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Title: A History of Norwegian Immigration to the United States : From the Earliest Beginning down to the Year 1848
Author: Flom, George T. (George Tobias)
Language: English
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Transcriber's Note

This version of the text cannot represent certain typographical effects.
Italics are delimited with the '_' character as _italic_.

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paragraphs in which they are referenced. Be advised that the internal
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                    History of Norwegian Immigration



                   A History of Norwegian Immigration

                                   to

                           The United States

           From the Earliest Beginning down to the Year 1848

                                   By

                   GEORGE T. FLOM, Ph. D. (Columbia)

  Professor of Scandinavian Languages and Literatures and Acting
      Professor of English Philology, State University of Iowa

                             [Illustration]

                           PRIVATELY PRINTED
                            IOWA CITY, IOWA
                                  1909


                             COPYRIGHT 1909
                             GEORGE T. FLOM


                            THE TORCH PRESS
                              CEDAR RAPIDS
                                  IOWA



                              TO MY MOTHER


            THROUGH WHOM I HAVE COME TO UNDERSTAND SOMETHING
               OF THE HEROIC WOMANHOOD EXEMPLIFIED IN THE
              LIVES OF OUR PIONEER MOTHERS, THIS VOLUME IS
                        AFFECTIONATELY INSCRIBED



                                FOREWORD


This volume is intended to present the progress of immigration from
Norway to this country from the beginning down through what may be
termed the first period of settlement. It is possible that I may at
some future time return to these studies to trace the further growth of
the Scandinavian element and its place and influence in American life.

Four years ago I contributed an article to _The Iowa Journal of
History and Politics_ upon "The Scandinavian Factor in the American
Population," in which I discussed briefly the causes of emigration
from the Northern countries. This article forms the basis of chapters
VI-VIII of the present volume, much new evidence from later years
having, however, been added. In a subsequent issue of the same Journal
I published an article on "The Coming of the Norwegians to Iowa," which
is embodied in part in chapters III-V of this volume. The remaining
thirty-six chapters are new. During the last three summers I have
continued my investigation of that part of the subject which deals with
the immigration movement. This book represents the results of that
investigation down to 1848.

For invaluable assistance in the investigation I gratefully acknowledge
indebtedness to the numerous pioneers whom, from time to time, I have
interviewed and who so kindly have given the aid sought. I wish to
thank, also, several persons who generously have accepted the task of
personally gathering pioneer data for certain localities. For such help
I owe a debt of gratitude to the following persons: J. W. Johnson,
Racine, Wisconsin; Reverend A. Jacobson, Decorah, Iowa; Reverend G. A.
Larsen, Clinton, Wisconsin; Henry Natesta, Clinton, Wisconsin; Rev. O.
J. Kvale, Orfordville, Wisconsin; Rev. J. Nordby, Lee, Illinois; Dr. N.
C. Evans, Mt. Horeb, Wisconsin; M. J. Engebretson, Gratiot, Wisconsin;
Dan K. Anderson and wife, Woodford, Wisconsin; Ole Jacobson, Elk Horn,
Wisconsin; Samuel Sampson, Rio, Wisconsin; T. M. Newton, Grinnell,
Iowa; Harvey Arveson, Whitewater, Wisconsin; and Reverend Helge
Höverstad, Mt. Horeb, Wisconsin. My thanks are also due to Reverend
G. G. Krostu of Koshkonong Parsonage for having placed at my disposal
the Koshkonong Church Register from 1844-1850; as also for verifying
my copy of it in some cases of names and dates; for the privilege
accorded me of using these so precious documents I am most grateful.
Reverend K. A. Kasberg of Spring Grove, Minnesota, has given me certain
important data on part of the immigration to East Koshkonong in 1842,
and similarly N. A. Lie of Deerfield, Wisconsin, for immigration from
Voss in 1838-1844, and Mr. Elim Ellingson and wife of Capron, Illinois,
on the founders of the Long Prairie Settlement. Many others might be
mentioned who have given valuable assistance by letter and otherwise
in the course of the investigation, and to whom I owe much. Finally,
I wish to thank Dr. N. C. Evans of Mt. Horeb, Wisconsin, for the loan
of _Cyclopedia of Wisconsin_ (1906) and _Illustreret Kirkehistorie_
(Chicago, 1898); Mr. O. N. Falk of Stoughton, Wisconsin, for loaning
me _Billed-Magazin_ for 1869-1870, and my brother, Martin O. Flom, of
Stoughton, for securing for my use several Wisconsin Atlases and a copy
of _The Biographical Review of Dane County_ (1893).

Of published works on Norwegian immigration which I have found
especially useful are to be mentioned S. Nilsen's _Billed-Magazin_ on
causes of immigration and the earliest immigrants from Telemarken and
Numedal; R. B. Anderson's _First Chapter on Norwegian Immigration_
for the sloopers of 1825, and their descendants; Strand's _History
of the Norwegians in Illinois_ (1905) for the Norwegians in Chicago;
H. L. Skavlem's sketch of _Scandinavians in the Early Days of Rock
County, Wisconsin_, _Normandsforbundet_ for February, 1909, and several
articles in _Symra_, 1905-1908. I must also mention a most valuable
series of articles on the Rock Prairie Settlement, Rock County,
Wisconsin, which appeared in _Amerika_ in 1906. (See further the
Bibliography at the end of this volume.)

No one who has never been engaged in a similar undertaking can have any
conception of the difficulty of the task and the labor involved in the
collecting, weighing and sifting of the vast amount of detail material.
I have tried to write a work which shall be correct as to details and
historically reliable. That errors have crept in I doubt not. I shall
be grateful to the reader who may discover such errors if he will call
my attention to them.

Finally, I wish to say that I have attempted nothing complete with
reference to the personal sketches of the earliest pioneers; this
was manifestly impossible. I have thought also that this was not
here called for except in cases of founders of settlements, and even
here I have sometimes lacked the full facts. To many it will also
undoubtedly seem that the early days of the church and the founding of
congregations should have received more attention. I can only say that
this volume deals specifically with the causes, course and progress of
Norwegian immigration and that this plan precluded a discussion in this
volume of religious and educational movements among the pioneers, or
of social questions, occupations, public service, and like topics. The
work thus aims to keep only what the title promises, and I hope it will
be found to be a real contribution to history within the scope marked
out for it.



                           TABLE OF CONTENTS


  INTRODUCTION                                                        15

  CHAPTER I. Norway. Population, Resources, Pursuits of her
        People, Social Conditions, Laws and Institutions              18

  CHAPTER II. Emigration from Norway                                  27

  CHAPTER III. The Earliest Immigrants from Norway, 1620 to 1825.     35

  CHAPTER IV. The Sloopers of 1825. The First Norwegian
       Settlement in America. Kleng Peerson                           45

  CHAPTER V. The Founding of the Fox River Settlement.
       Personal Notes on Some of the Founders                         55

  CHAPTER VI. Causes of Emigration from Norway. General Factors,
       Economic                                                       64

  CHAPTER VII. Causes of Emigration Continued. Special Factors.
       Religion as a Cause. Emigration Agents                         73

  CHAPTER VIII. Causes of Emigration Continued. The Influence
       of Successful Pioneers. "America-Letters." The Spirit
       of Adventure. Summary                                          80

  CHAPTER IX. Growth of the Fox River Settlement. The
       Immigration of 1836. Further Personal Sketches.                89

  CHAPTER X. The Year 1837 Continued. The Sailing of _Aegir_.         97

  CHAPTER XI. Beaver Creek. Ole Rynning                              102

  CHAPTER XII. Some of the Immigrants of 1837. The
       First Pathfinders from Numedal and Telemarken                 108

  CHAPTER XIII. Ansten Nattestad's Return to Norway in 1838.
       The Year 1839. Immigration Assumes Larger Proportions.
       The Course of Settlement Changes                              116

  CHAPTER XIV. Shelby County, Missouri. Ansten Nattestad's
       Return from Norway in 1839. The Founding of the Jefferson
       Prairie Settlement in Rock County, Wisconsin                  125

  CHAPTER XV. The Earliest White Settlers on Rock and Jefferson
       Prairies. The Founding of the Rock Prairie Settlement.
       The Earliest Settlers on Rock Prairie                         135

  CHAPTER XVI. The Rock Run Settlement. Other
       Immigrants of 1839. The Immigration of 1840                   147

  CHAPTER XVII. The Settlement of Norway and Raymond Townships,
       Racine County. The Founders of the Settlement.
       Immigration to Racine County in 1841-1842                     155

  CHAPTER XVIII. The Establishment of the Koshkonong Settlement
       in Dane County, Wisconsin                                     164

  CHAPTER XIX. The Settling of Koshkonong by Immigrants from
       Numedal and Stavanger in 1840. Other Accessions in
       1841-1842                                                     172

  CHAPTER XX. New Accessions to the Koshkonong Settlement in
       1840-1841. The Growth of the Settlement in 1842               180

  CHAPTER XXI. The First Norwegian Settlement in Iowa, at Sugar
       Creek in Lee County                                           190

  CHAPTER XXII. The Earliest Norwegian Settlers at Wiota,
       La Fayette County, and Dodgeville, Iowa County,
       Wisconsin                                                     198

  CHAPTER XXIII. Growth of the Jefferson Prairie Settlement
       from 1841 to 1845. The First Norwegian Land Owners
       in Rock County                                                204

  CHAPTER XXIV. Immigration to Rock Prairie from Numedal and
       Land in 1842 and Subsequent Years                             211

  CHAPTER XXV. Immigration from Hallingdal, Norway, to Rock
       Prairie from 1843 to 1848. Continued Immigration from
       Numedal. Other Early Accessions                               216

  CHAPTER XXVI. Economic Conditions of Immigrants. Cost of
       Passage. Course of the Journey. Duration of the Journey       221

  CHAPTER XXVII. Norwegians in Chicago, 1840-1845. A Vossing
       Colony. Some Early Settlers in Chicago from Hardanger         230

  CHAPTER XXVIII. The Earliest Norwegian Settlers in the
       Township of Pleasant Spring, Dane County, Wisconsin           241

  CHAPTER XXIX. The First Norwegian Settlers in the Townships
       of Dunkirk, Dunn, and Cottage Grove, in Dane County,
       Wisconsin                                                     249

  CHAPTER XXX. The Expansion of the Koshkonong Settlement
       into Sumner and Oakland Townships in Jefferson
       County. Increased Immigration from Telemarken. New
       Settlers from Kragerö, Drammen and Numedal                    255

  CHAPTER XXXI. The Coming of the First Large Party of
       Immigrants from Sogn. New Accessions from Voss                265

  CHAPTER XXXII. Long Prairie in Boone County, Illinois;
       A Sogning Settlement                                          272

  CHAPTER XXXIII. The Growth of the Racine County (Muskego)
       Settlement, 1843-1847                                         278

  CHAPTER XXXIV. The Heart Prairie Settlement in Walworth Co.,
       Wis. Skoponong. Pine Lake                                     289

  CHAPTER XXXV. The Earliest Norwegian Settlers at Sugar Creek,
       Walworth County, Wisconsin. The Influx from Land,
       Norway, to Wiota and Vicinity, 1844-1852                      300

  CHAPTER XXXVI. Continued Immigration from Aurland, Sogn,
       to Koshkonong. The Arrival of Settlers from Vik
       Parish, Sogn, in 1845                                         305

  CHAPTER XXXVII. Kirkeregister. Church Register of East
       Koshkonong, West Koshkonong and Liberty Prairie
       Congregations as Constituted During the Years of Reverend
       J. W. C. Dietrichson's Incumbency of the Pastorate from
       1844 to 1850, and as Recorded by Reverend Dietrichson         314

  CHAPTER XXXVIII. The Founding of the Norwegian Settlements
       of Norway Grove, Spring Prairie and Bonnet Prairie in
       Dane and Columbia Counties, Wisconsin                         331

  CHAPTER XXXIX. Blue Mounds in Western Dane County, Wisconsin       340

  CHAPTER XL. The Hardanger Settlement in Lee and De Kalb Counties,
       Illinois. Big Grove in Kendall County, and Nettle Creek
       in Grundy County, Illinois                                    350

  CHAPTER XLI. The First Norwegian Pioneers in
       Northeastern Iowa                                             362

  CHAPTER XLII. Survey of Immigration from Norway to
       America. Conclusion 375

  APPENDIX I                                                         383

  APPENDIX II                                                        386

  BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                       387

  INDEX                                                              389



                              INTRODUCTION


In this volume I shall aim to give an account of the Norwegian
immigration movement from 1825 down to 1848. Thereupon will follow
a brief survey of the course of the movement and the growth of the
settlements founded here in that period. In the introductory pages
I shall discuss briefly individual immigration from Norway from its
earliest known beginnings down to 1825.

Immigration from Norway resulted in the founding of settlements in
New York, Illinois, Wisconsin and Iowa successively; I shall try to
give a correct narrative of the beginnings and the growth of these
settlements. In this part of the work I shall stress the oldest and
largest settlements in Southern Wisconsin and Northern Illinois, for
the relation of these to the whole movement and later colonization
of the Northwestern States by the Norwegians is one of especial
importance. I shall treat somewhat fully of the causes of emigration,
of the growth of the movement, and the part in it that each district
or province in Norway has played. The leaders from each district
and the founders of the settlements here will be named and in many
cases, sketches will be given of their lives. Such questions as the
course of the movement in Norway, the cost of the voyage, the course
of the journey, early wage conditions, the economic conditions of
the immigrants, the geographical trend of settlement, will also be
considered, and approximately complete lists of the accessions in each
settlement for the first few years will be given. The limits of this
volume, however, will preclude the treatment of social or cultural
questions, or to take more than the briefest notice of the pursuits and
occupations of the Norwegian-American and his contribution to American
life. I hope to be able to treat elsewhere, later, of some of these
problems.

The story of the immigrant settler is one that is well worth the
telling; it is one that is justly receiving increased attention in
recent years. I believe that the writer of American history will, in
the future, pay far greater attention than he has in the past to the
immigrant pioneer as a factor in the development of the nation. There
are in America today about one million people of Norwegian birth, or
Norwegian parentage. That is, there are nearly half as many of that
nationality in America as in Norway itself. The transplanting of so
large a proportion of a race from the land to which it is rooted by
birth and by its history is indeed remarkable.

Various European peoples have contributed to the growth of the
American population; they have each given something to the sum total
of present American life and in some measure helped to shape American
institutions. As a people America is yet in the formative period;
racially, at least, one-half of the population is not Anglo-Saxon.
It is by the amalgamation of all its ethnic factors that the future
American people will be evolved. The contribution that each foreign
element will make to that evolution will be determined by the
civilization, which each represents as its racial heritage, the culture
which, in the course of its history, each has evolved as a people
and a nation. As the true student of American history takes note of
these things in the future, the significance of the foreign factor in
the growth and the upbuilding of the country will receive its just
recognition.

We of Norse blood, but American birth, if we are true to the best
that is in us, cannot fail to have an interest in the trials and
the achievements of the pioneer fathers. We must recognize the true
heroism of the men and women who braved the hardships and suffered
the privations of frontier life in the thirties, the forties and
the fifties. The part that the pioneers of those days played in the
development of the Northwest was a great one; in comparison with it
that of the present generation is wholly insignificant. It is to the
memory of those pioneers, in recognition of their true worth, that this
record of their coming is dedicated.



                               CHAPTER I

           _Norway: Population, Resources, Pursuits of her
         People, Social Conditions, Laws and Institutions._


Norway is, as we know, a long and narrow strip of country in the west
of the Scandinavian Peninsula, stretching through thirteen degrees of
latitude, and in the north, extending almost three hundred miles into
the arctic zone. Nearly a third of the entire country[1] is the domain
of the midnight sun, where summer is the season of daylight and winter
is one long unbroken night. Even in Southern Norway total darkness is
unknown in summer, the night being merely a period of twilight. In
Christiania the nights are light from April twentieth to the third
week in August, in Trondhjem, a week more at either end. In the latter
city there is broad daylight at midnight from May twenty-third to July
twentieth. Correspondingly there is a period of continuous darkness
in the extreme north. Thus at Tromsö the sun is not visible between
the twenty-sixth of November and the sixteenth day of January. The
long night is therefore short as compared with the long day of summer.
Climatically, also, Norway is naturally a land of extremes, extending,
as it does, over such a vast area north and south. Yet the populous
portion of the country, the southern two-thirds, is not appreciably
colder than the State of Iowa and the southern half of Wisconsin
and Minnesota. The winter is severest in the great inland valleys.
Gudbrandsdalen, Valders and Hallingdal, but especially in Österdalen.
In the last-named valley the lowest temperature ever observed has been
recorded, namely, 50°, mercury often having been frozen.[2] The winter
is also excessively long in these valleys; in Fjeldberg and Jerkin in
the Dovre Mountains the temperature is below the freezing point two
hundred days in the year. In the south and in the west coast-districts
the climate is more uniform and more temperate. Northern Norway, with
its gulf stream coast, presents the same general climatic conditions
as Western and Southern Norway; the inland region of extreme cold is
limited because of the very limited inland area, which also is very
sparsely populated.[3]

  [1] Or over thirty-eight thousand square miles.

  [2] Compare Björnson's account of the temperature at Kvikne in his
      autobiographical sketch, _Blakken_.

  [3] The statistical and much of the other matter in this chapter
      has been taken from _Norway, Official Publication for the
      Paris Exhibition_, 1900, published at Christiania. But I am
      also indebted to the stately publication by Norwegian authors
      and artists entitled _Norge i det nittende Aarhundrede_, 2
      volumes, large folio, 436 and 468 pages. Christiania, 1900. The
      scholars who published this are W. C. Brögger, B. Getz, A. N.
      Kjær, Moltke Moe, Bredo Morgenstjerne, Gerhard Munthe, Frithjof
      Nansen, Eilif Peterssen, Nordahl Rolfsen, J. E. Sars, Gustav
      Storm and E. Werenskjold. The editor in chief for the texts is
      Nordahl Rolfsen, for the illustrations E. Werenskjold. There
      is a large staff of collaborators, each article is prepared by
      a specialist; the whole is a rare piece of book-making. The
      printers are Alb. Cammermeyers Forlag, Christiania. I wish
      to mention also especially here Christensen's _Det nittende
      Aarhundredes Kulturkamp i Norge_, Christiania, 1905.

The population of Norway[4] is very unevenly distributed, the north
being rather thinly settled. The area of Norway is 124,495 square
miles, or somewhat more than that of Wisconsin and Illinois together.
About four per cent of this, however, is covered by lakes, and the
average number of inhabitants to the square mile is only seventeen. The
corresponding figures of inhabitants to the square mile for Sweden is
twenty-eight; for Denmark, however, it is one hundred and forty-eight,
and for all Europe, it is ninety-eight. The density of population is
greatest in Larvik and Jarlsberg on the south (barring the cities of
Christiania and Bergen). In these provinces there are one hundred and
sixteen inhabitants to the square mile. In Hedemarken the number falls
to twelve. The western fjord districts, those of Trondhjem Fjord, the
Sogne Fjord and the Hardanger Fjord are thickly populated.

  [4] It was 1,490,950 in 1855, 2,350,000 in 1908.

Norway is a land of fjords and lakes, of mountains and glacier
expanses. Less than one-fourth of the country is capable of
cultivation, and eighty per cent of this is forest land. This leaves
less than five per cent under actual cultivation. We may compare again
with Denmark, where seventy-six per cent of the land is cultivated,
while in all Europe the ratio is forty per cent.

Norway's climate is noted for its healthfulness,[5] and its inhabitants
attain a higher degree of longevity than those of most other European
countries. Nearly seven per cent of its people reach the age of sixty
to seventy, while one per cent attain to the age of from ninety to one
hundred years. That is, reckoned as a whole, about twelve per cent
attain to the age of sixty years or more. This is considerable in excess
of that of nearly all other European countries.

  [5] Dr. A. Magelson of Christiania has recently written a work on
      Norway as a health resort entitled: _To Norway for Health. A
      Scientific Account of the Peculiar Advantages of the Norwegian
      Climate_, published by Nikolai Olson, Christiania.

The average age in Norway is fifty, while for instance, in Italy it
is thirty-five. But the expectancy is far more than this for him who
passes infancy; thus if one attains to the age of fifty in Norway, one
still may expect to live twenty-three years. Such is the health and the
expectancy of life among our immigrants from Norway.

The predominant pursuit in Norway is agriculture, cattle farming and
forest cultivation. Herein forty-eight per cent of the population seeks
its maintenance. The immigrant pioneer generally selects in America
the pursuit or occupation for which he has been trained in his native
country. And so we find that the great majority of Norwegian immigrants
have sought homes in rural communities and engaged in farming and
related pursuits. In fact, more than eighty-eight per cent of our
Norwegian immigrants have come from rural communities. Twenty-three
per cent of the population of Norway are engaged in industries and
mining. To these occupations in this country, Norway has, especially
in the later period of immigration, contributed a considerable share.
A little over eight per cent of her people are engaged in fishing.
And so we find that a proportionately very large amount of the New
England fisheries is conducted by fishermen who have come from Norway.
Navigation engages six per cent of the population of Norway. In this
connection I note that our warships in the Spanish-American war were
many of them manned almost exclusively by Norwegian sailors;[6] and
there were Norwegians in the American marine service as early as the
War of Independence, as again in no small proportion in the Civil War
in the sixties.

  [6] _The Reliance_ which defended the America cup against _Shamrock
      III_ in 1903 was manned almost exclusively by Norwegians. They
      were from the following towns in Norway: Arendal, Aalesund,
      Stavanger, Bergen, Larvik, Christiania, and Haugesund.

Perhaps about five per cent of Norway's population is engaged in
intellectual work. Here, too, the contribution of Norway to our
population in America has been considerable, especially during the last
twenty years.

Nearly all of the Norwegian population is of the Protestant faith, and
the great majority of these are members of the state church, which is
the Lutheran. Somewhat similar are the affiliations in America.

The constitution of Norway is liberal and the government highly
democratic. In these respects the people of Norway are now perhaps as
favorably circumstanced as we in America. The Norwegian readily enters
into the spirit of American laws and institutions, for their laws are
not essentially different from his own. Being accustomed to a high
degree of freedom, he has been trained to a high conception of the
responsibilities that that freedom entails. He has long been accustomed
to representation and sharing in the rights of franchise, and he
exercises that right as a privilege and a solemn duty. It may be said,
I believe, that no people has a higher sense of right and wrong and a
stronger moral incentive to right. Frauds in elections and graft in
official life are yet unheard-of among our Norwegian-American citizens.

Norway is, next to Finland, the most temperate of European countries.
The sale of liquor is permitted only in incorporated cities and
towns, and only by an association that is organized under government
supervision. It is the so-called Gothenburg system that is in use. Of
the earnings of such organization the government takes five per cent,
the county ten per cent and the municipality fifteen per cent, while
the net profit of the association must not exceed five per cent on the
investment in any one year. The hours of sale are very much restricted.
Not only is there no sale of liquor on Sundays, but places of such
business must close at one o'clock on Saturday and on days preceding
holidays. Norway is essentially a temperate country. Statistics show
that out of every thousand deaths, only one is due to drink. The
Norwegian people have educated themselves to abstinence, and the
temperance movement found wide support earlier in Norway than anywhere
else. _Det norske Totalafholds Selskab_[7] was organized in 1859; ten
years ago it had ten hundred and twenty branches and a hundred and
thirty thousand members, while other temperance associations also have
a considerable membership. Here in America, the Norwegian immigrant has
taken a prominent part in legislation looking toward the restriction of
the sale of intoxicating liquors,[8] and the Prohibition party finds
its strongest support among the Norwegians, as it finds a relatively
large number of its candidates for state and county offices from among
them.

  [7] The Norwegian Total Abstinence Society.

  [8] When the Sunday closing order was instituted in Minneapolis
      in December, 1905, the _Minneapolis Journal_ commented upon
      the fact that the Norwegian citizens made no complaint, as it
      appears others did.

Crime conditions in Norway are similarly significant. Comparative
statistics are difficult of access, but Norway's proportion of
serious offences is very low. In the whole period from 1891-1895
the total number was only two hundred and sixty-one. Norway has its
poor as every country has, but it has its excellent system of taking
care of the poor. Thus every municipality has a Board of Guardians
(fattigkommission), which consists of the parish minister, a police
officer, and several men chosen by a local board. Norway keeps her
criminals and takes care of her poor; she does not send them to
America, as has only too often been the case in some other countries.

Norway has a highly developed school system crowned by the Royal
Frederik University at Christiania. It has compulsory education, its
boards of inspection and its great Department of Public Instruction. It
has its People's High School, its Workingmen's Colleges, and a system
of secondary schools, whose curricula are still on a conservative
basis. Its one University ranks with the foremost in Europe, and with
it are connected various laboratories and scientific institutions, and
it has a library of three hundred and fifty thousand volumes. Here
too are located its Botanical Gardens, the Historical Museum, the
Astronomical and Magnetic Observatory, the Meteriological Institute
and the Biological Marine Station.[9] The salaries of its teachers
in _Middelskole Gymnasium_, and of instructors and professors in the
University, reckoned by the purchasing power of money, is approximately
thirty per cent greater than that of our middle western universities.
I shall also mention _The Royal Norwegian Scientific Society_ at
Trondhjem, founded 1760, a similar society in Christiania, founded
1857, the _Bergen Museum_, founded 1825, with its literary and
scientific collections illustrative of the life and cultural history of
Western Norway, _The Norwegian National Museum_ in Christiania, founded
1894, similar, but more general in character, _The Industrial Arts
Museum_,[10] and the various archives of the Kingdom.

  [9] This is located at Dröbak.

  [10] Though Norway's participation in the Universal Exposition at
       St. Louis in 1904 as regards number of exhibits was limited,
       its exhibits were acknowledged to be of very high grade,
       thus in its tapestries, in carved and inlaid work, in silver
       and enamel displays it received the highest awards. Report
       by Consul Fr. Waage, General Commissioner to the St. Louis
       Exposition, _Skandinaven_, June 14th, 1905.

As to the Norwegian language I shall merely speak of its highly
analytic character, in which respect it has for a long time been
developing in the same direction as English, though of course,
absolutely independently. Being closely cognate with English, a large
part of the vocabulary of the two is of the same stock. Further, its
sound system is fundamentally similar. These three considerations,
especially perhaps the first, will make clear to us the reason why
the Norwegian so readily learns to use the English language, and
if he learns it in youth, even to the point of mastery. This is of
the greatest importance, for language is in modern times the real
badge of nationality. A correct use of the English language is the
first and chief stamp of American nationality, the key without which
the foreigner cannot enter into the spirit of American life and
institutions.

Norwegian literature I cannot either discuss here. The great movements
it represents in recent times are fairly well known; its significance
and its broad influence are beginning to be understood. The genius of
Norwegian literature is morality and truth. It expresses herein the
high ethical sense of the nation, which is pagan-racial, but which is
also Christian-Lutheran, a church which in its preëminent spirituality
is the typical Teutonic church.



                               CHAPTER II

                     _Emigration from Norway._


Emigration from Norway has in large part been transatlantic. Norway
has lost by American emigration a comparatively larger portion of
her population than any other country in Europe, with the exception
of Ireland. The great majority of the emigrants have gone to the
northwestern states and found there their future homes. In Northern
Illinois, in Wisconsin and Minnesota, in Northern and Western Iowa,
in North and South Dakota, they form a very large proportion of the
population. Emigration to European countries has been directed chiefly
to Sweden and Denmark, though not few have settled in England and
Germany and some in Holland. Between 1871 and 1875 about fifteen
hundred persons emigrated from Norway to Australia; the number that
have gone there since that has been much smaller. These have settled
chiefly in South Australia, Victoria and New Zealand. In recent
years some have settled in the Argentine Republic in South America.
Norwegians are found in considerable numbers in Western Canada, but the
majority of these have emigrated from the Norwegian communities in the
western states, especially Minnesota and North Dakota.

Norwegian emigration to the United States took systematic form with
the sailing of Norden and _Den Norske Klippe_ in 1836. In 1843 it began
to assume larger proportions; in that year sixteen hundred immigrants
from Norway settled in the United States. During 1866-1870, a period
of financial depression in Norway, there left, on an average, about
fifteen thousand a year. The rate fell in the seventies, rose again
in the eighties, the figure for 1882 being 29,101 persons, while it
averaged over eighteen thousand per annum also for the next decade.
In 1898 it was not quite five thousand, then again it rose steadily,
reaching 24,461 in 1903.

The Norwegian emigration has been mostly from rural districts,
day-laborers, artisans, farmers, seamen, but also those representing
other pursuits. Not a few with professional or technical education have
settled in America; we find them in the medical profession,[11] in the
ministry,[12] in journalism, in the faculties of our colleges. All the
age-classes are represented among immigrants from Norway, but by far
the largest number of both men and women have come during the ages of
twenty to thirty-five, and particularly the first half of these series
of years.

  [11] Mostly in recent years.

  [12] In the early period chiefly.

This great emigration of the Norwegian race during the nineteenth
century has, of course, very materially retarded the growth of the
population in Norway, especially in the period from 1865 to 1890. The
increase between 1815 and 1835 was as high as 1.34 per cent annually.
From 1835 to 1865 it was 1.18 per cent, but during 1865-1890 it fell
to 0.65 per cent. Since 1890 the increase has been considerable again.
But during 1866-1903 the total emigration from Norway to the United
States alone aggregated five hundred and twenty-four thousand. To this
number should be added the children of these if we are to have a proper
basis of estimation for the increase of the race in the last half
century. This increase thus has been 1.40 per cent annually, that is,
the race has doubled itself in fifty years. We may compare with France,
where the increase has been 0.23 per cent, Russia,[13] where it has
been 1.35, in Servia, where it has been 2.00 per cent, this being the
highest in Europe. The increase in Sweden and Denmark is about the same
as in Norway--reckoning the racial increase.

  [13] The figures here are for the period closing with 1890 before
       which year Russia had furnished very few emigrants to the
       United States.

It will be of interest here to consider briefly the immigration from
the Scandinavian countries as a whole.

During the years 1820-1830 not more than 283 emigrated from the
Scandinavian countries to the United States. In the following decade
the number only slightly exceeded two thousand. Since 1850 our
statistics regarding the foreign born population are more complete. In
that year we find there were a little over eighteen thousand persons
in the country of Scandinavian birth. In 1880 this number had reached
440,262; while the unprecedented exodus of 1882 and the following
years had by 1890 brought the number up to 933,249. Thus the immigrant
population from these countries, which in 1850 was less than one per
cent, had in 1890 reached ten per cent of the whole foreign element.
The following table will show the proportion contributed by the
countries designated for each decade since 1850:

                                TABLE I

                     _1850_ _1860_ _1870_ _1880_ _1890_ _1900_
                     -------------PER CENT-------------
  Ireland            42.8  38.9  33.3  27.8  20.2  15.6
  Germany            26    30.8  30.4  29.4  30.1  25.8
  England            12.4  10.5  10     9.9   9.8   8.1
  Canada              6.6   6     8.9  10.7  10.6  11.4
  Scotland and Wales  4.4   3.7   3.8   3.8   3.7   3.2
  Scandinavia          .9   1.7   4.3   6.6  10.1  10.3

Thus it will be seen that among European countries Scandinavia,
considered as one, stands third in the number of persons contributed
to the American foreign-born population, exceeding that of Scotland
and Wales in 1870 and that of England in 1890. Both the Irish and
the German immigration reached considerable numbers at least fifteen
years before that from the North, Ireland having contributed nearly
forty-three per cent of the total in 1850, and Germany twenty-six. By
1900 the Irish quota had fallen to fifteen per cent, while the German
is nearly twenty-six and that from Scandinavia ten per cent. In 1870
our Scandinavian-born immigrant population was twice as large as the
French and equalled the total from Holland, Switzerland, Austria,
Bohemia, Italy, Hungary, Poland and Russia.[14]

  [14] The four last named countries have, as we know, in the last
       decade entered very extensively into the emigration movement.

The Norwegians are the pioneers in the emigration movement from the
North in the nineteenth century; the Danes were the last to come in
considerable numbers. Statistics, however, show that one hundred
eighty-nine Danes had emigrated to this country before 1830, while
there were only ninety-four from Norway and Sweden. The Norwegian
foreign-born population had in 1850 reached 12,678; while that from
Sweden was 3,559; and Denmark had furnished a little over eighteen
hundred. The Danish immigration was not over five thousand a year until
1880 and has never reached twelve thousand. The Swedish immigration
received a new impulse in 1852; it was five thousand in 1868; it
reached its climax of 64,607 in 1882. According to Norwegian statistics
the emigration from Norway to the United States was six thousand and
fifty in 1853, but according to our census reports did not reach five
thousand before 1866; the highest figure, 29,101, was reached in 1882
(according to our census).[15]

  [15] Or 28,000 according to Norwegian statistics.

The total emigration from the Scandinavian countries to America between
1820 and 1903 was 1,617,111. This remarkable figure becomes doubly
remarkable when we stop to consider that the population of Denmark,
Norway, and Sweden is only two and one-half per cent of the total
population of Europe; yet they have contributed nearly ten per cent of
our immigrant population. There are in this country nearly one-third
as many Scandinavians (counting those of foreign birth and foreign
parentage both) as in the Scandinavian countries; for the German
element the ratio is one to thirteen.

At this point I may refer the reader to the table in Appendix I of
this volume, showing the growth and distribution of the Scandinavian
factor, especially in the northwestern states, since 1850. Table I
shows Wisconsin as having almost as large a Scandinavian population
in 1850 as all the rest of the country. Wisconsin was the destination
of the Norwegian immigrant from the time emigration began to assume
larger proportions, and it held the lead for twenty-five years. Iowa
and Southern Minnesota began entering into competition prominently
since 1852 and 1855 respectively. The growth of Swedish immigration in
the fifties and sixties gave the lead to Minnesota by 1870, Illinois
taking second place in 1890. Returning now to the Norwegian immigration
specifically, it may be observed that it was directed to the Northwest
down to recent years, almost to the exclusion of the rest of the
country. The reader may now be referred to Table II in the Appendix,
which shows the growth of the Norwegian population in each state since
1850.

This table tells its own story. In New England the Norwegian factor is
unimportant. There has been a high ratio of growth in New York and
New Jersey since 1880, but the total number is not large. In the rest
of the Atlantic seaboard states, as in the gulf states, the Norwegian
population has remained almost stationary at a very low figure. Such is
also the case with the inland states of the South, as in the Southwest.
The effort to direct Norwegian immigration to Texas, which goes back to
the forties, has been productive of only meagre results. Even Kansas
is too far south for the Norwegian. In the extreme West, however,
considerable numbers of Norwegians have established homes since about
1882, particularly in California, Oregon and Washington, since 1895
also in Montana, and in recent years even in the extreme North, in
Alaska.

What were the influences that directed the Norwegian immigrants so
largely to the Northwest in the early period and down to 1890?

The great majority came for the sake of bettering their material
condition. They came here to found a home and to make a living.
Moreover, as I have observed above, immigrants in their new home
generally enter the same pursuits and engage in the same occupations in
which they were engaged in their native country.

Three-fourths of the population of Norway live in the rural districts
and are mostly engaged in some form of farming.[16] Thus seventy-two
per cent of the Norwegian immigrants are found in the rural districts
and in towns with less than twenty-five thousand population. The fact
that the influx of the immigrants from Norway coincided with the
opening up of the middle western states resulted in the settlement of
those states by Norwegian immigrants. Land could be had for almost
nothing in the West. Land-seekers from New England, New York and
Pennsylvania were in those days flocking to the West.[17] About ninety
per cent of the Norwegian immigrants at that time were land-seekers. As
a rule long before he emigrated the Norseman had made up his mind to
settle in Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa, or Minnesota.

  [16] This includes also fishermen and foresters.

  [17] Outside of Chicago, Illinois had in 1840 a population of
       142,210; Wisconsin was organized as a Territory in 1836, its
       population in 1840 was 30,945; Iowa had a population of only
       192,212 in 1850; and Minnesota, organized at a Territory in
       1849, had in 1850, 1,056 inhabitants. To the square mile the
       population of each was in 1850: Illinois, 15.37; Wisconsin,
       5.66; Iowa, 3.77; Minnesota, .04.



                              CHAPTER III

       _The Earliest Immigrants from Norway, 1620 to 1825._


Our data regarding Norwegian emigration to America prior to 1825
are very fragmentary, but it is possible to trace that emigration
as far back as 1624.[18] In that year a small colony of Norwegians
was established in New Jersey on the site of the present city of
Bergen.[19] While it is not known that the names of any of these first
colonists have come down to us, we do have the name of one Norwegian,
who visited the American coast on a voyage of exploration in the year
1619, that is, the year before the landing of the _Mayflower_. In the
early part of 1619 King Christian IV of Denmark fitted out two ships
for the purpose of finding a northwest passage to Asia. The names of
the ships were _Eenhjörningen_ and _Lampreren_, and the commander was
a Norwegian, Jens Munk, who was born at Barby, Norway, in 1579. With
sixty-six men Jens Munk sailed from Copenhagen, May ninth, 1619. During
the autumn of that year and the early part of the following year he
explored Hudson Bay and took possession of the surrounding country in
the name of King Christian, calling it Nova Dania. The expedition
was, however, a failure, and all but three of the party perished
from disease and exposure to cold in the winter of 1620. The three
survivors, among whom was the commander, Jens Munk, returned to Norway
in September, 1620.[20]

  [18] The Vinland voyages in the 11th-14th centuries do not come
       within the scope of our discussion.

  [19] It seems that this city was so named by the colonists after
       the city of Bergen, Norway.

  [20] Anderson's _First Chapter of Norwegian Immigration_, p. 21.

In the early days of the New Netherlands colony, Norwegians sometimes
came across in Dutch ships and settled among the Dutch. The names of
at least two such have been preserved in the Dutch colonial records.
They are Hans Hansen and Claes Carstensen (possibly originally Klaus
Kristenson). The former emigrated in a Dutch ship in 1633 and joined
the Dutch colony in New Amsterdam. His name appears in the colonial
records variously as Hans Noorman, Hans Hansen de Noorman, Hans Bergen,
Hans Hansen von Bergen, and Hans Hansen von Bergen in Norwegen. Hans
Bergen became the ancestor of a large American family by that name.[21]
Claes Carstensen's name appears variously as Claes Noorman, Claes
Carstensen Noorman and Claes Van Sant, the latter being the Norwegian
name Sande in Jarlsberg, where Claes Carstenson was born, 1607. He came
to America about 1640 and settled a few years later on fifty-eight
acres of land on the site of the present Williamsburg. The ministerial
records of the old Dutch Reformed Church in New York state that Claes
Carstensen was married April 15, 1646, to Helletje Hendricks. The
latter was, it seems, a sister of Annecken Hendricks, who was there
married on February first, 1650, to Jan Arentzen van der Bilt, the
colonial ancestor of Commodore Vanderbilt. Annecken Hendricks is
further designated as being from Bergen, Norway, the names "Helletje"
and "Annecken" being Dutch diminutive forms of the Norwegian Helen and
Anne. Claes Carstensen died November sixth, 1679.

  [21] See _The Bergen Family_, by Teunis Bergen.

About the year 1700 there were a number of families of Norwegian and
Danish descent living in New York. In 1704 a stone church was erected
by them on the corner of Broadway and Rector Streets. The property was
later sold to Trinity Church, the present churchyard occupying the site
of the original church.[22] Prof. R. B. Anderson, speaking of these
people, says, that they were probably mostly Norwegians and not Danes,
for those of their descendants with whom he has spoken have all claimed
Norwegian descent. The pastor who ministered to the spiritual wants of
this first Scandinavian Lutheran congregation in America was a Dane by
the name of Rasmus Jensen Aarhus. He died on the southwest coast of
Hudson Bay, February twentieth, 1720.

  [22] Our authority here is Rev. Rasmus Anderson, who has given this
       subject much study.

In 1740 Norwegian Moravians took part in the founding of a Moravian
colony at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and in 1747 of one at Bethabara,
North Carolina. At Bethlehem these Norwegian (and Swedish and Danish)
Moravians came in contact with their kinsmen, the Swedish Lutherans of
Delaware and adjoining parts of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The Swedes
on the Delaware had lost their independence in 1656. New Sweden as a
political state existed but sixteen years. Ecclesiastically, however,
the Lutherans of New Sweden remained subject to the state church at
home for one hundred and fifty years more, and linguistically the
colony was Swedish nearly as long. In the church records of this colony
there appear not a few Norwegian names, particularly in the later
period. We know that Norwegians in considerable numbers came to America
and joined the Delaware Swedes in the eighteenth century. Gothenburg,
which lies not far distant from the province of Smaalenene, was at the
time, and has continued to be, the regular Swedish sailing port for
America-bound ships.

One of the most prominent members of the Bethabara Colony was Dr. John
M. Calberlane, born 1722 in Trondhjem, Norway. He came to New York in
1753, having sailed from London on the ship _Irene_, June thirteenth,
arriving on September ninth. Dr. Calberlane's name occupies a foremost
place among the old colonial physicians; he was a man of much ability,
noble in character and untiring in his devotion to the welfare of his
fellow colonists. On July twenty-eighth, 1759, he himself succumbed to
a contagious fever that visited the settlement. In a sermon delivered
on Easter Sunday, 1760, Bishop Spangenberg gave public recognition of
Calberlane's service in his short life of six years in the colony.[23]

  [23] The name John M. Calberlane, originally Hans Martin Kalberlahn,
       is an interesting instance of an early Americanization of a
       Norwegian name.

Other Norwegians among these Moravian colonists were: Susanna
Stokkeberg, from Söndmöre, Norway, born 1715, who came to America in
1744 with her husband, Abraham Reinke, a Swede, to whom she had been
married that year in Stockholm. Reinke is reputed to have been an able
preacher of the gospel, the two laboring together in the congregations
of Bethlehem, Nazareth, Philadelphia, and Lancaster. She died in 1758,
he in 1760, leaving a son, Abraham Reinke. Peter Peterson, who was
born in Norway in 1728, and had joined the church in London, came to
America as a sailor on the ship _Irene_ in 1749. He died in 1750.
Jens Wittenberg, a tanner from Christiania, born 1719, came on the
_Irene_ in 1754; he died in the colony, 1788. Martha Mans (probably
Monsdatter), from Bergen, born 1716, came on the _Irene_ in 1749. She
lived in Bethabara as a teacher and religious adviser until 1773.
At the same time, also, came Enert Enerson, a carpenter, while in
1759 came Catherine Kalberlahn, and in 1762 Christian Christensen, a
shoemaker, from Christiana. The latter was born in 1718; he had lived
some years in Holland before coming to America. The year of his death
is 1777. Erik Ingebretsen came over June twenty-second, 1750, via
Dover, having been on the ocean six weeks, a remarkably short passage
for that time.[24]

  [24] For some of these facts I am indebted to Juul Dieserud,
       Washington, D. C.

The names of several Norwegians are recorded who served in the War of
the Revolution. Thus under John Paul Jones served Thomas Johnson, who
was born 1758, the son of a pilot in Mandal, Norway. The _New England
Historical Register_, Volume XXVIII, pages 18-21, gives an account
of Johnson's career in the American marine, from which we learn that
he was among those who served on board the _Bon Homme Richard_ in
her cruise in 1779, having been transferred by Paul Jones from the
_Ranger_. Later he went with Paul Jones to the _Serapis_ and the
_Alliance_ and finally to the _Ariel_. With the last ship he arrived
in Philadelphia February eighteenth, 1781. For a fuller account of
Johnson's career the interested reader is referred to the source of
which mention has already been made.

Thomas Johnson lived to the good old age of ninety-three, dying July
twelfth, 1807, in the United States Naval Hospital in Philadelphia.
He had been a pensionist here for a number of years, being known
generally by the nickname "Paul Jones." A biography of Johnson written
by John Henry Sherburne was published at Washington in 1825, to which I
have, however, not had access. Another Norwegian by the name of Lewis
Brown (Lars Bruun) also served under John Paul Jones. I lack further
particulars, however, regarding Brown, except that he is spoken of in
Sherburne's book, _Life of Thomas Johnson_.

A Norwegian sailor, Captain Iverson, settled in Georgia some time about
the close of the eighteenth century. United States Senator Iverson from
Georgia was a grandson of this Norwegian sailor pioneer in Georgia.[25]
About 1805 another sailor, Torgus Torkelson Gromstu, from Gjerpen, near
Skien, Norway, settled in New York.

  [25] P. S. Vig in his book _De Danske i Amerika_ says Iverson was
       of Danish descent but gives no reasons for the claim. As the
       name "Iver" is peculiarly Norwegian I must therefore adhere to
       my view as formerly expressed (_Sc. Immig. to Iowa_).

In my article on "The Danish Contingent in the Population of Early
Iowa," _Iowa Journal of History and Politics_, 1906, I spoke of a
society, styling itself _Scandinavia_, as having been organized in New
York City on June twenty-seventh, 1844. I there designated this as the
earliest organization of the kind in this country. This I find now
to be incorrect. As early as 1769 the _Societas Scandinaviensis_ was
founded in Philadelphia. The membership of this society was made up of
Swedes, Norwegians and Danes, the first of these presumably being in
the majority. The first president of the society was Abraham Markoe
(Markö), a Norwegian. One of the memorable events in the history of the
society was a farewell reception given in "City Tavern" on December
eleventh, 1782, in honor of Baron Axel Ferson, hero of the Battle of
Yorktown. The committee of seven appointed to present the invitation
and also to wait upon General George Washington at Hasbrouch House,
Newburg, with a view of securing his presence consisted of the
following: Captain Abraham Markoe, Sakarias Paulsen, Andreasen
Taasinge, Rev. Andrew Goeranson, Jacob Van der Weer, John Stille and
Andrew Keen. Says the chronicler of the event:

  "This event was one of the most glorious in the Society's history.
  The reception was held at the City Tavern, Wednesday evening,
  December eleventh, 1782. The President of the St. Andrew's Society,
  Rev. Wm. Smith, D. D., lauded the bravery of the Baron and his men
  at the Battle of Yorktown, whereupon General Washington in thanking
  the members of the Society for their forethought in tendering
  the reception to the noble officer (he subsequently decorated
  Ferson with the "Order of the Cincinnati" for valor displayed)
  expressed his pleasure at being present among the people of his
  forefathers' blood, as he claimed descent from the family of Wass,
  who emigrated from Denmark in the year A. D. 970, and settled in
  the County Durham, England, where they built a small town, calling
  it Wass-in-ga-tun (town of Wass.)"[26]

  [26] Cited from a prospectus of the Society issued in December, 1901,
       and kindly sent me by C. M. Machold of Philadelphia.

Variant forms of the name Wassingatun are, as given in the prospectus,
Wessington, Whessingtone, Wasengtone, Wassington and finally
Washington. The prospectus itself cites from Machold's _History of the
Scandinavians in Pennsylvania_.

In January, 1783, General George Washington was elected honorary member
of the Society on account of his Norse ancestry. On the twenty-sixth
of August, that year, a banquet was given at the City Tavern under
the auspices of the Society, in celebration of the recognition by
Sweden, Norway, and Denmark of the independence of the United States of
America. John Stille was for many years secretary of the Society; after
his death in 1802 all traces of it seem to have vanished. Just when the
Societies Scandinaviensis ceased to exist, the Historian cannot say. On
February twentieth, 1868, eighteen gentlemen, all of Scandinavian birth
and residents of Philadelphia, met together for the purpose of forming
a society, and _The Scandinavian Society of Philadelphia_ was founded,
an organization which regards itself a continuation of the original
society. The chief object of the Society is benevolence.

The name of at least one Norwegian who fell in the early wars against
the Indians has come down to us. Frank Peterson, who had enlisted on
the fifteenth of June, 1808, was among those who fell at Fort Dearborn
in 1812, among the "first martyrs of the West," in an attack by five
hundred Pottawattamie Indians. In this battle two-thirds of the whites
were killed and the rest taken prisoners.

At a later date some other names also appear, but those given are the
only ones of which we have any record. I shall mention here that of Ole
Haugen, who probably was the first Norwegian to settle in the State of
Massachusetts. Haugen was from Bergen, Norway, and located in Middlesex
County, that state, in 1815. Alexander Paaske, himself an early
immigrant from Bergen, living in Lowell, Mass., and who was present
at Haugen's deathbed, is the source of the above fact. Though going
beyond the scope of our brief survey of this earliest immigration, it
may be of interest here to know that as early as 1817, a girl from
Voss, Norway, Anna Vetlahuso, emigrated to America with her husband, a
German sailor in Bergen, and settled somewhere in South America. The
next recorded names in the order of emigration to the United States
are Kleng Peerson and Knud Olson Eide, who in 1821 became the advance
guard of a group of fifty-two emigrants that in 1825 founded the first
Norwegian settlement in this country. It is of this sailing and the
leaders of this group that I now wish to speak; of Peerson I shall give
a brief account below.



                               CHAPTER IV

         _The Sloopers of 1825. The First Norwegian Settlement
                      in America. Kleng Peerson._


The story of the Sloopers from Stavanger, Norway, who came to America
in 1825, has often been told; I shall therefore be very brief in my
account of that expedition. Under causes of emigration I shall have
occasion below to note briefly some of the circumstances that seem to
have led to their departure for America in that year. The director
of the expedition and the chief owner of the boat was Lars Larson i
Jeilane; the captain was Lars Olsen. The company consisted of fifty-two
persons, all but one being natives of Stavanger and vicinity; the one
exception was the mate, Nels Erikson, who came from Bergen. Relative
to the leading spirit in this first group of emigrants, Lars Larson, I
shall say here: He was born near Stavanger, September twenty-fourth,
1787. He became a sailor, was captured in the Napoleonic wars and
kept a prisoner in London for seven years. Being released in 1814,
he remained in London, however, till 1815, when he and several other
prisoners returned to Norway. In London they had been converted to the
Quaker faith by Mrs. Margaret Allen, and upon returning to Stavanger,
Lars Larson, Elias Tastad, Thomas Helle and Metta Helle became the
founders of the first Quaker society in that city, a society which is
still in existence.

In 1821 the Stavanger Quakers began to form plans for emigrating to
America. It seems that Kleng Peerson and Knud Eide, whom we have
mentioned above, were deputed to go to America for the purpose of
learning something of the country with a view to planting there a
Quaker colony. Kleng Peerson returned to Stavanger in 1824 with a
favorable report and many of the members of the Quaker colony began to
make preparations for emigrating to the locality selected by Peerson,
namely, Orleans County, New York State. A sloop of only forty-five
tons capacity which they called _Restaurationen_, built in Hardanger,
was purchased and loaded with a cargo of iron and made ready for the
journey. Larson himself had married in December, 1824, Georgiana
Person, who was born October 19, 1803, on Fogn, a small island near
Stavanger. Besides him there were five other heads of families. On
the fourth of July, 1825, they set sail from Stavanger. The following
fifty-two persons made up the party: Lars Larson and wife Martha
Georgiana; Lars Olson, who was captain of the boat, Cornelius Nelson
Hersdal, wife and four children;[27] Daniel Stenson Rossadal, wife and
five children;[28] Thomas Madland, wife and three children,[29] Nels
Nelson Hersdal and wife Bertha, Knud Anderson Slogvig, Jacob Anderson
Slogvig, Gudmund Haugaas, Johannes Stene, wife and two children, Öien
Thorson (Thompson) wife and three children,[30] Simon Lima, wife and
three children, Henrik Christopherson Hervig, and wife, Ole Johnson,
George Johnson, Thorsten Olson Bjaaland, Nels Thorson, Ole Olson
Hetletvedt, Sara Larson (sister of Lars Larson), Halvor Iverson, Andrew
Stangeland, the mate, Nels Erikson, and the cook, Endre Dahl.

  [27] Anne (b. 1814), Nels (b. 1816), Inger (b. 1819), and Martha
       (b. 1823).

  [28] Ellen (b. 1807), Ove (b. 1809), Lars (b. 1812), John (b.
       1821), Hulda (b. 1825).

  [29] Rachel (b. 1807), Julia (b. 1810), Senena (b. 1814).

  [30] Sara (b. 1818), Anna Maria (b. 1819), Caroline (b. 1825).

After a perilous voyage of fourteen weeks they landed in New York,
October ninth. An account of that voyage, which also it seems was a
rather adventurous one, was given by the New York papers at the time;
it was reproduced in Norwegian translation in _Billed-Magazin_ in
1869, whence it has been copied in other works. The arrival of this
first party of Norwegian immigrants, and in so small a boat, created
nothing less than a sensation at the time, as we may infer from the
wide attention the event received in the eastern press. Thus the _New
York Daily Advertiser_ for October twelfth, 1825, under the head lines,
"A Novel Sight," gives an account of the boat, the destination of the
immigrants, the country they came from, their appearance, etc. For
this citation I may refer the reader to page 39 of my article on "The
Coming of the Norwegians to Iowa" in _The Iowa Journal of History and
Politics_, 1905, or to R. B. Anderson's _First Chapter of Norwegian
Immigration_, 1896, 70-71.

In New York the immigrants met Mr. Joseph Fellows, a Quaker, from whom
they purchased land in Orleans County, New York. It seems to have been
upon the suggestion of Mr. Fellows that they were induced to settle
here, although it is possible that the land had already been selected
for them by Kleng Peerson, who was in New York at the time. The price
to be paid for the land was five dollars an acre, each head of a family
and adult person purchasing forty acres. The immigrants not being able
to pay for the land, Mr. Fellows agreed to let them redeem it in ten
annual installments. For the further history of the colony, with which
we are here not so much concerned, the reader is referred to Knud
Langeland's _Nordmaendene i Amerika_, Chicago, 1889, pp. 10-19, or to
Anderson's _First Chapter_, pp. 77-90.

We have already mentioned Kleng Peerson, a name familiar to every
student of Norwegian pioneer history. Much has been written about
this pathfinder in the West, and romance and legend already adorn his
memory. It would be interesting to recount what we know of his life in
America, but as this has been dealt with at length by Professor R. B.
Anderson in his monograph on Norwegian Immigration, which is in large
part devoted to the slooper's history, I may refer the interested
reader to this work. _Symra_ (Decorah, Iowa) for 1906 also contains a
brief, somewhat eulogistic account in Norwegian of Peerson's stay in
New York and his journey of exploration to Illinois, Missouri, and
Texas. The briefest facts I may, however, relate here.

Kleng Peerson was born on the seventeenth of May, 1782, on the estate
Hesthammer in Tysvær Parish, Province of Ryfylke. In 1820 we find
him in Stavanger, where William Allen, an English Quaker, was then
organizing a Quaker society. In 1821 Kleng Peerson and a certain Knud
Olson Eide were, as we have seen, commissioned, it appears, by the
Quakers to go to America and examine the possibility of organizing a
Norwegian colony there. The two explorers secured work in New York
City, but Knud Eide fell ill and died not long after, and Peerson went
west alone in quest of a suitable location for a colony. Just how far
west he may have come on this first journey is not known. After some
time he decided upon Orleans County on the shores of the Ontario as the
best place to plant his colony, and in 1824 he returned to Norway. We
have noted already the results of Peerson's mission. When Lars Larson's
party prepared to go to America Kleng Peerson also left, but he did
not take passage in _Restaurationen_. It seems that he embarked by way
of Gothenburg and was in New York to receive the sloopers upon their
arrival.

It would be natural to suppose that Peerson did not go alone from
Stavanger when he returned to America via Gothenburg in 1825. After
much inquiry I have also succeeded in discovering the name of one man,
who, with his family, accompanied Peerson that year. This man was
Björn Björnson from Stavanger, a cousin of Kleng Peerson; he brought
his wife and several children with him, but left two girl twins, born
in May of that year, with a relative who then lived in Tjensvold, near
Stavanger. Further facts about this family will be given in the chapter
on Chicago.

As Peerson seems to play no role in the founding of the Orleans County
settlement, I shall leave him here. There will be occasion to speak
briefly of him again later in connection with the second Norwegian
settlement. I wish to add a few words here about Lars Larson, however.
He and his family located in Rochester, where he became a builder
of canal boats, prospered; and kept in close touch with immigrant
Norwegians during the two decades of his life there. His home became a
kind of Mecca for hosts of intending settlers in the New World. Larson
died by accident on a canal boat in November, 1845, but his widow lived
till October, 1887. They had eight children, of whom the first one,
Margaret Allen, was born on the Atlantic Ocean, September second, 1825.
Of her and others of Lars Larson's descendants I shall speak briefly
below. We shall now return to the settlers in Orleans County, New York.

The colony was in many respects unfortunate; it cannot be said to
have prospered and has never played any important part as a colony in
Norwegian-American history. But it is important as being the first,
and also as being the parent of a very large and progressive Norwegian
settlement founded in 1834-35 in La Salle County, Illinois, of which
more below. And yet the economic conditions of the Quaker immigrants
gradually became better and the future looked more promising. They felt
now that America offered many advantages to the able and the capable,
and they began writing encouraging letters to relatives and friends in
the old country, urging them to seek their fortune here. As a result
there was, if not a large, at any rate a fairly constant emigration
of individuals and families from Stavanger and adjacent region during
the following eight or nine years, although few seem to have come
before 1829. In this year, e. g., came Gudmund Sandsberg (b. 1787) from
Hjelmeland, in Ryfylke, Norway, and his wife Marie and three children,
Bertha, Anna, and Torbjör.

Passage was secured in the beginning for the most part with American
sailships carrying Swedish iron from Gothenburg. But as this was
attended by much uncertainty, often necessitating several weeks of
waiting, the intending emigrants began to go to Hamburg, where German
emigration by means of regular going American packet ships had already
begun. Here, however, another difficulty met them. The already somewhat
heavy emigration at this port made it necessary to order passage
several weeks ahead in order to insure accommodations, and failing in
this, the emigrant was forced to wait there until the next packet boat
should sail. And so it came about that many of the early Norwegian
immigrants to America came by way of Havre, France, where passage was
always certain, emigration from this point being as yet very limited.

Among those who came via Gothenburg was Gjert Hovland, a farmer from
Hardanger, who left Norway with his family on the twenty-fourth of
June, 1831, sailed from Gothenburg June thirtieth and arrived in New
York September eighteenth. He does not seem to have gone directly to
Kendall, for we find him soon after the owner of fifty acres of forest
land in Morris County, New Jersey.

Gjert Hovland seems to be the first one from the province of Hardanger
to emigrate to America. Other emigrants during these years are:
Christian Olson, who came in 1829, settling in Kendall; Knut Evenson,
wife and daughter Katherine, who emigrated in 1831 in the same ship
by which Hovland came; and Ingebret Larson Narvig from Tysvær Parish,
Ryfylke, who came in 1831 and two years later located in Michigan.
It seems probable that also Johan Nordboe and wife from Ringebo, in
Gudbrandsdalen, Norway, came to Orleans County in 1832. Nordboe was the
first to emigrate from Gudbrandsdalen, a province from which actual
immigration did not begin until sixteen years later.

Norwegian immigrants who came during these years generally located
in Orleans County, but rarely remained there permanently. The
northwestern states were just then beginning to be opened up to
settlers. At this time migration from the eastern states was directed
particularly to Illinois. Good government land could be had here
for $1.25 an acre. The very heavily wooded land that the Norwegian
immigrants in Orleans County had purchased proved very difficult of
improvement, and many began to think of moving to a more favorable
locality.

In 1833 Kleng Peerson, who seems to have lived in Kendall at this
time, made a journey to the West, evidently for the purpose of finding
a suitable site for a new settlement. He was accompanied by Ingebret
Larson Narvig as far as Erie, Monroe County, Michigan, where the latter
remained, Peerson continuing the journey farther west. After several
months of wandering across Michigan, and down into Ohio and Indiana, he
at last arrived at Chicago, then a village of about twenty huts. The
marshes of Chicago did not appeal to Peerson and he went to Milwaukee,
but the reports he received of the endless forests of Wisconsin soon
drove him back again into Illinois. After several days' journey on foot
again west of Chicago he at last found a spot which seemed to him as
if providentially designated as the proper locality for his western
colony. The place was immediately south of the present village of
Norway in La Salle County. His choice made, Peerson returned to Orleans
County, having covered over 2,000 miles on foot since he left.

Peerson's selection was universally approved and a considerable
number of the Kendall settlers decided to move west. Among those of
the sloopers who remained in New York I shall here name: Ole Johnson,
Henrik C. Hervig and Andrew Stangeland, who, however, some years later
bought a tract of land in Noble County, Indiana; Lars Olson located in
New York City, and, as we have seen, Lars Larson settled in Rochester;
Nels Erikson went back to Norway, while Öien Thompson and Thomas
Madland died in Kendall in 1826, and Cornelius Hersdal died there in
1833.



                               CHAPTER V

               _The Founding of the Fox River Settlement.
                Personal Notes on Some of the Founders._


In the spring of 1834 Jacob Anderson Slogvig, Knud Anderson Slogvig,
Gudmund Haugaas, Thorsten Olson Bjaaland, Nels Thompson,[31] Andrew
(Endre) Dahl, and Kleng Peerson left for La Salle County; they became,
therefore, as far as we know, the first Norwegian settlers in Illinois,
and indeed in the Northwest, barring Ingebret Narvig, who had located
in Michigan the year before. These men selected their land and
perfected their purchase as soon as it came into market the following
spring. The first two to buy land were Jacob Slogvig and Gudmund
Haugaas, whose purchase is recorded under June fifteenth, 1835, the
former of eighty acres, the latter one hundred and sixty acres, both
in that part of what was then called Mission Township, but later came
to be Rutland. On June seventeenth, Kleng Peerson's purchase of eighty
acres is recorded, as also that of his sister, Carrie Nelson, widow of
Cornelius Nelson Hersdal, namely, eighty acres of land bought for her
by Peerson. For this date are also recorded the purchases of Thorsten
Olson Bjaaland, eighty acres, Nels Thompson, one hundred and sixty
acres, in what later became Miller Township.

  [31] Nels Thompson had married Bertha Caroline, the widow of
       Olen Thompson in 1827. She had three daughters by her first
       husband: Sara, born 1818; Anna, born 1819; and Caroline, born
       1825 (died in Rochester, N. Y., 1826). Nels Thompson and wife
       had two children: Serena, born 1828; Abraham, born 1830; and
       Caroline, born in 1833.

In 1835 Daniel Rossadal and family, Nels Nelson Hersdal, George
Johnson, and Carrie Nelson Hersdal with family of seven children moved
to La Salle County. Nels Hersdal secured six hundred and forty acres in
exchange for one hundred acres he owned in Orleans County, New York.
The slooper Thomas Madland, as we have seen, died in 1826; his widow
and family of seven also moved to Illinois in 1831. Gjert Hovland came
in 1835, and on June seventeenth purchased one hundred and sixty acres
of land in Miller Township. Nels Hersdal purchased on September fifth
Thorsten Bjaaland's eighty acres in the same township; the latter,
however, bought a hundred and sixty acres again on January sixteenth,
1836, in the same locality. The record of these purchases was copied by
R. B. Anderson and printed in his book, _First Chapter_, etc., cited
above and also in Strand's _History of the Norwegians of Illinois_,
page 75.

Knud Slogvig, who, as we see, came in 1834, did not buy land but
somewhat later returned east and in 1835 went back to Norway. There
he married a sister of the slooper, Ole Olson Hetletvedt and, as
we shall have occasion to note under causes of emigration, became
largely instrumental in bringing about the emigration of 1836.
Baldwin's _History of La Salle County_ also states, page 74, that
Oliver Canuteson,[32] Oliver Knutson,[32] Christian Olson, and Ole
Olson Hetletvedt came to the county in 1834, but the date seems to be
uncertain. With regard to Christian Olson the fact seems rather to be
that he came in 1836 or possibly not till 1837, while also Hetletvedt
seems to be dated about two years too early here. Among those who
came in 1836 according to apparently reliable records are: Ole Olson
Hetletvedt and Gudmund Sandsberg.

  [32] Or are these two the same person?

Relative to the founders of the Fox River Settlement, as that of La
Salle County came to be called, I wish to add here the following
facts of personal history: Gudmund Haugaas, one of the two first to
record the purchase of land, had married Julia, the daughter of Thomas
Madland, in Orleans County in 1827. She died in Rutland Township, La
Salle County, in 1846 and he later married Caroline Hervig, a sister
of Henrik Hervig (Harwick). He had ten children by his first wife.
In Illinois he joined the Mormon Church and became an elder in that
church, practicing medicine at the same time, and, it is said, with
much success. He died of the cholera on the homestead near Norway in
July, 1849; his widow, Caroline, survived him three years.[33]

  [33] Mrs. R. W. Bower of Sheridan, Illinois, is a daughter of
       Haugaas and his wife Caroline. Other children of his are
       Daniel Haugaas in Henderson, Iowa, and Mrs. Isabel Lewis,
       Emington, Illinois, and Thomas Haugaas.

Jacob Slogvig married Serena, daughter of Thomas Madland, in March,
1831. He became one of the founders of the Norwegian settlement in Lee
County, Iowa, in 1840 (see below), later went to California, where
he died in May, 1864. The widow lived until about 1897. Some time
before her death she had been living at the home of her son, Andrew J.
Anderson, at San Diego, California.

Mrs. Carrie Nelson had seven children, of whom Anne, Nels, Inger, and
Martha were born in Norway; Sarah, Peter, and Amelia were born at
Kendall, New York. Carrie Nelson died in 1848. The son, Nels Nelson,
born 1816, married Catherine Iverson about 1840; he died in Sheridan,
Illinois, in August, 1893, as the last male member of the sloop party,
being survived by his widow and four of twelve children. The daughter
Inger was in 1836 married to John S. Mitchell, of Ottawa, Illinois;
Martha married Beach Fallows, a settler of 1835, and Sarah married in
1849 Canute Marsett, an immigrant of 1837, who some years later became
a Mormon bishop at Ephraim, Utah. Their oldest son, Peter Cornelius
Marsett, born at Salt Lake City June second, 1850, was the first child
born of Norwegian parents in Utah.[34] Peter C. Nelson, the youngest
son of Carrie Nelson, born 1830, later settled in Larned, Kansas, where
he died in 1904. Sara Thompson, oldest daughter of Öien Thompson,
and born 1818, married George Olmstead in 1857 in La Salle County;
he died in 1849, and in 1855 she married William W. Richey. Mrs.
Richey settled in Guthrie Center, Iowa, in 1882, where she lived until
recently. Benson C. Olmsted, Charles B. Olmsted and Will F. Richey of
Guthrie Center, Iowa, are sons of Mrs. Sara Richey. Nels Thompson died
in La Salle County, Illinois, in July, 1863. Daniel Rossadal and his
wife, Bertha, both died in La Salle County in 1854. Nels Nelson Hersdal
was born in July, 1800, and his wife, Bertha, in May, 1804; they were
married a few months before the departure of the sloop. He, "Big Nels",
as he was called, came to Illinois in 1835, returned to New York and
did not bring his family to Illinois until 1846, though he moved west
before. He lived until 1886, his wife having died in 1882. Peter Nelson
and Ira Nelson of La Salle County, are their sons. George Johnson died
from cholera in 1849.

  [34] For these facts I am indebted to R. B. Anderson, as also
       for other details of the personal history of the slooper's
       descendants.

Andrew Dahl went to Utah in the fifties, being one of the earliest
pioneers of that state. A son of his, A. S. Anderson, was a member
of the Utah Constitutional Convention in 1895. Ole Hetletvedt, who
located at Niagara Falls, not therefore in Orleans County, had three
sons, Porter C., Sören L. and James W. The first of these, born 1831,
became captain and later colonel in Company F, 36th Regiment, Illinois
Volunteers, in the War of the Rebellion, and was Acting Brigadier
General when he was killed in the Battle of Franklin (Tenn.). Sören
Olson was killed in the Battle of Murfreesboro. James Olson, who also
went to the front, lived to return to his home after the war. Porter
Olson lies buried at Newark, Illinois, where a fitting monument adorns
his grave. Finally I wish to add that Margaret Allen, the "sloop girl"
born on the Atlantic, daughter of Lars Larson, married John Atwater in
Rochester, New York, in 1857. They afterwards moved to Chicago, where
he died in the early nineties, while Mrs. Atwater is, I believe, still
living at Western Springs, Cook County. We shall now return to our
settlement in La Salle County.

We have given above a brief account of the founding of the Fox River
settlement. Out of that nucleus of about thirty persons, whom we
know to have come there in 1834-35 grew up one of the largest and
most prosperous of rural communities in the country. The settlement
developed rapidly, before many years extending into Kendall, Grundy and
DeKalb counties and becoming a distributing point in the westward march
of Norwegian immigration during the following years. The settlement
in Orleans County, New York, ceased to grow, the objective point of
immigrants from Norway had been changed and the Fox River region
received large accessions, especially during the year 1836.

Immigration from Norway which heretofore had been more or less
sporadic, in which individuals and very small groups are found to take
part, now enters upon a new phase, begins in fact to assume the form of
organized effort. The year 1836 inaugurated this change, while in 1837
there was something approaching an exodus from certain localities in
Western Norway. The desire to emigrate to America had also now spread
far beyond the original center, at Stavanger; the source of emigration
was transferred to a more northerly region and with it, as we have had
occasion to observe above, the course of settlement in this country is
not only directed to a more westerly region, Illinois, but also soon
extends into the northern border counties of Illinois and into southern
and southeastern Wisconsin.

As this increased immigration is historically associated with the names
of two of those whom we have already met as pioneers in New York, New
Jersey and Illinois, a brief account of their share in the promotion
of immigration from Norway will be in place. These two are Gjert
Hovland and Knud Slogvig. We have seen that the former of these came
to America in 1831, being probably the first immigrant from Hardanger.
His name deserves special mention as an early promoter of emigration
from southwestern Norway, especially from his own province. He was
a man of much enlightenment and liberalmindedness to whom America's
free institutions made a strong appeal. He wrote letters home to
friends urging emigration and these were circulated far and wide. In
one of these letters from Morris County, New Jersey, 1835, he writes
enthusiastically of American laws, and he contrasts its spirit of
liberty with the oppressions of the class aristocracy in Norway. He
advised all who could do so to come to America, where it was permitted
to settle wherever one chose, he says. Hovland was well known in
several parishes in the Province of South Bergenhus, and hundreds of
copies of his letters were circulated there; they aroused the greatest
interest among the people and were no small factor in leading many in
that region to emigrate in 1836-37.

Thus it may be noted specifically that in 1836 a lay preacher
travelling in Voss had in his possession one of Gjert Hovland's
letters, which letter was read by Nils Röthe, Nils Bolstad and John H.
Björgo and others. These three since said that it was the reading of
Hovland's letter which induced them to immigrate.[35] Gjert Hovland,
as we have seen, came to Illinois in 1835. His purchase of one hundred
and sixty acres of land in the present Miller Township was recorded
on June seventeenth of that year, the same date that the purchases of
Kleng Peerson, Nels Thompson and Thorsten Bjaaland were recorded. Gjert
Hovland lived there till his death in 1870.

  [35] _First Chapter_, p. 331.

The other name, that I referred to, is that of Knud Anderson Slogvig,
who undoubtedly was the chief promoter of immigration in 1836. He had
come in the sloop in 1825, and, as we have seen, settled in La Salle
County in 1834. In 1835 he returned to Skjold, Norway, and there
married a sister of Ole O. Hetletvedt, the slooper whom we find as one
of the early pioneers of La Salle County. While there, people came to
talk with him about America from all parts of southwestern Norway; and
a large number in and about Stavanger decided to emigrate. Slogvig's
return may be said to have started the "America-fever" in Norway,
though it took some years before it reached the central and the eastern
parts of the country. It was his intention to return to America in
1836, and a large party was preparing to emigrate with him.

In the spring of that year the two brigs, _Norden_ and _Den Norske
Klippe_, were fitted out from Stavanger. The former sailed on the first
Wednesday after Pentecost, arriving in New York July twelfth, 1836. The
latter sailed a few weeks later. They carried altogether two hundred
immigrants, most of whom went directly to La Salle County. Of these two
brigs I shall speak again in a subsequent chapter.

I have above given some of the facts of Knud Slogvig's personal
history. Having already spoken of one element in the cause of
emigration I believe it will be in place to give a fuller account at
this point of the various general and special factors that have been
instrumental in bringing about the coming to America of such a large
part of the population of Norway in the 19th century.



                               CHAPTER VI

                   _Causes of Emigration from Norway.
                      General Factors, Economic._


What are the causes that have brought about the exodus from Norway
and in general from the Scandinavian countries in the 19th century?
The question is not a simple one to answer; for the causes have been
many and varied, and it would be impossible in the following pages to
discuss all the circumstances and influences that have operated to
promote the northern emigration and directed it to America. Perhaps
there is something in the highly developed migratory instinct of
Indo-European peoples. Especially has this instinct characterized the
Germanic branch, whether it be Goth or Vandal, Anglo-Saxon, Viking or
Norman,[36] or their descendants, the Teutonic peoples of modern times,
by whom chiefly the United States has been peopled and developed.

  [36] That is, "Northman."

Of tangible motives, one that has everywhere been a fundamental
factor in promoting emigration from European countries in modern
times has been the prospect of material betterment. Where no barriers
have been put against the emigration of the poor or the ambitious,
unless special causes have arisen to create discontent with one's
condition, the extent to which European countries have contributed
to our immigrant population may be measured fairly closely by the
economic conditions at home. As far as the Northern countries are
concerned I would class all these causes under two heads: the first
will comprise all those conditions, natural and artificial, that can be
summarized under the term economic; the second will include a number of
special circumstances or motives which may vary somewhat for the three
countries, indeed often for the locality and the individual.

