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´╗┐Title: A New System of Horsemanship
Author: Bourgelat, Claude
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "A New System of Horsemanship" ***

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[Illustration: _Insultare solopet gressus glomerare superbos._]


  From the French of

  Monsieur Bourgelat.



  _Content, if hence th' Unlearn'd their Wants may view,
  The Learn'd reflect on what before they knew._

  Pope's Essay on Crit.

  Printed by Henry Woodfall,
  For Paul Vaillant in the _Strand_, facing _Southampton-Street_.


_IT is not my Design, in the Task I undertake of giving some
Account of this Work, as well as of the Art which is the Subject of
it, to trace its Origin back into past Times, or to wander in search
of it in the Darkness and Confusion of remote Antiquity. Let it
suffice to say, that though its Beginning, as well as that of other
Arts, was imperfect, yet its Use, and the Entertainment it affords,
have been known and tasted in all Ages. But however distinguish'd it
may be by the Notice of the Great, who have at all Times deign'd to
profess and practise it; it is yet less entitled to our Regard for
these Distinctions, than for the real Advantages we derive from it.
Riding consists of two Parts, the_ useful _and the_ ornamental. _That
the latter of these may be dispensed with, is most readily granted;
but that it behoves every one who puts himself upon a Horse to have
some Knowledge of the first, is most evident.--For who would trust to
the Mercy of an Animal that may prove wild and ungovernable, who knows
himself to be incapable of controuling him, and of acting for his own
Safety? Who would venture alone into a Vessel, that can neither row,
nor manage a Sail, but must trust entirely to the Winds and Tide?
Yet is this the Case with the Generality of Mankind, who are carried
upon the Back of a Horse, and think they_ ride. _The_ Utility _of
this Art consists then in knowing how to guide and direct your Horse
as you please, and in reducing him to Obedience, so as to make him
execute readily what you require of him. Thus far it is to be wish'd
every Person who is conversant with Horses, would endeavour to attain.
The_ ornamental _Part, I have already said, is not so requisite
to be known: It can only be called an Accomplishment, and placed
among the superfluous but refin'd Pleasures of Life. In what Esteem
and Honour however it has constantly been held, abundantly appears
from the Schools and Academies every where erected for teaching its
Elements, as well as from the Number of Books, ancient and modern,
given to the World by eminent and accomplished Persons who have
studied and practis'd it. Among these our illustrious Countryman_,
William Cavendish, _Duke of_ Newcastle, _has the highest Claim to
our Praise and Acknowledgments. It would be needless to describe his
Excellencies; his Character, as a Horseman, is universally known, and
universally admir'd. The Truth and Soundness of his Principles, and
the Extensiveness of his Knowledge, have opened to us an easier, a
shorter, and more certain Way to Perfection in the Art, than was known
before. His Precepts have accordingly been adopted by all succeeding
Professors, and his Writings consider'd as the Oracle of Horsemanship,
notwithstanding a Want of Method and Exactness, which has been objected
to them. To remedy these Imperfections, is the Design of the present
Undertaking, and the Labours of a judicious and experienced Foreigner,
must consummate in the Knowledge of the Art he professes. He has
presented us with a new System of Horsemanship, extracted from the
Rules of that great Master. The Method and Conciseness with which he
has digested the Whole, have made the Copy much less than the Original,
but it is a small well-polished Gem. To speak truth, he has made
the Subject so much his own by the Refinement of his Remarks, the
Justness of his Reasoning, and the Light he has diffused through it,
that it must have the Merit of an Original; at least the Reader will
be divided to whom he shall render most Thanks, whether to him who has
given the Food, or to him who has prepar'd and set it before us with so
much Elegance and Order. This at least is our Author's Praise.----The
Translator has endeavoured to do him as much Justice, in the following
Sheets, as he has done his great Original; sensible of the Danger of
so difficult an Enterprize, but prompted to it in hopes of making
his Merit more known. He translated the Work, that the Treasures it
contains may be gathered by those who are so unfortunate as to want
this Assistance to obtain them. He has been as faithful to his Author,
as the Languages will allow, judging that to be the surest way of doing
him Justice. In some Places however he has used (as all Translators
must) a discretionary Power. Every Art has technical terms, or Words
of its own; these he has preserved in the Translation, the_ English
_affording none adequate to them. He has given no Notes or Comments,
imagining the Original can, and hoping the Translation will, want
none. Of this however his Readers will be the best Judges; he will say
no more of himself, but that he has endeavoured to make the Work as
perfect as he could; and for this Reason will be very ready to own any
Faults that may be pointed out; for, though desirous of Approbation, he
is not vain enough to think, there may not be room for Censure._


      I. _Of the Horseman's Seat_                                 page 1

     II. _Of the Hand, and its Effects_                               10

    III. _Of Disobedience in Horses, and the Means to correct it_     19

     IV. _Of the Trot_                                                33

      V. _Of the Stop_                                                43

     VI. _Of teaching a Horse to go backward_                         50

    VII. _Of the uniting or putting a Horse together_                 54

   VIII. _Of the Pillars_                                             60

     IX. _Of Aids and Corrections_                                    64

      X. _Of the Passage_                                             75

     XI. _Of working with the Head and Croupe to the Wall_            79

    XII. _Of Changes of the Hand, large and narrow, and of Voltes
         and Demi-voltes_                                             82

   XIII. _Of the Aids of the Body_                                    92

    XIV. _Of the Gallop_                                              98

     XV. _Of Passades_                                               107

    XVI. _Of Pesades_                                                111

   XVII. _Of the Mezair_                                             115

  XVIII. _Of Curvets_                                                117

    XIX. _Of Croupades and Balotades_                                129

     XX. _Of Caprioles_                                              132

    XXI. _Of the Step and Leap_                                      142



The Following SHEETS,

Eminently due to Him from their Subject,

And not Less so

From the AUTHOR's sincere Regard


His Person and Character,

Are Inscrib'd,

By his Faithful and Obedient Servant,



Page 36. _for_ Remingue _read_ Ramingue. p. 38. _dele_ and. p. 66.
_for_ in _read_ it. p. 79. _for_ Care _read_ Ease. p. 80. _for_ acting
_read_ aiding. p. 85. _dele_ so. p. 116. _for_ Lines _read_ Times.



_Of the Horseman's Seat._

THE Principles and Rules which have hitherto been given for the
Horseman's Seat, are various, and even opposite, according as they have
been adopted by different Masters, and taught in different Countries;
almost each Master, in particular, and every Nation, having certain
Rules and Notions of their own. Let us see, however, if Art can
discover nothing to us that is certain and invariably true.

THE _Italians_, the _Spaniards_, the _French_, and, in a word, every
Country, where Riding is in repute, adopt each a Posture which is
peculiar to themselves; the Foundation of their general Notions, is, if
I may so say, the same, but yet each Country has prescribed Rules for
the Placing of the Man in the Saddle.

THIS Contrariety of Opinions, which have their Origin more in
Prejudice, than in Truth and Reality, has given rise to many vain
Reasonings and Speculations, each System having its Followers; and,
as if Truth was not always the same and unchangeable, but at liberty
to assume various, and even opposite Appearances; sometimes one
Opinion prevailed, sometimes another dazzled; insomuch, that those who
understand nothing of the Subject, but yet are desirous of informing
themselves, by searching it to the Bottom, have hitherto been lost in
Doubt and Perplexity.

THERE is nevertheless a sure and infallible Method, by the Assistance
of which it would be very easy to overturn all these Systems: But not
to enter into a needless Detail, of the extravagant Notions which the
Seat alone has given rise to, let us trace it from Principles by so
much the more solid, as their Authority will be supported by the most
convincing and self-evident Reasons.

IN order to succeed in an Art where the Mechanism of the Body is
absolutely necessary, and where each Part of the Body has proper
Functions, which are peculiar to it, it is most certain, that all and
every Part of the Body should be in a natural Posture; were they in
an imperfect Situation, they would want that Ease and Freedom which
is inseparable from Grace; and as every Motion which is constrained,
being false in itself, is incapable of Justness; it is clear that the
Part so constrained and forced would throw the whole into Disorder,
because each Part belonging to, and depending upon the whole Body, and
the Body partaking of the Constraint of its Parts, can never feel that
fix'd Point, that just Counterpoise and Equilibre in which alone a fine
and just Execution consists.

IT is not therefore sufficient in giving Directions for the Seat, to
keep altogether to trivial and common Rules which may be followed or
left at pleasure; we ought to weigh and examine them with Skill and
Judgment, in order to know how to apply them properly and suitably
as the Shape and Figure of the Person to whom we undertake to give a
Seat will allow; for many Motions and Attitudes that appear easy and
natural in one Man, in another are awkward and ungraceful; whence all
those Faults and Difficulties which in many Persons have been thought
insuperable; whereas a little more Knowledge, a closer Attention, and a
more serious Examination into the Principles of the Art, would convert
in the same Subject an awkward and displeasing Appearance, into an
easy, natural, and graceful Figure, capable of drawing the Eyes even of
Judges themselves.

INDEED the Objects, to which a Master, anxious for the Advancement
of his Pupil, should attend, are infinite. To little Purpose will
it be to keep the strictest Eye upon all the Parts and Limbs of his
Pupil's Body; in vain will he endeavour to remedy all the Defects and
Faults which are found in the Posture of almost every Scholar in the
Beginning; unless he is intimately acquainted with, and apprized of,
the close Dependance and Connection that there is between the Motions
of each Part of the Body, and all the Rest; a Correspondence caused
by the reciprocal Action of the Muscles which govern and direct them;
unless therefore he is Master of this Secret, and has this Clue to the
Labyrinth, he will never attain the End he proposes, particularly in
his first Lessons, upon which the Success of the rest always depends.

THESE Principles being established, let us reason in consequence of
them; we shall display them with great Force and Clearness.

THE Body of a Man is divided into three Parts, two of which are
moveable, the other immoveable.

THE First of the two moveable Parts is the Trunk or Body, down to the
Waist; the Second is from the Knees to the Feet; so that the remaining
immoveable Part is that between the Waist and the Knees.

THE Parts then which ought to be without Motion, are the Fork or Twist
of the Horseman, and his Thighs: Now, that these Parts may be kept
without Motion, they ought to have a certain Hold and Center, if I may
so say, to rest upon, which no Motion that the Horse can make, can
disturb or loosen; this Point or Center is the Basis of the Hold which
the Horseman has upon his Horse, and is what is called the _Seat_.
Now, if the Seat is nothing else but this Point or Center, it must
follow, that not only the Grace, but the Symmetry and true Proportion
of the whole Attitude depends upon those Parts of the Body that are

LET the Horseman then place himself at once upon his Twist, sitting
exactly in the Middle of the Saddle, let him support this Posture, in
which the Twist alone seems to sustain the Weight of the whole Body, by
moderately leaning upon the Buttocks; let his Thighs be turned inward,
and rest flat upon the Sides of the Saddle, and in order to this, let
the Turn of the Thighs proceed directly from the Hips, and let him
employ no Force or Strength to keep himself in the Saddle, but trust to
the Weight of his Body and Thighs; this is the exact Equilibre; in this
consists the Firmness of the whole Building; a Firmness which young
Beginners are never sensible of at first, but which is to be acquired,
and will always be attained by Exercise and Practice.

I demand but a moderate Stress upon the Buttocks, because a Man that
sits full upon them, can never turn his Thighs flat upon the Saddle;
and the Thighs should always lay flat, because the fleshy Part of the
Thigh being insensible, the Horseman would not otherwise be able to
feel the Motions of his Horse. I insist that the Turn of the Thigh
should be from the Hip, because this Turn can never be natural, but as
it proceeds from the Hollow of the Hip-bone. I insist further, that the
Horseman never avail himself of the Strength or Help of his Thighs;
because, besides that he would then be not only less steady, but the
closer he prest them to the Saddle, the more would he be lifted above
it; and with respect to his Buttocks and Thighs, he ought always to be
in the Middle of the Saddle, and sit down full and close upon it.

HAVING thus firmly placed the immoveable Parts, let us pass on to the
first of the Moveable; which is, as I have already observed, the Body
or Trunk, as far as to the Waist: I comprehend in the Body or Trunk,
the Head, the Shoulders, the Breast, the Arms, the Hands, the Loins,
and the Waist, of the Horseman.

THE Head should be free, firm, and easy, in order to be ready for all
the natural Motions that the Horseman may make, in turning it to one
Side or the other: It should be firm, that is to say strait, without
leaning to the Right or Left, neither advanced, nor thrown back; it
should be easy, because if otherwise, it would occasion a Stiffness,
and that Stiffness affecting the different Parts of the Body,
especially the Back-bone, they would be without Ease, and constrained.

THE Shoulders alone influence by their Motion the Breast, the Reins,
and the Waist.

THE Horseman should present or advance his Breast; by this his whole
Figure opens and displays itself: He should have a small Hollow in his
Loins, and should push his Waist forward to the Pommel of the Saddle,
because this Position corresponds and unites him to all the Motions
of the Horse. Now, only throwing the Shoulders back produces all these
Effects, and gives them exactly in the Degree that is requisite;
whereas, if we were to look for the particular Position of each Part
separately, and by itself, without examining the Connection that there
is between the Motions of one Part with those of another, there would
be such a Bending in the Loins, that the Horseman would be, if I may
so say, _hollow-back'd_; and as from that he would force his Breast
forward, and his Waist towards the Pommel of the Saddle, he would be
flung back, and must sit upon the Rump of the Horse.

THE Arms should be bent at the Elbows, and the Elbows should rest
equally upon the Hips; if the Arms were strait, the Consequence would
be, that the Hands would be infinitely too low, or at much too great a
Distance from the Body; and if the Elbows were not kept steady, they
would of consequence give an Uncertainty and Fickleness to the Hand,
sufficient to ruin it for ever.

IT is true, that the Bridle-hand is that which absolutely ought to be
steady and immoveable, and one might conclude from hence, that the
Left-elbow only ought to rest upon the Hip, but Grace consists in the
exact Proportion and Symmetry of all the Parts of the Body, and to
have the Arm on one Side raised and advanced, and that of the other
kept down and close to the Body, would present but an awkward and
disagreeable Appearance.

IT is this which determines the Situation of the Hand, which holds
the Switch. The Left-hand being of an equal Height with the Elbow, so
that the Knuckle of the Little-finger, and the Tip of the Elbow, be
both in a Line; this Hand then being rounded neither too much nor too
little, but just so that the Wrist may direct all its Motions; place
your Right-hand, or the Switch-hand, lower and more forward than the
Bridle-hand; it should be lower than the other Hand, because if it
was upon a Level with it, it would restrain or obstruct its Motions;
and were it to be higher, as it cannot take so great a Compass as the
Bridle-hand, which must always be kept over against the Horseman's
Body, it is absolutely necessary to keep the Proportion of the Elbows,
that it should be lower than the other.

THE Legs and Feet make up the second Division, of what I call the
moveable Parts of the Body.

THE Legs serve for two Purposes; they may be used as Aids, or
Corrections, to the Animal. They should then be kept near the Sides of
the Horse, and in a Line with the Man's Body; for being near the Part
of the Horse's Body where his Feeling is most delicate, they are ready
to do their Office in the Instant they are wanted. Moreover, as they
are an Appendix of the Thighs, if the Thigh is upon its Flat in the
Saddle, they will, by a necessary Consequence, be turned just as they
ought, and will infallibly give the same Turn to the Feet; because the
Feet depend upon them, as they depend upon the Thighs.

THE Toe should be held a little higher than the Heel, for the lower
the Toe is, the nearer the Heel will be to the Sides of the Horse, and
must be in danger of touching his Flank. Many Persons, notwithstanding,
when they raise their Toe, bend and twist their Ankle, as if they were
lame in that Part. The Reason of this is very plain; it is because they
make use of the Muscles in their Legs and Thighs; whereas, they should
employ only the Joint of the Foot for this Purpose; a Joint, given by
Nature to facilitate all the Motions of the Foot, and to enable it to
turn to the Right or Left, upwards or downwards.

SUCH is, in short, the mechanical Disposition of all the Parts of the
Horseman's Body. I will enlarge no further upon a Subject treated on
already so amply by every Writer; as it is needless to write what has
been already handled. I have had no other Design in this Chapter,
than to give an Idea of the Correspondence that there is between all
the Parts of the Body, because it is only by a just Knowledge of this
mutual Relation of all the different Parts, that we can be enabled to
prescribe Rules for giving that true and natural Seat, which is not
only the Principle of Justness, but likewise the Foundation of all
Grace in the Horseman.


_Of the Hand, and its Effects._

THE Knowledge of the different Characters, and the different Nature
of Horses, together with the Vices, and Imperfections, as well as the
exact and just Proportions of the Parts of a Horse's Body, is the
Foundation upon which is built the Theory of our Art; but this Theory
will be unnecessary and even useless, it we are not able likewise to
carry it into Execution.

THIS depends chiefly upon the Goodness and Quickness of Feeling in the
Hand, a Delicacy which Nature alone can give, and which she does not
always bestow. The first Sensation of the Hand consists in a greater or
less Degree of Fineness in the Touch or Feeling; all of us are equally
furnished with Nerves, from which we have the Sense of Feeling, but
as this Sense is much more subtle and quick in some Persons than in
others, it is impossible to give a precise Definition of the exact
Degree of Feeling in the Hand, which ought to communicate and answer to
the same Degree of Feeling in the Horse's Mouth; because there is as
much difference in the Degrees of Feeling in Men, as there is in the
Mouths of Horses.

I SUPPOSE then a Man, who is not only capable to judge of the Qualities
of a Horse's Mouth from a Knowledge of the Theory, but who has likewise
by Nature that Fineness of Touch, which helps to form a good Hand; let
us see then what the Rules are that we must follow, in order to make it
perfect, and by which we must direct all its Operations.

A HORSE can move four different Ways, he can advance, go back, turn
to the Right, and to the Left; but he can never make these different
Motions, unless the Hand of the Rider permits him by making four
other Motions which answer to them: So that there are five different
Positions for the Hand.

THE first is that general Position, from which proceed, and indeed
ought to proceed, the other four.

HOLD your Hand three Fingers breadth from your Body, as high as your
Elbow, in such a Manner that the Joint of your Little-finger be upon a
right Line with the Tip of the Elbow; let your Wrist be sufficiently
rounded, so that your Knuckles may be kept directly above the Neck
of your Horse; let your Nails be exactly opposite your Body, the
Little-finger nearer to it than the others, your Thumb quite flat upon
the Reins, which you must separate, by putting your Little-finger
between them, the right Rein lying upon it; this is the first and
general Position.

DOES your Horse go forward, or rather would you have him go forward?
Yield to him your Hand, and for that Purpose turn your Nails downwards,
in such a Manner as to bring your Thumb near your Body, remove your
Little-finger from it, and bring it into the Place where your Knuckles
were in the first Position, keeping your Nails directly above your
Horse's Neck; this is the second.

WOULD you make your Horse go backwards? quit the first Position, let
your Wrist be quite round, let your Thumb be in the Place of the
Little-finger in the second Position, and the Little-finger in that of
the Thumb, turn your Nails quite upwards, and towards your Face, and
your Knuckles will be towards your Horse's Neck; this is the third.

WOULD you turn your Horse to the Right, leave the first Position,
carry your Nails to the Right, turning your Hand upside down, in
such a manner, that your Thumb be carried out to the Left, and the
Little-finger brought in to the Right; this is the fourth Position.

LASTLY, Would you turn to the Left, quit again the first Position,
carry the Back of your Hand a little to the Left, so that the Knuckles
come under a little, but that your Thumb incline to the Right, and the
Little-finger to the Left; this makes the fifth.

THESE different Positions however alone are not sufficient; we must be
able to pass from one to another with Readiness and Order.----Three
Qualities are especially necessary to the Hand. It ought to be _firm_,
_gentle_, and _light_; I call that a _firm_ or _steady Hand_, whose
Feeling corresponds exactly with the Feeling in the Horse's Mouth, and
which consists in a certain Degree of Steadiness, which constitutes the
just Correspondence between the Hand and the Horse's Mouth, which every
Horseman wishes to find.

AN _easy_ and _gentle Hand_ is that which by relaxing a little of
its Strength and Firmness, eases and mitigates the Degree of Feeling
between the Hand and Horse's Mouth, which I have already described.

LASTLY, a _light_ Hand is that which lessens still more the Feeling
between the Rider's Hand and the Horse's Mouth, which was before
moderated by the _gentle_ Hand.

THE Hand therefore, with respect to these Properties, must operate in
part, and within certain Degrees; and depends upon being more or less
felt, or yielded to the Horse, or with-held.

IT should be a Rule with every Horseman, not to pass at once from one
Extreme to another, from a firm Hand to a slack one; so that in the
Motions of the Hand, you must upon no account jump over that Degree of
Sensation which constitutes the _easy_ or _gentle_ Hand. Were you at
once to go from a firm Hand or a slack one, you would then entirely
abandon your Horse; you would surprize him, deprive him of the Support
he trusted to, and precipitate him on his Shoulders, supposing you do
this at an improper time; on the contrary, were you to pass from a
slack to a tight Rein all at once, you must jerk your Hand, and give a
violent Shock to the Horse's Mouth, which rough and irregular Motion
would be sufficient to falsify the finest Apuy, and ruin a good Mouth.

IT is indispensibly necessary therefore, that all its Operations should
be gentle and light; and in order to this, it is necessary that the
Wrist alone should direct and govern all its Motions, by turning and
steering it, if I may so say, through every Motion that it is to make.

IN consequence then of these Principles, I insist that the Wrist be
kept so round, that your Knuckles may be always directly above the
Horse's Neck, and that your Thumb be always kept flat upon the Reins.
In reality, were your Wrist to be more or less rounded, than in the
Degree I have fixed, you could never work with your Hand, but by the
means of your Arm; and besides, it would appear as if it were lame:
Again, were your Thumb not to be upon the Flat of the Reins, they would
continually slip through the Hand, and, by being lengthen'd, would
spoil the Apuy; and in order to recover them, you would be obliged
every Moment to raise your Hand and Arm, which would throw you into
Confusion, and make you lose that Justness and Order, without which no
Horse will be obedient, and work with Readiness and Pleasure.

IT is nevertheless true, that with Horses that are well drest, one may
take Liberties; these are nothing else but those Motions which are
called _Descents_ of the Hand, and they are to be made three different
ways; either by dropping the Knuckles directly and at once upon the
Horse's Neck, or by taking the Reins in the Right-hand, about four
Fingers breadth above the Left, and letting them slide through the
Left, dropping your Right-hand at the same time upon the Horse's Neck;
or else by putting the Horse under the _Button_, as it is call'd; that
is, by taking the End of the Reins in your Right-hand, quitting them
entirely with your Left, and letting the End of them fall upon your
Horse's Neck: these Motions however, which give a prodigious Grace to
the Horseman, never should be made but with great Caution, and exactly
in the time when the Horse is quite _together_, and in the Hand; and
you must take care to counter-balance, by throwing back your Body, the
Weight of the Horse upon his Haunches.

