks, became a wilderness metropolis,
and its reputation spread to Europe. In England it was believed by
many to be a city of broad avenues and tall spires, second in size
only to Liverpool, and filled with the hum of industry. Foreign
visitors, traveling to Fort Garry, looked eagerly for this Red River
capital, and even their disillusionment on seeing the little backwoods
city could not dim its reputation. In its streets rough, rugged,
heavy-booted woodsmen, rivermen, and trappers thundered up and down
the wooden walks, and many a citizen was hastily despatched by their
44's. Heavy-jowled saloonkeepers, slim-fingered sleek gamblers, and gay
dance-hall girls were all a part of the mushroom town.

Nature brought downfall to the Point as quickly as she had elevated
it to importance. The river fell lower still, and Frog Point lost its
position as head of navigation. Many of its inhabitants departed as
swiftly as they had come. Fire wiped out a number of buildings which
were never rebuilt. Trade dwindled and storekeepers shut up shop. Some
20 years later, with the river level again up, the town revived as a
grain-shipping center, but the flood of 1897 ruined grain elevators and
their contents, and within a short time the bustle of the town again
faded into the past. Today the Hudson's Bay Co. building, which houses
a farm implement shop, is all that remains of the early affluence.
The present population of the hamlet, which is not even an organized
village, is 33.

CUMMINGS, =124.5 m.= (935 alt., 84 pop.), named for Henry Cumings, an
early G. N. employee who helped build the railroad, is principally a
Scandinavian community. Originally spelled with one "m", its name was
misspelled so consistently that the Post Office Department legitimized
the misspelling by inserting the second "m."

At =129.5 m.= is the junction with ND 7, a graveled highway (_see Side
Tour 1A_).

HILLSBORO, =132.5 m.= (907 alt., 1,317 pop.), named for James J. Hill,
the "Empire Builder" of the G. N. Ry., was platted in 1880 on the
attractive GOOSE RIVER. A bitter fight for the Traill County seat was
prominent in the early history of the town. Neighboring Caledonia, on
the Red River, had been the county seat since organization of Traill
County in 1875, but the routing of the G. N. Ry. through Hillsboro gave
that young city aspirations, and in 1890 it came forward as a contender
for the county seat. The campaign grew heated, and Caledonia citizens
carried arms and posted guards around their village. To lead their
defense they organized a committee, whom Hillsboro residents dubbed
Tigers of the Jungle and Irreconcilables. The Tigers imported Col. W.
C. Plummer, a widely known professional standard bearer who had served
as campaign speaker in many parts of the country, and whom James G.
Blaine once called "one of the three best political speakers in the
United States." The colonel became the leading figure in the county
seat fight. He was an impressive speaker, and the floods of oratory he
loosed in behalf of Caledonia were greatly enjoyed by his listeners.
The majority of them, however, apparently remained impervious to his
arguments--when the votes were counted Hillsboro enjoyed a 1,291 to 218

WOODLAND PARK, a 25-acre recreational and tourist camp area in the
northern part of town, contains a log cabin, originally built at
Belmont, in which are an old-fashioned loom once used in weaving the
homespun clothing of a pioneer family, and other relics of pioneer days.

Right from Hillsboro on a graveled highway to STONY POINT, =1.5 m.=,
site of a camp used by pioneers freighting their supplies overland from
Fargo during early settlement of the region. The camp site, situated on
a sandy ridge left by the recession of glacial Lake Agassiz, is marked
by a large, pointed boulder 20 ft. in diameter, which once served as a
landmark. In early days it was believed, from the manner in which the
rock was situated in the earth, that it might have dropped from the sky.

South of Hillsboro are many well-built farmsteads--some of which were
once part of bonanza farms--and four peaceful villages which in bonanza
days were busy wheat centers, but now lie quietly basking in their

GRANDIN, =146 m.= (898 alt., 172 pop.), is the largest of these towns.
It was named for J. L. Grandin, one of the two Tidioute, Pa., brothers
who bought 99 sections of Red River Valley land and farmed them under
the bonanza system. Dividing their land into 1,500-acre farms, each
with a superintendent and a foreman, they harvested their first crop
in 1878. They had 14,000 acres under cultivation near Grandin, and
6,000 at Mayville. Before the advent of the railroad the wheat raised
on their land was hauled on barges towed by the steamers _Grandin_ and
_Alsop_ to Fargo, a distance of 90 m.--overland Grandin is 35 m. from
Fargo. The Grandin farm was one of the earliest practical users of the
telephone, although whether the first in the State was installed on
this or the Dalrymple farm (_see Tour 8_) is in dispute.

GARDNER, =154.5 m.= (891 alt., 108 pop.), named for the town site
owner, was founded in 1880 when the surrounding territory was being
developed as wheat country, but was not incorporated village until 1929.

ARGUSVILLE, =161.5 m.= (889 alt., 115 pop.), is believed to have
received its name from the _Daily Argus_, Fargo newspaper published at
the time of the town's founding in 1880.

HARWOOD, =169 m.= (892 alt., 82 pop.), was named for A. J. Harwood,
a prominent Fargo real estate dealer who bought all the town sites
between Fargo and Grand Forks when the G. N. Ry. was built.

At =179.3 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Right on this road to HECTOR AIRPORT, =0.5 m.=, a U. S. Department
of Commerce A-1 field, land for which was donated by Martin Hector,
pioneer Fargo banker, in 1931. The buildings include a city hangar of
laminated truss-arch construction, completed in 1936 under the Works
Progress Administration.

FARGO, 181 m. (907 alt., 28,619 pop.) (_see_ FARGO).

  _Points of Interest_: North Dakota Agricultural College, Veterans'
  Hospital, Dovre Ski Slide.

At Front and 13th Sts. is the junction with US 10 (_see Tour 8_).

The WILD RICE RIVER, which the route crosses at =188 m.=, was named for
the wild grain which formerly grew on its banks. Near here, in a battle
between the Sioux and Chippewa in 1807, Tabashaw, a Chippewa chief, was
slain while avenging the death of his eldest son, who had been killed a
short time before by the Sioux.

At =189 m.= is the junction with a dirt road.

Right on this road is HOLY CROSS CEMETERY, =0.3 m.=, one of the first
cemeteries in the State, established in 1862. The first burial here is
said to have been that of a priest who had been beheaded by an Indian.
Another victim of frontier tragedy whose body rests here was Archibald
Montrose, a young English nobleman who came to America to establish
a home. He was found frozen within a few rods of his own door during
a blizzard in 1871. His devoted young wife ordered a covered shelf
built on the outside wall of their cabin beneath her bedroom window,
and had his coffin placed there. In the spring, when the ground had
thawed sufficiently to permit the digging of a grave, she unwillingly
consented to the burial of her husband's body. Soon afterward their
baby daughter, born after the father's death, died also, and the
mother, her mind affected by the grief of her bereavements, joined them
in the nearby burial ground. For many years a large wooden cross marked
the spot where Montrose died.

WILD RICE, =191 m.= (909 alt., 35 pop.), is the center of a
French-Canadian farming community.

HICKSON, =196 m.= (915 alt., 100 pop.), is named for the Ole Hicks
family who were early farmers in the vicinity.

At =198.5 m.= is the junction with ND 46, a graveled highway.

Right on this highway to a bridge crossing the SHEYENNE RIVER, =9 m.=
On the bridge a tablet has been placed reading: "Sibley Trail 1863.
Sibley's Indian Expedition crossed the Sheyenne at this point Aug. 20,
returning from the Missouri to Fort Abercrombie."

At =9.5 m.= is the junction with a graveled spur.

Right on this road to KINDRED, =1 m.= (948 alt., 429 pop.), a
tree-shaded town named for F. E. and W. A. Kindred, surveyors who
platted the town site and later were large landholders in the vicinity.
The community is principally Scandinavian. An interesting COLLECTION
(_open by arrangement_) of European museum pieces and Indian artifacts
is owned by Hjalmer Rustad of Kindred, and is kept at his home.

ND 46 traverses a low range of sandy hills, the western rim of glacial
Lake Agassiz. At =19 m.= is the junction with a dry-weather dirt road.
Left on this road at =26.5 m.=, just across the river to the SHEYENNE
RIVER PARK (_central building of native logs, spring-fed swimming pool,
five picnic areas, cabins, and camp sites_), under development (1938)
as a recreational center by a Federal land utilization project. The
park includes an area of unusual scenic attraction. A road winds along
the heavily wooded river bottom, and side roads and graveled trails
lead out of the valley to the sand dunes which stretch away to the S.
The great plain here was deposited in glacial days, when the rushing
Sheyenne, then a large stream carrying the sediment-laden waters of the
melting ice sheet, flowed into Lake Agassiz. As the lake retreated the
sand was left to the winds, which pushed and whipped it into dunes that
dip away toward the horizon. Hummocks of trees and shrubs appear like
green islands in this wide sea of dull brown. In some places, to combat
the moving sand, elm and oak bark has been laid lengthwise in the road
to preserve the trail.

CHRISTINE, =204.5 m.= (926 alt., 204 pop.), has a population 95 percent
Scandinavian. When Christine Nilsson, the noted Swedish operatic
soprano, appeared in the United States in 1873, she was honored by
American Scandinavians, who named this town for her. A COLLECTION
(_open by arrangement_) of pioneer implements, including spinning
wheels, brass kitchen utensils, and relics from Fort Abercrombie, is
owned by Dr. M. U. Ivers.

ABERCROMBIE, =212.5 m.= (935 alt., 242 pop.), is a typically peaceful
small town on the banks of the Red River. The air of serenity which
lies over its tree-lined streets and substantial homes is in decided
contrast with the bustling activity of the settlement which surrounded
the pioneer post of Fort Abercrombie, first Federal fort in North
Dakota, built in 1858. It was named for Lt. Col. John J. Abercrombie,
officer in charge of its erection. The most westerly outpost of the
settlers' advance during the 1860's, Fort Abercrombie became the
gateway to the Dakotas. From here expeditions set out to the unexplored
plains of the Northwest, and trains of settlers left by oxcart and
covered wagons to seek homes on the prairie beyond.

It was between Fort Abercrombie and Fort Garry that the first steamboat
to ply the waters of the Red River of the North carried passengers
and freight. Built in Georgetown in 1859, the _Anson Northrup_, named
for its owner, who hauled the machinery overland from the Mississippi
River, made its maiden trip to the Canadian post the same summer.

Because of its position on the outskirts of the white settlement,
Fort Abercrombie was particularly vulnerable to Indian attacks, and
during the Minnesota uprising of 1862 was besieged for five weeks by
the hostile Sioux. The first attack, September 3, was repulsed with
the loss of one man. At the close of this encounter the defenders
discovered that only 350 rounds of rifle ammunition remained---
a supply had been ordered in the spring but had not arrived. The
ingenuity of the garrison was exercised; canister shells for the
12-pound howitzers contained balls which fitted the rifles, so the
women in the fort were put to work opening the canisters. The makeshift
ammunition served its purpose well.

The fort had no stockade; consequently, after the first attack, the
defenders threw up around the entire fort a cordwood breastwork 8 ft.
high. In the meantime messengers had slipped through the Indian lines
to summon aid from Fort Snelling at Minneapolis. On September 6 a force
estimated at 400 warriors again attacked the fort, but was driven
back after a long fight in which two soldiers were killed and many
wounded. The Indians made no more determined attacks on the fort, but
continually harassed the beleaguered settlers with desultory sniping
until the arrival of a detachment of 350 infantrymen from Fort Snelling
relieved the garrison September 23.

In November of the same year 10 acres of the fort reserve were enclosed
by a heavy oak-log stockade with blockhouses at three corners, and
about the same time a larger garrison was stationed at Abercrombie. It
was from this enlarged post that the Sibley expedition set forth to
punish the Sioux the following summer (_see_ HISTORY). The enlarged
garrison was maintained until the abandonment of the fort in 1877.
During the 1870's Fort Abercrombie was the point from which trails led
W. to Forts Totten, Ransom, Wadsworth, and Garry, and many a train of
home seekers or gold seekers spent a few days there before embarking on
the hazardous trip through Dakota.

Fort Abercrombie in 1870 was the scene of a treaty between the Chippewa
and Sioux, concluded through the influence of Father J. B. Genin,
a Roman Catholic priest. After this treaty the eastern part of the
Territory was comparatively free from fear of Indian attacks.

FORT ABERCROMBIE STATE PARK, on the eastern edge of the town, preserves
7 acres of the original 7 sq. m. of military reservation. The park
lies along the river, and its natural beauty makes it a pleasant
recreation center. An old cabin in the park houses a collection of
early-day relics. Nearby stands a Red River oxcart whose wooden wheels
once creaked over the old river trail before the days of railroads and

DWIGHT, =224 m.= (959 alt., 104 pop.), was named for Jeremiah W.
Dwight, head of a large bonanza farm company organized here in 1879,
and was the home of John Miller, first Governor of North Dakota. Miller
was superintendent of the Dwight Farm and Land Company, which operated
27,000 acres, and was established with a cash capital of $150,000. The
MILLER RESIDENCE (_private_), former home of the family, is R. of US 81
in the southeastern corner of the village.

At =227.5 m.= is the junction with ND 13, a graveled highway.

Right on this road is MOORETON, =7 m.= (966 alt., 147 pop.). Here is
the headquarters farm of F. A. Bagg, one of the largest landowners in
the Red River Valley. He maintains three airplanes in a hangar on his
farm and supervises his holdings by air.

WAHPETON (Sioux, _village of the leaves_), =233 m.= (969 alt., 3,176
pop.), is at the confluence of the Bois de Sioux (Fr., _forest of
the Sioux_) and Ottertail Rivers, where the two streams meet to form
the Red River of the North. From 1871 to 1893 the town was known as
Chahinkapa (Sioux, _top of the trees_), an old Indian name given this
area by the Sioux who, coming from the W. to fight the Chippewa, would
here see the tops of the trees appear over the level prairie.

Alexander Faribault, for whom Faribault, Minn., was named, has told of
visiting the present site of Wahpeton in 1810 when 3,000 Indians were
encamped and engaged in hunting buffalo and drying the meats for food.
At that time the grasslands along the Red River were black with bison,
who summered on the grazing lands here, and wintered on the uplands of
the Missouri Slope W. of the Missouri River.

That politics was a momentous vocation when Wahpeton was a young county
seat is indicated in this political advertisement in an 1880 issue of
the Richland County _Gazette_:

  "Republicans of Richland County, please remember and vote for me
  on election day. Come old and young, father and son, one and all
  and vote for me. Do not look on money or on the rich man but on an
  honest man. I have come to this lovely country and have made my
  happy home and I will be a good citizen of Richland County. You
  know I am a candidate for County Treasurer of Richland County. Come
  and spend the whole day on election day and vote for me. We are all
  brothers and sisters. It makes no difference whether a man is rich
  or poor, if he is honest; then he is a good man. Come all and see
  me on election day, in our nice town of Wahpeton."

The RICHLAND COUNTY COURTHOUSE here, built in a modified Classic style
with a cupola, is considered a good example of the official buildings
in this State. The first floor exterior is of Kettle River sandstone,
with upper stories and dome of Bedford limestone. Across the street
from the courthouse is the LEACH PUBLIC LIBRARY, a light-colored brick
and sandstone building presented to the city in 1923 by Mr. and Mrs. O.
A. Leach, Wahpeton residents since 1896. The library contains 14,000

In the northern part of Wahpeton are the STATE SCHOOL OF SCIENCE and
the U. S. INDIAN SCHOOL. The science school is a vocational institution
and junior college with a trades educational program that has received
recognition outside the State. Near the entrance to the landscaped
campus is a cast bronze life-size bust of the Norwegian poet-dramatist
Henrik Ibsen, the work of Jacob Fjelde, distinguished Norwegian
sculptor who made his home in Minneapolis from 1877 until his death in
1896. Another portrait of Ibsen in Como Park in St. Paul, Minn., is
also the work of Fjelde; these are said to be the only statues of Ibsen
in the U. S. The bust at Wahpeton was a gift to the city and Richland
County from the Norwegian people of the county, and was unveiled at
ceremonies held on Norwegian Independence Day, May 17, 1912. The figure
stands on a tapering rough-hewn 8-foot granite pedestal.

The Indian school consists of 40 red-brick buildings housing 300
students, mainly Sioux and Chippewa from reservations in North and
South Dakota and Minnesota. In addition to academic work through the
ninth grade, vocational training in farm methods is taught the boys,
while the girls receive instruction in home economics and sanitation.

CHAHINKAPA PARK, in the northeastern part of Wahpeton, lies between the
high banks of the old bed of the Red River and the present channel,
its inviting woods cut off from the mainland by meandering lagoons.
Improvements and recreational facilities (_swimming pool, playgrounds,
athletic field_) by Federal agencies were completed under the Works
Progress Administration (1937).

Wahpeton was the home of the late U. S. Senator Porter J. McCumber, who
gained national recognition for his work on the Fordney-McCumber Tariff

The route leaves Wahpeton by way of 2nd St., and for 5 m. follows a
winding course parallel to the Bois de Sioux. This portion of the
highway runs over a trail used in 1823 by the military expedition of
Maj. Stephen H. Long sent to establish the Canadian boundary, and still
later as a freight route between St. Cloud, Minn., Fort Abercrombie,
and Pembina in the 1860's and 1870's.

FAIRMOUNT, =247.5 m.= (985 alt., 611 pop.), named for Fairmount Park in
Philadelphia, Pa., was platted in 1887 until which time it was known as
Michigan Settlement because many of its settlers came from that State.
Of interest in the town is the widely known SERMON IN STONE, an obelisk
erected in St. Anthony's Roman Catholic churchyard by Rev. G. C.
Bierens. Stones and ores, some semiprecious, have come from all parts
of the world to be patterned into this bright-colored shrine. The Ten
Commandments, Faith, Hope, and Charity, the Trinity, the Sacraments,
and many other abstractions are symbolized in stone.

Father Bierens is an authority on bird life in the Red River Valley,
and operates a U. S. Biological Survey BIRD BANDING STATION (1937), one
of the few in the State. Since he began the work in 1928 he has banded
more than 10,000 birds, never less than 1,000 a year, and as many as 70
species in one season, not including field and shore or water birds. In
April 1935 he banded the first European starling caught in North Dakota.

At the F. P. Nelson store in Fairmount is a COLLECTION (_open by
arrangement_) of Indian artifacts and of firearms, including a Chinese
gun made in 1526.

Right from Fairmount on ND 11, a graveled road, is HANKINSON, =11
m.= (1,068 alt., 1,400 pop.), named for R. H. Hankinson, town site
the mother house of the order in the United States. This order was
established in Germany in 1241. The convent and academy, founded in
1927-29, are housed in a three-story Renaissance-style building of
tapestry brick trimmed in Indiana limestone. In a niche over the
entrance is a statue of St. Francis, carved in Danube limestone by the
Joseph Mueller Art Institute of Munich, Germany, and donated to the

South of Fairmount the distant Coteau des Prairies is visible (R).
Back in these hills, which form part of the watershed between the
Gulf of Mexico and Hudson Bay, live the Sioux Indians of the Sisseton
Reservation, a triangular section of which juts into the State from
South Dakota.

At =256.5 m.= US 81 crosses the North Dakota Line, 106 m. N. of
Watertown, S. Dak. (_see S. Dak. Tour 10_).


  Junction US 81--Mayville--Portland--Hatton. ND 7 & 18.

  Junction with US 81 to Hatton, 27 m.

  G. N. Ry. branch line parallels route between Mayville and Hatton.

  Graveled roadbed entire route.

  Accommodations in principal towns.

This short route traversing a fertile farming area twice crosses the
Goose River, which the French Canadians who first explored it called
Rivière Aux Outardes (_River of the Geese_), because of the great
number of wild geese that nested on its banks. The route proceeds along
the western edge of glacial Lake Agassiz. The rich, black soil--a
sandless, clayey silt, peculiar to western States and locally known
as gumbo--becomes a muggy, sticky mass when wet. Before the era of
graveled highways, travel was virtually impossible after even the
lightest rainfall, as wagon or automobile wheels became clogged with
the heavy, gummy earth; even today this is true on unimproved roads.

ND 7 branches W. from US 81 (_see Tour 1_) 5 m. S. of Cummings.

MAYVILLE, =12 m.= (891 alt., 1,199 pop.), was named for May Arnold,
first white child born in the Hudson's Bay Co. trading post established
near the present town site in the early 1870's. It is a small,
tree-shaded, staid college town on the banks of the Goose River. First
settled in 1881, it was moved to the railroad which was built through
here in 1883. In that year Mayville and Portland conspired to win the
county seat for a new town, Traill Center, platted midway between the
two older towns, planning that if their candidate won the election
the three towns would merge into one city. So brisk was the campaign
that the ballots cast outnumbered the legal voters, and Traill Center
won 2,011 to 450. The election was contested, however, and while the
case was in litigation the Territorial legislature transferred the two
western tiers of townships in Traill County to Steele County. This lost
Traill Center its strategic position and with it the county seat.

MAYVILLE STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, in the northern part of the town,
founded in 1889, held its first classes in 1893. When Gov. Roger Allin
in 1895 vetoed funds for operating the colleges in North Dakota,
enterprising citizens kept the schools open by popular subscription.
Bud Reeves, wealthy Minneapolis man who pioneered at Buxton and later
became a political figure in the State (_see Tour 1_), was one of the
leaders in the drive for funds to support the schools. In one day he
collected $2,000 from heads of large Minneapolis grain firms.

On the college campus is a log cabin built in 1879 and used as the
first schoolhouse in the Mayville area.

ALM'S PARK, on the eastern edge of the city, is a tourist park and
camp; ISLAND PARK, in the western part, is a recreational center.
RAILROAD PARK, E. of the Great Northern depot, contains a tall marble
pillar on which is a bronze plaque bearing a relief of Bjornstjerne
Bjornson, famed Norwegian author. The plaque is the work of Paul
Fjelde, who once attended the Valley City Teachers College (_see Tour

In Mayville is the home of Rev. and Mrs. A. M. West, parents of the
etcher Levon West (1900-), who has also won recognition for photography
under the pseudonym of Ivan Dmitri.

At the western end of the long business street of PORTLAND, =14.5
m.= (987 alt., 500 pop.), is the gravel ridge of CAMPBELL'S BEACH,
second hump of sand laid down in prehistoric times by the retreating
waters of Lake Agassiz. Portland has four producers and consumers
cooperatives--an oil company, elevator, creamery, and store. Across the
street from a large Lutheran church in the western part of the town
stand the now unused buildings of BRUFLAT ACADEMY, one of the first
private educational institutions in the State, established by the local
Lutheran Church in 1889. Portland and vicinity were first settled in
1871, and the place became a boom town when the railroad arrived in

At =19 m.= is the junction (R) with ND 18, a graveled highway on which
the route proceeds N.

At =24 m.= is the junction with a county dirt road.

Left on this road to the THORVAL STAVENS FARM, =1 m.=, where the
success story of an outstanding but nevertheless typical Norwegian
immigrant family is told by the buildings ranging from the lowly sod
house of Hans Anderson Stavensbraaten, who homesteaded here in 1870,
to the 15-room home and the airplane hangar of his grandson, Thorval
Stavens. The original family home and its contents are preserved as a
MUSEUM. Across the road is the first school in the district, built in

HATTON, =27 m.= (1,085 alt., 804 pop.), named for Frank Hatton, Third
Assistant Postmaster General when the town was founded in 1882, is at
the southern end of the Elk River Delta, a rich, fertile deposit laid
down in ancient times as the waters of the melting glacier flowed into
Lake Agassiz.

Hatton was the birthplace and boyhood home of Col. Carl Ben Eielson
(1897-1929), pioneer Alaskan aviator. Eielson left the University of
Wisconsin to enlist in the Army Air Service in 1916. Following the
World War he barnstormed in North Dakota and neighboring States in a
plane purchased for him by friends in the vicinity of Hatton. In 1922
he went to Alaska where he pioneered in aviation and flew the first
air mail in the Territory. His experience as an Arctic flyer drew the
attention of the English explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins, and in 1928 the
pair made their flight across the top of the world from Point Barrow to
Spitzbergen. When Wilkins gave his attention to the Antarctic, Eielson
piloted him on several flights over that continent. He returned to
Alaska in 1929 and late that year was killed while attempting to save
the passengers and cargo of the ice-bound ship _Nanuk_ off North Cape,
Siberia. He had already made one trip to the ship, bringing back six
passengers and part of the fur cargo, when a fierce storm took its
toll. Eielson and his mechanic, Earl Borland, crashed, and it was more
than a month before their bodies were found in the wreckage of their
plane. Eielson's body was returned with honors to Hatton, where it was
interred in the family plot, marked with an unpretentious stone. In the
CITY HALL is the _Alaskan_, a plane he used in his explorations with
Wilkins in 1926, and at the ELMER OSKING HOME is a collection of the
many medals he received. A part of the fin of the Hamilton all-metal
plane in which he died is displayed in the museum of the State
historical society (_see_ BISMARCK).


  (Brandon, Man., Can.)--Hansboro--Cando--Minnewaukan--Jamestown--
    Edgeley--Ellendale--(Aberdeen, S. Dak.). ND 4 & US 281.

  Canadian boundary to South Dakota Line, 253 m.

  Branch of G. N. Ry. parallels route between Cando and Churchs
  Ferry, branch of N. P. Ry. between Brinsmade and Jamestown, Midland
  R. R. between Jamestown and Edgeley.

  Graveled roadbed entire route except for 3 m. dirt grade from
  Canadian boundary to Hansboro.

  Accommodations in principal towns.

South of the international boundary the route traverses an uneven
terrain formed by mighty glaciers as they retreated across the region
during the ice age. It passes Devils and Arrowood Lakes and crosses
the pleasant wooded valleys of the Sheyenne and James Rivers. Between
the groves and farmhouses along the way are thousands of acres of open
fields and grasslands. Brown and black in spring, these soon turn green
with the crops of wheat, oats, barley, corn, and cultivated grasses
grown in this diversified farming area. The southern part of the route
passes through some of the best pheasant-hunting country in the State,
while grouse and duck are also plentiful.

ND 4 crosses the Canadian boundary, =0.0 m.=, 8 m. S. of Cartwright,
Man., Canada.

HANSBORO, =3 m.= (1,595 alt., 176 pop.), is named for Henry Clay
Hansbrough, the first Representative (1889-91) sent to Congress from
North Dakota, and later U. S. Senator (1891-1909). The town is a port
of entry, and the U. S. customhouse is here.

At =15 m.= is the junction with ND 5 (_see Tour 5_), a graveled
highway, which between this point and =20 m.= is identical with ND 4.

ROCK LAKE, =21 m.= (1,548 alt., 279 pop.), is on the southern end
of the long, narrow, fresh-water lake of the same name. The U. S.
Biological Survey has created a migratory waterfowl sanctuary by
constructing a large, earthfill dam on the lake just NE. of town.
Overflow from the water impounded will be sufficient to raise the
levels of a number of smaller lakes in the area. At Rock Lake is a
junction (L) with ND 5 (_see Tour 5_).

At =35 m.= is a junction with a county road.

Left on this road to SNYDER LAKE, =3 m.=, a recreational center
(_swimming and picnicking facilities_).

CANDO, =44.5 m.= (1,486 alt., 1,164 pop.), received its name at a
county commissioners' meeting in 1884, when, during the heat of an
argument over the selection of the Towner County seat, P. P. Parker,
chairman of the board, called out above the confusion, "There has been
much talk about our not having power to locate this county seat where
we see fit. But we'll show you that we can do it. And furthermore, just
to show you what we can do, we'll name this county seat 'Can-do.'"

Left from Cando on ND 17, a graveled highway, to a DUNKER (Dunkard)
COLONY, =8 m.= (about 100 members), the first settlement of this
religious organization in the State. The sect, known officially as
the German Baptist Brethren, originated in Germany in 1708. Shortly
thereafter its members began to come to Pennsylvania, whence they
spread westward. The group at Cando was brought in by the G. N. Ry. in
1894 to aid in colonizing the land along their route. The practices and
tenets of the Dunkers (Ger., _those who dip or immerse_) are similar to
those of the Baptists. Older members still retain many of the early
customs of plain dress, no jewelry or other adornment, simple living,
and no form of insurance; the women wear the small lace prayer cap for
church attendance. A harvest festival in early October has become an
outstanding holiday of the church life.

MAZA, =53.5 m.= (1,463 alt., 70 pop.), is the center of a
wheat-producing and stock-raising community. The derivation of the name
of the town is not definitely known, but is believed to have been from
_maize_, the Indian word for corn.

At =54 m.= is the junction with a graveled county road.

Left on this road is LAC AUX MORTES (Fr., _lake of the dead_), =4.5
m.=, named by French trappers who visited the region in the early
1860's. Indian tradition says that one winter during a severe smallpox
epidemic the dead were so numerous that the trees were filled with
bodies. Fire destroyed the woods a few years later. At the present time
(1938) the lake is nearly dry.

At =59 m.= is the junction with US 2, which unites with US 81 between
this point and =66 m.=

Between BRINSMADE, =72 m.= (1,560 alt., 199 pop.), named for a noted
Congregational minister, the Rev. S. Brinsmade, of Beloit, Wis.,
and MINNEWAUKAN (Sioux, _spirit water_), =84 m.= (1,458 alt., 480
pop.), the road makes several sharp, right-angle turns, necessitating
cautious driving. Minnewaukan, the Benson County seat, during its
early years stood on the western shore of Devils Lake, and there was a
steamboat landing on the eastern edge of town, where the Benson County
fairgrounds now stand. The shore line of the lake has receded, however,
and for many years the water has not reached within several miles of
this point.

South of Minnewaukan the road skirts land that was the bed of Devils
Lake when that body of water was truly an inland sea, and crosses drift
prairie, from which the chain of high morainic hills bordering Devils
Lake is visible (L) in the distance, and reaches the pretty valley of
the SHEYENNE RIVER, named for the Cheyenne (Sioux, _people of alien
speech_) Indians. Early explorers misspelled the name, changing C to
S--an error that aids in distinguishing this river from the Cheyenne of
South Dakota. In crossing the stream here the route descends into the
valley over terraces cut by glacial waters thousands of years ago.

SHEYENNE, =105.5 m.= (1,476 alt., 417 pop.), on the river, originally
was a mile and a half from its present site, and was moved when the
survey for the N. P. Ry. was made.

NEW ROCKFORD, =116 m.= (1,533 alt., 2,195 pop.), on the James River
approximately 25 m. from its source, was first called Garrison, later
Rockford, and still later, with the coming of the N. P. Ry., New
Rockford. It is the Eddy County seat and the home of Ole H. Olson, a
Governor of the State (1934).





BARLOW, =124 m.= (1,537 alt., 322 pop.), was named for its founder, F.
G. Barlow, who as a member of the first North Dakota Legislature (1889)
fought the Louisiana Lottery bill (_see_ HISTORY).

CARRINGTON, =132.5 m.= (1,579 alt., 1,717 pop.), is named for M. D.
Carrington, who platted the city in 1882, and gave sites for the
school, churches, and Foster County Courthouse. It has a 10,000-volume
MUNICIPAL LIBRARY in the City Hall on Central Ave. and 1st St. N. On
the western side of town is a landscaped and well-equipped tourist
camp. Here is a junction with US 52 (_see Tour 7_), which unites with
US 281 between this point and Jamestown.

MELVILLE, =142 m.= (1,597 alt., 50 pop.), was originally laid out as
New Port, but because of a disagreement over the price of the site the
railway company moved the town one-half mile W. and called it Melville.

At EDMUNDS, =149 m.= (1,594 alt., 100 pop.), is the junction with a
graveled county road.

Left on this road to ARROWOOD LAKE, =6 m.=, the largest of the chain
of three lakes through which the James River flows. Before white
settlement the Indians came here from great distances to obtain
Juneberry shoots for their arrow shafts. On the southeastern shore is
a CCC CAMP, and on the western shore the buildings of the ARROWOOD
MIGRATORY REFUGE. This reserve is highly valued by the Biological
Survey as a summer breeding ground, and is an important feeding place
for pelicans.

PINGREE, =155 m.= (1,547 alt., 266 pop.), was named for Hazen Senter
Pingree, who, with a rack and wagon and a team of oxen, came to Dakota
Territory in 1880 to start a potato plantation. His venture was a
failure, so he went to Michigan, where he became an important shoe
manufacturer, was made mayor of Detroit, and twice served as Governor
of the State (1897-1900).

BUCHANAN, =163 m.= (1,546 alt., 150 pop.), was named for its founder,
James A. Buchanan, a prominent early settler.

South of Buchanan the route continues over rolling terrain toward
the valley of the James River, a steep-sided, flat-bottomed trough,
approximately a mile wide.

JAMESTOWN, =176 m.= (1,405 alt., 8,187 pop.) (_see Tour 8_).

  _Points of Interest_: Jamestown College, State Hospital for the
  Insane, Fort Seward State Park.

At 5th Ave. and 3rd St. is the junction with US 10 (_see Tour 8_).

The area L. of the route here was once the scene of one of those
devastating prairie fires that terrorized and impoverished the early
farmers of the Plains States. This blaze, which began Sept. 25, 1888,
swept the entire region from near Jamestown to LaMoure.

  "A heavy and smoke laden atmosphere and a sky streaked with a
  dull red reflection of burning grass proclaimed the fierce raging
  of prairie fires north, south and west of the city last night,"
  reported the Jamestown _Daily Alert_.... "For at least 40 miles
  in width the fire burned off every vestige of grass unprotected by
  breaks. One could hardly recognize the charred land the next day.
  Thousands of bushels of grain were burned and many men lost all
  they had, grain, buildings and stock."

EDGELEY, =215 m.= (1,565 alt., 821 pop.), was named by Richard Sykes,
once owner of the site, for his former home in England. It is the
meeting point of an N. P. Ry. branch line, a branch of the Milwaukee R.
R., and the Midland main line.

From Edgeley to the South Dakota Line, the hills of the Missouri
Plateau loom (R) in the distance.

At =237 m.= is a junction with a graveled county road.

where Gen. Alfred Sully and his command met a band of Sioux Indians on
the evening of Sept. 3, 1863, in the most severe engagement fought on
North Dakota soil since the coming of the white man. A granite monument
25 ft. in height, bearing the figure of a mounted cavalryman, has been
erected about three-fourths of a mile NW. of the site of the battle.
Reinterred about the base of the monument, each with an appropriate
marker, are the remains of the soldiers who died here. Generals Sully
and Sibley had been sent out from Minnesota to punish the Indians who
had taken part in the Minnesota Massacre of 1862. Sully was to move up
the Missouri, while Sibley marched W. across the country. When Sully,
delayed by low water, arrived in the neighborhood of present Bismarck,
where he was to meet Sibley, he found the latter had given up the idea
of the proposed meeting and started on the return journey to Minnesota.
He also discovered that the Sioux, who had fled over the Missouri upon
Sibley's approach, had now recrossed to their old hunting grounds on
the James River. He immediately set out in pursuit, and overtook them
in a three-day march. The Indians retreated while the soldiers, on
higher ground, poured in a murderous fire. Sully's casualties were 34
men wounded and 19 killed, while the Indian loss was estimated at 150.
It is now believed that the Sioux encountered here did not take part in
the Minnesota Massacre. The perpetrators of the massacre were known to
have fled W., however, and it was natural for the soldiers to regard
any Indians they met as enemies.

ELLENDALE, =248 m.= (1,448 alt., 1,264 pop.), named for Ellen Dale
Merrill, wife of a Milwaukee R. R. official, is the Dickey County
seat. At the end of Main St. on the eastern edge of the trim little
town, attractively arranged on a well-kept campus, are the six brick
buildings of the STATE NORMAL AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL, a teachers college
and vocational institution. When it opened its doors in 1889 it offered
the first free course in manual training in the United States.

At =253 m.= US 281 crosses the South Dakota Line, 35 m. N. of Aberdeen,
S. Dak. (_see S. Dak. Tour 11_).


  (Virden, Man.,
  Can.)--Westhope--Minot--Washburn--Bismarck--Linton--(Pierre, S.
  Dak.). US 83.

  Canadian boundary to South Dakota Line, 278.5 m.

  Soo Ry. branch parallels route between Max and Bismarck, N. P.
  Ry. main line between Bismarck and Sterling, N. P. branch roughly
  parallels between Sterling and Linton, Milwaukee R. R. branch
  between Linton and Strasburg.

  Graveled roadbed except for about 75 m. bituminous-surfaced.

  Accommodations in principal towns.

South of the Canadian boundary US 83 follows a southwesterly course
across the flat fertile bed of glacial Lake Souris, over the central
Drift Prairie and the hilly upland of the Coteau du Plateau du
Missouri, crossing the South Dakota Line near the center of the

Most of the area is diversified dry-farming country, where the emerald
blades of young grain in summer blend with the green and blue of flax
and the verdant stalks of growing corn. As the crops mature the chief
tones of the landscape gradually change to amber and gold, until after
harvest the fields are covered with tawny, violet-shadowed stubble,
dotted with the dull taupe of Russian thistle. Along the Mouse River
and the Missouri, the timberland is a vivid green in summer, and in
autumn becomes a fantasy of fall color in which yellows, ochers,
scarlets, and copper all strive for dominance.

US 83 crosses the Canadian border 8 m. S. of Coulter, Man., Canada.
Here is a customhouse.

WESTHOPE, =6 m.= (1,508 alt., 521 pop.), is a port of entry to Canada.
It was named by an official of a G. N. Ry. town site company, who
expected exceptional agricultural prosperity for the town. Far to the
L., beyond the level prairie that is the bed of the great prehistoric
lake, are the blue shadows outlining the Turtle Mountains (_see Tour

At =12.5 m.= is the junction with ND 5 (_see Tour 5_), which unites
with US 83 to =29.5 m.=

MINOT, =66.5 m.= (1,560 alt., 16,099 pop.) (_see_ MINOT).

  _Points of Interest:_ Minot State Teachers College, Roosevelt Park
  and Zoo.

At 2nd St. and 4th Ave. SW. is the junction with US 2 (_see Tour 6_)
and US 52 (_see Tour 7_).

South of Minot the route is over level drift prairie, gradually rising
to a ridge of hills at =85 m.= This is the HEIGHT OF LAND, the northern
rim of the Plateau du Missouri, which is the watershed between the
Gulf of Mexico and Hudson Bay, and also marks the farthest advance of
the last glacier. In addition to its geologic interest, the elevation
commands a view northward almost to the Canadian border.

MAX, =96 m.= (2,100 alt., 500 pop.), a Russo-German community, was
named for the eldest son of an early settler.

At =109 m.= is the junction with ND 37 (_see Side Tour 3A_).

COLEHARBOR, =118 m.= (1,900 alt., 153 pop.), derives its name from the
unsuccessful attempt to make this a river shipping point for lignite
coal, which is mined in this vicinity.

UNDERWOOD, =126 m.= (2,020 alt., 488 pop.), is the center of a large
diversified farming area. The railway conductor for whom it was named,
in appreciation of the honor, donated a bell to the school. The town
has a circulating library, begun by a 72-year-old man, Edward Erickson,
who bound newspaper and magazine stories into books. With these he
began his collection, and by the time of his death in 1932 his work,
together with donations, had resulted in a library of 8,000 volumes,
most of them now available to the public at the office of the Underwood

WASHBURN, =143 m.= (1,731 alt., 753 pop.), McLean County seat, on the
eastern bank of the Missouri River, is named for Gen. W. D. Washburn
of Minneapolis, who was instrumental in its development. One of the
earliest Missouri boat landings was established at Washburn, and
the town was an important trading post in pioneer days. Where the
waterworks stand NW. of the city is the SITE OF A SIOUX-ARIKARA BATTLE
fought on May 22, 1869; it resulted in the death of Swift Runner, young
Ree chieftain. On E. Main St. stands the LOG CABIN OF JOSEPH HENRY
TAYLOR (_open by arrangement_; _inquire at_ Leader _office_), trapper,
hunter, and author, who built the house near Painted Woods (_see Side
Tour 3B_) in the early 1870's. He established a woodyard there, and
also became the first postmaster of the settlement; the post office
was a hole cut in the trunk of an oak tree. Taylor printed his books
in his own shop, writing the stories as he set the type by hand. His
books include _Frontier and Indian Lives_ and _Kaleidoscopic Lives_,
both reflecting the somewhat florid literary style of the time, but
nevertheless giving a colorful and engrossing picture of the frontier
of his day.

Right from W. Main St. in Washburn on a well-marked country road to
FORT MANDAN STATE PARK, =14 m.=, site of Fort Mandan on the north bank
of the big bend in the Missouri. Here the Lewis and Clark expedition
spent the winter of 1804-5 with the friendly Mandan Indians. It was
here that Sakakawea, or Bird Woman, a young Shoshone Indian girl,
joined the expedition which she helped to guide to the Pacific (_see_
BISMARCK). Warring Sioux destroyed the buildings of the fort in 1805,
and the ever changing river channel has altered the landscape so that
it is impossible to identify the exact site (_see Tour 10_). Near
the markers that have been erected are the trenches of unidentified

At =150.5 m.= is the junction with a county dirt road (_see Side Tour

WILTON, =160 m.= (2,152 alt., 1,001 pop.), named for Wilton, Maine, is
on the McLean-Burleigh County line and is the center of a Ukrainian
settlement. These people come from Galicia, a province of the former
Austro-Hungarian Empire, and found work in the lignite mines which
at that time were just opening here. One group arrived in 1897 and a
second two years later. Many old customs are preserved, including folk
dances performed in picturesque, brightly colored costumes by both old
and young people. The Ukrainians are fond of flowers and their homes
usually have beautiful gardens, in which they can be seen working in
the early hours of summer days.

On opposite sides of the highway at the northern end of town are two
unusual churches, both focal points of the Ukrainian settlement. SS.
PETER AND PAUL GREEK CATHOLIC CHURCH (R) has two steeples topped with
fourchée crosses. It is of the Greco-Slavonic branch of the Greek
Russo-Greek branch; a cruciform building, it has three steeples, each
bearing the Greek schismatic cross of papal design, symbolizing the
Trinity, with the lowest member set obliquely to denote that the church
does not recognize the authority of the Pope. Both churches use the
Julian calendar and have similar services and holidays.

A bird-banding station established in Wilton in 1931 by Mrs. W. H. Gray
under the U. S. Biological Survey banded 5,805 birds of 86 species in
its first five years.

Left from Wilton via Main St. to the second largest LIGNITE STRIP MINE
of the Truax-Traer Co., =2 m.= Formerly one of the largest underground
lignite mines in the world (_see Tours 5 & 7_), in 1934-35 it yielded
185,381 tons of coal.

BISMARCK, =184.5 m.= (1,672 alt., 11,090 pop.) (_see_ BISMARCK).

  _Points of Interest_: State Capitol, Liberty Memorial Building,
  State Historical Society Museum, Roosevelt Cabin.

At 6th St. and Main Ave. is the junction with US 10 (_see Tour 8_),
which unites with US 83 between this point and STERLING, =209.5 m.=
(1,807 alt., 110 pop.).

MOFFIT, =219 m.= (1,738 alt., 130 pop.), is on the west shore of
LONG LAKE, now under development by the U. S. Biological Survey as a
migratory waterfowl refuge. The town is named for the Moffit family,
who were the first settlers.

As HAZELTON, =233 m.= (1,975 alt., 446 pop.), is neared it has the
appearance of an oil town, due to its numerous windmills which a
forerunner of the modern high-pressure salesman succeeded in selling in
the community. The town is named for Hazel Roop, the daughter of the
town site owner.

South of Hazelton the route enters a Russo-German farming area. The
odd, brilliant colors of some of the houses and farm buildings are
characteristic of the taste of these people. Diagonal stripes of
alternating bright colors form a favorite decorative scheme for barn
and granary doors. Since the American influence has made itself felt,
however, many gaily painted buildings have been dimmed by coats of
conservative white or buff paint.

TEMVIK, =242.5 m.= (1,925 alt., 75 pop.), is a small Russo-German

LINTON, =251 m.= (1,706 alt., 1,192 pop.), was named for George W.
Lynn, an early settler. Protected by high, flat-topped hills, the
town is in a valley at the confluence of Beaver and Spring Creeks.
The most prominent building in town is the EMMONS COUNTY COURTHOUSE,
of modern design, constructed of North Dakota brick. Hand carving
on the spandrels above the first floor windows depicts the story of
progress in Emmons County. Several of the public buildings in Linton,
including the hospital and the Episcopal church, are constructed of
native sandstone quarried a short distance from the town. SEEMAN'S PARK
(_picnicking, swimming, camping_) on Beaver Creek, named for L. D.
Seeman, its donor, is a recreation and tourist camp.

Right from Linton on an improved county dirt road to the junction with
an unimproved road, =0.5 m.=; L. on this prairie road, unsuitable
for trailers, to what appears to be an almost perfect specimen of an
INDIAN TURTLE EFFIGY MOUND, =1.5 m.= The road passes directly over the
turtle's back, and from the top of the mound the outlines of the head
to the E. and the tail to the W. are clearly visible.

STRASBURG, =262 m.= (1,800 alt., 695 pop.), gets its typically German
name from a German settlement in Russia whence many of its settlers
came. It marks the dividing line between the Russo-German and Dutch
settlements of this vicinity. Both racial groups make up the population
of the town, which is the center of a large grain and dairy area.
Rising from the compact little village is the double spire of the
Roman Catholic church, which is attended by the largest rural Catholic
congregation in the State. The feast day of SS. Peter and Paul (_June
29_) is an annual occasion for celebration.

South of Strasburg the route passes through territory settled by
Hollanders, and the landscape is dotted with their neat, well-kept
farms. Although many of them are American-born, the native tongue is
retained in their homes. The Dutch Reformed Church forms the focal
point in their communities; many of their children attend college at
Holland, Mich., and members of the settlement annually go to Michigan
for the Holland Tulip Festival.

HULL, =270.5 m.= (1,800 alt., 50 pop.), is one of the Dutch
communities, named for Hull, Iowa.

At =272.5 m.= is the junction with ND 11, a graveled highway.

Left on this highway is HAGUE, =5 m.= (1,899 alt., 125 pop.), named for
The Hague in the Netherlands. In a level farming area, it is one of
the market towns for the Dutch settlements, although its population is
principally Russo-German. The Roman Catholic church is the outstanding
building of the community.

US 83 crosses the North Dakota-South Dakota boundary at =278.5 m.=, 141
m. N. of Pierre, S. Dak. (_see S. Dak. Tour 12_).


  Junction US 83--Garrison--Nishu--Elbowoods--Shell Creek--Van
  Hook--Stanley. ND 37 & 8, county and reservation roads.

  Junction with US 83 to US 2, 117 m.

  Dry-weather, dirt, reservation roads most of route. Gravel 28 m. W.
  of junction with US 83, and 28 m. between Van Hook and Stanley.

  Limited accommodations on reservation.

ND 37, which runs through the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation,
branches W. from US 83 (_see Tour 3_) midway between Max and Coleharbor.

GARRISON, =7 m.= (1,920 alt., 1,024 pop.), named for nearby Garrison
Creek, was formerly the center of a large wheat area, and is now a
primary turkey market. Lignite is mined in the surrounding country.

At =20 m.= is the junction with ND 28 and a county graveled highway.
Straight ahead on the county highway to a small store and filling
station, where is the junction with an unimproved dirt road, =29
m.=; L. to enter the FORT BERTHOLD INDIAN RESERVATION at =33 m.=
Established in 1870 with an area of more than 2,000,000 acres, it
has now been reduced to 625,000. The region is principally rugged
and broken--typical Badlands, best suited for grazing, although the
eastern portion of the reservation contains some good farming land. The
population figures for 1936 list 600 Arikara, 711 Hidatsa, and 337
Mandans (although few of the latter are of pure blood), remnants of the
three agricultural Indian tribes that once occupied the Missouri River

At =38 m.= is the junction with a dirt road, not suitable for trailers.

Left on this road to the junction with another dirt road, =3 m.=; R.
on this road to another junction at =4 m.=; L. to another junction
at =5 m.=; R. to a fence gate, =5.8 m.=; R. through the gate, pass a
small farmhouse to the SITE OF FORT BERTHOLD, =6 m.= Above the river
bottoms, overlooking a bend in the Missouri's course, are the ruins
of a trading post built in 1845 by Bartholomew Berthold, a Tyrolese.
He had traded in the river country for many years, and his success at
this new fort named for him made it one of the most important Missouri
River posts. Harassed by the warlike Sioux, the Hidatsa Indians left
their village at the mouth of the Knife River and came to live at Fort
Berthold, where, because of the bend in the river, they named their
new home Like-a-fish-hook Village. The Mandan Indians later joined the
Hidatsa at this site. From the first the history of Fort Berthold is a
tale of many assaults by wandering parties of Sioux. In 1864 a portion
of the second Sully expedition was sent to protect the outpost, and the
following year Fort Berthold became a military post. It was garrisoned
until 1867, when Fort Stevenson, 12 m. E., replaced it. The rough-hewn
log buildings which Berthold and his men erected were later replaced by
frame buildings, the dismantled remains and cellars of which are all
that mark the site today.

are marked by a cement monument about 250 yd. NW. of the fort site.
Both chiefs were friendly to the white men and helped them in their
conquest of the region. Son-of-the-Star was head of the Arikara tribe
during the trying times with the Sioux in 1876, and through his
reputation for gentleness and a lofty sense of justice stood high in
the estimation of both red and white leaders. The two graves are sacred
to the Arikara Indians.

A few yards SW. of the monument are the graves of more than 100 Indians
of the reservation who served as scouts or enlisted as soldiers with
the U. S. Army since the founding of the reservation in 1870. The white
marble slabs marking the individual graves stand in precise rows as an
army quietly at salute. Each Memorial Day the American Legion posts of
Elbowoods (Indian) and Garrison (white) hold joint services here.

At =39 m.= is the junction with a dirt road, rutted and winding; not
suitable for trailers.

Left on this road to the MISSOURI RIVER, =2 m.=, known to the Mandans
as Mata (_division between two parts of land_), and to the Hidatsa as
Anati (_navigable water filled with earth_). A ferry (_65c per car, 10c
per person_) crosses the river. Here in the area adjacent to the route
live the Mandan Indians. Left to BEAVER CREEK STORE, =6 m.=, a tiny
trading post known locally as Ree. Right to the JAMES HOLDING EAGLE
FARM, =12 m.=, typical of the modern Mandan home, and far removed from
the earth lodges used by the Indians a century ago.

About 200 ft. L. of the farm is a circular depression believed by the
Mandans to be the SITE OF GRANDMOTHER'S LODGE. Grandmother, according
to legend, is The-Woman-Who-Never-Dies. She built her home on the first
bench of the river, and on the bottom land below planted her vast
cornfield, which the deer and blackbirds helped her cultivate. She now
lives in the moon, where prayers for favorable weather for crops are
addressed to her.

Within the hollow of the lodge site is what appears to be an ordinary
granite boulder. Beneath its edges are often found coins of large and
small denominations, given as offerings for good crops. The Mandans say
that many offerings are left by members of the Crow tribe of Montana,
distantly related to the Hidatsa. It is told that an earth girl married
the Man-From-the-Sky and went to live with him, but became homesick for
the earth, and attempted to leave the sky on a cord of buffalo hide.
Her husband discovered her hanging by the cord, and, angered by her
infidelity, threw a boulder at her. The rock crushed her to earth, and
today lies where it fell, in the circle of Grandmother's Lodge.

At =39.8 m.= is NISHU (Arikara, _arrow_), community center of the
Arikara (Ree) tribe. The few buildings of the community are scattered
across the level land between the river lowlands and the hills to the
N. Of particular interest is the circular log dance hall or MEDICINE
LODGE. At the appropriate seasons of the year are held the ancient
tribal ceremonies pertaining to the successful conduct of agricultural
and personal pursuits. In front of the medicine lodge is the boulder
which plays a prominent part in the annual cedar-tree ceremonial, a New
Year ritual usually held sometime in August. The cedar and the boulder
represent the Grandfather and Grandmother of the tribe, and the tree
is left standing beside the boulder until spring, when it is decorated
with children's moccasins and placed on the ice of the Missouri. When
the ice goes out the tree is borne downstream, to carry greetings
from the Arikara to their old village sites down the river. Other
ceremonials of religious significance include the Mother Corn ritual,
the sage dance of thanksgiving, and medicine ceremonies. Since they
are seasonal, no set date can be given for these occasions (_usually
open to public_). Arikara beadwork and other articles of handicraft are
sometimes available at the store in Nishu.

At =40 m.= the route turns R. and follows the only telephone line on
the reservation. The steep rolling country is occupied mainly by the
Arikara. Their farm homes are usually white frame buildings, although
occasionally there is a poorer log house. There are few barns on these
farms; the Indians seldom have milk cows, and they let their horses run
on the range throughout the entire year.

At =54 m.= is the junction with ND 8, a graded dirt road; straight
ahead on this is SACRED HEART MISSION, =54.5 m.=, a Roman Catholic
church and mission school established in 1889.

Left from the mission on a road lined with towering cottonwoods is
ELBOWOODS, =0.5 m.= (1,770 alt., 135 pop.), agency headquarters for the
reservation. Its name is derived from the elbow bend of the timber belt
along the Missouri at that point. The town centers about the square
of agency lawn. Most of the population is white. The town was settled
in 1891 when the agency was established. In addition to its regular
governmental functions, the agency operates a non-profit flour mill
and conducts an experimental farm to educate the Indians in modern
agricultural methods. Despite this, many Indians lease their farming
lands to white people. What is now the GOVERNMENT SCHOOL was built in
1876 as the Congregational mission, the first on the reservation.

Just SW. of the town are the Indian FAIRGROUNDS where three-day
celebrations, with rodeos and tribal dances, are held each year (_July
or Aug._).

ND 8 at =55 m.= passes SCATTER VILLAGE, a little group of filling
stations and garages that grew up around the approach to the highway
bridge across the Missouri.

At =56.5 m.= is the junction (R) with a dirt reservation road, on which
the route continues.

Left on ND 8 to FOUR BEARS BRIDGE, =1 m.=, the bridge with 19 names.
When it was built, the Mandans wished it named for their chief Four
Bears, subject of many paintings by the artist Catlin who visited this
section more than a century ago. The Hidatsa wished it named for their
chief Four Bears, who died a few years before the bridge was built.
Because of these tribal jealousies it was decided to name the southern
end of the bridge for the Mandan chief, and the northern end for the
Hidatsa chief. At each end of the span is a plaque bearing the names
of chiefs of both tribes given as associate titles to the bridge: for
the Mandans there are Charging Eagle, Red Buffalo Cow, Flying Eagle,
Black Eagle, and Waterchief; for the Hidatsa, Poor Wolf, Porcupine,
Crow Paunch, Big Brave, Crow-Flies-High, Big Hawk, and Old Dog. This
arrangement proved unsatisfactory to the Arikara, and a partial
compromise was effected by adding the names of five of their chiefs,
Bear Chief, Son-of-the-Star, White Shield, Peter Beauchamp, Sr., and
Bobtail Bull, as associates.

The dirt reservation road proceeds NW. along the river lowlands, enters
a reservation timber reserve at =60.5 m.=, and skirts the eastern
wooded shore of the Missouri before rising again to the benchland. At
=68 m.= is a store and filling station. The route now passes through
the area occupied by the Hidatsa, also known as the Minitari or Gros
Ventres (Fr., _big bellies_). Their homes are much like those of the
other two tribes. The Hidatsa and the Crow Indians of Montana at one
time were a single tribe. During a period of want one winter in the
eighteenth century, a buffalo was killed by the tribe, and the animal
satisfactorily divided until they came to the stomach. The division
of this organ led to a quarrel which split the group, and one faction
moved W. and became the Crow tribe.

SHELL CREEK, =79 m.=, is the Hidatsa community center. A few stores, a
dance hall, a handful of dwellings, and the central agency experimental
farm make up the town.

At =82 m.=, N. of Shell Creek, is the reservation boundary.

North of the boundary is VAN HOOK, =89 m.= (1,843 alt., 372 pop.),
named for a teamster who served the railroad surveyors. It is one of
the trade points adjacent to the reservation and has the only creamery
in the vicinity, a $20,000 cooperative plant. Here is a junction with
ND 8.

North of Van Hook on ND 8 is BELDEN, =104 m.= (2,250 alt., 25 pop.),
the center of a settlement of Finnish people who homesteaded here in
1903-4. The Finnish tongue is used in most of their homes, and they
also have the _sauna_ or steam bath without which no Finnish community
is complete. The peculiar European three-cornered head scarf is still
worn by many of the women. Most of the people have been naturalized and
are greatly interested in political trends. About one-third of them
are members of the United Farmers and Workers League of America, an
organization professing communistic doctrines. The radical views and
intensive political activity of these members of the community have
earned it a reputation as the communistic center of North Dakota.

At =117 m.= is the junction with US 2 at STANLEY (_see Tour 6_).


  Junction US 83--Junction US 10. County dirt and graveled roads,
  "The River Road."

  Junction with US 83 to junction with US 10, 35 m.

  Dry-weather dirt road except for 6 m. gravel between =29 m.= and US

  Drive carefully as route is hilly with many curves. Route parallels
  Missouri River.

The River Road between Washburn and Bismarck approximates the overland
freighter trail established in the early 1870's between the end of the
Northern Pacific Railway at Bismarck and Fort Buford near the mouth of
the Yellowstone.

Lewis and Clark, when they came up the Missouri River on their
history-making expedition in 1804-5, sent outriders along this side
of the river. Along much the same route the freighter trail was
established in 1873 when the Northern Pacific brought to Bismarck goods
destined for Forts Stevenson, Berthold, and Buford, and this soon
became the main-traveled highway for soldiers, traders, and later for
ranchers and settlers. Today ruts cut into the prairie by heavily laden
wagons, plodding ox teams, and flying hoofs of couriers' horses are
still visible in many places along the road.

The route is one of the most attractive in the State as it follows the
winding, wooded course of the Missouri where the high hills and buttes
along the river's edge contrast with the green meadows and wooded
lowlands of the river bottom. This region was once the home of three
Missouri Valley Indian tribes--Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara--and the
route passes three Mandan village sites.

The route branches W. from US 83 (_see Tour 3_) 10 m. N. of Wilton on a
county dirt road.

At =2 m.= is the junction with a dirt road.

Right on this road to WILDWOOD LAKE, =1 m.=, in an old channel of
the Missouri. The permanent summer camp of the Missouri Valley Area
Council, Boy Scouts of America, is on the eastern shore of the lake.

At =13 m.= a large farmhouse and a decrepit log hut with a sod roof (L)
mark the site of Painted Woods Post Office, one of the early Missouri
River settlements. Between the old post office and the river are the
PAINTED WOODS, so named by the Indians. According to legend, the woods
were a neutral ground between hostile tribes until a Mandan girl fell
in love with a Yanktonai Sioux warrior. She planned to leave her people
and go with him, but her kinsmen slew him in her embrace; as she knelt
by his bier, avenging Yanktonai arrows pierced her. The two tribes
began a bitter warfare. The bodies of the lovers were placed in the
branches of a tree in the woods, and the tree soon withered and became
white and bleached, like the bones in its branches. Yanktonai warriors,
coming to the woods to paint their faces and prepare for battle,
boastfully portrayed their victories on the tree, and in retaliation
the Mandans painted the surrounding trees with war paint to mock their

At =19 m.= is the junction with a dirt road.

Right on this road to HALF MOON MANDAN INDIAN VILLAGE SITE (also known
as the Larson site), =1 m.=, unusual in that a ditch, still visible,
apparently divided the site in two parts and yet offered no means of
defense. A sunken area in the site may have been the village square,
and the circular hollows of the earth lodges are still visible in some
places despite cultivation of the vicinity.

SQUARE BUTTES, early landmarks, raise their flat-topped heights across
the river near the Larson site, and dominate the landscape for the
next 10 m. Their odd beauty, contrasting with the graceful slopes
of surrounding hills, has appealed to both red men and white. George
Catlin, the artist and explorer who spent eight years in this region
more than a century ago, painted a good oil of the Square Buttes.

At =22 m.= is the junction with a trail (L).