First then we may consider the causes which arise from economic
conditions. These are well illustrated by the Scandinavian countries,
slightly modified in each case by the operation of the special causes.
Norway is a land of mountains, these making up in the fact fifty-nine
per cent of its total area, while forty-four per cent of the soil of
Sweden is unproductive. The winters are long and severe, the cold
weather frequently sets in too early for the crops to ripen; with crop
failure comes lack of work for the laboring classes, and, burdened
by heavy taxation, as was the Norwegian farmer only too often in the
middle of the last century, debt and impoverishment for the holders
of the numerous encumbered smaller estates. In Norway, especially,
the rewards of labor are meagre and the opportunities for material
betterment small.[37] "Hard times" and the inability of the country
to support the rapidly increasing population has, then, been a most
potent factor.[38] The same will hold true of Sweden, though in a
somewhat less degree. Denmark is better able to support a population
of one hundred and forty-eight to the square mile than Sweden one of
twenty-eight or Norway one of eighteen.[39]

  [37] A great change for the better has been taking place during the
       last few years.

  [38] Thus the failure of crops and the famine in Northern Sweden,
       Finland, and Norway in 1902 was followed by a vastly increased
       immigration from these sections. See above page 28. Compare
       Table II, Appendix.

  [39] The area and population of the three countries are:--Sweden,
       area 172,876 sq. m., population in 1901, 5,175,228; Norway,
       area 124,129, population in 1900, 2,239,880; Denmark, area
       15,360, population in 1901, 2,447,441.

In this connection compare above the statistics of immigration from
the three countries, which are much lower for Denmark than for Norway
and Sweden. The Danes at home are a contented people, and it is
noticeable also that it is they who are most conservative here, who
foster the closest relation with the old home, and who consequently
become Americanized last. The Norwegians are the most discontented, are
readiest for a change, are quickest to try the new; and it is they who
most readily break the bonds that bind them to their native country,
who most quickly adapt themselves to the conditions here, and who most
rapidly become Americanized.

Professor R. B. Anderson, in his book on the early Norwegian
immigration[40] puts religious persecution as the primary cause of
emigration from Norway. I cannot possibly believe that even in the
immigration of the first half of the nineteenth century religious
persecution was, except in a few cases, the primary or even a very
important cause in the Scandinavian countries. In conversation with and
in numerous letters from pioneers and their descendants, especially
in Iowa and Wisconsin, I have found that the hope of larger returns
for one's labor is everywhere given as the main motive, sometimes as
the only one. Whether it be the pioneers of La Salle County, Illinois,
in the thirties, those of Rock or Dane counties, Wisconsin, in the
forties, or the Norwegian settlers of Clayton and Winneshiek counties,
Iowa, in the late forties and the fifties; the causes are everywhere
principally economic. But letters written by pioneers and by those
about to emigrate testify amply to the fact that it was the hard times
that was the chief cause. And the same applies almost as generally to
the Swedes; among the Danes the economic factor has not operated so
extensively, though here, also, it was the preponderating cause.

  [40] _First Chapter, etc._

A Norwegian journal, _Billed-Magazin_, published in Chicago in 1869-70
and edited by Professor Svein Nilsen, offers much that throws light
on this question. It contains brief accounts of the early Norwegian
immigration and the earliest settlements, a regular column of news
from the Scandinavian countries, interviews with pioneers, etc. In one
interview, Ole Nattestad, who sailed in 1837 from Vægli, Numedal, and
became the founder of the fourth Norwegian settlement in America, that
of Jefferson Prairie in Rock County, Wisconsin, and the neighboring
Boone County in Illinois, describes his experience as a farmer in
Numedal and how the difficulty of making any headway finally drove him
to emigrate to America.[41] The statement of another pioneer I quote
in its entirety.[42] It is that of John Nelson Luraas, who came from
Tin in Telemarken, to Muskego, Wisconsin, in 1839, and in 1843 moved to
Dane County, Wisconsin. He says:

  I was my father's oldest son, and consequently heir to the Luraas
  farm. It was regarded as one of the best in that neighborhood,
  but there was a $1,400 mortgage on it. I had worked for my father
  until I was twenty-five years old, and had had no opportunity of
  getting money. It was plain to me that I would have a hard time of
  it, if I should take the farm with the debt resting on it, pay a
  reasonable amount to my brothers and sisters, and assume the care
  of my aged father. I saw to my horror how one farm after the other
  fell into the hands of the lendsman and other money-lenders, and
  this increased my dread of attempting farming. But I got married
  and had to do something. Then it occurred to me that the best thing
  might be to emigrate to America. I was encouraged in this purpose
  by letters written by Norwegian settlers in Illinois who had lived
  two years in America. Such were the causes that led me to emigrate
  and I presume the rest of our company were actuated by similar
  motives.[43]

  [41] _Billed-Magazin_, 1869, pp. 82-83.

  [42] _Billed-Magazin_, 1869, pp. 6-7.

  [43] In 1868, Mr. Luraas moved to Webster County, Iowa, returning
       to Dane County, Wisconsin, in 1873. I knew him in the early
       nineties as a well-to-do retired farmer living in Stoughton,
       Wisconsin. He died in 1894.

In a letter written by Andreas Sandsberg at Hellen, Norway, September
twelfth, 1831, to Gudmund Sandsberg in Kendall, New York, the former
complains of the hard times in Norway. In the spring of 1836 the second
party of emigrants from Stavanger County came to America. On the 14th
of May of that year Andreas Sandsberg wrote his brother Gudmund in
America as follows:

  A considerable number of people are now getting ready to go to
  America from this Amt. Two brigs are to depart from Stavanger in
  about eight days from now, and will carry these people to America,
  and if good reports come from them, the number of emigrants will
  doubtless be still larger next year. A pressing and general lack
  of money entering into every branch of industry, stops or at least
  hampers business and makes it difficult for many people to earn the
  necessaries of life. While this is the case on this side of the
  Atlantic there is hope for abundance on the other, and this I take
  it, is the chief cause of this growing disposition to emigrate.[44]

  [44] Letter copied from the original by R. B. Anderson in 1896 and
       printed in _First Chapter_, pp. 135-136.

Ole Olson Menes, who came to America in 1845, is cited in
_Billed-Magazin_, 1870, page 130, as follows, illustrating the
prominence of the economic cause nine years later:

  The emigrants of the preceding year (1844) ... wrote home ... and
  told of the fertility of the soil, the cheap prices of land and of
  good wages. In a letter which I received from Iver Hove, he writes
  that there they raise thirty-five bushels of wheat per acre, and
  the grass is so thick that one can easily cut enough in one day for
  winter feed for the cow. Such things fell to our liking, and many
  looked forward with eager longing to the distant West, which was
  pictured as the Eden that loving Providence had destined as a home
  for the workingman of Norway, so oppressed with cares and want.

Of those here cited, Nattestad was from Numedal, Luraas from
Telemarken, Menes from Sogn, while Sandsberg came from Ryfylke. But
the conditions were the same also in other provinces. In 1844, Hans
C. Tollefsrude and wife emigrated from Land. Of the cause of his
emigrating and that of early emigration from Land in general, his son
Christian H. Tollefsrude of Rolfe, Iowa, writes me:

  The causes were, no personal means and no prospect even securing a
  home in their native district, Torpen, Nordre Land (letter of July
  27, 1904).

Rev. Abraham Jacobson of Decorah, Iowa, a pioneer himself, writes:

  Reasons for emigrating were mostly economic, very few if any
  religious.... Wages here were at the very least double that in
  Norway, and generally much more than that.

Of the emigration from Ringsaker, I may cite Simon Simerson of Belmond,
Iowa:

  The causes were economic. In the case of my parents, they came
  here to create the home that they saw no chance of securing in the
  mother country. (Letter of Oct. 12, 1904.)

Similar evidence might be adduced for other districts and for all the
older settlements throughout the Northwest. At a meeting held at the
home of Ole O. Flom in Stoughton, Wisconsin, on July twenty-eighth,
1908, when the present writer read a paper on "Early Norwegian
Immigration," testimony to the same effect was given by old pioneers
there present. There is no need of further multiplying the evidence.

A highly developed spirit of independence has always been a dominant
element in the Scandinavian character,--I have reference here
particularly to his desire for personal independence, that is,
independence in his condition in life. Nothing is so repugnant to him
as indebtedness to others and dependence on others. An able-bodied
Scandinavian who was a burden to his fellows was well-nigh unheard
of. By the right of primogeniture the paternal estate would go to the
oldest son. The families being frequently large, the owning of a home
was to a great many practically an impossibility under wage conditions
as they were in the North in the first half and more of the preceding
century.

Thus the Scandinavian farmer's son, with his love of personal
independence and his strong inherent desire to own a home, finding
himself so circumstanced in his native country that there was little
hope of his being able to realize this ambition except in the distant
uncertain future, listens, with a willing ear to descriptions of
America, with its quick returns and its great opportunities. And so
he decides to emigrate. And this he is free to do for the government
puts no barrier upon his emigrating. This trait has impelled many a
Scandinavian to come and settle in America; and it is a trait that is
the surest guarantee of the character of his citizenship. Here, too, a
social factor merits mention.

While the nobility was abolished in Norway in 1814, the lines between
the upper and lower classes, the wealthy and the poor, were tightly
drawn and social classes were well defined. And while Norway is today
the most democratic country in Europe, and Sweden and Denmark are
also thoroughly liberal (in part through the influence of America and
American-Scandinavians), a titled aristocracy still exists in these
countries. The extreme deference to those in superior station or
position that custom and existing conditions enforced upon those in
humbler condition was repugnant to them. Not infrequently have pioneers
given this as one cause for emigrating in connection with that of
economic advantage.



                              CHAPTER VII

           _Causes of Emigration Continued. Special Factors.
                Religion as a Cause. Emigration Agents._


In the class of special causes which have influenced the Scandinavian
emigration, political oppression has operated only in the case of the
Danes in Southern Jutland.[45]

  [45] As a result of the Dano-Prussian war of 1864 Jutland below
       Skodborghus became a province of Prussia. The greatly
       increased taxes that immediately followed and the restrictions
       imposed by the Prussian government upon the use of the
       Danish language, as well as other oppressive measures that
       formed a part of the general plan of the Prussianizing of
       Sleswick-Holstein, drove large numbers of Danes away from
       their homes, and most of these came to the United States. In
       notes and correspondence from Denmark in Scandinavian-American
       papers during these years complaints regarding such
       regulations constantly appear, and figures of emigration of
       Danes "who did not wish to be Prussians" are unusually large
       for this period; for example in the foreign column of the
       _Billed-Magazin_. The United States statistics also show a
       sudden increase in the Danish immigration during the sixties
       and the early seventies. From 1850-1861 not more than 3,983
       had emigrated from Denmark; while in the thirteen years from
       1862 to 1874 the number reached 30,978.

Military service, which elsewhere has often played such an important
part in promoting emigration, has, in the Scandinavian countries, been
only a minor factor, the period of service required being very short.
Nevertheless it has in not a few cases been a secondary cause for
emigrating. Those with whom I have spoken who have given this as their
motive have, however, been mostly Norwegians and Swedes; but none of
those who belong to the earlier period of emigration give their desire
to escape military service as a cause.

Religious persecution has played a part in some cases, especially in
Norway and Sweden. The state church is the Lutheran, but every sect
has been tolerated since the middle of the century, in Norway since
1845. While few countries have been freer from the evil of active
persecution because of religious belief, intolerance and religious
narrowness have not been wanting. In the beginning of the nineteenth
century, the followers of the lay preacher, Hans Nielsen Hauge, in
Norway were everywhere persecuted. Hauge himself was imprisoned in
Christiania for eight years. And the Jansenists in Helsingland, Sweden,
were in the forties subjected to similar persecution. Thus Eric
Jansen was arrested several times for conducting religious meetings
between 1842-1846,--though it must in fairness be admitted that his
first arrest was undoubtedly provoked by the extreme procedure of the
dissenters themselves. After having been put in prison repeatedly,
Jansen embarked for America in 1846 and became the founder of the
communistic colony of followers at Bishopshille,[46] Henry County,
Illinois. No such organized emigration took place among the Haugians,
but we have no means of knowing to what extent individual emigration of
the followers of Hauge took place during the three decades immediately
after his death. The well-known Elling Eielson, a lay preacher and
an ardent Haugian, emigrated in 1839 to Fox River, La Salle County,
Illinois, and many of those who believed in the methods of Hauge and
Eielson came to America in the following years.

  [46] So named from _Biskopskulla_, Jansen's native place in Sweden.
       See article by Major John Swainson on "The Swedish Colony at
       Bishopshill, Illinois," in Nelson's _Scandinavians_, I, p.
       142. This article gives an excellent account of the founding
       of the Bishopshill settlement and Jansen's connection with it.
       See also _American Communities_ by Wm. Alfred Hinds, 1902, pp.
       300-320.

It was persecution also that drove many Scandinavian Moravians to
America in 1740 and 1747. Moravian societies had been formed in
Christiania in 1737, in Copenhagen in 1739, in Stockholm in 1740, and
in Bergen in 1740.[47] In 1735 German Moravians from Herrnhut, Saxony,
established a colony at Savannah, Georgia.[47] In this colony there
seem to have been some Danes and Norwegians. In 1740 a permanent colony
was located at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and in 1747 one at Bethabara,
North Carolina. Persecuted Norwegian, Swedish, and Danish Moravians
took part in the founding of both these colonies.

  [47] _Decorah-Posten_, September 9, 1904, p. 5. See also above p. 37.

As we have seen, the first Norwegian settlement in America was
established in Kendall, Orleans County, New York, in 1825. It has been
claimed that the "sloopers" were driven to emigrate by persecution at
home.[48] Another writer has shown that the only one of the Stavanger
Quakers who suffered for his belief prior to 1826 was Elias Tastad,
and he, it seems, did not emigrate.[49] The leader of the emigrants in
_Restaurationen_, Lars Larson i Jeilane, had spent one year in London
in the employ of the noted English Quaker, William Allen. In 1818,
Stephen Grellet, a French nobleman, who had become a Quaker in America,
and William Allen preached in Stavanger.[49] The Quakers of Stavanger
were of the poorest of the people. It is highly probable, as another
writer states,[50] that Grellet, while there, suggested to them that
they emigrate to America where they could better their condition in
material things and at the same time practice their religion without
violating the laws of the country. The main motive was therefore
probably economic.

  [48] R. B. Anderson is emphatic in this view. Pages 45-131 of his
       _First Chapter of Norwegian Immigration_ are devoted to a
       discussion of the sloop "Restaurationen" and the Quaker Colony
       in Orleans County.

  [49] Nelson's _History of Scandinavians_, 1901, p. 133.

  [50] B. L. Wick, in _The Friends_, Philadelphia, 1894, according to
       Nelson, p. 134. I have not been able to secure a copy of the
       above article, therefore cannot here state the arguments, or
       cite more fully.

It is perfectly clear to me that not very many of the Orleans County
colonists were devout Quakers; for we soon find them wandering apart
into various other churches. Some returned to Lutheranism; those who
went west became mostly Methodists or Mormons; others did not join
any church; while the descendants of those who remained are to-day
Methodists. The Orleans County Quakers do not seem to have even erected
a meeting-house; and in Scandinavian settlements a church, however
humble, is, next to a home, the first thought.[51] Nevertheless the
Quakers of Stavanger did suffer annoyances, and it must be remembered
that the leader of the expedition and the owner of the sloop was a
devout Quaker,[52] as were also at least two other leading members of
the party. Had it not been for these very men the party would probably
not have emigrated, at least not at that time.

  [51] The reader who knows Björnson's _Synnöve Solbakken_ will
       remember the author's introduction of this feature in Chapter
       II, the first two pages.

  [52] Lars Larson settled in Rochester where he could attend a
       Quaker church. The same is true of Ole Johnson, another of the
       "sloopers" who later settled in Kendall but finally returned
       to Rochester, where he died in 1877.

There was much persecution of the early converts to the Baptist faith
in Denmark between 1850-1860; and not a few of this sect emigrated. In
1848 F. O. Nilson, one of the early leaders of the Baptist Church in
Sweden, was imprisoned and later banished from the country. He fled
to Denmark, and in 1851 embarked for America. In the fifties Swedish
Baptists in considerable numbers came to the United States because of
persecution. There are, however, very few Norwegian Baptists, and I
know of no cases where persecution drove Baptists to leave Norway.

Proselyting of some non-Lutheran churches in Scandinavia has been the
means of bringing many Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes to this country.
In the fifties Mormon missionaries were especially active in Denmark
and Norway. Their efforts did not seem to be attended by much success
in Norway, though not a few converts were made among the Norwegians
in the early settlements in Illinois and Iowa, as in the Fox River
Settlement.[53] In Denmark, however, Mormon proselyting was more
successful than in Norway. All those who accepted Mormonism emigrated
to America of course, and most of them to Utah. In the years 1851,
1852, and 1853 there emigrated fourteen, three, and thirty-two Danes,
respectively, to this country. But in 1854 the number rose to 691, and
in the following three years to 1,736. In 1850 there were in Utah two
Danes; in 1870 there were 4,957. The first Norwegian to go to Utah
probably was Henrik E. Sebbe, who came to America in 1836, and went to
Utah in 1848, where he became a Mormon.[53]

  [53] Some of the early Mormon leaders were Norwegians, however,
       as Bishop Canute Peterson (Marsett), of Ephraim, Utah, who
       came to America in 1837 from Hardanger, Norway. The slooper
       Gudmund Haugaas became an elder in the church of the Latter
       Day Saints in La Salle County, Illinois; he died in 1849 and
       was succeeded by his son Thomas Haugaas.

In 1849 a Norwegian-American, O. P. Peterson, first introduced
Methodism in Norway.[54] After 1855 a regular Methodist mission was
established in Scandinavia under the supervision of a Danish-American,
C. B. Willerup.[55] While the Methodist church has not prospered in
the Scandinavian countries, especially in Denmark and Norway, there are
large numbers of Methodists among the Scandinavian immigrants in this
country,[56] and the early congregations were recruited for a large
part from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark.

  [54] See a brief account by Rev. N. M. Liljegren in Nelson's
       _History of Scandinavians_, I, pp. 205-209.

  [55] Methodism had been introduced into Sweden from England early
       in the century.

The efforts of steamship companies and emigration agents have been a
powerful factor in promoting Scandinavian emigration. Through them
literature advertising in glowing terms the advantages of the New
World was scattered far and wide in Scandinavia. Such literature often
dealt with the prosperity of Scandinavians who had previously settled
in America. Letters from successful settlers were often printed and
distributed broadcast. The early immigrants from the North settled
largely in Illinois, Wisconsin, and, a little later, in Iowa. As
clearers of the forest and tillers of the soil they contributed their
large share to the development of the country. None could better endure
the hardships of pioneer life on the western frontier. Knowing this,
many western states began to advertise their respective advantages in
the Scandinavian countries.

  [56] By far the larger number, however, are Swedes.



                              CHAPTER VIII

           _Causes of Emigration continued. The Influence of
                Successful Pioneers. "America-letters."
                   The Spirit of Adventure. Summary._


Far more influential, however, than the factors just noted were the
efforts put forth by successful immigrants to induce their relatives
and friends to follow them. Numerous letters were written home praising
American laws and institutions, and setting forth the opportunities
here offered. These letters were read and passed around to friends.
Many who had relatives in America would travel long distances to
hear what the last "America-letter" had to report. Among the early
immigrants who did much in this way to promote emigration from their
native districts was one whom we have already spoken of, Gjert
Hovland. He wrote many letters home praising American institutions.
These letters "were transcribed and the copies distributed far and
wide in the Province of Bergen; and a large number were thus led to
emigrate."[57]

  [57] See _Billed-Magazin_, p. 74.

The interviews in _Billed-Magazin_ contain statements from several
among the early settlers on Koshkonong Prairie and the neighborhood
of Stoughton which give evidence of the part that "America-letters"
played in their emigration. On page 123 occurs a statement of Gaute
Ingbrigtson (Gulliksrud) who came from Tin in Telemarken in 1843 and
became one of the earliest pioneers of Dunkirk Township in Dane County.
He says: "Two of my uncles and a brother emigrated in 1839. I, however,
remained at home with my father who was a farmer in the Parish of Tin.
But then letters came with good news from America, and my relatives as
well as other acquaintances on this side of the ocean were encouraged
to emigrate. From this it came about that I and many others in my
native district prepared for leaving in the spring of 1843. The party
numbered about one hundred and twenty...."

We have already had occasion to refer to a letter received by Ole
Menes of Stoughton in 1845. Ingbrigt Helle came from Kragerö in
1845 and settled in the Town of Dunn. The ship he came on brought
one hundred and forty immigrants and he mentions the fact that
many had been induced to emigrate by letters from America, and he
writes: "Such letters from America urging emigration was, as far as
I can see, the thing that brought the majority of emigrants to bid
farewell to Norway." Ole Knudson Dyrland, who emigrated from Siljord,
Telemarken, in 1843, and became one of the earliest white settlers in
Dunn Township, Dane County, testifying to the same fact, mentions Ole
Knudson Trovatten as one who, through letters, exerted considerable
influence upon emigration in Telemarken (page 218, _Billed-Magazin_,
1870). We shall meet Trovatten again below as a pioneer in the Town
of Cottage Grove in the same county. The editor of _Billed-Magazin_
writes of Trovatten elsewhere, page 283, after giving a brief sketch of
his life: "he settled on Koshkonong and wrote therefrom many letters
to his numerous friends in his native country in which he, with
much eloquence, made his countrymen acquainted with the glories of
America, and there is no doubt that Trovatten in a large measure gave
the impulse to the rapid development of emigration in the region of
Telemarken."

Of Trovatten's influence as a promoter of immigration Gunder T. Mandt,
himself an immigrant of 1843 (died 1907, Stoughton, Wisconsin), gives
similar testimony. He speaks of the opposition to emigration in Upper
Telemarken, which found expression in all sorts of adverse accounts
of America, especially among the clergy, and that much uncertainty
prevailed among the masses as to the advisability of going to America.
During all this, Trovatten, he says, "came to be looked upon as an
angel of peace, who had gone beforehand to the New World, whence he
sent back home to his countrymen, so burdened by economic sorrows,
the olive-branch of promise, with assurances of a happier life in
America.... 'Ole Trovatten has said so,' became the refrain in all
accounts of the land of wonder, and in a few years he was the most
talked of man in Upper Telemarken. His letters from America gave a
powerful impulse to emigration, and it is probable that hundreds of
those who now are plowing the soil of Wisconsin and Minnesota would
still be living in their ancestors' domains in the land of Harald
Fairhair, if they had not been induced to bid old Norway farewell
through Trovatten's glittering accounts of conditions on this side of
the ocean." (_Billed-Magazin_, 1870, p. 38.) Similar evidence of the
influence of "America-letters" is also given by Knud Aslakson Juve, a
pioneer of 1844, in the Town of Pleasant Spring, in Dane County.

At the close of the preceding chapter I spoke of Gjert Hovland's
letters in 1835 as a chief factor in bringing about the emigration of
1836. From settlers in other portions of the country comes testimony
of similar nature, and I have spoken with many pioneers from a later
period of immigration, whose coming was, in the last instance,
determined by favorite accounts of America received from friends and
relatives already resident there.

In letters from immigrants to their relatives at home prepaid tickets,
or the price of the ticket, were often enclosed. This custom was so
common as to become a special factor in emigration. According to
_Norsk Folkeblad_ (cited in _Billed-Magazin_, p. 134), 4,000 Norwegian
emigrants, via Christiana in 1868, took with them $40,335 (Speciedaler)
in cash money of which $21,768 (Spd.) had been sent by relatives in
America to cover the expense of the journey. It has been estimated that
about fifty per cent of Scandinavian emigrants, arrive by prepaid
passage tickets secured by relatives in this country.[58]

  [58] Nelson's _History of Scandinavians_, page 56.

The visits of successful Scandinavians back home was in the early days
an important factor; and as a rule only those who had been prosperous
would return. In 1835 Knud Anderson Slogvig, who had emigrated in the
sloop as we know, returned to Norway and became the chief promoter of
the exodus from the Province of Stavanger in 1836, which resulted in
the settlement at Fox River, La Salle County, Illinois.

We have already above, page 63, recited this fact and its significance
toward promoting further emigration from Stavanger Province and of
inaugurating the first exodus from Hardanger also. Thus, while Jacob
Slogvig, the brother, was one of a few to secure land in La Salle
County and make the beginnings of settlement, Knud became the means
of bringing hosts of immigrants from Norway to recruit the colony and
start it upon its course of growth. In precisely a similar way did two
other brothers become even more significant factors in the foundation
and development of the earliest Norwegian settlement in Wisconsin,
namely, that of Jefferson Prairie in Rock County. They were Ole and
Ansten Nattestad, who had emigrated in 1837. Returning to Norway in
1839 Ansten Nattestad became the father of emigration from Numedal,
Norway, bringing with him a large party of immigrants, who located for
the most part in southern Rock County, Wisconsin, and adjacent parts of
the state of Illinois. But of this movement I shall have occasion to
speak more fully below.

An equally interesting instance we have from a somewhat later period.
We have above referred to Ole Dyrland's testimony of the effect of Ole
Trovatten's letters. After remarking that many still were doubtful of
the advisability of emigrating he goes on to say:

  "But then Knud Svalestuen of Vinje, who had lived for a time in the
  Muskego Settlement, came home on a trip back to Norway, and by his
  accounts even the most hesitating were made firm in their faith.
  Knud came in the fall of 1843, and during the winter he received
  visits of men sent out from various districts in Telemarken, who
  came to secure reliable information about the new country. The
  next spring hosts of intending emigrants left the upper mountain
  districts of the country.... Three emigrant ships left that year
  from Porsgrund. On board the ship I left in there were two hundred
  and eleven emigrants."

The editor of _Billed-Magazin_ gives other interviews with pioneers
showing the effect of Svalestuen's return (page 293).

Some of the Norwegian pioneers wrote books regarding the settlements
and American conditions, and these, laudatory as they were, exerted
not a little influence. Special mention should be made of Ole Rynning,
whose pamphlet, _Sandfaerdig Beretning om Amerika til Veiledning og
Hjaelp for Bonde og, Menigmand, skrevet of en Norsk som kom der i
Juni Maaned_, 1837.[59] This little book of thirty-nine pages had
not a little to do with the emigration that followed to La Salle
County, Illinois, and elsewhere. In it the author gives an intelligent
discussion of thirteen questions regarding America which he set himself
to answer. Among them were: What is the nature of the country? What is
the reason that so many people go there? Is it not to be feared that
the land will soon be overpopulated? In what parts are the Norwegian
settlements? Which is the most convenient and the cheapest route to
them? What is the price of land? What provision is there for the
education of children? What language is spoken and is it difficult
to learn? Is there danger of disease in America? What kind of people
should emigrate?

  [59] _True Account of America for the Information and Help of
       Peasant and Commoner_, written by a Norwegian who came there
       in the month of June, 1837.

Another writer of immigration literature whose writings were widely
distributed and had considerable influence was Johan Reinert Reierson.
He came to America in 1843, but returned to Norway soon after. In
America he had written a book, _Veiviseren_,[60] which he published
in Norway and was read far and wide. This book contains a fund of
information regarding the different settlements, as Racine County,
Wisconsin, La Salle County, Illinois, and Lee County, Iowa, and others,
all of which Reierson had himself visited. Reierson became the founder
of the first Norwegian settlement in Texas in 1847-48.

  [60] _The Pathfinder_, a book of one hundred and sixty-six pages.

Of the events leading up to this, _Billed-Magazin_ for 1870 gives a
circumstantial account, pages 58-60, 66-67, and 75-76. Reierson's
book seems to have been a leading factor in promoting emigration from
Valders. Among the earliest to leave this region were Nils Hanson
Fjeld and family of South Aurdal, Valders, who emigrated in 1847. He
says, page 236 of _Billed-Magazin_ for 1870, that before him only
two or three single men had gone to America from that region. The
"America-fever" had not yet taken hold of the people, "many would not
give credence to mere hearsay, but after a while a couple copies of
Reierson's book about Texas came to the district. 'Now we have the
printed word to go by,' it was said, and many of the doubters soon were
converted to the orthodox faith in the land of promise beyond the great
ocean." And as a result, many began to emigrate. As early as 1848,
emigration from Valders on a considerable scale was already in progress.

I shall here also mention Ansten Nattestad, who wrote a similar book,
which he took with him on his return to Norway in 1838, and had printed
there; this became a factor operating toward emigration, especially
in Numedal. Reverend J. W. C. Dietrichson's _Reise blandt de norske
Emigranter i de forenede nordamerikanske Fristater_, Stavanger, 1846
(124 pages), gave much valuable information about the settlements, but
was not calculated to exert much influence toward emigration. The first
three that I have mentioned, however, had an influence which we today
can hardly fully appreciate.

Finally, curiosity and the spirit of adventure have doubtless prompted
some to cross the ocean.

To sum up, the chief influences that have promoted Scandinavian
emigration to the United States in the nineteenth century have been
in the order of their importance: first, the prospect of material
betterment and the love of a freer and more independent life; second,
letters of relatives and friends who had emigrated to the United
States and visits of these again to their native country; third, the
advertising of agents of emigration; fourth, religious persecution at
home; fifth, church proselytism; sixth, political oppression; seventh,
military service; and eighth, the desire for adventure. Fugitives from
justice have been few, and paupers and criminals in the Scandinavian
countries are not sent out of the country; they are taken care of by
the government.



                               CHAPTER IX

          _Growth of the Fox River Settlement. The Immigration
                  of 1836. Further Personal Sketches._


On page fifty-five above I spoke of the advance troop of six men who
established the Fox River Settlement in 1834. A list of those who
followed from New York in 1835 was also given. Other settlers came
in subsequent years, more and more now coming directly from Norway
to La Salle County. The vicinity of the present towns of Norway and
Leland, in eastern and northern La Salle County, became centers of
a settlement, which later extended east into Kendall County (Newark
and Lisbon) and into Grundy County toward Morris, as also north into
DeKalb County (Rollo, Sandwich), and northwest clear into southwestern
Lee County (Paw Paw, Sublette, and surrounding region). The slooper,
Ole Olson Hetletvedt, had not come west with the first party. He lived
first in Kendall and then went to Niagara Falls, being there employed
in a paper mill. Here he married a Miss Chamberlain, then moved back to
Orleans County. In 1839 he and his wife went west, settling in Kendall
County. He bought land on the spot where the town of Newark now stands.
He became well known as a lay preacher of the Haugian faith in the Fox
River Settlement, also visiting the settlements founded soon after in
Wisconsin and in Lee County, Iowa. He died in Kendall County in 1849 or
1850.[61]

  [61] One of his sons was Colonel Porter C. Olson of Civil War fame,
       member of the Thirty-sixth Illinois Infantry.

Iver Waller, who bought a claim of Miss Pearson in 1835, came
directly from Norway to La Salle County that year. Baldwin's _History
of La Salle County_ lists Ove Stenson Rossadal and wife, and John
Stenson Rossadal among the arrivals of 1835, and as being brothers
of Daniel Rossadal, of whom we have spoken above. Strand's _History
of the Norwegians in Illinois_ correctly names them as sons of
Daniel Rossadal. Nils Bilden, who also came during this period (year
uncertain), was therefore one of the very first emigrants from
Hardanger to the United States. He settled at Rochester, Sangamon
County, Illinois.

As to the extent of Norwegian immigration during the years immediately
preceding the year, 1836, which inaugurates a new period in the
movement, our information is very fragmentary. American statistics give
forty-two and thirty-one, respectively, for 1834 and 1835, as the total
immigration from Norway and Sweden. In 1833 there were sixteen, while
the number for 1832 is three hundred and thirteen.[62] The total number
between 1826 and 1831 is given as sixty-eight. It is probable, however,
that these figures do not represent the full number of immigrants
during these years. Norwegian government statistics on immigration
which are available since 1836, give the number of immigrants for that
year as two hundred, which is also the figure for the following year.
It is to this exodus that we shall now turn.

  [62] Among those who came in 1832 was John Nordboe from
       Gudbrandsdalen, Norway.

We have above, under Causes of Emigration, had occasion to speak of
Knud Slogvig's return to Norway in 1835, after a ten years' residence
in America;[63] the results of his return were also there briefly
noted. In the two ships, _Norden_ and _Den Norske Klippe_,[64] which
sailed from Stavanger in July of 1836, came two hundred immigrants,[65]
who located for the most part in the Fox River Settlement. These
stopped en route for a short time in Rochester, no doubt gathering
advice and information from Lars Larson, the captain of the sloopers,
resident there as we know; thence they continued their journey west
to Chicago and to La Salle County. Thus the nucleus which had been
formed in 1834-35 in a very short time developed into a considerable
settlement at a time when the surrounding country was practically a
wilderness. The immigrants of 1836 were, in part, from Stavanger, some,
however, were from other districts, east and north, as especially
Hardanger and Voss.

  [63] While in Norway he married a sister of Ole Olson Hetletvedt,
       which may have been in part the purpose of his return.

  [64] _The North_ and _The Norwegian Rock_.

  [65] Langeland says a hundred and sixty on page eighteen of his
       work, elsewhere a hundred and fifty. Two hundred seems,
       however, to have been approximately the number.

Not all who came settled in Mission and the later Miller townships,
however. Some went considerably farther north and established, in Adams
Township, a northern extension of the original settlement at and around
the present village of Leland. The two, however, later grew together
into one large settlement, extending also, east into Kendall County.
The first white settler in Adams Township was Mordicai Disney, who
located there in 1836, slightly prior to the coming of the immigrants
from Stavanger.[66]

  [66] Disney left again in 1837.

The first of our immigrants to locate in Adams Township where Halvor
Nelson and Ole T. Olson, who in the spring of 1837, settled on sections
twenty-one and twenty-two;[67] they had lived in Mission Township
since their coming in 1836. Among those who came in 1836 and located
in Mission Township were: Amund Anderson Hornefjeld, who in 1840 went
to Wisconsin (see below), Erick Johnson Savig[68] and wife, Ingeborg,
from Kvinherred Parish, Knud Olson Hetletvedt and wife, Serena (both of
whom died of cholera in 1849), Osmund Thomason,[69] wife and daughter,
Anne, Henrik Erickson Sebbe and two sons, who went to Salt Lake City in
1848 (see above, p. 78). Samuel Peerson and Helge Vatname also seem to
have come in 1836; they are recorded as living at Norway, Illinois,
in 1837, and as aiding in bringing some of the immigrants of 1837 from
Chicago to La Salle County.

  [67] The Olson homestead is still owned by the son, Nels Olson.

  [68] Died in 1840, leaving wife and two children, John and Anna
       Bertha; the latter later became the wife of John J. Næset in
       the town of Christiana, Dane County, Wisconsin. Sævig was born
       in 1803, his wife in 1809.

  [69] Died in 1876, ninety-two years old.

Some of those who came in 1836 did not go directly to La Salle County.
Andrew Anderson (Aasen), wife, Olena, three sons and two daughters,
from Tysvær Parish, Skjold, remained two years in Orleans County,
New York, coming to La Salle County in 1838; he died of the cholera
in 1849. John Hidle from Stavanger County, Norway, also emigrated in
1836, coming direct to La Salle County. In 1838 he settled at Lisbon,
Kendall County, being thus the first Norwegian to locate there and as
far as I have been able to find out, the first Norwegian to settle in
that county (for Ole O. Hetletvedt did not come till 1839). Hidle,
who wrote his name Hill in this country, married Susanna Anderson,
daughter of Andrew Anderson; she was fourteen years old when her
parents came to America, and is still living, at Morris, Illinois, with
her daughter Mrs. Austin Osmond. Lars Bö and Michael Bö, who lived
and died in La Salle County, came when John Hill did. Lars Larson
Brimsöe, born in Stavanger, 1812, worked for some time as a carpenter
in New York and Chicago before settling in La Salle County. In 1858 he
located in Benton County, Iowa, and in 1872 went to Adams County (died
1873). Björn Anderson Kvelve and wife, Catherine,[70] and two sons,
Arnold Andrew and Brunn, from Vikedal, Ryfylke, lived for a year in
Rochester, New York, came in 1837 to Mission Township, La Salle County.
He removed to Dane County, Wisconsin, in 1839. Of Lars Tallakson, who
came to America in 1836 (by way of Gothenburg), we shall speak below.
Herman Aarag Osmond, born near Stavanger, 1818, also came to America in
1836. He first lived in Ohio, came in 1837 to Chicago, then to Norway,
La Salle County. He settled on a farm near Norway in 1848, but bought
in 1869 a farm near Newark, Kendall County; Herman Osmond died in
Newark in 1888.

  [70] Abel Catherine von Krogh was born in 1809. Her father was
       Arnold von Krogh. Björne Anderson Kvelve was born in 1801. For
       a sketch of Björn Anderson and his wife see pages 155-170 of
       _First Chapter of Norwegian Immigration_ by R. B. Anderson,
       who is their third son (b. 1846 in Albion, Wisconsin); I am
       indebted to this work for many facts relative to the Illinois
       pioneers of 1836-1837.

Some of the immigrants of 1836 located in Chicago, which then consisted
of only a few houses. Among these was first, Halstein Torison (or
Törison), to whom Knud Langeland accords the distinction of being
the first Norwegian resident of Chicago. He was from Fjeldberg in
Söndhordland, and he came to Chicago with wife and children in October,
1836. The site of his home was that now occupied by the Chicago and
Northwestern Depot on Wells Street. He worked first as a gardener
for a Mr. Newberry. Reverend Dietrichson speaks of him, in 1844, as
prosperous and as occupying a leading position among Chicago Norwegians
at that time. In 1848 he moved to Calumet, twenty miles south of
Chicago, where he lived until his death in 1882.

Svein Lothe, from Hardanger, also came in 1836, as did Nils Röthe and
wife, Torbjör, who were from Voss. The latter remained, however, in
Rochester, New York, one year before coming to Chicago. Nils Röthe and
wife were the first to emigrate from Voss, Norway. Johan Larson, from
Kopervik, an island not far north of Stavanger city, also located in
Chicago in 1836. He was a sailor and had, it seems, visited Chicago
before; what year he came to America, I do not know. I may also mention
Baard Johnson, who, with his wife and five children, settled in Chicago
in 1837. Those we have mentioned form the nucleus out of which has
grown today the largest Norwegian city colony in this country.

Svein Knutson Lothe, who emigrated with wife and two children from
Hardanger in 1836, was from the Parish of Ullensvang. There were
eleven persons in all who came from Ullensvang that year, the other
seven being: Jon Jonson Aga, wife and two children, Torbjörn Djönne,
Olav Öystenson Lofthus and Omund Helgeson Maakestad. Maakestad became
the founder of the Hardanger settlement in Lee County, Illinois (see
below). I am not able to say where Aga, Djönne or Lofthus located.
There were also seven immigrants from Ulvik Parish, Hardanger, that
year; they were: Sjur Haaheim and wife, Paul Dale and wife, Sjur Dale
and wife and Aslak Holven. These eighteen persons form the advance
guard of the immigration from Hardanger.

We have spoken of the two ships that came from Stavanger in 1836.
These were followed in the next year by _Enigheden_ (Harmony), Captain
Jensen, carrying ninety-three passengers. These were for the most part
from Tysvær and from Hjelmeland, and Aardal in Ryfylke, from the city
of Stavanger, and from Egersund. They came to New York, thence went to
Albany and Rochester, and by way of the lakes to Chicago. Most of them
went to La Salle County, although not all settled there permanently.
Among the passengers were Hans Valder and wife from Ryfylke, Knud Olson
Eide, Ole Thompson Eide, from Fogn, near Stavanger, Thomas A. Thompson,
Christopher Danielson and family, Östen Espeland and family, and Knud
Danielson and family.

The sailing of _Enigheden_ may be regarded as a continuation of the
movement in Stavanger county, which was given such an impetus by Knud
Slogvig's return in 1835. Other immigrants continued to come from this
region in subsequent years, but the autumn of 1837 inaugurates a change
in the course of the movement to a more northerly region, Hardanger,
Voss, and Bergen, for a period, contributing a large share to the now
rapidly increasing numbers of emigrants.



                               CHAPTER X

                 _The Year 1837. The Sailing of Aegir._


The influence of Gjert Hovland in this new trend in the immigration
should be noted. South Bergenhus now became the scene of immigration
activity. At the same time it is to be observed that Hardanger had
contributed its quota of immigrants in the exodus of 1836. The return
of Knud Slogvig was noised far beyond the County of Stavanger. Among
those who travelled long distances to see and talk with Slogvig and
get personal affirmation of what reports had told of America, was Nils
P. Langeland, a school teacher from Samnanger, one of the emigrants of
1837. Similarly Knud Langeland relates in _Nordmaendene i Amerika_,
page twenty-three, how he paid a visit to Slogvig in the winter of
1836, and received from him assurance of what he had read[71] about
the New World. Knud Langeland gives a most interesting account of how
his interest in America became aroused; though a personal experience,
it is undoubtedly typical of that of many a young man in Bergen and
surrounding region at this time. As a document in immigration history,
it is sufficiently significant to warrant quoting in considerable part.
He says:

  "Purely by accident I found in a friend's library in Bergen a book
  by a German entitled REISEN IN AMERIKA.... As this book contained
  some vivid pictures of the distant regions the traveller had
  visited, as well as of the impressions he had received of land and
  people in the new world, it was read with all the allurements of a
  novel. Here was given full information about the German emigration.
  With this description of travels in my pocket I went early one
  summer morning along the bay of Solem and up the steep ascent
  of Lyderhorn. Up there I read and dreamed of the new wonderful
  world far away to the west. The mist had sunk low over the fjords
  between the isles about Bergen, but up there around the tree-tops
  it was bright sunshine. It was the first time I had seen this
  glorious sight peculiar to mountain regions. If any prosaic nature
  ever received poetic inspiration and exaltation it was during
  this time, while my eyes beheld the sunlit surface of the fog and
  in the distance caught a glimpse of the sparkling shield of the
  North Sea, which seemed to rise to the height of the mountain....
  And far out toward the west, thousands of miles out there, lies
  the land about which I am reading, lies the big, still so little
  known part of the world, with its secrets and its wonders. From
  that time I sought all books and descriptions of travel concerning
  America which I could get, and, together with an uncle of mine, I
  began to collect as much information about the new world, as well
  through books as through the verbal accounts from Stavanger people,
  which now began to be current in the district concerning Kleng
  Peerson's emigration and return, without our yet actually thinking
  of emigrating. Through a kind friend's help I was enabled in 1834
  to spend six months in England, on which occasion I gathered a
  number of pamphlets and books about America and emigration from
  England. In this way more definite and more reliable information as
  to conditions in America and the journey thither gradually spread
  in the vicinity. This seemed to discredit the many ridiculous and
  impossible stories now constantly set in circulation. Slowly but
  steadily the thought of emigrating to America took root; more and
  more joined the little group which now in earnest began talking
  of selling their homes and going to America. Then it was that the
  bishop of Bergen wrote a letter to the farmers of Bergen on the
  text, "Remain in the country; make your living honorably," whether
  he forgot it or did not regard it suitable to the occasion, he
  failed to quote the second commandment of the passage: "Multiply
  and fill the world." The latter the farmers had adhered to; most
  of them had large families, and since the land at home was filled,
  while they now heard that a large part of the new world was
  unsettled, they decided to disobey the bishop's advice and go to
  the new Canaan, where flowed milk and honey."

  [71] Especially in a German book on travels in America, see his
       account, p. 21. Knud Langeland did not emigrate, however,
       before 1843.

So far Langeland's account. While the evidence points to many causes as
operating conjointly toward bringing about the departure, in the spring
of 1837, of so many from Samnanger and from Voss, the influence of Nils
P. Langeland, already mentioned above, seems to have been a special
factor at this particular time. Nils Langeland was already then an
elderly man. He had devoted his life to the cause of popular education,
but the intolerant clergy of the time found him too liberal minded and
continually put obstacles in his way. Although he was supported by a
group of faithful friends, his usefulness was hampered; discouraged at
last, he decided to leave his native country and go to America.

This was in the summer of 1836. In the fall of that year, Captain
Behrens returned with the bark, _Aegir_, from America, whither he
had carried a cargo of freight in the summer. Langeland's friends
had already sold their homes and were preparing to emigrate. Hearing
of this, Behrens decided to convert his bark into a passenger boat,
and he offered to take them to America the next spring; the offer
was accepted. While preparations were going on, the announcements of
the projected sailing, which had been printed in the newspapers, led
intending immigrants from other sections, also, to join the party.
Among these was Ole Rynning, from Snaasen, in Trondhjem Province, of
whom we shall speak more at length below.

On the 4th of July, 1837, _Aegir_ sailed from Bergen with eighty-two
passengers. Among these were Mons Aadland, Nils Fröland, Anders
Nordvig, Ingebrigt Brudvig, Thomas Bauge and Thorbjörn Veste, all of
whom had large families, and the following from Hardanger: Nils L.
Jördre, wife and six children, and Peder J. Maurset, wife and child,
from Ulvik Parish, and Amund Rosseland, wife and three children, Lars
G. Skeie, wife and two children, Sjur E. Rosseland and Svein L. Midthus
from Vikör. The last-named were the first to emigrate from Vikör. The
party further included Halle Væte, wife and grown daughter, and the
following persons: Odd J. Himle, Kolbein O. Saue, Styrk O. Saue, Nils
L. Bolstad, Baard Haugen, John H. Björgo, Ole Dyvik, all of whom were
married, besides several single men, mostly relatives of the above,
namely: Dövig, Bauge, Fröland, Nordvig, Hisdal, Tösseland, et al. Each
adult paid sixty dollars (Norwegian specie) for passage, children under
twelve paying half price. They arrived in New York eight weeks later.
The journey inland was attended by numerous expenses for which the
immigrants were not prepared. When they had gotten as far as Detroit,
the above-mentioned Nils P. Langeland found himself without the
necessary means to continue the journey. His friends who had offered to
pay his expenses as far as Chicago, at last became discouraged over the
constant demands upon their funds and Langeland was obliged to remain
in Detroit. Here, being a capable carpenter, he soon found work; later
he removed to Lapeer County, Michigan, bought there 120 acres of land,
plying at the same time the trade of a carpenter. Thus it came about
that Nils Langeland became the first Norwegian to settle in the State
of Michigan, though we have seen that Kleng Peerson had visited the
state four years earlier. At least three others of the immigrants of
1837 located temporarily in the State of Michigan that year, namely,
Ingebright Nordvig, Östen Espeland, who had come in _Enigheden_, and
Thorsten Bjaaland. These went to Adrian, Lenawee County, but left again
soon after. We shall meet Bjaaland again in La Salle County, Illinois,
and on Koshkonong Prairie.



                               CHAPTER XI

                      _Beaver Creek. Ole Rynning._


The immigrants who came in the _Aegir_ seem to have intended to settle
in La Salle County, but in Chicago were advised by two Americans not to
go there. They were also partly influenced by Norwegian immigrants[72]
who were dissatisfied with that locality, and who recommended Iroquois
County as a more desirable location to settle. They were told that the
Fox River Valley was a very unhealthy place, the settlers were dying of
ague and fever, and it was a misfortune that they had ever been induced
to locate there. (Knut Langeland also records the fact that the fever
raged in the whole of the Fox River Valley from Muskego, in Wisconsin,
to the Mississippi River in Illinois, that summer, but that the
condition in La Salle was no worse than elsewhere). So the intending
settlers deputed three men to explore the country for a site for a new
colony.

  [72] Björn Anderson seems to have in part been instrumental in
       their not going to La Salle County, but there is no evidence
       that he recommended Iroquois County as far as I am aware.

These, Ole Rynning, Ingebrigt Brudvig and Ole Nattestad,[73] walked
south along the line of the present Illinois Central Railroad,
selecting the location at Beaver Creek in Iroquois County. Of the
further history of this unfortunate and short lived colony, the
reader may find an account in Dietrichson's brief discussion of the
settlement, or in Langeland's or R. B. Anderson's book. The majority of
the settlers died during the spring in the low and unhealthy climate.
Ole Rynning himself died and lies buried there. The few survivors
left for La Salle County the following spring. Mons Aadland refused,
however, to go. He remained in Beaver Creek three years longer; selling
his land in 1840 for a herd of cattle and, moving north, he located in
Racine County, being therefore one of the earliest pioneers in this
part of Wisconsin.

  [73] Niels Veste may also have been of the party.

Ole Rynning's name is most closely associated with the brief history of
the Beaver Creek Settlement. We have already seen above how his book,
_Sandfaerdig Beretning om Amerika_, came to have a very far-reaching
influence upon Norwegian emigration. This book Rynning wrote that
winter in the Beaver Creek Settlement. It was printed in Norway the
next year. It soon became widely distributed and continued for over a
decade to exert a powerful influence upon Norwegian emigration from
Voss, east to Hedemarken, and north to Gudbrandsdalen, in these latter
provinces, at the close of the decade, especially.

We have, on page 86 above, observed that Rynning formulated certain
questions which he set about answering for the information of intending
immigrants. It will be of interest to note here the nature of some
of his answers. The first question as to the nature of the country,
he answers by giving a very intelligent account of the topography and
climate of the country, the soil in the different parts, and of what
the produce of the different sections consists. In answer to the third
question, he says that the United States is more than twenty times as
large as Norway, that the greater part of the country is not yet even
under cultivation, and that there is room for a population more than
a hundred times as great as that of Norway. There need be no fear, he
says, that the country will be full in fifty years.

The fourth question as to where the Norwegian immigrants have located
especially, he answers by saying, that in New York, Rochester, Detroit,
Chicago, Philadelphia and New Orleans, there are said to be individual
settlers; but he mentions four places where several have settled,
namely: (1) Orleans County, New York, but where, he says, there are now
only two or three families left; (2) La Salle County, Illinois, where,
he says, there are about twenty families; (3) White County, Indiana, on
the Tippecanoe River. "Here," he says, live "only two Norwegians from
Drammen, who, together, own about eleven hundred acres of land"; (4)
Shelby County, Missouri, where a few Norwegians from Stavanger settled
in the spring of 1837; (5) Iroquois County, Illinois. "Here," he says,
"there are eleven or twelve families of those who came last summer."

The sixth question as to the land in these localities, he answers by
praising the beauty and the fertility of the prairie. And as to the
price of land, he says, that it has hitherto been $1.25 per acre, but
that he has heard that hereafter land is to be divided into three
classes and the price of land of the third class is to be half a dollar
an acre. He then offers explicit directions as to how to go about
securing land. He thereupon gives the prices of livestock at the time,
and of produce, etc. A horse, we learn, costs from fifty to a hundred
dollars, a yoke of oxen, sixty to eighty. A milk cow with calf, sixteen
to twenty, a sheep, two to three, hogs are six to ten dollars a head,
pork costs three to five shillings a "mark," butter six to twelve, a
barrel of (wheat) flour, eight to ten dollars; a barrel of cornmeal,
two and a half to three dollars; a barrel of potatoes, one dollar; a
pound of coffee, twenty shillings; a barrel of salt is five dollars
(Norwegian). But in Wisconsin Territory, the prices are two to three
times higher, while farther south, everything is cheaper.

Then he speaks of wages, of religious conditions, law and order, how
instruction for the young is provided, linguistic conditions, health
conditions. He discusses life in the new settlements, its trials and
attendant evils. As to the Indians, he says: "They have gone farther
west; one need never fear attack by Indians in Illinois." In answer to
the question as to who should emigrate, he warns against unreasonable
expectations; advises farmers, mechanics and tradesmen to come, he who
neither can nor will work must never expect, he says, that wealth or
luxury will stand ready to receive him. No, in America one gets nothing
without work, but by work, one can expect to attain to comfortable
circumstances. He thereupon discusses the question of the dangers in
crossing the oceans, which, he says, are less than usually imagined,
and the rumor of enslavement of the immigrant. The latter he brands
as false, adding, "yet it is true that many who have not been able
to pay their passage, have come upon such terms that they have sold
themselves, or their service, for a certain number of years to some
man here in the country. Many are thereby said to have come into bad
hands, and have not had it better than slaves. No Norwegian, as far as
I know, has fared in this way, nor is it to be feared, if one crosses
by a Norwegian ship, and with one's own countrymen." In conclusion, I
shall cite his opinion on the slave trade which is interesting in the
insight and judgment it gives evidence of, on the part of an immigrant
over twenty years before the war:

  The northern states are trying in every congress to abolish slavery
  in the southern states; but as these always oppose it and appeal
  to their right to govern their own internal affairs, there will
  probably soon take place a separation between the northern and the
  southern states, or else there will be internal conflict.

Ole Rynning was born in Ringsaker, as the son of Reverend Jens Rynning
and wife, Severine Catherine Steen, in 1809. In 1825, the father moved
to Snaasen. Having finished his education in 1829, he taught school for
a time. Then he bought a small farm[74] which he had to give up again,
not being able to pay for it. His ultra democratic sympathies were
displeasing to his conservative father, and an unhappy love affair,
which his father disapproved of as being a mesalliance, seems, at
least, to have been, in part the cause of his leaving Norway. We have
recited, briefly, his short career in America.[75] Of his nobility of
character and the self-sacrificing spirit he showed in helping the
grief-stricken and suffering colonists in the unfortunate Beaver Creek
Settlement, in the spring and summer of 1838, his surviving associates
give ample testimony. His book, _Sandfaerdig Beretning_, was written
on the sick-bed.[76] When he died, there was only one man in the
settlement who was well enough to make a casket for him from an old oak
which he hewed down. Rynning was buried out on the prairie, but no one
knows now where the spot is.

  [74] This he bought of the father of Rev. B. G. Muus, well-known in
       Norwegian-American church history, and a long time pastor at
       Norway, Goodhue County, Minnesota.

  [75] See above p. 103.

  [76] Ansten Nattestad, of whom below, took it with him to Norway
       that year and got it printed in Christiania.



                              CHAPTER XII

         _Some of the Immigrants of 1837. The First Pathfinders
                     from Numedal and Telemarken._


Besides the 177 immigrants, who came to America from Stavanger and
Bergen in 1837, there was a considerable number who embarked from
Gothenburg, Sweden. These came mostly from Numedal and Telemarken in
the south central part of Norway.

Among the immigrants of 1837 were, also, the brothers, Ole and Ansten
Nattestad, from Vægli, Numedal, both of whom came via Gothenburg, and
Hans Barlien, who emigrated with _Enigheden_. These men played such a
part in the immigration history of the period as to deserve something
more than a mere mention.

Ansten Nattestad may be regarded as the father of the emigration
movement from Numedal, Norway, from which some of the most successful
Norwegian settlements in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa, were later
recruited. His brother, Ole Nattestad, became the founder of one of
these settlements, that of Jefferson Prairie, in Rock County, Wisconsin
(also extending into Illinois); while Hans Barlien founded the first
Norwegian settlement in Iowa, at Sugar Creek, Lee County. Of the
circumstances which led to the emigration of the Nattestad brothers, an
interesting account appears in _Billed-Magazin_, 1869, pages 82-83.
This, which is an interview with Ole Nattestad, has been reprinted in
other works and I shall not take the space for it here. We may note,
however, that they had received their first news of America upon a
journey to the neighborhood of Stavanger in the close of 1836. During
Christmas of that year, they were the guests of Even Nubbru in Sigdal,
a member of the Storthing, and it was his praise of American laws which
first aroused Ole Nattestad's desire to emigrate, as he had already had
some unpleasant experiences in that respect.

In April, 1837, they stood ready to leave for America, having converted
their possessions into cash, a sum of eight hundred dollars. They
went on _skis_ from Rollaug to Tin, over the mountains and through
the forests to Stavanger. Halsten Halvorson Brække-Eiet, also from
Rollaug, became a third member of the party. In Stavanger, local
official hostility to emigration led them into difficulties, and they
were forced to seek safety in flight by night. They went to Tananger,
where they were more successful, a skipper contracting to take them in
his yacht to Gothenburg. In Gothenburg, they secured passage with a
ship which carried iron from Sweden to Fall River, Massachusetts. The
journey lasted thirty-two days. Thence, they went to New York, where
they met a few Norwegians, and thence again to Rochester. Here they
spoke with several members of the sloop party of 1825, now living in
Rochester, and they were, for a short time, the guests of Lars Olson,
as so many others of the immigrants of those years. Hearing that those
who had come to America in 1836 had gone west to La Salle County, they
decided to go there. In Detroit, Ole Nattestad was one day walking
about to view the city, and he says:

  Here I accidentally came upon a man, whom I immediately recognized
  by his clothes as a countryman from the western coast of Norway. I
  greeted the man, and the meeting was for us both as if two brothers
  had met after a long separation.


This man was one of the passengers on the _Aegir_, who had just then
arrived in Detroit. The Nattestad party now joined these, all (except
N. P. Langeland and family, as we have seen, page 102 above), going
west to Chicago. Here they met Björn Anderson Kvelve, whose unfavorable
account of the Fox River locality first gave them some doubt as to the
wisdom of going there. Of the subsequent events, the reader has already
been told. We shall meet again with both Ole and Ansten Nattestad
below. Halsten Brække-Eiet later settled in Dodgeville, Wisconsin.

Hans Barlien was from Overgaarden, Trondhjem; he seems to have been
the second emigrant to America from that region. Of him there will
be occasion to speak more in detail in connection with the first
Norwegian settlement in Iowa. I desire, here, however, to mention five
others, who came via Gothenburg to America in the same year, namely,
Erick Gauteson Midböen, Thore Kittilson Svimbil, and John Nelson Rue,
who had large families, and two single men, Gunder Gauteson Midböen
and Torsten Ingebrigtson Gulliksrud. These form the advance troupe
of emigrants from the Parish of Tin in Upper Telemarken, a region
which furnished a large share of recruits for the pioneer colonies
of Wisconsin and Iowa in the forties and the fifties. Thore Svimbil
became a pioneer in Blue Mounds, Dane County, where we shall find him
later. Erik Gauteson Midböen, who had a large family, settled in La
Salle County, but, says our authority, "fortune was not kind to him."
He later joined the Latter Day Saints and undertook a journey to Norway
as a representative of that church, returned to America and died soon
after, about 1850, as near as I can ascertain. Torsten Gulliksrud
also settled in Illinois, but died early. John Nelson Rue will appear
later in our account as one of the founders of the earliest Norwegian
settlement in Winneshiek County, Iowa.

We do not know what the circumstances were that led to the emigration
of this little group from Upper Telemarken in 1837. It seems not
unlikely that the news of America had come to them through copies
of letters from Hovland or others, though they may also have had
information more directly through Knud Slogvig's return. The latter
does not to me seem so likely, however, for they appear to have made
no attempt to secure passage from Stavanger. The departure of this
group from Tin does not seem to have had any immediate influence upon
emigration from that region. The real exodus from Tin does not begin
till 1839, and then as a part of the general movement, but this may
have been aided by letters from those who went thence in 1837. The
number that in this way took passage via Gothenburg that year may have
been larger than we have knowledge of. While the number, two hundred,
which our statistics, cited above, gives as that of the emigration from
Norway in 1837 is certainly rather low, it is highly improbable that it
was as high as three hundred, as elsewhere given. A conservative and
reasonable estimate would seem to place it at about two hundred and
forty or fifty.

Among the passengers on the _Aegir_, we mentioned Nils Fröland. He
was one of two, the other being Mons Aadland, to first join Nils P.
Langeland in his preparations for emigrating to America. With his
wife and children, he located at Beaver Creek, and they were among
the fortunate survivors of that colony. In 1839, he moved to Mission
Township in La Salle County, and to the present Miller Township the
next year. He died there in 1873. His widow (born 1798) was still
living in 1895. A grandson, Lars Fruland, resides at Newark, Illinois.

Anders Nordvig, who also came on the _Aegir_, died in the Beaver Creek
Settlement. His widow, a sister of Knud Langeland, moved to La Salle
County; she died there at the age of ninety in 1892. A daughter,
Malinda, married Iver Lawson (Iver Larson Bö), who came to Chicago
from Voss, Norway, in 1844. Victor F. Lawson, owner of _The Chicago
News_, is her son. Another daughter, Sarah (born 1824), married a Mr.
Darnell, a pioneer of Benton County, Iowa, in 1854. Mrs. Darnell was
the first Norwegian in that county. After Darnell's death, she returned
to Illinois, locating at Sandwich, De Kalb County.

Among the passengers on _Aegir_, Odd Himle, Baard Haugen, Ole Dyvik
and John Björgo went direct to La Salle County. The first of these
returned to Norway in 1844, and, while there, married Marie L. Jermo;
he returned to America in 1845, and settled on Spring Prairie in
Columbia County, Wisconsin, where we shall meet with him again. He died
in De Forest, Dane County, Wisconsin, in May, 1893. We shall also meet
John Björgo below as one of the pioneers of Koshkonong, Wisconsin.
Halle Væte died in Beaver Creek, as did his wife and grown-up
daughter. Kolbein Saue and Styrk Saue both went to Beaver Creek and
were among the survivors; they came to Koshkonong in 1843 and are to
be remembered among the early pioneers there. Styrk Saue was born in
Voss, September twenty-fifth, 1814; his wife, Ellen Olson (born Rekve),
was born in 1816. They were married in America. Nils Bolstad settled
in Koshkonong in 1840. He was one of a group of three to visit Dane
County, Wisconsin, on a trip of exploration in the fall of 1839, being,
therefore, the first Norwegians in that county.

Among the passengers on _Enigheden_ was Hans Valder and wife. He was
born on the farm, Vælde, in Vats Parish in Ryfylke in 1813. Having
received an education he taught school in Tysvæer some years before
emigrating. Here he heard much about the earliest emigration to America
from Stavanger. In Detroit, Valder and Östen Espeland separated from
the rest of the party and went to Adrian, Michigan. Thence they went a
few miles into the country in Lenawee County to visit a small Norwegian
settlement, whither Ingebrigt Larson Narvig had recently moved from
Monroe County, where he had settled in 1833.[77] In the spring of
1838 Valder left for La Salle County, Illinois. Here he lived until
1853, when he moved to what is at present Newburg, Fillmore County,
Minnesota, and became one of the earliest Norwegian pioneers in
Minnesota. Östen Espeland and family remained at the home of Narvig a
little longer than Valder, but then they also went to La Salle County.

  [77] See above, page 101, for the circumstances of Narvig's coming
       to Michigan.

Another passenger on _Enigheden_ was Christopher Danielson from
Aardal, in Lower Ryfylke. He was fifty-seven years old at the time of
emigrating, settled in Mission Township, La Salle County, where his
wife died a few years later. Danielson died of the cholera in 1849.
His son, Christopher Danielson (born in Norway), resides at Sheridan,
Illinois. Thomas A. Thompson, born 1812 in Skjold Parish, Ryfylke,
settled in Norway, La Salle County, Illinois. In 1867 he removed to
Adams County, Iowa, where he died in 1870. Lars Richolson and wife
also came in 1837, and settled near Ottawa in La Salle County. Lars
Richolson, as, indeed, several of the pioneers of these years, soon
became one of the substantial men of the community.[78] Ole Heier, who
also came in 1837, from Tin, Telemarken, located in La Salle County.
He had been an ardent Haugian, but became a Mormon in Illinois, and
later a Baptist. In 1868 he moved to Iowa, where he died in 1873. A
son, A. Hayer, lives in Leland, Illinois. Finally there came that year
Even Askvig with wife and children from Hjelmeland Parish in Ryfylke.
Settling first in Indiana (Beaver Creek) they removed the next year to
La Salle County, Illinois. Late in the forties they settled in Texas
and at last in 1852 the parents and a part of the family located in
southwestern Iowa, where Even Askvig died in 1875 and his wife in 1881.

  [78] Attorney Samuel Richolson, of Ottawa, who died in 1906, was a
       son of Lars Richolson. He was born March twenty-fifth, 1841,
       on the homestead bought by his father in 1837-38. He was for a
       long time member of the firm, Boyle and Richolson, in Ottawa,
       was mayor of Ottawa from 1871-1881, at one time attorney
       for the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy railroad. His widow,
       Marietta Richolson, and two children are still living.



                              CHAPTER XIII

           _Ansten Nattestad's Return to Norway in 1838. The
                 Year 1839. Immigration Assumes Larger
                 Proportions. The Course of Settlement
                               Changes._


The principal event in Norwegian immigration history for the year,
1838, is Ansten Nattestad's return to Norway. We have seen, above, page
103, that Ole and Ansten Nattestad left the Beaver Creek settlement in
the spring of 1838. Ansten went to Norway, as it seems, for the express
purpose of promoting emigration from Rollaug, Numedal, while Ole went
out to explore new fields. Going north as far as the Wisconsin line
he stopped in what is now Clinton Township in Rock County. This place
suited his fancy and he decided to settle here.

This was July first.[79] He entered a claim of eighty acres and
immediately set to work erecting temporary quarters. For a year he
lived alone, rarely coming in contact with a white man, and not seeing
anything of his own countrymen during all that time. "Eight Americans,"
he says, "had settled in the town before me, but these also lived
in about as lonely and desolate a condition as I. I found the soil
especially fruitful and the melancholy uniformity of the prairie was
relieved here by intervening bits of woods. Flocks of deer and other
game were to be seen daily, and the uncanny howling of the prairie wolf
constantly disturbed my night rest, until the habit fortified my ears
against disturbances of this kind." The following summer, Ole built a
cabin in which he received, as we shall see below, the first group of
immigrants into that country in the early fall of that year.

  [79] According to Ole Nattestad's letter in _Nordlyset_ for May
       eighteenth, 1848.

The year 1838 brought a small contingent of emigrants from Voss.
They were Steffen K. Gilderhus, Knud Lydvo, Ole Lydvo and Lars
Gjerstad.[80] Gilderhus went to Cleveland, Ohio, being, I believe,
the first Norwegian to locate there; he remained there only one year,
however, going to Chicago in 1839. We shall later find him among the
pioneers of Koshkonong, Dane County, Wisconsin. Knud and Ole Lydvo and
Lars Gjerstad went to La Salle County, Illinois, and thence to Shelby
County, Missouri, where the restless Kleng Peerson had the year before
gone in search of a new locality for a settlement in the southwest (see
below).

  [80] As brought out by Nils A. Lie of Deerfield, Wisconsin.

Before passing on to the emigration of 1839, it will be in order to
speak briefly of a small group of emigrants from Numedal in the year
1838. The name of the leader was Ole Aasland, a wealthy farmer of
Flesberg Parish. He sold out his farm and, taking with him his family
and about twenty other persons, whose passage he paid for, he sailed
from Tönsberg, via Gothenburg, and thence to New York. He then went
to Orleans County, New York.[81] Here it seems he fell into the hands
of speculators, who sold him six hundred acres of marsh land in Noble
County, Indiana, for a very high price. He removed to that place soon
after, it seems, with most of those whom he had brought from Norway.
Sickness set in, brought on by the swampiness of the region, and
many of his party died. He thereupon (next year) abandoned the land,
taking with him the survivors. In the Kendall Settlement, Andrew J.
Stangeland bought the land of him for a nominal price.[82] Aasland, who
changed his name in this country to Orsland, lived on the so-called
Norwegian Road in Kendall, till his death, about 1864. In Kendall, he
accumulated considerable property. He left a wife and four children,
Canute Orsland, and Harry B. Orsland (born 1828 in Kendall), the former
occupying the old homestead as late as 1895, and Hallock Orsland living
in Detroit, where a daughter is also living. Let us now turn to Ansten
Nattestad's journey.

  [81] The Kendall Settlement.

  [82] Aasland did not take anything for it, says Canute Orsland in
       letter of 1895 to R. B. Anderson; letter is printed on page
       265 of _First Chapter_.

According to Nattestad's own account he went back to Norway in the
spring of 1838 via New Orleans and Liverpool. In Drammen he had printed
his brother's journal, _En Dagbog_, and Rynning's book was printed
in Christiania. He speaks of the great interest that these pamphlets
aroused as well as that of his own return. He says:

  "The report of my return spread like wild fire throughout the
  country, and an incredibly large number of people came to me to get
  news from America. Many even travelled eighteen to twenty Norwegian
  miles to speak with me. It was impossible to answer all the letters
  that came with reference to conditions across the ocean. In the
  spring of 1839 about one hundred persons stood ready to go with me
  across the ocean. Among these were many farmers with families, all
  except the children able to work and in their best years."

There were, moreover, a host of people from Telemarken and Numedal, who
could not accompany him, as there was no more room in the ship.

In the meantime these people from Telemarken, not to be deterred long
in their plans to go to the New World, immediately set about organizing
their party and went to Skien to seek passage there. They were all
from Tin and Hjertdal parishes in Upper Telemarken. The leaders of the
party were the Luraas family, which was represented by four heads of
families, in all about twenty persons of the total number of forty,
composed almost exclusively of grown men and women. They embarked at
Skien, May seventeenth, somewhat earlier than the party from Numedal
and arrived in America before, hence it is to this group that we shall
now turn our attention, leaving for the time being Nattestad and his
party. The Luraas party was in all composed of eleven families,
most of them being from Tin Parish. We have already, under Causes of
Emigration, spoken briefly of John Luraas, who perhaps was the chief
promoter of this emigration.

The party consisted of John Nelson Luraas, Knut Nelson Luraas,
Halvor Östenson Luraas, Torger Östenson Luraas, Halvor T. Lönflok,
Halvor Nelson Lohner, Helge Mathieson, Ole Hellikson Kroken, Östen
Möllerflaten, Ole Kjonaas, Nils Johnson Kaasa, and the latter's
brother, Gjermund Johnson Kaasa, all of whom had families, besides
three unmarried men, namely, Nils, Ole and John Tollefsjord. The
Kaasa brothers were from Hiterdal; the rest I believe were all from
Tin Parish. In Gothenburg they met another small company of Norwegian
emigrants, who had just arrived there from Stavanger, bound for
America. This party included Gitle Danielson, the leader of the party,
from the island of Rennesö, a little north of Stavanger, and who had
a large family, Halvor Jellarviken, with family, and Peder Rosöino,
both with families, Erik Svinalie and sister; the party also included
John Evenson Molee from Tin in Telemarken, who was at that time in the
service of Gitle Danielson. In all there were now about sixty. The
journey across the Atlantic took nine weeks and the journey from Boston
to Milwaukee took another three weeks. The latter led by way of New
York and then by canal boats, pulled by horses, to Buffalo; thence by
way of the Great Lakes to Milwaukee, the most common westward route
for the early immigrants. This was at the close of August. It was the
intention of the emigrants to settle in La Salle County, Illinois; but
in Milwaukee they were induced to remain in Wisconsin, and a site for a
settlement was selected near Lake Muskego in the southeastern part of
Waukesha County, about twenty miles southwest from Milwaukee.

A story is told how it came about that they did not go to Illinois
as originally intended. A good-natured fat man is said to have been
pointed out to them as the product of Wisconsin. On the other hand
Illinois was described as a hot and unhealthy region in substantiation
of which a pale, sickly man was presented as the result of life in that
state. Whether this was done or not I do not know; but the story may
serve as an illustration of frontier humor and immigrant credulity both.

Suffice it to say that the people of Milwaukee succeeded in diverting
the immigrants from Telemarken from going any farther, but selected a
site for a settlement, as we have said, near Lake Muskego in Waukesha
County. Then they returned to Milwaukee to perfect their purchase
of land there, the price paid being the usual one of a dollar and
twenty-five cents per acre.

Before reciting further the fortunes of this group of immigrants, the
first to enter the State of Wisconsin, let us turn for a moment to a
consideration of the larger movement. With the year 1839, emigration
from Norway begins to assume larger proportions, and certain districts,
which hitherto had sent very few, now begin to contribute the larger
share of the number of emigrants to America. This year may very
properly be said to have inaugurated the second period in Norwegian
immigration history. Down to 1839 the immigration movement in Norway
had not really gone beyond the provinces of Stavanger and South
Bergenhus in southwestern and western Norway. Indeed, nearly all of
the emigrants had come from these sections. In fact, before 1836 the
movement was almost confined to Stavanger and Ryfylke. In that year
it reaches Hardanger, and in 1837, Bergen. It does not reach Voss
properly before 1838, although Nils Röthe and wife had emigrated from
there in 1836. In 1837, as we have seen, the first emigrant ship, the
_Aegir_, left Bergen with eighty-four passengers. Before 1839 we meet
with occasional individual emigration from provinces to the east and
northeast. Thus Ole Rynning and Snaasen in Trondhjem Diocese emigrated
in the _Aegir_ in 1837. The first emigrants from Telemarken also came
in 1837. As we have seen above, 1837 is also the year which records
the first immigration from Numedal. Among the emigrants from other
parts of Norway prior to 1837 must be mentioned also Johan Nordboe,
from Ringebo in Guldbrandsdalen, who came in 1832 and resided for some
time in Kendall, New York, later going to Texas, and Hans Barlien from
Trondhjem County, who came to La Salle County in 1837. Neither of these
two men, however, were instrumental in bringing about any emigration
movement in Gudbrandsdalen and Trondhjem. It is not until a much later
period that these two districts are represented in considerable numbers
among emigrants.

It is the year 1839 in which emigration on a larger scale takes its
beginnings. Similarly, the year 1839 marks a change also in the
movement of the course of settlement. Down to this time all emigration
from Norway stands in direct relation to the movement which began in
Stavanger in 1825, and which in the years 1834-36 resulted in the
formation of the Fox River Settlement in La Salle County, Illinois.
This settlement then became the center of dispersion for what may be
called the southern line of settlements. All through the forties and
the fifties the southern course of migration westward, which includes
southern and central Iowa, stands in direct relation to early Norwegian
colonization in New York and Illinois,--that is the first period
of Norwegian emigration from the provinces of Stavanger and South
Bergenhus (and this province only as far north as Bergen, Voss being
excluded) in Southwestern Norway. In 1839 the first settlements are
formed in Wisconsin on the shores of Lake Muskego in Waukesha County,
and in Rock County; and in 1839-40 that of Koshkonong in Dane and
Jefferson Counties. These settlements then became a northern point
of dispersion. From here we have a second northern line of settlement
westward and northwestward into Northern Iowa, Minnesota, and the more
northerly localities of Wisconsin.