THE Apuy being always in the same Degree, would heat the Mouth, would
dull the Sense of Feeling, would deaden the Horse's Bars, and render
them insensible and callous; this shews the Necessity of continually
yielding and drawing back the Hand to keep the Horse's Mouth fresh and

BESIDES these Rules and Principles, there are others not less just
and certain, but whose Niceness and Refinement it is not the Lot of
every Man to be able to taste and understand. My Hand being in the
first Position, I open the two Middle-fingers, I consequently ease and
slacken my Right Rein; I shut my Hand, the Right Rein operates again,
and resumes the Apuy. I open my Little-finger, and putting the End
of it upon the Right Rein, I thereby slacken the Left, and shorten
the Right. I shut my Hand entirely, and open it immediately again; I
thereby lessen the Degree of Tension and Force of the two Reins at the
same time; again I close my Hand not quite so much, but still I close
it. It is by these Methods, and by the Vibration of the Reins, that I
unite the Feeling in my Hand with that in the Horse's Mouth; and it is
thus that I play with a fine and _made_ Mouth, and freshen and relieve
the Bars in which the Feeling or Apuy resides.

IT is the same with respect to the second _Descent_ of the Hand: My
Right-hand holding the Reins, I pass and slide my Left-hand upon the
Reins up and down, and in the Degree of Apuy of the _easy_ and _slack_
Hand; by the means of which the Horse endeavours of himself to preserve
the Correspondence and Harmony of that mutual Sensation, between his
Mouth and the Rider's Hand, which alone can make him submit with
Pleasure to the Constraint of the Bit.

I HAVE thus explained the different Positions and Motions of the Hand;
let me shew now in a few Words the Effects which they produce.

THE Horseman's Hand directs the Reins; the Reins operate upon the
Branches of the Bit; the Branches upon the Mouth-piece and the Curb;
the Mouth-piece operates upon the Bars, and the Curb upon the Beard of
the Horse.

THE Right Rein guides the Horse to the Left; the Left Rein to the
Right. Would you go to the Right, you pass to the fourth Position of
the Hand, that is, you carry and turn your Nails to the Right; now in
carrying thus your Nails to the Right, and reversing your Hand in such
a manner, that your Thumb point to the Left, and your Little-finger
being raised turns to the Right, you by this means shorten your Left
Rein; it is this Left therefore that turns and guides the Horse to
the Right: Would you go to the Left, pass to the fifth Position, you
will carry the Back of your Hand to the Left, so that your Nails will
be turned down a little, your Thumb will be to the Right, and the
Little-finger to the Left; this will shorten the right Rein, and the
right Rein determines your Horse to the Left.

I HAVE already said, that the Effect which the Mouth-piece has upon the
Bars, and the Curb upon the Beard, depends upon the Branches of the
Bitt; when the Branches rise or are turned upwards, the Mouth-piece
sinks, and when the Branches sink, the Mouth-piece rises; so that when
your Horse is going strait forward, if you keep your Hand low and
close to your Body, the Mouth-piece then presses strong upon the Bars,
and the Chain or Curb having, in consequence more Liberty, acts less
upon the Beard; on the contrary, if you keep your Hand high, a little
forward, and consequently a little out of the Line of the End of the
Branches, the Mouth-piece then sinks, and the Branches of necessity
operate upon the Curb, which presses then very strongly upon the Beard;
now, in order to place, and to bring in your Horse's Head, you must
hold your Hand low, and in order to raise and lighten a Horse that
weighs upon the Hand, and carries his Head too low, you must advance
your Hand a little, and keep it high.

WOULD you have your Horse go backward? Come to the third Position, but
take care to round your Wrist exactly, in order to work equally with
both Reins, and by this means to aid your Horse more effectually to go
backward strait and ballanced between your Legs, which he could never
do, if one Rein was to operate stronger than the other.

THERE are particular Cases, where the Reins are separated, and one held
in each Hand; it is usual to separate them when you trot a young Horse,
or when you are to work one who is disobedient, and resists his Rider;
upon these occasions, keep both your Hands upon a Level, low and near
your Body: To turn to the right, use your right Rein; to go to the
left, use your left Rein; but in order to make them have their Effect,
move your Arm gently, turning it a little from your Body, keeping your
Hand always low and even near your Boot.

SUCH are the Principles upon which the Perfection and Justness of the
Aids of the Hand depend, all others are false, and not to be regarded;
Experience has so much the more evinced the Truth of this, as the new
Discoveries which some People imagine they have lately made, have
produced nothing but Hands, cold and unactive, without Firmness, whose
irregular and capricious Motions serve only to render a Horse's Mouth
uncertain and fickle, and who, by their manner of holding them high,
have ruined absolutely the Hocks of all the Horses, that they have
worked according to these absurd Notions.


_Of Disobedience in Horses, and the Means to correct it._

DISOBEDIENCE in Horses is more frequently owing to the want of Skill
in the Horseman, than proceeding from any natural Imperfections in the
Horse; in effect, three things may give rise to it, Ignorance, a bad
Temper, and an Incapacity in the Animal to do what is required of him.

IF a Horse is ignorant of what you expect him to do, and you press him,
he will rebel, nothing is more common; teach him then, and he will
know; a frequent Repetition of the Lessons will convert this Knowledge
into a Habit, and you will reduce him to the most exact Obedience.

HE refuses perhaps to obey, this Fault may arise either from
Ill-humour, Dullness, or from too much Mettle; it often is the Effect
of the two first Vices, sometimes the Result of all the three. In
either, or all these Instances, recourse must be had to Rigour, but it
must be used with Caution; for we must not forget, that the Hopes of
Recompence have as great an Influence over the Understanding of the
Animal, as the Fear of Punishment. Perhaps he is not able to execute
what you ask of him; examine him, something may be amiss in some Part
of his Body, or perhaps in the whole Body; he may be deficient, he may
want Strength, or not be light enough; perhaps he is deficient in
both, in that he resists and rebels. Consider whether he knows what he
should do or not; if he is ignorant, teach him; if he knows, but can't
execute through Inability, endeavour to assist Nature as far as you
can, by the Help of Art. But does he already know, and is he able too,
and yet does he refuse to obey? After having first tried every Method
that Patience and Lenity can suggest, compel him by Force and Severity.
It behoves then every Horseman, who would be perfect in his Art, to
distinguish from whence the different Sorts of Defences and Rebellion
in Horses proceed: And this Knowledge is by so much the more difficult
to attain, as he must have Penetration enough to distinguish if the
Cause of their Rebellion is in their Character and Nature, or owing to
any Fault in their Make and Structure.

THE different Natures of Horses are infinite, though there are certain
general Principles, of which all, more or less, always partake.

A HORSE may be imperfect from four Causes, Weakness, Heaviness in his
Make, Want of Courage, and Sloth.

FOUR Qualities must conspire to make a perfect Horse, Strength,
Activity, Courage, and Judgment.

THE Mixture of these different Qualities occasions the different
Natures and Dispositions of the Creature, according as he is form'd
better or worse; for it is from his Temper, or rather from the Harmony
or Unfitness of the Parts and Elements, of which he is composed,
that we are enabled to fix his Character; it is therefore the Part of
every Horseman never to work but with Discretion and Caution, and to
adapt his Rules and Lessons to the Nature and Ability of the Horse he
undertakes, and which he ought to know.

A HORSE may be difficult to be mounted, examine the Source of this
Vice; it may be owing either to the Ignorance or the Brutality of those
who have first had to do with him, or perhaps that the Saddle may have
hurt him, or else to a Temper naturally bad. To whatever Cause it may
be owing, remember never to beat him, for instead of curing him, you
would certainly confirm him in his Vice; clap him gently when you
approach him, stroke his Head and Mane, talk to him, and as you talk,
clap the Seat of the Saddle; keep yourself still all the while, put
your Foot only in the Stirrup to encourage your Horse, without doing
any more, in order to make him familiar, and lose all Apprehension
and Fear when he is going to be mounted; by degrees at last he will
let you mount him, you will immediately get down and remount, and so
successively for several Times together, without attempting to do any
thing else, but send him back to the Stable. If it happens that then
when you are upon him, he runs from the Place where you got upon him,
bring him to it immediately, keep him there some Time, coax him, and
send him away.----The first Lessons ought to be well weigh'd; when you
undertake to bring a young Horse to Obedience, and to reclaim him from
Liberty to the Subjection of the Bridle, Saddle, and the Weight of his
Rider, so restrain'd, it is not surprizing if he should employ all his
Strength against you in his own Defence.

THE Generality of Colts are difficult to be turn'd and guided as you
would have them go; we ought not however to be surprized at this their
first Disobedience, it must be imputed to the Habit they acquire from
their Birth, of constantly following their Dams. Indulged in this
Liberty, and subjected all at once by the Bit, it is but natural they
should rebel; there is no way of eradicating these first Impressions,
but by Gentleness and Patience: A Horseman, who should make use of
Force and Correction, and employ it all at once upon a young Horse,
would discourage and make him vicious ever after. If therefore your
Horse refuses to go forward, you must lead another Horse before
him, the Person who rides the Colt will try from Time to Time, and
insensibly, to make the Colt go a-breast with him, and afterwards get
before him; if being surprized at seeing the Horse no longer, he stops
or runs back, the Rider must endeavour to drive him forward, either
by his Voice, or some Kind of slight Punishment, or he that rides the
other Horse may give him a Stroke with the Chambriere, in order to make
him go forward; if these Methods should not succeed, he will go before
him again with the other Horse, by degrees (for one Lesson wont be
sufficient) the Colt will grow accustom'd to it, and at last will go on
of himself.

MOST Horses who start, have some Defect in their Sight, which makes
them fear to approach the Object. The Horseman, upon those Occasions,
instead of having Recourse to Punishment, which serves only to
alarm the Horse, and extinguish his Courage and Vigour, should first
endeavour to lead him gently towards the Object that terrifies him,
either by encouraging him with his Voice, or by closing his Legs upon
him, to make him go up to it. If he wont go towards it, you may give
him the Spurs, but with Discretion, and by Coaxing and Caresses push
him towards it insensibly; severe Correction will never cure him of
this fearful Temper, which is a Fault inherent in his Nature, nor of
any Imperfections in his Sight, which is a Disorder belonging to him,
but the Habit of viewing the Objects which alarm him, may in time
remedy the Defects of Nature.

IF notwithstanding you perceive that Sloth and Malice are added to
these Faults, you must use as you find necessary both Mildness and
severe Correction, and you will bestow them in proportion to the Effect
they produce. For the rest, be careful never to surprize a young
Horse who is shy, and apt to start, never terrify him with what he
most fears, never beat him to make him come up to an Object which he
dreads; accustom him by degrees to it, and have Patience; the Fear of
Punishment does oftentimes more harm, and is more dreaded by him, than
the very Object which first alarmed him.

THERE are some Horses, who are struck with such Terror at the Sight
of a Stone or Wooden Bridge, and at the Sound and Echo of the hollow
Part of it, that they will fling themselves headlong into the Water,
without the Riders being able to restrain them: They are to be cur'd
of this Apprehension by covering the Pavement of their Stall with
Wooden Planks, between two or three Feet high; and the Horse standing
constantly upon them, his Feet will make the same Noise as they do
when he goes over a Bridge, and he will of course grow familiar to the
Sound, and lose all Apprehension of it.

TO accustom them likewise to the Noise of the Water running under the
Bridge, lead him to a Mill, fix two Pillars directly over against the
Wheels, and tie your Horse constantly for two Hours together, several
Times in the Day; having done this, bring him back to the Bridge, let
an old Horse, that is not afraid, go before him upon the Bridge, by
degrees you will find him go over the Bridge as readily and quietly as
if he had never had the least Apprehension.

FOR Horses that are addicted to lay down in the Water, you must
provide yourself with two little Leaden Balls, tie them to a Piece of
Packthread, and in the Moment that he is lying down, you must drop
these into his Ears, and if he rises instantly, or forbears to lay
down, draw them back; but this Method is not less sure than that of
breaking a Flask fill'd with Water upon his Head, and letting the Water
run into his Ears.

FIRE, Smoke, the Smell of Gunpowder, and the Noise of Guns, or other
Arms, naturally surprize and frighten a Horse.--There are few that will
come near Fire, or pass by it without Difficulty.

THERE are many Occasions however, wherein it is necessary; it is
therefore proper to accustom your Horse to it. In the first place,
begin with your Horse by letting him see it; and for that purpose tie
him between two Pillars, and hold before him, at about thirty Paces
distant, a burning Wisp of Straw; this should be continued for some
Days together, repeating it several times each Day. Let the Person who
holds the Brand, advance towards the Horse step by step, and let him
take care to advance or stop often, as he perceives the Horse is more
or less frighten'd, who in a short time will be imbolden'd, and no
longer afraid of the Fire: After this get up on him, carry him slowly,
and, as it were, insensibly towards the Brand, the Person who holds it
taking care not to stir: If your Horse comes up to it, without being
frighten'd, let the Man on Foot walk on, and let the Horse follow the
Fire. Lay upon the Ground some Straw about half burnt out, and he will
pass over it.

WITH respect to the Noise of Arms and Drums, let your Horse hear them
before you give him his Oats: Do this regularly every Day, for some
time, and he will be so used to them as not to mind them.

A HORSE is said to be _entier_ to that Hand, to which he refuses to
turn; a Hurt in his Foot, Leg, or Shoulder, may often be the Cause of
his refusing to turn to that Side, where he feels any Pain; a Hurt in
his Loins or Haunch, a Curb or Spavin, by hindering him to bend and
rest upon his Hocks, may make him guilty of this Disobedience. Art can
do little towards curing these Evils, consequently a Horse so affected
will never dress well, because he never can be made supple and ready;
besides, every Horse is naturally inclin'd to go to one Hand more than
the other, and then he will go to that Hand on which he finds himself
the weakest, because with the strongest he can turn more easily.

THEY may likewise refuse to turn, from some Defect in their Sight,
natural or accidental. I have tried a Method to remedy this Vice, which
has answer'd very well; I have put a Lunette upon the ailing Eye, and
as his Fault was owing to his Eye, the Horse began by degrees to go to
that Hand to which before he had refused to turn: After this I made two
little Holes in the Lunette; I enlarged them afterwards, and the Eye of
the Horse being thus insensibly accustom'd to receive the Light, and he
to turn to that Hand, he no longer disobeyed; I exercised him in this
Manner from time to time, in order to confirm him in his Obedience.--I
have said, that there is no Horse who is not by Nature inclin'd to go
better to one Hand than the other; their inclination generally carries
them to the Left rather than to the Right. Some People impute this
Preference to the Manner in which the Foal lies in its Dam's Belly,
and pretend that even then it is entirely bent and turn'd to the Left:
Others insist that Horses lay down generally upon their Right-side,
and from thence contract a Habit to turn their Heads and Necks to the
Left: But not to regard these groundless Notions, it is easier and more
natural to believe, that this Habit is owing to Use, and the Manner in
which they are treated by those who first have had the Care of them.

THE Halter, the Bridle, the Saddle, and the Girths are all put on and
tied on the Left-side; when they are rubb'd or curried, the Man stands
on the Left-side; the same when they are fed, and when they are led
out, the Man holds them in his Right-hand, consequently their Head is
pull'd to the Left. Here are a Chain of Reasons, sufficient to induce
us to believe that if they are readier to turn to one Hand than the
other, it is owing to a Habit and Custom which we ourselves have given.
We seldom meet with Horses that are readier to turn to the Right-hand
than the Left; and when it so happens, it oftentimes denotes an ill
Temper; it demands much Time and Pains to cure them of this Fault.

IT is not proper to use severe Correction to make a Horse obey, who
refuses to turn to one Hand; if he is cold and dull, he will lose all
his Vigour and Courage; if he is of an angry Temper, hot and brisk, you
would make him desperate and mad; work him then upon the Principles of
Art, and pursue the Methods you think most likely to reform his ill
Habit, and reduce him to Obedience; if he obstinately refuses to turn
to one Hand, begin the next Lesson, by letting him go to his favourite
Hand a turn or two; finish him on the same Hand, by degrees you'll
gain him; whereas were you to do otherwise, you might make him ever
afterwards rebellious. A Horse that strenuously resists his Rider, if
he has Vigour and Courage, after he is reduced and conquer'd, will
nevertheless succeed in what you want of him, provided he is under the
Direction of an able and knowing Person, who understands the Aids of
the Hand and Legs, and their mutual Harmony and Correspondence.

SUCH a Horse is even preferable to one who never rebels; because in
this last, Nature may be deficient, if I may so express myself, from
his Want of Strength and Resolution.

IN order to teach your Horses to turn to both Hands, you must separate
your Reins, as I have already mention'd; don't confine him too much,
support him moderately so that you may easily draw his Head to one side
or the other, as you would have him go, and to give him the greater
Liberty to turn.

IF he refuses to obey, examine him; if he is by Nature impatient,
hot and vicious, by no means beat him, provided he will go forwards;
because being held in Hand, and kept back a little, is Punishment
enough; if he stops, and strives to resist by running back, drive him
forward with the Chambriere.

THE Resistance of a Horse, whose Mouth is faulty, discovers itself more
in going forward than backward, and in forcing the Hand; a Horse of
this sort ought never to be beat; he ought to be kept back, as I have
just now said. You must endeavour to give him a good and just Apuy, and
put him upon his Haunches, in order to cure him of the Trick of leaning
upon his Bit, and forcing the Hand. If your Horse is heavy, never
press or put him together, till you have lighten'd his Fore-part, and
put him upon his Haunches, for fear of throwing him so much upon his
Shoulders, that it may be very difficult afterwards to raise him. Take
particular care to lighten every Horse that is heavy before, and has
Malice in his Temper at the same time; for if you were to press him, he
would resist you through Vice; in which Case by his Want of Strength
on one hand, and being heavy and unwieldy on the other, you would be
exposed to evident Danger.

A _restive_ Horse is one that refuses to go forward, who standing still
in the same Place, defends himself, and resists his Rider in several
different Manners; it is much to be fear'd that one should lose all
Temper with such a Horse, since it requires a great deal of Patience
to cure so Capital a Fault, and which perhaps by Habit and Time is so
rooted in him as to be almost natural to him; treat a Horse of this
sort, who has been too much constrain'd and tyrannized over, with the
same Lenity that you would shew to a young Colt.

THE Spurs are as improper to be used to one as the other; make use of
your Switch in order to drive him forward, you will alarm him the less;
the Spurs surprize a Horse, abate his Courage, and are more likely
to make him restive, than oblige him to go forward, if he refuses to
do so. There is likewise another Method to punish a restive Horse;
it is to make him go backwards the Moment he begins to resist; this
Correction often succeeds; but the general Rule is to push and carry
your Horse forward, whenever he refuses to advance, but continues in
the same Place, and defends himself, either by turning or flinging his
Croupe on one side or the other; and for this Purpose nothing is so
efficacious as to push him forward vigorously.

THE most dangerous of all Defences a Horse can make is to rise directly
upon his Hind-legs, and stand almost quite strait, because he runs a
risque of falling backwards; and in that Case the Rider would be in
Danger of his Life. People have endeavour'd to correct this Vice, by
a Method of Punishment, which might prove dangerous, unless given in
_time_ and with the greatest Exactness.

WHEN the Horse rises strait up, throw your Body forward, and give him
all the Bridle; the Weight of your Body on his Fore-parts will oblige
him to come down: In the Minute that his Fore-feet are coming to the
Ground, give him both the Spurs firm, and as quick as you can; these
Aids and Corrections however must be given with the greatest Caution
and Exactness: For were you to give him the Spurs when he is in the
Air, he would fall over; whereas if you watch the Time so as not to
spur him but when he is coming down, and his Fore-feet near the Ground,
it is then impossible he should fall backwards; for then his Balance is
destroy'd, and he is upon all his Legs again, and can't rise without
first touching the Ground, and taking his Spring thence; if therefore
you give him the Spurs before he is in a Situation to rise again, you
will punish him, and drive him forward at the same time.

THIS Defence is still more dangerous in Horses who are of a fiery
Temper, and weak in their Haunches, at the same time; these are
continually apt to rise, and whatever Precautions the Rider may take,
he is in continual Danger of their coming over. The way to correct them
is this: Tie your Horse between the Pillars very short, put on a good
Cavason of Cord, and don't suffer him to be mounted; prick him upon the
Buttocks with a Hand-spur in order to make him strike out; encourage
him when he kicks, and continue to make him kick; encourage him from
time to time when he obeys; do this for a Quarter of an Hour every Day;
when you perceive that he begins to kick the Moment you offer to prick
him, without waiting till he feels it, get upon him, hold your Reins
long, prick him, and let a Man stand by and prick him at the same time.
Encourage him when he kicks, and continue to prick him to make him do
it, till he will kick readily only at the Offer you make of pricking
him; he ought to be brought to this Point in five or six Days: After
this take him out of the Pillars, mount him, and trot him in the Longe,
and make him kick by pricking him behind; after that let him walk two
or three Steps, then make him kick again, and so work him by degrees.
Put him to the Gallop; if he offers to rise, prick him behind, and make
him kick: Nothing excels this Method to break a Horse of this terrible
and dangerous Vice.

THOSE Horses who are apt to kick, either when they go forward or stand
still, must be kept much together, or held in closely; make them go
backward briskly, and you will cure them of this Vice.

TO resume our Subject. All Horses are by Nature rather aukward than
nervous and strong; fearful than bold; hot and fretful than mischievous
or ill-temper'd; whenever they grow desperate and absolutely
ungovernable, it is often rather to avoid the extreme Pain which they
feel, or expect to feel from too great a Constraint, than merely to
resist the Horseman. Arm yourself then with great Patience; keep such
Horses as are of a fiery and fretful Disposition, rather in Awe than in
absolute Subjection; they are naturally fearful, and apt to be alarm'd;
and violent Correction and Force would dishearten and make them quite
desperate. Such as are of a hot and impetuous Temper, are generally
timid and malicious. Endeavour therefore to prevent the Disorders they
would commit; for Lenity and good Usage would never reduce them to
Obedience, and Severity would make them lifeless and jadish. In fine,
let your Lessons be short, easy, and often repeated to Horses of a
cold and heavy Disposition, because they have no Memory, and want both
Resolution and Strength.

IN a word, never depart from this great Maxim, "Always observe a just
Medium between too indulgent a Lenity and extreme Severity;" work your
Horse according to his Strength and Capacity, give your Lessons in
proportion to his Memory, and dispense your Punishment and Rewards
suitable to his Courage and Disposition.


_Of the Trot._

WHEN a Horse trots, his Legs are in this Position, two in the Air and
two upon the Ground, at the same time cross-wise; that is to say, the
Near-foot before, and the Off-foot behind are off the Ground, and the
other two upon it; and so alternately of the other two. This Action
of his Legs is the same as when he walks, except that in the Trot his
Motions are more quick. All Writers, both ancient and modern, have
constantly asserted the Trot to be the Foundation of every Lesson you
can teach a Horse; there are none likewise who have not thought proper
to give general Rules upon this Subject, but none have been exact
enough to descend into a Detail of particular Rules, and to distinguish
such Cases as are different, and admit of Exceptions, tho' such often
are found from the different Make and Tempers of Horses, as they
happen to be more or less suited to what they are destin'd; so that by
following their general Maxims, many Horses have been spoil'd, and made
heavy and aukward, instead of becoming supple and active; and as much
Mischief has been occasion'd by adopting their Principles, although
just, as if they had been suggested by Ignorance itself.

