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Title: Secrets of Wise Men, Chemists and Great Physicians
Author: David, William K.
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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       *       *       *       *       *

[Illustration: Signed sketch of author

Yours truly,

Wm. K. David.]

                          WISE MEN, CHEMISTS
                           GREAT PHYSICIANS.

                        COMPILED AND WRITTEN BY

                             WM. K. DAVID,

                               AUTHOR OF
                       THE SHORT-RULE ARITHMETIC
                         DISK CALENDARS, ETC.

                      Thirty-Eight Illustrations.


                             WM. K. DAVID
                             LOCK BOX 507,

                           Copyright, 1889,
                             WM. K. DAVID.

   The following sent to any part of the world on receipt of price:

                    SECRETS OF WISE MEN, CHEMISTS,
                           GREAT PHYSICIANS,
                           By Wm. K. David.

                    Bound in cloth, price =$1.25.=

                     DAVID’S SHORT-RULE ARITHMETIC
                         ACCOUNTANT’S REFEREE.

  A practical work containing the shortest and most simple rules and
   labor saving tables ever devised. The most original arithmetical
                     work published for centuries.

           Elegantly bound in cloth and gilt, price =$1.50.=


                       Giving all dates forever.

               Elegant, heavy cardboard, price =$0.50.=

                        DAVID’S CHARM CALENDAR

            An elegant little metal pendant for vest chain,
                giving all dates for one hundred years.

 Including double-wheel card calendar with explanation, price =$1.00.=

                            AGENTS WANTED!

                         ADDRESS ALL ORDERS TO
                             WM. K. DAVID
                      Lock Box 507, CHICAGO, ILL.


It is surprising how many large enterprises and fortunes depend upon
some few simple trade secrets the knowledge of which has baffled
competition and crushed all rivalry. The jealous care with which
special information in trade and manufacture is guarded frequently
renders it a monumental task to procure a single receipt or formula.
Some idea, then, may be formed of the vast amount of labor and expense
necessary to compile a work of this character. Books of recipes are
quite numerous, but to the average person the good they contain is too
often buried beneath a mass of wordy rubbish. In the preparation of
this work the object has been to present all the best as well as the
latest practical receipts, prescriptions, and trade secrets. Over a
quarter of a million pages of patent-office reports, encyclopedias,
trade journals, receipt books, and other special publications have
been carefully scrutinized. To the knowledge obtained from them we
include the original matter procured from tradesmen, chemists, and
the published works and private practice of some of the most eminent
physicians both in this country and Europe, a greater portion of which
has never before appeared in print; all of which has been carefully
tested where any doubt existed. It will be found that few, if any,
misleading directions have been given. The prescriptions have been
reproduced, after careful thought, in the form in which they were
originally written. In having them filled patronize only honest and
capable druggists. In testing the recipes follow the directions with
rigid care, and practice on a small quantity of the article until you
get it right. Realizing that perfection in anything has never been
attained, yet we believe that the work contains more really practical
information for use by the masses in every-day life than any similar

    Chicago, March, 1889.                       THE AUTHOR.



  A Cheap Charcoal Stove, 48

  Approximate Measures, 116

  Baking Powders, 15

  Bay Rum, Best, 40

  Blood Purifier, Dr. Hamilton’s, 120

  Blood Purifying Tea, 121

  Breath Solution, 34

  Butter Color, 125

  Care of Teeth, Mouth, and Breath, 32

  Cascara Cordial, 120

  Catarrh Remedy, Electric, 121

  Catarrh Snuff, 122

  Catarrh Salve, 122

  Cements and Glue, 24
    Armenian Glue, 24
    Glutina Cement, 24
    Iron Cement, 25
    Metal, Glass, and Stone Cement, 25

  Cement, Rubber, 123

  Chapped Hands, etc., Lotion for, 39

  Chilblains, Treatment of, 42, 43

  Cider, Artificial, 15

  Cleaning Preparations, 7
    Lightning Grease Renovator, 7
    Glove-Cleaning Compound, 7
    Cleaning Tarnished Silverware, 8
    Cleaning Carpets, 8
    Universal Stain-Removing Table, 9
    Cleaning Soiled Wall-paper, 12
    Cleaning Marble and Tombstones, 13
    Cleaning Powder for Show-windows, etc., 13

  Cologne, Hoyt’s German, 41

  Common Names of Chemical Substances, 117

  Copying Paper, Magic, 6

  Copying Pad, Gelatine, 1

  Corn and Wart Salve, 42

  Corn-Killer, German, 42

  Essential Oils, To Extract, 17

  Face Lotion, Calamine, 39

  Fire Extinguishers, 4

  Fire Hand Grenades, 4

  Fire Extinguishing Compounds, 5

  Fire-proofing Compounds, 123, 124

  Flavoring Extracts, 16

  Foliotypes, 2

  Freckles, To Remove, 35 to 38

  Freezing Mixtures, 69 to 71

  Furniture Varnish, 13

  Furniture Polish, 14

  Gold and Silver Imitations, 32

  Hair Tonic, 41

  Hair Grower, Pomade, 41

  Hair Oil, Cream, 41

  Hamlin’s Wizard Oil, 119

  Hektograph, 1

  Hog Cholera Cure, 125

  Honey, Artificial, 14

  How to Make an Incubator, 43 to 48

  Ice House and Refrigerator, 64

  Ice Houses, Cheap, 66

  Ice Chest, Cheap, 69

  Ice Without an Ice House, 69

  Inks, 20
    Black Inks, 20, 21
    Red Ink, 21
    Violet Ink, 21
    Blue Ink, 21
    Green Ink, 21
    Copying Ink, 21
    Indestructible Ink, 22
    Hektograph Ink, 22
    White Ink, 22
    Rubber Stamp Ink, 22
    Ribbon Ink, 22
    Marking Ink, 22
    Indelible Ink, 22
    Gold and Silver Ink, 124
    Ink for Writing on Metals, 23
    Ink Powders, 23
    Disappearing Ink, 23
    Invisible Inks, 23

  Ink Erasing Fluid, 24

  Kidney and Liver Cure, Warner’s Safe, 121

  Lemonade Syrup, Artificial, 15

  Liniments, 119

  Liniment, Wonder, 119

  Liniment, Liquid Lightning, 119

  Liniment, Rarey’s Horse, 125

  Lip Salve, 39

  Liver Regulator, 120

  Manicure Powder, 40

  Manicure Salve, 40

  Maple Syrup, Artificial, 14

  Maple Sugar, Artificial, 14

  Mead, Genuine New Orleans, 15

  Medical Department--Prescriptions of eminent physicians, arranged
    and revised by F. V. Luse, M. D., Chicago, Ill. Diseases
    arranged alphabetically. Authorities quoted: Agnew, Atthill,
    Bartholow, Basham, Beasley, Bibron, Browne, Brown-Séquard,
    Chapman, Da Costa, Dewees, Ellis, Fenner, Gerhard, Getchell,
    Gross, Guy, Hartshorne, Hazard, Hebra, Keyes, Liebreich,
    Luse, Mackenzie, Milton, Mitchell, Pancoast, Porcher, Ricord,
    Ringer, Schafhirt, Smith, Squibbs, Tanner, Thornton,
    Trousseau, Waring, 103

  Medicated Pads, 118
    Liver Pad, 118
    Kidney Pad, 118
    Lung Pad, 118

  Merchant’s Gargling Oil, 120

  Mexican Mustang Liniment, 120

  Metal and Glass Secrets, 28
    Hardening Composition for Steel, 28
    Composition to Toughen Steel, 28
    Softening Iron or Steel, 28
    Restoring Burnt Steel, 29
    Welding Cast Steel, 29
    To Drill Hardened Steel, 29
    To Drill Holes in Cast Iron, 29
    To Solder Ferrules for Tool Handles, 29
    Soldering Without a Soldering Iron, 29
    Cleaning Gun-Barrels, 29
    To Resharpen Old Files, 30
    Mending Tinware at Home, 30
    Good Way to Sharpen Razors, 30
    Razor-Strop Paste, 30
    Cutting Ovals, etc., on Glass, 30
    Etching on Glass, 30
    To Drill and Ornament Glass, 31

  Moles, to Remove, 38

  Paints, 26
    Durable Paint for Roofs, 26, 27
    Paint for Blackboards, 27
    Removing Smell of Paint, 27
    Removing Paint, 27

  Pastes, 25
    Paste for Wall-paper, 25
    Paste for Labeling on Tin, 25
    Pasting Cloth or Leather to Wood, 25

  Perry Davis’ Pain Killer, 119

  Perspiration Powder, 42

  Phrases and Abbreviations Used in Prescriptions, 114, 115

  Pimple Lotion, 40

  Plating Without a Battery, 31
    Silver-Plating Solution, 31
    Silvering Powder, 31
    Gold Plating Solution, 31
    Nickeling Iron, 31

  Polishing Preparations, 12
    Polishing Powder, 12
    Polishing Pastes and Balls, 13

  Preservative Compounds, 49
    Barff’s Boroglyceride, 49 to 57
    Fickett’s Preservative Compound, 57
    Howard’s Preservative Compound, 58
    Preservation of Butter, Lard, etc., 58
    Corwin’s Preservative Compound, 59
    Fruit Juice Preservatives, 59
    Smoke or Vapor Preserving Compounds, 60
    Salicylic Acid as a Preservative, 60 to 64

  Radway’s Ready Relief, 120

  Red Noses, Preparation for, 39

  Rose Water, Fine, 40

  Rubber Patching, 123

  Rubber Stamps, How to Make, 17

  Sea Foam, Quillaya, 41

  Shampoo Compound, Clifford’s, 41

  Shirts, How to Iron, 10

  Silos and Ensilage, 73 to 84

  Stage Illusions, 85
    The Three-Headed Woman, 85 to 87
    The Mysterious Voice, 87 to 89
    An Improved Psycho, 89 to 92
    Magic Cabinets, Boxes, etc., 92 to 96
    The Swinging Half Lady, 96 to 98
    The Aerial Suspension, 99 to 100
    The Ghost Illusion, 100 to 102

  Stamping Patterns, 6

  Sunburn, to Remove, 36

  Symbols or Signs Used in Prescriptions, 114

  Table for Calculating the Period of Utero-Gestation, 116

  Table to Assist the Beginner in Prescribing Liquids, 116

  Toilet Preparations, 39

  Toothache Drops, 34

  Tooth Powder, Best, 33

  Tooth Paste, Cherry, 34

  Toothwash, Antiseptic, 34

  Transferring Photographs, 6

  Transferring Embroidery, 7

  Transferring Leaves, 7

  Vermin Exterminators, 19
    Phosphorus Paste, 19
    Roach and Moth Exterminator, 19
    Moth Powder, 19
    Bedbug Poison, 20
    Poison Fly Paper, 20
    Sticky Fly Paper, 20
    Mosquito and Fly Frightener, 20

  Washing Fluid, Liebig’s, 10

  Washing Bluing, Liquid, 11

  Washing Soaps, Family, 11
    Best Soft Soap, 11
    Hard Soap with Lard, 11
    White Hard Soap with Tallow, 12

  Water Baths, 72, 73

  Water-proofing Cloth and Canvas, 123

  Whitewash, Brilliant Stucco, 26

  Wood Stains, 27
    Staining Wood Rose Color, 27
    Ebonizing Wood, 27
    Imitation of Cedar, 28
    Hard Coating for Wood, 28

  Worcestershire Sauce, 125


                         Gelatine Copying Pad.


By this process a letter, postal card, drawing, or other manuscript
can be duplicated from sixty to one hundred times from one original.
Reproductions from the copying pad are now admitted in the mails as
third-class matter, i. e., one cent for every two ounces or fraction
thereof. A soft, gelatinous composition, similar to that used in making
printers’ rollers, is made and poured into shallow pans of the required
size. The pans should be made of stout zinc one-half inch deep on the
inside, with a lid or cover. The length and breadth of the pans is
determined by the class of copying to be done. Always make the pan
slightly larger than the paper used. The three sizes given below will
answer most purposes:

    Postal card size                         4×6 inches.
    Note paper size                     6-1/2×10 inches.
    Full letter size                        9×12 inches.

The composition is made as follows:

    Good glue                                  4 ounces av.
    Glycerine                                 16 ounces av.
    Water                                      8 fluid ounces.

Break up the glue and soak in the water for a few hours, then heat by
water-bath until melted. Next add the glycerine and heat together for
some time to evaporate part of the water, and then strain into the pan,
which should be placed perfectly level and filled about two-thirds
full; skim with a card to free from bubbles, and set away to cool. An
improvement consists in adding one ounce of carbonate of barium to
the fluid while warm. The composition should be made somewhat softer
for winter use than for summer, which can be done by adding a little
larger proportion of glycerine. Another way to make the composition is
to soak over night in cold water best gelatine or glue 1 part, and the
excess of water poured off. The glue is then warmed in a water-bath
with the addition of from 10 to 12 parts of glycerine, to which may be
added 4 to 6 parts of finely ground heavy spar, and one part dextrine
thoroughly mixed by constant stirring. (In summer less glycerine.)

The letter or sketch to be duplicated is written on a sheet of paper
with ink specially prepared for the purpose (see inks). For the
original it is best to use smooth, well-sized writing paper, allowing
the ink to dry without using a blotter. After writing the original
place it face downward on the pad, and rub it gently with the hand to
insure contact at every point. Let it remain from two to six minutes,
according to the number of copies you wish to print. In cold weather
it should be left longer, as it requires more time for the composition
to absorb the ink. Remove the original carefully, and a reversed
impression will be observed on the pad. To take off copies lay dry
sheets of paper on the reversed impression, press gently, and remove

When you have taken all the copies you require wash the ink from
the surface _at once_ with a sponge and plenty of lukewarm water;
never use hot water. The surface of the composition will allow
considerable rubbing without fear of tearing it, if not done roughly
and carelessly. Be sure your sponge is free from sand and grit, and
also avoid scratching with the finger nails. Always wash the surface
with a sponge before using, and dry with a newspaper. In cold weather
if the composition feels chilled it will not absorb the ink properly,
and the copies will be faint unless it be carefully warmed to a
moderate temperature. Attention to these details will produce the most
gratifying results.


Horace M. Engle, Esq., of Marietta, Pa., has devised a method of
taking leaf-prints of marked beauty, which he terms “foliotypes,” some
specimens of which he sent to Dr. Gray, the eminent botanist, who
pronounced the process a new way, and advised him to send an account
of it to the _Botanical Gazette_, which he generously did. We have
employed the method according to the explanation there given (which
we reprint in full) with the most delightful results, having secured
prints of some beautiful leaves which are faithful to nature in color
and outline, with all their delicate tracery: “The method is of actual
usefulness to the botanist, as well as a refining recreation for others
who love Nature ‘on general principles.’ For illustrating monographs
and similar papers, where the number is too limited to warrant an
expensive lithograph; for identifying a rare specimen, or as an adjunct
to an herbarium, combining portability, unalterability, and beauty
withal the method seems particularly fitted. But aside from this others
may find a delightful and instructive recreation in taking prints of
the entire flora of the old farm, the trees of a certain grove, the
native annuals of a county, the ferns of a State, or any other special
field that seems most inviting. Such copies may be taken in a blank
book suited to the purpose, or, better, take them on single sheets of
uniform size, as in this way imperfect copies may be thrown out, and
when the work is completed they may be named, classified, and bound,
making a volume of real value and worthy of just pride.

“The process consists in using the leaf for producing an impression
as a printer uses type, the ink being green, and the pressure applied
either by hand or with a press. There will be needed for the work
(1) a small ink roller such as printers use for inking type by hand
in taking proofs; (2) a stout window glass (10×12 is a good size)
fastened securely (not glued, as it may warp and break,) to an evenly
planed board about twice its surface, say 10×24. A small quantity of
the ink is put on the glass and spread with a knife, after which it is
distributed evenly by going over in all directions with the ink roller.
When this has been carefully done the leaf to be copied is laid on a
piece of waste paper and inked by applying the roller once or more with
moderate pressure. This leaves a film of ink on the veins and network
of the leaf, which should then be placed on a piece of blank paper
and considerable pressure applied for a few moments. When the leaf is
removed from the paper the work is done.

“To get the best results several points must be carefully noted.
Get a quarter or half a pound of dark green ink, which is put up in
collapsible tubes costing from fifty cents to $2 per pound, according
to quality. As sold it is invariably too thick for this purpose, and
should be thinned by adding several drops of balsam of copaiba to as
much ink as may be taken on a salt spoon. Much depends on the proper
consistency of the ink. In inking the leaf is liable to curl on the
roller, but it should part readily from it. In case it sticks tightly
the ink is too thick. Take care that the ink is evenly distributed on
the glass and roller, as it is essential that each part of the leaf
receives an equal coating of ink. If the leaf is large ink it part by
part, keeping the roller well supplied. A roller three inches long,
costing forty cents, will answer for all small leaves and branches of
plants. Clean the roller and glass with benzine after using. If the
leaf is finely veined the lower surface makes the better print, but if
the veins are coarse and large the upper surface may be used. If the
specimen is fleshy or brittle allow it to wilt until it becomes more
pliable, or if necessary it may be pressed and dried first. In most
cases the best copy is obtained after taking one or two impressions,
as the leaf takes the ink better after several applications. A good
quality of unsized paper that is made slightly damp by placing between
sheets of moist newspaper is best for general work, but in other cases
well sized paper will take a copy that will allow a foliotype (may I
coin the word?) to bear inspection side by side with a good lithograph.
I find a copying press very valuable in making the impression,
especially if the leaf is at all coriaceous. If it be soft it should
be covered with a few thicknesses of newspaper. If it is irregular
in thickness, paper may be laid over the thin parts, so that equal
pressure is received. This is necessary with all leaves that have thick
stems. If the branch is very irregular or delicate, or in the absence
of a press of any kind, the specimen may be covered with several layers
of paper, and held in place by one hand while the pressure is applied
by the thumb or palm of the other hand as required.

“These particulars are as complete as practicable. Experiments will
lead to many improvements in details. Employ tact and neatness, and you
will be surprised at the result.”


=Hand Grenades.=

Prof. F. S. Kedzie of the Michigan State Agricultural College, after a
series of analyses and experiments, draws some important conclusions
as to the value of hand-grenades, in a paper which he publishes in
the Chicago Sanitary News. A Harden hand-grenade was opened, and the
solution contained qualitatively analyzed. It consisted of common salt,
sulphate of lime, and a small amount of acetate of soda. The principal
ingredient was common salt.

The effort was made to determine (1) whether the solution in the
grenades had any more extinguishing power than water; (2) if the
solution had extinguishing power greater than water, what was the
essential ingredient in the solution. The question that first arose
regarding the composition of the grenades was: Did they contain
carbon dioxide gas or any substance that would give up the gas by
being heated? Opening the grenades under water and collecting the gas
that escaped it was found that the average amount of carbon dioxide
contained was about one cubic inch per grenade. Boiling the solution
liberated a slight amount of gas in addition; but altogether the gas
was not enough to be of any practical benefit in extinguishing fire.
It was then certain that the extinguishing power was in the solution
itself. Replacing the solution in the grenade with pure water the
extinguishing power, while greater than water thrown from a dish upon
flaming boards, was still much less than the power exerted by the

By a careful series of trials it was found that the essential
ingredient was common salt. From a number of experiments it was found
that when a grenade, or a bottle containing a strong brine, was broken
in the midst of the burning kerosene the flames were almost instantly
extinguished. A vapor seemed to spread in all directions from where the
salt solution struck the board, extinguishing the flame as it went.
Strong solutions were also made of sulphate of soda, hyposulphite of
soda, borax (biborate of soda), and bicarbonate of soda and tried as
fire extinguishers. Some worked as well, but none any better, than
common salt in extinguishing fire. The experiment was then made of
charging the bottles with brine and generating carbon dioxide by
adding lime dust and sulphuric acid and corking tightly. No practical
increase in extinguishing power from this addition was noticed. In
most instances the carbon dioxide gas escaped from the bottles inside
of four days, proving that it is impracticable to attempt to use glass
vessels with corks as a means of storing CO2 under pressure for fire

The conclusion reached from these and many more experiments was that
the Harden grenade solution possesses _much greater_ extinguishing
power than water alone, and that it owed this power to common salt
held in solution. We then constructed some home-made grenades, using
flat bottles bound together side by side with wire. Using two bottles
in this way insures their being broken in striking the burning body,
which would not always occur when only one bottle is used. Bottles thus
charged with brine and bound together were broken side by side with the
Harden grenades and found to be equally valuable.

It thus appears from the experiment that any person can construct as
good and effective grenades as those offered in the market at $7 and
$10 per dozen. Bottles filled with brine and placed around the premises
will afford considerable protection, especially when used upon the
flames when the fire just begins. Salt solutions have the further
advantage of not being easily frozen--never enough to burst the bottles.

The Lewis hand fire-extinguisher was next investigated. This consists
of a tin tube about two feet long containing thirty-four fluid ounces
of soda in weak caustic ammonia. From the trials made we could not
notice any appreciable superiority over the salt solution as used in
the Harden grenade. It has the disadvantage of not being made to break
by being thrown, but must be opened by having a cork extracted from one
end of the tube, requiring a smart jerk. The solution is then sprinkled
on the fire by the operator.

We herewith append a number of fire-extinguishing compounds, all of
which are highly recommended by various authorities:

=Munich Fire-Extinguishing Powder.=

    Common salt                             43   per cent.
    Alum                                    19.5 per cent.
    Glauber’s salt                           5.1 per cent.
    Soda                                     3.5 per cent.
    Water glass                              6.6 per cent.
    Water                                   22.3 per cent.

=Richardson’s Fire-Extinguishing Powder.=

    Alum                                   4-1/2 pounds.
    Common salt                           10     pounds.
    Glauber’s salt                         1     pound.
    Soda                                   1     pound.
    Water glass                            1-1/2 pounds.

=Vienna Fire-Extinguishing Powder.=

    Green vitriol                              4 parts.
    Ammonium sulphate                         16 parts.
    Water                                    100 parts.

=Proteau’s Fire-Extinguishing Powder.=

    Carbonate of soda                          8 pounds.
    Alum                                       4 pounds.
    Borax                                      3 pounds.
    Carbonate of potash                        1 pound.
    Silicate of soda solution                 24 pounds.

Mix thoroughly and add 1-1/2 pounds of this mixture to each gallon of
water, when required.

                       Transferring Photographs.


This beautiful and valuable process of transferring photographs in
plain or colored work has been taught at high prices under various
high-sounding names, such as “Roman art,” etc. Photographs can be
transferred and preserved for years which would have been soiled,
faded, and ruined if allowed to remain on the card.

Separate the paper print from the background or card by steaming it,
after which dry thoroughly. Warm the glass slightly and coat evenly
with balsam or negative varnish and place the print face downward on
the surface thus prepared. After smoothing it carefully set away in
a cool place until the varnish has hardened. Then apply water, and
with a soft piece of gum rubber rub off the paper so as to leave the
photographic image on the varnished glass.

                          Stamping Patterns.

Draw the pattern upon heavy paper and perforate with small holes all
the lines with the point of some sharp instrument, dust the following
powder through the perforations, remove the pattern and pass a warm
iron over the fabric, when the pattern will become fixed. Any desired
color can be used, such as Prussian blue, chrome green, yellow,
vermilion, etc.:

    Fine white rosin                           2 ounces.
    Gum sandarac                               4 ounces.
    Color                                      2 ounces.

Powder very fine, mix, and pass through a sieve.

                             Magic Paper.


This paper is really a valuable article, and is manufactured and sold
under various names, such as the “stylograph,” “rapid copying process,”
etc. It is used principally by salesmen in keeping a record of their
sales, as three copies can be taken simultaneously with one writing.
In this way traveling salesmen can with one writing give a copy of
his sale to his customer (which is frequently demanded), another he
can send to his firm, and retain the third one for his own use. It is
used in a similar manner in nearly all the large stores, and by many
individuals in their business correspondence. It is also valuable for
transferring figures in embroidery and taking impressions of leaves for
herbariums, etc., which it does beautifully, but for the latter purpose
nothing equals the foliotype method previously explained.

The paper is made by mixing pure lard or sweet oil to the consistence
of cream with either of the following paints, the color of which is
desired: Prussian blue, lamp black, Venetian red, or chrome green,
either of which should be rubbed with a knife on a plate or flat
surface until smooth. Use rather thin but firm paper; put on with
a sponge and wipe off as dry as possible. Lay the sheets between
uncolored paper or newspaper, and press by laying books or some other
flat substance upon them until the surplus oil is absorbed, when it is
ready for use.

FOR COPYING LETTERS AND ORDERS.--Either _two_ or _three_ copies can be
made at one time, as desired. To make _two_ copies place a sheet of
the magic paper between the two sheets selected for the order, bill,
or letter, and write upon the upper sheet with a hard lead pencil (the
harder the lead the cleaner the copy). It is best to place a piece of
hard cardboard under all the sheets while writing.

To make _three_ copies use two sheets of magic paper, placing one
between the first and second leaves and the other between the second
and third leaves. Proceed as in taking two copies by writing upon the
top leaf. A stout, thin linen paper will produce the best results, but
almost any kind will do.

TO TRANSFER EMBROIDERY PATTERNS.--Place a piece of thin paper over the
embroidery to prevent soiling; then lay on the magic paper and put on
the cloth you wish to take the copy on to embroider; pin fast and rub
over with a spoon-handle, and every part of the raised figure will show
upon the plain cloth.

TO TAKE IMPRESSIONS OF LEAVES.--Place the leaf between two sheets of
the magic paper and rub it over hard; then take the leaf out and place
it between two sheets of white paper; rub again, and you will have a
beautiful impression of both sides of the leaf or flower.

                        Cleaning Preparations.

=Lightning Grease Renovator.=

An excellent general preparation for removing grease, paint, etc.

    Castile soap (cut fine)                    4 ounces.
    Hot water                                  1 quart.