                              CHAPTER XIV

          _Shelby County, Missouri. Ansten Nattestad's Return
                from Norway in 1839. The Founding of the
                  Jefferson Prairie Settlement in Rock
                          County, Wisconsin._


Before returning now to the thread of our narrative, I wish to speak
briefly of an early effort, and the only one, before the fifties, to
found a settlement from the southern point of dispersion.

In 1837 Kleng Peerson, Jacob and Knud Slogvig, Andrew Askeland, Andrew
Simonson, Thorstein Thorson Rue, several of whom had families, and
about eight others, left La Salle County, went to Missouri and made
a settlement in Shelby County; this, however, proved unsuccessful,
principally on account of the lack of a market.

Peerson does not seem to have selected a very desirable locality, and
he did not possess the steadfastness of purpose that would seem to
be a prime requisite in the pioneer. He was too much of a lover of
adventure, and hardly was a plan brought to completion before his head
was again full of new dreams and fancies.

He was something of a Peer Gynt but without Peer Gynt's selfishness
or his eye for the main chance; the roving spirit dominated Peerson
wholly; not until old age had laid its hand on him did he yield to the
monotony of a settled life; but even then in the wilderness of Texas
in the fifties. I have personal information of his life there; he took
no part in the upbuilding of the community, no active interest in its
progress. In a settled community he alone was unsettled; he was never
able to gather himself together into concentrated action and prolonged
effort in a definite cause or undertaking. A vagabond citizen, he
died in poverty. The only activity we associate with his name is the
adventurous wanderings of his youth.

After having spent a year in Missouri Peerson returned to Norway,
evidently for the purpose of recruiting his colony, but I have no
evidence that he succeeded in this. Independent of Peerson's efforts,
the little colony did receive an accession of three in 1838, namely,
Knud and Ole Lydvo and Lars Gjerstad, and of one person in the fall of
1839, namely, Nils Lydvo, who had just come from Voss, Norway, with a
group of immigrants from that region, most of whom remained in Chicago.
The Shelby County settlement did not thrive. It was too far removed
from other settlers, too far from a market; the settlers suffered want
and became discouraged. The colony was practically broken up in 1840,
when most of the settlers removed north into Iowa Territory into what
is now Lee County. Here they established the first Norwegian settlement
in Iowa. Of this we shall have occasion to speak under the year 1840.
Let us now return to Ansten Nattestad and his party of emigrants, whom
we left above, page 119, as about to depart for America.

Ansten Nattestad's party of one hundred then sailed from Drammen by
the _Emelia_, Captain Ankerson, late in the spring of 1839. It was the
first time, says he, that the people of Drammen had seen an emigrant
ship. Every person paid thirty-three dollars and a half (specie); they
were nine weeks on the ocean, going direct to New York. They took the
usual route inland and arrived in Milwaukee just at the time when
the Luraas party had returned to Milwaukee to purchase land already
selected in Waukesha County, as we have seen above. They urged the
new arrivals to stop in Milwaukee and go with them to Muskego, but
Nattestad objected, and so they continued their journey to Chicago.

Here Ansten learned that his brother had located in Wisconsin the year
before. The party's destination was La Salle County, but this changed
the course of some of them. Some who had friends there did go to La
Salle County, a few remained in Chicago, especially single men, but
the majority went with Ansten to Clinton. All these (excepting some
to be noted below) bought land and began the life of pioneers there
in the fall of 1839 on what came to be known as Jefferson Prairie.
Besides Ole Knudson Nattestad and his brother Ansten, those who
founded this settlement were: Halvor Pederson Haugen, Hans Gjermundson
Haugen, Thore Helgeson Kirkejord, Torsten Helgeson Kirkejord, Jens
Gudbrandson Myhra, Gudbrand, Myhra, Erik Skavlem, the brothers Kittil
and Kristoffer Nyhus, and T. Nelson. Halvor Haugen did not come with
the Nattestad party, although he was in Drammen intending to sail on
the _Emelia_. Owing to lack of room about thirty persons, including
children, had to be left behind. Halvor Haugen has himself told (in
_Amerika_, September, 1907) of the coming of these. After several
days of waiting, they secured passage on a boat bound for Gothenburg,
Sweden. The journey went via Fredrikshald, where another stay of two
or three days took place. At Gothenburg a wait of ten days followed
before the brig _Bunyan_, on which they were to sail, was ready. "It
was certainly fortunate," says our narrator, "that people were not in
such haste then, or the repeated delays of several days duration would
have been the cause of much unpleasant irritation." Landing in Boston,
the immigrants travelled by rail to Providence, Rhode Island, thence by
steamboat to New York. Here they boarded the boat which was to carry
them to Albany. As they were told the boat was not to leave before
five o'clock in the afternoon most of the men of the party went ashore
again to purchase food. When they returned however the boat had sailed
having left at ten in the forenoon instead of five in the afternoon as
planned. Those left behind managed to reach their destination also,
though with many difficulties and unpleasant experiences. From Albany
they travelled by canal to Buffalo. "Of this part of the journey,"
says Haugen, "there is nothing to be said except that, like all other
earthly things, this also at last came to an end." From Buffalo the
journey went by steamboat to Chicago. They did not go thence to La
Salle County though undoubtedly intended originally to do so. I do not
know what changed their course, but on the next day after arriving in
Chicago, they went to Du Page County, Illinois, where a week later they
met those who had gone with Nattestad in Captain Ankerson's ship. The
party whose coming has thus briefly been related was composed of Halvor
Haugen, wife, three sons, Peder, Halvor and Andreas, and two daughters
Bergit and Sigrid; Halvor Stordok, Lars Haugerud, Gunder Fingalpladsen,
Engebret Sæter, Lars Dalen, Gjermund Johnson, and Sven Tufte, all of
whom also had families, besides some single persons. Halvor Haugen's
family and most of the party remained in Du Page County for a time,
and Peder Haugen and his brother Andreas and the two sisters secured
employment there. The father, however, went with Erik Skavlem to
Jefferson Prairie to help him build a house. At Christmas the rest of
the party also went to Jefferson Prairie. During the winter they all
lived in Skavlem's house. This house is described as follows:

  "It was sixteen by sixteen and quite low. In order to add to room
  'crowns' were erected overhead, that is, beams which were laid
  crosswise near the ceiling. These beams were cut pointed at the
  ends which were made to rest between the logs in the walls on
  either side, like riders across the house. On top of these again
  was laid flats, on which beds were arranged. Down below on the
  floor there were also three beds."

A writer in _Amerika_, March first, 1907, quotes one of the immigrants
as speaking of the cramped quarters in the log cabin, in which the
whole party lived that fall and winter; room which to one family would
seem too small now. "How these settlers," he says, "could manage in
one log cabin a whole winter is a riddle to me." The following spring
Halvor Haugen also built a cabin which was always full as newcomers
were constantly arriving. At the same time other cabins were erected
by Kittil and Kristoffer Nyhus, Gudbrand and Jens Myhra, and Torsten
Kirkejorden. Two years later all of these built new and more commodious
houses.

The settlement thus founded exclusively by immigrants from the district
of Numedal has always continued to be recruited largely from that
region (see, however, below). In the following year a few more families
came from Numedal, while from 1841 the accessions were considerable
every year for a number of years. Among these is to be mentioned Bergit
Nelson Kallerud, from Vægli, who also came in the ship _Emilia_,
in 1839, but who does not seem to have gone directly to Jefferson
Prairie. She married Jens Gudbrandson Myhra at Christmas, 1839, while
his brother, Gudbrand Myhra, married Ambjör Olson (also from Vægli)
in 1840. The following year they, however, moved to the Rock Prairie
Settlement (see below), and in 1852 they settled in Mitchell County,
Iowa. In connection with the settling of this county we shall have
occasion to speak again more fully of them. Jens Myhra was born in
Vægli, Numedal, in 1812.

  [Illustration: Map of Southern and Central Norway
                 See Appendix for names of parishes here numbered.]

Of the other founders of this settlement I may here add the following
facts. Ole Knudson Nattestad was born at Vægli, in Rollaug Parish,
December twenty-fourth, 1807. We have above given an account of his
settling at Clinton. In _Nordlyset_ for May eighteenth, 1848, there
appeared a communication from Nattestad relative to this occasion, in
which he rightly claims to have been the first Norwegian to settle
in the state. He married there Lena Hiser in 1840; he lived in the
settlement, as an influential, respected member of the community, till
his death, which occurred at Clinton, May twenty-eighth, 1886. His wife
died in September, 1888. They left seven children; Henry Nattestad,
the oldest, at present occupies the homestead. The other children are,
Charles (Sioux Falls, South Dakota), James (Dakota), Ann (Clinton),
Julia (Mrs. Martin Scofftedt Lawrence, Kansas), Caroline (Mrs. Louis O.
Larson, Clinton), and Eliza (Clinton). Ansten Nattestad was born August
twenty-sixth, 1813, the youngest of three brothers. Ole was the next
oldest.

Their father, Knud Nattestad, was a man of some means, but by the right
of primogeniture, the oldest inherited the estate and he remained
in Norway. Of these things and the early life of the two younger
brothers, Ole Nattestad gives an account in an interview printed in
_Billed-Magazin_, 1869, where also is a detailed account of Ansten
Nattestad's coming to America with his group of one hundred immigrants
in 1839. He also there, pages 107-108, gives a description of the
settlement as it was in 1869, and he has elsewhere in the columns of
that magazine made important contributions to the immigration history
of the years 1838-1840, which now are among the original sources of
material for a history of Norwegian immigration. Relative to the
further career of Ansten Nattestad I shall only add here that he became
one of the substantial members of this great and growing settlement, in
which he continued to live until his death on April eighth, 1889.

Hans G. Haugen was born at Vægli in Rollaug Parish in 1785. He was
an old soldier, having been in the Norwegian-Swedish War of 1814,
and having served in the Norwegian army for seven years. His wife,
whose maiden name was Sigrid Pedersdatter Valle, was born in January,
1803. The family consisted further of two sons, Gunnul and Gjermund,
the former born at Vægli, April twenty-eighth, 1827, the latter on
September nineteenth, 1836. The father, Hans Haugen, lived only a year
after coming to America; he died in October, 1840. In 1849 the widow
and two sons moved to Primrose, Dane County, Wisconsin, where we shall
meet with them again. Sigrid Haugen died in Beloit in 1885. It may be
added here that the family took the name of Jackson in this country. Of
the circumstances that led to the adoption of this name the son gives
an account which appeared in Anderson's _First Chapter_, etc., page two
hundred sixty-three.

Thore Helgeson Kirkejord[83] was born September twelfth, 1812;
married in 1837. They had one daughter, Christie, born 1849, and
who is married to Gunder Larson.[84] Thore Helgeson died in Clinton
in 1871. Christopher C. Nyhus (Newhouse) was born at Vægli in July,
1812. When he came to Clinton Township he first entered claim to
forty acres of land, which was later increased to a hundred sixty. He
married a daughter of Halvor Halvorson in the fall of 1843. They had
five children, Christopher, who died in infancy, Oliver, Christopher
2d, Torrena (Mrs. Gustav Nelson, Clinton), and Christiana. T. Nelson
settled on section twenty in 1839; he married Rachel Gilbertson that
year. They had five children. The son, T. T. Nelson, married Mary
Tangen of Manchester, Illinois, in 1872. They have two daughters, Anna
R. (b. 1875), Gertine (b. 1878).

  [83] Whose name appears as Torro Holgeson in _The History of Rock
       County, Wisconsin_, 1879, p. 780, to which work I am indebted
       for some of the facts recited above.

  [84] They again have four children. Mr. Larson enlisted in the 42d
       Illinois Regiment, later transferred to the Mississippi Marine
       Brigade, was at the battle of Vicksburg, served faithfully and
       was honorably discharged.



                               CHAPTER XV

           _The Earliest White Settlers on Rock and Jefferson
               Prairies. The Founding of the Rock Prairie
               Settlement. The Earliest Settlers on Rock
                                Prairie_


We have seen that when Ole Nattestad settled at Clinton on July first,
1838, the country was a wilderness, he being the only white man there.
He speaks, however, of eight Americans living some distance from him,
in similar condition. It was less than three years prior that the first
white settlers had located in the county. On the eighteenth day of
November, 1835, John Inman, of Lucerne County, Pennsylvania, Thomas
Holmes, William Holmes, and Joshua Holmes, of Ohio, Milo Jones and
George Follmer, settled on the site of the present city of Janesville,
opposite the "big rock."[85] This was the first settlement in Rock
County. Inman and William Jones had visited the locality and selected
this spot in July of that year. On this occasion they had camped on
the bluff on the Racine road. Our authority relates: "From this point
they saw Rock Prairie stretching away in the distance to the east and
south, till the verdant plain mingled with the blue of the horizon.
They saw before them an ocean of waving grass and blooming flowers, and
realized the idea of having found the real Canaan--the real paradise
of the world." They returned to Milwaukee, having in their ten days'
exploration of the Rock River Valley, found but one family, namely,
a Mr. McMillan, who resided where Waukesha now stands.[85] Somewhat
later in the year came Samuel St. John and his wife, the last being
the first white woman in the county. The next year there were several
new arrivals. On December seventh, 1836, townships one, two, three,
and four north of ranges eleven, twelve, thirteen, and fourteen, of
the fourth principal meridian, afterwards the eastern sixteen of the
present twenty townships of Rock County,[86] were taken from Milwaukee
County and constituted a separate county, called Rock. The county
took its name from the "big rock" on the north side of the river, now
within the city limits of Janesville, and an ancient landmark among the
Indians and the early traders.

  [85] _History of Rock County_, p. 335.

  [86] Avon, Spring Valley, Magnolia and Union being added in 1838.

All these earliest settlements (1836-1837) were made near and along
the Rock River. In 1838 there were four hundred and eighty settled
in this region chiefly, the centers of population being already then
Janesville and Beloit. Next follow Johnstown, Lima, and Milton, in the
northwestern part of the county, and Union. The region west of Beloit,
Newark, Avon, Spring Valley, was still wholly unsettled in the summer
of 1839. The Town of Bradford, the next north of Clinton, was first
settled by Erastus Dean, in 1836; there were very few before 1838.
The Town of Clinton, as originally organized (1842), comprised the
territory of the present town, the south half of Bradford, and portions
of Turtle and La Prairie.

The first actual settlement in the present township was made in May,
1837, on the west side of Jefferson Prairie, by Stephen E. Downer and
Daniel Tasker, and their wives, on the southeast side of the prairie.
In July, Oscar H. Pratt and Franklin Mitchell, from Joliet, Illinois,
made claims. These were the earliest. On the west side of the prairie
settlement was made in October, 1837, by H. L. Warner, Henry Tuttle,
Albert Tuttle, and Griswold Weaver. We recall that Ole Nattestad said
that when he came to Clinton on July first, 1838, there were eight
Americans living isolated at considerable distance from him. Nattestad
located on section twenty. Here Christopher Nyhus also settled, while
Thore Helgeson settled on section twenty-nine. Who the eight settlers
were that Nattestad met, remains somewhat uncertain, but it does not
seem unlikely that it was the four last mentioned, and some of the
first explorers, who are named as Charles Tuttle, Dennis Mills, Milton
S. Warner, and William S. Murrey.

The Town of Turtle, directly west of Clinton, was not organized
until 1846. The first settlers were S. G. Colley, who located on
section thirty-two, in the spring of 1838, and Daniel D. Egery, who
came there about the same time, locating on section thirty-six (to
Beloit, however, in 1837). Such were the beginnings of settlement east
of Beloit prior to Nattestad's coming, and it was still virtually
a wilderness when Ansten Nattestad's party came at the close of
September, 1839. West of Beloit, in the Town of Newark, the Norwegians
were the first, while in Avon and Spring Valley they were among the
earliest groups of settlers. It is the settlement of this region, and
especially the Town of Newark, to which we shall now turn.

We observed above that some of Ansten Nattestad's party who came to
Jefferson Prairie in September, 1839, did not remain there. These
went fourteen miles farther west and established a settlement in the
Township of Newark, which had not been settled by white men before,
while a few of the members of this latter party went south from there
eighteen miles, crossing the Illinois line, and located in the Township
of Rock Run, in Stephenson County, Illinois.

The founder of the Rock Prairie Settlement was Gullik Olson Gravdal, of
Vægli, Numedal; he emigrated from Norway with Ansten Nattestad in 1839.
He came directly to Jefferson Prairie, but did not remain there. With
Gisle Halland and Goe Bjöno he went west a distance to look over the
country, with a view to settling elsewhere. Having arrived at Beloit,
they managed here to secure a map and from it got some idea of where
government land was to be had. Then they continued their journey along
the Madison road seven miles farther west. Finally, he came to a place
which suited him, for he found, as he says, "good spring water, as
also prairie and woodland in the right proportion." Together with Lars
Röste, a single man from the Parish of Land, he then bought forty acres
of land.[87] Gisle Halland bought land one mile farther east, while
Goe Bjöno took a claim on a piece of land for Mrs. Gunhild Ödegaarden,
three miles south of the site selected by Gravdal.

  [87] Röste later went back to Norway, however.

Gunhild Ödegaarden (who emigrated from Nore, annex parish in Numedal)
was a widow of considerable means, who had paid the passage of several
other persons. Her family, among whom were grown sons and daughters,
emigrated with her to America in the Nattestad party and came directly
to Jefferson Prairie. Immediately after Bjöno's purchase of land for
her in Newark Township she, with family, moved out there and had a log
cabin erected, this being the first dwelling built in that township.
This statement is based upon the authority of Gravdal himself, as
printed in an interview on page 162 of _Billed-Magazin_ for 1869. _The
History of Rock County_ agrees in this statement that Mrs. Ödegaarden's
log cabin, built in the fall of 1839, was the first house erected in
the Town of Newark. Gunhild Ödegaarden's name appears regularly as Mrs.
Gunale (or Gunile). She is there mentioned several times, her family
being extensively intermarried with the old pioneer families in the
settlement.[88] Gravdal completed the erection of a cabin late in the
fall, and his family having been left on Jefferson Prairie, he brought
them to Rock Prairie in the latter part of November (_Billed-Magazin_,
1869, page 162).[89]

  [88] Thus Ole Gulack Gravdal, son of Gullik Gravdal, married Juri
       Ödegaarden (given as Juri Gunale in _The Rock County History_)
       in 1855.

  [89] There can be no doubt as to the correctness of the facts
       as here given. It has also been said that Lars Skavlem's
       house was the first to be erected, and J. W. C. Dietrichson
       erroneously even names him as the first Norwegian in Rock
       Prairie.

That same fall Gisle Halland married Margit Knudsdatter Nösterud
from Rallaug Parish, Numedal, being obliged to go as far south as
Rockford, Illinois, to get the ceremony performed. Their oldest child,
Kristine, born in the fall of 1840, was the first white child born in
that township. Gravdal, speaking of those days, says: "When I located
in this region, the whole country to the west was a desert. I do not
know whether there lived white people anywhere between my home and the
Mississippi. The same was also the case toward the north; however,
about seven miles west (east?) from my home two Yankees had settled in
the wilderness. The Indians were still lords of these regions. They
often visited us in our houses, but they were always friendly and
courteous. We were never molested by the wild son of the desert. There
was at this time an abundance of game; we saw stags in large herds,
and prairie chickens literally swarmed." There seem to have been no
fresh accessions of settlers until the spring of 1841. Then Lars H.
Skavlem arrived and located on section eleven. Gullik Knudson Laugen
also came at the same time, and not long after several Americans moved
in. Both Skavlem and Knudson had come to America in 1839, having been
members of Nattestad's party. Skavlem had, in the interval, lived on
Jefferson Prairie. Gullik Knudson had remained in Chicago, as had also
Gunnul Stordok, securing work there,[90] as did also two girls from
Numedal, to whom they were engaged in Norway. These two couples were
married the following winter, and, having saved some money from their
small earnings, they decided to buy a home somewhere in the Norwegian
settlement in Rock County. Knudson relates: "I walked about several
days to find a location for a home, and at last came to a place on
the verge of a prairie, where a rushing spring of water poured out of
the ground. Here I decided to build and live, and I called the place
_Springen_ (the spring). The land about was like a desert; barring the
four Norwegians who had come before me, there were no settlers. Toward
the west one had to travel twenty-two miles to find white people. It
was fortunate that there was an abundance of game, for what we secured
by hunting was the sustenance on which we chiefly relied during the
winter." He tells how, with the first fall of snow, he and another[91]
walked on _skis_ to Beloit to buy flour, and how the tracks left in the
snow by the skis had aroused considerable wonder and speculation among
the Americans about there, who afterwards discovered the tracks, and
that it became the subject of extensive discussion as to what unknown
monster could have left such tracks. Beloit, he says, consisted then of
a mill, a hotel, two stores, and a few laborers' cottages.

  [90] His wages were from six to ten dollars a week.

  [91] Whom we now know to have been Hellik Glaim.

From the fact of his location near the big spring, "Springen," as
Knudson called it, he came to be called Gullik Springen; his sir name,
Laugen, he no longer used, but wrote himself Gullik Knudson. Here
by this spring, Knudson built a hut of shrubs, thatched with straw,
in which they lived for three months while the log cabin was being
built.[92] The flat cover of a chest, brought from Norway, served for
a table, and the cooking was done on the ground. In December the log
cabin was ready. Gunnul Stordok and wife, who did not come to Newark
until September, lived with Knudson during the first winter, after
which they removed to Illinois.[93]

  [92] This log cabin is still used as a chicken house on the old
       Springen homestead.

  [93] _The Rock County History_ says of Stordok: "He and his family
       lived in a haystack for three months until they had completed
       a log cabin" (page 774). As we have seen, it was not a
       haystack they lived in. Stordok's family consisted, as yet,
       only of himself and wife.

In the summer of 1841 a considerable number of Knudson's acquaintances
from Norway came; these found a temporary home with Knudson, sharing
in his genuine pioneer hospitality. Among them were Halvor Skavlem
and his wife, Berit, the daughter, Kari, and two sons, Ole and Paul
Skavlem, the latter with wife and child, Bessie. Halvor Skavlem died
one week after their arrival. The son Paul bought land; Ole first,
however, went to Mineral Point, in Dodge County, returning, however,
later; he settled near Orfordville. Another of this group was Halvor
Nilson Aas, who, with his family, settled near Gravdahl, in Newark
Township. Knut Kristensen also came in 1841 and located on section
eleven, erecting a log cabin there. Finally, Ole Halvorson Valle, who
later moved to Iowa, was among this number.

Several of those who had come to Jefferson Prairie in 1839 removed to
Rock Prairie in the summer of 1841. Thus, Hellik Glaim, Lars Skavlem,
and the latter's three brothers, Gullik, Gjermund, and Herbrand; these
all moved there upon their father Halvor's arrival from Norway that
summer. Hellik N. Brække and Nils Olson Vægli came directly from Norway
in 1841. The last mentioned was from Vægli Annex to Rollaug Parish in
Numedal. He was born at Vægli Parsonage and was therefore often called
Nils Prestegaard. He lived at Gravdal's the first winter; the following
summer he, with two others, Paul Skavlem and Hellik Brække, bought a
quarter section of land together in section thirty-two in Plymouth
Township. Nils Vægli was married in 1844 to Kari Skavlem, daughter
of Halvor Skavlem; they went to Koshkonong, in Dane County, to be
married by Reverend J. W. C. Dietrichson, who had just come there from
Norway. They were one of the first couples to be married by him. Hellik
Brække sold out his share in the land, and in 1852 moved to Mitchell
County, Iowa. Lars Skavlem bought land and settled near Halvor Aas,
whose daughter (Groe Nelson) he married in 1844; hence, he was also
called Lars Aas. He later bought his father-in-law's farm, the place
being called "the Skavlen farm" (Skavlenfarmen). Gullik Skavlem bought
land three miles east of Gisle Halland in Beloit Township, about three
miles from Beloit; he, however, moved to Mitchell County, Iowa, in the
fifties.[94] Hellik Glaim had stopped in Chicago till 1840, when he
came to Rock Prairie. Ten years later he sold out and moved to Fillmore
County, Minnesota.[95]

  [94] Of these various removals to Mitchell County, Iowa, I shall
       speak more fully in the proper place.

  [95] Glaim located at Hanley Falls, Minnesota, in 1866.

The above is a brief record of the beginnings of the Rock Prairie
Settlement. Of some of the founders of this settlement, which, in a few
years, became one of the most prosperous in the state, I may here add:

Gullik Gravdal, the nestor of the settlement, was born in Vægli,
Numedal, in 1802; he died in 1873, leaving widow, a daughter, Sarah,
and two sons, Ole and Tolle. Ole Gravdal was born in Norway in
1830; he married Jöri Ödegaarden in 1855, after which he lived for
thirteen years in Beloit, then removed to Newark Township. He is at
present living in Beloit, Wisconsin. Ole Gravdal dropped the latter
name and used the patronymic Gulack. Tolle Gulack Gravdal was born
in 1833. He married Bessie Skavlem, daughter of Paul H. Skavlem, in
1857. They lived on the farm in Newark until 1894 (Tolle having lived
there fifty-five years), in which year they moved to Beloit. He died
in September, 1903, leaving a widow and two children, a son, Gilbert
Gravdal, in Newark Township, and a daughter, Mrs. C. E. Inman, in
Beloit. A son, Henry, died in 1902, and a daughter, Nellie (Mrs.
W. O. Hanson), died in the summer of 1903. _Amerika_ for September
twenty-fifth, 1903, prints an obituary notice of Tolle Gravdal,
according to which his death was sudden, being stricken as he was
at work. The notice says, "he was one of those who had tried the
privations and the trials of pioneer life, and he was always ready
to extend a helping hand to all who needed it. He enjoyed universal
respect and love for his sincerity and his integrity and his lovable
nature." Sarah Gravdal, daughter of Gullik Gravdal, married Halvor
Halvorson (son of Cleophas Halvorson), of Newark Township, in 1869.

Hellik Nilson Brække married a sister of Reverend C. F. Clausen's
wife; in 1852 he joined the latter's colony of settlers in Mitchell
County, Iowa. Lars Skavlem was born in 1819. He married Groe Nilson
Aas in 1844; their children are Halvor, Bessie, Helen and Carolina.
The son, Halvor L. Skavlem, born 1848, is a farmer in Newark Township;
he married Cornelia Olmstead, in Plymouth, a granddaughter of Mrs.
Gunild Ödegaarden.[96] Gunnul Stordok moved to Rock Run (see below). It
seems that he had retained some of his land in Newark, for when Gunder
Knudson Springen (brother of Gullik Springen) came there in 1843, he
bought land then owned by Gunnul Stordok.

  [96] They have two children, Lulu and Lewis.

We shall now leave, for the present, the Rock Prairie Settlement, and
observe what was taking place elsewhere during the period that has been
briefly sketched here.



                              CHAPTER XVI

             _The Rock Run Settlement. Other Immigrants of
                    1839. The Immigration of 1840._


It has been stated that a settlement was also established in Illinois
about twenty miles southwest of Rock Prairie, the same year as the
latter was settled, _i. e._, in 1839. This came to be known as the
Rock Run Settlement, from the name of the town. It lies partly in
Stephenson, partly in Winnebago County. The locality is prairie,
relieved here and there by bits of timber land. The foundation of this
settlement is also to be accredited to an immigrant from Numedal,
who came on the _Amelia_, in 1839. His name was Clemet Torstenson
Stabæk, and he came from Rollaug Parish. With him three others located
there in the fall of 1839, namely, Syvert Tollefson and Ole Anderson,
from Numedal, and a Mr. Knudson, from Drammen. Stabæk was a man of
considerable means. He selected land in Winnebago County, near the
present village of Davis. His son, Torsten K. O. Stabæk (born in
Norway[97]) married Torgen Patterson, and they lived on the farm until
1884, when they moved to Davis.[98] Kristopher Rostad and wife, Kristi,
seem also to have moved to Rock Run before the close of 1839. In the
following summer came Gunnul Stordok, to whom we have referred under
the settling of Newark in Rock County. Stordok lived in Rock Run until
1870; he then moved back to Newark, where the rest of his relatives
who had come to America had settled.[99] Gunnul Stordok was born in
Rollaug, Numedal, in the year 1800; he married Mary Larson (of Rollaug)
before emigrating.

  [97] Not on the homestead, as _History of Norwegians of Illinois_,
       page 487, has it.

  [98] In 1895 he organized the Farmers Bank of Davis, Illinois, of
       which his son, C. O. R. Stabeck, is now cashier.

  [99] When he returned to Newark in 1870 he bought two hundred acres
       of land, for which he paid seven thousand dollars.

Among the earliest arrivals in the settlement subsequently was Halvor
Aasen, born in Numedal in 1823, and who came to America in 1841. For
two years after coming to this country he worked in the lead mines at
Mineral Point, Wisconsin, and at Galena, Illinois. In 1843 he married
Christie Olson, and bought a farm in Laona Township, Winnebago County,
whither he and his wife moved in 1844. Here they lived until their
death. She died in 1902, and he in March, 1905.[100]

  [100] Their children are Ole Anderson and Andrew Anderson at Davis,
        Illinois, and Mrs. O. H. Lerud at Lyle, Minnesota; four
        children are dead.

The Rock Run Settlement was prosperous but did not grow to such
proportions as its sister settlements to the north. In later years many
of its earlier pioneers moved back to Rock County, as Stordok did,
and as Lars Rostad and family also did in the sixties. Among those
who located at Rock Run in the forties were Hovel Paulson (born 1817)
from North Land Parish, Norway, who located near Davis in 1846;[101]
Christian Lunde, also from Land, Norway, came to Rock Run in 1848 and
later moved to Goodhue County, Minnesota; Narve Stabæk, Torsten Knudson
and Nels Nelson, all three from Numedal; Gunder O. Halvorson, from
Kragerö; Svale Nilson, from Bukn Parish, Stavanger; Gunder Halvorson,
from Telemarken, and Lars O. Anderson. There appears a very brief
account of the Rock Run Settlement by Lars O. Anderson in _Nordlyset_,
under date of June second, 1848. According to this there were at that
time twenty families, twelve unmarried men over twenty years of age,
six unmarried women of over twenty years, while there were thirty-two
persons below the age of twenty. The whole settlement, he says, numbers
ninety persons and comprises 4,062 acres of land.

  [101] He moved to the Old People's Home in Stoughton in 1903, where
        he died in 1907, his wife having died in 1905. His only son
        was killed in the Civil War.

We have followed somewhat fully the immigration movement in Numedal
and Telemarken in 1839, and we have also noted the fact that that year
records its contingent of emigrants also from Stavanger Province.
It remains here to note briefly the growth of the movement in Voss
and its spread elsewhere. Nils Lydvo came from Voss in 1839, and
went directly to his brothers, Knud and Ole Lydvo, in Shelby County,
Missouri. At the same time came Anders Finno, Lars Davidson Rekve, Nils
Severson Gilderhus, and Anfin Leidal; their destination was La Salle
County.[102] The party further contained Ole K. Gilderhus, Lars Ygre,
Anders Flage, Lars Dugstad, Knud Gjöstein, Anders Nilson Brække and
wife, Knud Brække and wife, Magne B. Bystölen, Anna Gilderhus, and Anna
Bakketun.

This party seems to have arrived in New York early in July, 1839, and
to have intended to go to Illinois. We shall meet with most of them
later as pioneers in Wisconsin settlements, but for a time many of them
remained in Chicago, so that in the fall of 1839 and the following
winter there was a considerable colony of Norwegian immigrants located
in Chicago. Nils A. Lie, of Deerfield, Wisconsin, writing of this
fact, says there were more Vossings in Chicago about 1840 than all
other Norwegians combined.[103] Among those who remained temporarily
in Chicago were Ole K. Gilderhus, Lars Ygre and Lars Rekve. The last
of these worked for a year on a steamer plying between Chicago and St.
Joseph, Michigan.[104] I shall give a brief sketch of him below, under
_Koshkonong_. Anders Finno went to Koshkonong, Dane County, in 1840,
but later settled in Blue Mounds, in the same county. In 1850 he went
to California with a group of gold seekers and has not since been heard
from by his compatriots.

  [102] Where, however, they did not remain, as we shall see.

  [103] _Bygdejaevning_, page 43.

  [104] Anderson's _First Chapter_, page 330.

Anders Nilson Brække[105] was born at Brække, Voss, Norway, February
twelfth, 1818; he had married Inger Nelson in Norway. Brække located
permanently in Chicago, working at first for Mathew Laflin and John
Wright. He laid the foundation of his future fortune in 1845, when he
purchased some property on Superior Street, on part of which he built
the residence, where he lived until his death in 1887. He held many
offices of public trust in the discharge of which he was able and
unimpeachable in his honesty. Brække's first wife died early leaving
three children.[106] In 1849 he married Mrs. Julia K. Williams; three
children by this marriage are living.[107]

  [105] Andrew Nelson Brekke.

  [106] They are all dead long ago.

  [107] A daughter of theirs is Mrs. J. A. Waite of the Anchor Line
        Steamship Company. I am indebted to Strand's _Norwegians
        in Illinois_ (page 215) for some of the facts of Brække's
        personal history.

In the party of emigrants from Voss in 1839 were also Arne Anderson
Vinje (born 1820) and wife Martha (Gulliksdatter Kindem). From Vinje we
learn that the ship, on which the twenty emigrants from Voss came that
year, left Norway April sixteenth and that they arrived at Chicago in
September. Vinje located first in Chicago; soon after arriving he built
a log house, in which he and his wife lived during the first winter.
Anders Brække, it is said, assisted him in the erection of the log
house. During the winter Vinje worked on a road that was being laid out
on the west side; for this work he received sixteen dollars a month.
The next July however Vinje together with Per Davidson Skjerveim (who
had just arrived from Voss, Norway) each with his team of oxen left for
Hamilton Diggings in La Fayette. Here each took a claim of government
land; of this we shall speak more at length in the chapter on Wiota.

During the year 1840 emigration from Norway was rather limited. There
had been a considerable exodus in 1839 from Numedal and Telemarken. The
lull in 1840 may be explained by the fact that intending emigrants in
those regions were waiting for favorable news from their relatives and
friends who had gone the preceding year. The settlers at Muskego, on
Jefferson and Rock Prairies and at Rock Run had barely gotten located
when the winter set in. Communication was of course very slow, and
spring and early summer was the sailing season of Norwegian emigrants
in those days. The year 1840, however, brought its quota of arrivals
from Voss,[108] namely Kund J. Hylle, Ole S. Gilderhus, Knut Rokne,
Mads Sanve, Baard Nyre, Brynjolf Ronve, Torstein Saue, wife, and son
Gulleik,[109] Klaus Grimestad and wife, Arne Urland and wife, and Lars
T. Röthe; there were twenty in all in the party. All of these it is
said settled in Chicago.[110] They all came in Captain Ankerson's ship
_Emelia_, the same ship which carried Nattestad's party in 1839. They
were five months on this journey, arriving in Chicago in September. We
shall later meet with some of these elsewhere.

  [108] As also from Drammen, see below, page 159.

  [109] Father of Torger G. Thompson of Cambridge, Dane County,
        Wisconsin.

  [110] I gather most of these names from Nils A. Lie's account in
        _Bygdejaevning_, pages 47-48.

A few other names from different parts of Norway are recorded among
the immigrants of 1839. We have observed above that Johan Nordboe of
Ringebo in Gudbrandsdalen had come to America in 1832. Though he wrote
letters home it does not seem that he succeeded in promoting emigration
from that section of Norway, except individually, and then not until
1839. In that year his friend Lars Johanneson Holo of Ringsaker,
Hedemarken, together with three grown up sons came to America.[111]
Holo did, however, not go to Dallas County, Texas, where Nordboe had
settled the year before, but he first located in Rochester, New York. A
man by the name of Lauman from Faaberg in Gudbrandsdalen also came with
him and went to Rochester. He, however, went west a few years later,
settling in Lee County, Illinois. Holo remained in Rochester two years,
he and his sons being employed there on the canal. In 1841 they went to
Muskego, where we shall find them in our next chapter.

  [111] The route led by way of Havre and New York.

Among the immigrants of 1839 we find one man from Sogn, the first to
emigrate from that region to America. His name is Per I. Unde,[112] and
he came from Vik Parish in Outer Sogn. He lived in Chicago it seems,
the two first years he was in America. In 1841 his brother Ole Unde
arrived and the two went to La Fayette County; we shall speak of both
of these men later. Among the immigrants of 1839 who did not go to
Muskego I may here mention Knud Hellikson Roe and wife Anna and four
children who came from Tin, Telemarken. They went to La Salle County,
Illinois, where they lived till 1841; thence they removed to Racine
County and in 1843 went to Dane County, Wisconsin (see below).

  [112] H. R. Holand writes of Per Unde in _Skandinaven_ for July
        seventeenth, 1908, stating that he came in 1842. Unde's
        nephew, Jacob Unde of Sherry, Wisconsin, contributes in a
        later issue of _Skandinaven_ some corrections, among them
        that Per Unde came in 1839.

Ole H. Hanson and wife also from Tin, Telemarken, came in 1839. They
settled at Indian Creek, near where now stands the village of Leland,
La Salle County, Illinois. The first winter they lived in a dugout on
the same spot on the homestead where the residence now stands. Mrs.
Hanson died in 1842, Mr. Hanson died three years later. The children
were Ole, known as Ole H. Hanson, Alex, Betsey, Helen, and Levina.
Ole Hanson assumed charge of the homestead and lived there and near
Leland till his death in December, 1904. In 1855 he married Isabella
Osmundson, who died in 1873. They had six children, one of whom is C.
F. Hanson,[113] State's Attorney, of Morris, Illinois.

  [113] To whom I am indebted chiefly for the family history. Alex
        Hanson lives at Ellsworth, Iowa.



                              CHAPTER XVII

            _The Settlement of Norway and Raymond Townships,
                     Racine County. The Founders of
                     the Settlement. Immigration to
                      Racine County in 1841-1842._


We have seen how in the fall of 1839 the Luraas brothers established
a colony near Lake Muskego in the present Waukesha (then Milwaukee)
County. The locality was illy selected, being low and marshy. It was in
the first place unhealthy and the settlers suffered much from malaria.
Furthermore it was very heavily covered with timber and the soil which
was clay yielded but small returns for their labor. The settlers
therefore found it difficult enough to make a living.

As early as the next spring several moved farther south into Racine
County, where the conditions were more favorable and where a thriving
settlement grew up in a few years. The old settlement ceased to become
the objective point of intending emigrants from Telemarken. After the
cholera year 1849 most of those who survived moved away.[114] The
southern extension of the settlement, which took its root at Wind Lake
in Norway Township, later spread out so as to include the townships
of Yorkville, Raymond and Waterford all in Racine County. The old
name, "Muskego," was retained as the designation of the new as well as
the old settlement, although the settlement in Racine County is now
often referred to as "Yorkville Prairie." It is the beginnings of this
settlement to which I shall now turn.

  [114] The editor of _Billed-Magazin_ writes, page eleven of volume
        I, that at that time (1869) Kittil Lohner and his brother
        Halvor Nilson Lohner, from Hjertdal, Telemarken, and the
        family of Gisle Danielson, from Skjold, were still living in
        the settlement. The rest were dead or had moved away. But
        Knud J. Bæckhus, from Hjertdal, and Ole Kjonaas, from Bö, had
        settled west of the colony in the town of Vernon.

The founders of the settlement at Wind Lake in the Town of Norway
were Sören Backe, son of Tolleff O. Backe a merchant of Drammen, and
Johannes Johanneson. The latter was a clerk in the employ of Tollef
Backe of Drammen, whom he latter deputed to accompany his son to
America. He was a man of about forty years of age, of strong character
and moral principles. He had some knowledge of the English language,
having once lived for a short time in England. Sören Backe was a young
man, evidently of little promise, whom the father sent to America
ostensibly that his ambition might be kindled by American opportunities
and by being placed upon his own responsibility. In company with them
came also a third man, of whom I shall speak again in a later chapter,
namely Elling Eielson Sunve from Voss, a lay preacher and the noted
founder of the "Ellingian" sect of the Lutheran Church. These three
left Drammen in the summer of 1839, and arrived in La Salle County in
the fall of that year. The forest land had all been taken and was now
occupied by settlers, and Johannesen seems to have been suspicious of
the prairie, where land could still be had.

A contributor to the _Billed-Magazin_ for 1869 says that the conditions
of distress, the winter storms and the extreme cold on the prairies
were the things that influenced them to seek a locality for a
settlement elsewhere, and that they did not go north to Racine County
until the spring of 1840. He says: "Early the next spring they walked
north and came as far as to Wind Lake, where there was then a single
settler, an Irishman. Here in the primeval forest, on the shores of the
little lake they had found what their hearts desired; and they bought
the piece of ground which the Irishman was cultivating, and Backe chose
this place as his home." It is to be noted, however, that K. Langeland
in _Nordmaendene i Amerika_ says that they remained in La Salle County
only a few weeks and went north to Wisconsin that same fall (page
forty-three).[115] Langeland adds further, that they dug a cellar in an
Indian mound in which they lived during the winter.

  [115] Professor Anderson accepts unreservedly the authority of
        _Billed-Magazin_ in the matter and decides for the date 1840.

In touching upon these facts in my article on "The Coming of the
Norwegians to Iowa"[116] I did not hesitate to accept this as correct,
and I must now adhere to this view. My reason is that as early as the
middle of the summer of 1840 a small group of emigrants were ready
to leave for America with the view of settling at Wind Lake, having
received letters from Backe and Johannesen, urging them to come there.
Had these not located at Wind Lake before the spring of 1840 the time
would have been insufficient for the second party at Drammen to have
not only received word from America but also to have made all necessary
arrangements preparatory to emigrating. I assume then that it was about
December 1839 that Backe and Johannesen located in Norway Township. I
am inclined to think, however, that Elling Eielson remained in the Fox
River Settlement during the winter, and that he came to Wind Lake in
the spring of 1840. During that spring and summer the brothers John,
Torger, Halvor, and Knut Luraas, with their families, as also Gjermund
Johnson Kaasa, located in Norway Township. Nelson Johnson Kaasa, who
had emigrated in the Luraas party in 1839, remained in Milwaukee for
three months and moved to the settlement in November, 1840.

  [116] In _The Iowa Journal of History and Politics_, 1905, page 360.

Among the immigrants of 1837, who went to the ill-fated Beaver Creek
Settlement in Iroquois County, Illinois, was Mons K. Aadland. We have
already observed that he was the last one to leave Beaver Creek. He
with family also came to Racine County in the summer of 1840. He
however selected a locality on the prairie east of the Indian mound,
buying a farm of a hundred and sixty acres on section thirty in
Raymond Township. This part of the settlement came to be known as North
Cape. The nucleus of the later extensive settlement had then assumed
considerable proportions by the fall of 1840; but new accessions were
soon to come.

Backe and Johannesen decided to write to friends in Norway and their
letters were productive of results. In the summer of 1840 a party of
about thirty persons stood ready to emigrate to the settlement in
Wisconsin. The leader of these was Even Hanson Heg, the keeper of a
hotel at Lier in Drammen, who sold out his property and with his wife
and four children came with this party. Other members of the party
were: Johannes Evenson Skofstad, Syvert Ingebretson Narverud, Helge
Thomson, Ole Anderson, all from Drammen and all of whom had families,
Ole Hogenson and family from Eggedal, and Knut Aslakson Svalestuen from
Vinje, Telemarken. All these came to Wind Lake and located there in the
autumn of 1840.

Sören Backe seems to have been a man whose generosity was as remarkable
as his lack of business ability. His father, a man of considerable
wealth, had supplied his son generously with funds upon his departure
for America. Sören Backe evidently loaned money very liberally to
those of his countrymen who were in need, and there were many of these
here as in all pioneer communities. It is said that when his funds
were used up he made a journey to Norway for more money. With this he
purchased land, which he let out on easy terms to new comers from
Norway. It was Johannesen who had charge of these transactions in which
it seems Even Heg was a partner with Backe. Johannesen is described as
a devout christian, a zealous adherent of the Haugian tendency, and in
every way a noble character. As we have seen, the settlement developed
rapidly, and it continued to grow for many years. Backe and Johannesen
then joined partnership and started a store; for this purpose an
Indian mound was excavated, the walls were sided with boards, and this
structure, which was partly underground, served as store, living room
and kitchen combined. Their stock of goods was shipped from Milwaukee,
itself then only a village of one or two stores, a hotel and half a
dozen pioneer cabins. Backe and Johannesen continued their business
together for about three years when Johannesen fell ill and died (in
1845). That same year Backe returned to Norway and settled on his
father's farm Valle, in Lier, near Drammen.

Even Heg was a leading spirit in the settlement in Norway and
surrounding townships during his life-time. Much has been written
about him and I shall not here repeat the eulogies elsewhere voiced
in his honor. After Johannesen's death it was Heg upon whom the
settlers in the early days of the colony leaned for advice and it was
Even Heg to whom every new arrival from Norway to the colony came for
help and counsel. His hospitality and his resourcefulness in the aid
of his compatriots was boundless. Heg's barn, where large parties
of immigrants were received every summer, and in which they were
permitted freely to make their home during the first weeks after the
long and arduous journey, is famed throughout many an early settlement
in Wisconsin, Iowa and Minnesota. The log cabins of the settlers
were too small to afford the necessary quarters for the numbers that
continuously flocked in, and the large barn was a boon for which they
were truly grateful. For a time Racine County became the objective
point of most of the immigrants from Norway, a distinction which
however it was soon to share with the still more famous Koshkonong
Prairie in Dane County, Wisconsin.

Of Elling Eielson I shall speak below, as also of Hans C. Heg, son
of Even Heg, and of some of the other Racine County pioneers. I wish
to add here a few words of Mons Aadland, who as we recall, came to
America in 1837, and located at North Cape in 1840. Aadland was born
near Bergen, Norway, in April, 1793, being thus forty-four years old
when he emigrated. He was one of the few survivors of the Beaver Creek
Colony in Illinois. As we have seen, he is the founder of the North
Cape branch of the settlement. There he lived till his death in 1869,
his wife having died two years before. A settlers' history says of him:
"He was a man of generous spirit, as is shown by his liberal gifts,
and one who took a commendable interest in public affairs." Ten years
before his death he owned between five and six hundred acres of land
which he then divided among his children. Thomas Adland and Knud Adland
both of Raymond Township are his sons, while a daughter, Martha, lives
in Norway; the other children are dead.[117] Mons Aadland was a nephew
of Nils P. Langeland whom we have spoken of above page 100.

  [117] Mons Aadland had a sister Malinda, the wife of Anders
        Nordvig, who came to America in the same ship as he. Anders
        Nordvig died in Beaver Creek. His wife moved to the Fox River
        Settlement, where she died, ninety years old, about 1892. I
        have above written the name Adland as it came to be written
        in this country.

The immigration of 1841 was not extensive. Backe and Johannesen do not
seem to have continued their propaganda of immigration; but the party
who came with Even Heg wrote home letters full of praise of the New
World. But even in the face of such tempting exhortations the old world
resident requires time for thought before he decides to bid farewell to
the home of his fathers and seek his fortune in a strange and distant
land. I am not aware that anyone came from Drammen or Telemarken to
Racine County in 1841.[118] Knut Roe and wife located in Racine County,
however, in 1841, but they came from La Salle County, where they had
settled in 1839. In 1842 there were several arrivals. Thus Hermund
Nilson Tufte with wife Kari and three daughters came from Aal Parish in
Hallingdal. This was the first family to emigrate to America from that
province.[119] In that year came also Aanund Halvorson Bjoin, wife and
family from Tin, Telemarken, and John Jacobson; further, Halvor Larson
Lysenstöen (Modum) from Hadeland, Norway, the first immigrant from that
region, and Helge Sigurdson and wife Bergit Olsdatter, who however,
removed to Dane County in 1844.[120] John J. Dale from Norway, who
had come to America in 1837 and settled in La Salle County, Illinois,
came to Racine in 1842; his wife Anna had died in Illinois in 1839.
Another of the immigrants of 1839 came to Muskego in 1842, namely John
Evenson Molee. He had lived in Milwaukee the preceding three years; I
shall speak of him below. There were individual accessions to other
settlements in 1841-42, but they are few in number. With 1843 the
immigration movement receives a new impulse, but the discussion of that
year will better be postponed until we have recorded the founding of
some other important settlements in 1840-42.

  [118] Nor any from other provinces, for Hermund Tufte who, in
        Holand's _De norske Settlementers Historie_, is said to have
        come in 1841, did not come before 1842.

  [119] See below under Rock Prairie.

  [120] The _Biographical Review of Dane County, Wisconsin_, 1893,
        page 239, gives 1842 as the year Seamon A. Seamonson came
        from Skien, Norway, to Racine County, his wife and three
        children coming the next year (see later chapter).



                             CHAPTER XVIII

            _The Establishment of the Koshkonong Settlement
                      in Dane County, Wisconsin_.


The genesis of the settlement of Koshkonong Prairie[121] in Dane
County, Wisconsin, the most noted undoubtedly of all Norwegian
settlements in America, dates from 1840. The recital of this event,
however, will take us back to the preceding year; for the first visit
of Norwegians to Dane County, is, I believe, correctly recorded as
having taken place in 1839. Before discussing the first coming of Norse
pioneers to Koshkonong I shall mention a few "first settlers" in Dane
County, who preceded the Norwegians; to do this will help to give us
a better idea of the state of wilderness which they found there, and
which they in a few years transformed into a settled and thriving
community.

  [121] In reality a group of prairies.

The townships in Dane County in which the Norwegians settled most
extensively are found in three groups, viz.: in the southeastern, in
the northern and in the southwestern part of the county. The first
of these comprises originally Albion, Christiana and Deerfield; from
this region the settlement soon grew into Dunkirk and Pleasant Spring,
and from the latter north into Cottage Grove.[122] On the east it
extends into Sumner and Oakland townships in Jefferson County. This
settlement came to be known as Koshkonong Prairie, though properly
the name applies only to the two first-named towns and adjacent
portions of Pleasant Spring and Deerfield. The second settlement
includes the townships of Burke, eastern Westport, Vienna, Windsor,
and northwestern and central Bristol. The western portion of this
settlement is generally known by the name of the Norway (or Norwegian)
Grove Settlement, from the post-office of that name in Vienna Township
around which it lies. In its northern extremity the settlement extends
into Columbia County, northeast into Spring Prairie and Bonnet Prairie
and northwest past the village of Lodi. This whole region is in reality
a northern extension of the Koshkonong Settlement.[123] It is also from
four to eight years later in order of formation.[124] Our third group
of townships comprises Primrose, Perry, Springdale, Blue Mound and that
part of Verona Township which lies east of Blue Mound Creek.[125]

  [122] Later Norwegians settled also in Blooming Grove (west of
        Cottage Grove) and in Rutland (west of Dunkirk), but they
        always remained here a minority of the population. On the
        north the settlement extends also into southeastern Sun
        Prairie and southwestern Medina.

  [123] But Spring Prairie was settled slightly earlier than Norway
        Grove.

  [124] The settlement enters the Town of Dane (northwestern part) on
        the west.

  [125] That is, excluding the southwestern part of the town and
        sections 6, 7, and 18 along its western line.

In the Town of Albion the Norwegians were the earliest settlers, for
some of them came as early as the spring of 1841, as we shall see
below. The _History of Dane County_, 1880,[126] says, page 838, that
Freeborn Sweet, from New York, was the first settler in the town; and
yet on page 1189 we are told that he was "one of the first settlers."
As he did not arrive until August of that year he clearly was not the
first. The next earliest American settler seems to have been Samuel
T. Stewart of Massachusetts, who located on section fourteen in the
fall of 1841.[127] The first white settler in the Town of Christiana
was William M. Mayhew who came in 1837, and located on section
twenty-eight. The next arrivals were Norwegians (see below).

  [126] A work which, unfortunately, contains a great many errors.

  [127] In the spring of 1842 Duty J. Green and Jesse Saunders came,
        both from Alleghany County, New York; they settled near
        Saunders' Creek, where Albion village now stands. Saunders
        had lived one year in Rock County. In 1842 also, Samuel
        Clarke of Yorkshire, England, son of James and Judith A.
        Clarke, arrived, and located on Albion Prairie. John S.
        Bullis, Giles Eggleston, Lorenzo Coon, and Barton Edwards,
        came in 1842, C. R. Head in 1843, as also Adin Burdick, and
        in 1844 Job Bunting, L. O. Humphrey, R. P. Humphrey, Henry
        Job, Samuel Marsden, and James Wileman.

The first settler in Pleasant Spring seems to have been Abel Rasdall,
who located his cabin on the eastern shore of Lake Kegonsa, about half
a mile south of the inlet; the year of his arrival, however, cannot
be given definitely and I am not able to say with certainty whether
he preceded Knut H. Roe (see below) or not. In the Town of Deerfield
the first settlement was made by Norwegians in 1840; as we shall show
below; however, Philip Kearney had erected a house on section eighteen
in 1839; he remained the only American there for several years.

The first settlers in the Town of Rutland were Joseph Dejean, John
Prentice and Dan Pond, who located in its southern part in 1842. John
Nelson Luraas may have been the first settler in Dunkirk; he came in
1843, and was followed soon after by John Wheeler,[128] Chauncey Isham,
and Mitchel Campbell. In the towns of Cottage Grove, Burke, Windsor,
and Bristol, Americans preceded Norwegians by several years, as also in
Blue Mounds, where Ebenezer Brigham located as early as 1828, or some
sixteen years before that part of the county actually became settled.

  [128] From whom Wheeler Prairie takes its name. I am inclined to
        think that Wheeler preceded Luraas (see below).

The Township of Springdale was settled first in 1844, when John Harlow
entered it, he remaining the only white man there for a year. A few
Americans came in 1845, then Americans and Norwegian immigrants in
1846. An American settlement was effected by Thomas Lindsay and David
Robertson in the Town of Bristol (section seven) two years before
Norwegians came there, which was in 1847. The earliest settler,
however, seems to be William G. Simons who entered in 1838. The first
white settler in Perry Township was John Brown of Indiana, who came
into the town in 1846. A few other Americans (as B. K. Berry in 1847)
preceded the Norwegians, whose coming dates from 1848. In the Town of
Primrose, Robert Spears and family were the first comers (1844); a few
other Americans had also arrived there before Christian Hendrickson
located in the town in 1846. We shall now turn to the events that
led to the establishment of the extensive Norwegian settlement on
Koshkonong Prairie in the southeastern part of the county.

We have seen that most of the immigrants from Voss, Norway, who came
in 1839, located either in Chicago or in La Salle County, Illinois. It
has been observed also that not all of those who went to the Fox River
region located there permanently. The land here was now mostly taken,
besides our pioneers from Voss did not like the prairie; they were in
search of a location where timber and water was near at hand. And so
some of them decided to try their fortune in Wisconsin, where they had
heard there was plenty of forest land with many lakes and rivers.

Our party from Voss had been in La Salle County only a few weeks, when
three of them decided to go and investigate for themselves. These three
were Nils Bolstad, Nils Gilderhus and Magne Bystölen. They engaged
Odd J. Himle (who had emigrated from Voss in 1837), then living in
Illinois, to accompany them as their guide and interpreter. Bystölen,
being taken sick and thus prevented from going, gave instructions to
the rest to select land for him if the region was satisfactory to the
rest. Bolstad, Gilderhus and Himle started on foot for Milwaukee, a
distance of a hundred and fifty miles. Having arrived there in safety,
they procured maps and whatever information they could with reference
to the regions that were open to settlement in the interior of the
state. Then they walked west about eighty miles inspecting the land on
the way, and after two weeks reached the eastern part of Dane County.

The spot where they stopped was about two miles east of the site of
the present village of Cambridge. Here a man by the name of Snell had
shortly before established a tavern for trappers and frontiersmen;
with him our party of homeseekers put up, and from him they received
instructions as to the "government markings" of the sections and the
stakes placed at the corner of sections and quarter sections, giving
the number of each.

After a two days' rest they continued their tramp westward to
Koshkonong[129] Prairie. Himle, Gilderhus and Bolstad inspected the
whole prairie from one end to the other, walking about for two days.
Then they returned to Cambridge, finally deciding on a parcel of land
a little over two miles northwest of that place, lying on both sides
of the boundary line between the towns of Christiana and Deerfield.
Here Gilderhus and Bolstad selected forty acres each, and forty for
Bystölen. This locality was chosen because of its abundance of hardwood
timber, and besides there was plenty of hay on the marshes and fine
fishing in Koshkonong Creek near by.[130]

  [129] The prairie takes its name from Koshkonong Creek (and
        Koshkonong Lake).

  [130] As Mr. Odland points out. Odland adds: "They were all Vossings
        and to emigrants from that celebrated district in Norway,
        therefore, belongs the credit of founding the most important
        Norwegian settlement in America." (Article in _Amerika_).

Having thus made their choice of land, Gilderhus, Bolstad, and Himle
returned to Illinois by way of Milwaukee, walking the whole distance;
they remained in La Salle County through the winter. Their account of
the land of promise which they had discovered, aroused much interest,
and, as we shall see below, brought others in their train later. Early
in the spring of 1840, Gilderhus and Bolstad, accompanied now by Magne
Bystölen and also Andrew Finno, started for Koshkonong, driving,
this time, in wagons drawn by oxen. They arrived there at the end of
April and immediately took possession of the land selected. The land
that had been chosen for Bystölen was inside the Christiana Township
line, where Anders Finno also now located. Nils Gilderhus's land
lay within Deerfield Township; he was the first Norwegian to locate
there. He built a log cabin, which was the first house in the town.
Nils Gilderhus and, I believe, Nils Bolstad, soon after walked to
Milwaukee and filed their claims at the government land office, Nils
Gilderhus being the first in the party to purchase land. The date of
the purchase is May sixth, 1840; the land is the south half of the
southwest quarter of section thirty-five. Nils Bolstad entered on forty
acres of section two in the Town of Christiana, and Magne Bystölen's
forty acres lay directly east of Bolstad's in the same section.[131]

  [131] Their names are recorded in the land office as Nils Seaverson,
        Nils Larson and Magany Buttelson.

Their first habitation was a hurriedly built log cabin; it was not
plastered, and, as we can believe, proved inadequate as a protection
against winter, which was already setting in. Here they experienced
the intensest suffering from cold,[132] until, the condition becoming
intolerable, they dug out a cellar against an embankment, where they
lived during the remainder of the cold season. In this "dugout" Nils
Gilderhus and Magne Bystölen continued to live another year, but Nils
Bolstad erected a log cabin in 1841, when he married Anna Vindeig, who
was the first white woman in the locality. Gilderhus erected a cabin in
the town of Deerfield near the Christiana line in 1842, but he sold out
in 1843 to Gulleik Thompson Saue; for further facts about these men see
below. Andrew Fenno and Odd Himle did not purchase land.[133]

  [132] Odland writes: when they had finished their work outside,
        they were obliged to lie down on their beds and cover up with
        robes in order not to freeze.

  [133] Himle settled some years later at Norway Grove, Dane County.

We shall now turn to the two other groups of settlers on Koshkonong in
1840.



                              CHAPTER XIX

             _The Settling of Koshkonong by Immigrants from
                  Numedal and Stavanger in 1840. Other
                       Accessions in 1841-1842._


Among the immigrants who came from Rollaug, Numedal, in 1839, was
Gunnul Olson Vindeig, though, as we have seen, he did not come in
Nattestad's party. Through the illness of a child he was prevented
from emigrating with Nattestad, as he had intended. Coming later in
the year, he went via Chicago, directly to Jefferson Prairie, where
he remained during the winter. In the early spring of 1840, about the
time our Vossings, spoken of above, are moving north to locate on their
claims, Vindeig built or bought a boat at Beloit, and this being ready,
he, with a companion, Gjermund Knudson Sunde, rowed north along the
Rock River, up Koshkonong Lake and Koshkonong Creek, into the Town of
Christiana.

That the journey should have been made in a boat up Rock River
against the stream, may sound like a legend; why not have walked this
comparatively short distance (about forty miles), just as Gilderhus and
party had walked the much longer distance from La Salle County? The
Norwegian pioneers were good walkers and seem to have loved walking.
Vindeig evidently did not. That he actually navigated up stream I
take, however, not to be merely a local or family legend, for it
is vouched for by his subsequent neighbors and comes down to us on
good authority. I myself visited Ole Gunnulson, Vindeig's son, who
is still residing on the old homestead, last August (1908), and also
received his confirmation of the route his father took in the spring
of 1840. Lars Lier, a neighbor of Ole Gunnulson, is cited by Prof. R.
B. Anderson as having been told by Gjermund Sunde himself, that they
had tied the boat a little below the Anikstad ford, where the Funkeli
bridge was afterwards built. Evidence comes also from some of the
oldest pioneers of the locality, as Halvor Kravik and Jens P. Vehus.

Gunnul Vindeig and Sunde returned soon after to Beloit, as they had
come, by way of the Rock River. Thereupon Vindeig, with his wife,
Guri, and two sisters, moved from Jefferson Prairie via Milton,
to Koshkonong, driving in a covered wagon, and proceeded to take
possession of the land he had selected. He soon had erected a cottage
of one room, with an attic accessible by ladder.[134] The land which
Vindeig located on is the south half of the northwest quarter of
section thirty-four. There he lived until his untimely death by
accident in October, 1846.[135]

  [134] Anderson's _First Chapter_, page 338.

  [135] He was killed by a loaded wagon tipping over him.

Gjermund Sunde selected forty acres of land directly north of
Vindeig's home, which he later, however, sold to Ole Lier. The land
which Vindeig purchased was recorded in the land office at Milwaukee
on May twenty-second, 1840, just sixteen days after the purchase by
Gilderhus and Bolstad was recorded. There has been much discussion as
to whether the Vossing party or Vindeig built the first house in the
Town of Christiana. Our first group of settlers had selected their land
the fall before and came north in April, 1840. We have seen that the
large log-cabin they constructed was hastily and poorly built. I assume
that either they all together, erected this immediately upon arriving
and taking possession of their claims in 1840; or else, the hewing of
timber and the erecting of the cabin was begun by the two who remained,
while Gilderhus and his companion went to Milwaukee to file their
claims. It might then have been built at the close of April, or more
probably, the beginning of May. Now Vindeig's purchase was recorded
May twenty-second; but as he seems to have gone direct from Jefferson
Prairie to Koshkonong, he evidently had built his cottage and shelter
for the family before he started for Milwaukee. There can, therefore,
have been very little difference in time between the two. Absolute
proof of the priority of either, it is not possible to obtain, it seems
to me, but I am inclined to think the cottage erected by Gilderhus,
Bolstad, and party, was the first.

Let us now turn to our third group of settlers, most of them
immigrants from Stavanger, who were living in La Salle County. These
four men were Thorsten Olson Bjaaland, Amund Anderson Hornefjeld,
Björn Anderson Kvelve, and Lars Olson Dugstad. The first of
these--Bjaaland--had come in the sloop in 1825; he is the only slooper
who came to Wisconsin, and the last of that party whom we shall meet in
our excursion down through the years of immigration. The second of this
group was also from the Province of Stavanger, being born on the Island
of Moster in 1806. We have seen that he came to America in 1836, and
that he had settled in La Salle County, where he lived for four years.
The third member of the party, Björn Kvelve, we have also met with
among the arrivals of 1836; he had been living mostly in Chicago and La
Salle County. He had come from Vikedal Parish in Ryfylke. Three other
men, Erick Johanneson Savik, Lars Scheie, and Amund Anderson Rossaland,
intimate friends of Kvelve, were of the party, but these did not settle
on Koshkonong.

In the spring of 1840, these seven men decided to go north in search
of homesteads.[136] From Gilderhus and Bolstad they had received
information of Koshkonong and they decided also to go there and inspect
the locality. About the middle of May, I take it, they started on
foot for Wisconsin. The way led by Shabbona Grove, in De Kalb County,
through Rockford, Beloit, Janesville, and Milton. They crossed the
Rock River at Goodrich's Ferry, now Newville, then pushed on until
they reached the southern line of Dane County, stopping in the Town
of Albion, near Koshkonong Creek,[137] and about four miles north,
slightly by east, of Lake Koshkonong. Here they found country that
suited them in every way. Björn Kvelve is said to have exclaimed: "This
is indeed the Land of Canaan!" Here woods were plentiful, the soil was
rich, a vigorous winding stream teeming with fish, ran near by, and not
far off there was a large lake.

  [136] For these facts I acknowledge indebtedness chiefly to Prof.
        R. B. Anderson, who is a son of Björn Anderson Kvelve; he
        gives an account of the journey of these men on pages 347-354
        of his book, and a sketch of his parents pages 155-165; see
        also page 171, and 245.

  [137] Then a little river; now it is almost dried out.

We see that the Stavangerings, as the Vossings, looked for wood and
water; they did not realize the superior advantages of the prairie, and
that it would yield much quicker returns for their labor. And yet there
was good reason for their choice, and we shall find that quite often
the early Norwegian pioneers located in a woodland tract near a stream
or a lake. It was undoubtedly an inducement to build near a wood, where
the timber for the usual log-cabin was near at hand, and it was highly
desirable to locate within access of that primary necessity of life,
water. In this region, then, our party selected land. Amund Hornefjeld
chose the east half of the southeast quarter of section one,[138] and
Björn Kvelve, the west half of the same quarter section.

  [138] So the description reads but the Amund Anderson homestead
        is the east half of the northwest quarter, and the Kvelve
        homestead is directly south.

Thorsten Bjaaland chose eighty acres immediately north of Kvelve's,
consequently in section two, while Lars Dugstad took the east
half of the southwest quarter of section one. Having made these
selections,[139] they walked to Milwaukee to file their claims and
perfect their purchase.[140] This is recorded at the land office under
date of June twenty-second, 1840, just one month, therefore, after
entry was made of Vindeig's claim in section thirty-four in Christiana,
the next township and section north. Amund Rossaland selected a piece
of land near that of Björn Kvelve, but he was later informed that it
had already been taken;[141] so Rossaland did not settle on Koshkonong,
but went to Jefferson Prairie, as did also Lars Scheie, thence again
elsewhere.

  [139] Thorsten Bjaaland and Amund Hornefjeld built shanties on
        their land before leaving.

  [140] Their names are given as: Omund Anderson, Birn Anderson, Lars
        Olson, and Foster Olson.

  [141] It was soon after taken possession of by William Fulton.

The whole party then returned to La Salle County, Illinois, and did
not move to Albion Township and take possession of their land before
the spring of 1841. Erik Savik became ill upon their return to La
Salle County when he was asked if he, too, didn't wish to go along to
Milwaukee and purchase land, he answered: "I think I can get a bit of
ground here from Ole Middlepeint."[142] His prophecy proved true, for
he died there in June, 1840. Erik Johanneson Savik and wife, Ingeborg,
had emigrated from Kvindherred in 1836, locating in Rochester, New
York. A son, John, was born to them there in December, 1836. The
following year they seem to have removed to La Salle County, Illinois.
Their daughter, Anne Berthe, was born there in November, 1838.

  [142] That is, Ole O. Hetletveidt. This incident is related in
        _Amerika_ in September, 1903; the words were: eg faar meg nok
        ein Flæk Jord her hos han Ola Meddlepeint.

Early in the spring, Kvelve and Bjaaland moved to Koshkonong with their
families, following the same route they had taken before. Bjaaland
drove a yoke of oxen, and Kvelve a yoke of black steers, which were
not yet broke, says Arnold A. Anderson, oldest son of Kvelve, and who
was in the party; both teams were hitched to a wagon owned by Kvelve.
Kvelve's family consisted, at the time, of wife and four children, two
daughters having been born since the arrival in America in 1836.[143]
Thorsten Bjaaland (born in 1795 in Haa Parish, about thirty [American]
miles south of Stavanger, Norway) was still unmarried when he came to
Dane County, as was also Lars Dugstad. The latter evidently came north
from La Salle County about the same time as Kvelve and Bjaaland. Amund
Hornefjeld married Ingeborg Johnson, widow of Erik Savik, in La Salle
County, in June, 1841, and he, with wife and her two children, came
north to Albion a few weeks later.

  [143] Arnold Andrew Anderson was born in Norway in 1832. The second
        son of Kvelve, Augustinus Meldahl Bruun, was born in 1834. A
        daughter was born and died in Rochester, New York, where the
        Kvelve family lived 1836-37. Elizabeth was born in La Salle
        County, Illinois in 1837, and Cecelia in 1840. A daughter,
        Martha, was born in Albion Township in the fall of 1841,
        being, it seems, the first white child born in the town.

It was, therefore, just twelve persons who located in northeastern
Albion Township that spring. The Hornefjeld family moved directly
into the shanty Amund had built before leaving in 1840. Dugstad made
a dugout on the side of a hill near the creek, in which he continued
to live till 1855, when he married and moved into a large log-house.
Björn Kvelve erected a log-house on his farm immediately upon arriving
in 1841, the logs having been cut by men engaged to do so, during
the winter of 1840-41. These men were Lars Kvendalen and Knut Olson
Vindeig. We shall now pass to the account of their arrival, and that of
others who came in 1840-41.



                               CHAPTER XX

            _New Accessions to the Koshkonong Settlement in
           1840-1841. The Growth of the Settlement in 1842._


As the first explorers of Koshkonong from La Salle County, Illinois,
in 1839, attracted others in their train from the same region the
following year, so Jefferson Prairie and Chicago sent new recruits
following Gunnul Vindeig in the summer of 1840. The first of these
were the two we have mentioned at the end of the preceding chapter,
namely, Lars Kvendalen and Knud Vindeig, a brother of Gunnul; both were
single men. They came there early in the summer of 1840, and met in
Albion Township Björn Kvelve and Lars Dugstad before these had left for
Milwaukee and Illinois in June, 1840. Knud Vindeig and Lars Kvendalen
(the latter also from Numedal) came to America in the fall of 1839.
Another brother of Gunnul, namely Hellik Vindeig, and two sisters,
Berit and Anna, came to America in the fall of 1840. As said, Kvelve
met Knud Vindeig and Kvendalen in Albion Township in the summer of
1840, and he engaged them to split rails during the winter of 1840-41,
so as to have them ready at hand when he should come there to locate
with his family in 1841.[144] These two men did not take land, but
worked for a time for others in the settlement.

  [144] See above, page 179.

In the autumn of the same year came Hellik Vindeig and Nils Kvendalen
(generally called Nils Halling), but the latter did not remain there
long. The sister, Anna, married Nils Bolstad in 1841 (see above, page
171). About a year later Berit married John G. Smith, a man who played
a role as both doctor and preacher among the pioneers in the forties.
There were no further additions to the southern part of the settlement
in the fall of 1840, so far as I know.

Late in the fall of that year Lars Davidson Rekve[145] came to
Koshkonong and selected land in the Town of Deerfield. Entry of this
was made at Milwaukee on December eighth, 1840; the land was the
south half of the southwest quarter of section twenty-eight, about a
mile south of Deerfield, and two miles northwest of the eighty acres
selected by Gilderhus in the spring. Together with Rekve came also
Ole K. Gilderhus, who had immigrated from Voss, Norway, in 1839. When
they reached Albion they stopped over night at the house of Thorsten
Bjaaland, who had not yet returned to Illinois for the winter. Then
they travelled north until they came to the place where the four
settlers from Voss had erected a log cabin the spring before. Not
having the means wherewith to make improvements on his land, Rekve
soon after (summer 1841) went to Muskegon, Michigan, where he secured
employment in a sawmill. He did not settle in Dane County before 1842.

  [145] L. D. Reque is still living in Deerfield, Dane County,
        Wisconsin.

If now we pass on to the year 1841, we shall find that there were
several accessions to the Koshkonong settlement in that year. It is to
be observed, first, that a small group of immigrants came from Voss
in 1841. They were: Anders Nilson Lie, with wife, Gunvor Sjursdatter
(Gilderhus), and two children, Rasmus Grane, Ole Grane, Kolbein
Vestreim, Nils Vikje, Lars J. Mön, Knut Larson Böe, and Anna Solheim.
These had emigrated with a small brig that carried iron to Boston;
thence they went to Racine County, Wisconsin, and Koshkonong, by the
usual route. John Haldorson Björgo, who had emigrated from Voss in
1838, as we have seen, also came to Koshkonong in the spring of 1841,
and Ole Severson Gilderhus[146] came a short time after. The latter
had emigrated in 1840, having remained in Chicago during the winter.
Björgo settled in the Town of Christiana in section nine, Ole Gilderhus
a little farther north in Deerfield Township. "None but Norwegians
were then living in these regions," writes Björgo twenty-seven years
later.[147] Björgo and Ole Gilderhus had, of course, arrived before
Anders Nilson Lie.

  [146] A brother of Nils Gilderhus.

  [147] Interview printed in _Billed-Magazin_, 1869, page 387. Late
        in the summer of 1841 a few Americans came and settled there.