THREE Qualities are essentially necessary to make the Trot useful, it
ought to be _extended_, _supple_, and _even_ or _equal_; these three
Qualities are related to, and mutually depend upon each other: In
effect, you can't pass to the supple Trot, without having first work'd
your Horse upon the _extended_ Trot; and you can never arrive at the
even and equal Trot, without having practised the Supple.

I MEAN by the _extended_ Trot, that in which the Horse trots out
without retaining himself, being quite strait, and going directly
forwards; this consequently is the kind of Trot, with which you must
begin; for before any thing else ought to be meditated, the Horse
should be taught to embrace and cover his Ground readily, and without

THE Trot however may be _extended_ without being supple, for the Horse
may go directly forward, and yet not have that Ease and Suppleness of
Limbs, which distinguishes and characterizes the _Supple_.

I DEFINE the _supple_ Trot to be that in which the Horse at every
Motion that he makes bends and plays all his Joints; that is to say,
those of his Shoulders, his Knees and Feet, which no Colts or raw
Horses can execute, who have not had their Limbs suppled by Exercise,
and who always trot with a surprizing Stiffness and Aukwardness, and
without the least Spring or Play in their Joints. The _even_ or
_equal_ Trot, is that wherein the Horse makes all his Limbs and Joints
move so equally and exactly, that his Legs never cover more Ground one
than the other, nor at one Time more than another: To do this, the
Horse must of necessity unite and collect all his Strength, and if I
may be allowed the Expression, distribute it equally through all his

TO go from the _extended_ Trot, to the _supple_, you must gently, and
by degrees, hold in your Horse; and when by Exercise he has attain'd
sufficient Ease and Suppleness to manage his Limbs readily, you must
insensibly hold him in, still more and more, and by degrees you will
lead him to the _equal_ Trot.

THE Trot is the first Exercise to which a Horse is put; this is a
necessary Lesson, but if given unskilfully it loses its End, and even
does harm.

HORSES of a hot and fretful Temper have generally too great a
Disposition to the _extended_ Trot; never abandon these Horses to their
Will, hold them in, pacify them, moderate their Motion by retaining
them judiciously, and their Limbs will grow supple; they will acquire
at the same time that Union and Equality, which is so essentially

IF you have a Horse that is heavy, consider if this Heaviness or
Stiffness of his Shoulders or Legs is owing to a Want of Strength,
or of Suppleness; whether it proceeds from his having been exercised
unskilfully, too much, or too little. If he is heavy, because the
Motions of his Legs and Shoulders are naturally cold and sluggish, tho'
at the same time his Limbs are good, and his Strength is only confin'd
and shut up, if I may so say, a moderate but continual Exercise of
the Trot will open and supple his Joints, and render the Action of
his Shoulders and Legs more free and bold; hold him in the Hand, and
support him in the Trot, but take care so to do it, as not to check or
slacken his Pace: Aid him and drive him forward, while you support him;
remember at the same time, that if he is loaded with a great Head, the
Continuation of the Trot, will make his Apuy hard and dull, because
he will by this means abandon himself still more, and weigh upon the
Hand. All Horses that are inclined to be _remingue_, should be kept to
the extended Trot; every Horse who has a Tendency to be _remingue_ is
naturally disposed to collect all his Strength, and to unite himself;
your only way with such Horses is to force them forward: In the Instant
that he obeys, and goes freely on, retain him a little; yield your Hand
immediately after, and you will find soon that the Horse of himself
will bend his Joints, and go united and equally.

A HORSE of a sluggish and cold Disposition, which has nevertheless
Strength and Bottom, should likewise be put to the extended Trot; as he
grows animated, and begins to go free, keep him together by little and
little, in order to lead him insensibly to the _supple_ Trot; but if
while you keep him together, you perceive that he slackens his Action,
and retains himself, give him the Aids briskly, and push him forward,
keeping him nevertheless gently in Hand; by this means he will be
taught to go freely and equally at the same time.

IF a Horse of a cold and sluggish Temper is weak in his Legs and Loins,
you must manage him cautiously in working him in the Trot, or otherwise
you will enervate and spoil him. Besides, in order to make the most
of a Horse, who is not over strong, endeavour to give him Wind, by
working him slowly, and at Intervals, and by increasing the Vigour of
his Exercise by degrees; for you must remember that you ought always
to dismiss your Horse, before he is spent and overcome with Fatigue.
Never push your Lesson too far in hopes of suppling your Horse's Limbs
by means of the Trot; instead of this you will falsify and harden his
Apuy, which is a Case which happens but too frequently.

FARTHER, it is of Importance to remark, that you ought at no time,
neither in the _extended_, _supple_ or _equal_ Trot, to confine your
Horse in the Hand in Expectation of raising him, and fixing his Head
in a proper Place; if his Apuy be full in the Hand, and the Action of
his Trot should be check'd and restrain'd by the Power of his Bridle,
his Bars would very soon grow callous, and his Mouth be harden'd and
dead; if, on the contrary, he has a fine and sensible Mouth, this very
Restraint would offend and make him uneasy. You must endeavour then,
as has already been said, to give him by degrees, and insensibly, a
true and just Apuy, to place his Head, and form his Mouth, by Stops
and Half-stops; by sometimes moderating and restraining him with a
gentle and light Hand, and yielding it to him immediately again; and by
sometimes letting him trot without feeling the Bridle at all.

THERE is a Difference between Horses who are _heavy_ in the Hand, and
such as endeavour to _force_ it. The first Sort lean and throw all
their Weight upon the Hand, either as they happen to be weak, or too
heavy and clumsy in their Fore-parts, or from having their Mouths too
fleshy and gross, and consequently dull and insensible. The second
_pull_ against the Hand, because their Bars are lean, hard, and
generally round; and the first may be brought to go equal, and upon
their Haunches, by means of the Trot and slow Gallop; and the other may
be made light and active by Art, and by settling them well in their
Trot, which will also give them Strength and Vigour. Horses of the
first sort are generally sluggish, the other kind are for the most part
impatient and disobedient, and upon that very account more dangerous
and incorrigible.

THE only Proof, or rather the most certain Sign of your Horse's
trotting well, is, that when he is in his Trot, and you begin to press
him a little, he offers to Gallop.

AFTER having trotted your Horse sufficiently upon a strait Line, or
directly forward, work him upon large Circles; but before you put him
to this, walk him gently round the Circle, that he may comprehend and
know the Ground he is to go over.--This being done, work him in the
Trot; a Horse that is loaded before, and heavily made, will find more
Pains and Difficulty in uniting his Strength, in order to be able to
turn, than in going strait forward.--The Action of turning trys the
Strength of his Reins, and employs his Memory and Attention, therefore
let one Part of your Lessons be to trot them strait forward; finish
them in the same Manner, observing that the Intervals between the Stops
(which you should make very often) be long, or short, as you judge
necessary: I say you should make frequent Stops, for they often serve
as a Correction to Horses that abandon themselves, force the Hand, or
bear too much upon it in their Trot.

THERE are some Horses who are supple in their Shoulders, but which
nevertheless abandon themselves; this Fault is occasion'd by the
Rider's having often held his Bridle-hand too tight and strict in
working them upon large Circles: To remedy this, trot them upon one
_Line_ or _Tread_, and very large; stop them often, keeping back
your Body and outward Leg, in order to make them bend and play their

THE principal Effects then of the Trot, are to make a Horse light
and active, and to give him a just Apuy. In reality, in this Action
he is always supported on one Side by one of his Fore-legs, and on
the other by one of his Hind-legs: Now the fore and hind Parts being
equally supported cross-wise, the Rider can't fail to supple and
loosen his Limbs, and fix his Head; but if the Trot disposes and
prepares the Spirits and Motions of a sinewy and active Horse for the
justest Lessons, if it calls out and unfolds the Powers and Strength
of the Animal, which before were buried and shut up, if I may use the
Expression, in the Stiffness of his Joints and Limbs; if this first
Exercise to which you put your Horse, is the Foundation of all the
different Airs and Manages, it ought to be given in Proportion to the
Strength and Vigour of the Horse.

TO judge of this you must go farther than mere outward Appearances.
A Horse may be but weak in the Loins, and yet execute any Air, and
accompany it with Vigour, as long as his Strength is united and intire;
but if he becomes disunited, by having been work'd beyond his Ability
in the Trot, he will then falter in his Air, and perform it without
Vigour and Grace.

THERE are also some Horses, who are very strong in the Loins, but who
are weak in their Limbs; these are apt to retain themselves, they bend
and sink in their Trot, and go as if they were afraid of hurting their
Shoulders, their Legs or Feet. This Irresolution proceeds only from a
natural Sense they have of their Weakness.--This kind of Horses should
not be too much exercised in the Trot, nor have sharp Correction;
their Shoulders, Legs, or Hocks would be weaken'd and injur'd; so that
learning in a little Time to hang back, and abandon themselves on the
Apuy, they would never be able to furnish any Air with Vigour and

LET every Lesson then be weigh'd; the only Method by which Success
can be insured, is the Discretion you shall use, in giving them in
proportion to the Strength of the Horse, and from your Sagacity in
deciding upon what Air or Manage is most proper for him; to which
you must be directed by observing which seems most suited to his
Inclination and Capacity.

I FINISH this Chapter by describing the Manner of trotting a Colt,
who has never been back'd. Put a plain Snaffle in his Mouth, fit a
Caveson to his Nose, to the Ring of which you will tie a Longe of a
reasonable Length; let a Groom hold this Longe, who having got at some
Distance from the Colt, must stand still in the Middle of the Circle,
which the Horse will make; let another follow him with a long Whip or
Chambriere in his Hand.--The Colt being alarm'd, will be forced to go
forward, and to turn within the Length of the Cord.--The Groom must
hold it tight in his Hand, by this means he will draw _in_ or towards
the Center the Head of the Colt, and his Croupe will consequently be
_out_ of the Circle.--In working a young Horse after this Manner, don't
press or hurry him, let him walk first, afterwards put him to the Trot;
if you neglect this Method his Legs will be embarras'd, he will lean
on one Side, and be more upon one Haunch than the other; the inner
Fore-foot will strike against the outward, and the Pain which this will
occasion, will drive him to seek some Means of Defence, and make him

IF he refuses to trot, the Person who holds the Chambriere will animate
him, by hitting him, or striking the Ground with it. If he offers to
gallop instead of trotting, the Groom must shake or jirk the Cord that
is tied to the Caveson, and he will fall into his Trot.

IN this Lesson you may decide more readily upon the Nature, the
Strength, the Inclination, and Carriage of the Horse, than you can of
one that has already been rode, as it is more easy to consider and
examine all his Motions; whereas when he is under his Rider, being
naturally inclin'd to resist at first, to free himself from Restraint,
and to employ all his Strength and Cunning to defend himself against
his Rider, it is morally impossible to form a true Judgment of his
Disposition and Capacity.


_Of the Stop._

THE most certain Method to unite and assemble together the Strength of
a Horse, in order to give him a good Mouth, to fix and place his Head,
as well as to regulate his Shoulders, to make him light in the Hand,
and capable of performing all Sorts of Airs, depends entirely upon the
Perfection and Exactness of the Stop.

IN order to mark or form the Stop justly, you must quicken him a
little, and in the Instant that he begins to go faster than the usual
_Cadence_ or _Time_ of his Pace, approach the Calves of your Legs, and
immediately afterwards fling back your Shoulders; always holding your
Bridle more and more tight, till the Stop is made, aiding the Horse
with the Calves of your Legs, in order to make him bend and play his

BY varying the Times of making your Stops, and the Places where you
make them, you will teach your Horse to obey exactly the Hand and Heel;
which is the End that every one should propose to attain in every Kind
of Exercise of the Manege.

WITH a raw and young Horse make but very few Stops, and when you make
them, do it by degrees, very gently, and not all at once, because
nothing so much strains and weakens the Hocks of a stiff and aukward
Horse, as a sudden and rude Stop.

IT is agreed by every Body, that nothing so much shews the Vigour and
Obedience of a Horse as his making a beautiful and firm Stop, at the
End of a swift and violent Career. There are however many Horses that
have a good deal of Vigour and Agility, who can't stop without feeling
Pain, while there are others who are not so strong and active, who stop
very easily; the Reason of this is plain.

IN the first place, the Facility of stopping depends upon the natural
Aptness and Consent of the Horse; in the next place, his Make, and the
Proportions which the different Parts of his Body have to each other,
must be consider'd: Therefore we must measure the Merit of a Stop by
the Strength and Temper of the Horse, by the Steadiness of his Head and
Neck, and the Condition of his Mouth and Haunches.

IT will be in vain to look for the Justness and Perfection of the Stop
in a Horse that is any ways defective, the Bars being too delicate, or
too hard, a thick Tongue, the Channel of his Mouth narrow, the Thropple
confin'd, Neck short, Fore-hand heavy, or too low, weak Loins, or too
stiff, too much Heat, or too much Flegm in his Temper, or Sluggishness;
here are a Number of Faults not easily to be corrected.

A HORSE, though he is strong in his Shoulders, in his Legs and Loins,
yet if he is low before, will have much Difficulty to collect himself
upon his Haunches, so as to make a good Stop; on the contrary, if his
Shoulders and Neck are high and raised, he will have the greater Part
of the Qualities requisite to it.

A HORSE who is long in the Back generally stops very aukwardly, and
without keeping his Head steady; a Horse that is short and truss'd,
with a thick Neck, generally stops upon his Shoulders. The first finds
too much Difficulty to collect his Strength so suddenly, in order to
put himself upon his Haunches, and the other is not able to call it
out, and distribute it with Vigour through his Limbs.--In effect, when
a Horse gallops, the Strength of his Loins, of his Haunches and Hocks,
is all employed in pushing the whole Machine forwards, and that of his
Shoulders and Fore-legs, to support the Action: Now the Force of his
hinder Parts being thus violently agitated, and approaching too near
that which lies in the fore Parts, a short-body'd Horse can't find all
at once, that Counterpoise, that just Equilibre which characterizes a
beautiful Stop.

A HORSE which can't stop readily, misemploys very often his Strength
in running; examine him, and you will find that he abandons himself
entirely upon his Shoulders; consider likewise the Proportions of his
Neck and his Thropple, the Condition of his Feet, the Make of his
Loins and Hocks; in short, apply yourself to the Discovery of his
Temper, Character and Humour.--That Horse whose Neck is hollow, or
Ewe-neck'd, instead of ballancing himself upon his Haunches, will arm
himself against his Chest, and will thereby make his Stops harsh and
disagreeable: Weak Feet, or Hocks that give him Pain, will make him
hate the Stop.--He will either endeavour to avoid it, or will make it
with Fear, so that he will be totally abandon'd upon the Apuy. If he
carries his Nose high, and is hollow-back'd at the same time, it will
be impossible for him to unite and put himself together, so as to be
ready, and to present his Front, if I may be allow'd the Word, to the
Stop; because the Strength of the Nape of the Neck depends upon the
Chine; and his Powers being thus disunited and broken, he will make his
Stop upon his Shoulders.

THERE is another Sort of Horses, who in hopes of avoiding the
Constraint of stopping upon their Haunches, plant themselves upon
their two Hind-legs; yield the Hand to them, in the Instant, and press
them forward, you will insensibly correct them of their Defence, which
happens only in Cases, where you stop them upon declining or uneven

THERE are many People, who imagining they can unite their Horses by the
means of making a great Number of precipitate Stops, take little heed
whether the Creature which they undertake is too weak, or has Strength
sufficient for his Task.--The Horse, who, though strong, has suffer'd
in his Chine, in making the first Stop, will meditate a Defence in his
second or third; this will be to prevent the Rider in his Design: And
being alarm'd at the slightest Motion of the Hand he will stop all at
once, leaning with all his Force upon his Shoulders, and lifting up his
Croupe; which is a capital Fault, and not easy to be remedied.

THUS it may happen, that a Horse may make his Stops very defectively,
either from some natural or accidental Faults in the different Parts of
his Body; or it may be owing to the Unskilfulness and Ignorance of the
Rider, or the Effect of Faults and bad Lessons all together. Principles
that are true and just will assist and reform Nature, but a bad School
gives birth to Vice and Defences that are often not to be conquer'd.
It behoves us then to follow with Exactness those Lessons which are
capable of bringing a Horse to form a perfect Stop; that is to say, to
such a Point as to be able to make his Stop short, firm, and in one
_time_; and in which he collects and throws his Strength equally upon
his Haunches and Hocks, widening and anchoring, if I may so say, his
two Hind-feet exactly even on the Ground, in such a Manner that one
does not stand before the other, but both are in a Line.

IT would be a Proof of great Ignorance to undertake to reduce a Horse
to the Justness of the Stop, before he had been work'd and push'd out
in the Trot and Gallop to both Hands, or before he was so ready as
never to refuse to launch out immediately into a full Gallop; for if he
should happen to be _restiff_, should disobey the Spurs, or refuse to
turn to either Hand, the Means that then must be used to fix his Head,
would contribute towards confirming him in one or other of these Vices.

IF your Horse has not readily obey'd in making his Stops, make him go
backwards, it is a proper Punishment for the Fault. If in stopping
he tosses up his Nose, or forces the Hand, in this Case keep your
Bridle-hand low and firm, and your Reins quite equal; give him no
Liberty, press upon his Neck with your Right-hand, till he has brought
down his Nose, and then immediately give him all his Bridle; this is
the surest Method to bring him into the Hand.

TO compel a Horse to stop upon his Haunches, nothing is so efficacious
as Ground that is a little sloping; this is of service to exercise such
Horses upon as are naturally too loose in their Paces, who are heavy
and apt to abandon themselves upon the Hand, by this means they become
light before; you must nevertheless examine if his Feet, his Loins, his
Shoulders and Legs are sufficiently able to bear it, for otherwise your
Horse would soon be spoil'd: The whole therefore depends in this Case,
as in all others, upon the Sagacity and Experience of the Horseman.

WHEN a Horseman puts his Horse to the Stop, in such a Place as I have
mentioned, he should put the Stress of his Aids rather in his Thighs
and Knees, than in his Stirrups; one of the most trying Lessons a Horse
can be put to, is to stop him, and make him go backwards up Hill;
therefore upon these Occasions you must ease the fore Part of the Horse
as much as you can, and throw your whole Weight upon the hinder. We
have already said, that there are some Horses, which from Weakness in
their Make, can never be brought to form a just and beautiful Stop.
There are others likewise, who are apt to stop too suddenly and short
upon their Shoulders, tho' otherwise naturally too much raised before,
and too light. These employ all their Power in order to stop all at
once, in hopes either of putting an end to the Pain they feel, from
the Rudeness of the Stop; or else perhaps that some Defect of Sight
makes them apprehend they are near something that they fear, for almost
all Horses, blind of one Eye, or of both, stop with the greatest
Readiness: take care never to make this sort of Horses go backward; on
the contrary, stop them slowly and by degrees, in order to embolden
them, remembring never to force, or keep them in too great a degree of

I HAVE thus shown, that a Stop that is made with Ease, Steadiness, and
according to the Rules, will contribute a great deal towards putting
a Horse upon his Haunches, and giving him that firm, equal, and light
Apuy, which we always desire to gain; because a just Stop makes a Horse
bend and sink his hinder Parts; I have made it likewise appear, that a
sudden and ill-executed Stop raises the fore Parts too much, stiffens
the Hocks, and rather takes a Horse off his Haunches, than sets him
upon them. Let us now proceed to the Lesson of teaching a Horse to go


_Of teaching a Horse to go backward._

THE Action of a Horse, when he goes backward, is to have always one of
his hinder Legs under his Belly, to push his Croupe backward, to bend
his Haunches, and to rest and ballance himself, one time on one Leg,
one on the other; this Lesson is very efficacious to lighten a Horse,
to settle him in the Hand, to make him ready to advance and go forward,
and to prepare him to put himself together, and sit down upon his

IT should not however be practised, till the Horse has been well laid
out and worked in the Trot, and his Limbs are become supple; because,
till he is arrived to this Point, you should not begin to unite or put
him together: Care must be taken, that this Action of going backward
be just, and that in performing it, the Horse keeps his Head steady,
fixt, and in a right Place; that his Body be trussed or gathered up,
as it were, under him; that his Feet be even; that he be not upon his
Shoulders, but on the contrary, on his Haunches; for if he should
be false as to any of these Particulars, this Lesson, very far from
putting him together, would have the contrary Effect, and dis-unite him.

IN order that a Horse may be able to execute what is required of him,
he must first comprehend what it is that is asked of him, and for
this Purpose the Horseman should make his Lessons short, and demand
but little at a Time; begin then to make him go backward, when he is
arrived far enough to understand what you expect him to do; but at
first be contented with a little, it is sufficient if he understands
what you want.

THERE are Horses, who can go backward, not only with great Ease, but
do it even with the Exactness of Horses that are perfectly drest; if
you examine these Horses, you will find that all the Parts of their
Body are exactly proportioned; they have Strength, and Nature herself
has taught them to unite themselves; but there are others, who can't
go backwards without great Difficulty; these are weak in the Back, or
otherwise imperfect in their Make; don't demand too much of these, work
them with caution, for Rigour with such Horses, is never successful.

THERE are another sort of Horses, who never can be reconciled to
Subjection; whenever you try to make them go backward, they fix their
fore Feet fast upon the Ground, and _arm_ themselves; in this Case you
must endeavour to win them, as it were insensibly, and by degrees. For
this Purpose, raise your hand a little, remove it from your Body, at
the same time shake your Reins, and you will find that by degrees you
will accustom your Horse to obey; but remember at the same time, that
you would have a less share of Reason, than the Animal you undertake
to dress, were you to expect to reduce him to Obedience all at once;
your Horse answering to the Reins which you shake, will move perhaps
only one of his fore Feet, leaving the other advanced; this Posture
without doubt is defective, because he is dis-united; but as Perfection
can't be gained at once, Patience and gentle Usage are the only certain
Methods of bringing your Horse to perform what you want. There are
others, who when they go backward, do it with Fury and Impatience;
these you should correct, briskly, and support lightly with your Legs,
while they go backward. There are another sort, who work their lower
Jaw about as if they wanted to catch hold of the Bit, who bear upon
the Hand, and endeavour to force it; to such Horses you must keep your
Hand extremely low, and your Reins exactly even, distribute equally the
Power of each, by rounding your Wrist, and keeping your Nails exactly
opposite your Body.

AFTER having made your Horse go backward, let him advance two or three
Steps, if he obeys the Hand readily.--This will take off any Dislike
or Fear, he may entertain from the Constraint of going backward; if
he forces the Hand in going backward, these three Steps forward will
contribute to bring him into it again; and lastly, they prevent any
Vice, that this Lesson might otherwise produce.