Dissolve, after which add and mix thoroughly,

    Aqua ammonia                               4 ounces.
    Sulphuric ether                            1 ounce.
    Glycerine                                  1 ounce.
    Alcohol                                    1 ounce.
    Water                                      1 quart.

An elegant general preparation for cleaning gloves, silks, etc., is
made as follows:

    Deodorized gasoline (or benzine)           1 pint.
    Alcohol, chloroform, and ether, each     1/2 fluid ounce.

Mix, and perfume with cologne, lavender, or any desired odor. Do not
use near a flame.

“GANTEIN” FOR CLEANSING GLOVES.--The preparation sold under this name
is made as follows: Dissolve 6 parts of soap in 2 parts of water; add 4
parts of bleaching liquor and 1/4 part of aqua ammonia. Rub the gloves
with the fluid until clean.

                    Cleaning Tarnished Silverware.


    Cyanide potassium                          3 ounces.
    Soft water                                 2 gallons.

Mix and dissolve. Label it “poison,” and place out of the reach of
children. Have the article clean and free from grease; dip in solution
till tarnish is off, but no longer (and under no circumstances leave
it in too long). After immersion the article must be taken out and
thoroughly rinsed in a number of waters (warm preferred), then dried
with a soft rag or sawdust.

Another method, which is safe and cheap, consists in using a saturated
solution of hyposulphite of soda to which a little bolted whiting has
been added. Apply with a brush or cloth until the tarnish is removed.

                       Clark’s Wash for Carpets.

SOLUTION 1.--Dissolve 10 parts of soap in 20 of water, and add 3-1/2
parts of soda and one-half part of liquid ammonia and spirit of wine.

SOLUTION 2.--Is the _actual cleansing liquid_, and consists of 4 parts
of liquid ammonia and 3 of alcohol diluted with water.

The last solution is first used, and when the dirt loosened by it has
been removed the soap solution is applied. Carpets thus treated regain
their original colors in all their freshness, the entire operation of
washing and drying a large carpet requiring but two hours, and the
carpet need not be taken up.

                        Universal Stain Table.

Showing at a glance what means to employ in removing any kind of stain
from any kind of fabric. Red acid stains are destroyed by ammonia,
followed by thorough washing with water. Burn stains of nitric acid are
permanent. Great care must be observed when ether and benzine are used.
Keep the open bottle and the fabric being cleaned away from an open
fire or blaze. The ether especially is so volatile that an open bottle
will take fire from a gas-jet or blaze several feet away if the draft
is right. You cannot be too careful.


 |KIND OF STAIN.|_From Linen._ |   COLORED FABRICS.    |    _Silk._    |
 |              |              | _Cotton._ | _Wool._   |               |
 |Sugar,        |                                                      |
 |gelatine,     |              Washing simply in water.                |
 |blood,        |                                                      |
 |albumen.      |                                                      |
 |Fat           |Soap-water,   |Tepid soap-|Soap-water,|Benzine, ether,|
 |              |alkaline      |water.     |spirit     |spirit of      |
 |              |lyes.         |           |sal-       |sal-ammoniac,  |
 |              |              |           |ammoniac.  |potash,        |
 |              |              |           |           |magnesia,      |
 |              |              |           |           |chalk,         |
 |              |              |           |           |yolk of egg.   |
 |Varnish       |        Oil of turpentine,            |Benzine, ether,|
 |and           |        benzine,                      |soap;          |
 |oil-paint.    |        and finally soap.             |careful        |
 |              |                                      |rubbing.       |
 |Stearine.     |              Alcohol of 95 per cent.                 |
 |Vegetable     |Sulphurous    |    Washing in warm    |As above,      |
 |colors,       |vapors, warm  |    soap-water or      |rubbing gently |
 |red wine,     |chlorine      |    liquid ammonia.    |and carefully. |
 |fruits,       |water.        |                       |               |
 |red ink.      |              |                       |               |
 |Alizarine ink.|Tartaric acid;| Diluted solution of   |   As above.   |
 |              |the older the | tartaric acid,        |               |
 |              |stain the more| if the fabric permits.|               |
 |              |concentrated  |                       |               |
 |              |the solution. |                       |               |
 |Rust and      |Warm oxalic   |Repeated   |The same as|Nothing can be |
 |gall-nut ink  |acid solution,|washing    |for cotton,|done;          |
 |              |diluted       |with       |but diluted|all attempts   |
 |              |hydrochloric  |dissolved  |hydrochlo- |only increase  |
 |              |acid, and     |citric     |ric acid if|the evil.      |
 |              |finally tin   |acid, if   |the wool is|               |
 |              |filings.      |the fabric |naturally  |               |
 |              |              |is dyed    |coloured.  |               |
 |              |              |well.      |           |               |
 |Lime and      |Washing simply|Pouring diluted nitric acid drop by    |
 |alkaline      |in water.     |drop upon the stain. The previously    |
 |lyes.         |              |moistened is rubbed off with the       |
 |              |              |finger.                                |
 |Tannin, green |Eau de        |More or less concentrated chlorine     |
 |nut shells.   |Javelle, warm |tint water, according to the nature    |
 |              |chlorine water|and of the fabric, and alternate       |
 |              |concentrated  |washing with water.                    |
 |              |solution of   |                                       |
 |              |tartaric acid.|                                       |
 |Coal-tar,     |Soap, oil of  |Rubbing with lard,     |Same as for    |
 |wagon-grease. |turpentine,   |then soaping, and      |colored        |
 |              |alternating   |after a while washing  |fabrics; use   |
 |              |with a jet of |alternately with       |benzine instead|
 |              |water.        |oil of turpentine      |of turp.; jet  |
 |              |              |and water.             |of water must  |
 |              |              |                       |fall on back   |
 |              |              |                       |of stain.      |

                        Liebig’s Washing Fluid.


    Sal soda                                   1 pound.
    Stone lime                               1/2 pound.
    Water                                      5 quarts.

Boil a short time, stirring occasionally; then let it settle and pour
off the clear liquid into a bottle or jug and cork for use. Soak your
clothes over night in simple water; wring out and soap wrist-bands,
collars, and dirty or stained places. Have your boiler filled with
water, and when at scalding heat put in a teacupful of the fluid, then
put in your clothes and boil for half an hour, after which rub lightly
through one suds only, rinsing well in the bluing water, and all is

For each additional boiler of clothes add half a cup of the fluid; of
course boiling in the same water through the whole washing. If more
water is needed in the boiler for the last clothes dip it from the
sudsing tub. Soak your woolen and calico in the suds from which you
have washed the white clothes, while hanging them out dipping in some
of the boiling water from the boiler, if necessary; then wash out
the woolen and calico as usual--of course washing out woolen goods
before you do the calico. The fluid brightens instead of fading the
colors.--_Dr. Chase._

PREMIUM WASHING FLUID.--This fluid is equal to the best that can be
prepared, and as it is recommended to be used in a simpler manner than
the foregoing many will doubtless prefer it:

    Sal soda                                   4 pounds.
    Borax                                      2 ounces.
    Sal tartar                                 1 ounce.
    Aqua ammonia                             1/2 pint.
    Spirit of camphor                          2 ounces.
    Oil of turpentine                          1 ounce.
    Hot water                                  6 pints.

Dissolve the sal soda, borax, and sal tartar in the hot water and add
the other ingredients. Soak the clothes over night in water to which
has been added a table-spoonful of the fluid for each gallon of water;
also add a little in washing water.

                          How I Iron Shirts.


Take two ounces of spermaceti, one ounce of white wax, one ounce of
paraffine. Mix and put in a saucer over a tea-kettle in which water is
boiling, until melted, stirring several times. Then let it get cold,
after which put in a clean box for use.

To make the starch: For two shirts, collars, and cuffs take one
table-spoonful of starch dissolved in water; shave a piece of the above
into it the size of a bean. Pour boiling water into it until thick,
cook twenty minutes and set away to cool. Take one table-spoonful of
starch, dissolve it in cold water, and when the boiled starch gets
lukewarm pour it over it, stir well, and strain. Have the garments dry
and lay the starch on the wrong side and work it through. Be careful
that the starch is rubbed in until the right side is wet all over. When
well saturated roll up tight in a clean cloth. They need not lay but
a few minutes. Stretch them on a bosom-board, and with a damp cloth
rub out all the wrinkles. Lay a fine cloth over and iron it twice.
If a collar or cuff turn it over and do the same on the other side.
Take off the cloth and iron perfectly dry. If the bosom has pleats
raise them before ironing dry and dry under them. After the bosom is
perfectly dry (for this polishing process you need a good, smooth,
hard board about two by one and a half feet--the harder the better--a
marble slab of that size is better still), put the bosom on the bare
board, dip a clean white cloth in water, wring almost dry, rub lightly
over the bosom, then rub it with a dry cloth, and polish with back of
iron or with polishing iron. If any dirt gets on rub off with a damp
cloth and polish again. The polishing is not necessarily done the same
day they are ironed. If your time is limited, or your work interrupted
by callers or other duties, lay them aside after having ironed them
perfectly dry.

                        Liquid Washing Bluing.

    Soluble Prussian blue                      1 ounce.
    Oxalic acid                              1/4 ounce.
    Boiling water                              1 quart.

This makes the very best quality of bluing at a slight cost.

                         Family Washing Soaps.

We see no reason why every economical housewife should not profit by
these simple methods of preparing cheap laundry soap, as they are the
results of practical experience.

=Best Soft Soap.=

Take 4 pounds of white bar soap, cut it fine, and dissolve by heating
in 4 gallons of soft water, after which add 1 pound of sal soda.
Dissolve and mix thoroughly. If it is desired the soap can be made
thicker by adding less water.

=Hard Soap With Lard.=

    Sal soda and lard, each                    6 pounds.
    Stone lime                                 3 pounds.
    Soft water                                 4 gallons.

Dissolve the lime and soda in the water by boiling, stirring, and
settling; pour off, then return to the kettle (brass or copper), add
the lard and boil it until it becomes soap. Then pour into a dish or
molds, and when cool cut it into bars and dry it.

=White Hard Soap With Tallow.=

Take 2 pounds each of fresh-slacked lime, sal soda, and tallow;
dissolve the soda in 1 gallon of boiling soft water, stirring
occasionally every few hours after which let it settle, pouring off the
clear liquor and boiling the tallow therein until it is all dissolved;
cool it in a flat box or pan, and cut into bars or cakes as desired.
It may be perfumed with oil of sassafras or any other perfume desired,
stirring it in when cool.

                      Cleaning Soiled Wall-paper.

The old form of this process was to use stale bread or bread baked to a
proper consistency, but it seldom produces satisfactory results except
in the hands of experts, and then it is an impossibility to keep from
scratching the surface of the paper with the sharp points of the crust.
A dough preparation known only to a few experts engaged in cleaning
walls by contract, and who have been known to make from $5 to $25 per
day, is now used, which is far superior in every way to anything yet
discovered. The walls can be cleaned over and over again, each time
appearing as bright as new paper.

    Wheat flour                                  Three parts.
    Powdered prepared whiting                    One part.

Mix the flour and whiting thoroughly, and add enough water to bring
it to the consistency of ordinary dough. Use by taking a small
piece--about twice the size of a hen’s egg. Press against the wall and
remove the dirt by making long strokes. After making a stroke knead
the dirt into the dough, and continue doing so until it is useless. A
quart of the preparation used in this manner will clean the walls of a
good-sized room.

When it is desired to keep the ingredients of the composition a secret
a coloring matter may be added to assist in mystifying. When the walls
are discolored by grease or marks where people have rested their heads,
mix pipeclay to the consistency of cream, lay it on the spot and allow
it to remain until the following day, when it may be easily removed
with a penknife or brush.

                        Polishing Preparations.

POLISHING POWDER.--For polishing silver and nickel-plated ware, brass,
copper, etc.:

    Fossil silica                              2 ounces.
    Rouge (or fine crocus martis)            1/2 ounce.
    Prepared chalk                           1/2 pound.

Rub the fossil silica to a fine powder and thoroughly mix with the
chalk. This will not scratch the finest surface. Use by rubbing with a
damp sponge or rag, and finish dry with chamois skin or dry rag.

=Polishing Pastes.=

    Fossil silica                              1 ounce.
    Petrolatum                               1/2 pound.
    Cotton-seed oil (or sweet oil)             1 ounce.
    Subcarbonate of iron                       3 ounces.
    Essential oil of almonds                  30 minims.

Reduce the fossil silica to a very fine powder and mix it with the
iron; melt the petrolatum, add the cotton-seed oil, stir in the
powders, and while cooling add the flavoring oil and stir until ready
to set, then run into boxes similar to ordinary blacking boxes. Apply
with a soft rag dipped in the paste, and finish with a clean cloth.
Prepared chalk or whiting can be used instead of fossil silica. The
paste does its work faster than the polishing powder, and if the
articles are very much corroded it is preferable.

Another excellent paste, which can be put in boxes or formed into balls
and allowed to harden, is to take finely powdered rotten-stone, sift it
thoroughly through muslin or a hair sieve, and knead with a sufficient
quantity of soft soap to form a stiff paste. To 1/2 pound of this mass
add 1-3/4 fluid ounces of oil of turpentine.

=Cleaning Powder for Show Windows, Mirrors, Etc.=

Moisten calcined magnesia with pure benzine. The mixture should be
preserved in bottles with glass stoppers, as the benzine is very
volatile. Use by placing a little of the mixture on a wad of cotton and
apply to the glass.

                           Marble Cleaning.

Rub with muriatic acid diluted with water, care being taken that it is
not too strong. Repeat the process till clean, then wash with clear
water. When the marble is very dirty, as in the case of old tombstones,
use the following:

    Muriatic acid                              2 ounces.
    Acetic acid                                1 ounce.
    Verdigris                                  1 drachm.

Mix, apply with a brush, and sponge off with clear water. Repeat until
clean, then polish with pumice stone continually moistened with water
as you proceed.

                          Furniture Varnish.

    White wax                                  5 ounces.
    Potash                                 7-1/2 ounces.

Boil lightly for fifteen minutes, allow to cool, and then skim off the
wax which floats on the surface. Apply the wax to the furniture, and
by rubbing it an hour afterward with a woolen cloth a beautiful luster
will be the result.

                       French Furniture Polish.

This is the best article that can be made for restoring the luster and
color of furniture:

    Butter of antimony                         3 fluid ounces.
    Linseed oil                               12 fluid ounces.
    Alcohol                                    6 fluid ounces.
    Shellac                                    2 ounces av.
    Oil of turpentine                         10 fluid ounces.
    Hydrochloric acid                          1 ounce.

Dissolve the shellac in the alcohol and add the linseed oil and
turpentine; then add the hydrochloric acid and butter of antimony,
which has been previously mixed, and thoroughly mix all together. Apply
with a tuft of cotton, and finish by rubbing down hard with Canton
flannel or a woolen rag.

                        Maple Syrup and Sugar.


It is an astonishing fact that nine-tenths of the so-called maple
sugar and maple syrup sold as the genuine articles are nothing more
than clever imitations. The method of making the best quality of these
imitations--and which really defies detection of a majority of dealers
and consumers--is very cheap and simple, a gallon of the syrup costing
about fifty cents and the sugar simply the cost of ordinary, cheap
sugar. We were told by a Mr. Baldwin of Kentucky, a son of the reputed
discoverer of the secret for producing the maple flavoring, that
various manufacturers of imitation maple sugar and syrup in the large
cities had paid his father thousands of dollars in royalties for his

Procure a quantity of the rough outside bark of what is known as
scaly-bark hickory tree. Take about 3 or 4 pounds of the bark and boil
in one-half gallon of water until it is reduced to a quart, then strain
and add 5 pounds of common brown or yellow sugar; heat again until
thoroughly dissolved and it is ready for use. To make imitation maple
syrup simply boil the syrup until it is reduced back to sugar again,
and when it is made properly the flavor and appearance of the genuine
article is obtained.

                           Artificial Honey.

    Clarified sugar                           10 pounds.
    Pure honey (strained)                      3 pounds.
    Soft water                                 3 pints.
    Cream tartar                               1 drachm.
    Essence peppermint                        10 drops.

Dissolve the sugar in the water by the aid of gentle heat; take off
the scum, and the honey and the cream tartar previously dissolved in a
little water; bring to the boiling point, stir well, then let it cool.

                      Artificial Lemonade Syrup.

    Loaf sugar                                 2 pounds.
    Citric acid                                2 ounces.
    Concentrated essence of lemon              2 drachms.
    Essence of almonds                        20 drops.
    Hot water                                  2 pints.

Dissolve the citric acid in hot water, add the sugar, and lastly the
lemon and almonds. Stir well, cover with a cloth, and leave until cold.
Two table-spoonfuls to a tumbler of cold water will make an excellent
drink as refreshing as the best lemonade.

                        Best Artificial Cider.

    Water                                     25 gallons.
    Honey (or fine syrup)                  1-1/4 gallons.
    Catechu (pure)                             6 drachms.
    Alum                                   1-1/4 ounces.
    Yeast                                    1/2 pint.

Ferment for fifteen days in a warm place, then add:

    Bitter almonds                             2 ounces.
    Cloves                                     2 ounces.
    Whisky                                     6 pints.
    Burnt sugar, to color.

If acid should be in excess add honey or sugar; if too sweet add cider
vinegar to suit the taste.

                       Genuine New Orleans Mead.

    Sarsaparilla root (contused)               8 ounces.
    Licorice                                   8 ounces.
    Cassia bark (contused)                     8 ounces.
    Cloves                                     2 ounces.
    Coriander seeds                            3 ounces.
    Ginger                                     8 ounces.

Boil for fifteen minutes in eight gallons of water and let stand till
cold to settle down, then strain through a flannel rag, and add to it
in the fountain:

    Syrup                                     12 pints.
    Honey                                      4 pints.
    Tincture of ginger                         4 ounces.
    Solution of citric acid                    4 ounces.

Add enough water to complete ten gallons, and charge with gas.--_Prof.
E. S. Wayne, in Kilner’s Formulary._

                            Baking Powders.

Pure baking powders are very simple in composition, care being used
in preparing them and procuring pure ingredients. According to the
advertised statements of the various leading manufacturers we are
forced to make our own if we desire a pure and wholesome article. As
the essential ingredients of the best baking powder are baking soda and
cream of tartar we need only be careful in buying of honest grocers
or druggists who will guarantee their purity. It is not difficult to
procure pure soda, but the cream of tartar is frequently adulterated,
and care must be used in its purchase.

It is very important that the materials used must be finely powdered,
perfectly dry, and thoroughly mixed. For household purposes a patent
sifter is the best to use in mixing. Run the articles through a number
of times and free from all lumps. The ingredients can be dried by
placing them in an oven for a short time before mixing.

=Baking Powder No. 1.=

    Pure cream of tartar                       2 pounds.
    Pure bicarbonate of soda                   1 pound.
    Corn starch                                2 ounces.

This is the best that can be made. One to two tea-spoonfuls to a quart
of flour.

=Baking Powder No. 2.=

A cheaper powder, but superior to the majority of powders you will buy,
is prepared as follows:

    Pure cream of tartar                       2 pounds.
    Pure bicarbonate of soda                   2 pounds.
    Tartaric acid                              6 ounces.
    Corn starch                                1 pound.
    Best flour                                 4 pounds.

Use two tea-spoonfuls to a quart of flour. Do not be afraid of the
tartaric acid, as it is harmless. It is best to keep your baking powder
in a well-stopped jar or bottle. Flour, terra alba, alum, and chalk are
the chief ingredients used in the adulteration of cream of tartar. To
determine the admixture of flour rub a few grains of iodine with one
ounce of the suspected cream of tartar; if so adulterated a blue tint
to the mixture will be produced; or by dissolving a small quantity
in water you can prove its presence by the stickiness. Chalk may be
determined by its effervescing on the addition of diluted acids; alum
by dissolving in hot water and allowing the solution to chrystallize;
terra alba and other clays by their insolubility in a hot solution of
caustic potassa.

                          Flavoring Extracts.

The profits to manufacturers and dealers on these household necessities
are very large, and the prudent consumer will take advantage of
the directions here given. Extracts of lemon and vanilla are most
frequently used; nutmeg, mace, cinnamon, etc., are usually used dry by

=Best Lemon Extract.=

    Best deodorized alcohol                    1 pint.
    Oil of lemon                               1 ounce.

Cut the peels of two lemons into fine pieces and add to the alcohol and
oil of lemon. Let stand for a few days and filter through a felt bag or
filtering paper.

=Extract of Vanilla.=

Extract of vanilla is prepared direct from the vanilla bean. Use care
in the purchase of the beans, as there are several varieties. The
Mexican vanilla beans have the finest flavor, and the longer the bean,
as a rule, the better the extract. There are other excellent varieties
of vanilla beans, but they have a somewhat ranker flavor than the
Mexican. Unscrupulous jobbers and dealers have been known to soak the
whole beans in spirits, practically stealing all their flavor, and
then by drying them place them on the market. They can be detected by
their light color and brittleness. Most of the vanilla extracts sold
for flavoring purposes are adulterated with Tonka beans and other
adulterants, some containing not a particle of vanilla.

The following will make a splendid article, and you know what you
are getting without paying high prices for weak extracts put up in
deceptive little panel bottles. Dishonest manufacturers never yield a
point in their efforts to defraud. Not content with the liberty they
take with the contents they employ the bottle-makers’ art to deceive us
in the quantity of the precious stuff:

    Vanilla beans                              1 ounce.
    Sugar                                      1 ounce.
    Cologne spirits (deodorized alcohol)      12 ounces.
    Water                                      4 ounces.

Slit the beans and cut them very fine, then mix them with sugar and
bruise until moderately fine; then mix with spirits and water and put
in a warm place; allow to stand for two weeks (longer the better)
shaking every day, and when through filter. Manufacturers color with
caramel or other coloring, but for home use this is unnecessary.

=To Extract Essential Oils.=

To extract essential oils from wood, bark, herbs, etc., put a quantity
of the herb or other article into a bottle or jar and pour in a small
quantity of ether. Keep in a cool place several hours, and then fill
the bottle with cold water. The essential oil will rise to the surface,
and may be easily separated.

                      How to Make Rubber Stamps.

The wording of the desired rubber stamp having been correctly set up in
ordinary type, the same is locked up and placed upon a level support.
Around it is put an iron frame, which will determine the shape and size
of the matrix.

By means of a soft brush the type as well as all surrounding parts that
are to be covered by the plaster of Paris are well oiled.

For the purpose of making the cast finely ground fresh plaster of
Paris is needed; if of long standing, the same will lose its desirable
properties. This plaster of Paris, of which a sufficient quantity
should at one time be mixed to the consistency of pap, using clear
water, is poured over the frame containing the type in a thin layer, so
as to barely cover it. With a stout brush the mixture is driven into
all spaces and interstices, until all details are thoroughly covered.
After this the remaining pap of plaster of Paris is added until the
frame is full to overflowing. The surface is smoothed down after the
plaster has settled somewhat, and in a short while the matrix in the
frame may be removed from the type.

After this it becomes necessary to bake the matrix in an oven for a
period of from four to six hours. When thoroughly baked the matrix
should be well brushed with a thin solution of shellac to impart a
smooth surface, and at the same time greater strength.

The matrix at this stage represents a yellowish-white block, in which
the lettering appears indented, but in proper place. The indentation
corresponds to the height of the letter upon the piece of type or the
marks upon a cut, while the remaining parts should be perfectly smooth
and free from holes. This matrix, obtained by a coating from the type
or cut, will serve as the mould for the final rubber stamp.

Pieces of caoutchouc are cut to the required size and laid upon the
matrix. If pressure is now exerted the soft mass will adjust itself to
fill all the spaces and reproduce the mould invertedly. Indentations
become raised matter, and the whole will show as did primarily the type.

But as the caoutchouc has a tendency to return to its previous shape it
becomes necessary to apply the process called vulcanizing. The object
is to impart hardness to the rubber, and to prevent its losing the form
into which it has been pressed.

To accomplish this the caoutchouc must be heated to a temperature of
from 120 to 130 deg. C. As the substance is ordinarily softened by heat
it is necessary to take some means to prevent it from sticking to the
mould. For the purpose soapstone will answer, and the mould, as well
as the piece of caoutchouc, should be well brushed or dusted with this

The duration of the heating varies with the thickness of the rubber
sheet. As a general thing from twenty to thirty minutes ought to be
sufficient. It may be mentioned here that special apparatus can be
purchased for pressing and vulcanizing. The proper vulcanization is of
the greatest importance in determining the durability of the stamp.

All that remains to complete the stamps is the mounting of the rubber
plate upon a suitable base or handle. This is best done either with
zinc or with a solution of caoutchouc in benzine. The surface of the
handle, as well as the back part of the stamps, having been covered
with such a solution and well pressed together, after drying the entire
stamp will be ready for use.--_Amer. Lith. and Printer._

                         Vermin Exterminators.

=Phosphorus or Luminous Paste.=

This is an unequaled preparation for destroying rats, mice,
cockroaches, etc. It attracts them by its luminous appearance and also
by its odor, which is very attractive to all vermin. They eat it with
great avidity.

    Phosphorus                               1/2 ounce.
    Armenian bole                              1 ounce.
    Arsenic                                    1 ounce.
    Oil of rhodium                           1/2 drachm.
    Tallow                                    10 ounces.
    Rye flour                                 12 ounces.
    Water                                     12 ounces.

Cook the flour and water to a thin paste; add the
phosphorus--previously melted in a little hot water--and mix; then add
the rest and stir until thoroughly mixed.