Archeologically designated as the Burgois site, it is also known to the
Indians as the ancient Village of Yellow Clay. The inner ditch of the
two from which the site receives its name is still traceable in its
entire course. The journals of the early French explorer, Verendrye,
tell that the village was surrounded by a rampart and protected by
an 18-foot palisade and a ditch 18 ft. wide and 15 ft, deep. The
cup-shaped depressions of the earth lodges, still visible, are as
large as 40 ft. in diameter. Excavations made here by the Peabody
Museum, Harvard University, disclosed fine specimens of agricultural
implements, religious pieces, and artifacts of warfare. Positions of
human skeletons found in the excavations indicate that shallow burial
was the custom of the Mandans occupying the site.

At =33 m.= the River Road passes through PIONEER PARK. On the flood
plain of the Missouri, between BURNT CREEK and the road, a picnic and
camp ground (_rustic shelters, tables, benches, chairs_) has been built
among the towering cottonwood trees.

At =33 m.= is a junction with a winding gravel road.

Left on this road to the top of the sheer bluffs to LOOKING VILLAGE,
=0.5 m.=, Mandan site named for Chief Looking. Now part of Pioneer
Park, the village is known as the Ward site, and several of the earth
lodges have been reconstructed under a CCC project. The natural
defenses of this village were exceptional. On a level, circular summit
almost completely cut off from the surrounding benchland, its eastern
side was well protected by a ditch, still visible, and a wall. To the
N., where the hill is less steep, a ditch and wall were also means of

Built-in log steps and a graded path lead up a round knoll overlooking
the river. On the western slope of this formation is a large granite
boulder believed to be a petroglyph, or picture rock, of some religious
significance. Close observation of the rock will reveal many small,
round impressions that may be a form of rock-writing known as cup
sculpture. From this point, and from the parking spaces near the Indian
village site, is a beautiful view up and down the Missouri.

At =34 m.=, almost in the long shadows of the railroad bridge, Burnt
Creek drains into the Missouri. A story related by Joseph Henry Taylor
in his writings tells that, in the summer of 1863, 24 white people,
including a woman, a small girl, and a baby, were killed here by the
Sioux, and nearly $90,000 in gold dust strewn on the banks of the
river. The white people had spent the winter mining at Bannock, Mont.,
and were returning east with their gold carried in belts and hidden in
holes drilled in their flat-bottomed mackinaw boat. Stopping at Fort
Berthold on their journey down the Missouri, they were warned by the
trader, F. F. Gerard, that it was unsafe to continue until a large
group was ready to make the trip through the territory occupied by the
hostile Sioux. Thinking Gerard only wished to sell them supplies at
high prices, the party disregarded his advice. This was shortly after
General Sibley had pursued the Sioux across the Missouri. The Indians,
however, following the departure of the military forces, had returned
to the east side of the river, as game was more plentiful there, and
a party was camped on Burnt Creek. The ever changing Missouri had
cut a long sand bar near the creek mouth, forming a narrow, shallow
channel between the shore and mid-river. On this bar an old Sisseton
was fishing as the white men's boat floated into sight. In a gesture of
friendliness the old man waved the boat away from the shallow channel,
but his motion was mistaken for a signal, and the white men shot him.
Indian women bathing at the river's edge ran screaming to their camp,
bringing the warriors. The party of whites had a small cannon on board,
and with it killed many of the Indians. The recoil of the cannon fire,
however, sank the boat in the shallow water, and after the leader of
the white party had been shot the Sioux swarmed on board and disposed
of the others. They found the gold dust, but, thinking it only yellow
clay, scattered it on the sands. It was several days later that Gerard
heard of the massacre and sent a party of 10 Mandans, headed by his
brother-in-law Whistling Bear, to recover the gold. They scooped up
approximately $70,000 worth in a coffeepot found in the boat, for which
Gerard gave a fine horse and a few small presents to Whistling Bear,
and a feast to his helpers. The gold thought to be hidden in the hull
of the boat was never recovered, although several attempts were made by
fortune hunters in later years.

At =35 m.= is the junction with US 10 (_see Tour 8_) just L. of Liberty
Memorial Bridge, 1 m. W. of Bismarck (_see_ BISMARCK).


  (Moosejaw, Sask., Can.)--Ambrose--Belfield--Amidon--Bowman--(Belle
  Fourche, S. Dak.). US 85.

  Canadian boundary to South Dakota Line, 264.5 m.

  G. N. Ry. branch line roughly parallels route between Alexander and
  Watford City.

  Graveled roadbed except for 7 m. bituminous surface, 40 m. graded
  dirt highway, and 16 m. unimproved dirt road.

  Accommodations in principal towns.

US 85, a direct route through western North Dakota between Saskatchewan
and the South Dakota Line, traverses the Coteau du Plateau du Missouri,
crosses the Missouri River, and enters the severe, majestically
beautiful region of the Missouri Slope with its expansive range country
and scenic Badlands. Between the Canadian border and the Missouri,
boulder-strewn, smoothly rounded hills are evidence of glaciation. In
the rough country along the Missouri and Little Missouri Rivers, the
high, mesa-like buttes, flat-topped and capped with thick layers of
rock, mark the level of the land before it was worn by ages of erosion.

It has been said that men have been equal at only three times since
creation--once in the Garden of Eden, once in the Declaration of
Independence, and once in the "cow country" before the fence. When
white settlers were just beginning to invade these wide plains and
rough Badlands, cattle were being driven here from the Texas Panhandle.
The famous Chisholm Trail that ran north from Texas to Abilene, Kans.,
had many branching trails, one of which ran through the area now
traversed by US 85. In 1934, when P. P. Ackley of Elk City, Okla., an
old southwestern cattleman, marked the Chisholm Trail he included this
northern branch.

US 85 crosses the Canadian boundary 11 m. S. of Torquay, Sask., Canada.

At =0.0 m.= are clustered the small buildings of the customs office and
the border patrol.

AMBROSE, =3 m.= (2,060 alt., 334 pop.), named for a Soo Line
right-of-way employee, in its early history was one of the greatest
primary grain markets in the Northwest. With five elevators, and many
hawkers buying on the track, as many as 300 grain wagons often crowded
the streets, sometimes remaining several days before they could deliver
their loads. Before the railway was extended W. of Ambrose, the town
was a shipping point for horses, sheep, and cattle from the ranch
country of eastern Montana and western North Dakota. Ambrose has two
parks and a swimming pool.

At =6.5 m.= is a junction with ND 5, a graveled highway (_see Tour 5_),
which unites with US 85 between this point and =16.5 m.= where US 85
branches L.

In the vicinity of ZAHL, =39.5 m.= (2,000 alt., 153 pop.), are many
small underground lignite mines that supply local markets and truckers.
The town is named for F. R. Zahl, who came to this region in the early
1870's and became an outstanding buffalo hunter. The first post office
here was at his ranch, E. of the present town. ND 50, a graveled
highway (_see Side Tour 4A_), unites with US 85 between Zahl and =43.5
m.=, where US 85 branches R.

South of Zahl the route parallels the wide, flat-bottomed trough formed
by LITTLE MUDDY CREEK. At =63 m.= is the junction with US 2 (_see Tour
6_), and the two highways are one route to =77.5 m.=, where US 85
branches L.

At =79 m.= the route crosses the MISSOURI RIVER on the LEWIS AND CLARK
BRIDGE, built in 1927, the second bridge in the State to span the
Big Muddy. Natural gas from the Baker, Mont. field is piped into the
Williston territory through lines that cross the bridge.

South of the bridge the highway winds through the draws and ravines
of the Little Badlands, a small area showing the results of severe
erosion. At =96.5 m.= is the junction with a county improved road.

Right on this road is CARTWRIGHT, =13.5 m.= (1,896 alt., 75 pop.),
named for Samuel George Cartwright, the hunter-trapper who was its
first settler. At =17 m.= is the YELLOWSTONE RIVER, the largest
tributary of the Missouri, and an important factor in the history of
exploration, settlement, and development of trade in Montana. Here,
where the river joins the Missouri just within the North Dakota border,
the valley once was a hunting paradise for the upper Missouri Indians,
but fur traders, trappers, hunters, and settlers gave little thought to
conservation, and the big game is now extinct. The three-million-dollar
irrigation project completed in 1909 by the Federal Bureau of
Reclamation has brought the region the title of Prosperous Valley.
Sugar beets form the principal crop, although grains, vegetables, and
forage crops are raised successfully, and there is some small-scale
fruit farming. Center of the sugar industry is the refining plant at
Sidney, Mont. (_see Mont. Tour 9_). The entire irrigated area contains
58,561 acres, of which 19,500 are in North Dakota. Sugar-beet acreage
in the Yellowstone Valley in this State is approximately 1,800. Mexican
labor is used in the beet fields; most of the Mexicans make their homes
in the Sidney and Fairview, Mont. (_see below_) areas.

The Yellowstone can be crossed here on the G. N. Ry. bridge, on which
timber planking has been placed over the ties to permit automobile
traffic. In one span of the bridge is a vertical lift to allow passage
of river boats, although these are much more scarce than they were when
the bridge was built in 1913.

Just E. of the bridge is the only railroad tunnel in the State, a
1,456-foot timber-supported excavation piercing the soft earth hills
bordering the Yellowstone. It serves a single track on a curved
alignment of three degrees.

At =21.5 m.= the road crosses the Montana Line at the city limits of
Fairview, Mont. (_see Mont. Tour 9_).

ALEXANDER, =98.5 m.= (2,146 alt., 386 pop.), was platted in 1905
shortly after organization of McKenzie County by special legislative
act, and was designated temporary county seat by proclamation of
Governor Sarles. Alexander McKenzie, political dictator of the early
Dakota scene, was one of the town site incorporators, and both the
town and county are named for him. Still standing is the old log
building that served as the first county courthouse.

ARNEGARD, =110.5 m.= (2,237 alt., 254 pop.), was named for Evan
Arnegard, an early settler. The community is predominantly
Scandinavian. Certified potatoes, both for southern markets and
foundation stock for growers in the eastern part of the State, form one
of the leading products of the surrounding agricultural area. Turkeys
are also raised here.

1. Left from Arnegard on a graded road =2 m.=; L. here to LAKE PESHECK,
=3 m.=, formed by impounded creek waters. It is surrounded by fine
trees, and is fast becoming a summer recreation point. The lake was
recently stocked with 1,500 trout.

2. Right from Arnegard on a dirt road to the northern entrance of the

WATFORD CITY, =117.5 m.= (2,082 alt., 769 pop.), was named for a town
in Canada. Because of lack of facilities at Schafer, the neighboring
county seat, Watford City is actually, if not legally, the seat of the
county government. Many of the county officers and employees live here,
and county and Federal agencies have offices in the city.

The town is the terminus of a G. N. Ry. branch line, and the trade
center of the "Island Empire" county, so called because the Missouri on
the N. and E., the Yellowstone on the W., and the Little Missouri on
the S. almost surround it with water. At the W. A. Jacobson law office
is a private MUSEUM (_open weekdays 9-5_), a collection of stones,
gems, fossils, Indian artifacts, coins, woods, and other articles of
interest, including a Bible printed in 1535. A tourist camp is one-half
mile E. on ND 23, a graveled highway.

Left from Watford City on ND 23 is SCHAFER, =4 m.= (1,950 alt., 100
pop.), seat of McKenzie County, in the little Cherry Creek valley (_see
Tour 10_). Its white frame buildings and dingy log huts cluster about
the frame courthouse which is an object of long-standing contention
with Watford City. The town is named for Charles Shafer (1850-1930), an
early rancher of the region, whose son George Shafer (1888-) served as
Governor of the State from 1929-32. On the Shafer homestead S. of the
town along the creek are the Schafer Springs, near which are excellent
camping grounds. The springs have a flow of nearly 6,000 gal. per
hour, a flow which has not diminished during recent years of subnormal

A slight curve at =130.5 m.= reveals a spectacular view. The grassy
plateau ends abruptly, and below, as though a huge, careless knife had
slashed into the prairie, lies a confusion of endless gray-, ocher-,
slate-, and red-layered buttes, through which winds a maze of ragged
ravines and coulees. In the distance the meandering LITTLE MISSOURI
RIVER looks hardly capable of producing the strange BADLANDS which
it and its tributaries have carved out of the earth. The red of the
scoria-topped buttes, the myriad hues of the strata laid down ages ago
by successive prehistoric seas, and the brilliant green of the spruce
and cedar trees clinging to the steep hillsides form a startling,
almost weird, picture.

Like miniatures at the bottom of the valley are the silvery steel
of the ROOSEVELT BRIDGE and the drab, squat, frame buildings of a
permanent CCC camp. In 3 m. the tortuous, twisting highway drops 600
ft. (_drive carefully_) to reach the CCC camp and the main entrance
to the North Roosevelt Regional State Park at =133.5 m.= (_see_ NORTH

After crossing the river and its wide flood plain the highway climbs
through the Badlands to emerge upon the prairie at =137 m.= In the
distance (L) at =143 m.= are the Killdeer Mountains (_see Side Tour

At =151 m.= the highway rounds a grass-covered prominence to enter
GRASSY BUTTE (2,300 alt., 40 pop.), a little town founded in 1913 and
named for the neighboring butte, which has long been a landmark in the
region. Although there are many similarly shaped elevations in the
vicinity, Grassy Butte is the only one not bare of vegetation. Ten
Russian laborers first homesteaded in the Grassy Butte region, forming
the nucleus of the present-day farming population. The old post office
building still stands, a typical frontier log structure. In the early
days of the town, when there were buildings on only one side of the
main street, it was a local jest that Grassy Butte had the widest main
street in the country, "from McKenzie County to the Atlantic seaboard."

The people who inhabit the area surrounding Grassy Butte are Little
Russians or Ukrainians. They preserve many of their Old Country
customs, and retain their Greek Catholic religious allegiance, though a
difference of opinion has resulted in a schism.

A wedding custom of these people requires that the bride and bridegroom
return to their respective homes after the marriage ceremony. At
midnight a delegation representing the bridegroom abducts the bride and
brings her to her husband's home. Wedding celebrations often last two
or three days.

At =155.5 m.= is the junction with ND 25 (_see Side Tour 8D_).

At BELFIELD, =190 m.=, is the junction with US 10 (_see Tour 8_).

At =213.5 m.= is the junction with ND 21 (_see Side Tour 4B_).

At =222.5 m.= is the junction with a graded dirt road, not suitable for

Left on this road to CHALKY BUTTE, also known as White Butte, =6 m.=,
a long high butte topped with one of the few White River limestone
formations in the State. On its steep talus-covered slopes fossilized
teeth and bones of prehistoric animals have been found. Outcroppings of
large bones are plainly visible in the limestone cliff. The complete
skull and other bones of an oreodon (small prehistoric hoofed animal)
have been taken from this fossil bed.

In early days of white settlement it was believed that a treasure was
buried somewhere on Chalky Butte because an Indian chief often went
there and returned with gold. Although he was followed, he always
managed to elude his pursuers; his cache, if it existed, has never been
found. According to another story, a small party of soldiers once left
Fort Meade, in the Black Hills, to take the pay roll to Fort Keogh,
Mont. The pay roll never reached Fort Keogh, and no trace was found of
the men, unless the three revolvers marked "U.S." and several U. S.
Army wagon irons with charred pieces of wood clinging to them, found
about 1900 near Sunset Butte S. of here, were the remains of their
luckless expedition. Whether or not there is any connection between
these two stories is a matter of conjecture.

AMIDON, =223.5 m.= (2,800 alt., 141 pop.), named for a U. S. district
judge, Charles F. Amidon (1856-1937), was organized in 1915 and shortly
thereafter was selected Slope County seat. In an enclosure near one of
the filling stations in the town is an 8-ton petrified stump almost 6
ft. in diameter, which was uncovered on the county fairgrounds N. of
Amidon. The town commands a good view of the surrounding country, with
Chalky Butte to the SE., the angular outlines of the Badlands to the N.
and W., and Black Butte (_see below_), highest point in the State, to
the SW.

At =225 m.= is the junction with a graded dirt road with sharp curves
and abrupt hills (_unsuited for trailers_).

Right on this road =2 m.=; then L. across rolling range land, gradually
descending into the Badlands to the junction with a little-used trail,
=11 m.=

Right on this trail =1 m.= at the end of a small valley are the BURNING
COAL MINE and the COLUMNAR CEDARS. Across the ravine on a hillside
sloping to the W. is the burning mine, which at dusk casts a carmine
glow over the hill, and a heavy odor of coal gas hangs in the little
valley. How long the lignite bed has been burning underground is not
known. The Indians have legends telling of the burning ground, and old
settlers in the region say that the burned area has not advanced more
than a few hundred feet in the 50 years since the region was first
settled by white men. The cause of the combustion is not known. As the
coal burns underneath, the earth overburden crumbles and falls, taking
with it all rocks, trees, and vegetation on the surface, leaving in its
wake red scoria and other less brightly colored clays. The burned area
succumbs easily to weathering and erosion. From large crevices in the
earth intense heat pours, but with care one can peer into the flaming
underground pits. (_Approach from the downhill side where there is no
danger of the earth crumbling underfoot._)

In the bottom of the tiny valley, and on its western slope, grow the
columnar cedars, bright green conical trees averaging 15 ft. in height.
These trees, found in North Dakota only in this small area adjacent
to the burning mine, taper from a large base to a narrow tip. Their
brilliant green forms a decided contrast with the dull grays and tans
of the hills surrounding them.

On the main side road beyond the junction with the trail, the dirt
graded road winds down to the Little Missouri and upstream to the
SITE OF A LOGGING CAMP, =15 m.= When the N. P. Ry. was, being built
W. of the Missouri a wood cutters' camp was maintained here. The camp
bunkhouse is said to have been equipped with loopholes to shoot through
in event of Indian attack. The cedar ties and pilings cut at the camp
were floated down the Little Missouri, but many became snagged in sand
bars or scattered over the river flood plain, and few reached their
destination. Across the river from the site are the two peaks known as

US 85 at =229 m.= passes directly between Chalky Butte (L) and Black
Butte (R).

At =230.5 m.= is a junction with a dirt road.

Right on this road =1 m.= to an advantageous point from which to hike
to the top of BLACK BUTTE (3,468 alt.), highest elevation in the State.
The butte is some 8 m. in circumference, and near the top solid rock
cliffs rise perpendicularly 50 to 100 ft. above its grassy slopes. At
its base lie huge boulders, broken from the sides by the action of
weather. Springs form numerous creeks on the northern side, and their
tree-and brush-lined banks are a favorite ground for berry-picking
parties. At the northern corner of the butte is a hole about 3 ft.
wide, from which a slight draught of air can be felt. When a pebble is
dropped into this opening a dull thud can be heard, as though the stone
had not struck solid bottom. On the S. side of the butte is SNOW CAVE,
where the deep winter snows often remain until August. There is a fine
view from the top of the butte. At the western edge of the mesa are
two rock-lined EAGLE PITS, about 4 ft. wide and 3 ft. deep, from which
hidden Indians caught eagles and plucked out their tail feathers for
their war bonnets. These quills were very valuable, often worth a pony
in trade.

Black Butte is also known as H. T. Butte, since it was part of the H.
T. ranch, which in the 1880's and 1890's was the largest horse ranch in
the State. The surrounding country in those days was given over to the
ranging of cattle, sheep, and horses, and it was not until the coming
of the "honyocks", as the stockmen called the homesteaders, and the
cultivation of former range lands, that the ranching of this section
was curtailed.

Concerning H. T. Butte old-timers of this section tell a story of
a cowhand named Bob Pierce who because of his merciless riding was
known to his fellow workers as "Crazy Loon" as well as by numerous
other uncomplimentary titles. He rode his mount at any speed anywhere,
and it was hard to "keep him in horses." It chanced that at one time
Bob was paired, on the circuit, with talkative old Colonel Sullers.
Thinking to harry the colonel, Bob began to spur his horse to breakneck
speed. Sullers kept beside him, holding up both ends of a political
conversation and trying to pretend not to notice the speed. His horse,
unfortunately, stepped into a hole, and the rider went sprawling.
Stopping at a nearby creek to wash the dirt and blood from his head
and face, he reviled his tormentor, declaring, "When you're dead your
ghost will ride the tops of the hills and howl like a gray wolf." In
the course of time Bob Pierce died, or he may have been killed on one
of his wild rides. Since then, it is said, a horseman is seen, on dark
nights, riding at breakneck speed up the steep, inaccessible sides of
H. T. Butte, and sometimes the howl of a gray wolf is heard.

BOWMAN, =248.5 m.= (2,958 alt., 888 pop.), seat of Bowman County,
lies at the base of flat-topped, sandstone-capped TWIN BUTTES. Known
successively as Lowden Post Office and Twin Buttes, the town won the
county seat election in a bitter fight with Atkinson (later Griffin)
in 1907, and in January 1908 was given its present name. Both town and
county are named for E. W. Bowman, a prominent Territorial legislator.

The junction with US 12 (_see Tour 9_) is in Bowman, and the two routes
unite to =250 m.= where US 85 turns L. and reaches the South Dakota
Line at =264.5 m.=, 103 m. N. of Belle Fourche, S. Dak. (_see S. Dak.
Tour 13_).


  Junction US 85--Hanks--Grenora--Sodium Lakes--Writing Rock. ND 50
  and unnumbered county roads.

  Junction with US 85 to Writing Rock, 30.3 m.

  G. N. Ry. parallels route between junction with US 85 and Grenora.
  Graveled roadbed 12 m., graded dirt roads and prairie trail
  remainder of route.

  Accommodations in principal towns.

This short route passes through a region of boulder-strewn, smoothly
rounded hills left by glacial action, and leads to extensive but
undeveloped sodium sulphate beds and the archeologically important
Writing Rock State Park. The populations of both towns on the route are
chiefly Scandinavian; they were settled by immigrants who arrived with
or shortly after the railroad.

ND 50 branches W. from US 85 (_see Tour 4_) at Zahl.

HANKS, =5 m.= (2,114 alt., 213 pop.), named for W. F. Hanks, a Powers
Lake rancher and banker who was connected with the town site company,
begins its history with the arrival of the G. N. branch line in 1916.
In the 1890's the N-N (N Bar N) Cattle Co. of St. Louis, which ran
herds of livestock S. of the Missouri River in central Montana, refused
to ship their stock over the G. N. because of a disagreement with that
line. As a result they had to trail their large herds many weary miles
to the nearest Soo Line points, which were at Bowbells and Kenmare, N.
Dak. (_see Tour 7_). As many as 30,000 of these Chicago-bound cattle
passed through Hanks in a single season on their way to the railroad,
herded by dust-caked cowboys of the authentic, original, Wild West

Ranching was the chief industry of this section when it was first
settled, and there is still some small-scale ranching in the vicinity.

GRENORA, =11 m.= (2,105 alt., 487 pop.), has a name derived from
the-first three letters of the words Great Northern, and as terminus of
that railroad enjoyed a brief boom in 1916.

West of Grenora ND 50 is a graded dirt road. At =14 m.= is the junction
with a county dirt road (R) which is now the route.

At =17 m.= is the junction with a prairie trail.

Left on this trail to FERTILE VALLEY LAKE NO. 2, =1 m.=, largest of
the several shallow lakes in this vicinity which contain millions of
tons of sodium sulphate, a valuable mineral resource. These lakes and
sloughs, with no drainage outlets, are part of a linear series lying
NW. to SE. along a preglacial stream course. The beds range from a few
inches to as much as 80 ft. in depth. Because of the low rainfall in
recent years many of the lakes glisten white in the sunlight.

Literally, a wild goose chase led to the discovery of these sodium
sulphate deposits. A Grenora hunter waded into a shallow lake to
recover a goose which had fallen into the water, and found the lake
bottom covered with a hard crystal formation resembling salt deposits
he had seen in Canada, which he knew to be commercially valuable. He
directed attention to the lake, and as a result an FERA survey was
undertaken in 1934, and a large amount of the mineral was found here.
Fertile Valley Lake No. 2 was estimated to contain 11,000,000 tons, and
two other lakes in the vicinity 5,000,000 and 1,750,000 tons each.

Sodium sulphate is also known as Glauber's salt. Commercially it
has a value of about $20 a ton, and is used medicinally, in paper
manufacture, as salt for cattle, and in manufacturing soap and
munitions. In 1937 the University of North Dakota, in cooperation with
the State Highway Department, was conducting experiments to determine
the value of sodium sulphate in highway construction. At present there
is little demand for North Dakota sodium sulphate because of the
accessibility of sources nearer the points of consumption.

At =21 m.= is the junction with another county dirt road; =R.= on
this road to the junction with a county highway, the Grenora-Alkabo
route, at =23 m.=; =R.= on this road; at 30 the route turns =L.=
and proceeds up a hill to WRITING ROCK STATE PARK, =30.3 m.= Of gray
granite, Writing Rock stands in a slight hollow on the crest of a hill,
commanding a wide view of the surrounding country. The top and two
sides of the rock are covered with hieroglyphs, consisting of lines,
dots, circles containing dots, and, near the top, a flying bird. Many
attempts have been made to decipher the writing, which apparently was
carved into the rock at several different periods. Whatever the meaning
of the inscriptions, the rock is regarded as sacred by Indians who,
even after the settlement of the State, made pilgrimages here from
the Fort Peck (Mont.) Reservation and other distant points. The site,
because of its elevation, served advantageously for smoke signals.

Several graves have been found in the vicinity, and excavations have
revealed hammers, hatchets, arrowheads, sea shells, elk teeth, and
beads of many shapes and colors. One grave is said to have yielded
beads that measured 52 ft. when strung.

The Indians have many legends associated with the rock. The one most
often heard is that told by Joe Lagweise and Tawiyaka, two old Sioux
Indians of the Qu'Appelle Agency in Saskatchewan, Canada, who as
young men visited Writing Rock and heard the story from an old man
camped there. Many years ago a party of eight warriors stopped for
the night near this rock, and just as they were falling asleep they
heard a voice calling in the distance. Fearful of an enemy attack,
they investigated but found nothing. The next morning they heard a
woman's voice calling, but still they found no one. In their search,
however, they saw this large rock with a picture on it, showing eight
Indians--themselves--with their packs lying on the ground. Unable to
understand this mystery, the warriors went on their way. On their
return they again passed the rock, and noticed that the inscription
had changed, and appeared to hold a picture of the future. When they
reached home they told their people of the mysterious rock, and the
entire village moved near it, only to find that the picture had again
changed, this time showing the village with its tipis. From that time
on the rock was believed to foretell the future until white men moved
it; whereupon it lost its power. An old Indian chief once pointed out
that the three lines on the rock indicated three graves near the stone,
one of which he said was that of a white child. It has been suggested
that the inscriptions may be the work of some race which lived in this
region before the Indian known to history.

Writing Rock is approximately 5 ft. high and 4 ft. thick, and weighs
an estimated 10 tons. A smaller rock, weighing about a ton, which
stood near a spring about a mile below Writing Rock, also contains
inscriptions, and has been moved to New Merrifield Hall at the
University of North Dakota for study.

Ten acres of land surrounding Writing Rock were acquired in 1936 by the
State Historical Society of North Dakota and will be developed as a
State park.


  Junction US 85--New England--Mott--Carson--Flasher--Junction ND 6.

  ND 21. Junction with US 85 to junction ND 6, 126.5 m.

  N. P. Ry. branch line roughly parallels route from Mott to Flasher;
  Milwaukee R. R. branch between New England and Elgin.

  Graveled roadbed except for 11 m. of graded dirt.

  Hotel and tourist camp facilities limited in most towns; many
  natural camping places along the Cannonball River.

Traversing the northern part of the Missouri Slope, this route passes
through what was ranch land, now used for diversified farming. Most of
the land adjacent to the route is underlain with deposits of lignite,
and on many farms the winter's fuel is easily obtained by a little
digging. Dominating the general rolling terrain are jagged, mesa-like
hills capped with brown sandstone formations. Gentle, grass-covered
slopes, whose rich spring green turns to amber in the fall, rise to
steeper hillsides, above which jumbled, broken, weathered rocks lead to
the steep cliffs crowning the flat mesas.

Trees are few along this route, except for the tiny groves on
occasional farms, and the woods and bushes that edge the Cannonball
River and its tributary creeks.

ND 21 branches E. from US 85 (_see Tour 4_), 23.5 m. S. of Belfield
(_see Tour 8_). Dominating the landscape immediately E. of the junction
are the two high, flat-topped, coffin-shaped RAINY BUTTES (R). At =6
m.= the highway passes 2 m. N. of West Rainy Butte, and at =8 m.=
passes East Rainy Butte, which appears to be only a short distance from
the route, but actually is 6 m. S. The tops of these twin heights are
sometimes clouded in a faint gray mist, and according to Indian lore
they get rain at least once a day, despite the weather. Although this
is an exaggeration, it is nearly true, for at times when warm currents
of air strike the cold surface of the sides of the buttes the moisture
in the air is condensed, resulting in fogs or mists that usually veil
the heights. This phenomenon is also common to other buttes in this
area. There are evidences of Indian burials on the Rainy Buttes.

NEW ENGLAND, =14 m.= (2,593 alt., 911 pop.), its seven grain elevators
standing like sentinels overlooking its level site N. of the Cannonball
River, was founded in 1887. It was named and first settled by the
New England Colony Association, an organization from the New England
States headed by Thomas W. Bicknell (1834-1925), who was the author
of several histories dealing with Rhode Island. Streets of the new
town were laid out by plowing furrows in the prairie. Before the end
of the first summer 50 families had arrived, but from 1888 to 1911,
when the Milwaukee R. R. came in, New England was little more than a
trading post. Although originally founded by New Englanders, today it
is predominantly Scandinavian.

ND 22 forms the main street, at the southern end of which, in St.
Mary's Catholic schoolyard, is a SHRINE TO THE VIRGIN MARY, made of
huge slabs of petrified woods, scoria, odd rock formations from the
Badlands, and "cannonballs" (_see Side Tour 8C_) from the river. The
shrine was built by school children. Midway between the two schools on
Main St. is a modern, stuccoed MEMORIAL BUILDING, a community center
completed under the Works Progress Administration in 1936.

Between New England and =23 m.= ND 21 unites with ND 22.

At =18 m.= is the junction with a graveled county road.

Left on this road along the north bank of the Cannonball River
is HAVELOCK, =6 m.= (2,566 alt., 118 pop.), named for an English
stockholder in the Milwaukee R.R. In 1915 a small group of Moravians
settled here and erected a church, but by 1924 the colony had dwindled,
and the church was sold to the Congregationalists. The Moravians held
their immersion baptismal ceremonies in the Cannonball. Right from
Havelock (_inquire directions at post office_), =1 m.=, to a BURNING
COAL MINE, operated until 1934, when it was discovered to be afire. At
times smoke, accompanied by an unpleasant odor of sulphur, is emitted
from the mine.

At =23 m.= is the eastern junction of ND 21 and ND 22; L. here on ND
21. Rising ahead (R) is a series of conical hills, the TEPEE BUTTES,
resembling a giant Indian encampment. The highway parallels them their
entire length between =25 m.= and =28 m.=

At =36 m.= is the junction with a graveled county road.

Left on this road is REGENT, =0.8 m.= (2,461 alt., 308 pop.), named by
the railroad company when it was believed that its situation in the
center of the county would make it the county seat. The town is on
the south bank of the Cannonball. Richard Tooker (1902-), one of the
State's successful fiction writers, attended high school in Regent,
and had his first story published when only 15. He wrote more than 150
stories before his first novel, _Day of the Brown Horde_, appeared.

North of Regent at =1.3 m.= is the junction with a county road; R.
on this road to REGENT LAKE, =2.8 m.= (_camping_, _picnicking_,

East of Regent on ND 21 the route proceeds for a few miles over a level
plain lying S. of the almost treeless Cannonball River valley.

MOTT, =51 m.= (2,399 alt., 1,036 pop.), is in the valley of the
Cannonball. On an elevation to the NW. the strikingly modern HETTINGER
COUNTY COURTHOUSE overlooks the river valley. The town is the terminal
of an N. P. Ry. branch, and is also on the Milwaukee. CENTRAL PARK
(_tourist camp_, _tennis courts_), is between 3rd and 4th Sts. Its
recreation facilities were built as an FERA project.

BURT, =58 m.= (2,358 alt., 125 pop.), originally known as Alton Post
Office, was named by the N. P. Ry. to honor A. M. Burt, superintendent
of the Dakota division. More than 500 poplars and Chinese elms are
planted in the town schoolyard.

At =63 m.= the highway crosses THIRTY MILE CREEK, one of the larger
tributaries of the north fork of the Cannonball.

At =68 m.= is the junction with a side road.

Left on this =0.1 m.= to a LIGNITE STRIP MINE, the largest of several
in this vicinity. It produces 8,000 tons annually, and rough hummocks
of earth are thrown up in the stripping process.

NEW LEIPZIG, =69 m.= (2,311 alt., 433 pop.), is a Russo-German
community, named for Leipzig in Germany, and is on both the Milwaukee
and N. P. branch lines where the two roads run parallel only 200 ft.

Several years before the establishment of New Leipzig the territory
to the S. was settled by a large group of Finns, of whom about a
dozen families now remain. Because the settlement has dwindled in
recent years, many native customs have disappeared, although a few
of the older people retain a superstitious belief in witchcraft, and
there are five or six _saunas_, or steam baths, in which water is
poured on hot stones in a tightly closed shelter. At butchering time
each autumn, rye and wheat flour are hulled, ground oats are mixed
with the blood of beeves, and baked in round, thin rings similar to
doughnuts. These rings are placed on long sticks, 30 or 40 at a time,
thoroughly hardened near a fire, then stored in barrels, with lime as a
preservative, for use throughout the winter and coming summer.

ELGIN, =74.5 m.= (2,330 alt., 505 pop.), with its many trees, is a
pleasant Russo-German town. Its first name, Shanley, was discarded when
the N. P. came through because of its similarity to Stanley. A new
name was being discussed by a group waiting for a train one day when a
member of the group, having looked at his watch, suggested the trade
name, Elgin, as a good town site name. His suggestion met with approval
of the railroad company. /#

Right from Elgin on an unimproved county road to the north fork of the
Cannonball River, =2 m.=, where are several suitable camping places
under the trees of the narrow river valley.

The road continues S. of the river. Sloping up from the stream,
MEDICINE BUTTE (L), =3 m.=, is a high hill topped with a large, almost
cubical block of sandstone used for many years as a PRAYER ROCK by
Indian tribes, and carved with picture symbols of human hands, buffalo
heads, bear paws, and other figures. It was the practice of the Indians
to leave offerings at the rock and return the following day, when, the
older Indians still relate, the pictures on the rock would tell them
whether their prayers were to be answered. Beads, pieces of pottery,
and other traces of votive offerings are still found near the stone. At
the foot of the hill to the W. is a circular area, approximately 80 yd.
in diameter, where it is believed that native worshipers danced while
encamped near the sacred hill. Little vegetation grows on the plot,
indicating that years of dancing packed the earth firmly.

At =76.5 m.= is the junction with ND 49, a graveled highway.

Left on this highway to HEART BUTTE (L), =17 m.=, known to the Sioux
as Ta canta wakpa Paha (_Heart River Butte_). From this elevation
the surrounding country is visible for 20 m. in all directions, and
in early days ranchers used the hill as a lookout when searching for
strayed cattle or horses. The wooded valley of the Heart River is 4 m.
to the S., although it appears much nearer. In the sandstone formation
atop the butte is a cave formed by wind and water erosion.

East of Elgin on ND 21 is the junction with a graveled county road,
=85.5 m.=

Right on this road is LEITH, =4 m.= (2,353 alt., 174 pop.), named for
Leith, Scotland. It is on the Milwaukee R. R.

South of Leith on an unimproved county road to the junction with
another dirt road, =6 m.=; R. on this road to another junction at =7
m.=, where a vast deposit of small sea shells covers approximately one
square mile to a depth of 4 ft., visible evidence that ages ago this
region was the bed of a large sea. Only a thin layer of rich black soil
covers the deposit, and in plowed fields the shells are easily seen.
The practical-minded farmers of this region have found a good use for
this gift of the prehistoric sea; they pulverize the shells and feed
them to their poultry to provide the calcium in their diet.

CARSON, =90.5 m.= (2,289 alt., 356 pop.), is a compact little town on
the slope of a hill, dominated by the large, white frame courthouse at
the high end of the main street. It is named for two early settlers,
Frank Carter and Simon Pederson.

Left from Carson an unimproved county road leads to the HEART RIVER,
=12 m.=

Right on the south bank of the stream to a good camping place, =1 m.=
The river, free from rocks at this point, is deep enough for swimming.

Across the river (L) to the G. A. Johnson home. On a slight rise in
the pasture back of the house is a row of evenly spaced piles of four
or five stones, about one-fourth mile long, placed at a right angle to
the brink of the hill. This is believed to have been an Indian BUFFALO
RUN, in which the Indians placed banners of red cloth or buckskin
between the piles, then drove the hunted buffalo toward them. The
animals, frightened by the banners, would swerve toward the crest of
the hill where in their rush they would stumble down the incline and
fall easy prey to the arrows and spears of the hunters.

At =103.5 m.= is the junction with ND 31, a graveled highway.

Right on this highway to the DOG TOOTH BUTTES (R), =2 m.= From a
distance their outlines indicate that they are well named. These buttes
were a landmark on the Bismarck-Deadwood trail during the Black Hills
gold rush from 1876 to 1884. The stagecoaches with their four-horse
teams, and the lumbering ox teams pulling heavily loaded freight
wagons, passed just SE. of here, leaving deep ruts which are still
visible where ND 31 crosses them immediately S. of the buttes.

At =6 m.= on ND 31 is RALEIGH (2,038 alt., 202 pop.), a German
community, originated as Dog Tooth Post Office on the Bismarck-Deadwood
trail. Purebred livestock is raised on many of the farms in this

Left at =8 m.= are THREE BUTTES. From the tallest of these peaks a
far-reaching view is presented. On a clear day Mandan, 50 m. to the
NE., is visible.

FLASHER, =108.5 m.= (1,905 alt., 346 pop.), its residence district
scattered over the south slope of a hill and its business street at the
foot, is a Russo-German community named for Mabel Flasher, niece and
secretary of William H. Brown, head of the land company that owned many
of the town sites along the N. P. Ry. branch.

At =126.5 m.= is the junction with ND 6 (_see Side Tour 8C_), 26 m. S.
of Mandan (_see Tour 8_).


  Junction US 81--Cavalier--Rolla--Belcourt--Dunseith--Bottineau--
    Mohall--Crosby--(Scobey, Mont.). ND 5.

  Junction with US 81 to Montana Line, 329 m.

  Soo Ry. branch roughly parallels route from Flaxton to Montana
  Line; G. N. Ry. branches touch route at intervals between junction
  US 81 and Lignite, and branch parallels route between Lignite and

  Graveled roadbed entire route.

  Usual tourist accommodations in principal towns.

This route, paralleling the international boundary 10 to 15 miles to
the north, passes through some of the oldest and some of the newest
towns in the State. In the eastern section, where the country is more
productive and settlement first began, are towns established in the
1870's, while in the western area, where occupation was slower, are a
number of towns founded in the twentieth century. The route begins in
the low, level wheatlands of the Red River Valley, at one time the bed
of glacial Lake Agassiz, and soon doubles its altitude by rising 800
feet upon the broad, rough, less thickly settled Drift Prairie, which
stretches away approximately two-thirds of the distance across the
State. This wide section, which includes the wooded Turtle Mountains
and the level bottom of another glacial lake, Lake Souris, was once a
hunters' paradise--a prize which involved the Chippewa Indians, who
long held it, in frequent conflict with their enemies the Sioux. With
the coming of the whites the region saw new rivals, as the XY, North
West, and Hudson's Bay Companies struggled savagely and often bloodily
for domination of the fur trade. Most of the Chippewa in the State now
live on the Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, through which the route

Over the bed of ancient Lake Souris, west of the hills, once roamed
hordes of buffalo; later, during early white settlement, this region
was the feeding ground of great numbers of horses and cattle. After
crossing the Souris (Mouse) River twice and the long, narrow Upper Des
Lacs Lake, the route ascends 300 to 400 feet to cross the Missouri
Plateau, an open, rugged country, marked here and there with the homes
of ranchers and farmers, and pitted by the strip mines extracting the
huge lignite coal deposits that underlie the plateau.

HAMILTON, =0.0 m.= (_see Tour 1_), is R. of ND 5 where it branches W.
from US 81 (_see Tour 1_).

At =5 m.= is the junction with ND 18, a graveled highway.

Right on this highway to the junction with a graveled spur, =5 m.=; R.
on this spur is BATHGATE, =8.5 m.= (828 alt., 292 pop.), pleasantly
situated in a bend of the TONGUE RIVER. At the southern side of town
on a 40-acre tract of meadow and hayland are the buildings of the
STATE SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND, established in 1908. Thirty-five to forty
children attend each year for a nine-month period.

CAVALIER, =9 m.= (894 alt., 850 pop.), Pembina County seat, was named
for Charles Cavileer, one of the first white men to make a home within
the borders of the present State. Usage has changed the spelling of the
name. The town was established in 1875 by settlers who came overland
from Missouri in a train of 10 covered wagons. The members of the train
intended settling in Manitoba, Canada; but, not liking the country
there, they returned to the United States, two of the families founding
the Tongue River Settlement, which later became Cavalier. They came
from Canada by way of Pembina over the old Fort Totten Trail, which
ran where Main St. now passes and was one of several trails used by
trappers, hunters, and traders as they journeyed between the hunting
grounds and the trading posts. Over these trails often moved long
caravans of creaking, fur-laden Red River oxcarts, on their long trek
to St. Paul. Some trains are said to have contained as many as 1,500

The jog in Cavalier's Main St. results from the fact that the land for
the street, contributed by two men who owned adjoining farms, did not
meet exactly. This complication was not discovered until after some
buildings had been erected, but by that time it would have been too
costly to change the route.

AKRA (Icelandic, _fields_), =14 m.= (980 alt., 30 pop.), is near the
southern edge of the Pembina Mountains (_see Side Tour 5A_), whose
wooded height ahead abruptly marks the western edge of the level Red
River Valley and the eastern edge of the Drift Prairie. The town is one
of a group of communities comprising what is believed to be the largest
Icelandic settlement in the United States (_see below_).

At =16 m.= is CAMP COMFORT, an acre of beautifully wooded grounds
(_good camping and picnicking facilities_). Camp Comfort marks the
point at which the old Hunters Trail of fur-trading days crossed the
Tongue River.

HALLSON, =18 m.= (1,020 alt., 10 pop.), founded in 1878 and named
for Johan Hallson, the first settler, is the oldest of the Icelandic
settlements (_see below_). At Hallson is the junction with ND 32, a
graveled highway.

Left on this highway is MOUNTAIN, =5 m.= (1,030 alt., 250 pop.), so
named because of its elevation. It is one of the larger Icelandic
towns. A log church here, built in 1886, is said to be the oldest
Icelandic church on the North American continent. When the Icelanders
first came to America in 1874, they settled at Gimli, Man., Canada.
Later, possibly because the rough topography of the country reminded
them of the fjords and cliffs of their native land, they colonized
here near the headwaters of the Little Tongue River. At present their
settlement includes the towns of Hallson, Mountain, Akra, Svold,
Hensel, and Gardar. From the first they have engaged in diversified
farming and therefore have usually known a fair degree of prosperity.
An artistic and deeply imaginative people, perhaps due to the Celtic
infusion received when their Norwegian ancestors fled to Ireland upon
the ascendency of Harald the Fair-Haired, they still retain many of
their old Icelandic traditions and arts, and their folklore is replete
with weird and highly colored sagas. They take great pleasure in
preserving their native culture, and often present plays and pageants
showing the dress and customs of Iceland.

Icelanders are particularly adept in gold and silver filigree work
and in hand-carving. Almost every home has its treasures brought from
far-off Iceland--beautifully hand-carved riding whips adorned with
silver and gold ferrules, toys and spoons made from cow-horn, and bread
boards carved with leaves and grapes.

The little community has produced many distinguished men, among whom
are Sveinbjorn Johnson (1883-), professor at law in the University of
Illinois and former State supreme court justice (1922-28); Stephen G.
Stephenson, poet honored by the Icelandic Government; Emil Walters
(1893-), whose paintings have been shown at Eastern art centers; and
Vilhjalmur Stefansson (1879-), scientist and explorer.

Recently large deposits of fuller's earth have been discovered near
Mountain. It is estimated that approximately 5,000,000 tons lie in
one 200-acre plot. This clay is used for reclaiming motor oil and for
purifying animal and vegetable oils. The deposit in this area lies
along the valleys of streams from the Canadian boundary to about 10 m.
S. of Mountain and W. for an unknown distance.

At =20 m.= is the junction (R) with ND 32 (_see Side Tour 5A_). At this
junction is OAK LAWN HISTORIC SITE, a small park owned by the State
historical society, in which is a weathered old LOG CHURCH, built in
1885 and for many years a landmark in the area.

At =23 m.= is the junction with a county road.

Left on this road is CONCRETE, =1 m.= (1,100 alt., 40 pop.), named by
Mrs. Webster Merrifield, whose husband, for many years president of the
State university at Grand Forks, was one of the owners of the cement
mines once operated here near the source of the Tongue River. At the
height of production 500 bbl. were turned out per day, but operations
were discontinued when a cheaper type of cement was imported.

substation of the State agricultural college at Fargo.

LANGDON, =44 m.= (1,612 alt., 1,221 pop.), became Cavalier County
seat in 1884, through the efforts, it is said, of a dozen bachelors
who, working hard and changing names and apparel often on election
day, voted all the sod shacks--whose owners were either absent or not
taking time to vote--for miles around. Originally called McHugh for a
prominent early settler, the town later adopted the name of Langdon in
honor of the man who made the survey for the local branch of the G. N.
Ry. and who presented the village with a bell for the school soon to be

An unusual enterprise in Langdon is the Haymow Theater, a children's
organization which has presented plays annually for more than a quarter
of a century. Children of some of the first members of the company are
now taking part in the plays. Performances are held (_adm. 10c_) during
the summer in the loft of the R. T. BURKE BARN (_for directions inquire
at post office_).

CLYDE, =69 m.= (1,618 alt., 275 pop.), is named for the Clyde River in

At =86 m.= is a junction with ND 4 (_see Tour 2_), which to =92 m.=
unites with ND 5.

ROLLA, =108.5 m.= (1,817 alt., 852 pop.), forms the eastern gateway to
the lakes and hills of the TURTLE MOUNTAINS, a rolling plateau rising
300 to 400 ft. above the surrounding country. It stretches 40 m. to
the W. and about 30 m. N. and S., and is bisected by the international
boundary. The mountains were named by the Indians, to whom their
outline suggested the form of the sacred turtle. Rolla is the Rolette
County seat, and its name is believed to be a contraction of the
county name. At Rolla in 1889 was established the short-lived Rolla
University, which opened its doors to 45 students, and closed them when
lack of funds became pressing. During 15 years of his young manhood
John Burke (1859-1937), three times Governor of the State (1907-13),
former United States Treasurer (1913-21), and former chief justice of
the State supreme court (1935-37), lived in Rolla. Here is the office
of the secretary of the International Peace Garden, Inc. (_see below_),
where most of the business of the corporation is transacted.

At Rolla is the junction with ND 30, a graveled highway.

Right on this highway is ST. JOHN, =8 m.= (1,944 alt., 372 pop.), named
for the parish in eastern Quebec from which came the Rev. John Malo,
early missionary to the Indians. The town is a port of entry from
Canada and is the oldest white settlement on the eastern edge of the
mountains. Because of its position near some of the most attractive
lakes of the region, it has a fair tourist trade during the summer
months. St. John's Day, honoring St. John the Baptist, patron saint of
the French Canadians who settled the region, is celebrated June 24.

Left from St. John on ND 43, a graded dirt highway, to the junction
with a county road, =9 m.=; R. here =0.5 m.= to ST. CLAUDE STATE PARK,
established to commemorate the founding of one of the first permanent
white settlements in the Turtle Mountains. The colony grew up about a
school and church inaugurated by Father Malo in 1882. As it developed
it gradually moved S. and became the town of St. John.

At =13 m.= on ND 43 is the junction with a county road; R. here =1.8
m.= to the frame buildings of a STATE GAME AND FISH RESERVE, an
800-acre tract containing OAK, GRAVEL, and LONG LAKES. Five hundred
acres are fenced to confine herds of elk, deer, and buffalo. Impure
water in the lakes, caused by the recession of the water level, has
necessitated the abandonment of the fish hatchery near Gravel Lake. In
the MUSEUM across the road from the hatchery is a good mounted display
of the game birds, fish, and wild animals of the Turtle Mountains.

On ND 43 is LAKE UPSILON, =14.5 m.=, largest lake on the eastern side
of the mountains, named for its resemblance to the Greek letter "Y."
It is one of the most attractive and most popular lakes of the Turtle
Mountains group.

                                        FORT ABRAHAM LINCOLN STATE PARK

                                       Above: Blockhouse of Fort McKeen]

                                      Below: Slant Indian Village Lodge

  _Photos by Russell Reid_]

                                                  MARQUIS DE MORES
                                                  (from an old drawing)]

[Illustration: BADLANDS

                                           _Photo by Russell Reid_]

BELCOURT, =115.5 m.= (1,619 alt., 6,334 pop., including Indian
reservation), agency headquarters for the Turtle Mountain Indian
Reservation, lies in a shallow valley on the southeastern border of
the hills. It was named for the Rev. George Antoine Belcourt, a priest
prominent in the establishment of the community. The Indians, about 95
percent of whom are of mixed Chippewa Indian and French blood, make
their homes in crude cabins on small farms out in the reservation.
Academic and vocational training for the children is provided by the
large consolidated school in Belcourt. The Chippewa are woods Indians
who when first encountered by the whites dwelt in the region of the
Great Lakes. From here they pressed W., often warring with their
enemies the Sioux, until ultimately their hunting grounds included the
Turtle Mountain region. With the white occupation of the West their
range in North Dakota was reduced until finally it was limited to this
small and crowded reservation of 72 sq. m. (_See_ INDIANS AND THEIR

Each year the Indians hold a sun dance (_June_; _approx. 5 m. NE. of
Belcourt_; _no set date or place_). The ceremony lasts for several
days. At the fairgrounds in Belcourt an Indian fair is conducted

Since 1896 the week of St. Ann has been the occasion of a retreat at
Belcourt for the people of the mountains, for whom St. Ann is the
patron saint. Many of the Indians bring their tipis in which they live
during the retreat. The week is culminated with the feast of St. Ann
(_July 26, if it falls on Sun. or on Sun. following that date_). On
the feast day a procession is held, with hundreds participating. Many
cures--none, however, authenticated by the Roman Catholic Church--have
been attributed to the shrine at the Belcourt church.

DUNSEITH, =131 m.= (1,715 alt., 484 pop.), scattered over level land
at the edge of the Turtle Mountains, is the southern entrance to these
hills. Its name means _city of peace_, and was selected to honor the
first white man in the vicinity and also the city of Dunseith in
Scotland. The town is the terminus of a G. N. Ry. branch from the main
line at York (_see Tour 6_).

The Dunseith Gristmill was built on Willow Creek in 1887 of lumber
hauled from Devils Lake by ox teams. It continued to grind for several
years after steam boilers and modern machinery had come into general
use, but in 1913 it was damaged by fire and has never been repaired.

Dunseith may have a buried treasure somewhere in the foothills. In 1893
its Turtle Mountain Bank was robbed, and the robber had time to bury
his loot in the hills before he was shot by a posse. The stolen money
was never found, and the bank was forced to close.

At Dunseith is the junction with ND 3, a graveled highway.

Right on this highway to the junction with a graveled road, =2 m.=

Right on this road to SAN HAVEN, =0.5 m.=, State tuberculosis
sanatorium, situated in a 2,500-acre game reserve on the southern slope
of the mountains overlooking a vast expanse of prairie.

North from the junction with the graveled road, ND 3 runs over ridges
and past little lakes, into the Turtle Mountains, whose hills are the
habitat of hundreds of deer in addition to many varieties of song and
game birds.

On ND 3 is the INTERNATIONAL PEACE GARDEN, =12.5 m.=, a memorial to
the peace which has prevailed between this country and Canada for more
than 120 years. The garden lies partly in North Dakota and partly in
Manitoba. On the international boundary stands a stone cairn with a
plaque bearing a pledge of peace:

    "To God in His Glory
    We two Nations do pledge ourselves
    That so long as men shall live
    We will not take up arms against one another."

A formal garden, one mile square, is planned (1938) on the
International Line. It will center about a peace fountain around which
a circular garden plot will form a visible ring of friendship between
the two nations. The memorial has attracted wide attention because
of its noble purpose, and several foreign countries have expressed a
desire to aid in its development. It is rededicated with appropriate
ceremonies each year (_1st wk. in Aug._).

To the S. and W. of the hills and also in the northeastern section of
the State a great number of the settlers were of Scottish descent,
and each year in connection with the ceremonies at the Peace Garden a
Highlanders' Frolic is held with old-fashioned Scotch music, dances,
and games.

West of Dunseith for 50 m. the route has not a single curve or jog.

At =138 m.= is the junction with a partly improved dirt road.

Right on this attractive road to BUTTE ST. PAUL PARK, =3 m.=, plainly
marked by Butte St. Paul (2,500 alt.), highest point on the southern
edge of the Turtle Mountains. A steep climb up the eastern slope leads
to the 15-foot stone cairn commemorating the work of the Rev. G. A.
Belcourt, missionary to the Indians, who on his first visit in 1853
placed a wooden cross where the cairn now stands. From the top of the
butte a beautiful scene stretches away to the tree-covered plateau on
the N. and E. and to the prairies on the S. and W.

BOTTINEAU, =148.5 m.= (1,645 alt., 1,332 pop.), was named for Pierre
Bottineau (c. 1812-1895), most noted of Dakota guides (_see_ HISTORY).
It lies beside tree-bordered OAK CREEK on a gently rolling plain.
Most of its settlers were of Scottish descent, but the western end
of the mountains was long nicknamed Little Norway, and until recent
years Norwegian was heard there more often than English. From 1883-84
a stagecoach line connected the town with the nearest railroad point,
Devils Lake (_see Tour 6_), =120 m.= to the SE., whence settlers hauled
supplies with oxen.

Originally Bottineau was situated a mile farther N. When the G. N. Ry.
survey was made, it became evident that the permanent site would be
farther S. Business houses were soon moved, but the Bottineau County
Courthouse could not be legally moved without recourse to legislation.
Accordingly, one morning the building was found reposing in the new
settlement. As no one was supposed to know how the transfer had been
effected, no one could be prosecuted, and the expense of returning
the building to its former site provided a convenient and practical
argument against that action.

A catastrophe long remembered by the early residents of Bottineau was
a huge prairie fire in 1886 that swept 500 sq. m. of territory NW. of
town, destroying hay and buildings.

The Indians of the region were not hostile to the white settlers, but
there were Indian scares now and then, and the white men were inclined
to be cautious. An old French settler living near Bottineau tells the
story of being lost with two companions. They asked some Indians for
directions, and were invited to a meal, which they accepted to avoid
giving offense. They were almost enjoying the meal, when an old squaw,
who had been stirring the stew which they had been eating, urged
hospitably, "Dig down deep; pup in bottom."

The STATE SCHOOL OF FORESTRY, in the northeastern part of Bottineau on
Oak Creek, offers a two-year junior college course in forestry. In the
botanical garden or arboretum are about 30 varieties of foreign trees,
obtained on a reciprocal basis from other countries, to be tried out in
this climate. Plantings established under direction of the school are
found on farms in every county in the State. The annual output of the
nursery at the present time (1938) is about 500,000 seedlings.

At Bottineau is the junction with a graveled highway called the Lake
Road, which leads NE. into the hills to Lake Metigoshe, one of the
State's best-known summer resorts.

Right on this road, at the southern approach to the bridge over Oak
Creek, to the junction with a trail, =1 m.=

Left on this unusually delightful 5-mile trail, along the western
bank of the creek. At about =0.5 m.= is the junction with a less
well-defined trail; L. here on the western side of the creek to a stone
COUNTY and the original site of the town of Bottineau, =1 m.= Farther
on the country becomes hilly, and at =2.3 m.= a faint wagon trail
leads R. through a wire gate down to the GORGE, a pleasant spot where
the creek flows through a heavily wooded ravine, an excellent place
for picnicking. Crossing the stream, the trail follows the eastern
side of the creek back toward town. At =2.5 m.= is the STATE GAME
FARM, temporarily (1938) used as the Bottineau Country Club; here is a
junction with the Lake Road (L) which may be followed S.; along the
side of the creek, a much more attractive route, at =4 m.= the trail
joins the Lake Road following the creek to the CCC DAM, =4.3 m.=, just
N. of the WILLOW VALE DAIRY FARM. Here the trail crosses to the western
side of the stream and rejoins the trail on which it began.

Right on the Lake Road to the 640-acre LAKE METIGOSHE STATE PARK, =14.5
m.= In the park lodge is the HENRY KLEBE COLLECTION (_open_) of Turtle
Mountain fossils, Indian artifacts, and geologic formations.

Left on the Lake Road =15 m.= to the center of activity on LAKE
METIGOSHE, largest and scenically one of the most attractive of the
Turtle Mountain lakes. It has 70 m. of shore line and extends across
the border into Canada. Its name comes from _metigoshe washegum_
(Chippewa, _clear water lake surrounded by oaks_). There are six
resort parks (_stores_, _hotels_, _cottages_, _bathing beaches_, _boat
landings_; _12-mile motorboat trip crosses into Canada, not permissible
to land on Canadian side_). About 1 m. from shore is MASONS' ISLAND,
where Masonic groups hold annual summer meetings. The Congregational
Conference of North Dakota has a summer Bible camp on the lake, and
the Great Plains Area of the Boy Scouts of America holds an annual
encampment here.

West of Bottineau the route proceeds over the extraordinarily level
country formed by the bed of glacial Lake Souris. At =156.5 m.= is the
junction with ND 14, a graveled highway.

Left on this highway is KRAMER, =9 m.= (1,460 alt., 190 pop.), believed
to have been named for one of the surveyors of the Soo Ry., which
passes through the town. The Kramer Equity Cooperative Elevator, with
a capacity of 110,000 bu., all under one roof, is one of the largest
cooperative elevators in the State.

Right from Kramer =2 m.= on an improved county highway to a junction
with a road; L. on this road to the junction with another road, =3
m.=; R. here to a permanent CCC CAMP, =4 m.=, whose workers construct
dams on the Souris River and work on the LOWER SOURIS MIGRATORY
WATERFOWL REFUGE, an area of 48,000 acres, largest project of the U. S.
Biological Survey in North Dakota (1938).

At =13 m.= on ND 14 the route crosses the Mouse or Souris River,
remnant of Lake Souris. At =14.5 m.= are the headquarters of the
refuge, where the ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS are. The 100-foot
observation tower is used in studying bird life (_open, children must
be accompanied by adults_).

UPHAM, =18 m.= (1,461 alt., 257 pop.), is believed to have been named
by the G. N. Ry. town site company. Left from Upham at =22 m.= on an
improved county road to the largest dam being constructed on the lower
Souris Refuge, a retaining dike approximately 3 m. long.

At =165.5 m.= the highway dips slightly and crosses the Souris River,
here resembling a canal, and running almost bank full. At =175 m.= is
a junction with US 83; between this point and =192 m.= the two roads
coincide (_see Tour 3_).

MOHALL, =202 m.= (1,646 alt., 676 pop.), seat of Renville County, was
named for M. O. Hall, publisher of the first newspaper. Platted in
1903 as the terminus of the railroad, its growth for the first few
months was rapid. The Renville County _Tribune_ of December 3 of that
year said that the G. N. Ry. agent estimated that during the preceding
week 125 carloads of material had been shipped into the new town, in
addition to 175 cars lying on sidetracks along the line and billed for
Mohall. Four tracks were crowded with cars and eight dray lines were
kept busy transferring the material to the lumberyards and points of
construction. One hundred and seventy-five carpenters were employed,
and then the demand was only half met. At that time the place had nine
grain buyers.

Dick Grace, motion picture stunt flier, lived here for a time.

A CCC CAMP with an enrollment of about 200 adjoins the town. At present
(1938) its members are assigned to work on the Upper Souris Migratory
Waterfowl Refuge (_see Tour 7_).

At =205 m.= the route passes between two farms lighted by natural gas
from wells drilled on the premises. Although natural gas in large
quantities has been found in Montana, and a number of small wells have
been opened in North Dakota, there has never been a sufficient amount
in this State to form the basis for a permanent commercial enterprise.

At =214 m.= the route leads down into the mile-wide Souris valley. The
stream here is lined with box elder, elm, and small fruit trees.

At =215 m.= is the junction with a graveled county road.