AFTER having advanced three Steps, let him stop, and turn him; you will
by these means support him, and take him off from any ill Designs,
which the Treatment you are obliged to observe towards him, in order to
make him stop and go backward with Precision and Order, might otherwise
give rise to.--After having turned him, make him go backward, you will
prevent his having too great Desire of going too soon from the Place
where he stopp'd, as well as from that to which he turned.

THE Moment the Stop is made, give him his Bridle; by stopping you
have augmented the Degree of the Apuy in the Horse's Mouth; you must
increase it still more, in order to make him go backwards; hence a hard
Hand and bad Mouth.

THIS Reasoning is plain, and these Principles are true; notwithstanding
which, there are few Horsemen who attend to it, either because they
never think and reflect, or else that the Force of bad Habits overcomes

THIS Lesson, if well weigh'd and given properly, is a necessary and
certain Method of teaching Horses to make a good Stop, of rendering
them light and obedient when they pull or are beyond the Degree of what
is call'd _full in the Hand_.--But if given improperly, or if too often
repeated, it then grows to be a Habit, and a Habit is no Correction.
Never practise it long with Horses who are hot, and who have hard
Mouths, their Impatience and Heat, join'd to Habit and Custom, would
prevent them from knowing the Cause, and feeling the Effects. It is the
same with those who have short Fore-hands; for as they are generally
thick-shoulder'd and heavy, the Difficulty they feel to collect
themselves upon their Haunches, naturally disposes them to press the
Branches of the Bit against their Chest, by which means this Lesson
becomes quite ineffectual.


_Of the uniting or putting a Horse together._

THE End which the Horseman proposes to attain by his Art, is to give to
the Horses, which he undertakes, the _Union_, without which, no Horse
can be said to be perfectly drest; every one allows that the whole of
the Art depends upon this, yet few People reason or act from Principles
and Theory, but trust entirely to Practice; hence it follows, that
they must work upon Foundations false and uncertain, and so thick is
the Darkness in which they wander, that it is difficult to find any
one who is able to define this Term of _uniting_ or _putting_ a Horse
_together_, which is yet so constantly in the Mouth of every Body; I
will undertake, however, to give a clear and distinct Idea of it; and
for that Purpose shall treat it with Order and Method.

THE uniting then or putting together, is the Action by which a Horse
draws together and assembles the Parts of his Body, and his Strength,
in distributing it equally upon his four Legs, and in re-uniting or
drawing them together, as we do ourselves, when we are going to jump,
or perform any other Action which demands Strength and Agility. This
Posture alone is sufficient to settle and place the Head of the Animal,
to lighten and render his Shoulders and Legs active, which from the
Structure of his Body, support and govern the greater Part of his
Weight; being then by these means made steady, and his Head well
placed, you will perceive in every Motion that he makes, a surprizing
Correspondence of the Parts with the whole. I say, that from the
natural Structure of a Horse's Body, his Legs and Shoulders support the
greatest Part of his Weight, in reality his Croupe or Haunches carry
nothing but his Tail, while his fore Legs, being perpendicular, are
loaded with the Head, Neck, and Shoulders; so that, let the Animal be
ever so well made, ever so well proportioned, his fore Part, either
when he is in Motion, or in a State of Rest, is always employed, and
consequently in want of the Assistance of Art to ease it; and in this
consists the _Union_ or putting together, which by putting the Horse
upon his Haunches, counterballances and relieves his fore Part.

THE _Union_ not only helps and relieves the Part of the Horse that
is the weakest, but it is so necessary to every Horse, that no Horse
that is dis-united can go freely, he can neither Leap nor Gallop with
Agility and Lightness, nor run without being in manifest Danger of
falling and pitching himself headlong, because his Motions have no
Harmony, no Agreement one with another. It is allowed, that Nature
has given to every Horse a certain Equilibre, by which he supports
and regulates himself in all his Motions; we knew that his Body is
supported by his four Legs, and that his four Legs have a Motion, which
his Body must of necessity follow; but yet this natural Equilibre is
not sufficient. All Men can walk, they are supported on two Legs,
notwithstanding this we make a great Difference between that Person to
whom proper Exercises have taught the free Use of his Limbs, and him
whose Carriage is unimproved by Art, and consequently heavy and aukward.

'TIS just the same with respect to a Horse; we must have recourse to
Art to unfold the natural Powers that lay hid and are shut up in him,
if we mean he should make a proper Use of the Limbs which Nature has
given him; the Use of which can be discover'd and made familiar to him
no other way than by working him upon true and just Principles.

THE Trot is very efficacious to bring a Horse to this Union so
important, and so necessary; I speak of the Trot, in which he is
supported and kept together, and suppled at the same time; this compels
the Horse to put himself together: in effect, the Trot in which a Horse
is well supported partakes of a quick and violent Motion: It forces a
Horse to collect and unite all his Strength, because it is impossible
that a Horse that is kept together, should at the same time abandon and
fling himself forward. I explain myself thus.--In order to support your
Horse in his Trot, the Horseman should hold his Hand near his Body,
keeping his Horse together a little, and have his Legs near his Sides.
The Effect of the Hand is to confine and raise the fore Parts of the
Horse; the Effect of the Legs is to push and drive forward the hinder
Parts: Now if the fore Parts are kept back or confin'd, and the hinder
Parts are driven forward, the Horse in a quick Motion, such as the
Trot, must of necessity sit down upon his Haunches, and unite and put
himself together.

FOR the same Reason making your Horse launch out vigorously in his
Trot, and quickening his Cadence from time to time, putting him to make
Pesades, stopping him and making him go backward, will all contribute
towards his acquiring the Union.--I would define his going off readily,
or all at once, not to be a violent and precipitate Manner of Running,
but only to consist in the Horse's being a little animated, and going
somewhat faster than the ordinary Time of his Pace.--Your Horse trots,
press him a little; in the Instant that he redoubles and quickens his
Action, moderate and shorten, if I may so say, the Hurry of his Pace;
the more then that he presses to go forward, the more will his being
check'd and confin'd tend to unite his Limbs, and the _Union_ will
owe its Birth to opposite Causes; that is to say, on one hand to the
Ardour of the Horse who presses to go forward, and to the Diligence
and Attention of the Horseman on the other, who, by holding him in,
slackens the Pace, and raises the Fore-parts of the Creature, and at
the same time distributes his Strength equally to all his Limbs. The
Action of a Horse, when going backward, is directly opposite to his
abandoning himself upon his Shoulders; by this you compel him to put
himself upon his Haunches: this Lesson is by so much therefore the more
effectual, as that the Cause of a Horse's being dis-united, is often
owing to the Pain he feels in bending his Haunches.

THE Pesades have no less Effect, especially upon Horses that are clumsy
and heavy shoulder'd; because they teach them to use them, and to raise
them; and when they raise them up, it follows of necessity that all
their Weight must be thrown upon their Haunches. A light and gentle
Hand then, and the Aids of the Legs judiciously managed, are capable
to give a Horse the _Union_; but it is not so clear at what time we
ought to begin to put a Horse upon his Haunches. Is it not necessary
before we do this, that the Horse should have his Shoulders entirely
suppled? It is evident, that a Horse can never support himself upon
his Haunches, unless his Fore-part be lightened; let us see then by
what means we may hope to acquire this Suppleness, the only Source of
light and free Action. Nothing can supple more the Shoulders than the
Working a Horse upon large Circles.--Walk him first round the Circle,
in order to make him know his Ground; afterwards try to draw his Head
_in_, or towards the Center, by means of your inner Rein and inner Leg.
For instance,--I work my Horse upon a Circle, and I go to the Right by
pulling the right Rein; I bring in his outward Shoulder by the means of
the left Rein, and support him at the same time with my inner Leg; thus
the Horse has, if I may so say, his Head _in_, or towards the Center,
although the Croupe is at Liberty. The right Leg crosses over the left
Leg, and the right Shoulder is suppled, while the left Leg supports
the whole Weight of the Horse in the Action: In working him to the
left Hand, and following the same Method, the left Shoulder supples,
and the right is pressed and confined. This Lesson, which tends not
only to supple the Shoulders, but likewise to give an Apuy, being
well comprehended by the Horse, I lead him along the Side of the
Wall,--having placed his Head, I make use of the inner Rein, which
draws in his Head, and I bring in his outward Shoulder by means of
the other Rein: In this Posture, I support him with my inner Leg, and
he goes along the Wall, his Croupe being out and at liberty, and his
inner Leg passing over and crossing his outward Leg at every Step he
makes.--By this, I supple his Neck, I supple his Shoulders, I work his
Haunches, and I teach the Horse to know the Heels. I say, that the
Haunches are worked, though his Croupe is at liberty, because it is
from the Fore-parts only, that a Horse can be upon his Haunches.

IN effect, after having placed his Head, draw it _in_, and you will
lengthen his Croupe, you raise him higher before than behind, his Legs
come under his Belly, and consequently he bends his Haunches. It is
the same as when he comes down Hill, his Croupe, being higher than his
Fore-parts, is pushed under him, and the Horse is upon his Haunches;
since it is evident that the Hinder support all the Fore-parts,
therefore in going along the Side of the Wall, by the means of the
inner Rein, I put together and unite my Horse.

BEHOLD then, in short, the most certain Methods of enabling yourself to
give to a Horse this _Union_, this Freedom and Ease, by which learning
how to ballance his Weight equally and with Art, and distributing his
Strength with Exactness to all his Limbs, he becomes able to undertake
and execute with Justness and Grace, whatever the Horseman demands of
him, conformable to his Strength and Disposition.


_Of the Pillars._

IT is the same with respect to the Pillars, as with all other Lessons
which you must teach a Horse, in order to make him perfect in his Air.
Excellent in itself, it becomes pernicious and destructive under the
Direction of the Ignorant, and is not only capable to dishearten any
Horse, but to strain and ruin him entirely.

THE Pillar partly owes its Origin to the famous _Pignatelli_[1]. Mess.
_de la Broue_ and _Pluvinel_, who were his Scholars, brought it first
into _France_; the first indeed made little use of it, and seem'd to
be very well appriz'd of its Inconveniencies and Dangers; as for the
other, one may say, that he knew not a better or shorter Method of
dressing and adjusting a Horse. In effect, according to his Notions,
working a Horse round a single Pillar could never fail of setting
him upon his Haunches, making him advance, suppling and teaching him
to turn roundly and exactly; and by putting him between two Pillars,
provided he had Vigour, he was taught to obey the Heels readily, to
unite himself, and acquire in a shorter time a good Apuy in making
Curvets. If he wanted to settle his Horse's Head in a short time, the
Pillars were very efficacious. He tied the Horse between them to the
Cords of the Snaffle which he had in his Mouth, instead of the Bridle.
There he work'd his Horse without a Saddle, and maintain'd, that if
the Horse tossed or shook his Head, bore too much, or too little upon
his Bridle, he punish'd himself in such a manner, that (as he imagin'd)
the Horse was compell'd to put himself upon his Haunches, and to take
a good Apuy; especially as the Fear of the Chambriere or Whip, always
ready behind him, kept him in awe. The Horse was often taken out of the
two Pillars, in order to be put to the single Pillar, with a Cord tied
to the Banquet of the Bit as a false Rein; here he was work'd by being
made to rise before, and driven round the Pillar, with a design and in
hopes of making him step out and embrace, or cover well the Ground he
went round, as well as to give him Resolution in his Work, and to cure
him of Dullness and Sloth, if he had it in his Temper. We don't know
whether Mr. _Pluvinel_ designed any real Advantages from this Method or
no; but be that as it will, it prevails no longer among us.--It must
be owned, that the two Pillars of his inventing are still preserved,
and that no Manage is without them; but at least we have suppress'd the
single Pillar, which serves only to fatigue and harrass a Horse: Learn
never to put a Horse between the two Pillars till he is well suppled,
and you have given him the first Principles of the _Union_ between
the Legs, which are the natural Pillars that every Horseman should
employ. We must take care to work the Horse with great Prudence at
first, and as gently as possible; for a Horse being in this Lesson very
much confined and forced, and not able to escape, nor to go forward
nor backward, he oftentimes grows quite furious, and abandons himself
to every Motion that Rage and Resentment can suggest. Begin then this
Lesson in the plainest Manner, contenting yourself with only making
him go from side to side, by means of the Switch, or from fear of the
Chambriere. At the End of some Days, the Horse, thus become obedient,
and accustomed to the Subjection of the Pillars; try to make him
insensibly go into the Cords, which when he will do readily, endeavour
to get a Step or two exact and in _time_ of the _Passage_ or _Piaffer_.

Footnote 1: He liv'd at _Naples_, and was the most eminent Horseman of
his Time.

IF he offers to present himself to it, be it never so little, make him
leave off, encourage him, and send him to the Stable; augment thus your
Lessons by degrees, and examine and endeavour to discover to what his
Disposition turns, that you may cultivate and improve it. The worst
Effect of the Pillars is the Hazard you run of entirely ruining the
Hocks of your Horse, if you don't distinguish very exactly between
those Parts and the Haunches. Many People think that when the Horse
goes into the Cords, he is of consequence upon his Haunches; but they
don't remark, that often the Horse only bends his Hocks, and that his
Hocks pain him by so much the more, as his hinder Feet are not in their
due Equilibre.

THE Fore-legs of a Horse are made like those of a Man, the Knees are
before or _without_, the Hinder-legs are shaped like our Arms, he bends
his Hocks as we do our Elbows; therefore if he rises before very high,
he must stretch and stiffen his Hocks, and consequently can never be
seated upon his Haunches; to be upon them, the Horse must bend and
bring them under him, because the more his Hinder-legs are brought
under him, the more his Hinder-feet are in the necessary Point of
Gravity, to support all the Weight of his Body, which is in the Air,
in a just Equilibre.--These Remarks are sufficient to evince the
Inconveniencies that may arise from the Pillars; never quit sight of
these Principles, you will find by adhering to them, the Horse that is
drest according to their Tenour, will be a Proof of the real Advantages
that you may draw from a Lesson, which never does harm, but when
occasioned by the Imprudence or Ignorance of those who give it.


_Of Aids and Corrections._

AN Aid may be termed whatever assists or directs a Horse, and whatever
enables him to execute what we put him to do.--Corrections are whatever
Methods we use to awe and punish him, whenever he disobeys: Aids
therefore are to prevent, and Corrections to punish, whatever Fault he
may commit.

THE Aids are various, and are to be given in different Manners, upon
different Occasions, they are only meant to accompany the Ease and
Smoothness of the Horse in his Air, and to form and maintain the
Justness of it; for this Reason they ought to be delicate, fine,
smooth, and steady, and proportioned to the Sensibility or Feeling of
the Horse; for if they are harsh and rude, very far from Aiding, they
would throw the Horse into Disorder, or else occasion his Manage to be
false, his Time broken, constrained, and disagreeable.

CORRECTIONS are of two Sorts; you may punish your Horse with the
Spurs, the Switch, or Chambriere; you may punish him by keeping him
in a greater Degree of Subjection; but in all these Cases, a real
Horseman will endeavour rather to work upon the Understanding of the
Creature, than upon the different Parts of his Body. A Horse has
Imagination, Memory and Judgment; work upon these three Faculties, and
you will be most likely to succeed. In reality, the Corrections which
reduce a Horse to the greatest Obedience, and which dishearten him the
least, are such as are not severe, but such as consist in opposing his
Will and Humour, by restraining and putting him to do directly the
contrary.--If your Horse don't advance or go off readily, or if he is
sluggish, make him go sideways, sometimes to one hand, sometimes to
the other, and drive him forward; and so alternatively.--If he goes
forward too fast, being extremely quick of feeling, moderate your
Aids, and make him go backwards some Steps; if he presses forward
with Hurry and Violence, make him go backward a great deal.--If he
is disorderly and turbulent, walk him strait forward, with his Head
_in_ and Croupe _out_; these sorts of Corrections have great Influence
upon most Horses. It is true, that there are some of so bad and
rebellious Dispositions, which availing themselves of their Memory
to falsify their Lessons, require sharp Correction, and upon whom
gentle Punishment would have no Effect; but in using Severity to such
Horses, great Prudence and Management are necessary. The Character of a
Horseman is to work with Design, and to execute with Method and Order;
he should have more Forbearance, more Experience, and more Sagacity
than most People are possessed of.

THE Spurs, when used by a knowing and able Horseman, are of great
Service; but when used improperly, nothing so soon makes a Horse abject
and jadish. Given properly, they awe and correct the Animal; given
unduly, they make him restive and vicious, and are even capable of
Discouraging a drest Horse, and giving him a Disgust to the Manage;
don't be too hasty therefore to correct your Horse with them.

BE patient; if your Horse deserves Punishment, punish him smartly, but
seldom; for besides your habituating him to Blows, till he ceases to
mind them, you will astonish and confound him, and be more likely to
make him rebel, than to bring him to the Point you aim at. To give your
Horse both Spurs properly, you must change the Posture of your Legs,
and bending your Knee, strike him with them at once as quick and firmly
as you can. A Stroke of the Spurs wrongly given is no Punishment; it
rather hardens the Horse against them, teaches him to shake and frisk
about his Tail, and often to return the Blow with a Kick. Take care
never to open your Thighs and Legs in order to give both Spurs, for
besides that the Blow would not be at all stronger for being given in
this Manner, you would by this means lose the Time in which you ought
to give it, and the Horse would rather be alarmed at the Motion you
make in order to give the Blow, than punished by it when he felt in;
and thence your Action becoming irregular, could never produce a good

THE Chambriere is used as a Correction, it ought however to be used
with Discretion; we will suppose it to be in able Hands, and forbear to
say more about it. As for the Switch, it is so seldom made use of to
punish a Horse, that I shall not speak of it, till I come to treat of
the Aids.

BY what has been said of Corrections, it is apparent, that the Horseman
works not only upon the Horse's Understanding, but even upon his Sense
of Feeling.

A HORSE has three Senses upon which we may work, Hearing, Feeling and
Seeing. The Touch is that Sense, by which we are enabled to make him
very quick and delicate, and when he is once brought to understand the
Aids which operate upon this Sense, he will be able to answer to all
that you can put him to.

THOUGH the Senses of Hearing and Sight are good in themselves, they
are yet apt to give a Horse a Habit of Working by Rote and of himself,
which is bad and dangerous. The Aids which are employed upon the Touch
or Feeling, are those of the Legs, of the Hand, and of the Switch.
Those which influence the Sight, proceed from the Switch; those which
affect the Sight and Hearing both, are derived from the Switch and the
Horseman's Tongue.

THE Switch ought neither to be long nor short, from three to four Feet
or thereabouts is a sufficient Length; you can give your Aids more
gracefully with a short than a long one. In a Manage, it is generally
held on the contrary Hand to which the Horse is going; or else it
is held up high at every Change of Hand: By holding the Switch, the
Horseman learns to carry his Sword in his Hand with Ease and Grace,
and to manage his Horse without being encumber'd by it. To aid with the
Switch, you must hold it in your Hand, in such a manner that the Point
of it be turned towards the Horse's Croupe, this is the most convenient
and easy Manner; that of aiding with it, not over the Shoulder, but
over the Bending of your Arm, by removing your left Arm from your Body,
and keeping it a little bent, so as to make the End of the Switch fall
upon the Middle of the Horse's Back, is very difficult to execute.

SHAKING the Switch backward and forward to animate the Horse with the
Sound, is a graceful Aid; but till a Horse is accustom'd to it, it is
apt to drive him forward too much.

IN case your Horse is too light and nimble with his Croupe, you must
aid before only with the Switch; if he bends or sinks his Croupe, or
tosses it about without kicking out, you must aid just at the Setting
on of the Tail.--If you would have him make Croupades, give him the
Switch a little above the Hocks.

TO aid with your Tongue, you must turn it upward against the Palate
of the Mouth, shut your Teeth, and then remove it from your Palate;
the Noise it makes is admirable to encourage a Horse, to quicken and
put him together; but you must not use it continually, for so, instead
of animating your Horse, it would serve only to lull him.--There are
People who when they work their Horses, whistle and make use of their
Voices; these Aids are ridiculous, we should leave these Habits to
Grooms and Coachmen, and know that Crys and Threats are useless.--The
Sense of hearing can serve at the most only to confound and surprize
a Horse, and you will never give him Exactness and Sensibility by
surprizing him.--The same may be said of the Sight; whatever strikes
this Sense, operates likewise upon the Memory, and this Method seldom
produces a good Effect; for you ought to know how important it is to
vary the Order of your Lessons, and the Places where you give them;
since it is certain, that a Horse who is always work'd in the same
Place, works by rote, and attends no longer to the Aids of the Hand
and Heels.--It is the same with hot and angry Horses, whose Memory is
so exact, and who are so ready to be disorder'd and put out of Humour,
that if the least thing comes in their Way during their Lesson, they
no longer think of what they were about: The way of dealing with these
Horses, is to work them with Lunettes on their Eyes; but it must be
remembered, that this Method would be dangerous with Horses which are
very impatient, hot, and averse to all Subjection, and so sensible to
the Aids, as to grow desperate to such a degree, as to break through
all Restraint, and run away headlong; it is therefore unsafe with these
Horses, because they could not be more blinded even with the Lunettes,
than they are when possessed with this Madness, which so blinds them,
that they no longer fear the most apparent Dangers.

HAVING said thus much of the Aids which operate upon the Touch, Hearing
and Sight, we must now confine ourselves to discourse upon those, which
regard the Touch only; for as it has been already said, these only are
the Aids by which a Horse can be drest, because it is only by the Hand
and Heel that he can be adjusted.

THE Horseman's Legs, by being kept near the Horse's Sides, serve not
only to embellish his Seat, but without keeping them in this Posture,
he never will be able to give his Aids justly.--To explain this: If the
Motion of my Leg is made at a distance from the Horse, it is rather
a Correction than an Aid, and alarms and disorders the Horse; on the
contrary, if my Leg is near the Part that is most sensible, the Horse
may be aided, advertised of his Fault, and even punished, in much less
time, and consequently by this means kept in a much greater Degree of
Obedience.--The Legs furnish us with four Sorts of Aids, the Inside of
the Knees, the Calfs, pinching delicately with the Spurs, and pressing
strongly upon the Stirrups. The essential Article in dressing a Horse,
is to make known the Gradation of these several Aids, which I will
explain. The Aid of the Inside of the Knees is given, by closing and
squeezing your Knees, in such a manner, that you feel them press and
grasp your Horse extremely. You aid with the Calfs of your Legs, by
bending your Knees, so as to bring your Calfs so close as to touch the
Horse with them.

THE Aid of Pinching with the Spurs, is performed in the same manner, by
bending your Knees, and touching with the Spurs the Hair of the Horse,
without piercing the Skin. The last Aid, which is only proper for very
sensible and delicate Horses, consists in stretching down your Legs,
and pressing firm upon the Stirrups.

THE strongest Aid is that of pinching with the Spur; the next in
degree, is applying the Calf of the Leg; pressing with the Knees is
the third, and leaning upon the Stirrup is the last and least; but
if these Aids are given injudiciously, they will have no Effect.
They must accompany and keep Pace with the Hand; for it is the just
Correspondence between the Heel and Hand, in which the Truth and
Delicacy of the Art consists; and without this Agreement there can be
no riding.