OTHER METHODS OF DESTROYING RATS.--(1) Mix some fine plaster of Paris
with an equal quantity of flour; put the mixture in the place infested
by the vermin and a vessel full of water beside it. The rats will
devour the mixture and then drink, whereupon the plaster, brought into
contact with the water, will become solid and like a stone in their
stomachs, which will cause their deaths. (2) When a house is infested
with rats which refuse to nibble at toasted cheese or the usual baits,
a few drops of oil of rhodium poured on or near the bait will attract
them while the most tempting baits fail. (3) Cover the floor near their
holes and place into their haunts a quantity of caustic potash. This
they lick with their tongues, which makes their mouths sore, and they
not only shun this locality, but appear to tell all the neighboring
rats about it. (4) Instead of using chloride of lime or potash a
quantity of tar can be smeared in and around their haunts and they will
disappear. Tar and rats do not agree. If a live rat be caught, smeared
with tar, and allowed to escape into the holes he will do the smearing
process thoroughly.

=Roach and Moth Exterminator.=

    Thymol                                     2 parts.
    Salicylic acid                             2 parts.
    Alcohol                                  200 parts.
    Oil of lemon                               1 part.

This new, simple, and cheap preparation makes no stain and kills the
vermin immediately. The odor is not unpleasant, and is quickly removed
by airing the room. Use by sprinkling, or moistening blotting paper
with the solution.

=Moth Powder.=

    Lupulin                                    1 drachm.
    Scotch snuff                               2 ounces.
    Camphor gum                                1 ounce.
    Black pepper                               1 ounce.
    Cedar sawdust                              4 ounces.

Mix thoroughly and strew among the furs and woolens.

=Bedbug Poison.=

    Corrosive sublimate (in powder)            2 ounces.
    Alcohol                                    1 pint.

Apply with a feather or stick into their hiding places. Label poison,
and place all such compounds out of the reach of children.

=Poison Fly Paper.=

    White arsenic                              1 ounce.
    Sugar                                    1/2 pound.
    Concentrated lye                         1/4 ounce.
    Water                                      1 quart.

Dissolve the concentrated lye in the water, add the sugar and boil the
solution, meanwhile gradually adding the arsenic. While still warm dip
porous paper (cut into small squares) in the solution and dry them. For
use place in plates or saucers partly filled with water where the flies
can get at them.

=Sticky Fly Paper.=

    Rosin                                      8 ounces.
    Lard or cotton-seed oil                    3 ounces.

Boil together, spread thinly on manilla paper, place another sheet on
top, and when wanted pull them apart and it is ready for use. This is
now usually preferred to the poison paper, as the flies are caught and
held and do not die and drop into food, etc.

=Mosquito and Fly Frightener.=

    Petrolatum                                 1 ounce.
    Paraffine                                1/8 ounce.
    Oil pennyroyal                           1/3 ounce.
    Oil of tar                               2/3 ounce.
    Carbolic acid                            2/3 drachm.

Melt the solid ingredients together, and when partly cooled add the
other ingredients. This is an elegant preparation to rub on the hands
and face where flies, mosquitos, gnats, etc., are troublesome.


Late improvements in the manufacture of inks are due to the discovery
and cheapening of substances which can be used in preparing them. While
good common writing inks are quite easily procured in the market, still
they can be manufactured much cheaper by the consumer; and then again
there are a variety of special purposes which require inks that are
not on sale, and formulas for making them are very valuable. In this
collection we give approved and tested formulas for everything in the
ink line.

=Fine Black Ink.=


A good black ink can be made by boiling 3 pounds of logwood with
sufficient water to leave a residue of 5 quarts. When cold add 3
drachms of yellow bichromate of potash and stir thoroughly. To prevent
thickening add a few drops of solution of mercury salt. It flows
freely from the pen. Its color at first is of a dark indigo-blue tint,
changing soon into a permanent black. A beautiful gloss may be given to
this or any other black ink by adding a strong solution of shellac and

=Fine Black Ink.=


    Black aniline crystals (negrosine)     1-1/2 ounces.
    Dextrine                                   1 ounce.
    Corrosive sublimate                        5 grains.
    Water                                      2 quarts.

Dissolve the negrosine in a quart of hot water; dissolve the corrosive
sublimate and dextrine in the remaining quart, and pour all together.
This is a splendid ink, flows freely from the pen, and will keep well.

In making ink use care in buying the best anilines and other
ingredients. This is important.

=Fine Red Ink.=

    Eosine aniline                           100 grains.
    Water                                      1 pint.

Simply dissolve the aniline in the water. No better bright, fiery red
ink can be made.

=Fine Violet Ink.=

    Violet aniline                            70 grains.
    Alcohol                                  1/2 ounce.
    Dextrine                                 1/2 ounce.
    Hot water                                  1 pint.

Dissolve the aniline in the alcohol and the dextrine in the hot water,
and mix them.

=Fine Blue Ink.=

    Water blue aniline                         1 drachm.
    Dextrine                                 1/4 ounce.
    Hot water                                  1 pint.

One-fourth of an ounce of Prussian blue may be used instead of the
water blue aniline.

=Fine Green Ink.=

    Green aniline                              1 drachm.
    Dextrine                                 1/4 ounce.
    Hot water                                  1 pint.

Aniline inks of any color can be made in a similar manner. Simply get
the desired color of aniline. Maroon ink may be made by mixing equal
quantities of black, blue, and red inks; yellow by adding 1-1/4 drachms
of picric acid to 1 pint of hot water.

=Copying Ink.=

Take 1 pint of the violet-black ink and add 1 ounce each of sugar and
gum Arabic. This is for what is called moist copying where a press is
used. For what is termed dry copying mix about 1/3 pint of glycerine
to a pint of any good black ink. The manuscript, if written on glazed
paper, will not dry for hours, and will yield one or two fair, neat,
dry copies by simple pressure of the hand. The writing should not be
excessively fine nor the strokes uneven or heavy. The copies and the
original are neater than when water is used.

=Gaffard’s Indestructible Ink.=

    Lampblack                                  1 part.
    Potash water glass                        12 parts.
    Aqua ammonia                               1 part.
    Distilled water                           38 parts.

The potash water glass should be of the consistency of syrup.

=Hektograph Ink.=


A good purple ink to use on the gelatine copying pad, or hektograph, is
prepared as follows:

    Methyl violet                              1 ounce.
    Water                                      8 ounces.
    Glycerine                                  1 ounce.
    Alcohol                                  1/4 ounce.

Dissolve the methyl-violet in the water and add the glycerine. Gently
warm the solution for an hour, and after cooling add the alcohol.

When black hektograph ink is desired, instead of the methyl-violet use
double the amount of negrosine.

=White Ink.=

An excellent white ink, which can be used with a pen for writing on
colored cards or paper, may be made as follows:

    Flake white                               12 drachms.
    Mucilage of gum Arabic                     6 drachms.

If too thick add water; if too thin, more mucilage. Shake well while

=Rubber Stamp Ink.=

    Aniline (desired color)                  1/2 ounce.
    Glycerine                                  2 ounces.

=Ribbon Ink.=


    Aniline                                  1/2 ounce.
    Alcohol                                    4 ounces.
    Glycerine                                  7 ounces.
    Water                                      4 ounces.

Dissolve the aniline in the alcohol and add the other ingredients.

=Marking Ink.=


    Extract of Logwood                         8 ounces.
    Bichromate of potash                       1 ounce.
    Hydrochloric acid                        3/4 ounce.
    Dextrine                                   4 ounces.
    Water                                    1/2 gallon.

Boil the logwood with the water, add the acid and potash, and lastly
the dextrine.

=Indelible Ink.=


Dissolve 5 parts of lunar caustic in 10 parts of spirit of sal
ammoniac. Add to the solution 7 parts of pure soda, 5 of gum Arabic,
and 12 of water.

=Ink for Writing on Metals.=


    Muriatic acid                              1 ounce.
    Nitric acid                              1/2 ounce.

Cover the portion of metal you wish to write upon with melted
beeswax and allow it to cool. Write the inscription plainly with any
sharp-pointed instrument through the beeswax to the metal. Apply the
acids with a feather or rag, carefully filling each letter, and let it
remain from one to thirty minutes, according to the desired depth of
the lettering, after which wash off the beeswax and acids and rub over
with a little sweet oil to prevent further rust or tarnish.

=Ink Powders.=

As in the case of fluid inks there are many formulas for preparing ink
powders. The following are the best:

BLACK.--Nut-galls, 1 ounce; copperas, 1/2 ounce; gum Arabic, 7 ounces.
Add one clove to this quantity. Or, take negrosine, 1 ounce; dextrine,
3 ounces; mix.

BLUE.--Water blue aniline, 1 ounce; dextrine, 5 ounces. Or, soluble
Prussian blue, 1/2 ounce; dextrine, 1 ounce.

GREEN.--Aniline green, 44 parts; gelatine, 4 parts, and lunar caustic,
2 parts. Or, green aniline, 1 part; dextrine, 4 parts.

RED.--Eosine aniline, 1 ounce; dextrine, 1 ounce.

A tea-spoonful to a table-spoonful of the powder is dissolved in 1 pint
of water, requiring from 1/2 to 1 hour to make the solution.

=Disappearing Ink.=

Boil some nut-galls in aqua fortis, and add to the infusion some gum
Arabic and a little sulphuric acid. When written on paper this ink is
perfectly legible, but will disappear from the paper in a few days.

=Invisible Ink.=

Invisible inks are those which when first written are not visible, but
upon the application of heat or other means the characters are made to
appear distinctly. The following are decidedly the best preparations
for this purpose:

    Oil of vitriol                             1 fluid ounce.
    Soft water                                 1 pint.

This makes a fluid which is perfectly invisible until heat is applied
by holding over a lamp or by placing in an oven, when it changes to a
permanent black. Write with a clean steel pen. All invisible inks will
show on glazed paper, therefore unglazed paper should be used.

Another singular invisible ink is made as follows: Oxide of cobalt,
1/2 ounce; muriatic acid, sufficient to dissolve it; water, 4 ounces;
mucilage of gum acacia, 1 drachm. Place in a stained bottle. Characters
written with this solution are invisible, but on the application of
heat they instantly appear in blue. On cooling they again become

=Ink Erasing Fluid.=

    Hydrochloric acid                        1/8 ounce.
    Water                                      1 pint.

Mix, bottle, and label No. 1.

    Solution of chlorinated soda             2/3 pint.
    Water                                      1 pint.

Mix, bottle, and label No. 2.

To erase ink dip the end of a penholder or pencil in No. 1 and apply to
the writing, and do the same with No. 2. Let remain a moment and blot
off with clean blotting-paper. If the characters are not erased repeat
as before.

                           Cements and Glue.

=Armenian Glue.=

The jewellers of Turkey, who are mostly Armenians, have a singular
method of ornamenting watch cases, etc., with diamonds and other
precious stones by simply gluing or cementing them on. The stone is
set in gold or silver and the lower part of the metal made flat, or to
correspond to that part to which it is to be fixed. It is then warmed
gently and the glue applied, which is so very strong that the parts
thus cemented never separate. For this glue, which will firmly unite
bits of glass and even polished steel, and which may of course be
applied to a vast variety of useful purposes, large number of formulas
have been published. The following is the original recipe. Dissolve
5 or 6 bits of gum mastic, each the size of a large pea, in as much
alcohol as will suffice to render them liquid; in another vessel
dissolve as much isinglass, previously softened a little in water
(though none of the water must be used), in good brandy or rum as will
make a two-ounce vial of very strong glue, adding two small bits of
galbanum or ammoniacum, which must be rubbed or ground until they are
dissolved. Then mix the whole with a sufficient heat. Keep the glue
in a vial closely corked, and when it is to be used set the vial in
boiling water. To avoid cracking the vial by exposure to such sudden
heat use a thin green glass vial and hold it in the steam for a few
seconds before immersing it in the hot water.--_Workshop Receipts._

=Glutina Cement.=


    Gelatine (Cooper’s or Cox’s)               3 ounces.
    Acetic acid                                2 ounces.
    Carbolic acid                              5 grains.
    Oil of cloves                              6 minims.
    Water enough to make                       1 pint.

Soak the gelatine in half a pint of water for four hours. Place in a
bottle and heat in a water bath; add the acids, dissolve, add the oil
of cloves and sufficient hot water to make a pint, and strain.

=To Cement Iron to Iron.=

    Powdered cast-iron bore chips             60 parts.
    Sal-ammoniac                               2 parts.
    Flowers of sulphur                         1 part.

Mix, and stir the mixture into a stiff paste by adding water. Use while

=Cementing Metal to Glass, Stone, Etc.=

For attaching metal plates, such as metal letters, etc., to flat sheets
of glass or windows, the following is excellent:

    Copal varnish                             15 parts.
    Drying oil                                 5 parts.
    Turpentine                                 3 parts.

Melt in a water bath, and add 10 parts of slaked lime. The cement
commonly used for fastening the tops on kerosene lamps is plaster of
Paris, which is porous, quickly penetrated by the kerosene, and readily
destroyed. A cement which does not have this defect is made by boiling
3 parts of resin and 1 of caustic soda in 5 of water. This composition
forms a soap, which mix with half its weight of plaster of Paris. Use
while fresh.


=Paste for Wall-paper, Etc.=

Dissolve 1/8 ounce of salicylic acid in half a gallon of warm water,
and when cold stir in as much flour as will bring it to the consistency
of cream, being particular to break up all the lumps; next place it on
the fire and allow it to cook gently for a few minutes, stirring well
meanwhile. This paste answers a variety of purposes. The salicylic
acid is to keep it from spoiling. The addition of 1 ounce of powdered
colocynth to the above amount will effectually banish all insects and
worms from the walls where the paper is pasted.

=Paste for Labeling on Tin.=

Ordinary pastes will not adhere labels to tin. The following is a
good one: Make a paste of gum tragacanth and add a little oil of
wintergreen. Apply by removing the film of grease from the tin by a
solution of caustic soda (10 parts of water to 1 of soda). Apply with a
rag to the spot on which you wish to affix the label.

=Paste to Fasten Cloth or Leather on Wooden Surfaces.=

    Wheat flour                            2-1/4 pounds.
    Resin (powdered)                         1/2 ounce.
    Salicylic acid                           1/8 ounce.

Rub together till a uniform paste is formed, transfer to a small kettle
over a fire, heat, and stir until the lumps are all dissolved and the
paste becomes stiff; transfer to another vessel and cover up. This
paste is applied in a thin layer to the surface of the table or desk to
be covered, the cloth or leather is then laid on and smoothed with a
roller. If leather is to be fastened on it must be first dampened.

                         Whitewash and Paints.

=Brilliant Stucco Whitewash.=

This is a time-tried whitewash, either for inside or outside work, and
has been known to retain its brilliancy for over thirty years. Nice
unslaked lime, 1/2 bushel; slake it with boiling water; cover it during
the process to keep in the steam. Strain the liquid through a fine
sieve or strainer, and add to it 1/4 bushel of salt, previously well
dissolved in water; rice, 3 pounds--boiled to a thin paste and stirred
in boiling hot; Spanish whiting, 1/2 pound; best glue, 1 pound, which
has been previously dissolved by soaking it well, and then hanging it
over a slow fire in a small kettle immersed in a larger one filled with
water. Now add hot water, 5 gallons, to the mixture, stir well, and let
it stand a few days covered from the dirt. It should be put on hot. For
this purpose it is best to keep it in a kettle on a portable furnace,
or use other means more convenient. It answers as well as oil paint for
brick or stone, and is much cheaper.

Coloring matter, dissolved in alcohol, may be put in and made of any
shade you like. Spanish brown stirred in will make red-pink, more or
less deep, according to quantity. A delicate tinge of this is very
pretty for inside walls. Finely pulverized common clay, well mixed
with Spanish white, makes reddish stone color. Yellow ochre stirred
in makes yellow wash, but chrome goes further, and makes a color
generally esteemed prettier. In all these cases the darkness of the
shade is of course determined by the quantity of the coloring used. It
is difficult to make rules, because tastes differ. It would be best to
try experiments on a shingle, and let it dry. Green must not be mixed
with lime. The lime destroys the color, and the color has an effect on
the whitewash which makes it crack and peel. When inside walls have
been badly smoked and you wish to make them a clean, clear white, it is
well to squeeze indigo plentifully through a bag into the water you use
before it is stirred into the whole mixture; or blue vitriol pulverized
and dissolved in boiling water and put into whitewash gives a beautiful
blue tint. If a larger quantity than five gallons be wanted the same
proportions should be observed.

=Durable Paint for Tin Roofs.=

    Linseed Oil                               30 parts.
    Oil of Turpentine                         10 parts.
    Colcothar                                 14 parts.
    Red chalk                                 46 parts.

The coloring substances are pulverized and the mixture ground. Should
the mixture be too thick reduce it with equal parts of linseed oil and
oil of turpentine. Give the roof two coats, allowing the first to dry
before applying the second. See that the tin is free from rust, and the
coats should not be laid on too thick nor too thin.

=Paint for Roofs.=

    Pulverized slate (argillaceous schist)    35 parts.
    Pulverized mica slate (mica schist)       30 parts.
    Pulverized rosin                          35 parts.

Mix, and add one-half its volume of pure coal-tar and boil to a fluid

This paint gives a very durable and pliant covering, which does not
melt in the greatest heat of summer nor crack or break in the greatest
cold. It resists moisture, and a roof painted with it need not be gone
over again for four or five years.

=Paint for Blackboards.=

Common glue, 4 ounces; flour of emery, 3 ounces, and just lampblack
enough to give an inky color to the preparation. Dissolve the glue in
3/4 quart of warm water, put in the lampblack and emery, stir till
there are no lumps, then apply to the board with a woolen rag smoothly
rolled. Three coats should be given.

=Removing Smell of Paint.=

Place a vessel of lighted charcoal in the room and place on it two or
three handfuls of juniper berries; shut the windows, chimneys, and
doors and twenty-four hours afterward the room may be opened, when it
will be found that the sickly, unwholesome smell will be gone. Another
very simple method is to plunge a handful of hay into a pail of water
and let it stand in the newly-painted room.

=Paint Remover.=

To remove dry paint or hard putty make a saturated solution of caustic
of potassa with water. Apply to the paint with a swab. After a short
time it will be easily removed.

                            Staining Wood.

=Ebonizing Wood.=

    Logwood chips                              8 ounces.
    Copperas                                 1/2 ounce.
    Lampblack                                1/2 ounce.
    Water, sufficient.

Boil the logwood for 30 minutes in a gallon of water, and then add
the copperas and lampblack. Apply to the wood hot, giving a number of
coats. In varnishing ebonized wood a little drop black must be added to
the varnish or it will give a brown shade.

=Staining Wood Rose Color.=

A brilliant and uniform rose color can be imparted to wood and
vegetable ivory by chemical precipitation, as follows: The first bath
consists of 8 parts of potassium iodide to 100 parts of water. The
second bath is prepared by mixing 2-1/2 parts of corrosive sublimate
with 100 parts of water. Immerse the wood for a few hours in the first
bath, then place it in the second, in which it will acquire a beautiful
rose color. Varnish the wood after drying. Both baths can be repeatedly
used without renewing them.

=Imitation of Cedar.=

Mix 2 parts by weight of catechu, 1 part of caustic soda, and 100 of
water. The best wood to use is white wood, and after the article is
finished it is boiled in the stain for several hours, rinsed, and
dried. The length of time in boiling depends upon the depth of color
desired. This is a very deep and natural stain.

=Hard Coating for Wood.=

To coat wood with a substance as hard as stone apply the following
mixture while hot with a brush:

    Lime                                      40 parts.
    Resin                                     50 parts.
    Linseed oil                                4 parts.

                       Metal and Glass Secrets.

=Hardening Composition for Steel.=

    Spermaceti oil                            95 quarts.
    Melted tallow                             20 pounds.
    Neat’s foot oil                        4-1/2 quarts.
    Pitch                                      1 pound.
    Rosin                                      3 pounds.

Melt the rosin and pitch together, add the other ingredients, and heat
all in an iron vessel until all moisture is driven out, and the heated
mass ignites from a burning chip of wood held over it; the flame is at
once extinguished by a close-fitting lid.

In using the method for saw blades, they are first heated in a suitable
furnace and then placed vertically, teeth upward, in troughs filled
with the mixture. After sufficient cooling they are taken out and wiped
with a piece of leather so that only a slight film of fat remains. They
are then placed flat over a coal fire until the coating of fat ignites,
which may burn as freely as required for great hardness. Screws, or
other articles which require a less degree of hardness, are dipped into
the hot mixture and brought to a white heat.

=Composition to Toughen Steel.=

    Resin                                      2 pounds.
    Tallow                                     2 pounds.
    Black pitch                                1 pound.

Melt together and dip the steel in the mixture when hot.

=To Soften Iron or Steel.=

Anoint the article all over with tallow, temper it in a gentle charcoal
fire, and let it cool itself; or take a little clay, cover your iron
with it, and temper in a charcoal fire.

=Restoring Burnt Steel.=

It is not generally known that burnt steel may be almost
instantaneously restored by plunging it while hot in cold water and
hammering it with light strokes on the anvil, turning it so as to
hammer all over it, again dipping in the cold water, and repeating the
hammering process as before. Try again if you do not succeed the first

=Welding Cast-Steel.=

    Rock saltpeter                           1/4 pound.
    Oil vitriol                              1/4 pound.
    Water                                      1 gallon.

Dissolve the saltpeter in the vitriol and add it to the water. After
scarfing the steel get it hot; and quench in the preparation. Then
weld the same as a piece of iron, hammering it very quickly with light
blows. It answers the purpose much better than borax. Cork it in a
bottle and it will keep for years.


    Borax                                     15 parts.
    Sal-ammoniac                               2 parts.
    Cyanide of potassium                       2 parts.

Dissolve all in water, and evaporate the water at a low temperature.

=To Drill Hardened Steel.=

Cover your steel with melted beeswax, and when cold make a hole in the
wax with a fine-pointed needle or other article the size of the hole
you require; put a drop of strong nitric acid upon it, and after an
hour rinse off and apply again. It will gradually eat through.

=To Drill Holes in Cast-Iron.=

By means of carbolic acid a hole 1/4 of an inch in diameter has been
drilled through 1/2 inch thickness of cast-iron with a carpenter’s

=To Solder Ferrules for Tool Handles.=

Take your ferrule, lap round the “joining” a small piece of brass wire,
then wet the ferrule, scatter on the joining ground borax, put it on
the end of a wire, and hold it in the fire till the brass fuses. It
will fill up the joining and form a perfect solder. It may afterward be
turned in the lathe.

=Soldering Without a Soldering Iron.=

Cut a piece of a tin-foil the size of the surface to be soldered, then
pass over the surface a solution of sal-ammoniac, place the tin-foil
between the pieces, and heat over a lamp or fire until the foil melts.
Instead of the solution of sal-ammoniac equal parts of water and
hydrochloric acid saturated with zinc can be used just as well.

=To Clean Gun-barrels from Lead.=

Pour in a little mercury, agitate it over the interior surface of the
barrel, and pour it out again. The mercury will amalgamate the lead and
remove it.

=To Resharpen Old Files.=

    Saleratus                                  4 ounces.
    Water                                      1 quart.

Dissolve the saleratus in the water. Boil the old files or rasps in
this solution for half an hour. Then take out, wash, and dry them. Next
stand them in a jar, filling it up with rain water and sulphuric acid
in the proportion of water, 1 quart; sulphuric acid, 4 ounces. Coarse
files should remain in the bath twelve hours and fine ones two or three
hours less. Take them out, wash them clean, dry quickly and thoroughly,
and rub them with sweet oil to prevent rusting.

Another method, though not so effectual, is to pour a few drops of
benzole upon the file and brush thoroughly with a scratch brush.

=Mending Tinware by Candle Heat.=

This is such a simple and cheap way of mending tinware that a person
with just a bit of ingenuity can do his own work in this line. Take
a vial about two-thirds full of muriatic acid and put into it little
bits of sheet zinc as long as the acid will dissolve them. Then put
in a crumb of sal-ammoniac and fill up with water and it is ready for
use. Wet the cork in the vial and with it wet the edges of the place
to be mended. Then put a piece of sheet zinc over the hole and hold a
lighted candle or spirit lamp under the place, which melts the solder
on the tin and causes the zinc to adhere without further trouble. Do
not forget to wet the zinc also with the solution.

=A Good Way to Sharpen Razors.=

Put the razor blade for half an hour in water to which has been added
one-twentieth of its weight of muriatic or sulphuric acid, and after a
few hours “set” it on a hone. The acid acts as a whetstone by corroding
the whole surface uniformly.

=Razor-Strop Paste.=

Moisten flour of emery with tallow or sweet oil.

=Cutting Ovals and Different Shapes on Glass.=

Scratch the glass around the shape you desire with the corner of a file
or graver; then having bent a piece of wire the same shape heat it
red-hot and lay it upon the scratch, and sink the glass into cold water
just deep enough for the water to come almost on a level with its upper
surface. It rarely fails to break perfectly true.

=Etching on Glass.=

    Barium sulphate                            3 ounces.
    Ammonia fluoride                           1 ounce.

Acid sulphuric, a sufficient quantity to decompose the ammonia fluoride
and making the mixture of a semi-fluid consistency. It must be prepared
in a leaden vessel. It can be used with a common pen, but must be kept
in bottles coated inside with paraffine, beeswax, or gutta-percha, with
rubber stoppers.

=To Drill and Ornament Glass.=

Any hard steel tool will cut glass with great facility when kept
freely wet with camphor dissolved in turpentine. A drill-bow may be
used, or even the hand alone. A hole bored may be readily enlarged
by a round file. The ragged edges of glass vessels may also be thus
easily smoothed by a flat file. Flat window glass can readily be sawed
by a watch-spring saw by aid of this solution. In short, the most
brittle glass can be wrought almost as easily as brass by the use of
cutting-tools kept constantly moist with camphorized oil of turpentine.

                      Plating Without a Battery.

=Silver-Plating Solution.=

    Nitrate of silver (crystals)             1/4 ounce.
    Cyanuret potassa                         1/2 ounce.
    Prepared Spanish whiting                   1 ounce.
    Pure rain water                        2-1/2 ounces.