Right on this road to the 480-acre MOUSE RIVER PARK (_boating_,
_swimming_, _roller skating_, _golf_; _store_, _dining hall_,
_auditorium_, cottages), =2 m.=

At =229.5 m.= is a junction with US 52, a graveled highway, which
unites with ND 5 between this point and =257 m.= (_see Tour 7_).

At =258 m.= is the junction with a graveled county highway.

Left on this road is LIGNITE, =1 m.= (1,979 alt., 217 pop.), which was
to have been named Kincaid, for an agent of the G. N. Ry., but through
an error of the town site company was given the name intended for the
neighboring town, a lignite mining center, which was consequently named

At =8 m.= BIG BUTTE (2,200 alt.), a large grassy hill, covers about
two sections of land, rising more than 200 ft. above the surrounding
prairie. At the foot of the butte was once a spring of excellent water,
frequented by Indians passing along the old White Earth Trail from the
Turtle Mountains to the Missouri River. Circles of stone and Indian
mounds are found on the northern side of the butte. In early days there
was a ranch with 300 head of horses near the spring, but the owner lost
all his stock to smugglers. Somewhere in the vicinity of Big Butte
may be the hiding place of $40,000. A story, not generally credited,
relates that in the late 1870's a Hudson's Bay Co. paymaster, on his
way to pay employees of the company at the several trading posts in the
territory, was robbed of this amount near Estevan, Canada. The robber
was apprehended in the neighborhood of Big Butte, but not before he
had found a place to cache his loot. Taken to Portal, he died under
torture while an attempt was being made to force his secret from him.
On the tanned side of his fur coat was found a diagram believed to
show the hiding place of the treasure, which has since been the object
of many searches. The accidental unearthing of a stone bearing the
inscription "1877" inspired fresh digging. At another time the Royal
Mounted Police of Calgary are said to have sent men to the locality
in an attempt to recover the money. So far, however, all efforts have
proved unsuccessful. Some believe the treasure was found and taken
away; others think it is still in the vicinity of Big Butte; and a few
skeptics disdain the idea that it was ever buried here at all.

At =268.5 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Right on this road is COLUMBUS, =0.5 m.= (1,930 alt., 516 pop.),
clumped together on the flat prairie. First settled in 1902, it was
moved to the railroad in 1906 when the Soo Ry. was extended through
this part of the State. The first postmaster, Columbus Larson, gave his
Christian name to this town, and his surname to the next town W.

At =269.5 m.= is a junction with ND 40, a graveled highway.

Left on this highway =3 m.= to a junction with an improved road; R.
here to the MONTANA-DAKOTA POWER PLANT, =2 m.=, in the heart of the
lignite coal field. The plant was opened 1928, and today is a $300,000
enterprise, supplying electrical energy to the towns of northeastern
Montana and northwestern North Dakota.

At =4 m.= on ND 40 is a junction with a second improved road; L. here
to the TRUAX-TRAER LIGNITE STRIP MINE, =4.5 m.=, the oldest strip mine
in North Dakota. The big shovels which have been stripping the earth
overburden since 1919 have piled ridges of earth so vast that they
resemble miniature mountains. The eight-cubic-yard shovel saw service
in the construction of the Panama Canal. It is supplemented by another
of four-cubic-yard capacity. About 150,000 tons of coal are taken out
annually. Huddled on a small piece of unbroken ground between the
artificial buttes are the frame homes and store buildings of the little
community of miners.

At =273 m.= is the junction with a graveled spur.

Left on this road is LARSON, =0.5 m.= (1,931 alt., 89 pop.), a small
Scandinavian town, named for the first postmaster of Columbus.

West of Larson the route ascends the hills of the Missouri Plateau. At
=278 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Left on this road to the BAUKOL-NOONAN COAL MINE, =1 m.=, third largest
lignite strip mine in the State. The mining operations cover an area of
1,040 acres adjacent to the town of Noonan, and the lignite vein, which
lies beneath a 30-foot overburden, averages 7 to 9 ft. in thickness.
The huge, molehill-like hummocks of earth tossed up by the giant steam
shovels spread fanwise from a central, electrically operated tipple.
Loading and screening facilities at the tipple permit the filling of
four cars at the same time, each with a different grade of coal. The
daily output of the mine, which runs full time during the fall and
winter months, is approximately 100 cars. During the 1935-36 season
more than 170,000 tons of coal were taken out.

NOONAN, =279 m.= (1,959 alt., 423 pop.), named for an early settler,
has its white buildings scattered over the northern slope of a small
hill. When the town was platted in 1906, contracts stipulated that
buildings should be painted white in order that the community might
live up to its advertised name of the _White City_.

CROSBY, =292.5 m.= (1,962 alt., 1,271 pop.), dominated by the dome
of the Divide County Courthouse at the northern end of Main St., was
named for a member of the town site company of Portal (_see Tour 7_).
It sprang up at the junction of the Soo and G. N. branch lines, a
strategic rail position that soon established it as a focal point for
trade in the northwestern corner of the State.

Straight ahead (N) from the fairgrounds on a graveled road to the
CROSBY CITY RECREATION PARK (_swimming pool_, _golf course_, _tennis
and horseshoe courts_, _ski jump_, _camping ground_), =5 m.=, developed
along the Canadian border.

At =301.5 m.= is a junction with US 85 (_see Tour 4_), which unites
with ND 5 to =311 m.=

FORTUNA, =315 m.= (2,190 alt., 196 pop.), a Scandinavian community,
named for the Roman goddess of fortune, was established in the summer
of 1913 when the branch line of the Soo Ry. was extended from Ambrose,
N. Dak., to Whitetail, Mont. The day lots were sold, temporary business
houses, which had been squatting a mile from the present site at a post
office called Norge, were put on wheels and rolled away to the new town
by night.

Right from Fortuna on a county road to the DEWITT SPRING, =1 m.=, whose
flow fills a two-inch pipe of water the year around. It has furnished
water for Fortuna since the founding of the village.

At =329 m.= the route crosses the Montana Line, 66 m. E. of Scobey,


  Junction ND 5--Walhalla--Leroy. ND 32, ND 55, and an unimproved

  Junction ND 5 to Leroy, 25 m.

  Branch of G. N. Ry. touches at Walhalla.

  Graveled roadbed except for 0.5 m. outside Leroy.

  Accommodations in Walhalla.

This route runs through the Pembina Mountains, a scenic region rich in
historical associations. From Walhalla, one of the oldest towns in the
State, the route turns east to the settlement of the metis, descendants
of those French-Chippewa who conducted the famous Pembina hunts of the
middle nineteenth century.

ND 32 branches N. from ND 5 at Oak Lawn Historic Site (_see Tour 5_),
=0.0 m.=

At =8 m.= the graceful wooded PEMBINA MOUNTAINS are visible on the
horizon. The nearest elevation, 250 or 350 ft. higher than the country
to the E., is known as Second Pembina Mountain, and is a portion of the
Pembina Escarpment, a high ridge extending from Canada through North
Dakota into South Dakota and southwestern Minnesota. In the southern
part of North Dakota it is known as the Coteau des Prairies. First
Pembina Mountain, lying SE. of Second Mountain, is the prehistoric
delta of the Pembina River, formed when that stream drained the melting
ice sheet into Lake Agassiz (_see_ NATURAL SETTING _and Tour 1_). First
Pembina Mountain has an average height of 150 ft., and its eastern
edge shows the various shore lines of Lake Agassiz as it receded in
post-glacial times.

To the first white explorers and trappers the Pembina Mountains were
known as the Hair Hills, coveted hunting ground held by the Chippewa,
whose ownership was often hotly contested by the Sioux. During the
early nineteenth century white and half-breed hunters roamed the hills,
gathering furs to be loaded on lumbering, squeaking oxcarts and sent to
eastern trading posts.

It was in this vicinity that Charles Cavileer (_see Tour 5_), one of
the most prominent settlers of the State, in the 1860's while making a
trip with a party from Pembina to Devils Lake, saw a herd of buffalo
like a black cloud on the horizon. The party immediately arranged their
carts in a semicircle and prepared for an onslaught. The bison came on
with a rumble like thunder, the rumble became a roar, and the earth
trembled; but when they reached the carts the herd parted and swerved
on either side, upsetting only the outside row of the improvised
stockade. Not until the second day could the journey be resumed, and
even then there were buffalo in sight for another day. The herd was
believed to number two or three million, and in its wake was an area,
several miles in width, entirely devoid of vegetation.

At =9 m.= (L) are the SAND SLIDES, where steep sand and gravel slopes
form a precipitous funnel-shaped valley down to the PEMBINA RIVER. This
stream once drained prehistoric Lake Souris into Lake Agassiz, and its
rushing waters cut into the Pembina Mountains, creating the present
canyon 350 to 450 ft. deep.

At =12 m.= (R) is WALHALLA (966 alt., 700 pop.), attractively situated
in the wooded river valley on the slope of Second Pembina Mountain. In
1848 Father G. A. Belcourt established St. Joseph's Mission here for
the Chippewa Indians. By 1860 the settlement had become an important
fur trading post, with a population of 1,800; but good furs became
scarce, the bison virtually disappeared, and by 1871 "St. Joe" was
inhabited only by a priest, the U. S. customs inspector, and some 50
metis or half-breeds, who remained only as long as the hunting was
good. The town revived, and was platted in 1877 and renamed Walhalla,
for the palace of immortality in Norse mythology.

The old bell in the Catholic church belfry, known as the ANGELUS BELL,
was brought to Father Belcourt's mission when it was opened, and was
the first church bell erected on the plains of North Dakota. It was
cast in 1845, and a wreath of raised figures around the top represents
science, art, music, mechanics, and astronomy. The bell is believed
to have been brought down the Red River by boat, thence to St. Joseph
by oxcart. Its tone is similar to that of the old mission bells of

Right from Walhalla crossing the railroad tracks on a graveled road;
L. on a graveled road to a METIS SETTLEMENT, =4 m.= Here, in the
foothills of the Pembina Mountains, live descendants of half-breed
French Canadians and Indians of earlier days. The metis are found
throughout the northeastern corner of North Dakota (_see below_). In
this particular settlement they operate small farms, gaining their
livelihood by selling garden produce, berries, and cordwood. The
graveled road turns L. at =5 m.=, to Leroy (_see below_), =7 m.=

Also at =12 m.= is WALHALLA STATE PARK (L), on the eastern slope of
the Pembina Mountains. The wooded 5-acre tract contains the SITE OF
ALEXANDER HENRY, JR.'S TRADING POST, a temporary depot established in
1801, one of the first posts in present North Dakota; also the KITTSON
HOUSE, erected in 1851-52 as a trading post and warehouse under the
supervision of Norman Kittson, who became the first postmaster in North
Dakota. This building was originally built nearby and was moved to the
park in 1915. Often locally designated as Old Settlers' Park, the area
is the scene of the annual meeting and picnic of the Pembina County Old
Settlers' Association (_July_).

Left from the park on a winding graveled road to the PROTESTANT
CEMETERY, =0.4 m.=, where are buried two missionaries killed by Indians
in the early 1850's and hence known as the Martyrs of St. Joe. At =1.4
m.=, at the summit of the mountain, LOOKOUT POINT affords a fine view
of the deep Pembina River valley below and the Red River Valley farming
area, dotted with villages and farmhouses, which stretches away in the
distance. The point is the property of several Masonic lodges in this
area, and they hold an annual picnic here.

At =15 m.= on ND 32 is the junction with ND 55, on which the route
continues. At =22 m.= is the junction with a graveled road. After
crossing the Pembina River, the highway at =25 m.= enters LEROY (890
alt., 100 pop.). The inhabitants of the town are chiefly metis and
their log cabins are scattered in the timber along the river. From the
time the Hudson's Bay Co. began operations in 1670, French Canadians
migrated westward, intermarrying with Chippewa women. Their children
were known as metis or mixed-bloods. Inheriting the characteristics
of both the Indian and the French-Canadian woodsman, the metis
became adept voyageurs, and their part in the early fur trade of the
Middlewest was very important. They were excellent hunters, trappers,
and couriers, and it is said they loved the "musical" sound of the Red
River oxcarts which, with their unlubricated wooden axles and hubs
screeching across the plains, brought furs E. from the trading posts.

When this region began to be settled the metis were the first mail
carriers, since their stamina and knowledge of the frontier made them
"brave and bold, and the most reliable men to be had."

The early metis of North Dakota, ancestors of the present metis,
enjoyed life with true appreciation. They were fond of good dress, and
their clothes were made of the finest imported merinos, cashmeres, and
broadcloths, bought at the trading posts. The men wore black broadcloth
redingotes, long and double-breasted and trimmed with large brass
buttons. At the collar was a _capuchon_ or hood, which was never worn
but served merely as an adornment. A bright sash about the waist,
beaded moccasins, and a beaded tobacco pouch, used much as a French
courtier used his snuff box, completed the costume. The women wore the
tight basque and flowing skirt, and, in summer as well as winter, a
half dozen gaily colored petticoats, which created quite a dazzling
array when the wearer stooped to tie the lace of a beaded moccasin. A
black silk kerchief was tied about the head, and over this went a large
square of black broadcloth which wrapped about the entire body and
served as a cloak.

The metis were, and still are, fond of music and dancing. Their songs
came down from their French ancestors or were learned from the mission
priests. One favorite was _Au clair de la lune_ (_By Moonlight_) and
another was _Marlbrouck s'en va-t-en guerre_ (_Marlborough Goes to
War_). Square dances, the Red River Jig, Pair O' Fours, and Reel O'
Cats were favorite dances, and some of them are still performed.

The most important event in the year for the metis, in the first half
of the last century, was the Pembina buffalo hunt. For this, white and
metis hunters would meet at Pembina on an expedition which sometimes
took them as far as Fort Union on the Missouri (_see Side Tour 6B_).
Not only men, but also women and children, went on the hunt, and even
the priest went along to counsel and advise. Equipment was carried in
stridently creaking oxcarts. It was like a good-sized town on a tour.
On the hunt of 1840, probably the largest ever held, there were 1,630
people and 1,210 oxcarts, and the cost of the expedition has been
estimated at $120,000. The camp was organized under a chief, with 10
captains under him, and 10 soldiers under each captain to enforce the
camp regulations. For a first violation the saddle and bridle of the
offender were cut up; for a second, his coat was destroyed; and for
a third, he was flogged. A thief, even if he stole something of no
greater value than a buffalo sinew--a common article of barter in the
Red River country--was publicly cried "thief." Hunting was not always
good; hot weather or storms delayed parties, and sometimes prairie
fires were encountered. Eventually encroaching civilization put an end
to the buffalo hunts, but while they were held, and when they were
successful, the hunters lived in plenty. The 1840 expedition took home
more than a million pounds of meat in their oxcarts.

The main food of the early metis was pemmican, or dried buffalo meat,
but wild game was also plentiful. _Galette_, an unleavened bread made
by mixing flour with water, salt, and shortening, was preferred to
white man's bread.

Great respect for old age, and deep affection for relatives
characterize metis family relationships. Concerning birds and animals,
they have many unusual beliefs: a hungry beast coming to the door is
regarded as a sign of poverty, a woodpecker pecking at a window is said
to be a sign of death in the family, and snakes are believed to be
symbols of quarrels and enemies.


  (Duluth, Minn.)--Grand Forks--Devils
  Lake--Minot--Williston--(Glasgow, Mont.). US 2.

  Minnesota Line to Montana Line, 390.5 m.

  G. N. Ry. roughly parallels entire route, Farmers' Line between
  Devils Lake and Webster.

  Graveled roadbed except for about 110 m. of short stretches

  Accommodations in principal towns.

This route reveals a cross section of the agricultural life of the
State. In the east the flat, fertile lands of the narrow Red River
Valley, which formed the bottom of glacial Lake Agassiz, blend into
the uneven, farm-dotted surface of the broad Drift Prairie, bordered
on the west by the rougher, more sparsely settled grazing areas of the
Missouri Plateau. The route touches on Devils Lake and crosses the
level loop of the wooded Mouse River, a region at one time covered by
Lake Souris, another extinct creation of the glacial epoch. Midway
across the State is the geographic center of North America. The western
half of the route is through a rich, though largely undeveloped,
lignite coal area, formed ages ago by the inundation of prehistoric

GRAND FORKS, =0.0 m.= (834 alt., 17,112 pop.) (_see_ GRAND FORKS).

  _Points of Interest:_ University of North Dakota, Wesley College.

At Demers Ave. and 5th St. is a junction with US 81 (_see Tour 1_),
which unites with US 2 to the intersection of Skidmore Ave. N. and N.
16th St.

West of Grand Forks US 2 passes through the western half of the Red
River Valley, part of the bed of ancient Lake Agassiz.

At =9 m.= is the junction with a county dirt road.

Left on this road to tiny OJATA, =1 m.=, the remains of a once
thriving boom town known as Stickney. In its heyday it was a railroad
terminus, and for a time rivaled Grand Forks in trade. Since the site
is swampland, each heavy rain makes it a quagmire, and residents,
considering the first name too literal, soon changed it to Ojata. The
place declined when the railroad was extended W. At one time a farmer
acquired the entire village in exchange for a stallion.

At =20 m.= is the junction with a county graveled road.

Right on this road to TURTLE RIVER STATE PARK (_swimming_,
_picnicking_, _camping_), =3 m.=, where a picturesque ravine, cut by
the once swift-flowing waters of the TURTLE RIVER, offers a pleasing
variation to the level surrounding country. The river is named for the
many small terrapin found on its banks. Just W. of the entrance are 15
tumuli (mounds) built by prehistoric Indians. Excavations by Dr. A. E.
Jenks of the University of Minnesota have yielded copper instruments,
an ivory pipe, and other artifacts. Unlike the mounds in other parts
of the State (_see Side Tours 8A and 8B_), these have been plowed over
and cultivated until they are only small humps on the prairie. The few
tumuli opened have been easily excavated because they lie in a gravel

ARVILLA, =21.5 m.= (1,019 alt., 150 pop.), was named for the wife of a
bonanza farmer. The GRAND FORKS COUNTY FARM AND HOSPITAL, a large brick
structure, is situated just across the railroad track on a 136-acre
tract adjoining the town on the S. The Arvilla Academy and North Dakota
Conservatory of Music, the first private college in the State to
maintain a music department, was founded in 1886 by Rev. John Allen
Brown, Presbyterian pastor at Arvilla. Miss Sadie P. Brown, daughter of
the founder, and a graduate of the Boston Conservatory of Music, headed
the music department. The existence of the academy was brief, for the
building was destroyed by fire in 1893 and was never rebuilt.

The CRYSTAL SPRINGS STOCK FARM, =23.5 m.=, consisting of 2,480 acres
along the Turtle River, was a bonanza farm and then a stock farm,
but now is known for the spring water bottled here for commercial
purposes. In its early days the 20-room house, now standing empty with
its venetian shutters flapping in the wind, was the scene of a social
life that rivaled the surrounding bonanza acres in expansiveness and
amplitude. H. T. Hersey, a Minnesota millionaire, became interested in
wheat farming and built the house. His wife installed a full staff of
servants, and many parties were held for eastern friends. On several
occasions James J. Hill stopped his special train here to visit the
Herseys, and once a special train carrying members of the State
legislature stopped while its passengers were entertained at this
prairie palace. Eventually Hersey tired of his role of gentleman farmer
and sold his farm to James Streeter, prominent Larimore real estate
dealer and farmer.

LARIMORE, =28 m.= (1,135 alt., 979 pop.), was named for N. D. Larimore,
stockholder and business head of the Elk River Valley Farm, which
was once the world's largest farm under single management. Most of
the bonanza farms were divided into a number of tracts, each under a
foreman, but the Elk River Valley Farm had all operations centralized.
Its huge proportions attracted the St. Louis World's Fair Foreign
Commission, which visited the farm in 1904, at which time there were
11,000 acres under cultivation. From this visit a great influx of
northern Europeans resulted, leading to the breaking up of the bonanza
farms and the sale of small farms to the new settlers.

The CITY PARK (_wading pool_, _tennis courts_, _tourist camp_) is in
the same block as the city hall.

At =32.5 m.= the highway crosses the Turtle River, near a dam built by
the Civilian Conservation Corps (_swimming_, _picnic grounds_).

McCANNA, =38 m.= (1,142 alt., 100 pop.), was named for S. A. McCanna,
owner of the MCCANNA FARM (R), now the largest in the western part of
Grand Forks County. Large modern buildings adjacent to the town on the
NW., and the use of modern farm methods make it one of the show places
in the area.

NIAGARA, =44.5 m.= (1,443 alt., 207 pop.), was named for Niagara
County, N. Y. Because of uncertainty as to where the railroad would
pass, the town was first built on skids 1 m. E. of the present site,
and was moved when the railroad came in 1882.

PETERSBURG, =51.5 m.= (1,524 alt., 310 pop.), named for a pioneer
clergyman in the community, has a population predominantly Norwegian,
as has MICHIGAN CITY, =57.5 m.= (1,520 alt., 433 pop.), platted on land
of the James Lamb family, who were among early arrivals in the vicinity
and have continued to be prominent in local affairs. The town was named
in honor of the native State of many of its first settlers. In the
early 1880's an error in billing sent here an entire trainload of iron
ore intended for Michigan City, Ind. The village officially retains its
original name, but local usage has abridged this to "Michigan."

MAPES, =62.5 m.= (1,530 alt., 56 pop.), once a prosperous grain
shipping center, was named for Emery Mapes, one of the men who worked
out the formula for the nationally known Cream of Wheat.

At =67.5 m.= is the junction with ND 1, a graveled highway (_see Side
Tour 8B_).

LAKOTA, =68.5 m.= (1,518 alt., 860 pop.), is the seat of Nelson County.
Its name is derived from the Teton Sioux word meaning _allies_, which
is the same as the Santee Sioux _dakota_. The many trees lining
Lakota's streets are the result of experiments by a pioneer who
believed trees could be grown on the barren prairies. The TOFTHAGEN
LIBRARY AND MUSEUM (_open_), built in 1927, was a gift to the city from
A. M. Tofthagen, Nelson County pioneer. It contains 5,000 volumes, and
curios gathered by the donor in his travels.

BARTLETT, =72.5 m.= (1,534 alt., 67 pop.), was named for Frank Bartlett
of Larimore, who owned the town site. For a time Bartlett was the end
of the rail line, a typical boom town, and had 21 saloons; one, the
Diamond, employed a Negro piano player and singer who usually ended his
performance in a burst of "Bartlett, dear Bartlett, will be a dandy of
Dakota yet."

DOYON, =78.5 m.= (1,512 alt., 204 pop.), was named for Charles H.
Doyon, a bonanza farmer.

DEVILS LAKE, =96 m.= (1,466 alt., 5,451 pop.), seat of Ramsey County,
was at one time head of steamboat navigation on the then important
inland sea of Devils Lake (_see Side Tour 6A_). The lake has receded 5
m. in the half century since the vicinity was settled, and the town now
overlooks a dry bed and shrunken shore line. Fort Totten, which later
became Fort Totten Indian Agency (_see Side Tour 6A_), was established
on the southern shore of the lake in 1867 to place the Indians of the
region on a permanent reservation. In 1882 the Government held that the
Chippewa Indians had no claim to the lands N. of the lake, settlers
began to come in, and Creelsburgh, or Creel City, 4 m. NW. of the
present site of Devils Lake, became the first white community in the
area. The town of Devils Lake was founded the following year and many
Creel City citizens moved to the new town site.

One of the first settlers in Creel City was Capt. Edward Heerman, who
inaugurated steamboat navigation on Devils Lake. On July 4, 1883, the
first train on regular schedule arrived in Devils Lake, and was met by
Heerman's steamboat, the _Minnie H._ The service was later augmented
by two smaller steamers. Rails were laid on the wharf at Devils Lake
so that all freight and passengers for Fort Totten, Minnewaukan, and
other points across the lake were transferred directly from car to
steamer. By 1909, however, the water of the lake had receded 4 m. from
the city, 6 m. from Minnewaukan, and nearly 2.5 m. from the fort, so
navigation came to an end. The shrinking of Devils Lake has been one of
the arguments for the Missouri River Diversion project, which, it has
been asserted, would raise the water level of the lake.

The STATE SCHOOL FOR DEAF is at 14th St. and 1st Ave., situated in
expertly landscaped grounds. Established in 1890, the school has
gained international recognition for its work in physical education
for the deaf. An elaborate revue, known as a Rhythm Pageant (_public_,
_June_), is presented annually at the school's graduation exercises,
and motion pictures of this pageant have been made for study in similar
institutions elsewhere.

At the eastern end of 2nd St. is the I. O. O. F. HOME, maintained by
the North Dakota Grand Lodge of the Odd Fellows for its aged members
and orphans of former members. It is a three-story brick building
surrounded by landscaped yard and gardens.

The WORLD WAR MEMORIAL BUILDING, 504 4th St., is a community recreation
center. Studios and transmitter of KDLR are in the Grayson Hotel
building at the cor. 5th Ave. and 7th St.

At the W. end of 5th St. is the junction of ND 20, a graveled highway
(_see Side Tour 6A_) and ND 19. Right at this junction is ROOSEVELT
PARK (_swimming pool_, _picnicking_, _camping_), built as a WPA project.

North of Devils Lake US 2 passes SWEETWATER LAKE, =105 m.=, once a
large body of fresh water that attracted pioneers. Today, like that of
Devils Lake, its shore line has greatly receded.

CHURCHS FERRY, =123 m.= (1,460 alt., 295 pop.), developed from a
ferry established by Irvine Church across Mauvaise Coulee (Fr., _bad
streambed_) in 1886, so named by French explorers because it was
difficult to cross, the channel once drained a large territory into
Devils Lake to the S. Although it has been dry for several years, in
the 1870's and 1880's, until Church began his ferry, all goods for the
area NW. and W. of Devils Lake had to be boated across or hauled around
the southern shore of the lake.

At =124 m.= is the junction with US 281, a graveled highway (_see Tour
2_), which unites with US 2 from this point to =131 m.=

LEEDS, =135 m.= (1,514 alt., 725 pop.), with a predominantly
Scandinavian population, was established in 1884. It has paved streets
and a park (_swimming pool_). Because many stockholders in the G. N.
Ry. were Englishmen, several of the towns along the railroad, including
Leeds, were given names of English towns. One of the first newspapers
in this region, the Leeds _News_, founded in 1903, boosting the new
community in the customary manner, lauded it with this characteristic
humor: "A man died and entered heaven. On his first walk about his new
abode he noticed several men fettered in ball and chain. His inquiry of
a passer-by brought the reply, 'They came from Leeds, N. Dak., and if
they weren't chained they'd go back.'"

Left from Leeds on a county dirt road to LAKE IBSEN, =2 m.=, named for
Henrik Ibsen, Norwegian poet and dramatist. It is said that about 1858
a peace agreement between the Sioux and Chippewa Indians was made at
this lake, a treaty well observed by both tribes. Small islands in the
lake were known to explorers of the region as Petites Isles Aux Mortes
(Fr., _small islands of the dead_), owing to the fact that the Indians
had buried many victims of a devastating smallpox epidemic here. They
placed their dead on scaffolds, the wooden frames of which were visible
from the lake shores.

YORK, =142.5 m.= (1,612 alt., 250 pop.), is another town with an
English name and a predominantly Scandinavian population.

KNOX, =150 m.= (1,605 alt., 177 pop.), is named for John Knox, the
Scottish religious reformer.

PLEASANT LAKE (_good camping_, _tourist accommodations_, _spring
water_), =155 m.=, is a small tree-fringed body of water which was
called Broken Bones Lake by the Indians who camped on its shores to
dry their buffalo meats. They broke the buffalo bones to remove the
marrow, which they sewed into sacks of skin and preserved for winter
use. Evidences of an Indian burial ground are found on a hill to the
N. These burials are not in mounds, and the only excavations are those
made accidentally by farmers plowing the land.

At =156 m.= is the railway station of PLEASANT LAKE (1,603 alt., 33
pop.), where tribal dances were performed on the town site by a group
of Indians as recently as 1883. Some of the settlers feared that the
ritual was a war dance, but the Indians did no harm.

At =163.5 m.= is the junction with ND 3, a graveled highway. At this
crossroads is a stone cairn marking the GEOGRAPHIC CENTER OF NORTH
AMERICA. In 1931 the U. S, Geological Survey determined that the
geographic center of the continent is in Pierce County, N. Dak., and
the marker at the highway junction is in the approximate center of the
county. The survey states, "The geographic center of an area may be
defined as that point on which the surface of the area would balance
if it were a plane of uniform thickness, or in other words, the center
of gravity of the surface.... It would not be feasible, therefore, to
specify for such a large irregular area as that of North America the
exact section, township and range in which the geographic center lies."
Some years before 1931 Pierre, S. Dak., claimed to be the approximate
center of the continent, based on the fact that two lines drawn from
corner to corner of a map of North America intersected near Pierre.

Right on ND 3 is RUGBY, =1 m.= (1,562 alt., 1,512 pop.), Pierce County
seat, named for Rugby, England. It was platted in July 1885 and the
first train arrived a month later. In the CITY HALL is a museum (_open
weekdays, 9-5_) containing, among other things, Indian artifacts found
in the county and Spanish-American War relics. ELLERY PARK and the
tourist camp are in the western part of town. Rugby was the home of
the late N. P. Lindberg, who is said to have originated the slogan,
_Say It With Flowers_. It is said that in the course of a talk made
at a national florists' convention in Chicago he remarked, "In North
Dakota we say it with flowers." His words caught the fancy of his
fellow delegates, who adopted them as a slogan. His florist shop and
greenhouse, now operated by a son-in-law, are in the eastern part of

TUNBRIDGE, =168.5 m.= (1,509 alt., 15 pop.), and BERWICK, =174.5 m.=
(1,484 alt., 100 pop.), are small hamlets R. of the route. Although the
latter town has a name of English origin, the Berwick _Post_, which
suspended publication several years ago, was published partly in German
for the large community of Russo-Germans living S. of the town.

TOWNER, =183 m.= (1,478 alt., 622 pop.), named for Col. O. M. Towner,
one of the first ranchers in McHenry County, is the county seat. It
lies in a bend of the SOURIS (Fr., _mouse_) RIVER, so named by French
explorers for the numerous field mice found in the river basin. The
river itself lies on a level plain that was at one time the bed of
glacial Lake Souris, of which the stream is now the only remnant. Fully
three-fourths of McHenry County is on this plain, once principally
cattle country, now devoted to diversified farming.

During ranching days in the 1880's the country was a rough frontier
populated by an odd assortment of personalities. Among these were two
English peers, each of whom acquired a ranch near Towner, built a large
home, and settled down to the serious business of living lavishly on
remittances from home. The community was excited when one of the men
had a visit from his sister, a countess prominent in women's suffrage
work in the British Isles, who arrived on a special train. The other
exile also had a caller from home, an elderly woman who arrived
unexpectedly to find him occupied with the entertainment of a houseful
of guests. She departed without seeing him or even getting out of her
carriage. Not long afterwards both Englishmen took their leave.

Towner is the junction with ND 14, a graveled highway, which unites
with US 2 between this point and =188 m.=

1. Left from Towner on a graveled county road to the SCHULTZ HEREFORD
RANCH, =1.8 m.=, where registered Hereford cattle and Belgian horses
are bred. Situated on the timber-flanked banks of the Mouse, the
ranch has an air of early-day friendliness. Its huge barns and
corrals reflect the large-scale ranching of pioneer days joined with
the efficiency of a modern business--a combination typical of the
present-day stock raising industry in the State.

2. Right (N) from Towner on a graveled county road to a GOVERNMENT
NURSERY, =1.5 m.=, where experimental work in connection with the
shelterbelt project is conducted.

3. Right from Towner on ND 14 is BANTRY, =14 m.= (1,469 alt., 150
pop.). Left from Bantry on ND 17, a graveled highway, to the LONG
TURKEY RANCH, =20.5 m.= At the age of six weeks the young turkeys are
sent out on the 320-acre range in flocks of 700, and attain their full
bone growth during the summer months. A few weeks before fall marketing
the flocks are driven in to the ranch and the birds confined in large
pens where they are fattened for market. More than 2,000 turkeys are
shipped from the Long ranch annually.

At =188 m.= is a junction with ND 14.

Left on this graveled highway to the junction with a dirt road, =1.5
m.=; R. here to the EATON DAM, =3.3 m.=, which irrigates 6,800 acres
of meadowland. This water adds to the productivity of the heavy native
grasses from which many hundreds of tons of hay are cut each year.
At the close of the haying season the river bottoms are dotted with
hundreds of small, mound-like haystacks resembling huge grain shocks in
a field of giant wheat. In the time between haying and fall the grasses
attain a second growth, and cover the meadowlands around the stacks
with a luxurious green carpet that contrasts with the dingy brown of
the autumnal stubblefields through which the Souris courses.

The feasibility of growing trees in poor, sandy soil and semiarid
climate is being tested on a 640-acre tract by the Northern Plains
branch of the Lake States Forest Experimental Station. The results
secured will serve as a guide for work in similar areas of other States.

GRANVILLE, =207 m.= (1,513 alt., 450 pop.), named for Granville M.
Dodge, G. N. Ry. civil engineer, is in a level agricultural area
W. of the sand hills bordering the Mouse River. A condition common
in homesteading days drew this worried comment from the Granville
_Record_ in 1904: "It is a great wonder this country has advanced and
is developing as rapidly as it is with so many old bachelors who do
not improve their places and so many old maids holding down claims. It
ought to cause a blush of shame to mount the face of every bald-headed
old bachelor in the vicinity."

At =216 m.= is NORWICH (1,529 alt., 100 pop.), named by the G. N. Ry.
town site company for an English town.

West of SURREY, =222.5 m.= (1,627 alt., 125 pop.), the route begins
the gradual descent to a second crossing of the Mouse River. In the
distance to the W. and S. of the river, the hills rise to the Missouri

MINOT, =230.5 m.= (1,557 alt., 16,099 pop.) (_see_ MINOT).

  _Points of Interest:_ Minot State Teachers College, Roosevelt Park
  and Zoo.

At Valley St. and 4th Ave. SE. is the junction with US 52 (_see Tour
7_), which unites with US 2 at =236.5 m.= At 4th Ave. and 2nd St. SW.
is the junction with US 83 (_see Tour 3_).

Just W. of Minot is the (L) HIGH STEEL TRESTLE (120 ft.) of the G. N.
Ry., spanning Gassman Coulee. Early one morning in the 1880's a high
wind blew down the wooden bridge which then stood here, and only the
quick work of an engineer prevented an entire train from plunging into
the deep coulee.

At =236.5 m.= is the junction with US 52 (_see Tour 7_). A large
tourist camp is L. The highway here makes an abrupt ascent to the level
Missouri Plateau.

All towns along the route W. of Minot are populated principally by

DES LACS, =245.5 m.= (1,932 alt., 205 pop.), is named for Des Lacs
River and Lake (_see Tour 7_). The little town received publicity in
1922 when it elected a complete ticket of women officials. One eastern
newspaper wrote a glowing description of a campaign torchlight parade
around the city hall and told of the enthusiasm which the men of the
town felt over the winning ticket; but a writer for a women's magazine,
sent out to look over the situation, was forced to report that there
was no city hall, and that "the men were not so enthusiastic now,
perhaps because they did not like to have their own backyards cleaned

LONETREE, =249.5 m.= (2,002 alt., 36 pop.), was named by the railroad
company for the one tree that was there when the rails were laid. This
little town figured prominently in the Burlington-Minot battle for the
seat of "Imperial Ward" County in 1888, turning the election for Minot
(_see_ Minot).

BERTHOLD, =253.5 m.= (2,089 alt., 511 pop.), is the center of a
certified seed potato raising area. In the late 1880's it was the
nearest railhead to Fort Berthold on the Indian reservation to the S.,
hence its name.

At =262 m.= the terrain becomes more rolling and from here to the
Missouri River the route traverses the ALTAMONT MORAINE, a range of
hills lying on the eastern portion of the Missouri Plateau, and marking
the farthest advance of the western lobe of the last or Dakota Glacier.

TAGUS, =265 m.= (2,189 alt., 136 pop.), was named for a rancher named

Left from Tagus on an unimproved dirt road to CARPENTER LAKE
(_swimming_), =6 m.=

BLAISDELL (L), =273 m.= (2,264 alt., 100 pop.), was named for Alfred
Blaisdell, a settler who later became secretary of state of North

PALERMO (L), =280.5 m.= (2,201 alt., 205 pop.), is the namesake of a
city in Sicily.

Right from Palermo in the rolling hills of the glacial moraine N. and
E. of the town are several small lakes containing heavy deposits of
sodium sulphate (_see Side Tour 4A_).

STANLEY, =288 m.= (2,253 alt., 936 pop.), is named for one of the first
homesteaders in the area. The MOUNTRAIL COUNTY COURTHOUSE (R), topped
by a cupola, is at the northern end of town. Stanley is on a nearly
level plateau, while both to the N. and to the S. the terrain is more
rolling. There is a junction here with ND 8, a graveled highway (_see
Side Tour 3A_). In 1906 the Stanley _Sun_, a usually conservative
newspaper, joined other papers in the State in telling of the wonderful
fertility of North Dakota soil: "... the most productive soil on earth,
insomuch that if you stick a nail in the ground at night, it will grow
into a crowbar before morning."

ROSS, =296.5 m.= (2,292 alt., 108 pop.), was named by the railway
company. In 1902 a group of 20 Moslem families from Damascus, Syria,
filed on homesteads SE. of Ross, and since 1909, when the Federal
Government withdrew its objection to their naturalization, many of
them have become citizens. They are Americanized in dress, although
the women have a penchant for highly colored clothes. Many Old Country
foods are still used; one Syrian dish especially well-liked consists of
durum wheat boiled, sun-dried, ground, and screened, and stewed with
meats and vegetables or sweet oils. The dried grain is ground in a
large horse-powered machine resembling a coffee mill.

In 1929 this colony built a basement mosque, and each Friday a
member of the congregation conducts services. Each person carefully
washes his hands and feet before entering the temple; the sexes are
segregated during prayer. During Ramadan--the ninth month according to
the Mohammedan calendar, which is lunar--the people fast for 30 days,
taking food only after dark; the month ends with a feast. The wedding
ceremony of the group is unusual, for the bride is not present. Before
the wedding she selects two witnesses to act in her behalf, who state
the amount of money to be exchanged between the bridegroom and her
parents--the bridegroom gives the parents this amount and they return
the same amount to him. During the wedding ceremony the bride retires
to another room; the father places his hand in that of the bridegroom,
a large kerchief is placed over the clasped hands, and a member of the
congregation reads the service. It is a custom of these people to shake
hands at any chance meeting, no matter how recently they have met.

At =298.5 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Left on this road is SANISH (Arikaran, _real people_), =23 m.= (1,820
alt., 463 pop.), lying in a valley between bluffs bordering the eastern
bank of the Missouri River. Spanning the Missouri here is the VERENDRYE
BRIDGE, completed in 1927, the third highway bridge built across the
river in the State. The site was known to the Indians from the earliest
times as the Old Crossing because it was used as a ford by the large
buffalo herds in their annual migrations. Adjoining Sanish on the S.
named for an Hidatsa Indian chieftain. On this butte is a monument
dedicated to the Verendryes, who are believed to have visited one of
the agricultural Indian tribes here on their exploratory trip into
present North Dakota in 1738. The site discovered near Menoken in 1936,
however, may be more definitely established as the village they visited
(_see Tour 8_).

MANITOU (Chippewa, _the Great Spirit_), =302.5 m.= (2,282 alt., 24
pop.), founded when the G. N. Ry. built through the territory in 1887,
today consists of only a consolidated school, a store, and an elevator.

WHITE EARTH, =310.5 m.= (2,099 alt., 240 pop.), founded in 1891,
probably was named for the fine, white, clayey sand which has washed
down into the White Earth River valley. It overlies the Laramie
formation, which is exposed in many places on the sides of the valley,
150 ft. deep here. While diversified farming predominates in the
vicinity, traces of the old West are still found on a few small ranches
along the White Earth River between the route and the Missouri River to
the S.

TIOGA (Iroquois, _beautiful valley_), =321.5 m.= (2,241 alt., 435
pop.), was founded in 1902.

RAY, =335 m.= (2,271 alt., 621 pop.), named for Al G. Ray, chief
special agent for the G. N. Ry. when the town was established in 1902,
is scattered on level land along the railroad right-of-way. It was one
of the first towns in the United States to adopt a commission form of
city government (1910).

1. Right from Ray on a graveled county road to the WILLIAM SIMPSON FARM
HOME, =8 m.=, where there is an unusual COLLECTION (_open_) of South
African oddities, collected by Simpson, a Scotchman, who during several
years there obtained animal skins, beads, heads, and horns from the

2. Left from Ray on a dirt graded county highway to the junction with
another road, =10 m.=; L. here to the first WELL AND DERRICK of the
Big Viking Oil Company, on the Nesson Flats, =17 m.=, a level bench
just above the Missouri River opposite the mouth of TOBACCO GARDEN
CREEK (_see Tour 10_). Interest in a prospective oil field here led to
a 40-day $25,000 survey and the expenditure of $195,000 in test well
drilling by the Standard Oil Company of California in 1937. More than
200,000 acres in oil leases were taken up in the vicinity, and the
company plans (1938) to expend another $200,000 before completing the
test drilling.

Opposite Nesson Flats near the mouth of Tobacco Garden Creek an attack
upon a river steamer was made by a Sioux war party July 7, 1863. The
Sioux, goaded to hostility by repeated violations of treaties and
corrupt handling of annuity goods by governmental agencies, had met the
_Robert Campbell_ at Fort Pierre, S. Dak., to ask for the goods due
them. When Samuel M. Latta, Indian agent in charge of distribution of
the boat's cargo--a newcomer in the Indian service, arrogant and none
too scrupulous--withheld one-third of the goods, the Indians vowed to
follow the boat up the river to Fort Benton, its destination. For 600
miles they harassed the steamer, pouring shots into it at every vantage
point, attacking the crew at each woodyard, and making life miserable
for all on board.

At that time the river at the mouth of Tobacco Garden Creek was quite
narrow, and the Indians chose this spot for a massed attack. Joseph
LaBarge, captain of the =Robert Campbell=, realizing the hazards of
steaming through this point, made his boat fast to the opposite bank to
prepare for a parley. The Sioux sent word that they wanted no trouble,
only the annuity goods due them. Latta, however, refused to give up
the goods, and suggested sending a yawl ashore to negotiate with the
Indians. The Sioux consented, provided Latta came ashore. He, in turn,
agreed to go, but when the yawl was ready he became conveniently ill in
his cabin.

The yawl went ashore and had hardly landed when the Indians, angered
by Latta's perfidy, attacked the crew. Three were killed and another
wounded before the crew of the steamer opened fire, killing 18 Indians
and 20 horses. The slain white men were buried next day on a bluff
opposite the mouth of the Little Muddy Creek, where the city of
Williston now stands (_see below_).

WHEELOCK, =342 m.= (2,387 alt., 115 pop.), named for Ralph W. Wheelock,
an editorial writer on the Minneapolis (Minn.) _Tribune_ in the early
1900's, is the highest point of elevation on the G. N. Ry. in North

Left from Wheelock on an improved dirt road to the junction with
an unimproved dirt road, =5 m.=; L. here =3 m.= to HUNGRY GULCH, a
pleasant ravine on Tobacco Garden Creek. From the base of one hill
bubbles a spring of clear water, and level areas under clumps of
trees invite picnic spreads on the banks of the creek. Along the
stream is a deposit of "fool's gold", or pyrite, which in 1902 had
gold prospectors agog in anticipation of wealth. The story is told
that, in the rush to stake claims here, James Moorman, on whose land
the "strike" was made, was the only person to benefit. He made a
substantial profit selling the hungry prospectors his small stock of
flour, in the form of pancakes, at exorbitant prices. When the supply
was exhausted and appetites still were not satisfied, Moorman told them
he would peel bark from the trees for them to eat. The ravine has since
been known as Hungry Gulch.

South of the junction with unimproved road to SEVEN MILE HILL, =7 m.=,
a large, fairly level elevation over which passed the old trail used by
fur traders, soldiers, and travelers between Bismarck and Williston.
Blue Buttes, prominent peaks in the Badlands across the Missouri,
are visible in the SE. on a clear day; N. and E. is an expanse of
prairie; and to the S. and W. the Missouri, with its wooded banks and
lowlands, winds to the horizon. Near the foot of the hill is CUSAC
SPRINGS FARM (R), where a skirmish apparently unrecorded in military
annals--possibly between Indians and soldiers--took place near a
spring. Rifle pits are still visible, and rifle shells and human bones
have been found in them.

EPPING, =348.5 m.= (2,224 alt., 183 pop.), named for Epping, in
England, lies on the southern slope of one of the many rolling hills of
the prairie.

Left from Epping on a graveled county road, formerly US 2, to the
EPPING-SPRINGBROOK DAM, =5 m.=, largest earthfill dam in the State.
Constructed as an FERA and WPA project, it was completed in 1936. This
bulwark on STONY CREEK has created a lake covering 180 acres, which,
including a strip of land around the water, will be made into a State
park devoted entirely to recreation. A six-inch pipe will make a flow
of water available for a limited amount of irrigation below the dam.

At =358 m.= the tableland of the Missouri Plateau comes to an abrupt
end, and the highway descends into the valley of LITTLE MUDDY CREEK.
From the top of the hill leading into this valley there is a panorama
of level land dotted with farmhouses, and in the distance to the L. are
the Missouri River and Williston.

At =359 m.= is the junction with an unimproved private road.

Right on this road to the OASIS GARDENS, =0.5 m.=, a private truck farm
where irrigation has been successfully employed.

At =361 m.= is the junction with US 85 (_see Tour 4_), a graveled
highway. US 2 and 85 are one route to =375.5 m.=

At =367.5 m.= is the junction with a graveled driveway.

Left on this driveway to the twin artificial lakes known as LAKE
MINNEKOSH (Sioux, _twin waters_), =0.3 m.= These lakes, built under a
Federal project, are formed by dammed springs (_sand beaches_, _diving
towers_, _bathing houses_).

WILLISTON, =370.5 m.= (1,861 alt., 5,106 pop.), was named by James J.
Hill, builder and first president of the G. N. Ry., for his friend S.
Willis James of New York City, who was one of the stockholders in the
company. The JAMES MEMORIAL LIBRARY, cor. 1st Ave. W. and 7th St., is a
gift of the James family.

A large residential district and an active business section form
the city, which is Williams County seat and the trade center for a
large agricultural area in northwestern North Dakota and northeastern
Montana. It lies on a gravelly terrace between the lowlands of the
Missouri River and the hills and prairies. The river, which at one
time flowed at the foot of Main St. and now has cut its channel
nearly a mile to the S., has played a prominent part in the history
of the locality. Up it came Lewis and Clark in 1805 on their historic
expedition to the Pacific coast. In 1832 the _Yellowstone_, first
steamboat to navigate the upper Missouri, passed the site, and by 1860
several boats were plying the stream. For 20 years after the gold
strike in Montana in 1863 and 1864 the river was the major channel of
communication to the Northwest.

The first white settler in the vicinity was Robert Matthews, employed
by the post traders at Fort Buford to cut hay for the cavalry horses.
In the 1870's he established himself some distance below the present
town, near where Stony Creek flows into the Little Muddy. Here he kept
a stock of goods for sale, and often hired crews of woodcutters to
supply the demand for fuel for the steamboats. A post office known as
Little Muddy was established on his ranch.

Although Matthews was the first permanent settler in the immediate
Williston area, the first white man to settle in Williams County
outside a trading or military post was George Grinnell. Born in
Maryland, he served as a spy for Gen. Philip H. Sheridan in the Army
of the Potomac, was honorably discharged, and in 1865 accompanied a
military wagon train from Fort Snelling, Minn., to Fort Berthold. The
next year found him established as a "woodhawk", furnishing fuel to
the steamboats, near the mouth of Dry Fork Creek, where he operated a
sawmill until advised that he was on Government property. Part of each
year he hunted along the Missouri, and for a time in 1875 was with a
party of gold seekers in the Musselshell country of Montana.

It was common practice of the period for hunters, traders, or trappers
to select a "woman of convenience" from among the Indians. In many
instances these women were mistreated and even held in contempt by
the very men who took them from their tribes. Grinnell was one of
these men. In his earlier days along the Missouri he lived with a
pure-blooded Indian woman, later discarding her for an educated and
talented half-breed, Josephine Manuri. One bitter cold winter day
Josephine's small son had wandered from the house and been lost.
Several men were ready to search for the youngster but Grinnell,
wishing to show his contempt for his wife, threatened to kill the first
man to go after him. In the group was George Newton, buffalo hunter
and pioneer Williston businessman, who replied, "Then you've got me to
kill," and went out and brought the child back to his mother.

One day in 1888, coming from his saloon where he had been drinking
heavily, Grinnell began to abuse his wife, who ran from him to a nearby
field where several men were plowing. Too drunk to pursue her on foot,
he mounted his horse and followed her to the field where, in an attempt
to strike her with the butt of his pistol, he fell from his horse,
carrying his wife down with him. The two struggled for several minutes,
none of the bystanders daring to interfere for fear of his gun.
Suddenly Grinnell relaxed and lay quiet. He was in the habit of wearing
around his neck a long leather watch thong with a sliding knot, and in
the struggle his wife had clung to this thong and strangled him. After
ascertaining that Grinnell was dead one of the onlookers remarked,
"Let's go get a drink," and they all retired to his saloon, leaving the
body as it was. Later a coroner's jury at Williston absolved the woman
of all blame in the death of her husband with the unique verdict that
Grinnell "... came to his death through an act of Almighty God, by the
hand of His agent, Josephine Grinnell."

With the coming of the railroad Williston was moved to higher ground
farther W. It was only a tent colony and a few log cabins when the
rails were laid into it in 1887, and it was said to have had a saloon
on each corner of its one business block, with seven or eight others
between. The late Joseph Stroud, pioneer Williston merchant, related
that on the occasion of his first visit to the new town he was
attracted by a large crowd of men on the street, engaged in rolling
a man over a barrel. Inquiring of a bystander as to the cause of the
man's accident, he was informed that the victim had taken a drink of
water by mistake.

By 1900 a steady influx of homesteaders into the Williston area
had begun, and by 1910 the most desirable lands in the surrounding
territory had been settled. Williston's population of 5,000, which has
fluctuated little in the last 20 years, was attained by 1915.

An important factor in the rapid growth of the city was the location
here of the division headquarters of the G. N. Ry. The roundhouse, car
repair shop, and huge ice house require the services of a large force
of men. The railroad stockyards E. of the city accommodate 93 carloads
of livestock, and have loading equipment for 23 cars; many trainloads,
of western sheep and cattle are fed in transit annually. On several
occasions a million bushels of grain have been handled at Williston in
a year. The city is an important primary turkey market, and thousands
of birds are shipped to holiday markets each year.

The Farmers Educational and Cooperative Union of America has entitled
Williston the _Cooperative City of North Dakota_. The FARMERS UNION
COOPERATIVE CREAMERY, rated as the largest enterprise of its kind in
the State, has its modern plant on W. Broadway. On W. 2nd St. (US 2 and
85) is the FARMERS UNION OIL CO. PLANT, which maintains a wholesale
department for oils, tires, and binder twine, and has a tractor and
farm machinery repair division. On W. 1st St. is the FARMERS NATIONAL
WAREHOUSE CORP. BUILDING, a concrete elevator with 217,000 bu.
capacity, said to be the largest cooperatively owned primary grain
warehouse in the United States. Newest of the cooperatives is the
POULTRY PLANT on W. 2nd St. at the outskirts of the city.

In RECREATION PARK, between 2nd and 3rd Aves. W. and 4th and 5th Sts.
W., are playground facilities, a bandstand, and a number of cages of
wild animals and birds; the larger animals are kept in WESTLAWN PARK,
in the northwestern part of the city. HARMON FIELD (_baseball diamond_,
_football gridiron_, _cinder track_, _swimming pool_), at the northern
end of Main St., was built under the Civil Works Administration. Two
annual events in Williston are the Old Fiddlers Contest (_Jan._), and
the Upper Missouri Band Tournament (_1st wk. in June_).

Left from Williston on E. Broadway on a graveled Scenic Highway,
following the route of the old overland trail between Bismarck and
Fort Buford (_see Side Tour 3B_), to the junction with a graded dirt
highway at =2.5 m.=; R. here across CRAZY MAN'S COULEE, =3 m.= One day
in the early 1880's Robert Matthews (see above), the first settler in
the region, was seated on the steps of his ranch house just W. of the
ravine when he saw a man, dressed in skins and with hair falling to his
shoulders, come out of the thickets in the coulee. Matthews knew that
no one lived in the country for miles around, and was interested in
learning his identity. When the man saw the ranch buildings, however,
he started away, broke into a run, and disappeared into the brush
along the creek running through the ravine. About a year later a man
similarly dressed, perhaps the same person, came out of the brush and
repeated the performance of the previous year. Matthews remarked to his
wife, "That is surely Crazy Man's Coulee over there. That's the second
wild man who has come out of it."

Left from Crazy Man's Coulee =1.5 m.= on an unimproved dirt road to
MEDICINE LODGE SPRING (R), in the coulee farther to the E. An early
homesteader bottled and sold the mineral water of the spring. However,
the Indians had discovered its health-giving qualities many years
before, and used to come long distances to camp here. One of their
favorite camping places was MEDICINE LODGE HILL, visible about 1 m.
N. of the spring, from whose height signal fires could be seen in all
directions, and from which game or enemies could easily be sighted.
Atop the hill are traces of Indian rings.

Southeast from Crazy Man's Coulee on the Scenic Highway to a junction
at =5.5 m.=; L. to =11.5 m.=; R. to =13.5 m.=; L. to =15.5 m.=; R. to
the Babcock Farm, =19 m.= Right here on an unimproved trail to the Harm
Arends place on SPANISH POINT, =22 m.=

A short distance from the Arends farm is LAKE JESSIE (_boating_,
_fishing_, _swimming_), an oxbow lake formed by the changing channel of
the Missouri. The woods offer many natural camping places; the Upper
Missouri District of the Great Plains Area, Boy Scouts of America,
maintains a summer camp for boys here. Spanish Point was first known as
the Spanish Woodyard, from the fact that two Mexicans in 1868 started
selling fuel here to the steamers plying between St. Louis and the
Montana gold fields. The Mexicans were joined by other woodcutters,
and for a time the group prospered. A murder, two deaths at the hands
of Indians, and other disasters, however, took their toll, and by 1870
the log cabin and stockade were deteriorating, and in a short time the
river had washed away all traces of the woodyard.

West of Williston the MISSOURI RIVER (L) is bordered on the near side
by timbered bottomlands, and on the far side by high, steep buttes.

At =375.5 m.= is the junction (L) with US 85 (_see Tour 4_), and at
=387.5 m.= is the junction with a county graveled road (_see Side Tour
6B_). The route crosses the Montana Line at =390.5 m.=, 132 m. E. of
Glasgow, Mont. (_see Mont. Tour 2_).


  Devils Lake (city)--Camp Grafton--Devils Lake--Fort Totten Indian
  Agency--Sully's Hill National Game Preserve--Devils Lake (city). ND
  20, ND 57, and Indian Service roads.

  Devils Lake to Devils Lake, 33 m.

  Graveled roadbed.

  No accommodations along route.

This circular route from the city of Devils Lake along the beautifully
wooded southern shore of the lake passes the homes of the Sioux and
Chippewa Indians near the Fort Totten Agency, and many points connected
with Indian life and legend.

ND 20 branches S. from US 2 in DEVILS LAKE, =0.0 m.= (_see Tour 6_).

South of the city is level farming land, once the bed of a shallow
glacial sea of which DEVILS LAKE, =5 m.=, is a remnant. The name is the
white man's misinterpretation of the Sioux name Minnewaukan, _mystery_,
or _spirit water_. Approximately 30 m. by 10 m., the lake is narrow
and extremely irregular, with many little bays and peninsulas, and
is surrounded by high morainic hills which, particularly along the
southern shore, are heavily wooded. The clear water is strongly
impregnated with sulphite, sodium carbonate, lime, magnesium, and
iron--much like the water of oceans. It has been calculated that at
the time of origin several thousand years ago the lake had a depth of
56 ft. A fall of 21 ft. is shown between that time and the Government
land survey of 1883, and a further fall of more than 26 ft. in the
half century since. At the time of the survey fish were plentiful in
the lake, and each spring in the early 1880's the settlers caught them
with pitchforks and took them away by the wagonload. In 1888, for some
reason never clearly explained, the fish disappeared from the lake, and
by 1909 the water level had fallen so far that commercial shipping on
the lake was discontinued (_see Tour 6_). The sudden recession of the
lake is attributed to the lack of ground and surface water in North
Dakota, and has constituted a strong argument for the proposed Missouri
River diversion project which would store water from the Missouri and
divert it for use in the eastern part of this State and South Dakota,
and in western Minnesota.

Many legends concerning Devils Lake have been handed down by the
Indians. One tells of two Indian braves who were talking and smoking
on the shore, when one of them idly thrust his knife into a large log
lying on the water's edge. The log slid into the lake, and the men saw
that it was a huge sea monster. Some say this serpent still lives in
a hole in the bottom of the lake, and can be seen at times; that the
water rises and boils when he comes out of his lair; that he leaves the
lake at night to sleep on the shore.

Another story relates how a victorious party of Sioux warriors, who
had attacked the Chippewa against the advice of Owanda the Seer, were
swallowed up by the lake as they returned across its surface from the

Phantom ships are the subject of a number of stories told by both white
people and Indians. Under proper atmospheric conditions the waters of
the lake throw off a vapor through which birds swimming on the surface
can be seen from a distance highly magnified and resembling ships
moving on the lake.

At =5 m.= is a junction with a graveled road.

Right on this road is LAKEWOOD PARK (_cottages can be rented_; _due
to low water level, lake unsuitable for bathing here_ (_1938_); _band
concerts_, _dancing_, _baseball_, _and boating_), =1 m.=, (1,460
alt., 200 pop.), on an attractive arm of the lake known as Creel's
Bay. The settlement grew up about a Chautauqua movement which was
inaugurated in 1892, continued for more than 35 years, and became the
third largest in the country (1911). During Chautauqua season in the
early days steamboats, including the _Minnie H_. (_see Tour 6_), made
daily excursions to points of interest on the lake. The Chautauqua
association had its own railway from the park to Devils Lake, and on
some occasions special trains were run on all lines leading into the
city. The point is still a popular summer resort.

At =6 m.=, at the "Narrows" of the lake, which is now only about 400
ft. wide, is a junction with a graveled road.

Right on this road to CAMP GRAFTON, =2.5 m.=, where field training
of the North Dakota National Guard has been conducted annually since
1904. Named for Lt. Col. Gilbert C. Grafton, who died in the World War,
the camp covers about 6 of the 180 sq. m. that once composed the Fort
Totten military reserve. Two-week maneuvers are held in June, usually
early in the month, with 21 units, totaling approximately 1,100 troops,
participating. The high light of the training events is Governor's Day,
the second Sunday of the period, when the camp is put on dress parade
for inspection by the chief executive of the State, who is commander in
chief of its armed forces.

At =6.5 m.= on ND 20 is a junction with ND 57, now the tour route.

Left on ND 20 to the junction with a graveled county road, =10 m.=; R.
here is TOKIO, =10.8 m.= (1,501 alt., 112 pop.), near the center of the
original Fort Totten Indian Reservation.

Right from Tokio =1.5 m.= on a county dirt road to the DEVIL'S
HEART, highest point in the Devils Lake area. For the Sioux it was a
traditional meeting place to discuss war, hunting, or other ventures,
and their name for it, in translation, means _center of the region_.
Any promise made by an Indian on this hill is said to be sacred, and
must be conscientiously fulfilled. Father J. B. Genin, one of the
earliest missionaries to the Indians of this region, erected a cross
on the crest of the hill March 4, 1868, and at the same time announced
that Devils Lake was to be known as St. Michael's Lake, but the change
was never popularly adopted, and lake and town still bear the ancient
mystic Indian name. From the top of Devil's Heart there is an excellent
panorama of the entire lake region.