IT is the Foundation of all Justness; it constitutes and directs
the Cadence, Measure and Harmony of all the Airs; it is the Soul of
Delicacy, Brilliancy and Truth in riding; and as a Person who plays
upon a musical Instrument adapts and suits his two Hands equally to the
Instrument, so the Man who works a Horse ought to make his Hands and
Legs accord exactly together. I say his Hands and Legs should accord
and answer one to the other with the strictest Exactness, because the
nicest and most subtle Effects of the Bridle proceed entirely from this
Agreement; and however fine and nice a Touch a Horseman may be endued
with, if the Times of aiding with the Legs are broken and imperfect, he
never can have a good Hand; because it is evident that a good Hand is
not the Offspring only of a firm and good Seat, but owing likewise to
the Proportion and Harmony of all the Aids together. I understand by
the Harmony and Agreement of the Aids, the Art of knowing how to seize
the Moment in which they are to be given, and of giving them equally
and in a due Degree, as well as of measuring and comparing the Action
of the Hand and Legs together; by which both these Parts being made to
act together, and in time, will create and call out, as it were, those
Cadences and Equalities of Time, of which the finest Airs are compos'd;
Measures and Cadences which it is not possible to describe, but which
every Horseman ought to comprehend, attend to, and feel. If I want to
make my Horse go forward, I yield my Hand to him, and at the same time
close my Legs; the Hand ceasing to confine, and the Legs driving on his
hinder Parts, the Horse obeys. I have a mind to stop him, I hold him
in, and approach my Legs to his Sides gently, in order to proportion my
Aids to what I ask him to do; for I would not have it felt more than
just to make him stop upon his Haunches.

I WANT to turn him to the Left, I carry my Hand to the Left, and
support him at the same time; that is to say, I approach my Left-leg,
my Hand then guides the Horse to the Left, and my Leg, which operates
at the same time, helps him to turn; because by driving his Croupe to
the Right, his Shoulder is enabled to turn with more Ease. I want to go
to the Right, I carry my Hand to the Right, and I support him with my
Right-hand, my Leg determining his Croupe to the Left, facilitates the
Action of the Shoulder which my Hand had turned to the Right.

I WOULD make a Change to the Right, my Left-rein directs the Horse,
and my Left-leg at the same time confines his Croupe, so that it can't
escape, but must follow the Shoulders.--I would change Hands again to
the Left, my Right-rein then guides the Horse, and my Right-leg does
just the same as my Left-leg did in going to the Right.--I undertake
to work the Shoulder and Croupe at the same time; for this Purpose I
carry my Hand _out_.--The inner Rein acts, and the outward Leg of the
Horse is press'd, either by this Rein, or by my outward Leg, so that
the outward Rein operates upon the Shoulder, and the inner Rein with
my outward Leg directs the Croupe.--I put my Horse to Curvets.--I aid
him with my outward Rein, and if he is not enough upon his Haunches,
my Legs, accompanied with the inner Rein, aid me to put him more upon
them; if he turns his Croupe out, I aid and support him with my outward
Leg; if he flings it in too much, I confine him with my inner Leg.

I PUT him to make Curvets sideways, my outward Rein brings his outward
Shoulder in, because the outward Shoulder being brought in, his Croupe
is left at liberty; but if I have occasion I use my inner Rein, and if
his Croupe is not sufficiently confin'd, I support it with my outward
Leg.--Again, I put him to make Curvets backwards, I use then my outward
Rein, and keep my Hand near my Body. At each Cadence that the Horse
makes, I make him feel a _Time_; one, and every time he comes to the
Ground, I receive and catch him as it were in my Hand; but these
_Times_ ought not to be distant above an Inch or two at the most; I
then ease my Legs to him, which nevertheless I approach insensibly
every time he rises. Thus by making my Hands and Legs act together, I
learn not only to work a Horse with Justness and Precision, but even to
dress him to all the Airs; which I shall speak of distinctly and more
at large.

AS to the rest, be it remember'd, that it is not alone sufficient to
know how to unite your Aids, and to proportion them, as well as the
Corrections, to the Motions and the Faults in the Horse's Air, which
you would remedy; but whenever you are to make use of them, you must
consider likewise if they are suitable and adapted to the Nature of the
Horse; for otherwise they will not only prove ineffectual, but be the
Occasion even of many Disorders.


_Of the Passage._

THE Passage is the Key which opens to us all the Justness of the Art
of riding, and is the only Means of adjusting and regulating Horses in
all sorts of Airs; because in this Action you may work them slowly,
and teach them all the Knowledge of the Leg and Hand, as it were
insensibly, and without running any risque of disgusting them, so as to
make them rebel.--There are many sorts of the Passage: In that which is
derived from the Trot, the Action of the Horse's Legs is the same as in
the Trot; the Passage is only distinguish'd from the Trot, which is the
Foundation of it, by the extreme Union of the Horse, and by his keeping
his Legs longer in the Air, and lifting them both equally high, and
being neither so quick nor violent as in the Action of the Trot.

IN the Passage which is founded on the Walk, the Action of the Horse is
the same as in the Trot, and of consequence the same as in the Walk;
with this Difference, that the Horse lifts his Fore-feet a good deal
higher than his Hind-feet, that he _marks_ a certain Time or Interval
sufficiently long between the Motion of each Leg; his Action being much
more together and short, and more distinct and slow than the ordinary
Walk, and not so extended as in the Trot, in such a manner that he is,
as it were, kept together and supported under himself.

LASTLY, there is another sort of Passage to which the Trot likewise
gives birth, and in which the Action is so quick, so diligent, and so
supported, that the Horse seems not to advance, but to work upon the
same Spot of Ground. The _Spaniards_ call the Horses who make this sort
of Passage _Pissadores_. This sort of Horses have not their Action so
high and strong as the other, it being too quick and sudden; but almost
all Horses which are inclin'd to this sort of Passage, are generally
endowed with a great Share of Gentleness and Activity.

NO Horse should be put to the Passage till he has been well trotted
out, is supple, and has acquir'd some Knowledge of the _Union_.--If
he has not been well trotted, and by that means taught to go forward
readily, his Action, when put to the Passage, being shorten'd and
retain'd, you would run the risque of his becoming _restive_ and
_ramingue_; and was he utterly unacquainted with the Union, the Passage
requiring that he should be very much together, he would not be able to
bear it; so that finding himself press'd and forced on one hand, and
being incapable of obeying on the other, he would resist and defend

THERE are some People, who observing a Horse to have Strength and
Agility, and naturally disposed to unite himself, endeavour to get from
him some _Times_ of the Passage.--They succeed in their Attempt, and
immediately conclude that they can passage their Horse whenever they
will, and so press him to it, before he has been sufficiently suppled
and taught to go forward readily, and without retaining himself.
--Hence arise all the Disorders into which Horses plunge themselves,
which, if they had been properly managed at first, would have been
innocent of all Vice.--Farther, you ought to study well the Nature of
every Horse; you will discover of what Temper he is from the first
Moment you see him passage, and to what he is most inclin'd by Nature.

IF he has any Seeds of the _Ramingue_ in him, his Action will be short
and _together_; but it will be retain'd and loitering, the Horse
craving the Aids, and only advancing in proportion as the Rider gives
them, and drives him forward.--If he is light and active, quick of
Feeling, and willing, his Action will be free and diligent, and you
will perceive that he takes a Pleasure to work of himself, without
expecting the Aids.--If he be of a hot and fiery Nature, his Actions
will be quick and sudden, and will shew that he is angry and impatient
of the Subjection. If he wants Inclination and Will, he will be
unquiet, he will cross his Legs, and his Actions will be perplex'd. If
he is fiery, and heavy at the same time, his Action will be all upon
the Hand. If besides this, he has but little Strength, he will abandon
himself entirely upon the _Apuy_. Lastly, if he is cold and sluggish
in his Nature, his Motion will be unactive and dead; and even when he
is enliven'd by good Lessons, you will always be able to discover his
Temper by seeing the Aids, which the Rider is oblig'd to give him from
time to time, to hinder him from slackening or stopping the _Cadence_
of his Passage.

HAVING acquir'd a thorough Knowledge of your Horse's Character, you
should regulate all your Lessons and Proceedings conformable to
it.--If it hurts a Horse who partakes of the _Ramingue_ to be kept too
much together, unite him by little and little, and insensibly as it
were, and quite contrary to putting him to a short and united Passage
all at once. Extend and push him forward, passing one while from the
Walk to that of the Trot, and so alternatively.

IF your Horse is hot and impatient, he will cross his Steps, and not
go equal; keep such a Horse in a less degree of Subjection, ease his
Rein, pacify him, and retain or hold him in no more than is sufficient
to make him more quiet.--If with this he is heavy, put him to a Walk
somewhat shorter and slower than the Passage, and endeavour to put
him upon his Haunches insensibly, and by degrees. By these means you
will be enabled by Art to bring him to an Action, by so much the more
essential, as by this alone a Horse is taught to know the Hands and
Heels, as I have already observed, without ever being perplex'd or


_Of working with the Head and Croupe to the Wall._

THE Lessons of the Head and Croupe to the Wall are excellent to confirm
a Horse in Obedience. In effect, when in this Action he is, as it were,
balanced between the Rider's Legs, and by working the Croupe along the
Wall, you are enabled not only to supple his Shoulders, but likewise to
teach him the Aids of the Legs.

FOR this Purpose, after having well open'd the Corner, turn your Hand
immediately, and carry it _in_, in order to direct your Horse by your
outward Rein; taking always care to support the Croupe with your
outward Leg directly over-against, and about two Feet distant from the
Wall: Bend your Horse to the Way he goes, and draw back the Shoulder
that is _in_ with your inner Rein, because the outward Leg being
carried with more care over the inner Leg by means of the outward Rein,
the Horse will cross and bring one Leg over the other, the Shoulders
will go before the Croupe, you will narrow him behind, and consequently
put him upon his Haunches.

YOU ought to be careful at the same time, and see that your Horse never
falsifies or quits the Line, either in advancing or going backward.--If
he presses forward, support him with your Hand; if he hangs back,
support him with your Legs, always giving him the Leg that serves to
drive him on, stronger than the other which serves only to support him;
that is, acting stronger with the Leg that is _without_, than with that
which is within.

THE Lesson of the Head to the Wall is very efficacious to correct a
Horse that forces the Hand, or who leans heavily upon it, because it
compels him to put himself together, and be light upon the Hand with
less Aids of the Bridle; but no Horse that is _restive_ or _ramingue_
should be put to it, for all narrow and confin'd Lessons serve only
to confirm them in their natural Vice.--Place your Horse directly
opposite the Wall, at about two Feet distance from it; make him go
sideways, as I have already directed in the Article of Croupe to the
Wall; but left one Foot should tread upon the other, and he should
knock them together and hurt himself, in the Beginning of both Lessons
you must not be too strict with him, but let his Croupe be rather on
the contrary Side of his Shoulders, since by this means he will look
towards the Way he is going more easily, and be better able to raise
the Shoulder and Leg which is to cross over the other.--By degrees you
will gain his Haunches, and he will grow supple before and behind,
and at the same time become light in the Hand: Never forget that your
Horse ought always to be bent to the Way he goes; in order to do this
readily, guide him with the outward Rein; for very often the Stiffness
of the Neck or Head is owing to nothing but the confined Action of the
outward Shoulder; it being certain, that either the Difficulty or Ease
of working either of those Parts, depends entirely upon the other;
your Horse going thus sideways, carry your Hand a little out from
time to time; the inner Rein by this means will be shortened, and make
the Horse look _in_, the more it enlarges him before, by keeping his
Fore-leg that is _in_, at a distance from the Fore-leg that is _out_,
which consequently bringing the inner Hinder-leg near to the outward,
confines his hinder Parts, and makes him bend his Haunches, especially
the outward, upon which he rests his Weight, and keeps him in an equal
Balance.--Never put your Horse to this Lesson, till he has been work'd
a long while upon large Circles, his Head _in_, or to the Center, and
his Croupe _out_; otherwise you would run the Risque of throwing him
into great Disorder.

THE greater part of Defences proceed from the Shoulders or Haunches,
that is to say, from the fore or hinder Parts; and thence the Horse
learns to resist the Hand or Heel. It is the want of Suppleness then,
that hinders the Horse from executing what you put him to do; and how
can it be expected that he should answer and obey, when he is stiff in
the Shoulders, Haunches, and Ribs? especially if, without reflecting
that Suppleness is the Foundation of all, you press and teize him, and
put him to Lessons beyond his Power and Capacity.


_Of Changes of the Hand, large and narrow, and of Voltes and

A CHANGE is that Action, whereby the Horseman guides and causes his
Horse to go from the Right-hand to the Left, and from the Left to the
Right, in order to work him equally to both Hands; therefore changing
the Hand, when you are to the Right, is making your Horse go to the
Left-hand, and when on the Left, making him go to the Right. The
Changes are made either on one _Line_ or _Path_, or on two, and are
either large or narrow. Changing the Hand upon one Line, is when the
Horse describes but one Line with his Feet; changing upon two Lines, is
when the Haunches follow and accompany the Shoulders; and to make this
Change, the Horse's Feet must consequently describe two Lines, one made
by his Fore-feet, the other with his Hinder-feet.

CHANGING large, is when the Line, if the Horse makes but one, or both
Lines, when he describes two, cross the Manage from Corner to Corner;
changing narrow, is when these Lines pass over but a Part of it.

A _Volte_ is generally defined to be whatever forms a Circle.--Voltes
of two Lines or Paths, describe two, one with the Horse's Fore, the
other with his Hinder-feet.

IF the Circle then forms a Volte, by consequence half a Circle forms
what is called the _Half-volte_.--These Half-voltes, and Quarters of
Voltes, are made upon two Lines, as well as the Volte.--A Demi-volte
of two Treads, is nothing else than two half Circles, one drawn by
the Horse's Fore-feet, the other by the Hinder; it is the same with
Quarters of Voltes.--A Horse can be work'd, and put to all sorts of
Airs upon the Voltes, Half-voltes, and Quarters of Voltes.--But as the
Rules necessary to be observed and followed in making Voltes of two
Treads, and in changing of Hands in the Passage, are only general, I
shall content myself with explaining them in this Chapter; reserving
to myself a Power of pointing out the Exceptions, when I shall come
to treat of the different Airs, and the different Manages, that are
practised upon the Voltes. Three things equally essential, and equally
difficult to attain, must concur to form the Justness of a Change; they
are the manner of beginning it, of continuing, and closing it.--We
will suppose you in the Manage, you walk your Horse forward, you bend
him properly, and you are come to the Place where you intend to change
large. For this Purpose, make a half Stop, and take care never to
abandon the Rein which is to bend your Horse's Neck; the other Rein,
that is, the outward Rein, is that, which you must use to guide and
direct him, but you must proportion the Stress you lay upon one with
the other.--As it is the outward Rein which determines your Horse the
Way he is to go, make that operate, its Effect will be to bring the
outward Shoulder _in_; if then it brings the outward Shoulder _in_, it
guides and determines the Horse to the Side to which you are going,
and confines and fixes the Croupe at the same time. This is not all,
at the same Instant that your Hand operates, support your Horse with
your outward Leg: Your Hand having determined the Shoulder, and fixed
the Croupe, your Leg must help to secure it; for without the Aid of the
Leg, the Croupe would be unconfined, would be lost, and the Horse would
work only upon one Line. You see then, how requisite it is for the
Horseman to be exact, active, and to give his Aids with the greatest
Delicacy, in order to _begin_ his Change with Justness; because it is
necessary, that the Times of giving the Hand and Leg, should be so
close one to the other, as not to be perceived or distinguished.--You
should never abandon, I have already said, that Rein with which you
bend your Horse; this is the Reason--Every Horse when he makes a
Change, ought to look towards the Way he is going; this Turn of the
Neck, this Attitude, enables him to perform his Work better, and makes
him appear graceful in it; therefore if he is turned or bent before
he begins to change, why should you abandon the Rein that serves to
bend him; since in this case, you would be under a double Difficulty
in wanting on one hand the Point of Apuy, which ought to be found in
the Rein which serves to bend him, and the Point of Apuy which ought
to result from the working of the other Rein, which is to determine
him.--The outward Rein operates to bring in the outward Shoulder, your
outward Leg accompanies the Action of your Hand; here then is your
Change begun.

THE outward Shoulder and Leg never could have been brought in, without
passing over or crossing the inner Leg and Shoulder; this is the Action
which the outward Leg should constantly perform through the whole
Change. In order to arrive at a just Execution of this, you should be
able to feel which Feet are off the Ground, and which are upon it. If
the inner Leg is in the Air, and the Horse is ready to put it to the
Ground, raise your Hand, and carry it _in_ insensibly, and your Horse
will be oblig'd to advance his outward Leg and Shoulder, which must by
this means cross the inner Leg and Shoulder whether he will or no.

IT is not sufficient for the Horse to cross his Legs only one over the
other, he must go forward likewise at the same time, because in making
the Change large, his Feet should describe two diagonal Lines.--It is
of Importance therefore, that the same Attention be had to the inner as
the outward Leg, for it is by the means of his Legs only that he can
advance. It is true that you should endeavour to make him go forward
by putting back your Body, and yielding your Hand; but if he won't
obey these Aids, you must make use of the Calfs of your Legs, aiding
more strongly with your Left-leg when you are going to the Right-hand,
and more strongly with your Right-leg when you are going to the Left.
Besides, it is so necessary to have an equal Attention to the Legs,
because the Horse could never work with Justness, if he were not
ballanced equally between the Rider's Legs; and it is from this exact
Obedience only, that he is enabled to make the Changes with Precision,
because without a Knowledge of the Hand and Heels, it is impossible he
should obey the Motions of his Rider--In order to _close_ the Change
justly, the Horses Fore-legs should arrive at the same time upon a
strait Line; so that a Change justly executed, and in the same Cadence
or Time, is such, as is not only begun, but finish'd likewise, and
closed in such a Proportion, that the Croupe always accompanies and
keeps Pace with the Shoulders throughout.--In order to finish it in
this manner, you must observe the following Rules. The greater Number
of Horses, instead of finishing their Changes with Exactness, are apt
to lean on one Side, to make their Croupe go before their Shoulders,
and to throw themselves with Impatience, in order to get upon one
Line again; the Method of correcting them for these Irregularities,
is to make a Demi-volte of two Lines, in the same Place where they
were to have closed their Change; for Example, if in changing to the
Right, they are too eager to come upon the strait Line, without having
properly finish'd their Change, demand of them a Demi-volte to the
Left, which you must make them round equally with their Shoulders and

AN essential Point, which nevertheless is little regarded, is the
making your Horse resume his Line, or go off again to the other Hand,
when he has made his Change. To make him do this, you must carry your
Hand to the Side to which you have closed your Change, and carry it
insensibly as it were, after which you will be able with great Ease to
bend your Horse to the Inside. I must further explain the Necessity of
this Action.

IT is evident that a Horse in the Passage, neither can, nor ought if he
could, move the two Feet on the same Side together. In beginning and
finishing the Change, the outward Leg and Shoulder pass and cross over
the inner Leg and Shoulder; he is consequently supported in this Action
on the outward Haunch, for the inner Foot behind was off the Ground;
now, if at the Closing of the Change, and in the Instant that he is
again upon one Line; as for Example--If in closing his Change to the
Right, the Horse is supported in this Action by the left Haunch, how is
it possible that he can be bent to the Left? To attempt this, would be
to make him move two Legs on the same Side, which would be undertaking
a thing impossible to be done. Being therefore arrived upon one Line,
carry your Hand to the Wall, this will make your Horse change his Leg;
he will be supported in his Action by his right Haunch, and will be
able to bend himself with great Facility.

IN order to make the Volte true and perfect, he ought to be just with
respect to his Head and Neck, and have the Action of his Shoulders
and Haunches quite equal. When I say that a Horse should have his
Shoulders and Haunches equal, I would not be understood to mean, that
his Fore-feet should not cover more Ground than his Hinder; on the
contrary, I know it is a Rule never to be departed from, that his
Shoulders should precede half of the Haunches; but I insist that the
Haunches should go along with, and follow exactly the Motion of, the
Shoulders; for 'tis from their Agreement, and from the Harmony between
the Hind-legs and the Fore, upon which the Truth of the Volte depends.
The four Legs of a Horse may be compared to the four Strings of an
Instrument; if these four Cords don't correspond, it is impossible
there should be any Musick; it is the same with a Horse, if the Motions
of his Haunches and Fore-legs don't act together and assist each other,
and if he has not acquired a Habit and Ease to perform what he ought to
do, the most expert and dextrous Horseman will never be able to acquit
himself as he ought, nor execute any Air justly and with Pleasure, be
it either on the Volte or strait forward.

WHENEVER you put your Horse to the Passage upon the Voltes, he ought
to make the same Number of Steps or Times with his Hinder, as with his
Fore-feet; if the Space of the Ground upon which he works is narrow and
confin'd, his Steps should be shorter.

I WILL suppose that he describes a large Circle with his Fore-feet;
the Action of his outward Shoulder ought consequently to be free, and
the Shoulder much advanced, in order to make the outward Leg pass
over and cross at every Step the inner Leg, that he may more easily
embrace his Volte, without quitting the Line of the Circle, and without
disordering his Hinder-leg; which ought likewise to be subject to the
same Laws as the Fore-legs, and cross the outward Leg over the inner,
but not so much as the Fore-legs, because they have less Ground to go
over, and should only keep the Proportion.--In working upon Voltes
of two Lines, the Horse should make as many Steps with his Hinder as
with his Fore-feet; because those Horses whose Haunches go before the
Shoulders, and who cut and shorten the exact Line of the Volte, are
apt to keep their Hinder-feet in one Place, and make at the same time
one or two Steps with their Fore-feet, and by this means falsify and
avoid filling up the Circle in the Proportion they begun it. The same
Fault is to be found with Horses who hang back at the End of a Change,
and throwing out their Croupe, arrive at the Wall with their Shoulders,
and consequently fail to close their Change justly.

FURTHER, in working upon this Lesson, it is indispensably necessary
that at every Step the Horse takes, he should make his outward Leg
cross and come over the inner, because this will prevent a Horse
that is too quick of Feeling, or one, that is _ramingue_, from
becoming _entier_, or to bend himself, or lean in his Voltes, Vices
that are occasion'd from having the Haunches or Hinder-legs too much
constrain'd. There are Horses likewise who have their Croupe so light
and uncertain, that from the Moment they have begun the Volte, they
lean and widen their Hinder-legs, and throw them out of the Volte.

TO remedy this, aid with the outward Leg, carrying your Bridle-hand to
the same Side, and not _in_, because it is by the Means of the outward
Leg and inner Rein, that you will be enabled to adjust and bring in the
Croupe upon the Line which it ought to keep.