Mix all together in a glass vessel, and it is ready for use. Thoroughly
clean the article from all grease and dirt (see polishing preparations,
page 12), and apply with a soft rag or brush and polish with a chamois

=Silvering Powder.=

    Chloride of silver                         1 ounce.
    Pearlash                                   3 ounces.
    Common salt                            1-1/2 ounces.
    Whiting                                    1 ounce.

Powder and mix the articles thoroughly. This is excellent in silvering
brass and copper articles. Clean the surface of the article, as in the
preceding preparation, and apply the mixture by rubbing on with a cork
or piece of soft leather moistened with water and dipped in the powder.
Afterward the metal should be well washed in hot water and wiped dry.

=Gold-Plating Solution.=

    Gold amalgam                             1/2 ounce.
    Nitro muriatic acid                        1 ounce.
    Alcohol                                    2 ounces.

Dissolve the amalgam in the acid and then add the alcohol. Thoroughly
clean the article to be plated and apply the solution with a soft
brush. Rinse and dry in sawdust or with tissue paper and polish with
chamois skin.

=Nickeling Iron Without Electricity.=

To a solution of chloride of zinc 5 or 10 per cent strong add enough
nickel salt to give the usual color of nickel bath. Cleanse the
articles and put them in the solution for from 1/2 to 1 hour.

                      Gold and Silver Imitations.

=Imitation Gold.=

An American has discovered a beautiful alloy, which has been most
successfully applied as a substitute for gold. It is composed of pure
copper, 100 parts; pure tin, 17 parts; magnesia, 6 parts; tartar of
commerce, 9 parts; sal-ammoniac, 3.6 parts, and quicklime, 1.6 parts.
The copper is first melted, then the lime, magnesia, sal-ammoniac, and
tartar are added, little at a time, and the whole is briskly stirred
for about half an hour, so as to mix thoroughly, after which the tin
is thrown on the surface in small grains, stirring until entirely
fused. The crucible is now covered and the fusion kept up for about
thirty-five minutes, when the dross is skimmed off, and the alloy found
ready for use. It is quite maleable and ductile, and may be drawn,
stamped, chased, beaten into powder, or into leaves, like gold leaf,
in all of which conditions it is not distinguishable from gold even by
good judges, except by its inferior weight.

=Imitation Silver.=

Combine by fusion 1 part pure copper, 24 parts block tin, 1-1/2 parts
pure antimony, 1/4 part pure bismuth, and 2 parts clear glass. The
glass may be omitted save in cases where it is an object to have the
metal sonorous.

                   Care of Teeth, Mouth, and Breath.

The teeth, through negligence and ignorance, receive less attention
among the majority of people than any other subject of a personal
character. The care of children’s teeth is very important, and if
parents do not post themselves in the matter frequent visits to a
skilled dentist should in their case be imperatively enforced, as well
as upon the older members of the family.

The first teeth of the infant are called the deciduous or _milk_ teeth,
and are twenty in number--ten in each jaw. These twenty teeth are as
follows: Eight incisors, four in each jaw--the four being composed of
two central and two lateral incisors--also four canine or cuspid teeth,
two in each jaw, and eight molars, four in each jaw--the molars being
called first and second molars, indicating their relative positions as
well as the periods of their eruption (commonly called cutting). It is
generally recognized among physicians that all diseases of children
are more difficult to treat during dentition than before or after. It
is well enough for parents to recognize this fact in administering
medicines to their children. Although the time of eruptions of the
teeth differ with different persons, yet the following table gives a
close approximation:


_Deciduous Teeth._ (The lower generally precede the upper by two or
three months.)

    Central incisors      5 to  8 months
    Lateral incisors      7 to 10 months
    First molars         12 to 16 months
    Canines              15 to 20 months
    Second molars        20 to 36 months

_Permanent Teeth._

    First molars          5 to  6 years
    Central incisors      6 to  8 years
    Lateral incisors      7 to  9 years
    First bicuspids       9 to 10 years
    Second bicuspids     10 to 11 years
    Canines              11 to 12 years
    Second molars        12 to 14 years
    Third molars         17 to 21 years

It would be difficult indeed to condense in so short a space so much
practical information from a reliable source as has been given in the
following prize essay on the teeth, which was awarded by the Dental
Society of Philadelphia:

1st. Cleanse your teeth once, or oftener, every day. Rinse the mouth
after eating. Cleansing the teeth consists in removing every particle
of foreign matter from around the teeth and gums.

2d. To cleanse use well-made brushes, soft quill, or wood toothpicks,
an antacid styptic tooth wash, and precipitated chalk. If these means
fail apply to a regular dentist.

3d. Avoid eating hot food. Thoroughly masticate the food, and well
salivate it before swallowing.

4th. Parents ought to carefully attend to the child’s second dentition.
Prevail upon your children to visit, at frequent intervals, a careful
and skillful operator.

5th. Remember that four of the permanent double teeth come in at the
age of six years. They are very liable to decay early, are very large,
and should never be allowed to require extracting.

6th. Never allow any one to extract a tooth or dissuade you from having
them filled unless absolutely necessary.

7th. Carelessness and procrastination are responsible for a large
proportion of teeth that are lost.

The teeth were never intended to take the place of nut-crackers nor to
rival scissors in cutting thread. The teeth must be taken care of or
your health will suffer.

Remember, a clean tooth would not decay in a hundred years.

=Best Tooth Powder.=

    Precipitated chalk                         4 ounces.
    Powdered cuttle-bone                       2 ounces.
    Powdered orris root                    1-1/2 ounces.
    Powdered borax                           1/2 ounce.
    Oil of cloves                              5 minims.
    Oil of wintergreen                         2 fluid drachms.

Mix the powder thoroughly, and with a small portion add the oils and
mix them until in the form of a moist powder. Then add the rest of the
mixed powders gradually until all are evenly distributed throughout. A
solution of carmine can be added in with the oils, which will color it
as desired.

Some prefer a preparation in the form of a paste, as follows:

=Cherry Tooth Paste.=

    Precipitated chalk                         4 ounces.
    Powdered areca nut                         1 ounce.
    Powdered quillaya bark (or soap root)    1/2 ounce.
    Powdered cuttle-bone                       1 ounce.
    Powdered borax                           1/2 ounce.
    Powdered orris root                        4 ounces.
    Tincture of myrrh                        1/2 ounce.
    Oils of nutmeg, cloves, and bitter almonds,
      each                                    15 minims.
    Oil of rose                                5 minims.

Honey, glycerine, and mucilage acacia equal quantities of each
sufficient to make into a paste of the desired consistence. First mix
the powders and color with carmine, and then add the other ingredients
and thoroughly mix.

Mouth washes are a valuable addition to the toilet as they assist to
harden and heal the gums, cleanse the mouth and purify the breath.

=Antiseptic Tooth Wash.=

    Salicylic acid                            12 parts.
    Alcohol (95 per cent)                    315 parts.
    Distilled water                           60 parts.
    Oil of wintergreen                        15 parts.
    Essence of orange flowers                 15 parts.

Color with tincture of cochineal. A few drops of carbolic acid may be
added to the above in the case of decayed teeth and foul breath.

When the breath is very offensive the following should be taken in
addition to rinsing the mouth with the mouth wash:

=Solution for the Breath.=

    Solution chloride soda                     1 ounce.
    Liquor potassa                             1 ounce.
    Phosphate soda                           1/2 ounce.
    Water                                      8 ounces.

Mix and take one-half tea-spoonful in water after each meal.

When the services of a dentist are not at hand and the teeth are badly
decayed and aching, the following mouth wash is recommended. It is used
by holding a tea-spoonful in the mouth as long as possible and spitting

    Spanish camomile root                  4-1/2 drachms.
    Sal-ammoniac                           2-1/4 drachms.
    Vinegar and lavender water, each       2-1/2 fluid ounces.

Cut the camomile in pieces and rub fine with the sal-ammoniac; add the
lavender water and vinegar by placing all in a glass flask and let it
digest for twelve hours and filter.

The following preparation is one of the best for relieving toothache
until a dentist can be consulted:

=Toothache Drops.=

    Chloral hydrate                            1 drachm.
    Camphor                                    1 drachm.
    Morphia sulphate                           2 drachms.
    Oil peppermint                             2 drachms.

Rub the solids in a mortar until they liquefy, then add the oil of
peppermint. Apply on cotton.

                   Removal of Freckles, Moles, Etc.

The following practical treatise on this much-abused subject is copied
from the _B. & C. Druggist_, and although originally written in the
interests of druggists it is of more value to persons affected with
these blemishes; hence we reproduce the essay in its entirety with the
formulas stripped of their technical terms and phrases:

At this time of the year there are few questions which are more
frequently addressed to the “family chemist,” and fewer still to which
he ordinarily gives so unsatisfactory a reply, as, “What shall I do to
cure my freckles?”

Knowing as we do how greatly the popularity--_i. e._, the business
prosperity--of the majority of our friends depends upon the votes and
interest of their lady customers, we have been at some pains to lay
before them such an amount of practical information upon the above
subject as will enable them to retain the good will and material
gratitude of their fair interrogators on the one hand, and to put a
little extra profit in their own pockets on the other.

We do not propose to convert these pages into an elaborate treatise
upon the skin; but for the benefit of those who are only just
commencing business it will, perhaps, be as well to make a few
observations which our more experienced friends may consider of the
“leather and prunella” order. In the first place it will be generally
admitted that upon the subject of our present notes there is no
published information of a practical and reliable character, and that
medical writers and practitioners either shun the question altogether
or approach it in a perfunctory manner, and leave it very much where
they found it. For our present purpose the cutaneous discoloration
commonly designated by the term “freckles” may be considered under two
heads--the so-called “summer” or temporary variety (_ephelis_), and
the permanent kind (_lentigo_). Both are commonly stated to be simply
morbid alterations of the skin-pigment, and to be situated solely
in the _rete mucosum_, but this is not absolutely true, inasmuch as
_ephelis_, properly so called, is generally due to a darkening of the
under surface of the epidermis either in small ovoid patches (“summer
freckles”) or extended over a large surface (“tan” or “sunburn”),
while with _lentigo_ the brownish discolorations are at a greater
depth, and remain _in situ_ after the covering epidermis has been
completely removed. Strong sunshine, or any powerfully actinic light,
and radiant heat from any source are apt to produce the first named,
and to enhance the latter form of the skin’s chromatogenous function,
the manifestations of which vary greatly according to individual

Similarly the treatment which answers best for some persons is not so
efficacious in other cases, but the old, old adage that “prevention is
better than cure” applies here with considerable force, and as regards
the _rationale_ of remedial applications, it may be said in general
terms that the application, in the right place, of active reducing,
or deoxidizing, agents is as a rule successful in removing _ephelis_
altogether, and in greatly toning down the shade of _lentigo_.
Commencing with the mildest form we will give a good formula for a


    Citric acid                                1 drachm.
    Sulphate of iron (pure)                   18 grains.
    Elder-flower water                         3 ounces.
    Camphor, sufficient quantity.

The sulphate of iron must be in clear green crystals, unless the
“granulated” form, which is preferable, be available, and in either
case the salt should be fresh and free from oxidized portions, or
“rustiness;” it should be dissolved in half the elder-flower water (all
of which is better, if not quite recently distilled, for being quickly
raised to the boiling point and cooled out of contact of air before
use), the citric acid being also in solution in the other half, and the
two fluids mixed, filtered if necessary, and bottled immediately, a
lump of camphor about the size of small peppercorn to be added to the
contents of each bottle.


    Hydokinine                                48 grains.
    Glacial phosphoric acid                   30 grains.
    Glycerine                                  2 drachms.
    Distilled water                            6 ounces.

The two lotions are stated to give excellent results, especially the
latter. They are to be applied to the skin of the face, etc., in the
usual way, at least twice in the course of twenty-four hours, after it
has been washed and dried carefully. If the skin be of the nature known
as “greasy,” a preliminary wash with tepid water containing a few drops
of stronger water of ammonia is advisable.


Under this empirical title a process of removing “tan” and the milder
variety of “freckles,” a foreign surgeon has devised the following:


    Iodide potassa                             2 drachms.
    Pure iodine                                6 grains.
    Glycerine                                  3 drachms.
    Infusion of rose leaves                    4 ounces.

Dissolve the iodide of potassium in a small quantity of the infusion
and a drachm of the glycerine; with this fluid moisten the iodine in
a glass mortar and rub it down, gradually adding more liquid until
complete solution has been obtained; then stir in the remainder of the
ingredients, and bottle the mixture.


    Hyposulphate of soda                   1-1/2 ounces.
    Rose water                                 1 pint.
    Dissolve and filter.

With a small camel’s hair pencil or piece of fine sponge apply a
little of “Albadermine A” to the tanned or freckled surface, until a
slight but tolerably uniform brownish-yellow skin has been produced. At
the expiration of fifteen or twenty minutes moisten a piece of cambric,
lint, or soft rag with “B” and lay it upon the affected part, removing,
squeezing away the liquid, soaking it afresh, and again applying until
the iodine stain has disappeared. Repeat the entire process thrice
daily, but diminish the frequency of the application if tenderness be
produced. In the course of from three or four days to as many weeks the
freckles will either have disappeared entirely or their intensity will
be very greatly diminished. “Summer freckles” yield very speedily to
this treatment.


    Corrosive sublimate                       12 grains.
    Hydrochloric acid (pure)                   3 drachms.
    Kernels of bitter almonds              1-1/2 ounces.
    Glycerine                                  1 ounce.
    Tincture benzoin                           2 drachms.
    Orange-flower water, sufficient quantity.

Dissolve the corrosive sublimate in three ounces of the orange-flower
water, add the hydrochloric acid, and set aside. Blanch the bitter
almonds and bruise them in a Wedgwood mortar, adding thereto the
glycerine and using the pestle vigorously; a smooth paste is thus
obtained. Then add gradually about nine ounces of the orange-flower
water, stirring constantly, continuing this operation until a
fine, creamy emulsion is the result. Subject this to violent
agitation--preferably with the aid of a mechanical egg whisk--and
allow the tincture of benzoin to fall into it the while drop by drop.
Then add the mercurial solution, filter, and make up the whole to the
measure of one imperial pint (20 ounces) with more orange-flower water.

This preparation is recommended to us by an eminent dermatologist as
being invariably efficacious in the treatment of _ephelis_, and always
greatly ameliorating _lentigo_, even if it does not entirely decolorize
the patches in the latter case. A general whitening of the skin is
produced by this lotion without any irritation. It is as well, however,
not to apply it to any abraded surfaces. It has been found far superior
in practice to a preparation--which it somewhat resembles--sold at a
high price in Paris under the name of _Lait Antiphelique_.


    Subnitrate of bismuth                      3 drachms.
    Simple ointment                            2 ounces.

Apply to the face, etc., at night, and remove in the morning with a
little cold cream previous to washing. This is from a private American


This is a much more effective and reliable ointment for the purpose
than the preceding, which is really only suited for the milder form of
sunburn, while the oleate of copper will remove the more persistent and
obstinate _lentigo_. It is thus prepared:

    Oleate of copper                           1 ounce.
    Petrolatum                                 3 ounces.

This is to be applied in the same manner as the preceding, washing the
surface of the skin, however (after the cold cream), about every third
morning, with a little weak ammonia water, in order to prevent any
inadvertent accumulation of copper.

Several of the preceding are well adapted for the treatment of
very dark-colored and deep-seated examples of _lentigo_, of which,
however, some seem capable of resisting all treatment of this kind.
The only method of reaching these is by the complete removal of the
epidermis of the part and of the upper portion of the _cutis_ also. A
Turkish bath is often useful as a preliminary for an effort of this
kind, which, of course, needs the application of some disorganizing
substance. Permanganate of potassium answers in this direction, but
we find that a moderately strong solution of Mr. H. B. Condy’s new
disinfectant--permanganate of aluminum--is undoubtedly the best of the
two for this purpose. It should be applied several times until the skin
has acquired a uniform brown tint. At from one to twelve hours after
this is noticed it should be removed by a warm and dilute solution
(about 8 or 10 per cent) of hydrochloric acid, to which a little
glycerine may be added to prevent too rapid drying. Still better,
however, is nitric acid, which if “painted” upon a colored spot of this
kind first renders it more distinctly yellow, then orange-brown. In a
day or two this becomes a deeper brown, and more or less disorganized,
cracking, either round the edge, or right across the center, so that it
can be readily peeled away. Freckles removed in this manner seldom crop
up again, in that particular place, at all events. In this connection
it is a somewhat curious fact that whereas _dilute_ nitric acid often
caused soreness and irritation when applied in this manner, a stronger
acid does nothing of the kind, but quietly and quickly “deadens”
that portion of the outer covering it has been applied to, so that
in a day or two it can be removed quite painlessly. What is known as
“French nitric acid,” of from 1.330 to 1.350 specific gravity, is very
appropriate for this purpose.


The removal of either deep-seated freckles or moles is, as before
hinted, not always an easy task, but nitric acid is perhaps about
as good an agent for the purpose as any other. The mole should be
surrounded by a little “cell” or ring of wax, so that the acid can
be applied direct without fear of disorganizing the adjacent skin.
As, however, nitric acid by itself sometimes occasions a good deal of
smarting, etc., when applied, it is better to avoid this by mixing
cocaine with it. The mixture given below answers the purpose very well

    Nitric acid                                1 drachm.
    Cocaine                                    6 grains.

This should be kept ready for use in a small bottle with a good-fitting
stopper. The end of a glass rod dipped in and then cautiously applied
to the surface of the mole or freckle, the process being repeated once
or twice a day, and the unsightly spot has its vitality destroyed
without pain, being then easily and effectually removed.

                      Preparation for Red Noses.

This formula was procured from a friend of the author residing at
Little Rock, Ark. I can vouch for its efficacy in his case, as it
removed the unnatural color in a few days, and he told me that others
had tried it with equally gratifying results. It is translated from a
formula of a young physician, a graduate of Jefferson Medical College:

    Oxide of zinc                            1/4 ounce.
    Corrosive sublimate                        2 grains.
    Sulphur (precip.)                        1/2 ounce.
    Glycerine                                1/4 ounce.
    Calamine                                   3 drachms.
    Rose water, sufficient to make 8 ounces.

Mix and apply with a small, soft sponge. The medical works say little
about the red nose. The cause is usually attributed to drinking,
but gluttony, tight lacing, nasal catarrh, chronic enlargement of
the tonsils, exposure to strong sunlight, etc., all contribute to a
reddening of the nasal organ.

                      Other Toilet Preparations.

The following formula, prescribed by the late Dr. Tilbury Fox, is a
very soothing application, and is a great favorite with ladies who have
flushed faces:

=Calamine Face Lotion.=

    Levigated calamine                       120 grains.
    Oxide of zinc                             60 grains.
    Glycerine                                 60 drops.
    Rose water, sufficient to make 3 ounces.

Be sure and get the white calamine, and not the red. Apply with a
small, soft sponge and allow to dry on, the excess of powder being
lightly dusted off with a soft cloth.

=Lotion for Chapped Hands, Face, and Lips.=

    Glycerine                                  3 drachms.
    Strained honey                             1 drachm.
    Cologne                                    1 drachm.
    Oil of bitter almonds                      3 drops.
    Alcohol                                    4 ounces.
    Water                                  1-1/2 ounces.

Mix and apply with a soft sponge while the skin is damp, and wipe dry
with a towel. This is the best preparation of its class.

=Lip Salve.=

For healing and softening the lips, preventing them from cracking,
etc., the following is an elegant preparation:

    Petrolatum                                 2 ounces.
    White wax, or paraffine                  1/2 ounce.
    Tannin                                   1/2 drachm.
    Oils of lavender and bergamot, each      1/4 drachm.
    Oil of rose geranium                     1/2 drachm.

Melt the petrolatum and wax together and add the tannin while cooling;
add the oils and stir until cold. When it is desired to color the lips
add 20 grains of carmine. This is done by reducing the carmine to a
fine powder in a mortar and rub with a small portion of the salve until
it is thoroughly incorporated, and then mix the remainder gradually.

=Pimple Lotion.=

    Carbolic acid                            1/2 drachm.
    Borax                                      2 drachms.
    Glycerine                                  1 ounce.
    Tannin                                     1 drachm.
    Alcohol                                1-1/2 ounces.
    Rose water                                 5 ounces.

Mix and dissolve. Apply night and morning.

=Manicure Powder.=

This is used for polishing and cleaning the nails:

    Powdered pumice stone                      4 ounces.
    Powdered French chalk                    1/4 ounce.
    Carmine (No. 40) in powder               1/4 drachm.
    Bulk perfume (violet or rose)            1/8 ounce.

=Manicure Salve.=

This is for softening the nails, curing hang-nails, etc.:

    Petrolatum                                 1 ounce.
    Powdered castile soap                      2 drachms.
    Oil of bergamot                           15 drops.

Mix thoroughly and apply upon going to bed, wearing a pair of gloves.

=Best Bay Rum.=

    Oil of bay leaves                          4 fluid drachms.
    Oil of pimenta                            30 minims.
    Oil of bergamot                           60 minims.
    Acetic ether                              30 minims.
    Concentrated lye                           4 drachms.
    Deodorized alcohol                         7 pints.
    Water                                      9 pints.
    Color sufficient with grass green.

Mix the oils and dissolve them in the alcohol; to this gradually add
the lye, previously dissolved in the water, then add the acetic ether
and coloring matter, and let stand a few days and filter through a
glass funnel into a glass vessel.

=Fine Rose Water.=

    Oil of rose                               15 drops.
    White sugar                              1/2 ounce.
    Carbonate of magnesia                      2 drachms.
    Water                                      2 pints.
    Alcohol                                    2 ounces.

Add the oil to the alcohol, rub with magnesia and sugar, then add the
water and filter.

=Hoyt’s German Cologne.=

    Oil of bergamot                            1 ounce.
    Oil of Neroli                            1/4 ounce.
    Oil of lemon                               1 ounce.
    Oil of sandal wood                       1/2 ounce.
    Camphor                                   20 grains.
    Deodorized alcohol                         7 pints.
    Rose water                                 1 pint.

Mix, let stand 30 days, and then filter.

=Hair Tonic.=

    Tincture red cinchona                    3 ounces.
    Glycerine                            1-1/2 ounces.
    Jamaica rum                                1 ounce.
    Tannic acid                              1/2 drachm.
    Tincture cantharides                       2 drachms.
    Tincture capsicum                          1 drachm.
    Cologne, sufficient to make 9 ounces.

Apply once or twice a day, rubbing well into the scalp.

=Clifford’s Shampoo Compound.=

    Borax                                      3 ounces.
    Salts of tartar                            1 ounce.

Mix, and dissolve 1 ounce of the mixture in 1 pint of water when wanted
for use.

=Quillaya Sea Foam.=

    Tincture of quillaya                       1 ounce.
    Bay rum                                    1 ounce.
    Water                                      6 ounces.

This is much better than the old form containing ammonia.

=Cream Hair Oil.=

    Pure winter-strained lard oil              2 ounces.
    Strong solution of borax                   2 ounces.

Perfume with bergamot or any desired odor. This makes an elegant,
creamy preparation, and is one of the best that can be made. The
addition of 1/4 ounce of tincture of cantharides to the above amount
will stop the hair from falling out and assist Nature in supplying
new hair. A great many persons are prejudiced against hair oils, but
they have been used for ages, and will continue to be used. Some hair
actually demands oil, owing to a lack of that supplied by nature.

=Pomade Hair-Grower.=

    Petrolatum                               1/2 pound.
    Tincture cantharides                     3/4 ounce.
    Oil of cinnamon                           15 minims.
    Oil of bergamot                           60 minims.
    Oil of citronella                         30 minims.
    Oil of cloves                              5 minims.

Melt the petrolatum and add the tincture of cantharides, and while
cooling add the other ingredients.

=Perspiration Powder.=

    Salicylic acid                            15 grains.
    Carbolic acid                             10 drops.
    Burnt alum (powdered)                      1 drachm.
    Starch (powdered)                          2 ounces.
    French chalk (powdered)                    1 ounce.
    Oil of lemon                              20 drops.

Mix thoroughly, and apply by dusting the powder into the stockings and

=Corn and Wart Salve.=

    Caustic soda or potassa                    1 ounce.
    Water                                      1 ounce.
    Starch (powdered)                        1/4 ounce.
    Glycerine                                  2 ounces.

Mix the starch with the glycerine, heat, and stir until thoroughly
incorporated. Dissolve the potassa in the water heated to a boiling
point and add the other mixture to it. This preparation needs to be
applied only once or twice. Spread a little of the salve on the corn,
bunion, or wart. Do not touch the healthy skin. Allow it to remain
several hours and then soak the part in warm water.

=German Corn-Killer.=

A very popular liquid preparation for removing corns, etc., is prepared
as follows:

    Salicylic acid                           3/4 drachm.
    Extract of Indian hemp                     8 grains.
    Collodion                                3/4 ounce.

Apply once a day to the hard skin by means of a small brush.


In the treatment of chilblains we give a detailed list of formulas from
the works and practice of a number of the most eminent physicians and


Dr. Bartholow’s prescription is as follows:

    Carbolic acid                              1 drachm.
    Tincture of iodine                         2 drachms.
    Tannic acid                                2 drachms.
    Simple cerate                              4 ounces.


Dr. Bandt gives the following prescription:

    Sodium borate                              3 parts.
    Alum and benzoin, each                     2 parts.
    Mustard                                   12 parts.
    Orris root and bran, each                 10 parts.
    Almond-skins                              30 parts.

Mix with a little water and apply.


Dr. Beasley’s prescription is as follows:

    Sulphate of aluminum and potash            1 part.
    Vinegar and weak alcohol, of each         25 parts.

Dissolve and filter. Apply night and morning.


Dr. Giacomini’s prescription is as follows:

    Prepared lard                              8 parts.
    Chrystallized acetate of lead              1 part.
    Distilled cherry laurel water              2 parts.