South from Tokio on the county graveled road to a junction at =11 m.=;
R. to =12.3 m.=; L. to WOOD LAKE (_tourist and camping facilities_;
_boating_, _fishing supplies_), =13.3 m.=, a small wooded body of
water. Fishing is good during open season (_May 15-Nov. 1 for perch_,
_June 5-Nov. 1 for crappie_). In June and July a boys' camp is operated
here by the Devils Lake Boy Scouts. On the northwestern shore is the
BENSON COUNTY PARK (_picnicking and camping_), a 40-acre tract improved
under the Works Progress Administration in 1937.

Between its junction with ND 20 and Fort Totten, ND 57 winds along
the lake shore at the foot of the high, tree-clad range, and is known
as the Burtness Scenic Highway, in honor of O. B. Burtness of Grand
Forks (1884-), who as a Congressman from North Dakota (1921-27) was
influential in obtaining funds for construction of the road.

At =11.3 m.= on ND 57 is a junction with a trail.

Left on this trail to the SKI SLIDE, =0.5 m.=, of the Lake Region Ski
Club. Each year (_Feb._) riders from all parts of the United States
participate in the tournament held here.

At =13.3 m.= is a MONUMENT TO FATHER JEROME HUNT, who served St.
Michael's Mission (_see below_) almost 40 years. With the help of
a young Indian, Ignatius Court, whom he sent to the office of the
Devils Lake _News_ to learn the art of printing, he published a small
newspaper, two prayer books, and Bible stories, all in the Siouan

FORT TOTTEN, =14 m.= (1,470 alt., 1,250 pop., including town and
reservation), with its uniform white agency buildings primly facing a
central square, was originally a military post established in 1867 as a
step in the plan to place the Indians of the region on a reservation.
The reservation, named for Gen. Gilbert Totten, then Chief, Engineer
Corps, U. S. Army, was established through a treaty in 1867 with the
Sisseton, Wahpeton, and Cut-Head Sioux. On July 17, 1867, Gen. A. H.
Terry, commander of the Department of Dakota, arrived on the southern
shore of Devils Lake with three companies of the Thirty-First U. S.
Infantry, to establish the post. The original fort was of logs, and
still stands half a mile S. of the brick buildings that replaced it in
1868. The bricks for the fort were made on the reservation, and, with
the exception of present Fort Lincoln (_see Tour 8_), built much later,
this is considered the best-built fort in the history of North Dakota.

Principally used as troops' winter quarters, the post sometimes had
as many as five companies and at other times only one. Fort Totten
troops acted as escorts for surveyors of the N. P. Ry. and for the
International Boundary Line Commission, and participated in various
campaigns in Dakota and Montana, returning to the fort for the winter.

Although the Indians of the region were usually quite peaceable, there
was occasional trouble with them, particularly on the route to Fort
Stevenson along the Missouri (_see Tour 10_). This trail constituted
the main channel of transportation and communication for Fort Totten in
its early days. An anonymous poem describes what is said to have been
an actual occurrence (although the date given is not correct) in which
Josh Murphy and Charlie Reynolds--General Custer's scout on the Black
Hills expedition, who died with Custer at the Little Big Horn (_see_
HISTORY)--are carrying the mail into Fort Totten.

    "It was in the spring of sixty-four,
    Just a little while ere the war was o'er,
    That 'twas mine the mail bags to transport
    From Stevenson Pass to Totten fort;
    Through the rugged passes the route to take
    O'er the mountains that frown on Devils Lake;
    Those canyons alive with skulking crews
    Of the Chippewas and the savage Sioux;
    But my heart felt light and my arm felt strong
    For brave Josh Murphy rode along."

Josh is shot by Indians and begs his companion to prevent them from
taking his scalp. Charlie lifts the dying man to his saddle and Josh's
pony dashes into the night.

    "We sought for Josh and we struck his trail
    In the dew damp notes of the scattered mail;
    And we found him at last, scarce a pistol shot
    From the picket wall of the fort he sought.
    There he proudly lay with his unscalped head
    On the throbless breast of his pony--dead!
    And the route from the pass to the cedared hill
    Is known as the 'Deadman's Journey' still."

The garrison was withdrawn from Fort Totten in 1890, and the mission
school, which had been conducted by the Grey Nuns of Montreal since
1874, was consolidated with the Indian Industrial School and housed
with the agency offices in the fort buildings. Approximately 1,000
Sioux and a small number of Chippewa--many of both tribes are now of
mixed blood--are under jurisdiction of the agency. At the school here
the boys are taught dairying, gardening, carpentry, shoe repairing,
steam and electrical engineering, baking, and tailoring; and the girls,
sewing, laundering, cooking, and housekeeping.

At the auditorium (_last wk. Feb._) is held the annual Midwinter Fair.
Another annual fair is held (_1st wk. Sept._) on the fairgrounds
adjoining the agency on the NW. To both of these a few Indians bring
handicraft work for sale; elsewhere such work is scarce, though
beadwork and certain primitive musical instruments--flutes of red
cedar, whistles of bone, large drums, tom-toms, rattles, and string
bells--can be obtained at some of the homes.

The reservation, with its wooded hills and ravines, and its numerous
lakes, is a beautiful region. Originally covering 360 sq. m., it has
been reduced to 137,000 acres. The land is allotted in 60-acre tracts
to a family, and some farming is done. The economic status of the
Indians here is poor, however.

At Fort Totten is the junction (L) with a graveled Indian Service road,
from this point the tour route.

Right from Fort Totten on ND 57 to the INDIAN RESETTLEMENT TRACT (R),
=0.5 m.=, where the Government has constructed 13 new homes for the

At =2 m.= on ND 57 are the DEVIL'S EARS, two long hills through which
the highway runs. A man passing between these hills loses his mind,
according to Indian legend, but regains it as soon as he comes out
of the valley. The Indians are reluctant to discuss these hills with
strangers; for while their pre-Christian philosophy included no devils,
the hills were believed to have some connection with the Great Mystery
or Great Spirit.

On the graveled Indian Service road is the 800-acre SULLY'S HILL
NATIONAL GAME PRESERVE, =15.5 m.= (_no admission charge_; _picnic
shelters_, _playgrounds_, _pure water_, _camping facilities_; _vehicles
not allowed within fenced area_). Trees and shrubs cover the hills
of the park almost to their peaks, and tiny lakes dot the valleys,
making this a beautiful spot. The park and its highest point, Sully's
Hill, are named for Gen. Alfred H. Sully, to commemorate his Indian
expeditions into North Dakota. A high woven-wire fence encloses small
herds of buffalo, elk, and deer, also wild fowl. Some of the animals
are quite tame, and amuse visitors with their antics. More than 14,000
people visited the park in 1935.

The DEVIL'S TOOTH (L), =17 m.=, a boulder about 6 ft. high and 5
ft. square at the base, resembles a tooth with its roots extending
upward. This rock is greatly revered by the Indians, who tell that
an Indian mother wandered over the hill one day carrying her child,
and disappeared. Searchers, looking for her in vain, found this large
stone, which had not been here before, and concluded it was the
spirit of the woman and child. The stone has since had a reputation
of connection with evil spirits. Gifts are often left here by Indians
when a relative has died, but it is said that other Indians sometimes
appropriate these offerings. It is an old custom for an Indian to give
away part or even all of his possessions after the death of a loved one.

At =19 m.= L. on a graveled Indian Service road.

At =21 m.= (R) is small, attractive COURT LAKE (_charge of 10c per day
or 25c per wk. for use of bathing beach_), named for Ignatius Court,
the Indian who helped Father Hunt print a Siouan newspaper in the
early days of St. Michael's Mission, and who served for many years as
official interpreter at the Fort Totten Agency.

At =21.8 m.= is a junction with a graveled Indian Service road (L), now
the route.

Right on this road is ST. MICHAEL, =2 m.= (1,470 alt., 180 pop.), at
the foot of Mission Hill, which affords a good view of the surrounding
country. Here is ST. MICHAEL'S MISSION, established in 1874 by the
Grey Nuns order of the Roman Catholic Church, through the efforts of
Maj. William H. Forbes, first Indian agent on the reservation. At the
mission lived and worked Father Jerome Hunt (_see above_). The old
mission church is still standing.

Left from the St. Michael junction to ND 57 at =22.5 m.=; R. here to
Devils Lake, =33 m.=


                                           _Photo by Russell Reid_]

                                    GRAND CANYON OF THE LITTLE MISSOURI

  _Photo by Hugh W. Hempel_]


  Junction US 2--Buford--Fort Buford State Park.

  Junction with US 2 to Fort Buford State Park, 9.5 m.

  Unmarked graveled road 8.5 m., unimproved road 1 m.

  No accommodations.

The remains of Fort Buford, at the end of this route, evoke memories of
the once feared Indian chieftains Sitting Bull, Gall, and Joseph, and
of the notable military leaders Gen. Hugh E. Scott and Gen. William H.

The route, an unmarked gravel road, branches S. from US 2 (_see Tour
6_) 17 m. W. of Williston. At =8 m.= is BUFORD (1,950 alt., 52 pop.), a
little village named for the old fort. At =8.5 m.= is the junction with
an unimproved road; L. here.

On the SITE OF FORT BUFORD, =9 m.=, a stone powder house and the
regimental headquarters buildings still stand; the military cemetery is
to the S.

In 1828 John Jacob Astor's American Fur Co. built its principal
post on the upper Missouri, Fort Union, 3 m. up the Missouri from
the mouth of the Yellowstone, a few hundred yards E. of the present
Montana Line. For almost 40 years Fort Union was the most important
trading post in the Dakotas. Unfortunately, the traders at the post
were more interested in getting furs cheaply than in preserving the
morale of the Indians of the region. Whiskey, although prohibited,
flowed freely. Quarrels between the Indians and the white men were
frequent. Conditions were so bad in 1864 when Gen. Alfred Sully made a
visit to the post following his campaign against the Sioux (_see Tour
8 and Side Tour 8D_), that he recommended Government control of the
trading posts if peace were ever to be made with the Indians. Upon his
recommendation, therefore, Fort Buford was established in June 1866
opposite the mouth of the Yellowstone. Fort Union was dismantled and
its materials were brought here for use in building the new post.

Because of its strategic position, the new fort, named for Gen.
John Buford, who distinguished himself at Gettysburg, commanded the
water routes to the Northwest, and for more than 25 years was one of
the country's vital Army posts. The fort was garrisoned partly by
ex-Confederate soldiers, prisoners of war who had been paroled on oath
that they would not again bear arms against the Union and on agreement
to enlist for service in the outposts of the West. It played an active
part in the settlement of the Indian troubles, and in establishing the
Indians upon the reservations.

When Chief Joseph and his Nez Perce followers from Oregon finally
surrendered in the Bear Paw Mountains of Montana in 1877 after leading
their pursuers a merry 2,000-mile chase through the Rockies for more
than a year, he was brought to Fort Buford before being placed on a
reservation in Washington. Sitting Bull and his band of Sioux, after
their flight into Canada in a vain attempt to avoid confinement on the
reservation, also came to Fort Buford in 1881, and it was before the
regimental headquarters building, the southernmost of the group now
standing, that the chief surrendered. Gall had preceded him by a few
months, also coming to Fort Buford to give himself up.

Telegraphic connections with Fort Lincoln were established in 1873, and
a wagon road, used until 1881, connected Fort Buford with the Custer
post and with the railroad, which at that time ended in Bismarck. It
followed the eastern side of the Missouri, and is still in use in some
places (_see Side Tour 3B_). Except for goods sent by steamboat, all
supplies and mail were freighted over this road.

Fort Buford was sold at public auction in 1895. The 20-room residence
of the commanding officers was purchased by John Mercer, who maintained
it as a museum until its destruction by fire in 1937.

South of the old buildings is FORT BUFORD STATE PARK, =9.5 m.=,
including the military CEMETERY OF THE FORT. The unkept graves, some
marked with marble slabs, some with wooden markers on which the
inscriptions have lost all legibility, are sunken and overgrown with

About a quarter of a mile SE. of the buildings by the river, in the
1830's and 1840's, stood a trading post known first as Fort William
and later as Fort Mortimer. When William Sublette and Robert Campbell
built Fort William in 1833, they found themselves treated as intruders
by the monopolistic American Fur Co. post at Fort Union. The policy
of the American Fur Co., in its fight against competition, was to try
every kind of tactics, from rate wars to the instigation of killings
by the Indians. On a typical occasion a band of Blackfeet Indians,
coming to trade, was met by a procession from Fort Union headed by a
band in full uniform, with the traders following, bearing articles of
barter. That day the impressionable aborigines traded at Fort Union.
Another time a Fort William expedition to the Crow Indians was robbed
of everything including horses by marauders believed to have been sent
by the neighboring post.

The power of liquor as an article of trade was unbelievably great.
Charles Larpenteur, who was at Fort William, tells in his memoirs of
going into an Indian camp in weather so cold that his mules froze to
death in the shelter provided for them, and obtaining 180 buffalo
robes for 5 gal. of alcohol, which sufficed to make everyone in the
camp drunk twice. The use of liquor was a sore point between Fort
Union and Fort William, for although it was illegal in Indian country
Sublette had been able to get a supply into Fort William, while every
similar effort at Fort Union had been defeated. Larpenteur describes
the opening of trade at Fort William thus: "The liquor trade started
at dark, and soon the singing and yelling commenced. The Indians were
all locked up in the fort, for fear that some might go to Fort Union,
which was about two and one-half miles distant. Imagine the noise. Five
hundred Indians with their squaws, all drunk as they could be, locked
up in that small space." (The stockade was 150 ft. by 130 ft.) "The
debauch continued during that entire night and well into the next
day ... Indians in stupor from drink lay in every direction."

Competition grew keen. Beaver skins, which ordinarily were worth $3,
brought as much as $12. It was the policy of the American Fur Co.,
however, to buy out its competitors if it could not frighten them out.
Accordingly, after a year of bitter rivalry, an agreement was reached
whereby Sublette and Campbell sold Fort William to the Astor concern
and moved W., leaving the profitable upper Missouri valley trade to
Fort Union.

In 1842 a new post, called Fort Mortimer, was built by Fox, Livingston
& Co. a short distance back from the bank at the Fort William site. The
new traders did not long survive the competition of Fort Union, and in
1846 found it expedient to sell out to the American Fur Co. Some 12
years later an adobe trading post was erected here, but little is known
of it other than that it was abandoned in 1858 and was finally torn
down in 1866, its materials being used in the building of Fort Buford.


  Carrington--Minot--Bowbells--Portal--(Regina, Sask., Can.). US 52.

  Carrington to Canadian border, 241.5 m.

  Soo Ry. roughly parallels entire route.

  Graveled roadbed except 38 m. bituminous-surfaced between Velva and

  Accommodations in principal towns.

US 52, pursuing a diagonal course northwest across the State, provides
a direct route between the Canadian Rockies and the Middle West. It
traverses a diversified farming area, and passes through the fertile
Souris River valley and the treeless valley of the Des Lacs River. In
the green panorama of spring the prairie grasslands, dotted with small
grazing herds of white-faced Herefords or black and white Holsteins,
alternate with tilled fields. By late summer tones of yellow dominate
the landscape, which after the harvest is left a scarred, grimy tan.

At CARRINGTON, =0.0 m.= (_see Tour 2_), is the junction with US 281
(_see Tour 2_).

At =9 m.= on US 52 is the junction with ND 30, a graded dirt road.

Left on this road to the HAWKSNEST, =9 m.=, a high, flat-topped hill
with well-timbered slopes rising 400 ft. above the surrounding plain.
Near its top is a crystal-clear spring. It was named in 1873 by a party
of surveyors who saw a great number of hawks swarm from the trees. On
top of the hill is a large serpentine mound. After the coming of the
white man the hill was a camping place for Sioux Indians traveling
between Fort Totten and Fort Yates. They called the hill Huya Wayapa
ahdi (_where the eagle brings something home in his beak_). According
to Indian legend a large band of Sioux once camped near the hill but
were unable to ascertain the whereabouts of a war party of Chippewa
which they suspected to be near. One of the Sioux, however, observed
that an eagle flying into the trees carried in its mouth what appeared
to be a piece of meat cut with a knife. From the direction in which the
eagle had flown the Sioux were able to find the enemy. The legend is
silent on the outcome of the warriors' meeting.

Left from the Hawksnest =3 m.= to CAMP KIMBALL HISTORIC SITE, where
Sibley camped July 22 and 23, 1863. It was from this point that the
expedition moved SW. to engage in the Battle of Big Mound (_see Tour

SYKESTON, =13 m.= (1,233 alt., 327 pop.), a German community named for
Richard Sykes, who platted the town in 1883, is on the banks of the
PIPESTEM RIVER and artificial LAKE HIAWATHA. Sykes Park provides good
camping. Buffalo favored this vicinity as a grazing spot before the
coming of settlers, but the semiannual hunting expeditions of the metis
(_see Side Tour 5A_) destroyed many, and after the cattlemen arrived
only an occasional specimen was sighted. The library of an Inverness,
Scotland, home is adorned with the head of what was probably the last
buffalo killed in this vicinity. A party of guests at the Sykes ranch
in 1881, including Ewen Grant of Inverness, learned that a buffalo was
grazing with the Sykes cattle, and in the exciting chase to bag the
animal Grant had the good fortune to despatch him.

FESSENDEN, =36 m.= (1,610 alt., 738 pop.), named for Cortez Fessenden,
surveyor general of Dakota Territory from 1881 to 1885, was originally
settled by a group of Welsh farmers, though the population is now
predominantly Scandinavian. Fessenden was platted in 1893, and in the
election of 1894 was named Wells County seat. Its citizens journeyed
by teams and wagons in the still hours of the night to Sykeston,
first county seat, seized the county records, and hauled them to the
new location. Each year (_March_) Fessenden holds an agricultural
exposition culminating in the coronation of an Alfalfa Queen.

HARVEY, =59.5 m.= (1,596 alt., 2,157 pop.), named for Col. James S.
Harvey, a former director of the Soo Line, is on the banks of the
SHEYENNE RIVER. It is a division point on the Soo, and is the largest
town on the route with the exception of Minot.

Right from Harvey on ND 3, a graveled road, to junction with a dirt
road at =4 m.=; R. on this road to BUTTE DE MORALE, =7 m.=, an ancient
landmark rising 300 ft. above the surrounding prairie. It was to this
vicinity that the metis, or French-Indian half-breeds, came in the
1840's on their buffalo-hunting expeditions (_see Side Tour 5A_). It is
said that on one occasion a party of 1,390 people with 824 wagons and
1,200 animals camped here and slaughtered 250 buffalo in a single day.
In 1853 the surveying expedition of Gov. I. I. Stevens passed the hill,
and in 1862-63 Capt. James L. Fisk led two expeditions of Montana gold
seekers through the vicinity.

MARTIN, =72.5 m.= (1,589 alt., 211 pop.), known in early days as
Casselman, was later renamed for a Soo official in order to avoid
confusion with other towns of similar names. A group of Rumanians
from Regina, Sask., settled here in 1893, but the population is
now predominantly German, as is that of ANAMOOSE (from Chippewa
_uhnemoosh_, dog), =80.5 m.= (1,620 alt., 495 pop.).

DRAKE, =89 m.= (1,634 alt., 644 pop.), named for an early settler,
Herman Drake, is on the watershed between the Mouse and Sheyenne Rivers
in a diversified farming and dairying area. A small railroad center,
it has become a wholesale distribution point; a $20,000 cooperative
creamery is operated here.

Northwest of Drake the route traverses rolling tree-dotted hills that
begin to slope toward the Mouse River valley.

BALFOUR, =97 m.= (1,613 alt., 197 pop.), named by the town site
company, and VOLTAIRE, =116 m.= (1,587 alt., 61 pop.), believed to have
been named for an early settler, are both young villages incorporated
in 1929.

The road makes an abrupt descent into the flat, trough-like Mouse River
valley at VELVA, =122 m.= (1,511 alt., 870 pop.), which is at the
southwestern point of the loop of the river, near a camp site of the
Sully expedition of 1865. The park-like little town is on the flood
plain of the river which flows through it. First known as Mouse River
Post Office, it was given its present name after organization of the
town site in 1891-92. A park in the northern part of the town offers
recreational facilities, and contains the FIRST DWELLING IN VELVA, a
log hut built in 1885.

1. Right from Velva on a dirt road winding down the Mouse River
valley is VERENDRYE, =11 m.= (1,554 alt., 100 pop.). First known as
Falsen, the town was given its present name in honor of Pierre de la
Verendrye, earliest known white explorer in the region. Right from the
town pump =0.5 m.= to the globular masonry DAVID THOMPSON MEMORIAL,
erected by the G. N. Ry. in 1925 on a high point overlooking the river
valley. On the base of the monument is the inscription: "1770--David
Thompson--1885, Geographer and Astronomer passed near here in 1797 and
1798 on a scientific and trading expedition. He made the first map of
the country which is now North Dakota and achieved many noteworthy
discoveries in the northwest." Thompson made his explorations while an
employee of the North West Fur Co.

2. Left from Velva on a graded dirt road to a junction with another
graded road at =4 m.=; R. here to another junction at =8 m.=; L. here
to a STRIP MINE which is one of the larger lignite operating units
in the United States, =10 m.= Here, in order to reach a vein of coal
averaging 14 ft. in thickness, great shovels strip the 40-to 50-feet
overburden and pile it into fantastic high mounds and ridges resembling
the work of a giant mole. Nearby is a small community of some 40 homes
of miners.

Northwest of Velva the route follows the foot of the hills bordering
the valley to SAWYER, =128.5 m.= (1,525 alt., 206 pop.), believed to
have been named for a Soo Ry. official.

MINOT, =144 m.= (1,557 alt., 16,099 pop.) (_see_ MINOT).

  _Points of Interest_: Minot State Teachers College, Roosevelt Park
  and Zoo.

At Valley St. and 4th Ave. SE. is a junction with US 2 (_see Tour 6_),
which unites with US 52 to =150 m.= At 4th Ave. and 2nd St. SW. is the
junction with US 83 (_see Tour 3_).

Left of the junction at =150 m.= is a large tourist camp.

BURLINGTON, =152 m.= (1,590 alt., 150 pop.), named for Burlington,
Iowa, under the North Dakota Rural Rehabilitation Corporation became
the scene of the State's first SUBSISTENCE HOMESTEAD PROJECT. Here,
in the wooded valley at the confluence of the Mouse and the Des Lacs
Rivers, a model village of comfortable homes arose (1937) to replace
the former dwellings of the miners who have part time employment in the
lignite mines of the vicinity. When completed the project will provide
homes and irrigated garden-land for more than 50 families. The cost to
each owner, including land, house, barn, garage, and chicken and hog
houses, will be approximately $3,500. A concrete dam and bowl spillway
on the Des Lacs River will irrigate more than half the 600 acres
included in the project.

A camp fire unwittingly built upon an outcropping of lignite at
Burlington in the spring of 1883 is credited with first having
acquainted pioneers here with the possibilities of developing the
fuel on a large scale. Three men camped at the fork of the Mouse and
Des Lacs Rivers were surprised one morning to find their camp fire
of the previous night still burning. Upon investigation they learned
that their wood fire had ignited a blackish mineral--lignite--in the
earth beneath it. All lignite mines in the Burlington vicinity are
underground (_open on application at mine office in Burlington_).

Northwest of Burlington the route follows the Des Lacs River valley to
FOXHOLM, =163 m.= (1,657 alt., 200 pop.), named for Foxholm, England,
and CARPIO, =171.5 m.= (1,696 alt., 344 pop.), which touches the hills
on both sides of the narrow valley. One story has it that Carpio was
named by the wife of one of the railroad officials; another that the
name was suggested by the fact that the first post office was a freight
car on which was posted the sign "P. O."

Right from Carpio on a graveled county road to the UPPER SOURIS
MIGRATORY WATERFOWL PROJECT, =7 m.=, one of the largest of its type
being undertaken in North Dakota by the U. S. Biological Survey. Here
a marshland along the Mouse River has been purchased and a large dam
constructed to impound a lake 26 m. long. A series of smaller dams
farther down the river will control the flood waters of the Souris and
will aid in restoring the marshes to suitable breeding and nesting
grounds for migratory waterfowl. The low, chalky white, red-roofed
buildings E. of the dam are PROJECT HEADQUARTERS.

Left from the dam on a gravel road to the CP RANCH, =14 m.=, which
maintains one of the few buffalo herds in the Northwest. Thirty-five
shaggy-coated bison range in a 700-acre pasture, appearing at the ranch
buildings twice daily for water. A large herd of Hereford cattle is
also kept here.

DONNYBROOK, =181 m.= (1,760 alt., 259 pop.), named by its founders for
Donnybrook, Ireland, is at the foot of the hills bordering the western
side of the Des Lacs valley.

At =189 m.= the route passes S. of DES LACS LAKE, a remnant of a
glacial stream, now divided into three parts and drained by the Des
Lacs River. The U. S. Biological Survey has a large migratory waterfowl
project in progress on the lower lake, and as the road winds along the
eastern shore the nesting islands and several dams built by the survey
are visible.

KENMARE, =197 m.= (1,799 alt., 1,494 pop.), believed to have been named
by the wife of a Canadian Pacific Ry. official for a community in
Ireland, lies on a hillside facing MIDDLE DES LACS LAKE. In the steep
sides of the lake valley nearby are a number of lignite mines.

Opposite Kenmare are the ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS of the Des Lacs Lake
Migratory Waterfowl Project--low white structures with red tile roofs.

At Kenmare the highway leaves the valley for the Drift Plain, which
stretches away to the E. to meet the flat bed of glacial Lake Souris,
beyond which lie the Turtle Mountains. To the W. against the horizon
rises the eastern edge of the great Missouri Plateau topped by the
Altamont Moraine, the height of land between the Missouri and Souris

At =202 m.= is the Junction with ND 5, a graveled highway (_see Tour
5_). US 52 and ND 5 are one route to =234 m.=

At =209 m.= the highway dips into a large cut to cross UPPER DES
LACS LAKE, which, despite present dry conditions, was once the scene
of steamboating. In early days it was navigable across the Canadian
border near Northgate, and grain from points in Canada and along the
lake in North Dakota was shipped via the water route to Kenmare for
transshipment by rail to eastern markets. The years of continued
subnormal rainfall in this region have left the upper lake dry in

BOWBELLS, =214 m.= (1,961 alt., 695 pop.), named by English
stockholders of the Soo Line for the famous Bow Bells in St.
Mary-le-Bow Church in London, is the Burke County seat. Almost
treeless, its squat appearance blends into the flat terrain, with the
tall water tower, the only notable feature of the town, visible for
miles on the level prairie.

FLAXTON, =226.5 m.= (1,940 alt., 423 pop.), was given its present name
because the town site was a field of flax when application for a post
office was made.

At =234 m.= is a junction with ND 5 (_see Tour 5_).

PORTAL, =241.5 m.= (1,954 alt., 512 pop.), is an important
international port of entry, hence its name. It is an airport of
entry, and also a division point on the Soo, much of the traffic to
the Canadian Northwest passing through its custom offices. The U. S.
FOR TRAVELERS), on Boundary and Railway Aves., is a two-story brick
building in Colonial style. A large canopied driveway at the front
of the building permits inspection of three automobiles at once. The
Canadian custom offices are directly across the avenue, which is
bisected by the international boundary. Portal is the home of many
sports enthusiasts, and most of its games have an international aspect.
Unusual in sports is the international golf course, on which in August
1934 a young Portal golfer, George Wegener, made an international
hole-in-one, driving from the eighth tee, which is in Canada, 125 yd.
into the cup on the ninth green, in the United States. The curling club
here is also international, being composed of both Canadian and United
States citizens in the border cities of Portal and North Portal. They
play this winter sport in a specially constructed domed building.

US 52 crosses the Canadian Line at the customhouses in the city of
Portal, 30 m. S. of Estevan, Sask.


  (Minneapolis, Minn.)--Fargo--Valley
  City--Jamestown--Bismarck--Mandan--Dickinson--(Glendive, Mont.). US

  Minnesota Line to Montana Line, 368 m.

  N. P. Ry. and Northwest Airlines parallel route across State.

  Paved or bituminous-surfaced roadbed except 73 m. graveled.

  Accommodations chiefly in towns.

US 10, rising steadily toward the foothills of the Rocky Mountains,
with a gain of 1,852 feet in altitude in crossing the State, traverses
the three main topographic divisions of North Dakota (_see_ NATURAL
SETTING), from the low, flat Red River Valley, across the rolling Drift
Plain and out upon the Missouri Plateau. Near the end of the route are
the strange and beautiful Badlands.

Most of the country along the road is cultivated, and in the fields
the cycle of farming operations--plowing, seeding, cultivating,
harvesting--repeats itself as the seasons progress. During the growing
season, stretching far across the flat plains and over the sloping
hills, the varying greens of the grains blend with the blue flax fields
and the invading yellow patches of mustard. In the fall the prairies
have a somber, peaceful air as their tawny stubblefields and newly
plowed black acres await the first snowfall. When winter comes the
never-ending expanse of white is broken by the dark pattern of roads
and an occasional lead-colored clump of trees, bare and shivering in
the wind, while at the distant horizon the whiteness unites with the
pale blue of clear winter skies.

West of the Red River Valley trees are few except along the rivers.
Yet, according to legend, this country was once heavily forested--until
Paul Bunyan, the master woodsman, had his men log it off, just before
his famous fight with his foreman, the Bull of the Woods, on top of the
bottom of the Mountain That Stood on Its Head. As a matter of geologic
fact, the area traversed by the route has been largely treeless since
the gradual cooling of the climate, incident to the ice age, destroyed
the tropical plant and animal life which once were profuse here.

FARGO, =0.0 m.= (907 alt., 28,619 pop.) (_see_ FARGO).

  _Points of Interest_: North Dakota Agricultural College, Veterans'
  Hospital, Dovre Ski Slide.

At Front and 13th Sts. is the junction with US 81 (_see Tour 1_).

WEST FARGO (R) (907 alt., 127 pop.) and SOUTHWEST FARGO (L) (907 alt.,
800 pop.), =5 m.=, suburbs of Fargo, are the center of North Dakota's
meat-packing industry. An ARMOUR & CO. PLANT (_open_; _tours at 9:30 &
11 a.m., 1 & 3 p.m. Mon.-Fri., 10:30 a.m. only on Sat._; _no children
under 10_) and a large livestock market employ the majority of the
residents of these two young villages, incorporated in 1931 and 1937
respectively. Armour's plant, housed in a four-story brick building,
employs more than 400 people. Connected with it is the Union Stockyards
where representatives of commission firms buy livestock from North
Dakota farmers. Included in the yards is an exchange building which
houses offices of the company, dealers, and commission firms, and State
and Federal agencies supervising market operations.

At =12 m.= is the junction with a graveled county highway.

Right on this highway is MAPLETON, =1 m.= (904 alt., 195 pop.), one
of the oldest towns in the State, organized about 1870. It is named
for the MAPLE RIVER which flows through it, one of the many meandering
tributaries of the Red.

At =20 m.= is the junction with ND 18, a graveled highway.

Right on this road is CASSELTON, =2 m.= (936 alt., 1,254 pop.), named
for Maj. G. W. Cass (1810-1888) of Minneapolis, stockholder in the N.
P. Ry. and proponent of the railroad nursery that propagated the poplar
trees that today line the streets. It was the boyhood home of William
Langer (1886-), Governor of the State (1933-1934; 1937-1939) and a
storm center in Nonpartisan League politics (_see_ HISTORY).

During the bonanza farm era (_see_ AGRICULTURE AND FARM LIFE)
Casselton was headquarters of the huge Dalrymple farm, which made it
a metropolis of the Red River Valley. One of the earliest practical
uses of the telephone in the United States, and what may have been the
introduction of the instrument into this State (_see Tour 1_), was made
in 1876 on the Dalrymple farm. Oliver Dalrymple had taken advantage of
low prices occasioned by the panic of 1873 to buy 100,000 acres of Red
River Valley land owned by the N. P. Ry. and had set out to demonstrate
that the land was valuable for farming. The first year he seeded 1,280
acres and harvested 32,000 bu. of wheat. By 1878 he was farming 13,000
acres and by 1895, 65,000 acres. His land was divided into subfarms,
each with a superintendent and foreman, and all using the most modern
farm equipment obtainable. Dalrymple, on a visit to the Philadelphia
Centennial in 1876, became interested in the newly invented telephone,
and at the close of the fair purchased several of the instruments for
installation on his subfarms and headquarters farm at Casselton.

Among the churches in Casselton is one maintained by a small group of
Moravians, a German religious sect that came to the State during the
early years of settlement.

On ND 18 at =18 m.= to the D. H. HOUSTON FARM, where the principle of
the roll film camera was developed. Houston, a native of Wisconsin,
had already invented one camera when he homesteaded in North Dakota in
1869. Although he acquired 6,000 acres of land and became one of the
early bonanza farmers, he continued his experiments in photography,
and in 1881 developed the principle of the roll film camera, selling
his patent to George Eastman. It has been said that Houston named his
device "kodak" for North Dakota, but the generally accepted story is
that Eastman himself coined the word because he desired a catchy,
easily remembered name that could be used in any language. Houston's
inventive interests included agricultural improvements, and in the
1880's he developed an improved bluestem wheat which, producing four
to five bushels more per acre than other varieties, was soon in great
demand throughout the Wheat Belt. He also patented improvements on the
disc plow.

At =26.5 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Right on this road is WHEATLAND, =2 m.= (991 alt., 300 pop.), a quiet,
pretty village named for the vast wheat acreage formerly seeded on the
bonanza farms in the area.

At =30.5 m.= the highway passes over a noticeable rise of land. This
is Herman Beach, the western shore of ancient Lake Agassiz, which in
glacial times covered 100,000 sq. m. and lay over the eastern portion
of the State, reaching from Lake Winnipeg in Canada to Lake Traverse in
South Dakota. It is estimated that when this gravelly ridge was formed
by the waves of the lake, the water at the present site of Fargo was
175 ft. deep.

BUFFALO, =37.5 m.= (1,201 alt., 242 pop.), is named for Buffalo, N. Y.

Left from Buffalo on a graveled highway is ALICE, =11 m.= (1,124 alt.,
169 pop.), named for a relative of a railroad superintendent.

At the Multz Cafe is a COLLECTION OF INDIAN ARTIFACTS (_open_).

At =40.5 m.= is BUFFALO CREEK HISTORIC SITE (R). A marker reads:
"August 16, 1863. General Sibley marched over this spot with 3,400
soldiers on his return after driving the Indians across the Missouri

TOWER CITY, =43.5 m.= (1,169 alt., 435 pop.), in a grove of trees, is
named for Charlemagne Tower (1848-1924), a Philadelphia capitalist and
diplomat, who owned much land in the vicinity. He made the foundation
plantings of the trees of the city and also donated the first books
to the local public library. In 1886 Baptist leaders selected this
city as the site of a proposed church college to be named Tower
University. Excavations had actually begun, with the expectation that
Tower would be its benefactor to the extent of $100,000. Because of
some misunderstanding of the preliminary arrangements, however, the
endowment fund was not forthcoming. Tower offered the use of a school
building, but the school, being unable to continue without financial
assistance, closed its doors two years later.

At =48.5 m.= is the junction with ND 32, a graveled highway.

Right on this highway is ORISKA, =0.5 m.= (1,267 alt., 183 pop.), once
the center of a wide wheat-growing area. The name is believed to have
been that of the heroine of an old book of western poems.

At =5 m.= on ND 32 to CAMP ARNOLD HISTORIC SITE, where in 1863 the
Sibley expedition made one of its many overnight camps.

At =56 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Left on this road to CAMP SHEARDOWN HISTORIC SITE, =3 m.,= another
stopping place of the Sibley column. A few rifle pits dug for camp
protection are still visible, and a bronze tablet marks the site. No
engagement took place here, the rifle pits being evidence of Sibley's
precautions against Indian attack.

VALLEY CITY, =58.5 m.= (1,220 alt., 5,268 pop.), seat of Barnes County,
lies sheltered and hidden in the deeply wooded Sheyenne River valley.
Originally known as Worthington, it was given its present name when
incorporated as a city in 1881.

The city's first settlers came with the N. P. Ry. in 1872, but Jay
Cooke & Co., financiers of the railroad, crashed in the Nation-wide
panic of 1873, and the next five years brought a suspension of
business and immigration. From 1878, however, the city had a steady
growth; today it is the center of a large area of diversified farming,
with flour milling and the processing of dairy products the chief
industries. One notable asset of the city is a municipal light plant
which supplies electrical energy at the lowest rates prevalent in
the State, and provides an excellent street-lighting system without
taxation. The studios and transmitter of KOVC, Valley City, are at 312
5th Ave.

On an attractive campus at the southern end of 5th Ave. is the VALLEY
CITY STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE, established in 1890. In 1895 Gov. Roger
Allin vetoed the State appropriations for the university and colleges,
and, like Other State educational institutions, the Valley City college
was kept open by popular subscriptions for the biennial period. One of
the outstanding alumni of the school is Paul Fjelde, a former student
of Lorado Taft, who was commissioned to do the bust of Abraham Lincoln
that North Dakota presented to Norway in 1914. A copy of this work has
been placed in the auditorium of the college.

Near the college campus on 1st St. is CITY PARK, which contains
recreational facilities and a small zoo. CHAUTAUQUA PARK (_swimming
pool_, _playgrounds_, _large auditorium_) is in the northeastern part
of the city.

In the BARNES COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 6th St. bet. 3rd and 4th Aves., is
a small museum which includes the Indian collection of Vernon Gale,
an amateur archeologist. Among his exhibits are several stone hearts,
which have been found only in the valley of Spiritwood Lake (=see

The N. P. Ry. HIGH BRIDGE, known as the "Hi-Line", casts its long
shadow across the river valley N. of Chautauqua Park. Including the
approaches, it measures 1 m., a long railroad trestle for its height,
which is 148 ft. above the water level of the Sheyenne.

Right from Valley City on Chautauqua Blvd., which becomes a graveled
road leading to a spot still known as ASHTABULA, =17 m.=, the name of a
post office once operated here. A ford in the Sheyenne at this point,
Sibley's Crossing, was used by Capt. James Fisk's immigrant trains
to the Montana gold fields in 1862 and 1863, and twice by the Sibley
military expedition in 1863, and later was on the Fort Ransom-Fort
Totten trail. Deep ruts of wagon trains are still visible and can be
traced across the valley.

At Valley City is a junction (L) with ND 1, a graveled highway (_see
Side Tour 8A_), which unites with US 10 to =63.5 m.=, where ND 1 (_see
Side Tour 8B_) branches R.

On US 10 at the western end of the city is PIONEER PARK (R), where an
outdoor amphitheater has been built. The park also contains a small
frame schoolhouse, typical of the pioneer period, which was moved from
its site four miles west of the city.

SANBORN, =70.5 m.= (1,443 alt., 343 pop.), named for J. N. Sanborn,
a Fargo pioneer, was at one time a booming trade center, and seemed
destined to become important, until two severe blows retarded its
growth. First, in 1880, after a hot campaign, it lost the county seat
election to Valley City; and then, in 1882, the county treasurer, whose
bond had been furnished by the businessmen of the town, absconded
with the county moneys, including a special fund for the erection of
a courthouse. Among the early settlers of Sanborn was I. W. Barnum,
brother of P. T. Barnum of circus fame.

ECKELSON, =75.5 m.= (1,472 alt., 100 pop.), was named for A. O.
Eckelson, a N. P. Ry. civil engineer of the 1870's, and was first
platted a mile E. of its present site. Because of the steep incline of
the railroad at that point, however, trains were unable to stop and the
town had to be moved to more level ground.

SPIRITWOOD, =82.5 m.= (1,475 alt., 267 pop.), is named for the lake 16
m. NW.

At =93.5 m.= is the junction with ND 20, a graveled highway.

Right on this highway to the junction with a county graveled road,
=10 m.=; R. here to SPIRITWOOD LAKE (_bathing beaches_, _boathouses_,
_cottages_, _golf course_, _and two pavilions on the southern shore_),
16 m., an attractive resort in a wooded valley. It is known to the
Sioux as Minneskaya (_water with white foam on top_). According to an
Indian legend, a grief-stricken girl plunged into its waters to join
her drowned lover, and her spirit still resides in the lake.

On the northern shore of the lake the State Game and Fish Commission
maintains an AVIARY where Mongolian pheasants are confined for breeding
purposes. Eggs are hatched on nearby farms and the poults are then
returned to the aviary for distribution throughout the State.

In the vicinity of Spiritwood Lake have been found several heart-shaped
stones marked with a small cross, probably representing a star. This
is the only locality in the State where these stone hearts have been
found, and archeologists believe they are the product of the early
Indians. Specimens are on display at the State historical society
museum (_see_ BISMARCK) and in the Vernon Gale Collection (_see_ VALLEY
CITY _above_).

JAMESTOWN, =95.5 m.= (1,405 alt., 8,187 pop.), Stutsman County seat,
lies in the fertile valley of the winding JAMES RIVER, described as
the longest unnavigable river in the world. The story is told that
the stream received its name from a French-Indian hunter-trapper who,
having lost his way, was overcome with joy upon discovering the little
river and gave it his own name--Rivière de Jacques.

The first settlement at Jamestown was made in the fall of 1871, when a
corps of five or six N. P. Ry. engineers spent the winter here in order
to be in readiness for work in the spring. Soldiers from Fort Ransom
(_see Side Tour 8A_) acted as a guard for the engineers, and in June a
military post, Fort Cross (later Fort Seward), was established. During
the summer settlers and businessmen came to the community, and a brisk
trade was carried on with the 500 railroad workers and the 3 companies
of soldiers stationed at the fort.

On Sept. 13, 1872, the first train to enter Jamestown crossed the river
into the city. Less than a month later construction crews, incensed
because of unpaid wages, stopped work, and even began tearing up
the newly laid tracks. Soldiers from the fort quickly quelled North
Dakota's first strike.

Railroads played an important role in Jamestown's inception and growth.
At one time there were prospects that two other railroads besides the
N. P. would come into the city, and hope was high that the place would
become an important railroad center. Although these plans did not fully
materialize, one of the new roads, the Midland Continental, did make
the city its home office. Financed by English capital, the Midland
began to build in 1913, with plans for a line connecting Winnipeg,
Man., with the Gulf of Mexico. The World War intervened, foreign
support was withdrawn, and operations ceased after completion of only
70 m. of road, from Edgeley to Wimbledon.

The first church services here were held in a schoolhouse, and a
pioneer tells of how these meetings were faithfully attended by an old
Indian "clad in great dignity and an old nightshirt." Jamestown's first
church, the Presbyterian, was erected in 1881. The first resident Roman
Catholic priest arrived the same year, and resided in a rectory that
measured 14 x 22 ft. Although there were many places in the State where
Catholic church services had long been held, Jamestown in September
1889 became the first seat of the diocese of North Dakota.

In 1879 a group of local businessmen organized the James River
Navigation Co. Of their first steamer, the _Belle of Richmond_, the St.
Paul _Pioneer Press_ said, "The craft is composed of a steam-whistle,
an engine the size of a teakettle and a little boat under it." Ice put
a stop to river navigation that fall, and in May the following year the
initial trip of a new boat that had been built during the winter proved

The fertile James River Valley land has produced such bountiful crops
that between 1875 and 1900 farmers often paid for their lands in two
years. A writer of that time says that "though North Dakota didn't have
granite bluffs and waterfalls for its beauty, a land that would yield
twice its cost in the first year would look rather beautiful to most

Maxwell Anderson (1888-), Pulitzer Prize playwright (1933), and Curtis
D. Wilbur (1867-), Secretary of War in President Coolidge's cabinet,
once attended school in Jamestown.

The two leading institutions of Jamestown overlook the city from the
river bluffs on both sides of town. To the SE. is the STATE HOSPITAL
FOR THE INSANE, with its handsome buildings and beautifully landscaped
grounds, a little city within its 2,000 acres of farm land.

JAMESTOWN COLLEGE, on high bluffs (L) on the northeastern edge of
the city, is the oldest, and only private, college in North Dakota.
Founded by the Red River Presbytery in 1883, it was the first school
in the State to offer normal school training for teachers. A plan for
construction in semi-Gothic style has been followed, with the result
that the buildings present a pleasing and uniform campus group.

On the campus is Voorhees Chapel, one of the finest college chapels in
the Midwest; it is built of reinforced concrete, Bedford stone, and
mat-faced Menominee brick. The interior is constructed with huge hammer
beams of Gothic type, and there are two high Gothic windows. The chapel
is also used for musical and dramatic performances, as the intent of
the institution is to make this building the center of college life and

KLAUS PARK, at the southwestern edge of the city, with entrances on
Elder and Willow Aves., consists of 26 acres of heavily wooded land
lying between the James River and Pipestem Creek. It was donated to
the city by the heirs of Anton Klaus, prominent pioneer affectionately
known as "the father of Jamestown." An outdoor swimming pool is
supplied with warm artesian water. Preserved in the park is one of the
original millstones used in Jamestown's first flour mill built by Anton
Klaus in 1879.

NICKEUS PARK (_equipped playgrounds_), at the northern end of 5th
Ave., is in a loop of the James River. It was donated to the city as a
memorial to a pioneer Jamestown attorney, by Mrs. Fannie B. Nickeus,
his widow.

CITY PARK (_municipal tourist camp_, _ball park_, _fairgrounds_, _and
tennis courts_), at the southern end of 4th Ave., consists of a 52-acre
tract along the wooded James River. The Park Auditorium, completed in
1936 as a WPA project, is a domical building, the design of its facade
carried out in the straight lines and angles of modern architecture.
Constructed with laminated truss-type arches which support the
entire roof load, the auditorium has 25,000 sq. ft. of floor space
unobstructed by supporting columns. Its acoustics is excellent, owing
to the vaulted shape of the roof and the absorbing quality of the
timbers in the arches.

KRMC, Jamestown's radio broadcasting station, has its studios in the
Gladstone Hotel building at 412 Front St. W.; its transmitter is just
across the James River S. of the city.

The ALFRED DICKEY LIBRARY, corner 5th Ave. S. and Pacific St. W.,
is built of red Hebron (N. Dak.) brick. Its style shows a Byzantine

The SITE OF FORT WILLIAM H. SEWARD is indicated by a marker on US 281
at the foot of the bluffs on the northwestern outskirts of the city.
The post, named for President Lincoln's Secretary of State, was
abandoned in 1877, and in 1925 the N. P. Ry. donated the site, which is
on the bluffs SW. of the marker, as a State park.

Left from Jamestown =2 m.= on Monroe St. to HOMER STATE PARK, a
five-acre tract along the James River that was the site of an
unidentified skirmish between white men and Indians.

ELDRIDGE, =103.5 m.= (1,538 alt., 100 pop.), named for a pioneer
family, is the most westerly town on the route lying within the
Central Lowland of the Interior Plains. Between Eldridge and WINDSOR,
=112.5 m.= (1,839 alt., 110 pop.), whose name was suggested by that of
Windsor, Ont., there is a rise of 300 ft., which marks the division
between the Central Lowland and the Great Plains. The Missouri Plateau,
as this section of the Great Plains is called, extends beyond the
western border of the State. As the route continues into the plateau,
the altitude rises slightly to the village of CLEVELAND, =116 m.=
(1,849 alt., 273 pop.),--named for Cleveland, Ohio--only to fall away
gradually and then rise once more in topping the Altamont Moraine (_see

MEDINA, =124 m.= (1,791 alt., 407 pop.), named for Medina, N. Y., has
a strongly Russo-German population. It was originally known as Midway
for its position halfway between Jamestown and Steele, and during the
first two decades of the century was an important commercial point in
the area.

At =126 m.= is the junction with ND 30, a graveled highway.

Left on this highway to the junction with a graded dirt road, =12
m.=; R. here to the junction with another dirt road, =17 m.=; R. to
another junction, =18 m.=; and L. to Lake George, commonly known as
SALT LAKE (_swimming_), 19 m., because of its heavy impregnation with
natural salts. It is said to be one of the deepest lakes in the State.
The southern shore has an excellent sand beach. Northeast of the lake
are fresh-water springs; here, on land controlled by the Biological
Survey through an easement, dikes and dams have been built to create
a fresh-water feeding and nesting ground known as the LAKE GEORGE
PARK, a World War memorial.

At =132 m.= are CRYSTAL SPRINGS LAKES. A cairn (L) houses a spring
(_good water_). The lake offers fine opportunity to study varieties of
shore birds, as the marshes of the spring-fed waters provide attractive
breeding places. CRYSTAL SPRINGS, =132.5 m.= (1,777 alt., 69 pop.), is
named for the neighboring lakes.

West of Cleveland (_see above_) the route descends in a gentle grade to
TAPPEN, =140.5 m.= (1,764 alt., 268 pop.), named for an early settler.

Right from Tappen on a country trail, unsuited for trailers, to
McPHAIL'S BUTTE HISTORIC SITE, =10 m.= It was from this hill that Col.
Samuel McPhail directed the movement of his regiment of Minnesota
Rangers July 24, 1863, in the Battle of Big Mound, one of the Sibley
expedition encounters with the Sioux. After having been harried by
the white soldiers, a small group of Sioux had asked to talk with a
delegation of the enemy, and the meeting was apparently proceeding in
an amicable manner when without warning a young Indian shot Dr. J. S.
Weiser, one of the party, in the back. The Battle of Big Mound was
precipitated, and the Sioux were forced to retreat farther W. Northeast
of the battle site is BURMAN HISTORIC SITE, =2 m.=, where Dr. Weiser is

DAWSON, =146 m.= (1,736 alt., 306 pop.), named for the town site
owner, Dawson Thompson, is in a fertile subirrigated area. A route for
migratory birds crossing the United States passes through the Dawson
vicinity, and a U. S. game reserve is 7 m. S. of the town on ND 3. At
Dawson is one of the six Department of Commerce intermediate lighted
airports in the State.

Left from Dawson on ND 3, a graveled highway, to LAKE ISABEL, =5 m.=
Here is CAMP GRASSICK, a children's summer camp operated by the North
Dakota Anti-Tuberculosis Association. It is named for Dr. J. Grassick,
pioneer Grand Forks physician. Just E. of Lake Isabel are the LODGE
AND GAME RESERVE OF G. L. SLADE (_private_). Slade, a son-in-law of
the late James J. Hill, the railroad builder, maintains breeding and
nesting grounds for pheasants and waterfowl--even creating his own Lake
Slade by pumping water from deep wells--and brings large parties of
Easterners here to hunt.

At =25 m.= is NAPOLEON (1,955 alt., 709 pop.), seat of Logan County,
named for Napoleon Goodsill who was president of the town site company.
The first business establishment (1886) was a supply store operated
jointly with a newspaper, the Napoleon _Homestead_, which is still in
operation. Two pigeon-holes in a desk in the _Homestead_ office served
as boxes for the first post office in Napoleon.

BURNSTAD, =40.5 m.= (1,963 alt., 142 pop.), was formerly the trade
center of a large cattle industry. C. P. Burnstad, for whom the town
was named, was known as the "Logan County Cattle King", and grazed as
many as 5,000 cattle on 54 sections of land.

Left from Burnstad =2 m.= on a graded dirt road to BEAVER LAKE STATE
PARK (_swimming_, _picnicking_), a recreational area developed by WPA
labor. A game refuge surrounds the lake.

At =53.5 m.= on ND 3 is WISHEK (2,010 alt., 1,145 pop.), where, as in
many of the neighboring towns, Russo-Germans make up the greater part
of the population. The town is named for J. H. Wishek of Ashley, who
owned the town site and donated lots for churches, parks, the town
hall, and a bandstand.

Left from Wishek =6.5 m.= on a graveled road to DOYLE MEMORIAL PARK on
GREEN LAKE (_swimming_, _picnicking_). The land for this recreational
area and memorial to pioneers was given to the State by Mr. and Mrs.
John J. Doyle of Wishek.

At =65 m.= on ND 3 is DANZIG (2,029 alt., 86 pop.), named for the Free
City of Danzig in Europe.

ASHLEY, =77.5 m.= (2,001 alt., 1,250 pop.), began as the town of
Hoskins on the shore of nearby Hoskins Lake. Originally the town, as
well as the lake was given the maiden name of the wife of Col. C.
A. Lounsberry, historian, and at that time editor of the Bismarck
_Tribune_. In 1888, to be on the railroad, Hoskins was moved bodily to
the present site and was renamed in honor of Ashley E. Morrow, a member
of the railroad construction company. In the rotunda of the MCINTOSH
COUNTY COURTHOUSE is a series of pictures of pioneer life. A library
founded in 1912 by the Ashley Women's Club is also in the courthouse.

Right from Ashley =4 m.= on ND 11, a graveled highway, to LAKE HOSKINS
(_swimming_), a summer recreational center.

On ND 3 at =85 m.= is the South Dakota Line, 84 m. N. of Aberdeen, S.

STEELE, =154.5 m.= (1,855 alt., 519 pop.), granted a city charter by
the Territorial legislature in 1882-83, claimed at the time of its
incorporation to be the smallest city in the United States. It is named
for Col. W. P. Steele, one of the original town site owners, who in
1889 sent the first legislature a certified check for $100,000 with
his bid for locating the State capitol at Steele. Colonel Steele liked
riding on railroad trains and meeting strangers to whom he could talk
of the glowing possibilities of North Dakota. At one time he procured
passes on many of the large railroads in exchange for passes on his
own road, the Steele-Alaska Northwestern, which despite its impressive
title was only a half-mile spur from the Northern Pacific to his brick
plant NE. of Steele. When his hoax was discovered and he was hailed
before a group of directors of the larger lines, he justified his
position with the statement, "While my line is not as long as yours, I
want it understood that it is every bit as wide."

Left from Steele on a graveled road to the junction with a dirt road,
=12 m.=; R. on this road to PURSIAN LAKE (_swimming_, _picnicking_),
_15 m._, a haven for migratory waterfowl.

DRISCOLL (L), =165.5 m.= (1,870 alt., 226 pop.), is named for a N. P.
Ry. stockholder.

Right from Driscoll on a road unsuitable for trailers to the junction
with a country trail, =3 m.=; R. here to CHASKA HISTORIC SITE, =4 m.=,
the grave of Chaska, a Sioux Indian scout with the Sibley expedition,
who died during the campaign. Chaska is said to have been one of the
two friendly Indians who warned the missionaries at the Yellow Medicine
(Minn.) Agency and led the whites to safety from the vengeful Sioux in
the uprising of 1862.

West of Driscoll the route begins the ascent of the ALTAMONT MORAINE,
the terminal moraine formed during the last advance of the Dakota lobe
of the great continental ice sheets.

At =174 m.= is the junction with US 83 (_see Tour 3_). The two highways
form one route between this point and Bismarck, _198.5 m._ Just W. of
the junction the highway passes over a crest of the moraine, from which
on a clear day the distant outline of the 19-story State capitol is
visible, 24 m. W. The highway descends the western slope of the moraine
in a gradual incline toward the Missouri River valley.

McKENZIE, =180 m.= (1,700 alt., 175 pop.), is named for Alexander
McKenzie, early day political boss in North Dakota.

At =185.3 m.= is the junction with a dirt road.

Right on this road to VERENDRYE, STATE PARK, =1 m.=, believed by many
historians to be the point at which in 1738 Pierre de la Verendrye,
earliest white explorer of present North Dakota, first visited the
Mandan Indians. Prior to the investigation of this site in 1936
it was generally supposed that Verendrye's first contact with the
Mandans had been made near Sanish, and a monument commemorating the
meeting had been erected at that place (_see Tour 6_). The Menoken
site shows clearly the position of the bastions and moat of the old
fortifications, and saucer-shaped depressions indicate where the
earth lodges once stood. In addition, pottery, flint chips, and other
artifacts have been found. Verendrye's journal states that he presented
a leaden plate, bearing the name of the exploring party, to the Mandan
chief at the village he visited. A similar plate was given to the
Indians by Verendrye's sons on an expedition farther S. in 1741, and
was found buried in the earth near Fort Pierre, S. Dak. in 1913. The
first plate, however, has not been recovered and may now lie buried
somewhere in the Menoken site.

MENOKEN, =185.5 m.= (1,720 alt., 60 pop.), has had a number of names,
and still retains two officially. In early railroad days it was known
as Seventeenth Siding, and later as Blaine. For transportation purposes
it is now called Burleigh, to distinguish it from several other towns
on the N. P. Ry. which have names beginning with _M_.

At =186 m.= is the junction with a county graded dirt road.

Right on this road to the TRANSMITTING PLANT OF KFYR, =2.5 m.=,
Bismarck's broadcasting station. The 704-foot all-steel vertical
radiator, one of the three tallest self-supporting aerials in the
United States (1938), can be seen for many miles.

Between Menoken and Bismarck the route crosses and recrosses APPLE
CREEK, along which Sibley's army traveled for some distance. In ancient
times this small, meandering stream was a great rushing glacial river.

At =196.5 m.= (R) loom the brick walls of the STATE PENITENTIARY
(_tours daily exc. Sat. and Sun. at 9, 10, and 11 a.m., 2, 3, and
4 p.m._). When the prison was built (1885-89), the walls were of
cottonwood logs wired together at the top. The present walls, 27 ft.
high and 1,650 ft. long, and made of bricks from clay found in the
vicinity, were constructed by prison labor in 1889. The island-type of
prison architecture has been employed, and there are two cell blocks of
160 cells each, all locked by a master control. Inmates are employed in
the twine plant, which has an annual output of more than four million
pounds; on the 950-acre farm; and in the auto license and tag plant.

The fact that most criminals come from large centers of population is
given as the reason that North Dakota, an agricultural State with no
large cities, has a low prison population. In 1937 it was only 270.

At =197 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Left on this road to FORT LINCOLN, =3 m.=, only survivor of the 12
military posts that have been established in North Dakota since
earliest settlement. The post, which covers an area of 900 acres, has
brick buildings of modified Colonial design. It was first occupied in
1903, although established as a military reservation in 1895. In 1913
its garrison was removed, but in 1917 it was used as a concentration
camp for midwestern troops headed for France. After the World War
it was not garrisoned until 1927, when Companies I, K, L, and M of
the Third Battalion, Fourth Infantry were ordered here. Including
detachments of Headquarters, Quartermasters and Service Corps, Medical
Corps, and Signal and Finance Corps, the post numbers 426 enlisted men
and 20 officers (1937). Since 1928 it has been designated a C. M. T. C.
camp for a four-week period each summer, with a quota of 200 men.

At =4 m.= is a junction with a dirt road; R. here to another junction,
=4.8 m.=; L. to SIBLEY ISLAND PARK (_shelters_, _tables_, _and
benches_), =7 m.= Sibley Island was actually an island when General
Sibley fought the Sioux here in 1863, but now, because of the changing
river channel, is a part of the river lowlands. The Indians, fleeing
before the advancing column, were here forced to abandon large
quantities of supplies and equipment, and to hurry across the Missouri.
Two Sibley men, carrying orders to detachments in the woods, were
ambushed and killed, and the Masonic burial given one is believed to
have been the first instance of the use of this funeral rite within the
borders of the State. The bodies were removed later, but the position
of one grave is still indicated by a marker. Prior to the Sibley
encounter the island was known as Assiniboine Island, from the fact
that the _Assiniboine_, a river steamer carrying Prince Maximilian's
exploring party, was destroyed by fire near here (1834).

BISMARCK, =198.5 m.= (1,672 alt., 11,090 pop.) (_see_ BISMARCK).

  _Points of Interest_: State Capitol, Liberty Memorial Building,
  Roosevelt Cabin, State historical society museum.

At Main Ave. and 6th St. is the junction with US 83 (_see Tour 3_).

At =199.5 m.= US 10 crosses the MISSOURI RIVER on the $1,358,000
LIBERTY MEMORIAL BRIDGE, erected in 1922, first highway span across the
river in North Dakota. At each end are large natural boulders bearing
bronze plaques dedicating the bridge to men and women who served in the
World War.

Natural gas from the fields at Baker, Mont., is piped to Bismarck
through a line crossing the Missouri on this bridge.

At the Bismarck end of the bridge is the junction with a county
graveled highway (_see Side Tour 3B_).

Thoroughfare of early exploration of western North Dakota and Montana,
the Missouri is still known to the Sioux Indians native to this region
as Wakpa Hehanka (_elk river_). According to Sioux legend, once, during
the great spring break-up, a large herd of elk were crossing the stream
when the ice broke beneath them, precipitating them into quicksand.
They perished, and when the ice had floated down the river the antlers
of the elk were left protruding like branches from the sand bar.

The time changes from central to mountain standard W. of the river;
watches and clocks of west-bound travelers should be turned back one
hour, those of east-bound travelers should be set an hour ahead.