During the first winter John Björgo lived in a small log-house;
his nearest white neighbor lived about three miles away. As he was
unmarried he was obliged to cook and do all his own housework. Near by
an Indian tribe had erected a camp, where they remained from that fall
until the next spring. Björgo says of them that they were friendly and
neighborly, and he never suffered inconvenience because of them; "they
were often my guests, as I also visited them, and it never occurred to
me to have any fear of the son of the desert. Nor did they ever give me
cause for that; for they were peaceful and gladly shared their meagre
supplies with those who needed their help."[148]

  [148] John Björgo died in October, 1868; his wife, Martha, died in
        May, 1898. They are both buried in West Koshkonong Cemetery,
        as Rev. G. G. Krostu of Utica, Wisconsin, informs me.

Let us now return to the party of eleven persons who came with Anders
Lie. The son, Nils A. Lie, Deerfield, Wisconsin, writes that after
a long and trying voyage they arrived in Boston whence they went to
Racine, arriving there in December. There they hired two Swedes to take
them to Muskego, where the Lie family and one other family stopped with
Even Heg. Lie's destination was the home of his brother-in-law, Nils
Gilderhus, in Dane County. Leaving his family, he soon after set out on
foot for Koshkonong, not meeting anyone he could speak with before he
reached Fort Atkinson. Here an American took him across the Rock River
in a canoe, and by waiting there a day he was joined by two immigrants
from Numedal,[149] who walked with him as far as Koshkonong. Thence he
continued north to his brother-in-law's place in Deerfield Township.
We have seen that Nils Gilderhus made a dugout early in the winter of
1840-41, having found the cabin they had built in the spring too cold.
In this dugout Anders Lie and family[150] also lived during the winters
of 1841-42 and 1842-43. In the meantime Anders Lie worked for others,
saving up all he could with a view to buying a home for himself.

  [149] These may have been Hellik Vindeig and Nils Kvendalen.

  [150] The family being sent for soon after; his wife, Gunvor
        Sjursdatter, was born in 1805; the children were Martha (born
        1838) and Nils (born 1841).

In 1843 he bought forty acres farther west in the northeast corner of
the town of Pleasant Spring, becoming the first Norwegian to settle in
that township; selling this out in the fall of 1844 to Peder Gjerde,
he located on section thirty-two in Deerfield Township, where he lived
most of the time till his death in 1907.[151]

  [151] After his wife's death he lived some years in North and South
        Dakota. Anders Lee was born in 1814, and attained therefore
        to the good old age of ninety-two. His wife died in 1876;
        they were married three years before leaving Norway. Anders
        Lee left three sons, Nils A. in Deerfield, Sever Lee in
        Grafton, N. D., and Andrew Lee of Washington County, N. D.

Just how long the rest of Anders Lee's party remained in Muskego I
am not able to say at this moment. Nils Lie writes in 1902 that they
all came to Koshkonong, and I accept that as authoritative; but I
may add that the names of Grane, Vikje, Vestreim, Mön, or Böe, do
not appear in the roll of members of Reverend J. W. C. Dietrichson's
church in Koshkonong for the years 1844 to 1850, which is elsewhere
published in this volume. Nor have I been able to trace them in the
towns of Christiana or Deerfield in the years 1842 to 1844. They do
not appear as purchasers of land, and probably left for other regions
soon after coming to Koshkonong. One member of the group who came from
Voss in 1839, with Ole K. Gilderhus and others, did soon after come to
Koshkonong, however, namely, Knut Brække. He and his wife located in
Deerfield Township in 1843; it was he who, in 1844, bought the large
log-cabin built by Nils Gilderhus in 1840. He then removed it farther
southeast (in the same town), where later it became the property of
Erik Lee, the father of Andrew E. Lee, of South Dakota.[152]

  [152] Andrew E. Lee was governor of South Dakota from 1896-1900.

There were also several accessions from Numedal in 1842. The first of
these, I believe, were Jens Pederson Vehus, from Nore Annex of Rollaug
Parish, Numedal, and Thore Knudson Nore and sons, Knut, Lars, Ole and
Sæbjörn, also from Nore.[153] With them came also Halvor Funkelien,
a native of Kongsberg. Jens Vehus was a brother of Gunnul Vindeig's
wife. All three of these came directly from Norway. Jens Vehus settled
about three-quarters of a mile southeast of Gunnul Vindeig, on the
north half of the northeast quarter of section thirty-five. Later
in the summer, and in the fall, this locality received new recruits
from Numedal, who came for the most part directly from Norway via New
York, Milwaukee, and Muskego, to Koshkonong. Others came from Chicago,
La Salle County, and Jefferson Prairie, principally to the towns of
Christiana and Deerfield.

  [153] There Nore located across the Jefferson County line.

Among the immigrants from Numedal who located there later in the year
of 1842 were: Ole Helgeson Lien, wife Turi,[154] and children, Barbro
and Ole, from Nore; Niels Olson Smetbak, wife Barbro Olsdatter, and
family, from Nore; Mrs. Ole Bakli (Bagley), widow, and her son, Ole,
from Flesberg; Björn Guldbrandsen Mörkvold, wife Asbjör and son,
Guldbrand; Hellik Gunderson Hvashovd and wife, Marit, from Flesberg;
Hellik's parents, Gunder Gunderson Hvashovd and wife, Kirsti; Mari
Guldbrandsen (cousin of Gunnar Hvashovd) and her daughter, Kristi (born
Kristoffersen 1826); Herbrand Tollefson Mörkvold and son, Ole, and
daughter, Ragnild; Torstein Levorsen Bergrud, wife Kirsti Gundersdatter
(born Hvashovd) and son, Levor, from Flesberg; Thore Olson Kaasa, wife
Anne Torsteinsdatter, and daughter Aslau, from Rollaug; Ole Amundson
Buind, wife Helene (Brandt), and daughter Anne, from Flesberg; Gjertrud
Olsdatter Sælabakka (born 1822), from Rollaug; Juul Gisleson Hamre
(born 1805), with wife Anne Gundersdatter, and children, Gisle,
Kjersti, and Gunder, and his sister, Anne Gislesdatter, from Flesberg
(born 1797); Hellik Helliksen Foslieiet (born 1812), his wife Sigrid,
and children, Hellik (born 1833), Anders (born 1835), Marit (born
1838), Christoffer (born 1841).[155]

  [154] Turi Lien, whose maiden name was Smetbak, was born in 1811;
        she died in 1899; Ole Lien died in 1850; the widow then
        married Lars T. Nore.

  [155] The daughters Christine and Sigrid were born in 1842 and 1844.

Of those mentioned here the Hvashovd, Hamre, and Bergrud families, Mari
Gulbrandsen and her daughter, Christi, and one or two more, nineteen in
all, left Flesberg, Numedal, in May and arrived in Muskego in October.
Here they stopped two or three weeks with Even Hegg, whose wife was a
relative of Mari Gulbrandsen. Some early settlers on Liberty Prairie
(Koshkonong) took their baggage to Koshkonong while the immigrants
walked. These facts are told me by Reverend K. A. Kasberg of Spring
Grove, Minnesota, as related by his mother-in-law, Mrs. Halvor Kravik,
who was in the party (she was Kristi Kristoffersen). She relates also
that "in the spring (hence 1843) she and her mother walked to Madison
to get work. There was only one house on the whole road, that of an
American family; but their friendly 'come in, come in' (Norwegian _kom
ind, kom ind_, but pronounced alike) was easily understood. Here we
were well entertained over night."

From Telemarken the following came:[156] Richard Björnson Rotkjön
(born 1816), and brother Aslak (born 1826), from Vinje; Torstein
Torsteinson Gaarden, from Tin; Ole Höljeson Yttreböe, with wife,
Margit, and children, Johanne and Anne, and Halvor Hansen Dalstiel
(Dalastöl), from Hvideseid; Ole Torsteinson Aasnes, wife, Ingeborg,
and daughter, Hæge, from Vinje; Ole Gulliksen Barstad (born 1791),
wife, Ingeborg Jonsdatter (born 1799), and children, Vetle, Eivind,
and Halvor, from Siljord; Ole Olson Haugan, from Siljord; Torbjörn
Havredalen, wife, Lisa, and family, from Vinje;[157] and Gunhild
Saamundsdatter (born 1798), from Laurdal. Furthermore Guro Olsdatter
(born 1821), from Nissedal, and Thomas Johnson Landeman (born 1804),
from Sandsværd; and Torbjörn Havredalen with wife, Lisa, and family,
also came to Koshkonong that year.

  [156] Many of these located in the eastern and northern part of the
        settlement a year or two later.

  [157] Who located in Town of Deerfield. Some of these, as Dalstiel,
        left Koshkonong a few years later.

The great majority of these made the town of Christiana their first
stopping place. So that, by the end of 1842, there were perhaps more
immigrants found together within the area of that township than in any
of the other settlements founded during the preceding years, 1839-1840.

It was at this time that the question of a name for the new town was
being mooted. Gunnul Vindeig was given the privilege of naming it, and
he decided for Christiania, adopting the name of the capital of Norway.
The form as it came to stand, however, would seem to be a typical
instance of that slovenly habit of slurring syllables in foreign names,
which so often appears in the records of American officials or clerks
in land offices in those days. Yet the _Billed-Magazin_ is authority
for the statement that Gunnul Vindeig himself was the cause of the
error, he, by mistake, writing Christiana instead of the correct
Christiania.

In the meantime new colonies are springing up elsewhere and the
settlements previously established are growing and thriving. Before,
therefore, tracing the further development on Koshkonong Prairie, it
will be in order to note the advance in other localities.



                              CHAPTER XXI

           _The First Norwegian Settlement in Iowa, at Sugar
                         Creek, in Lee County_


The same year that records the genesis of the Koshkonong Settlement,
also registers the founding of the earliest Norwegian colony in Iowa,
that of Sugar Creek, in Lee County, in the southeastern part of the
state. When Kleng Peerson was on his way to Missouri in 1837 (see
above, page 117), it seems that he passed through the southeastern
corner of Iowa; he was, therefore, in all probability the first
Norwegian to enter the State of Iowa.[158] Iowa had been organized
as a territory in 1838. The settlers in Shelby County, Missouri,
were dissatisfied, and, having heard of the natural resources of
the Territory of Iowa, immediately to the north, and that good land
with a near market[159] could be had in the southeastern part of the
territory, they decided to move to Iowa. Going north into Lee County,
Iowa, they located at a place six miles northwest of Keokuk, known as
Sugar Creek. Andrew Simonsen and most of the settlers in Shelby County
came at that time; but Peerson remained in Missouri. Here, however,
they found a small colony of Norwegians who had, it seems, but recently
established themselves. With the exception of one to be mentioned
below, it is not known who these earlier settlers were, and I have not
been able to ascertain where they came from.

  [158] Though not the first Scandinavian, for a Dane, Niels
        Christian Boye, came to Muscatine, Iowa, in 1837. In 1842
        he located in Iowa City; a daughter, Julia Boye, the only
        surviving member of the family, lives now in Iowa City.

  [159] One of the settlers in Shelby County, Missouri, was Peter
        Omundson Gjilje. As an illustration of the state of
        wilderness of the country around them it is related that
        Gjilje once walked for nine whole days in the forest tract
        before he found human habitation. One morning early he heard
        a cock crow, and then he found people. During these days he
        had lived on wild strawberries. These facts are related by
        Mr. B. L. Wick of Cedar Rapids, Iowa.

Kleng Peerson has been accredited with being the founder also of the
Sugar Creek Settlement, but there is no proof that he previously
selected the site or even that he located there in 1840. Indeed the
evidence goes rather to show that he never actually settled at Sugar
Creek. His home in the following years was probably chiefly in Shelby
County, Missouri; in 1847 he sold his land there and joined the
Swedish colony in Henry County, Illinois, which had been founded in
1846. Nor does it seem to me that Hans Barlien was a member of the
Missouri colony, as Professor Anderson suggests. No mention of Barlien
can be found in connection with the Shelby County colony or any other
settlement. It seems more probable that he went to the Fox River
Settlement when he came from Norway in 1837, but with a few others left
in 1840, coming to Lee County somewhat before the party that came with
Andrew Simonsen from Shelby County. They may originally have received
their knowledge of this locality from Peerson. Barlien himself may have
been in La Salle County when Peerson in 1837 returned from his journey
to Missouri. It was, then, Barlien and a few immigrants with him whom
Andrew Simonsen and others from Shelby County found already settled at
Sugar Creek in the spring of 1840. If this is correct then the first
Norwegian settler in Iowa and the real founder of the first Norwegian
colony in the state is Hans Barlien, who was born at Overhalden in the
province of Trondhjem about 1870.

In 1838 Kleng Peerson went to Norway to gather recruits for the Shelby
County colony; the following year he brought back with him from
Stavanger County the three brothers, Peter, William, and Hans Tesman,
Nils Olson, Ole Reierson and family, and six or seven women, all of
whom came to Missouri; but several of these went to Lee County, Iowa,
the following year.

As far as known, the first settlers who came with Andrew Simonsen from
Missouri were: Omund Olson, Knud Slogvig,[160] Jacob O. Hetletvedt,
Mrs. Thorstein T. Rue and her sons, Thorstein and John, Peter Omundson
Gjilje, Erik Öie, Ole Öiesöen, and the three Tesman brothers; some of
the rest seem to have followed later. Lars Tallakson settled there
about the same time, but he came from Clark County, Missouri, where
he had located in 1838. Gjermund Helgeson[161] was also among the
earliest settlers, and Jacob Slogvig, who had gone back to La Salle
County in 1838, likewise later located at Sugar Creek. Among the
subsequent arrivals were Ole Soppeland, Hans William, C. Person, and
Nils and Christ Nelson; these located there before 1846.

  [160] Jacob Slogvig was also among the first settlers; he had
        returned from Shelby County, Missouri, to La Salle County, in
        1838, as also had Andrew Askeland.

  [161] Helgeson may have come with Barlien from Illinois.

The leading spirit in the colony was undoubtedly Hans Barlien. He was
a man of great natural endowment, and he had a fair education. In
Norway he had been a pronounced nationalist of the Wergeland direction
and had taken part in the first peasant uprising. He was for a time a
member of the Storthing (the national parliament). In religion he was a
liberal, which aroused the hostility of the clergy, while his radical
political views called forth the enmity of the official class. He owned
a printing establishment at Overgaarden, and published a paper[162]
in which he did not hesitate to give expression to the principles
for which he stood. This frequently involved him in litigation; and,
feeling himself persecuted, he at last decided to emigrate to America
in 1837.[163] Barlien seems to be the second Norwegian emigrant from
Trondhjem.[164] Lars Tallakson came from Bergen, while the rest of the
colonists were mostly from the region of Stavanger.

  [162] _Melkeveien_, the Milky Way.

  [163] See J. B. Wist, in _Bygdejaevning_, Madison, Wisconsin, 1903,
        p. 158; also _First Chapter of Norwegian Immigration_, pp.
        235-236, and _Republikaneren_, February 9, 1900.

  [164] The first was Ole Rynning. See above, p. 107, and
        _Normaendene i Amerika_ by Knud Langeland, pp. 26-29.
Lee County was but little settled at that time;[165] land was bought
of the Indians for a nominal price, but it often became expensive
enough in the end, since it proved very difficult for many of the
settlers to obtain a clear title from the United States. This is one
reason why the settlement did not grow, though probably not the chief
cause. In 1843 there were between thirty and forty families, writes
John Reierson,[166] but in 1856 there were, according to the census of
that year, only sixty-eight Norwegians in the county. This number had
in 1885 decreased to thirty-one. In the fifties many of the settlers
moved to other localities, but throughout the forties there was a
prosperous colony that contributed not a little to the development of
the community and the county in that early period. The settlement is of
special interest in that it was the first Norwegian settlement in Iowa.
Its founding inaugurated Norwegian colonization in the state which,
particularly in the fifties, resulted in the establishment of a score
of extensive settlements in the central and the northern counties.

  [165] The first postoffice was established in Lee County in 1841.

  [166] _Veiviser for Emigranter_, 1843.

There are many reasons why the Sugar Creek Settlement did not grow
as did the later settlements north and west. First of all, land was
not of the best in Lee County. And then, the locality was rather too
far south, Norwegians have everywhere in America thriven best in the
more northerly localities. Again, the tide of emigration from the
vicinity of Stavanger was not sufficiently heavy to recruit the various
settlements already established by immigrants from that region. The
majority of those who came went direct to the Fox River Settlement in
Northern Illinois, which offered unsurpassed natural advantages. To
be sure, the Shelby County (Missouri) and the Lee County settlements
might have been recruited from other districts in Norway. But it must
be remembered that such other districts as had begun to take part in
the emigration movement had their attention directed just at this
time in another direction. The other provinces in question are Voss,
Telemarken, and Numedal. It was representatives of these that founded
the Wisconsin settlements in 1839-40, and in them the great majority
of immigrants from those provinces located in the following decade.
This is also true of those who came from Hardanger, Sogn,[167] and from
Western Norway in general.

  [167] Immigration from Sogn was at first directed almost
        exclusively to Boone County, Illinois, and Dane County,
        Wisconsin.

There is still another reason why the colony did not grow. Beyond the
common desire of material betterment, there was too little of community
of interest. It is enough to mention that several different religious
sects were represented in the little settlement, chief among which were
the Quakers and the Latter Day Saints. Just across the Mississippi
was the town of Nauvoo,[168] which was a Mormon center at the time.
When the Mormons who did not believe in polygamy established themselves
at Lamoni some years later, many Norwegians of that belief went
with them.[169] And not a few of the Quakers joined American Quaker
settlements farther north, as in Salem, Henry County.[170] In the later
fifties a prosperous colony was founded at and south of Legrand in
Marshall County. A few of the early pioneers, however, remained and
their descendants live in Lee County to-day. Finally, the difficulty of
securing a title to the land upon which many Norwegians had settled,
to which reference has been made above, undoubtedly drove many to seek
homes elsewhere.[171]

  [168] In the Fox River Settlement in Illinois many Norwegians
        joined the Mormons and later moved to Utah. Bishop Canute
        Peterson was one of these.

  [169] The Mormons first moved into Iowa in 1839, having received
        assurance of protection and the liberty to practice their
        belief from Governor Lucas in that year. They located in
        Lee County not far from Sugar Creek. The town of Nauvoo,
        Illinois, had been bought by them. The name was changed from
        Commerce.

  [170] Omund Olson was converted to Quakerism at Salem, Henry
        County. As early as 1842 several of the settlers joined with
        him in erecting a meeting house on his farm.

  [171] The question has been investigated somewhat by Mr. B. L.
        Wick. See _Republikaneren_, February 9, 1900.

Of these first Norwegian pioneers in Iowa I shall here add a brief
final note, as we shall not meet with them again. We have met the
brothers Knud and Jacob Anderson Slogvig four times as the founders
of settlements--in Orleans County, New York, in La Salle County,
Illinois, in Shelby County, Missouri, and in Lee County, Iowa. Jacob
Slogvig went to California about 1850; there he became wealthy and
died in 1864. Knud Slogvig moved to Lee County early in the fifties,
I believe, and died there. Hans Barlien died in the Sugar Creek
Settlement in 1842. Mrs. Thorstein Rue and her son, Thorstein, lived in
Sugar Creek till 1846, when they went to Wisconsin, and took part in
the founding of the Blue Mounds Settlement in western Dane County. Lars
Tallakson settled about a decade later in La Salle County, Illinois,
where he lived to a good old age.[172] Jacob Olson Hetletvedt (brother
of the slooper, Ole O. Hetletvedt) continued to live in Lee County till
his death in August, 1857. His widow married Sven Kjylaa, with whom she
then moved to the Fox River Settlement. Per Omundson Gjilje was one of
the last to leave the settlement; in 1864 he removed to New Sharon,
Mahaska County, Iowa, where he died in 1895. His wife (born Karina
Bornevik, from Nærstrand, Norway) died in 1902, aged eighty-six.

  [172] He died about 1900. Among those who moved to New Sharon were
        Sjur Olson, Nils Nilson and Aad Nilson and wife Kristina;
        Martha Erickson was until recently, at least, living in Clark
        County, Missouri.



                              CHAPTER XXII

         _The Earliest Norwegian Settlers at Wiota, La Fayette
            County, and Dodgeville, Iowa County, Wisconsin_


About forty miles directly west of Rock Prairie lies Wiota, about which
town stretches in all directions a Norwegian settlement of considerable
size. It is separated from Luther Valley by Green County and lies
only twenty-five miles distant, northwest, from the old settlement of
Rock Run, in Illinois. Here extensive lead mines were being operated
in the forties, and they were the means of drawing to that locality a
large number of immigrants of different nationalities, many of whom,
to be sure, only remained there temporarily, going elsewhere to buy
a home as soon as they had accumulated sufficient funds. The mines
were at that time called "Hamilton Diggings." As early as 1840 we find
two Norwegians working in these mines, namely, the brothers Andreas
and John O. Week, both from Eidfjord, in Hardanger. The Week brothers
seem to have been two of a party of about forty from Hardanger, who
emigrated in 1839.[173] I do not believe, however, that either Andrew
or John Week entered a land claim in the vicinity, and they remained
there only a few years. In 1844 John Week moved to Dodgeville in Iowa
County, where he established a shoe store in company with John Lee,
from Numedal, Norway. Andrew Week went to Marathon County some years
later; here he built a saw mill, which, however, was bought out by his
brother John in 1849, when Andrew joined the California gold-seekers.

  [173] They came in the same ship as Knut Roe.

In the spring of 1842 Lars Davidson Reque, an immigrant from Voss in
the year 1839, came to Wiota. We have already met him as a purchaser
of land in Deerfield Township, in Dane County, in December, 1840. Not
having the means to begin the improvement of his land, he says, he
decided to go to Hamilton Diggings, and he did not take possession of
his land until the summer of 1842.[174] Rekve remained at the Diggings
only about one year. In 1841 the first permanent settlers arrived;
these were Per Unde, from Vik Parish, Sogn, Per Davidson Skjerveim,
Sjur Ulven, and Arne Anderson Vinje, from Voss. The first of those was,
it seems, the earliest emigrant from Sogn to America. He was a man of
considerable means, but a copy of Rynning's _Sandfaerdig Beretning om
Amerika_ fell into his hands and he decided to emigrate. He remained
in Chicago the first year and a half or over. Ulven and Skjerveim had
come from Norway in 1840. Arne Vinje (born 1820) came to Chicago in
September, 1840, after having been five months on the journey. He had
left Norway April sixteenth with his wife,[175] and a party of twenty
other persons from Voss. The following spring Vinje and Skjerveim,
having decided to go to the mines in Wisconsin, secured each their
yoke of oxen, and drove overland, arriving at Wiota on the seventh of
July, after five days of difficult travel; Unde and Ulven came at the
same time. Unde immediately entered a claim on a piece of land in the
vicinity and built a house, as did Skjerveim and Vinje a short time
after; these located, however, about three miles farther south.

  [174] He did not actually settle there permanently before 1844.

  [175] Her maiden name was Martha Gulliksdatter Kindem.

According to Arne Vinje the following twenty-one persons came from
Voss that spring: Torstein Saue, his wife and son Gulleik, Lars Saue
and wife, Klaus Grimestad and wife, Arne Anderson and wife and infant
son Andrew, Knudt Hylle, Ole S. Gilderhus, Knudt Rokne, Mads Sonve,
Baar Lawson Böe (a brother of Iver Lawson), Lars Röthe, Brynnel Ronve,
two young ladies from Saue, one from Ronve and one from Gilderhus. In
discussing the voyage Vinje says:

  The bottom of the ship in which we sailed was declared by Capt.
  Ankerson to be one hundred and fifty years old and when, in
  midocean, we encountered a severe storm, the timbers sustaining
  the upper berths gave way, precipitating them upon the lower ones,
  and the screams and cries of the frightened passengers added to
  the fury of the storm, almost created a panic on board. As for
  myself, I seized a heavy chest which I intended throwing overboard
  to use as a support in the water in case the ship foundered. Even
  Hegg, and others from "Östlandet," who came from Drammen with Capt.
  Ankerson, stopped in Milwaukee, while we from Voss came on to
  Chicago, where my wife and I were received into the home of Sjur
  Ulven and family. Mrs. Ulven being my wife's cousin.

  Knudt Hylle and myself began our first work in Chicago upon the
  streets of the (then) westside. My work was handling a heavy plank
  scraper, drawn by a yoke of oxen and used to scrape the sod from
  the sides of the road into the center.

  At this time occurred the election of General Harrison to the
  Presidency. The candidate was the "People's choice" and I, from
  my bed, saw a log cabin, such as he lived in, mounted upon wheels
  and drawn through the streets to show that he was chosen from the
  common people. That was effective electioneering!

In the spring of 1841 Peder Skjerveim, who had come from Norway in
1837, having lived in Chicago in the interval, drove from Chicago up to
Hamilton Diggings to explore the region. Upon his return he reported
that there was government land for sale there, and Vinje and he decided
to move thither. Peder Iverson Unde and family and Sjur Ulven went to
the "Diggings" at the same time. Of this Vinje writes:

  We left Chicago on July 2nd and arrived in Wiota, or Hamilton's
  Diggings as it was then called, after a tiresome journey of five
  days. On July 7th we passed Elgin, Illinois, in a grove near which
  Independence day was being celebrated, on July 4th, but there was
  then no town, only a few scattered houses. We progressed with
  some difficulty as our wagon broke down twice during the journey.
  The second of these accidents occurred as we were nearing Rockford
  toward evening, when the axle gave way; but Peder Skjervheim,
  with only an ax and an augur went into the woods nearby, and from
  a convenient tree cut and made a new axle that night, so that we
  proceeded safely on our way the next morning.

  There being no bridges, we forded the rivers at Rockford and
  Freeport. There was then not a house where the thriving city of
  Rockford now stands and only one small grocery store at Freeport.
  There were, at that time, no Norwegians in or around Wiota, and
  the nearest Norwegian settlement was at Rock Run, Illinois. Peder
  Skjervheim and I, each bought forty acres of government land in the
  Township of Wiota, upon which we each built a log cabin and began
  other improvements. Andres Brække also bought forty acres but soon
  sold it again.

  In 1842 there came to our neighborhood three young people from
  Voss; David Larson Fenne and wife, and his brother, Nils Fenne.
  In 1843 there came some families from Vik, in Sogn, and settled
  near by: Ole Iverson Unde and wife Britha, and his brother Erik's
  family. Erik died before reaching America, but his wife and
  children settled down here. Likewise, Erik Engebrit Hove, Ole
  Anderson and Sjur Tallakson Bruavold came at the same time.

To those which Mr. Vinje mentions as arriving in 1842 may be added Isak
Johnson from Skien,[176] and Christian Hendrickson from Lier, Norway.
The latter however moved to Primrose Township in Dane County in 1846.
(See below).

  [176] I am told that he came in 1841, but this seems to be a mistake.

Mathias J. Engebretsen of Gratiot, Wisconsin, tells me that Per Fenne
and wife Martha came to Wiota in 1842, while Nils Sunve and wife
Maline, and Ivar Fenne came in 1843; all these were from Voss. Helge
Meland and wife from Telemarken came in 1843, as also Tore Thompson
from Tindal and Ashley Gunderson from Numedal.[177] Those mentioned by
Arne Vinje at the end of the above account, Ole and Sjur Bruavolden,
did not settle at Wiota, it seems, before 1845, and Erik E. Hove not
until 1847. These had located first at Long Prairie in Boone County,
Illinois, as had also Ingebrigt Fuglegjærdet, who came from Vik, Sogn,
in 1844. Of the immigration from Land, Norway, to Wiota, which began
with Syver Johnson (Smed or Smedhögen in 1844), I shall speak in the
next chapter. The growth of the Jefferson Prairie Settlement will,
however, claim our attention briefly first.

  [177] Reverend J. W. C. Dietrichson, speaking of the Wiota
        Settlement in 1844 says, that there had been organized a
        congregation that year, which numbered about one hundred
        members, of whom the larger part were from Voss; these,
        he says, had settled there for the most part in 1843. He
        mentions Per Davidson as deacon and a leading member of the
        church, and Knud Knudson as one who by great energy had
        acquired considerable wealth.



                             CHAPTER XXIII

            _Growth of the Jefferson Prairie Settlement from
                 1841 to 1845. The First Norwegian Land
                        Owners in Rock County._


In an earlier chapter I have given an account of the coming of
Norwegians to Jefferson Prairie in 1838-39. We found that a
considerable number of persons had located there by 1840, principally
immigrants from Numedal. These first settlers located in the southern
half of Clinton Township, but others soon came who settled still
farther south, so that the settlement soon came to include a portion
of the Township of Manchester in Boone County, Illinois. The first
settlers here were Tönnes Tolleivson (or Tollefson) from Jæderen, and
Svend Larson, both of whom settled in Boone County in 1840; Tollefson
had come to America in the fall of 1839, presumably spending the winter
of 1839-40 on Jefferson Prairie.

The settlement thus came to be divided into a northern and a southern
part, the immigrant settlers in the two representing different
provinces in Norway. The Numedalians settled as we have seen, nearer
Clinton and in general in the northern end of Jefferson Prairie; in
fact they occupied most of the prairie proper. The southern portion,
the timber land, come to be settled principally by immigrants from
Voss. Very few of these located in the Town of Clinton; they
selected homes in the early days, for the most part, just where their
descendants now live, on the south side of the state line, in Illinois.
The whole settlement extends from about a mile and a half south of
Clinton across the prairie and into the timber which began about three
miles south of Clinton and extends about four miles down into Illinois.

We have observed above that Ole Nattestad's house became the stopping
place of the earliest immigrants to Jefferson Prairie. In a similar
way D. B. Egery's place,[178] located four miles southwest of the
Nattestad cabin on the trail to Beloit, became the headquarters for
many a Norwegian immigrant in that early day. Speaking of him, H. L.
Skavlem gives testimony to his kindness and the readiness with which he
lent a helping hand to the incoming settlers in his vicinity, who were
seeking a place to establish a home in the wilderness. As soon as the
immigrants arrived, parties of two or three would fill their knapsacks
(skræppe) with provisions and strike out in various directions to "spy
out the land."[179]

  [178] Situated in section 26 in Turtle Township.

  [179] H. L. Skavlem in _Scandinavians in the Early Days of Rock
        County_, a most interesting and valuable pamphlet, though
        very brief.

The first Norwegians to buy land on Jefferson Prairie were Ansten
Nattestad and Thorstein Nilsen, the date of whose purchase is December
25th, 1839.[180] On January 25, 1840, Anders Jacobson's purchase
was recorded, and further in the same year those of Erik Gudbrandson
(May 16) and Kittil Newhouse (Nyhus, June 15). The first three
purchases were in sections 32, 30 and 22, respectively, while those of
Gudbrandson and Newhouse were in section 20, all in Clinton Township.
The latter made a further purchase in 1842 in the same section, as did
also Tosten Olson. Ole Nattestad's purchase was recorded on November
25, 1842, while in September of that year Ole Newhouse (Nyhus) had
bought three forties in sections 15 and 22, and Christoffer Newhouse
one in section 30; others were now rapidly moving in and becoming
owners of their choice of land on the "Prairie." Among these were Jas.
Hilbeitson, Erik Hilbeitson, Tore Helgeson, Erik Gulbeitson, Gulbrand
Gulbrandson, and Ole Pederson Bogstrandeiet, all in the fall of 1842.

  [180] The first Norwegian land owner in the county was however
        Gisle Sebjörnson Halland as shown by H. L. Skavlem's
        researches. The date of Halland's purchase was November 29th.

In this connection it may be noted that Gulleik Gravdal's purchase of
land in the Town of Newark (in section 1) was recorded December 12,
1839, and he made additions to his holdings in 1842 in sections 1 and
9. Mrs. Gunnild Ödegaarden purchased land in 1839 and 1840, Lars H.
Skavlem in June, 1841, and Gudbrand Olson and Mrs. Gulleik Springen
in October, 1841. During September of the latter year four purchases
were also recorded in Plymouth Township, namely those of Paul Halvorson
Skavlem, Nils Olson Vegli (Wagley) and Gunnel Holgerson, while in May,
1840, Gulleik H. Blakestad Skavlem had become the owner of forty acres
in Beloit Township.[181]

  [181] In December, 1842, Mrs. Gisle Halland bought forty acres in
        Beloit Township. Her name appears as Margarett Nutes (Margrit
        Knutsdatter).

The Jefferson Prairie Settlement received considerable accessions
during the next four years. Lena Sondal came in 1841, Haakon Paulson
from Sigdal and his wife Inger came in 1842, Ole Severtson and family
from Numedal, including a daughter, Petra, who is now Mrs. Henry
Jacobson (Oppedal)[182] of Clinton, came in 1843, as did also Brynild
L. Lie and wife from Voss, Lars O. Lie from Hallingdal[183] and
Edwin O. Wilson Næshaug. The last of these settled in Boone County,
Illinois, where he bought land in 1846, but removed to Filmore County,
Minnesota, in 1854. Gunder Vedfald and family, including the sons, Ole
and Halvor, from Telemarken also came in 1843. In the year 1844 there
was a considerable influx of settlers from Voss;[184] among them were:
Sjur K. Kvarma wife and four children from Voss, Brynild Dugstad,[185]
wife and five children, Erik K. Dugstad, wife and child, Lewis Severts,
Ole Shipley and wife Guri, Lars Grane, Sjur Grane, Elling Ellingson
and wife Magela, Ole Skutle,[186] Peder Bere and wife Britha. Also the
following came about the same time (1844 or the following year): Lars
Baarson and wife Gudve, Guru Isakson, Sjur A. Grönlien, wife and two
children, and Erik E. Slæen. Nearly all those here enumerated followed
the lead of Clas Isakson and settled near or south of the state line.
From Vik, Sogn, Norway, there was a single settler, namely, Ole O.
Train. From Hardanger also there was, it seems, only one immigrant
among those who came during this earliest period, Anna Tollefson, wife
of Tönnes Tollefson, who, as we have seen, came to America in 1839.
From Telemarken there were about twelve persons, among them Steinar E.
Hadland, wife and son, Guldmond; Gunder O. Vedfald, wife and daughter;
Even Haatvedt and Ole A. Haatvedt and wife, besides the Vedfald family
spoken of above. From Næs in Hallingdal we find Knud R. Væterud, a
widower, and his two daughters, Ingeborg and Rönnau, besides Lars O.
Lie, and from Modum, Thov Modum and wife Karen; finally Krödsherred is
represented by Even Fingerson Foslien.

  [182] Henry Jacobson is a son of Jacob J. Oppedal, who came from
        Hardanger in 1850.

  [183] Frederik Frederikson's wife, who was Martha Larson, also came
        in 1843. Frederikson came some years later.

  [184] We have seen that Clas Isakson had immigrated from Voss in
        1840. He was the first Vossing to settle on Jefferson Prairie.

  [185] Brynild Dugstad located in the northern part of the
        settlement. A son, Knut B. Dugstad, died at Clinton, Wis., in
        April, 1905, age 80.

  [186] Ole Skutle later married Lena Sondal, who had come in 1841;
        see above.

Among the earliest purchasers of land (1842) I have mentioned Ole C.
Newhouse. He was a brother of Kristoffer and Kittil Newhouse who had
come in 1839. The original name, Nyhus, was in the early days changed
to Newhouse, which is a translation of the Norwegian. Ole Newhouse
married Helen Stabæk, daughter of Klemet Stabæk, who has been spoken
of as the founder of the Rock Run Settlement in Stephenson County,
Illinois, in 1839.

Sjur Kvarme's children included a son, Kolbein (born 1831); he lived
on Jefferson Prairie from 1844-1854, in which latter year he joined
the gold-seekers in California. With the proceeds of three years' work
in the gold mines he came east again in 1857 and bought a farm near
St. Ansgar, Iowa, where he lived till his death in October, 1906. Olav
Vedfald, son of Gunder Vedfald, remained with his parents on Jefferson
Prairie till 1850, when he purchased land and settled on Bonnet Prairie
in Columbia County, Wisconsin.[187]

  [187] Of those who come in 1844 from Numedal were Gulleik Svensrud
        and family, who however removed to Blue Mounds, Dane County,
        in 1847. In 1860 he married Ingeborg Lohn who died in 1903;
        there are five living children.

Among the pioneers of Jefferson Prairie are also particularly to be
named Reverend O. Andrewson and wife, Ragnild Paulson, both of whom
came to America in 1841, but did not settle in Clinton Township before
1855; in that year Rev. Andrewson accepted a call as pastor of the
congregation which he had organized there in 1850. Mrs. Andrewson, who
is now eighty-five years old, is still living there.

In the above survey of the growth of the Jefferson Prairie Settlement
during these years many names have been omitted because of the
uncertainty among my informants as to the year of their arrival. In
a subsequent chapter I shall also outline the subsequent growth of
the settlement. I shall here merely note the fact that Reverend J. W.
C. Dietrichson speaks of the congregation in 1844 as numbering 150
members.



                              CHAPTER XXIV

             _Immigration to Rock Prairie from Numedal and
                  Land in 1842 and Subsequent Years._


In Chapter XI above we have given an account of the beginnings of the
Rock Prairie Settlement and traced its growth down to 1842. We shall
here briefly discuss the development of this settlement during the
next eight years. Already in the summer of 1842 a considerable number
of immigrants came, most of them locating there permanently. I shall
mention first Halvor N. Aaen and wife, Guri (Frögne), both from Nore in
Numedal, who settled in Newark.[188] Halvor Stordok and Ole Stordok,
brothers of Gunnul Stordok mentioned before, both came in 1842. Halvor
bought land near Sugar River Bottom; he married Ingeborg Paulson, and
the couple lived on the homestead till their death. Their children,
Knud, Halvor, Inge and Ingeborg, all unmarried, are still living there.
They are all over fifty years of age now. Ole Stordok, who married
Anne Sand from Rollaug, located at Sand Prairie, five miles south of
Broadhead. In the same year came also Gullik O. Mygstue, with wife
Jöran and five children, from Vægli, Numedal. Gullik died in 1852, but
the widow lived till 1887. Their oldest son, Ole (born in 1825), had
learned the trade of a shoemaker and conducted a shoemaker's shop on
his farm long after he had begun farming.[189] In 1848 he married Sive
Espeset from Hallingdal, Norway; they had no children. [190]

  [188] Aaen is said to have been something of an inventor. He made
        two clocks, one of which was bought by Mr. Chrispinson; the
        other was bought by Simon Strand, and is now probably in
        the possession of Stone or Gunild Strand says a writer in
        _Amerika_ for March 15th, 1907. Aaen died about 1886.

  [189] The location of his farm is half a mile from Orfordville.

  [190] Mrs. Mygstue died in 1892. Ole Mygstue then sold his farm and
        moved to his sister, Mrs. Engen, in Primrose, Dane County. An
        obituary notice of Ole Mygstue (who died in 1902) speaks very
        highly of him as a member of the church and a citizen. He was
        a man of kindly nature and helpful spirit in whom all reposed
        implicit confidence.

Among those who came from Numedal to America in 1842 was also Herbrand
H. Berge (born in Rollaug in 1821). He remained for a year and a half
on Jefferson Prairie, however, so that he did not locate on Rock
Prairie until early in 1844. Anna Torbjörnsdatter, who later became
his wife (1847) also immigrated in 1842. They removed to Jackson
County, Minnesota, in 1876; he died there in December, 1903, and she in
February, 1904,[191] at the age of seventy-seven. In 1843 Hellik Olson
Holtan with family from Flesberg in Numedal emigrated and settled on
Rock Prairie. Holtan was a man of much intelligence and strength of
character, who soon came to hold a leading place among the pioneers in
the community.

  [191] Their children are: Paul Berge, Herbrand Berge and Mrs. Henry
        Anderson, all living in Jackson, Minnesota.

So far we have spoken only of immigrants from Numedal. In the year 1842
the first family from Land, Norway, came to Rock Prairie, namely Hans
Smedsrud and wife. We have seen that the first immigrant from Land,
Lars Röste, who came in 1839, located at Rock Run. It was the year
1843 which inaugurated the tide of emigration to America from Land and
nearly all the earliest arrivals located on Rock Prairie. Thus in that
year came Harald Ommelstad and family, five in all, Anders Lundsæter
and family, in all five, Peder H. Gaarder with family (six), Sören
Sörum, and Anne Marie Nilsdatter, in all eighteen persons. These were
followed the next year by fifteen persons, namely: Lars Nord-Fossum
and family (five), Hans Christofferson Tollefsrude and wife, Anders
Midböen with wife and one child, Anders Engen, Gudbrand Gaarder, Helene
Gaarder, Inger Gaarder, and Helene Klevmoen. Anders Erstad and wife,
and Syver Smed, who came at the same time, did not locate on Rock
Prairie; the former went to Rock Run while Smed located at Wiota, being
the first native of Land to settle in La Fayette County.

I shall also add here the names of those who came from Land in the
following years. In 1845 came two families, namely Askild Ullensager,
wife and four children, and Tarald Jörandlien, wife and four children.
Jörandlien or Jorlien, as the name is usually rendered, located
in Newark. In 1846 Marie Engen and her son, Hans (born 1823) and
daughter, came, as did also Erik Nederhaugen. The year 1847 brought
Ole Nörstelien, Christine Nörstelien and Hans Sveum, wife and five
children.[192] The year 1848 with its extensive immigration also
brought an increased contingent from Land. The following settled on
Rock Prairie; Ole Gaarder and wife, Andreas Sörum, Ingebrigt Fossum and
family (six), Halvor Ruud and family (seven), Johans Nederhaugen[193]
and family (four), Johan Frankrige and family (five) and Hovel
Jensvold,[194] Hovel Smeby and Bertha Lybæk.[195] In all there were
fifty-four who came from Land in 1848; of these, twenty-eight settled
on Rock Prairie, twenty-five at Wiota and one at Rock Run. The roster
of immigrants from Land in 1849 includes forty-eight persons, of whom
sixteen located on Rock Prairie; they were: Johannes Ommelstadsæteren,
Ingeborg Ommelstadsæteren, Marthea Brendingen, Johans Lybæk, Bertha
Fröslie, Marit Fröslie, Hans Engen (Fröslieit) and family (five) and
Jonas Gjerdet and family (five). Syver Gaarder and family, thirteen in
all, who located farther west at Albany, Green County, came directly
from Land, but they were natives of Valders. He had moved from Valders
to Torpen in Land and bought there the Gaarder farm when the Gaarder
family emigrated in 1843, remaining there, however, as we have seen,
only six years.[196] The accessions for 1850 were: Ole Smeby and family
(five), Östen Lundsæteren and family (five), Sjugal Frankrige and
family (six), Helene Fröslie, Bertha Sörum, Hovel Fossum, Ole Hovdelien
and Hans Værhaug, in all twenty-one.

  [192] Svend Nörstelien and family (seven) and Kari Lillebæk and six
        children from Land, who also came that year, settled in Wiota.

  [193] Martin Johnson of Orfordville, Rock County, is his son.

  [194] Christian Lunde, who also came from Land in 1848, located at
        Rock Run. Several families went to Wiota; see above, Chapter
        XXII.

  [195] Who later married Syver Midböen.

  [196] Of the remaining twenty-three of this year's immigration
        from Land eleven went to Wiota, seven to Rock Run, and five
        scattered elsewhere.

The account of immigration from Land which it has been possible
to give so fully here is based on the private records of Hans C.
Tollefsrude, as published in part in _Amerika_ for March 8th, 1907.
Hans Tollefsrude's name occupies a foremost place in the early history
of the Rock Prairie Settlement. In the seventies he again became a
pioneer, locating now in Pocahontas County, Iowa.[197]

  [197] The limitations of space forbid a sketch of Mr. Tollefsrude
        in our survey of Rock Prairie.



                              CHAPTER XXV

             _Immigration from Hallingdal, Norway, to Rock
            Prairie from 1843 to 1848. Continued Immigration
                 from Numedal. Other Early Accessions._


We will now turn to another contingent in the early immigration to Rock
Prairie,--that from the dialect district of Hallingdal. The emigration
from this region began in 1842 with the departure of the brothers
Knud and John Ellingson Solem, who came direct to Rock Prairie. In
1843 Kleofas Halvorson Hansemoen immigrated with wife Kari (Onsgaard)
and child Halvor, locating on section twelve in Newark Township, Rock
County.[198] Kleofas's father's name was Halvor Kleofasen Hansemoen;
he did not emigrate. There were two other brothers, Erik and Hans, of
whom the former did not come to this country. Hans Hansemoen had in
Norway bought an estate called Husemoen, not intending to emigrate.
But when his brother sent favorable reports back from America, he sold
out and came to this country in the fall of 1845. He bought land in
sections eleven and twelve in Newark Township, near his brother. The
above is narrated in part to show how his name happens to appear as
Hans Husemoen, while the brother is Kleofas Hansemoen and the brother's
children are Halvor Kleofas, Knud Kleofas, etc. (see note 198). Hans
Husemoen's wife's maiden name was Bergit Halvorsdatter Tveto; she was
from Aal Parish in Hallingdal.

  [198] They had five children in this country: Knud, Kleofas,
        Eyvind, Eirik and Caroline, all now married and with
        families. The sons adopted Cleofas as the family name. The
        daughter was married to Kittil Haugen, now living in Pelican
        Rapids, Minn.

In 1845 the settlement received other accessions from Hallingdal. The
list includes: Ola Brunsvold, Halvor Hesgard, Kristen Grimsgaard,
Ole Skaalen, Nils Roe, Ola Sando, Mikkel Rust, Svend Hesla, Gjermund
Mæhtum, Aslak Rustad and Aslak Ulsak.

In 1846 about three hundred persons emigrated from Hallingdal. How many
of these came to Rock County I am not able to say; among them were,
however, Erik Kolsrud and family, Ole Hei and family, Nils Haugen,
wife and six children, Knud Tröstem, Henrik Henriksen Tröstem, Halvor
Ness, Hans Engen, Kari Husemoen, Guttorm Roen and son, Ole, Tollef
Tollefsrud-Ballandby and sons Nils, Ola and Amund, Henrik Rime, brother
of Tollef, A. T. Beigo, Timan Burtness and his brother John, Aadne
Engen, Kristen Megaarden, Lars Grimsgaard, wife and family, Ingeborg
Olsdatter Tröstem, Asle Hesla, and Asle Brunsvold. Many of the above
had families. The leaders of this party were the three first named and
Tollef Tollefsrude. They were the owners of large estates in Norway
which they sold when they left for America. They paid the passage for
many who came from Hallingdal that summer, but I cannot give the names
of these. The party of emigrants left Drammen in April by the ship
_Newmann_, which took them to Havre, France. Here they remained one
month, before the ship on which they were to sail was gotten ready.
They did not arrive to Rock Prairie until October, having been six
months en route.

In 1847 very few came from Hallingdal, among them are mentioned Ole
Onsgaard, Nils O. Wikko,[199] and Östen Burtness. In the following
year, however, there was a considerable immigration. Erik K. Berg and
his brother Truls Berg, Ole Trulson Ve and Ole Gulsen (Tröstem) with
wife and son Gul and daughter Guri, Erik Ovestrud, Tideman Kvarve,
Guttorm Megaarden, a Mr. Sagdalen and wife, Kari,[200] Levor Kvarve
and family of twelve, and Knut Guttormsen Tyrebakken.[201] There came
others from Hallingdal also in the years following. I may mention
here Ole J. Bakke and wife and Herbrand K. Finseth (born in Hemsedal
in July, 1830), who emigrated in 1852 and lived three years on Rock
Prairie. They moved to Goodhue County, Minnesota, in 1855, as did also
Knut K. Finseth and A. K. Finseth, brothers of Herbrand; these together
with Halvor Hesgard, Aadne Engen and Christen Evenson, who removed to
Minnesota at the same time, were the first white settlers in the Town
of Holden, Goodhue County.[202] I may also mention Kittel O. Ruud, born
1823 of parents Erik Sanderson and Margit Ruud, and who came to Rock
County in 1850. A few years later he moved to Northwestern Iowa and in
1855 became a pioneer settler in Holdon, Goodhue County, Minnesota,
where he married Margrethe Andersdatter Flom in 1856. She was born in
Aurland, Sogn, 1824. She died in March and he in April, 1903.[203]

  [199] Nils O. Wikko was from Gol, Hallingdal. He married Beret
        Halvorson in 1854, and removed soon after to Worth County,
        Iowa. He died in 1904, at the age of eighty-three, survived
        by widow and six daughters.

  [200] They moved to Houston County, Minnesota, in 1853. He died in
        1894 and she in 1904, at the age of eighty-four.

  [201] Tyrebakken moved to Black Hammer, Minnesota, in 1854, when he
        married Mari Haugejordet. He was born in 1823, in 1905.

  [202] Knut Finseth died in 1869. Herbrand Finseth married Guri
        Ouri in 1867; he died in January, 1901, leaving wife and six
        children.

  [203] I gather these facts from an obituary notice, which speaks at
        length in eloquent terms of the noble lives of this couple.

The immigrants from Hallingdal settled chiefly in Spring Valley, and
Plymouth; Beloit and Newark townships were settled for the most part
before the Hallingdal immigrants began to come in larger numbers,
yet some are located in Beloit Township. Newark is occupied largely
by immigrants from Numedal, as is also Beloit. While Rock Prairie
was taken possession of chiefly by pioneers from Numedal, Land,
and Hallingdal, there were also a few from Telemarken, Sigdal and
Ringerike, and one from Valders among the pioneers of the forties.
Of those who came from Telemarken I shall mention Knut Simon (born
1819), who located near Janesville in 1843. He removed to Rice County,
Minnesota, in 1854, and thence to Pope County in 1865; died in 1905.

The single immigrant from Valders to locate on Rock Prairie was Guul
Guttormson. He came in 1843 and is the first known American immigrant
from that district. He was born at Ildjernstadhaug in Hedalen in 1816.
About 1840 he had removed to Modum; here a copy of Nattestad's journal
fell into his hands and he and Hans Uhlen and Anders Aamodt[204]
decided to emigrate. These three came on the same ship that brought
Kleofas Halvorson and Peder Gaarder. Guttormson bought land half way
between Orfordville and Broadhead. He was always called "Guul Valdris"
for he was and remained the only "Valdris"[205] there, for while he
wrote home urging his friends in Valders to come to America, the
immigration from Valders did not set in before 1847-48 and by that time
Rock Prairie had been, as we have seen, taken up largely by immigrants
from Hallingdal and Land. Guul Guttormson's oldest son, Guttorm Guul
(Broadhead, Wisconsin), born August, 1848, was probably the first child
born of Valdris parentage in America. I have already spoken of the
emigration of Syver Gaarder,[206] a "Valdris" who came with the party
from Land in 1849. They located at Albany in Green County. These I
believe were the only settlers from Valders in this locality.

  [204] These two were the first to emigrate to America from Modum.

  [205] Valdris is the Norwegian appellation of a native of Valders.

  [206] Syver Gaarder's daughter, Barbro, married Martin Johnson
        (Nederhaugen) in 1855. Dr. J. S. Johnson, of Minneapolis,
        is their oldest son; other children are: Ben Johnson,
        Orfordville, Wisconsin; Mrs. Rev. Langseth, Glendorado,
        Minn.; Mrs. Rev. L. Njus, McIntosh, Minn.; Mrs. Strömseth,
        living on the homestead; Mandy Johnson.



                              CHAPTER XXVI

          _Economic Conditions of Immigrants. Cost of Passage.
                    Course of the Journey. Duration
                            of the Journey._


In discussing the causes of emigration, we have found that economic
factors entered extensively into operation. It was the desire for
material betterment that prompted a very large proportion of Norwegian
emigrants to leave the land of their fathers. The first five decades
of Norwegian emigration was a period in which the battle for existence
among the Norwegian peasant and the common man was none too easy.
Unfavorable economic conditions, the oppressive methods of the
larger land owners, frequent crop failure, often reduced the lesser
farmers into a condition of impoverishment. Even wealthy families
found themselves burdened by debts from which the future seemed to
offer little hope of relief. By the law of primogeniture the oldest
son inherited the estate. The sons of men of means, therefore, were
financially often no better situated than the cotter's son, and were
often forced to seek their fortune beyond the native village or
district. These considerations will make clear first that the great
majority of Norwegian emigrants to the United States were at the time
of emigration of small means; they were often very poor indeed. Their
wealth lay in the ability and the will to carve their way in a land
of greater promise. Their wealth lay also in their thrift, in their
ideals, and the moral fiber of their race. Many of those who have
succeeded best in their adopted country came here well-nigh penniless.
To them poverty was no longer a curse when the path of opportunity lay
before them. But the above considerations will also have indicated
that Norwegian immigrants of that early period were not always of the
poor classes even though they came here with little or nothing. Later
Norwegian immigration has, it is true, generally been from among the
impecunious. But in that early period, especially 1835 to 1865, a very
large number of the immigrants came from families which general or
special conditions had suddenly so reduced to conditions which became
to them intolerable. And it was the hope which America held out which
inspired them with the will to seek there the independence now no
longer theirs. We have already met with the evidence of this in such
families as Hovland (1835), Nattestad (1837), Aadland (1837), Aasland
(1838), Gravdal (1839), Stabæk (1839), Gitle Danielson (1839), Luraas
(1839), Unde (1839), Heg (1840), Gaarder (1843-49), Nils Haugen (1846),
and many others. We shall in the following pages meet with families
of considerable means from Numedal, Telemarken, Voss, Ringsaker and
elsewhere, of whom the same is true; and among the pioneers who came
from Sogn in 1844, 1845, and later there were many old families of
property and prominence in their native community. I stress this fact
because some who have formerly written about Norwegian settlements in
this country have never yet fully recognized the full significance
of this; but I speak of it here especially because I have myself
also failed to fully appreciate this fact when last I wrote upon
the subject. What has been said here applies to the founders of the
settlements of Northern Illinois, of Racine, Rock, Dane and other
counties in Southern Wisconsin, and many of those who some years later
established the settlements in Northern Iowa and Southern Minnesota.
On the other hand also some of those who later became most substantial
members of these settlements were men whose transportation to America
was paid for by others that they might come and get a start in life.
These men emigrated prompted by the desire of material betterment and
in that aim they have succeeded, and they have succeeded honestly,
often accumulating great wealth.[207]

  [207] It is only "financial prosperity" which we are here speaking
        of, of course. The question of "success" is entirely a
        different one.

The second topic in the title of this chapter is the cost of passage. I
shall discuss this item briefly, using concrete illustrations from our
sources. In that early period the voyage was made by sail-ships. These
continued to be used for a long time after steam had come into use,
clear down into the seventies. The ticket was then generally somewhat
cheaper by sailing vessels than by steamship. Passengers furnished
their own board and beading, and they were required to bring a supply
sufficient for ten to twelve weeks.[208] The price of passage ranged
between 33 and 50 _speciedaler_, that is between $25.00 and $38.00.
Children under fourteen travelled for half price; those under one went
free. The Luraas party (page 158 above) paid forty-two _speciedaler_
from Gothenburg to Boston, while the Nattestad party paid fifty dollars
from Gothenburg to New York in 1837. In 1839 the party that came with
Ansten Nattestad secured passage for thirty-three dollars per person.
This may be regarded as normal; it was the price paid, e. g., by
Anders Tömmerstigen and family from Christiania via Havre, France,
to New York in 1846. Those who came in June from Sogn in 1844 paid
twenty-five dollars a person from Bergen to New York. The extremes are
illustrated by two groups for the year 1839 and 1845: The little group
of immigrants who came from Stavanger via Gothenburg to Boston with
Gitle Danielson in 1839 paid, it seems, sixty dollars apiece,[209]
while Peder Aasmundson Tanger and others, ninety in all, who came in
1845 from Kragerö, paid only eighteen dollars apiece to New York.

  [208] The regulations varying with different ships, _Juno_, which
        brought the first party from Inner Sogn in 1844, did not
        accept any passenger who had not provided himself with food
        supply for twelve weeks.

  [209] i. e. $47. R. B. Anderson's _First Chapter_, page 313.

The inland journey, generally in the early days made by canal boat,
varied greatly in cost, often amounting to as much as fourteen dollars
to Milwaukee or Chicago. But the additional toll inland frequently
made the inland journey much more expensive than was the ocean voyage.
One pioneer, writing of this later, says that his whole journey cost
him ninety dollars.[210] In the fifties the inland journey was made by
railroad; the railroad ticket from Quebec to Chicago or Milwaukee was
eight dollars.

  [210] In American money, of which less than half for the ocean voyage.

The course of the journey has been incidentally indicated above.
During the first years it was usually by way of Gothenburg, sometimes
via Hamburg, not infrequently by way of Havre. The starting point was
Stavanger, Bergen, Skien, Drammen, Porsgrund and Christiania, later
other ports. New York was most often the place of landing, but not
infrequently Boston, in isolated instances, Fall River, Philadelphia
and New Orleans. After 1850 sail-ships plied extensively between
Scandinavian ports and Quebec.[211] The inland journey from New York
went by steamboat to Albany, thence by canal boat to Buffalo, a
distance of three hundred and fifty miles, which usually took twelve
days but often over two weeks.[212] From Buffalo the journey went
by steamboat over the Great Lakes to Milwaukee and Chicago, after
1842 usually to Milwaukee. Those who took the Quebec route after 1850
were then brought to St. Levi by the railroad company's steamboats,
whence they went by rail to Chicago or Milwaukee,[213] a journey which
generally took four or five days,[214] over a distance of 1020 miles.
Milwaukee-bound passengers were often shipped from Port Huron by way
of Lakes Huron and Michigan or were taken by rail from Detroit across
Michigan to Grand Haven, thence by steamboat across Lake Michigan to
Milwaukee.[215] The latter was of course the shorter and the favored
route for immigrants whose destination was Wisconsin, Northern Iowa, or
Minnesota. Immigrants who landed in Boston usually went by steamboat
thence to New York and from the regular inland route as given above.

  [211] Of the trials and the hardships of the ocean voyage in
        the thirties, forties and fifties, we can to-day have no
        conception. It would, however, fall outside the scope
        of this work to discuss that here. I may refer the
        reader to a well-written article by H. Cock Jensen in
        _Nordmandsforbundet_, December, 1907, pages 53-66. See also
        Holand's article, pages 56-60.

  [212] A good account of the character of this journey is given by
        Holand, pages 65-74.

  [213] Via Montreal, Toronto, Port Huron and Detroit.

  [214] _Billed-Magazin_ I, 123-124, article "Om Udvandringen," by J.
        A. Johnson Skipsnes.

  [215] To Port Huron 189 miles, thence to Milwaukee 85 miles.

The duration of the journey was always a matter of great uncertainty.
Intending emigrants who came from the interior of Norway often had to
wait as long as two weeks at Bergen or Skien, as the case might be,
before the ships on which they were to go sailed. The overhauling and
putting in repair of the storm-battered ships often took weeks.[216]
The duration of the voyage across the Atlantic depended of course
largely upon the state of the weather. With this favorable a sail-boat
would usually cross the ocean in six or seven weeks,[217] but in a
voyage of such a distance it was practically certain that there would
be stormy weather sometime before the other side was reached. In his
answer to this question in _Billed-Magazin_ I, page 123, John A.
Johnson wrote that the average length was seven weeks, but he adds that
those who crossed in that time had no reason to complain. And he speaks
of the fact that emigrant ships have in rare cases taken twelve to
thirteen weeks.

  [216] The author's grandfather, Ole Torjussen Flom, and party of
        about fifty-three, from Inner Sogn, were obliged to wait in
        Bergen nearly three weeks before sailing.

  [217] There was of course great difference in the speed of the
        boats.

The Nattestad party made, in 1837, an especially short voyage of
thirty-two days from Gothenburg to Fall River. I have no record of
any other ship in those early years which sailed so well as did
_Enigheden_. _Juno_, the most rapid sailer on the Atlantic in the
forties, crossed in five weeks and three days in May-June, 1844, which
Kristi Melaas of Stoughton, Wisconsin, who was a passenger, says broke
the record for speed at that time. Ansten Nattestad and party took
nine weeks in 1839 with the ship _Emelia_ from Drammen. Nine weeks
is the number which many report as the duration of the voyage in the
forties. The party that came with the Luraas brothers from Tin and
Gitle Danielson from Stavanger also in 1839 took nine weeks and three
days from Gothenburg to Boston. And _Aegir_ took nine weeks on its
journey from Bergen to New York in 1837. The sloop _Restaurationen_ we
recall crossed in ten weeks. The so-called Brook-ship _Albion_ usually
required from eight to nine weeks for the voyage.

In stormy weather the voyage sometimes lasted as much as fourteen
weeks. The sail-ship _Tricolor_ took that long in April-July, 1845, the
route being from Porsgrund to New York. Ingebrigt Johnson Helle, from
Kragerö, who was a passenger, writes of the terrors of this journey
(see appendix 2). On a voyage made in 1848 _Tricolor_ took fourteen
weeks and four days, according to interview with Kari Gulliksdatter
Mogen (from Flesberg, Numedal), who was a passenger on the ship
(see _Billed-Magazin_ I, page 388). The little sail-ship in which
Nils Hansen Fjeld and family came in 1847 took fourteen weeks from
Christiania to New York.[218]

  [218] For account of the voyage see Appendix 2.

In this connection I shall cite from an article by Dr. K. M. Teigen of
Minneapolis, Minnesota, entitled "Pionerliv" (Pioneer Life).[219] He
says:

  In the days of the sail-ship a voyage across the Atlantic Ocean
  was more of an undertaking than a journey around the world now.
  Most of the summer might be required for it if the weather was
  unfavorable. My mother's party from Flesberg and Lyngdal parishes
  in Numedal, took seven weeks and four days in 1843 with the brig
  _Hercules_, Captain Overvind, between Drammen and New York; my
  father's company from Sogndal in Inner Sogn, three years later, lay
  for fourteen weeks heaving and lunging in contrary winds between
  Bergen and the promised land. And then came the journey by steamer
  up the Hudson to Troy, thence through the "canal" and the sluices
  at Oswego by canal boats, which were drawn with a snail's pace by
  horses, lazily moving along the banks; then by way of the lakes
  by steamer again westward to Milwaukee. For this journey of about
  a thousand miles another month went by, without counting the walk
  from Milwaukee to Koshkonong, lying seventy miles distant in the
  wilderness, whither so many of the earliest Norwegian immigrants
  were destined.

  [219] The article forms one in a series of most interesting
        articles bearing the general title "Blandt Vestens Vikinger"
        ('Mongst the Vikings of the West) printed in _Amerika_ in
        1901 and 1902. Dr. Teigen, son of O. C. Teigen, Koshkonong
        Pioneer of 1846, is a poet and story writer of the first rank
        among Norwegians in America.

At the place of landing the immigrants were frequently obliged to
wait for several days before the westward journey was begun. To Rock
Prairie, Koshkonong or Norway Grove, as the case might be, required
another week, and correspondingly more for those bound for more
westerly settlements. In all the duration of the journey from Norway
to the settlement which was the immigrant's ultimate destination was
rarely made in less than nine weeks; often it consumed as much as five
months.



                             CHAPTER XXVII

          _Norwegians in Chicago, 1840-1845. A Vossing Colony.
            Some Early Settlers in Chicago from Hardanger._


On page 94 above I have spoken briefly of the first Norwegian settlers
in Chicago in the years 1836-1839. On page 150 mention was made of the
increase of the Chicago colony by the arrival of a number of immigrants
from Voss, Norway, in 1839-41. As there indicated, however, many of
those who came during these years lived there only temporarily; we find
them later as pioneers elsewhere, especially in Dane and La Fayette
Counties, Wisconsin.[220] The same applies also to several of those who
came from Voss, Sogn, and Telemarken, to Chicago in 1843-1844;[221]
these went mostly to Koshkonong, Wiota or Long Prairie, others to the
various parts of the Fox River settlement.

  [220] I instance the families of Th. Saue and Kvelve who went to
        Koshkonong, and Unde, Ulven, Skjerveim and Vinje who went to
        Wiota.

  [221] For instance the Kaasa family went to Long Prairie in 1845.

In chapter XXI above I have further related some incidents from the
life of some early Norwegian settlers in Chicago. In the following
pages I shall merely try to give a brief account of new accessions to
the Chicago colony between the years 1842 and 1850. It is estimated
that there were in Chicago in 1850 3,000 persons of Norwegian birth;
relatively the number was therefore considerable in that year. Yet I
shall probably be right if I say that the actual number of Norwegians
in the city in the year 1842 was very small, not more than in some of
the smallest rural settlements already established. I assume that as
the early Norwegian immigrants came here with the intention of settling
on a farm, comparatively very few were induced to remain permanently
in Chicago. Chicago and vicinity was not particularly inviting at the
time; the swamps and marshes soon drove the incoming immigrants to the
more inviting and the far more fertile inland counties.

As residents of Chicago before 1839, we have found Halstein Torison,
Johan Larson, Nils Röthe and wife Torbjör, Svein Knutson Lothe and
wife and two children, Baard Johnson, wife and five children, Andrew
Nilson Brække and Anders Larsen Flage, both with families; these were
all from Voss except Johan Larsen, a sailor who was from Kopervik,
a little south of Haugesund, and Torison, who was from Fjeldberg in
Söndhordland.[222] Among Baard Johnson's sons were Anfin, John and
Andrew; the first of these was a tailor in the employ of Simon Doyle
on Kinzie Street.[223] The first directory of Chicago, published in
1839, gives a few more names of Norwegians.[224] We know that Lars
Davidson Reque lived there then; he seems to have lived in the Cass
Street Dutch settlement. His occupation was that of a fireman on the
steamboat _George W. Dole_. There were two other Davidsons, Sivert[225]
and Peter; in the latter we recognize our Per Davidson Skjerveim (see
above p. 199). Other names in the same directory are: Asle Anderson,
musician; Endre Anderson, laborer; Eric Anderson, pressman; all three
of whom lived at the same house on North State Street, and were
probably brothers; Canute Lawson (Larson), city street carpenter and
Iver Lawson, who lived at 240 Superior Street.

  [222] The Newberry, whom Torrison worked for as a gardener was the
        founder of well-known Newberry Library.

  [223] For this and many other facts in this chapter I am indebted
        to Strand's _History_, pages 182-186.

  [224] A. E. Strand published some facts from this directory on
        pages 183-184 of his work.

  [225] He was a carpenter. Mr. Strand thinks the three were
        brothers. This is a mistake of course.

But the directory does not give the name of another Norwegian who, if
the year of his arrival is correctly recorded, must have been the first
Scandinavian resident of Chicago, namely David Johnson, who came in
1834. He was a pressman in the employ of Mr. Calhoun, the publisher
of _The Chicago Democrat_. David Johnson was a sailor, who came from
Norway to New York as a boy, locating in New York in 1832, securing
work as a press-feeder. About this time Mr. Calhoun was planning to
install a cylinder press in place of the old hand press at his printing
establishment in Chicago. The cylinder press was ordered from New York,
Mr. Johnson having accepted Calhoun's offer as pressman for him, he
went to Chicago at the same time, where he put up and operated the
new press. The Chicago Historical Society has among its documents Mr.
Calhoun's account-book for 1834, which gives Mr. Johnson's name.[226]

  [226] Strand's _History_, p. 187.

But there were other Norwegians in Chicago in 1839 who do not seem to
have been found by the census taker. Thus Steffen K. Gilderhus came
there from Voss in 1838 and his brother Ole K. Gilderhus came in 1839.
They lived in Chicago until 1844, when they settled on Koshkonong
Prairie, Dane County, Wisconsin. Further Per Unde, Sjur Ulven and Arne
Vinje who came there in 1839; these three settled at Wiota, Wisconsin,
in 1841. Of this removal I have given a full account above chapter.
Probably the earliest subsequent arrival from Voss were Torstein Saue,
wife and son Gulleik, who came in the summer of 1840. They lived in
Chicago until 1843, when they also went to Koshkonong. At about the
same time of the year came also Baard Nyre, Mads Sanve, Ole Gilbertson,
Brynjulf Ronve, Klaus Grimestad and wife and Lars T. Röthe and Anna
Bakketun, all from Voss, and all of whom were for some time residents
of Chicago. Anna Bakketun married a Mr. Nicholson (Nikolausen), who
died from cholera in 1849. From this marriage there were two sons,
Henry Nicholson, who served throughout the war, and John G. Nicholson,
who is still living (Orchard Street). Torstein Michaelson, who
succeeded Halstein Torison in the employ of Newberry, also came in
1840 or 1841. Michaelson was from Voss where he was born in 1808; he
remained Newberry's gardener for about thirty-five years.

We have above seen that some of the early immigrants to Illinois were
from Hardanger, Norway, but the number was not large. We shall speak
of this immigration more in detail in connection with the settlement
of Lee County, Illinois. Here it will be in order now to note briefly
Hardanger's contribution to the Norwegian colony in Chicago in the
period under discussion.

In 1839 twenty-two persons emigrated from Ulvik Parish, Hardanger,
and all of these came to Chicago. They were: Gunnar Tveito, wife and
child; Anders Vik, Johan Vik, Brynjulf Lekve, Lars Torblaa, wife
and two children, Nils Vambheim and wife, Olav L. Mo, wife and two
daughters and Lars Spilde, wife and four children.[227] This party
having started out from Bergen left Gothenburg May 27, landed at Fall
River, Massachusetts, August 2, took boat to New York, thence via
Buffalo to Chicago, where they arrived August 25.[228] In Chicago
they suffered much hardship, many were taken sick and died, among the
latter Tveito's and Vambheim's wives. The men secured work, some on
the canal, some on a schooner on the river, others as wood-cutters in
the forests about Chicago. Lekve and the two Vik brothers wrote an
account of their trials which was published in _Bergens Stiftstidende_
for June 11, 1841, in which they advised against emigrating to America,
and as a result there was no immigration to this country from Hardanger
again before 1846-1847. Very few of the later immigrants from Hardanger
located in Chicago.

  [227] Facts gathered from _Normandsforbundet_ II, where Rev.
        O. Olofson of Ullensvang, Hardanger, discusses most
        interestingly the early emigration from Hardanger to America
        (pp. 169-180).

  [228] The Chicago census for 1839 does not include the names of any
        of this party.

Other arrivals during subsequent years were: 1841, Peter Nelson and
Knut Larson Bö; 1842, J. C. Anderson, and in 1843, Ole Kaasa and
family, G. A. Wigeland, Nils Bakketun and Randver Lydvo (b. 1813). Ole
Kaasa moved from Chicago to Boone County, in 1845, but one of his sons,
Jens, became a permanent resident of Chicago and a leading member of
the Norwegian colony of Chicago during his life. Jens Olson, as he was
known, was born in 1824 in Siljord, Upper Telemarken. In the early part
of 1840 the family moved to Bamble Parish in Lower Telemarken, whence
they emigrated in 1843. They arrived in Chicago October 20 of that
year. The brother, Thore Olson, went out to Boone County; Jens settled
permanently in Chicago, where he lived till his death in 1907. In 1853
he married Martha Anderson[229] at Capron, Illinois.[230]

  [229] She was born in 1827 at Stökebö in Levanger Parish, Diocese
        of Bergen.

  [230] Mrs. Jens Olson died in 1895.

Jens Olson was a master mason and brick-layer, and he built Vor
Frelsers Kirke[231] the corner of Erie and May Streets. Later he became
a contractor on a larger scale and erected a large number of school
houses in Chicago. He was an ardent supporter of the Lutheran church
and gave freely to its cause.

  [231] Our Savior's Church.

Randver Lydvo[232] came to Chicago in October, 1843. In June, 1844,
she was married to Lars Knutson Dykesten; the ceremony took place in
Nils Röthe's house and the ceremony was performed by Rev. Flavel Bascum
of the First Presbyterian church. Lars Knutson died in the cholera
epidemic in 1849. Mrs. Knutson who is still living[233] is one of the
oldest Norwegian residents of Chicago.

  [232] She was the daughter of Anders Knutson Lydvo and wife, Martha
        (Röthe). Anders Lydvo died in 1860 and Martha in 1875.

  [233] She resides with her daughter, Mrs. Louis H. Johnson, at 235
        Watt Avenue, Chicago.

In 1844 Bryngel Henderson and wife Martha came to Chicago and became
permanent residents of the city, as did also Knut Iverson Glimme, Mrs.
Julia Nelson, Ellef G. Severtson[234] and John A. Hefte. These were
all from Voss; Severtson was from Vossevangen. Ole Bakketun and family
and Sjur M. Sære, also with family, both from Voss, came to Chicago in
1844, but lived there only one year, when they went to Koshkonong.

  [234] Ellev G. Seavert.

The year 1844 also brought Chicago another permanent resident from
Voss, who later became prominently associated with the commercial
and political life of the city. This was Iver Larson Bö, born 1821,
in Voss, Norway, who came to Chicago that year and not as generally
found stated in or about 1840,[235] locating on the north side. Iver
dropped the surname Bö, and changed Larson to Lawson, so that his
name became Iver Lawson. He was one of the organizers of the First
Lutheran church in 1848, located at that time on Superior Street
between Wells Street and La Salle Avenue.[236] Lawson took a prominent
part in the political life of early Chicago, e.g., as member of the
city council, and otherwise. In 1869 he was a member of the House of
Representatives in the State Legislature. As legislator his name is
most closely associated with the establishment of Chicago's excellent
system of parks; the creation of Lincoln Park in particular was due
in great measure to Lawson's efforts.[237] Iver Lawson's name is also
associated with that of John Anderson in the founding of _Skandinaven_,
now the largest and most widely circulated Norwegian newspaper in this
country.[238]

  [235] So Strand, and after him Roland, p. 101.

  [236] Strand, page 217.

  [237] Brought out by Strand's investigation.

  [238] V. F. Lawson was also the owner of _The Chicago Record_
        before the _Record_ and the _Herald_ were combined about year
        1898.