IF it happens that the Horse don't keep up to the Line of his Volte, or
throws his Croupe out, press him forward, letting him go strait on two
or three Steps, keeping him firm in the Hand, and in a slow and just
Time, and use the Aids which I have just now directed.--This Lesson
is equally useful in case your Horse is naturally inclin'd to carry
his Haunches too much in, and where he is _ramingue_, or in danger of
becoming so; but then the Aids must be given on the Side to which he
leans, and presses, in order to widen his Hinder-parts, and to push the
Croupe out.

ABOVE all you should remember, that whatever tends to bend or turn
the Head on one side, will always drive the Croupe on the other; when
the Horse's Croupe don't follow his Shoulders equally, the Fault
may proceed either from a Disobedience to the Hand, or from his not
answering the Heels as he ought. If you would remedy this, keep him low
before; that is to say, keep your Bridle-hand very low, and while you
make him advance upon two Treads, aid him firmly with the Calfs of the
Legs; for as the outward Leg will confine and keep his Croupe _in_, the
inner Leg, operating with the outward, will make him go forward.

IF you find that your Horse disobeys the Heel, and throws his Croupe
out in spite of that Aid, in this Case make use of your inner Rein,
carrying your Hand out with your Nails turned upwards; this will
infallibly operate upon the Croupe, and restrain it. Use the same
Remedy, if in the Passage your Horse carries his Head out of the Volte,
and you will bring it in; but you must remember, in both Cases, to
replace your Hand immediately after having carried it out, in order
to make the outward Rein work, which will facilitate and enable the
outward Legs to cross over the inner.

IF the Horse breaks the Line, and flings his Croupe upon the
Right-heel, work him to that Side with your Left; if he would go
sideways to the Left, make him go to the Right; if he flings his Croupe
_out_, put it quietly _in_; in short, if all at once he brings it _in_,
put it quietly _out_; and, in a word, teach him by the Practice of
good Lessons to acquire a Facility and Habit of executing whatever you
demand of him.

_The_ Consequence of all the different Rules and Principles, which I
have here laid down, and which may be applied equally to the Changes,
large and narrow, to Changes upon the Voltes, and Half-voltes;
the Consequence of these Instructions I say will be, if practised
judiciously, a most implicit and exact Obedience on the Part of the
Horse, who from that Moment, will resign his own Will and Inclination,
and make it subservient to that of the Rider, which he must teach him
to know by making him acquainted with the Hand and Heel.


_Of the Aids of the Body._

THE Perfection of all the Aids consists, as I have already proved, in
their mutual Harmony and Correspondence, for without this Agreement,
they must be always ineffectual; because the Horse can never work with
Exactness and Delicacy, and keep the Proportion and Measure which is
inseparable to all Airs, when justly and beautifully executed.

THIS Maxim being laid down, we shall undertake to demonstrate, that the
Aids of the Body contribute, and are even capable of themselves, from
the Principles of Geometry, to make us acquire the Union of the Aids of
the Hand and Leg; and if so, we shall be obliged to own the Conclusion,
that they are to be prefer'd to all the rest.

THE Justness of the Aids of the Body depends upon the Seat of the
Horseman.--Till he is arrived at the Point of being able to sit down
close and firm in his Saddle, so as to be immoveable in it, it would
be vain to expect he should be able to manage a Horse; because,
besides that he would be incapable of feeling his Motions, he would
not be possessed of that Equilibre and Firmness of Seat, which is the
Characteristic of a Horseman. I would define the Equilibre to be, when
the Horseman sits upon his Twist, directly down and close upon the
Saddle, and so firm that nothing can loosen or disturb his Seat; and by
Firmness, I express that Grasp or Hold with which he keeps himself on
the Horse, without employing any Strength, but trusting entirely to his
Ballance, to humour and accompany all the Motions of the Horse.

NOTHING but Exercise and Practice can give this Equilibre, and
consequently this Hold upon the Horse. In the Beginning, the Fear which
almost every Scholar feels, and the Constraint which all his Limbs are
under, make him apt to press the Saddle very close with his Thighs and
Knees, as he imagines he shall by this Method acquire a firmer Seat;
but the very Efforts that he makes to resist the Motions of the Horse,
stiffen his Body, and lift him out of the Saddle, so that any rude
Motion, or unexpected Shock, would be likely to unhorse him; for from
the Moment that he ceases to sit down and quite close to the Saddle,
every sudden Jirk and Motion of the Horse attacking him under his
Twist, must shove him out of the Saddle.

WE will suppose then a Person, the Position of whose Body is just and
regular, and who, by being able to sit down perpendicular and full in
his Saddle, can feel and unite himself to his Horse so as to accompany
all his Motions; let us see then how this Person, from the Motions of
his own Body, will be able to accord and unite the Aids or Times of the
Hands and Legs.

IN order to make your Horse take or go into the Corner of the Manage,
you must begin by _opening_ it.

TO open a Corner, is to turn the Shoulder before you come to it, in
order to make it cover the Ground; and then the Croupe which is turn'd
_in_ will not follow the Line of the Shoulders, till they are turn'd
and brought upon a strait Line in order to come out of the Corner.--In
order to turn the Shoulder to open the Corner, you must carry your Hand
to the Right or Left, according to the Hand to which you are to go; and
to throw in the Croupe, you must support it with the Leg on that Side
to which you carry your Hand.--To make the Shoulders turn and come out
of the Corner, you must carry your Hand on the Side opposite to that
to which you turned it, in order to go into the Corner; and that the
Croupe may pass over the same Ground as the Shoulders, you must support
with the Leg on the contrary Side to that with which you aided in order
to bring the Haunches in; the Horse never can perform any of these
Actions without an entire Agreement of all these Aids, and one single
Motion of the Body will be sufficient to unite them all with the utmost

IN effect, instead of carrying your Hand out, and seconding that Aid
with the Leg, turn your Body but imperceptibly towards the Corner, just
as if you intended to go into it yourself; your Body then turning to
the Right or Left, your Hand, which is one of its Appurtenances, must
necessarily turn likewise, and the Leg of the Side on which you turn,
will infallibly press against the Horse, and aid him.--If you would
come out of the Corner, turn your Body again, your Hand will follow
it, and your other Leg approaching the Horse, will put his Croupe into
the Corner, in such a manner, that it will follow the Shoulders, and
be upon the same Line.--It is by these means that you will be enabled
to time the Aids of the Hand and Legs with greater Exactness, than you
could do, were you not to move your Body; for how dextrous and ready
soever you may be, yet when you only use your Hand and Legs, without
letting their Aids proceed from, and be guided by your Body, they can
never operate so effectually, and their Action is infinitely less
smooth, and not so measured and proportioned, as when it proceeds only
from the Motion of the Body.

THE same Motion of the Body is likewise necessary in turning entirely
to the Right or Left, or to make your Horse go sideways on one Line, or
in making the Changes.

IF when you make a Change, you perceive the Croupe to be too much
_in_, by turning your Body _in_, you will drive it out, and the Hand
following the Body, determines the Shoulder by means of the outward
Rein, which is shorten'd; if the Croupe is too much _out_, turn your
Body _out_, and this Posture carrying the Hand out, shortens the inner
Rein, and confines the Croupe, acting in concert with the outward Leg,
which works and approaches the Side of the Horse.--This Aid is by so
much better, because if executed with Delicacy, it is imperceptible,
and never alarms the Horse; I say, if executed as it ought to be, for
we are not talking here of turning the Shoulder, and so falsifying
the Posture. In order to make the Hand and Leg work together, it is
necessary that the Motion should proceed from the Horseman, which
in turning carries with it the rest of the Body insensibly; without
this, very far from being assisted by the Ballance of your Body in
the Saddle, you would lose it entirely, and together with it the
Gracefulness of your Seat; and your Ballance being gone, how can you
expect to find any Justness in the Motions of your Horse, since all the
Justness and Beauty of his Motions must depend upon the Exactness of
your own?

THE secret Aids of the Body are such then as serve to prevent, and
accompany all the Motions of the Horse. If you will make him go
backward, throw back your own Body, your Hand will go with it, and you
will make the Horse obey by a single Turn of the Waist.--Would you have
him go forward, for this purpose put your Body back, but in a less
degree; don't press the Horse's Fore-parts with your Weight, because
by leaning a little back you will be able to approach your Legs to
his Sides with greater Ease.--If your Horse rises up, bend your Body
forward; if he kicks, leaps, or strikes out behind, throw your Body
back; if he gallops when he should not, oppose all his Motions, and for
this purpose push your Waist forward towards the Pummel of the Saddle,
making a Bend or Hollow at the same time in your Loins: In short, do
you work your Horse upon great Circles, with the Head _in_ and Croupe
_out_? let your Body then be a Part of the Circle, because this Posture
bringing your Hand _in_, you bring in the Horse's outward Shoulder,
over which the inner Shoulder crosses circularly, and your inner Leg
being likewise by this Method near your Horse's Side, you leave his
Croupe at liberty. I call it becoming a Part of the Circle yourself,
when you incline a little the Balance of your Body towards the Center;
and this Balance proceeds entirely from the outward Hip, and turning it

THE Aids of the Body then are those which conduce to make the Horse
work with greater Pleasure, and consequently perform his Business
with more Grace; if then they are such, as to be capable alone of
constituting the Justness of the Airs; if they unite, and make the
Hand and Legs work in concert; if they are so fine and subtle, as to
be imperceptible, and occasion no visible Motion in the Rider, but the
Horse seems to work of himself; if they comprize at the same time, the
most established and certain Principles of the Art; if the Body of
the Horseman, which is capable of employing them, is of consequence
firm without Constraint or Stiffness, and supple without being weak
or loose; if these are the Fruits which we derive from them, we must
fairly own, that this is the shortest, the most certain, and plainest
Method we can follow, in order to form a Horseman.


_Of the Gallop._

THE Trot is the Foundation of the Gallop; the Proof of its being so is
very clear and natural. The Action of the Trot is crosswise, that of
the Gallop is from an equal Motion of the Fore and Hinder-legs; now,
if you trot out your Horse briskly and beyond his Pitch, he will be
compell'd when his Fore-feet are off the Ground, to put his Hinder-foot
down so quick, that it will follow the Fore-foot of the same Side; and
it is this which forms the true Gallop: The Trot then is beyond dispute
the Foundation of the Gallop.

AS the Perfection of the Trot consists in the Suppleness of the Joints
and Limbs, that of the Gallop depends upon the Lightness and Activity
of the Shoulders; a good Apuy, and the Vigour and Resolution of the
Career, must depend upon the natural Spirit and Courage of the Horse.
It should be a Rule, never to make a Horse gallop, till he presents and
offers to do it of himself.--Trotting him out boldly and freely, and
keeping him in the Hand, so as to raise and support his Fore-parts,
will assist him greatly; for when his Limbs are become supple and
ready, and he is so far advanced, as to be able to unite and put
himself together without Difficulty, he will then go off readily in his
Gallop; whereas, if on the contrary he should pull or be heavy, the
Gallop would only make him abandon himself upon the Hand, and fling him
entirely upon his Shoulders.

TO put a Horse in the Beginning of his Lessons from the Walk to the
Gallop, and to work him in it upon Circles, is demanding of him too
great a degree of Obedience. In the first place, it is very sure that
the Horse can unite himself with greater Ease in going strait forward,
than in turning; and, in the next place, the Walk being a slow and
distinct Pace, and the Gallop being quick and violent, it is much
better to begin with the Trot, which is a quick Action, than with the
Walk, which is slow and calm, however raised and supported its Action
may be.--Two things are requisite to form the Gallop, _viz._ it ought
to be _just_, and it ought to be _even_ or _equal_.--I call that Gallop
_just_, in which the Horse leads with the Right-leg before, and I call
that the Right-leg which is foremost, and which the Horse puts out
beyond the other. For Instance--A Horse gallops and supports himself in
his Gallop, upon the outward Fore-foot, the Right Fore-foot clears the
Way, the Horse consequently gallops with the Right-foot, and the Gallop
is just, because he puts forward and leads with his Right-foot.

THIS Motion of the Right-foot is indispensably necessary, for if
the Horse were to put his Left Fore-foot first, his Gallop would be
_false_; so that it is to be understood, that whenever you put a Horse
to the Gallop, he should always go off with his Right fore-foot,
and keep it foremost, or he can never be said to gallop _just_ and
_true_.--I understand by an _even_ or _equal_ Gallop, that in which the
Hind-parts follow and accompany the Fore-parts; as for Example--If a
Horse gallops, or leads with his Right-leg before, the Hind Right-leg
ought to follow; for if the Left Hind-leg were to follow, the Horse
would then be disunited: The Justness then of the Gallop depends upon
the Action of the Fore-feet, as the Union or Evenness of it does on the

THIS general Rule which fixes the Justness of the Gallop, that is to
say, this Principle which obliges the Horse to lead with the Right
Fore-foot when he gallops, strict as it is, yet sometimes parts with
its Privileges in deference to the Laws of the Manage.--The Design
of this School is to make equally supple and active all the Limbs of
a Horse.--It is not requisite then that the Horse should lead always
with the same Leg, because it is absolutely necessary that he should
be equally ready and supple with both his Shoulders, in order to work
properly upon the different Airs.--It seems but reasonable that this
Rule should be observed likewise out of the Manage; and therefore it
has of late obtain'd that Hunting-horses should lead indifferently
with both Legs; because it has been found on Trial, that by strictly
adhering to the Rule of never suffering a Horse to gallop but with his
Right Fore-leg, he has been quite ruin'd and worn out on one Side, when
he was quite fresh and sound on the other.--Be that as it will, it is
not less certain, that in the Manage a Horse may gallop false, either
in going strait forward, or in going round, or upon a Circle; for
instance--He is going strait, and to the Right-hand, and sets off with
the Left Fore-foot; he then is false, just as he would be, if in going
to the Left, he should lead with his Right Fore-foot.

THE Motions of a Horse, when disunited, are so disorder'd and
perplex'd, that he runs a risque of falling, because his Action then is
the Action of the Trot, and quite opposite to the Nature of the Gallop.
It is true, that for the Rider's Sake he had better be false.

IF a Horse in full Gallop changes his Legs from one side to the other
alternately, this Action of the Amble in the Midst of his Course, is so
different from the Action of the Gallop, that it occasions the Horse to
go from the Trot to the Amble, and from the Amble to the Trot.

WHEN a Horse gallops strait forward, however short and confin'd his
Gallop is, his Hind-feet always go beyond his Fore feet, even the Foot
that leads, as well as the other.--To explain this.--If the inner
Fore-foot leads, the inner Hind-foot ought to follow, so that the
inner Feet, both that which leads, and that which follows, are prest,
the other two at liberty.--The Horse sets off, the outward Fore-foot
is on the Ground, and at liberty, this makes one _Time_; immediately
the inner Fore-foot which leads and is prest, marks a second, here are
two _Times_; then the outward Hind-foot which was on the Ground, and
at liberty, marks the third _Time_; lastly, the inner Hind-foot which
leads and is prest, comes to the Ground, and marks the fourth; so that
when a Horse goes strait forward and gallops just, he performs it in
four distinct _Times_, _one_, _two_, _three_, _four_.

IT is very difficult to feel exactly, and perceive these Times of the
Gallop; but yet by Observation and Practice it may be done.--The Times
of a Horse, who covers and embraces a good deal of Ground, are much
more easy to mark than his who covers but little.--The Action of the
one is quick and short, and that of the other long, slow, and distinct;
but whether the natural Motions and _Beats_ of the Horse are slow or
quick, the Horseman absolutely ought to know them, in order to humour
and work conformably to them; for should he endeavour to lengthen and
prolong the Action of the one, in hopes of making him go forward more
readily, and to shorten and confine that of the other, in order to put
him more _together_; the Action of both would in this Case not only
be forced and disagreeable, but the Horses would resist and defend
themselves, because Art is intended only to assist and correct, but
not to change Nature.--In working your Horse upon Circles, it is the
outward Rein that you must use to guide and make him go forward; for
this purpose turn your Hand _in_ from time to time, and aid with your
outward Leg.--If the Croupe should be turn'd too much out, you must
carry your Hand on the outward Side of your Horse's Neck; and you will
confine it, and keep it from quitting its Line.--I would be understood
of Circles of two Lines or Treads, where the Haunches are to be
attended to.--Before you put your Horse to this, he should be gallop'd
upon plain, or Circles of one Line only.--In this Lesson, in order
to supple your Horse, make use of your inner Rein to pull his Head
towards the Center, and aid with the Leg of the same Side, to push his
Croupe out of the Volte; by this means you bend the Ribs of the Horse.

THE Hind-feet certainly describe a much larger Circle than his
Fore-feet; indeed they make a second Line: but when a Horse is said
to gallop only upon a Circle of one Line or Tread, he always and of
necessity makes two; because, were the Hind-feet to make the same Line
as the Fore-feet, the Lesson would be of no use, and the Horse would
never be made supple; for he only becomes supple in proportion as the
Circle made with his Hind-feet is greater than that described by his

WHEN your Horse is so far advanced, as to be able to gallop lightly
and readily upon this sort of Circle, begin then to make frequent
Stops with him.--To make them well in the Gallop, with his Head in,
and Croupe out, the Rider must use his outward Leg, to bring _in_ the
outward Leg of the Horse; otherwise he would never be able to stop upon
his Haunches, because the outward Haunch is always out of the Volte.

TO make a Stop in a Gallop strait forwards, you should carefully put
your Horse _together_, without altering or disturbing the Apuy, and
throw your Body back a little, in order to accompany the Action, and to
relieve the Horse's Shoulders.--You should seize the time of making the
Stop, keeping your Hand and Body quite still, exactly when you feel
the Horse put his Fore-feet to the Ground, in order that by raising
them immediately, by the next Motion that he would make, he may be upon
his Haunches.--If on the contrary, you were to begin to make the Stop,
while the Shoulders of the Horse were advanced, or in the Air, you
would run the Risque of hardening his Mouth, and must throw him upon
his Shoulders, and even upon the Hand, and occasion him to make some
wrong Motions with his Head, being thus surprized at the Time when his
Shoulders and Feet are coming to the Ground.

THERE are some Horses who retain themselves, and don't put out their
Strength sufficiently; these should be galloped briskly, and then
slowly again, remembring to gallop them sometimes fast, and sometimes
slow, as you judge necessary.--Let them go a little Way at full Speed,
make a half Stop, by putting back your Body, and bring them again to a
slow Gallop; by these means they will most certainly be compelled both
to obey the Hand and Heel.

IN the slow Gallop, as well as in the Trot, it is necessary sometimes
to close your Heels to the Horse's Sides, this is called _pinching_;
but you must pinch him in such a manner, as not to make him abandon
himself upon the Hand, and take care that he be upon his Haunches, and
not upon his Shoulders, and therefore whenever you pinch him, keep him
in the Hand.

TO put him well together, and make him bring his Hind-legs under him,
close your two Legs upon him, putting them very back; this will oblige
him to slide his Legs under him; at the same Instant, raise your Hand a
little to support him before, and yield it again immediately. Support
him and give him the Rein again from time to time, till you find that
he begins to play and bend his Haunches, and that he gallops leaning
and sitting down as it were upon them; press him with the Calfs of the
Legs, and you will make him quick and sensible to the Touch.

IF your Horse has too fine a Mouth, gallop him upon sloping ground,
this will oblige him to lean a little upon the Hand, the better to
put himself upon his Haunches; and the Fear that he will be under of
hurting his Bars, will prevent his resisting the Operation of the Bitt.

IF Galloping upon a sloping Ground assures and fixes a Mouth that is
weak and fickle, make use of the same Ground in making your Horse
ascend it, in case he is heavy in the Hand; and his Apuy be too strong,
and it will lighten him.

THERE are some Horsemen who mark each Motion of the Horse in his
Gallop, by moving their Bodies and Heads; they ought, however, without
Stiffness or Constraint to consent and yield to all his Motions, yet
with a Smoothness and Pliancy so as not to be perceived, for all great
or rude Motions always disturb the Horse.--To do this you must advance
or present your Breast, and stretch yourself firm in your Stirrups;
this is the only Way to fix and unite yourself entirely to the Animal
who carries you.

THE Property of the Gallop is, as may be gathered from all that has
been said of it, to give the Horse a good Apuy.

IN reality, in this Action he lifts at every time both his Shoulders
and Legs together, in such a manner, that in making this Motion his
Fore-part is without Support, till his Fore-feet come to the Ground;
so that the Rider, by supporting or bearing him gently in Hand, as
he comes down, can consequently give an Apuy to a Mouth that has
none.----You must take care, that by retaining your Horse too much in
his Gallop, you don't make him become _ramingue_, and weaken the Mouth
that is light and unsteady; as the full or extended Gallop is capable
on the other Hand, to harden an Apuy which was strong and _full in the
Hand_ before.

THE Gallop does not only assure and make steady a weak and delicate
Mouth, but it also supples a Horse, and makes him ready and active in
his Limbs.--It fixes the Memory and Attention of Horses likewise, who
from too much Heat and Impetuosity in their Temper, never attend to the
Aids of the Rider, nor the Times of their setting off; it teaches those
who retain themselves, to go forward, and to set off ready and with
Spirit; and lastly, it takes off all the superfluous Vigour of such
Horses as, from too much Gaiety, avail themselves of their Strength
and Courage to resist their Riders.--Take care, however, to proportion
this Lesson to the Nature, the Strength, and Inclination of the Animal;
and remember, that a violent and precipitate Gallop would hurt an
impatient and hot Horse, as much as it would be proper and useful to
one who retains himself, and is jadish and lazy.


_Of Passades._

THE Passades are the truest Proofs a Horse can give of his
Goodness.--By his going off you judge of his Swiftness; by his Stop,
you discover the Goodness or Imperfection of his Mouth; and by the
Readiness with which he turns, you are enabled to decide upon his
Address and Grace; in short, by making him go off a second time you
discover his Temper and Vigour.--When your Horse is light and active
before, is firm upon his Haunches, and has them supple and free, so as
to be able to accompany the Shoulders, is obedient and ready to both
Hands, and to the Stop, he is then fit to be work'd upon Passades.

[Illustration: Passade to the Right.]

Walk him along the Side of the Wall in a steady even Pace, supporting
and keeping him light in the Hand, in order to shew him the Length of
the Passade, and the Roundness of the _Volte_ or _Demi-volte_, which he
is to make at the End of each Line.--Stop at the End, and when he has
finish'd the last Time of the Stop raise him, and let him make two or
three Pesades. After this make a Demivolte of two Lines in the Walk;
and while he is turning, and the Moment you have clos'd it, demand
again of him two or three Pesades, and then let him walk on in order to
make as many to the other Hand.

[Illustration: Passade to the Left.]

You must take care to confirm him well in this Lesson.--From the Walk
you will put him to the Trot upon a strait Line; from the Trot to a
slow Gallop, from that to a swifter; being thus led on by degrees, and
step by step, he will be able to furnish all sorts of Passades, and to
make the Demi-volte in any Air that you have taught him.

YOU should never put your Horse to make a Volte or Demi-volte at the
time that he is disunited, pulls, or is heavy in the Hand, or is upon
his Shoulders; on the contrary, you should stop him at once, and make
him go backward till you perceive that he is regulated and united upon
his Haunches, light _before_, and has taken a good and just Apuy.