Along the highway on the flat lowlands between Bismarck and Mandan are
several tourist camps and night clubs.

MANDAN, =203.4 m.= (1,642 alt., 5,037 pop.), its business section
stretched along one side of its long main street, lies crowded between
the N. P. railroad yards and the hills bordering the Heart River valley
near the confluence of the Heart and the Missouri.

Named for the agricultural Mandan Indian tribe, this western, overgrown
small town is in the area they once occupied, and near two of their
ancient village sites. One, Crying Hill Village, is on the bluffs along
the Missouri, NE. of the city; the other, known as the Motsiff Site,
2 m. S. on the banks of the Heart. The town itself is so young that
many of the original false-front frame or ornate red-brick buildings
are still standing. A village grew up here quickly when the railroad
crossed the Missouri in 1881, and incorporation as a city followed in
1883. With the settling of the adjoining territory, which began within
two years after the founding of the town, development was rapid. Early
ranching in the region has given way to grain raising, dairying, and
diversified dry farming, and the city has become a wholesale and retail
distribution center serving a large agricultural area.

One of the chief economic supports of the city is the N. P. Ry., which
maintains a division point here. The RAILWAY DEPOT is a red brick
copy of Washington's Mount Vernon home, and the flagpole in the park
surrounding it was used at Fort Abraham Lincoln when Gen. George A.
Custer was in command (_see_ FORT LINCOLN STATE PARK). In the railroad
park, in an ellipse formed by the driveway, stands a small bronze
STATUE OF THEODORE ROOSEVELT as a Rough Rider, a reproduction of a
large monument in a Minot park (_see_ MINOT). On the depot platform,
during the summer months, Yanktonai Sioux perform bits of native dances
for the benefit of tourists on the fast trains. On this platform Nov.
1, 1926, Queen Marie of Rumania, making a transcontinental tour, was
adopted by the Sioux.

The RAILROAD YARDS are unusual in that their accommodations facilitate
handling and housing of the large Pacific type locomotives known as
Five Thousands, so called because they are numbered above 5,000.
Because of their great length, 125 ft., and their weight, 550 tons,
they cannot be used on the sharp curves of the Rocky Mountains; they
are therefore employed exclusively on the steep Mandan-Billings,
Mont., run. Five Thousands are used only for heavy freight traffic.
The largest turntable on the N. P. system, 126 ft. long, handles these
giants of the rails.

At 1st St. and 2nd Ave. NW. is the MEMORIAL BUILDING, which has the
largest indoor swimming pool in the State. The building was constructed
under a Federal project.

The J. D. ALLEN TAXIDERMIST SHOP, 302 5th Ave. NW., contains a rare
collection of Indian relics, original paintings, and a variety of
mounted specimens of animals, birds, and fish found in the State. In
the hodgepodge of his workshop, Allen, who came to Mandan as a youth
in 1881, has mounted thousands of specimens, and has done work for
Theodore Roosevelt and for members of European nobility. His hobby
has been painting, and, although self-taught in his avocation, he has
captured the spirit of early North Dakota scenes as have few trained
artists. Several of his canvases hang in the museum of the State
historical society (_see_ BISMARCK).

KGCU, with studios and transmitter in the Kennelly building, is at 205
1st St. NW.

CHAUTAUQUA PARK (_picnic grounds_, _tourist camp_, _golf course_,
_clubhouse_, _tennis and horseshoe courts_) in the southwestern part of
the city is on ND 6.

Left from Mandan =1.3 m.= on a graveled road to the STATE TRAINING
SCHOOL, to which modern buildings and well-landscaped grounds give
the appearance of an up-to-date preparatory school rather than an
institution for delinquent juveniles. The school, which is one of four
in the United States housing both boys and girls, and the only one
offering a four-year high school course, teaches farming, carpentry,
cooking, laundering, and sewing.

On the high bluffs on the south edge of the city is the U. S. NORTHERN

At Mandan is the junction with ND 6, a graveled highway (_see Side Tour

Left from Mandan on 6th Ave. SE. which becomes a county graveled road
and crosses the HEART RIVER, =1 m.=, which in Sioux translation is
called Tacanta Wakpa Tanka.


The graveled road proceeds S. over the benchland of the Missouri to
SCHMIDT, =11 m.=, an elevator and railroad siding. Here the route
becomes a graded dirt road, and continues S.

At =18 m.= the road cuts through an extending clay ridge which
protrudes like an eagle's beak from the Badlands-like formation to the
R. To the W. here rises a flat-topped steep cliff jutting away from the
other hills and connected with them only by a narrow neck. On this mesa
once stood the Eagle's Nose Village of the Mandans, believed by some
to have been built by the great Mandan tribal hero Good Furred Robe,
although this origin has also been attributed to the Huff Site (_see
below_). To reach the old village site one must ascend the SW. side of
the hill. From the top there is a far-reaching view of the beautiful
Missouri valley, stretching S. from the gray outlines of the capitol at
Bismarck and the blockhouses on the hill at Fort McKeen.

At =20 m.= is HUFF, a store and railroad station. At =20.5 m.= (L) is
the HUFF INDIAN VILLAGE STATE PARK, site of a Mandan village. According
to legend the Mandan people at one time lived underground, but under
the leadership of four chiefs, headed by Good Furred Robe, they climbed
a vine to enter this world through an opening in the ground to the
surface. Good Furred Robe then laid out their first village, placing
the houses in rows like corn. This legend is believed by some Indians
to refer to the Huff Site, whose heavily sodded lodge rings suggest
great age. The reason for the somewhat rectangular shape of some of the
depressions has not yet been determined.

South of Huff to FORT RICE STATE PARK, =29 m.=, the site of a fort
established by Gen. Alfred H. Sully on his Indian expedition in 1864.
It served as a military post until 1877, when it was succeeded by
Fort Yates down the river. In 1868 Fort Rice was the scene of a peace
council with the Sioux. Sitting Bull and some five thousand followers,
resentful of the appropriation of their lands by the white settlers,
had refused to go on reservations and had moved to the Powder River in
present Wyoming, where they lived the free, open life to which they
were accustomed. They harbored a bitter hatred for the white people,
but there was one white man whom Sitting Bull trusted. He was Father
Pierre Jean De Smet, a Jesuit missionary who had spent years among
the Indians of the western plains, and was sincerely interested in
their welfare. He was known to the Sioux as "Black Robe." The War
Department and the Indian Bureau, eager to negotiate with the Sioux,
sent Father De Smet to lead a delegation to Sitting Bull's camp. Many
of the hostile Indians had vowed to kill any white man on sight, but
their leader learned that it was "Black Robe" who was approaching,
and welcomed him heartily. During the council which followed Father
De Smet gave Sitting Bull a brass and wood crucifix, which the Sioux
leader, although he never professed Catholicism, prized highly all his
life. At the instigation of the priest, Sitting Bull, while refusing to
attend a peace council himself, sent two representatives, Chief Gall
and Bull Owl, whom he instructed to say, "Move out the soldiers and
stop the steamboats and we shall have peace." The peace council was
held at Fort Rice, and led to the Laramie Treaty later that year, which
unfortunately was violated in 1875 by the Indian Bureau and the War
Department, precipitating the hostilities that ended in the disastrous
Battle of the Little Big Horn in June 1876 (_see_ HISTORY).

West of Mandan US 10 enters that part of the Missouri Plateau known
locally as the Missouri Slope, and proceeds over the rolling grasslands
typical of this area. As the route progresses through the Slope
region, buttes jutting up from the prairie become more numerous. Many
are crowned with brick-red scoria (clay baked in the earth by the
heat of burning lignite beds lying adjacent), and others have scoria
formations protruding from their sides.

At =209.5 m.= is the junction with ND 25, a graveled highway (_see Side
Tour 8D_).

At =231 m.= (L) is the WRONG SIDE UP MONUMENT, a four-foot natural
boulder bearing a bronze plate, commemorating an incident to which
the New Salem Holstein Breeders' Circuit, nationally known dairy
organization, credits its success. As one of the early settlers was
breaking land preparatory to seeding it for the first time, a Sioux
Indian and his son approached. The father, turning a piece of the sod
back into its natural position, remarked, "Wrong side up." His son
explained that the father believed the soil should not be plowed.
The farmer, heeding his advice, grazed cattle on his land instead.
Neighbors followed his example, and today NEW SALEM, =232 m.= (2,163
alt., 804 pop.), is the center of an extensive dairying area. The
town was named by members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church for the
Biblical city of Salem.

GLEN ULLIN, =251.5 m.= (2,065 alt., 950 pop.), a Russo-German
community, has a name suggested to a railroad official by the Scottish
ballad _Lord Ullin's Daughter_. An intermediate lighted airport is
maintained here by the Department of Commerce. Levon West, the etcher,
once attended Glen Ullin high school.

HEBRON, =267 m.= (2,155 alt., 1,348 pop.), is in a small valley just W.
of the divide between the Heart and Knife Rivers. Like New Salem, its
name is of Biblical origin. The town has more brick-faced buildings in
its business district than most towns of similar size because of the
proximity of the $250,000 Hebron BRICK PLANT (_for directions inquire
at post office_; _open weekdays 9-5_). Clay deposits suitable for
brick manufacture, discovered here in 1904, led to the development of
the field. The plant, on the eastern outskirts of the town, ships its
products to all parts of the Northwest, the Pacific Coast States, and

Emil Krauth, son of one of Hebron's early settlers, is an authority
on butterflies, and received recognition of his work in 1935 when
entomologists named a small yellow butterfly, _Colias christina
krauthii_, for him. At his residence he has a BUTTERFLY COLLECTION
(_open; for directions inquire at post office_), 100 cases displaying
specimens gathered from many parts of the world.

Just NW. of the town, where a cemetery now lies, FORT SAUERKRAUT was
built at the time of a false Indian scare in 1892. There is no record
of why it was given its odd name.

Right from Hebron on a country trail to CROWLEY FLINT QUARRY STATE
PARK, =22 m.= Here the Indians obtained flint from which to make arrow
and spear heads. The process of making an arrowhead or spear point
was tedious, the only tool being a piece of bone or horn that had
been buried two weeks in wood ashes to remove grease and temper the
material. On the palm of one hand was placed a buckskin covering, and
on this was laid the flint, held in place by the fingers of the same
hand. Using the bone tool in the other hand, the worker began flaking
chips from the flint, first up one side and then the other, until the
stone assumed the shape wanted. Today unfinished or broken arrowheads
and spear points are occasionally found in the quarry.

West of ANTELOPE (L), =275 m.= (2,410 alt., 20 pop.), the route follows
closely the trail made by Custer's Seventh Cavalry in June 1876, on
their way from Fort Abraham Lincoln to the Little Big Horn country in
Montana, to meet death at the hands of the Sioux they pursued (_see_
HISTORY). The deep ruts cut in the prairie by the military wagons of
the expedition, and later by those traveling over the same trail to
Fort Keogh, Mont., are visible R. and parallel to the highway where it
passes S. of YOUNG MEN'S BUTTE, =277.5 m.= According to legend, when
the Arikara Indians were still living on the Grand River, in what is
now South Dakota, a group separated from the tribe and set out toward
the northwest to seek a new home. Two young men in the party, however,
grew lonesome for the sweethearts they had left behind, and when they
reached this butte they decided to return to their old home. The
remainder of the party continued on the journey, and was never heard
from again.

Left from Antelope an unimproved dirt road leads to the Heart River, =8
of Killdeer Mountains. On his march to the Yellowstone River, in 1864,
Sully corraled his wagon train at this camp, and, traveling light,
moved quickly N. to the Killdeer Mountains to make a surprise attack on
a camp of 5,000 Sioux (_see Side Tour 8D_).

RICHARDTON, =278 m.= (2,465 alt., 710 pop.), is the home of ASSUMPTION
ABBEY of the Benedictine order. The buildings, of Gothic and Romanesque
styles, give the impression of having been transplanted from ancient
Europe to the North Dakota prairie. Twin red-roofed steeples raise
burnished crosses above the buildings, which are constructed in a
square around a garden court. The abbey, completed in 1910, includes
St. Mary's Monastery, St. Mary's Church, and a high school and junior
college for boys. The library contains 14,000 volumes, among which are
several books dated 1720 and bound in pigskin. The town is named for C.
B. Richardton, official of a steamship company that sought homes for
German immigrants, and is predominantly Russo-German.

At =284 m.= is TAYLOR (2,487 alt., 263 pop.). South of here along the
Heart River are large deposits of bentonite; a clay used for commercial
manufacture of paints, cleaners, linoleum, cosmetics, and other
products (_see_ INDUSTRY AND LABOR).

At =299.5 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Left on this road is LEHIGH, =2 m.= (2,347 alt., 203 pop.), named for
Lehigh, Pa., because both are mining towns. Here is a BRIQUETTING PLANT
(_open to large parties and school or college groups; guides_). This
is the only plant in the United States producing lignite briquets with
a B. t. u. (_British thermal unit: 778 foot-pounds energy_) rating of
15,000. Raw lignite has a B. t. u. rating of about 6,500. Eighteen
thousand tons of briquets are produced annually by the million dollar
plant. The work of the late E. J. Babcock of the State university has
been of great importance in adapting the lignite briquetting process
to North Dakota coal. The chief byproduct of the plant is creosote, of
which about 70,000 gallons are shipped to eastern markets each year.
Research conducted on activated carbon, a lignite product used in the
manufacture of tires and for filtration purposes, points to commercial
development of this byproduct (_see_ INDUSTRY AND LABOR).

DICKINSON, =302.5 m.= (2,305 alt., 5,025 pop.), principal stock and
wheat shipping point in the central Missouri Slope area, and Stark
County seat, is on the slope of a hill overlooking the Heart River,
which cuts through the prairie S. of the city. The town is still young
enough to retain much of the friendly atmosphere of the early West.

When the railroad reached this point in 1880, the site was known as
Pleasant Valley Siding, but in 1883 the name was changed by H. L.
Dickinson, the town's first merchant, to honor his cousin Wells S.
Dickinson, a New York State senator.

The town defeated Gladstone and Belfield for county seat in 1884, and
the same year saw its development as a forwarding point for freight
to the booming Black Hills gold fields. On April 15 alone, more than
220,000 lbs. of freight destined for the Hills were received at

In 1886 the Dickinson _Press_ reported: "The first Fourth of July
celebration attempted in Dickinson took place last Monday. It exceeded
the anticipation of all and proved to be a grand success--a day that
will long be remembered. The day dawned bright and cool. Early in the
morning people began to arrive and by ten o'clock the largest crowd
ever assembled in Stark County lined the principal streets. The train
from the west brought a number of Medora people. Amongst them was Hon.
Theodore Roosevelt, the orator of the day. The celebration consisted
of: A Parade, Addresses by Hon. Theodore Roosevelt and Hon. John A.
Rae, Races, Fire Works, and a dance in the evening."

Russo-German immigrants seeking homes in this country were early
attracted to Dickinson by the Catholic mission established there
by Bishop Martin Marty of St. Paul, and today the southern part of
the city is a Russo-German settlement, almost a town within a town.
Although the younger generation is Americanized, the older women still
wear old-fashioned, long, dark dresses, and cover their heads with dark
scarfs or _tuecher_. There are halls for social functions, and for the
gala wedding dances which often last several days.

The $2,000,000 plant of the DICKINSON FIRE AND PRESSED BRICK CO.
(_open_) adjoins the city on the S. The plant, which has a capacity of
20,000 bricks daily, utilizes the various clays found in the company's
200 acres along the Heart River. Fine pottery is also manufactured.
Among the clays used is a rare plastic clay which is worked into sewer
pipe and fire brick, and produces a fine buff shade for facing bricks.
In addition there are clays, semi-shales, and red clays that are worked
into old red sandstone, red, and terra cotta shades for facing.

In the northern part of the city are the DICKINSON COUNTRY CLUB
(_golf_), WHITNEY SWIMMING POOL (_open June-Sept._; _nominal fee_), and
ATHLETIC FIELD (_gridiron_, _baseball diamond_, _running track_, _and
tennis courts_), and ROCKY BUTTE PARK (_picnicking_).

Atop a knoll on 10th Ave. W. is the campus of the DICKINSON STATE
NORMAL SCHOOL. Its buildings, in English Tudor style, constructed of
Hebron brick with white sandstone trim, were not occupied until 1924,
although classes were held in the Dickinson Elks building as early as
1918. On the top floor of May Hall is a natural history museum.

Left (S) from Dickinson on ND 22 to a U. S. Department of Commerce
intermediate AIRPORT, =6 m.=

At =303.5 m=, is a junction with a graveled road.

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION, =2 m.= Here, under State and Federal
supervision, experiments are conducted in fruit production, dry land
farming, and the raising of forage and cereal crops.

At =320 m.= is the junction with a graveled spur.

Left on this spur is SOUTH HEART, =1 m.= (2,474 alt., 150 pop.) so
named because of its position on the southern bank of the Heart River.
One mile W. of the town the trail made in 1864 by Gen. Alfred Sully
and his troops on their return from the Battle of Killdeer Mountain is
plainly visible. South of the town on a country trail is CUSTER HILL,
=7 m.=, where Custer made camp on his way to the Big Horn country
in Montana in 1876. Breastworks thrown up as a protection are still

BELFIELD, =322 m.= (2,578 alt., 653 pop.), is in a small valley along
a tributary of the Heart River. The Dakota Colloidal Corp., which
operates the only BENTONITE PLANT (_open weekdays 9-4_) in the State,
procures the mineral from a clay found N. of town, and uses it in the
manufacture of soaps and washing powders. Here is a junction with US 85
(_see Tour 4_).

At =330 m.= the route comes dramatically upon the BADLANDS, cut into
the heart of the plateau. In every direction stretches a confusion of
bare, grotesque, garish buttes, their tops level with the surrounding
prairies. Down their sides broad earth strata--brown, ash gray,
sulphur yellow, and salmon--deposited through geological ages, have
been exposed by years of erosion. French explorers named this region
_mauvaises terres a traverser_, or bad lands to travel through.

Right at =332 m.= is PAINTED CANYON with its jumble of gorges and
superb buttes. Spread as far as one can see toward the northern horizon
is a magnificent display of buttes, showing in varying light and shadow
the great charm of this never-monotonous country. A drive lined with a
wall of brick-red scoria (_see_ NATURAL SETTING), mottled with green,
like weathered bronze, parallels the highway, providing a good point
from which to take photographs.

As the highway descends into the Badlands, it twists through ravines
and valleys. At =335 m.= is the eastern entrance to the SOUTH ROOSEVELT

MEDORA, =341.5 m.= (2,265 alt., 200 pop.), seat of Billings County,
lies along the eastern bank of the Little Missouri River, at the foot
of a steep wall of yellow clay cliffs. Now a center for tourists
attracted by its history and the scenic beauty of the surrounding
area, it was formerly such a bustling cattle town that on one occasion
a thousand Texas steers stampeded across the tracks and stopped a
train. In the same era, it is said, the more or less adequately named
son of the plains, Hell-Roaring Bill Jones, saw an old gentleman in a
derby get off the train here. Derbies and plug hats were especially
scorned by the cowboys, so with a grunt of disapproval Bill shot off
the offending bit of haberdashery. The gentleman hastened to reenter
the train, leaving his dismantled headgear to the West. But not so Bill
Jones: "Come back!" he roared in tones that compelled obedience. "We
don't want the blinkety-blank thing in Medora."

In 1879 a military camp named Little Missouri (_see below_) was
established here on the opposite river bank to protect workers of the
N. P. Ry. from Indian attacks. This typically rough frontier post saw
the arrival in 1883 of two notable young men of almost the same age.
Theodore Roosevelt, a young New York assemblyman of 25, traveling for
his health and also to forget the recent loss of both his mother and
wife, already displayed the rugged, direct personality which later
characterized the wielder of the "big stick." Because of his eastern
dress and his heavy glasses he became known as "the four-eyed dude
from New York", or, more briefly, "Four-eyes"--until one evening with
his naked fists he knocked out and disarmed a bully. Thereafter his
nickname was subtly changed to "Old Four-eyes."

The other young man was the Marquis de Mores, a handsome, spirited
Frenchman. Arriving in America about six months earlier with his
bride, the rich and charming Medora Von Hoffman of New York, he had
made a hunting trip to the West and, with characteristic dash, decided
to build a packing plant in the cattle country to capitalize on the
advantage of avoiding the cost of shipping live animals to eastern
abattoirs. Wealthy in his own right and backed by his millionaire
father-in-law, de Mores came to the wild Badlands to build the plant
that was to be the center of operations for the Northern Pacific
Refrigerator Car Co., incorporated to operate in five Territories and
nine States, and to do a general transportation business.

Because of some disagreement over contemplated real estate purchases
in Little Missouri, de Mores bought a huge tract of land on the east
side of the river, where he built his packing plant and with it a town,
named Medora for his wife.

In the middle eighties Medora, together with Mingusville (present
Wibaux, Mont.), had become the center of a new, rich, cattle-grazing
section. The round-up area extended to a radius of 75 m., and in some
round-ups as many as 100 men were employed. Large outfits ran probably
100,000 head, and ranchers like Roosevelt, who grazed 2,000 to 3,000
head, were considered small cattlemen.

Many factors operated against the success of de Mores' packing
plant, which opened in the fall of 1883. He himself was young, rash,
inexperienced, and often ill-advised. His friends found him honest and
confiding, and less open minds than his took advantage of him. There
were costly mistakes, and many hundreds of thousands were spent before
any meat was sold. Moreover, eastern packers undersold de Mores and
forced ruinously low prices. Since he had to depend on grass for feed,
he could supply his trade from his own stock only at certain seasons,
and at the other times had to buy from outside parties, who took
advantage of the situation to charge him high prices. A plan to feed
cattle at Medora never materialized. De Mores ran sheep, but hundreds
died. To cap it all, the public apparently did not like grass-fed meat.

Another ill-starred enterprise was the Medora-Deadwood stage line,
begun in the fall of 1884 with the idea of securing a mail contract
and some of the passenger and freight traffic going to the Black Hills
gold fields by way of Dickinson. The route from Medora to Deadwood was
shorter than that from Dickinson, but it was also rougher. De Mores'
horses were wild, and often broke up equipment. In addition, the mail
contract failed to materialize; the shift from placer to deep mining
lessened the flow of transients into the Hills; and after one trip over
the rough road, freight shippers usually chose the Dickinson route. The
line was ordered discontinued in the spring of 1886, ending another of
the marquis' dreams.

Many people of the Little Missouri Valley did not like de Mores. They
doubted his claim to the peerage, or, if they believed it, regarded
it as an affront to their almost belligerent democracy. Such things
as his special car on the N. P. Ry. and his occasional trips East or
abroad irked them. Worst of all, he began to fence his land--a glaring
infraction of wide-open range etiquette. His fences were cut; he had
them mended. They were cut open again. Things went from bad to worse.
Stories were carried to de Mores of threats against his life. He
appealed to the sheriff at Mandan for the arrest of the trouble makers.
When the deputy sheriff arrived, they bluffed him out, and de Mores,
thinking the deputy overpowered or perhaps killed, endeavored to make
the arrest. There was shooting, and when the smoke cleared, one man was

This was in June 1883. Twice dismissed by lower courts, the charge
against de Mores was finally brought in district court in Bismarck
in September 1885. He was acquitted. About a year after the trial,
realizing that his packing plant was not to be a success, he closed its
doors, and took his family to Europe. At the age of 38, while on an
expedition to Africa, he was ambushed and killed by native guides.

Except for his neighbor Roosevelt, the Badlands have never known a more
notable figure than this Frenchman with his dreams of their industrial

Theodore Roosevelt was a frequent visitor at the de Mores' chateau
(_see below_) during the months he spent in Dakota Territory. On his
first hunting trip here in 1883 he was so attracted by the wild country
that he made arrangements to become a partner in a ranching enterprise,
and for the next six years he spent part of each year here, first at
the Maltese Cross, or Chimney Butte Ranch (_see_ BISMARCK), 7 m. up the
Little Missouri, and later at the Elkhorn, 35 m. downstream (_see Tour
10_). Both ranch sites are difficult to reach, and little is to be seen
at them other than the sites where the buildings stood.

Roosevelt's ranching ventures were not financially successful; he ran
small herds, and was interested more in the condition of his health
than that of his fortune. His keen delight in hunting and the rough
cowboy life, however, won him many friends. In the spring of 1884 he
acted as chairman of the local Stockmen's Association, and the same
year he was the principal speaker at Dickinson's first Fourth of July
celebration. One day a cowboy overheard someone say, "That fool Joe
Ferris [a Medora storekeeper] says Roosevelt is going to be President."
Seventeen years later the cowboy told this to Ferris; the death of
McKinley had just made Roosevelt President.

In company with the other stockmen of the valley, Roosevelt lost
heavily in the severe winter of 1886-87. It is said that scarcely a
rancher did not lose at least half his stock--the Hash-Knife, a large
outfit, lost 65,000 head.

Roosevelt's trips to the West thereafter were of shorter duration. One
of the strongest links that bound him to this country was his famous
Rough Riders, made up mainly of western men, who served under him
in the Spanish-American War. Roosevelt visited Medora in 1900, on a
campaign tour, and again in 1903, and was warmly received each time by
his old neighbors and friends.

Medora was briefly the home of Tom Mix, screen actor, who was married
here to Olive M. Stokes, Jan. 19, 1909. Mix, then a circus performer,
and Miss Stokes had just completed contracts with the Miller Brothers'
101 Ranch Wild West Show.

Right at the entrance to Main St. is the little buff brick ATHENAIS
CHAPEL, built for the marquise by her husband in 1884, and named for
their daughter. It was presented to the village in 1920 by members of
the de Mores family, and is still in use as the Roman Catholic church
of the community.

Fronting Main St. is the ROUGH RIDERS HOTEL, erected by de Mores in
1884. It served as headquarters for cattlemen and cowpunchers of the
day; and although it was built a year after Theodore Roosevelt came
to Dakota, the story is told that his first night in Medora was spent
here. Doubtless, however, he spent many nights in the hotel, which
suggested to him the name of his Spanish-American War regiment.

One block down Main St. (L) is a bronze STATUE OF MARQUIS DE MORES,
erected by the family in 1926. It stands in a small plot which is part
of De Mores State Park, three tracts comprising about 77 acres, deeded
to the State Historical Society of North Dakota in 1936 by Louis, Count
de Vallombrosa, eldest son of the marquis. On a second unit of the
park, in the northwestern part of town, is the SITE OF THE DE MORES
PACKING PLANT. The abandoned buildings, with mammoth refrigerators
and machinery and mysterious dark passages, long bore the legend,
"Rent free to any responsible party who will make use of them." Fire
destroyed them in 1907; all that remains today is a tall, gaunt, yellow
brick chimney.

Left from Medora on a winding graded county dirt road to the CUSTER
TRAIL RANCH, =5 m.=, named by its founders, Howard, Willis, and Alden
Eaton, for its position on the trail of the fatal military expedition
to the Little Big Horn in 1876. It is at the confluence of the Little
Missouri River and Davis Creek, where a Custer camp erected parapets
for protection from possible Indian attack. Deep ruts cut by the wagons
of the expedition are still visible near the ranch buildings. This
ranch was established in the late 1880's, and is the first of the "dude
ranches" which have become so popular in the West. The owners were
neighbors of Roosevelt, whose Chimney Butte Ranch was 2 m. upstream.
In 1897 Ernest Thompson Seton, naturalist and author, while gathering
material for his books _Lives of the Hunted_ and _Coyotito_, spent the
month of September here with the Eatons. The ranch still has its quota
of summer visitors, but in the early 1900's the Eatons transferred
their activities to the vicinity of the Big Horn Mountains.

At =341.7 m.= the route crosses the bridge leading over the LITTLE
MISSOURI RIVER. Except in times of flood the stream, which is narrow
here, is shallow and sluggish.

At =341.8 m.= is the junction with an improved road.

Left on this road to the third unit (60 A.) of the De Mores State
Park, the DE MORES CHATEAU, =0.5 m.=, commanding an excellent view
of the river, the bluffs, and the village. The chateau is a 28-room,
2-story frame structure with a wide veranda, and windows guarded by
old-fashioned shutters.

Deserted by its wealthy young owners and their retinue of servants,
and subjected to the aging of half a century, it presents a vastly
different picture from that of 1883, when the ambitious Frenchman built
it for his red-haired bride.

Although the establishment of the packing plant was de Mores' chief
reason for being in Dakota, he and the marquise led an active social
life, entertaining settlers of the region and also many distinguished
guests from the East and from Europe, who came to hunt. An item in the
Bismarck _Tribune_ of Sept. 4, 1885, read:

                        "She Killed Three Bears

  "The Marquise, wife of Marquis de Mores, has returned from her
  hunt in the Rocky mountains, where she killed two cinnamon bears
  and one large grizzly bear. The accomplished lady, who was a few
  years ago one of New York City's popular society belles, is now the
  queen of the Rocky mountains and the champion huntress of the great

  During their residence in America two children were born to the de
  Mores, a son, Louis, and a daughter, Athenais. A third child, Paul,
  was born in France soon after the family left Medora. The marquise
  died in 1920 as the result of an injury received while serving as a
  nurse in the World War. Although she returned to Medora only once
  (1893), she removed nothing from the chateau to which she came as a
  bride. It was left in the hands of a caretaker until its transfer
  to the State historical society in 1936.

At =341.9 m.= (L) are the partly filled cellar holes that mark the
SITE OF LITTLE MISSOURI, Medora's predecessor. The story is told that,
during the heyday of the town, passengers on a train pausing opposite a
hotel here heard the sound of shots. Presently, to their horror, the
door opened and a group of cowboys carried out a limp body. Soon there
were more shots, and another body was brought out. Before the train
left the cowboys figured they had given the "dudes" an eyeful. The
"bodies" all belonged to the same man, and the shots had been aimed so
as to do no harm.

At =343 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Right on this road to the sandstone pillars marking the western
entrance to the South Roosevelt Regional State Park, =0.1 m.= (_see_

At =347.5 m.= is the first glimpse of FLAT TOP BUTTE (L), sometimes
known as Square Butte, whose mesa-like top contains nearly a section
of land. On a slope of this butte occurred a skirmish between Sully's
punitive expedition of 1864 and a band of Hunkpapa and Sans Arc Sioux
led by Sitting Bull. Harried by a sniping fire from the Sioux, the
2,200 soldiers, on quarter rations because of insufficient supplies,
and burdened with an immigrant train of 600 people and 120 oxcarts,
had sweltered through a hot August day. Just as darkness was closing
over the Badlands they discovered a spring on the northeastern slope
of Flat Top Butte, only to have Sitting Bull, who realized their need
of the water, suddenly pour in a heavy fire from the nearby hills. The
firing continued intermittently all night. In the morning, however, the
Sioux withdrew and went hunting. Several Indians were killed during the
encounter and many soldiers wounded.

At =355.5 m.= the highway reaches the level prairie after a gradual
rise out of the Badlands. From here is visible (L) Sentinel Butte
(3,350 alt.), second highest point in the State, a large flat-topped
mesa in the distance. Right is the CAMEL'S HUMP, a peculiarly rounded,
grass-covered hill.

At =358 m.= is the village of SENTINEL BUTTE (2,706 alt., 219 pop.),
which was named for the nearby mesa to the S. The Sully expedition,
following its encounter with the Sioux at Flat Top, passed over the
present town site.

Left from the town on a graveled road to the junction with a county
dirt road, =3 m.=; L. here to a gate (L) at =4.3 m.=; follow rutted
trail to foot of southern slope of SENTINEL BUTTE, =5 m.= In a pass at
the top of this slope are two supposed graves of sentinels killed while
on guard. Conflicting stories are told of the sentinels' identity.
One Indian legend says romance was involved in the slaying of the
two; another, that they were Arikara scouts surprised by a Sioux war
party. Nearly 80 acres of grassland are on the flat top of Sentinel
Butte, and its precipitous sandstone cliff-sides rise 719 ft. above the
surrounding prairies. From the eastern rim of the butte on a clear day
is a panorama of the Badlands, with Flat Top Butte in the foreground,
and the diggings of several private lignite coal mines visible in the
slopes of the neighboring hills. To the S. and W. the plain stretches
away into the distance: nicely squared patches of green in the spring
and early summer, rippling areas of gold during harvest, and squares
of plowed black earth etched against patches of grimy yellow stubble in
the fall.

BEACH, =365.5 m.= (2,755 alt., 1,263 pop.), is named for Capt. Warren
Beach of the Eleventh Infantry, who accompanied the Stanley railroad
survey expedition in 1873. Beach is Golden Valley County seat, center
of a large agricultural area in western North Dakota and eastern
Montana, and a grain shipping point. John M. Baer, the political
cartoonist, was postmaster in Beach from 1913 to 1915, and later became
a North Dakota Congressman.

US 10 crosses the Montana Line, =368 m.=, 42 m. E. of Glendive Mont.
(_see Mont. Tour 1_).


  Valley City--Oakes--South Dakota Line. ND 1.

  Valley City to South Dakota Line, 75 m.

  N. P. Ry. branch line roughly parallels route between Verona and
  Oakes, North Western Ry. branch between Oakes and South Dakota Line.

  Gravelled roadbed throughout.

  Accommodations in principal towns

ND 1 south of Valley City traverses the rolling plain--part of the
Height of Land--that lies between the Sheyenne and the James Rivers.
The northern end of the route runs near the Sheyenne, while its
southern course roughly parallels the James. Near the southern border
of the State the highway runs across the level bed of glacial Lake
Dakota, a small part of which extended into present North Dakota. This
lake existed before Lake Agassiz, in the valley of the James River,
which was in existence before the second ice age. Along the entire
route pheasants are plentiful.

ND 1 branches S. from US 10 at Valley City (_see Tour 8_).

At =19 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Left on this road to BIRCH CREEK HISTORIC SITE (_picnic and camp
grounds adjoining_), =1 m.= In the late 1830's the Federal Government
sent its first exploratory expedition into this area under Jean N.
Nicollet and Lt. John C. Fremont. Their party camped in this coulee on
Birch Creek in 1839. In August 1863 a detachment of the Sibley Indian
expedition under Col. Samuel McPhail also camped here, naming the site
Camp Johnson for one of the officers. Later, in 1867-72, the Fort
Totten-Fort Ransom trail crossed the coulee.

HASTINGS, =19.5 m.= (1,453 alt., 125 pop.), was named by the N. P. Ry.
for Hastings, Minn., which in turn was named for Gen. Henry Hastings
Sibley (1811-1891), first Governor of Minnesota, and in 1863 commander
of an expedition against the Sioux.

At =23.5 m.= is the junction with ND 46, a graveled highway.

Left on this highway to the junction with an unimproved country trail,
=7 m.=; R. here =0.5 m.= to INYAN BOSDATA, or Standing Rock, one of two
rocks within the boundaries of North Dakota sacred to the Sioux tribes
(_see Side Tour 8C_). The Sioux are reticent concerning legends of the
stone, saying only that it is _waukan_ (mysterious). About 4 ft. high,
it is roughly shaped like an inverted cone, and stands atop a circular
mound, from which long, narrow mounds extend both E. and W. The
significance of the mound on which it stands is not definitely known,
but it is believed to be of ceremonial origin. Positions of skeletons
and types of artifacts found in the different strata of the few mounds
excavated in this area lead archeologists to believe that the mounds
were built for burial purposes. Discoveries in the oldest stratum
indicate that after the retreat of the glacier the race which built the
mounds was nomadic, living by the hunt and on edible tubers found in
the region, while artifacts found in later strata reveal that the race
had probably become agricultural and lived in permanent villages.

At =9 m.= on ND 46 is the junction with an unimproved dirt road; L.
here =1 m.= to CAMP WEISER HISTORIC SITE, named for Dr. J. S. Weiser,
surgeon with the First Minnesota Mounted Rangers, who was later killed
in the Battle of Big Mound (_see Tour 8_). This was an encampment of
the Sibley expedition the night of July 13-14, 1863.

At =30.5 m.= on ND 1 is the junction with a graveled road.

Left here is FORT RANSOM, =7 m.= (1,217 alt., 297 pop.), a quiet little
village hidden in the trees at the foot of the hill on which are the
RUINS OF OLD FORT RANSOM. Thousands of Civil War veterans, released
from service, turned to the West for opportunity, crossing the plains
to the gold fields in Montana and Idaho. To keep the hostile Sioux
in check and to guard the immigrant wagon trains on their overland
journeys, it was planned to establish a chain of forts across the
prairies. Fort Ransom was the first of this chain, built in 1867
by Gen. Alfred Terry and named for Gen. Thomas Ransom, a Civil War
officer. It was protected by sod and log breastworks 12 ft. high,
surrounded by a ditch 8 ft. deep, a protection never greatly needed,
for few Indians lived in the vicinity. In 1872 Fort Ransom was replaced
by Fort Seward at Jamestown (_see Tour 8_). Remains of the breastworks
of the fortification are visible.

Across the deep ravine running N. and W. of the fort a lookout post
was situated on BEAR DEN HILLOCK which the Sioux know as Matoti. On
the slope of this hill is a large glaciated _Writing Rock_, on the
surface of which are four deep grooves. These the Indians believe to
have been written by spirits. Two legends are told of the stone: one,
that a water sprite traced the markings with his finger, the other that
two young women spirits came daily to write messages to the tribes,
until the invasion of the white man, when they refused to send further
messages. Several tumuli of the mound builders are on this hill.

At =36.5 m.= on ND 1 is the junction with ND 27, a graveled highway.

Left here is LISBON, =18 m.= (1,187 alt., 1,650 pop.), Ransom County
seat, named by two settlers for their home cities, Lisbon, N. Y. and
Lisbon, Ill. The first settlers arrived in 1878, and two years later
the town site was platted. Situated at the foot of the hills bordering
the Sheyenne River, the town is scattered on both wooded banks of
the stream. The red-brick buildings of the STATE SOLDIERS HOME, in
landscaped grounds in the southern section of the town, accommodate 50
veterans. SANDAGER PARK in the northwestern part is a well-maintained
recreational center (_short boat trips up river available in summer;
reasonable fares_). W. D. Boyce (1860-1912), Lisbon newspaper publisher
during the 1880's, who became publisher of the _Saturday Blade_ in
Chicago, is credited with bringing the Boy Scout idea to the United
States from England, and a fine BOY SCOUT BUILDING AND PARK on Main St.
are a memorial to him. R. N. Stevens (1852-1925), a Lisbon attorney and
member of the State constitutional convention in 1889, later associated
with Alexander McKenzie in Alaska, is characterized as the crafty
attorney in Rex Beach's novel _The Spoilers_.

Left from Lisbon =1 m.= on ND 9 to OAKWOOD CEMETERY, the land for which
was a gift of William K. Thaw, a large landholder here in early days.
It contains the graves of many soldiers. In the center of the area is
a statue of a bugler in the pose of sounding taps, a memorial to the
Civil War dead.

At =22 m.= on ND 27 is the junction with a graveled road; R. here =2
m.= to the junction with another graveled road; L. to another junction
at =3 m.=; R. to the SITE OF CAMP HAYES, =4.8 m.= On the first bench
above the level Sheyenne River flood plain Gen. H. H. Sibley and his
Indian expedition camped a week in July 1863 while awaiting supplies
and mail from Fort Abercrombie. At each of his camps Sibley erected
breastworks of some type, and remains of the ravine trenches at this
site are still visible. Like giant, round anthills, several tumuli of
the mound builders project against the sky line on the hills bordering
the river opposite Camp Hayes. The largest of the hills along the river
here is OKIEDAN BUTTE, meaning _place where they all rushed together_,
famed in Sioux legend. At the foot of the hill, near a spring still
flowing, a Sisseton Sioux war party is said to have attacked and killed
a band of 30 Arikara Indians. At this same place in the early 1880's
Bvt. Gen. H. M. Creel of the U. S. Regulars reported having his command
entirely surrounded by so large a herd of bison that it stretched
beyond the vision of his field glasses, and took several hours in

At =26 m.= on ND 27 is the junction with an unimproved dirt road; R.
here =3 m.= to the CHEYENNE INDIAN VILLAGE SITE. A springhouse (L)
stands at the entrance to the ear-shaped site. Depressions mark the
position of the earth lodges that once stood here. A moat is still
visible around the entire site. Many artifacts have been excavated,
including traces of pottery. The homes of the Cheyennes were circular
lodges, constructed of earth over a frame of logs, similar to those
of the Mandan and Hidatsa Indians who lived along the Missouri
River (_see Side Tour 3A and Tour 8_). In the eighteenth century the
Cheyennes were forced into South Dakota and Wyoming by the continued
attacks of the Sioux and Chippewa.

STRONG MEMORIAL PARK (_picnic and camp grounds_), =3.3 m.=, is across
the road (R) from the Indian village site. The land was given the State
historical society by Frank Strong, and is a memorial to him.

ND 1 continues S. to VERONA, =41 m.= (1,383 alt., 222 pop.), first
settled in the spring of 1883, and named for the city in northern Italy.

At =42 m.= is the junction with ND 13, a graveled highway.

Left here is LAMOURE, =10 m.= (1,304 alt., 889 pop.), named for Judson
LaMoure (1839-1918), an early political power in the State. It is
situated on the banks of the James River, and is the center of a large
dairying area. Its history dates from the arrival of the railroad
in 1883. As the community grew, an intense rivalry was born between
LaMoure and Grand Rapids (_see below_), a rivalry that did not end
until LaMoure, in a hot fight in 1886, won the LaMoure County seat from
Grand Rapids, which thereafter declined. Like other frontier towns,
LaMoure had many gaming houses and saloons. Residences being scarce,
one pious family was forced to live above a saloon. When it came
time for the wife to entertain the weekly prayer meeting, the saloon
closed out of deference, and the next issue of the LaMoure _Chronicle_
mentioned the incident thus: "There were spirits above and spirits
below. The spirits below were spirits of wine, and the spirits above
were spirits divine." One year LaMoure had no speaker for a Fourth
of July celebration, while a popular speaker, Dr. E. P. Robertson of
Fargo, had been engaged by Grand Rapids. He arrived at Lisbon, the end
of the railroad line, and was met by a fine four-horse team and the
best carriage to be found. The driver shouted, "All aboard for Grand
Rapids! Right this way for Dr. Robertson!" and the unsuspecting doctor
was driven to LaMoure, delivered a glowing address, was returned to
Lisbon by the same rig, and reached home without having learned of his
error. An occasion for excitement in LaMoure was the arrival of the
steamer _Nettie Baldwin_ in the late summer of 1883. The boat docked at
a pontoon bridge, and some citizens had visions of the town's becoming
an important river port. Of a second trip in 1884 the _Chronicle_
recalls: "The climax to speculation concerning a regular commercial
route came suddenly and sadly. _Nettie Baldwin_ couldn't cut the buck,
or was it the mud?" The boat was left in the water, where it lay for
many years.

At =13 m.= on ND 13 is the junction with ND 63, a graveled highway;
R. here is GRAND RAPIDS, =19 m.= (1,320 alt., 60 pop.), named for the
cataract in the James River at this point. The little village, once a
prosperous county seat, lies at one of the widest points of the James
River flood plain. It was the first organized town in LaMoure County,
and until 1886 was the county seat. In that year it lost the position
to LaMoure after a bitter struggle, although the editor of the LaMoure
_Chronicle_ dared to sympathize with Grand Rapids, to an extent that
won him in his home city the title of "Leper of LaMoure."

On ND 63 to LAMOURE COUNTY MEMORIAL PARK (_picnic and camp grounds_,
_playgrounds_, _swimming_, _horseshoe courts_, _athletic field_),
=20 m.=, is a 53-acre tract along the James River, established as a
memorial to LaMoure County World War dead. Many county gatherings are
held here each summer.

ND 1, S. of Verona, continues over the level prairie. At =57 m.= is a
junction with ND 11, which unites with ND 1 between this point and =70

OAKES, =58 m.= (1,310 alt., 1,709 pop.), on a level rise of ground 1
m. E. of the James River, is at the extreme northern end of the bed of
glacial Lake Dakota. The town site was platted in 1886 at the junction
of the N. P. and North Western Rys., and was named for Thomas Fletcher
Oakes (1843-1911), one-time vice president and general manager of the
N. P. Ry. A short time later the Soo Line built into the new community,
and these railroad facilities were a factor in the rapid growth of the
town. It was incorporated as a city in 1888. The foresight of Oakes'
first citizens is indicated by the exceptional width of the streets.

The million dollar NORTH AMERICAN CREAMERY PLANT is the chief
industrial plant of the town.

CENTRAL PARK, in the western part of town, contains a lighted
ice-skating rink.

South of Oakes the low-lying hills of the Missouri Plateau (R) are
visible in the distance, while a range of hills (L) marks the Height of
Land between the Sheyenne and James Rivers. Rain falling on the western
side of these hills finds its way into the James and the Gulf of Mexico
via the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers, while that falling to the E.
enters the Sheyenne and eventually makes its way to Hudson Bay through
the Red River.

LUDDEN, =69 m.= (1,303 alt., 164 pop.), was named by the town site
owner, Frank Randall, for Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Ludden of St. Paul, Minn.,
who had cared for him when he was an infant. First settled nearby in
1883, the town was moved in 1886 to its present site on the railway.
There are many Finns in the community who still use the _sauna_, or
steam bath, of their native land. Early marriage is common among them;
the Finnish tongue is usually spoken in the homes.

At =75 m.= the route crosses the South Dakota Line, 48 m. =NE.= of
Aberdeen, S. Dak.


  Junction US 10--Cooperstown--Junction US 2. ND 1 & 7.

  Junction with US 10 to junction with US 2, 93 m.

  N. P. Ry. branch line roughly parallels route between US 10 and

  Graveled roadbed throughout.

  Usual tourist accommodations in principal towns.

This route proceeds north over the smooth plain of the fertile
black-earth belt, through the hills of the upper Sheyenne River basin.
First the Indians and later the metis or half-breeds hunted the large
herds of buffalo that once roamed this lake-dotted region. Among the
earliest white comers here were the Nicollet-Fremont exploratory
expedition in the 1830's, the Stevens survey party in 1853, the Sibley
expedition in 1863, and in the 1870's, the soldiers, scouts, and wagon
trains following the Fort Totten-Fort Abercrombie trail.

Bonanza farms flourished in this region during the last two decades of
the nineteenth century, but were subdivided eventually into smaller
farms taken up by Scandinavian immigrants who began to come here in the
1880's. The first Norwegian community in North Dakota was established
near this route, and the fine farms of the present-day Norse residents
are visible from the highway.

ND 1 branches N. from its junction with US 10, 5 m. W. of Valley City
(_see Tour 8_).

DAZEY, =22.5 m.= (1,428 alt., 251 pop.), was named for the father of
Charles T. Dazey, author of the play _In Old Kentucky_. The elder Dazey
owned the town site.

Right from Dazey on ND 26, a graveled highway, to CAMP CORNING HISTORIC
SITE, =8 m.=, where Sibley's expedition spent the night of July 16,
1863. The camp was named for an officer on the Sibley staff.

WALUM, =27.5 m.= (1,429 alt., 60 pop.), was named in 1900 for a
prosperous landowner of this vicinity.

HANNAFORD, =31 m.= (1,416 alt., 351 pop.), named for J. M. Hannaford,
one-time vice president of the N. P. Ry., lies W. of Bald Hill Creek,
tributary of the Sheyenne River.

At =33 m.= is the junction with a dirt road.

Right here =2 m.= to the junction with another dirt road; R. here to
CAMP POPE, =2.3 m.=, made by members of the Sibley expedition in August
1863 on their return to Minnesota after driving the Sioux W. of the
Missouri River.

At =36 m.= the route crosses both the Sibley and the Fort Totten-Fort
Abercrombie trails, although no traces of these routes are visible from
the highway. The Sibley expedition, in pursuit of the Sioux believed to
be responsible for the Minnesota Massacre (_see_ HISTORY), had learned
that the Indians were encamped near Devils Lake (_see Side Tour 6A_),
so the long column of 4,000 men, 1,350 mules, 800 horses, and 225
wagons set out in a northwesterly course toward the lake from Lisbon
(_see Side Tour 8A_). Before they arrived, however, they learned that
their quarry had gone to the Missouri, so they changed their course to
the W. The Sibley route toward Devils Lake was followed by the heavy
traffic between Fort Totten and Fort Abercrombie in the next decade.

At =41.5 m.= is the junction with ND 7, a graveled highway.

Right here is COOPERSTOWN, =1 m.= (1,425 alt., 1,053 pop.). It was
founded in 1882 by T. J. and Rollin C. Cooper, brothers who, flush with
the profits of successful mining ventures in Colorado, arrived in this
vicinity in 1880, and became bonanza farmers. They were instrumental
in building the Sanborn, Cooperstown & Turtle Mountain R. R. (later an
N. P. Ry. branch) into the town in 1883, and as terminal of this road
Cooperstown grew rapidly.

Although old-fashioned, rambling houses set in spacious lawns and
numerous old buildings fronting the business streets create an
unhurried atmosphere, Cooperstown has contributed several progressives
to the national picture. Gerald P. Nye (1892-), U. S. Senator from
North Dakota, chairman (1936) of the committee for investigation of
the munitions industry, was a weekly newspaper editor here when he
was appointed to a vacancy in the Senate in 1925. Former Congressman
James H. Sinclair (1871-), member of the Agricultural Committee
(1925-1935), and coauthor of the Norris-Sinclair farm relief bill, was
superintendent of the Cooperstown schools (1896-1898), and register of
deeds (1899-1905). Thomas R. Amlie (1897-), Wisconsin Congressman, and
Edward D. Stair (1859-), publisher of the Detroit (Mich.) _Free Press_,
are also former residents.

Stair established Cooperstown's first paper, the _Courier_, the year
the town was founded, and even before coming here had a hand in its
history. He was feature writer for the Fargo _Argus_ and was also
working as a mail clerk on a railroad terminating in Hope at the time
that Cooperstown, then only a small settlement, decided to contest
Hope's right to the county seat. Stair learned that Hope was colonizing
voters with an eye to the coming county seat election, and exposed
the plan in a series of stories in the _Argus_. Hope residents were
enraged, and warned him, if he wished to keep his skin unpunctured, to
stay out of town, which was extremely difficult in view of the fact
that his train made a lay-over of several hours there. His fellow
mail clerk, a six-foot newspaper man, came to his support, and the
two, with six-shooters dangling from their hips, sauntered about Hope
unmolested but hungry, for the only hotel in town refused to sell food
to the enemy. Cooperstown won the election, but Hope refused to concede
victory, and it required two raids by Cooperstown residents to obtain
the county records for the new county seat.

On the Griggs County Courthouse grounds stands the _Opheim Log Cabin_,
the first permanent white home in the county. Built in 1879 by Omund
Nels Opheim on his claim NE. of Cooperstown, it was moved to its
present site to become a pioneer memorial, and contains the hand-made
furniture used by its former occupants.

East from Cooperstown on ND 7 to the junction with a dirt road, =3
m.=; R. here to another junction, =7 m.=; R. on a prairie trail to a
circular group of five conical MOUNDS, =7.5 m.= From excavations made
in similar mounds along the lower Sheyenne River (_see Side Tour 8A_)
archeologists believe that most of these tumuli were built for burial

ND 1 and 7 are identical between =41.5 m.= and =49.5 m.=, where ND
1 proceeds R. to enter the rounded, lake-dotted hills of the DOVRE
MORAINE, seventh ridge formed by debris deposited during the halts of
the retreating glaciers. The Nicollet-Fremont and Stevens expeditions,
the Sibley column, and both a gold seekers' caravan and an immigrant
train guided by Capt. James Fisk crossed this moraine at various times,
camping on some of the lakes.

At =55 m.= is the junction with a prairie trail. At this junction
is (R) CAMP ATCHESON HISTORIC SITE, commemorating establishment of
Sibley's base camp July 18, 1863.

Left on the prairie trail to LAKE SIBLEY, =0.5 m.=, a small morainic
lake on the northeastern shore of which is the actual _Site of Camp
Atcheson_. The camp was named for Capt. Charles Atcheson of Sibley's
staff. When General Sibley heard from friendly Chippewa Indians that
the Sioux he was pursuing were fleeing from the Devils Lake region
toward the Missouri River, he hastily ordered trenches dug and
breastworks thrown up, and inside this fortification placed all his
sick men, weak horses, the baggage train, the cattle, and the surplus
of supply wagons. Leaving two companies of infantry to maintain the
camp he started after the Sioux. The main column, traveling light,
succeeded in driving them across the Missouri near Bismarck, and
returned to the base camp a month later. On a hill overlooking the lake
from the NE. a marble marker denotes the grave of a private who died

At 57 =m.= is the junction with an unimproved dirt road.

Right here to LAKE JESSIE, =2.3 m.=, where the bed of a once
mirror-like body of water now blows with alkali dust. In the early
1900's 12 ft. of water covered the lake bed, but in 1933 motorcycle
races were run here. A heavy growth of timber, which has survived
the lake, and a fine spring at its west end made it a landmark for
explorers of the region. Nicollet and Fremont camped here in 1839, and
Fremont named the lake for his fiancee, Jessie Benton. In 1853 Gov. I.
I. Stevens, guided by Pierre Bottineau (_see_ HISTORY), camped on the
lake on his way to become Governor of Washington Territory. In 1862
Capt. James Fisk, guiding a party of gold seekers to the fields in
Montana and Utah, camped on Lake Jessie, and again in 1863 stopped at
the lake several days with an immigrant train he led through the State.
The second Fisk expedition and the Sibley column, on Lake Sibley, were
but a few miles apart, and the two camps exchanged visits.

BINFORD, =57.5 m.= (1,518 alt., 317 pop.), was named for Ray Binford,
attorney for the D. B. S. Johnston Land Co., which purchased and
platted the town site. The company bought the homestead of Gilbert
Gilbertson, an early settler. The many names used by Gilbertson
illustrate the common Norwegian practice of changing the surname on
arrival in this country, sometimes using the name of the father with
"son" affixed, and sometimes adopting the title of the home district
as surname. To add to this, Americans thought these names too long or
foreign to be practical, and changed them for the newcomers. Gilbertson
filed on his homestead as Gilbert Gilbertson, but was equally well
known in his community as Gabriel Gabrielson, Gilbert Gabrielson, and
Gabriel Gilbertson.

Left (NW) from Binford on a graveled road is MOSE, =6 m.= (1,539 alt.,
30 pop.). Here are the ANSONIA KENNELS, which raise white German
shepherds. This is a remnant of an industry that reached its peak in
Griggs County in 1924 when the Nation-wide fad for German police dogs
was at its height. In that year as many as 400 farmers were breeding
dogs in the county, and animals totaling a value of more than $100,000
were shipped to all parts of the United States, to South America, and
to the Philippine Islands. The industry had its beginning in 1914 near
Cooperstown when farmer Torkel Njaa imported a German shepherd for a
watchdog. Njaa was so pleased with the animal that he imported two
females. His success in raising and marketing dogs caught the fancy of
other farmers, and led to the establishment of the industry.

At =63.5 m.= is the junction with a graveled spur.

Left here to RED WILLOW LAKE, =2 m.= On the southern shore is a TOURIST
PARK (_cabins_, _boats_, _swimming_, _camping_, _fishing_), part of a
1,300-acre State game refuge. A pavilion (_seating capacity 1,500_)
serves for recreational purposes and is the scene of many conventions,
including an annual Lutheran Bible Camp (_June_).

ND 1 crosses the wooded SHEYENNE RIVER at =69.5 m.= and at =82.5 m.=
skirts the eastern end of STUMP LAKE, a body of water that once covered
approximately 10,000 acres, but is now reduced to slightly more than
2,000. The Sioux called the lake Wamduska (_serpent_), and believed it
was once a great forest which the Great Spirit, in anger, allowed to be
swallowed by water. On clear days logs can be seen below the surface,
and where the water has receded many large stumps protrude from the
ground, giving the lake bed the appearance of a timbered area logged
off by beavers. Geologists believe that Stump Lake was once connected
with Devils Lake, 10 m. W., and had an outlet into the Sheyenne River.
The wooded area along the eastern shore has been transformed into
a recreational park, and BIRD ISLAND, a 350-acre peninsula in the
southwestern bay of the lake, has been set aside as a U. S. Biological
Survey game reserve.

At =87 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Left on this road to the junction with an unimproved road at =2 m.=;
R. here to WAMDUSKA HOTEL, =2.5 m.=, a lonely 75-room building that is
a silent reminder of the village of Wamduska, platted, peopled, and
abandoned because of a railroad survey. The town was founded in the
1880's when it was believed that the G. N. Ry. would be constructed
along Lake Wamduska, as it was then called, but the survey was made 10
m. to the N., and Wamduska died. Today the old hotel is used as a farm

At =93 m.= is the junction with US 2 (_see Tour 6_) 1 m. E. of Lakota
(_see Tour 6_).


  Mandan--Cannonball--Fort Yates--South Dakota Line. ND 6, 21, & 24.

  Mandan to South Dakota Line, 85 m.

  Graveled roadbed except 15 m. unimproved dry-weather roadbed on ND

  Accommodations at Fort Yates only.

This route traverses the North Dakota section of the Standing Rock
Indian Agency (_for history of the agency see_ INDIANS AND THEIR
PREDECESSORS) where Sitting Bull, Rain-in-the-Face, and Chief Gall,
Father Pierre De Smet, and Maj. James McLaughlin made early history
in the Dakotas. When organized in 1868 the reservation contained four
million acres. The treaty with the Sioux in 1887, however, provided
for white settlement, and when the area was opened for homesteading in
1910 the reservation was reduced to 1,343,000 acres. Today all of Sioux
County constitutes the North Dakota portion of the agency. Here 1,600
members of the upper and lower bands of the Yanktonai Sioux make their
homes in an area of rugged brown hills, smooth grasslands, and rugged,
distorted, gray-blue buttes. On the South Dakota side of the agency
live 1,100 Hunkpapa and Blackfoot Sioux.

ND 6 branches S. from its junction with US 10 at MANDAN (_see Tour 8_),
crosses the Heart River, and passes the U. S. NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS
FIELD STATION (_guides available at office_). At =4 m.= is the U. S.
NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS DAIRY STATION (R). Various crops, plants, trees,
shrubs, methods of farming, breeds of cattle, and even buildings are
tried, tested, and adapted to the dry farming of the Missouri Slope
country at these two Government experimental stations.

As the highway gradually ascends from the river valley to the flowing
prairies, high hills and buttes are outlined in a blue haze against the
southwestern horizon. At =9 m.= (R) is the CESKY ZAKOPNIK (pronounced
_Chesky za kop' neek_) or retreat of the Western Czechoslovakian
Fraternal Organization, a social, benevolent, and protective society.
The Cesky Zakopnik is a lodge hall and social center for the Czechs
of Mandan and the vicinity. These people are thoroughly Americanized.
Their dances (_public_), quite American in all other respects, have one
unusual feature, the dancing of Sala Naninka De Zeli (_Annie Went to
the Cabbage Patch_), a folk dance with intricate steps. It is usually
performed once or twice during the evening, and the older people
particularly enjoy it.

The sharp, high-pointed peak (L) of LITTLE HEART BUTTE (Sioux name,
Ta canta wakpa cikala paha), an early-day landmark, is visible from
a distance before the road passes it at =11 m.= The Bismarck Weather
Bureau uses the peak several times daily for observations of visibility.

At =15 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Right here is ST. ANTHONY, =0.5 m.= (1,790 alt., 116 pop.), a small
community settled in 1887 by Roman Catholic German-Hungarians from
Ohio. In 1906 a parochial school was opened, and despite the small
size of the community this institution is still in operation, with an
enrollment of more than 120.

The highway enters range country with few fences or farms. At =26 m.=
is a junction with ND 21 (=see Side Tour 4B=), which unites with ND 6
to =33 m.= Here, as the highway begins to descend into the valley of
the Cannonball River, there is a far-reaching view of country severe
and imposing. Steep grass-covered hills and mesas give way to sharp,
abrupt, gray clay cones and buttes that rise in confusion from the
plain. The work of erosion in the creation of these formations is
visible in many sidehills, where the top layers of earth have worn away
to expose the bedrock strata beneath.

At =32 m.= is the junction with a graveled roadbed.

Right here is BREIEN, =1 m.= (1,694 alt., 53 pop.). Between the highway
and the town is a natural park with camping facilities.