Mix, and apply night and morning.


    Sulphuric acid                             1 drachm.
    Spirits of turpentine                      1 drachm.
    Olive oil                                  3 drachms.

Mix the oil and turpentine first, then gradually add the acid. Apply by
rubbing on two or three times a day.


    Lard                                       4 ounces.
    Turpentine                                 1 ounce.
    Camphor                                    2 ounces.
    Oil of rosemary                           15 drops.

Rub in with continued friction.


    Yellow wax                      }
    Olive oil                       } of each, 3 ounces.
    Camphorated oil                 }
    Goulard’s extract                      1-1/2 ounces.

Melt the wax with the oil, then add the camphorated oil and Goulard

                       How to Make an Incubator.

[_From Scientific American Supplement._]

Experiments with the incubator here given have been made all over
the country. It is one that is in actual use, and has always given
satisfaction. Having secured permission from the originator, we here
illustrate it for the benefit of our readers.

To make this incubator get your tinner to make you a tank 15 inches
wide, 30 inches long, and 12 inches deep, of galvanized iron or zinc,
the iron being preferable. On the top should be a tube 1 inch in
diameter and 8 inches high. In front should be another tube, 9 inches
long, to which should be attached a spigot, as illustrated in Fig. 2.
Having made your tank, have what is called the ventilator made, which
is a box with a bottom but no top. The ventilator should be 8 inches
deep, and 1 inch smaller all round than the tank, as the tank must rest
on inch boards. In the ventilator should be four or six tin tubes 1/2
inch in diameter and 6 inches long. They should extend through the
bottom, so as to admit air from below, and to within 2 inches of the
top or a little less. Now make an egg drawer, which is a frame of wood
3 inches deep having no top or bottom, except that the front should
be boxed off and filled with sawdust, which is covered over afterward
with a piece of muslin to keep the sawdust from spilling. This box
in front of the drawer exactly fits the opening in Fig. 3, when the
drawer is in its place. Of course the egg drawer must be made longer
than the tank and ventilator, in order to allow for this space which it
fills in the opening, which is the packing all around the incubator.
The bottom of the egg drawer should be made by nailing a few slats
lengthwise to the under side, or rather, fitting them in nicely, and
over the slats in the inside of the drawer a piece of thick, strong
muslin should be tightly drawn. On this muslin the eggs are placed, in
the same position as if laid in a hen’s nest, and it allows the air to
pass through to the eggs for ventilation. The eggs can be turned by
hand, marked for designation, or an egg turner may be made by fastening
slats crosswise to one on each side running lengthwise, something like
a window lattice, and when the eggs are placed between these slots by
merely pushing the frame the eggs will turn over, exactly on the same
principle that an egg will roll when it is pushed by a block, a book,
or anything else; but we believe the method is patented, and do not
advise infringement.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--THE HOT-WATER INCUBATOR.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--THE TANK.

    _Observe that the tubes on the top and the spigot are quite long,
    in order that they may extend through the packing of sawdust which
    is to surround it. This tank is to have a close-fitting covering
    (top and sides) of wood, to resist pressure of water. The bottom is
    not to be covered._]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--DRAWER OPENING.

    _Shows the thick packing, which is noticed at the opening. This
    extends all around. The front of the egg drawer (Fig. 4) fits in
    its place in order to complete the surrounding packing, when the
    incubator is closed, as at Fig. 1._]

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--THE EGG DRAWER.

    _The space just in front of the eggs is the portion partitioned
    off to fit in the opening at Fig. 3. The egg drawer is therefore_
    LONGER _than the tank and ventilator._]

Having prepared the tank, let it be covered with a box, but the box
must not have any bottom. This is to protect the tank against pressure
of water on the sides, and to assist in retaining heat. Such being
done, place your ventilator first, egg drawer next, and tank last. Now
place a support under the tank and the box, or have them rest on rods,
and as the weight of water will be great in the center, the iron rods
should be placed crosswise under the tank every 6 inches. Now fasten
the three apartments (ventilator, egg drawer, and tank) together, with
boards nailed to the sides and back and front (of course leaving the
opening for the egg drawer), care being taken to drive no nails in
the egg drawer, as it must move in and out, and should have a strong
strip to rest on for that purpose. Having completed these preparations
make a larger box to go over all three, so that there will be a space
on the sides, back, front, and on top; but as the ventilator must be
filled with sawdust to within 1 inch of the top of the tubes, it serves
for the bottom packing. Make the outer box so that there will be room
for filling all around the inside box with sawdust, and also on top,
being careful to let the tube for pouring in the water come through, as
also the spigot in front. About 4 inches or so thickness of sawdust is
sufficient, according to preference. The front of the incubator must
be packed also, but an idea of how it should be done may be learned by
observing the opening in Fig. 3, which is so constructed that the box
in front of the egg drawer (Fig. 4) exactly fits into it, and completes
the packing when the drawer is shut. The incubator should be raised
from the floor about an inch, when completed, to allow the air to pass
under and thence into the ventilator tubes.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--THE VENTILATOR.

    _The tubes admit air from below, which passes into the egg drawer
    above through the muslin bottom of the egg drawer to the eggs. The
    eggs rest upon the muslin, which is tightly drawn over narrow slats
    running lengthwise the bottom of the drawer._]

[Illustration: FIG. 6.

    _Here we remove the front of the incubator in order to show the
    positions of the ventilator, egg drawer, and tank. First the
    ventilator, then the egg drawer (which of course should be longer
    than the others in order to fit in the opening shown at Fig. 3, but
    which we did not do here in order to mark the places), and on the
    top is the tank. When the front is completed the incubator is seen
    at Fig. 1._]

The incubator being complete, the tank is filled with boiling water.
It must remain untouched for twenty-four hours, as it requires time
during which to heat completely through. As it will heat slowly, it
will also cool slowly. Let it cool down to 120 deg., and then put in
the eggs, or, what is better, run it without eggs for a day or two in
order to learn it and notice its variation. When the eggs are put in,
the drawer will cool down some. All that is required then is to add
about a bucket or so of water once or twice a day, but be careful about
endeavoring to get up heat suddenly, as the heat does not rise for five
hours after the additional bucket of water is added. The tank radiates
the heat down on the eggs, there being nothing between the iron bottom
of the tank and the eggs, for the wood over and around the tank does
not extend across the bottom of the tank. The cool air comes from below
in the ventilator pipes, passing through the muslin bottom of the egg
drawer to the eggs. The 15×30-inch tank incubator holds 100 eggs if
turned by hand, but less if the eggs are placed between slats. Lay the
eggs in the same [way] as in a nest--promiscuously.


Keep the heat inside the egg drawer as near 103 deg. as possible; the
third week at 104 deg. Avoid opening the egg drawer frequently, as
it allows too much escape of heat. _Be sure your thermometer records
correctly_, as half the failures are due to incorrect thermometers, and
not one in twenty is correct. Place the bulb of the thermometer even
with the top of the eggs, that is, when the thermometer is lying down
in the drawer. The upper end should be slightly raised, so as to allow
the mercury to rise, but the bulb and eggs should be of the same heat,
as the figures record the heat in the bulb and not in the tube. Keep
a pie pan filled with water in the ventilator for moisture and keep
two or three moist sponges in the egg drawer, displacing a few eggs
for the purpose. Turn the eggs half way round twice a day at regular
intervals. Let the eggs cool down for fifteen minutes once every day,
but do not let them cool lower than 70 deg. No sprinkling is required
if the sponges are kept moist. If the heat gets up to 110 deg. or as
low as 60 deg. for a little while it is not necessarily fatal. Too much
heat is more prevalent than too little. A week’s practice in operating
the incubator will surprise one how simple the work is. The tank will
be troublesome to fill at first, but the matter will be easy after it
is done, as it can be kept hot. Heat the water in two or more boilers,
as a large quantity will be required, and pour it in through the tube
on top of the incubator boiling hot, using a funnel in the tube for
the purpose. Just at the time of hatching out do not be tempted to
frequently open the drawer. Cold draughts are fatal. Patience must be


An excellent brooder may be made with a tank of hot water, covered
well, the same as the incubator. A piece of muslin or woolen cloth
should be next the bottom to prevent burning the chicks. Keep the heat
among the chicks at about 90 deg. Let the tank rest on inch boards
with no opening under it, but in front; a fringe should hang in front
for the chicks to run in and out under the tank. A little yard may be
constructed of glass sash, something like a hot-bed. Feed the chicks
four or five times a day, at first on hard-boiled eggs, chopped fine,
giving them also a little milk, fine screenings, and millet seed. After
they are a week old feed anything they can eat, but never feed meal in
a raw state, as it should be scalded first. Keep a little sand, fine
gravel, and bone-meal within reach of them all the time, and see that
they are always dry, clean, and warm. Do not crowd them, as the fewer
the number together the better, and never have different ages together.

This incubator will hatch chicks, ducks, turkeys, or guineas, and
we see no reason why it should not hatch the egg of the ostrich or
anything else as well. Chicks hatched by incubators, if rightly cared
for, do better than with hens, and are stronger and more vigorous.

We have endeavored here to embody all the answers to questions that
we suppose may be asked. Should you be in doubt, read the directions
carefully again. We trust that with the help of our illustrations our
readers will have no difficulties in the way.--_The Poultry Keeper._

                        A Cheap Charcoal Stove.


I saw the other day at a friend’s house one of the simplest and most
effective stoves for a small conservatory it is possible to imagine.
It was composed of three 12-inch ordinary flower pots. The hole at the
bottom of the lowest was covered with a small pot, into the sides of
which had been bored a number of holes. The pot was then three parts
filled with charcoal, and lighted from the top. This is the furnace.
It is covered by pots Nos. 2 and 3, and a light tin funnel and chimney
carry off the vapor. The draught is maintained by placing the apparatus
on a couple of bricks, and regulated by closing the intervening space
with mud, leaving only a sufficient aperture to keep the fire burning.
This improvised stove will burn without attention for twenty-four
hours, and it is amazing what a great amount of heat is given off from
so small a surface.--_S. J., in the Gardener’s Chronicle._

                        Preservative Compounds.

Within a few years some valuable methods of keeping meats, fish,
oysters, fruits, fruit juices, milk, butter, etc., in a healthful,
nutritious, and palatable condition for a considerable time past the
ordinary period of their decay have been discovered. In the following
treatise we give the results of the most patient research in securing
all the latest and most valuable information in regard to this
important subject.

We will not deal with processes which necessitate complicated apparatus
or which require almost impossible chemical combinations, but we will
explain inventions which have undoubted value combined with as much
simplicity in the preparation as the circumstances will permit.

Of all the anti-septic agents used for the purposes mentioned boracic
acid is the favorite, and salicylic acid next in choice. Various other
anti-septic agents are used and combined in different ways, according
to the results of experiments. They are applied either by immersion,
coating, injecting, vapors, etc., according to specified instructions.

Prof. Frederic S. Barff of Kilburn, England, it seems was the first
to combine boracic acid with glycerine, and to produce a preservative
compound known as boroglyceride, which is soluble in water and alcohol.
As boracic acid is but slightly soluble in water and other common
solvents this combination with glycerine--which is also a useful
agent in arresting the growth of germs--is peculiarly valuable. It
is tasteless and inodorous and imparts no disagreeable taste or odor
to the substance being treated. Solutions of the compound may be
applied to the preservation of all organic substances, either animal
or vegetable. The process was patented in England in 1881 and in the
United States in 1882.

To prepare boroglyceride, glycerine is heated to near its boiling
point and boracic acid added until it ceases to be dissolved, the
proportions being about 92 parts by weight of glycerine to 62 parts
by weight of boracic acid in chrystals. Maintain the mixture to a
temperature of about 200 deg. centigrade as long as water is given
off. When the mass cools it becomes a yellowish, transparent, glacial
substance, tough and deliquescent. This dissolves in water, but when
boiled in large quantities of the same it is decomposed into glycerine
and boracic acid. In order to employ the compound prepare a solution
either in water, alcohol, or other suitable solvent and immerse in or
impregnate with such solutions the organic substances to be operated
upon. Solutions may be prepared of various degrees of strength, but it
has been found that a solution consisting of 1 part by weight of the
compound and 40 parts by weight of water will give good results; but
other desired proportions may be adopted.

Prof. Barff, the inventor of the boroglyceride process, read a paper
before the Royal Society of Arts, London, in regard to his method of
preserving food. The date of the reading is not at hand, but it is
supposed to be slightly prior to May 13, 1882, on which date it was
printed in the _Scientific American Supplement_. Although quite lengthy
the paper contains so much interesting data and light upon the subject
that we reproduce it almost entirely, together with remarks by other
eminent gentlemen who were present at the meeting:

“This evening I have on the table specimens of food which have been
kept for longer or shorter periods, as they are intended to illustrate
various applications of this preserving material. As you know
oysters are imported very largely in tins. They are cooked at a high
temperature and hermetically sealed. The high temperature to which they
are exposed necessarily causes a loss of flavor, and it is generally
remarked that tinned oysters are not a success. * * * I have oysters on
the table which were opened on the 3d of December in last year. I will
ask you to taste them and see in what condition they are, and I would
also remind you that they have not been kept in hermetically sealed
tins, but simply in corked or stoppered bottles; hence this method of
preserving oysters is cheaper than the other, and I maintain that it is
more effective, because their natural and fresh flavor is preserved.
I am informed by a friend in Jamaica that he has sent me some Jamaica
oysters and other things--I trust they will be here in time for me to
submit them to you this evening.

“Another substance, the perfect preservation of which is very
important, is cream, both for home use and for exportation. Cream
in London costs from four to five shillings per quart; it can be
bought in country places for two shillings, and even for less. This
preservative substance will keep cream for months perfectly good and
sweet, having its full flavor; so that it would be quite possible
to send it in quantities from the country, and its sale need not be
pressed as it need not be used immediately. I have regularly every
week, except during the holidays, brought with me from Beaumont
College, near Windsor, where I lecture, a quart of cream treated with
one ounce of the boroglyceride; it has always kept perfectly good
even in the hottest weather. I have done this for a year and a half;
a near relative has taken the greater part of this regularly for the
time stated, and this proves conclusively that there is nothing at
all injurious to health in the compound. I see a gentleman present
here to-night who is connected with that college as a professor of
natural science, and he will, in the discussion, be able to give you
very valuable information as to the material and as to its perfect
wholesomeness. Last month I sent some cream to the Rev. J. Ryan, a
Jesuit priest in Jamaica, and I have received a letter from him, from
which I will read you an extract:

  ‘26 North Street, Kingston, Jamaica,
    ‘February 24, 1882.

  ‘The cream which you sent was used by eight of us in coffee, and
  was pronounced to be wonderfully good. Next morning it was taken in
  preference to a beaten egg, by the captain of H. M. S. Tenedos, to
  his coffee.’

“Last year I sent some Devonshire clotted cream, which I prepared
myself, to Zanzibar, on the east coast of Africa. The climate here is
very hot; fresh food will only keep a few hours. This cream had to pass
through the hot climate of the Red Sea. I will read an extract from a
letter written by a lady who received the cream:

  ‘Universities Mission To Central Africa,
    ‘Mbweni, Zanzibar, March 8, 1881.

  ‘The Devonshire cream you sent us was quite a success. I received it
  last night. Fortunately the Bishop and Miss A---- came to Mbweni,
  to-day, so we had it for dinner. That I might have everything correct
  I opened a pot of raspberry jam which we had from London a long time
  ago. The Bishop said it had kept perfectly, but had not quite the
  rich flavor that it has when quite fresh; he has been used to it in
  Devonshire. Every one pronounced it most excellent. We sent some in
  to Mrs. H----, and were surprised at her sending for more, for she
  seldom eats half anything we send her. She did not know what it was,
  but she said she had never had anything here she enjoyed so much.’

“A year ago I sent some cream from Beaumont College dairy to the Rev.
Thomas Porter, the head of the Jesuit Mission in the West Indies. He
states that the cream was as good as any he had eaten at home, that he
gave it to several strangers to eat, and that they would not believe
that it came from England. These experiments and these testimonies
prove conclusively that this compound will preserve cream. I shall this
evening show you specimens. It is easy to send cream in good condition
to the tropics. A great objection to condensed milk is that it is
always too sweet. The boroglyceride will preserve condensed milk, and
will give it no flavor at all. My friend, the Rev. Thomas Porter, sent
me some articles preserved with the material which I sent him from
England. They arrived about June in last year. Some raw, fresh turtle
came quite fresh. It was cooked and eaten by several persons, who said
it was quite fresh and good, and had the flavor of fresh turtle. At my
own house I had turtle cutlets fried; they were perfectly good, and
tasted like turtle. Another article which Father Porter sent me was an
uncooked Jamaica pigeon; it was roasted at Beaumont College. I divided
it and brought half of it home It was tasted by twelve people, who all
pronounced that it was perfectly good, and had the true pigeon flavor.
In the same parcel came some green sugar-cane, fresh tamarinds taken
direct from the tree, fresh limes, and the juices of two different
fruits. All were fresh, and were tasted by gentlemen who had lived in
Jamaica, who all declared that they had all their own peculiar flavors.
On the 3d of September, 1881, another box was sent me from Jamaica,
containing sugar-cane, guavas, fresh ginger, and turtle; the turtle had
come to grief, because it was not properly treated on the other side;
the cane, guavas, and fresh ginger have been tasted by those who have
lived in Jamaica, and have been pronounced to have their true flavors.

“Ordinary milk cannot be kept good for a long time, especially in hot
weather. If milk were concentrated in this country, and heated with the
boroglyceride, carriage would be saved, and the milk might be kept good
and fresh for a fortnight and more; all it would require would be to
reduce it again to its original strength. If fresh milk be treated with
this preservative it can be set for cream for several days, even in hot
weather. The cream which rises will keep, and the skim-milk will remain
sweet for several weeks; this I have tried in the dairy at Beaumont
College. From the cream so prepared butter was made, and was kept for
several weeks without a particle of salt, and was eaten by members of
the college. I also wish to show another method by which meat can be
preserved and cheaply transported. In South America, about Buenos Ayres
and the River Platte, many cattle are killed simply for the hides and
fat; the flesh is thrown away. Now, if this flesh were cut up in small
pieces, and put into the preserving liquid for a night, it would, even
in that hot climate, keep good for some time. It could then in a few
hours be dried in the sun, packed in casks, and sent to this or to
other countries. I have a specimen of beef treated in this way. It was
put into the solution on Jan. 19, 1882, dried Feb. 1, and has lately,
within a few days, been boiled, and here is the resulting beef tea,
which has not in any way been flavored. I have also small quantities
of beef juice here preserved in bottles. The juice was expressed and
has been kept raw. Raw beef and mutton juice is recommended by medical
men in many conditions of the digestive system. I administered it to
a near relation for six weeks, and the juice was preserved good by my
material. In the case referred to the effect was very satisfactory. It
appears to me to be a most important matter that soup meat, and meat
for potting and stewing, should be sent to this country in the way I
propose. The supply would be large, the prices low, and the profits
highly satisfactory, and it would greatly relieve the meat market,
because a very large quantity of fresh meat which is now used for soup
could be employed in other ways. It has been remarked to me: ‘But would
you get people to use it?’ I think, to begin with, that if proprietors
of hotels and heads of large public institutions, workhouses, and
hospitals could be shown that for half the cost they could have equally
good soup and soup stock, they would willingly use it, and from thence
it would come into private use. I have specimens to show the effect of
boroglyceride on fish. Here are sprats which have been kept for a year;
they are dry, but perfectly good and eatable; also some preserved fresh
since Jan. 13, 1882. You will be able to judge of their appearance
and flavor. I have also herrings and a piece of skate which have been
preserved for the same time. If fishmongers had a tank of this solution
they could, at the end of the day, put their fish in it, and take them
out when required. Bloaters, when lightly cured in hot weather, do not
keep good many days; if a small quantity of this stuff was used with
the salt, they would keep good for months. The same may be said of
smoked salmon. That which is very salt costs 9d. per pound, but the
mild cured kinds cost 3s. 6d. to 4s. per pound. All could be mildly
cured if this material was used with the other curing substances. As
an adjunct in curing mild hams and bacon it would be of great use, for
these, when cured lightly, would not go bad, as they often do in the
summer time. What I have said as to the temporary preservation of fish
by fishmongers applies equally to the preservation of meat and fowls by
butchers and poulterers.

“It is justly complained of that the Australian cooked meat is
overcooked. If it were for a short time dropped in this preservative
solution it would keep perfectly well after being lightly cooked, even
underdone. I have a piece of beef which was dipped Feb. 28 and boiled
on March 9. It has been left in its own liquid, it was not flavored,
and no salt was added. Here, too, is a vast field for the application
of the process. Here is also lobster which was taken out of the shell
Feb. 1, and here are two lobsters in their shell which were immersed on
the same day.

“I now wish to draw your attention to a parcel from Jamaica, which has
just arrived, and from which I am able, I am happy to say, to show
you specimens which must be of interest. In a jar on the table is
some fresh turtle, which I had simply cooked. I thought it better so
to present it to you rather than raw. There is also a Jamaica pigeon,
also just cooked here, and a _vol au vent_, which I have had made from
oysters which were sent open in the preserving stuff from Jamaica.
These specimens will prove conclusively that food sent from a tropical
climate retains its freshness and delicate flavor. I have reserved one
of the pigeons raw, that you may see in what state it arrived. Some
mutton was shipped to me from the Falkland Islands at the beginning of
last August; a piece of it is uncooked on the table. I have also had
a piece stewed, which you will be able to taste; this has of course
passed the tropics. Through the kindness of my friend Mr. Haffenden of
the ‘Andaluzia,’ in the Strand, who owns vineyards in the southwest
of Spain, I can show you some perfectly fresh sardines which he had
placed in the preserving fluid several months ago in Spain, and which
he brought with him. You will yourselves judge of their condition; I
will only remark that they have the peculiar fragrance of that delicate
fish, and will it not be a boon to have a supply of this fresh delicacy
at a moderate cost?

“You will also see, and I hope taste, a pigeon pie. The pigeons and
the steak have been preserved raw in stoppered bottles since the 21st
of last November and the eggs since the 4th of July, 1881. I will also
call your attention to a tongue which I myself placed in the solution
Feb. 9 in this year, with some garlic, sugar, and juniper berries, my
object being to show that salt can, if desired, be dispensed with. You
will doubtless find that it will require salt; but you will readily
infer that hams, tongues, etc., can be made just as salt as one
pleases, and will yet keep perfectly sweet, in fact sounder, than those
cured only with salt. This tongue was boiled out of pickle. I exhibit
two shoulders of mutton, one cooked, the other raw; they are from sheep
killed Jan. 10, 1882. Also a piece of beef preserved on the same day;
this when you have inspected it shall be cut in slices and broiled. You
will see some sausages, both cooked and uncooked; they were made for
me by Mr. Bowron, poulterer, of Paddington, early in July last, before
I went to Carlsbad. I took some with me to that place, and they were
there eaten and pronounced good. These are some of the same lot; they
were made as follows: The meat was chopped, put into the preserving
fluid for one night, and then mixed with the other material in the
ordinary way. They have been kept since in an earthenware jar; they
have, therefore, been made more than nine months. I may remark that the
bread in these sausages was not treated, and therefore it has become
slightly sour, but the pork has kept perfectly fresh. I have also some
other sausages which I bought Jan. 12, and at once preserved; these
having been steeped, the bread has not turned in the slightest degree

“Mock turtle soup, bought ready made from a confectioner’s shop in
Oxford street, Jan. 25, treated with the preservative stuff, has
remained quite good and unchanged in flavor.

“There is also a specimen of gravy soup made in October last, and some
vermicelli soup made about three weeks ago. The preservative action of
boroglyceride in cooked foods is, it seems to me, of great importance
to hotel-keepers, confectioners, and restaurant proprietors, as it will
enable them to buy large stocks when certain articles are cheap, and
from the specimen I show of cooked beef you see it remains quite moist,
as it can be kept, without getting sour, in its own gravy and under
a layer of its own fat. To prove that articles can be kept and dried
without losing their flavor, I had some partridges treated and dried
last February twelvemonth, and I exhibit some soup made from two of
these birds. The other articles on the table are one raw and one roast
fowl, bought Jan. 17; one raw and one roast pheasant, bought Feb. 5;
one rabbit boiled, bought Jan. 17. There are also from Jamaica a green
lime, some fresh tamarinds, and some pieces of fresh ginger. * * *

“I thank you, ladies and gentlemen, for the patient hearing you have
given me.”


The Chairman said the paper was marked by the clear and philosophic
way in which the subject was treated, and before inviting discussion
upon it he would mention shortly his own experience of the process,
the only interest of which was that it was quite independent of Prof.
Barff. When he was asked to take the chair he communicated with Mr.
Barff, and inquired what the process was. Mr. Barff kindly sent him a
specimen of this substance, which he melted, and put some of it into
one-half of a pint of cream. The other half very soon turned sour, and
had to be thrown away, but that to which the substance was added was
perfectly fresh that morning. He was confirmed in the opinion of its
freshness by the cook, though she said there was a very slight tartness
perceptible, by which she could distinguish it from fresh cream. He had
also tried another experiment on meat which was chopped very fine, and
divided into two parts; to one part he added merely tepid water, to the
other, tepid water to which one-sixteenth of its bulk of this compound
had been added. This was left on the meat for eighteen hours, and then
filtered off through muslin. Several days ago the portion which had no
preservative was very offensive, but the other portion was that morning
perfectly free from any odor whatever.