The year 1845 brought a number of accessions to the Norwegian colony of
Chicago. Among them Kittil Nirison, from Bö Parish in Telemarken, one
of the few from Telemarken who settled in Chicago in the early days,
Knud K. Harrisville and wife Maren Karine (née Larson), Christian Lee,
from Gausdal, and Andrew Anderson, wife, Laura, and family from Voss.
This family included a son John, born March, 1836, who is the well
known founder and owner of _Skandinaven_ and president of the John A.
Anderson Publishing Company.[239]

Andrew Anderson died of the cholera in 1849, and to the son John,
then thirteen years old, fell the task of supporting his mother and
baby sister, which he did at first by peddling apples and carrying
newspapers. Then he became "printer's devil" and soon learned the
art of distributing and setting type.[240] In the following years he
was successively connected with _The Argus_, _The Democratic Press_
and _The Press-Tribune_. In 1866 he launched a paper of his own,
_Skandinaven_, which at first a small sheet issued weekly has grown
until, through its daily, semi-weekly and weekly issue, it is now the
largest and politically the most influential of Norwegian newspapers
in the country. Mr. Anderson has engaged extensively in the publishing
of books, issuing a far larger number of books a year than any other
Norwegian-American publisher. In this connection it is to be especially
mentioned that he has also in recent years done excellent pioneer
work in the publishing of certain educational works, as school and
college texts of Norwegian literature, thereby facilitating materially
instruction in this field in our colleges and universities.

  [239] There were three sons, but one died at sea, and another died
        on the journey from Albany to Buffalo.

  [240] Strand's _History_, page 266.

In succeeding years the Norwegian colony in Chicago grew rapidly.
Already in 1850 it was considerable; to-day there are more Norwegians
in Chicago than any other city in the country (see also footnote 443).
They resided in the early days for the most part on the north side,
south of Chicago Avenue, between the lake and the present Orleans
Street. Later the region of Wicker Park became a Norwegian center.
To-day they are found very extensively in the vicinity of Humboldt Park
and Logan Square, the business center is along West North Avenue.[241]

  [241] Strand, p. 180. See also above page 50.

Among the earliest Norwegian settlers of Chicago now living is to be
mentioned finally Mrs. Martha Erickson who come to this country in
1841. She is the daughter of Björn Björnson, who accompanied Kleng
Peerson to America in 1825. For account of this see above page 50. The
other twin, there referred to came to America in 1866; her name is Mrs.
Bertha Fuglestad. They are both living in Chicago enjoying excellent
health at the age of eighty-eight. Björn Björnson settled in Rochester,
New York, where he died in 1854.[242] On their eighty-fifth birthday
in 1906, the twin sisters held a family festival at the home of Mrs.
Eric Ross at which four children and one grandchild of Mrs. Erickson
were present and Mrs. Fuglestad's four children, eighteen grandchildren
and fifteen great grandchildren.

  [242] For above facts I am indebted to Mrs. Eric Ross of 217
        Mozart Street, Chicago, a daughter of Mrs. Fuglestad.
        Mrs. Erickson's children: Mrs. Robert S. Carroll, Otto G.
        Erickson, Samuel Erickson and Alex Erickson. Mrs. Fuglestad's
        children are: Mrs. Anna Ross, Thomas B. Fuglestad in Chicago,
        Peter A. Fuglestad, Forest City, Iowa, and Mrs. Mary Jacobson
        in Beltram, Minnesota.



                             CHAPTER XXVIII

          _The Earliest Norwegian Settlers in the Township of
                Pleasant Spring, Dane County, Wisconsin_


I have above spoken of the fact that Knut H. Roe was one of the party
that emigrated with John Luraas from Tin, Telemarken, in 1839. These
two men became the first Norwegians to settle in the townships of
Pleasant Spring and Dunkirk respectively in 1843. Roe had lived for a
time in La Salle County, Illinois, going to Racine County, Wisconsin,
in 1842, as we have seen above. In the fall of 1841 a few of the
settlers in Racine County had travelled west as far as Koshkonong
Prairie, for the purpose of inspecting the uninhabited country there,
of which they seem already to have heard from friends. In the townships
of Albion and Christiana, these met and spoke with those who had come
there from Jefferson Prairie in 1840.

The favorable report of these explorers relative to the fertility
of the soil and the general character of the country on Koshkonong
created considerable restlessness among the pioneers at Wind Lake, in
Racine County, and many decided to remove to Dane County. Among these
were Knut Roe and John Luraas. We shall first follow the fortunes of
the former. As soon as the snow was gone with the end of the winter
of 1842-43, Roe walked on foot to Koshkonong, where he visited the
different parts of the prairie, and selected a spot on which to settle.
Then he walked back to Racine County. John Luraas and family also
having decided to remove to Dane County, the two families secured a
team for the overland journey; they reached their destination on one
of the last days in May. "Two weeks before St. John's eve," writes
Roe, "my first home, a hut of brushwood and leaves, supported at the
four corners by an oak, was ready sufficiently so that my wife and
child and myself could find protection therein against rain and wind."
This he built in the southeast corner of section twenty-two in the
Town of Pleasant Spring, at a point about two miles and a half west
of Utica. Knut Roe, his wife, Anne, and family were the first white
settlers in the township. An interview with Roe which the editor of
_Billed-Magazin_ prints will therefore be of interest. He says: "I
often received visits by the Indians, and the many deep paths in the
ground showed that the son of the wilderness often held forth in the
region about me. In their marches between the Lake Koshkonong and the
four lakes which have made Madison famed far and wide for its beauty,
the Redskins often pitched camp close to my brushwood hut. Sometimes
I accompanied them on their hunts. They never caused me any trouble,
but on the contrary were always ready to be helpful. There was game in
plenty. Almost daily I saw herds of deer, flocks of prairie chickens,
and I was often awakened at night by the howling of the wolf."

In the autumn Roe built a log cabin; in this cabin he and family
continued to live till 1870. During the earliest years, he writes,
he was obliged to drive as far as Whitewater, thirty miles east, or
Madison, a distance of eighteen miles, for flour. At Lake Mills,
twenty-two miles, there was a saw-mill. After a time the settlers began
to sell some wheat; this had to be hauled to Milwaukee, seventy-five
miles away. Their only means of transportation at that time was the
_Kubberulle_, or block-wheeled wagon, drawn by oxen, much of the way
through forest, where a way had to be cut by the axe. Two weeks after
Roe's settling, Ole K. Trovatten came from Muskego and located on the
farm later owned by Gunder J. Felland. Trovatten, who had been a school
teacher in Norway, had emigrated from Laurdal, Telemarken, to Muskego
in 1840. He was, therefore, the second Norwegian to locate in Pleasant
Spring. He, however, left for Cottage Grove that same fall. See below,
page 252.

The next arrivals were Osmund Lunde and his brother-in-law, Aslak
Kostvedt, both from Vinje in Telemarken. The latter bought land three
miles southeast of West Koshkonong Church, near Trovatten's place.
Lunde lived at first with Kostvedt; thereupon he bought land in section
three. Some years later Lunde sold his farm to Kittil Rinden, oldest
son of Kittil Rinden, Sr., and moved to Minnesota, whither Kostvedt
also moved.

On the third of August a small group of immigrants arrived and selected
a home and settled directly west of West Koshkonong Church, on section
fourteen. These were Knut A. Juve,[243] his brother, Knut Gjötil
(or Jöitil), and his sister, Tone Lien, then a widow. Juve owned an
estate in Telemarken, which he sold upon deciding to emigrate, in May,
1843. They sailed on the brig _Washington_, which carried eighty-six
passengers, mostly from the parishes of Hvideseid and Laurdal.[244]
They landed in New York on July fourth. It was the intention of the
members of this party to settle in Illinois, but in Milwaukee they were
advised against doing so; they were told that many who had settled in
Illinois had later moved to Wisconsin and bought homes there. Many
remained in Milwaukee, some went direct to Koshkonong, while others,
including the Juve party, went to Wind Lake, in Racine County. Knut
Juve was not pleased with Wind Lake. One day he met a pioneer settler
from the Town of Christiana, Dane County, who, when he noticed Juve's
downcast condition, said to him: "Go farther west; not until you get
to Koshkonong are you in America." Juve acted upon the advice; he and
his brother and sister started west soon after, arriving in the Town
of Pleasant Spring, as we have said, on the third day of August. Half
a mile west of where the church was built two years later, they built
their hut of brushwood, thatched with straw.

  [243] Knut Juve was born in 1799. Knut Jöitil in 1803.

  [244] Most of them in fair circumstances says Juve.

"Our furniture," says Juve,[245] "consisted of a few chests, that
were used both as table and chairs, while the bed was arranged on the
ground on some twigs and grass." Here they lived till October, when
they made a dugout, in which they lived till the following summer. Both
Juve and Jöitil were soon, however, taken ill with the climate fever.
In the interview from which we have already cited, he speaks of how
many a time during his illness he longed back to the old home, kindred
and friends in his native land. In the summer of 1844 a log cabin
was built, and not long after Jöitil and the widowed sister also had
erected log cabins of their own in his immediate neighborhood. In the
spring of 1844 Juve broke two acres of ground and raised a little corn
and potatoes; the next summer he raised enough of grain and potatoes
for family use; the third year he was able to sell a little. Such were
the beginnings of agriculture in the wilderness.

  [245] Interview in _Billed-Magazin_, 1870, page twenty-four.

About the middle of August a large number came and located in the
settlement. Among these were Gunleik T. Sundbö (b.1785), with wife
and three sons, two of whom were married and had families.[246]
Others who came were: Tostein G. Bringa (b. 1817), with wife and son,
Halvor Laurantson Fosseim (b. 1810), and family, his brother, Ole L.
Fosseim, and Ole K. Dyrland (b. 1819).[247] Sundbö, Bringa, Fosseim
and Dyrland all bought land not far from Knut Juve and Knut Jöitil.
During the next two months the following arrived: Torbjörn G. Vik,
with wife and son Guttorm, and daughter Anna from Siljord, Aslak E.
Groven (b. 1812), and family, from Laurdal, Ole E. Næset (b. 1796),
and family, and his brother Aadne, from Vinje, and Gunnar T. Mandt,
from Moe, Telemarken.[248] Groven settled about a mile east of the
West Koshkonong Church near the Christiana Township line; the two
Næset brothers also located near there. This group of immigrants came
via Racine County, where they had remained a few weeks resting after
the journey, as the guests of Even Heg. They arrived on Koshkonong
Prairie in the latter part of September, having walked from Muskego.
Gunnar Mandt first came to Pleasant Spring, but as he did not have
anything[249] with which to buy land, as he says, he worked for
others there and elsewhere for five years. From his autobiographical
sketch[250] I cite the following account of the method of threshing in
those days:

  "There were no mowers, no reapers, binders or threshing machines,
  everything had to be done by hand. When we were to thrash, the
  sheaves of wheat or oats were placed on the ground in a large
  circle. Then three or four yoke of oxen were tied together with
  an iron chain; one man stood in the center of the circle on the
  sheaves of grain and drove the oxen around over the grain. These
  would then stamp the kernels out of the straw little by little, and
  so we kept on, until we had the sheaves replaced by new ones and
  got the straw away. For cleansing the grain thus secured, we used
  short basins or bowls such as were made in Norway formerly. After
  a while we got a kind of fanning-mill, mower, reaper, etc. But
  they were imperfect and cannot be compared with the machines and
  implements used nowadays."

  [246] Torkild Sundbö and wife, Margit, later moved to Sun Prairie.

  [247] Dyrland says there were 211 immigrants on the ship on which
        he came, and most of these, it seems, were from Telemarken.

  [248] His brother, also named Gunnar, came to America in 1848; T.
        G. Mandt, inventor of the Stoughton wagon, was a son of the
        latter.

  [249] Endre Vraa paid his passage to America.

  [250] Published in _Amerika_ and _Skandinaven_ in January, 1906.

Gunnar Mandt worked in Chicago during the years 1844-45, where he got
seventy-five cents a day, but had to furnish his own keep. In 1846
he returned to Pleasant Spring; in April, 1848, he married Synneva
Olsdatter Husebö, from Systrond, Sogn, who had come to America with
her parents in 1844. Having secured his own farm (on section nine) he
farmed there until 1875, when he moved to the village of Stoughton.
Gunnar Mandt died in December, 1907, his wife having died a month
earlier.

The greater part of nine sections (13-15 and 22-27) in this part of the
Township of Pleasant Spring, was settled before the winter of 1843-44.
Knut Roe says that, while he was alone there when he came in June, he
had neighbors on all sides before winter came, although the distance
between the pioneer cabins was, of course, considerable. The year 1844
brought a large influx of settlers, chiefly from Telemarken, but in
part also from Voss. Among them I shall here speak only of Hendrik Hæve
and family, from Voss, who located somewhat farther north, on section
one, on the property later owned and occupied by his oldest son, Ole
Hæve (Havey); Anfin O. Holtan and family from Sogn, who settled in the
southeastern part of the town on section thirty-six, where the son,
Ole Holtan, later lived; and Ole Iverson and his wife Angeline and son
Lewis.

There were a few others, as Aanund O. Drotning, from Vinje, and Knut H.
Teisberg, from Laurdal, Telemarken, who came to America in 1843, but
they, too, settled elsewhere first; we shall have occasion to speak
of them again. Finally, relative to Knut Roe, I may add that he and
his wife continued to live on the old homestead till their death; he
died as early as 1874, but she lived till 1908, being then a little
over ninety years of age. The homestead was owned by the oldest son,
Helleik. On the occasion of Mrs. K. Roe's ninetieth birthday, all her
children, eight grandchildren and twenty-five great-grandchildren,
gathered at the old home to commemorate the event.[251]

We shall now turn to Dunkirk Township, the earliest settling of which
also dates from 1843.

  [251] Ole K. Roe of Stoughton, is a son of K. Roe; other children
        are: Mrs. F. Johnson, Mrs. Ole Thorsen, Mrs. O. Swerig and
        Mrs. J. King. Since the above was written I have learned that
        Helleik Roe has died (April, 1909).



                              CHAPTER XXIX

           _The First Norwegian Settlers in the Townships of
                  Dunkirk, Dunn, and Cottage Grove, in
                        Dane County, Wisconsin._


The first Norwegian settler in the Town of Dunkirk was John Nelson
Luraas. Together with Helge Grimsrud he had explored Dunkirk and
surrounding country in the fall of 1842 and selected a site on which
to settle. His father, Nils Johnson Luraas (b. 1789), arrived from
Norway in June, 1843, and came with his son direct from Muskego to
Koshkonong, where the party arrived on June sixteenth. An American by
the name of John Wheeler had settled in the town two weeks earlier,
being the only white man there.[252] Luraas settled on section three,
about two miles east of the present city of Stoughton, and three miles
south of where his companion, Knut Roe, located in the Town of Pleasant
Spring. Only about a week after Luraas's arrival, two more families,
who also came from Muskego, arrived and settled there, namely, Helge
Sivertson Grimsrud, wife Birgitte, son Sigurd, and Hans P. Tverberg and
wife Ingeborg, and John P. Tverberg. The former had emigrated from
Norway (via Drammen and Gothenburg) the year before, while Tverberg had
come in 1841. They were all from Tin, in Telemarken. Helge Grimsrud
possessed considerable means in Norway and owned a fine estate, which
he sold upon emigrating. Grimsrud bought land in section two, directly
east of Luraas, while Tverberg settled a mile south of Luraas in
section ten.[253] The next settler was Gaute Ingbrigtson Gulliksrud
(b. 1815), from Tin, Telemarken, who arrived there five weeks later,
that is, in August.[254] He came in a party of about one hundred and
twenty persons, mostly from Telemarken, embarking at Skien, and sailed
via Havre de Grace to New York. Most of the party went temporarily to
Muskego. Gulliksrud did not like Muskego, and soon after set out for
Koshkonong. Having selected a location for his home, he bought, for
$200, a hundred and sixty acres of land, near his countrymen, chiefly
in section ten, and erected his log cabin a short distance north of
Hans Tverberg's home.

  [252] Herein I accept the authority of _Billed-Magazin_. _The
        History of Dane County_, however, says that John Luraas was
        the first white settler in the town, Chauncey Isham and John
        Wheeler coming soon after.

  [253] Helge Grimsrud's wife's parents and a sister had emigrated
        in 1841 and located in Muskego. Upon returning to Muskego
        from Koshkonong in the fall of 1842, Grimsrud went direct to
        Milwaukee and bought 240 acres of land, being the first to
        purchase land in Dunkirk. He died in 1856.

  [254] Two of his maternal uncles and a brother had emigrated in
        1839 and located in Muskego; letters from these induced them
        to emigrate.

There were then in the fall of 1843 four Norwegian families settled in
the Town of Dunkirk. In the following year a considerable number of
immigrants came from Norway (Telemarken, Voss, and Sogn) but Dunkirk
did not receive many of those who came that year; they settled mostly
in Christiana or Pleasant Spring, while some now began to find homes in
Cottage Grove and Dunn, immediately north and west of Pleasant Spring.

The first Norwegian settlers in the Town of Dunn were Nils Ellefson
Mastre and Lars Mastre, who had come to America in 1845; they located
in Dunn, just across the Pleasant Spring line soon after arriving;
American families had settled in the township before them. Ingebrigt
Johnson Helle, from Kragerö, was the next settler there, but he didn't
enter Dunn until 1849; he emigrated in 1845 but had worked in Buffalo
four years.

John O. Hougen, from Solör, Norway, was the first Norwegian to settle
in Cottage Grove, where he came in the summer of 1842, consequently a
year before Roe and others came to Pleasant Spring. Hougen had been
a baker in Christiana and usually went by the name of John Baker (or
Bager). Some years later he removed to Coon Prairie, in Vernon County,
Wisconsin. Björn Tovsen Vasberg, from Laurdal, Telemarken, also located
in Cottage Grove in the summer of 1842. Nothing seems to be known of
his antecedents, and little that is favorable seems to be known of him
during his brief career in the township. He later moved to Minnesota,
where he lived, it seems, a roving life, being at last found dead on
the public highway. He was a notorious, and as far as I know, the only
instance of the vagabond and ne'er-do-well among the Norwegian pioneers
of those days. The next Norwegian settler in the Town of Cottage Grove
was Halvor Kostvedt,[255] from Vinje Parish, who emigrated in the
spring of 1842; he lived for a year in Christiana Township, and came
to Cottage Grove in the summer of 1843 and made a dugout on section
twenty-four, in which he lived the first year. Others who came on the
same ship were Alexander O. Bækhus (or Norman), Ole A. Haatvedt and
Osmund Lunde. The first of these located in Christiana, but later moved
to Minnesota; Ole Haatvedt settled on Jefferson Prairie, whence some
years later he went to Iowa, while Asmund Lunde, after remaining a year
in Muskego, came to Pleasant Spring, as we have seen, in the summer of
1843. Ole Trovatten, whom we have already met, both in Muskego and in
Pleasant Spring, came to Cottage Grove in the fall of 1843. Trovatten
is reputed to have been a man of unusual natural gifts and considerable
eloquence. He served as deacon in West Koshkonong and Liberty Prairie
churches for many years, a capacity in which he had officiated also
in Norway. He later affiliated with the East Koshkonong Church, which
congregation he, with O. P. Selseng, represented on the occasion of the
founding of the Norwegian Synod in East Koshkonong Church, on February
5th, 1853.[256]

  [255] Called also Halvor i Vinje.

  [256] Page 15 of _Kort Uddrag of den norske Synodes Historie_, by
        Rev. Jacob Aal Ottesen, Decorah, 1893.

Asmund Aslakson Næstestu, with wife and family, came to Muskego in
the fall of 1843, where he worked as a blacksmith for six months. He
removed to Koshkonong early the next spring, going direct to Halvor
Kostvedt, with whom he lived in the dugout the first summer. In 1847 he
bought land in the same locality. Næstestu[257] is said to have been
famed in Norway as a mechanical genius of rare talent. On one occasion
King Carl Johan was shown a gun made by the farmer's son in Vinje; the
King afterwards sent Asmund Næstestu a silver cup as a token of his
pleasure over the excellent workmanship of the gun. Asmund Næstestu
bought a farm a mile and a half northwest of Nora Post Office in 1854,
where he, in the course of time, became the owner of two hundred acres.
Among others who came to America with Asmund Næstestu in 1843 and later
settled in Cottage Grove, were Næstestu's nephews, Aslak and Halvor
Olson Bækhus (or Gjergjord as they called themselves in this country),
Björn O. Hustvedt, Halvor Donstad and Knut Teisberg.[258]

  [257] Asmund Næstestu was the son of Aslak Næstestu, a man of much
        native ability and influence in Vinje. Anna Næstestu, a
        daughter of Aslak, married Ole Bækhus; they were the parents
        of the Bækhus (Gjergjord) brothers of whom we shall speak in
        the next chapter.

Finally I shall add the names of Björn A. Stondall and Björn
Stevens Hustvedt, two of Cottage Grove's well known early pioneers,
who emigrated in 1843 and stopped through the winter in Muskego;
thence they came to Koshkonong, locating in Cottage Grove in the
spring of 1844.[259] Björn Stondal was from Vinje, in Telemarken,
being born on the farm Næstestu in Bögrænd in 1823. He sailed on
the ship _Vinterflid_ from Porsgrund in the spring of 1843, as he
relates.[260] They were eleven weeks on the ocean before reaching New
York. The objective point was Milwaukee and the Muskego settlement;
here they stopped during the winter with an American by the name of
Putnam,--seven persons in a hut that was fourteen feet long and ten
feet wide. In the spring of 1844 he walked west to Koshkonong, where he
decided to buy eighty acres of land in section thirty-two in southern
Cottage Grove, and begin the occupation of a farmer. Four years later
he married Gunhild Bergland. Björn Stondal died in April, 1906, at the
age of eighty-three, survived by his wife and nine children.

  [258] They came in the same ship as Knut Jöitil and Anund Drotning,
        who, as we have seen, located in Pleasant Spring. Knut
        Teisberg moved from Cottage Grove to Pleasant Spring in 1846.

  [259] Hustvedt wrote his name Ben Stevens.

  [260] According to interview printed in _Amerika_.



                              CHAPTER XXX

            _The Expansion of the Koshkonong Settlement into
               Sumner and Oakland Townships in Jefferson
             County. Increased Immigration from Telemarken.
                       New Settlers from Kragerö,
                         Drammen and Numedal._


In our discussion of the settling of Koshkonong by immigrants from
Numedal in 1840-42, mention was made of Tore Knudson Nore and wife
Gjertud among those who arrived in 1842. Tore Nore did not, however,
locate in Christiana or Albion townships, where his compatriots had
settled. He selected land about three miles southeast of where Gunnul
Vindeig had located, across the Jefferson County line in what later was
named Sumner Township. Tore Nore, who was then a man of about forty
years of age and had a large family, had emigrated in the spring of
1842, but had not, as the immigrants from Numedal so far had generally
done, gone to Jefferson Prairie or Rock Prairie, but had stopped in
Muskego. Being dissatisfied here, he decided to go to Koshkonong.
Taking his family with him, he arrived there about October first
of that year. Soon after he erected his log cabin in Sumner,[261]
being, therefore, the first Norwegian to settle in that part of
Jefferson County, his being the second family to enter the township
of Sumner.[262] Here he lived till his death in 1868, at the age of
seventy-six. Gjertrud Nore died in 1884. Three sons are prosperous
farmers living in the neighborhood of the father's original homestead.
A daughter, Gro, married Peder Larsen Svartskuren (or Svartskor) in
Norway, in June, 1842. They became the second Norwegian family to
settle in the township. Peder Svartskuren was a native of Konigsberg,
Norway, being, as it appears, the third emigrant to America from that
locality.[263]

  [261] This log-cabin was still standing not many years ago.

  [262] An American family had come there before him.

  [263] The first emigrants from Kongsberg were Thomas Braaten, and
        Halvor Funkelien.
In an interview with Svein Nilson printed in 1870, Peder Svartskuren
mentions Björn Anderson (Kvelve), Amund Hornefjeld, Gunnul Vindeig and
Thorsten Olson as being the only Norwegians living in the neighboring
towns of Albion and Christiana when he came there. He speaks of Sumner
Township as being a heavy primeval forest, with only here and there a
stretch of open country. "There was an abundance of game, deers and
prairie chickens, and the lake (Koshkonong) and creek were full of
fish. The Indians were roving about the country, but they did no one
any harm and were kindly and ever ready to help."

Mrs. Svartskuren, who is now eighty-seven years old and quite feeble,
has, since 1902, lived at Leeds, North Dakota, with a son, Carl,
he having sold the homestead after the father's death, and moved to
Viroqua, Wisconsin, and later to Leeds. Peder Svartskuren was among
the founders of the East Koshkonong Church; he was a man of strong
character, who enjoyed in large degree the love and the respect of his
fellows.

The Town of Sumner did not receive many accessions from Norway. In
the same interview Svartskuren says: "There are now twelve Norwegian
families, besides six Swedish families. The rest are German and
English."

The Town of Oakland, Jefferson County, also received a few settlers at
this early period. The earliest arrival there was, I believe, Tollef
Bækhus and wife, Aasild; they came to Koshkonong in 1843 and located
two miles east of the village of Rockdale. They were from Laurdal
Parish, in Upper Telemarken, had been married in 1838, and had two
children when they came to this country. Tollef Bækhus died in 1897,
the widow lived until 1906, being ninety years old at the time of her
death. A son, John Bækhus, now owns the homestead.[264]

  [264] They had twelve children in all.

In Chapter XVIII above we gave an account of the founding of the
Koshkonong Settlement, which began in the townships of Christiana,
Deerfield and Albion, in 1840-41. We spoke briefly of the founders and
of those who came and joined the three groups of pathfinders in the
following year. In Chapter XXVIII a similar record has been given of
the events which led to the settling of the Town of Pleasant Spring by
four families in 1843, and by others in the following year. We have
also observed how the towns of Dunkirk and Cottage Grove became settled
in 1843, and that Dunn received its first Norwegian settlers in 1844.
The towns of Sumner and Oakland, in Jefferson County, in the eastern
extremity of Koshkonong Prairie also received a small contingent
of Norwegian immigrant settlers in 1842 and 1843 respectively. The
original nucleus and the subsequent expansions of the settlement, east,
west and north, are thereby indicated.

In four years after its inception, the settlement covered an area
of about fifteen square miles. But the settlers lived, for the most
part, far apart; geographically they had made ample provisions for a
great settlement in this garden spot of Wisconsin. While there were
as yet (in 1843) not more than a hundred and fifty individuals in the
settlement, there was room for thousands more without going beyond
the boundary as already laid out. The beginning made in a few years
was remarkable, but the growth in the years immediately following was
even more wonderful. For a time Koshkonong was the destination of
four-fifths of those who emigrated from Norway.

The year 1842 records the beginning of the great development, which
in five years resulted in the settling of almost the whole of this
vast area by immigrants from Norway. The next year was that of the
great influx from various points in Telemarken, especially, Siljord,
Laurdal and Hvideseid, although there were considerable numbers also
from Vinje and Tin. The year 1843 was the one in which the Telemarkings
took possession of Koshkonong; they gradually selected their permanent
homes in Pleasant Spring, extending into Dunkirk and Cottage Grove and
the northeastern sections of Christiana (as Eggleson, Bjoin, Hauge,
Borgerud, Bosbön and Kingland). The Numedalians came only in limited
numbers after 1842 and did not spread much beyond the original center
around East Koshkonong church in southeastern Christiana and northern
Albion townships. Those on the extreme west were Levi Kittilson, Levi
Holtan, O. O. Lenaas and Tore E. Smithback, all coming somewhat later
than those in the eastern extremity. The immigration from Numedal,
which began in Rollaug, is after 1842 almost confined to Flesberg, a
parish which furnished no immigrants before 1842.

In the year 1843, there came to Koshkonong, 35 families and many single
persons, or a total of 182 individuals. This was the year of heaviest
immigration to Koshkonong. The year's influx is significant in the
large number of districts in Norway represented, Telemarken leading
as has been pointed out above. In addition to 9 persons from Numedal,
and a small contingent from Voss, the first party of fourteen persons
arrived from Kragerö. These first immigrants from Kragerö were: Bjorn
O. Rom, Kjöstolf Tollefsen Hulderöen[265] (b. 1821), Even E. Buaas (b.
1799), Abraham K. Rönningen, Erick K. Rönningen, Halvor E. Dahl (b.
1802), wife Anne, and family, Torbjörn K. Rönningen, Glus P. Tyvang and
wife, Audi, and Peder K. Rönningen. From Leikanger in Sogn[266] Anna L.
Eggum (or Eggene, b. 1811), who in 1845 married Sjur C. Droksvold, from
Voss; from Lier came Knut O. Lier, as also the widow Anne Thorstad,
Knut Asdöhldalen and Gabriel Björnson (from Drammen); from Drangedal
came Baruld J. Strandskougen and family, from Sandsværd, Ellef A. Berg,
from Skauger, Halvor J. Stubberud, from Rögen, Lars P. Haukelien and
family, from Holte, Tarald E. Midböe, from Gjerpen, Peder H. Moe, and
from Hallingdal, Even Olson.

  [265] Came to Muskego in 1843, went back to Norway and returned,
        settling in Koshkonong in 1846.

  [266] There was one immigrant from Aurland, Sogn, in 1843, but he
        stopped the first winter in Muskego. See next chapter.

We have noted the fact above that there came for the first time in
1843 a group of immigrants from Flesberg Parish in Numedal. We shall
note here briefly who these were. For the facts I am indebted to Mrs.
Levi Holtan, formerly of Utica, at present of Stoughton, Wisconsin.
The name of the ship on which these people came, Mrs. Holtan cannot
remember, but it was commanded by Captain Overvind; the first mate
was Friis. In the party of ninety persons were: Halvor Kjölen, Juul
Hamre and wife Anne, Tostein Ullebær and Halvor Aasen, who went to
Jefferson Prairie,[267] Gulleik Laugen, who stopped in Rochester, but
soon after came west, locating on Rock Prairie, Paal ("Spelleman")
Lund, Guldbrand G. Holtan, a widower, his brother Ole G. Holtan,[268]
Knut K. Bakli and Kittil G. Bakli and families, Ambjör Olsdatter and
Synnöve Kristoffersdatter Bekkjorden from Lyngdal Annex of Flesberg.
This was the ship on which also Per Svartskuren and wife Gro, Knut
Lier and Baruld Johnson came on.[269] In the same party emigrated also
Klemet Larson Stalsbraaten and wife Gunild, and his brother Halvor
Stalsbraaten (Kravik) from Sigdal in Numedal. Halvor Stalsbraaten took
the name Kravik from the estate where he had worked five years before
emigrating. Reverend Kasberg writes me, citing Halvor Kravik, that they
(the Stalsbraatens)

  "Bought tickets for America at Konigsberg Fair, left Drammen May
  6 ult., 1843, arrived at New York July fourth, ninety passengers
  on the ship." ... "The company of immigrants went from Milwaukee
  to Muskego. Halvor Kravik and a young boy from Sandsværd walked to
  Koshkonong, arriving Friday evening. Monday morning Halvor was at
  work for one of the Englishmen further south. Kravik took a claim
  in 1844. During the winter he staid with Gunnul Vindeg, sleeping
  in the part of the house occupied at the time by Rev. Dietrichson,
  while the parsonage was being built."

  [267] Rev. K. A. Kasberg, of Spring Grove, Minn., writes me that
        Halvor Kravik in speaking of some of these people says Halvor
        Aasen went to Rock Run as did also Paal "Spellemand." He also
        adds the name Gunnar Springen who, he says, went to Rock
        Prairie.

  [268] As I learn through Rev. G. A. Larsen.

  [269] The name of the ship, as we learn elsewhere, was _Hercules_.
        See above page 228.

The rest of the party also came to Koshkonong a short while after,
except those who went to Rock County. Ole G. Holtan (b. 1821) and
Ambjör Olsdatter (b. 1821) were married a few weeks after arriving;
Ole Holtan died in 1851, leaving wife and two children, Anna and Ole.
Anna later became the wife of Levor Kittilsen Fjöse (Levi Kittilsen)
well known farmer and prominent in the councils of the West Koshkonong
Church.[270] Ambjör, widow of Ole G. Holtan, married Nils Torgerson
Grötrud in 1852; he had come to America in 1849.[271]

  [270] Levi Kittilsen died suddenly in 1907; the widow is living (at
        Stoughton); a daughter, Andrea, is married to Rev. Abel Lien,
        Ada, Minn.; a son, Carl, is in Nome, Alaska. Dr. Albert N.
        Kittilsen, another son, owns valuable mines at Nome, Alaska;
        he is living in the State of Washington.

  [271] Nils Grötrud assumed the farm name Holtan and is therefore
        Nils T. Holtan. He located first on the Holtan farm south of
        Utica. About 1868 the family settled two miles east of Utica.
We have, on page 183 above, spoken of Lars J. Holo, who was the
earliest immigrant from Ringsaker (1839). From Rochester, New York,
he came to Muskego, Racine County, Wisconsin, in 1841; in 1843 he
located permanently on Koshkonong. His son Johannes also settled on
Koshkonong, as also the sons Lars and Martin Holo. The latter now owns
the farm originally purchased in Albion Township by Björn Kvelve.
Halvor Kravik (b. 1820) was the son of Lars A. Stalsbraaten and wife
Maria. In 1845 he married Kristi Guldbrandson, who had come to America
in 1842. They bought land and settled permanently about three-quarters
of a mile south of East Koshkonong Church at what came to be called
_Kravikhaugen_ (the Kravik hill). The homestead has now for many years
been occupied by the oldest son, Lars C. Kravik. Since about 1899,
Halvor and his wife lived with their son-in-law, Rev. K. A. Kasberg,
in Stoughton, Wisconsin, later in Grand Forks, North Dakota, now for
several years past at Spring Grove, Houston County, Minnesota. Mrs.
Kravik died a year ago; Mr. Kravik in February, 1909.

Kjöstolf Hulderöen (Hulröya), who came to Muskego in 1843, went back to
Norway two years later, but returned to America in 1846, settling on
Koshkonong, at Cambridge. In 1848 he married Hæge O. Sube, who had come
from Telemarken to this country that year. In 1853 he started a general
merchandise business in Rockdale, Dane County, where he lived till
his death in 1889. The widow is living with her oldest daughter Mrs.
John Halvorson in Rockdale. A son, Charlie C. Tellefson, one of Dane
County's prominent democrats, resides at Utica, Wisconsin.

Gabriel Björnson was one of the few who came to Koshkonong from the
region of Drammen. He married Gunhild Grötrud, sister of Nils T. Holtan
(Grötrud). Björnson is said to have been the first Norwegian to be
admitted to the bar in this country. He died in Ada, Minnesota, in
1889; he was at that time County Attorney of Norman County.

There were two families from Voss, who had immigrated earlier among
those who settled permanently on Koshkonong in 1843, namely Styrk
Olson Saue, who, we have seen, came to America in 1837, and Gulleik
Torsteinson Saue, who immigrated in 1840; they had lived most of
the time in Chicago. There Styrk Saue married Eli K. Væte; she
died at Deerfield about 1885. Styrk died in 1894. Gulleik Saue (b.
1821) married Donant Rölje in 1844. They purchased land in northern
Christiania, not far from Cambridge; here, and in neighboring parts of
Deerfield Township, Gulleik Thompson, as he called himself, became in
the course of time the owner of about 1,000 acres of farm land. At the
time of his death he was Koshkonong's wealthiest farmer. His son, Hon.
T. G. Thompson, occupies the old home and owns the estate.



                              CHAPTER XXXI

           _The Coming of the First Large Party of Immigrants
                 from Sogn. New Accessions from Voss._


It has been noted above that one of the earliest pioneers at Wiota,
La Fayette County, Wisconsin, was from Vik Parish in Sogn, namely,
Per Unde who emigrated in 1839. In 1842 Ole Unde came and joined his
brother at Wiota. In 1843 Ole Schærdalen[272] came to America from
Aurland, Sogn; he was the first emigrant from that parish. It has been
said that there was a party of immigrants from Sogn in 1843, but this
I doubt as I have been able nowhere to verify it. Ole Schærdalen went
to Muskego where he stopped the first year, then he joined the party
of Sognings who came that year and passed through Muskego en route
for Koshkonong. Per and Ole Unde wrote letters home to Vik Parish, in
response to these letters, full of praise for Wisconsin, there came
many immigrants from Vik during the next two years. Ole Schærdalen in a
similar way aided in promoting emigration from Inner Sogn.

  [272] So written, but pronounced Schirdalen in the dialect. My
        father is the authority for the statement that Schærdalen was
        the first to emigrate from Aurland.

In Aurland Parish lived Ole Torjussen Flom; he had travelled much in
Norway and come in contact with people who had relatives and friends
in America, and who themselves were planning to emigrate. He was well
acquainted with Schærdalen and he had been in Vik and knew, it seems,
the Unde family. Ole T. Flom (b. 1794) was the son of Torjus Flom (b.
about 1765) generally called Torjus i Midgarden, who was the owner of a
valuable estate at Flaam near Fretheim. There were three sons, Gulleik,
Ole, and Knut; by the right of primogeniture the estate would fall to
the oldest son, Gulleik Flom. Ole Flom had selected for purchase a
place then for sale, in Voss, and it was his intention to remove to
Voss. He was, however, prevailed upon not to do this by his father who
told him he would give him half of the family estate. When, however,
the time came, the temptation to follow the general practice and give
the estate intact over to the oldest son became too strong for the
father and he gave it all to Gulleik Flom.

Ole T. Flom then began thinking about emigrating to America. In 1843 he
went to Vik Parish and while there he and Anfin J. Seim agreed to go to
America. After he returned to Aurland others in the parish also began
to make preparations for leaving for the New World and the fever spread
to Fresvik and Systrond and up as far as Sogndal Parish. In the spring
of 1844 a considerable number from these regions and from Vik stood
ready to emigrate. Ole T. Flom, wife Anna and sons Ole and Anders,
Ivar H. Vangen and Knut Aaretuen (i Aureto), wife Anna[273] and three
children left Aurlandsvangen on the 12th of April. They had engaged
passage on _Juno_, Captain Bendixen, but were obliged to wait in Bergen
two weeks before sailing. In the meantime others who also were to go on
_Juno_ joined them at Bergen. Among them were the Melaas families from
Norum Annex of Sogndal Parish; they were the first to emigrate from
that district. This party was composed of the following eleven members:
Mons Lasseson Melaas (b. 1787) and wife Martha; Kristen L. Melaas,
wife Aase and daughter Anna; Johans K. Bjelde and wife Kristi; Ole A.
Slinde, wife Martha;[274] and two children.

  [273] She was a daughter of Ole Schærdalen.

  [274] A daughter of Mons Melaas. Their husbands took the name
        Melaas in this country.

The following persons from various parts of Sogn also embarked on
_Juno_: Anders Engen, Per L. Gjerde, Michel J. Engesæter and wife
Synnöve from Systrand, Ole I. Husebö with wife Ingeleiv and children,
and Ole A. Værken (Grinde) from Leikanger, Nils T. Seim, wife Mari and
children (3) and Thomas T. Seim from Lærdal, and the aforementioned
Anfin I. Seim from Vik with his wife Britha and five children.[275]
There were about sixty persons on _Juno_ when it sailed in May. At
the same time two other ships sailed from Bergen with immigrants
for America; they were _Kong Sverre_, Captain Vingaard and _Albion_,
Captain Brock. A very large number of those who embarked on these ships
also were from Sogn, especially Vik, nearly all these going to Long
Prairie (see next chapter). Among those who came to Koshkonong were:
Torstein Thronson Selseng and wife Kari, Knut Gjerde, Ole Selseng,
Jakob I. Gjerdene, from Sogndal, Elling O. Flatland, wife and children,
and Sjur S. Ölman.

  [275] Relative to the personnel of this party and the sailing
        of _Juno_ I am especially to Kristi Melaas, with whom I
        have had several interviews on the question. She is the
        oldest surviving member of the party and is still living
        at Stoughton, Wisconsin. My father, Ole O. Flom, has also
        supplied many facts; he was thirteen years old at the time of
        immigration.

_Kong Sverre_ and _Albion_ sailed three days before _Juno_, but arrived
in New York several weeks later. _Juno_ made the journey to New York
in five weeks and three days, which, says Kristi Melaas, broke the
record for fast sailing at that time. "The Brock ship" took eight
weeks for the journey, while _Kong Sverre_ was on the ocean twelve
weeks. The party that came with _Juno_ was therefore the first large
group of Sognings to land in America, the date of their landing being
St. John's Eve. From New York they went by canal-boat to Buffalo,
where they arrived on the fourth of July. Here they were put on board
an old steamboat, which the immigrants feared would go to the bottom
at any moment of the journey, says Mrs. Melaas, over the lakes to
Milwaukee, where they arrived at the end of July.[276] Kristi Melaas
says the agent weighed their goods at every stopping place and charged
toll each time. There was no interpreter on the boat who could voice
their objections. The ticket from New York to Chicago was $14, but by
additional charges along the route, the expense of the inland journey
was greater than that from Bergen to New York. In Milwaukee most of the
party, including Ole Vendelbo, Ole T. Flom, Knut Aaretuen and Michel
Engesæter went to Koshkonong via Muskego, but the Melaas family went
to Chicago, as did Ole Husebö and one man from Vik who had intended to
go south to Missouri,[277] and they were all met in Chicago by one who
was to bring them to Missouri. It seems, however, that the departure
hither was delayed for weeks by their guide who was addicted to drink.
In the meantime the Melaas families becoming discouraged and having
met a certain Ole Bringa who urged them to come to Koshkonong, decided
to go where the rest of the party had already directed their course.
They then bought two yoke of oxen and drove to Koshkonong, stopping in
Pleasant Spring Township about two miles northeast of Lake Kegonsa.

  [276] Kristi Melaas called the boat "_ein rota baot skikke-leg_."
        She says the agent who had charge of the journey to Milwaukee
        was a man by the name of Hohlfelt, a typical immigrant
        "runner," it seems, whom she styles as "ain rigele bedragar,
        ain stakkars Mann va han."

  [277] This man we learn was Anfin Seim (see next chapter).

Soon after arriving at Koshkonong they were met by Ole Trovatten
who aided them in the selection of land and who accompanied Johans
and Ole Melaas to Milwaukee to purchase the land selected. The two
brothers bought each forty acres at first in section three; later
Johans bought out Ole and eighty acres more adjacent to the acquired
forty. Ole A. Melaas thereupon located on section thirty-five in
Cottage Grove Township, a mile northeast of his brother's property.
The Melaas families all located in that immediate neighborhood. Ole
T. Flom bought eighty acres in Cottage Grove Township, a mile north
of Door Creek where also Ole Vendelbo Olson settled, purchasing forty
acres. Olson, however, sold this out to Ole T. Flom not long after,
and moved to Minnesota. Nile Seim also located near there, while Per
Gjerde settled in section two in Pleasant Spring, near the Cottage
Grove line. Ole I. Husebö settled in Christiana Township and Sjur Ölman
settled a mile north of Nora Post-office. Ivar Vangen located on Bonnet
Prairie, Michel Engesæter lived a few years on Koshkonong, then removed
to Norway Grove. Knut Aaretuen settled in Koshkonong, but went west
(to Minnesota) after some years. Anfin Seim, who was from Vik, went
with the Melaas families to Chicago, and thence to Long Prairie, Boone
County, Illinois (see next chapter). The only family from Vik to locate
in Koshkonong that year was that of Mons Halringa, who settled in
Pleasant Spring, a mile or so southwest of Utica; the homestead being
that later occupied by his son Simon.

The immigration to Koshkonong in 1844 was thus principally from Sogn,
and it is to be noted that a considerable number of these settled in
the northern extremity of the settlement, north of Door Creek and
Nora. At the same time there were new accessions from other districts,
especially Voss and Laurdal in Telemarken, while from Rollaug came
that year Gisle H. Venaas and Anfin A. Haugerud. Among those who came
from Voss I shall name here the brothers Nils and Sjur Droksvold, Ole
Droksvold, Henrik O. Hæve, Erik V. Rio (Williams), Erik S. Fliseram,
and Knut E. Rokne; all these had families.

Among earlier immigrants from Voss who located in Dane County in 1844
were Ole and Steffen Gilderhus; the former had immigrated in 1839 while
Steffen came in 1838. As has been observed above, Lars D. Rekve, who
came to America in 1839, did not actually settle in Koshkonong until
1844. Rokne and Venaas settled in Christiana, the former three miles
west of Cambridge, the latter two miles northwest of Rockdale. Most of
the Vossings, however, located in Deerfield Township, south and west of
the village of Deerfield. We shall now turn to the immigrants who came
from Sogn with _Kong Sverre_ and _Albion_ in 1844 and did not settle in
Wisconsin.



                             CHAPTER XXXII

           _Long Prairie in Boone County, Illinois; a Sogning
                              Settlement._


In the vicinity of the present village of Capron, Illinois, a few
Norwegians located in 1843, forming the nucleus of what later came to
be known as Long Prairie. This settlement is located only a few miles
south of Jefferson Prairie (which extends into Illinois) and is about
sixty-five miles distant west from Chicago. The earliest Norwegian
settlers here were Thor Olson Kaasa and Thov Knutson Traim, his wife
Ingebjorg and sons, Knut, Kjetil, and Ole, from Siljord in Upper
Telemarken. Thor Kaasa was the son of Ole Kaasa and wife Margit, who
immigrated in 1843 with a family of nine children, of whom Thor was the
oldest. We have spoken of their coming on page 235. Among the other
children the sons, Gjermund, Jens, Jörgen, and Kittel, and daughters,
Guro, Aase, Emelie and Kristense, also moved to the settlement in 1845.
Both Ole Kaasa and his wife died of cholera in 1854; Jörgen Kaasa
settled in Winneshiek County in 1852, while Thor Kaasa moved to Filmore
County, Minnesota; Jens located permanently in Chicago.

In 1844 there came five persons from Siljord, Norway, namely Björn
Brekketo[278] and wife Guro, her brothers Jens and Steinar, and
Johannes Kleiva. Björn Brekketo died early and the widow married Ole
Oreflaat. Not many more immigrants from Telemarken located at Capron.
In 1844-45 natives of Sogn took possession of Long Prairie, and the
settlement has ever since remained preëminently a Sogning settlement.

  [278] Knut Brekketo, a son of Björn Brekketo, is living at Capron
        at present.

We have observed above that of those who came from Sogn on the ship
_Juno_ in 1844, Anfin Seim and family did not locate in Koshkonong, but
went to Boone County, Illinois; they were the only ones of _Juno's_
passengers to settle in Illinois. On the other hand a considerable
number of those who came on _Kong Sverre_ and _Albion_ located at Long
Prairie. Among them were the following who came with the _Albion_:
Ole J. Aavri, wife Britha and daughter Inga and sons Johans and
Andres.[279] Ivar S. Rislauv and wife Eli, a daughter of Ole Aavri;
Lars Johnson Haave, wife Randi, daughter Britha, and two sons Joe
(John) and Ole; Andrew Olson Stadhem (Staim), wife Sigrid, two sons and
four daughters, Olina, Britha, Aase, and Inga; Ole Stadhem and family;
Ivar I. Haave, wife Barbro and sons Ingebrigt and Elling; Endre H.
Numedal and wife Helga, daughter of Ivar Haave; Ole Berdahl and family;
Ingebrigt N. Vange, wife Britha, and three daughters, and Ole Vange.

  [279] Andres Aavri soon after returned to Norway.

With the _Sverre_ came: Anders H. Numedal and wife Aagot, Ole Tistele,
Ole O. Tenold and wife Sigri, Ole P. Tenold, Ole J. Orvedal, wife
Ragnilda, and three daughters,[280] Lars O. Fölie, Joe Fölie, who died
of cholera in Chicago, Ivar Fölie, Lars Jensen Haave, with family and
Ingebrigt J. Fuglegjærdet. Besides these there were on both ships a
number of young unmarried men and women whose passage was paid for by
Lars Johnson Haave and Joe Fölie, who may perhaps be regarded as the
leaders of this party. Most of those named were men of means, and some
of them were owners of valuable estates which were of course sold and
converted into cash upon emigrating to America. _Albion_ took eight
weeks for the voyage. _Kong Sverre_ took twelve. The former arrived in
New York about July 25th.

  [280] One of whom married Ole Tenold; they moved to Calmar, Iowa.
        The Orvedal family all moved to Winneshiek County in the
        fifties.
From New York they took the usual inland route to Chicago, their
destination being Wiota. But at Belvidere in Boone County, they met
Thor Olson Kaasa, who advised them strongly against going to Wiota,
which, he said, was two hundred miles from a market. La Fayette County
was moreover nothing but hills, and he gave such an unfavorable
description of that locality, that the immigrants decided to accept
his suggestion and go to Long Prairie, where they were told there was
plenty of level and fertile land only seventy miles from Chicago. A few
were deputed to wait at Belvidere for those who were coming on _Kong
Sverre_, and inform them of the change in plans, the rest accompanied
Kaasa to Boone County,[281] where also soon after the second party
came. Thus by the autumn of 1844 the settlement numbered about one
hundred individuals.[282]

  [281] Anfin Seim, who had come on _Juno_, was in Chicago when they
        came there; he joined them there when they started for Wiota.

  [282] Some of them moved away a few years later as had already been
        indicated in the notes on the preceding pages.

In the year 1845 about fifty persons settled near Capron. It has
already been observed that the Kaasa family moved out there that
year from Chicago.[283] Others came directly from Sogn, Norway, the
recruiting region being Vik Parish exclusively. In that year three
ships left Bergen again with immigrants principally from Sogn,
especially Aurland and Vik. Those who came from Aurland went to
Koshkonong, as also many of those who came from Vik. One of these ships
was _Albion_, Captain Brock, the passengers of which went, most of
them, to Long Prairie.

  [283] The family numbered ten persons.

Relative to the voyage of _Albion_, Elim Ellingson of Capron, who
was on this ship, tells me the following incident which occurred in
mid-ocean.

  "One day a boat carrying seven or eight men, rather ugly in
  appearance, evidently Spanish pirates, approached us from the west,
  and their leader demanded to speak with the captain. They said
  they came from the New Foundland coast and wanted to send some
  letters back. Thereupon they veered about and rowed back to their
  ship which lay some distance to the west, put out nine boats with
  a large number of men and rowed back toward our ship. The captain,
  suspecting their purpose and realizing that we would be helpless
  before an attack of pirates, turned the ship around and sailed
  back for one whole day and night. In the meantime a considerable
  tumult arose on board, axes and guns being gotten in readiness and
  many carried up stones from the ballast. We succeeded, however, in
  escaping, and, after sailing a day and a night, we turned back and
  arrived safely in New York. Here we learned that recently a ship
  had arrived at port, the masts of which had been entirely destroyed
  by guns from a pirate attack."

Mr. Ellingson in telling this, added that it is doubtful what fate
might have awaited them, had not the captain promptly turned the ship
about and succeeded in escaping what most certainly would have been a
similar attack.

Among those who came on that ship at the same time, and who located
at Capron, were: Johans Dahle from Voss, his wife, Ingebjör, and son,
Ole;[284] Lasse Ellingson Aase (b. 1808), wife Gjöri Ravsdal and five
children, Ragnild,[285] Elling (Elim), (b. 1835), Nils, Endre and
Britha; Andres E. Aase, wife and two sons;[286] Anders O. Torvold,
Johannes Lie (now living in Goodhue County, Minnesota), and Johanna
Stadhem. John Benson of Capron tells me that his grandmother, Martha
Numedal, a widow, came there in 1845 or 1846, and also the following:
Joe Sande, who was married to a Miss Aase, Edlend Myrkeskog, wife Eli
and daughter Ingebjör,[287] and Ole Myrkeskog, who is living at Capron
yet at the age of eighty.

  [284] A son Andres Dahle was not in the ship, says Elim Ellingson,
        and probably did not come therefore until the next year.

  [285] Who married Sjur Ölman, who also came in 1844 and settled in
        Cottage Grove Township, Dane County.

  [286] Andres Aase and family soon after moved to Dane County,
        Wisconsin, and settled near Cambridge; they finally located
        permanently in Winneshiek County, Iowa.

  [287] Edlend Myrkeskog died about 1850, and the widow later moved
        to Iowa.

The Long Prairie Settlement continued to grow for a decade. Space does
not, however, permit printing here the complete list of later arrivals,
kindly supplied me by Elim Ellingson and John Benson.[288] We shall now
speak briefly of the growth of the old settlement of Muskego.

  [288] Mr. Benson came there in 1851.



                             CHAPTER XXXIII

         _The Growth of the Racine County (Muskego) Settlement,
                      1843-1847. Personal Notes._


In Chapter XV we discussed briefly immigration to Racine County in
1841-1842. The period of largest growth of the settlement was between
1842 and 1847; an especially large party came in 1843. After 1847
the arrivals that became permanent residents were few and scattered.
In the early fall of 1842 there arrived at one time a party of forty
persons. They had embarked at Langesund about May 30th, were over
eleven weeks on the ocean, arriving in New York August 16th. Here
they met Elling Eielson, who accompanied them to Albany; three weeks
later they landed in Milwaukee. Among others there were the following
persons: Hermo Nilsen Tufte and family from Aal in Hallingdal, Johan
Landsverk and family from Tuddal, Telemarken, Sondre N. Maaren and wife
and his brothers Östein and Nils from Tin, Östen G. Meland also from
Tin, Tostein E. Cleven and Aanund Bjaan (Bjoin) and family who were
the first to emigrate from Siljord. Of these several remained only
temporarily; thus Anders Dahlen went to Winnebago County, Wisconsin,
about 1848, in company with Ole Myhre, an immigrant of the year 1843.
Kjittel Busness, who was a brother to the said Ole Myhre's wife, also
remained in Racine County only a few years, then he went to Stoughton,
Dane County.

Sondre Maaren settled on section 34, Town of Norway, where he and his
wife lived in a dug-out for a time; later, selling out to a Mr. Sawyer,
they moved to Jefferson Prairie and ultimately to Cresco, Iowa. Aanund
Bjoin died in 1847; the son Halvor, then eighteen years old, walked to
Koshkonong with the view of selecting land and settling there, and the
rest of the family moved there that same year. Johan Landsverk, who was
a brother of Ole Landsverk, an immigrant of 1838, settled on Yorkville
Prairie and remained there till 1854, when he moved to Sande in
Chickasaw County, Iowa, where he lived till his death. A son, Peder J.
Landsverk, born 1840, occupied the homestead later; he died in January,
1908. Hermo Nilson Tufte and family located on section 31 in Raymond
Township; here he lived till his death.

As has been said, Tufte came from Aal Parish, Hallingdal, and was
not only the first emigrant to America from Aal, but it seems, also
the first from the Valley of Hallingdal. The Tufte farm lay in the
extreme north of the valley close up under the mountains; the region is
extremely cold, much of it covered by snow the whole year round. The
family was extremely poor; of a pious nature and fervid adherents of
Hans Nilsen Hauge. Besides the father and mother there was a son, Nils,
and a daughter, Sigrid. The latter, in whom the piety of the mother
had found strong expression, was attracted to the young lay preacher,
Eielson, and in July the next year became his wife. The son, Nils,
married in 1865 a daughter of Ole Sanderson in Perry Township, Dane
County, and lived on the old homestead until he died about 1901. The
daughter, Julia, married Thomas Adland of North Cape, Racine County,
and another daughter, Betsey, married O. B. Dahle of Perry, Dane
County. Hermo Nilson and his wife both died in the latter part of the
sixties.

Three different parties of immigrants, nearly all from Telemarken, came
to Racine County in 1843. One, the so-called Wigeland party, left Skien
early in the spring by ship commanded by Captain Bloom, sailing to
Havre, France. The second party, going about the same time, sailed out
from Skien by the _Olius_, Captain Björnson, also going to Havre. Of
the third party we shall speak below.

At Havre those in the first party seem to have engaged passage on an
American ship _Argo_, a five-masted sailing vessel loaded with Swedish
iron bound for New York. While _Olius_ was laid up for repairs, the
American captain began cutting prices, offering at last to take the
new arrivals to New York for nine five-franc pieces each (or about
$8). Many did not dare to take passage on the _Argo_, fearing that
some trick was being played on them, but most of them went. _Argo_
proved a good sailer, reaching New York four weeks ahead of _Olius_.
There were, however, long delays in New York and Buffalo, so that the
immigrants did not reach Milwaukee before August 15th. Among those who
came on the _Argo_ were: Arentz Wigeland and wife Gunild, his aged
father Andrew Wigeland, and his brothers George and Andrew, and two
sisters; Halvor Pederson Haugholt, with wife Tone and four sons and two
daughters, Gunild and Ingeborg; Ole Overson Haukom and family, eleven
in all; Anders Jacobson Rönningen, wife Kjersti and three sons;[289]
Jens Hundkjilen and Anders Smekaasa; Amund S. Sötholt, his brother,
Sören S. Sötholt, Sven S. Klomset; Lars Tinderholt; Nils H. Narum,
Halvor Nisson, John Maaren, Nils Rue, John Kossin, John Husevold,
all with families; Östen Ingusland, John Husevold, Hans Tveito,
Svein Nordgaarden, Gjermon T. Nordgaarden, Mathias H. Kroken, wife
and children, his wife's sister Anne and their mother Sissel; Ole O.
Storlie, with wife,[290] four sons and two daughters; Kjittil Haugan
and family; Gunuld K. Maaren, Gro Grave and her mother; Halvor I.
Doksrud, wife and two sons, Halvor and Ingebret. All these, about one
hundred in all, were from different parts of Telemarken. Besides there
were sixteen persons from Sætersdalen as follows: Tollef Gunnufson
Huset, wife Hæge Olson and six children from Bygland, Augun Berge and
wife from Vallö, Kjögei Harstad from Vallö, Tollef Knudson and wife
and three children from Holestad Parish, and Tolleif Röisland and Ole
Nummeland from Vallö, the first emigrants from Sætersdalen to America.
All but the last two of these went to Muskego.[291]

  [289] One of whom, Jacob, now lives in Racine.

  [290] It was Mrs. Ole Storlie, who was accidentally shot by Sören
        Bakke, which unfortunate event seems to have been the chief
        cause why Bakke, almost crazed with grief, gave up pioneer
        life and returned to Norway.

  [291] Röisland and Vigeland settled at Pine Lake.

Arentz Wigeland, born 1812, who may be regarded as the leader, had
sailed for seven years between Boston and the West Indies and along the
American Atlantic coast. Passing the winters in Boston he had learned
the English language, and in 1842 returned to his home in Bamle,
Norway, to bring his family to America. He became the chief promoter of
the considerable immigration from Lower Telemarken that year. Wigeland
settled in Yorkville Township. In 1844 he married Gunild Pederson; he
died in 1862. The daughter Maren (b. 1845) married John W. Johnson in
1865. Mrs. Wigeland died in Racine in 1897. Haugholt (b. 1799) was from
Saude Parish in Lower Telemarken. He settled on section 18 in the Town
of Raymond; there he died in 1882, his wife[292] died in 1876, aged
79 years. Their oldest son Ole, who was drowned in the fifties in the
Norway marshes, was the first person buried in the Yorkville Cemetery.

  [292] She was Gunild Wigeland; they were married in 1844.

Nels Narum was from Stathelle in Bamle Parish; he settled in Norway
Township on section 20. Both he and his wife died in 1887, about
eighty-seven years old. Hans Tveito (Twito) settled in the part of the
settlement that lay in Waukesha County; he moved to Houston County,
Minnesota, in 1855 and in 1866 to Filmore County; Halvor Nissen who
was from Bamle, also settled in Waukesha County. Ole Overson was from
Hviteseid Parish; when they came to Norway they lived for some time
with John Dale (who had come from Norway in 1837 with Mons K. Aadland
and Ole Rynning). In 1845 he preëmpted land in section 34, where his
son Frank Overson lived until quite recently.

Our third party of emigrants were from Upper Telemarken, mostly from
Siljord Parish. They came on the ship _Vinterflid_.[293] Among those
in the party were: Knud S. Kvistrud and Kari Berge from Tin, Egil O.
Cleven and family, and a cousin Knut Haugan, wife and two daughters
from Langelev; Björn Stondal, Ole O. Hedejord[294] and wife Liv, three
daughters, Esther, Ida and Etta, and two sons, Ole and Edward; Torbjörn
G. Vik and family, who later moved to Koshkonong; Aanund Drotning
who also went to Koshkonong that same year;[295] Aase and Ingeborg
Olson[296] from Mandal, Telemarken. John Homme from Siljord, father
of Reverend G. Homme, founder of the Indian School at Wittenberg,
Wisconsin, also came at the same time, as also Ole Myren and wife
Bergit, and Torgrim Busness and wife Anne from Tin, who moved to
Springfield Township, Winneshiek County, Iowa, in 1851.

  [293] Many of the facts relative to this party were gathered on
        a visit at the home of Mrs. Ingeborg Roswall, Whitewater,
        Wisconsin, August 12, 1908; Mrs. Roswall does not remember
        the name of the Captain of the ship.

  [294] Ole Hedejord died on Koshkonong; Liv is still living, with
        her grandchildren on the old homestead, near Waterford, in
        the Town of Yorkville.

  [295] Edwin Drotning of Stoughton tells me that his father Anon
        remained a while in Milwaukee before going to Koshkonong,
        where he located, as we know in 1844.

  [296] These two sisters married Tostein and Gulleik Cleven in
        1844. Tostein and Aase Cleven lived in Yorkville till 1866,
        when they moved to Pleasant Spring, Dane County, Wisconsin.
        Tostein died in 1893, Aase in 1905, leaving four daughters
        and three sons: Mrs. Astri Drotning, Mrs. Ed. Drotning, both
        of Stoughton, Wisconsin, Mrs. Anna Howe, Mrs. Edwin Bjoin,
        Rice Lake, Wisconsin, Ed., Thomas, and Henry. Thomas Cleven
        occupies the farm.

That year also Ole Heg, son of Even Heg and a brother of Colonel Hans
C. Heg,[297] came and settled in Racine County, as also Knud Langeland
from Samnanger, who in 1866 became the first editor of _Skandinaven_
founded that year by John Anderson in Chicago. Knud Langeland lived
at first in Muskego, later at North Cape, Racine County. In 1849 he
married Anna Hatlestad (born in Skjold Parish, Ryfylke, in 1830), whose
parents Jens O. Hatlestad and wife Anne had immigrated in 1846, and
settled in the Town of Norway. Knud Langeland was also the first editor
of _Amerika_, which began publication in Chicago in 1884. During the
last years of his life Langeland lived in North Cape and in Milwaukee,
where he died in 1888; his wife died in 1908, at the home of her
son, Dr. Peter Langeland with whom she had lived since her husband's
death.[298]

  [297] Ole Heg is still living in Burlington, Racine County,
        Wisconsin.

  [298] The other children are James, Charles, and Frank Langeland,
        and Mrs. Harry Brimble of Chicago, and Leroy Langeland, who
        is news editor of the _Evening Wisconsin_, Milwaukee.

There came three persons from Voss to Racine County in 1843, namely,
Knut S. Skjerve (b. 1808), and wife Kari, and his unmarried sister,
Brita Selheim. Skjerve located in Norway, Racine County, in the
neighborhood of Nils Johnson. In 1847 Skjerve sold his land to Knut
K. Aaretuen from Sogn and went to Jefferson Prairie, Boone County,
Illinois, where he bought a farm and lived till his death in 1892; his
wife died there in 1873.

During 1844-1846 the increase in immigration was constant, though not
large. In 1847 there arrived a considerable number. The scattered
accessions of these years represent as widely removed parishes as
Skien, Lærdal in Sogn, and Namsos in Trondhjem. The following is a
partial list: 1844, John Larson and Peter Jacobson and family from
Stathelle, Bamle, Johannes J. Quala from near Stavanger; Thormod S.
Flattre with wife Ingeborg (Lydahl)[299] and children from Voss, who
settled in Norway Township, Halvor O. Skare and wife Margrete and two
children from Lower Telemarken, who located in Norway Township in
1845;[300] John I. Berge and wife Julia, and Hans H. Bakke and wife
Ingeborg, who moved to Spring Grove in 1854, and Peder Torgerson
and wife Anne and five children from Kragerö.[301] In 1846: Jens
O. Hatlestad and wife (see above page 284) parents of Rev. O. J.
Hatlestad, pioneer publisher, minister, and author of _Historiske
Middelelser om den norske Augustana-Synode_, Decorah, Iowa, 1877;
Elling Spillom, wife Maren and three sons, Ole, Hendrik, and Mikkel and
one daughter; Ole Homstad and Mathias Homstad, both with families, from
Namsos in Trondhjem Diocese;[302] they settled in Raymond Township;
Halvor and Ingebret Roswald[303] from Gjerpen. Knudt K. Hedle, wife
and sons Mathias, Peter, and daughter Betsy from Lærdal, Sogn; Tyke
Hendrikson Lökken and wife Anne from Gjerpen, who bought the Aslak Aas
farm in Norway Township; they had four children, Hans, Ole, Peter and
Maria.[304] In 1847: Peter M. Andsion from Namsos, with wife and four
children (three daughters and a son); they settled in Norway Township.


  [299] Thomas F. Thompson, who died in Leland, Illinois, in 1908,
        was their son.

  [300] He moved to Winchester, Wisconsin, in 1854.

  [301] Torgerson removed to Wheeler Prairie, Dane County, in 1846.
        One of the children Anne Tomine, married Ole C. Erikson in
        1854 and they moved to Lake Mills, Jefferson County. In the
        spring of 1867 they moved to Stoughton, Wisconsin, where
        Erikson was one of the first promoters of the Stoughton Wagon
        Company. Mrs. Erikson is still living in Stoughton.

  [302] They were the first families to emigrate from Trondhjem.

  [303] Ingebret Roswald married Ingeborg Cleven in 1854, and they
        then settled in Dodge County. The widow is now living in
        Whitewater, Wisconsin.

  [304] Hans died in 1856, Ole died in Milwaukee in 1901. Peter
        Hendrikson graduated from Beloit College, held a chair in
        Modern Languages there for about ten years, was later editor
        of _Skandinaven_ and Principal of Albion Academy, Albion,
        Wisconsin. Is now engaged in farming in the State of Maine.

In this year Captain Hans Friis from Farsund, Agder, Norway, settled in
Muskego. Friis was a sailor with _Enigheden_ in 1837 (see above page
96), and between 1837 and 1847 had made nine journeys to America. After
settling in Muskego he continued for many years sailing on the Great
Lakes. In 1848 the following came to Muskego: George J. Björgaas from
Houg, Voss,[305] Tollef O. Öien from Tönset, Österdalen (removed to
Kewanee County in 1855), and J. H. Skarie, from Hadeland, who located
in Town of Norway. This year also brought to Muskego the pioneer
minister Hans Andreas Stub (b. 1822), who had that spring received and
accepted the call to the Muskego church. Knut and Anna Aaretuen from
Aurland, Sogn, also appear among the number; they bought the farm of
Knut S. Skjerve in Norway Township. In 1854 they moved to Winneshiek
County, Iowa, and about 1860 to Gilmore County, Minnesota. John T. and
Christoffer Olson from Romskogen in Rödenæs, Halvor "Modum" from Modum,
Norway, and Guro Wait and son Reuben from Österdalen, Norway, all came
in 1848.

  [305] His parents with family of ten came in 1849. George Björgaas
        moved to Adams County, in 1849, where he has lived since.

This brief outline of the growth of the settlement represents fairly
completely the increase by immigration from Norway between 1842 and
1850. The wave of migration had long ago moved westward; it had
already gone beyond Koshkonong also. It was northern and western
Dane County and southern Columbia County that were now the Mecca of
immigrants. In the meantime some small settlements in Walworth and
Jefferson Counties had already been founded. We shall, therefore,
briefly discuss these now.



                             CHAPTER XXXIV

           _The Heart Prairie Settlement in Walworth County,
                   Wisconsin. Skoponong. Pine Lake._


Walworth County forms one of the southern tier of counties in
Wisconsin, being situated between Rock on the west and Kenosha and
Racine on the east; to the north lies Jefferson County. There are four
Norwegian settlements in the county, as follows: (1) in the southern
part of the Town of Whitewater and the northern part of the Town of
Richmond lies the Heart Prairie Settlement, taking its name from the
beautiful little prairie directly east of it; (2) about four miles east
of the city of Whitewater lies Skoponong, partly in Whitewater Township
and extending north into Jefferson County as far as Palmyra; (3) in
the city of Whitewater there is a considerable Norwegian colony, and
(4) about six miles southeast of Heart Prairie lies the Sugar Creek
Settlement, extending from about five miles north of Delavan to about
three miles northeast of Elk Horn, the county seat of Walworth County.
It is the first of these settlements that we shall discuss in this
chapter.

The first Norwegian settlers at Heart Prairie were Ole A. Sögal and
wife Kari, who, with their four children Anne, Andrea, Karen, and
Johanne, came in 1842 and located four miles and a half southeast of
the city of Whitewater. They lived there only a few years, however,
then moved to Wautoma, Waushara County, in Central Wisconsin. The next
settler was Ole's brother, Hans A. Milebon, who with his wife Kari came
in 1843, and settled about a mile north of his brother's place; they
had one daughter, Mary Ann, who was about three years old when they
came, and who is still living near Whitewater.

During the year 1844 a number of families arrived from Norway and
settled at Heart Prairie. They were as follows: Hans Arveson Vale and
wife Aaste (Esther), with children Arve (or Harvey) and Isak. Mr.
Arveson bought his first eighty acres at government price of $1.25
per acre, and built his log house in the fall of 1844. In this log
cabin many a Norwegian immigrant found a temporary home upon his
first arrival in Wisconsin in the early days of the settlement. Here
Mr. Arveson lived, cultivating his own farm, until his death in 1873
at the age of sixty-one; the widow died in June, 1900, at the age
of eighty-six. Hans Thompson and wife Marie also came in 1844; they
had three children, Thomas, Karen and Ann. He bought land adjoining
Arveson's farm, lived the first winter in a dug-out. But the next
spring "when the snakes began to come in," writes my informant, they
moved to the Arveson's where they lived till they got their log-house
built.

Andres J. Skipnes and his wife Aaste also came at the time; they
settled near Ole Arveson, but lived there only a short time, then
moved to a farm near Stoughton, Wisconsin. Ole J. Vale and wife Anne
likewise came in the same party, but they went to Sugar Creek, where
a son, John, and a daughter, Annie Torine, had located the year
before.[306] Another arrival at this time was Peder H. Swerge, and Ole
Tölvson Grönsteen and wife Kari and three children, Tosten Olson, a
carpenter, and wife Aaste, Karine, a daughter of Halvor Anderson, came
in 1844. Tosten built most of the log-cabins that were erected in the
settlement for a number of years. His wife died soon after coming to
America, and Tosten died in the Civil War. Finally the accessions of
1844 included also the following persons: Gunder H. Lunde, Anne Kosa,
Ole O. Huset and family, John C. Opsal, and Halvor Huset. The latter
two remained only a short time, then went west; Ole O. Huset located on
Koshkonong.[307]

  [306] The rest of their children who came with them were Aaste, a
        widow, Andrea, Anders, and Anne Christine.
Thomas Thompson married Mary Ann, daughter of Christen Mason. They
lived on the Thompson homestead till their death; Thomas died in 1869,
his wife in 1871. They had six children, of whom Hans, the oldest,
lives at Forest City, Iowa. Karen Thompson, oldest daughter of Hans
Thompson, married Jens Skipnes (better known as John A. Johnson of
the firm, Fuller and Johnson, Madison, Wisconsin), and with him lived
near Stoughton, Wisconsin, where she died about four years after their
marriage.

  [307] See Koshkonong Church Register, page 324 below.

All the above thirty-one persons who emigrated in 1844 were from the
vicinity of Skien in Holden, and all came on the same ship, namely,
_Salvator_, Captain Johan Gasman. They were nine weeks on the ocean,
landing in New York July 4th; they came by the regular route to
Milwaukee, thence they drove in lumber wagons to Heart Prairie.

For the year 1845 the following accessions are to be noted: The
brothers Nils and Gunder C. Opsal; Halvor A. Lunde and wife Ann and
six children, most of them grown up, and another son Gulleik and wife
Dorothea; Anders J. Björndokken; Johans Grönsteen with wife Maria and
three children. For 1846 we note the following: Anders Gunderson, John
Arveson and wife Kjersti and four children;[308] Lukas Ingebretson;
Anders G. Bjerva, wife Anne and four children:[309] Anne, Börte Maria,
Karen, and Jens, who many years ago moved to Crookston, Minnesota; and
John Grönsteen and wife Asberg. All those who came during the years
1845-46 were from near Skien.

  [308] The mother and one child died that same fall.

  [309] She was a widow when he married her. The children of the
        second marriage were: Gunder, Christen (Whitewater), Esther
        (who was Mrs. Chas. Sobye, Stoughton, Wisconsin, but now
        dead). Anders Bjerva and wife died many years ago.
In 1847 Christen M. Bö, wife Inger and four children from Gjerpen came
to Heart Prairie; and in 1848 came Ole Nilsen from Christiansand.