The CANNONBALL RIVER is crossed at =32.5 m.= The river, its thin fringe
of trees contrasting with the gray-brown of the valley, is so named
because of the odd spheroidal formations found in its waters and in the
steep banks of its valley. These concretions, believed to have been
formed by the action of moisture within the Fox Hills sandstone, have
been carried away in such large numbers by collectors that today only
the small "cannonballs" are found along the stream. The Cannonball was
the northern boundary of the Standing Rock Reservation before the area
was opened to white settlement in 1910, and now is the northern limit
of jurisdiction of the agency.

Left at =33 m.= on ND 21, an unimproved dry-weather roadbed; the route
passes through rugged hills S. of the Cannonball, reaching SOLEN, =40
m.= (1,671 alt., 103 pop.), on the riverbank.

The route continues through country occasionally dotted with the small
frame buildings of white farmers and the log huts of Indian families.

At =49 m.= is the junction with ND 24, a graveled highway; R. on this

Left from the junction with ND 24 on ND 21 to the junction with an
unimproved road, =1 m.=; straight ahead (N) =0.3 m.= to the steep
western slope of the HOLY HILL OF THE MANDANS (R). Almost every tribe
of American Indians has a tradition of a great flood which covered
all the earth. The Mandan legend tells that an ark came to rest on
this hill near the Cannonball River, and after the waters subsided the
First Man and First Woman stepped out on the hill. Mandan, Arikara, and
Sioux all revere the place, and the older natives are reticent about
approaching the hilltop.

While the hill is steep on its western slope, it rolls gently into the
surrounding terrain to the E. Clustered at its top are four granite
boulders. Carved into the face of the largest, a red stone, are many
symbols: buffalo tracks, bear paws, thunderbird tracks, serpents, and
turtles. The three smaller gray rocks also carry one or two symbols
each. Through legend and story the existence of these writing rocks
had been indicated for many years, but, because of Indian reticence
regarding sacred objects, their exact location was not definitely
established until early in 1937. For clearness and number of carvings
they compare with the Grenora Writing Rock (_see Side Tour 4A_).

On ND 21 at =4 m.= is CANNONBALL (1,607 alt., 110 pop.), on the slope
above the first bench of the MISSOURI RIVER. This is a good place
to observe the Sioux in his native surroundings. During the winter
months he lives in a tiny log hut, clay-chinked and sod-roofed, heated
with a crude open hearth or a modern heating stove, depending on his
affluence. In the summer he takes to the cooler tents or brush wikiups.
Sioux beadwork and other articles of handicraft can be purchased in the
stores at reasonable prices. Many of the Sioux here are well educated
and will talk freely with strangers on current issues, but they are
decidedly reserved concerning information and legends of their people.
This is, of course, typical of the entire agency; the Indian will
pretend ignorance of the identity or whereabouts of any Indian about
whom a white man may inquire, unless the white man is known to him.

The first Sioux sun dance in North Dakota in more than 50 years was
held near Cannonball in July 1937.

Nearly opposite the mouth of the Cannonball on the eastern bank of the
Missouri, according to legend, once stood a Sioux village where in
early days a holy man prophesied the coming of the white people. This
holy man saw a vision which made him very sad, but try as he would, he
could not banish it or change it. Urged by his people to reveal what
he saw, he told that a strange race of people was relentlessly moving
westward toward them, and would eventually claim their lands. He said
these people had pale, hideous, ghastly skins, and their men had hairy
faces like wolves. They had powerful weapons also, and the red men
would not be able to withstand them when they came.

Right from Cannonball =13 m.= on a graded dry-weather dirt road to an
abandoned railroad bed, built when the N. P. Ry. planned a line to
Pierre, S. Dak. Atop the old bed runs a trail through country teeming
with upland game (_during open season excellent pheasant, chicken, and
grouse hunting_). The trail turns R. at =20 m.= and reaches ND 24 at
=22 m.=

South of Cannonball Corner the route proceeds on ND 24 to the junction
with a graveled road at =69 m.=

Right on this road at =0.5 m.= are the SIOUX COUNTY FAIRGROUNDS where
an annual Indian fair is held (_1st wk. Sept._). Handiwork and produce
are displayed, and bead, quill, and feather work can be purchased
reasonably. A rodeo is usually a feature of the fair, with both white
and Indian riders participating. Each evening there is dancing in
costume, beginning with the true Indian dances and ending with the
_kahomni_, or half-breed dances. There are also contests for the most
skillful dancers.

At =0.7 m.= is the unkept GRAVE OF SITTING BULL, covered with a
concrete slab. This great Sioux chief was killed by Indian police on
the Grand River in South Dakota during the Messiah trouble in 1890.
Sitting Bull had long championed his people against the invasions of
the white men, and was one of the leaders in the Battle of the Little
Big Horn. After the battle Sitting Bull, Chief Gall, and 300 followers,
pursued by Gen. Nelson A. Miles, took refuge in Canada where they
remained until 1881. Gall returned first, resigned himself to the ways
of the white man, and lived out his life on the reservation. He is
buried at Wakpala, S. Dak. A few months after Gall's surrender Sitting
Bull appeared at Fort Buford (_see Side Tour 6B_) followed by the
tattered and hungry remnants of his faithful band, and gave himself up
to the authorities. Although he never completely capitulated to the
desires of his conquerors, he returned to the reservation and lived
quietly there, except for a year he spent in Buffalo Bill's Wild West
Show. In 1890, however, the Messiah craze arose. The Indians had been
told a new Messiah was coming to restore their lands to them. They held
ghost dances and planned for the repossession of their lands as soon
as the Messiah appeared. To forestall the possibility of an uprising
the Indian police were sent to arrest Sitting Bull, who was believed
to be a leader of the movement. In the half-light of a December early
morning they entered his home and took him into custody. His followers
were aroused and a battle ensued. At the first move from Sitting Bull's
men the police shot him, and he fell, mortally wounded. Several of the
police were also slain.

The bodies of the dead were taken to Fort Yates for burial, the Indian
police being buried in the Roman Catholic cemetery where today a
monument marks their resting places. In contrast with the elaborate
rites which attended the burial of the slain policemen, Sitting Bull's
body was interred without ceremony in the military cemetery. Fort
Yates was abandoned in 1895 and all military graves removed. Only the
burial place of the famous Sioux leader was left.

FORT YATES, =1 m.= (1,670 alt., 700 pop.), is INDIAN AGENCY
HEADQUARTERS, and seat of Sioux County. A few soldiers were stationed
at the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in 1873, but with the
abandonment of Fort Rice in 1877 Fort Yates was established to protect
the western frontier. It was named for Capt. George Yates of the
Seventh Cavalry who was killed in the Battle of the Little Big Horn.

The superiority of railway transportation to that of the river boat led
to the abandonment of Fort Yates in 1895 and the establishment of the
new Fort Lincoln at Bismarck (_see Tour 8_).

It was at the Standing Rock Reservation that Rain-in-the-Face, a young
Hunkpapa Sioux, was arrested by Tom Custer, brother of Gen. George A.
Custer, for the alleged slaying of two white men. Rain-in-the-Face was
imprisoned at Fort Abraham Lincoln but made his escape and joined the
band of Sitting Bull, who lived without benefit of agency. He gained
his revenge by participating in the Battle of the Little Big Horn.

The town today retains much of the appearance and spirit of its
frontier days when it played an important part in the early Indian
history of the State. On a flat plain overlooking the Missouri, its
log huts and contrasting white frame buildings are scattered in a lazy
fashion over a wide area, with the agency offices, schools, and the
hospital as the core of the town.

Across the street from the agency office, overlooking the Missouri,
is the famed STANDING ROCK (Sioux, Inyan Woslata), for which the
agency was named. Originally sacred to the Arikara, it came into the
possession of the Sioux. When the reservation was established the rock
was on Proposal Hill, but it was later brought into town and mounted
on a brick pedestal. It is of gray metamorphic composition entirely
foreign to this area. If viewed from the correct angle, and with a
discreet degree of imagination, the stone resembles the seated figure
of a small, shawled woman. According to Dakota legend, a young Indian
woman became jealous of her husband's second wife and refused to leave
camp when the village moved. Thinking she would soon follow, the people
of the village left her sitting before the fire with her child on her
back. When she did not appear her husband sent his brothers-in-law to
look for her. They returned to the deserted camp and found her and the
child still seated before the fire--both transformed into stone. From
that time the rock was carried with the tribe and occupied a position
in the center of each village in which they lived. This rock is one of
two revered by the Sioux. The other, Inyan Bosdata (_erect rock_), is
on the Sheyenne River (_see Side Tour 8A_).

The population of Fort Yates is both white and Indian. The two great
events of the year are the annual fair (_see above_), and the Fourth
of July, when Indians from miles around come in to celebrate. On these
occasions the fairgrounds present an unusual sight. Tall, graceful
tipis rise above the squat, modern wall tents of the numerous camps
that dot the level area around the race track, and back and forth is
a bustling flow of dilapidated autos, sleek saddle ponies, running
children, hobbling old warriors, and women dressed in bright colors.
Except for their braided hair and their moccasins, the older men wear
modern attire. The younger men, in keeping with the occasion, adopt
western costume, high-heeled riding boots, blue denim trousers topped
with wide, flashy belts, brightly colored shirts, and the ever present
"ten gallon" hat. Cotton dresses and large bright shawls form the
costume of the women, and moccasins are also worn by the older women.
The highly colored Sioux costumes are seen only during the native

Memorial Day and Armistice Day are also holidays. On Memorial Day
graves are decorated with crepe paper flowers which have been made by
the women during the winter. The Indians are intensely patriotic, and
it would be hard to find a fair, tribal council, or any other meeting
over which the flag of the United States does not fly.

A trail runs NW. of the town past the Roman Catholic church to a GOLF
COURSE, all nine holes laid out on the mesa-like top of Proposal Hill,
where Standing Rock once stood. The hill in bygone days was a popular
rendezvous for Indian sweethearts, hence its name.

Across the river from Fort Yates, in the heyday of the military post,
there sprang up a little town called WINONA, a natural corollary of the
restrictions of military life on an Indian reservation. By ferryboat in
summer and over the ice by bobsled in winter went the soldier, trader,
bullwhacker, Indian, and cowboy, to taste the "night life" offered in
the gaming houses with their expansive bars and amiable hostesses.
In Territorial days no less than nine saloons were operating, and an
excellent race track was the scene of many financial exchanges.

Like other western towns, Winona attracted a wide variety of
inhabitants. One of the most colorful was "Mustache Maude" Black. She
came to the vicinity as a young school teacher, but, finding a more
lucrative scope for her talents, entered the entertainment field. Tall,
large, and angular, she was masculine in appearance, but wore women's
clothing with the exception of her boots, which she had made to order,
reputedly at $20 a pair. Because of her occupation the women of Winona
ostracized her, but the men found her well educated, an astute business
woman, a good poker player, and an excellent cook. By one of those
quirks which make human beings as interesting as they are, Mustache
Maude, the proprietor of many of Winona's most scarlet institutions,
owned a good library and was an expert needlewoman. She married Ott
Black, a rancher, and after the decline of her own business interests
managed his ranch. She lived near Winona until her death.

There was another side of life in Winona, too. It was an enterprising
business town, in the center of a growing ranching country. A Literary
Society and Dramatic Club functioned for years. The Sunday school
was organized by Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Spicer, who in 1897, together
with four other members of their family, were killed by five drunken
Indians, three of whom were subsequently lynched for the crime at
nearby Williamsport.

Winona was so close to Fort Yates that at the time of the death of
Sitting Bull and the Indian policemen the wailing of the squaws was
clearly heard across the river. After the abandonment of Fort Yates,
Winona began to decline. Today nothing is left of it but a few cellars
and a solitary group of trees.

The route proceeds S. on ND 24, continuing through agency land. At =79
m.= is the junction with ND 6; left here to South Dakota Line at =85
m.=, 8 m. N. of McLaughlin, S. Dak. (_see S. Dak. Tour 2_).


  Junction US 10--Center--Beulah--Halliday--Killdeer--Junction US 85.
  ND 25.

  Junction with US 10 to junction with US 85, 141.5 m.

  N. P. Ry. branch roughly parallels route between Stanton and

  Graveled roadbed except 4 m. graded dirt.

  Accommodations limited.

This route winds over the upper Missouri Slope, through grain-farming
and grazing country, where infrequent farmhouses hide in the valleys.
When ranching was the chief industry here, not long ago, the rough
country provided shelter not only for the herds but also for rustlers.
In the region adjacent to the route are some of the largest lignite
mines in the State. Along the Missouri are numerous ancient Indian
village sites. The Killdeer Mountains at the northern end of the route
present some of the most charming scenery in North Dakota.

ND 25 branches N. from US 10 (_see Tour 8_) 5 m. W. of Mandan.

At =12.5 m.= the highway crosses SQUARE BUTTE CREEK, named for the
square-topped buttes to the E. (_see Side Tour 3B_). The stream
parallels the route for several miles.

CENTER, =30.5 m.= (1,760 alt., 293 pop.), was named for its geographic
position in Oliver County. Its buildings, almost all of them white,
are huddled in the narrow valley of Square Butte Creek. In the Oliver
County Courthouse park is a LOG CABIN MUSEUM (_open_) erected in 1937
under the Works Progress Administration to house Indian and pioneer
relics. Nearby is the MINER MEMORIAL, a granite marker of Gothic style,
erected by former Gov. L. B. Hanna, in commemoration of 16-year-old
Hazel Miner. In 1920 Hazel and a younger brother and sister were lost
in a raging March blizzard while driving home from school. When they
were found the next morning, the two younger children were still alive,
for Hazel had used her body to shield them and to hold down the
blankets which kept them from freezing. The story of her life and death
has been made part of the official records of the county.

North of Center the route encounters rougher country and turns NW. to
follow the MISSOURI RIVER for a few miles.

At =40.5 m.= is the junction with an unimproved county dirt road.

Right on this road to the junction with another unimproved road, =1
m.=; L. here to FORT CLARK STATE PARK, =2 m.=, site of a trading post
established by the American Fur Co. in 1829. The post was only a
few feet S. of a village built by the Mandans about 1822, and later
occupied by the Arikara. West of the depressions left by the earth
lodges are the remains of a burial ground.

At =46 m.= is the junction with a graveled road.

Right on this road is STANTON, =1.5 m.= (1,722 alt., 358 pop.), on the
first bench overlooking the Missouri, which it once served as a river
port. The town was founded in 1883 and given the name of a pioneer
mother of the vicinity. Partly within the Mercer County Courthouse yard
is the site of an INDIAN VILLAGE where excavations have revealed many

Straight ahead from Stanton on a county road to the SITE OF SCATTERED
VILLAGE, =2.5 m.=, one of the three Hidatsa and two Mandan villages
known to white traders and trappers as the Five Villages. Charbonneau,
the French frontiersman, and his Shoshone wife, Sakakawea, were living
here when Charbonneau was engaged by the exploring party of Lewis and
Clark, in 1805, to accompany them on their hazardous journey to the
Pacific coast. Sakakawea went with her husband, and proved herself
invaluable to the success of the expedition (_see_ BISMARCK). Scattered
Village lies on the southern bank of the KNIFE RIVER, which was named
by various Indian tribes who procured flint for their knives from pits
along the river. The area about the mouth of the Knife is rich in
Indian history.

West of Stanton the route moves roughly parallel to the combined
courses of the Knife River and Spring Creek.

HAZEN, =58.5 m.= (1,760 alt., 689 pop.), was named for A. D. Hazen,
Third Assistant Postmaster General in 1884 when postal service was
established here. An OLD SETTLERS MONUMENT, at the E. end of Main St.
in a triangular plot known as Washington Memorial Park, consists of a
concrete pyramid with a buffalo skull embedded in the top. Business
men of Hazen have provided a TOURIST PARK (_camping facilities_) in a
heavily wooded area along the Knife on the southern edge of the town.

At =66 m.= (L) is the large underground LIGNITE MINE of the Knife River
Coal Mining Co. (_Morning preferred for visiting; guides at mine office
in_ BEULAH, _see below_.) This mine is one of the largest in the State.
The entrance is at the head of a little valley a few rods L. of the
highway. It opens into a long tunnel, with a narrow-gage trolley line
extending down its center. Six electric locomotives are employed to
draw a fleet of 450 mine cars over almost 30 m. of track which carry
coal out of the mine to the processing plant. The entry has passages
branching from it, leading to the veins from which the coal is taken.
As the coal is taken out, tunnels or rooms are created, extending for
miles through the underground darkness, in some places as much as 140
ft. below the surface.

The coal is loosened by electric cutting machines and blasting powder,
after which loading machines carry it upward to the mine cars; these
are formed into trains to haul the lignite to the processing plant.

During an 8-hour shift 2,500 tons of coal are mined, enough to fill
more than 60 40-ton cars. It is estimated that this particular field
contains about 50,000,000 tons of lignite, enough to enable operations
to continue for 50 years. Visitors to the mine are given electric
lights fastened to stout fiber helmets, and get a novel ride on the
underground train.

BEULAH, =68.5 m.= (1,797 alt., 913 pop.), named for the niece of an
official of the town site land company, forms one main street along
the Knife River just E. of its confluence with Spring Creek. The
PROCESSING PLANT of the Knife River mine, and an ELECTRIC PLANT of the
North Dakota Power and Light Co. are in the eastern part of town. The
electric plant uses lignite to generate the power with which it serves
surrounding towns.

At =69 m.= is the junction with ND 49, a graveled highway. What is
believed to be the SITE OF CHARLES LE RAYE'S CAMP (L), used by the
French explorer in 1803, has been marked by the Mercer County Old
Settlers' Association. Le Raye, who was held captive three years
(1801-4) by a band of Brulé Sioux, is said to have been the first white
traveler to mention the Knife River. During his captivity he was taken
through much of the area between the Mississippi and the Rockies, and
was one of the first white men to become familiar with that region.

At =75 m.= (L) is the large lignite strip mine of the Zap Colliery, one
of the heaviest-producing mines in the State, with an annual production
of 140,000 tons.

At =76.5 m.= is the junction with a county graded dirt road.

Left on this road, a winding country trail unsuited to trailer travel,
to MEDICINE HILL, =11.5 m.=, from which flowed spring waters attributed
with healing powers by the Indians. Chert, a mineral rock closely
allied to flint, is found in the Slope area, and near the hill is a
quarry from which natives took material for arrow-points and knives.

GOLDEN VALLEY, =83.5 m.= (1,946 alt., 294 pop.), was named for the
fertility of the surrounding region.

DODGE, =91 m.= (1,979 alt., 204 pop.), is in the valley of Spring

At =97 m.= is a junction with ND 8 which unites with ND 25 to =99 m.=,
where ND 25 branches L.

Right on ND 8 at the confluence of Alkaline and Spring Creek is
HALLIDAY, =0.5 m.= (2,048 alt., 305 pop.), named for one of its first

At =19 m.= is FOUR BEARS BRIDGE (_see Side Tour 3A_)

DUNN CENTER, =113 m.= (2,191 alt., 276 pop.), is so named because it is
near the geographic center of Dunn County.

At =120 m.= is the junction with ND 22, a graded dirt highway.

Right on this highway is KILLDEER, =1 m.= (2,233 alt., 495 pop.),
named for the nearby KILLDEER MOUNTAINS, which rise clearly into view
as ND 22 proceeds NW. from the town. The Killdeers are not mountains,
but rather two lofty hills, extending NE. to SW. more than 10 m., and
at their highest points rising 600 ft. above the surrounding prairie.
The Sioux called them Tah-kah-o-kuty (_the place where they kill the
deer_). The upper 300 to 400 ft. of the hills belong to the geologic
stratum known as the White River formation. This is the youngest of
the various layers of bedrock underlying North Dakota, having been
deposited by the last of the prehistoric seas which inundated this
area. It is also the rarest stratum in the State, since, being at the
surface, it has eroded until it is now found in only a few places.
The White River formation is particularly rich in fossil remains
ranging from fish and turtles to huge prehistoric mammals, although no
specimens have been taken from the Killdeer Mountains.

At =4 m.= to the junction with an unimproved county road; L. here to
the junction with another dirt road, =7 m.=

Directly ahead =2 m.= on the dirt road to the junction with a prairie
trail leading through a pasture gate. Right on this trail are the
buildings of DIAMOND C RANCH, =4 m.=, the little white ranch house, the
red cattle barns, and the gray weathered wooden poles of the corrals
all situated along the timbered ravine formed by FALLING SPRING, near
which took place the Battle of Killdeer Mountains. The spring drops
from a sandstone formation in a hillside to the rear of the ranch
house, providing a steady flow of cool, clear water as it did one
July day in 1864 when 5,000 Sioux were encamped along it, hunting
and preparing hides for clothing and food for the coming winter.
Gen. Alfred H. Sully, sent out to punish the Sioux for the Minnesota
Massacre of 1862, learned that they were in the mountains. Rapidly
moving his force of 2,200 men he attacked the Indians on sight the
morning of July 28. The Indians offered stubborn resistance despite
the surprise of the attack and the confusion caused by the shelling
of their camp, but were finally forced to make a hasty retreat over
the mountain through DEAD MAN'S GULCH, a steep-sided ravine leading
through the mountains back of Falling Spring, into the Badlands along
the Little Missouri River. In their retreat the Sioux were forced
to leave almost all of their belongings, and when 5 companies of
troops set about demolishing the camp it is said they worked 5 hours
destroying tipis, travois poles, cooking utensils, robes, and foods.
Dried and drying meat estimated at 200 tons was destroyed. The Sioux
loss was reported as 27 dead on the field in addition to many carried
off by their comrades. Sully's loss in the encounter was 5 killed and
10 wounded, 2 of whom were pickets slain the second night. Two white
marble slabs enclosed in a steel wire fence, a short distance S. of the
Diamond C ranch house, mark their graves.

On the county road N. of junction with ranch road to a junction with
a dirt road, =9 m.=; L. here to OAKDALE, =9.8 m.=, part way up the
eastern slope of the southern mountain. Formerly a good-sized frontier
town, it now has only a residence and a store and post office. It is a
very pleasant spot, however, for its trees and many springs of clear,
cold water flowing down from the mountain keep it several degrees
cooler in summer than the dry, shadeless prairie. Oakdale is a good
point from which to make hiking trips into the mountains, but the
tourist accommodations are limited.

From the store is a two-hour hike over a precipitous trail up the
mountain. Past oak, box elder, poplar, and scrub cedar trees, the path
leads to the base of the limestone formation. Here the trail ascends
the face of a steep cliff. In the upward climb it passes through a
narrow cleft in the rock ironically called ELEPHANT'S PASS, and comes
at last to the level mountaintop, where there is a magnificent view
of the surrounding country taking in 40 or 50 m. in three directions.
To the N. and NE. lies the rough country along the Missouri and
Little Missouri Rivers, while E. and S. stretches the vast pattern of
cultivated fields and virgin grasslands. The table-like top of the
mountain is 3,140 ft. above sea level, highest elevation in the range.
From here the trail skirts the southern rim of the cliff to MEDICINE
HOLE, from which, according to Indian tradition, the first buffalo
emerged upon the earth. Today the hole is little more than an elongated
three-foot-deep depression in the flat limestone surface of the
mountain top. It has been closed by the lodging, on the first ledge, of
a number of large rocks thrown into the aperture by curious visitors
trying to sound the bottom. It had been explored to a depth of 80 ft.
before it was closed, but the extreme cold encountered below that depth
made further exploration difficult. In summer a cold draught of air
formerly rose from the hole, and in winter a column of steam.

Just W. of Medicine Hole to SIGNAL ROCK, said to have been used as
an Indian signal station. From the cliff top here the buildings of
the Diamond C Ranch and the site of the Battle of Killdeer Mountains
(_see above_) are visible to the S. Part way down the southern slope
of the mountain, from E. to W. in the order named, rise the odd rock
formations known as the THREE SISTERS, the COLISEUM, and SOLOMON'S
TEMPLE. The Three Sisters are slender spires pointing upward from a
common base; the Coliseum, which belies its name, is a tall pillar of
sandstone shaped like an hourglass; and the Temple is a long, narrow,
gray formation. Continuing W. along the rim of the cliff, the hike
trail leads to EAGLE ROCK, so named because of the eagle nests once
numerous here, and after touching the timbered edge of Dead Man's
Gulch, retraces its route to Oakdale.

Few large wild animals remain in the Killdeer Mountains, but in 1848-49
John Palliser, an English sportsman, and his party killed five grizzly
bears here. Deer were once plentiful also. Pioneer cattlemen still tell
of the Wolf Leader, a savage animal, half wolf and half collie, that
led a pack of wolves in depredations upon the herds of the region.
Conspicuous because of the white ring around his neck, the Wolf Leader
was the bane of ranchers for many years before he was trapped.

West of Killdeer the route proceeds along the valley of Spring Creek
through the foothills of the Killdeer Mountains to the junction with US
85 at =141.5 m.=, =24 m.= S. of Watford City (_see Tour 4_).


  (McIntosh, S. Dak.)--Hettinger--Bowman--Marmarth--(Miles City,
  Mont.). US 12.

  South Dakota Line to Montana Line, 94 m.

  Milwaukee R. R. parallels route.

  Graveled roadbed.

  Accommodations in principal towns.

US 12 cuts across the southwestern corner of North Dakota through an
area where herds of cattle and flocks of sheep graze on the hardy
prairie grasses that grow in the small valleys between high, rough,
brown mesa-topped buttes. The day of the pioneer homesteader and
rancher is barely in the past here, and only within recent years has
diversified farming gradually been adopted. Near its western end the
route passes through the southern part of the Badlands, a strange land
of fantastic enchantment where ever-changing combinations of color and
shadow form a background of weird beauty (_see Tour 8_).

US 12 crosses the South Dakota Line at =0.0 m.= on a railroad overpass
at White Butte, S. Dak. (_see S. Dak. Tour 2_).

At =1 m.= the route passes through a level area adjacent to HIDDEN WOOD
CREEK (L), also called Flat Creek. Along its course, approximately a
mile apart and covered with brush, are two cutbanks known as BRUSHY
BANKS, near which the Custer Black Hills expedition camped on the way
from Fort Abraham Lincoln in 1874.

On Hidden Wood Creek in this vicinity in 1882 was situated the main
camp of the Indians from the Standing Rock Reservation who took part
in the last big buffalo hunt of the Sioux tribe, said to be the last
large hunt in the United States, held under the direction of Maj. James
McLaughlin, then Indian agent at Fort Yates (_see Side Tour 8C_).

In the years following the Custer episode in 1876 (_see_ HISTORY _and_
FORT ABRAHAM LINCOLN STATE PARK) many of the Sioux, except the faithful
few who accompanied Sitting Bull into exile in Canada (_see Side Tours
6B and 8C_), returned to the reservations to assimilate the white man's
civilization. Before the white man's restrictions had been placed upon
them the Plains Indians had been trained from childhood to the pursuit
of the buffalo, for the buffalo was the staff of the Indian's life,
providing food, shelter, and clothing. The hunt in 1882 caused much
rejoicing among the tribesmen, offering them a temporary respite from
the humdrum reservation life, and a brief return to the activity which
had once existed in this land that was rightfully theirs.

Long and extensive preparations were made for this hunt. Strict
religious ceremonies invoked the blessing of the Great Mystery. Running
Antelope, whose picture was on the old five-dollar Treasury notes, was
generalissimo of the affair, while under him, leading the different
bands, were such famed Indians as Gall, Rain-in-the-Face, John Grass,
Fire Heart, Kill Eagle, Crazy Walking, Spotted Horn Bull, Gray Eagle,
and Charging Thunder.

Approximately 2,000 men, women, and children, including a few white
men, made the 100-mile journey from Fort Yates to the scene of the
hunt, and McLaughlin estimated that more than 600 mounted red men took
part in the actual killing. The herd, said to number 50,000 head, was
first sighted near White Butte, 10 m. S. of the present South Dakota
town of the same name, and covered the valley from that point to Haynes
(_see below_). On the first day of the hunt 2,000 buffalo were killed,
and the second day was given to skinning and cutting up the dead
animals. The third day found the Indians again on the chase, and this
time 3,000 bison were killed. The Hidden Wood Creek camp was maintained
until all the meat was cured and ready to take back to the reservation.
Years later when the railroad was built, many of the settlers made a
nice profit shipping the bones of the buffalo carcasses left from this

HAYNES, =3 m.= (2,540 alt., 167 pop.), was named for George B. Haynes,
general passenger agent of the Milwaukee R. R. when it constructed its
main line in 1907.

At =5 m.= are the junctions with ND 8, a graveled highway, and with an
unimproved county dirt road. US 12 turns L.

1. Right from the junction on the unimproved road to the rammed-earth
home and garage of the SCORIA LILY RANCH, =5 m.= The owner, Col. Paul
S. Bliss, naturalist and author of three books of North Dakota verse,
has had the two buildings erected as an example of the practical use of
earth for permanent, low-cost farm buildings. In the building process
earth is packed into plank forms. After "setting" it forms a durable,
heat-and cold-resisting wall.

2. Straight ahead on ND 8 to the abandoned workings of the STATE MINE,
=0.5 m.= (R), an underground lignite mine once owned and used for
experimental purposes by the South Dakota School of Mines. The mine was
abandoned several years ago when the coal vein caught fire. The coal is
still burning, and occasionally at night the red glow of this earthly
furnace is visible where the tunnel timbering and earth have caved
in, leaving the hillsides pockmarked and scarred. Nearby on two short
rails is a rusty railroad steam engine, its gears fast in the grip of
rust and its wooden cab nearly eaten away by wind and rain. Deserted,
it stands where it was last stopped before the rails of the spur from
Haynes to the mine were taken up.

At =9 m.= on US 12 is the junction with an unimproved county dirt road.

Left on this road to PRAIRIE SPHINX BUTTE (R), =2.5 m.=, where the
steep sandstone outcroppings at the top of the formation resemble the
features of the Gizeh Sphinx.

HETTINGER, =13 m.= (2,668 alt., 1,292 pop.), seat of Adams County, is
at the foot of a high hill rising from the valley of Hidden Wood Creek.
Adams County was formerly part of Hettinger County, named for Mathias
Hettinger, a Freeport, Ill., banker. When the counties were separated
in 1907 each wished to retain the original name, and a compromise was
finally effected whereby the new county could use the old name for its
county seat. The new brick COURTHOUSE (R) was built in 1929.

Hettinger's first newspaper editor was a man of unusual enterprise. As
he hauled his press overland from Dickinson, he stopped everyone he
met to tell them about his forthcoming publication, and by the time he
reached Hettinger he had procured nearly 100 subscriptions. In 1908
this paper, the Adams County _Record_, was appointed official paper for
Hettinger, and in one of the first resolutions it published citizens
were instructed to remove their buildings from the streets, where, in
the rush of locating, they had built with little regard for the town
site plat.

BUCYRUS, =22 m.= (2,778 alt., 124 pop.), was first known as Dolan, in
honor of the contractor for the Milwaukee R. R. grade there. During the
grading a new name was sought for the town, however, and Bucyrus, the
trade name of one of the huge steam shovels in use, was suggested and

REEDER, =31 m.= (2,810 alt., 395 pop.), was named for E. O. Reeder,
who at the time of the founding of the town was chief engineer for the
Milwaukee R. R. Alden Scott Boyer, now a well-known American and French
cosmetics manufacturer, operated a drug store here in 1909-13.

Right from Reeder on ND 22, a graveled road, to LOOKOUT POINT, =2
m.=, an elevation from which five towns, Reeder, Bucyrus, Gascoyne,
Scranton, and Buffalo Springs, are visible.

WHETSTONE BUTTES (L), =9 m.=, a high range of hills visible for
miles, are topped by a peculiar sandstone formation which is so hard
that pieces from it were used by the Indians and early settlers for
sharpening their tools and weapons.

GASCOYNE, =38 m.= (2,759 alt., 97 pop.), is L. of the highway.
Northwest of town is a railroad RESERVOIR (_swimming and picnicking

SCRANTON, =43 m.= (2,773 alt., 381 pop.), is a namesake of Scranton,
Pa., because both are coal-mining towns. The first mine here opened in
1907, preceding the railroad which arrived late that year and providing
the impetus for the town which grew up. The discovery of suitable clay
resulted in the establishment of a brick plant, the product of which
can be seen in many of the buildings in the town. On each side of the
highway as it passes the Milwaukee R. R. station are two round markers
picturing the head of a Texas longhorn steer and carrying the legend,
"Comin' up the Texas Chisholm Trail." The markers indicate one of the
trails by which cattle were brought to this part of the Great Plains.
Although the Chisholm Trail is believed to have run no farther N. than
Abilene, Kan., the name has often been loosely applied to other trails
running N. of that city, unofficial extensions of the original route
from the Panhandle region (_see Tour 4_).

BUFFALO SPRINGS, =48.5 m.= (2,850 alt., 75 pop.), was known briefly
as Ingomar, but in 1907 received its present name, suggested by the
nearby springs which once served as a watering place for the bison that
roamed the plains. East of town is a railroad RESERVOIR (_swimming_,
_fishing_). A COLLECTION (_open; inquire directions at post office_) of
Indian artifacts, pioneer relics, petrified woods, and other curios,
gathered by Ed Gorman, may be seen at his hardware store.

BOWMAN, =56.5 m.= (_see Tour 4_), is the junction with US 85 (_see Tour

RHAME, =73 m.= (3,184 alt., 356 pop.), named for M. D. Rhame, district
engineer of the Milwaukee R. R. when it was established in 1907, has
the highest elevation of any town in the State. It is in a high valley
between two large, flat, scoria-capped buttes.

At =78 m.= is the junction with an unimproved country dirt road.

Right on this road, across the railroad, to FORT DILTS STATE PARK (L),
=2 m.=, marking the site where Capt. James L. Fisk's 80-wagon immigrant
train, bound for the Montana gold fields, was corraled in defense
formation for 14 days in September 1864. The expedition, accompanied
by a cavalry detachment of 50 men, left Fort Rice in August, and
encountered no trouble until September 1, when a wagon overturned
in crossing a steep-sided creek. Fisk detailed another wagon and a
detachment of eight cavalrymen to remain and right the overturned
vehicle. As soon as the main party was out of sight over a hill, a band
of Hunkpapa Sioux--part of the group met by Sully at the Killdeer
Mountains (_see Side Tour 8D_) and in the Battle of the Badlands
(_see Tour 8_)--who were at that time engaged in hunting buffalo,
attacked the detachment, killing nine and mortally wounding three. The
expedition heard the rifle shots and returned to aid their comrades,
but were too late to do more than rout the Indians. Just as the natives
were being driven off, Jefferson Dilts, a scout for the expedition,
returned from reconnoitering in the Badlands, and rode directly into
the fleeing band of Sioux and was killed.

The expedition moved 10 m. the next day, and when it broke camp the
morning of September 3 a large box of poisoned hardtack was purposely
left behind. The Indians swooped down and hungrily devoured it, and it
is said that 25 died from the effects of the poison, more than were
killed by the expedition's bullets. That day the wagon train advanced
only 3 m. before going into corral and beginning to throw up a defense,
which they called Fort Dilts. Oxen and plows were used to obtain sod
with which a dirt wall 6 ft. high and nearly 2 ft. thick was built
outside the ring of wagons. The cavalry was stationed between the wall
and the wagons. That night 16 volunteers slipped through the Indian
lines and after 3 days and nights of hard riding reached Fort Rice,
whence Col. Daniel J. Dill and a detachment set out at once. They
arrived September 17, but by that time the Hunkpapa had departed for
Cave Hills, S. Dak., where they had learned a large herd of bison was
running. They had lingered only a day or two after the fortification
was thrown up, sniping at it occasionally, before their interest waned.

The State park, which contains approximately 9 acres belonging to the
State historical society, was dedicated to Jefferson Dilts in 1932.
Within the fenced area are the remains of the sod fortification, and
eight Government grave markers have been placed inside it in memory of
those who lost their lives in the episode.

MARMARTH, =87.5 m.= (2,709 alt., 721 pop.), is at the confluence of
Little Beaver Creek, Hay Creek, and the Little Missouri River. Known
as the "city of trees", Marmarth is almost an oasis in the treeless
Badlands country. Its name is derived from the mispronunciation of her
own name, Margaret Martha, by a small granddaughter of the president
of the Milwaukee R. R. The town had its inception in 1902, and grew
rapidly following the advent of the Milwaukee R. R. in 1907 and
the establishment of a railroad division point here the next year.
Proximity to the Little Missouri and its tributaries has not always
been advantageous; the town has been flooded five times--1907, 1913,
1929, and twice in 1921. To prevent another flood a dam has been built
on Little Beaver Creek W. of town, and dikes have been put up around
the town adjacent to the streams.

Theodore Roosevelt killed his first grizzly bear a short distance W. of
Marmarth on the Little Beaver, and just N. of the town on the Little
Missouri he shot his first buffalo. Many years later, when he was
campaigning for the Presidency, on an appearance in Minneapolis he met
a Marmarth pioneer. When informed the man was from Marmarth, at the
mouth of Little Beaver Creek, the President exclaimed, "A town there?
Do you have boats tied to your back doors?" He had visited the site
only at times of high water.

Marmarth is a shipping point for cattle brought overland from range
grounds in this State, Montana, and South Dakota. The stockyards,
which cover an area of 45 acres, and contain 86 pens and 15 loading
chutes, are built on the site of the old O-X (O Bar X) ranch. Nearby,
on Hay Creek, still stands the squat old ranch house in which Theodore
Roosevelt was once a guest.

Activity in the Little Beaver Dome, an oil field near Marmarth (_see
below_), brought the town a boom in 1936. Business buildings and
residences that had long stood idle were quickly occupied.

At =88.5 m.= is the junction with ND 16, an unimproved road.

Left on this highway to the junction with a country trail, =2 m.=; L.
here =1 m.= to THE WOMAN IN STONE, a 50-foot rock which shows the head
and face of a woman, even to the hairline, clearly outlined against
the sky. The form of the sandstone is the result of countless years of

On ND 16 to a junction with a well-defined prairie trail, =16 m.=; R.
on this trail to the NUMBER TWO WELL of the Little Beaver Dome, =21 m.=
Work has not advanced far on this well, but results of the Number One
Well, just over the State Line in Montana, show a crude oil apparently
high in gasoline and kerosene content, very light, but darker in color,
and with a somewhat different odor from that usually associated with
mid-continent crude oils. The Little Beaver Dome is part of the Cedar
Creek Anticline, a geologic formation of arched rock strata extending
from eastern Montana into southwestern North Dakota. It is one of the
greatest natural gas fields in the United States.

US 12 crosses the Montana Line at =94 m.=, 95 m. E. of Miles City,
Mont. (_see Mont. Tour 17_).

TOUR 10 (Water Route)

  Medora--South Roosevelt Regional State Park--Beaver River--North
  Roosevelt Regional State Park--Cherry Creek--Missouri
  River--Elbowoods--Stanton--Fort Clark--Washburn--Bismarck.

  Route: Little Missouri and Missouri Rivers.

  Medora to Bismarck, 350 m. (by river), 10 to 20 days.

  N. P. Ry. parallels route from Stanton to Bismarck.

  =Special equipment:= Light duffle, including 7 x 7 tent, waterproof
  sleeping bags, waterproof duffle bags, complete change outdoor
  clothing; flat-bottomed boat capable carrying 1,000 lb., of not
  more than 5 in. draft for party of three; complete camping gear. No
  accommodations available.

  =Food:= Fourteen days supply, carried in paraffin-treated bags;
  mainly canned goods--soups, meats, vegetables, and milk; flour,
  salt, sugar, coffee, and cocoa; dried fruits. Butter hard to keep.
  Biscuits can be made en route.

  =Water:= Carry light water cask or bag. Refill at various ranch
  houses. Use chlorine or iodine in settled river water.

  =Warning:= No trip for "tenderfeet" unless accompanied by
  experienced guide and riverman; select night camps on high ground
  at safe distance back from river's bank, overhanging banks may
  cave in, creek and gully bottoms subject to suddenly rising water
  if rain falls; tie boats to trees on high ground, boat may be
  lost in sudden rise of river if tied too low; avoid drifting near
  overhanging cutbanks along stream, landslides dangerous to small
  boats occur occasionally; watch channels for snags; high, upstream
  winds dangerous on Missouri; carry antivenom serum for treatment of
  possible rattlesnake bites.

  =Seasons:= Latter part of June or first weeks of July. Spring
  floods and early June rise make rivers treacherous; dry seasons of
  late summer may require portage of Little Missouri.

  =Maps:= Highway Planning Survey, Bismarck, N. Dak., can furnish
  county maps.

For the experienced camper, for the seeker of adventures, for the
lover of nature, this route offers much pleasure; it is on the Little
Missouri River through the heart of North Dakota's Badlands and down
the Missouri River to Bismarck. During past ages the Little Missouri
has been the chief agent in cutting into the prairies of North Dakota
the wide slash that is the Badlands region. Rain and surface waters
have washed away the soft upper layers of the deposits made by
successive prehistoric seas, and, continually seeking lower levels, in
the slow process of erosion through the centuries have left a jumble
of jagged buttes. The sides of these buttes expose the various strata,
each the testimonial of one age in the geological history of the area.

Undoubtedly the Missouri and Little Missouri were navigated by many an
Indian hunter in search of the big game that once roamed the region,
and by many a brave seeking the scalp of some unwary opponent; but
Baptiste Le Page, the French explorer who made the voyage from the
Black Hills (which title then designated all the rough upland country
W. of the Missouri here) to the mouth of the Knife River in 45 days in
1804, is believed to have been the first white man to journey down the
tortuous Little Missouri into the Missouri, called Wakpa Hehanka (_elk
river_) by the Sioux. Le Page joined the Lewis and Clark expedition at
one of the Indian villages near the mouth of the Knife River.

While Le Page drifted down almost the entire course of the Little
Missouri, the modern would-be explorer following this route slips his
boat into the historic waters more than halfway down the stream at
MEDORA (2,265 alt., 200 pop.) (_see Tour 8_), and heads downstream with
the current.

North of Medora the river flows through a comparatively wide flood
plain dotted with groves of cottonwood, box elder, and ash trees, with
high, many-colored buttes rising on both sides to form the deep valley.

At about =1 m.= (R) is SHEEP CREEK, an intermittent tributary named for
the bighorn mountain sheep that were found in the Badlands when white
men first visited them. Along Sheep Creek are a few bull pines, _Pinus
ponderosa scopulorum_, probably the northern limit of the species in
the State.

At about =1.5 m.= (L) is ANDREWS CREEK, and at about 1.8 m. downstream
from Medora the river crosses the southern boundary of the South
Roosevelt Regional State Park (_see_ ROOSEVELT REGIONAL STATE PARKS).
At =2.8 m.= the park highway fords the Little Missouri, and at times
of low water caution is necessary here in navigating the ford. To the
R. after passing the highway is one of the park picnic areas, and just
below these grounds is the mouth of KNUTSON CREEK (L), at about =4.3 m.=

Below the buildings (R) of the PEACEFUL VALLEY RANCH (_see_ SOUTH
m.=, and at about =8.8 m.= the route passes JUEL CREEK (R). At about
=11.5 m.= is GOVERNMENT CREEK (R), and at about =17 m.= WANNAGAN CREEK
(L), the northern boundary of the park.

A few miles below the boundary is the PARKER RANCH (L), formerly
the Wadsworth, said to be the first cattle ranch in the Badlands.
Downstream from these buildings is ASH COULEE CREEK (R), named for the
many ash trees that line its broad valley. It should be reached in
a day of ordinary drifting. (_Good camping place for first night is
opposite the mouth of this little stream._)

During the entire first day's journey the unusual beauty of the
Badlands formations is revealed, but even more detail is evident as the
setting sun lengthens the shadows cast by the hills and intensifies
the reds, ochers, grays, greens, and taupes that form the weird color
combinations of the region.

RANCH (L). Only a few foundation stones and a depression in the
flat river flood plain show where the cabin stood. The Rough Rider
President, who ran cattle on two ranches in the Badlands in the 1880's
(_see Tour 8_), spent the greater share of his time at the Elkhorn,
using it as headquarters for hunting expeditions into the surrounding

Nearest neighbor of the future President was Howard Eaton, whose
VI Ranch at =48 m.= was near the mouth of BEAVER RIVER, the Little
Missouri's largest tributary. (_Opposite confluence here is good
camping place._) Beaver River was first called Big Beaver Creek to
distinguish it from Little Beaver (_see Tour 9_).

North of Beaver River the stream pursues its way in a meandering
course, winding 14 m. to cross a single township, and passing MAGPIE
and BEICEGEL (Bicycle) CREEKS. Magpie receives its name from the
long-tailed black and white bird that is found in the area, while
Beicegel (despite the spelling) is named for the Beisigl brothers who
were early ranchers along its banks. They still (1938) live in North
Dakota near Lemmon, S. Dak. (_Bet. Beicegel Creek and a point 2 m.
farther down river are many places suitable for camp._)

Thus far the river current has been anything but swift, and the stream
has been flowing between banks quite widely separated. As the trip is
resumed on the fourth day the river soon narrows and becomes a swiftly
rushing stream. Snags and submerged tree trunks that heretofore were
easily avoided now become a danger to the unwary voyager. The added
speed makes navigation more difficult, and a snag through the bottom of
the boat at this point would precipitate disaster, the probable loss of
equipment adding to the hardships of getting out of the rough country
on foot.

In the vicinity of REDWING CREEK are some of the finest views of
the entire journey. Grotesque formations carved in the wind-blown,
rain-washed buttes are set off by cedar-dotted slopes and river flats
covered with sage.

In the Redwing Creek area the river enters the southern boundary of the
North Roosevelt Regional State Park (_see_ ROOSEVELT REGIONAL STATE
PARKS), and a short hike left of the Little Missouri leads to one of
the largest areas of PETRIFIED FOREST in the Badlands. Great silicified
stumps, weighing many tons, are found perched atop slender pillars of
gray, yellow, and ocher sandstone, and logs, sometimes several feet
long and 12 to 14 inches in diameter, are found here.

Downstream from the Redwing, in a sharp bend of the river, SPERATI
POINT rises to the L. The point is named for Dr. Carlo A. Sperati,
director of the Luther College (Decorah, Iowa) Band at the time it
visited here in 1927. From the summit is an exceptional view of
the GRAND CANYON OF THE LITTLE MISSOURI. The river makes an almost
right-angle turn to the E. here toward its confluence with the
Missouri, and its flood plain again widens and the current is less

is the only man-made camping place on the entire trip. It was at a
sheep ranch on Squaw Creek that the "vigilantes" of 1884 dropped in for
one of their raids, and burned 500 tons of hay, the barn, harnesses,
and all machinery, and set fire to the prairie, burning a large area.

The glistening silver steel of the ROOSEVELT BRIDGE spans the Little
Missouri, over which US 85 passes, and just E. of which is the eastern
entrance to the North Roosevelt Park (_see Tour 4_). US 85 is the
eastern boundary of the northern park.

CHARLIE BOB CREEK (R) drains the area N. and W. of the Killdeer
Mountains (_see Side Tour 8D_). Here the buttes R. of the river rise
500 to 600 ft. above the stream bed, and the noonday shadows cast by
the scattered groves of cedar on the northern slopes are cool and
inviting. A climb to the butte tops reveals their precipitous, barren
southern slopes.

The wide valley (L) of CHERRY CREEK (_good overnight camping place
opposite mouth_), together with Tobacco Garden Creek (_see Tour 6_),
which drains N. into the Missouri, in preglacial times was probably the
bed of the Little Missouri, the present valley of which was formed when
the glacier blocked the former course and diverted the waters in an
easterly direction.

At about a half-day's journey below Cherry Creek a climb to the high
river bluffs, through thickets of red birch, aspen, and oak trees,
leads to a superb view. Southward from the butte tops a blue haze
outlines the Killdeer Mountains, from which the Sioux fled after the
Battle of Killdeer Mountains (_see Side Tour 8D_) to take refuge in
this very section of the Badlands, the rough terrain of which prevented
the army from pursuing. It was in this vicinity in 1886 that young
Theodore Roosevelt and two of his ranch hands captured three thieves
who had stolen a boat from his Elkhorn Ranch and had plundered almost
every ranch house along the river. Roosevelt and his men pursued the
three for several days before surrounding their camp and taking them
completely by surprise. He then sent his men home and took the culprits
overland to Dickinson, where he preferred charges against the two
leaders, who were tried and subsequently served their sentences; one
was later hanged for horse stealing in Montana. The third marauder, an
elderly man, Roosevelt said was the "kind of person who was not capable
of doing either much good or harm." When the old man thanked him
profusely for thus befriending him, the future President remarked that
it was the first time he had been thanked for calling a man a fool.

Between ELK and JIM'S CREEKS (R) the Fort Berthold Indian Reservation
lies to the L. (_Good camping places bet. Elk and Jim's Creeks._)



                                   _Courtesy Truax-Traer Coal Co._]



  _Photo by Russell Reid_]




                                         LAKE UPSILON, TURTLE MOUNTAINS

  _Photo by Russell Reid_]



Below Jim's Creek the river widens, its flood plain covers a large
area on either side of the stream, broadening the valley along which
the hills begin to be more grassy and less rugged and colorful. At the
confluence with HANS CREEK (R) the river makes an abrupt right-angle
turn L., and while the valley still remains wide, the stream itself
narrows and runs more swiftly. (_Good overnight camp sites in the
Indian reservation._)

Below the North Roosevelt Park ranches are fewer, and people are seldom
seen from the river.

The wider, majestic Missouri is soon reached, and forms the route for
the remainder of the voyage. Up this avenue of exploration came Lewis
and Clark, Maximilian, Catlin, Ashley, Lisa, and other adventurous
explorers and traders; first in the round, unwieldy, skin bullboats of
the Indians, and later in the chugging steamboats, plying the river
in search of trade between the tribes and forts established along its

The seasonal rising and lowering of the Missouri's water level
continually changes the channel, leaving shoals, sand bars, and snags,
and these offered a problem to river pilots as long as steamboat
traffic flourished on the river. When a flat-bottomed steamer ran
aground it took hours, and sometimes days, to release it. It was from
the odd device used to work the boats off sand bars that the term
"grasshoppering" came into use. Each steamer carried two long, heavy
spars, similar to telephone poles, near the bow ready for use. Capt.
Grant Marsh, an old river pilot, describes the operation of these spars
in Joseph Mills Hanson's _Conquest of the Missouri_:

  "When she became lodged on a bar, the spars were raised and set
  in the river bottom, like posts, their tops inclined somewhat
  toward the bow. Above the line of the deck each was rigged with
  a tackle-block over which a manila cable was passed, one end
  being fastened to the gunwale of the boat and the other end wound
  around the capstan. As the capstan was turned and the paddlewheel
  revolved, the boat was thus lifted and pushed forward. Then the
  spars were re-set farther ahead and the process repeated until
  the boat was at last literally lifted over the bar. From the
  grotesque resemblance to a grasshopper which the craft bore when
  her spars were set, and from the fact that she might be said to
  move forward in a series of hops, the practice came to be called

From the beginning river steamers were dependent on wood for fuel, and
as traffic increased woodyards became more numerous along the stream.
At first they were operated only by the hardiest of white frontiersmen,
but as the agency Indians absorbed the white man's civilization they
too began to cut wood to sell. Steamers usually burned either cedar
or cottonwood, although the latter was suitable for fuel only when
fully dried, while cedar burned readily either green or cured. Boat
captains took all the cedar the Indians could stack, but would not stop
their boats when they saw only green cottonwood corded. The Indians
soon learned a subterfuge to surmount the difficulty of having only
cottonwood on hand. They smeared the freshly hewn ends of cottonwood
cuttings with vermilion so that it resembled cedar, stacked the wood
with the painted ends toward the river, and trusted that when a boat
stopped she would take the camouflaged cottonwood rather than waste
more time.

The Missouri passes beneath the black steel span of FOUR BEARS BRIDGE,
the bridge with 19 Indian names (_see Side Tour 3A_.) Approximately 2
m. below the bridge the river passes within 2 m. of ELBOWOODS (_see
Side Tour 3A_), inland to the L., the first town neared in the more
than 200 m. of drifting since Medora was left behind. (_Good camp site
on the Elbowoods side of the Missouri_.)

On the bluffs opposite Elbowoods is the SITE OF A HIDATSA INDIAN
VILLAGE, which according to tradition was once besieged by the Sioux,
who expected to win an easy victory by curtailing the village water
supply. Hidatsa scouts, however, had learned of the planned attack,
and the people in the village made rock-filled reservoirs and carried
water from the river to fill them. Repulsing the first attack of the
Sioux, the besieged rolled a skin of water down the hill toward their
enemy, which, the legend says, so discouraged the besiegers that they
abandoned their efforts to capture the village and withdrew.

The reservation borders both sides of the river from here to a point a
short distance downstream from Ree.

Below Elbowoods the river passes the sites of GRANDMOTHER'S LODGE, FORT
BERTHOLD, REE, and NISHU (_see Side Tour 3A_). EXPANSION (R) consists
of a post office and store marking the site of a formerly active river
town. (_Good camp site bet. Ree and Expansion._)

Just upstream W. of Expansion is a large, easily detected sandstone
promontory known as MANUEL ROCK (R), used as a landmark by old river
pilots, and named for the fur trader Manuel Lisa.

Below Expansion are (L) the mouth of GARRISON CREEK and the SITE OF
FORT STEVENSON. The site was selected by Gen. Alfred H. Sully in 1864
on his trip down the Missouri during his second campaign, but the fort
was not established until 1867. A two-company post named for Brig. Gen.
Thomas G. Stevenson, the fort was abandoned in 1883 and the military
reservation turned over to the Interior Department. For a short time
the buildings were used as a school for Indian children from the Fort
Berthold Agency. Garrison Creek was originally called Douglas Creek,
but the name was changed when the Stevenson garrison began using it for
bathing purposes.

A few miles below Garrison Creek is SNAKE CREEK (L), called Ma po ksa a
ti a zi (Hidatsa, _snake house river_), where a cave along the banks of
the Missouri near the mouth of the creek, according to legend, swarmed
with snakes at certain seasons.

A short distance downstream from the Fort Stevenson site the course
of the Missouri turns S. and passes MANNHAVEN (R), remnant of a once
thriving river town. Near the present village in 1809 the Missouri Fur
Co., directed by Manuel Lisa, erected a trading post known variously as
Fort Manuel Lisa and Fort Lewis, the latter for Reuben Lewis--brother
of Meriwether Lewis, coleader of the Lewis and Clark expedition--who
operated it until its abandonment in 1812. Under the name of Fort
Vanderburgh, the site was later occupied briefly in 1822 or 1823.
Lisa, born in New Orleans of Spanish parents, is said to have had more
influence over the Indians with whom he dealt than any other trader to
enter the Missouri area, although his activities in the Missouri basin
were of only 13 years duration. He died in St. Louis at the age of 48.

The mouth of the KNIFE RIVER is just upstream from STANTON (_see Side
Tour 8D_). (_Camp can be made on R. river bank._)

In the vicinity of the confluence of the Knife and Missouri are the
sites of many Indian villages, Hidatsa, Mandan, and Arikara, the
locations of which are easily traceable by the many round, dish-like
depressions marking the sites of earth lodges in the villages. The
Hidatsa had three villages here until 1837 when the smallpox epidemic
reduced their population to only one village. Prior to their occupation
of the Knife River vicinity the tribe lived near the mouth of the Heart
River (_see Tour 8_), and in 1845, for protection from the Sioux, they
moved to Fort Berthold. The Mandans, whose two villages some miles
below the Knife were reduced to little more than 100 persons by the
smallpox epidemic of 1837, moved to a small village near the Hidatsa,
and followed that tribe to Fort Berthold in 1845. Migrating up the
Missouri at a later date, the Arikara built villages near the Knife as
late as 1851, but they too, because of continued Sioux raids, moved to
Fort Berthold.

It was at one of the Knife River villages, that Charbonneau, and his
Shoshone Indian wife, Sakakawea, lived in 1804 when Lewis and Clark
employed Charbonneau as interpreter of the expedition to the Pacific
(_see_ BISMARCK).

Below Stanton is DEAPOLIS (R), marked by a single grain elevator,
all that remains of another of the towns that sprang up along the
Missouri, flourished, and declined with the steamboat trade. The place
was named by its founder, who replaced the first letter in the name of
the ancient city Neapolis with the first letter of his own surname,

Old residents tell the story that in the summer of 1894 the river at
Deapolis was extremely low, exposing a huge boulder in the center
of the stream. An interested group made their way to the stone, and
found it carved with peculiar markings they were unable to decipher.
Before leaving they added the date of their visit to the inscription.
Forty years later the river stage again was low enough to bring the
stone above water, and a second party visited it, and found the same
undecipherable markings as well as the carving of the 1894 party.

Near the Deapolis elevator is the SITE OF BIG WHITE'S MANDAN INDIAN
VILLAGE. Big White was the Mandan chief taken to Washington by Lewis
and Clark on their return from the Pacific, and his village was one
of two Mandan towns visited by the expedition on the journey up the
Missouri in 1804-5. The other, Black Cat's Village, was on the L. bank
of the river farther upstream. Lewis and Clark's Fort Mandan was built
on the L. bank downstream from the Deapolis site, but the changing
river channel has removed all trace of the fort, and Black Cat's
Village has never been definitely located (_see Tour 3_).

South of Deapolis is the SITE OF FORT CLARK TRADING POST (R), for which
the present village of FORT CLARK (1,726 alt., 46 pop.), downstream
=1.5 m.=, is named. The post, a well stockaded fort 132 x 147 ft.,
was built in 1829 by James Kipp for the American Fur Co. and named
for William Clark of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Because of its
flourishing trade with the Mandans it was for several years second
only to Fort Union in Missouri importance, but it was closed during
the smallpox epidemic of 1837, and a few years later was abandoned by
the company. The Arikara Indians reoccupied the site in the 1850's in
their migration up the Missouri. Today there are slight excavations and
scars marking the outline of the fort stockade walls, and traces of the
Indian habitation.

Scorched Village, according to Hidatsa legend, had its locale near
the present city of WASHBURN (L) (_see Tour 3_), but the Indians say
that the site of the legendary village has been swallowed by the
ever-shifting channel of the river.

The river passes WILDWOOD LAKE and the PAINTED WOODS (L) (_see Side
Tour 3B_), and the town (R) of SANGER (1,712 alt., 70 pop.), named for
its first settlers, C. H. and George Sanger. (_Camp can be made in
vicinity of town; L. bank more accessible_.)

The route passes (R) the post office of PRICE (1,700 alt., 10 pop.),
named for William Price, the first homesteader in the vicinity. Price
is on the northern slopes of the flat-topped formations known as SQUARE
BUTTES (_see Side Tour 3B_). Below these bold buttes is (L) DOUBLE
DITCH INDIAN VILLAGE STATE PARK (_see Side Tour 3B_), and a short
distance below that the route passes (R) the mouth of SQUARE BUTTE
CREEK (see _Side Tour 8D_).

The resting place of the last physical traces of steamboating on the
upper Missouri, ROCK HAVEN (R), is passed almost in sight of the black
steel link of railroad bridge spanning the river near Bismarck. The
advent of the railroad spelled the decline of river traffic, but before
its coming Rock Haven was a river drydock and boat yard, and today
three old craft which have seen sporadic service in the last decade are
resting on large skids, drawn up from the waters once churned by their
paddle wheels.

On the high bluffs across the river below Rock Haven are the
reconstructed earth lodges of the LOOKING VILLAGE (L) of the Mandans,
below which is the mouth (L) of BURNT CREEK (_see Side Tour 3B_).

Termination of the =350 m.= voyage is made at Bismarck at a boat
landing (L) reached just after passing under the N. P. Ry. Bridge.
Downstream from the landing is the LIBERTY MEMORIAL BRIDGE over which
passes US 10 (_see Tour 8_).


1682  La Salle, French explorer, by his _Procès Verbal_ claims part
      of North Dakota drained by Missouri River for France.

1738  Pierre de la Verendrye, first white man to enter North
      Dakota, visits Mandan Indians on Missouri.

1742  Verendrye's sons return to North Dakota while searching
      for a western sea near high mountains.

1762  France transfers land claimed by La Salle to Spain.

1763  By Treaty of Paris England obtains title to part of State
      drained by Mouse and Red Rivers.

1768  Jonathan Carver explores Northwest through the Red River
      Valley for Provincial Government.

1797  David Thompson, English geographer, explores and maps
      Mouse and Missouri River basins.

      Charles Chaboillez of the North West Company establishes
      first trading post in State at Pembina.

1800  Spain cedes American possessions back to France after adjustment
      of territorial holdings.

      Alexander Henry, Jr., opens fur-trading post at Park River.