The Rev. J. L. Dobson said he had had the pleasure of being associated
with Mr. Barff in most of the experiments he had detailed, and might
therefore anticipate his reply to one or two points raised by Dr.
Graham. An experiment which was tried for some time in a large school
would answer the question of wholesomeness. At the Beaumont College,
Windsor, there was a large staff of teachers and over 200 pupils, and
during the hot weather of last summer the dairymaid was very much
annoyed at the milk turning sour, and applied to him to see if he
could do anything to counteract it. He handed her some 14 or 15 lbs.
of this material and during the whole of the hot weather and well on
into September it was constantly used, and the milk was preserved; but
the method was not detected by any one, either by the younger members
or by those who might be expected to be more critical. No ill effects
were observed by the medical officer or by individuals. From his own
experience he thought the aroma was very well preserved throughout.
For instance, in oysters which had been preserved over three months
there was the characteristic aroma of the fresh oyster; mutton could be
easily distinguished from beef, and the peculiar smell of the turtle
was also very distinct. They had not yet tried beer with so much
fullness as other articles, but about nine months ago a small quantity
was treated and left exposed to the air, with only a loose stopper of
cotton wool. It did not grow cloudy in the ordinary way, but owing
to the severity of the experiment, and perhaps to not sufficiently
treating it, after four months it lost all flavor, became extremely
flat, and a slight fungus appeared.

Dr. Thudichum had listened with great pleasure to the paper, and had
no doubt if the application of the invention could be effected on a
large scale it would be very useful. He had some experience with regard
to a portion of the ingredients used, viz.: boracic acid, though he
had none of this beautiful new compound. It might not be known to the
meeting that boracic acid had been used for a great many years for
preserving food, and in fact many of them in summer time had their milk
well dosed with it. It had been sold to milkmen in London for years
under the name of “aseptin.” He had tested it in 1865 and found a great
many of those effects which Mr. Barff described. For instance eggs
were beautifully preserved, and steak immersed in the solution did not
become either mouldy or decomposed, but on the contrary appeared to
retain its flavor. A variety of other things, such as cheese and cream,
were for a long time preserved by this application of aseptin. He hoped
the addition of the glycerine would increase the power and prevent some
drawbacks which would otherwise stand in the way of boracic acid alone
as a preservative of raw or cooked meat.

Prof. Barff, in reply to the various questions which had been asked,
said he had used salicylic acid and had found it useful in preserving
food, but for several reasons discontinued further investigations,
one being on the score of its unwholesomeness, and he found that his
views on that point had been borne out by the action taken by the
French Government. Dr. Graham had asked him about flavor; he had given
Dr. Graham a few days ago some specimens of preserved fish, which he
said had lost their flavor, but that would not be found to be the
case with the box of sardines. The herrings had been kept in an open
vessel exposed to the air ever since the day they were put into the
liquid, and therefore it was not surprising that they had lost their
flavor. If they would try any of the things which had been tinned,
not soldered up, but such as the Jamaica pigeons, which were in a
common corked bottle, it would be found that the aroma and flavor were
retained. The only thing requisite was to keep the vessel so as to
exclude the air, as you would with tea or coffee. Dr. Thudichum made
some very interesting remarks which there was not time to refer to at
length, if he were competent to do so, but not being a medical man he
could not enter into medical questions. As to the wholesomeness of the
compound, however, he might say that he had taken large quantities of
it himself and it had never done him any harm; and a near relative
had taken an ounce per week regularly for a year and a half, without
any ill effect--a person, too, not very strong or of good digestive
powers. The boys and teachers of Beaumont College drank milk preserved
with it without distinguishing the taste or suffering any ill effects.
He knew there were medical opinions in favor of boracic acid, and one
physician he was acquainted with used it as a medicine. If it were
at all unwholesome he certainly should not recommend it, but he did
not think there was the slightest fear. As to boron getting into the
system, it was not boron which was used, but oxide of boron; but even
if it did--and he should not be surprised if traces of boron were found
in the excreta--it did not follow that any harm was done. There were
many things which went through the system without injury; for instance,
silica, of which most people took a great deal in the twenty-four
hours. As to the cost of the process the cost per gallon, as far as
he could tell--he could not tell exactly--would be under 1s.--perhaps
8d. or 9d.--and a gallon would affect an enormous quantity. Most of
the articles on the table were put into one pan of solution, and the
cost of the whole stuff was about 9-1/2d. Should the process be adopted
commercially experiments as to the cost would be most carefully made
and the results published. A joint of any size could be soaked; the
only thing was to give it plenty of time. You might soak a piece of
beef of twenty pounds, forty pounds, or fifty pounds; or you might
use an injecting syringe, such as butchers employed for salting meat
quickly, and the meat so treated would keep for a week or a fortnight
perfectly good, but he did not think it would keep well enough to
pass under a tropical sun. In order to do that you must inject by the
aorta, by means of a force pump, so as to send the liquid into all
the interstices of the flesh. As to the proportions, 1 in 20 was the
strongest he used, and 1 in 60 the weakest; for preserving meat 1 in
50 answered perfectly well--1 lb. of the compound added to 50 lbs. of
water. The bottle should be put before the fire until melted, and then
poured into hot water, and it would dissolve. With regard to preserving
morbid specimens he thought it would answer perfectly well. He had
had some practice in morbid anatomy, and he might say that, for the
injection of bodies to be used for anatomical purposes it would keep
them perfectly sweet. It should be injected by the aorta in the usual
way before injecting with the red wax. In reply to Mr. Dipnall he would
say that the compound penetrated right through into the innermost parts
of the meat. If you had an earthen pan and put into it 1 lb. of this
and 50 lbs. of water, and placed in it a joint which came home on the
Saturday night in hot weather, you could take it out the next day and
it would keep perfectly for a fortnight. Of course it took time to
penetrate into the meat, but the first superficial penetration stopped
the injurious effects of germs which set up putrefaction. Another
important fact was this: if you had a roast leg of lamb, perfectly
good, but did not eat it all, and put it away in hot weather, it
would turn sour, but if it had been treated in this way it would not;
it would keep for six months without going sour. By adding a small
quantity from time to time, which you could only learn by experience,
the bath would keep perfectly fresh and effective, though it would be
found after a time to get rather dark colored. That arose from the
juice of the meat, and the advantage of this process was that you need
not throw it away, as you must brine, but could boil it down into very
good soup. In conclusion he would only ask his hearers to read the
paper and discussion carefully when published, and he was sure any one
would be able to carry out the process.

The Chairman, in proposing a hearty vote of thanks to Prof. Barff, said
the process he had described was remarkable for its great simplicity
and the ease with which it could be carried out. Any cook could readily
apply it.

The vote of thanks was carried unanimously.

=An Improved Boracic Acid-Glycerine Compound.=

The following is the invention of an American, William S. Fickett of
Rochester, N. Y., and is an improved process of combining boracic acid
with glycerine for preservative purposes. (Patent No. 285,350.)

“My invention consists in a new mode of producing a new preservative
compound from boracic acid and glycerine, as hereinafter described.
Heretofore by one method[A] such a compound has been produced from
these ingredients by heating glycerine to near its boiling point and
adding boracic acid until it ceases to be dissolved, and maintaining
that mixture to a temperature of 200 deg. centigrade as long as water
is given off, etc.

  [A] Doubtless the Barff process--[author].

“Now my process consists in taking equal quantities of glycerine and
crystallized boracic acid, placing the same in a closed or sealed
vessel, and then applying heat at about 300 deg. Fahrenheit for about
two hours, which causes the boracic acid to dissolve and blend with
the glycerine. On cooling it forms without loss of weight into on
opalescent semi-solid, freely soluble in cold water, entirely devoid of
bitter or metallic taste, and communicating no objectionable taste to
butter or like delicate foods. When thus produced it is an unfailing
preventive of fermentation and decay in animal and vegetable matter or
fluid compounds.”

The following is a different process of using boracic acid, and
explains itself:

James Howard, Philadelphia, Pa.; composition for preserving foods.
(Patent No. 276,246.)

“I have discovered a method of obtaining a chemical compound of boracic
acid for the production of which neither solution nor the employment of
heat is necessary, the salt being formed by the union of the component
substances in a dry state, so that the difficulties of solution and
of loss through volitization is avoided. Moreover the compound has
anti-septic properties distinct from those of the acid, due to one of
the other elements thereof, and is tasteless.

“I take preferably not less than 5 parts by weight of pure boracic
acid in crystals, and add thereto 1 part of pure phosphate of soda.
The ingredients are mixed together dry, in a mill or other suitable
grinding apparatus, and as the chemical reaction between them
progresses the whole, or practically the whole, of the acid crystals
lose their structure, and the mass can be ground until it assumes
a pasty or doughy condition. The result is boro-phosphate of soda,
containing more or less free boracic acid, according to the excess
thereof used above the proportions given. The moisture yielded by the
chemical reaction is evaporated at the ordinary temperature by exposure
to the air without loss of boracic acid, and the dry amorphous salt
thus produced is readily ground. It may be used either as a dry powder
or may be dissolved in water and applied in the usual modes to the
substances to be preserved. If desired other substances, such as salt
and saltpeter, may be added to the boro-phosphate compound, and the
whole mixed thoroughly by regrinding.”

=Preservation of Butter, Lard, Etc.=

The following process is the invention of Mr. William Pitt Clotworthy.
(Patent No. 284,184.)

The process consists of incorporating with the fat, which may consist
of butter, lard, or other grease, a sufficient amount of paraffine.
Paraffine is non-oxidizable, without taste or odor, and, as the
inventor claims, it is perfectly harmless when used in this manner,
just as beeswax is swallowed with honey, although not in such large
proportion. Tons of paraffine are manufactured yearly into chewing gum
and chewed harmlessly by thousands.

In preserving butter the process is as follows: Take 1 ounce of fresh
unsalted butter and incorporate with it 1 ounce of paraffine, and thus
form a jelly, and then thoroughly mix this amount of jelly with 1 pound
of butter.

In preserving lard combine the paraffine as follows: When the lard
is ready to be drawn off from the rendering kettles, and while still
hot, add 1 ounce of paraffine to each pound of lard and stir the mass

=Compound for Preserving Food.=

Theodore L. Corwin of Marathon, N. Y., has invented the following.
(Patent No. 253,983):

The invention relates to the class of compounds used to preserve in
a healthful state such articles of food as meats, fish, milk, eggs,
butter, oysters, cider, and also to be used as a disinfectant and to
arrest putrefaction.

“I take of nitrate of potassium, of salicylic acid, and of chloride of
sodium, each 1 ounce. These should all be in powder and dissolved in
1 quart of water. Then add 1 drachm of hydrochloric acid previously
diluted with 1 ounce of water. To preserve meat immerse for twenty
minutes in the hot solution, after which let it drain for one hour;
then pack in a well-closed vessel. For the preservation of fish use
the same as for meat, only the solution should be allowed to become
cold before using. To keep oysters stir into them 3 ounces of the
solution (cold) to each gallon of oysters. Cider will be kept sweet
if there is added to each barrel 1 quart of the solution immediately
after the cider comes from the press. Milk to be kept sweet should have
the powder first named, viz.: nitrate of potassium, salicylic acid,
and chloride of sodium, each 1 ounce, added to every 16 gallons. As a
disinfectant the solution should be sprinkled freely around the place
or places to be disinfected. To prevent putrefaction the solution
should be copiously applied to the object treated.”

=Fruit-Juice Preservatives.=

An Ohio inventor has patented a process for preserving fruit juices
such as cider, wine, etc., which he says, if treated according to his
directions, will keep unchanged for years:

“The juice is taken before fermentation takes place and boiled, all
scum is carefully skimmed off, and then the liquid, while still hot, is
filtered through a compound of partially pulverized charcoal, crushed
mustard seed, and ground sassafras root. The filter should be covered
with fine woven wire, outside of which should be fastened a flannel
cloth to catch all escaping sediment. To every gallon of juice to be
filtered there is placed in the filter 2 ounces of charcoal, 2 scruples
of crushed mustard seed, and 6 drachms of ground sassafras root. After
filtering it is again boiled, and if any scum or impurities appear on
the surface they are removed, when the juice is to be bottled, corked
tightly, and should be left for one year.”

Schaumberg & Dillon’s method of preserving fruit juices consists in
bottling and sealing the juices, and then heating the bottles to 170
deg. Fahrenheit for thirty-five minutes. The juices are put in bottles
and are immediately corked and wired securely, and then submerged in a
water bath to a depth of about 1 inch above the bottles.

The advantages of this process are that the fruit juices will remain
sweet indefinitely, will not ferment, and are free from all deleterious

=Smoke or Vapor Preserving Compound.=

Rebecca A. McDaniel of Burr Oaks, Ia., has patented the following,
which is one of quite a number of this class of preservative processes:

“In preserving different articles, such as fruits, meats, and other
edibles, I subject them for a proper time--differing with different
articles--to the fumes arising from burning the compound. This may be
accomplished by confining the articles to be treated in a chamber in
which the compound is being burned.


    Salicylic acid                             1 ounce.
    Sulphur                                    2 pounds.
    Pulverized orange peel                   1/4 ounce.
    Ground cinnamon                            3 ounces.

“This compound well mixed will burn slowly and generate fumes or vapor
which have a peculiar action in the preservation of fruits, butter,
milk, pies, bread, eggs, and all kinds of cooked or uncooked food. In
treating meats add nitrate of potash, 4 ounces.

=Salicylic Acid as a Preservative.=

Salicylic acid, aside from its remedial value, is used largely as a
preservative, either in a dry state or in the form of a solution in
water or alcohol. Salicylic acid is a white, dry, crystalline powder,
devoid of smell or taste, undergoes no change when kept in store, and
is neither inflammable nor volatile. It can be procured in almost
any drug store, and since 1874 a new process in its manufacture has
cheapened it in price and placed it within the reach of all.

Medical authorities agree in considering the daily consumption of
1 gramme as being not only perfectly inoffensive, but decidedly
beneficial to health. An individual living on a salicylated diet
would not absorb so much of the salicylic acid per diem as that which
is prescribed to be taken for the prevention of epidemics and other
ailments, such as gout, rheumatism, catarrhal affections, etc.

The proportions in which salicylic acid dissolves are:

    One part by weight in 300 to 500 parts of cold water.
    One part by weight in 18 to 20 parts of hot water.
    One part by weight in 50 parts of glycerine.
    One part by weight in 3 parts of absolute alcohol.

In rum, brandy, wine, cider, etc., it dissolves according to their
respective strengths and temperatures.

NOTE.--By contact with iron in any form salicylic acid takes a violet

This must be noted, especially when treating milk, etc., if contained
in metallic vessels. The only bad effects will be simply slight


It is a well-known fact that, especially in hot weather, meat,
poultry, and game, although apparently quite fresh, prove, on closer
examination, or often only when cooked, to be tainted and of bad odor.
This can be entirely removed by either watering and washing the meat
in a lukewarm solution of salicylic acid (three to four teaspoonfuls
of acid to two quarts of water), or by adding a small pinch of the dry
acid in powder, during the cooking.

To keep meat for several days from becoming high or tainted:

Place it for twenty or thirty minutes in an aqueous solution of 8
drachms of salicylic acid to one gallon of water.

Rub into the surface of the meat some dry salicylic acid, particularly
about the bony and fatty parts; the meat to be afterward cleaned before
cooking as usual.

Although the raw meat treated with the acid turns slightly pale on the
surface it suffers no change whatever internally. Meat thus treated
with salicylic acid requires, also, less cooking to render it tender.


A third of a teaspoonful (or, if the temperature be high, a little
more) of the solid acid to a quart of milk delays the process of
curdling for thirty-six hours, without influencing its property of
yielding cream.


Washed with an aqueous solution (four drachms of acid to a gallon of
water), or kept in it, or wrapped in cloths soaked in this water, keeps
fresh for a very long time. Butter already rancid can be improved by
treatment with a stronger solution (8 drachms of acid to 1 gallon of
water), followed by washing in pure water. The bad smell often arising
in salted butter is entirely prevented by addition of the acid.


Of every description, made in the usual way, but with the addition of
about 1 drachm of salicylic acid to every 4 pounds of the preserve,
will keep sound with absolute certainty for a much longer time,
fermentation and mouldiness being prevented. Under exceptionally
unfavorable circumstances, such as hot pantries, a little of the dry
acid should be sprinkled on the top of the vessel or preserve pot. A
tightly-fitting piece of blotting paper, previously saturated with a
concentrated solution of salicylic acid in spirit, brandy, or rum, and
placed on the top of the preserves will also greatly aid in keeping


Can be kept for a very long time by being placed for half an hour in a
cold, saturated, aqueous solution of the acid, then allowed to dry in
the air, and, as usual, kept in a cool place. Some prefer to coat them
by dipping them in melted paraffine after they have been treated in
this manner. (Use no straw or hay in packing eggs.)


Are most effectually preserved for a long time by the addition of 1/2
to 1 ounce of the acid per 20 pounds of these substances. It is also
well to place a paper soaked in the salicylic acid solution on the top
of them, which greatly enhances the preserving effect.

In the manufacture of vinegar, salicylic acid is also of great
importance to prevent false or excessive fermentation, putridity, etc.


With respect to wine the experiments of Prof. Neubauer of Wiesbaden
have proved that the introduction of the acid for the preservation of
wine marks an era of great industrial progress, as it energetically
prevents, even when used in very small quantities, the formation of
mould germs and other circumstances which are injurious to wine, while
it absolutely arrests secondary fermentation, cloudiness, etc. As
wine differs very much in its constitution the requisite quantity of
salicylic acid must be found out by practice in each particular case.
About 1/4 to 3/4 of an ounce per 50 gallons will be found sufficient
for most wines. In using the salicylic acid for this purpose it is
recommended to make a strong solution of it in pure spirit, perfectly
free from fusel oil, and then to add of this solution as much as may be

If in addition to this the casks are washed out with an aqueous
solution of the acid it will prove of great service, and all other
agents at present used for this purpose will soon be abandoned. The
larger the amount of sugar in proportion to the alcohol the more
salicylic acid will be required. The addition is best made when the
wine has attained its full ripeness. The effervescence of wine in
spring, or after carriage in warm weather, will at once be stopped.
The salicylic acid kills all kinds of germs, and destroys the growth
and action of any yeast which may still be present; it is therefore of
incalculable value in effectually preserving wine, and as a preventive
of the deterioration to which this liquid is subject.

Must, fresh from the press in autumn, can be kept without fermentation
perfectly fresh, bright, and sweet for six to eight months by the
addition of 1 to 1-1/2 ounces per 50 gallon, or of 3/4 ounce per
100 bottles. Sparkling Must requires an addition of 6 to 7 ounces
of salicylic acid per 100 gallons. In the same manner all kinds of
fruit-wine which, as is well known, soon turn sour, can be preserved by
the addition of a similar quantity of salicylic acid. Must kept still
for transport can at any time be set into fermentation by a slight
addition of carbonate of soda and fresh yeast.


Experiments made upon a large scale have placed beyond a doubt the
remarkable properties of salicylic acid as a preventive of secondary
fermentation and acidity in beer, and as a preservative of beer in a
sound condition when sent out or exposed to the noxious influences
of warm cellars, change of temperature, etc. The amount of salicylic
acid required to produce the best effects in preserving beer varies
according to the quality of the malt liquor; but half an ounce per
barrel of 36 imperial gallons will be very generally found to answer
the purpose well. The addition of the salicylic acid delays secondary
fermentation in stock and export beers, which may then be kept for
any length of time without becoming unsound or of unpleasant flavor.
Less than a quarter ounce of the powder of salicylic acid per barrel
of boiling wort strewn into the same while turning out will destroy
or suspend the vitality of the false ferments, especially that of the
lactic ferment, in the fermenting vats, and this not only without
injury to the yeast cells, but keeping them free from parasitical
growths. In this manner the fermentation will take a steadier course
and enable the liquor to attain its perfection during the ensuing still
fermentation in the cask, into which another quarter ounce or more of
the acid is to be given per barrel a fortnight before racking. Stout,
and in fact all beers for export to a hot climate, require rather more.

For long transports the acid in powder can be simply thrown into the
export casks, in which it dissolves in the course of three days instead
of a week, which is required by the cold beer lying quietly.


The clean bottles must be rinsed with a solution of 1 part of salicylic
acid in 4 or 5 parts of spirit (free from fusel oil), which can be
poured from 1 bottle to another. Or, a small pinch of the acid in
powder is placed in every bottle before filling.

The corks should always be boiled in water containing 1 ounce to the
gallon, which is also efficient in disinfecting tubes, taps, etc.


Dissolve 3/4 of an ounce of salicylic acid in a gallon of cider, and
then add this amount to each barrel of cider. This is superior to any
preparation of lime. The cider must be treated when fresh.


Are successfully preserved for a length of time from decomposition or
deterioration by means of salicylic acid. One-thousandth part of the
acid introduced into a vat of gelatine or into decoctions of animal
matter, prevents their undergoing decomposition for an indefinite
period of time. Calico printers are using half a pound of the acid to
every 100 pounds of dressing starch, in order to entirely preclude the
disagreeable odor arising after awhile from dry goods in store.


If the bark-color be slightly salicylated, this liquor will not undergo
the change which, instead of making the hides and skins swell, often
causes the opposite effect, contracting them by an alkaline action,
and at the same time imparting to them a putrid odor. Treatment with
carbolic acid also leaves a most objectionable odor, especially in fine
leather goods. The use of salicylic acid will thus be found highly
remunerative to all tanners, as it has proved in the industries already
alluded to.


Three drachms of salicylic acid are used to every 300 pounds of
beetroot in the diffusing liquor, in order to prevent fermentation, and
for destroying the parasitical growths, especially noticeable in the
old material.


Fumigation with the acid purifies the air and walls of closed rooms.
Simply evaporate some on a heated shovel, which must not be red-hot.

The air in crowded buildings, schools, barracks, hospitals, factories,
etc., will be improved by keeping the floors sprinkled with the
solution. In sick rooms this is of great importance, the dust settling
on the floor being the readiest receptacle and means of transmitting
the microscopic fungi or germs of infection which float in the air.


Are very well cleaned and disinfected by washing them with an aqueous
solution of the acid. This deserves especial notice.

It is evident that numerous advantageous applications of salicylic acid
are carried out besides those enumerated above, but the descriptions
already given will enable any person interested in the matter to find
out the best means of deriving profit from the wonderful properties of
this extremely useful substance.

                      Ice-House and Refrigerator.


Houses built on this plan are lined throughout the inside with sheet
iron. There is a layer of felt nailed to the sides, ceiling, and floor
of the room, and on this is nailed the sheet iron. It is then painted
with two heavy coats, it being the aim to fill up all joints and
seams with the paint. But as the tin and felt do not render the room
absolutely air-tight, I am of opinion that it can as well be dispensed
with. It might save some ice if the seams were all soldered. The layer
of cement, asphaltum or gas tar, which should cover the ground below
the joists, is to protect the room from the moisture and warmth of the
earth. Above this layer should be about 30 inches of dry sawdust or
turners shavings, well packed up to the level of the top of the joists.

[Illustration: _Refrigerating House._]

The drainage from the ice is carried off by a series of V-shaped tin
or iron troughs, which run between the joists, all of which carry
the water to one point, where it is carried outside by a trap-pipe.
These troughs reach over to the center of the top of the joists,
and are soldered together, so that no water will drip on the floor
below. It will be seen that in this plan there is no sawdust or other
preservative in contact with the ice, and that the air of the room
circulates around and over the ice. As long as the temperature of the
goods stored is above the temperature of the room there will be a
gentle draught around the mass of ice, and of course all the moisture
in the air, vapors, and odors from the goods will condense on the ice
and pass off, so that you can keep milk, cream, butter, fruits, and
meats all in the same chamber without danger of injuring the flavor of
either. The atmosphere of the room is always dry, sweet, and pure.

The features of this plan can as well be carried out by arranging a
room inside of another building.

I should have explained before that the ice does not rest directly on
the joists; but there is a bed of oak lath, about 1-1/2 by 3 inches,
laid across the joists, about 4 or 5 inches apart, on which the ice is
laid. I would further suggest that another cold chamber can as well
be had by making a cellar under the one shown, with a lattice floor
between them. It would be necessary to finish the sides and bottom of
this cellar in the most complete manner, as above described. At the
entrance to the store-room there must be a vestibule, either inside or
outside, as space or circumstances may direct. If outside the walls
should be thick and the door very heavy. The doors, both inside and
outside, should be fitted with rubber, so as to close perfectly tight,
and both doors must never be opened at the same time. This vestibule
should be large enough to contain a fair wagon load of goods, so that
if you are receiving a load of stuff you are not required to stop until
all is in the vestibule and ready to store. This house only needs
filling once a year. The temperature will range from 34 deg. in winter
to 36 deg. in summer, and will preserve fruit perfectly from season
to season. The opening for putting in the ice, shown just under the
pulley in the cut, has two doors with a space between; each door a foot
thick. The window in the cold room has three sets of sash, well packed
or cemented. The walls are 13 inches thick, lined with 17 inches of
sawdust. Thirty-six inches of sawdust are put on the floor over the
ice. The building shown is 25 feet square, inside measure, and 22 feet
from floor of cold room to ceiling over the ice. The ice-room is 12
feet high, and the cold room 9 feet. Pillars are required under the
center of the ice.--_Country Gentleman._

                           Cheap Ice-Houses.