In either 1848 or 1849 came Nils, Steen and Ole Haatvedt; Nils moved
to Wautoma, and Ole settled in Waupaca after living a few years at
Heart Prairie. In 1850 Hans Hanson, a blacksmith, came from Holdon and
located there; he worked for a time with the George Esterly Harvesting
Machine Co., then bought a farm, which he occupied till his death
in 1893. Another blacksmith by the name of Claus Hanson came at the
same time; worked at his trade for a while in Whitewater then went to
Michigan, married and came back and settled in Milwaukee, where he is
still living. In 1851 Arve Gunderson Vale emigrated; his son Hans Vale
had come in 1844; Arve Vale lived only a week after arriving. With him
came Gunder H. Vala and wife Kersti and seven children; they moved to
Vermillion, South Dakota, a few years later, all except the oldest
son Halvor, who is living at Rio, Wisconsin. In that year (1851) came
also Christopher Steenson Haatvedt and his two brothers-in-law, Peter
Kystelson Haatvedt and Christen J. Tveit, while in 1852 came Jörgen A.
Nilson Vibito and wife Karen Kristine, née Hanson, and six children.
Jörgen Nilson had taught parochial school in Norway for twenty-nine
years and continued to do so here for many years.

The above is a complete account of all arrivals to the settlement from
Norway down to the year 1852; the roster of settlers here given has
been patiently gathered during several months of research by Mr. Harvey
Arveson[310] of Whitewater, himself the oldest son of the third settler
in the community, namely Hans Arveson Vale, of whom we have spoken
above. I have followed his manuscript closely, omitting only certain
facts of family and personal history. Mr. Arveson speaks briefly of
the trying summer and fall of 1846 when for a time sickness and death
seemed to threaten to exterminate the settlers of Heart Prairie. I
will quote from his own account of the condition; speaking of John
Grönsteen, who came in 1846 and died that same fall, he continues:

  There was so much sickness here at that time that there was hardly
  any one well enough to bury those that died; and well can I
  remember that the men had to come down to our house and rest before
  they could finish the grave, and well can I remember that the cow
  stood outside bellowing to be milked and no one able to milk her;
  everybody was thirsty as all had fever and ague and had to go a
  mile for water before we got to the well, and sometimes no one able
  to go after it. I am sure a great many died for want of care, as
  there was none that understood the English language and did not
  understand how to take their medicine. Those were hard times, and
  to many this account may sound incredible; nevertheless, it is true
  and I could write volumes and tell true incidents of the trials and
  hardships that the old pioneers had to endure.

  [310] I acknowledge here with gratitude Mr. Arveson's valuable aid.
        It is only through such intelligent interest and patient effort
        on the part of the sons of the pioneers themselves, who have
        continued to live in the community, that such reliable facts
        can be secured.

Whitewater city received no Norwegian settlers until in the fifties,
therefore an account of their coming falls outside the scope of our
discussion. Of the old Skoponong Settlement I am able to give only
a few general facts. The first settlers came in 1843-44; they were:
Kittil Jordgrev, Hans Bukaasa, and Björn Lien from Upper Telemarken,
Hans and Harald Nordbö from Flaa, Hallingdal, Ole Lia from Hiterdal,
Halvor Valkaasa from Sauland, Lars Johnson Lee, Sjur Hydle, Knut T.
Rio, and Tollef Grane from Voss, and Anon Dalos; several of these
had families. Lars Lee and wife Britha came to Muskego in the summer
of 1843 and to Skoponong early in the fall, and were therefore among
the very earliest in that locality. They lived there until 1861, when
they located at Spring Prairie, Town of Leeds, Columbia County.[311]
In his history of the Skoponong Congregation (founded in 1844), C. M.
Mason, Secretary of the congregation, names also the following among
the earliest members of the church: Halvor Mathison (in whose house the
church was organized in 1844), Styrk Erikson, Knud Dokstad, Nils Herre,
Ole Sjurson, Simon Sakrison, Jacob Kaasne, Halvor Glenna, Mathias
Baura, Björn Hefte, Sjur Flittre, Lars Klove, Mathias Lia and Even
Gulseth.

  [311] Lars Lee died in 1883, his wife in 1905. Dr. Lewis Johnson Lee
        of De Forest, Wisconsin, is their son.

In 1846 Syver O. Haaland, wife and nine children, Hadle Evenson
and wife Anne J. Fjösne, and Tostein H. and Osmond O. Högstul came
to Skoponong, the latter two from Tuddal in Telemarken; the former
were from Etne Parish in Söndhordland. Björn Holland of Hollandale,
Wisconsin, who is a son of Syver Haaland,[312] writes me that they came
on the ship _Kong Sverre_ from Bergen.[313] In Ulvestad's _Nordmaendene
i Amerika_, page 56, appears an account of their first few weeks in
the settlement and of S. Haaland's sickness and death. The Högstul
party came in a brig by the name of _Washington_, which carried iron
from Tvedestrand, commanded by a Norwegian captain by the name of Simon
Cook. He says:

  "In Milwaukee, there were only a few stores at the time. We drove
  with oxen and a wagon to the so-called Skoponong Settlement near
  Whitewater. When we came there nearly all the settlers lay ill with
  ague, the condition was wretched. We immediately began to rid and
  break some land and after a while we got so far that we could raise
  some wheat. But we had to haul it fifty miles to Milwaukee with
  oxen; there we got 25 cents per bushel.... wages was usually 25
  cents a day in the spring and fall; in the haying it was 50 cents.
  But there was little work to get. Like other settlers my parents
  were poor. My mother made baskets from withes; these she then
  carried on her back about the prairie and sold them to Americans,
  getting in return for them flour, pork and garments, in order that
  we should not suffer distress."

  [312] The family changed the name to Holland in this country.

  [313] Letter of May 5, 1905.

Hadle Evenson moved to Perry, Wisconsin, in 1854, where Mrs. Evenson
died in 1861. The oldest son Edwin Hadley, enlisting in Co. E, 15th
Wisconsin, was killed at the Battle of New Hope Church, Georgia, in
May, 1864. In 1875 Mr. Evenson settled at Slater, Story County, Iowa.
Peter Hadley, Treasurer of Webster County, is the only surviving son.

Among the early settlers at Skoponong was Mrs. Ingeborg Nelson who came
from Evanger, Voss, in 1849. She left Skoponong a few years later,
settling permanently at Deerfield, Dane County, in 1853, where she
is still living at the age of ninety-five. Mrs. Nelson is the mother
of Senator Knute Nelson of Minnesota, who was born in Norway in 1843.
Knute Nelson was educated at Albion Academy, Albion, Wisconsin, and
removed to Alexandria, Minnesota in 1871. He was Governor of Minnesota
during 1892-1895. In the latter year he was elected U. S. Senator and
has been reëlected twice since, serving now his third term.

I shall mention one more settler, namely Torstein Rio,[314] born at
Vossevangen in 1835, who, with his wife Ingeborg (Bershaugen) and
family came to America in 1849 on the ship _Henrik Wergeland_ and
located at Skoponong. A brother whose name also was Torstein came at
the same time, and the family included a son Nels (Thompson), who is
living at Madison, Wisconsin, having moved there in 1860.[315] Torstein
Rio died at Skoponong in 1869, his wife died in Madison in 1876.

  [314] Father of Knut Rio.

  [315] In 1880 Nels Thompson became a member of the well known firm of
        clothiers, Boley, Hinrichs and Thompson, later Hinrichs and
        Thompson.

At Pine Lake and Nashota in northwestern Waukesha County a considerable
number of Norwegians lived among the forties and fifties, since which
the settlement has dwindled very much.[316] At Pine Lake the first
Swedish settlement founded in America in the last century had been
established in 1841 by Gustav Unonius.[317] In 1843 about fifty
Norwegian families located at Pine Lake, according to Unonius _Minnen_,
1862, page 3. Unonius mentions especially a Captain Hans Gasman as
the principal figure there. Gasman had a large family of sons and
daughters, and the name is a well known one among the early pioneers
of Racine, Waukesha, and Dodge Counties.[318] Other members of the
family were Charles, Peter and Captain Johan Gasman, who commanded the
_Salvator_, plying between Skien and New York. This very ship brought
a number who located at Pine Lake, among them Halvor Salveson from
Gjerpen.[319]

  [316] Or rather also in part Americanized.

  [317] I have discussed this in my _Chapters on Scandinavian
        Immigration_ (1906), pages 83-85.

  [318] Into this county the settlement extended to and about Ashippun
        and Toland.

  [319] Many of those who came with Capt. Gasman this time went to
        Heart Prairie.

Among the fifty families who came to Pine Lake in 1843 I may name
Engelbret Salveson from Gjerpen, Erik Helgeson, Hans Roe, Christen
Puttekaasa, Halvor Rosholt, Jacob Rosholt, Peter Næs from near
Skien and Gjerpen, Ellef Björnson and Halvor Halvorson from Saude,
Telemarken, and Tollef Waller from Eidanger in Lower Telemarken,
Christopher Aamodt and Hans Uhlen from Modum, Tolleiv Röisland and Ole
Nummeland from Vallö in Sætersdalen and Ole Lia from Gausdal.[320]
Some of these, as e. g. Halvor Halvorson[321] located in the extreme
northern part of the settlement at Toland, and John Lia settled across
the Jefferson County line,[322] but most located in Waukesha County at
Hartland or Nashota.

  [320] Holand _De norske Settlementers Historie_, page 170, to which
        I am indebted chiefly for this roll of immigrants to Nashota,
        etc., in 1843.

  [321] Halvorson died in the spring of 1908 as the last of the
        original Norwegian settlers at Toland; he was born in 1818,
        married in 1848 Kirsten Aandrud, who survives him.

In subsequent years there arrived constantly new settlers from Skien,
Sætersdal and Gudbrandsdalen, but even in the later forties many began
to go to the counties immediately northwest to Waupaca and Portage
counties and elsewhere. In 1850-54 these counties, as also Waushara and
Winnebago counties on the south, received hosts of Norwegian settlers,
some coming direct from Norway, a large number however from Racine and
Dane Counties, and the Pine Lake region.[323] The period of growth
in this settlement was therefore relatively short, and the removals
relatively large. The result was that the Norwegians came to live more
scattered and the community soon began to lose its distinctive national
character. Thus it is significant, that of the ninety services held
during 1907 in _Vor Frelsers Kirke_ at Oconomowoc sixty-three were in
the English language.[324] But we are here touching upon questions
which it is not our purpose to discuss in connection with the survey of
settlement.

  [322] Through John Lia's influence this then came to be the
        destination of the earliest emigrants from Gudbrandsdalen
        between 1846-49.

  [323] Walworth County contributed some of the number; thus Ole
        Sögal, the first Norwegian settler at Heart Prairie, was one
        of those who went to Waushara County.

  [324] By way of comparison the number of English services to
        Norwegian as far as statistics are available were in the
        following localities: Morris, Ill., 13 of 67, Blue Mounds,
        Dane Co., Wis., 0 of 22; Leland, Ill., 14 of 28; Stoughton,
        Wis., 35 of 80; Long Prairie, 7 of 25; Koshkonong, 0 of 75;
        "Muskego," 41 of 112.



                              CHAPTER XXXV

   _The Earliest Norwegian Settlers at Sugar Creek, Walworth County,
    Wisconsin. The influx from Land, Norway, to Wiota and Vicinity,
                               1844-1852_


We have briefly referred to Sugar Creek, Walworth County, Wisconsin,
in chapter XXXIII above. This little settlement received its first
Norwegian settlers in 1844 when Ole Vale and wife Anne from Holden
Parish, Skien, located there; with them came the sons John and Anders
and the daughters Aasta, Anne, Turine, Andrea and Maria. Vale and his
wife lived in Sugar Creek till their death, and the daughters all
married and settled there. In the same year Ole Kittelson and Nils
T. Kvamodden, both unmarried and both also from Holden, came to the
settlement. Ole Kittelson located permanently in Sugar Creek, but Nils
Kvamodden and wife moved to Norway Township, Goodhue County, Minnesota,
in 1857. There they died years ago, the homestead being now occupied by
the son Ole.

Christian L. Vestremo and wife Ingeborg and three children, and Gunder
K. Næseth emigrated from Gjerpen near Skien, in 1844. Næseth moved
to Norway, Minnesota, in 1856 and Vestremo in 1857. According to Ole
Jacobson of Elk Horn, to whom I am indebted for these facts, there
were no further accessions to the colony before 1847. In that year
his parents came from Gjerpen, as also Jacob Torstenson and wife Maren
Margrete and three sons Ole, Torsten and Jacob, and a daughter, Maria
with her husband Lars Jensen Teigen and family. With them came also
Teigen's mother. Jacob Torstenson died in 1861; the widow is still
living at the old home.

Ole Jacobson writes me that his father and family left Skien in April
by the ship _Axel (og) Valborg_, Captain Bloom, going first as far as
Havre, France. There they waited three weeks, then secured passage
with an American ship, the journey being very slow. Landing in Boston,
they went by train to Albany, thence by canal boat to Buffalo, and by
steamboat via the lakes to Milwaukee, where they arrived sometime in
August. From Milwaukee they thereupon proceeded to Sugar Creek, where
they located permanently. Ole Jacobson is at present living on the farm
purchased in 1847. In 1849 Aslak Rasmusson Slettene with wife Gunild
and eight children came from Gjerpen, Norway.[325] Grindemelum, with
wife, son, and daughter, also came in 1849, as did Peter J. Gromstulen,
wife Svanang and five children, and Nils J. Overholt, wife and two
children.

  [325] Some of the children have moved away, to Minnesota and
        Washington.

There do not seem to have been any further accessions of Norwegian
immigrants during the pioneer days of the Sugar Creek settlement. In
the sixties quite a number came and located at and about Elk Horn but
these do not fall within the scope of our survey.

The original home of immigrants from Land, Norway, was Rock Prairie, as
we saw above, chapter XXIV. From this as their distribution point they
migrated west and north, aiding in the founding of other settlements.
As early as 1844 we find one pioneer at Wiota from Land, Norway, namely
Syver Johnson Smed (see above page 213). But the influx from Land did
not begin until 1847.[326] In that year two families, numbering in
all fourteen persons, arrived via Rock Prairie; they were those of
Svend Nörstelien (wife Karen, and five children) and of the widow Kari
Lillebæk, who had six children.[327] In 1848 Hovel Tollefsrude, wife
Bertha and children: Christopher, Hans, Jahannes, Siri, and Lovise
arrived. Further immigrants of that year were: Johannes Brenom, wife
Ingeborg and three children; Hans Halvorson (Brenna), wife Eli, and
children, Berte, Halvor and Johannes; Johannes E. Smedsrud, with wife
Anne and two sons Engebret and Mathias; and Johannes Smehögen (or Smed)
with wife Engeborg, and two children.

  [326] Matthew J. Ingebretson of Gratiot, Wis., who came to Wiota
        with his parents in 1848, has kindly aided me with many of
        the facts on immigration to Wiota in 1847-50.

  [327] John Larsen Lillebæk was one of her sons.

In 1849 came Torkild Husværet, with wife and three sons, Gulbrand, Lars
and Frederik; Ole Monson Tollefsrude, wife Karen and three children,
and Nils Aason, Ovre Hasle and wife Ingeborg, who had come to Rock
Prairie in 1848 (removed to Wiota in 1848). Hans Lillebæk came in 1850
and about twenty in all in 1851-52.

Ole Monson, whom we have mentioned as coming in 1849, was the builder
of the old Norwegian church at Wiota, which is still standing; the
present larger and more commodious structure stands on the wall built
by Ole Monson.

There were not very many from other provinces in Norway among those who
emigrated to Wiota in the late forties. We have spoken of Ingebrigt
Fuglegjærdet's coming in 1846 from Long Prairie, where he had lived two
years; he was from Vik, Sogn.[328]

  [328] Ingebrigt Johnson removed to Town of Dane, Dane County,
        Wisconsin, in 1851; there he lived till his death in 1893,
        his wife having died in 1890. John J. Johnson, retired
        farmer, of Lodi, Columbia County, Wisconsin, is their son, as
        is also Joseph Johnson of Dane Township in Dane County.

From Vik came Erik I. Haave and wife in 1847, while Harald Melland
and wife Anne came from Telemarken. From Sigdal there came one family
in 1848; Ellef (Alef) Johnson and wife Anne. The latter served in the
Civil War, in Company G of the Twenty-Second Wisconsin Regiment.[329]
In 1872 he married Mary Larson,[330] of Blanchardville, La Fayette
County, where they are now living.

  [329] He was only sixteen when he enlisted.

  [330] She was a daughter of Ole Larson, who served in the Third
        Regiment, Wisconsin Infantry, in the Civil War.

I may conclude this chapter by saying that Arne Vinje, whose name is
so intimately interlinked with the history of the community, died in
1903, having lived on the old homestead for sixty-two years. Of his
eight children, three are living: Peter S. Anderson, Newell, Iowa,
Daniel K. Anderson and Mrs. Martha Brunkow of Woodford, Wisconsin.



                             CHAPTER XXXVI

             _Continued Immigration from Aurland, Sogn, to
                Koshkonong. The Arrival of Settlers from
                      Vik Parish, Sogn, in 1845._


In the year 1845-1846 immigration to Koshkonong from Laurdal, Vinje and
Moe Parishes continued and a considerable number came from Flesberg.
The accessions from Laurdal, Moe, and Hvideseid for these years record
the end of a movement that began in 1843. But that which especially
characterized the growth of the Koshkonong Settlement in 1845-1846 was
the extensive additions through immigrants from Sogn. So extensive,
in fact, was the influx from Sogn these years as to make their total
representation on Koshkonong at once exceed that from either Voss or
Numedal, and equal to about half that from Telemarken. These four have
ever since been the dominant elements in Koshkonong's population. A
part of this immigration from Sogn was from parishes represented among
the arrivals of the year before. Such were Botolf J. Grinde, Ole N.
Steenhjerde and Sjur I. Romören from Leikanger, Herman T. Vee, Joseph
J. Gjellum and Hermund O. Offerdal from Lærdal, Anders S. Övrebö,
wife Anne and three children from Lyster, Erik L. Grov and Anders H.
Ödegaard and wife Martha from Hafslo.

But much more significant was the immigration from Aurland Parish in
1845-1846, from Sogndal in 1846, and the new immigration from Vik
Parish in 1845. We shall discuss these three groups in order briefly.

We have noted above, Chapter XXXI, that there were several persons from
Aurland Parish, Sogn, among the immigrants who settled on Koshkonong in
1844. I am now in receipt of a letter from Anders J. Flaam of Flaam in
Aurland, Norway, relative to the earliest emigration from Aurland to
America. His letter, as also that of Reverend E. P. Juul, the present
Minister of the Parish, shows that the earliest emigrants left there in
1844. I quote in translation from Reverend Juul's letter:

  "Those who, according to parochial records here, were the first
  to emigrate to America are the following: Iver Hansen Vingum, age
  twenty-five, unmarried,[331] Ole Torjussen Flaam, age fifty, wife
  Anna Botolfsdatter, age forty, and children, Ole, thirteen and a
  half years old, and Anders, ten years. Of these, Iver Hansen's
  certificate of emigration is shown to have been issued March 20,
  1844, and he to have left the district on April 13th the same year.
  Ole Torjussen's certificate of emigration was issued on the 13th of
  April, 1844, and his departure took place the following day. All
  therefore emigrated together."

  [331] The writer's father has always pronounced the name Vangen, which
        also according to Haakon Lie, is the correct form. Iver Vangen
        settled on Bonnet Prairie, where his son Hans Vangen is still
        living.

Reverend Juul thereupon gives a list of those who emigrated from
Aurland in 1845, and while several of these did not settle on
Koshkonong it will be of interest to the reader to see this list. I
therefore give it complete here:

  "In 1845, on the 19th of April the natives of Aurland
  (Aurlændinger) left their native village: Torsten Olsen Bjelde,
  (45 years of age) wife, Anna (29), and son, Ole (3½ years);
  Iver Ingebrigtsen Ytreli (32 years); Jens Botolfsen Bergkvam
  (23½ years); Jens Torgersen Tærum (44½ years), wife Ragnhilde
  Monsdatter (27) and son Torger (one year); Sjur Olsen Stundal (19)
  and sister Katrine (30); Anna Marie Hansdatter Vangen (28½);
  Erik Johannesen Ytreli (43) and wife Marthe Larsdatter (48) and
  children; Brita (21 years), Magnilde (18 years), Johannes (16
  years), Ingeborg (14 years), Lars (10½ years), Haakon (9 years),
  Anna (7 years), Tomas (5 years); Johanne Botolsdatter Ytreli (16
  years); Eilef Olson Loven (24 years); Mikkel Knutsen Österbro
  (22½ years), and wife Martha Gulvsdatter (27½ years), and son
  Knut (two months); Lars Gundersen Gjellum (33½ years) and wife
  Gjertrud, and son Knut (4 years); Martha Gundersdatter (17 years);
  Josef Johannesen Vindedal (73 years), and wife Anna Jensdatter;
  John Johnsen Frondal (28 years) and wife Magnhilde; Rognald
  Johannesen Knit (19½ years); Simon A. Gjellum (20 years); Peder
  Monsen Loven (34 years); Johanne M. Loven (20 years); Iver J. Stene
  (22 years).

  These are the emigrants who first went to America from this Parish.

                              Aurland Parish, January 25th, 1909.
                                                         E. P. Juul."

Some of the immigrants mentioned by Reverend Juul are still living
on Koshkonong. Thus among the children of Erik J. Ytreli (who died
in 1892, at the age of 90),[332] Johannes (John E. Johnson) is still
living on the old homestead, two miles east of Utica, and his brother
Haakon is living there with him.[333] Simon Gjellum lived two years
in Chicago, then entered the Mexican War, after which he came to
Koshkonong. Ivar I. Ytreli[334] had been a school teacher and deacon at
Systrond, in which capacity he continued serving here in this country,
at Rock Prairie, Rock County, whither he went soon after arriving in
Wisconsin; he died there about 1875. Of other immigrants from Aurland,
which Mr. Anders J. Flaam speaks of, I shall mention Peder J. Gjeirsme,
and Torbjörn O. Gjeirsme, wife Metta and family, who came in 1846, and
Hans Torjussen Flom, who, he says, went soon after Ole T. Flom.

  [332] The family shortened the name to Lie in this country.

  [333] During a visit with him at the John E. Johnson homestead last
        August I had the pleasure of listening to H. Lie's narrative
        of the emigration of this party from Aurland and of their
        early experiences. Haakon Lie has a remarkable memory and he
        has made it a point to follow the career and keep in touch
        with his fellow immigrants of 1845, and their history in this
        country. Space does not permit me to give here details from
        my interview with him, nor from that with others relative to
        the immigration of these years. But I may add that the party
        sailed with Kong Sverre, Captain Fisher; they were six weeks
        and four days on the way from Bergen to New York, thence
        they went by steamboat to Albany, where they arrived on the
        fourth of July. Arriving in Chicago one of the last days in
        July, they remained there a week then proceeded to their
        destination, Koshkonong, driving with oxen from Chicago.

        Haakon Lie says there were none on the ship from Telemarken or
        Numedal; the 300 passengers were all from Sogn and Voss; but
        I learn through others that there were some from Hardanger on
        the ship.

        The limitations of space necessitates curtailment in the account
        in nearly every chapter. From the vast amount of material I
        have, I can offer here practically only that which pertains
        specifically to the history of immigration.

  [334] Or, as Kristen Sherpi of West Koshkonong called him in an
        interview last summer, Ivar i Heggvikji.

During the year 1845 there came also a group of immigrants to
Koshkonong from Vik Parish, namely several families from near
Arnefjord. This party included several Næset families, the oldest
living survivor of which is Jens J. Næset (b. 1828), well-known
Koshkonong architect, who resides at Stoughton, Wisconsin.[335] I have
had several interviews with Mr. Næset relative to their sailing, and
their early life as pioneers; it will be possible to give here only
the briefest facts. Jens Næset tells me that there were eight estates
at Næset and that the owners of four of them sold out at the same time
and went to America. The biggest of these estates was that of Ingebrigt
Næset, or as he was usually called, Skuungen. In the party were Jens
Næset's parents, Johannes Jensen Næset and wife Eli, his oldest sister
Gro, married to Ole Larson (Haugan)[336] who is living in Cambridge,
Wisconsin, two brothers Ingebrigt and John, and another sister who
later married Henrik Lien of East Koshkonong.[337]

  [335] Jens Næset, I have just learned, died at Stoughton last week,
        May, 1908.

  [336] They had one child when they came; she is Mrs. Ole Venaas,
        Rockdale, Wisconsin.

  [337] Johannes Næset was born in Feios, but his father had bought
        Næset in 1823 and settled there, three Norwegian miles from
        Arnefjord.

There were three ships that sailed at the same time, Næset relates. One
of these was the _Kong Sverre_, Captain Fischer (of which Haakon Lie
speaks above), and on which the emigrants from Aurland were embarked.
Another was a two-masted sloop, _Peder Schröder_, and which carried
about 130 passengers, among whom the Næset families; this sloop had
crossed twice before. The third was one commanded by Captain Brock. The
passengers on this ship were mostly from Sogn, but there were three
boys from Hardanger, and a few persons from Voss. _Peder Schröder_ also
carried emigrants principally from Sogn, but there were two from Voss,
says Næset. One of these was Brynjulf Leland, who settled at Norway
Grove, where he is still living. The other was Odd Himle, whom we have
met with above page 168, as the guide of the first party of explorers
of Koshkonong in 1839. He had returned to Norway in 1844, married there
in 1845, and was now returning to America. Among those who came on the
Brock-ship were Skuungen and Ole Menes.

We recognize in Captain Brook's ship the same ship that Lasse Ellingson
of Capron, Illinois, came on in 1845. It was furthermore the very
same voyage of this ship. The name of the ship was _Albion_. For a
partial list of the passengers on this ship as of _Peder Schröder_,
whose captain was Vingaard,[338] the reader may now be referred to the
account of the sailing of these two ships above, Chapter XXXII.

  [338] The much talked of Vingaard-ship.

The two ships _Kong Sverre_ and _Peder Schröder_ sailed side by side
the whole way, relates Næset, _Kong Sverre_ arriving in New York in
the evening, _Peder Schröder_ the next morning. Captain Brock's ship
which had started ten days earlier, arrived three days later (see above
page 275). From New York the immigrants were taken over the usual route
to Milwaukee.[339] Having arrived in Muskego, they secured Halvor
Luraas to take their goods to Koshkonong; he brought them to Clinton
(Rockdale), where the first man they met was Torstein Selseng, who
had emigrated from Aurland, Sogn, to Koshkonong the preceding year.
Johannes Næset, who was a man of considerable means for the time,
bought the land, which is now occupied by the son Ingebrigt Næset,
which is section thirty-five in the southeastern part of Christiana
Township.

  [339] Mr. Næset's full account of this journey I shall publish
        elsewhere.

Johannes Næset was born in Leikanger Parish in 1795; his wife,
Eli I. Berdahl, was born in 1797. She died in Koshkonong in 1850,
Johannes died in 1882. He was noted for his ability as a mechanic, was
successful as a maker of violins, and was himself a capable player.
Jens Næset early distinguished himself as a builder and an architect.
Though but sixteen years old he assisted in the building of the old log
church in East Koshkonong in 1844, and it was Næset who took it down
again in 1858 and constructed the old stone church, which a few years
ago was replaced by a handsome brick edifice. He also built the tower
of the old Liberty Prairie Church, and a number of the oldest houses on
Albion Prairie were erected by him. Jens Næset was married in 1850; he
has no children. Mrs. Ole Melaas of Stoughton, Wisconsin, is an adopted
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Næset.[340]

  [340] The Næsets have been living in Stoughton since 1876.

As has been noted, there was a considerable immigration from Sogndal,
Sogn, in 1846; to name only a few: Ole C. Teigen, Ellend T. Quale,
with wife Dordei Baardsdatter and family, eight in all, Anders S.
Hundere, Nils O. Selseng and wife, and Johannes I. Gjerde. From
Aurland, Sogndal, and Hafslo there came others in the following four
years. I shall here name Peder Sylfestson Aaberge from Hafslo, who
came in 1847, Ole O. Anderson (1848), Ole O. Hemsing (1849), both from
Sogndal, Atle S. Gjellum and family, Per Sherping and wife Kristine and
Kristen Olson Gulvangen from Aurland in 1849. Of these Aaberge later
moved to Minnesota. Ole Anderson (often called Skog-Ola) settled three
miles north of Albion, where he lived till his death. He married Guri
Pederson, adoptive daughter of Torstein Selseng in 1851, who had come
to America in 1849. She died in June, 1909. Ole Hemsing located first
in Cottage Grove; in 1855 he purchased the old Hemsing farm three miles
north of Stoughton, later owned by the son Ole H. Hemsing (b. 1853),
since 1884, of Stoughton, Wisconsin. Ole O. Hemsing died about 1895,
the widow (Ragnilda) died in 1907. Per Sherping died early and the
widow married Kristen Olson, who then took the name Sherping (Sherpi).
Kristen Sherpi (b. 1823) is still living at the old homestead near West
Koshkonong Church. There was scattered immigration from Telemarken
down to 1850, especially from Hvideseid, about forty in all came from
Hallingdal, and twenty-five from Hardanger; Valders, Ringsaker, Biri
and Vardal, and a dozen other provinces and parishes are represented
by four or five settlers each. The first to arrive from Hardanger were
Svend L. Lund, Ingebrekt, Nicolai, and Johannes Erdahl, Guttorm Buo,
Ole L. and Aslak E. Quammen; these came in 1847. From Ringsaker came
Anders J. Tömmerstigen, wife Maria Olsdatter and children Johannes,
Olive, Peter (b. 1843) and Karen Marie, in 1846, while from North
Aurdal in Valders came Ole Loe and Ole H. Hippe, both with families,
and from Slidre, Tollef H. Gvale, all in 1847.

I shall now offer a copy of the official register of members of the
Koshkonong churches during this period, according to the Parochial
Records left by Reverend J. W. C. Dietrichson for the years 1844 to
1850. This is here printed for the first time and will be read with
considerable interest by the many descendants of the founders of these
two historic congregations on Koshkonong Prairie.



                             CHAPTER XXXVII

      _"Kirkeregister." Church Register of the East Koshkonong,
                  West Koshkonong and Liberty Prairie
                Congregations as Constituted During the
                Years of Reverend J. W. C. Dietrichson's
                      Incumbency of the Pastorate
                   from 1844 to 1850, and as Recorded
                   by Reverend Dietrichson._[341]


                                         _Indvan-_
                                         _drede_ _Födt_ _Kones Navn_
         _Bygd_                _Navn_     _Aar_  _Aar_  _og Födselsaar_

 Ole Knudsen Trovatten          Laurdal      1840 1807
 Gunnul Olsen Vindæg            Rollaug      1839 1808 Guri,  1811
   Ole,  1842                                     1842
 Gudbrand Gudbrandson Holtan    Flesberg     1843
 Torkild Gunlegsen Sundböe[342] Sillejord    1843 1816 Margit
 Torstein Thronsen Selseng      Sogndal      1844      Kari
 John Pederson Tverberg         Tind         1842 1811 Gro
 Knud Mortensen Roland                            1844
 Mikkel Johnson Engesæter[343]  Leganger     1844 1819 Synneva, 1822
 Niels Olsen Smetbak            Rollaug      1842      Barbro
 Gisle Helgesen Venaas          Rollaug      1844
 Sondre Olsen Reishus           Sillejord    1843 1820
 Even Stenerson Bilstad         Moe          1843 1802 Dagne
 Johannes Johnson Berg          Kragerö      1844
 Gunder Jörgensen Fladland      Hvidsöe      1843
 Björn Gulbrandsen Mörkvold     Rolland      1842      Asbjör
   Gulbrand
 Halvor Johnson Grovund         Nissendal    1843      Gunhild
 Gaute Ingebretsen Gulliksrud   Tind         1843 1815 Kari
 Niels Colbeinsen  Fladland     Hvidsöe      1843
 Hans Pedersen Tverberg         Tind         1841 1814 Ingeborg, 1820
   Peder, 1845
 Amund Anderson                 Stavanger    1836      Ingeborg
 Anfin Anfindsen Haugerud       Rollaug      1844
 Knud Olsen Holtene             Hvidsöe      1843      Kirkesanger
 Mikkel Hansen Strömmen         Hvidsöe      1843
 Anen Tollefsen Bolstad         Gjerpen      1844
 Baruld Johnsen Strandskougen   Drangedal    1843      Kari Kristine
   Aase Helene, Helge Marie
 Knud Aslaksen Gjöttil          Laurdal      1843 1803 Thone 1816
 Niels Torstensen Seim          Leirdal      1844 1812 Mari
   Ingeleif, Torsten, Britha
 Christen Olsen Hole            Vos          1844 1813
 Tollef Olsen Kaase             Laurdal      1844
 Johannes Johnson Berge         Laurdal      1843 1791 Birgit
 Ellef Anderson Berg            Sandsværd    1843
 Tollef Johannesen Berge        Laurdal      1843 1814
 Jens Pedersen Vehus            Rollaug      1842 1814
 Knud Osmundsen Dahle           Sillejord    1843
 Vetle Osmundsen Dahle          Sillejord    1843
 Richard Björnsen Rotkjön       Vinje        1842 1816
 Knud Aslaksen Juve             Hvidsöe      1843 1799 Gudbjör 1802
 Halvor Paulsen Grovum          Nissedal     1843
 Even Eilertsen Buaas           Krageröe     1843 1799
 Björn Olson Rom                Krageröe     1843
 Hellik Gundersen Vashovd       Flesberg     1842     Marith
 Peder Larsen Svartskuur        Eger         1843     Groe
   Marthe Marie, Grethe Sophie
 Thore Knudsen Nore             Rollaug      1842     Gjertrud
 Knud Kittilsen Baglie          Flesberg     1843
 Ole Ellingsen Fladland         Sogndal      1844
 Peder Kittilsen Byestölen      Vos          1843
 Tov Kittilsen Svimbil          Tind         1836 1801 Sigrid, 1800
   Kittil 1833, Ole, Gunhild 1843
 John Halvorsen Grovum          Nissedal     1843
 Ole Pedersen Selseng           Sogndal      1844
 Tarald Ellefsen Midböe[344]    Holt         1843       Anne
 Ole Helgesen Lien              Rollaug      1841       Thuri
   Barbro Larsdatter (her child), Ole
 Lars Johannesen Hollo          Hedemarken   1839       Marie
   Fredrik, Martin, Anders
 Gunstein Rolfsen Omdal         Moland       1844
 Odne Osmundsen Bondal          Moland       1843
 Halvor Larsen Stahlsbraaten    Rollaug      1843 1820
 Gjermund Knudsen Sunde         Rollaug      1839 1812
 Ole Knudsen Hjemdal            Laurdal      1844 1799
 Gunder Gundersen Vashovd       Flesberg     1842      Kirsti
 Ole Torgersen Bergland         Moe          1843
 Knud Ellingsen Doknæs          Holt
 Christen Lassesen Melaas       Sogndal      1844 1799 Aase, 1803
 Peder Larsen Hollo             Ringsager    1839
 Stener Evensen Bilstad         Moe          1843 1828
 Halvor Aslaksen Kostvedt       Vinje        1842      Sigrid
   Aslak 1845
 Ole Laurandsen Hogndalen       Sillejord    1843 1807
 John Halvorsen Vindlös         Laurdal      1844
 Even Jörgensen Iualen          Laurdal      1844
 Osmund Aslaksen Næstestue      Vinje        1843 1797
 Hermund Endresen Huke          Leganger     1844 1811 Kirsti
   Endre, Lars
 Neri Tarjesen Hauge            Hvidsöe      1844
 Peder Larsen Gjerde            Leganger     1844 1797
 Halvor Laurantsen Fosheim      Sillejord    1843 1810
 Aslak Olsen Gjergjord          Hvidsöe      1843
 Ole Iversen Huseböe            Leganger     1844 1808 Ingeleiv, 1805
   Anna  1833, Gjertrud 1837, Lars 1840, Iver 1844
 Lars Larsen Hollo              Ringsager    1839      Gunbjör
 Ole Knudsen Dyrland            Sillejord    1843 1819
 Kittil Kittilsen Rinden        Moland       1843 1791
 Ole Sondessen Brækken          Vinje        1844
 Sjur Sjursen Ölmen             Sogndal      1844 1816
 Gotskalk Odmundsen Meland      Vos          1844 1806
 Thone Aslaksdatter Lien        Laurdal      1843 1807
 Anna Larsdatter Eggum[345]     Leganger     1843 1811
   (widow, one child, Anna)
 Stephen Knudsen Gilderhus      Vos          1838 1813 Anne, 1806
 Elling Olsen Fladland          Sogndal      1844
 Knud Annundsen Jamsgaard       Vinje        1843
 John Osmundsen Suböe
 Henrik Olsen Hæve              Vos          1844 1800
   Berge 1833
 Reinert Andreas Gunsteinsen    Moland       1844
 Clemet Larsen Stahlsbraaten    Modum        1843
 Johannes Larsen Hollo          Ringsaker    1839 1822 Andrine
 Ingeborg Olsdatter Trovatten,
   Enke                         Laurdal  1843
 Ole Herbransen Mörkvold        Rollaug      1842
 Aslak Evensen Groven           Laurdal      1843 1802
 Björn Olsen Hustvedt           Vinje        1843
 Amund Olsen Jordet             Moland       1843 1816
 Tollef Kittilsen Rinden        Moland       1843 1826
 Gunder Kittilsen Rinden        Moland       1843 1823
 Ole Andersen Værken            Leganger     1844 1823
 Osmund Vetlensen Dahle         Sillejord    1843
 Herbrand Tollefsen Mörkvold    Rollaug      1842
 Knud Helliksen Roe             Tind         1839      Anne
 Ole Larson Strömi              Vos          1844 1796
 Anund Olsen Drotning           Vinje        1843 1819 Lisbeth[346]
 Gunleg Johnsen Haugelie        Hvidsöe      1844
 Aslak Björnson Rotkjön         Vinje        1842 1826
 Thron Halvorsen Gjötil         Laurdal      1843 1819
 Ole Aslaksen Rorge             Laurdal      1843      Gunhild
 Abraham Knudsen Rönningen      Krageröe     1843      Ingeborg
   Knud
 Erik Knudsen Rönningen         Krageröe     1843
 Halvor Eilertsen Dahl          Krageröe     1843      Anne
   Eilert, Olaus, Carl
 Niels Johnson Luraas           Tind         1843 1789
 Anver Halvorsen Grovum         Nissedal     1843 1814
 Anders Halvorsen Grovum        Nissedal     1843 1824
 Tarje Nerisen Hauge            Hvidesöe     1844
 Ole Sörensen Quistrud          Tind         1843
 Knud Halvorsen Teisberg        Laurdal      1843 1803
 Thorbjörn Guttormsen Viig      Sillejord    1843
 Ole Gulbrandson Holtan         Flesberg     1843
 Niels Olsen Grovum             Nissedal     1843
 Knud Olsen Lien                Laurdal      1844 1797 Ragnhild
 Halvor Johnsen Donstad         Hvidesöe     1843 1816
 Torstein Gunlegsen Bringa      Sillejord    1843 1817
   Askjer Knudsen Hjemdal, Pige
 John Olsen Haugen              Nordrehaug   1840
 Harald Kittilsen Dahle         Sillejord    1843
 Halvor Kittilsen Luraas        Tind         1841 1814 Jorand, 1815
   Kittil 1840, Niels 1845, Ingeborg
 Lars Gunlegsen Sundböe         Sillejord    1843 1829
 Berit Levorsdatter Bergerud    Flesberg     1843
 Anders Andersen Fenne          Vos          1838
 Aadne Björnson Lien            Hvidesöe     1843
 Botolf Larsen Lunde            Vos          1844
 Knud Thoresen Nore             Rollaug      1842
 Aslau Thorsdatter Kaase        Rollaug      1842
 Gulbrand Gulbrandsen Holtan    Flesberg     1843
 Kittil Gulliksen Baglie        Flesberg     1843
 Inbeborg Tollefsdatter
                Midtlien        Moland       1843
  Tellef, Gunhild, Thone
 Mons Simonsen Halfsrund        Viig         1844
 Halvor Danielsen Stensrud      Sanne        1849
 Björn Osmundsen Næstestue      Vinje        1843
 Eigil Aslaksen Lien            Vinje        1843
 Erik Henriksen Hæve            Vos          1844
 Ole Nielsen Grovum             Nissedal     1843
 Torsten Torstenson Gaarden     Tind         1842    Anna
 John Johnson Landsværk         Hjendahl     1842    Anne
   Peder, John         Omgangsskolelærer,     Kirkesanger
 Tollef Sigurdsen Tveten        Laurdal      1844
 Juri Knudsdatter Holtene       Hvidesöe     1843
 Turi Hermandsdatter
                Fjerrestad[350] Viig         1844
 Martha Ellingsdatter Fladland  Sogndal      1844
 Ingeborg Halvorsdatter
                   Hagedalen    Hvidesöe     1843
 Anna Christensdatter Melaas    Sogndal      1844
 Martha Henriksdatter Hæve      Vos          1844
 Aslau Eivindsdatter Qualen     Laurdal      1844
 Guro Olsdatter Strömi          Vos          1844
 Synneva Olsdatter Huseböe      Sogndal      1844 1831[351]
 Ingeborg Tarjesdatter Dyrdal   Laurdal      1843 1829
 Ragnhild Herbrandsdatter
                     Mörkvold   Rollaug      1842
 Gjertrud Brynildsdatter Sanve  Vos          1844
 Knud Olsen Hjemdal             Laurdal      1844
 Thorbjörn Gunderson Fladland   Hvidesöe     1843
 Halvor Nerisen Hauge           Hvidesö      1844
 Asbjörn Eivindson Qualen       Laurdal      1844
 Colbein Nielson Fjeldbye       Vos          1844
 Tollef Anesen Bolstad          Gjerpen      1844
 Ole Gundersen Bringen          Sillejord    1843 1830
 Tarje Aslaksen Lien            Moe          1843
 Ole Henriksen Hæve             Vos          1844
 Gunhild Aslaksdatter Giöttil   Laurdal      1843 1792
 Kristi Halstensdatter Vinje    Vos          1844 1821
 Knut Jarandsen Bosböen         Sillejord    1843
 Ole Olsen Stuen                Sövde        1843 1814 Aslan
   Aslak, Ole
 Gunvor Johannesdatter Berge    Laurdal      1843 1822
 Gunleg Torkildsen Sundböe      Sillejord    1843 1785 Margit
 Gunder Olsen Skrabak           Sillejord    1843
 Ole Anderson Sanden            Sillejord    1843 1821
 Kittil Tovson Aase             Sillejord    1843
 Liv Pedersdatter Bjaaen, Enke  Sillejord    1842
 Johannes Anderson Aabö         Hvidesöe     1843
 Ole Knudsen Gilderhus          Vos          1839 1817 Martha
   Britha
 Lars Nilsen Væhle              Vos          1844 1803
 Lars Torgersen Röte            Vos          1840 1819 Ingeborg, 1822
   Torge 1845
 Torstein Levorsen Bergerud     Flesberg     1842      Kirsti
   Levor
 Anne Marie Halvorsdatter Thorstad,
   enke                         Lier         1843 1809
 Thore Olsen Kaase              Rollaug      1842      Anne
 Niels Larsen Bolstad           Vos          1837      Anne
   Lars, Ingeborg
 Ole Sjurdsen Gilderhus         Vos          1840 1814 Eli
   Martha 1845, Syvert 1845
 Lars Davidsen Rekve            Vos          1839 1818 Ingeborg
 Ole Larsen Dygsteen            Vos          1843      Anna
 Niels Cornelius Nielson Tveten Sandsværd    1844      Anna Kirstine
 Osmund Osmundsen Lunde         Vinje        1842
 Niels Ellefsen Masterud        Bamble       1843 1816
 Væren Svendsen Tveten          Laurdal      1844
 Even Olsen Unskard             Hallingdal   1843      Sigrid
   Ole, Mari
 Aasild Torgrimsdatter Strand   Moland       1843 1774
 Anders Nielsen Grove           Vos          1843      Borgilda
 Anders Halskusen Sanden        Sillejord    1844
 Even Sörensen Bjaaland         Laurdal      1844
 Barbro Evensdatter[347]        Sannikedal   1843 1827
 Eilert Evensen Buaas           Sannikedal   1843 1829
 Aslak Anundsen Juvet           Laurdal      1843      Barbro
   Thore, Thov, Thone
 Even Olsen Ramberg             Vinje        1844
 Gunhild Nielsdatter Luraas     Tind         1826
 Aslau Nielsdatter Luraas       Tind         1829
 Jacob Jarandsen Bosböen        Sillejord    1843
 Gulleck Torstensen Saue        Voss         1840 1821
 Dönaut Torgeirsdatter Rölje    Voss         1844 1820
 Ole Knudsen Schærdal[348]      Urland, Sogn 1843
 Ole Knudsen Trængeklev         Sillejord    1843 1816
 Knud Ingebrigtsen Gjerde       Sogndal      1844      Synneva
 Ole Gunlegsen Sundböe          Sillejord    1843 1819
 Knud Olsen Asdöhldalen         Lier         1843 1821
 Johannes Christiansen Bjelde   Sogndal      1844      Christie[349]
 Hans Thowsen Ederklip          Rollaug      1843
 Lars Henricksen Lien           Ness         1845 1790 Jorand, 1787
                                (Hallingdal)
 Mette Larsdatter Lien          Ness         1845 1823
 Henrich Larsen Lien            Ness         1845 1826
 Ole Höljesen Yttreböe          Hvidesöe     1842      Margit
   Johanne, Anne
 Ingebregt Ingebrechtsen Næse   Wiigs
                                Prestegjæld  1845      Johanne
   John, Ingebrecht, Gjertrud
 Gudve Nielsdatter Droksvold,
                         Enke,  Voss         1844
 Anders Ellingsen Aase          Wiigs
                                Prestegjæld  1845 1810
 Johannes Jensen Næse           Wiig         1845      Eli
 Jens Johannesen Næse           Wiig         1845
 Sjur Magnesen Sætre            Vos          1844
 Mons Lassesen Melaas           Sogndal      1844 1787 Martha, 1796
 Ole Andersen Melaas            Sogndal      1844 1812 Martha[352]
   Mons 1840, Kari 1844
 Birgitte Johnsdatter Lien      Tind         1843
 Ingeborg Johnsdatter Lien      Tind         1843
 Niels Nielsen Girl             Næss,                  Christine
                                Hallingdal   1845 1817
   Niels 1841, Mari, 1843, Iver, 1845
 Ole Gulliksen Kjerre           Laurdal      1845
 Gjertrud Olsdatter Sælabakka   Rollaug      1842 1822
 Lasse Sjursen Lillesand        Vig          1845 1820
 Knud Laavesen Aaker            Laurdal      1845 1797
 Lars Knudsen Aaker             Laurdal      1845 1825
 Wetle Torjusen Haatvedt        Laurdal      1845      Birgit
 Torjus Vetlesen Haatvedt       Laurdal      1845
 Aasne Evensdatter Rue          Laurdal      1845
 Peder Monsen Loven[353]        Sogn         1845 1811 Johanna
 Jens Torgersen Tærum           Sogn         1845 1801
   Torger 1844, Unni
 Ingeborg Olsdatter Kammerfos   Sanikedal    1845
 Sörine Johannesdatter Helle    Sanikedal    1845
 Birgith Pedersdatter Tverberg  Tind         1842
 Hans Olsen Asche               Laurdal      1845 1819
 Knud Larsen Bjaaland           Laurdal      1845
 Gunder Tollefson Qvaale        Laurdal      1845 1823
 Iver Hansen Næse               Sogn         1845 1797
 Anders Sjursen Ovreböe         Sogn,        1845 1799 Anne
                                  Lyster
   Ole 1834, Andrine 1838, Christine 1841
 Ole Syvertsen Skotter          Laurdal      1845 1813
 Halvor Svennungsen Barstrak    Drangedal    1845      Signe
 Anne Marie Christensdatter     Drangedal    1845
 Thor Larsen Skareböe           Sanikedal    1845 1830
 Britha Hansdatter Quamme       Vig          1845
 Ole Vetlesen Qualen            Laurdal      1845 1812
 Anders Olsen Askje             Laurdal      1845
 Stener Halvorsen Junnsaas      Sande        1845
 Knut Erichsen Rokne            Voss         1840 1820 Cherstie[354]
 Ole Tostensen Gaarden          Tind         1843
 Torbjörn Ellefson Skaate       Krageröe     1845 1814
 Anders Olsen Skolaas           Laurdal      1843 1817
 Aslak Olsen Midgaarden         Laurdal      1844 1819
 Anders Evensen Trovatten       Laurdal      1843
 Kittil Rolleifsen Leguam       Sande        1844      Liv
   Rolleif
 Torgeim Olsen Askje            Laurdal      1845
 Ole Andersen Droksvold         Vos          1844
 Sjur Colbeinsen Droksvold      Vos          1844
 Jacob Thomsen Aase             Sillejord    1843
 Ole Tollefsen Quaale           Laurdal      1845 1816
 Gunder Torgeson Sundet         Moe          1843
 Lars Ellefsen Mastrei          Bamble       1843
 Jens Ellefsen Mastrei          Bamble       1843
 Knud Sörensen Quistrud         Tind         1843
 Gunild Kittelsdatter Börte,
                        Enke    Böe          1845    (three children)
 Claus Gjermundsen Traae        Drangedal    1845
 Kittil Torjusen Börte          Böe          1845
 Iver Ingebrechtsen Yttrelie    Sogn         1845         Fraflyttet
 Johannes Olsen Finne           Viig         1845
 Ole Olsen Skrabak              Sillejord    1843 1823
 Niculs Halvorsen Aasen         Laurdal      1845 1826
 Anders Johnson Aaböe           Hvidesöe     1845
 Kittil Kittilsen Stohrmyr      Böe          1845 1815
 Andreas Larsen Hollo           Ringsaker    1843
 Ole Anundsen Buina             Flesberg     1842      Helene
   Anne 1846
 Iver Knudsen Gilderhus         Vos          1845 1810
 Johannes Johannesen Mænæs      Wiig         1845      Sigrid
 Ole Olsen Næse                 Wiig         1845
 Aslak Andersen Aaböe           Hvidesöe     1845
 Ole Pedersen Næse              Wiig         1845
 Erich Evensen Helle            Sanikedal    1845 1822
 Knudt Bendt Nielsen Helle      Sanikedal    1845
 Tollef Olsen Haatvedt          Laurdal      1845
 Peder Simon Asmundsen          Sanikedal    1845
 Endre Andersen Vraae           Hvidesöe     1843
 Lars Davidson Mölster          Vos          1844 1814
 Anne Gislesdatter Hamre        Flesberg     1842 1797
 Halvor Hansen Dalstiel         Hvidesöe     1842
 Thomas Tostensen Seim          Leirdal      1844 1827
 Margrethe Olsdatter Gjeide     Leirdal      1845
 Sebjörn Thoresen Nore          Rollaug      1842
 Östen Olsen Blomhauge          Tind         1843
 Halvor Staalesen Sandbæk       Laurdal      1844
 Halvor Gulliksen Bringa        Sillejord    1843
 Peder Torjussen Tallakshavnen  Krageröe     1845
 Torjus Pedersen Tallakshavnen  Krageröe     1845
 Ole Pederson Tallakshavnen     Krageröe     1845
 Guttorm Torbjörnsen Wiig       Laurdal      1843
 Halvor Asbjörnsen Juve         Hvidesöe     1842      Birgith
     Liv, Asbjörn, Eigild, Asmund, Anne
 Helge Sigurdsen Grimsrud       Tind         1842
     Sigurd
 Aslak Olsen Oisnes             Vinje        1842      Anne
     Olaus
 Torbjörn Knudsen Rödningen     Krageröe     1843
 Ole Vendelbo Olsen Gjerlöv     Urland       1844      Ragnild. Er
     Ole Stephanus                                          Fraflyttet
 Sjur Iversen Romören           Leganger     1845 1824 Brithe
 Ole Tostensen Aasnæs           Winje        1842      Ingeborg
 Knud Danielsen Stubberud       Skauger      1844 1798 Martha Maria
     Hans Daniel 1839
 Peter Knudsen Stubberud        Skauger      1844 1824
 Halvor Jensen Stubberud        Skauger      1843 1803
 Aadne Eigilsen Ögaard          Vinje        1843      Guro
     Ole, Torbjörn 1843
 Lars Pedersen Haukelien        Rögen        1843      Bertha
     Anne, Hans, Caroline
 Niels Sjursen Gilderhus        Vos          1839      Ragnild
     Martha Maria 1846
 Sigurd Johnson Gislöv          Winje        1845
 Ole Nielsen Steenhjerde        Leganger     1845 1821
 Hæge Olsdatter Aasnæs          Vinje        1842
 Kittil Hansen Strömmi          Hvidesöe     1843 1790 Dagne
 Anne Halvorsdatter Limesand    Viig         1845
 Halvor Torjussen Börte         Böe          1845 1826
 Ole Larsen Fimrede             Sogndal      1846 1810
 Endre Endresen Rudi            Vos          1839 1796 Jorand
   Maritha  1838, Olene
 John Torjussen Homme            Hvidesöe    1843
 Stephen Olsen Dahle             Viig        1845 1825
 Torsten Olsen Brække            Urland      1845 1800 Anne[355]
   Ole, Ragnilda
 Knud Olsen Aaretuen             Leirdal     1844 1812 in Urland Anne
   Gunilda Christine (Urland), Annie Marie, Ole (Leirdal)
 Torstein Olson Bjodland         Haae,       1826 1803 Guro
                                  Jæderen
   Ole, John, 1846
 Vetle Thronsen Norgaarden       Hvidosöe    1843
 Hans Gulbrandsen Mörkvolden     Rollaug     1845 1805 Ingeborg
 Gabriel Björnson[357]           Drammen     1843 1820
 Hellik Helliksen Berge          Flesberg    1843 1821
 Ole Aslaksen Lien               Vinje       1843 1821
 Ole Anundsen Jamsgaard          Vinje       1846 1816
 Hermand Thomassen Vee           Leirdal     1845 1805 Ingeborg
   Johanne 1838 Ingeborg Andrea, 1843                   Andrea b. 1813
 Ole Olsen Svakur                Leirdal     1845 1820
 Thomas Johnsen Landeman         Sandsværd   1842 1804  Stine
 Erik Johannesen Ytterlie        Urland      1845 1802  Martha,1798
   Ingeborg 1831, Lars 1833, Anna 1858, Haaken 1835, Thomas, 1840
 Johannes Eriksen Ytterlie       Urland      1845 1829
 Lars Gundersen Gjellum          Urland      1845 1811 Gjertrud,
   Knud, Marthe                                               1817
 Thorbjorn Olsen Gjesme          Urland      1846 1802 Inga
   Ingeborg, Kari
 Ole Olsen Gjesme                Urland      1846 1805 Ingeborg
   Ole
 Jens Bottolsen Bergvam          Urland      1845 1821
 Tosten Bottolsen Bergvam        Urland      1845
 Ellend Thronsen Qvale           Sogndal     1846 1802 Dordei
   Synneva, Thron, Baar, Johannes, Ellend, Dorthe
 Vetle Gundersen Felland         Moe         1846 1819 Astrid 1821
     Gunder, Else 1844
 Ole Halvorsen Kirkeböe          Laurdal     1841 1799
 Kittil Torgersen Teigseth       Flesberg    1846 1805 Berit
 Kittil Kittilsen Teigseth       Flesberg    1846 1829
 Gullik Gislesen Hamre           Flesberg    1846 1795
 Hellik Gulliksen Hamre          Flesberg    1846 1829
 Ole Tollefsen Hulderöen         Krageroe    1846 1813 Anne 1821
 Jörgen Kittilsen Strömmen       Hvidesöe    1843
 Abraham Kittilsen Strömmen      Hvidesöe    1843
 Anders Helliksen Texle          Flesberg    1846 1791 Gunhild
 Lars Thorbjörnsen Gjesme        Urland      1846 1829
 Ole Ingebretsen Homstad         Overhalden  1846 1794 Marie 1798
 Knud Eriksen Aaretuen           Leirdal     1846 1796 Christie  1796
 Gullik Halvorsen Holtan         Flesberg    1846 1791 Anne
   Levor 1830, Berit 1836
 Halvor Gulliksen Holtan         Flesberg    1846 1823
 Joseph Johannesen Gjellum       Leirdal     1845      Anna
 Amund Olsen Strömi              Vos         1844 1828
 Eigild Eigildsen Bredland       Laurdal     1845
 Johannes Andersen Leidal        Vos         1845 1819
 Tollef Olsen Hulderöen          Krageröe    1843 1781 Helga  1777
 Thösstol Tellefsen Hulderöen    Krageröe    1843 1821
 Anders Sjursen Hundere          Sogndal     1846 1817
 Iver Knudsen Seim               Vos         1846 1806 Anna
 Isak Jacobsen Nordboe           Moland
 Guri Pedersdatter               Sogndal     1844 1831
 Niels Olsen Selseng             Sogndal     1846 1802 Ingeborg, 1802
 Ole Christiansen Selseng        Sogndal     1846       Martha
   Britha, Gjertrud, Christian
 Ole Rasmussen Reinen            Moe         1846 1775 Ingeborg, 1794
   Michel 1832, Rasmus 1837
 Ole Olsen Reinen                                      1827
 Knud Saammudsen Aae             Laurdal     1843 1817 Aslaug
 Anders Johannesen Tömmerstigen  Vardal      1846    Ringsaker, 1807
                                                         Maria, 1807
   Johannes, Olive 1836 (Vardal), Peder 1843 (Vardal), Karen Marie, 1845
 Johannes Leiersen Svanejord     Hvidesöe    1846 1818
 Ole Björgosen Oftelie           Laurdal     1846 1799 Thone, 1801
 Knud Stephensen Tveit           Vos         1845 1801
 Johannes Johannesen Værlie      Sogndal     1846 1816
 Marthe Knudsen Brække           Urland      1846 1813
 Peder Larsen Lien               Næs i Halld 1845
 Ole Torjussen Flom              Urland      1844 1794 Anna, 1798
   Ole 1830, Anders 1823[358]
 Niels Nielsen Giri              Næs i Halld 1846 1793
 Ole Gulliksen Barstad           Sillejord   1842 1791 Ingeborg,
   Vetle, Eivind, Halvor                                    1799
 Halvor Olsen Gjerjord           Vinge       1843 1822
 Henrik Halvorsen Lien           Næs, Halld  1846 1831
 Ole Johnson Hölstad             Viig        1845 1810 Gjertrud,
   Britha 1831, Ragnald 1823, Johannes 1836, Olive 1843     1800
 Nicolai Halvorsen Paus          Hvidesöe    1846
 Jens Sjursen Hundere            Sogndal     1846 1824
 Martha Olsd. Selseng            Sogndal     1844
 Ole Værnsen Skotter             Laurdal     1845
 Ole Olsen Huset                 Holden      1844 1821 Kirsten
                                                         Maria, 1825
   Ole, Karen, Andrea            Sugar Creek 1846      Sugar Creek
                                                         döbt
 Ole Olsen Huset                 Holden      1846 1790 Anna
   Gunder, Hans, Anders, Aslaug Maria, Karen Maria
 Christen Tellefsen Hulderöen    Krageröe    1846      Karen Maria
   Tellef, Villam
 Ole Olsen                       Laurvig     1844      Anne,
                                                   Christiania 1843,
                                                          fraflyttet
 Anders Olsen Bærstad            Drangedal   1846
 Ole Andersen Bærstad            Drangedal   1846
 Kari Olsdatter Dale             Viig        1845 1828
 Ole Gundersen Felland           Moe         1846 1826
 Simon Monsen Halfrund           Viig        1845 1774
 Torbjörn Halvorsen              Vinje       1845
 Björgo Haraldsen                Vinje       1845
 Thomas Johnsen                  Drangedal   1846
 Niels Knudsen Grovund           Sogndal     1846 1822 er flyttet til
                                                       Spring Prairie,
                                                       Menighed
 Aanund Monsen Njös              Leganger    1846 1808 skal være död
                                                            i Milwaukee
 Britha Samsonsdatter            Leganger    1846 1810
 Unni Lassesdatter               Leganger    1846 1791
 Ole Henriksen Fadness           Vos         1846      Synneva
 Knud Henriksen Brumborg         Vos         1846 1813
 Anders Sandersen                Aal, Halld  1846 1807 Aagot,  1821
 Anders Knudsen                  Holden      1846 1812
 John Henrikson Fadness          Voss        1846
 Aale Thorsen Hagen              Aal, Halld  1846 1802 Astrid
 Anders H. Ödegaard              Hafsloe     1845 1792 Martha
 Tege  (---- ?)                  Tind        1843 1821
 Halvor Johnson Ödegaarden       Laurdal     1846 1805
 Gunder Gunderson Felland        Moe         1846 1810 Thone
 Lisbeth Olsdatter Huset         Holden      1844 1796
 Tollef Gunderson Fladland
 Kittil Thoreson Svimbil
 Juul Gislesen Hamre             Flesberg    1842 1805 Anne
   Gisle, Kjersti, Gunder
 Johannes Ingebretsen Gjerde     Sogndal     1846
 Ole Gregoriussen Vestendahl     Hvidesöe    1843 1798
 Ole Johnson Bjon                Bamble      1846
 Claus Johnson                   Bamble      1846
 Jörgen Johnson                  Bamble      1846
 Erik Larsen Grov                Hafsloe     1845
 Anfind Hansen Biestöl           Viig        1846 1796
 Even Anderson Östbergreie       Ringsaker   1847 1793
 Tellef Aslaksen Kostvedt        Vinje       1843 1820
 Gunder Östensen Jordahl         Kinservig   1847      Sigtrud
 Halvor Ellefson Bradlos         Krageröe    1846 1828
 Anders Ellefsen Bradlos         Krageröe    1846 1829
 Hans Mikkelsen Lote             Kinservig   1847 1817 Britha
 Bottolf Johannesen Grinde       Leganger    1846 1799 Marhi, 1806
   Marhi, 1833, Peder, 1839, Johanne, 1834
 Aslak Hansen Halferdalen        Hvidesöe    1843 1820
 Aslak Knudsen Midböe            Vinje       1843
 Knud Svordesen Rogndal          Laurdal     1846 1822
 Torstein Eriksen Rokne          Vos         1845 1824
 Iver Nielsen                    Vos         1845
 Gunleg Torkilsen Oversaker      Laurdal     1846 1816
 Endre Rasmussen Ödegaard        Lyster      1847 1826
 Ole Olsen Loe                   Nordre      1847 1813 Ingeborg, 1808
                                  Aurdal
   Ole, 1842
 Hermund Thomassen Aarebroe      Leirdal     1846 1816
 Ole Henriksen Hippe             Nordre      1847 1812 Guri  (Slidre)
                                  Aurdal
   Astrid, Marit, Ragnhild, Henrik
 Hans Johnson Dahle                           vider ikke hvor han er
 Hans Sjursen Urlandvangen
 Osmund Osmundsen Kjerre
 Knud Knudsen Gilderhus          Vos         1845 1824
 Mikkel  Gulliksen  Erdahl       Hardanger   1847 1807 Thorbjör,
                                                              1809
   Sigrid 1832, Ragne 1833, Augund 1838, Torbjör, Gullik, Mikkel, Christie
 Erik Sjursen Fliseram           Vos         1844 1811
 Sylfest Sjursen Fliseram        Vos         1846 1819
 Anders Helleksen Lande          Flesberg    1847 1786
 Torger Brynildsen Mörkve        Vos         1845 1817
 Thor Thorbjörnsen Kingeland     Vinje       1847 1807
 Ole Hermansen Alne              Hafsloe     1847 1808
 Hans Pedersen Pladsen           Hafsloe     1847 1819
 Peder Sylfestsen Aaberge        Hafsloe     1847 1819 (Sogndal)
 Lars Osmundsen Juvet            Laurdal     1846 1798 Inbegorg
 Johannes Sjursen Hundere        Sogndal     1846 1811
 Pernille Johannesdatter         Ringsaker   1848 1794
 Peder Amund Egdetvedt           Vos         1846 1798
 Colbein Torkildsen Edgetvedt    Vos         1846 1816
 Ole Gundersen                   Moe         1846 1796
 Nicolai Arneson Auland
 Peder Olsen Brandstad           Biri        1846 1799 Erika, 1847,
     Agnethe, Eline, Pauline, Otto, Martinus                   1806
 Jens Skaksen Bahuus             Sogndal     1847 1817
 Tarje Halvorson Mörkve          Moland      1843 1806
 Erik Thorsen Svenderesde..t     Rollaug     1846 1806
 Anders Nielsen Lie              Vos         1841 1814 Gunvor, 1805
     Martha 1838, Niels 1841, Sjur, 1848,  Anders 1848
 Svend Larsen Lund               Graven      1847 1813 Guri
 Halvor Björgosen Huverstad      Hvidesöe    1844
 Ole Andersen Lande              Flesberg    1847 1826
 Gullik Andersen Lande           Flesberg    1847 1823
 Jacob Jacobsen Njos             Leganger    1846 1818 Mette, 1821
     Kari, 1844
 Tollef Halvorsen Gvale          Slidre      1847 1829
 Sjur Johannesen Quam            Sogndal     1847 1847
 Ingebret Pedersen Erdahl        Hardanger   1847 1809 Anne
 Guttorm Johannesen Buo          Hardanger   1847 1848 Ragnhilde
 Johannes Larsen Erdahl          Graven      1847 1809 Catarine
 Hellik Helliksen Foslieiet      Flesberg    1842 1812 Sigrid
     Hellik 1833, Anders 1835, Marit 1838, Christoffer 1841, Christine,
     Sigrid
 Johannes Anderson Tömmerstigen  Ringsaker
 Kjöstolf Gunderson Næset        Holden      1844 1808 Marie
     Gunder, Halvor, Ole
 Peder Halvorsen Moe             Gjerpen     1843 1821 Mari (Holdon
                                                         kom,  1844)
 Halvor Kittilsen Næstestug      Sillejord   1847 1822
 Ole Jörgensen Hustvedt          Omlie       1846 1823
 Ole Gundersen Brodalsgaard      Aal         1847 1801
 Ole Tollefsen Stölen            Herröe      1847      Martine
     Tollef
 Gunhild Saamundsdatter          Laurdal     1842 1798
 Hermund Olsen Offerdal          Leirdal     1846 1819 Kristi, 1814
     Ole, Anders
 Simon Atlesen Gjellum           Urland      1845 1825 Britha
 John Olson Herjedahl            Haug        1847 1802
 Ole Johnson Herjedahl           Haug        1847
 Svend Amundsen Sinnes           Hvidesöe    1848 1803 Dagne, 1812
 Tarald Nielsen                  Drangdal    1846 1825
 Gunder Torgesen Lie             Hvidesöe    1846 1808
 Anders Sjursen Gilderhus        Vos         1843 1798 Jaarand
 Gregor Halvorsen Eddingsaas     Sillejord   1847 1822
 John Olsen Eide                 Evindsvig   1848 1814
 Sjur Störksen Reque             Vos         1845 1809
 Zacharias Iversen               Leganger    1848 1817 Kari
     Johanne, Ivar
 Magne Nielsen Næsted            Vos         1848 1811
 Tallef Gjermundsen Gulsteen     Aal         1847 1816
 Niels Olsen Selseng             Sogndal     1848 1781 Ingborg, 1792
 Thoe Levorsen Svartedal         Vinje       1848 1818
 Niels Larsen Skjærve            Vos         1843 1813
 Bottolf Olsen Livbroen          Vos         1848 1797 Britha, 1797
 Johannes Jacobsen Hoyden        Vinje       1847 1795 Margit
 Jarrand Olsdatter Skrae         Moland      1846 1795
 Hans Amundsen Helland           Rennesöe    1848 1826
 Helge Sjursen Sætre             Vos         1848 1779
 Halvor Halvorsen Strand         Aurdal      1848 1779
 Tarje Tollefsen Felland         Moe         1846 1818
 Amund Larsen Felland            Moe         1846 1827
 Niels Hermansen Næse            Viig        1846 1825
 Bernt Mathias Taamsen           Herröe      1848 1821
 Ole Olson Tveten                Vinje       1845 1820
 Anders Ellingsen Quale          Sogndal     1848 1804 Christi
 Ole Siversen Kilen              Moe         1848 1812 Vinje 3
 Niels Björnson Farastad         Vinje       1845 1813      5
 Ole Johannesen Skauhovd         Vardal      1848 1817      4
 Ole Torkildsen Lislerud                          1842           2
 Amund Amundsen Braata           Flesberg    1847           1
 Ole Nerisen Kjære               Laurdal     1848           5 plus 2
 Thron Olsen Lindevigen          Laurdal     1848           3
 Odd Sjursen Naatvedt            Vos         1845 1817      6
 Knud Olsen Unneland             Vos         1845 1809      5
 Olaf Laavesen Bergland          Laurdal     1848           4
 Inga  Olsdatter                 Vos         1843           4
 Mikkel Larsen Hole              Vos         1846           2
 Michael Johannesen              Rollaug     1848           2
 Kari Gulliksdatter Lande, Enke  Flesberg    1847           1
 Halvor Halvorsen Strand         Valders     1849
 Ole Larsen Quammen              Hardanger   1847 1814      3
 Aslak Olsen Sandager            Hvidesöe    1848
 Lars Johannesen Quammen         Hardanger   1848 1823      2
 John Engbretsen Londe           Soldal      1848 1825      2
 Berge Aadren Brumberg           Vos         1848 1786      2
 Syvert Olsen Berge              Laurdal     1848           2
 Aslak Endresen Quammen          Hardanger   1847 1805      6
 Gunder Halvorsen Björnstad      Moland      1846 1807      3
                                 Aurdal                     2
 Knud Knudsen Bjelde             Urland      1847 1818      5
 Bendik Andersen Haave           Leganger                   2
 Anders Nicolaison Mastad        Vos         1848 1801      6
 Helge Olsen Botnen              Soldal      1848 1786      2
 Anand Björnson                  Biröen      1848
 Jacob Ingebretsen Gjerdene      Sogndal     1844 1803
 Ole Torkildsen Krogen           Lyster      1847           4
 Rasmus Nielsen                  Soröv i
                                 Danmark     1847 1805      5
 ...?                            Holden      1841           1
 Knud Bendiksen Nordstrand       Aurdal      1848 1824      3
 Colbein Olsen Saue              Vos         1837 1805 Anna, 1800
 Hans Olsen Kjörn                Rollaug     1848 1787 Jaarand, 1797
 Christian Tarjesen              Tnomoe      1849           2
                                 Flesberg                   1
 Tarje Aslaksen Groven           Moland      1846
 Gunder Osmundsen Brudal         Moland      1848           5 Kari
     Turi, Margit, Osmund, Eivind
 Kittil Olsen Solberg            Hvidesöe    1849
 Knud Olsen Hostvedt             Hvidesöe    1846
 Abraham Jacobsen Ongnevig       Lyngdal     1849 1806      7
                                 Böe                        2
 Stork Tarjesen Gjierum          Vos         1848
 Iver Gulbrandsen Ringsted       Slidre      1849 1812      7
                                 Hvidesöe                   1
 John Sjursen Björgan            Vos         1849 1798      6
 Sjur Johnson Björgan            Vos         1849           3
 Erik Mikkelsen Moland           Vos         1845           5
 Kirstine Andersdatter Sherping,
                       Enke      Urland      1849 1824      3
 Sondre Eivindsen Groven         Sillejord   1848 1804      5
 Ole Halvorson Ödegaard          Hjerdal 1848 (Siljord)1823 3 Gunhild
 Aamund Mikkelsen Sanden         Hvidesöe    1848           3
 Tollef Halvorsen Stornslie      Moe         1849
 Halvor Mathesen Præstholdt      Moe         1846
                                 Laurdal                    1
 Nicolai Mikkelsen Erdahl        Graven      1847
 Gunder Gundersen Hvideklev      Hvidesöe    1845
                                 Moe                        1
 Elling Andersen Qualen          Sogndal
 Ole Nielsen Selseng             Sogndal                    4
 Jens Pedersen Tyvang            Krageröe    1843         Audi
 Peder Knudsen Rodningen         Krageröe    1843
 Osmund Nerisen Tveten           Vinje       1845
 Peder Povelsen Schogen          Gran        1849
                                 Slidre                     1
 Martha Svendad Legreid          Hardanger   1849
 Johannes Halvorsen              Sandsværd                  3
 Peder Nielsen Steengjerde       Leganger    1847           2
 Torger Endresen Groe            Vos         1846 1816      2
 Lars Bergessen Tillung          Vos         1847 1819      2
 Thor Eriksen Valle              Bamble      1849 1830
 Christen Tellefsen Ulleröen     Bamble
 Christian Hermansen             Hafslo      1837 1816
 Ole Christiansen Teigen
 Jacob Jacobsen Njos             Leganger                   2
 Gjermund Aslaksen Dalen         Moe         1849
 Niels Torjusen Grötherud        Flesberg    1849           3
 Ole Eielsen Næset               Winje       1843  47 Aar   2
 Christen Olsen Saghougen        Gusdal      1849  45 Aar Gertrud
 Amund Anundsen Braata           Flesberg    1850  53 Aar   4
 Tolard Amundsen                 Vinje       1850
 Ole Olsen Stuen
 Andres Ellingsen Aasen          Viig, Sogn  1845         Sigrid
 Ole Monson Stop
 Ole Farnæs                                                      2
 Anfind Anundsen                 Vos         1845  53 Aar   3
 Knud Toresen Nore               Rollaug     1842  26 Aar
 Clemet Larsen Stalsbraaten                      har varet medlemmer
 Atle Simonsen Gjellum           Urland      1849  44 Aar  3 datter Kari
                                                              gift med
                                                              Johannes
                                                              E. Lie
 Hans Knudsen Ramsöe             Aadsland    1849  46 Aar
 Tosten Eriksen Ramsöe           Aadsland    1849  59 Aar
 Ommund Asbjörnson Stengjen[359] Sogndal     1849  34 Aar   2
 Knud Knudsen Rio                Vos         1844  60 Aar   2
 Halvor Brynildsen Lönne         Vos         1849  62 Aar   3
 Even Knudsen Raabeli            Slidre      1848  27 Aar
 Thorbjörn Guttomsen Viig        Sillejord   1843           3
 Ole Gundersen                   Moland      1850
 Helge Andersen Kirkebye         Hvidesöe    1849
 Ole Olsen Haugan                Sillejord   1842  30 Aar   2
 Ommund Larsen Quammen           Graven      1847  47 Aar   2
                                  (Hard)
 Johannes Johannsen Henjom       Sogn        1850  43 Aar  (Systrand)  2
 John Thorsen Lie                Hvidesöe    1850  42 Aar   2
 Thor Rollefsen                  Hvidesöe    1850  69 Aar
 Peder Ulrik Berntsen            Aa          1849  49 Aar  10
 Johannes Larsen Hedemarken      Ringsager   1839  28 Aar   4
 ....?                           Ringsager                  5
 Anders Andersen Grimeland       Omblie      1849  37 Aar
 Isak Olsen Suftestad            Nissedal    1850  28 Aar   4
 Iver Nielsen Evanger            Vos         1845  37 Aar   2
 Niels Olsen Anskjær             Vos         1850  32 Aar   7
 Torgrein Knudsen Tvedtene       Nissedal    1850  23 Aar
 Vilhelm Jörgensen Hegland       Krageröe    1850           3
 Simon Atlesen Gjellum           Urland      1845  26 Aar   2
 Eigild Eigildsen Breiland       Laurdal     1845           2
 Lars Josephsen Lie              Vos         1850  29 Aar   2
 Even Halvorsen Leifstad         Moe         1846  28 Aar
                                 Vos                        3
 Anders Torgersen Liinaas        Flesberg    1849 38½ Aar   6
 Nicolay Nielsen Tvete           Graven      1850  25 Aar   2
 Erik Johannesen Yttrelie        Urland      1845  49 Aar
 Gullik Gislesen Hamre           Flesberg    1846  55 Aar   3
 Ole Thoresen Nore               Nummdal     1842  25 Aar   3 plus 1
 Niels Halvorsen Langemoe        Sannikedal  1850  58 Aar   4
 Peder Johansen Klungehelt  Næs, Hedemarken  1849  58 Aar   5
 ....?                           Flaaberg    1849           2
 Knud Arnesen Tvedt              Kindservig  1850  25 Aar
 Iver Pedersen Skaar             Graven      1850  23 Aar  Lysten
 Anfind Stryksen Leidal
 Enke. Karen Halvorsdatter       Solum       1850  50 Aar   6
 Jens Brottolfen Berggvam        Urland      1845  30 Aar   4
 ....?                           Hvidesöe                   1
 Lars Hovelsen Bövre             Bier        1850  43 Aar   7
 Jens Johannesen Næse            Wiig        1845  23 Aar   2
 ....?[A]                        Ringsaker                  1
                                                              ----
                                                              2012

                                       J. W. C. DIETRICHSON.

  Den 28nde Mai, 1850.