1801  Alexander Henry, Jr., moves post to Pembina.

1802  March 12, first non-Indian child in State, a girl, born to
      Pierre Bonza and wife, Negroes, at Henry's post at Pembina.

      Charles le Raye explores western North Dakota while captive
      of Brulé Sioux.

1803  Louisiana Purchase makes southwestern North Dakota part
      of United States.

1804-5  Lewis and Clark, accompanied by Sakakawea, cross North
      Dakota on journey to Pacific.

1807  In May, Manuel Lisa sets out from St. Louis in search of
      suitable sites for trading posts along the Missouri River.

      December 29, first white child in State born at Pembina.

1811  John Bradbury and Thomas Nuttall, English botanists, join
      Astoria Overland Expedition up Missouri and Yellowstone
      Rivers to Oregon.

1812  Selkirk colonists come to Pembina to make first attempt at
      permanent white settlement in State.

1818  Father Dumoulin and Father Provencher open first church
      in State, a Roman Catholic mission at Pembina.

      First school, taught by William Edge, begun in connection
      with this mission.

      United States acquires eastern North Dakota by treaty with

1820  Grasshopper plague destroys Red River Valley crops.

1822  Gen. W. H. Ashley and other explorers establish fur-trading
      posts in Missouri Valley.

1823  Gen. Stephen H. Long survey expedition designates official
      boundary between United States and Canada at point north
      of Pembina.

      Selkirk colonists evacuate Pembina and move to Canadian

1825  Gen. Henry Atkinson and Gen. Henry Leavenworth come up
      Missouri to make treaties with Arikara and other Indians.

1828  American Fur Company builds Fort Union at mouth of

1831  Fort Clark built on Missouri by American Fur Company.

1832  _Yellowstone_, first steamboat to navigate Missouri in North
      Dakota, makes voyage to Fort Union.

      George Catlin, artist and explorer, visits Mandan Indians.

1833  Maximilian, Prince of Wied, conducts scientific expedition up
      Missouri River.

1837  Smallpox epidemic nearly annihilates Mandan Indian tribe.

1839  John C. Fremont and Jean N. Nicollet lead first exploration
      through central North Dakota.

      Father Pierre Jean De Smet begins missionary work among
      North Dakota Indians, and persuades Sioux, particularly
      Hunkpapas, to participate in peace councils.

1842  Joseph Rolette opens American Fur Company post at Pembina.

1843  Rival post built at Pembina by Norman Kittson.

      John James Audubon, naturalist, studies animal life in present
      North Dakota.

1845  Bartholomew Berthold, representing American Fur Company,
      founds post named for himself on Missouri River.

1848  Father George Belcourt opens mission fields in Pembina, Walhalla,
      and Turtle Mountains.

      Rev. Alonzo Barnard and James Tanner conduct first Protestant
      church service in State at Pembina.

      First printing press brought into North Dakota by Barnard.

1851  First North Dakota post office established at Pembina with
      Norman Kittson postmaster.

      Charles Cavileer brings settlers to Pembina from Minnesota
      to form first permanent white agricultural colony in State.

      First flour mill in State constructed at Walhalla by Father

1853  Stevens survey sponsored by Federal Government to find
      most advantageous route for railway to Pacific.

1857  Fort Abercrombie, first military post in North Dakota, established
      on Red River.

1859  January 5, _Anson Northrup_, first steamboat on Red River,
      starts trip from Fort Abercrombie to Winnipeg.

1860  Regular steamboat transportation on upper Missouri begins.



                                   _Photo by R. Kenneth McFarland_]



_Photo by Frank Fiske_]



_Photo by Frank Fiske_]



  _Photo by Russell Reid_]


                                        MAGPIE ROCK, KILLDEER MOUNTAINS

  _Photo by Russell Reid_]

1861  Dakota Territory is officially organized.

      President Lincoln appoints William Jayne first Governor of
      Dakota Territory.

1862  First Territorial legislature meets in Yankton.

      Refugees from Minnesota Massacre flee to Fort Abercrombie.
      Little Crow and followers seek refuge with Sioux near
      Devils Lake.

      Capt. James L. Fisk guides parties across North Dakota to
      Montana gold fields.

1863  January 1, Dakota Territory opened for homesteading.

      Gen. Henry H. Sibley and Gen. Alfred H. Sully, sent out to
      punish Sioux who participated in Minnesota Massacre, conduct
      extensive campaign through North Dakota.

1864  In July, first North Dakota newspaper, the _Frontier Scout_,
      issued at Fort Union.

      General Sully supervises building of Fort Rice.

      Immigrant party under Capt. James L. Fisk, besieged by
      Sioux, builds Fort Dilts.

1866  Fort Buford established opposite mouth of Yellowstone.

1867  Fort Ransom, second of chain of forts for protection of immigrants
      crossing the prairies, established on Sheyenne River
      by Gen. A. H. Terry.

      Forts Stevenson and Totten, and Fort Totten Reservation

      Treaty with Sisseton and Wahpeton Sioux cedes United States
      rights to build roads and railroads across Indian lands.

1868  Sioux, influenced by Father De Smet, join peace council at
      Fort Rice.

      Laramie treaty defines reservation boundaries for Sioux, including
      Standing Rock Reservation.

      Joseph Rolette makes first North Dakota homestead entry,
      filing on land in northwest part of Red River Valley.

1870  Fort Berthold Indian Reservation boundaries defined.

      Treaty between Chippewa, Sioux, and whites at Fort Abercrombie
      brings about permanent peace in eastern area.

1871  Northern Pacific Railway reaches Fargo.

      First North Dakota telegraph line put in operation between
      Fort Abercrombie and Winnipeg.

      Whistler expedition begins survey of railway lines westward
      through North Dakota.

1872  Fort Seward replaces Fort Ransom.

      Fort McKeen, later named Fort Abraham Lincoln, built on

1873  Fort Abraham Lincoln built.

      Bismarck becomes western terminus of Northern Pacific.

      July 11, Col. C. A. Lounsberry publishes first issue of Bismarck
      _Tribune_, State's oldest newspaper.

1874  United States Weather Bureau established as part of Camp
      Hancock at Bismarck.

      First newspaper in Red River Valley, the _Express_, printed
      at Fargo.

      Custer brings back report of gold in Black Hills.

1875  Era of bonanza farming is begun.

      War Department permits white settlement on reservations in
      violation of Laramie treaty, precipitating uprisings among

1876  May 17, Custer leaves Fort Abraham Lincoln for campaign
      of the Little Big Horn.

      June 25, Custer's immediate command annihilated by Sioux
      at Battle of Little Big Horn.

1878  Fort Yates completed to succeed Fort Rice.

      Ranching introduced in western North Dakota.

1880  James J. Hill begins building Great Northern Railway through

      Lignite mining opened in western North Dakota.

      Military reserves in eastern and central parts of State thrown
      open to homestead entry.

1881  Northern Pacific reaches Montana border.

1882  Great Northern completed through Red River Valley to

      Turtle Mountain Reservation established for Chippewa.

1883  Territorial capital moved from Yankton to Bismarck.

      Jamestown Presbyterian College established.

      University of North Dakota opens at Grand Forks.

      Marquis de Mores opens packing plant at Medora.

      Theodore Roosevelt comes to North Dakota for his health
      and begins ranching near Medora.

      First labor union in State formed at Bismarck.

1885  State hospital for insane opens at Jamestown.

      Territorial prison, later State penitentiary, opens at Bismarck.

1886  Bank of Hamilton founded: later becomes first State bank.

1887  Treaty with Sioux allows white settlement on Standing Rock
      Indian Agency.

1889  February 22, Congress passes enabling act.

      July 4, State constitutional convention, held at Bismarck.

      October 1, State constitution adopted.

      November 2, President Harrison admits North Dakota to
      statehood. John Miller takes office as first Governor.

      November 19, first legislature meets at Bismarck.

1890  State Normal School opens at Valley City.

      State Agricultural College opens at Fargo.

      State Normal School opens at Mayville.

      Andrew Burke elected Governor.

      School for the Deaf opens at Devils Lake.

1891  Severe drought throughout State.

1892  Eli Shortridge, Democrat, elected Governor on fusion ticket
      in reaction against railway interference in State politics.

1893  Industrial School at Ellendale (later State Normal and Industrial
      School) established.

1894  Roger Allin, Republican, elected Governor.

1896  Frank Briggs, Republican, elected Governor.

1897  First free public library in State opens at Grafton.

      Red River Valley flood causes severe damage.

1898  Governor Briggs dies. Lt. Gov. Joseph M. Devine completes

      Fred B. Fancher, Republican, elected to succeed Devine.

1900  Frank White, Republican, elected Governor.

1902  Governor White reelected.

1903  New Fort Lincoln built and garrisoned.

1904  State School of Science opens at Wahpeton.

      School for the Feeble-minded (later Grafton State School)
      opens at Grafton.

      E. Y. Sarles, Republican, elected Governor.

1906  John Burke, only Governor of State to serve three terms,
      elected on Democratic ticket.

1907  State School of Forestry opens at Bottineau.

1909  First State child labor law enacted.

      State Library Commission created.

1912  L. B. Hanna, Republican, elected Governor.

1913  State Normal School opens at Minot.

1915  In February, Nonpartisan League organized.

1916  Lynn J. Frazier, first Nonpartisan Governor, elected.

1918  State Normal School opens at Dickinson.

      Seven initiated amendments, basis of league platform, approved
      by electorate.

1919  Bank of North Dakota organized.

      Industrial Commission created.

1920  Recall measure passed.

      April 29, contract awarded for building State mill and elevator
      at Grand Forks.

1921  Governor Frazier recalled; succeeded by R. A. Nestos, I. V. A.

1922  Former Governor Frazier elected United States Senator.

      WDAY, first North Dakota radio station, opens at Fargo.

1924  Arthur G. Sorlie, Nonpartisan, elected Governor.

      Gerald P. Nye appointed to fill United States Senate vacancy
      caused by death of Sen. E. F. Ladd.

1927  Governor Sorlie dies in office; succeeded by Lt. Gov. Walter

1928  George F. Shafer, I. V. A. Republican, elected Governor.

      Air mail service between Twin Cities and Winnipeg through
      North Dakota inaugurated.

1929  Prolonged drought throughout Northwest begins.

1930  December 28, Capitol destroyed by fire.

1932  October 8, Vice President Charles M. Curtis dedicates cornerstone
      of new $2,000,000 capitol building.

      William Langer, Nonpartisan, elected Governor.

      Prohibition clause of State constitution repealed.

1934  July 18, North Dakota Supreme Court holds Governor Langer
      disqualified for office; Lt. Gov. Ole Olson becomes Acting

1935  January 7, Thomas H. Moodie, Democrat, inaugurated Governor.

      February 2, State Supreme Court declares Governor Moodie
      ineligible; Walter Welford, Nonpartisan Lieutenant Governor,
      becomes Acting Governor.

      State Welfare and Planning Boards created.

1936  Langer defeats Welford for governorship, first Governor of
      any State elected in the individual column of ballot.

      Referendum legalizes sale of liquor in State.


                           il. = illustrated

                           B. = bibliography



Wemett, William Marks. _Geography of North Dakota._ Fargo, Northern
School Supply, 1929. 230 p. il. A travel sketch of North Dakota in
textbook form.


Campbell, Marius R. _Guidebook to the Western United States._
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1915. 212 p. (U. S. Geological
Survey, Bull. 611.) Part A, Northern Pacific Railway route, with a side
trip to the Yellowstone Park.

Hard, Herbert A. _Soil and Geological Survey of North Dakota_; with
a history of Barnes County by Katherine Hard, and a chapter on flora
of North Dakota by Herbert F. Bergman. Bismarck, Tribune Publishing
Company, 1912. o. p. 372 p. il. Sixth biennial report of the State
agricultural college geologic survey.

Leonard, A. G. _North Dakota Geological Survey._ Bismarck, Tribune
Publishing Company, 1906-27. o. p. V. 2, 3, 4, 5. Reports written and
edited by the late Dr. Leonard while he was State geologist.

Leonard, A. G. _Bismarck Folio_. Washington, Government Printing
Office, 1912. 8 p. il. (U. S. Geological Survey, Geologic Atlas of the
U. S., Folio 181.)

Simpson, Howard E. _Geology and Ground Water Resources of North
Dakota_. Washington, Government Printing Office, 1929. 312 p. (U. S.
Geological Survey.) Contains, besides a general summary survey, a
detailed description of each county.

Upham, Warren. _Glacial Lake Agassiz._ Washington, Government
Printing Office, 1895. 658 p. il. (U. S. Geological Survey, v. 25.) A
description of the glacier which once covered North Dakota, and the
results it had upon the surface of the State; also tells of plant and
animal life in the Red River Valley.

Willard, Daniel Everett and Hall, Charles M. _Casselton-Fargo Folio._
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1905. 9 p. il. (U. S. Geologic
Atlas of the U. S., Folio 117.)

Willard, Daniel Everett. _Jamestown-Tower Folio, Jamestown, Eckelson
and Tower Quadrangles._ Washington, Government Printing Office, 1909.
10 p. il. (U. S. Geological Survey, Geologic Atlas of the U. S., Folio

Willard, Daniel Everett. _Story of the Prairies._ St. Paul, Webb
Publishing Company, 1909. 265 p. il. Study of geology and physical
characteristics of the State by a former professor of geology at the
agricultural college.


Hornaday, W. T. _Tales from Nature's Wonderland._ New York, Charles
Scribner's Sons, 1924. o. p. 235 p. il. Paleontology written for
children. Also contains stories of strange animals on earth today.

Lucas, Frederic A. _Animals of the Past._ New York, printed for
the American Museum of Natural History, 1916. 266 p. il. 4th edit.
(Handbook Series No. 4.) An account in story form of some of the
creatures of the ancient world.

Williams, Henry Smith. _Survival of the Fittest._ New York, Robert M.
McBride and Company, 1932. 231 p. il. Vivid descriptions of some of the
animals which once roamed the plains of North Dakota.


Burns and McDonnell Engineering Company. _Report of Missouri Dam and
Diversion Project in North and South Dakota._ Minneapolis, 1933. For a
discussion of the means of conservation of the water and soil resources
of the State see pp. 23-25.

North Dakota. State Geological Survey. _Report on Clay Resources in
North Dakota._ Grand Forks, 1906. 324 p. il. (Fourth Biennial Report.)

North Dakota. State Geological Survey. _Report on Lignite Resources in
North Dakota._ Grand Forks, 1902. 262 p. il. (Second Biennial Report.)

North Dakota. State Planning Board. _Second Progress Report to National
Resources Committee._ Bismarck, June 15, 1935. 3 v. in ms.

North Dakota. State Planning Board. _The Mineral Resources of North
Dakota_; bentonite. University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, July 15,
1935. (Circular Report No. 6.) Dr. Irvin Lavine, Consultant.

North Dakota. State Planning Board. _The Mineral Resources of North
Dakota_; gold. University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, July 10, 1935.
(Circular Report No. 7.) Dr. Irvin Lavine, Consultant.

North Dakota. State Planning Board. _The Mineral Resources of North
Dakota_; activated carbon. University of North Dakota, Grand Forks,
July 1935. (Circular Report No. 9.) Dr. Irvin Lavine, Consultant.

North Dakota. University. Division of Mines and Mining Experiments.
_Geology and Natural Resources of North Dakota._ Grand Forks,
University Press, Jan. 1930. 79 p. (Departmental Bull. 11.) A brief
description of the State with special references to the lignite and
clay deposits.


Bergman, Herbert Floyd. _Flora of North Dakota._ Bismarck, Tribune
Publishing Company, 1917. o. p. 372 p. A technical study of plant life
in North Dakota.

Clements, Frederic Edward and Clements, Edith Schwartz. _Rocky Mountain
Flowers._ New York, H. W. Wilson Company, 1920. 392 p. il. Field edit.
A guide for plant-lovers and plant-users, with black and white and
color plates.

Schmidt, C. C. _Nature Study and Agriculture._ Chicago, D. C. Heath,
1933. 508 p. il. Discussion by a University of North Dakota professor
of education, based on appreciation of nature.

Stevens, O. A. _Wild Flowers of North Dakota._ North Dakota
Agricultural College, Fargo, May 1933. 51 p. il. (Bull. 269.)


Audubon, Maria R. and Coues, E. _Audubon and His Journals._ New York,
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1897. o. p. 1086 p. 2 v. A description of
Audubon's trip along the Missouri River, with zoological notes by
Elliott Coues.

Bailey, Vernon. _Biological Survey of North Dakota._ Washington,
Government Printing Office, 1926. o. p. 226 p. (U. S. Department of
Agriculture, Bull. 49 in _North American Fauna._) A study of North
Dakota fauna.

Job, Herbert K. _Among the Water-Fowl._ New York, Doubleday, Page
and Company, 1903. o. p. 224 p. il. A popular narrative account of
waterfowl in the northern and middle States and lower Canada, east of
the Rockies.

Judd, Elmer T. _List of North Dakota Birds._ Cando, N. Dak., published
by author, 1917. 29 p. Birds in the Big Coulee, Turtle Mountain,
and Devils Lake regions, as noted during the years 1890 to 1896 and
verified in subsequent years.

Larson, Adrian. _Birds of Eastern McKenzie County, North Dakota._
Wilson Ornithological Club, Sioux City, Iowa, 1928. 19 p. Reprinted
from Wilson Bulletin, March 1928, June 1928.

Reid, Russell and Gannon, Clell. _Birds and Mammals Observed by Lewis
and Clark in North Dakota._ Bismarck, 1927. 24 p.

Reid, Russell and Gannon, Clell. _Natural History Notes on the Journal
of Alexander Henry._ Bismarck, 1928. 168 p. Reprinted from North Dakota
Historical Quarterly.

Stevens, O. A. _Making Use of Our Birds._ Fargo, Dec. 1930. 30 p.
(North Dakota Agricultural College, Bull. 241.)

Taylor, Joseph Henry. _Beavers and Their Ways. Twenty Years on the Trap
Line._ Privately printed, n. d. o. p. 178 p. il. Animal studies by an
old time trapper and student of natural history.

Williams, H. V. _Birds of the Red River Valley of Northeast North
Dakota._ Wilson Ornithological Club, Sioux City, Iowa, 1926. 37 p.
Reprinted from the Wilson Bulletin, March-June 1926.

Wood, Norman A. _A Preliminary Survey of the Bird Life of North
Dakota._ Ann Arbor, University of Michigan, 1923. 96 p. il. Discussion
of North Dakota birds with illustrations by Russell Reid.


Beede, Aaron McGaffey. _Toward the Sun._ Bismarck, Tribune Publishing
Company, 1916. o. p. 199 p. Written by a pioneer missionary among the
Indians of North Dakota with commentary notes by Melvin R. Gilmore.

Byrne, Patrick E. _Soldiers of the Plain._ New York, Minton, Balch
and Company, 1928. o. p. 260 p. Sympathetic account of red man's side
in treaty negotiations, touches remarkable military work of Indians,
presents "high qualities" of the Indian "as a factor in civilized life."

Catlin, George. _Boys' Catlin. My Life Among the Indians._ New York,
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1909. 380 p. il. An abridged book for school
use, telling of the manners, customs, and conditions of the North
American Indians in the early 1800's.

Catlin, George. _North American Indians._ Edinburgh, John Grant, 1926.
o. p. 701 p. 2 v. il. Letters and notes on manners, customs, and
conditions of North American Indians written during his travels of

Chandler, Katherine. _The Bird Woman of the Lewis and Clark
Expedition._ New York, Boston, Silver, Burdett and Company, 1905. o. p.
109 p. il. A supplementary reader for first and second grade children.

Crawford, Helen. _Sakakawea, the Bird Woman._ North Dakota Historical
Quarterly, Apr. 1927, v. I: pp. 6-15. The story of the Bird Woman in
reference to the statue erected on the grounds of the State capitol,

Defenbach, Byron. _Red Heroines of the Northwest._ Caldwell, Idaho, The
Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1930. 296 p. il. Stories of several Indian women
including Sakakawea.

Denig, Edward Thompson. _Indian Tribes on the Upper Missouri._
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1930. Pp. 375-628 il.
(Smithsonian Institution, U. S. Bureau of American Ethnology, 46th
annual report.)

Densmore, Frances. _Chippewa Customs._ Washington, Government Printing
Office, 1929 204 p. il. B. (Smithsonian Institution, U. S. Bureau of
American Ethnology, Bull. 86.)

Densmore, Frances. _Chippewa Music._ Washington, Government Printing
Office, 1910-13. 541 p. 2 v. il. (Smithsonian Institution, U. S. Bureau
of American Ethnology, Bull. 45.) Contains the music of Chippewa songs.

Densmore, Frances. _Mandan and Hidatsa Music._ Washington, Government
Printing Office, 1923. 192 p. il. (Smithsonian Institution, U. S.
Bureau of American Ethnology, Bull. 80.) Indian music from both tribes.

Densmore, Frances. _The American Indians and Their Music._ New York,
The Women's Press, 1926. o. p. 143 p. il. B. Includes music for Indian
songs and material on social life and customs among the Indians.

Dixon, Joseph K. _The Vanishing Race._ Garden City, New York,
Doubleday, Page and Company, 1913. o. p. 231 p. il. A record of the
last great Indian council participated in by Indian chiefs from nearly
every Indian reservation in the United States, with the stories of
their lives as told by themselves. Part 4 describes the Battle of the
Little Big Horn.

Eastman, Charles A. _Indian Boyhood._ New York, Little, Brown and
Company, 1902. 289 p. il. Tales of Dakota Indian children.

Eastman. Charles A. _Smoky Day's Wigwam Evenings._ Boston, Little,
Brown and Company, 1910. o. p. 148 p. il. B. Indian legends written for

Fiske, Frank B. _The Taming of the Sioux._ Bismarck, Tribune Publishing
Company, 1917. o. p. 186 p. il. An account of the Custer massacre with
descriptive material on Indian life, dress, and customs.

Garland, Hamlin. _Book of the American Indian._ New York, Harpers,
1923. 274 p. il. Fifteen true Indian stories, including one of Sitting

Gilmore, Melvin R. _Ethnobotany of the Great Plains Area; Uses of
Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region._ Reprinted.
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1919. 154 p. il. (Smithsonian
Institution, U. S. Bureau of American Ethnology, 33d annual report.)

Gilmore, Melvin R. _Prairie Smoke._ New York, Columbia University,
1929. 208 p. Appreciatively written collection of Indian lore by former
curator of State historical society.

Godfrey, Captain E. S. _Custer's Last Battle._ Century Magazine, Jan.
1892. 29 p. il. One of Custer's troop commanders gives an authentic
account of the campaign which culminated in this battle.

Graham, W. A. _Story of the Little Bighorn._ New York, Century Company,
1926. o. p. 174 p. il. A historical narrative describing the Custer

Hans, Frederic M. _The Great Sioux Nation._ Chicago, M. A. Donahue and
Company, 1907. o. p. 575 p. il. A history of Indian life and warfare.

Hebard, Grace R. _Sacajawea._ Glendale, California, A. H. Clark
Company, 1933. 341 p. il. A story of the life of the Bird Woman and her

Hodge, Frederick Webb. _Handbook of American Indians._ Washington,
Government Printing Office, 1912. 1992 p. 2 v. il. (Smithsonian
Institution, U. S. Bureau of American Ethnology.)

Hoffman, W. J. _The Mide'wimin or Grand Medicine Society of the
Ojibwa._ Washington, Government Printing Office, 1891. Pp. 143-300.
il. (Smithsonian Institution, U. S. Bureau of American Ethnology, 7th
annual report.) An accurate account of Indian customs.

Holley, Frances C. _Once Their Home._ Chicago, Donahue and Henneberry,
1890. o. p. 405 p. il. Interesting account of early Dakota, stressing
relations between white and red men.

Kelly, Mrs. Fannie. _Narrative of My Captivity Among the Sioux
Indians._ Chicago, Donnelley Gassette and Loyd, 1880. o. p. 285 p. il.
Personal experiences of the author among the Indians, and an account of
the Sully expedition.

McLaughlin, Major James. _My Friend the Indian._ Chicago, Houghton
Mifflin Company, 1910. o. p. 404 p. A sympathetic account of Indian

McLaughlin, Mrs. Marie L. _Myths of the Sioux._ Bismarck, Tribune
Publishing Company, 1916. o. p. 200 p. il. Thirty-eight myths related
by wife of Major McLaughlin, herself one-fourth Sioux.

Missionary Register. _Northwest American Indians._ London, L. B. Seeley
& Son, 1826. o. p. 637 p. A report of missionary work among the Indians
of the Red River Valley.

Radin, Paul. _Story of the American Indian._ New York, Boni and
Liveright, 1927. 372 p. il. Contains an interesting description of the
Mandan Indian villages.

Riggs, Rev. S. R. _Grammar and Dictionary of the Dakota Language._
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1893. 239 p. (Smithsonian
Institution, U. S. Bureau of American Ethnology.)

Sarett, Lew. _Many, Many Moons: Indians of North America: Slow Smoke._
New York, H. Holt and Company, 1925. 104 p. Poems of Indians and
prairie life.

Schultz, J. W. _The Bird Woman, the Guide of Lewis and Clark._ Chicago,
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1918. o. p. 235 p. il. The story of Sakakawea
as told to the author by the daughter of a Mandan chief.

Seymour, Flora W. _The Indians Today._ Chicago, Benj. H. Sanborn
Company, 1927. o. p. 235 p. il. Well-written, intended for boys and

Standing Bear, Luther. _My People, the Sioux._ New York and Boston,
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1928. 288 p. il. The social life and customs
of his people described by a Sioux chief.

Vestal, Stanley. _Happy Hunting Grounds._ Chicago, Lyons and Carnahan,
1928. 220 p. il. Story of warfare between Mandan and Cheyenne Indians.

Vestal, Stanley. _New Sources of Indian History._ Norman, University
of Oklahoma Press. 1934. 351 p. il. Description of the Dakota Indians,
especially of their Ghost Dance, and a biography of Sitting Bull.

Vestal, Stanley. _Sitting Bull._ Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1932. 350 p. il. B. An interesting biography of this famous
Sioux chief.

Vestal, Stanley. _Warpath._ Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin
Company, 1934. 291 p. il. B. A true story of Chief White Bull and his
connection with Dakota Indian wars.

Walker, J. E. _Campaigns of General Custer in the Northwest, and Final
Surrender of Sitting Bull._ London, Jenkins, 1881. o. p. 139 p. il. The
story of the Custer massacre prefaced with a history of the military
life of General Custer.

Wall, Oscar G. _Diary._ Published by the author, 1909. o. p. 282 p.
Recollections of the Sioux massacre, Yellow Medicine incident with its
important battles, and the Sibley expedition.

Warren, William A. _Minnesota Historical Society Collections._ St.
Paul, 1885. Vol. V. pp. 21-394. A history of the Ojibway Indians.

Wemett, William Marks. _The Indians of North Dakota._ Fargo, Northern
School Supply, 1927. 256 p. il. A history of Indian life written
especially for school children.

Will, George Francis. _Archaeology of the Missouri Valley._
Anthropological Papers of American Museum of Natural History, v. 22:
pp. 291-341. New York, 1924. A scientific discussion of the Missouri

Will, George Francis. _Arikara Ceremonials._ North Dakota Historical
Quarterly, July 1930, v. 4: pp. 247-263. An interesting paper on
Arikara life.

Will, George Francis and Hyde, George E. _Corn Among the Indians of
the Upper Missouri._ St. Louis, Missouri, William Henry Miner Company,
Incorporated, 1917. o. p. 323 p. il. A description of agriculture among
the Indians.

Will, George Francis. _Magical and Sleight of Hand Performances by
the Arikara._ North Dakota Historical Quarterly, Oct. 1928, v. 3, pp.
50-65. Unusual description of Indian "magic."

Will, George Francis. _The Mandans._ North Dakota Historical Quarterly,
Oct. 1930, v. 5: pp. 38-48. A revision and condensation of an article
on the life and language of these agricultural Indians, originally
written for the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology.
Also includes the story of the Mandan earth lodge on the grounds of the
State capitol, Bismarck.

Will, George Francis and Spinden, H. J. _The Mandans._ Cambridge,
Massachusetts, Peabody Museum, 1906. o. p. 219 p. il. A study of the
culture, archeology, and language of the tribe.

Wilson, Gilbert L. _Indian Hero Tales._ Chicago, American Book Company,
1916. o. p. 203 p. il. Tales of the Abnaki, Micmacs, and Algonquins
retold, with a section on Indian folklore in general.

Wilson, Gilbert L. _Myths of the Red Children._ Chicago, Ginn, 1907, o.
p. 154 p. il. A collection of Indian legends.

Wilson, Gilbert L. _Waheenee; An Indian Girl's Story._ St. Paul, Webb
Publishing Company, 1921. o. p. 189 p. il. Story of Arikara woman, wife
of the tribal chieftain Son-of-the-Star, as told by herself to the

Wilson, Thomas. _The Antiquity of the Red Race in America._ Washington,
Government Printing Office, 1897. See pp. 1039-1045. (Smithsonian
Institution, U. S. Bureau of American Ethnology.) Deals with the origin
and history of North American Indians.

Wissler, Clark. _Costumes of the Plains Indians._ Anthropological
Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, v. 17: pp. 39-91.
1915. Part II describes the costumes and adornments of various North
American tribes.

Wissler, Clark. _North American Indians of the Plains._ New York,
The American Museum of Natural History, 1927. 172 p. Authoritative
discussion of society and culture of North American Indians.


Armstrong, Moses K. _The Early Empire Builders of the Great West._ St.
Paul, E. W. Porter, 1901. o. p. 456 p. il. Early history of Dakota
Territory by a pioneer surveyor of Yankton, Dakota Territory.

Arnold, Henry V. _Early History of Ransom County_ (with references to
Sargent County). Larimore, H. V. Arnold, 1918. o. p. 105 p. Historical
sketches based on newspaper articles.

Arnold, Henry V. _Forty Years in North Dakota._ Larimore, H. V. Arnold,
1921. o. p. 96 p. A short history of the State in relation to Grand
Forks County.

Arnold, Henry V. _History of Old Pembina._ Larimore, H. V. Arnold,
1917. o. p. 82 p. An entertaining sketch of the first settlement in the
State from the coming of the Hudson's Bay Company to 1872.

Band, John Wesley. _Minnesota and Its Resources._ New York, Redfield,
1854. o. p. 412 p. il. Appendage includes notes on a trip from St. Paul
to Pembina and the Selkirk settlement on the Red River of the North.

Black, Norman Fergus. _A History of Saskatchewan and the Old
Northwest._ Regina, Saskatchewan, North West Historical Company, 1913.
605 p. il. A history of the settlement of Canada with references to
boundary line settlements with the United States, and the story of the
fur trade between the two countries.

Black, R. M. _A History of Dickey County._ Ellendale, Dickey County
Historical Society, 1930. o. p. 331 p. il. Characteristic stories of
early times in the county with a chapter on each town and township.

Brady, Cyrus Townsend. _American Fights and Fighters._ New York,
Doubleday, Doran and Company, 1928. o. p. 326 p. il. Includes vivid
description of Northwest Indian wars, especially those engaged in by
the Sioux.

Brininstool, E. A. _A Trooper With Custer._ Columbus, The
Hunter-Trader-Trapper Company, 1925, o. p. 214 p. il. (Frontier Series,
v. 1.) The story of a soldier in the Little Big Horn campaign.

Buffalo Bill (William Cody). _The Adventures of Buffalo Bill._ New
York, Harpers, 1927. o. p. 35 p. il. An authentic history of many
events in the exploration, settlement, and development of the western

Burdick, Usher L. _Last Battle of the Sioux Nation._ Stevens Point,
Wisconsin, Worzalla Publishing Company, 1929. 164 p. il. A story of
Indian wars written by a North Dakota congressman.

Burdick, Usher L. _Marquis De Mores at War in the Badlands._ Fargo,
privately printed, 1929. 24 p. il. Explains the enmity between the
young nobleman and his western neighbors, and gives an account of his
trial for the murder of a cowboy.

Burgum, Jessamine Slaughter. _Zezula, or Pioneer Days in the Smoky
Water Country._ Valley City, Getchell and Nielsen, 1937. 195 p. il. B.
Early history of Dakota Territory along the Missouri River.

Chardon, Francis A. _Chardon's Journal at Fort Clark._ Pierre, South
Dakota, privately printed, 1932. 458 p. il. Description of life on
the Upper Missouri 1834-39. A fur trader's experience with Mandans,
Gros Ventres, and their neighbors, especially describing the smallpox
epidemic of 1837.

Chittenden, Captain Hiram Martin. _History of the Fur Trade in the
Far West._ New York, Harpers, n. d. o. p. 1003 p. 3 v. il. Carefully
written history of fur trade in the territory west of the Missouri
River with North Dakota forming the background for much of the material.

Chittenden, H. M. and Richardson, A. T. Life, _Letters and Travels of
Father Pierre Jean DeSmet_, S. J. 1801-75. New York, Harpers, n. d. o.
p. 1600 p. 4 v. il. Edited from the original unpublished manuscript
journals of a pioneer missionary. Volume III contains a description of
his travels through the Northwest.

Cochrane, C. N. _David Thompson._ Toronto, Macmillan, 1924. 173 p. il.
B. A biography of Thompson, explorer and geographer who visited North
Dakota in 1797.

Coues, Dr. Elliot. _History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition._ New
York, Harpers, 1893. o. p. 1364 p. 4 v. il. B. A detailed history of
the expedition, with an essay on Indian policy.

Coues, Dr. Elliot. _New Light on the Early History of the Great
Northwest._ New York, Harpers, 1897. o. p. 1027 p. 3 v. Manuscript
journals of Alexander Henry and David Thompson. Volume I tells of their
experiences in the country around the Red River of the North.

Cowie, Isaac. _The Company of Adventurers._ Toronto, W. Briggs, 1913.
o. p. 515 p. il. Interesting narrative of the author's experiences with
Hudson's Bay Company in the Northwest during 1867-74.

Crawford, Lewis F. _History of North Dakota._ New York and Chicago,
American Historical Society, 1931. o. p. 1911 p. 3 v. il. B. One volume
by Crawford on the history of the State, and two volumes of biography
by various authors.

Crawford, Lewis F. _Rekindling Camp Fires._ Bismarck, Capital Book
Company, n. d. o. p. 324 p. il. B. A narrative of 60 years in the West
as an Indian fighter, cowboy, and hunter.

Curtis, Carrie. _History of Ransom County._ Manuscript, privately
owned. Written for Federated Women's Club in 1923.

Custer, Mrs. Elizabeth B. _Boots and Saddles._ New York, Harpers, 1885.
312 p. The story of Custer's life in the Dakotas and his Indian wars.

Custer, Mrs. Elizabeth B. _Following the Guidon._ New York, Harpers,
1890. o. p. 341 p. il. Story of Kansas frontier days, including the
battle of Washita in which Custer defeated the Cheyennes by tactics
similar to those used in the Battle of the Little Big Horn.

_Cyclorama of General Custer's Last Fight._ Boston Cyclorama Company,
1889. o. p. 30 p. il. An account of the Battle of the Little Big Horn
with biographies of Custer and Chief Gall, and an interview with
Sitting Bull.

Fish, Herbert C. and Black, R. M. _A Brief History of North Dakota._
Chicago, American Book Company, 1925. 244 p. Good reference text
written by former curator of the State historical society and former
president of the State Normal and Industrial School at Ellendale.

Gass, Patrick. _Gass Journal of the Lewis and Clark Expedition._
Chicago, A. C. McClurg Company, 1904. o. p. 298 p. Gass was a carpenter
on the expedition and kept a journal. He later participated in the War
of 1812.

Hagedorn, Hermann. _Roosevelt in the Bad Lands._ Chicago, Houghton
Mifflin Company, 1930. 475 p. Interesting story of early North Dakota
days woven about the life of Roosevelt in the Badlands.

Hennessey, William B. _History of North Dakota._ Bismarck, Tribune
Publishing Company, 1910. o. p. 633 p. il. A history of the State
from earliest times, including biographies of the builders of the

_History of the Northwest and Its Men of Progress._ Minneapolis,
The Minneapolis Journal, 1901. o. p. 592 p. il. Part V contains a
historical sketch of North Dakota written by C. A. Lounsberry.

_History of the Red River Valley._ Grand Forks, Herald Publishing
Company, C. F. Cooper and Company, Chicago, 1909. o. p. 645 p. 2 v. il.
Includes many amusing sketches of pioneer life in the valley.

Hughes, Katherine. _Father Lacombe, The Black-robed Voyageur._ New
York, Moffat, Yard and Company, 1911. 467 p. il. A well-written
biographical sketch.

_Illustrated Album of Biography of the Famous Red River Valley of
the North._ Chicago, Alden, Ogle and Company, 1889. o. p. 845 p. il.
Contains biographical sketches of early settlers and residents of
eastern North Dakota and western Minnesota.

Jarrell, Myrtris and Hewitt, J. N. B. _Journals of Rudolph Frederich
Kurz._ Washington, Government Printing Office, 1937. 382 p. il.
(Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology, Bull. 115.)
Experiences among fur traders and American Indians on the Mississippi
and Upper Missouri Rivers during the years 1846-1852.

Kelly, Luther S. _Yellowstone Kelly._ New Haven, Yale University Press,
1926. o. p. 268 p. il. Personal recollections of a famous scout and
plainsman told in entertaining style.

Kimball, Maria B. _A Soldier-Doctor of Our Army: James B. Kimball._ New
York, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917. o. p. 192 p. Biography of an Army
surgeon who spent ten years in Dakota Army posts, coming to Fort Buford
in 1867.

Larpenteur, Charles. _Forty Years a Fur Trader on the Upper Missouri._
New York, 1898. o. p. 430 p. 2 v. Autobiography of a pioneer hunter and
fur trader stationed at Fort Union during the 1830's. Edited by Dr.
Elliot Coues.

Laut, Agnes C. _The Blazed Trail of the Old Frontier._ New York, R. M.
McBride and Company, 1926. 271 p. il. The log of the Upper Missouri
Historical Expedition of 1925.

Laut, Agnes C. _The Conquest of the Great Northwest._ New York, Moffat,
Yard and Company, 1911. 413 p. 2 v. il. History of the Hudson's Bay
Company in Canada and the Northwest.

Laut, Agnes C. _The Fur Trade of America._ New York, Macmillan, 1921.
341 p. A history of the fur trade with a descriptive section on
furbearing animals.

Laut, Agnes C. _Pathfinders of the West._ Chicago, Macmillan, 1923. 380
p. il. Account of the explorations of Lewis and Clark.

Lewis and Clark. _Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition
1804-1806._ New York, Dodd, Mead and Company, 1904. o. p. 2758 p. il. 7
v. and atlas. The journals of the famous expedition exactly as written
during the journey to the Pacific, with introduction, notes, and index
by Reuben Gold Thwaites.

Lounsberry, Clement A. _Early History of North Dakota._ Washington,
Liberty Press, 1919. o. p. 247 p. il. Detailed history of State from
fur-trading days to twentieth century by a pioneer newspaperman of

Maximilian, Prince of Wied. _Travels in the Interior of North America._
Cleveland, Arthur H. Clark Company, 1905, o. p. 1134 p. 3 v. Translated
from the German's original entries, relating his adventures in the
Missouri River Valley. Edited with introduction, notes, and index by
Reuben Gold Thwaites.

Meinzer, Edgar G. _Brief History of North Dakota._ Fargo, E. S. Elliot,
1915. o. p. 24 p.

Miles, General Nelson A. _Personal Recollections of General Nelson
A. Miles._ Chicago, Warner, 1897. o. p. 590 p. il. The author's own
experiences in the Northwest.

_North Dakota Biography._ Chicago, George Ogle and Company, 1900. o.
p. 1410 p. il. A compendium of biographical sketches of prominent old
settlers, and accounts of early settlement, Indian occupancy, Indian
history and traditions, and Territorial and State organization.

Ordway, Sergeant John. _The Journals of Captain Meriwether Lewis and
Sergeant John Ordway._ Madison, State Historical Society, 1916. 44 p.
il. A first-hand account of travel in the Northwest.

_The People of the Red River Valley._ Harpers. Jan. 1859. pp. 169-176.
il. An early magazine article on life at old Fort Pembina.

Reid, Russell and Gannon, Clell G. _Historical and Pictorial Map of
North Dakota._ Bismarck, Capital Publishing Company, 1930. Historical
items by Reid and illustrations by Gannon.

Scott, Hugh L. _Memories of a Soldier._ New York, Century Company.
n. d. o. p. 673 p. il. Memoirs of an officer in the campaigns and
investigations from 1876-91.

Slaughter, Linda. _Fortress to Farm._ Published as serial in Bismarck
Daily Tribune beginning Sept. 30, 1893. o. p. Reminiscences of early
days in Burleigh County, North Dakota.

Spokesfield, Walter Ernest. _History of Wells County._ Valley City,
printed by the author, 1929. A sketch of North Dakota history,
especially Wells County, and the origin of place names.

Stanton, Edward M. _Expedition from Fort Abercrombie to Fort Benton; a
letter from the Secretary of War._ U. S. Congress. House. 1862. 37th
Congress. Third Session House. (Executive Document No. 80.)

_State Historical Society of North Dakota Collections._ Bismarck,
Tribune Publishing Company; Grand Forks, Normanden; 1906-24. 3596 p. 7
v. Edited by Dr. O. G. Libby, secretary of the society. Included in the
various volumes are histories of many of the towns and counties in the
State, biographies of pioneers, and interesting Indian legends.

Taylor, Joseph Henry. _Sketches of Frontier and Indian Lives on the
Upper Missouri and Great Plains._ Bound with _Kaleidoscopic Lives_.
Valley City, E. P. Getchell, 1932. Reprinted by Washburn's 50th
Anniversary Committee. o. p. 200 p. il. The story of the author's life
in the Dakotas from 1864-89.

Trinka, Zena Irma. _Out Where the West Begins._ St. Paul, The Pioneer
Company, 1920. o. p. 432 p. il. Early romantic history of North Dakota.

Van de Water, Frederick F. _Glory-Hunter._ Indianapolis, New York,
Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1934. 392 p. il. B. Critical biography of Gen.
George A. Custer.

Van Osdel, A. _Historic Landmarks._ Printed by the author, 1915. o.
p. 400 p. il. A narrative of the adventures of early traders in the
Northwest Territory.

Waldo, Edna LaMoore. _Dakota: an informal study of Territorial Days._
Caldwell, Idaho, The Caxton Printers, Ltd., 1936. 297 p. B. The story
of pioneer life in Dakota written from articles in contemporary

Waldo, Edna LaMoore. _Yet She Follows: The Story of Betty Freeman
Dearborn._ Bismarck, Capital Publishing Company, 1931. 205 p. A pioneer
story centering about events in the life of the author's mother.

Walsh, Richard J. _The Making of Buffalo Bill._ Indianapolis, The
Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1928. 391 p. A character study.

Wellman, Paul I. _Death on the Prairie._ New York, Macmillan, 1934. 298
p. il. B. A story of life on the plains of the Northwest from 1862-92.

Wemett, William Marks. _The Story of the Flickertail State._
Valley City, printed by the author, 1923. o. p. 315 p. il. Simple,
entertainingly written history of the State by the head of the history
department of the Valley City Teachers College.

Wetmore, Mrs. Helen. _Buffalo Bill._ Duluth, The Duluth Press Printing
Company, 1900. o. p. 267 p. il. The story of Buffalo Bill told by his

Wheeler, Olin D. _The Trail of Lewis and Clark, 1804-1904._ New York
and London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1904. o. p. 2 v. il. Includes a
description of the old trail based upon actual travel over it, and the
changes found a century later.

Williams, Mary A. _Fifty Pioneer Mothers of McLean County, North
Dakota._ Washburn, The Leader, 1932. 200 p. il. Historical sketches of
the State from the women's point of view.


Boyle, James E. _The Government of North Dakota._ New York, American
Book Company, 1922. o. p. 320 p. il. A discussion of politics and
government in the State.

Brigham, Albert Perry. _Our Home State and Continent._ New York,
American Book Company, 1934. 178 p. il. A chapter by Arthur C. Selke
and Charles T. McFarlane deals specifically with North Dakota.

Brinton, J. W. _Wheat and Politics._ Minneapolis, Rand Tower, 1931. 270
p. il. A treatise on agricultural credit, wheat trade, and politics,
with a chapter on the birth of the Nonpartisan League.

Bruce, Andrew A. _The Non-Partisan League._ New York, Macmillan, 1921.
o. p. 284 p. A study of the politics and government of North Dakota and
the National Nonpartisan League.

Bruce, Andrew A. _Property and Society._ Chicago, A. C. McClurg
Company, 1916. o. p. 150 p. National Social Science serial, edited by
F. L. McVey, North Dakota educator.

Gaston, H. E. _The Non-Partisan League._ New York, Harcourt, Brocet,
Howe, 1920. o. p. 325 p. The story of the league with a biography of A.
C. Townley, its founder.

_North Dakota Blue Book._ 1889-1919 (no books published 1915-17). o. p.
Official publication of the Secretary of State of North Dakota.

Woods, Almond L. _Civil Government for North Dakota._ Grand Forks,
published by the author, 1910. o. p. 278 p. il. A text on North Dakota

Young, Clyde L. _Civil Government for North Dakota and the Nation._
Chicago, American Book Company, 1932. 289 p. il. B. Comprehensive
discussion by former chairman of Children's Civil Code Commission.


Coulter, John Lee. _Cooperation Among Farmers._ New York, Sturgis and
Walton Company, 1911. o. p. 281 p. il. A discussion on rural life by a
former president of the State agricultural college.

Fossum, Paul Robert. _The Agrarian Movement in North Dakota._
Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press, 1925. o. p. 183 p. il. A thesis on the
economic aspects of North Dakota agriculture.

Gillette, John M. _Constructive Rural Sociology._ Chicago, Macmillan,
1928. 165 p. il. B. A study of rural conditions by an internationally
recognized authority, a faculty member of the University of North

Thayer, William M. _Marvels of the New West._ Norwich, Connecticut,
Henry Bill Publishing Company, 1888. o. p. 715 p. il. A history of
progress in the West, with an especially good chapter on bonanza farms.


Cable, Margaret. _Pottery from North Dakota Clay._ Grand Forks,
University of North Dakota, Division of Mines, 1926. il. A discussion
of the experiments made by the ceramics department of the university
with plastic clays found within the State.

Harrower, Henry Draper. _The New States._ New York and Chicago, Ivison
Blakeman and Company, 1889. o. p. 72 p. il. Included in Part I is a
sketch of the history and economic development of North Dakota.


Beck, Richard. _Founding of the Icelandic Settlement in Pembina
County._ North Dakota Historical Quarterly, Jan. 1932, v. 6: pp.

Beck, Richard. _Icelandic Settlement in Pembina County, Largest In
United States._ The Northwest Pioneer, Aug. 1936, v. 6: pp. 13-15.

Bercovici, Konrad. _On New Shores._ New York and London, Century
Company, 1925. 302 p. il. Contains chapters on French settlement at
Wild Rice, N. Dak., and on the Russo-Germans of North Dakota.

Hofstead, John A. _American Educators of Norwegian Origin._
Minneapolis, Augsburg Publishing House, 1931. 316 p. A "Who's Who" of
Norwegian educators in the United States in which several prominent
North Dakotans are included.

Qualey, Carlton C. _Pioneer Norwegian Settlement in North Dakota._
North Dakota Historical Quarterly, Oct. 1930, v. 5: pp. 14-37.


Arvold, A. G. _Little Country Theater._ Chicago, Macmillan, 1922. o. p.
220 p. il. B. Author is professor of dramatics at State agricultural
college and has been recognized as a leader in the promotion of
community drama in the United States. Book tells of the origin of the
Little Theater in Fargo and of the movement in general.

Beck, Richard. _Continent's Oldest Icelandic Church._ The Northwest
Pioneer, Feb. 1936, v. 4: pp. 5-7.

Gillette, John M. _Current Social Problems._ New York, Cincinnati,
American Book Company, 1933. 819 p. il. B. A textbook on social

Gillette, John M. _Family and Society._ Chicago, American Book Company,
1914. o. p. 164 p. B. An interesting sociological study.

Grassick, Dr. J. _North Dakota Medicine Sketches and Abstracts._ Grand
Forks, North Dakota Medical Association, 1926. 378 p. Contains a roster
of members of the association with biographies of pioneer doctors, and
unusual incidents encountered in their practices.

McFarland, George A. _Educational Administration in North Dakota._
Quarterly Journal of the University of North Dakota, Jan. 1923, v. 13:
pp. 186-207.

Norton, Sister Mary Aquinas. _Catholic Missions and Missionaries Among
the Indians of Dakota._ North Dakota Historical Quarterly, Apr. 1931,
v. 5: pp. 149-165.

Robertson, Edward P. _Retrospect After Twenty Years._ Quarterly Journal
of the University of North Dakota, Apr. 1925, v. 15: pp. 277-279. The
story of the founding of Wesley College and its affiliation with the
State university, written by the president emeritus of the college.

Sullivan, Helen J. _Know Your North Dakota._ Bismarck, Department of
Public Instruction, 1931. 96 p. il. B. An interesting and authentic
handbook of information about the State.

Trinka, Zena Irma. _North Dakota of Today._ Bismarck, Tribune
Publishing Company, 1919. o. p. 259 p. il. A brief study of North
Dakota with descriptions of its larger cities and towns.


Briggs, Harold E. _Early Freight and Stage Lines in Dakota._ North
Dakota Historical Quarterly, July 1929, v. 3: pp. 229-261.

Briggs, Harold E. _Pioneer River Transportation in Dakota._ North
Dakota Historical Quarterly, Apr. 1929, v. 3: pp. 159-181.

Chittenden, Captain Hiram Martin. _History of Early Steamboat
Navigation on the Missouri River._ New York, Harpers, n. d. o. p. 461
p. 2 v. An accurate account of early navigation on the Missouri.

Hanson, Joseph M. _The Conquest of the Missouri._ Chicago, A. C.
McClurg Company, 1909. o. p. 436 p. il. Navigation on the Missouri
River as Capt. Grant Marsh lived it.

Stevens, I. I. _Narrative and Final Report of Explorations for a Route
for a Pacific Railroad from St. Paul to Puget Sound._ Government report
on survey of 1885. Contains much interesting information on early North


Ellis, Chas. L. _Foundation Problems in the Red River Valley._
Quarterly Journal of the University of North Dakota, Jan. 1929, v. 19:
pp. 132-147.

Simons, Kenneth W. _North Dakota State Capitol._ Bismarck, Tribune
Publishing Company, 1934. il.


Arnold, Henry V. _Early History of Grand Forks._ Larimore, H. V.
Arnold, 1918. o. p. 92 p. B. Some interesting sketches of the early
settlement of Grand Forks, and the relation of the city to the
development of the State.

Arnold, Henry V. _History of Grand Forks County._ Larimore, H. V.
Arnold, 1900. o. p. 147 p. A historical outline of the Red River
Valley, with emphasis on the first ten years in the history of the city
of Grand Forks.


Beach, Rex. _The Spoilers._ New York and London, A. M. Burt and
Company, 1930. 315 p. il. A popular novel of Alexander McKenzie, North
Dakota politician, and the Klondike Gold Rush.

Beede, Aaron McGaffey. _Heart in the Lodge._ Bismarck, Tribune
Publishing Company, 1915. o. p. 61 p. A three-act play based on
Whitestone Battle which took place near Ellendale, North Dakota.

Beede, Aaron McGaffey. _Sitting Bull-Custer._ Bismarck, Tribune
Publishing Company, 1913, o. p. 50 p. il. B. A picture of the Custer
massacre in dramatized form written from the Indian point of view.

Bliss, Paul Southworth. _Cirrus from the West._ Bismarck, The Cirrus
Company, 51 p. il. Poems inspired by scenes in North Dakota.

Bliss, Paul Southworth. _Spin Dance._ Chicago, Lakeside Press, 1934. 98
p. il. Nature poems of North Dakota.

Bliss, Paul Southworth. _The Rye Is The Sea._ Bismarck, The Cirrus
Company, 1936. il. A collection of nature poems about North Dakota and
an account of hunting and fishing experiences of the author.

Bojer, John. _Emigrants._ New York, Century, 1925. o. p. 134 p. A vivid
story of pioneer Dakota life translated from the Norse.

Borner, Florence. _Modern Poems for Modern People._ Bismarck, Tribune
Publishing Company, 1919. o. p. 158 p. A collection of poems by a North
Dakota poetess.

Brady, Cyrus Townsend. _Britton of the Seventh._ Chicago, A. C. McClurg
Company, 1914. o. p. 319 p. il. A romance of the Northwest dealing
especially with Gen. George A. Custer.

Clark, Badger. _Sun and Saddle Leather._ Boston, Gorham, n. d. 56 p.
il. Poems by a South Dakota poet who writes spiritedly of cowboy and
frontier days.

Collins, Hubert Edwin. _Warpath and Cattle Trail._ New York, W. Morrow
and Company, 1928. 296 p. il. A story of ranch life, with preface by
Hamlin Garland.

Cowdrey, Mary Boynton. _The Checkered Years._ Caldwell, Idaho, Caxton
Printers, Ltd., 1937. 265 p. il. The diary of the author's grandmother,
presenting an interesting account of life in eastern North Dakota
during bonanza farm days.

Crawford, Lewis F. _Badlands and Bronco Trails._ Bismarck, Capital Book
Company, 1926. o. p. 114 p. il. The adventures of Ben Arnold Conner,
an Indian fighter, gold miner, cowboy, hunter, and Army scout who came
up the Missouri with his regiment after the Civil War, told in an
entertaining manner.

Dye, Eva. _The Conquest._ Chicago, A. C. McClurg Company, 1902. o. p.
443 p. Historical novel of Lewis and Clark expedition.

Foley, James W. _Boys and Girls._ New York, E. P. Dutton and Company,
1913. o. p. 239 p. il. Verses of a North Dakota poet, reprinted from

Foley, James W. _Friendly Rhymes._ New York, E. P. Dutton and Company,
1918. o. p. A book of light verses.

Foley, James W. _Prairie Breezes._ Boston, R. B. Badger, 1905. o. p.
103 p. A book of verses which appeared originally in the Bismarck
Tribune, New York Times, and Century Magazine, mostly about Dakota.

Foley, James W. _Tales of the Trail._ New York, E. P. Dutton and
Company, 1914. o. p. 170 p. il. Sketches of the West done in verse.

Foley, James W. _The Verses of J. W. Foley._ Bismarck, R. D. Hoskins,
1914. o. p. 239 p. 3 v. A collection of poems by the North Dakota poet.

Gannon, Clell G. _Songs of the Bunch Grass Acres._ Boston, Badger,
1924. o. p. 96 p. il. Thirty-eight poems of prairie life.

Garland, Hamlin. _The Moccasin Ranch._ New York and London, Harpers,
1909. o. p. 136 p. il. A historical novel of North Dakota.

Garland, Hamlin. _Prairie Song and Western Story._ Boston, New York,
Allyn and Bacon, 1928. 268 p. il. Shows the march of settlement in the

Gates, Eleanor. _The Plow Woman._ New York, Grosset and Dunlap, 1906.
o. p. 364 p. Novel of pioneering days in southwest North Dakota.

Gordon, Hanford L. _Indian Legends._ Salem, Massachusetts, The Salem
Press Company, 1910. o. p. 405 p. Poems of the Dakota Indians.

Hanson, Joseph M. _Frontier Ballads._ Chicago, A. C. McClurg Company,
1910. o. p. 92 p. il. Western ballads of Army, prairie, and river life.

Hough, Emerson. _Story of the Cowboy._ New York, Grosset and Dunlap,
1897. o. p. 349 p. il. A vivid description of ranch life in western

Hueston, Ethel. _Star of the West._ Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill
Company, 1935. 372 p. Historical novel in which is retold the story of
the Lewis and Clark expedition.

Hughes, Mrs. Edith Wakeman. _Motoring in White._ New York,
Knickerbocker Press, 1917. o. p. 97 p. il. A story of a trip from
Dakota to Cape Cod.

Johnson, Clifton. _Highways and Byways of the Rocky Mountains._ New
York, London, Macmillan, 1910. o. p. 279 p. il. A travelogue, one
chapter of which deals with "A Dakota Paradise."

Koch, Frederick H. _A Pageant of the Northwest._ Grand Forks,
University of North Dakota, 1914 o. p. A communal drama depicting the
history of North Dakota, written by students for presentation at the
opening of the Bankside Theater.

Laut, Agnes C. _The Story of the Trapper._ New York, D. Appleton and
Company, 1902. o. p. 284 p. il. Narrative of the Northwest States and

Lillibridge, Will. _Where the Trail Divides._ New York, Burt, 1907.

Mackin, Marie. _The Sylvan Portal._ Bismarck, Bismarck Book Company,
1925. 247 p. il. A novel of life in North Dakota.

Meigs, Cornelia L. _Railroad West._ Boston, Little, Brown and Company,
1937. 326 p. il. The building of the Northern Pacific from Minnesota to
the Yellowstone forms the background of this romance.

_Modern Masters of Etching No. 24. Levon West._ New York, William Edwin
Rudge, 1930. 22 p. il. Biography and etchings of the third American
artist to be included in this series. Levon West spent much of his
boyhood in North Dakota.

Neal, Bigelow. _The Last of the Thundering Herd._ New York, Sears
Publishing Company, Inc., 1933. 287 p. il. A narrative of the life of
a bison near the close of the era when those animals roamed the Plains

Neihart, John G. _Song of Hugh Glass._ Chicago, Macmillan, 1915. o. p.
126 p. A narrative poem based on an episode taken from the era of the
American fur trade.

Neihart, John G. _Song of Indian Wars._ Chicago, Macmillan, 1925. 231
p. il. Narrative poems of early days in the Northwest.

Neihart, John G. _The River and I._ New York and London, G. P. Putnam's
Sons, 1910. o. p. 325 p. il. A beautifully illustrated book, very easy
to read, telling of the author's trip on the Missouri and Yellowstone

Palliser, John. _The Solitary Hunter; or Sporting Adventures on the
Prairies._ London, Routledge, Warne, and Routledge, 1859. o. p. 234 p.
il. Author's hunting experiences on the western plains, told in the
profuse style of the day.

Palmer, Bertha Rachel. _Beauty Spots of North Dakota._ Boston,
Richard G. Badger, 1928. o. p. 266 p. il. History and description of
interesting points in the State.

Putnam, Grace Brown and Ackermann, Anna. _North Dakota Singing._ New
York, Paebar Company, 1936. 252 p. An anthology of poems by North
Dakota authors compiled by two residents of the State.

Rickaby, Franz. _Ballads and Songs of the Shantyboy._ Boston, Harvard
University Press, 1926. o. p. 244 p. il. Lumbermen's songs, many
learned by the editor from North Dakota men who had worked in the north
woods. Includes music.

Rollins, Philip A. _The Cowboy._ New York, Charles Scribner's Sons,
1926. o. p. 363 p. il. The part played by the cowboy in the development
of the West.

Rolvaag, O. E. _Giants in the Earth._ New York, Harpers, 1924. 465 p. A
story of Norse immigrants to Dakota based on true incidents.

Rolvaag, O. E. _Peder Victorious._ New York, Harpers, 1921. 350 p. A
sequel to _Giants in the Earth_, this novel tells the story of the
second generation in the Norwegian colony.

Roosevelt, Theodore. _Hunting Adventures in the West._ New York, G.
P. Putnam's Sons, 1927. o. p. 372 p. Contains descriptions of hunting
expeditions at his Badlands ranch.

Roosevelt, Theodore. _Hunting in Many Lands._ New York, Forest and
Stream Publishing Company, 1895. o. p. 447 p. il. The book of the Boone
and Crockett Club, edited by Roosevelt and George Bird Grinnell, in
which Roosevelt includes a Chapter entitled "Hunting in the Cattle

Roosevelt, Theodore. _Hunting Trips of a Ranchman._ New York and
London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1885. o. p. 318 p. il. Roosevelt's own
story of his life in North Dakota.

Roosevelt, Theodore. _The Wilderness Hunter._ New York and London, G.
P. Putnam's Sons, 1922. o. p. 296 p. 2 v. Sketches of sport on the
northern cattle plains.

Rowbotham, Frances Jameson. _A Trip to Prairie-Land._ London, S. Low,
Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1885. o. p. 243 p. An interesting story
of social life and customs of pioneer Dakota.