Settlers in the newer portions of the country are often deprived of
many comforts which are easily accessible in long-settled places.
Whatever contributes to lessen these privations, if at little cost,
should merit special attention. A cheap ice-house may be made to afford
an important share of country comforts in such settlements. There is
nothing to prevent an abundant supply through the heat of summer where
there is a stream or sheet of water within two or three miles from
which clear blocks of ice may be sawed. Sawdust is the best material
for packing, but in its absence chaff, chopped straw, or even straw
unchopped may be made to answer the purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

A costly and elaborate building is no better than the cheapest
structure for keeping ice, if care is only taken to have it properly
packed, which is very easily done after one “knows how.” We have never
seen ice better preserved through a long and hot summer than in a board
shanty with only one thickness of siding, and that full of cracks and
crevices. For a new settlement one built of logs, like that shown
in the accompanying figure (Fig. 1), may be made to answer a good
purpose. The floor may be slabs, and the roof a covering of brush to
hold the packing to its place, if a slab roof is not readily made. If
sawdust is used for packing, the crevices between the logs will need
close stopping; or, still better, it can be faced on the inside with
slabs set upright, with the smooth side inward. If straw is employed,
the rough logs may remain, and the crevices between them may be left
open. For sawdust a well-packed space of 10 inches between walls and
ice will keep the ice well; chopped straw should be 15 or 20 inches
thick, and long straw should occupy a space of 2 feet. Stiff, coarse
straw will not answer unless packed very solid; finer and softer, as
of thickly sown oats, is better, and the walls which it forms need not
be quite so thick. Fine hay would be still better, and would answer if
only a foot and a half thick and well put in. Dry swamp moss, such as
nurserymen use for packing trees and plants, would be one of the very
best substances for protecting the ice, if only a foot thick.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

Having prepared the house and packing cut the blocks of ice of
precisely equal size, using a cross-cut saw with one handle removed,
to go under water. The size should be measured and scratched on the
surface for the saw to follow. Two feet square is a convenient size.
When cut lift them out with a light plank having a batten nailed
across one end to hold them (Fig. 2). Place about 10 inches of sawdust
on the floor (or twice as much solid straw), and build the structures
solid with the ice blocks, ramming in the sawdust or other packing as
the structure goes up (Fig. 3). When finished cover it with a thickness
of packing nearly equal to that at the sides. It is important that
there be free ventilation over the top, which the loose brush will not
prevent. If there is a slab roof the air must blow freely between this
roof and the top covering. The slab floor will allow a free drainage of
all the water which runs down through the packing from the melting ice.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.]

A structure nearly as cheap as the preceding is represented in Fig. 4.
It is made by setting rough posts into the ground with the inner sides
straight or faced with the ax, and then nailing common rough boards on
them (like a tight fence) to a sufficient height. The floor is made as
already described, and the roof may be boards or slabs. The openings at
the gables perform an important part in the ventilation by admitting
all the air that can sweep over the top sawdust. Fig. 3, already
referred to, is the ground plan, and Fig. 5 is a vertical section.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.]

There are three requisites to be secured in order to keep the ice
successfully: 1st. The closely packed, non-conducting substance on
each side, under and above the mass of ice. 2d. Perfect drainage at the
bottom without the admission of air. 3d. Free circulation of air over
the top covering. If these requisites are observed the result will be
entirely satisfactory.--_Country Gentlemen._

                          A Cheap Ice-Chest.

Procure two dry-goods boxes, one of which is enough smaller than the
other to leave a space of 3 or 4 inches all around when it is placed
inside. Fill the space between the two with sawdust packed closely and
cover with a heavy lid made to fit neatly inside the larger box. Insert
a small pipe in the bottom of the chest to carry off the water from
the melting ice. For family or grocers’ use this will prove even more
serviceable than some of the high-priced patent refrigerators.

                       Ice Without an Ice-House.

Select a dry, shady spot; dig a ditch for carrying off the waste water,
and over it place a lath-work. Upon this lay a thick layer of moss,
leaves, or sawdust. Now pile upon this the cakes of ice, the larger
the better, and cut or sawed square in such a manner as to leave as
few spaces as possible, filling up those which may occur with fine
sawdust in order to prevent the air from penetrating into the interior
of the pile. It is best to build the pile in the form of a pyramid.
When completed it is covered with straw, moss, or leaves as thick and
as close as possible, a layer of earth being thrown upon it to secure
the covering and as a further protection to the ice. Where a stream or
lake is inaccessible from which to procure ice for filling ice-houses,
especially where a small quantity is stored, the ice can be frozen
with water from the well in boxes or other contrivance made especially
for the purpose, which we leave to the ingenuity of those who are

                          Freezing Mixtures.

Refrigerating salts and mixtures are used to produce cold artificially.
They are used with or without ice or snow. As is well known common salt
mixed with pounded ice or snow lowers the temperature to a considerable
degree, so there are other mixtures which will produce a still greater
degree of cold. The following simple and cheap preparation, when mixed
according to directions, will produce artificial cold sufficient to
cool wines, etc., without the aid of ice: Take common sal-ammoniac,
well pulverized, 1 part; saltpeter, 2 parts, and mix well together:
then take common soda, well pulverized. To use, take equal quantities
of these preparations (which must be kept separate and well covered
previous to using) and put them in the freezing pot; add of water a
sufficient quantity, and put in the article to be frozen in a proper
vessel and cover up until cooled as desired.

These tables consist of mixtures having the power of generating or
creating cold, with or without the aid of ice, sufficient for all
useful and philosophical purposes, in any part of the world at any


                                 |    _Thermometer    |  _Degree of
            MIXTURES.            |       Sinks._      |     cold
                                 |                    |   Produced._
  Muriate of ammonium    5 parts}|                    |
  Nitrate of potassium   5 parts}| From +50° to +10°  |      40
  Water                 16 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Muriate of ammonium    5 parts}|                    |
  Nitrate of potassium   5 parts}| From +50° to  +4°  |      46
  Sulphate of sodium     8 parts}|                    |
  Water                 16 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Nitrate of ammonium    1 part }| From +50° to  +4°  |      46
  Water                  1 part }|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Nitrate of ammonium    1 part }|                    |
  Carbonate of sodium    1 part }| From +50° to  -7°  |      57
  Water                  1 part }|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Sulphate of sodium     3 parts}| From +50° to  -3°  |      53
  Dilute nitric acid     2 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Sulphate of sodium     6 parts}|                    |
  Muriate of ammonium    4 parts}| From +50° to -10°  |      60
  Nitrate of potassium   2 parts}|                    |
  Dilute nitric acid     4 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Sulphate of sodium     6 parts}|                    |
  Nitrate of ammonium    5 parts}| From +50° to -14°  |      64
  Dilute nitric acid     4 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Phosphate of sodium    9 parts}| From +50° to -12°  |      62
  Dilute nitric acid     4 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Phosphate of sodium    9 parts}|                    |
  Nitrate of ammonium    6 parts}| From +50° to -21°  |      71
  Dilute nitric acid     4 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Sulphate of sodium     8 parts}| From +50° to   0°  |      50
  Muriatic acid          5 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Sulphate of sodium     5 parts}| From +50° to  +3°  |      47
  Dilute sulphuric acid  4 parts}|                    |


                                 |    _Thermometer    |  _Degree of
            MIXTURES.            |       Sinks._      |     cold
                                 |                    |   Produced._
  Snow or pounded ice    2 parts}|           to  -5°  |      ..
  Muriate of sodium      1 part }|                    |
                                 |   t                |
  Snow or pounded ice    5 parts}| F e                |
  Muriate of sodium      2 parts}| r m       to -12°  |      ..
  Muriate of ammonium    1 part }| o p                |
                                 | m e                |
  Snow or pounded ice   24 parts}|   r                |
  Muriate of sodium     10 parts}| a a       to -18°  |      ..
  Muriate of ammonium    5 parts}| n t                |
  Nitrate of potassium   5 parts}| y u                |
                                 |   r                |
  Snow or pounded ice   12 parts}|   e                |
  Muriate of sodium      5 parts}|           to -25°  |      ..
  Nitrate of ammonium    5 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Snow                   3 parts}| From +32° to -23°  |      55
  Dilute sulphuric acid  2 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Snow                   8 parts}| From +32° to -27°  |      59
  Muriatic acid          5 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Snow                   7 parts}| From +32° to -30°  |      62
  Dilute nitric acid     4 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Snow                   4 parts}| From +32° to -40°  |      72
  Muriate of calcium     5 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Snow                   2 parts}| From +32° to -50°  |      82
  Crystallized muriate   3 parts}|                    |
    of calcium                   |                    |
                                 |                    |
  Snow                   3 parts}| From +32° to -51°  |      83
  Potash                 4 parts}|                    |


                                 |    _Thermometer    |  _Degree of
            MIXTURES.            |       Sinks._      |     cold
                                 |                    |   Produced._
  Phosphate of sodium    5 parts}|                    |
  Nitrate of ammonium    3 parts}| From   0° to -34°  |      34
  Dilute nitric acid     4 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Phosphate of sodium    3 parts}|                    |
  Nitrate of ammonium    2 parts}| From -34° to -50°  |      16
  Dilute nitric acid     4 parts}|                    |
                                 |                    |
  Snow                   3 parts}| From   0° to -46°  |      46
  Dilute nitric acid     2 parts}|                    |

                         Constant Water Baths.

[_American Chemical Journal._]

The following simple form of constant water bath, which wastes no
water, I have found to be very convenient:

A tube of glass or metal, not less than 1/4 of an inch internal
diameter, the ends of which are cut off obliquely, is bent as shown
in the cut. It should make an angle of about 30 deg., or a little
greater, with the horizontal. The angle may be diminished if the bore
of the tube is increased. One end is inserted in the water bath, the
other in an inverted bottle. The height of the water in the bath is
regulated by the depth of immersion of the tube in it. The boiling is
not interrupted by the feeding, which takes place slowly and regularly.
It is necessary that the ends of the tubes should be cut off obliquely.
The same form of tube answers equally well for keeping a constant level
in a filter or drying chamber.


A brass tube is much better than a glass one, as it does not crack at
the water level after using for a time. Brass tubes can easily be bent
by ramming full of sand, stopping the ends, and bending them over a
curved surface. A large number of baths can be run by this apparatus by
connecting them with a bath fed by it.--_Charles T. Pomeroy._

Note.--We have used for a number of years in this laboratory a form
of constant water bath which was contrived by Mr. Edward Bogardus,
formerly chemist to the New Jersey State Geological Survey. As I have
not seen it described in print, and as it is cheap, simple, efficient,
and ingenious, I will draw attention to it here.

The following cut represents the apparatus:


It consists of two tomato cans connected by a tin tube. Into one of the
cans a bottle of water is inverted. We generally use a five-pound acid
bottle. The other can makes the bath. This bath can be left running
over night without fear. A large number of baths can be run by this
contrivance by simply connecting them, by means of rubber tubes, with
a reservoir replenished by an inverted bottle. Old fruit cans make
excellent baths. A series of holes can be punched round the lower edge
of a fruit can, thus affording a distributing reservoir. Corks holding
short pieces of glass tube are inserted into the holes. By means of
these the reservoir can be connected by rubber tubes with a number of
baths at quite a distance. The baths are made by punching a hole near
the lower edge of a fruit can and inserting a cork and short piece of
glass tube. When the extra vents of the reservoir are not used, they
can be closed by a short rubber coupling and a pinch cock.--_Peter
T. Austen, Chemical Laboratory of Rutgers College (New Jersey State
Scientific School)._

                          Silos and Ensilage.

The practice of preserving roots, vegetables, and plants by covering
them with earth or by placing them in cellars, etc., is an ancient
one, but the practical application of the principle on a large scale
to the preservation of fodder-corn, clover, etc., as a food for stock
is comparatively a recent practice, the first silo in this country
having been built within the last twelve years. Previously, however,
the French and English gave the subject considerable attention,
but it seems that within the last two or three years our American
experimenters have made great improvements in the process and
construction of the silo by which more successful results have been
attained than ever before and have awakened much interest among the
progressive class of farmers and stock-growers throughout the country.

A number of the Agricultural Experiment Stations located in the
different States, particularly those of Wisconsin, Illinois, and also
the Agricultural College at Guelph, Ontario, have made extensive
applications of the process. Several articles from them detailing the
success of the experiments for the past season have appeared in the
columns of _The Breeder’s Gazette_ of this city. Through the courtesy
of the editor and Prof. W. A. Henry of the Wisconsin Agricultural
Experiment Station we are enabled to present full instructions in
regard to constructing and filling a silo. These, with clippings
which we include from the writings of others high in authority on the
subject, contain as full an account of recent experiments as we can
give with our limited space.

“Agriculture never took a longer stride in advance than it did when
the silo was added to the practical equipment of the farm. Most of us
were slow to realize this at first, and a great many are yet unwilling
to concede the advantages claimed for the silo, but the utility of
the modern silo cannot be gainsaid, for without it we are left at the
mercy of the elements in the handling of our great corn crop. There was
much truth in the statement that the silo as first introduced was too
expensive for the average farmer, but in no department of the farm has
there been such a change of opinion and methods of attaining desired
results as is the case with the silo. The modern wooden building is not
only less expensive but vastly superior to the original cellar or stone
structure and every year’s experience is throwing light in hitherto
dark places, so that in a short time the progressive dairyman or
beef-raiser will think no more of filling his silo than our fathers did
of filling the barn with hay, and with proper facilities for handling
the corn no part of the silo work will be as hard as pitching hay over
the ‘big beam.’” * * * _Supt. Adams, Wis. Agr. Exp. Station._

* * * A _silo_ is a place where fodder is preserved in a succulent
condition. It may be a pit, a box, a mow, a tank, a building, or a
trench in the earth. _Silage_ is the word denoting the fodder so
preserved. _Ensilage_ is the term applied to the process or system.
_Ensile_ is the verb expressive of the action of making silage.
_Ensilor_ stands for the person using the _silo_ to _ensile_ fodder for
_silage_ by the process of _ensilage_.--_Prof. James W. Robertson,
Ontario Agr. Col., Guelph._

* * * I further believe that our present knowledge of the silo and the
best methods of storing crops therein is not perfect, and that we will
make great advancement in the future; but that we have reached a point
where this method is within the possibilities of our average farmers,
and it is this class most of all that needs this method. The time has
come when we must produce more beef, butter, wool, and pork to the
acre or sink beneath the wave of competition that is driving over our
land. The silo seems to be a valuable and important means to this
end.--_Prof. W. A. Henry._


[Illustration: A 100-TON DOUBLE SILO.]

“Silos are like houses, no two individuals can agree upon the same
plan; for this reason I approach this branch of the subject with
no expectation of pleasing all or of giving directions for making
a perfect structure. I deem it best to give a description of one
way in which a double silo may be built and leave it to the reader
to introduce such modifications in the plan as may best meet his
particular wants and circumstances. The drawing herewith presented
shows an ideal two-room silo 16 feet wide, 32 feet long, and 16 feet to
the eaves. Built as described each room would have a capacity of over
3,000 cubic feet which would contain about 50 tons of settled ensilage
weighing 35 pounds to the cubic foot. We may say then that this figure
represents a 100-ton silo. For the foundation of this structure either
brick or stone may be used, going deep enough to avoid heaving by the
frost and rising 6 inches or 1 foot above the surface of the level
ground about it. Upon this wall a sill should be laid which had best
be constructed of 2×10 inch plank. One of the difficulties in silo
construction is to avoid spreading of the building, which sometimes
occurs through lateral pressure of the contents when settling. For this
reason the sills must be well tied together at the corners; instead of
using square timbers, which are greatly weakened by cutting, plank may
be substituted and the corners of the sill constructed as in Fig. 2. If
well spiked there will be no danger from spreading at the corners. The
plank of which the sills are constructed should be at least 8 inches
wide; 10 would be better. By using four of these, lying one on top of
another, the sill will be 8 inches thick. Midway between the ends of
the building a cross wall should be built, and on this a sill should be
laid upon which to erect the partition which divides the silo into two
compartments. This cross wall should be so worked into the side walls
as to hold them securely, and thus prevent the silo from spreading
on the sides. A little ingenuity will make the foundation and sills
secure. If possible the sills should be as wide as the wall upon which
it rests, but if this cannot be conveniently done the wall of stone
or brick should be raised above the ground but a very few inches at
most, as the ensilage in settling on the shoulder made by the jutting
wall is almost certain to spoil at that point. Having laid the sill
upon the wall in the manner described proceed to erect the building
by standing 2×8 or 10-inch studding perpendicularly upon this sill,
placing them not further apart than every 16 inches, so that a sheet of
tarred building paper will lap two studding in each case. The reader
is cautioned to measure the building paper carefully, before setting
up the studding, as it is sometimes scant in width and trouble will
occur when one attempts to tack on the paper. Double the studding at
the corners. In the illustration of the building I have not placed the
proper number of studding, but the reader can rest assured that once
in 16 inches is not too often. Having placed our studding in position
and secured them by a plate running around the top we are ready for the
rafters. Fig. 3 shows how these rest upon the plates and how they are
tied together so as to least interfere with the filling of the silo.
For a cheap silo boards may be used, though probably shingles are the
cheapest in the end. In the roof upon one side place a dormer window at
D in the illustration; this window is immediately over the partition.
It is intended that the ensilage carrier shall pass up through the
window so that the ensilage will fall over the partition and can be
deposited in either one of the two compartments by means of a slanting
chute. If one does not wish to undergo the expense of the dormer window
a scuttle in the roof is all that is necessary. The roof is the same as
for any building.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.]

“We are now ready to sheathe the silo; let us begin on the inside.
First of all tack tarred building paper to the studding, running the
strips up and down and having them catch on every third studding. Avoid
all openings or rents in the paper. Having placed the paper take common
boards dressed on one side and sheet up to the top of the studding.
When this is completed repeat the operation by placing a second layer
of boards over the first, breaking joints. Narrow boards are preferable
to wide ones for this work, as they will swell without bulging. We
have double-boarded the inside of our silo by this operation, and
rendered it practically impervious to the air. I see no reason for
using anything but common lumber for this purpose, as upon swelling it
will close up tight enough to keep out the air. Upon the outside of the
studding tack building paper again, as shown at Fig. C in the first
illustration. Over this paper place any kind of boards that the fancy
of the builder may dictate, as clapboards, shiplap, or drop-siding. It
will be seen that our walls are constructed as follows, beginning at
the outside: First, siding; second, building paper; third, a dead-air
space of 8 or 10 inches; fourth, building paper; fifth, common boards;
sixth, common boards. No sawdust, tanbark, or other filling should be
used, as a dead-air space is a better non-conductor for our purpose
and less expensive than any of these. The partition can be built of
narrower studding than those used on the sides of the building, and one
thickness of boards used on each side, together with building paper,
as in the first instance, is sufficient. To prevent lateral pressure
bulging the silo two iron rods should be run through the partition
walls joining the sides of the building, placing one about two feet
above the partition sill and the other about four feet above that.
Half or three-fourths-inch rods with heavy caps at the ends should be
sufficient, and are easily put in place before the boards are tacked to
the partition.

“Two doorways should be left by cutting out a single studding in
each compartment upon the most convenient side. These doorways reach
to within three feet of the ground, and should be about seven feet
in height. They need not reach to within five feet of the top of the
building. The ensilage will settle in the silo several feet, and when
the time comes to pass it out through the doorway it takes but little
time to dig down two or three feet to the top of the door and make an
opening large enough to pass out the upper layer. Fig. 1 shows one of
the ways in which a doorway may be made so that it can be boarded up
air-tight. Instead of making solid doors hung on hinges I think it is
better to use boards that will fit in crossways, making them double
thick, and having the inside board even with the inside boarding of the
silo, as shown in Fig. 1. Do not make the doorways over 6 or 7 feet in
length vertically, as in all cases they weaken the structure. Endeavor
to have the inside of the silo smooth and perpendicular from top to
bottom, with no jogs or shoulders upon which the ensilage can catch or

“If built above ground fill the rooms of the two compartments with
earth until the surface is three or four inches above the outside
level, so that no water will at any time enter to injure the ensilage
that rests on the ground. I do not yet know which is the best method
of preserving the silo from decaying. This is an important branch
of the topic, but it has thus far received little attention. Some
have recommended using kerosene for an inside coating. We shall try
that this season, and also gas or roofing tar, which I think will be
excellent. This roofing tar when heated becomes liquid, and can be
applied with a mop to the inside of the silo. As soon as it cools it
hardens into an impervious glossy layer that I should think eminently
adapted to this purpose.

“Having no ceiling or floor, and being built of common material, there
is no necessity for the silo being an expensive structure. Of course
the reader will modify the description given to suit his own wants
and circumstances, but I can assure him that in some such way he can
provide a silo at no great expense.

“After the structures built for the special purpose comes the
modification of building already erected. A great many farmers
are building over bays in their barns for silos. This is easily
accomplished by placing studding all around the bay and double boarding
on the inside. If one fears cold weather he can make a dead-air space
by using two sets of studding and boarding on the inside of the bay.
Stone buildings can be converted into good silos by furring out and
double boarding on the inside. In general I am adverse to stone
structures for this purpose unless thus boarded. Some kinds of stone
seem to do very well, but stone walls carry off the heat and moisture
too rapidly to make good silo walls. If one wishes to try preserving
corn-fodder and cannot afford a structure of wood, he can excavate a
pit in the earth and bury the corn-fodder therein, though I am sure he
will soon give up this practice as unduly expensive.

“A word in regard to the location of the silo. It may be built
adjoining the feeding barn with the doors so placed that the ensilage
be conveyed directly to the cattle, or if that is not possible, place
it where the ensilage can be conveyed by a car or cart. Mr. Hiram Smith
of this State, who has large silos and uses ensilage extensively, holds
that it is not inconvenient to have the silo located a few rods from
the feeding barn. The ensilage is pitched into a cart with forks and
the cart driven into the feeding barn between the two rows of cows
which stand facing each other. The ensilage is placed in front of the
animals directly from the cart with great rapidity. In some cases a car
can be used which can be run down grade into the barn in front of the
cattle. I think either of these methods is preferable to attempting to
carry ensilage in baskets any distance.


“Probably very few stone silos will be built in the future, for
experience shows that a stone wall chills the ensilage during the
curing process and if it does not seriously injure that portion next
to it to a thickness of several inches it renders it at least less
palatable than ensilage nearer the middle of the silo. One reason, in
my judgment, that the silo has not won more friends in the Eastern
States is owing to the common use of stone in its construction. On
our experimental farm at Madison our first silo, built in 1881, was
of stone, and our conclusions in regard to ensilage were made up from
results obtained with this silo; had we put up a wooden structure I am
confident our results would have been worth vastly more to our people
than they have been.

“The question of stacking ensilage is sometimes raised, being urged
upon our people by the practice of our English friends, who are
experimenting quite largely in this direction. It will be no more
profitable to stack ensilage in the Northern States than to stack
hay, and even less so in my judgment, for the waste would be very
considerable and no one would relish the job of handling it during bad
weather. Silos built of wood or made by changing over the bays of barns
are the proper structures, judging from our present knowledge, for the
Northern States; our friends at the South may find stacking successful.

“Having constructed the silo somewhat after the one described, though,
be it remembered, large latitude is allowed in this matter, we will
proceed to fill it with one of the two crops most suitable for the
purposes; clover or fodder-corn. If clover is to be used I would
recommend that a hay-loader be tried for the purpose of picking it up
just as left by the mower. I have hopes that some form of hay-loader
will do this work satisfactorily. The clover, either fresh or partly
wilted, in any degree of dryness indeed, may be carried at once and
unloaded into the silo, care being taken to fill and tramp down the
corners and along the edges so that when all has thoroughly settled
there will be no air spaces to favor decay. To fill a silo with clover
is indeed a most simple process. By having two divisions the pits
can be filled alternately, each layer of material heating up to the
required temperature before the next is placed over it.

“For fodder-corn the processes are a little more complex, though in
reality very simple. The fodder-corn should be allowed to approach
maturity, the best point for cutting being not far from that at which
we would ordinarily cut any shock. By this I do not mean to allow the
leaves to become dry and crisp, but rather that they show a change from
deep rank green to that yellowish tinge indicative of maturity, though
with still an abundance of moisture in them. Formerly ensilage corn was
cut shortly after the tassel appeared. Without doubt very considerable
loss was incurred by such a practice.

“It is evident that if we cut our fodder at the time the corn is
glazing our practice is as near correct as the present stage of
investigation points out. Since the period of filling the silo will
occupy several days, or even a couple of weeks, we must gauge the date
of commencement to strike the best average conditions. For cutting
the fodder some parties recommend the use of the reaper, but I judge
from what I have been told that a good many rakes have been broken in
attempting the work, and that many have given them up and gone back
to the use of the corn knife. Such must be the case usually, at least
where large varieties of corn are grown. The stalks should be cut close
to the ground and thrown into bundles or gavels. If the weather is at
all threatening I think it proper to cut and shock, since the fodder
will dry off much more rapidly if rain falls, and it will not be so
muddy and disagreeable to handle as when laid on the ground.

“Last season the writer urged that the fodder be wilted before it was
put into the silo, and his own experience, with that of many others,
corroborates this method of procedure, which has the additional
advantage that less water is handled in the operation. If it is
intended to allow the fodder to wilt the corn had better be cut and
shocked, after which it may stand from three to ten days, depending
upon the maturity of the stalks at time of cutting and the weather. If
the fodder dries out rapidly, from four days to a week is amply long
for it to stand in shock, while if the weather is somewhat damp or the
fodder quite green it may even stand ten days with no loss. One of the
advantages of cutting and shocking is that when it is over the force of
men employed in this operation can be changed to filling the silo. If
the corn is cut and placed in the silo at once quite a force of hands
is needed, but by cutting and shocking first we can avoid this double

“For drawing to the silo truck wagons are better than ordinary ones,
since the fodder is more easily loaded upon them. The common practice
is to attach a plank to the rear of the wagon, up which the men can
walk with their arms full of fodder, which should be placed with tops
all one way for ease in unloading. If the fodder is to be put through
the feed-cutter the cutter should be placed so that the carrier will
deposit it in either of the two pits as required. Formerly the carriers
were so constructed that they would not work advantageously at a much
greater angle than 45 deg., but now I note that some manufacturers have
them arranged to carry almost vertically.