  [341] To save space I have set the wife's name at the extreme right
        of the page, instead of below the husband's name; children's
        names are given in the second line. The English foot notes
        are my own additions. Caption in fourth column added by me.

  [342] Han bor paa Sun Prairie. Han arbeidede den förste Döbefont i
        Vestre Kirke, 1844.

  [343] Er flyttel til Norway Grove.

  [344] Married the widow Anne Gurine Engebrektsdatter in 1846.

  [345] Was married in 1845 to Sjur Colbeinsen Dröksvold.

  [346] Lisbeth Evensdatter Tvebækken, from Vinje.

  [347] Later married Tollef S. Aae; he was not in the congregation.

  [348] "Hans hustru er endnu i Norge, men han venter hende i
        Sommer." Added later: "han er död."

  [349] She was Christie Monsdatter Melaas; is still living
        (Stoughton, Wis.).

  [350] Later married Stephen Olsen Dahle.

  [351] She was born in Leganger.

  [352] Martha Monsdatter Melaas, b. 1818.

  [353] Same as Per Tredja.

  [354] They were married in 1845.

  [355] Came to America in 1843.

  [356] Born 1819 in Lærdal.

  [357] Er Justice of the Peace.

  [358] This is an error; Anders Flom was born in 1834.

  [359] Stenhjem?

  [A]   It will have been observed that it has been impossible to
        make out some of the names, the last part of the Register
        having been written in a very illegible hand.



                            CHAPTER XXXVIII

         _The Founding of the Norwegian Settlements of Norway
     Grove, Spring Prairie and Bonnet Prairie in Dane and Columbia
                        Counties, Wisconsin._


In the extreme northern part of Dane County in the Towns of Vienna,
Windsor and Bristol, a large number of Norwegian immigrants,
principally from Sogn, settled in 1846-1848, forming the nucleus of
what in a few years came to be one of the most prosperous settlements
in Southern Wisconsin. The first Norwegian in this section was Svennung
Nikkulson Dahle, who came from Flatdal in Telemarken in 1844 to
Koshkonong, and the next year purchased land and settled near Norway
Grove in the Town of Vienna. He was then only eighteen years old.[360]
Nearly all who came later were from Sogn, and Dahle was and remained
the only native of Telemarken in Vienna. In 1846 Erik Engesæter, from
Leikanger, Sogn, with family, including a son John, settled there. In
1847 Ole H. Farness (b. 1826) and wife Gertrude came from Sogn, Norway,
to Norway Grove. Erik C. Farness[361] (b. 1828) also came the same
year. These men both acquired large farms there in the course of time,
Ole Farness owning 530 acres. Arne Boyum and family, five in all, from
Outer Sogn, came in 1848 as did Knut K. Naas (b. 1810), with wife Alau
and family of four children from Kragerö.[362]

  [360] About 1858 he married Maline Öien (b. in Aardal, Sogn, in
        1835). Svennung Dahle died in 1872, the owner of 400 acres of
        land.

  [361] He was married to Ingeborg Grinde in 1851, Rev. A. C. Preus
        performing the ceremony. Ingeborg was the daughter of Botolf
        Grinde who came from Sogn in 1846 and settled on Liberty
        Prairie.

  [362] Two sons, Thomas and Isak, went to the War in 1860. Thomas
        was killed in the Battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862.
        Knut Naas died in 1868; his wife in 1887.

The first Norwegian to buy land in Windsor Township was Ingebrigt
Larson Tygum, from Systrand, Sogn, who immigrated in 1844, lived one
year in Muskego, then came to Windsor in 1845. For two years he seems
to have been the only Norwegian in the Town.[363] In 1852 Tygum sold
his farm in Windsor and moved into Vienna Township, buying the farm
at present occupied by the son Lars (b. 1849). In 1847 the following
settled in Windsor Township: Stephen Holum and family, who had
immigrated in 1845 and lived two years at Rock Prairie, Sjur Grinde
and family, and Truls E. Farness and wife.[364] These families are
intimately connected with the history of the Village of De Forest. A
son of S. Holum, namely Ole S. Holum (b. 1847), lives on 204 acres
of land adjoining the village. Ole Holum is a prominent democrat and
has held various offices of trust, being e. g. Register of Deeds in
1877-78.[365] In 1848 several families moved in, among them Lars
Eggum, Ole Haukness and family (ten in all), and Sjur S. Vangness and
family. Vangness had immigrated in 1844, first settled in Rock County,
then came to De Forest in 1848. He died there in 1878. The family
included a son, Sjur S. Vangness (b. 1816 at Vangsness in Sogn), whom
we meet with later as a man of much influence in the township; he owned
264 acres of land near De Forest.[366]

  [363] Larson married Brita (Dale) widow of Jon Eiken on Rock
        Prairie in 1847; she died in 1902, aged 89.

  [364] Farness came from Balestrand Parish.

  [365] Farness died in 1885, his wife died in 1902 at the home of
        her daughter, Mrs. H. T. Lerdall, Madison, Wisconsin.

  [366] As I shall not have occasion elsewhere to speak of the
        Township of Burke directly south of Windsor, I may here say
        that the first Norwegian settlers were Torkel Gullikson
        (b. 1815) and wife Margarete, whom he had married in 1843;
        they came to Pleasant Spring in 1844 and moved up to Burke
        the following year. For several years there came no more
        Norwegians.

In Bristol Township three families settled as early as 1846; namely
that of Botolf E. Bergum (b. 1816), who came there in the fall of 1846,
and continued to reside there until his death in 1904 (his wife died
in 1903; after a wedded life of fifty-four years),[367] Sjur Johnson
and wife Ingeborg and one son, and Erik Larson and wife and several
children.

  [367] They left five sons: Erik, Ellik, Peter, who live on Spring
        Prairie, Marcus (Deerfield), and John, who lives in Cottage
        Grove, and one daughter, Mrs. Peter Hagen, Spring Prairie.

In 1848 Hans H. Quamme came up to Bristol from Rock Prairie, where he
had settled in 1846, coming from Norway that year. During the next
three years so many immigrants came from Sogn and located in Norway
Grove that the settlement came to be called "Sogn." Among the many
families who located there at that time, John Ollis of Madison,
Wisconsin, writing in _Bygdejaevining_, page 341, names: "Engesæther,
Grinde, Farnes, Tygum, Eggum, Boyum, Huseböe, Hamre, Ohnstad, Slinde,
Sværen, Vangsness, Holum, Linde, Lidahl, Thorsnes, Fosse, Rendahl,
Ethun, Vigdahl, Ulvestad, Röisum, Svalem, Fjerstad, Henjum, Jerde,
Haukeness," besides all who were called Olson, Larson, Nilson,
Anderson, Peterson, Johnson, etc.

About ten miles northwest of Norway Grove, at Lodi in Columbia County,
a smaller settlement of immigrants from Hardanger takes its beginning
in 1847-48; although one family had settled there as early as 1844.
In that year Peder L. Ödvin (b. 1819) and wife Kathrine Spaanem, from
Ulvik in Hardanger, emigrated to America and went direct to Lodi. Ten
years later they moved to Springdale in Dane County.[368] In 1847 Peder
Fröland (see page 336) and Ole Jone, both from Hardanger, became the
founders of the Hardanger Settlement there. In 1846 Ammund Himle and
family from Voss immigrated and settled near Lodi, but below the Dane
County line.

  [368] Peder Ödvin and wife returned to Norway in 1893 to spend
        their declining days at Hardanger; Mrs. Ödvin died there
        in 1895. In 1902 the son, L. P. Ödvin, visited his father
        in Norway and brought him back to his home in Verona, Dane
        County, where he died in 1903.

The origin of the Spring Prairie Settlement in Columbia County, the
northern extremity of which is more specifically called Bonnet Prairie,
dates back to 1845. In that year four men settled about the same time
on Spring Prairie, namely: Odd Himle and Sjur S. Reque from Voss,
Anders Langeteig from Vik in Sogn, and Knud Langeland from Racine
County. The three first of these had families. Reque moved away again
four years later, settling on Liberty Prairie, not far from Deerfield.
Langeland, as we have recited above, was already in 1848 back in Racine
County as one of the founders of _Nordlyset_, the first Norwegian
newspaper published in this country; but Himle and Langeteig became
permanent settlers.

In his book _Nordmaendene i Amerika_ Langeland gives a circumstantial
account of his coming to Spring Prairie. He says that in August of
1845 he and Niels Torstensen, equipping themselves with a cook stove,
provisions, bedding, and all the necessities for camping out, drove
with oxen and a wagon from Racine via Koshkonong, following the regular
road to Madison (presumably going by West Koshkonong Church). But
Madison did not attract them. He says: "Madison had nothing remarkable
about it except its natural beauty and the big Territorial Building,
which looked very imposing among the small frame houses." These sons
of the land of mountains "were scared away by the big hills" where the
University is now situated, and turned east, driving almost as far
as Fort Winnebago, where Amund Rosseland, a friend of Langeland's,
from Norway, had recently settled. Not finding the marshes here very
inviting, and failing to meet Rosseland at home, they decided to turn
back. Camping out over night, they drove back twenty miles the next
day; then upon the advice of an American by the name of Young, they
turned east, and driving on a few miles, came upon an American by the
name of Gilbert, who was just engaged in erecting his log hut. The
prairie here was to their liking and they selected a site and in due
time entered a claim on land.

Langeland says there came no other Norwegians there that fall, but as
we have seen, three others did locate in other parts of the prairie,
about the time Langeland came there. That same fall Langeland went to
Milwaukee to take out pre-emption papers and he stopped at Koshkonong,
and told his countrymen there of the beauties of the prairies to the
north, and a little later he wrote letters to friends in La Salle
County, Illinois. From Milwaukee he says he brought back to Spring
Prairie with him a plow, a harrow, and other farm tools.

In the spring of 1846 Peder Fröland[369] came up there from La Salle
County, bringing with him two ox-teams and a wagon and farm tools,
but he seems to have been the only one who came from La Salle County;
a number of settlers, however, came from Boone County and Jefferson
Prairie to Spring and Bonnet Prairie in 1847-1850. In June, 1846,
Norwegian immigrants began to come in hosts from or via Koshkonong,
says Langeland. He and Fröland plowed about one hundred acres of
prairie land for the newcomers that season. Two years later Langeland
sold his claim and moved back to Racine County.

  [369] Who had come to America in 1837.

So it happened that also Spring Prairie became settled largely from
Koshkonong, and as this was the period in which immigration from Sogn
was taking place on a large scale, it was especially Sognings who
took possession also of this region; though a considerable number of
Vossings also gradually moved in. Reverend L. S. J. Reque writes me
that Spring Prairie is today almost exclusively a Sogning-Vossing
settlement, and the former predominate.

The Spring Prairie Settlement, whose beginnings have here been briefly
sketched, rapidly expanded north to Bonnet Prairie, this part of it
coming to be known as the Bonnet Prairie Settlement. The settlement
is located principally in Otsego Township, but partly in Hampdon and
surrounding towns. The first Norwegian settlers in this locality were
John Anderson and Kjel Anderson, who came in 1846, having immigrated
from Saude, Telemarken, that year.

The following is a list of the founders of the settlement as submitted
to me by Samuel Sampson of Rio, Wisconsin. Mr. Sampson (b. 1839) is the
only survivor of those who settled there at that time, being the son of
Thorbjörn Skutle. The year to the right of each name indicates the year
of immigration to America. All except the last two settled at Bonnet
Prairie in 1846; these two settled there in 1848.


     _Name_                          _Wife_         _Where from_

  John Anderson                     Anne           Saude       1844
  Kjel Anderson                     Ingebor        Saude       1844
  Hans Jörgensen Kjösvik            Kari           Holden      1847
  Peter Halvorson Valöen            Kirsti         Holden      1846
  Augon Aarness                     Ingeborg       Saude       1843
  Leif Johnson Dahle                Liv Marie      Saude       1843
  Tollef Olson Hawkos               Ingebor        Bö          1846
  Iver Vangen                       Martha         Aurland     1844
  Gunleik Olson Svalestuen          Ingebor        Saude       1844
  Knut Gunnelson Tveten             Margit         Numedal     1844
  Even Tostenson Indlæggen          Guro           Saude       1844
  Hans Hawkos Aase                  Anna           Bö          1846
  Hans Tollefson                    Helene         Saude       1846
  Johannes Frondal                  Ragnild        Aurland     1845
  Eilif Olson                       Johanne        Sogn        1845
  Mikkel Knutson                                   Sogn        1845
  Johannes Johanneson Gvaale        Kari           Saude       1845
  Halvor Shelby                     Ingri          Saude       1848
  Thorbjörn Sampson Skutle          Anna           Voss        1848

Since the above was written I have received from Reverend L. S. J.
Reque of Morrisonville, Wisconsin, further facts relative to the
earliest settlers there. The earliest records of the Bonnet Prairie
Church kept by Reverend A. C. Preus show that the testimonial of
emigration was issued to "Eivind T. Indlæggen." April 5, 1843, to
"Johannes Johannesen" April 10th, 1843, to John Anderson and wife
May 3d and 6th, 1843, to "Hans Olsen Haukaas" May 7th, 1843. Also to
"Thorbjörn Samsonsen and wife Anna Ellingsdatter" May 13th, 1844.
As it is probable that these emigrated at the time of issue of the
testimonial of emigration the table should be corrected with reference
to these names. During the intervening three years most of the above
had lived in Boone County, Illinois, whither also some of the later
settlers came en route to Bonnet Prairie. Thorbjörn Skutle and family
who came from Voss, sailing on the ship _Hercules_, located first at
Jefferson Prairie. T. Skutle and his wife both died in 1897, age 88 and
91 respectively.



                             CHAPTER XXXIX

            _Blue Mounds in Western Dane County, Wisconsin_


The extensive Norwegian settlement in Western Dane County, ordinarily
referred to as Blue Mounds from the "blue mounds" in the township of
that name, was founded in 1846. Three families had, however, located
there as early as 1844, namely those of Thor Aase, Peder Dusterud,
and Lars P. Dusterud. Thor Aase, with wife Martha, five sons and two
daughters,[370] settled on section ten in Springdale; they came from
Sogn in 1843 and had lived one year at Wiota. Peder Dusterud and wife
and family settled on section 33 in Blue Mounds and the son Lars
Dusterud and wife located on section 27, both in Blue Mounds Township.
These two came from Rock Run, Illinois, where they had located in 1842,
immigrating from Vægli, Numedal.[371] They had also worked for some
time in the Dodgeville, Wis., lead mines.

  [370] The children were Ivar (b. 1818), Lasse, Hermund, Talak,
        John, Synneva, and Britha.

  [371] Lars Dusterud and wife are still living at Mt. Horeb.

In 1846 a company of eleven persons arrived from Racine County; they
were the following: Tore Toreson Spaanem, Halvor and Nils H. Grasdalen,
John I. Berge and wife Julia and one child, his sister Mrs. Knut
Sörenson Kvisterud, Tosten Thompson Rue, Ole T. Garden, Ole Kvisterud,
and Ole Sjutvett. Knut S. Kvisterud, who had just before this gone to
Mineral Point and secured work there, came to Blue Mounds in 1848. John
Thompson later was more generally called "Snow-shoe Thompson" from the
fact that he carried the U. S. mail over the Sierra Nevada Mountains
for twenty years (1856-1876), walking on _skis_.

All these came from Muskego, Wisconsin, whither they had immigrated
from Tin, Telemarken. Spaanem and Halvor Grasdalen had come there in
1841, Knut Kvisterud and wife in 1843, and Berge in 1845. The Rue
family had come from Norway, as we have seen, in 1839 (see above page
125). In 1846 the Town of Primrose, immediately south of Springdale,
also received its first Norwegian settlers, namely, Christian
Hendrickson, wife Maria and three children, Caroline, Henry, and
Charles. He had emigrated from Lier, Norway, in 1842, and worked four
years in the lead mines at Wiota to pay his passage from Norway. Mr.
Hendrickson drove from Wiota to Primrose with oxen, all his possessions
being then a wagon, a cow, and seventy-five cents. He lived eight years
in the log hut first erected and built a stone structure in 1855.

The next arrivals to Blue Mounds were Erik Solvi, who came from Sogn in
1847, and lived successively in Springdale, Vermont, and Blue Mounds,
and Gullik Svensrud and family from Vægli, Numedal, who had immigrated
in 1844,[372] and first located on Rock Prairie. It was also in 1847
that the first immigrant from Valders arrived in Blue Mounds; this was
Ragnild Fadnes who in 1851 married Ever Halsten. She was born in North
Aurdal in 1826; as near as I am able to determine she was the only
member of the family who came at the time.

  [372] The party with which they came left Drammen April 20th and
        landed at Quebec June 20th; they arrived at Rock Prairie on
        July 4th. The family included several children; a daughter
        Gunhild (b. 1837), married Halvor Halvorson of Mt. Horeb in
        1856.

During 1846-1847 other localities, Wiota, Western Koshkonong, Spring
Prairie and Norway Grove had claimed a considerable portion of the
immigrants. But in 1848 they began to come in in large numbers in
the townships of western Dane County and neighboring parts of Iowa
County. To Primrose the following came in that year: Nils Skogen,
Salve Jörgenson, and Nils Einarson. To Perry: Ole O. Bakken and wife
Anne (Bergum) and two sons (Ole and Tideman) from Valders. This was
the first Norwegian family to locate permanently in Perry; Bakken
bought the claim of a "squatter" named Andreas Olson, who was therefore
the earliest Norwegian in the township. Later in the same year came
Lars Langemyr from Christiania, Norway, Torger T. Tvedt from Aamli
in Nedenæs, Reiar Aarhus from Telemarken, Halvor O. Milesten from
Hadeland, and Lars Halvorson and Hans Johnson from Drangedal.

The arrivals of 1848 were Ole Barton, wife Ingeborg and son Ole,
Gulbrand Elseberg,[373] wife Ingeborg and two daughters, Christian O.
Skogen, Ole O. Braaten and Nils O. Belgum; and in 1849: Knud Larson,
Anders Lundene, Iver Halstein, Iver Lund, Ole Jelle, Sr., and Tore
Maanem, all of whom were from Valders, mostly from North Aurdal.
Tollef S. Anmarksrud and wife Karen came to Koshkonong the latter
year, but he also removed to Blue Mounds in 1850. During the next few
years immigration to the various townships of western Dane County was
rapid. For the fall of 1849 and in 1850 are to be mentioned, e. g.
the following arrivals in Springdale Township: Harald and Arne Hoff,
Ole and Aslak Lee, Levor Lien, Ole Thompson Brenden, Anders, John and
Knut Lunde, Knut J. Lindelien, Harald Stugaard, Michel Kolskett and
Erik O. Skinrud; several of these had large families. To Blue Mounds
Township came: Erik Engen, Ole Boley, wife and four children, and Arne
Röste, with family of eleven children; all those named here came from
Valders.[374]

  [373] Elseberg not long afterwards started for Manitowoc to visit
        a brother, who had just come there, and was never heard from
        again.

  [374] Boley and Röste were from South Aurdal.

From Sogn came Ole A. Grinde and Ole Menes, the latter remaining,
however, two years in Norway Grove before coming to Blue Mounds.
Michael Johnson (b. 1832 in Leikanger, Norway) emigrated to America
in 1853, located first in Windsor, then removed to Vienna, finally
settled permanently in Springdale in 1856. His parents, Jon Michelson
Dahlbotten and wife Randi, and his sister Martha[375] and younger
brother Botolf came to America in 1854. Mr. Johnson became a
prosperous farmer and stock-raiser, his farm of 400 acres being one of
the finest in that part of the state. He took an active part in church
and school affairs and was for many years a member of the governing
body (Kirkeraad) of the Norwegian Lutheran Evangelical Synod of
America. He held many positions of trust in the town and the county,
was a member of the State Legislature for three consecutive terms,
1874-75-76, and for years a well-known figure in the politics of the
state. Mr. Johnson lived in Mt. Horeb since 1894; he died in 1908,
leaving a widow and seven children.

  [375] Martha married Ole O. Flom in 1854. Botolf is B. J. Borlaug,
        well-known capitalist and banker of Kenyon, Minnesota. The
        family had moved from Aurland to Borlang in Feios, Leikanger
        Parish, where the children were all born.

In Primrose and Perry the Norwegians also settled extensively in
1849-1850. Among those who arrived in the former year were Gunnuf and
Ole Tollefsen from Sæltersdalen, who as we have seen above, page 281,
had immigrated to Muskego in 1845. Others who came to Primrose that
year were G. and Ole Danielson[376] from Telemarken, Leif Olson, Kittil
Moland, Ole Anderson and Peter P. Haslerud. Tollefson relates how he
became the possessor of his quarter section in Primrose as follows:[377]

  As I wished to own land of my own as soon as possible, I went to
  Primrose in 1849. Here I met Niels Einarson. There was enough
  of land, but how to get the number of what I selected, was the
  question. After much search we found a large oak a short distance
  east from where Norman Randal lives. On this tree was clearly to be
  seen the following letters and numbers: N. W. ¼, S. 23, T. 5, N.
  R. 6 E. There was neither pen nor paper to get without going many
  miles, and something had to be done at once. I borrowed an axe of
  Emerson, cut down a little poplar, and, after having cut it flat on
  both sides, so that it became quite thin, I took my pocket knife
  and cut into it the letters and numbers just as they were in the
  tree. With this poplar stuck under my arm I went to the land-office
  and laid the stick and the money on the table, to the official's
  amusement. They understood the description and I got the land.[378]

  [376] Ole Danielson had lived in Illinois since he came from Norway
        in 1846.

  [377] The citation is from Langeland, page 73.

  [378] Tollefson says that at Clinton he worked for a Mr. Sherwood a
        while; he cut 600 rails for the loan of the latter's oxen and
        wagon with which to bring his parents from Muskego to Rock
        County.

During 1850 came Mrs. Ole Baker with son P. O. Baker (b. 1838), Mons
Ness, Elling Stamn, Ole Skuldt and Lars Halvorson from Hallingdal,
Knut and Jens Olson from Stavanger, Lars L. Kolve and family from Voss
and Knut Baardson (Bowerson) and family from Sætersdalen. During 1853
to 1855 Norwegians came in still greater numbers, writes Reverend
Höverstad.

About twenty Norwegians settled in Perry in 1849; they were: Torger
Hastvedt, Hans J. Dahle, Ole Gangsei and Jacob Aanhus from Telemarken,
Andreas Stutelien and Jul Haavernd, wife and eight children from
Valders, and Anders Sanderson from Hallingdal. After 1849 Norwegians
came in in large numbers, settling up the town rapidly.[379] I shall
mention here only Onon Björnson Dahle (b. 1823) from Nissedal, who
settled in Perry in 1853, and Christian Evanson (b. 1819) from Valders,
and wife Ragnild from Numedal, who came there in 1854.[380] Dr. Evans
tells me that Ragnild Evanson (maiden name Ragnild Brekke) was born in
Numedal, Norway, in 1819, and after her marriage to Christian Evanson,
immigrated to America in company with her brother Lars N. Brekke (who
for many years resided and conducted a grocery store in Madison, Wis.)
in the year 1848, preceding her husband by about five years. They
came by sailing vessel, and were sixteen weeks on the voyage, having
been grounded on a rock off the coast of England and were obliged to
wait repairs. After landing in New York they came by Erie canal and
the lakes to Milwaukee, Wis., then to near Stoughton, Wis., and later
to Madison, where she met her husband five years later. From Madison
they moved to Perry, Dane County, and settled on section twenty-three
and remained there until their death.[381] O. B. Dahle, who had been
a school teacher in Nissedal, left Norway in company with a cousin,
Knut Dahl, in 1848. They first came to Koshkonong, where the former
taught parochial school for two years. They went to California in 1850
in search of gold as so many others. Having been unusually successful
in the gold mines, they returned in 1853, and Onon Dahle bought a farm
in Perry, on which he founded the village of Daleyville, beginning at
the same time there a mercantile business. Here he amassed a fortune,
retired and moved to Mt. Horeb in 1897. In 1854 Dahle married Betsey
Nelson, daughter of Hermo N. Tufte of Racine County, and sister of
the well-known lay evangelist, Elling Eielson. Mr. Dahle always took
an active interest in public affairs and in the work of the Lutheran
Church of which he is a member. He died in July, 1905, his wife having
died in February of the same year.[382]

  [379] Among them were Knut Grimstvedt and Ole Hastvedt from
        Telemarken.

  [380] Jens P. Tyvand (b. 1817) who had emigrated from Sannikedal
        in 1843 to Lisbon, Ill., and removed to Stoughton, Wis., in
        1847, settling in Pleasant Spring, located in Perry in 1854.

  [381] Mrs. Evanson died in 1894 and Mr. Evanson in 1897, survived
        by two children, Anne and Niels (Dr. N. E. Evans of Mt.
        Horeb). C. Evanson was a successful farmer, owning 279 acres
        of land; he also conducted a store at Perry after 1874.

  [382] They left four children: H. B. Dahle, one time member of
        Congress, J. T. Dahle (who died in 1908), Henry L. Dahle, all
        of Mt. Horeb, and Mrs. James A. Peterson, Minneapolis.

We shall close this chapter with a word about the first Norwegians
in Madison, Wisconsin. It is not until 1850 that Norwegians began to
locate in Madison in considerable numbers. However, there were a few
there before that. As near as I can find out, Ole Torgeson, Ole O.
Flom, Ole Lenvick, and Halvor N. Hauge, all of whom came to Madison in
1844, were the first Norwegians in Madison. All four of these worked
for a printer by the name of Daniel Holt. Ole Flom, as we have seen,
had come from Norway with his parents that summer in the first party
that left Aurland, Sogn. He remained in Madison till 1847 when he
returned to his father's farm at Door Creek.[383] Halvor Hauge had
come from Norway with his parents in the summer of 1844; the family
had located in the Town of Christiana. Halvor went to California in
1848 where he remained several years, returning then to Koshkonong.
Ole Torgerson had emigrated from Norway in 1844, coming directly
to Madison, where he continued to live till his death in 1900. He
published during 1850 there a Norwegian paper in the interests of the
Whig party, but as this was not a paying enterprise he sold his types
to Knut Langeland, who soon after began the issue of _Maanedstidende_
in Janesville, having previously published _Nordlyset_ and _Demokraten_
in Muskego. Among other Norwegians in Madison in the early days
were: Anne Vik, who worked for Dr. Collins during 1845;[384] in 1846
she married Halvor Bjoin, a Koshkonong pioneer. In July, 1846, Hans
Christianson from Lærdal, Sogn, came to Madison; he, however, soon
removed to Blooming Grove, where he located permanently.[385] Halvor
Gabriel immigrated from Haugesund in 1848, coming direct to Madison,
where he continued to live until 1877; he then moved to Sun Prairie and
in 1893 to Fort Atkinson, where he died in 1897. Among the subscribers
to _Nordlyset_ and _Demokraten_, 1848-1850, appear the names of three
residents of Madison, namely: Eric Anderson,[386] Lars Johnson, and
William Anderson. Finally, when the Bethel Congregation was organized
in 1855 the following appear as charter members: Ole Torgerson, Mrs.
Ole Torgerson, Hans Olsen, Mr. Erickson, Olaf Olson, Haakon Larson,
Nels Peterson, Lars Nelson, Ole Lawrence, Halle Steensland, Eline Hoel,
Anne Nilson, Ingeborg Olson and Anne Olson. Lars Nelson (Brekke) had
come there in 1848 from Numedal,[387] coming direct to Madison. Mr.
Nelson was well and favorably known as the owner of a grocery store on
West Main Street for many years. Of the other persons mentioned above
only Haakon Larson and Halle Steensland are now living. The latter has
always held a prominent place in the financial history of the capital
and in general in the upbuilding of the city. He has always been a
staunch member of the Bethel Church, and was one of the leaders in the
organization of the Norwegian-American Pioneer Association, of which he
was president in 1903-05.

  [383] Flom was with Dr. Collins during 1846.

  [384] As we have seen, Knud Langeland and Niels Torstenson passed
        through Madison in 1845.

  [385] He died there a few years ago.

  [386] Erik Anderson had come to America with his parents in 1839
        and lived in Chicago till 1845 (see p. 232). Then they moved
        to McHenry County, Illinois. In 1847 Erik went to Muskego,
        where he engaged as compositor in the office of _Nordlyset_,
        setting the type for the first number. In 1848 he went to
        Madison and began clerking in a general store. He settled as
        a farmer in Winneshiek County, Iowa, in 1850.

  [387] See page 346 above.



                               CHAPTER XL

              _The Hardanger Settlement in Lee and De Kalb
                Counties, Illinois. Big Grove in Kendall
                       County and Nettle Creek in
                       Grundy County, Illinois._


Although Hardanger has contributed a relatively small proportion of
the American immigrant population from Norway, several of the earliest
arrivals were from that province and its sons occupy today a prominent
place in Norwegian American history. It has been shown above, chapters
IX and X, that several members of the party who came in 1836, as
also of that of 1837, were natives of Hardanger; and in the Chicago
colony in 1839 we met with several natives of that province. In 1839
a considerable number left Hardanger, especially from Ulvik Parish,
as we learn from _Nordmandsforbundet_, 1909, page 175. Among these
were the brothers Anders and Johan Vik from Eidfjord in Hardanger. The
two brothers first went to Wiota, where they secured work in the lead
mines. In 1844 John Vik (Week) went to Dodgeville, where he established
himself as a shoemaker, entering into partnership with Johan Lee from
Numedal. Later he went to Portage County, Wisconsin, where he prospered
and was for over a decade a dominant power in the lumber trade of
northern Wisconsin.[388]

  [388] These facts gathered from an article by L. J. Erdall in
        _Amerika_ for September 18, 1901. The brother, Anders Vik
        (Andrew Week), went to California in 1849.

Among the immigrants who had come from Hardanger, Parish of Ullensvang,
in 1836, we mentioned Ammund Helgeson Maakestad above, page 95.
Maakestad dropped the family name in this country and called himself
Ommon Hilleson. For a little over a year he was a coast sailor; then he
decided to go west and secure land where his countrymen had settled.
This he did, but not in the usual way, for Hilleson walked the whole
distance from New York to Chicago. This was in 1837.[389]

  [389] As Reverend J. Nordby, Lee, Illinois, informs me.

From Chicago he directed his steps farther west; he did not, however,
go to the settlement founded several years before, but pushed on as far
as Lee Center in the County of Lee.[390] Here he secured work, saved
some money, and bought a homestead in Bradford Township, and erected
thereon a sod house. Soon after he married Catherine Reinhart, daughter
of a German pioneer, recently moved in.

  [390] Strand relates an experience which Hilleson had between Chicago
        and Lee Center and which would seem to indicate that he had
        intended to go to La Salle County.

For ten years Hilleson was the only Norwegian settler in the county,
but in 1847 there arrived in response to letters from Hilleson, a
considerable party from Hardanger. These left Sörfjorden in Hardanger,
and embarked in May at Bergen in the sailing vessel _Juno_, which
brought them to New York in a little over four weeks, a remarkable
record for that time.[391] Mr. T. M. Newton (Torgels Knutson) says,
when we came to Buffalo we met an old man who was returning to Norway.
He advised us to go back at once, saying America was not a fit place
for respectable people to live in, it was a place for thieves and
robbers. The party consisted of the following persons: Lars Larsen
Röisetter (Risetter), Lars Olson Espe, Lars Helgeson Maakestad,
Gjertrud H. Lönning, Helge H. Maaketad (who died in 1854), Ingeborg
H. Maakestad, Torgels Knudson Maakestad, Sjur Sjurson Bleie (Bly) and
Lars Larson Bly. They were met at Chicago by Ommon Hilleson; Lars Bly
remained in Chicago, the rest started for Lee County, stopping a short
time at Norway, La Salle County, thereupon all but Ingeborg Maakestad
drove to Hilleson's home in Lee County.[392] Most of them settled in
Bradford Township, but Lars Risetter (born 1827 in Ullensvang) bought
eighty acres of land in Sublette Township, whither other subsequent
immigrants from Hardanger also soon moved. Soon after arriving,
Risetter and Gjertrud Lönning were married in the first house built by
a Norwegian in Lee County, at the home of Ommon Hilleson. Lars Espe and
Lars Risetter were the first two of the party to build a log cabin.

  [391] T. M. Newton says the journey took only three weeks; others
        say, four. Newton was from Kinservig.

  [392] The journey was made with oxen and lumber wagon. Inger Maakestad
        remained at Norway for a time; she married Lars Espe soon after.

Mr. Newton tells that two young men came from La Salle County about the
same time and bought a piece of land in Franklin Grove about two miles
and a half from where he lived. "They lived in a log cabin on their
place," he says. "One night about two months after we arrived, they
were both murdered. The same day I had tried to persuade one of them to
stay with me, but he felt it necessary to be at home. Their heads had
been split open with an ax. I then thought of what the old gentleman
had tried to tell us and heartily wished myself back in Norway."

During the years 1848 no immigrants left Hardanger for America, and Lee
County received no settlers directly from Norway. In 1849, however,
thirty-two emigrated from Ulvik, but none of these seem to have come
to the settlement. In 1850 there was one accession, namely, Amund
Lönning, who came directly to his brother-in-law, Lars Risetter, in
Sublette Township. He worked in the harvest the first season for Thomas
Fessenden for $11.00 a month, bought a quarter section in Willow Creek
Township in 1852, being the first Norwegian to settle there. In 1857
Lars Risetter also moved into Willow Creek Township, where he has since
lived.[393]

  [393] Mrs. Risetter died in 1897; Mr. Risetter is still living. His
        two sons, Lewis and Holden, occupy the homestead with him.

Of the rest Torgels Maakestad, who adopted the name T. M. Newton
(Knutson), is still living, his home being at Grinnell, Iowa. Sjur
Bleien lives at the Old People's Home, Stoughton, Wisconsin.

In 1851 the following arrived from Ullensvang, Hardanger, and located
in the settlement: Jacob O. Rogde (b. 1828), Haaken L. Risetter and
wife Maria (Hildal), Haldor Nilsen Hovland, and Agatha Espe, a sister
of Lars Espe. Rogde purchased eighty acres of land in Bradford Township
in 1854 and in 1855 he married Else Bly from Hardanger, who had come
to America in 1854.[394] Haakon Risetter settled in Ogle County
immediately north of Lee County. Of those who arrived in subsequent
years many settled across the county line in De Kalb County, and in a
few years there had sprung up a thriving and prosperous community. At
present the Bradford Norwegian Evangelical Congregation of Lee numbers
300 adult members. The center of the settlement is about four miles
south of Franklin Grove.

  [394] C. Christopher of Gruver, Iowa, who has kindly given me many
        of the facts relative to the immigration from Hardanger,
        names the following as arriving in Lee County in 1854; Lars
        N. Rogde and wife Angar W. Sandvæn, Wigleik W. Risetter,
        Helle P. Bly and wife Torbjör (Skare), Samson S. Sandvæn and
        wife Bægga H. Maakestad. The last three and Lars Rogde died
        the same year.

Immediately east of De Kalb and the northern part of La Salle County
lies Kendall County, into which extends a northeastern branch of the
original Fox River Settlement, located chiefly in Big Grove Township;
the village of Newark lies within its boundaries. The first Norwegian
to settle in the village of Newark was Ole Olson Hetletvedt, as we have
observed above. Ole Hetletvedt, or Medlepeint as he was called, was
born in August, 1797, and was, as we know, one of the members of the
sloop party. Of his first years in this country we have already spoken.
He came to Newark in 1839; there he lived till his death in 1854. The
next settlers in Newark were Herman Osmonson and Knut W. Tysland, both
of whom also located there in 1838.

The first Norwegian settler at Lisbon was John Hill (Hidle) from
Fjeldberg in Söndhordland, Norway. He came to America in 1836,[395]
going direct to La Salle County. Among the immigrants of that year
were also Anders Anderson Aasen and wife Olena and family from Tysvær
Parish, a little south of Haugesund. The family included a daughter
Susanna, (born 1822), who was married to John Hill in 1844. The Aasen
family lived in Kendall, New York, for two years, then in 1838 moved
to La Salle County, Illinois. In 1839 John Hill located at Lisbon, and
he was thus the first Norwegian to settle here, whither a considerable
number later moved.[396] About 1846 Sjur Larson came there from
Skaanevik, Norway; Lars Chelley (Kjelle) came in 1847.

  [395] Lars Bö and Michael Bö came at the same time.

  [396] John Hill died in 1892, but Mrs. Susanne Hill is still living
        with her daughter, Mrs. Austin Osmond (b. 1845), in Morris,
        Grundy County, Illinois.

The Norwegians did not begin to come in extensively to Lisbon before
1850. Mrs. Austin Osmond, oldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Hill,
who is now living in Morris, Grundy County, tells me that she was
the only Norwegian child in school at Lisbon when she first began
to attend, but later there gradually came more. At Newark several
Norwegians had already begun to move on. Goodman Halvorson (b. 1821)
and wife Martha Grindheim from Etne Parish in Söndhordland, came to
America in 1847 and purchased land in Fox Township, Kendall County; he
erected his log cabin there in the spring of 1848. Halvorson is still
living on the old homestead which, however, he leases to other parties.
Osmund Tutland from Hjelmeland in Ryfylke, and wife Malinda from Aardal
in Ryfylle and two children had come to Mission Township, La Salle
County, in 1836; a daughter, Mrs. Anna Hegglund (b. 1842) is at present
living in Newark. Tutland became, in 1854, the founder of the Norwegian
colony at Norway, Benton County, Iowa.[397]

  [397] Lars Fruland of Newark is a son of Nils Fröland, who emigrated
        from Samnanger, near Bergen, in 1837, settling in La Salle
        County.

Among the old pioneers of Lisbon was also Henry Munson from Voss, but
I am not able to give the year of his arrival. Munson died in 1907,
being over ninety years old. Wier Sjurson Weeks (born in Skaanevik in
1812), and wife Synneva and two children emigrated in 1846; after much
hardship, and sickness in the family, through which they lost the two
daughters, they arrived at Lisbon late in 1846. Here Weeks worked at
first at the trade of a carpenter. In 1848 he bought eighty acres of
land on North Prairie, five miles north of Lisbon.[398] Here he settled
permanently, prospered, and became an influential citizen and active
member of the Lutheran Church of North Prairie. Mr. Weeks died in
February, 1900, at the age of eighty-seven; his wife lived till 1904,
reaching the age of ninety-four. A name most closely associated with
the early annals of Newark is that of Torris Johnson (b. in Skaanevik
1837), who came to America with his grandfather Torris Torison in
1848.[399] Having arrived at Chicago, they went to Calumet, twenty
miles south of Chicago, to Halstein Torison, who was an uncle of Torris
Johnson. There Johnson remained till 1851, when he located in Kendall
County. Mr. Johnson served in the war, being promoted to sergeant;
after the war he returned to Newark. In 1865 he married Elizabeth
Ryerson, born in Stavanger, Norway; they have had six children. Mr.
Johnson is still living, his home being in Newark.

  [398] Mr. Strand has given a very complete sketch of W. S. Weeks to
        which I am indebted for these facts.

  [399] His parents died in Norway when he was a child; a brother and
        sister also came to America at the same time.

Although E. S. Holland (b. 1834) of Big Grove Township, did not settle
in Kendall County before 1866, he belongs to the earlier pioneers now
resident there, having come to this country with his parents in 1846.
In 1854 he settled in York Township, Green County, Wisconsin, where he
married Johanne Chantland the following year. In 1866 they removed
to Kendall County, Illinois.[400] Mr. Holland has been especially
active in the work of the church, and has been trustee and treasurer of
Pleasant View Luther College since its organization.

  [400] Mrs. Holland died in 1884 and Mr. Holland married Christina
        Peterson of Skien, Norway, in 1885.

The name of Nels O. Cassem occupies a prominent place in the history of
the settlement as of that of Kendall County in general. Born in 1829
about seven miles east of the city of Stavanger, Norway, he emigrated
in 1849. Coming to Illinois he settled in Fox Township, Kendall County,
in July of that year. Here he purchased land and began farming, an
occupation which he prospered in to an unusual degree, his estate
being estimated at a little over one million dollars upon his death in
1904.[401] "When he came to Illinois," writes his son, "he found work
on the tow-path of the old Illinois and Michigan Canal, at fifty cents
per day. During this time he formed the habit of saving, that was the
unerring guide of all his future life." Randall Cassem defines the
principal causes of his father's success as:

  "Health; industrious habits formed in youth; the fact that money
  came hard earned at first, thus teaching him the value of the
  dollar; courage and self-reliance; knowing the value of little
  things; the practice of self-denial and rigid economy; never
  striving after extravagant profits in any of his undertakings. To
  all of this we may add, his high sense of honor, his unimpeachable
  integrity that, as those who knew him testify, never permitted him
  to be other than absolutely fair and just in all his dealings and
  financial transactions with others."[402]

Among those who immigrated in 1844 and located in Chicago was also
Anders K. Vetti from Vettigjæld, Norway. He lived in Chicago until
about 1849,[403] when he bought a farm at Yorkville Prairie in Kendall
County. He married Anna Martha Ortzland in 1850 and lived there till
his death in 1875. Mr. Vetti was a man of strong character and unusual
intellectual endowments. He wielded much influence politically in his
community, and enjoyed in a high degree the confidence of those who
knew him. An obituary notice says of him: his truest and most enduring
monument will be the good resulting from his labor in the cause of
universal education, in untiring opposition to the superstitious
observance of ceremonies incompatible with the spirit and the progress
of the age, and in his hatred of all forms of political oppression.[404]

  [401] Cassem married Margaret Fritz in 1851; she died in 1872.
        There are five children: Randall Cassem, attorney at Aurora,
        Ill.; Mrs. Olive J. Osmondson of Seward Township, Kendall
        County; Oscar E. Cassem, Mitchell, South Dakota; Mrs.
        Margaret Olson, Aurora, Illinois; and Mrs. Anna O. Rood,
        Chicago, Illinois.

  [402] Kari Melhus of Newark, Illinois, who came to America about
        1852, is said to be the oldest Norwegian woman in America.
        She was born in Hjelmeland Parish, Ryfylke, in 1804.

  [403] A. K. Vetti's oldest daughter, Mrs. Samuel Mather (b. 1853)
        of Springdale, Linn County, Iowa, says that it was in 1849,
        or 1850 perhaps, but she is not certain which.

  [404] The words "universal education" contain a reference to his
        fight for the common schools.

A few miles south of Lisbon, across the Grundy County line, a
settlement was founded in 1846. The county had been completely settled
by Americans already, but Norwegians bought these out and gradually
supplanted them, exactly as they began doing a decade later at Saratoga
in Grundy County, and have done still later in the city of Morris in
the same county. The settlement is located in Nettle Creek Township.
The first arrivals were Rasmus Scheldal, Ole Torstal, Paul Thompson,
Michael Erickson, Simon Frye, John Wing, Lars Scheldal, Ben Hall, Ben
Thornton, John Peterson, G. E. Grundstad, William and Samuel Hage.
Several of these men had families; they came mostly from Skaanevik; all
came between 1846 and 1848. In 1849 Halvord Rygh, Sr., and family of
seven, and Sjur Nelson, wife, Jennie, and family, came from Norway and
located there. Several of these men later moved away, as Paul Thompson,
Michael Erickson, Rasmus Scheldal, and Ole Tvistal, who went to Story
County, Iowa, while some members of the Rygh and Wing families went to
Goodhue County, Minnesota, 1856. Sjur Haugen and family moved up to
Helmar, Kendall County, in 1855.[405]

  [405] The latter family included a son Nels (b. 1840), who is Nels
        S. Nelson of Helmar, well known as a successful farmer and a
        Republican leader in Kendall County.

With this brief survey of the founding of these eastern extensions of
the Fox River Settlement, we shall leave Kendall and Grundy Counties.
The history of these settlements takes its beginnings at the very close
of the period we are here considering. Their fuller discussion belongs
to the history of the immigration of the following decade.[406]

  [406] Individual settlers and single families had located in
        various towns in northern Illinois during the later thirties
        and forties. I shall name here Severt S. Helland and wife
        Ingeborg who immigrated in 1836 and settled at Woodstock,
        Illinois. Helland (b. 1828) came from Gjerdevig in Fjeldbjerg
        Parish; his wife was born 1825 at Helland in Etne Parish.
        They moved to Chicago in 1855 and in 1857 settled near
        Slater, Iowa.



                              CHAPTER XLI

          _The First Norwegian Pioneers in Northeastern Iowa_


In this chapter I shall give a brief account of the coming of
Norwegians into northeastern Iowa and their founding of settlements
there between 1846 and 1851. We are near the close of the period which
this volume deals with. The founding of settlements in Iowa in 1849-50
is but a part of a larger movement now beginning, which, in the course
of a few years, resulted in the establishment of numerous settlements
in Wisconsin, Iowa, and southeastern Minnesota.[407] These settlements
were founded in general through internal migration away from the older
settlements in Racine, Rock, and Dane Counties. The latter were now
becoming overcrowded and they furnished hundreds upon hundreds of
recruits to the new settlements that were fast springing up. It is with
the years 1848-49 that we associate this new trend in the movement,
and which inaugurates this new period in the whole movement. Only its
beginnings will here briefly be sketched as related to the counties of
northeastern Iowa. Of the mass of material which has been placed at my
disposal, I can only select what appears most essential to the purpose.

  [407] And Texas.

The first county settled by Norwegians in northeastern Iowa was
Clayton. The first settlers were Ole H. Valle and wife and Ole T.
Kittelsland who located in Read Township in the summer of 1846. Both
these men had, however, entered Iowa three years before. In 1843
they had come to the old Fort Atkinson in Winneshiek County, and had
remained there for three years in the service of the government.[408]
Valle and Kittelsland were both from Rollaug, Numedal; they had
immigrated in 1841 to Rock Prairie, and had from 1841-1843 worked in
the Dodgeville mines. In 1846 Sören O. Sörum from Land Parish, Norway,
came to Fort Atkinson and in 1847 Ingeborg Nilsen, a cousin of Ole
Valle, came there.

  [408] Their duties being to show the Indians how to farm and in
        general to teach them the white man's ways.

In the summer of 1846 then, Valle and Kittelsland located in Clayton
County,[409] buying a farm together, about three miles southeast of
the present village of St. Olaf.[410] Through letters from Valle the
locality was soon brought to the attention of Norwegian settlers in
Rock Prairie and Koshkonong. In the spring of 1849 Ole Herbrandson
and family came out there from Koshkonong; he was an immigrant from
Mörkvold, Rollaug, in 1842 and had, it seems, visited Valle in Clayton
County in 1848 and found the locality to his liking. In June[411]
Halvor Nilsen Espeseth, Knut Hustad, Ole Sonde, and Ingbret Skarshaug,
came from Rock Prairie;[412] going to the western part of the county,
Nilsen selected land in Grand Meadow Township, becoming the founder
of the Clermont extension of the settlement, which, as Norwegians
began to come in gradually, expanded north into Fayette and Winneshiek
Counties. Other arrivals of the same summer were Abraham Rustad
and family, Bredo A. Holt, Jens A. Holt, all from Hadeland, Bertle
Osuldson, Tallak Gunderson and family from Arendal, and Ole Hanson and
family. These located in the Clermont region; Jens Holt on section
17, Marion Township, and Hanson on section 6 in the same township.
About simultaneous with these, Fingar Johnson, Helge Ramstad and wife,
Thorkel Eiteklep[413] Ole E. Sanden, with wife Guro and family, located
in the eastern settlement.[414]

  [409] The first white child born of Norwegian parents in the county
        was Jorund Valle (Mrs. Lars Thovson, St. Olaf), daughter of
        Ole Valle.

  [410] See article by Rev. Jacob Tanner, entitled: "En kort
        Beretning 50 Aars kirkelight Arbeide; Clayton County, Iowa,"
        in _Lutheraneren_, 45 (1901). My facts here are gathered in
        large part from this article.

  [411] The date was June 11th according to _History of Clayton
        County_, 1882, p. 831.

  [412] The last three were from Hallingdal.

  [413] According to others these two did not arrive till 1850.

  [414] Tanner's article. Sanden and Fingar Johnson settled in Wagner
        Township.

The founders of these settlements nearly all came from Rock Prairie,
where they had lived the first few years after immigrating. During
the years 1850-1851 a large number of immigrants joined the colony.
The first of these were Lars Valle, Hellik Glaim,[415] and Austen
Blækkestad, all from Numedal, Ole Engbrigtsen and Peter Helgeson from
Sigdal in Numedal, and Ole Gunbjörnson and Knut Jæger from Hallingdal,
while Halstein Gröth and family from Næs in Hallingdal and Kittil Rue
located in the western part of the settlement. The Gröth family located
in Marion Township, where also James and Jacob Paulson Broby, who came
from Hadeland the next year, settled. Mrs. Holger Peterson and son
(Peter Holgerson) came in 1851 and settled in Wagner Township. Sören O.
Sörum and wife[416] settled in Farmersburg Township in 1850, being the
first Norwegians there.[417]

  [415] See above page 143.

  [416] See note, on p. 213.

  [417] In 1867 he moved to Wagner Township.

But in the very beginning of this period the movement was directed to
the counties to the North, Allamakee and Winneshiek. The immigration
of Norwegians into Clayton County had practically ceased by 1855,
the chief reason for this probably being that the Germans came in
very large numbers, particularly to Clayton County, during the early
fifties and soon occupied all the best land.[418] Northeastern Iowa
was but little settled, and the development of the wilderness had
only begun. Clayton County had in 1850 a population of three thousand
eight hundred and seventy-three, while Fayette had only eight hundred
and twenty-five, and Allamakee seven hundred and seventy-seven. The
population of Winneshiek County had reached four thousand nine hundred
and fifty-seven.

  [418] Rev. Tanner writes: "When we look at this Norwegian
        settlement as it was then and is to-day largely, it
        immediately strikes us that it was wood and water the
        colonists looked for, and therefore they let the prairie lie
        and chose the hills along the Turkey River. Not until later
        did they learn to understand the value of the prairie, but
        then the Germans had taken most of it."

Allamakee was the next county in order of settlement.[419] This county
was opened to settlement in 1848, but land was not put upon the market
before 1850.[420] In 1849 Ole L. Rothnem, Ole O. Storlag, Ole K.
Grimsgaard and Erik K. Barsgrind came from Rock County to Allamakee
County and selected land. In 1850 they moved out with their families
and in company with them came: Ole K. Stake, Arne K. Stake, Syver Wold
and Thomas A. Grönna. Others who came about the same time were: Thomas
Anderson[421] and wife Emilie, Sven E. Hesla,[421] Björn Hermundson,
Nils T. Rue, Östen Peterson, Lars Jeglum, Halvor E. Turkop, Ole S.
Lekvold, all from Hallingdal, and Nils N. Arnesgaard, who was from
Numedal. Among others who followed the next year I shall mention: Knut
Knutson,[422] G. H. Fagre and wife Katherine, and Ole Smeby (b. 1804),
wife and sons Hans, Ole, and John. They settled on the prairie north
of Paint Creek, living in their canvas-covered wagons until houses
were built. Those here named formed the nucleus of the Paint Creek
Settlement, which already the next year received large accessions.

  [419] The Fayette County settlement about Clermont is a western
        extension of the second settlement in Clayton County; its
        beginnings have been referred to above.

  [420] The first entry of purchase appears under the date of October
        7, 1850. The earliest settler in the county was Henry
        Johnson, after whom Johnsonsport was named, but I do not know
        of what nationality he was.

  [421] Hesla had came to America in 1845, Anderson in 1846.

  [422] Settled in Makee Township; he had came from Norway in 1849.

The early settlers of Allamakee and neighboring counties experienced
all the trials and hardships of pioneer life in an unsettled country.
There was no railroad nearer than Milwaukee. At McGregor there were
a few stores where the necessaries of life could be had.[423] The
process of home building and the clearing of the forests was slow and
often attended with many difficulties. The pioneers generally brought
with them no other wealth than stout hearts and strong hands, and it
was only by industry and severe economy that they were able to make a
living for themselves and their families. Those who hired out to others
received very small wages, and as there was little money among the
pioneer farmers this was paid in large part in food or other articles.
It may serve as an illustration that in the winter of 1850-51 a pioneer
in Clayton County[424] split seven thousand rails of wood for fifty
cents a hundred; for this he was paid $3.50 in cash and the remainder
in food.[425]

  [423] In the Clermont Settlement there was a log-cabin store at the
        village of Clermont.

  [424] This pioneer is still living.--See Tanner's article.

  [425] A barrel of flour at that time cost twelve dollars in Iowa, and
        a bushel of corn seventy five cents. The usual wages was 25c a
        day, sometimes a little more.

Most of the Norwegians who first settled in Allamakee County came from
Rock County, Wisconsin; later, some came from Dane County, Wisconsin,
and also from Winneshiek County, where a settlement was formed in June,
1850. Several, however, came from Norway by way of New Orleans and the
Mississippi, as did Gilbert C. Lyse in 1851.

In 1856 there were in the whole county five hundred and five
Norwegians; one hundred and eighty-one of these had settled in Paint
Creek (then Water-ville) Township, the rest being located mostly in
the neighboring towns of Center, La Fayette, Taylor, Jefferson and
Makee. In the meantime a new settlement had been established in the
northwestern part of the county, in Hanover and Waterloo, which soon
extended into Winneshiek County. But the earliest Norwegian settlement
in Winneshiek was formed on Washington Prairie in June, 1850,[426] when
a number of families moved in from Racine and Dane Counties, Wisconsin.
Eastern Winneshiek County received in the following year a large
Norwegian population.

  [426] The county was organized in 1850, and the first term of court
        convened on October 5th, 1851.

Those who came in the latter part of June, 1850, and settled on
Washington Prairie were: Eric Anderson (Rudi),[427] the brothers Ole
and Staale T. Haugen from Flekkefjord, Ole G. Jevne, Ole and Andrew
A. Lomen, Knut A. Bakken, Anders Hauge, John J. Quale, and Halvor H.
Groven, all from Valders, and Mikkel Omli from Telemarken. On July
third another party headed by Nels Johnson[428] arrived, including
Tollef Simonson Aae, Knud Opdahl, Jacob Abrahamson,[429] Iver P. Quale,
Gjermund Johnson (Kaasa),[430] and John Thun.

  [427] See above page 232.

  [428] The father of Martin N. Johnson, member of Congress from
        North Dakota. Nelson Johnson was one of the founders of the
        Muskego Settlement in Wisconsin in 1839. He later entered
        the Methodist ministry and was for two years, 1855-1857,
        pastor of the Norwegian M. E. Church in Cambridge, Wisconsin.
        With the exception of these two years he lived in Winneshiek
        County until his death in 1882.

  [429] Father of Rev. Abraham Jacobson, to whom I am in part
        indebted for facts on the early settlement of Washington
        Prairie. Rev. Jacobson has also printed a pamphlet: _The
        Pioneer Norwegians_, Decorah, 1905, 16 pages, which is a most
        valuable contribution to the pioneer history of Winneshiek
        County. A very brief chapter on the "Pioneer Norwegians" may
        also be found in Alexander's _History of Winneshiek County_,
        1882, pages 185-186.

  [430] A brother of Nels Johnson. Thun was from Valders.

Of the coming of this party Reverend Jacobson has given the following
account: In the spring of 1850 his parents and a number of other
families left Muskego to move out west. The leader of the party
was Nels Johnson; he had a large military wagon drawn by six oxen.
"This had a big box on, filled with household goods and covered with
white canvas. On the outside was placed, lengthwise, the wagon box,
several joints of stove pipe, so the outfit, with a little stretch
of imagination," says Rev. Jacobson, "looked like a man-of-war; this
was the so-called 'prairie-schooner.' Then there were other vehicles
of all sizes and shapes, from truck wagons, the wheels of which were
made of solid sections of oak logs, down to the two-wheel carts." At
Koshkonong, Dane County, so many more joined them that they were in
all over one hundred individuals; the caravan included furthermore
now two hundred head of cattle, a few hogs and sheep, a mare and a
colt. They drove on via Madison, then a little village, to Prairie du
Chien, where the party divided one-half going to Vernon County,[431]
Wisconsin, the other half to Iowa. Reverend Jacobson says of the
journey at this point:

  The Wisconsin river had to be crossed on a small ferry boat, the
  propelling power was furnished by a horse placed on a tread-power
  which worked the paddle-wheels. Only one wagon and a team at a
  time could be taken aboard. The herd of loose cattle had to swim
  over the river, all of which was accomplished without any accident
  worthy of note. The ferry boat at Prairie du Chien was larger
  and propelled by four mule power, but the water being high, the
  Mississippi River was nearly two miles wide, and much time was
  taken to get all to the western bank. Thirteen miles northwest from
  McGregor at Poverty Point, since called Monona, another halt of a
  creek was made. The scouting party before alluded to had visited
  several localities, and opinions were divided as to which was the
  best point to settle down. The company was now divided into three
  divisions, we going with the original leader to the vicinity of
  Decorah, landing on our claims on the third of July. The journey
  had taken five weeks, counting from the time of starting. Those who
  had room enough slept under the wagon covers, the others slept on
  the bare ground under the wagons.[432]

  [431] The Norwegian settlement at and about Westby, Vernon Co.,
        dates from this time, 1850.

  [432] Speaking of the Indians Rev. Jacobson says, "They had their
        homes in the Territory of Minnesota, and did not molest the
        settlers in the least." On the banks of the Upper Iowa river
        many Indian graves were found. The bodies were buried in a
        sitting position, with the head sometimes above the ground. A
        forked stick put up like a post at each end of the grave held
        a ridge pole on which leaned thin boards, placed slanting
        to each side of the grave. Thus each grave presented the
        appearance of the gable of a small house.

Of this party Simonson, Opdahl, Abrahamson, and Quale settled in
Springfield, the rest in Decorah and Glenwood Townships.[433] Most of
the members of these parties had come to America several years before,
as Opdahl in 1848 and Tostenson in 1847; three of them, as we know,
Rudi and the two Johnsons, had immigrated in 1839.

  [433] The eastern two-thirds of Winneshiek County clear to the
        Minnesota line in a few years became extensively settled by
        Norwegians.

A small party from Jefferson Prairie, Wisconsin, including Tore P.
Skotland and his brother Endre P. Sandanger, Ellef and Lars Land,
natives of Ringerike, also came the same summer; these secured claims
around Calmar. The first list of landed assessments in Winneshiek
County[434] records the names of Jacob Abrahamson, Knud Guldbrandson
(Opdahl), Ole Gullikson (Jevne), Egbert Guldbrandson (Saland), Erik
Clement (Skaali), Halvor Halvorson (Groven), O. A. Lomen, Ole Larsen
Bergan, Mikkel Omli, Tollef Simonson (Aae), T. Hulverson, and Ole
Tostenson.

  [434] According to Reverend Jacobson, _The Pioneer Norwegian_ p. 5;
        the list is for 1852.

Among other settlers of 1850, not named above, I may name: Nils
Thronson, who had come from Valders in 1848, settling in Dane County,
Wisconsin he located in Glenwood Township in the summer of 1850;
Christopher A. Estrem from Vang Parish, who had immigrated to Chicago
in 1848; he came to Winneshiek County and located in Frankville
Township as one of the very first Norwegians there; Engebret Haugen,
who had immigrated in 1842, locating near Beloit, Wisconsin; the family
settled near Decorah in 1850, purchasing the old Indian Trading Post
then owned by J. G. Rice.

In the fall of 1850 Johannes Evenson, Ole L. Bergan, Knud L. Bergan,
and Jörgen Lommen came. Of these Evenson located west of Decorah, in
Madison Township, becoming the first Norwegian to settle there.[435]
As near as I can tell, Lars Iverson Medaas and family were the first
Norwegians to settle in Canoe Township. Iverson who was born at
Tillung, Voss (in 1802), but had married Sigrid Vikingsdatter in
Graven, Hardanger (1835) and settled on the farm Medaas, emigrated to
America in 1850. They spent the first winter on Liberty Prairie, Dane
County, Wisconsin, and moved to Winneshiek County early in the spring
of 1851, locating in Canoe Township, on section two, where they lived
till their death.[436]

  [435] Helge N. Myrand and his widowed mother, who had immigrated in
        1841 and settled in Muskego County, came west and located in
        Madison in 1851.

  [436] Iverson died in 1887, his wife in 1890. Iver Larson, well
        known merchant and for many years treasurer of the United
        Norwegian Lutheran Church, who died in 1907, was a son of
        Iverson.

The first Norwegians to enter Hesper Township were a party of
immigrants who came by the ship _Valhalla_ from Tönsberg in the summer
of 1852. They were from Tolgen, in northern Österdalen, and from Röraas
and Guldalen,[437] hence from a much more northerly region than their
countrymen in southern Winneshiek County. The party consisted of the
following: Trond Laugen, John Losen, Sr., Bendt Pederson, Ingbrigt
Bergh, Mons Monsen, all of whom were married, and John Vold and Jocum
Nelson. These were followed in the next year by John S. Losen, Jr., and
Ole B. Anderson Borren. Among the earliest settlers from other regions
were Paul Thorsen, Salve Olson and Torjus Gunderson from Sætersdalen,
Knut Herbrandson and Christian Lien from Hallingdal, Aadne Glaamene and
family from Voss, Lars Bakka and Bendik Larson from Sogn, and Peder
Wennes from Vardalen.[438]

  [437] They were the first emigrants to America from this district.

  [438] For the facts on Hesper Township I am indebted to Mr. J. A.
        Nelson of Prosper, Minnesota, a student in the State University
        of Iowa.

From the towns of Springfield, Decorah, and Glenwood, the settlement
thus soon spread into the neighboring townships--north into Canoe,
Hesper, and Highland, where it united with the settlement in
northwestern Allamakee County, and south through the towns of Calmar
and Military, uniting with the settlement in north central Fayette
County in Door Township. This last settlement extends through Pleasant
Valley southward into Clayton County. Together these settlements form
the eastern part of Clayton County, west through Fayette, and north
through Winneshiek to northern Allamakee. In Allamakee it extends as
far as Harper's Ferry and Lansing. The bulk of the population, however,
is found in Winneshiek County. The principal Norwegian townships are:
Glenwood, Decorah, Springfield, Madison, and Highland. About half of
the population of the county is of Norwegian birth, or of that descent.



                              CHAPTER XLII

      _Survey of Immigration from Norway to America. Conclusion._


We are then at the end of our task. We discussed at first early
individual immigration from Norway down to the year 1825. Then tracing
briefly the fortunes of the party of immigrants who came from Norway
that year we followed the subsequent immigration, year by year,
down to 1848, and the founding of settlements in this country from
Orleans County, New York, in 1825, to Winneshiek County, Iowa, in
1850. The growth of the emigration movement in Norway and the course
of settlements here have been indicated. The names of the promoters
of emigration in each district and province and of the founders of
settlements have in all cases been given. In most cases we have
succeeded in giving a fairly complete list of names of the settlers
in any community during the first four to eight years of its history,
that is its period of growth, the years during which it assumed the
character of a Norwegian settlement. The varied causes of emigration
were also discussed at some length as also other questions as the
cost of passage and duration and course of the journey; and in the
discussion of the individual settlements we have now and then given
a glimpse of the general conditions of life in early pioneer days.
I desire now by way of conclusion to summarize briefly the course of
emigration in Norway and the distribution of the representatives of
each district in this country.

The first emigrants from Norway were from Stavanger, Haugesund and
Ryfylke. Before 1836 the movement did not reach out beyond these
districts although a few individuals had come from Söndhordland and
Hardanger. The emigration from Hardanger begins properly in 1836;
that year also records the first arrivals from Voss.[439] However
most of the immigrants of that year, as the following two years, were
from the districts that had furnished the emigrants of the decade
1825-1835. The year 1837 is especially noteworthy for the sailing of
the first emigrant ship from Bergen and that the immediate vicinity
of Bergen for the first time furnished its quota of the emigration.
It is further significant in that Voss now enters definitely into the
movement, and that Upper Telemarken and the neighboring region of West
Numedal contributed the first recruits to the American settlements.
The emigrants of 1839 came in considerable part from Upper Telemarken,
from Numedal, from Voss and Hardanger, but not a few also from the
older districts. This continued in 1840 and 1841, except that there
were no emigrants from Hardanger during these two years and very few
for the next four years also. In 1842 the first party left Sogn and in
1844 and 1845 considerable numbers came to America from this district.
The year 1843 is especially noteworthy for the very large emigration
of that year from Upper Telemarken and the growth of the movement in
new parishes in Numedal. In this year also the America-fever enters
Lower Telemarken, a number of families going to America from Holden
Parish and Kragerö, which in 1844-1845 expands to include Sande and Bö
and the region of Skien. During 1843 the first emigrants also leave
Sætersdalen, and from now on it is to be observed that there is a
steady out-going of emigrants from Ryfylke and Söndhordland for the
period of nearly a decade. The movement is also beginning to expand
in two other directions; north from Numedal into Hallingdal and soon
after northeast from the region of the Sognefjord up to northern and
the extreme Inner Sogn. The influx of immigrants from Telemarken and
Numedal continues, and in increased numbers from Voss and the movement
begins anew in Hardanger in 1846. Hallingdal sent forth a large number
of families and single persons in 1846-47, most of whom as we know
settled in Rock and La Fayette Counties, Wisconsin, many later moving
into Iowa. In 1847-48 these two movements meet in Valders, the one from
Hallingdal entering first in South and North Aurdal, the other from
Lærdal and Aardal in Sogn, entering about 1850 into Vang, Hurum and
West Slidre in Valders. In the meantime the movement has traveled also
from Lower Telemarken, Drammen and Eastern Numedal (Sigdal) up through
Ringerike, Hadeland and Land. Especially large was the emigration
from North and South Land clear to Torpen in 1847-1850. The region
east of Land, i. e., Toten, Hedemarken and Solör furnish occasional
immigrants from now on but not in considerable numbers until many years
later. From Land and from Valders the movement grows northward into
Gudbrandsdalen and northwestward into Österdalen and Trondhjem, from
which provinces, however, relatively very few emigrated to America
until after 1850, and the emigration was not heavy from this region or
from the northern coast districts,--Söndfjord, Nordfjord, Söndmöre,
Nordmöre--until after the Civil War.[440]

  [439] At least eighteen persons from Hardanger and two from Voss.

  [440] And from Nordland not until after 1875. It is to be observed
        also that the emigration from the older inland districts was
        very heavy clear down to 1890.

As to the number of immigrants that each of the districts had
contributed to the American population before 1850, or have down to the
present time, it would be difficult to say. The emigration from such
vast districts as Telemarken and Sogn, as later from Gudbrandsdalen,
Hedemarken and Österdalen, has been heaviest, while from Ryfylke and
Voss the incoming settlers have been very numerous, as also from the
small but very populous Söndhordland, Hadeland and Land. Valdris and
Hallingdal[441] each about half as large as Sogn have contributed
perhaps each about one-third as many immigrants as Sogn, each
contributing about equally to the American emigration. Relatively
small has been the immigration from Hardanger, Sætersdalen and the
vicinity of Stavanger. The extensive districts of Telemarken and Sogn
entered early into the movement and have continued down to the present
time to furnish large numbers of recruits to the Norwegian immigrant
population. Representatives of these two regions, the immigrated and
their descendants, are, I believe, most numerous among the various
groups of Norwegian settlers in America.

  [441] In 1891 Hallingdal had a population of 12,900, Valdris 17,000,
        Sogn 37,050, Söndhordland 34,750, Hardanger 25,900, Ryfylke
        46,000, Telemarken 44,000, Sætersdalen 8,380. The population
        of each is much larger now.

In this country the relative position of the representatives of each
is about that which they occupied in the old; this finds its reason
chiefly in the time at which the different states were opened up to
settlers. Natives from Stavanger, Ryfylke and Söndhordland are found
chiefly in Illinois and in the settlements of Central Iowa (Benton
and Story Counties). In Illinois are located also in large numbers
natives of Hardanger (Lee County), and Voss (Chicago), but only to a
very limited extent those of other districts. In Southern Wisconsin
and to a slight extent in the adjacent parts of Illinois have located
especially the natives of Numedal, and to some extent those of Land
and Sogn. Natives of Sogn have, however, found homes most extensively
in the various settlements of Wisconsin and Minnesota and Northern
Iowa.[442] Here they are present in all parts of the states but in
largest numbers in the oldest settlements in Southern and Western
Wisconsin and in Southeastern Minnesota. Natives of Telemarken are
found well scattered, from their original center in Racine County,
through Walworth and Dane Counties, thence to Central Wisconsin and
Minnesota. The representatives of Valders are found in largest numbers
in Western Dane County, in Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, and in Goodhue
County, Minnesota.

  [442] In Winneshiek and Worth Counties, where also natives of
        Hallingdal have settled in large numbers.

It will not be possible to discuss here the later development of the
various settlements that have been treated above or the increase of the
Norwegian factor in the counties where these settlements were formed.
Space forbids this, and these facts have, furthermore, been briefly
indicated elsewhere in this volume. Thus in Chapter II we have outlined
the extent of immigration from Norway and the geographical distribution
of settlements, while the subsequent history of the special settlements
has often been briefly indicated. It may here be added that the
counties in Southern Wisconsin as a whole enjoyed a much more rapid
development during the years 1840-1850 than those of Northern Illinois,
and that this was due in a very large measure to the incoming of such
a large number of settlers from Norway[443] in the best years of their
life.

  [443] Similarly the "Norwegian" county of La Salle in Illinois
        was the leading county in that part of Illinois in the same
        period, its population in 1850 being 17,815, that of Grundy
        3,023, and De Kalb, 7,540.

In the year 1900 the principal Norwegian counties among those that fall
within the scope of the discussion in this volume were in order: Cook
County, Illinois; Dane County, Wisconsin; Winneshiek County, Iowa;
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin; Rock County, Wisconsin; and La Salle
County, Illinois.

It has elsewhere in this volume been shown that Wisconsin early became
the objective point of immigrants from Norway. This significant
position in Norwegian-American history Wisconsin continued to hold
throughout the whole period we have discussed and for a long time
afterwards. In 1850, fifty per cent of all Norwegians in the United
States were domiciled within the borders of the State of Wisconsin. It
was with Wisconsin that the chief events in early Norwegian-American
history are associated. The principal scenes in the great pioneer drama
were enacted here. As all the paths of the Norwegian immigrant in that
early day led to Wisconsin so the threads of all subsequent Norwegian
history in America lead back to Wisconsin.[444] Whether in material
welfare, in church, in politics or in education it was in Wisconsin
that the Norwegian first made a place for himself in America and laid
the foundation for all his later progress.[445]

  [444] Barring the relatively very small Norwegian factor in the
        cities of the East, which stands practically isolated from
        Norwegian American life.