A PERFECT Passade is made in this Manner.--Your Horse standing strait
and true upon all his Feet, you go off with him at once, you stop him
upon his Haunches; and in the same _Time_ or _Cadence_ in which he
made his Stop, being exactly obedient to the Hand and Heel, he ought
to make the Demi-volte, balancing himself upon his Haunches, and so
waiting till you give him the Aid to set off again. It is requisite
then that the least Motion or Hint of the Rider should be an absolute
Command to the Horse.--If you would have him go off at full Speed,
yield your Hand, close the Calves of your Legs upon him; if he don't
answer to this Aid, give him the Spurs, but you must give them so as
not to remove them from the Place where they were, and without opening
or advancing your Legs before you strike.

THE high Passades are those which a Horse makes, when being at
the End of his Line, he makes his Demi-volte in any Air he has
been taught, either in the _Mezair_ or in _Curvets_, which is very
beautiful.--Therefore in high Passades let your Horse go off at full
Speed; let your Stop be follow'd by three Curvets; let the Demi-volte
consist of the same Number, and demand of him three more before he sets
off again.--It is usual to make nine Curvets when you work a Horse
alone and by himself.

THE furious or violent Passades, are when a Horse gallops at his utmost
Speed strait forward, and makes his half Stop, bending and playing his
Haunches two or three times, before he begins his Demi-volte, which is
made upon one Line, in three Times; for at the third Time he should
finish the Demi-volte, and be strait upon the Line of the Passade, in
order to go off again and continue it.

THIS sort of Passades was heretofore used in private Combats, and
although it may appear that the Time that is employed in making the
half Stop is lost, and only hinders you from gaining the Croupe of the
Enemy; yet the half Stop is indispensably necessary, for unless a Horse
is balanced upon his Haunches, and they bend and play under him, he
could never make his Demi-volte, without being in danger of Falling.


_Of Pesades._

THE Pesade takes its Name from the Motion of the Horse, which, in
this Action, leans and lays all the Weight of his Body upon his
Haunches.--To be perfect, the Hind-feet which support the whole ought
to be fix'd and immoveable, and the Fore-part of the Horse more or less
rais'd, according as the Creature will allow, but the Fore-legs, from
the Knee to the Feet, must always be extremely bent and brought under

THE Property of the Pesade is to dispose and prepare a Horse for all
sorts of Manages; for it is the Foundation of all the Airs: Great
Caution, however, must be had not to teach your Horse to rise up or
stand upon his Haunches, which is making a _Pesade_, if he is not quite
exact and obedient to the Hand and Heel; for in this Case you would
throw him into great Disorder, spoil his Mouth, and falsify the Apuy,
would teach him to make _Points_, as they are called, and even make him
become _restive_; inasmuch as the generality of Horses only rise up to
resist their Rider, and because they will neither go forward nor turn.

YOUR Horse then being so far advanced as to be fit to be tried and
exercised in the Pesade, work him upon the Walk, the Trot, and Gallop;
stop him in the Hand, keep him firm and moderately _together_; aid
with the Tongue, the Switch, and your Legs; the Moment you perceive
he comprehends what it is you would have him to do, though never so
little, encourage and caress him.--If in the Beginning of this Lesson
you were to use Force or Rigour, he would consider the Strictness of
your Hand, and the Aids of the Legs, as a Punishment, and it would
discourage him. It is therefore proper to work gently and by degrees;
whenever then he makes an Attempt to rise, caress him; make him go
forwards, try to make him rise a second time, either more or less, and
use him by degrees to rise higher and higher; you will find that he
will soon be able to make his Pesades perfect, and to make four, or
even more, with Ease and Readiness; sluggish and heavy Horses require
in the Beginning stronger and sharper Aids.

THERE are other Horses who are apt to rise of themselves, without being
requir'd to do so; drive them forward in order to prevent them.--Some
in making the Pesade, don't bend and gather up their Fore-legs, but
stretch them out, paw, and cross them one over the other in the Air,
resembling the Action of a Person's Hands who plays upon the Spinnet;
to these Horses you mush apply the Switch, striking them briskly upon
the Shoulders or Knees.--There are others, who in the Instant that
you endeavour to make them rise, availing themselves of the Power
which they have from being put _together_, in order to perform this
Action, throw themselves forward in hopes of freeing themselves from
all Subjection; the only Way to correct such Vices, is to make the
Horse go backward the same Length of Ground, that he forced and
broke through.--There is another kind of Horses, who to avoid being
_put together_ in order to make a Pesade, as well as to resist the
Rider, will fling their Croupe _in_ and _out_, sometimes to one side,
sometimes to the other; in this Case, if you perceive that your Horse
is apt to fling his Croupe more to the Left than to the Right, you
must put him to the Wall, the Wall being on the Left-hand, and there
support and confine him with your Right-leg, and even _pinch_ him if
there should be occasion; taking care to carry your Hand to the Right,
but imperceptibly, and no more than what will just serve to shorten the
left Rein.

IF he throws himself to the Right, you must put him so as to have the
Wall on the Right; you must support and pinch him with your Left-leg,
and shorten your Right-rein by carrying your Hand to the Left.--I must
however repeat it over and over, that in a Lesson of this kind, in
which a Horse may find out Methods and Inventions to resist and defend
himself; I say, in giving such Lessons, the Rider ought to be Master of
the surest Judgment and most consummate Prudence.

MOREOVER, you should take care not to fall into the Mistake of those
who imagine that the higher a Horse rises, the more he is upon his
Haunches.--In the Pesade, the Croupe is pushed back, and the Horse
bends his Haunches; but if he rises too high, he no longer sits upon
his Haunches, for from that Moment he becomes stiff, and stands strait
upon his Hocks; and instead of throwing his Croupe back, he draws it
towards him.

THOSE Sort of Pesades, in which the Horse rises too high, and stiffens
his Hocks, are call'd _Goat-Pesades_, as they resemble the Action of
that Animal.

THE Aids that are to be given in Pesades are derived from those used
to make a Horse go backward.--Place your Hand as if you intended to
make your Horse go backward, but close your Legs at the same time, and
he will rise.--For this reason nothing is more absurd than the Method
which some Horsemen teach their Scholars, who oblige them, in order to
make their Horses rise, to use only their Switch; they must certainly
not know that the Hand confining the Fore-part, and the Rider's Legs
driving the Hinder-parts forward, the Horse is compell'd, whether he
will or no, to raise his Shoulders from the Ground, and to throw all
the Weight of his Body upon his Haunches.


_Of the Mezair._

THE Gallop is the Foundation of the _Terre-a-Terre_; for in these
two Motions the Principle of the Action is the same, since the
_Terre-a-Terre_ is only a shorten'd Gallop, with the Croupe _in_, and
the Haunches following in a close and quick Time.

THE Mezair is higher than the Action of _Terre-a-Terre_, and lower than
that of _Curvets_; we may therefore conclude, that the _Terre-a-Terre_,
is the Foundation of the Mezair, as well as of _Curvets_.--In the
_Terre-a-Terre_, the Horse should be more _together_ than in the Gallop,
that he may mark his _Time_ or _Cadence_ more distinctly; although in a
true _Terre-a-Terre_, there are no Times to be mark'd, for it is rather
a gliding of the Haunches, which comes from the natural Springs in the
Limbs of the Horse.

I HAVE said, that the _Terre-a-Terre_ is the Foundation of the
_Mezair_; in effect, the higher you raise the Fore-parts of the Horse,
the slower and more distinct his Action will be, and by making him beat
and mark the Time with his Hind-feet, instead of gliding them along as
in the _Terre-a-Terre_, you put him to the _Mezair_, or _Half-curvets_.

WHEN a Horse works _Terre-a-Terre_, he always ought, the same as in
the _Gallop_, to lead with the Legs that are within the Volte, his two
Fore-feet being in the Air, and the Moment that they are coming down,
his two Hind-feet following.

THE Action of the Gallop is always one, two, three, and four; the
_Terre-a-Terre_ consists only of two Lines, one, two.--The Action is
like that of _Curvets_, except that it is more under the Horse; that
is, he bends his Haunches more, and moves them quicker and closer than
in Curvets.

TO work a Horse _Terre-a-Terre_ upon large Circles, take care to keep
your Body strait, steady and true in the Saddle, without leaning to
one side or the other.--Lean upon the outward Stirrup, and keep your
outward Leg nearer the Side of the Horse than the other Leg, taking
care to do it so as not to let it be perceived.--If you go to the
Right, keep your Bridle-hand a little on the Outside of the Horse's
Neck, turning your little finger up, without turning your Nails at the
same time; although if need be you must turn them, in order to make the
inner Rein work which passes over the Little-finger.--Keep your Arms
and Elbows to your Hips, by this means you will assure and confine your
Hands, which ought to accompany, and, if I may so say, run along the
Line of the Circle with the Horse.

IN the _Mezair_, use the same Aids as in working upon _Curvets_.--Give
the Aids of the Legs with Delicacy, and no stronger than is just
necessary to carry your Horse forward.--Remember when you close your
Legs to make him go forward, to press with the Outward in such a degree
as to keep your Horse confin'd; and to assist the other in driving him
forward; it is not necessary to lay so much Stress on the inner Leg,
because that serves only to guide the Horse, and make him cover and
embrace the Ground that lays before him.


_Of Curvets._

OF all the high Airs, Curvets are the least violent, and consequently
the most easy to the Horse, inasmuch as they require nothing of the
Horse but what he has done before. In reality, to make him stop readily
and justly, he has been taught to take a good and true Apuy; in order
to make him rise, he has been put _together_, and supported firm upon
his Haunches; to make him advance, to make him go backward, and to make
him stop, he has been made acquainted with the Aids of the Heels and
Hands; so that in order to execute Curvets, nothing remains for him to
do, but to learn and comprehend the Measure and Time of the Air.

CURVETS are derived and drawn out of the Pesades.--We have already said
that Pesades ought to be made slowly, very high before, and accompanied
a little by the Haunches. Curvets are lower before, the Horse must
advance, his Haunches must follow closer, and _beat_ or mark a quicker
_Time_; the Haunches must be bent, his Hocks be firm, his two Hind-feet
advance equally at every Time, and their Action must be short quick,
just, and in exact Measure and Proportion.

THIS Action, when suited to the Strength and Disposition of the Horse,
is not only beautiful in itself, but even necessary to fix and place
his Head; because this Air is, or ought to be founded, upon the true
_Apuy_ of his Mouth. It likewise lightens the Fore-part; for as it
can't be perform'd unless the Horse collects his Strength upon his
Haunches, it must of consequence take the Weight off from the Shoulders.

IT is well known, that in working upon every Air, the Strength, the
Vigour, and the Disposition of the Horse should be consider'd; the
Importance of this Attention to these Qualities is sufficiently
acknowledged; and it is granted and allowed, that Art serves, and can
serve, to no other end than to improve and make Nature perfect.--Now
it will be easy to discover to what Air a Horse should be destin'd,
and to what he is most dispos'd and capable of executing, by seeing
his Actions, and by the greater or less Degree of Pains which will be
requisite to supple him. When you design a Horse for the _Curvets_,
take care to chuse one, which, besides having the necessary Disposition
to that Manage, will have likewise Patience enough in his Temper to
perform them well.--A natural Disposition alone will not suffice; there
are Horses who will present themselves to them, but being by Nature
impatient of all Restraint, from the Moment that they feel any Pain
or Difficulty in furnishing what you ask of them, they will disobey
and deceive you in the very Instant that you thought them gain'd.--It
requires much Skill to know how to begin with such Horses, and to
confirm them in their Business.--Take it for a certain Truth, that you
will never succeed, if your Horse is not perfectly obedient to the
Hand and Heel; if he is not supple, and able to work upon one Line or
Path, with Freedom and Ease; and if he is not likewise very well seated
upon his Haunches in his _Terre-a-Terre_, which he ought to be able to
execute perfectly well.

CURVETS are improper, and never succeed with Horses which have bad
Feet, or any Weakness or Complaint in their Hocks, whatever Powers
and Qualifications they may otherwise have.--They are likewise apt
to encourage a Horse that is _ramingue_ in his Vice, and are capable
of teaching one which is not so by Nature, to become _ramingue_,
if he is not adjusted and brought to this Air with great Prudence.
Indeed, Impatience and Fretfulness often make a Horse desperate when
put to this Manage; and not being able to endure the Correction, nor
comprehend the Aids, he betakes himself to all sorts of Defences, as
well as that being confounded through Fear, he is bewilder'd, and
becomes abject and jadish.--It is almost impossible to say which of
these Imperfections are the most difficult to be cured.--Before you
put a Horse to make _Curvets_, he ought to work _Terre-a-Terre_; and
if he can do this, he ought to be able to change Hands upon _one_ and
_two Lines_, to go off readily, and to make a good Stop. After this
he should be able to make Pesades easily, and so high before as to be
held and supported in the Hand, and always make them upon a strait Line
at first, and not on a Circle.--After this ask of him two or three
_Curvets_; let him go then two or three Steps, then make two or three
_Curvets_; and so alternately.--If you find that your Horse is well
in the Hand, and that he advances regularly, is patient, and don't
break his Line, but keeps even upon it, he will dress very easily,
and soon; if he presses forward too much, make him curvet in the same
Place, and make him often go backward.--After he has thus made two or
three, demand then more of him, afterwards make him go backward, and so

ONE sees but few Horses which in making Curvets, plant themselves well
upon their Haunches and Hocks, at least that are not apt to hang back,
and who beat and mark equally and smartly the Measure of the Air, and
keep their Heads true and steady; for this Reason the first Lessons
should be slow and gentle, making your Horse rise very high before,
because the longer time the Horse is in the Air, the easier it will be
to him to adjust himself upon his Haunches, and to assure his Head, and
bend or _gather up_ his Fore-legs; on the contrary, if he don't rise
high before, he only beats and throws about the Dust, and shuffles his
Legs, and can never assemble the different Parts of his Body and be
united, as he ought to be in this Manage.

WHEN a Horse in his first Curvets makes of himself his Beats, or Times,
diligent and quick, it is to be fear'd that this is only owing to
Fire and Impatience; in this Case there will be reason to suspect,
that he has not Strength sufficient for this Manage, that he will soon
do nothing but shuffle and throw about his Legs without rising as he
ought, or else that he will become _entier_; but if he rises freely and
sufficiently high, without being in a hurry, or stiffening himself,
and bends his Hocks, it will then be very easy to shorten, reduce, and
adjust the Measure of his Air, and to make it perfect in proportion to
his Resolution, his Strength, and Activity.--If when you are going to
raise him, he rises suddenly of himself, consider whether this hasty
Action be not a Proof likewise of what I have just now told you.

THE Beauty and Perfection of the fine Airs when neatly executed, and
their Time just and true, don't consist so much in the Diligence and
Quickness with which the Horse brings his Hind-feet to the Ground and
makes his _Beats_; for if that were the Proof, the Horse would not have
sufficient Time to raise his Fore-part, and to gather his Fore-legs
under him; but the true Measure, and the Harmony of his _Time_, is when
the Hind-feet follow smoothly, and answer immediately to the Fore-feet,
and that these rise again in the Instant that the others touch the

TO teach a Horse to _beat_ his _Curvets_ neatly, and in an equal _Time_
and _Measure_, take care to keep him in a good and just _Apuy_; keep
yourself strait and well stretch'd down in the Saddle, but without
any Stiffness, preserving always a certain Ease and Freedom, which
is the Characteristic of an Horseman: let your Hand be about three
Fingers Breadth above the Pommel of the Saddle, and a little forward
or advanced, keeping your Nails up, and be diligent and ready to raise
your Horse; when you do this, put your Body a little forward, but so as
not to let it be perceived: above all put no Stress in your Legs, but
let them be easy and loose, they will catch the _Time_ of themselves
better than you can give it. I am now speaking of an high-drest and
perfect Horse, who works with the greatest Exactness; for if he was to
break the Line, to throw himself from one Side to the other, refuse to
advance, or not to lift his Legs, you would then be obliged to give the
Aids in proportion to his Understanding and Feeling.

IT is not requisite that a Horse should be absolutely perfect in
Curvets strait forward, before you put him to make them upon _Voltes_.
By being accustom'd to make them strait forward, when he is put to do
them differently, he would feel a fresh Constraint; in this Case he
might break and perplex his Air in the Action of turning, he would
falsify the _Volte_, and perhaps fall into many Disorders; it is
therefore right, as soon as he is grounded a little in Curvets strait
forwards, to begin to teach him the _Time_ and the Proportions of the

WALK him then upon a _Volte_ that is sufficiently large, and exactly
round, taking care that he walks neither too slow nor too fast, and
making him bring _in_ his Head to the _Volte_, so that he may acquire a
Habit of looking always into the _Volte_, without letting his Hind-feet
however go off the Line of his Fore-feet.

HAVING thus taught him in the Walk to both Hands the Space or Ground
of the _Volte_, let him make three _Pesades_, then three more, and let
him make them with Patience and lightly, but without stopping. Trot him
then upon the _Volte_, stop him without letting him rise, caress him,
and begin with him again to the other Hand, and repeat the same.--When
he begins to understand this Lesson, let him make two _Pesades_
together, then let him walk as before; observe these Rules and this
Method, without hurrying or pressing him; increase by degrees by the
Number of _Pesades_, and let him walk less as he begins to work with
more Ease; by these means he will soon be brought to furnish an entire

WHEN your Horse is so far advanced as to work upon the large _Voltes_
in this slow Manner, begin then by degrees to contract his Compass
of Ground, and the Measure of the Pesades, till the _Volte_ and the
_Air_ are reduced to their exact Proportion; preventing him by Aids
and Correction from putting his Croupe _out_, or bringing it too much
_within_ the _Volte_, and taking care that he makes no wrong or aukward
Action with his Head.

IT is impossible that a Horse should furnish his Air high, without
shortening and contracting his Body a good deal beyond his natural
Posture or Make; because the Action of itself is contracted and
supported on the Haunches, in such a manner that the Hind-feet must of
necessity advance, and widen the Line which they made in the Walk; or
else the Fore-feet must go back, and keep up the Line and Roundness
of the _Volte_; or else that the Hind or Fore-feet keeping an equal
Proportion, and answering each to each shorten it equally.--These
different Effects are very essential and worth remarking.--The first
Aid to be given should be with the Legs, in order to make the Horse's
Fore-feet keep thro' this high Air the Line of the _Volte_, which he
had mark'd out before in the Walk. If he goes large, or quits the Line,
or abandons himself upon his Shoulders, or upon the Hand, the first Aid
then should come from the Hand; this by confining will operate so as
to raise him, and the Hind-feet will come upon the Line describ'd in
the Passage; lastly, if the Horse is obedient, the Rider will be able
to unite him both behind and before, by the usual Aids of the Hand and
Heel acting together.

WHEN a Horse walks or trots upon the _Volte_, he is supported in his
Action by one of his Fore and one of his Hind-feet, which are both
upon the Ground together, while the other two are in the Air; so
that according to this Method the Line of the Fore-feet, and that
of the hind, are made at the same time; but when he raises his Air
and advances upon the _Volte_, all his Actions are changed; for then
the two Fore-feet are lifted up the first, and while they are coming
down, he lifts the two Hind-feet from the Ground together, to finish
and continue the _Beats_ or _Time_ of his Air. The Fore-feet being
more advanced than the hind, must necessarily come down first, and
consequently the Horse can never be upon strait Lines crossing each
other, as he is when he walks or trots upon the _Volte_. Moreover,
in a high Air the Horse does not only shorten and contract his whole
Action; but the better to strengthen and assist the Attitude in
which he supports and goes through his Air, he opens and widens his
Hind-feet, keeping them at least twice the Distance one from the other,
that he did when he only walk'd or trotted upon the _Volte_, and by
consequence describes different Lines.--There are three Actions, and
three Motions, still to be consider'd in making _Curvets_. These are,
to raise him, to support him while he is in the Air, and to make him go
forwards.--To raise him, is to lift him up as it were by the Action of
the Hand, and put him upon an high Air; to support, is to hinder him
from bringing his Fore-part too soon to the Ground; and carrying him
forward, is to raise, support, and go forward at the same time, while
the Horse is off the Ground.

TO make a Horse go in _Curvets_ sideways, aid only with the Hand,
keeping his Head to the Wall. For instance, to the Right, aid him
chiefly with the outward Rein; that is to say, turn your Hand to the
Right, for then the Left-rein, which is the outward Rein, will be
shorten'd and operate upon the Shoulders so as to work them.--If they
go too much, use your inner Rein, carrying your Hand _out_, and in such
a manner that the Shoulders may go before the Croupe.--Let him make
three _Curvets_ sideways, passage him afterwards, always sideways; then
let him make the same Number of _Curvets_ sideways, and obliquely,
again, and begin by little and little to diminish his _Passage_, and
augment the _Curvets_, till he is able to furnish without Intervals
an entire _Volte_ of two Lines. The same Method must be followed in
working to the Left, as has been prescribed for the Right. _Curvets_
made backward are more fatiguing, and more apt to make a Horse rebel,
than _Curvets_ strait forward upon the _Voltes_, _Demi-voltes_, or
_sideways_.--To teach him to make them backwards, you must make him
go backward; afterwards put him to make three or four _Curvets_ in
the same Place, that is, without advancing.--Then make him go forward
again, let him make the same Number again; and so successively till he
makes them readily and without Assistance.

BY Habit he will expect to be made to go backward immediately after
the last _Curvet_: now, the Moment he has made one in the same Place,
when he is making the second, seize the Moment just as he is coming
down, and pull him back, marking a _Time_ with your Hand, just as you
would pull to make a Horse go backward which resisted the Hand; and
this _Time_ of the Hand being made, ease it immediately. In this Manner
continue the _Curvets_, pulling more or less, according as he obeys
or resists; observing to lessen the Times of pulling him back, and
to increase the Number of the _Curvets_ backwards.--If he drags his
Haunches, that is, if the Hind-feet don't go together, but one after
the other, pinch him with both Spurs; but you must put them very back,
applying them with great Delicacy, and taking care that he be in the
Hand when he comes down.--If with all this he continues _disunited_,
aid on the Croupe with the Switch, turning the bigger End of it in your
Hand; and this will make him work and keep his _Time_ or _Beats_ very

TO go backwards in _Curvets_, aid with the outward Rein, you will
confine the Fore-part, and widen the Hind-legs, which ought to be at
liberty, because it is with them that he leads. They are follow'd by
the Fore-parts, which should keep the same Ground or Tract.--You must
keep your Hand low, that the Horse may not go too high.--Let your Body
be a little forward to give the greater Liberty to the Hind-legs, which
are those that lead; and don't aid with your Legs, unless he drags his
Haunches.--If the Horse does not _unite_ of his own accord, you must
catch the _Time_ with your Bridle-hand, as the Horse is coming to the
Ground; in that Instant, put your Hand to your Body, and so pull him
back.--Let us now see how you should be placed in the Saddle, to make
_Curvets_ upon the _Voltes_.--Let only your outward Hip and outward
Haunch be a little advanc'd; and remember to loosen always, and relax
the Inside of your Knees, or your Legs from the Knees. When you intend
to change to the Left, let your Hand accompany and correspond with your
Right-leg, which is to operate; when you would change to the Right, let
it answer to your Left-leg: Having given this Aid, replace yourself,
stretch yourself down in your Saddle, take away your Legs, one or the
other, forbear to aid, and let the Balance of your Body be somewhat on
the Inside.