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. _My Life with the Eskimo._ New York, Macmillan,
1913. o. p. 539 p. il. A fascinating autobiography of the North Dakota
explorer's experiences during the expedition in which he discovered the
white Eskimo colony.

Tooker, Richard. _The Day of the Brown Horde._ New York, Payson and
Clarke, Ltd., 1929. 309 p. A story of prehistoric days.

Wilkins, Sir Hubert. _Flying the Arctic._ New York, G. P. Putnam's
Sons, 1928. 336 p. il. Describes the expedition from Fairbanks to Point
Barrow, Spitzbergen, claimed by Stefansson and Amundson to be the
greatest flight in history. Carl Ben Eielson, North Dakota aviator, was
pilot for the flight.

Winsted, Huldah Lucille. _North Dakota, Land of the Sky and other
poems._ Minot, North Dakota, 1927. A collection of North Dakota verses.


           Boldface figure indicates main reference of item

  Abercrombie, 195

  Absaroke Indians (_see_ Indians, Hidatsa)

  Accommodations, xviii

  Acton Hall, 188

    Agrarian revolt against Eastern capitalism, 4, 51-53, 55-56;
    agricultural belts, 60;
    agricultural experiments, 140;
    among Indians, 25-26;
    bonanza farming, 59, 62-63, 134, 185, 193, 197, 249, 278, 308;
    cattle, 67, 272, 328;
    dairying, 293;
    experiment stations, 235, 291, 296, 312;
    expositions, 70-71, 273;
    farm ownership, 63;
    farm produce, 129;
    farms, size of, 59, 60, 63;
    first white agricultural community in State, 60, 186;
    flax, 65;
    grain marketing, 73, 74;
    grain production, 65, 66;
    hogs, 66-67;
    homesteading, 60-61, 64;
    miscellaneous agricultural products, 65-68;
    potatoes, 65-66, 188, 189, 191, 221;
    poultry, 67-68, 211, 221, 254;
    ranching, 64, 65, 224, 225-26, 254, 275, 298, 299-300, 318, 323, 330;
    rural life, 69-71;
    rural population, 60;
    seed, 118;
    sheep, 67;
    soil conservation, 11, 59, 68;
    sugar beets, 66, 188, 220;
    wheat, 65


  Airports, xviii, 98
    Bismarck, 111;
    Dawson, 286;
    Dickinson, 296;
    Fargo, 126, 194;
    Grand Forks, 145;
    Minot, 158;
    Pembina, 187

  Akra, 234

  Alexander, 220

  Alice, 279

  Alkabo, 12

  Allen, J. D., Taxidermist Shop, 291

  Allin, Roger, 52, 145, 201, 281

  Altamont Moraine, 6, 256, 276, 285, 287

  Ambrose, 219

  American Fur Company, 39, 269, 270, 271, 319, 336

  American Legion, 93

  Amidon, 12, 223

  Amlie, Thomas R., 309

  Amphion Male Chorus, 130, 143

  Anamoose, 273

  Anderson, Maxwell, 155, 283

  Angelus Bell (Walhalla), 245

  _Anson Northrup_ (steamer), 196

  Antelope, 294

  Archeological Sites, 169, 210, 213, 216, 217, 227, 231, 248, 288, 304,
    305, 310, 314, 319, 334, 335, 336

  Archeology, 16-17, 282

    Rammed earth construction, 104, 324

  Ardoch, 189

  Argusville, 194

  Arikara (_see_ Indians)

  Armstrong, Moses, 46, 47, 49

  Arnegard, 179, 221

  Arrowood Migratory Refuge, 205

  Artesian Wells, 11

  Arvilla, 248

  Arvilla Academy, 248

  Arvold, A. G., 139

  Ashley, 286

  Ashtabula, 281

  Assiniboin (_see_ Indians)

  Assiniboine Island, 289

  Assumption Abbey (Richardton), 294

  Auburn, 188

  Audubon, John James, 39

  Babcock, E. J., 75, 156, 295

  Bacon, J. D., 150

  Badlands, 6, =174-78=, 222, 297, 323, 329, 330

  Badlands, battle of, 43

  Bagg, F. E., Farm, 197

  Balfour, 274

  Bank of North Dakota (Bismarck), 55-56, 125

  Bankside Theatre (Grand Forks), 157

  Bantry, 254

  Barlow, 205

  Barnard, Alonzo, 99

  Bathgate, 233

  Bartlett, 250

  Baukol-Noonan Lignite Strip Mine (Noonan), 242

  Beach, 303

  Beadle, W. H. H., 90

  Bear Den Hillock, 304

  Beaver Creek Store, 212

  Belcourt, 236

  Belcourt, George Antoine, 88, 92, 236, 238, 245

  Belden, 215

  Belfield, 222, 296

  Belknap, William W., 116

  Belmont, 192

  Benson County Agricultural School, 91

  Bentonite, 3, 12, 295

  Berthold, 255

  Berwick, 253

  Beulah, 320

  Bicknell, Thomas W., 229

  Bierens, G. C., 199

  Big Butte, legend of, 241

  Big Game Hunting, 322

  Big Mound, battle of, 42, 285-86

  Big White's Mandan Village, 336

  Binford, 311

  Birch Creek Historic Site, 303

  Bird-banding Stations, 199, 209

  Bird Island Game Reserve, 311

  Bird Woman (_see_ Sakakawea)

  Birdzell, L. E., 54

  Birkbough, Elias Konrad, 79

  BISMARCK, 111-26
    Map, 112;
    miscellaneous references, 48, 49, 209, 289

  Bismarck _Capital_ (newspaper), 118

  Bismarck-Deadwood Trail, 232

  Bismarck _Sun_ (newspaper), 116

  Bismarck _Tribune_ (newspaper), 99, 115, 116, 118

  Bison (_see_ Buffalo)

  Black Building (Fargo), 140

  Black Butte, 6, 9, 224
    Legend of, 224-25

  Black Cat's Village, 336

  Black Hills Expedition, 97, 323

  Black Hills Gold Rush, 116

  Black, "Mustache" Maude, 317

  Blaisdell, 256

  Bliss, Col. Paul S., 324

  Blue Buttes, 259

  Bodmer, Carl, 39

  Bohemians, 83

  Bolley, H. L., 140

  Bonanza Farms (_see_ Agriculture)

  Bonza, Pierre, 38, 186

  Bottineau, 238

  Bottineau, Pierre, 43, 238, 310

  Boulder Rings, 17

  Bowbells, 276

  Bowen, A. C., 54

  Bowesmont, 187

  Bowman, 225, 326

  Boyce, W. D., 305

  Boy Scout Building and Park (Lisbon), 305

  Boy Scout Camps, 216, 240, 263, 265

  Boyer, Alden Scott, 325

  Breien, 313

  Briggs, Frank, 52

  Brinsmade, 204

  Bruce, Andrew, 53

  Bruflat Academy (Portland), 201

  Brushy Banks, 323

  Buchanan, 205

  Bucyrus, 325

    Bones, 73, 324;
    hunts, 186, 246-47, 273;
    last hunt in State, 323-24;
    parks, 189, 232;
    miscellaneous references, 197, 233, 244, 268, 275, 305

  Buffalo (town), 279

  Buffalo Creek Historic Site, 280

  Buffalo Springs, 326

  Buford, 269

  Burgois Indian Village Site, 217, 337

  Burial Mounds (_see_ Mounds)

  Burke, Andrew, 51

  Burke, John, 52-53, 236

  Burleigh, Walter, 46, 114

  Burleightown, 114

  Burlington, 162, 274

  Burman Historic Site, 286

  Burning Coal Mines, 176, 180, 223, 229, 293

  Burnstad, 286

  Burnt Creek, battle of, 217-18

  Burt, 230

  Burtness, O. B., 265

  Burtness Scenic Highway, 265

  Bus and Truck Lines, 97, 98, 163

  Butte de Morale, 273

  Buxton, 191

  C P Ranch, 275

  Cairn (Bismarck), 124

  Caledonia, 193

  Camel's Hump Butte, 302

  Camp Arnold Historic Site, 280

  Camp Atcheson Historic Site, 310

  Campbell's Beach, 201

  Camp Comfort, 234

  Camp Corning Historic Site, 308

  Camp Grafton, 265

  Camp Grassick, 286

  Camp Greeley (_see_ Camp Hancock)

  Camp Hancock, 114, 125

  Camp Hayes, site of, 305

  Camp Johnson, 303

  Camp Kimball Historic Site, 272

  Camp Pope, 308

  Camp Sheardown Historic Site, 280

  Camp Weiser Historic Site, 304

  Canadians, 82, 187, 195

  Cando, 203

  Cannonball, 314

  Cannonball River, 8, 20, 30, 229, 313

  "Cannonballs", 8, 313

  Capital Removal, Territorial, 48

  Capitol (Bismarck), 102, 112, =119-21=
    Burning of, 118

  Carleton City, 114

  Carpio, 275

  Carrington, 205, 272

  Carson, 231

  Cartwright, 220

  Casey, Lyman, 50

  Casselton, 278

  "Catfish Joe", 149

  Cathedral Butte, 180

  Catlin, George, 20, 26, 39, 95, 217

  Cavalier, 233

  Cavileer, Charles, 40, 60, 72, 186, 190, 233, 244

  CCC Camps, 178, 181, 205, 222, 240, 241

  Cedar Creek Anticline, 328

  Cement, 235

    Fort Buford Military, 270;
    Holy Cross, 194;
    Oakwood (Lisbon), 305;
    Protestant (Walhalla), 245;
    Rosehill (Minot), 165;
    St. Mary's (Bismarck), 126

  Center, 318

  Central High School (Grand Forks), 152

  Centralia, 132

  Cesky Zakopnik, 313

  Chaboillez, Charles, 37, 185

  Chalky Butte, 9, 12, 223

  Charbonneau, Baptiste, 122

  Charbonneau, Touissant, 38, 122, 319, 335

  Chaska Historic Site, 287

  Chautauqua, 264

  Cheyenne (_see_ Indians)

  Cheyenne Indian Village Site, 305

  Children's Bureau, 94

  Chimney Butte Ranch, 123, 299

  Chippewa (_see_ Indians)

  Chippewa-Sioux Treaty, 197

  Chisholm, Haile, 123

  Chisholm Trail, 219, 326

  Christine, 195

  Churches, =91-93=, 117-18, 283
    Athenais Chapel (Medora), 300;
    First Lutheran (Fargo), 141;
    First Presbyterian (Fargo), 141;
    Roman Catholic (Bismarck), 117;
    Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic (Wilton), 209;
    St. Mary's Cathedral (Fargo), 144;
    SS. Peter & Paul Greek Catholic (Wilton), 209;
    United Lutheran (Grand Forks), 104

  Churchs Ferry, 251

  City Hall Museum (Rugby), 253

  Clark, William, 122, 336 (_see also_ Lewis and Clark Expedition)

  Clay, 9, 11, 293, 296

  Cleveland, 285

  Climate, xviii, 6-7, 59

  Clyde, 235

  Coe, Henry Waldo, 165

  Coleharbor, 208

  Coliseum, 322

  Columbus, 242

  Columnar Cedars, 223

  Comanche, 172

  Concrete, 235

  Congregational Conference of North Dakota Bible Camp, 240

  Conservation, 14, 15, 58, 59, 68, 69, 189, 254, 268, 275, 276, 285,
    286, 311

  Constitutional Convention, 49


  Cooke, Jay, & Co., 44

  Cooperatives, 4, 74, 201, 215, 240, 262, 273

  Cooperstown, 309

  Corliss, Guy C. H., 50

  Coteau des Prairies, 5

  Coteau du Plateau du Missouri, 6, 219

  County Seat Controversies, 46-47, 162, 193, 200, 273, 306, 309

  Court, Ignatius, 266, 268

    Adams County (Hettinger), 325;
    Barnes County (Valley City), 281;
    Burleigh County (Bismarck), 124;
    Emmons County
  (Linton), 210;
    Grand Forks County (Grand Forks), 152;
    Hettinger County (Mott), 230;
    McIntosh County (Ashley), 287;
    Mountrail County (Stanley), 256;
    Richland County (Wahpeton), 198;
    Ward County (Minot), 164-65

  Crawford, Lewis, 40, 53

  Crazy Man's Coulee, 262

  Cream of Wheat, 150, 250

    Andrews, 330;
    Apple, 288;
    Ash Coulee, 330;
    Bald Hill, 308;
    Beicegel, 331;
    Burnt, 217, 337;
    Chaloner, 178;
    Charlie Bob, 332;
    Cherry, 332;
    Douglas, 335;
    Elk, 332;
    Garrison, 211, 334;
    Government, 180, 330;
    Hans, 333;
    Hay, 327;
    Hidden Wood (Flat), 323;
    Knutson, 330;
    Jim's, 332;
    Jones, 180;
    Juel, 180, 330;
    Little Beaver, 8, 327;
    Little Muddy, 220, 259;
    Magpie, 331;
    Oak, 238;
    Paddock, 180, 330;
    Redwing, 331;
    Sheep, 330;
    Snake, 335;
    Spring, 319;
    Square Butte, 318, 337;
    Squaw, 179;
    Stony, 259;
    Thirty Mile, 230;
    Tobacco Garden, 258, 332;
    Wannagan, 330

  Creel City, 250

  Creel's Bay, 264

  Crosby, 243

  Crow Flies High Butte, 257

  Crow Indians, 213, 214

  Crucifix, 188

  Crystal Springs, 285

  Crystal Springs Stock Farm, 249

  Cummings, 192

  Cusac Springs Farm, 259

  Custer, Gen. Geo. A., 42, =44-46=, 97, 116, 144, =171-72=, 266, 294, 296

  Custer Black Hills Expedition, 97, 323

  Custer Hill, 296

  Custer, Tom, 171, 316

  Custer Trail Ranch, 301

  Customs Regulations, xviii

  Czechs, 189, 313

  Dakota _Freie Presse_ (newspaper), 118

  Dakota, meaning of, 36

  Dakota _State Journal_ (newspaper), 164

  Dakota Territory
    Creation, 35;
    government, 46-48;
    size, 46-47

  Dalrymple Bonanza Farm, 62, 278

  Danes, 78, 83

  Danzig, 286

  Davis, Hannah E., 154

  Dawson, 286

  Dazey, 308

  Dead Man's Gulch, 321

  Deapolis, 336

  Democratic Party, 51-52, 53, 57

  de Mores, Marquis, 74, 117, 298, 299, 300-1

  de Mores State Park, 300-1

  de Mores Storage Plant (Bismarck), 125

  Denbigh Reforestation Project, 254

  Densmore, Frances, 22

  de Remer, Joseph Bell, 119

  _Der Staats Anzeiger_ (newspaper), 118

  Des Lacs, 255

  Des Lacs Lake Migratory Waterfowl Project, 276

  Des Lacs River, 272

  De Smet, J. P., 292, 312

  Devil's Ears, 268

  Devil's Heart, 265

  Devils Lake, 6, 204, 250, 263, 264

  Devils Lake (city), 250-51, 263

  Devil's Tooth, 268

  Devine, Joseph M., 52

  DeVolne Flats (Fargo), 142

  Dewitt Spring, 243

  Diamond C Ranch, 321

  Dickinson, 11, 295

  Dickinson Fire and Pressed Brick Company, 296

  Dickinson State Normal School, 296

  Dickinson Sub-station, 296

  Dodge, 320

  Dog Tooth Buttes, 232

  Donnybrook, 275

  Dovre Moraine, 310

  Dovre Ski Slide (Fargo), 143

  Doyon, 250

  Drake, 273

  Drayton, 188

  Drift Prairie, =5-6=, 10, 233, 248, 276

  Driscoll, 287

  Dude Ranch, 301

  Dunkers (Dunkards), 93, 203

  Dunn Center, 321

  Dunseith, 237

  Dutch, 78, 83, 210

  Dwight, 197

  Eagle Pits, 224

  Eagle Rock, 322

  Eaton Dam, 254

  Eaton, Howard, Ranch, 301, 331

  Eckelson, 282

  Edgeley, 206

  Edmunds, 205

  Edmunds, Newton, 47

  Education (_see_ Schools)

  Edwinton, 114

  Eielson, Carl Ben, 79, 202

  Elbowoods, 214, 334

  Eldridge, 285

  Elephant's Pass, 322

  Elgin, 230

  Elkhorn Ranch, site of, 330

  Elk River, 10

  Elk River Valley Farm, 249

  Ellendale, 206

  Elmer, O. H., 133

  Enabling Act, 49, 89

  Epping, 259

  Epping-Springbrook Dam, 259

  Equity Exchange, 53-54

  Expansion, 334

  Fairmount, 199

  Fancher, Frederick B., 52

  FARGO, 126-44
    Map, 127;
    miscellaneous references, 48, 194, 278

  Fargo, William G., 131, 136

  Fargo College, 143

  Fargo _Express_ (newspaper), 99, 136

  Fargo _Forum_ (newspaper), 99, 136

  Faribault, Alexander, 197

  Farmers' Alliance, 51-52

  Farming (_see_ Agriculture)

  Farmers' Union, 4, 163, 262

  _Far West_ (steamer), 45, 115, 172

  Father Genin Mission House, 134

  Fauna, 12, 14-15, 177

  Federal Buildings
    Bismarck, 125;
    Fargo, 141;
    Grand Forks, 151

  Fessenden, 273

  Finns, 83, 215, 230, 307

  First White Child Born in State, 38, 186

  Fishing, xviii-xix, 106, 263, 265

  Fisk, Capt. James L., Expeditions, 43, 273, 281, 310, 326

  "Five Thousands", 291

  Five Villages, 319

  Fjelde, Jacob, 198

  Fjelde, Paul, 79, 201, 281

  Flasher, 232

  Flat Top Butte, battle of, 302

  Flaxton, 276

  "Flickertail State", 15

  Flint Quarries, 16, 294

  Flora and Fauna, xviii-xix, 12-15, 176-77

  Foley, James W., 118, 173

  Folklore, 84-87
    Holiday observances, 84-85;
    social customs, 85;
    other customs, 86-87;
    superstitions, 87;
    (_see also_ Indian Legends)

  Forbes, Maj. William H., 269

    Abercrombie, 41, 148, 149, 196-97, 305;
    Abraham Lincoln, 42, 116, 169-73, 270;
    Berthold, 212, 215, 334;
    Buford, 39, 41, 216, 260, 269;
    Clark, 336;
    Cross (see Fort Seward), Dilts, 43, 326-27;
    Lewis, 335;
    Lincoln, 42, 289;
    Mandan, 38;
    Manuel Lisa, 335;
    McKeen, 41-42, 114, 169, 170;
    Mortimer, 271;
    Pembina, 41, 148, 187;
    Ransom, 41, 282, 304;
    Rice, 41, 99;
    Sauerkraut, 293;
    Seward, 41, 282, 304;
    Stevenson, 41, 212, 215, 334;
    Totten, 41, 250, 266;
    Union, 99, 269;
    Vanderburgh, 335;
    William, 39, 270;
    Yates, 41, 42

  Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park, 169-73, 291

  Fort Berthold Indian Reservation, 32-34, 211-15, 332

  Fort Clark (town), 336

  Fort Ransom (town), 304

  Fort Totten (town), 266

  Fort Totten Indian Agency, 31-34, 265-69

  Fortuna, 243

  Fort Yates (town), 316

  Fossils, 7-9, 223, 321

  Four Bears Bridge, 214, 321, 334

  Fox Hills Sandstone, 313

  Foxholm, 275

  Fox, Livingston and Company, 271

  Frazier, Lynn J., 54-55, 57, 189

  Fremont, John C., 303, 308, 310

  French Canadians, 82, 187, 195

  French Indians, 84, 245-47, 273, 308

  Frog Point, 192

  _Frontier Scout_ (newspaper), 99

  Fuller's Earth, 235

  Fur Farms, 74-75, 190

  Fur Trade (_see_ Industry)

  Gale Collection (Valley City), 281

  Gall, Chief, 41, 270, 312, 315, 324

  Gannon, Clell G., 105, 124

  Gardar, 234

  Gardner, 194

  Garrison, 211

  Gascoyne, 326

  Gassman Coulee Trestle, 255

  Gaston, Herbert, 54


  Genin, J. B. 134, 197, 265

  Geographic Center of North America, 252

  Geography, 5-6

  Geology, 5-10

  Gerard, F. F., 218

  German Baptist Brethren, 93, 203

  German Shepherd Dogs, 311

  Germans, =80-82=, 118, 273

  Glacial Era, 9, 10, 332

  Glasston, 188

  Glauber's Salt, 226, 256

  Glen Ullin, 293

  Godfrey, Gen. E. S., 45

  God's Gardens, 180

  Goiffon, Joseph, 187

  Gold Rush to Black Hills, 116

  "Gold Spike" Excursion, 48, 117

  Golden Valley, 320

  Good Furred Robe, 22

  Good Samaritan School for Crippled Children (Fargo), 143

  Gorman, Ed, Collection (Buffalo Springs), 326

  Government, 49-50

  Governor's Mansion (Bismarck), 123

  Governors (_see by name_; _see also_ Territorial Governors)

  Grace, Dick, 241

  Grace, R. H., 54

  Grafton, 188

  Grafton State School, 90, 188

  Grain Elevators, 104

  Grain Trade, 53

  GRAND FORKS, 145-58
    Map, 146;
    miscellaneous references, 37, 41, 191, 248

  Grand Forks County Farm and Hospital (Arvilla), 248

  Grand Forks _Herald_ (newspaper), 100, 150, 151

  Grand Forks _Plaindealer_ (newspaper), 100, 150

  Grand Forks Silver Fox Farm, 190

  Grandin, 193

  Grandin Bonanza Farm, 193-94

  Grandmother's Lodge, site of, 213, 334

  Grand Rapids, 306

  Grant, President U. S., 48, 117, 144

  Granville, 254

  Grass, John, 324

  "Grasshoppering", 333

  Grassy Butte, 222

  Gray, Mrs. W. H., 209

  Great Northern Railway, 44, =97=, 135, 147, 150, 160, 163, 220, 226,
    261, 274

  Great Northern Railway High Trestle, 255

  Grenora, 12, 226

  Griggs, Alexander, 40-41, 148, 149

  Grinnell, George, 260-61

  Grinnell, Josephine, 260-61

  Gronna, A. J., 55, 191

  Gros Ventres (_see_ Indians, Hidatsa)

  H T Butte, 224

  Hagan, John, 56

  Hagedorn, Herman, 174

  Hague, 211

  Hair Hills (_see_ Pembina Mountains)

  Half-breeds, 84, 245-47, 273, 308

  Half Moon Indian Village Site, 216

  Halliday, 321

  Hallson, 234

  Hamilton, 188, 233

  Hancock, John M., 158

  Hankinson, 199

  Hanks, 225

  Hanna, L. B., 53, 318

  Hannaford, 308

  Hansboro, 203

  Hansbrough, Henry C., 50, 203

  Harvey, 273

  Harwood, 194

  Hastings, 304

  Hatton, 201-2

  Havelock, 229

  Hawksnest, 272

  Haymow Theater (Langdon), 235

  Haynes, 324

  Hazelton, 210

  Hazen, 319

  Headquarters Hotel, site of (Fargo), 144

  Heart Butte, 231

  Heart River, 17, 18, 169, 231, 290, 291

  Hebron, 293

  Hebron Brick Plant, 293

  Hector Airport (Fargo), 194

  Heerman, Capt. Edward, 251

  Height of Land, 6, 207, 303, 307

  Hell's Hole, 180

  Henry, Alexander, Jr., 37-38, 60, 147, 186
    Site of trading post, 245

  Hensel, 234

  Herman Beach, 279

  Hersey, H. T., 249

  Hettinger, 325

  Hickson, 195

  Hidatsa (_see_ Indians)

  Highlanders' Frolic, 238

  Hi-Line Bridge, 281

  Hill, James J., 44, 97, 148, 150, 192, 193, 249, 259

  Hillsboro, 193

  Historic Sites (_see by name_)

  HISTORY, 35-58
    Early history, 35;
    exploration, 36;
    settlement, 39;
    military posts, 41;
    Indian wars, 41-46;
    army and railway surveys, 43;
    territorial era, 46-49;
    admission to Union, 49;
    early statehood, 49-53;
    rise of Nonpartisan League, 51-55;
    recent events, 56-58

  Hoffman, Nicholas, 148

  Holding Eagle Farm, 212

  Hollanders, 78, 83, 210

  Holmes, D. M., 150

  Holy Hill of the Mandans, 314

  Homesteading, 60-61, 64

  Hoople, 189

  Hope, 309

  Houston, D. H., Farm, 279

  Hudson's Bay Company, 37, 39, 135, 149, 152, 186, 192, 200, 233, 246

  Huff, 292

  Hull, 211

  Hungry Gulch, 258

  Hunt, Jerome, 266, 268, 269

  Hunting, XIX, 106-7, 203, 315
    Big game, 322

  I. O. O. F. Home (Devils Lake), 251

  Icelanders, 83, 234-35

  Immigration, 78

  "Imperial" Ward County, 162

  Independent Voters Association, 55, 56, 57

  Indian Agencies
    Fort Totten, 31-34, 265-69;
    Standing Rock, 32-34, 312, 314-17, 323;
    (_see also_ Indian Reservations)

  Indian Earth Lodges, 26-27, 113, 123, 169-70

  Indian Fairs, 34, 107, 237, 315, 316

  Indian Handicraft, 267

  Indian Legends, 22-23, 28-30, 177, 213, 214, 216, 227, 264, 265,
    268, 272, 282, 290, 292, 294, 302, 304, 305, 311, 314-15, 316, 322,
    334, 335

  Indian Linguistic Stocks, 20

  Indian Musical Instruments, 267

  Indian, Reservations
    Fort Berthold, 32-34, 211-15, 332;
    Turtle Mountain, 32-34, 236-37;
    Sisseton, 200;
    (_see also_ Indian Agencies)

  Indian Resettlement Tract, 267

    Agricultural tribes, 18, 20-27;
    Arikara, =18=, 19, 20, 23, 30, 34, 212, 213, 216, 319, 335, 336;
    as racial group, 84;
    Assiniboin, 16, =19=, 31, 36;
    Cheyenne, 16, =18=, 19, 20, 30, 204, 305, 306;
    Chippewa, =19=, 20, 23, 29, 31, 34, 197, 233, 237, 246, 250, 252, 267;
    Crow, 213, 214;
    Hidatsa, =19-20=, 21, 30, 32-34, 38, 212, 214, 216, 319, 334, 335;
    Mandan, =17-27=, 30, 32-34, 36-38, 95, 102, 169, 212, 213, 216,
      288, 292, 319, 335, 336;
    Messiah craze, 315;
    Sioux, 16, 19, 23-24, =27-29=, 30, 31, 34, 95, 197, 200, 252, 265,
      267, 270, 290, 312, 314, 315, 323, 324, 326, 335;
    Sioux, campaigns against, =42-46=, 206, 285, 310, 321;
    smallpox epidemics among, 30, 335


  Indian Transportation, 27, 95

  Indian Treaties, 31, 133, 197, 252

  Indian Village Sites, 169, 216, 217, 288, 290, 292, 305, 319, 334,
    335, 336

  Indian Weapons, 21, 28, 294

    Activated carbon, 75, 295;
    bentonite, 76, 215, 296;
    clay, 75, 293, 296;
    cooperatives (_see_ Cooperatives);
    early fur trade, 37, 39-40, 72, 185-86, 190, 245, 269-71;
    early industry, 73-74;
    fur farms, 74-75, 190;
    industrial organization, 76;
    lignite, 8, =9=, =11=, 73, 75, 118, 160, 164, 208, 209, 211, 228,
      230, 242, 248, 274, 275, 295, 318, 319-20, 326;
    meat packing, 74, 190, 278, 298;
    milling, 74;
    miscellaneous mineral products, 76;
    value of manufactures, 72

  _International_ (steamer), 192

  International Peace Garden, 236, 238

  Inyan Bosdata, 304, 316

  Irrigation, 59, 64, 220, 254, 259, 275

  Ivers, M. U., Collection (Christine), 195

  Jacobson Collection (Watford City), 221

  James River, 6, 205, 282, 303, 306

  Jamestown, 48, 205, 282-85

  Jamestown College, 50, 89, 284

  Jamestown _Daily Alert_ (newspaper), 205-6

  Jayne, William, 46

  Jenks, A. E., 248

  Johnson, Edwin F., 114

  Johnson, Sveinbjorn, 235

  Joliette, 187

  Joseph, Chief, 41, 270

  Juvenile Delinquency, 93

  KDLR (Devils Lake), 251

  KFJM (Grand Forks), 100, 152, 156

  KFYR (Bismarck), 118, 288

  KGCU (Mandan), 291

  KLPM (Minot), 164

  KOVC (Valley City), 280

  KRMC (Jamestown), 284

  Kellogg, Mark, 45-46, 115

  Kenmare, 276

  Keogh, Capt. Myles, 172

  Killdeer, 321

  Killdeer Mountains, 9, 10, 12, 321
    Battle of, 42, 296, 321

  Kincaid, 241

  Kindred, 195

  Kittson House, 245

  Kittson, Norman, 40, 91, 186, 245

  Klebe, Henry, Collections, 240

  Knife River, 16, 18, 319, 335

  Knife River Lignite Mine (Beulah), 319

  Knox, 252

  Koch, Frederick, 157

  Kramer, 240

  Krauth, Emil, Butterfly Collection (Hebron), 293

  Kurke, William F., 119, 141

  Ladd, E. F., 55, 56

  Lake Agassiz, 5, =10=, 185, 200, 244, 279

  Lake Dakota, 303, 307

  Lake George Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, 285

  Lake Region Ski Slide, 266

  Lake Souris, =10=, 207, 233, 244, 248, 253, 276

  Lake Superior and Puget Sound Company, 114, 131, 133

    Ardoch, 189;
    Arrowood, 205;
    Beaver, 286;
    Carpenter, 256;
    Court, 268;
    Crystal Springs, 285;
    Des Lacs, 276;
    Devils, 6, 204, 250, 263, 264;
    Fertile Valley No. 2, 226;
    George, 285;
    Green, 286;
    Gravel, 236;
    Hiawatha, 272;
    Hoskins, 286;
    Ibsen, 252;
    Isabel, 286;
    Jessie, 263;
    Jessie (Binford), 310;
    Lac Aux Mortes, 204;
    Long, 209;
    Long (Turtle Mountains), 236;
    McKone, 12;
    Metigoshe, 240;
    Miller, 12;
    Minnekosh, 259;
    North, 12;
    Oak, 236;
    Pesheck, 221;
    Pleasant, 252;
    Pursian, 287;
    Red Willow, 311;
    Regent, 229;
    Rock, 203;
    Salt, 285;
    Sibley, 310;
    Snyder, 203;
    Spiritwood, 282;
    Stump, 6, 311;
    Sweetwater, 251;
    Upsilon, 236;
    Wildwood, 216, 337;
    Wood, 265

  Lakewood Park, 264

  Lakota, 250

  LaMoure, 306

  LaMoure, Judson, 51, 306

  Langdon, 235

  Langer, William, 55, 57, 58, 80, 278

  Laramie Treaty, 292

  Larimore, 249

  Larpenteur, Charles, 271

  Larson, 242

  Larson Indian Village Site, 216

  la Salle, Sieur de, 35

  _Leader_ (newspaper), 118

  Leeds, 252

  Lehigh, 295

  Lehigh Briquetting Plant, 295

  Leith, 231

  Lemke, William, 56

  Le Page, Baptiste, 329

  le Raye, Charles, 39, 320

  Leroy, 246

  Lewis and Clark Bridge, 220

  Lewis and Clark Expedition, 30, =38-39=, 114, 122, 208, 215, 260,
    319, 330, 335, 336

  Lewis, Sinclair, Farm, 189

  Liberty Memorial Bridge, 289, 337

  Liberty Memorial Building (Bismarck), 121

  Libraries, 69, 91
    Alfred Dickey Memorial (Jamestown), 284;
    Bismarck Public, 124;
    Carrington Municipal, 205;
    first in State, 91;
    James Memorial (Williston), 259;
    Leach (Wahpeton), 198;
    Minot Public, 165;
    Tofthagen Library and Museum (Lakota), 250

  Lien, O. W., 143

  Lignite (town), 241

  Lignite (_see_ Mineral Resources)

  Lilac Hedge Farm (Grand Forks), 150

  Lindberg, N. P., 253

  Linton, 210

  Liquor, control of, 57, 58

  Lisa, Manuel, 39, 334, 335

  Lisbon, 305

  Literature, 4

  Little Badlands, 220

  Little Beaver Dome, 328

  Little Big Horn, campaign of, 30-31, =44-46=, 115, 172, 292, 315

  Little Country Theater (Fargo), 131, 139

  Little Heart Butte, 313

  Little Missouri, site of, 301

  Little Missouri River (_see_ Rivers)
    Grand Canyon of, 179, 331

  Little Muddy, 260

  Logging Camp, site of, 224

  Lonetree, 162, 255

  Long, Maj. Stephen H., Military Expedition, 199

  Long Turkey Ranch, 254

  Looking Village, 217, 337

  Lookout Point, 245, 325

  Loon, August, 148

  Louisiana Lottery, 51, 205

  Louisiana Purchase, 35

  Lounsberry, Col. C. A., 45, 99, 115, 173, 286

  Lower Souris Migratory Waterfowl Refuge, 240

  Ludden, 307

  Maddock, Walter, 56

  Malo, John, 236

  Maltese Cross Ranch, 123, 299

  Mandan, 290-91, 312

  Mandan Indians (_see_ Indians)

  Manitou, 257

  Mannhaven, 335

  Manuel Rock, 334

  Manvel, 189

  Mapes, 250

  Maple River, 278

  Mapleton, 278

  Marmarth, 8, 12, 327

  Marsh, Grant, 40, 45, 115, 172, 333

  Martin, 273

  Marty, Martin, 296

  "Martyrs of St. Joe", 245

  Masonic Grand Lodge Museum (Fargo), 142

  Masons' Island, 240

  Matoti, 304

  Matthews, Robert, 260, 262

  Mauvaise Coulee, 251

  Max, 208

  Mayville, 200

  Mayville State Teachers College, 201

  Maza, 204

  McCanna, 249

  McCanna Farm, 249

  McCumber, P. J., 53, 199

  McKenzie, 288

  McKenzie, Alexander, 51, 113, 124, 126, 220, 288, 305

  McLaughlin, Maj. James, 312, 323

  McPhail's Butte Historic Site, 285

  Meat Packing, 74, 190, 278, 290

  Medicine Butte, 231

  Medicine Hill, 320

  Medicine Hole, 322

  Medicine Lodge Hill, 262

  Medicine Lodge Spring, 262

  Medina, 285

  Medora, 297-300, 330

  Medora-Deadwood Stage Line, 298-99

  Melville, 205

  Menoken, 288

  Merrifield, Webster, 52, 155, 235

  Messiah Craze, 315

  Metis, 84, 245-47, 273, 308

  Mexicans, 66, 84, 220

  Michigan City, 250

  Midland Continental Railroad, 283

  Miles, Gen. Nelson A., 144, 315

  Miller, Edgar, 120

  Miller, John, 49, 197

  Mills, Walter Thomas, 54

  Miner, Hazel, Memorial, 318

  Mineral Resources
    Bentonite, 9, 12, 295;
    cement, 235;
    clay, 9, 11, 293, 296;
    fuller's earth, 235;
    lignite, 8, =9=, =11=, 73, 75, 118, 160, 164, 208, 209, 211, 228,
      230, 242, 248, 274, 275, 295, 318, 319-20, 326;
    natural gas, 241, 328;
    oil, 12, 258, 328;
    sodium sulphate, 12, 76, 226, 256;
    others, 12;
    (_see_ also Industry and Labor)

  Minnesota Massacre, 30, 42, 196, 206

  Minnewaukan, 204, 251

  _Minnie H_ (steamer), 251

  Minitari (_see_ Indians, Hidatsa)

  MINOT, 158-65
    Map, 159;
    miscellaneous references, 207, 255, 274

  Minot _Daily News_ (newspaper), 164

  Minot, Henry D., 160

  Minot _Optic Reporter_ (newspaper), 164

  Minot _Rustler-Tribune_ (newspaper), 161, 164

  Minot State Teachers College, 164

  Minto, 189

  Missionaries, 88, =92=, 187, 197, 245, 265, 266, 268, 292

  Missouri Escarpment, 6, 8

  Missouri Fur Company, 335

  Missouri Plateau, 6, 8, 233, 248, 259, 285

  Missouri River (_see_ Rivers)

  Missouri River Diversion Project, 251, 264

  Missouri Slope, 6, 9, 219, 228, 292, 318

  Mix, Tom, 300

  Moffit, 209

  Mohall, 240

  Mohammedans, 93, 256-57

  Montana-Dakota Power Plant, 242

  Montrose, Archibald, 194

    Daughters of Union Veterans of the Civil War Memorial (Minot), 165;
    David Thompson Memorial (Verendrye), 274;
    de Mores, Marquis, 300;
    Gange, Rolf (Fargo), 142;
    Hunt, Father Jerome, 266;
    Ibsen, Henrik (Wahpeton), 198;
    Lien, O. W. (Fargo), 143;
    Miner, Hazel, Memorial, 318;
    Old Settlers (Hazen), 319;
    Roosevelt, Theodore (Mandan), 290;
    Roosevelt, Theodore (Minot), 165;
    Sakakawea (Bismarck), 122;
    "Sermon in Stone" (Fairmount), 199;
    Shrine to Virgin Mary (New England), 229;
    Soldier's (Grand Forks), 152;
    Spanish-American War (Grafton), 188;
    Wergeland, Henrik (Fargo), 143;
    Whitestone Hill Battlefield, 206;
    World War Memorial Shaft (Minot), 165;
    Wrong Side Up, 293

  Moodie, Thomas H., 58

  Mooreton, 197

  Moravians, 93, 229, 279

  Mose, 311

  Moslems, 93, 256-57

  Motor Vehicle Laws, xvii

  Mott, 230

  Mounds, 16, 248, 304, 305, 310

  Mountain, 234

  Mouse River, 160, 162, 163, 233, 253

  Multz Collection (Alice), 279

  "Mustache Maude", 317

  Napoleon, 286

  Napoleon _Homestead_ (newspaper), 286

  "Narrows", 265

  National Guard, 52, 55, 265

  National Monument, 257

  Natural Gas, 241

  Nelson, F. P., Collection (Fairmount), 199

  Nesson Flats, 258

  Nestos, R. A., 56, 79, 191

  _Nettie Baldwin_ (steamer), 306

  New England, 229

  New Leipzig, 230

  New Rockford, 204

  New Salem, 293

  New Salem Holstein Breeders' Circuit, 293

  Newspapers, 99-101

  Niagara, 249

  Nicollet-Fremont Expedition, 303, 308, 310

  Nishu, 213, 334

  _Non-Partisan Leader_ (newspaper), 54

  Nonpartisan League, 4, =54-58=, 125, 190

  Noonan, 243

  _Normanden_ (newspaper), 136, 151

  _North Dakota_ (ship), prow of, 122

  North Dakota Agricultural College, 68, 89, 91, 130, 136, =138-40=


  North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (Dickinson), 296

  Northern Pacific Railway, =43-44=, 48, 62, 72, =96=, 112, 114, 115,
    117, 124, 131, 134, 150, 170, 280, 282, 290, 291, 297

  Northern Pacific Railway High Bridge, 281

  Northern Packing Company Plant, 151, 190

  North Roosevelt Regional State Park, 173-79, 331

  Northwest Airlines, 187

  North West Fur Company, 37, 39, 147, 185, 186, 233, 274

  Norwegians, _78-80_, 137, 151, 308

  Norwegian Independence Day, 138, 151

  Norwich, 255

  Nye, Gerald P., 56, 309

  Oakdale, 322

  Oakes, 307

  Oak Lawn Historic Site, 235

  Oasis Gardens, 259

  O'Connor, J. F. T., 56

  Odd Fellows' Home (Devils Lake), 251

  Oil, 258, 328

  Ojata, 248

  Okiedan Butte, 305

  Olson, Ole H., 57, 79, 204

  O'Neale, Lila M., 192

  Opheim Log Cabin (Cooperstown), 310

  Oriska, 280

  "Orkney Lad", 38, 186

  Oxcarts, 95, 185, 190, 234

  Painted Canyon, 297

  Painted Woods, 216, 337

  Paleontology, 7-9, 223, 321

  Palermo, 256

  Parker Ranch, 330

  Park River (town), 189

  Park River, 189

    Alm's (Mayville), 201;
    Beaver Lake, 286;
    Benson County, 265;
    Butte St. Paul, 238;
    Central (Grand Forks), 153;
    Central (Mott), 230;
    Central (Oakes), 307;
    Chahinkapa (Wahpeton), 198;
    Chautauqua (Mandan), 291;
    Chautauqua (Valley City), 281;
    City (Jamestown), 284;
    City (Larimore), 249;
    City (Valley City), 281;
    Crosby City Recreation, 243;
    Crowley Flint Quarry, 294;
    de Mores, 300-1;
    Double Ditch Indian Village, 217, 337;
    Doyle Memorial, 286;
    Ellery (Rugby), 253;
    El Zagal (Fargo), 143;
    Fort Abercrombie, 197;
    Fort Abraham Lincoln, 169-73, 291;
    Fort Buford, 270;
    Fort Clark, 319;
    Fort Dilts, 326-27;
    Fort Mandan, 208;
    Fort Rice, 292;
    Fort Seward, 284;
    Harmon Field (Williston), 262;
    Homer, 285;
    Huff Indian Village, 18, 292;
    International Peace Garden, 236, 238;
    Island (Fargo), 142;
    Island (Mayville), 201;
    Klaus (Jamestown), 284;
    Lake Metigoshe, 240;
    LaMoure County Memorial, 307;
    Lincoln (Grand Forks), 153;
    Masonic (Pembina), 187;
    Mouse River, 241;
    Nickeus (Jamestown), 284;
    Oak (Minot), 165;
    Oak Grove (Fargo), 143;
    Pembina, 187;
    Pioneer (Bismarck), 217;
    Pioneer (Valley City), 281;
    Railroad (Mayville), 201;
    Recreation (Williston), 262;
    Rocky Butte (Dickinson), 296;
    Roosevelt (Devils Lake), 251;
    Roosevelt (Minot), 165;
    Roosevelt Regional, =173-81=, 297, 330, 331;
  (Lisbon), 305;
    Seeman's (Linton), 210;
    Sheyenne River, 195;
    Sibley Island, 289;
    St. Claude, 236;
    Streeter Memorial, 285;
    Strong Memorial, 306;
    Sully's Hill National Game Preserve, 14, 15, =268=;
    Tourist (Hazen), 319;
    Turtle River, 248;
    University (Grand Forks), 153, Verendrye, 288;
    Verendrye National Monument, 257;
    Walhalla, 245, Washington Memorial (Hazen), 319;
    Westlawn (Williston), 262;
    Whitestone Hill Battlefield, 206;
    Woodland (Hillsboro), 193;
    Writing Rock, 227

  Paul Wilhelm, Prince of Wurttemberg, 39, 122

  Peaceful Valley Ranch, 180, 330

  Pembina, 13, 37-38, 39, 60, 72, 88, 92, 95, =185-87=

  Pembina Buffalo Hunts, 186, 246-47

  Pembina Escarpment, 5, 244

  Pembina Mountains, 5, 8, 15, 37, 234, =244=

  Pembina River, 10, 14, 244

  Petersburg, 250

  Petites Isles Aux Mortes, 252

  Petrified Forests, 179, 181, 331

  Pierce, Gilbert, 50

  Pingree, 205

  _Pioneer Scout_ (newspaper), 99

  Pipestem River, 272, 284

  _Pirates of the Missouri_, 116

  Plants, poisonous, xix

  Pleasant Lake (town), 252

  Plummer, Col. W. C., 193

  Point Pleasant, 114

  Poles, 189

    Farm, 60;
    foreign born, 78;
    in 1879, 44;
    in 1930, 57

  Populist Party, 51, 52

  Portal, 276

  Portland, 201

  Prairie-dog Villages, 15, 177, 180

  Prairie Fires, 205, 239

  Prairie Sphinx Butte, 325

  Prayer Rock, 231


  Price, 337

  Procès Verbal, 35

  Proctor, A. Phimister, 165

  Progressive Republicans, 53

  Public Health, 94

  Quarries, 294, 320

  Rabbit's Ears, 224

  Racial Groups, 78-85
    Bohemians, 83;
    Canadians, 82, 187, 195;
    Czechs, 189, 313;
    Danes, 78;
    Finns, 83, 215, 230, 307;
    French Canadians, 82, 187, 195;
    French Indians (Metis), 84, =245-47=, 273, 308;
    Germans, =80-82=, 118, 273;
    Hollanders, 210;
    Icelanders, 83, =234-35=;
    Metis (_see above_, French Indians);
    Mexicans, 66, 84, 220;
    Norwegians, =78-80=, 137, 151, 308;
    Poles, 189;
    Russo-Germans, =80-81=, 118, 208, 210, 230, 232, 253, 285, 286,
      293, 294, 296;
    Scotch, 238, Scandinavians, 229, 252, 255, 273;
    Swedes, 78, 83;
    Syrians, 84, 256-57;
    Ukrainians, 83, 209, 222;
    others, 83-84


  Radio, 100, 118, 152, 156, 164, 251, 280, 284, 288, 291;
    (_see also_ Press and Radio)

  Railroads, 40, 88, 96, 97;
    (_see also by name_)

  Rainfall, 59

  Rain-in-the-Face, 171, 312, 316, 324

  Rainy Buttes, 228

  Raleigh, 232

  Rammed Earth Construction, 104, 324

  Ramstad, Erik, 160, 164

  Ranching (_see_ Agriculture)

  Ray, 257

  Recall of Elective Officers, 55-56

  RECREATION, =106-8=, 277

  Recreational Areas, xviii

  Red River of the North, 40, 96, 135, 147, 197
    Steamboating on, 135, 148, 188, 192

  Red River Oxcart (_see_ Transportation)

  Red River Valley, _5_, =10=, 13, 15, 128, 185, 233, 248

  _Red River Valley Citizen_ (newspaper), 151

  Ree, 334

  Reeder, 325

  Reeves, Bud, 191, 201

  Regent, 229

  Religion, =91-93=, 117-18, 187, 283

  Religious Sects
    Baptist, 92;
    Dunkard, 93, 203;
    Episcopal, 92;
    Greek Catholic, 209, 223;
    Lutheran, 93;
    Mennonite, 93;
    Mohammedan, 93, 256-57;
    Moravian, 93, 229, 279;
    Presbyterian, 92;
    Roman Catholic, 93

  Remittance Men, 253

  Reno, Maj. Marcus A., 172

  Republican Party, 51-52, 54

  Reynolds, 191

  Reynolds, Charlie, poem about, 266

  Rhame, 326

  River Road, 215, 270

  Richardton, 294

    Beaver, 331;
    Bois de Sioux, 197;
    Cannonball, 8, 20, 30, 229, 313;
    Des Lacs, 272;
    Forest, 189;
    Goose, 193, 200;
    Heart, 17, 18, 169, 231, 290, 291;
    James, 6, 205, 282, 303, 306;
    Knife, 16, 18, 319, 335;
    Little Missouri, 6, 13, 175, 178, 222, 297, 301, 327, 329-33;
    Maple, 278;
    Missouri, 6, 10, 13, 15, 40, 96, 112, 116, 212, 220, 260, 263, 289,
      329, 333-37;
    Ottertail, 197;
    Park, 189;
    Pembina, 10, 14, 244;
    Pipestem, 272, 284;
    Red River of the North, 40, 96, 135, 147, 197;
    Sheyenne, 6, 8, 10, 14, 195, 204, 273, 303, 308, 311;
    Souris, 160, 162, 163, 233, 253;
    Tongue, 233;
    Turtle, 248;
    White Earth, 257;
    Wild Rice, 194;
    Yellowstone, 220

  Robertson, E. P., 306

  Robinson, James E., 54

  Rockefeller, William Avery, 189

  Rock Haven, 337

  Rock Lake, 203

  Rodeos, 108

  Roe, Mrs. Anna Thoresen, 143

  Rolette, Joseph, 39, 61, 91

  Rolla, 236

  Rolla University, 236

  Roosevelt, Theodore, 3, 123, 174, 295, =297-302=, 327, 330, 332
    Cabin of (Bismarck), 123

  Roosevelt Bridge, 222, 332

  Roosevelt Regional State Parks, =173-81=, 297, 330, 331

  Roosevelt Statue (Minot), 165

  Ross, 256

  Rosser, Gen. Thomas L., 132, 133

  Rough Riders, 300

  Rough Riders Hotel (Medora), 300

  Rugby, 253

  Running Antelope, 324

  Rush, Ira, 124

  Russell, Charles Edward, 54

  Russo-Germans (_see_ Racial Groups)

  Rustad Collection (Kindred), 195

  Sacred Heart Mission, 213

  Saint (_see_ St.)

  Sakakawea, 38, 122, 208, 319, 335
    Statue of, 122

  Sales Tax, xviii

  Sanborn, 281

  Sand Slides, 244

  Sanger, 337

  San Haven, 238

  Sanish, 257

  Sarles, E. Y., 52, 220

  Sawyer, 274

  Scatter Village, 214

  Scattered Village, site of, 319

  Schafer, 221

  Schmidt, 291

  Schools, 50, 52, =88-91=
    First school, 88;
    school lands, 89-90;
    miscellaneous references, 134, 136, 138, 143, 149, 153, 189, 201, 284;
    (_see also_ Colleges _by name_)


  Schultz Hereford Ranch, 254

  Scorched Village, 336

  Scoria, 6, 176, 223, 293

  Scoria Lily Ranch, 104, 324

  Scranton, 326

  _Selkirk_ (steamboat), 40-41, 192

  Selkirk Colony, 39, 60, 88, 186

  Sentinel Butte, 9, 302

  Sentinel Butte (town), 302

  "Sermon in Stone" (Fairmont), 199

  Seventh Cavalry, 116, 171, 172

  Seven Mile Hill, 259

  Seton, Ernest Thompson, 301

  Shafer, Charles, 221

  Shafer, George F., 56, 80, 221

  Shanley, John, 144

  Shell Butte, 180

  Shell Creek, 215

  Shell Deposit (Leith), 231

  Shelterbelt Nursery, 254

  Sheyenne, 204

  _Sheyenne_ (steamer), 135

  Sheyenne River (_see_ Rivers)

  Shortridge, Eli C. D., 52, 123

  Sibley, Gen. Henry H., expedition against Sioux, 30, =42=, 195,
    272, 280, 281, 285, 289, 303, 304, 305, 308, 309, 310

  Signal Rock, 322

  Simpson, William, Collection, 258

  Sinclair, James H., 309

  Sioux (_see_ Indians)

  Sioux-Arikara Battle, site of, 208

  Sioux-Chippewa Battle, site of, 194

  Sisseton Indian Reservation, 200

  Sisters of St. Francis, convent and academy of, 199

  Sitting Bull
    Grave of, 315;
    miscellaneous references, 41, 46, 49, 117, 270, 292, 302, 312, 317, 324

  Slade, G. L., Lodge and Game Preserve, 286

  Slant Village, 169

  Slaughter, Mrs. Linda, 41, 114, 115, 117

  Slaughter, B. Franklin, 115

  Smallpox among Indians, 30, 335

  Snakes, poisonous, xix

  Snow Cave, 224

  Society of Equity, 53, 54

  Social Legislation, 93-94

  Sodium Sulphate, 226, 256

  Solen, 314

  Solomon's Temple, 322

  Soil Conservation Service, 189

  Son-of-the-Star, grave of, 212

  Soo Line, 163

  Sorlie, A. G., 56, 79, 152, 191

  Sorlie Memorial Bridge (Grand Forks), 152

  Souris River, 160, 162, 163, 233, 253

  Souris River Valley, 272

  South Heart, 296

  South Roosevelt Regional State Park, 173-78, 180-81, 297, 330

  Southwest Fargo, 278

  Spanish-American War, 52

  Spanish Point, 263

  Spanish Woodyard, 263

  Sperati Point, 179, 331

  Spicer Family, murder of, 317

  Spiritwood, 282

  _Spoilers, The_ (novel), 113, 305

  Sports (_see_ Recreation)

  Square Butte, 302

  Square Buttes, 216, 337

  Squaw Creek Picnic Area, 178, 332

  St. Ann, shrine of (Belcourt), 237

  St. Ann's Day, 82

  St. Anthony, 313

  St. John, 236

  St. Joseph, 99, 245

  St. Mary's Cathedral (Fargo), 130

  St. Michael, 268

  St. Michael's Mission, 268

  St. Thomas, 188

  Stage Lines, 298-99

  Stair, Edward D., 309

  Standing Rock Indian Agency, 32-34, 312, 314-17, 323

  Standing Rocks, 304, 316

  Stanley, 215, 256

  Stanley Expedition, 43, 171

  Stanton, 319, 335

  State Enterprises, 52, 54, 55, 56, 125, 190-91

  State Game and Fish Reserve, 236

  State Game Farm (Bottineau), 239

  State Historical Society of North Dakota, 121, 169

  State Historical Society Museum (Bismarck), 121

  State Hospital for Insane (Jamestown), 90, 283

  Statehouse, 102, 112, 118-21

  State Library Commission, 121

  State Mill and Elevator (Grand Forks), 55-56, 74, 147, 151, =190-91=

  State Mine, abandoned, 325

  State Normal and Industrial School (Ellendale), 206

  State Penitentiary (Bismarck), 90, 288

  State Planning Board, 58

  State Regulatory Department Laboratory (Bismarck), 125

  State School for Blind (Bathgate), 90, 94, 233

  State School for Deaf (Devils Lake), 90, 251

  State School for Feeble-Minded (Grafton), 188

  State School of Forestry (Bottineau), 69, 90, 239

  State School of Science (Wahpeton), 90, 198

  State Sanitarium (San Haven), 90, 238

  State Soldiers Home (Lisbon), 305

  State Training School (Mandan), 90, 291

  State Welfare Board, 58

  Stavens, Thorval, Farm, 201

  Steamboating (_see_ Transportation)

  Steele, 287

  Steele, Col. W. P., 287

  Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 155, 235

  Stephenson, Stephen G., 235

  Sterling, 209

  Stevens, I. I., 43

  Stevens, R. N., 305

  Stevens Survey, 43, 273, 308, 310

  Stony Point, 193

  Strasburg, 210

  Stump Lake, 6, 311

  Sublette and Campbell 270, 271

  Subsistence Homestead Project (Burlington), 274-75

  Sully, Gen Alfred H., campaigns against Sioux, 30, =42-43=, 175,
    206, 268, 269, 274, 292, 294, 296, 302, 321

  Sully's Hill National Game Preserve, 14, 15, =268=

  Surrey, 255

  Svold, 234

  Swedes, 78, 83

  Sykes, Richard, 206, 272

  Sykeston, 272

  Syrians, 84, 256-57

  _Syttende Mai_, 138, 151

  Tagus, 256

  Tanner, James, 92

  Tappen, 285

  Taylor, 295

  Taylor, Joseph Henry, 217
    Log cabin of, 208

  Telegraph, 97
    First in State, 149

  Telephone, first use of in State, 278-79

  Temvik, 210

  Tepee Buttes, 229

  Territorial Capital, 117

  Territorial Governors, 47-48

  Terry, Gen. Alfred H., 266, 304

  Thompson, 191

  Thompson, David, 37
    Memorial, 274

  Three Buttes, 232

  Three Sisters, 322

  Tioga, 257

  Tobacco Garden Creek, skirmish at, 258

  Tokio, 265

  Tooker, Richard, 229

  Topography, 5, 6, 277

  Tower City, 280

  Tower University, 50, 280

  Towner, 253

  Townley, A. C., 54

  Traill Center, 200

    Air lines, xvii, 98;
    bus and truck lines, xvii, 98, 163;
    highways, xvii;
    oxcarts, 95, 185, 190, 234;
    railroads, xvii, 40, 88, 96, 97 (_see also by name_);
    steamboating: on Des Lacs Lake, 276;
      on Devils Lake, 251;
      on James River, 283, 306;
      on Missouri, 40, 95, 114, 260, 333, 334, 337;
      on Red River, 135, 148, 188, 192;
    stage lines, 298-99

  Triangle Apartments (Grand Forks), 152

  Truax-Traer Lignite Strip Mines
    Columbus, 242;
    Velva, 274;
    Wilton, 209

  Tumuli, 16, 248, 304, 305, 310

  Tunbridge, 253

  Turkeys, 67-68, 211, 221, 254

  Turtle Effigies, 17

  Turtle Mountain Indian Reservation, 32-34, 236-37

  Turtle Mountains, 12, 13, 14, 19, 233, 236

  Twin Buttes, 225

  Ukrainians, 83, 209, 222

  Underwood, 208

  University of North Dakota (Grand Forks)
    History, 153-56;
    description of campus, 156-57;
    miscellaneous references, 49, 50, 52, 89, 94, 147, 152, 226

  Upham, 240

  Upper Souris Migratory Waterfowl Project, 163, 275

  U. S. Biological Survey, 199, 203, 205, 209, 240, 275, 276, 285, 311

  U. S. Indian School (Wahpeton), 198

  U. S. Northern Great Plains Dairy Station, 312

  U. S. Northern Great Plains Field Station, 291, 312

  U.S. Veterans' Administration Facility, 140

  U.S. Weather Bureau (Bismarck), 114, 125, 313

  Valley City, 280

  Valley City State Teachers College, 281

  Valleyland Music Festival (Fargo), 130

  Van Hook, 215

  Velva, 274

  Verendrye, 274

  Verendrye, Pierre de la, 18, 36, 95, 217, 274, 288

  Verendrye Bridge, 257

  Verendrye National Monument, 257

  Verona, 306

  Veterans' Hospital (Fargo), 140

  Viets, Frank, 149, 150

  "Vigilantes", 332

  Villard, Henry, 117

  Voltaire, 274

  Von Hoffman, Medora, 298

  WDAY (Fargo), 100, 101, 141

  Wahpeton, 197

  Walhalla, 99, 245

  Walsh County Agricultural and Training School (Park River), 189

  Walsh, George, 150

  Walters, Emil, 235

  Walum, 308

  Wamduska Hotel, 312

  Ward County _Independent_ (newspaper), 164

  Ward Site Village, 217, 337

  Washburn, 208, 336

  Water Conservation, 15, 59, 68, 275

  Water Supply, 11

  Watford City, 221

  Weiser, J. S., 286, 304

  Welford, Walter, 58

  Wesley College (Grand Forks), 89, 157

  West, Levon, 201, 293

  West Fargo, 278

  Westhope, 207

  Wheat, 65

  Wheatland, 279

  Wheelock, 258

  Whetstone Buttes, 326

  Whistler Expedition, 43

  White, Maj. Frank, 52

  White Butte, 223

  White Earth, 257

  White River Formation, 9, 223, 321

  White Shield, grave of, 212

  Whitestone Hill, battle of, 42, 206

  Wied, Maximilian, Prince of, 39, 114, 289

  Wilbur, Curtis D., 283

  Wild Life, 12-15, 176-77

  Wild Life Conservation, 14, 205, 209, 240, 268, 275, 276, 285, 286, 311

  Wild Rice, 195

  Williams, Gen. E. A., 126

  Williamsport, 317

  Williston, 259-62

  Wilton 209, 216

  Wind Canyon, 180

  Windsor, 285

  Winona, 317

  Winship, George, 148, 150, 152

  Winter Sports, 107

  Wishek, 286

  Woman in Stone, 328

  Wood, Fred, 54

  Workmen's Compensation Bureau, 76

  World War, 55

  World War Memorial Building (Bismarck), 125

  World War Memorial Building (Devils Lake), 251

  Writing Rocks, 17, 217, 227, 304, 314

  Wurttemberg, Paul Wilhelm, Prince of, 39, 122

  X. Y. Company, 37, 186, 233

  Yankton (S. Dak.), 46, 48

  _Yellowstone_ (steamboat), 25, 40, 95, 260

  York, 252

  Young Men's Butte, 294

  Zahl, 219

  Zap Colliery Lignite Mine (Zap), 320



                                          WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION
                                             FEDERAL WRITERS PROJECT]

  Transcriber's Notes:

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  Punctuation normalized.

  Anachronistic and non-standard spellings retained as printed.

  Italics markup is enclosed in _underscores_.

  Bold markup is enclosed in =equals=.

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