  [445] At the same time we must not forget that the era of
        settlement began in Illinois, and Illinois has always
        continued to hold a prominent place in Norwegian-American
        history.



                               Appendices



                               APPENDIX I

                                TABLE I


 Showing the growth and distribution of the foreign Scandinavian factor
    by decades in the Northwestern states and in sections elsewhere

                          1850  1860     1870     1880    1890      1900
  Michigan                139    898    5,276   16,445  41,496    40,928
  Wisconsin             8,885 23,265   48,057   66,284  99,738   103,942
  Illinois              3,631 12,073   44,570   65,414 128,897   144,812
  Iowa                    611  7,814   31,177   46,046  72,873    72,611
  Minnesota                12 11,773   58,837  107,768 215,215   236,670
  Nebraska                       323    3,987   16,685  46,341    40,107
  North Dakota }                                       {34,216    42,578
               }                 129    1,674   17,868 {
  South Dakota }                                       {31,372    33,473
  Total in Northwest   13,278 56,275  193,578  336,511 670,148   715,121
  New England             749  1,507    3,113   11,243  43,606    70,632
  New York     }
  New Jersey   }        1,897  4,506   12,291   28,492  75,331   105,641
  Pennsylvania }
  The South[A1]         1,084  1,531    3,189    4,081   5,936     7,646
  All other states      1,067  8,763   29,497   59,935 138,328   166,525
  Total outside
         Northwest      4,797  16,307  48,090  103,741 263,201   350,444
      Total            18,075  72,582 241,668  440,252 933,349 1,065,565

  [A1] Not including Missouri.

                                TABLE II

  Showing the growth of the Norwegian foreign-born population in each
                        state by decades in 1850

                       1850    1860    1870    1880    1890    1900
  Maine                  12      27      58      99     311     509
  New Hampshire           2       5      55      79     251     295
  Vermont                 8              34      10      38      54
  Massachusetts          69     171     302     639   2,519   3,335
  Rhode Island           25      38      22      56     285     342
  Connecticut             1      22      72     168     529     709
  New York              392     539     975   2,185   8,602  12,601
  New Jersey              4      65      90     229   1,317   2,296
  Maryland               10       7      17     108     164     246
  Delaware                                       6      14      49
  District of Columbia            1       5      19      70     101
  Pennsylvania           27      83     115     381   2,238   1,393
  Virginia                5       8      17      29     102     123
  West Virginia                           1       3       7      19
  North Carolina                  4       5      10      13      21
  South Carolina                  4               5      23      49
  Florida                17      11      16      79     179     235
  Georgia                 6      13      14      23      88     155
  Alabama                 3      51      21      24      47     159
  Tennessee                      14      37      25      41     141
  Kentucky               18      10      16      21     120      34
  Mississippi             8      15      78      56      54      74
  Louisiana              64      63      76       7     136     189
  Arkansas                1       5      19      33      60     123
  Missouri              155     146     297     373     526     530
  Ohio                   18      19      64     178     511     639
  Indiana                18      38     123     182     285     384
  Illinois            2,415   4,891  11,880  16,970  30,339  29,979
  Michigan              110     440   1,516   3,520   7,795   7,582
  Wisconsin           8,651  21,442  40,046  49,349  65,696  61,575
  Iowa                  361   5,688  17,554  21,583  27,078  25,634
  Minnesota               7   8,425  35,940  62,521 101,169 104,895
  Kansas                        223     588   1,358   1,786   1,477
  Nebraska                              506   2,010   3,632   2,833
  South Dakota            }     129   1,179  13,245 {19,257  19,788
  North Dakota            }                         {25,773  30,206
  Wyoming                                28      74     345     378
  Colorado                       12      40     354     893   1,149
  Oklahoma                                               36     118
  Texas                         326     403     880   1,313   1,356
  Arizona                                 7      45      59     123
  Utah                                  613   1,214   1,854   2,128
  Nevada                                 80     119      69      50
  Idaho                                  61     276     741   1,173
  New Mexico                      2       5      17      42      33
  California                    715   1,000   1,765   3,702   5,060
  Oregon                         43      76     574   2,271   2,789
  Washington                            104     580   8,324   9,891
  Montana                                88     174   1,957   3,354
    Total            12,407  43,695 114,246 181,696 302,721 335,726


                               TABLE III

Showing the Norwegian foreign parentage population in the United States
                according to the U. S. Census for 1900.

   1.  Minnesota             257,959
   2.  Wisconsin             155,125
   3.  North Dakota           72,012
   4.  Iowa                   71,170
   5.  Illinois               59,954
   6.  South Dakota           51,199
   7.  New York               18,928
   8.  Washington             18,824
   9.  Michigan               14,091
  10.  California              8,536
  11.  Nebraska                7,228
  12.  Montana                 5,688
  13.  Oregon                  5,567
  14.  Massachusetts           5,069
  15.  Utah                    4,557
  16.  Kansas                  3,731
  17.  New Jersey              3,518
  18.  Texas                   3,406
  19.  Idaho                   2,767
  20.  Pennsylvania            2,254
  21.  Colorado                2,096
  22.  Alaska                  1,454
  23.  Missouri                1,301
  24.  Ohio                    1,174
  25.  Connecticut             1,083
  26.  Indiana                   852
  27.  Maine                     833
  28.  Wyoming                   727
  29.  Florida                   558
  30.  New Hampshire             504
  31.  Rhode Island              502
  32.  Maryland                  442
  33.  Louisiana                 441
  34.  Tennessee                 383
  35.  Alabama                   375
  36.  Hawaii                    370
  37.  Oklahoma                  350
  38.  Virginia                  282
  39.  Georgia                   277
  40.  Arizona                   228
  41.  Mississippi               211
  42.  District of Columbia      195
  43.  Arkansas                  133
  44.  Indian Territory          115
  45.  Nevada                     95
  46.  Vermont                    93
  47.  Kentucky                   88
  48.  South Carolina             86
  49.  Delaware                   59
  50.  West Virginia              46
  51.  North Carolina             44



                              APPENDIX II

      Names of Parishes and Settlements in Norway (see page 131).

  1. Skjold.
  2. Kopervik.
  3. Tananger.
  4. Aardal.
  5. Vikedal.
  6. Hjelmeland.
  7. Skaanevik.
  8. Vinje.
  9. Mo.
  10. Flatdal.
  11. Siljord.
  12. Hviteseid.
  13. Laurdal.
  14. Nissedal.
  15. Moland.
  16. Drangedal.
  17. Sandökedal.
  18. Bamle.
  19. Gjerpen.
  20. Porsgrund.
  21. Hiterdal.
  22. Rollaug.
  23. Nore.
  24. Sigdal.
  25. Flesberg.
  26. Lyngdal.
  27. Eggedal.
  28. Hovin.
  29. Tin.
  30. Bö.
  31. Holden.
  32. Slemdal.
  33. Sandsværd.
  34. Eker.
  35. Modum.
  36. Lier.
  37. Skauger.
  38. Sande.
  39. Kvindherred.
  40. Odde.
  41. Jondal.
  42. Vikör.
  44. Ulvik.
  45. Vossevangen.
  46. Vossestranden.
  47. Evanger.
  48. Graven.
  49. Samnanger.
  50. Vik.
  51. Aurland.
  52. Lærdal.
  53. Lekanger.
  54. Sogndal.
  55. Aardal.
  56. Lyster.
  57. Jostedal.
  58. Fjerland.
  59. Balestrand.
  60. Borgund.
  61. Hemsedal.
  62. Gol.
  63. Næs.
  64. Flaa.
  65. Söndre Aurdal.
  66. Nordre Aurdal.
  67. Vestre Slidre.
  68. Östre Slidre.
  69. Hurum.
  70. Vang.
  71. Nordre Land.
  72. Söndre Land.
  73. Vardal.
  74. Biri.
  75. Ringsaker.
  76. Ullensaker.
  77. Faaberg.
  78. Rendalen.
  79. Vaage.
  80. Froen.
  81. Lesje.
  82. Eid.
  83. Selbu.
  84. Soknedalen.
  85. Rindalen.



                              BIBLIOGRAPHY


The brief bibliography here given is not intended to be complete. The
books and articles spoken of in the "Foreword" of this volume, pages
7-9, are not re-listed here.

  Anderson, Rasmus B. _Bygdejaevning._ Madison, Wis., 1903. Pp. VI
  + 215. Has very little historical value; a series of uncritical
  contributions.

  Flom, George T. _Chapters on Scandinavian Immigration to Iowa._
  Iowa City, 1905. Pp. IV + 150. A brief survey.

  Hatlestad, O. J. _Historiske Meddelelser om den norske Augustana
  Synode._ Decorah, Iowa, 1887. Pp. 254.

  Holand, Hjalmar R. _De norske Settlementers Historie._ Ephraim,
  Wis., 1908. Pp. 603. A series of brief surveys (on pages 100-565)
  of most of the settlements down to 1865, unfortunately in part
  uncritical.

  Keyes, Judge E. W. _History of Dane County._ Madison, Wisconsin,
  1906. Volumes I-III. Scandinavian matter very incomplete and often
  erroneous. Names frequently misspelled.

  _Kvartalskrift._ Udgivet of Det norske Selskab i Amerika. Waldemar
  Ager, Redaktör I-V, 1905-1909. Various articles, usually very good.

  Langeland, Knud. _Nordmaendene i Amerika._ Chicago, 1889. Pp. 224.
  Fragmentary.

  Nelson, O. N. _History of the Scandinavians and Successful
  Scandinavians in the United States._ Minneapolis, Minn., 1901.
  Volumes I-II. A series of articles by various contributors and a
  large number of biographies. In general very reliable.

  _Normandsforbundet_, I-II, 1907-1909. A number of excellent
  articles of real permanent value.

  Peck, Geo. W., ed. _Cyclopedia of Wisconsin._ Madison, Wisconsin,
  1906. Volumes I-II. Scandinavian biographies, etc., often full of
  errors.

  Ulvestad, Martin. _Normaendene i Amerika, deres Historie og
  Record._ Minneapolis, 1907. Pp. 871.



INDEX


[The Church Register and the footnotes are not indexed.]

  Aaberge, Peder S., 312

  Aadland, Knud, 162

  Aadland, Mons, 100, 103, 112, 158, 161, 162, 222, 283

  Aadland, Thomas, 162, 280

  Aaen, Halvor N., 211

  Aamodt, Anders, 220

  Aamodt, Christopher, 298

  Aaretuen, Anna, 287

  Aaretuen, Knut, 266, 269, 270

  Aaretuen, Knut K., 285, 287

  Aarhus, Rasmus J., 37

  Aarhus, Reiar, 342

  Aarness, Angon, 338

  Aas, Aslak, 286

  Aas, Halvor N., 143, 144

  Aas, Lars, see Skavlem, Lars

  Aase, Anders E., 276

  Aase, Hans H., 338

  Aase, Lasse E., 276, 310

  Aase, Thor, 340

  Aasen, Halvor, 148

  Aasen, Halvor, 261

  Aasen, Nils, 302

  Aasland, Ole, 118, 119, 222

  Aasnes, Ole T., 188

  Aavri, Anders O., 273

  Aavri, Johans O., 273

  Aavri, Ole J., 273

  Abrahamson, Jacob, 369, 371

  Aga, Jon J., 95

  Allen, Mrs. Margaret, 45, 60

  Allen, William, 49, 76

  Anderson, Arnold A., 178

  Anderson (Aasen), Andrew, 93, 355

  Anderson, Andrew, 238

  Anderson, A. S., 59

  Anderson, Anderson G., 58

  Anderson, Arle, 232

  Anderson (Kvelve), Björn, 93, 110, 175, 176, 178, 179, 180, 256

  Anderson, Dan K., 8, 304

  Anderson, Eric, 232, 348

  Anderson, Erik A.

  Anderson, Halvor, 291

  Anderson, John, 337, 338

  Anderson, J. C., 235

  Anderson, John A., 238, 284

  Anderson, Kjel, 337, 338

  Anderson, Lars O., 149

  Anderson, Martha, 235

  Anderson, Ole, 13

  Anderson, Ole, 147, 159, 202

  Anderson, Ole, 344

  Anderson, Ole O., 312

  Anderson, Peter S., 304

  Anderson, R. B., 9, 37, 47, 56, 66, 103, 173, 191

  Anderson, Susanna, 93

  Anderson, William, 348

  Andrewson, Rev. O., 209

  Andsion, Peter M., 286

  Anmarksrud, Tollef S., 343

  Arnesgaard, Nils, 366

  Arveson, Hans, 290, 293

  Arveson, Harvey, 8, 290, 293, 294

  Arveson, Isak, 290

  Arveson, John, 292

  Arveson, Ole, 290

  Asdöhldalen, Knut, 260

  Askeland, Andrew, 125

  Atwater, John, 60


  Baarson (Bowerson), Knut, 345

  Baarson, Lars, 208

  Backe, Sören, 156, 158, 159, 160

  Backe, Tollef O., 156

  Baker (Bager), John, 251

  Baker, Mrs. Ole, 345

  Baker, P. O., 345

  Bakka, Lars, 373

  Bakke, Hans H., 285

  Bakke, Ole J., 218

  Bakken, Ole O., 342

  Bakken, Tideman, 342

  Bakketun, Anna, 150, 233

  Bakketun, Nils, 235

  Bakketun, Ole, 236

  Bakli, Kittil, 261

  Bakli, Knut K., 261

  Bakli, Mrs. Ole, 186

  Barlien, Hans, 108, 110, 123, 192, 193, 197

  Barstad, Ole G., 188

  Barton, Ole, 342

  Bauge, Thomas, 100

  Baura, Mathias, 295

  Behrens, Captain, 78, 100

  Beigo, A. T., 217

  Bekkjorden, Synnöve K., 261

  Belgum, Nils O., 343

  Bendixen, Capt., 267

  Benson, John, 276

  Benson, Ole, 277

  Berdahl, Eli I., 311

  Berdahl, Ole, 273

  Bere, Peder, 208

  Berg, Ellef A., 260

  Berg, Erik K., 218

  Berg, Ingebrigt

  Berg, Truls, 218

  Bergan, Ole L., 371

  Berge, Herbrand H., 212

  Berge, John I., 285, 340, 341

  Berge, Kari, 283

  Bergen, Augun, 281

  Bergen, Hans, 36

  Bergkvam, Jens B., 307

  Bergland, Gunhild, 254

  Bergrud, Levor, 186

  Bergrud, Torstein L., 186

  Bergum, Botolf E., 333

  Berry, B. K., 168

  Bilden, Nils, 90

  Bjaaland, Thorsten O., 47, 55, 56, 62, 101, 175, 177, 178, 181, 256

  Bjelde, Johans K. See Melaas, J. K.

  Bjelde, Torsten O., 307

  Bjerva, Anders G., 292

  Bjoin (Bjaan), Aanund H., 163, 278

  Bjoin, Halvor, 279, 343, 348

  Bjöno, Goe, 138, 139

  Björgaas, George J., 287

  Björgo, John H., 62, 101, 113, 182

  Björndokken, Anders J., 292

  Björnson, Björn, 50, 239

  Björnson, Ellef, 298

  Björnson, Gabriel, 260, 263

  Björtuft, Ragnild

  Björtuft, Thorgrim O.

  Blakestad (Skavlem), G. H., 207

  Blegeberg, Gunder H.

  Bleie, Sjur S., 352

  Bloom, Captain, 301

  Bogstrandiet, Ole P., 206

  Boley, Ole, 343

  Bolstad, Nils L., 62, 101, 113, 168-171, 174, 175, 181

  Borlang, B. J., 344

  Borren, Ole B. Anderson, 373

  Boyum, Arne, 332

  Braaten, Ole O., 343

  Brekketo, Björn, 272

  Brenden, Ole T., 343

  Brendingen, Marthea, 214

  Brenna, Hans H., 302

  Brimsöe, Lars L., 93

  Bringa, Ole, 269

  Bringa, Tostein G., 245

  Broby, Jacob P., 365

  Brock, Captain, 310

  Brown, Lewis, 40

  Bruavolden, Ole, 203

  Bruavolden, Sjur T., 202, 203

  Brudvig, Ingebrigt, 100, 102

  Brunkow, Mrs. Martha, 304

  Brunsvold, Ola, 217

  Brunsvold, Asle, 217

  Brække, Anders N., 150

  Brække, Hellik N., 143, 145

  Brække, Knud, 150, 185

  Brække-Eiet, Halstein, 109, 110

  Buind, Ole A., 186

  Bukaasa, Hans, 294

  Buo, Guttorm, 312

  Burtness, John, 217

  Burtness, Timan, 217

  Busness, Kjittil, 278

  Bystölen, Magne B., 150, 168-171

  Bækhus, Alexander O., 252

  Bækhus, John, 257

  Bækhus, Tollef, 257

  Bö, Baard Lawson, 200

  Bö, Christen M., 292

  Bö, Knut L., 182, 235

  Bö, Lars, 93

  Bö, Michael, 93


  Calberlane, Dr. John M., 38, 39

  Campbell, Mitchel, 167

  Cannteson, Oliver, 57

  Carstensen, Clæs, 36, 57

  Cassem, Nels O., 358

  Cassem, Randall, 358

  Chelley, Lars, 355

  Christensen, Christian, 39

  Christianson, Hans, 348

  Clement, Erik, 371

  Cleven, Egil O., 283

  Clousen, Rev. C. F., 145

  Colley, S. G., 137


  Dahl, Endre (Andrew), 47, 55, 59

  Dahl, Halvor E., 260

  Dahl, Knut, 346

  Dahlbotten, Botolf, 343

  Dahlbotten, Jon Michelson, 343

  Dahlbotten, Martha, 343

  Dahlbotten, Randi Botolfsdatter, 343

  Dahle, Johans, 276

  Dahle, Hans J., 345

  Dahle, Leif J., 338

  Dahle, O. B., 280, 346, 347

  Dahle, Svennung N., 331

  Dahlen, Anders, 278

  Dalen, Lars, 129

  Dale, John J., 163, 283

  Dale, Paul, 95

  Dale, Sjur, 95

  Dalos, Anon, 295

  Dalstiel, Halvor H., 188

  Danielson, Christopher, 96, 114

  Danielson, Gitle, 120, 222, 224, 227

  Danielson, Knud, 96

  Danielson, Ole, 344

  Darnell, Sarah, 113

  Dean, Erastus, 136

  Dejean, Joseph, 167

  Dietrichson, Rev. J. W. C., 87, 94, 144, 185, 210, 313

  Djönne, Torbjörn, 95

  Doksrud, Halvor H., 281

  Doksrud, Halvor I., 281

  Doksrud, Ingebret H., 281

  Donstad, Halvor, 254

  Downer, Stephen, 137

  Doyle, Simon, 231

  Droksvold, Niels, 271

  Droksvold, Ole, 271

  Droksvold, Sjur C., 260, 271

  Drotning, Aamund O., 248, 283

  Dugstad, Brynhild, 207

  Dugstad, Lars, 150, 175, 177, 179, 180

  Dugstad, Erik K., 207

  Dusterud, Lars B., 340

  Dusterud, Peder, 340

  Dykesten, Lars K., 236

  Dyrland, Ole K., 81, 85, 246

  Dyvik, Ole, 101, 113


  Egery, Daniel D., 137, 205

  Eggum, Anna L., 260

  Eggum, Lars, 333

  Eide, Knud Olson, 44, 46, 49

  Eide, Knud Olson, 96

  Eide, Ole Thompson, 96

  Eielson, Elling, 75, 156, 158, 161, 278, 280, 347

  Einarson, Nils, 342, 344

  Eiteklep, Thorkel, 364

  Ellingsdatter, Anna, 338

  Ellingson, Elim, 8, 275, 276, 277

  Ellingson, Elling, 207

  Ellingson, Endre, 276

  Ellingson, Magela, 207

  Ellingson, Nils, 276

  Elseberg, Gulbrand, 342

  Enerson, Enert, 39

  Engebretson, M. J., 8, 203

  Engbrigtsen, Ole, 365

  Engen, Aadne, 217, 218

  Engen, Anders, 213, 267

  Engen, Erik, 343

  Engen, Hans, 213, 217

  Engen, Marie, 213

  Engesæter, Erik, 331

  Engesæter, Michel J., 267, 269, 270

  Engesæter, John, 331

  Erdahl, Ingebrigt, 312

  Erdahl, Johannes, 312

  Erdahl, Nicolai, 312

  Erickson, Mrs. Martha, 239, 240

  Erickson, Michael, 360

  Erickson, Nils, 45, 47, 54

  Espe, Lars O., 352, 354

  Espeland, Östen, 101, 114

  Espeseth, Halvor N., 364

  Esterly, George, 292

  Estrem, Chr. A., 372

  Evans, Dr. N. C., 8, 9

  Evanson, Christian, 346

  Evanson, Ragnild, 346

  Evanson, Christen, 218

  Evenson, Hadle, 295

  Evenson, Knut, 52


  Fadnes, Ragnild, 342

  Fagre, G. H., 366

  Falk, O. N., 9

  Farness, Erik C., 331

  Farness, Ole H., 331, 332

  Farness, Truls E., 332

  Felland, Gunder, 243

  Fellows, Joseph, 48

  Fenne, David L., 201, 202

  Fenne, Ivar, 203

  Fenne, Martha, 203

  Fenne, Nils, 201, 202

  Fenne, Per, 203

  Ferson, Baron Axel, 41

  Fingalpladsen, Gunder, 129

  Finno, Anders, 149, 150, 171

  Finseth, A. K., 218

  Finseth, Herbrand, 218

  Finseth, Knut K., 218

  Fischer, Captain, 310

  Fjeld, Nils H., 87

  Fjöse, see Kittilson

  Fjösne, Anne, 295

  Flaam, Anders J., 306, 309

  Flage, Anders, 150, 231

  Flatland, Elling O., 268

  Flattre, Thormod S., 285

  Fliseram, Erik S.

  Flittre, Sjur, 295

  Flom, Anders O., 266, 306

  Flom (Flaam), Ole Torjussen, 265, 266, 269, 270, 306, 309

  Flom, Gulleik T., 266

  Flom, Hans T., 309

  Flom, Knut T., 266

  Flom, Margrethe A., 219

  Flom, M. O., 9

  Flom, Ole O., 71, 266, 306

  Flom, Torjus, 266

  Follmer, George, 135

  Foslieiet, Hellik, 187

  Foslien, Even F., 208

  Fosseim, Halvor L., 245

  Fosseim, Ole L., 246

  Fossum, Hovel, 215

  Fossum, Ingebrigt, 214

  Frankrige, Johan, 214

  Frankrige, Sjugal, 215

  Friis, Captain Hans, 287

  Frondal, John J., 307, 338

  Fruland, Lars, 112

  Frye, Simon, 360

  Fröland, Nils, 100, 112

  Fröland, Peder, 334, 336

  Fröslie, Bertha, 214

  Fröslie, Helene, 215

  Fröslie, Marit, 214

  Fröslieit, Hans Engen, 214

  Fuglegjordet, Ingebrigt, 203, 274, 303

  Fuglestad, Mrs. Bertha, 239, 240

  Funkelien, Halvor, 185

  Fölie, Ivar, 274

  Fölie, Joe, 274

  Fölie, Lars O., 274


  Gaarden, Forstein T., 188

  Gaarder, Gudbrand, 213

  Gaarder, Helene, 213

  Gaarder, Ole, 214

  Gaarder, Peter H., 213, 220, 222

  Gaarder, Syver, 214, 220

  Gabriel, Halvor, 348

  Gangsei, Ole, 345

  Garden, Ole T., 340

  Gasman, Capt. Hans, 297

  Gasman, Capt. Johan, 291, 297, 298

  Gilbertson, Ole, 233

  Gilbertson, Rachel, 134

  Gilderhus, Anna, 150

  Gilderhus, Nils S., 149, 168-170, 174, 183, 185

  Gilderhus, Ole K., 150, 181, 182, 185, 233, 271

  Gilderhus, Ole S., 152, 200

  Gilderhus, Steffen K., 117, 233, 271

  Gjeirsme, Peder J., 309

  Gjeirsme, Torbjörn O., 309

  Gjellum, Joseph J., 305

  Gjellum, Lars G., 307

  Gjellum, Simon A., 307, 308

  Gjerde, Johannes L., 312

  Gjerde, Pe(de)r L., 184, 267, 270

  Gjerdene, Jakob I., 268

  Gjerdet, Jonas, 214

  Gjergjord, Aslak O., 253

  Gjergjord, Halvor O., 253

  Gjerstad, Lars, 117, 126

  Gjilje, Peter O., 192, 197

  Gjöstein, Knud, 150

  Glaim, Hellik, 143, 144, 364

  Glenna, Halvor, 295

  Glimme, Knut I., 236

  Goeranson, Rev. Andrew, 42

  Grane, Lars, 207

  Grane, Ole, 182

  Grane, Rasmus, 182

  Grane, Sjur, 207

  Grane, Tollef, 295

  Grasdalen, Halvor H., 340, 341

  Grasdalen, Nels H., 340

  Gravdal, Gilbert, 145

  Gravdal, Gullik O., 138, 139, 140, 144, 222

  Gravdal, Ole, 144, 145

  Gravdal, Tolee, 144, 145

  Gravdal, Sarah, 145

  Grave, Gro, 281

  Grellet, Stephen, 76

  Grimestad, Klaus, 152, 200, 233

  Grimsgaard, Lars, 217

  Grimsgaard, Ole K., 366

  Grimsrud, Helge S., 249, 250

  Grimsrud, Sigurd, 249

  Grinde, Botolf J., 305

  Grinde, Ole A., 343

  Grinde, Sjur, 332

  Grindemelum, 301

  Gromstu, Torgus T., 41

  Gromstulen, Peter J., 301

  Grov, Erik L., 305

  Groven, Aslak E., 246

  Groven, H. H., 368, 371

  Grundstad, G. E., 360

  Grönna, Thomas A., 366

  Grönsteen, Asberg, 292

  Grönsteen, Johans, 292

  Grönsteen, John, 292, 294

  Grönsteen, Ole T., 291

  Gröth, Halstein, 365

  Grötrud, Gunhild, 263

  Grötrud, Nils T., 262

  Gudbrandson, Erik, 206

  Gulack, Tolee, see Gravdal

  Gulberg, Arne

  Gulbrandson, Gulbrand, 206

  Guldbrandson, Kristi, 263

  Guldbrandson, Mari, 186

  Gullikson, Ole, 371

  Gulliksrud, Torsten Ingebrigtson, 111

  Gulseth, Even, 295

  Gulvsdatter, Martha, 307

  Gunale, Mrs., 139, see Ödegaarden

  Gunderson, Anders, 292

  Gunderson, Ashley, 203

  Gunderson, Tallak, 364

  Gunnulson, Ole, 173

  Guttormson, Guul, 220

  Guul, Gultorm, 220

  Gvaale, Johannes J., 338

  Gvale, Tollef H., 312


  Haaheim, Sjur, 95

  Haaland, Syver O., 295, 296

  Haatvedt, Christoffer S., 293

  Haatvedt, Even, 208

  Haatvedt, Ole, 292

  Haatvedt, Ole A., 208, 252

  Haave, Erik I., 303

  Haave, Elling, 273

  Haave, Ingebriet, 273

  Haave, Ivar I., 273

  Haave, John L., 273

  Haave, Lars Jensen, 274

  Haave, Lars J., 273, 274

  Haave, Ole L., 273

  Haaverud, Jul, 345

  Hadland, Steinar E., 208

  Hadley, Peter, 296

  Hage, Samuel, 360

  Hall, Ben, 360

  Hallan, see Ove C. Johnson

  Halland, Gisle, 137, 138, 143

  Halringa, Mons, 270

  Halsten, Ever, 342, 343

  Halvorson, Goodman, 356

  Halvorson, Gunder O., 149

  Halvorson, Halvor, 145, 298

  Halvorson, Mrs. John, 263

  Halvorson, Kleofas, see Hansemoen

  Halvorson, Lars, 342, 345

  Halvorson, Tallev

  Hamre, Juul G., 187, 261

  Hansemoen, Erik, 216

  Hansemoen, Halvor K., see Kleofas

  Hansemoen, Hans, see Husemoen

  Hansemoen, Kleofas H., 216, 217, 220

  Hansen, Hans, 36

  Hanson, Alex H., 154

  Hanson, C. F., 154

  Hanson, Claus, 293

  Hanson, Hans, 292

  Hanson, Ole, 364

  Hanson, Ole H., 154

  Hanson, Mrs. W. O., 145

  Harald, Fairhair, 83

  Harlow, John, 167

  Harrison, General, 201

  Harrisville, Knud K., 237

  Harrisville, Maren K., 238

  Harstad, Kjögei, 281

  Harvig, Henry C., 47, 54, 57

  Hasle, Ovre, 302

  Haslerud, Peter P., 344

  Hastvedt, Peter K., 293

  Hastvedt, Torger, 345

  Hatlestad, Anna, 284

  Hatlestad, Jens O., 284, 286

  Hatlestad, O. J., 286

  Haugaas, Gudmund, 47, 55, 57

  Haugan, Knut, 283

  Hauge, Anders, 368

  Hauge, Halvor N., 347, 348

  Hauge, Hans Nielsen, 75, 279

  Haugen, Andreas, 129

  Haugen, Baard, 101, 113

  Haugen, Engebret, 372

  Haugen, Gjermund, 133

  Haugen, Gunnul, 133

  Haugen, Halvor P., 127, 128, 129, 130

  Haugen, Hans G., 127, 133

  Haugen, Kjittil, 281

  Haugen, Knut, 283

  Haugen, Nils, 217, 222

  Haugen, Ole, 43, 44

  Haugen, Ole O., 188

  Haugen, Ole T., 368

  Haugen, Peder, 129

  Haugen, Staale T., 368

  Haugerud, Anfin A., 271

  Haugerud, Lars, 129

  Haugholt, Halvor P., 281, 282

  Haukaas, Hans O., 338

  Haukelien, Lars P., 260

  Haukness, Ole, 332

  Haukom, Ole O., 281, 283

  Havey, see Hæve, Ole

  Havredalen, Torbjörn, 188

  Hawkos, Tollef O., 338

  Hayer, A., 115

  Hedejord, Edward, 283

  Hedejord, Liv, 283

  Hedejord, Ole O., 283

  Hedle, Knut K., 286

  Hedle, Mathias, 286

  Hedle, Peter, 286

  Hefte, Björn, 295

  Hefte, John A., 236

  Heg, Even H., 159, 160, 161, 183, 187, 201, 222, 246, 284

  Heg, Hans C., 161, 284

  Heg, Ole E., 284

  Hegglund, Mrs. Anna, 356

  Hei, Ole, 217

  Heier, Ole, 115

  Helgeson, Erik, 297

  Helgeson, Gjermund, 192

  Helgeson, Peter, 365

  Helgeson, Tore, 206

  Helle, Ingebrigt J., 81, 227, 251

  Helle, Metta, 45

  Helle, Thomas, 45

  Hemsing, Ole H., 312

  Hemsing, Ole O., 312

  Henderson, Bryngel, 236

  Hendricks, Annecken, 37

  Hendricks, Helletje, 36, 37

  Hendrickson, Charles, 341

  Hendrickson, Christian, 202, 341

  Hendrickson, Henry, 341

  Herbrandson, Ole, 363

  Herre, Nils, 295

  Hersdal, Cornelius N., 46, 54, 55

  Hersdal, Nels N., 47, 56, 59

  Hesgard, Halvor, 217, 218

  Hesla, Asle, 217

  Hesla, Svend E., 217

  Hetletvedt, Jacob O., 192, 197

  Hetletvedt, K. O., 92

  Hetletvedt, Ole Olson, 47, 56, 57, 59, 62, 89, 355

  Hidle, see John Hill

  Hilbeitson, Erik, 206

  Hilbeitson, Jas., 206

  Hill, John, 93, 355, 356

  Himle, Ammund, 334

  Himle, Odd J., 101, 113, 168-171, 310, 334

  Hippe, Ole H., 312

  Hiser, Lena, 132

  Hoff, Arne, 343

  Hoff, Harald, 343

  Hogenson, Ole, 159

  Holgerson, Gunnel, 206

  Holland, Björn, 295

  Holland, E. S., 357

  Holmes, Joshua, 135

  Holmes, Thomas, 135

  Holmes, William, 135

  Holo, Lars J., 153, 262

  Holo, Martin, 262

  Holt, Bredo, 364

  Holt, Daniel, 347

  Holt, Jens, 364

  Holtan, Gudbrand G., 261

  Holtan, Hellek O., 212

  Holtan, Levor, 259, 260

  Holtan, Nils T., 263

  Holtan, Ole, 248

  Holtan, Ole G., 261, 262

  Holton, Levi, see Levor Holtan

  Holum, Ole S., 332

  Holum, Stephen, 332

  Holven, Aslak, 96

  Homme, Rev. G., 284

  Homme, John, 284

  Homstad, Mathias, 286

  Homstad, Ole, 286

  Hornefjeld, Amund Anderson, 92, 175, 176, 179, 256

  Hougen, John O., 251

  Hovdelien, Ole, 215

  Hove, Erik E., 201, 203

  Hove, Iver, 69

  Hovland, Gjert, 52, 56, 61, 62, 80, 83, 222

  Hovland, Halvor N., 354

  Hoyme, Christoffer T.

  Hulderöen, see Tellefson

  Hundere, Anders S., 312

  Hundkjiölen, Jens, 281

  Husebö, Ole I., 267, 269, 270

  Husebö, Synneva, 247

  Husemoen, Hans, 216, 217

  Husemoen, Kari, 217

  Huset, Halvor, 291

  Huset, Ole, 291

  Huset, Tollef Gunnufson, 281

  Husevold, John, 281

  Hustad, Knut, 364

  Hustvedt, Björn O., 254

  Hustvedt, Björn S., 254

  Husværet, Torkild, 302

  Hvasshovd, Gunder G., 186

  Hvasshovd, Hellik G., 186

  Hydle, Sjur, 295

  Hylle, Knud J., 152, 200, 201

  Hæve, Henrik O., 248, 271

  Hæve, Ole, 248

  Högstul, Osmond O., 295

  Högstul, Tostein H., 295

  Höverstad, Rev. Helge, 8


  Indlæggen, Even T., 338

  Ingebretson, Erik, 39

  Ingebretson, Gaute, 81, 250

  Ingebretson, Lucas, 292

  Ingusland, Östen, 281

  Inman, Mrs. C. E., 145

  Inman, John, 135

  Isakson, Guru, 208

  Isham, Chauncey, 167

  Iverson, Captain, 41

  Iverson, Cathrine, 58

  Iverson, Halvor, 47

  Iverson, Lars (Medaas), 372

  Iverson, Lewis, 248

  Iverson, Ole, 248

  Iverson (of Georgia), Senator, 41


  Jacobsen, Rev. A., 8, 70, 369, 370

  Jacobson, Anders, 205

  Jacobson, Henry, Mrs., 207

  Jacobson, Ole, 8, 300, 301


  Jacobson, John, 163

  Jacobson, Peter, 285

  Jansen, Eric, 74

  Jeglum, Lars, 366

  Jellarviken, Halvor, 120

  Jensen, Captain, 96

  Jensvold, Hovel, 214

  Jermo, Marie L., 113

  Jevne, Ole G., 368

  Johanneson, Johannes, 156, 158, 160

  Johnson, Andrew, 231

  Johnson, Aufin, 231

  Johnson, Baard, 95, 231

  Johnson, Baruld, 261

  Johnson, David, 232

  Johnson, Ellef, 303

  Johnson, Fingar, 364

  Johnson, George, 47, 56

  Johnson, Gjermund, see Kaasa

  Johnson, Ingeborg, 179

  Johnson, Isak, 202

  Johnson, John, 231

  Johnson, John A., 227

  Johnson, John E., 308

  Johnson, J. W., 8, 282

  Johnson, Lars, 348

  Johnson, Michael, 343, 344

  Johnson, Nels, 369, see Kaasa

  Johnson, Ole, 47, 54

  Johnson, Ove C.

  Johnson, Sjur

  Johnson, Syver, 203, 302

  Johnson, Thomas, 40

  Johnson, Torris, 357

  Jone, Ole, 334

  Jones, John Paul, 40

  Jones, Milo, 135

  Jordgrev, Kittil, 294

  Juul, Rev. E. P., 306

  Juve, Knut A., 83, 244, 245, 246

  Jæger, Knut, 365

  Jörandlien, Tarald, 213

  Jörlien, see Jörandlien

  Jördre, Nils L., 100


  Kaasa, Gjermund O., 222

  Kaasa, Gjermund Johnson, 120, 121, 158, 369

  Kaasa, Jens O., see Olson

  Kaasa, Jörgen, 272

  Kaasa, Kittil O., 272

  Kaasa, Nils Johnson, 120, 158, 285

  Kaasa, Ole, 235, 272

  Kaasa, Thor O., 186, 235, 272, 274

  Kaasne, Jacob, 295

  Kalberlahn, Catharine, 39

  Kallerud, Bergit N., 130

  Kasberg, Rev. K. A., 8, 187, 261, 263

  Kearney, Philip, 167

  Keen, Andrew, 42

  Kirkejord, Thore H., 128, 134, 137

  Kirkejord, Torsten H., 128, 130

  Kittilson, Levi, 259, 262

  Kittelson, Ole, 300

  Kittilsland, Ole T., 363

  Kjonaas, Ole, 120

  Kjylaa, Sven, 197

  Kjölen, Halvor, 260

  Kjösvik, Hans J., 338

  Kleiva, Johannes, 273

  Kleofas, Halvor, 217

  Kleofas, Knud, 217

  Klevmoen, Helene, 213

  Klomset, Sven S., 281

  Klove, Lars, 295

  Knit, Rognald J., 307

  Knudson, Gullik, 141, 142

  Knudson, Tollef, 282

  Knutson (Springen), Gunder, 146

  Knutson, Mikkel, 338

  Knutson, Oliver, 57

  Kolskett, Michel, 343

  Kolsrud, Erik, 217

  Kosa, Anne, 291

  Kossin, John, 281

  Kostvedt, Aslak, 243

  Kostvedt, Halvor, 252, 253

  Kravik, Halvor, 187, 261, 263

  Kravik, Lars C., 263

  Kristensen, Knut, 143

  Kristian IV, King of Denmark, 35

  Kroken, Mathias H., 281

  Kroken, Ole H., 120

  Krostu, Rev. G. G., 8

  Kvale, Rev. O. J., 8

  Kvamodden, Nils, 9, 300

  Kvarma, Sjur K., 207, 209

  Kvarma, Kolbein, 209

  Kvarve, Levor, 218

  Kvarve, Tideman, 218

  Kvelve, see Anderson

  Kvendalen, Lars, 179, 180

  Kvendalen, Nils, 181

  Kvisterud, Knud S., 283, 340, 341

  Kvisterud, Ole, 340


  Laflin, Mathew, 157

  Land, Ellef, 371

  Land, Lars, 371

  Landeman, Thomas J., 188

  Landsverk, Johan, 278, 279

  Landsverk, Ole, 279

  Landsverk, Peder J., 278

  Langeland, Knud, 48, 93, 97, 112, 157, 284, 335, 336, 348

  Langeland, Malina, 112

  Langeland, Nils P., 97, 99, 101, 110, 112

  Langeland, Dr. Peter, 285

  Langemyr, Lars, 342

  Langeteig, Anders, 335

  Larsen, Bendik, 373

  Larson, Erik

  Larson, Rev. G. A., 8

  Larson, Georgiana, 46

  Larson, Gunder, 134

  Larson, Haakon, 349

  Larson, Ivar, 372

  Larson, Johan, 95, 231

  Larson, John, 285

  Larson, Knud

  Larson i Jeilane, Lars, 45, 46, 49, 50, 60, 76, 91

  Larson, Mrs. Louis O., 132

  Larson, Mary, 148, 303

  Larson, Ole, 309

  Larson, Sara, 47

  Larson, Svend, 204

  Laugen, G., see Springen

  Laugen, Trond, 373

  Lawrence, Ole, 349

  Lawson (Larson) Canute, 232

  Lawson, Iver, 112, 232, 237

  Lawson, Victor F., 113

  Lee, Andrew E., 185

  Lee, Christian, 238

  Lee, Erik, 185

  Lee, Johan, 350

  Lee, Lars J., 295

  Lee, Ole Aslak

  Leidal, Anfin, 149

  Lekvold, Ole S., 366

  Leland, Brynjulf, 310

  Lenaas, O. O., 259

  Lenvick, Ole, 347

  Lia, John, 298

  Lia, Ole, 294, 298

  Lia, Mathias, 295

  Lie, Anders N., 182, 183, 184

  Lie, Brynild L., 207

  Lie, Haaken, 308, 310

  Lie, Johannes, 276

  Lie, Lars O., 207, 208

  Lie, N. A., 8, 150, 183

  Lien, Björn, 294

  Lien, Henrik, 309

  Lien, Lars, 173

  Lien, Levor, 343

  Lien, Tone, 244

  Lier, Knut O., 260, 261

  Lier, Lars, 173

  Lier, Ole, 174

  Lillebæk, Hans, 303

  Lillebæk, Kari, 302

  Lima, Simon, 47

  Lindelien, Knut J., 343

  Loe, Ole, 312

  Lofthus, Olav Ö., 95

  Lohner, Halvor N., 120

  Lommen, Andrew A., 368

  Lommen, O. A., 368, 371

  Losen, John S., Sr., 373

  Losen, John S., Jr., 373

  Lothe, Svein K., 95, 231

  Loven, Johanne M., 307

  Loven, Peder M., 307

  Lund, Iver, 343

  Lund, Paul, 261

  Lund, Svend L., 312

  Lunde, Christian, 149

  Lunde, Gulleik, 292

  Lunde, Gunder H., 291

  Lunde, Halvor A., 292

  Lunde, Osmund, 243, 252

  Lundene, Anders, 343

  Lundsæter, Anders, 213

  Lundsæteren, Östen, 215

  Luraas, Halvor O., 120, 158, 311

  Luraas, John N., 68, 70, 120, 158, 167, 222, 241, 242, 249

  Luraas, Knut N., 120, 158

  Luraas, Nils J., 249

  Luraas, Torger Ö., 120, 158

  Lybæk, Bertha, 214

  Lybæk, Johans, 214

  Lydvo, Knud, 117, 126, 149

  Lydvo, Nils, 126, 149

  Lydvo, Ole, 117, 126, 149

  Lydvo, Randver, 235, 236

  Lyse, Gilbert C., 368

  Lysenstöen, Halvor L., 163

  Lökken, Hans, 286

  Lökken, Ole, 286

  Lökken, Peter, 286

  Lökken, Tyke H., 286

  Lönflok, Halvor T., 120

  Lönning, Amund, 353

  Lönning, Gertrud, 352


  Maakestad, Helge H., 352

  Maakestad, Omund Helgeson (Hilleson), 95, 351, 352

  Maakestad, Torgels, see Newton

  Maanem, Tore, 343

  Maaren, Gunuld K., 281

  Maaren, Sondre N., 278

  Madland, Thomas, 46, 54, 56, 57, 58

  Mandt, Gunnar T., 82, 246, 247

  Mans, Martha, 39

  Markoe, Abraham, 41, 42

  Marsett, Peter C., 58

  Mason, C. M., 295

  Mastre, Nils E., 251

  Mathieson, Halvor, 295

  Mathieson, Helge, 120

  Maurset, Peder J., 100

  Mayhew, Wm. M., 166

  Medaas, see Iverson

  Megaarden, Kristen, 217

  Melaas, Kristen L., 267

  Melaas, Kristi, 227, 268

  Melaas, Johans K., 269

  Melaas, Mons L., 267

  Melaas, Ole A., 269, 270

  Melaas, Mrs. Ole, 312

  Meland, Helge, 203

  Meland, Östen G., 278

  Melland, Harald, 303

  Menes, Ole O., 69, 70, 81, 310

  Midböe, Tarald E., 260

  Midböen, Anders, 213

  Midböen, Erick G., 110, 111

  Midböen, Gunder G., 111

  Midthus, Svein L., 100

  Milebon, Hans A., 290

  Milesten, Halvor O.

  Mills, Dennis, 137

  Mitchell, Franklin, 137

  Mitchell, John S., 58

  Mo, Olav L., 234

  Modum, Halvor, 287

  Modum, Thov, 208

  Moe, Peder H., 260

  Mogen, Kari G., 228

  Moland, Kittil

  Molee, John E., 120, 163

  Monsdatter, Ragnhilde, 307

  Monson, Mons, 373

  Munk, Jens, 35, 36

  Munson, Henry, 356

  Murray, William S.

  Mygstue, Gullik O., 211, 212

  Mygstue, Ole, 212

  Myhra, Gudbrand, 128, 130

  Myhra, Jens G., 128, 130, 132

  Myhre, Ole, 278

  Myren, Ole, 284

  Myrkeskog, Edlend, 277

  Myrkeskog, Ole, 277

  Mön, Lars J., 182

  Mörkvold, Björn G., 186

  Mörkvold, Ole H., 186


  Naas, Knut K., 332

  Narum, Nels H., 281, 282

  Narverud, Syvert I.,  159

  Narvig, Ingebrigt Larson, 52, 53, 114

  Natesta(d), Henry, 8, 132

  Nattestad, Ansten, 84, 108, 110, 116, 118, 127, 132, 133, 138, 205,
          224, 227

  Nattestad, Charles, 132

  Nattestad,  Eliza,  131

  Nattestad, James, 132

  Nattestad, Knud, 132

  Nattestad, Ole, 67, 84, 102, 108, 109, 110, 116, 127, 132, 133, 135,
          137, 205

  Nederhaugen, Erik, 213

  Nederhaugen, Johans, 214

  Nelson, Aad, 197

  Nelson, Carrie, 55, 56, 58

  Nelson, Christ, 193

  Nelson, Groe, 144, 145

  Nelson, Mrs. Gustav, 134

  Nelson, Mrs. Ingeborg, 296

  Nelson, Inger, 58, 151

  Nelson, Ira, 59

  Nelson, Jocum, 373

  Nelson, Mrs. Julia, 235

  Nelson, Knute, 297

  Nelson (Brekke), Lars, 346, 349

  Nelson, Martha, 58

  Nelson, Nels, 58

  Nelson, Nils, 193

  Nelson, Peter, 59

  Nelson, Peter, 235

  Nelson, Peter C., 58

  Nelson, T., 128, 134

  Nelson, T. T., 134

  Ness, Halvor, 217

  Ness, Mons, 345

  Newhouse, see Nyhus

  Newton, T. M., 8, 352, 353

  Nicholson, Henry, 233

  Nicholson, John G., 233

  Nilsen, Ole, 292

  Nilson, F. O., 76

  Nilson, Halvor, 92

  Nilson, Hermo, 162, 278, 279, 280, 347

  Nilson, Nels, 279

  Nilson, Prof. Svein, 67, 256

  Nilson, Thorstein, 205

  Nirison, Kittil, 237

  Nisson, Halvor, 281

  Noorman, Claes, 63

  Noorman, Hans, 36

  Nordboe, Johan, 52, 122, 153

  Nordbö, Harald, 294

  Nordbö, Hans, 294

  Nordby, Rev. J. S.

  Nord-Fossum, Lars, 213

  Nordgaarden, Gjermon T.

  Nordvig, Anders, 100, 112

  Nordvig, Ingebrigt, 101

  Nore, Gjertrud, 256

  Nore, Gro, 256

  Nore, Lars, 185

  Nore, Knud, 185

  Nore, Ole, 185

  Nore, Sæbjörn, 185

  Nore, Tore K, 185, 255

  Norman, see Bækhus

  Nubbru, Even, 109

  Numedal, Anders H., 273

  Numedal, Endre H., 273

  Nummeland, Ole, 282, 298

  Nyhus, Kittil, 128, 130, 206, 208

  Nyhus, Kristoffer, 128, 130, 134, 137, 208

  Nyhus, Ole C., 206, 208

  Nyre, Baard, 152, 233

  Næs, Peter, 298

  Næset, Aadne E., 246

  Næset, Ingebrigt, 309

  Næset, Jens J., 309, 311, 312

  Næset, Johannes J., 309, 311

  Næset, John J., 309

  Næset, Ole E., 246

  Næseth, Gunder K., 300

  Næshaug, see Wilson, 207

  Næstestu, Asmund A., 253

  Nörstelien, Christine, 214

  Nörstelien, Ole, 214

  Nörstelien, Svend, 302

  Nösterud, Margit, 140


  Offerdal, Hermund O., 305

  Olmstead, Benson C., 59

  Olmstead, Charles B., 59

  Olmstead, George, 58

  Ollis, John, 333

  Olsdatter, Bergit, 163

  Olsdatter, Guro, 188

  Olson, Aase, 284

  Olson, Ambjör, 130

  Olson, Borre

  Olson, Christian, 52, 57

  Olson, Christie, 148

  Olson, Christoffer, 287

  Olson, Eilif, 338

  Olson, Ellen, 113

  Olson, Gudbrand, 206

  Olson, Ingeborg, 284

  Olson, James W., 59

  Olson, Jens, 235, 272

  Olson, John T., 287

  Olson, Lars, 45, 46, 54, 109

  Olson, Leif, 344

  Olson, Nils, 192

  Olson, Olaf, 349

  Olson, Ole T., 92

  Olson, Ole Vendelbo, 269, 270

  Olson, Ommund, 192

  Olson, Porter C., 59

  Olson, Salve, 373

  Olson, Sören L., 59

  Olson, Thorsten, see Bjaaland

  Olson, Tosten, 291

  Omli, Mikkel, 368, 371

  Ommelstad, Harald, 213

  Ommedstarsækeren, Johannes, 214

  Onsgaard, Ole, 218

  Opdahl, Knut, 369, 371

  Opsal, Gunder C., 292

  Opsal, John C., 291

  Opsal, Nils, 292

  Orsland, Canute, 118

  Orsland, Hallock, 118

  Orsland, Harry B., 118

  Ortzland, Anna M., 359

  Orvedal, Ole J., 274

  Osmond, Mrs. Austin, 93, 355

  Osmond, Merman A., 94

  Osmonson, Herman, 355

  Osmundson, Isabella, 154

  Osuldson, Bertle, 364

  Overholt, Nils J., 301

  Overson, Frank, 283

  Overson, Ole, see Haukom

  Overvind, Captain, 260

  Ovestrud, Erik, 218


  Paaske, Alexander, 43

  Patterson, Torgen, 147

  Paulson, Hovel, 148

  Paulson, Sakarias, 42

  Pederson, Gunild, 282

  Pederson, Guro, 312

  Peerson, Kleng, 44, 46, 48, 49, 53, 55, 62, 101, 117, 125, 190, 191,
          192, 239

  Peerson, Samuel, 92

  Person, C., 193

  Person, Georgiana, 46

  Peterson, Frank, 43

  Peterson, Mrs. Holger, 365

  Peterson, John, 360

  Peterson, Nels, 349

  Peterson, O. P., 78

  Pond, Daniel, 167

  Pratt, Oscar H., 137

  Prentice, John, 167

  Prestegaard, Nils, 143

  Preus, Rev. A. C., 338

  Puttekaasa, Christen, 297


  Quala, Johannes J., 285

  Quale, Ellend T., 312

  Quale, Iver P., 369

  Quale, John J., 368

  Quamme, Hans H., 333

  Quammen, Aslak E., 312

  Quammen, Ole L., 312


  Ramlo, Tarald

  Ramstad, Helge, 364

  Rasdall, Abel, 166

  Reierson, Johan R., 86, 87

  Reierson, Ole, 192

  Reinke, Abraham, 39

  Rekve, Lars D., 149, 150, 181, 199, 271

  Reque, Reverend L. S. J., 337, 338

  Reque, Sjur S., 335

  Rice, J. G., 372

  Richey, Will F., 59

  Richey, William W., 59

  Richolson, Lars, 115

  Rime, Henrik, 217

  Rime, Tollef, 217

  Rinden, Kittil, 243, 244

  Rio, Erik V., 271

  Rio, Knut T., 295

  Rio, Torstein, 296, 297

  Risetter, Haakon, 354

  Risetter, Lars, 352, 353

  Robertson, David, 167

  Roe, Anne, 242, 248

  Roe, Hans, 297

  Roe, Helleik, 248

  Roe, Knut H., 154, 162, 167, 241, 242, 243, 248

  Roe, Nils, 217

  Roen, Guttorm, 217

  Roen, Ole, 217

  Rogde, Jacob O., 354

  Rokne, Knut E., 152, 200, 271

  Rom, Björn O., 260

  Romören, Sjur I., 305

  Ronve, Brynjulf, 152, 200, 233

  Rosholt, Halvor, 297

  Rosholt, Jacob, 297

  Ross, Mrs. Eric, 240

  Rossadal, Daniel S., 46, 56, 59, 90

  Rossadal, Johan S., 90

  Rossadal, Ove S., 90

  Rosseland, Amund, 100, 177

  Rosseland, Sjur E., 100

  Rostad, Kristopher, 147

  Rostad, Lars, 148

  Roswall, Ingebret, 286

  Rosöino, Peder, 120

  Rothnem, Ole L., 366

  Rotkjön, Aslak B., 187

  Rotkjön, Richard B., 187

  Rue, John, 192

  Rue, John N., 110

  Rue, Kittil, 365

  Rue, Thorstein, 192, 197

  Rue, Thorstein T., 125

  Rue, Mrs. Thorstein T., 192, 197

  Rue, Tosten Thompson, 340--Thorstein Thorson Rue, see above

  Rustad, Abraham, 364

  Rustad, Aslak, 217

  Rust, Mikkel, 217

  Rund, Halvor, 214

  Rund, Kittil O., 219

  Rund, Margit, 219

  Rygh, Halvor, Sr., 360

  Rynning, Rev. Jens, 107

  Rynning, Ole, 85, 100, 102, 103, 107, 118, 122, 199, 283

  Röisland, Talleef, 282, 298

  Rölje, Donant, 264

  Rönningen, Abraham K., 260

  Rönningen, Anders Jacobson, 281

  Rönningen, Erick K., 260

  Rönningen, Torbjörn K., 260

  Röste, Arne, 343

  Röste, Lars, 139, 213

  Röthe, Lars T., 152, 200, 233

  Röthe, Nils, 62, 95, 231, 236

  Röthe, Torbjör, 231


  Saamandsdatter, Gunhild, 188

  Sagdalen, 218

  St. John, Samuel, 136

  Sakrison, Simon, 295

  Salveson, Engelbret, 297

  Salveson, Halvor, 297

  Sampson, Samuel, 8, 337

  Sandanger, Endre P., 371

  Sande, Joe, 276

  Sanden, Embrigt

  Sanden, Ole, 364

  Sanderson, Erik, 219

  Sanderson, Ole, 280

  Sando, Ole, 217

  Sandsberg, Andreas, 69

  Sandsberg, Gudmund, 51, 57, 69, 70

  Sandsberg, Marie, 51

  Saue, Gulleik T., 171, 200, 233, 264

  Saue, Kolbein O., 101, 113

  Saue, Lars, 200

  Saue, Styrk O., 101, 113, 264

  Saue, Torstein, 200, 233

  Savig, Erick J., 92

  Savig, Ingeborg, 92

  Savik, Anne B., 178

  Savik, Erik, 177, 178, 179

  Savik, John, 178

  Scheldal, Lars, 360

  Scheldal, Rasmus, 360

  Schærdalen, Ole, 265

  Scofftedt, Mrs. Martin, 132

  Sebbe, Henrik E., 78, 92

  Seim, Anfin J., 266, 267, 270

  Seim, Nils T., 267, 270

  Selseng, Nils O., 312

  Selseng, Ole, 268

  Selseng, O. P., 252

  Selseng, Thorstein T., 268, 311

  Severts, Lewis, 207

  Severtson, Ellef G., 236

  Severtson, Ole, 207

  Shelby, Halvor, 338

  Sherburne, John Henry, 40, 41

  Sherping, Kristen, 312

  Sherping, Per, 312

  Shipley, Ole, 207

  Sigurdson, Helge, 163

  Simerson, Simon, 70

  Simon, Knut, 219

  Simons, William G., 167

  Simonson, Andrew, 125, 191, 192

  Simonson, Tollef, 369, 371

  Sjurson, Ole, 295

  Sjutvett, Ole, 341

  Skaalen, Ole, 217

  Skare, Halvor O., 285

  Skarie, J. H., 287

  Skarshaug, Ingbret, 364

  Skavlem, Bessie, 145

  Skavlem, Erik, 128

  Skavlem, Gullik, 143, 144

  Skavlem, Halvor L., 9, 143, 145, 146, 205

  Skavlem, Kari, 143

  Skavlem, Lars H., 141, 143, 144, 145, 206

  Skavlem, Ole, 143

  Skavlem, Paul H., 143, 145, 206

  Skeie, Lars G., 100, 175

  Skinrud, Erik O., 343

  Skipnes, Anders J., 290

  Skjerve, Knut S., 285, 287

  Skjerveim, Peder Davidson, 152, 199, 200, 201, 202, 232

  Skofstad, Johannes E., 159

  Skogen, Christian O., 342

  Skogen, Nils, 342

  Skotland, Tore P., 371

  Skuldt, Ole, 345

  Skutle, Ole, 208

  Skutle, Thorbjörn, 337, 338

  Slettene, Aslak R., 301

  Slinde, Ole A., see Melaas, O. A.

  Slogvig, Jacob A., 47, 55, 57, 84, 128, 193, 196, 197

  Slogvig, Knud A., 47, 55, 56, 61, 62, 63, 84, 91, 97, 111, 125, 192, 197

  Slæen, Erik E., 208

  Smeby, Hovel, 214

  Smeby, Ole, 215

  Smed, see Syver Johnson

  Smedsrud, Engebret, 302

  Smedsrud, Johannes E., 302

  Smedsrud, Mathias, 302

  Smehögen, Johannes, 302

  Smekaasa, Anders, 281

  Smetbok, Niels O., 186

  Smith, John G., 181

  Smithbak, Tore E., 259

  Solem, John E., 216

  Solem, Knud E., 216

  Solheim, Anna, 182

  Solvi, Erik, 341

  Sondal, Lena, 207

  Sonde, Ole, 364

  Sonve, Mads, 152, 200, 233

  Soppeland, Ole, 193

  Spaanem, Kathrine

  Spaanem, Tore T., 340

  Spears, Robert, 168

  Spilde, Lars, 234

  Spillom, Elling, 286

  Spillom, Hendrik, 286

  Spillom, Mikkel, 286

  Spillom, Ole, 286

  Springen, Gullik, 141, 142, 206

  Stabæk, Clemet T., 147, 209, 222

  Stabæk, Helen, 209

  Stabæk, Narve, 149

  Stabæk, Torsten K. O., 147

  Stadhem, Andrew O., 273

  Stadhem, Johanna, 276

  Stadhem, Ole, 273

  Stake, Arne K., 366

  Stalsbraaten, Klemet L., 261

  Stalsbraaten, Halvor, 261

  Stamm, Elling, 345

  Stangeland, Andrew, 47, 54, 118

  Steen, Severine Catherine, 107

  Steenhjerde, Ole N., 305

  Steensland, Halle, 349

  Stene, Ivar J., 307

  Stene, Johannes, 47

  Stewart, Samuel T., 166

  Stille, John, 42, 43

  Stokkeberg, Susanna, 39

  Stondal, Björn A., 254, 283

  Stordok, Gunnul, 141, 142, 146, 148, 211

  Stordok, Halvor, 129, 211

  Stordok, Inge, 211

  Stordok, Knud, 211

  Stordok, Ole, 211

  Storlag, Ole O., 366

  Storlie, Ole O., 281

  Strandskongen, Baruld J., 260

  Stub, Hans A., 287

  Stubberud, Halvor J., 260

  Stundal, Sjur O., 307

  Sube, Hæege O., 263

  Sundbö, Gunleik T., 245

  Sunde, Gjermund K., 172, 173

  Sunve, Maline, 203

  Sunve, Nils, 203

  Svalestuen, Gunleik O., 338

  Svalestuen, Knud, 85, 159

  Svartskuren, Carl, 257

  Svartskuren, Peder L., 256, 261

  Svensrud, Gullik, 341

  Svimbil, Thore K., 110, 111

  Svinalie, Erik, 120

  Swerge, Peder H., 291

  Sælabakka, Gjertrud O., 186

  Sære, Sjur M., 236

  Sæter, Ingebrigt, 129

  Sögal, Andrea, 289

  Sögal, Anne, 289

  Sögal, Johanne, 289

  Sögal, Karen, 289

  Sögal, Kari, 289

  Sögal, Ole A., 289

  Sörum, Andreas, 214

  Sörum, Bertha, 215

  Sörum, Sören, 213, 363, 365

  Sötholt, Amund S., 281

  Sötholt, Sören S., 281


  Taasinge, Andreasen, 42

  Tallakson, Lars, 94, 192, 193, 197

  Tamnes, Christen

  Tangen, Mary, 134

  Tangen, Peder A., 224

  Tasker, Daniel, 137

  Tastad, Elias, 45, 76

  Teigen, Dr. K. M., 228

  Teigen, Lars J., 301

  Teigen, Ole C., 312

  Teisberg, Knut H., 248, 254

  Tellefson, Charlie C., 263

  Tellefson (Tollefson) Kjöstolf, 260, 263

  Tenold, Ole O., 273

  Tenold, Ole P., 274

  Tesman, Hans, 192

  Tesman, Peter, 192

  Tesman, William, 192

  Thomasson, Osmond, 92

  Thompson, Gulleik, see Saue

  Thompson, Hans, 290

  Thompson, Helge, 159

  Thompson, John, 341

  Thompson, K.

  Thompson, Nels, 296

  Thompson, Paul, 360

  Thompson, Sara, 58

  Thompson, Thomas, 290

  Thompson, Thomas A., 96, 114

  Thompson, T. G., 234

  Thompson, Tore, 203

  Thompson, Oien, 47, 54

  Thorgrimson, Jacob

  Thornton, Ben, 360

  Thorson (Thompson), Nels, 45, 55, 56, 59, 62

  Thorson, Paul, 373

  Thorstad, Anne, 260

  Thronson, Nils, 371

  Thun, John, 369

  Tistele, Ole, 273

  Tollefsjord, John, 120

  Tollefsjord, Ole, 120

  Tollefson, Anna, 208

  Tollefson, Gunnuf, 344

  Tollefson, Hans, 338

  Tollefson, Ole, 344

  Tollefson, Syvert, 147

  Tollefson, Tönnes, 204, 208

  Tollefsrude, Christian H., 70

  Tollefsrude, Christopher H., 302

  Tollefsrude, Halgrim L.

  Tollefsrude, Hans C., 70, 213, 215

  Tollefsrude, Hans H., 302

  Tollefsrude, Hovel, 302

  Tollefsrude, Johannes H., 302

  Tollefsrude, Ole Monson, 302, 303

  Tollefsrude-Ballandby, Tollef, 217

  Torblaa, Lars, 234

  Torgerson, Ole, 347, 348, 349

  Torgerson, Peder, 286

  Torison, Halstein, 94, 231, 234, 357

  Torison, Torris, 357

  Torstenson, Jacob, 301

  Torstensen, Niels, 335

  Torstenson, Ole, 301

  Torstenson, Torsten, 301

  Tostenson, Ole, 371

  Torvold, Anders O., 276

  Traim, Kjetil, 272

  Traim, Knut, 272

  Traim, Ole, 272

  Traim, Thov K., 272

  Train, Ole O., 208

  Trovatten, Ole K., 81, 82, 83, 85, 243, 252, 269

  Tröstem, Henrik H., 217

  Tröstem, Ingeborg, 217

  Tröstem, Knud, 217

  Tufte, Hermund N., see Hermo Nilson

  Tufte, Nels, see Nilson

  Tufte, Sven, 129

  Turkop, Halvor E., 366

  Tutland, Osmond, 356

  Tuttle, Albert, 137

  Tuttle, Charles, 137

  Tuttle, Henry, 137

  Tvedt, Torger T., 342

  Tveit, Christen J., 293

  Tveito, Gunnar, 234

  Tveito, Hans, 281, 282

  Tverberg, Hans P., 249, 250

  Tverberg, John P., 249

  Tveten, Knut G., 338

  Tygum, Ingebrigt L., 332

  Tyrebakken, Knut G., 218

  Tysland, Knut K., 355

  Tyvang, Glus P., 260

  Tærum, Jens T., 307

  Tærum, Torger J., 307

  Tömmerstigen, Anders J., 224

  Tömmerstigen, Johannes, 312

  Tömmerstigen, Olive, 312

  Tömmerstigen, Peter, 312


  Uhlen, Hans, 220, 298

  Ullebær, Tostein, 261

  Ullensager, Askild, 213

  Ulsak, Aslak, 217

  Ulven, Sjur, 199, 200, 201, 233

  Unde, Britha, 202

  Unde, Erik, 202

  Unde, Ole, 154, 202, 265

  Unde, Peder J., 153, 199, 200, 201, 222, 233, 265

  Unonius, Gustav, 297

  Urland, Arne, 152


  Vala, Gunder H., 293

  Valder, Hans, 96, 114

  Vale, Anders, 300

  Vale, Arve G., 293

  Vale, Hans A., see Hans Arveson

  Vale, John, 291, 300

  Vale, Ole J., 291, 300

  Valkaasa, Halvor, 294

  Valle, Lars, 364

  Valle, Ole, 363

  Valle, Ole H., 143, 363

  Valle, Sigrid P., 133

  Valöen, Peder H., 338

  Vambheim, Nils, 234

  Van der Bilt, Jan A., 37

  Vanderbilt, Commodore, 37

  Van der Weir, Jacob, 42

  Vange, Ingebrigt N., 273

  Vange, Ole, 273

  Vangen, Anna Marie H., 307

  Vangen, Ivar H., 266, 306, 338

  Vangsness, Sjur S., 333

  Van Sant, Claes, 36

  Vasberg, Björn T., 251

  Vatuame, Helge, 92

  Ve, Ole T., 218

  Vedfald, Gunder, 207, 209

  Vedfald, Olav, 209

  Vee, Herman T., 305

  Vegli, Nils O., 206

  Vehus, Jens P., 185

  Venaas, Gisle, 271

  Veste, Thorbjörn, 100

  Vestreim, Kolbein, 182

  Vestremo, Christian L., 300

  Vetlahuso, Anna, 44

  Vetti, Anders K., 359

  Vibito, Jörgen A. Nilson, 293

  Vik, Anders, see Week

  Vik, Anne, 348

  Vik, Guttorm T., 246

  Vik, Johan, see Week

  Vik, Torbjörn G., 246, 283

  Vikje, Nils, 182

  Vindedal, Josef J., 307

  Vindeig, Gunnul O., 172, 174, 177, 180, 185, 189, 256

  Vindeig, Helleik, 180, 181

  Vindeig, Knud O., 179, 180

  Vinje, Arne Anderson, 151, 199, 200, 201, 203, 233, 304

  Vinje, Martha, 151

  Vold, John, 373

  Vægli, Nils O., 143

  Værhaug, Hans, 215

  Værken, Ole A., 267

  Væte, Eli K., 264

  Væte, Halle, 100

  Væterud, Knud R., 208


  Wagley, see Vegli

  Wait, Guro, 287

  Wait, Reuben, 287

  Waller, Iver, 90

  Waller, Tollef, 298

  Warner, H. L., 137

  Warner, Milton S., 137

  Washington, George, 42

  Weaver, Griswold, 137

  Week, Andrew, 198, 199, 234, 350

  Week, John O., 198, 199, 234, 350

  Weeks, Wier S., 356, 357

  Wennes, Peder, 373

  Wheeler, John, 167, 249

  Wigeland, Andrew, 281

  Wigeland, Arentz, 281, 282

  Wigeland, G. A., 235

  Wikko, Nils O., 218

  Willerup, C. B., 78

  William, Hans, 193

  Williams, Mrs. Julia K., 151

  Wilson, Edwin O., 207

  Wing, John, 360

  Wittenberg, Jens, 39

  Wold, Syvver, 366

  Wright, John, 151


  Ygre, Lars, 150

  Ytreböe, Ole H., 188

  Ytreli, Erik J., 307, 308

  Ytreli, Iver I., 307, 308


  Ödegaard, Anders S., 305

  Ödegaarden, Gunhild, 139, 146, 206

  Ödegaarden, Jöri, 144

  Ödvin, Peter L., 334

  Öie, Erik, 192

  Öien, Tollef O., 287

  Öiesöen, Ole, 192

  Ölman, Sjur S., 268, 270

  Österbro, Mikkel K., 307

  Övrebö, Anders S., 305


Transcriber's Note

In footnote 201 on p. 218, the sentence "He was born in 1823, in 1905."
was corrupted. The subject died in 1905.

There are several footnotes which are referred to more than once (47
and 85). These may be errors, but are retained.

On p. 313, the words "at the homestead near West Koshkonong" are
repeated and have been removed.

On p. 269, the reference to footnote 277 was misprinted as "227", and
has been corrected.

On p. 319, the references to notes 347-349 appear out of order,
following, rather than preceding, notes 350 and 351 on p. 318. The
numbering has been retained, though the footnotes, all moved to the end
of the Registry covered by these pages, appear in numerical order.

On p. 322, the reference to footnote 356 is missing from the text, but
perhaps belongs to the entry for "Ole (Leirdal)".

The index has a number of editorial issues. Minor inconsistencies of
punctuation are corrected without mention here. There are number of
entries which lack page references. Some can be found in the text, and
are provided in the list below. The index itself is given as printed.

     Berg, Ingebrigt         p. 373 as "Ingbrigt Bergh".
     Johnson, Sjur           p. 333.
     Thompson, K.            p. 291 as "Karen Thompson".
     Johnson, Sjur           p. 333.
     Larson, Erik            p. 333.
     Larson, Knud            p. 343.
     Milesten, Halvor O.     p. 342.
     Moland, Kittil          p. 344.
     Murray, William S.      p. 348 as "William S. Murrey".
     Nordgaarden, Gjerman T. p. 281.
     Nordby, Rev. J. S.      p.   8.
     Spaanem, Kathrine       p. 334.

There are a number of other index entries which have no page reference,
and which do not appear in the text with these spellings: Anderson,
Erik A.; Björtuft, Ragnild; Björtuft, Thorgrim O.; Blegeberg, Gunder H.;
Gulberg, Arne; Halvorson, Tallev; Hoyme, Christoffer T.; Lee, Ole Aslak;
Olson, Borre; Thorgrimson, Jacob; Tollefsrude, Halgrim L.; Ramlo,
Tarald; Sanden, Embrigt; Tamnes, Christen.

The entry for "Hallan" refers us to "Ove C. Johnson", for which there
is no page number, and no obvious mention in the text under either name.

The surname "Sane" in the index is an error and refers to the name
"Saue". It has been corrected.

Proper names are sometimes inconsistent, especially between the text
and footnotes. The ae ligature is variously spelled 'ae' or 'ei'.
Unless there are many instances of a given spelling, both are retained
(e.g., "Spelleman" vs. "Spellemand"). The letter ö sometimes is printed
without the diaeresis as 'o'. Where the preponderance of instances
of a given name are correct, the offender has been corrected. In the
Registry in Chapter XXXVII, the surnames for Peder Amund Egdetvedt and
Colbein Torkildsen Edgetvedt differ. The spelling of the former, based
on other texts, would seem to be correct, but both are retained.

Inconsistencies in punctuation, especially in chapter titles, have been
resolved without further mention.

The following table describes additional issues, and the resolution of
each.

  n. 25   P. S. Vig[.]                  Removed.

  n. 93   had completed a log cabin["]  Added.

  n. 115  _Billed-Magazin[e]_           Removed.

  n. 127  A[bl/lb]ion Prairie           Transposed.

  n. 157  Koshkon[i/o]ng                Corrected.

  n. 317  Scand[a/i]navian Immigration  Corrected.

  p. 25   Meteriological                _sic._

  p. 29   [con-]considerable            Line break repetition removed.

  p. 35   but it [it ]is possible       Line break repetition removed.

  p. 36   Norwegen                      _sic._

  p. 38   Ecclesia[s]tically            Added.

  p. 60   immigra[gra]tion              Line break repetition removed.

  p. 117  group o[r/f] emigrants        Corrected.

  p. 142  sir name                      _sic._ Appears once
                                               elsewhere as 'surname'.

  p. 150  in the same county[,/.]       Corrected.

  p. 170  on the [the ]marshes          Line break repetition removed.

  p. 183  who needed their help.["]     Added.

  p. 212  (born in Rollaug in 1821[)]   Added.

  p. 223  bed[d]ing                     Line break ommission added.

  p. 231  [c/s]outh of Haugesund        Corrected.

  p. 239  F[a/u]glestad                 Corrected.

  p. 241  Il[l]inois                    Added.

  p. 242  on their hunts[,/.]           Corrected.

  p. 250  He came in a [a ]party        Line break repetition removed.

  p. 254  Björn A. Stondal[l]           Removed.

  p. 255  later was name[r/d]           Corrected.

  p. 283  Koshkon[o]ng                  Added.

  p. 296  suffer distress.["]           Added.

  p. 306  certif[i]cate                 Added.

  p. 309  to [b/g]ive here              Corrected.

  p. 326  Ha[l/f]sloe                   Corrected.

  p. 370  Rev[.]erend                   Removed.

  p. 371  Wiscons[o/i]n                 Corrected.

  p. 397  Ind[b/l]æggen                 Corrected.





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