UNDERSTANDING thus, and being Master of the Aids for working a Horse in
_Curvets_ strait forwards, backwards, sideways, to the Right and Left,
you will be able easily to teach your Horse to make a Cross, or even
dance the Saraband in this Air; but this requires as much Justness
and Activity in the Horse, as Exactness and Delicacy in the Rider to
be able to give the Aids, and very few Horses are able to execute all
these Lessons which I have described: the utmost Efforts of Art, and
the greatest Suppleness that a Horse can acquire, will be in vain,
and unsuccessful, if he is not by Nature inclin'd and disposed to the
Manage. That sort of Exercise which hits the Temper, and best suits the
Strength of a Horse, will appear graceful, and preserve his Health;
while that which is opposite to his Temper and Genius will dishearten
him, make him timid and abject, and plunge him into numberless Ails and


_Of Croupades and Balotades._

THE _Croupade_ is a Leap, in which the Horse draws up his Hinder-legs as
if he meant to shorten and truss them up under his Belly.

THE _Balotade_ is likewise a Leap, in which the Horse seems as if he
intended to kick out, but without doing it; he only offers or makes a
half Kick, shewing only the Shoes of his Hind-feet.

THE Horses that are destin'd to these Airs ought to have a light and
steady Mouth, and an active and lively Disposition, with clean and
nervous Strength; for all the Art and Knowledge of the Horseman can
never confer these Qualities, which are essentially necessary to the
Perfection of this Manage.

THE _Croupades_ and _Balotades_ are different from _Curvets_, inasmuch
as that they are much higher behind, and consequently their Time and
Measure not so quick and close, but slower and more extended. Therefore
the Rider should keep his Horse's Croupe ready and in awe, by striking
it from time to time with the Switch, supporting him not quite so high
before, and observing to aid with his Legs slower, and not so forward,
as in the _Curvets_.

AS the Perfection of _Curvets_, both upon the _Voltes_ and strait
forwards, is owing to the Ease and Justness of the Pesades, the
Goodness of _Croupades_ and _Balotades_ depends likewise upon the same
Rules. Your Horse being made light before by the means of _Pesades_ and
_Curvets_, begin by making him rise, as well before as behind, less
however in the first Lessons than afterwards; for you will never bring
him to the true Pitch, were you to exhaust all his Strength at once,
since while he is prest and compell'd to put forth all his Strength, he
will never be able to catch and mark the _Time_, the Cadence, and the
just _Beats_ of his Air, both behind and before.

I HAVE already said, that the _Croupades_ and the _Balotades_ are
higher than the Curvets, they nevertheless partake of it; for though a
Horse that makes _Balotades_, makes the Measure of each Time as high
behind as before, yet he follows the _Beat_ of his Fore-feet with that
of his Hind-feet, the same as in _Curvets_; for this Reason, a Horse
that is intended for the _Croupades_ and _Balotades_, ought to be more
active, light, and strong than one that is to be drest for _Curvets_,
as he should have less Strength than one who is put to make Caprioles
strait forwards, or on Voltes of one Line, and to repeat them in the
same Place.

TO manage the Strength and Vigour of the Horse you intend to work
upon the _Voltes_ in _Croupades_ and _Balotades_, let the Line of
the _Volte_ be larger than for _Curvets_, and let the Action of the
Shoulders not be quite so high; thus you will not only check and
confine his Activity and Lightness; but by raising his Shoulders in
a less Degree, you will give Liberty to his Croupe, and he will be
enabled by this Method to furnish his Airs all together, that is
_before_ and _behind_, better, and with more Ease; there is still
another Reason for this, for when the Shoulders come to the Ground from
too great a Height, the Shock alarms and disorders the Mouth; and then
the Horse losing the Steadiness of his _Apuy_, he never will raise his
Croupe so high as he ought, to make perfect _Balotades_.


_Of Caprioles._

THERE is no such Thing as an universal Horse; that is, as a Horse who
works equally well upon all Airs, the _Terre-a-Terre_, the _Curvets_,
_Mezair_, _Croupades_, _Balotades_, and _Caprioles_, each Horse having
a particular Disposition, which inclines to some certain Air which
suits him best. A Horse that is naturally inclin'd to the high Airs,
ought to be managed with great Gentleness and Patience; inasmuch as
he will be in greater Danger of being disgusted and spoil'd, as his
Disposition to the high Airs is owing generally to the Gaiety and
Sprightliness of his Temper; and as such Tempers are usually averse to
Subjection, Constraint and Correction, Rigour and Severity would make
him become timid and angry, and then he could not attend to and catch
the _Time_, _Order_, and _Measure_ of the high Airs; therefore if you
would reduce him to the Justness of the high Airs, and teach him their
Harmony and Measure, you must not expect to succeed by any other ways
than by giving your Instructions with great Patience and Judgment, and
soon or late he will be gain'd.

THE Feet are the Foundations upon which all the high Airs, if I may use
the Word, are built. They ought then to be attended to very strictly;
for if your Horse has any Pain, Weakness, or other Defect in his Feet,
he will be so much the more improper to leap, as the Pain which he
must feel when he comes to the Ground, would shoot quite to his Brain.

AS a Proof of this, when a Horse whose Feet are bad or tender trots
upon the Stones, or hard Ground, you will see him shut his Eyes, drop
his Head at each Step, and shake his Tail from very Pain.

THE _Capriole_ is the most violent of the high Airs. To make it
perfect, the Horse is to raise his Fore-parts and his Hinder to an
equal Height; and when he strikes out behind, his Croupe should be
upon a Level with his Withers. In rising and in coming down his Head
and Mouth should be quite steady and firm, and he should present his
Forehead quite strait.--When he rises, his Fore-legs should be bent
under him a good deal, and equally. When he strikes out with his
Hind-legs, he ought to do it nervously, and with all his Force; and
his two Feet should be even, of an equal Height, and their Action the
same when he strikes out: lastly, the Horse should at every Leap fall
a Foot and a half, or the Space of two Feet distance from the Spot
from which he rose.--I don't assert, that in order to make _Caprioles_
a Horse must necessarily pass through _Curvets_ and _Balotades_; for
there are Horses who are naturally more light and active in their Loins
than strong, and who are brought to leap with more Difficulty, than to
the other Airs in which their Strength must be much more united, and
their Disposition attended to; but yet it is certain, that if the Horse
is brought to rise by Degrees, and is work'd in the intermediate Airs,
before he undertakes the _Caprioles_, he will not weaken and strain
himself so much, and will be sooner confirm'd in his Lesson than one
who begins at once with the _Caprioles_.

HAVING thus explain'd to Demonstration the Motions of a Horse, when
he makes a perfect _Capriole_, you may hence gather that they have an
Effect directly opposite to that of _Curvets_ and _Pesades_.--These
two Airs are proper to assure the Head of the Horse, and to make it
light, and this by so much the more as the principal Action depends
upon the Haunches, and a moderate _Apuy_ of the Mouth; but _Caprioles_
are apt to give too great an _Apuy_, because the Horse when he makes
the strongest Action of his Air, that is, when he strikes out as he
is coming to the Ground, is entirely supported by the Hand; therefore
before he is put to leap, he ought to have a perfect Apuy, and his
Shoulders should at least be suppled and lighten'd by having made
_Pesades_; and he should be without Fear, Anger, or any kind of
Uneasiness, because, as I have already said, by leaping he learns to
know his own Strength and Power; and he may put it to bad Purposes to
free himself from Obedience, and indulge his Caprice and Ill-humour.
Some Horses have a Disposition to this Air, and sufficient Strength
to go through it; yet have their Mouth so delicate, sensible, and
averse to the Hand, that you can't support them without hindering them
from advancing; hence it follows that their Action before is cold and
slow, and never sufficiently high, and they can't be carried forward
when they raise their Croupe and strike out; and it is impossible to
keep them firm as they come down. To remedy this, begin their Lesson
upon the Trot, and press them in it so smartly as to make them
often go into the Gallop; observe a Medium however in order to save
their Strength and Vigour, that they may furnish as many Leaps as is
requisite to the Perfection of the Air. Do the same with a Horse that
has too much Strength, and who retains and avails himself it, so as
not to make his Leaps freely and readily; by this means you will abate
his superfluous Vigour, which serves only to _disunite_ and make him

IT is usual to supple a Horse that is light in the Hand by means of
the Trot, before you teach him to leap: but a contrary Method must be
observed with those which are heavy and clumsey, or that are heavy in
the Hand. Gallop and trot them, and when they are made obedient and
drest to the _Caprioles_, their Apuy in leaping will grow by degrees
lighter and more temperate. The Exercise of the Trot and Gallop will
take away all Fear of the Aids and Corrections, and the Day following
they will present themselves more freely and willingly. With respect to
the Horse who pulls or wants to force the Hand, don't try to correct
him by making him go backward, because by working upon his Bars too
much with the Bit, you would make them become hard and insensible; but
compel him to make some _Caprioles_ with his Face to the Wall, and
keep him up to it closer or further off, as you find him heavy, or
endeavouring to force the Hand; by these Methods you will constrain him
to shorten his Leaps, and give more Attention to his Business. If he
abandons himself, or bears too hard upon the Hand, hold him firm at the
End of his Leap; and in the Instant that his Feet are coming to the
Ground, yield it immediately to him, and he will abandon himself much
less upon the Bit.--If he retains himself, and hangs back, easing your
Hand to him alone will not be sufficient; but to make him advance you
must push him up to his Bit, by aiding him briskly and in _Time_ with
your Legs.

TO dress a Horse to the Caprioles, the Pillars may be employ'd, or they
may be dispens'd with: let us explain the Rules we should follow with
respect to both these Methods.

IT is certain that the Pillars are of use in putting a Horse to this
Air.--Tie him to them, make him keep up to his Bit properly, or what is
call'd _fill up the Cords_, and endeavour by little and little to make
him rise before, taking care to make him bend his Knees, and gather up
his Legs as much as you possibly can. For this purpose use your Switch
briskly; for if you can teach him to bend his Legs well, his Manage
will be infinitely more beautiful; as well as that he will be much
lighter in the Hand.

HAVING thus gain'd the Fore-part, put him in the Pillars again, making
the Cords somewhat shorter in order to make him raise his Croupe
from the Ground, and yerk out equally at the same time with both his
Hind-legs, which you must teach him to do, by attacking and striking
him upon the Croupe with the Switch or _Chambriere_.

WHEN he is so far advanced as to rise before, and lash out behind, it
will be proper to teach him to unite these two Times, and perform them
together.--Let him then be mounted, and always in the Pillars; let the
Rider support him in the Hand, and try to make him make one or two
Leaps, without hanging upon the Cords of the Caveson, in order that he
may learn to take a just Apuy, and to feel it. As soon as he begins
to know and obey the Hand, he should be aided gently with the Calves
of the Legs, should be supported, and you should pinch him delicately
and finely with both Spurs. If he answers once or twice to these Aids,
without losing his Temper, or being angry, you will have great Reason
to expect that he will soon furnish his Leaps equally and justly with
respect to the Hand and Heel.

HAVING brought him thus far between the Pillars, walk him strait
forward for a certain Space, and if he don't offer to rise of himself,
try to make him. If he himself takes the right Time, seize the Moment,
avail yourself of it, and make him make two or three _Caprioles_, or
one or two, according as you judge it necessary; by letting him walk
thus calmly and quietly, in a short time he will of himself begin to
make _Caprioles_ strait forward; but in case he should discover any
Signs of Resistance to the Hand or Heel, or the other Aids, immediately
have recourse to the Caveson and Pillars.

THIS is in short the Method of adjusting and dressing a Horse for
_Caprioles_ by the means of the Pillars.--A Method extremely dangerous
in itself, and capable of spoiling and making a Horse become desperate
and ungovernable, if it is not practised by Persons of the most
consummate Skill and Experience.

THE Method which I prefer is indeed more difficult and painful to the
Horse, but more perfect and sure.

THE Horse having been well exercised in _Pesades_, walk him strait
forward, keeping him together, and supporting him so as to hold and
keep him in the Hand, but not to such a degree as to stop him entirely.
After this strike him gently with the End of the Switch upon his Croupe
and Buttocks, and continue to do it till he lifts up his Croupe, and
kicks.--You should then caress him, and let him walk some Steps,
and then attack him again, not minding to make him rise before, nor
hindering him from it, if he offers so to do. Remember to encourage and
coax him every time that he answers to the Aids, and obeys.--Being thus
acquainted with the Aid of the Switch, put him to make _Pesades_ of a
moderate Height strait forward, and at the second or third, attack him
behind with your Switch to make him lash out. If he obeys, make him
rise before again in the Minute that his Hind-legs come to the Ground,
in order to make him furnish two or three more _Pesades_, to work his
Haunches. After this coax and caress him without letting him stir from
the Place, if his _Apuy_ be firm and good; and in case it is hard,
make him go backward, or if it is light and just, letting him advance
quietly and slowly.

TO enable him to make his Leaps just, and to know the exact Time of
making them, you should no longer regard what Number of _Pesades_ he
makes before or after his Leap, but in the Moment that you feel him
ready and prepar'd, and whilst he is in the _Pesade_, aid him briskly
behind, letting him in the Beginning not rise so high before, when you
intend he should yerk out behind, as you would were he only to make a
_Pesade_, that so his Croupe may be more at liberty, and he may yerk
out with greater Ease; in proportion as his Croupe becomes light and
active, you may raise his Fore-parts higher and higher, and support him
while in the Air, till he makes his Leaps true and in just Proportion.

WHEN you have sufficiently practised these Lessons, you may retrench
by degrees the Number of the _Pesades_ which separated and divided the
Leaps. You may demand now of him two Leaps together; from these you may
come, with Patience and Discretion, to three, from three to four Leaps;
and lastly, to as many as he can furnish in the same Air, and with
equal Strength. Remember always to make him finish upon his Haunches,
it is the only sure way to prevent all the Disorders a Horse may be
guilty of from Impatience and Fear.

THERE are some Horses who will leap very high, and with great Agility
strait forwards, which when put to leap upon the _Voltes_, lose all
their natural Grace and Beauty; the Reason is, that they fail for Want
of Strength, and are not equal to the Task, in which all their Motions
are forced and constrain'd.

IF you find a Horse who has a good and firm _Apuy_, and who has
Strength sufficient to furnish this Air upon the _Voltes_; begin with
him by making him know the Space and Roundness of the _Volte_ to each
Hand; let him walk round it in a slow and distinct Pace, keeping his
Croupe very much press'd and confin'd upon the Line of the _Volte_,
which ought to be much larger for this Air than for _Croupades_ and

THIS being done, make him rise, and let him make one or two
_Caprioles_, follow'd by as many _Pesades_; then walk on two or three
Steps upon the same Line; then raise him again, supporting him more and
more, and keeping him even on the Line of the _Volte_, so that it may
be exactly round, and confining his Croupe with your outward Leg.

IF this Lesson be given with Judgment, your Horse will soon make all
the _Volte_, in the same Air; and to make him furnish a second, as soon
as he has closed and finish'd the first, raise him again, and without
letting him stop get from him as many as you can, working him always
upon this _Volte_, in which he walks and leaps alternatively, till he
closes and ends it with the same Vigour and Resolution as he did the

AID always with the outward Rein, either upon the _Voltes_, or when you
leap strait forwards, you will narrow and confine the Fore-parts, and
enlarge the Hind-parts, by which means the Croupe will not be press'd,
but free and unconstrain'd.

I WILL enlarge no further upon his Chapter; for what regards the making
_Caprioles_ upon the _Voltes_, you may look back to what has been
already said on the Subject of _Curvets_: remember that the surest way
to succeed, when you undertake to dress a Horse to _Caprioles_, is to
arm yourself with a Patience that nothing can subdue or shake; and to
prefer for this purpose such Horses as have a Disposition, are active,
light, and have a clean sinewy Strength, to such as are endowed with
greater Strength and Force; for these last never leap regularly, and
are fit for nothing but to break their Riders Backs, and make them spit
Blood, by their irregular, violent, and unexpected Motions.


_Of the Step and Leap._

THE Step and Leap is composed of three Airs; of the _Step_, which is the
Action of the _Terre-a-Terre_; the rising before, which is a _Curvet_;
and the Leap, which is a _Capriole_.

THIS Manage is infinitely less painful to a Horse than that of the
_Capriole_; for when you dress a Horse to the _Capriole_, he will
of himself take this Air for his Ease and Relief; and in time those
Horses, which have been drest to the _Caprioles_, will execute only
_Balotades_ and _Croupades_, unless particular Care is taken to make
them yerk out.

IT is this likewise, which, next to running a brisk Course, enlivens
and animates a Horse most.--To reduce a Horse to the Justness of this
Air, you must begin by emboldening and making him lose all fear of
Correction; teaching him to keep his Head steady, and in a proper
Place; lightening His Fore-parts, by putting him to make _Pesades_;
teaching him to know the Aids of the Switch, the same as in the Lesson
of the _Caprioles_; and by giving him a firm and good _Apuy_, _full in
the Hand_: though it is certain, that the _Step_ contributes to give
him this _Apuy_, inasmuch as that it puts him in the Hand; besides that
it gives him Strength and Agility to leap, just as we ourselves leap
with a quicker Spring while running, than if we were to stand quite
still and leap; therefore most old Horses generally fall into this Air.

WHEN your Horse is sufficiently knowing in these several Particulars,
teach him to rise, and support or hold him in the Air; then let him
make four _Pesades_, and afterwards let him walk four or five Steps
slow and equal; if he forces the Hand, or retains himself too much, he
should be made to trot these four or five Steps rather than walk; after
this make him rise again, and continue this Lesson for some Days.

WHEN he is so far advanced as to comprehend and understand this
sufficiently, begin by putting him to make a _Pesade_, demand then a
_Leap_, and finish by letting him make two _Pesades_ together. There
are two things to be observ'd, which are very essential in this Lesson;
one, that when he is to make the Leap he should not rise so high
before as when he makes _Pesades_ only, that so he may yerk out with
greater Ease and Liberty; the other Caution is always to make your last
_Pesade_ longer and higher than the other, in order to prevent your
Horse from making any irregular Motions by shuffling about his Legs,
if he should be angry and impatient, as well as to keep him in a more
exact Obedience; and to make him light, if he is naturally heavy and
loaded in his Fore-parts, or apt to lean too much upon the Hand.

AGAIN, reduce the fourth _Pesade_ into a Leap, as you did the first;
then make two _Pesades_ following, and after this let him walk
quietly four or five Steps, that he may make again the same Number of
_Pesades_, and in the same Order. In proportion as the Horse begins to
understand, and is able to execute these Lessons, you should augment
likewise the Leaps one by one, without hurrying or changing the Order,
making always between the Leaps a single _Pesade_, but lower than those
in the first Lesson; and then two more again after the last Leap,
sufficiently _high_. By degrees the Horse will grow active and light
in his Hind-parts, you must raise him then higher before, and support
him longer in the Air, in order to make him form the Leaps perfect, by
means of prudent and judicious Rules, often practised and repeated.
If your Horse forces the Hand, or presses forward more than you would
have him, either from Heaviness of Make, or from having too much Fire
in his Temper; in this case you should oblige him to make the _Pesades_
in the same Place, without stirring from it; and instead of letting
him advance four or five Steps, you should make him go backwards as
many. This Correction will cure him of the Habit of pressing forward,
and forcing the Hand. Upon this Occasion likewise you should use a
Hand-spur to prick his Croupe, instead of a Switch.

TO make this Air just and perfect, it is necessary that the Action of
the Leap be finish'd as in the _Caprioles_, except that it ought to be
more _extended_, and the _Pesade_ which is made between the two Leaps
should be changed into a _Time_ of a quick and short Gallop; that is,
the two Hind-feet ought to follow the Fore-feet, together in a quick
Time and briskly, as in _Curvets_ in the _Mezair_; but in this the
Horse should advance more, not be so much _together_, nor rise so high.

THE Perfection of this _Time_ of the Gallop depends upon the Justness
of the Horseman's Motions.--They ought to be infinitely more exact
in this Lesson, than in the Caprioles, or any other Airs, which are
performed strait forward.

IN reality, if the Horseman is too slow, and don't catch the exact Time
which parts the two Leaps, the Leap which follows will be without any
Spring or Vigour, because the Animal so restrain'd and held back, can
never extend himself, or put forth his Strength; if he don't support
and raise his Shoulders sufficiently high, the Croupe will then be
higher than it ought to be; and this Disproportion will force the Horse
to toss up his Nose, or make some other bad Motion with his Head as
he is coming to the Ground in his Leap; or else it will happen that
the succeeding Time will be so precipitate, that the next Leap will
be false and imperfect, as the Horse will not be sufficiently united,
but will be too heavy and lean upon the Hand.--If he is not together,
the Leap will be too much extended, and consequently weak and loose,
because the Horse will not be able to collect his Strength, in order to
make it equal to the first.

LEARN then in a few Words what should be the Horseman's Seat, and what
Actions he should use in this Lesson.

HE should never force, alter, or lose the true _Apuy_, either in
raising, supporting, holding in, or driving forward his Horse.--His
Head should be not only firm and steady, but it is indispensably
necessary that his Seat should be exactly strait and just; for since
the Arm is an Appendix of the Body, it is certain that if the Motions
of the Horse shake or disorder the Body of the Rider, the Bridle-hand
must inevitably be shook, and consequently the true Apuy destroy'd.

IN this Attitude then approach the Calves of your Legs,
support and hold your Horse up with your Hand, and when the Fore-part
is at its due Height, aid with the Switch upon the Croupe.

IF your Horse rises before, keep your Body strait and firm; if he
lifts or tosses up his Croupe, or yerks out, fling your Shoulders back
without turning your Head to one side or the other, continuing the
Action of the Hand that holds the Switch.

REMEMBER that all the Motions of your Body should be so neat and fine
as to be imperceptible; as to what is the most graceful Action for the
Switch-hand, that over the Shoulder is thought the best; but then this
Shoulder must not be more back than the other; and care must be taken
that the Motion be quick and neat, and that the Horse do not see it so
plainly as to be alarm'd.

I HAVE said, that when the Horse made his Leaps too _long_ and
_extended_, you should then aid with your Hand-spur; and for this
Reason, because the Hand-spur will make the Horse raise his Croupe
without advancing, as the Effect of the Switch will be to raise the
Croupe, and drive the Horse forward at the same time; it should
therefore be used to such Horses as retain themselves.

REMEMBER that you should never be extreme with your Horse, and work him
beyond his Strength and Ability; indeed one should never ask of a Horse
above half of what he can do; for if you work him till he grows languid
and tired, and his Strength and Wind fail him, you will be compell'd to
give your Aids roughly and openly; and when that happens, neither the
Rider or the Horse can appear with Brilliancy and Grace.


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