“In regard to the kind of feed-cutter to be used, it may be said that
there are several valuable machines before the public, any one of which
will prove satisfactory if properly managed. The only point I desire
to urge is that a large machine be purchased, one having about double
the advertised capacity. Small cutters are a nuisance; hand-power
cutters are out of the question. The cutter should be driven by three
horses on a sweep power or two on a tread, or by a steam engine.
Many farmers delay ordering the cutter until within a week or two of
the time to fill the silo and are obliged to wait weeks until it is
received, thereby suffering great inconvenience and loss. As soon as
the question is settled in favor of having a silo a cutter should be
selected and ordered, and it should be set up and run in a test trial
not less than a week before actual filling is contemplated, so that
repairs or changes can be made. To run a feed-cutter properly requires
considerable experience and some knowledge of machinery, and many
persons have suffered serious losses by not giving this side of the
subject due attention.

“This brings me to a point in the discussion of considerable interest
to many persons who desire to have silos but dread the experience and
expense of machinery. Corn-fodder may be preserved in a perfectly
satisfactory manner without running it through the feed-cutter, and
may be drawn from the field and deposited directly in the silo. The
expense of putting corn-fodder through the feed-cutter, first and last,
is not far from half of all that incurred from the time of cutting the
fodder to closing the silo. To fill the silo with long fodder let it be
drawn in the usual manner and lifted at once into the pit, which can
be accomplished in several ways, either by hand or the horse hay-fork
carrier and slings. In the silo it should be distributed evenly and
probably had better be placed in regular layers, lapping “shingle
fashion” so that it will settle evenly.

“The use of long fodder for the silo has been urged with considerable
vigor by Mr. I. J. Clapp of Kenosha, Wis., one of _The Breeder’s
Gazette’s_ correspondents, and I think much good has resulted from
his advocacy. There is no doubt but that long fodder will keep just
as well as that which is cut up, and I am not at all certain but such
ensilage is even better in some cases than that made by cutting up the
stalks into small pieces. When cut into small pieces the fodder is
considerably bruised, and there is much more exposure of the juices
to the air than there is where whole fodder is used. My attention was
called to this point by a recent letter from Mr. Clapp, and I hope we
can make some observations on the subject in the future. At any rate
let those parties who either from choice or necessity do not wish to
use the feed-cutter hesitate no longer in regard to the silo if they
wish to try it, but go ahead and place the whole fodder in one, and I
am confident they will not be disappointed in its feeding qualities.
The only difficulty with long fodder comes at the time it is to be
taken out for feeding purposes; then if large varieties have been used
the man who attempts to get it out of the silo will need strong muscles
and a large degree of patience to enable him to tug at the compact
mass, which is quite difficult to manage. Twenty-five cows will eat up
the ensilage about as fast as one man can get it out. It may be just
as economical, however, to put two men into the silo for an hour or
two each day during the winter, when labor is cheap, to get out the
ensilage as it is to use more expensive labor in the fall to accomplish
the extra work of running the feed-cutter.

“Slow filling is without doubt the best method for securing good
ensilage, no matter what material we are using, be it clover, long
fodder-corn, or fodder cut fine. When the pit has been filled three or
four feet deep no more should be placed within it until this layer has
heated to the neighborhood of 125 deg. Fahrenheit. Mr. John Gould of
Ohio, who has been a deep student of this subject from the practical
side, I believe holds that the ensilage should be allowed to pile up as
it falls from the carrier, and after the pile has heated to the right
temperature it should be distributed evenly over the silo, throwing
that which is hottest to the corners and along the walls. It is certain
that ensilage usually heats up easily and rapidly except in the corners
and along the walls, where we find the temperature does not rise so
rapidly nor to the same degree as it does in the body of the silo, and
anything that will help us overcome this lack will improve its quality,
and I deem Mr. Gould’s suggestion a valuable one. No packing down is
needed except in the corners and along the walls; at these points we
endeavor to firm the ensilage just as much as possible. I wish we
could avoid this operation, and in the future we may do so. I believe
the ensilage would be better without any tramping and packing if we
could only get it to settle uniformly without. We should endeavor to
secure an elevation in temperature of from 120 to 140 deg. uniformly
throughout the mass of material. If the contents of the silo heat up
to different degrees in different places we cannot expect them to
be uniform in quality, though all will be eaten by the stock. The
theory advanced by Mr. Fry of England that a temperature of 122 deg.
Fahrenheit destroyed the ferment that produced the temperature seems
hardly correct, for we find that the temperature goes on beyond this
very rapidly--indeed, it is often very difficult to hold it below 140
or 150 deg., while in other cases I have known silos in which I could
detect no faulty handling of the crop that would not heat to 120 deg.
A case in point occurred last season; while we were busy filling our
silos at the experimental farm I was called to the telephone by a
young farmer living some thirty miles away who asked several questions
about temperatures. I answered him to the best of my ability and the
matter dropped from my mind. A couple of hours afterward, however,
the party himself appeared on the scene in a troubled state of mind;
he said he feared that he could not make his case plain through the
telephone, and so had come on the first train to consult personally.
His ensilage would not heat up to 120 deg., but was moulding badly
instead. I advised that he go on filling the silo, ignoring the
temperature question entirely. He did so, and in the winter reported
satisfactory results. In my opinion we have much to learn in regard to
this ferment, and that very close, patient study will be required to
bring out the scientific side in a satisfactory manner. Fortunately
we do not have to be very particular in our practice to obtain a very
good quality of ensilage. I would advise, therefore, that a person
allow the temperature to run from 120 to 140 when the thermometer is
buried a foot deep in the fodder; but when these conditions are not
obtained, no matter whether the degree be lower or higher, to go right
on without feeling anxious in the matter. If the contents of the silo
do not heat at all, or if the temperature gets up to 160 deg., the
cattle will still eat the ensilage without complaint and relish it
better than average dry fodder. I speak pretty positively upon this
point because novices find it difficult to get over it and become quite
excited and nervous if they cannot attain the exact directions given
by most writers on this subject. The best rule is to go ahead, do the
best one can, and the cattle will be very well satisfied with the
result. Remember that the experience of a single individual or a single
season may be no criterion for other cases. The reasons for these great
variations are not yet apparent.

“Silo filling may go on for two or three weeks, or until the pits
are filled, when they should be covered after standing a day or two
to allow the last layer to heat. For covering material there may be
placed over the ensilage building paper upon which may be placed sand,
earth, chaff, cut straw, marsh hay, long straw, sawdust, or almost any
material which will help keep out the air. If one wishes the pits may
be left uncovered, in which case something like a foot of the ensilage
will decay and form a covering and protection for that beneath. The
practice of weighting the silo is now largely abandoned, though I am
not certain but what some heavy material along the edges and in the
corners will aid in saving the ensilage at those points, since it is
here that the contents do not settle so well as does the body of the
material. For a few weeks after filling the sides and corners should be
tramped down occasionally to aid them in settling.”


The following extracts from “Bulletin No. 2,” Illinois Agricultural
Experiment Station, by Thomas F. Hunt, answers some important questions
in regard to planting, etc.:

“The filling of the silo was practically continuous, and was done in
three days, Aug. 20 to 22, 1887, with 54,525 lbs.--twenty-seven and a
quarter tons--of green corn. About twenty tons of this consisted of
a medium sized, fairly early yellow dent corn (Murdock), which had
been planted May 4 to 6, in rows 3 feet 9 inches apart, with two to
three kernels dropped every 9 to 12 inches in each row. At the time of
cutting the stalks had well-formed but small ears, the kernels of which
had largely passed the milk state; that is, the kernels were mostly
glazed. The lower leaves were yellowish, and some had begun to dry. The
growth, though not large, was thought satisfactory, considering the
long-continued and severe drouth that had prevailed here. The yield was
not more than seven tons of fresh fodder per acre. Seven tons consisted
of a large, late maturing yellow dent corn (Leaming), which had been
planted May 28, 1887. The kernels were in the milk and the leaves were
entirely green. No marked difference was noted between the ensilage
from this and that from the other corn. * * *

“Feeding the ensilage was begun March 10, 1888, by mixing it with twice
its bulk of dry, cut corn-fodder, not corn-stover, which our stock had
been chiefly fed during the winter. The cattle soon learned to like
the ensilage, and after the first week it was fed without mixing with
any other substance and was eaten rather better, on the whole, than
corn-fodder had been previously.

“Dairy weights of ensilage fed to the stock were not taken. From what
weighing was done it is estimated that from March 17 to April 30
700 lbs. on an average were fed daily. During this time the following
cattle were given ensilage: March 17 to April 30 two aged and five
yearling bulls, one heifer, and one dry cow were fed ensilage, hay, and
grain; eight milch cows, ensilage, straw, and grain; ten dry cows and
five heifers, ensilage and straw. March 17 to April 16, three steers
were fed ensilage and corn. April 13 to 30, four heifers and two dry
cows were fed ensilage and hay. It will thus be seen that for 45 days
37 head were, on an average fed 700 lbs., about 19 each, daily. Of
these 15 had ensilage and straw only; 8 had ensilage and straw with
grain, usually four quarts of bran added daily; and 9 ensilage, hay,
and grain. All thrived exceedingly well considering the amount of food

For information as to the results of future experiments with ensilage
we refer the reader to the various State Agricultural Experiment
Stations and the authorities here quoted.


                        The Three-Headed Woman.

In the booths of the market fairs at Paris and its suburbs (for
example, at the “Gingerbread” Fair, at the Féte of St. Cloud, etc.),
and in the tricks of jugglers, etc., who operate in the street, café
concerts, or circuses, we find phenomena that have a true scientific
interest, ingenious applications of different sciences, or simply
tricks that puzzle the spectator. Since, in general, people like
to know the secret of what has surprised them, it may not prove
uninteresting to devote a few articles to what may be called “side-show
science.” We will first speak of the process employed to produce the
“three-headed woman.”


The exterior of the little booth in which this phenomenon is exhibited
is covered by a large painted canvas representing a three-headed woman
in evening costume in a richly decorated drawing-room along with a few
persons. For better convincing the curious a photograph taken from
nature exhibits the phenomenal woman as she appears in the show; and
every now and then the showman stops his drum to cry, “She is living,
ladies and gentlemen, she is living!” If we allow ourselves to be
persuaded to enter the booth we shall find ourselves separated from the
stage by a balustrade--a sort of screen, behind which is the curtain.
In a few moments the latter separates and there is distinctly seen a
woman’s body, the lower part of which is hidden by a basket of flowers.
This body has three heads; one in the middle and two others grafted at
the base of the neck of the first. These three heads move their eyes,
answer together a few questions put by the showman, stick out their
tongues, sing a few snatches of a popular song, and finally salute the
audience, when the curtain closes and the show is over.

On almost every occasion some ingenious person is heard to express pity
for this unfortunate person, who has no legs and three heads. This is
the best praise that could be bestowed on the trick--for naturally it
is only a trick. Moreover the showman is ready, for money, to explain
how it is done. If we allow ourselves to be tempted, and enter the
side-scene, we perceive on the little stage where the phenomenal woman
just appeared nothing but a large plate of glass, slightly inclined
toward the audience, and its edges hidden by drapery. Behind the mirror
there is a recess whose sides are covered with a dead-black fabric.
In front of the mirror, on the stage, sits the basket of flowers from
which issued the woman’s body. Then on an inclined board a little above
the ground lie three young girls. One of these, the middle one, is
clothed in a brilliant costume of silk of a light color, and it is she
who, in the exhibition, makes the trunk, arms, and the middle head.
Her legs are covered over with a black fabric, and she is supported
by a cushion so as to permit the two other girls to place their necks
closely against hers. The bodies of these two girls at the sides are
completely covered with a fabric of a dead-black color. In front of
these three young women are placed a dozen strong kerosene lamps
provided with reflectors.

The heads, hair, and arms of the “body” are covered with powder, so as
to present completely white surfaces. Such is the secret as revealed
from the side-scene, and it will now be understood how the phenomenon
is produced. All the white or light-colored surfaces being strongly
lighted by the lamps that reflect the light, their image is sent by
the glass toward the spectators, who perceive then the body of the
female, her two arms, and her three heads. All the portions covered
with black are, on the contrary, absolutely invisible in the glass, and
the spectators cannot see that they exist. The phenomenon is, on the
whole, a curious application of the effects of reflection which were in
fashion some twenty years ago under the name of “living ghosts,” and
by means of which it was possible in theaters to cause the apparition,
alongside of living persons, either of undecided forms or of bodies not
resting on the ground.

The “Gingerbread” Fair this year showed a two-headed woman produced
by a slightly different process, the body and head of the woman being
seen directly, and the second head alone being seen by reflection from
a glass. This phenomenon may be varied to infinity, so to speak. To
cite only a few examples, there may be produced by the same process a
decapitated person who talks; a decapitated person who holds his head
in his hand, and a Judith and Holofernes, the head of the latter being
held by the hair by the former.--_La Nature._

                         The Mysterious Voice.

“Some time ago,” says a correspondent of _La Nature_, “I was walking
around in a side show in which were exhibited mechanical portraits,
when I was surprised to hear myself called: ‘Monsieur! Monsieur!’
* * * I discovered that the voice came from a tin trumpet, which was
held in the mouth of a negro’s head made of wood, and suspended by a
small brass chain from semicircles of iron supported by a wooden frame”
(Fig. 1). The effect produced on the spectators by this speaking head
was one of universal astonishment, and no one was capable of solving
the mystery. The arrangement for producing the illusion is very simple,
however, and is thus explained by the writer above referred to:

[Illustration: FIG. 1.--THE SPEAKING HEAD.]

A person hidden behind the scenes speaks into a tube two or three
centimeters in diameter which runs from that point to the wooden frame,
and in the interior of the horizontal and upright pieces of which it
passes till it reaches the suspended head at A, as shown by the dotted
lines, E, D, C, B, A. The voice thus transmitted is reflected from the
sides of the trumpet, H, to the person holding a conversation with the

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--THE SPEAKING GLASS CASE.]


This experiment, which is analogous to the one that precedes, was
explained by Nicholson, in 1832, in his _Journal de Physique_. Although
at first offered as a physical experiment, under the title of an
“experiment in acoustics,” it has since changed name and master, and is
now dignified by the imposing name of “invisible girl.”

Fig. 2 shows the arrangement of the original apparatus, which consisted
of a glass case, X, about four feet long by about one in height,
suspended from the ceiling by four chains at a distance of a foot from
the window frame. From the extremity of the case projected a speaking
trumpet, and the entire apparatus was surrounded by a latticework of
iron wire to prevent its being touched by the hands of the curious. The
phenomenon, although a puzzling novelty at the time, did not attract
much of a crowd, as it was not managed with sufficient address, and the
surroundings were not of a nature to please fashionable people. This
apparatus was improved upon and rendered more elegant in appearance
by Prof. Robertson. Fig. 3, copied from an old engraving, shows this
latter arrangement. A globe, A, made of glass or enameled sheet iron,
and to which are attached four trumpets, is suspended from the middle
of the room. This globe is not necessary for the experiment, but is
only an accessory to impose upon the imagination. Around it is placed
a framework, B, which is very necessary, for it is hollow, and it is
through it that the voice of the invisible person is heard. A tin
tube passes through the upright C and then runs to D, where there is
a small slit or aperture opposite the trumpet. This tin tube passes
under the floor of the room, and runs into the neighboring room, whence
the pretended invisible person speaks, and sees everything through the
keyhole or through an aperture in the wall. This is all there is of the

                          An Improved Psycho.

Let me explain to those who have not seen “Psycho” that it consists
of a small figure dressed as a Turk, sitting cross-legged (as shown
by dotted lines) on a chest; this chest is in turn supported on a
glass tube, about 12 in. in diameter and 3 ft. long, which rests on a
four-legged stool. The bottom of chest and top of stool are covered
with green cloth, so as to make a tolerably air-tight joint. The right
arm is extended as per drawing, and a semicircular rack, in which are
placed the 13 cards dealt to “Psycho,” is fixed by means of a bracket
(not shown) in such a position that the edges come between the finger
and thumb, as shown at *. The arm turning horizontally on the pivot A,
the hand can be brought over any card, and by closing the finger and
thumb and raising the arm the card will be withdrawn from the rack and
held in the air.

[Illustration: _FIG. 1. a._]

[Illustration: _FIG. 1. b._]

In Figs. 1_a_ and 1_b_ (elevation and plan) the wheels E and M have
each a train of clockwork (left out for the sake of clearness),
which would cause them to spin round if unchecked. M, however, has
two pins, _p_ _p′_, which catch on a projection on the lever, N. E is
a crown-wheel escapement--like that in a bottle roasting-jack--which
turns A alternately to the left and right, thus causing the hand to
traverse the 13 cards. A little higher on A will be seen a quadrant B
(see plan) near the edge of which are set 13 little pins. The end of
the lever N drops between any two of them, thus causing the hand to
stop at any desired card. The lever being pivoted at _c_ it is obvious
that by pressing the end, N, B will be set at liberty, and the hand
will move along the cards; by slightly raising it this motion will
be arrested; by raising it still more the pin _p_ is released and M
commences to revolve, and by again depressing N this wheel will in
its turn be stopped. Near the bottom of the apparatus is a bellows O,
which contains a spring tending to keep the lever N, with which it is
connected by a rod X, in the position shown. This is connected with
the tubular support, which may be connected by a tube through the leg
of the stool, and another tube beneath the stage, with an assistant
behind the scenes. By compressing or exhausting air through this tube
it is obvious that the lever, N, will be raised or depressed, and
the clockwork set going accordingly. _a_ is a crankpin set in M, and
connected with the head by catgut, T, and with the thumb by S.

At R and R′ are two pulleys connected by gut. Thus if the hand moves
round the head appears to follow its motions, and when raised by
pulling S the head rises also by means of T. Further explanation
seems almost unnecessary; _l_ is a stop to prevent the elbow moving
too far, and _b_ _b′_ spiral springs to keep thumb open and head forward
respectively. When N is raised M pulls T and S, the latter closing
thumb, and then raising arm by pulley H. If the lever is allowed to
drop _p′_ will catch and keep arm up. On again raising N the arm will

[Illustration: _FIG. 2. a._]

[Illustration: _FIG. 2. b._]

Figs. 2_a_ and 2_b_ show another and simpler arrangement, in which
only one train of clockwork is used. On the same axle as H is fixed
a lever and weight, W, to balance the arm. A vertical rod, X, having
a projection, Z, slides up and down in guides, Y Y, and carries the
catgut S and T. The quadrant, B, has cogs cut, between which Z slides
and stops the motion of A, which is moved, as before, by clockwork.
The lower part of X is connected direct with O. When X is slightly
raised, as shown, A is free to move, but on exhausting air and drawing
X down Z enters the cogs and stops the hand over a card; continuing
to exhaust the thumb closes and the card is lifted up. The details of
the clockwork I leave to the ingenuity of your readers. There should
be a fan on each train to regulate the speed. The figure should be
so placed that your assistant can see the cards in the semicircular
rack.--_English Mechanic._

                      Magic Cabinets, Boxes, Etc.

Magic cabinets are much employed by magicians. The following is an
example of one of the scenes that may occur with them:

When the curtain rises there is seen in the center of the stage a
large dark colored cabinet, ornamented with mouldings, and mounted
upon legs that are a little longer than those of ordinary cabinets,
the object being to remove all possibility of a communication with the
stage beneath. These legs are provided with casters. The showman turns
this cabinet around and shows that there is nothing abnormal about it
externally. He then asks some of the spectators to come up close to
it, and lets them examine its interior, which is entirely empty. There
is no double bottom, nor any hiding place. When the witnesses have
made themselves certain of this fact they station themselves around
the stage, and a certain number of them even consent to remain behind
the cabinet and see nothing of the experiment. The cabinet being thus
surrounded on all sides, and even one being able to look under it,
fraud would seem to be an impossibility.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

A young woman dressed as a danseuse then comes onto the stage and
enters the cabinet (Fig. 1), and the doors are closed upon her. In a
few moments the doors are opened again, when, lo and behold! the closet
is empty, the young woman having disappeared. Then the doors are
closed again, and then opened, and the danseuse makes her appearance;
and so on. At the end of the experiment the witnesses examine the
cabinet again, and, finding nothing changed therein, are justly

In another style of cabinet there is no bar in the center, as shown in
Fig. 1, but there is observed on one of the sides in the interior a
bracket a few centimeters in length, and back and above this a shelf.
This arrangement permits of performing a few experiments more than
does the one just described. Thus, when the woman has disappeared the
showman allows a young man to enter, and he also disappears, while
the young woman is found in his place. This is a very surprising

The box into which the harlequin takes refuge, and which appears to
be empty when Pierrot or Cassandra lifts the curtain that shields its
entrance, is also a sort of magic cabinet.

In a series of lectures delivered a few years ago at the London
Polytechnic Institution, a professor of physics unmasked the secret
of some of the tricks employed on the stage for producing illusions,
and notably that of the magic cabinet. The lecturer, after showing the
cabinet and causing the disappearance therein of an individual while
the doors were closed, repeated the same experiment with the latter
open. But in the latter case so quick was the disappearance that the
spectators could not even then see how it was done.


The illusion produced by these apparatus is the result of a play of

In the first cabinet described (Fig. 1), when the exhibitor has closed
the doors upon the young woman, the latter pulls toward her two mirrors
that are represented in Fig. 2 by the lines G G. These mirrors are
hinged at O O, and when swung outward rest by their external edges
against the bar P, and then occupy the position shown by the dotted
lines G′ G′. When the cabinet is again opened the woman, placed at A,
is hidden by the two mirrors; but the appearance of the interior of the
cabinet is not changed, since the spectators see the image of each side
reflected from the corresponding mirror, and this looks to them like
the back of the cabinet.

The illusion is perfect. When the experiment is ended and the mirrors
are again swung against the sides, at G G, the spectators see nothing
but the backs of them, which are covered with wood; the cabinet is
really empty, and no one can discover what modification has taken place
in its interior during the disappearance of the woman.

In the second arrangement, which is shown in vertical section in
Fig. 3, the young man gets up onto the shelf _c n_, at the upper part
of the cabinet, by the aid of the bracket T, and then pulls down over
him the mirror _b c_, which was fastened to the top of the cabinet.
This mirror being inclined at an angle of 45 deg. reflects the top, and
the spectators imagine that they see the back of the cabinet over the
shelf just as they did before.

The box which the harlequin enters is based upon precisely the same
principle. Its interior is hung with paper banded alternately blue and
white. When the harlequin enters it he places himself in one of the
angles and pulls toward him two mirrors which hide him completely, and
which reflect the opposite side of the box, so that the spectator is
led to believe that he sees the back of it. In this case one of the
angles at the back of the box is not apparent, but the colored stripes
prevent the spectator from noticing the fact.


=The Magic Portfolio.=

This is an apparatus which an itinerant physicist might have been
seen a few years ago exhibiting in the squares and at street corners.
His method was to have a spectator draw a card, which he then placed
between the four sheets of paper which, folded crosswise, formed the
flaps of his portfolio. When he opened the latter again a few instants
afterward the card had disappeared, or rather had become transformed.
Profiting then by the surprise of his spectators the showman began to
offer them his magic portfolio at the price of five sous for the small
size and ten for the large.

The portfolio was made of two square pieces of cardboard connected by
four strings, these latter being fixed in such a way that when the two
pieces of cardboard were open and juxtaposed the external edge of each
of them was connected with the inner edge of the other.

This constituted, after a manner, a double hinge that permitted of the
portfolio being opened from both sides. To one pair of strings there
were glued, back to back, two sheets of paper, which, when folded over,
formed the flaps of the portfolio. It was only necessary, then, to open
the latter in one direction or the other to render it impossible to
open more than one of the two sets of flaps.

This device is one that permits of a large number of tricks being
performed, since every object put under one of the sets of flaps will
apparently disappear or be converted into something else, at the will
of the prestidigitator (Fig. 4).

=Magic Envelopes.=

This trick is a simplification of the foregoing. The affair consists of
several sheets of paper of different colors folded over, one upon the
other. A card inclosed within the middle envelope, over which have been
folded all the others, is found to have disappeared when the flaps are
opened again. The secret of the trick is very simple. One of the inner
sheets of paper--the second one, usually--is double, and, when folded,
forms two envelopes that are back to back. It is only necessary then
to open one or the other of these latter to cause the appearance or
disappearance or transformation of such objects as have been inclosed
within it. (Fig. 4.)


=Magic Boxes.=

Magic boxes are of several styles, according to the size of the objects
that one desires to make disappear.

There is no one who has not seen a magician put one or more pigeons
into the drawer of one of these boxes, and after closing it open it to
find that the birds have disappeared. Such boxes contain, as shown in
Fig. 4, two drawers, which, when pulled out, seem to be but one; and it
is only necessary, then, to pull out the inner one or leave it closed
in order to render the inclosed birds visible or invisible.

In order to cause the disappearance of smaller objects trick performers
often employ a jewel box, and, after putting the object (a ring, for
example) into this, they hand it to some person and ask him to hold
it, requesting him at the same time to wrap it up in several sheets of
paper. But this simple motion has permitted the performer to cause the
ring to drop into his hand through a small trap opening beneath the
box. Yet, while he is doing this, the spectators think that they hear
the noise made by the ring striking against the sides of the box. But
that is only a delusion; for the noise that is heard proceeds from a
small hammer which is hidden within the cover under the escutcheon,
and which is rendered immovable when the latter is pressed upon by the
performer. The box can thus be shaken without any noise being heard
within it, and the spectators are led to believe that the object has

Double-bottomed boxes are so well known that it is useless to describe
them. Sometimes the double bottom is hidden in the cover, and at
others it rests against one of the sides. Such boxes permit of the
disappearance or substitution of objects that are not very thick, such
as a note, an image, or a card.--_La Nature._

                        The Swinging Half Lady.

An arrangement is made similar to a hammock, which is attached to the
back of the cabinet, and is then affixed to a false wooden bust made to
fit the bust of the lady. It should be thickly padded where the part
of her body rests upon it, and should be tightly strapped to the lady
across the shoulders and back. The bust is covered with silk, satin, or
any fine dress material, and trimmed to represent a lady’s low-necked
dress bodice with short shoulder sleeves. The remaining portion of the
lady is encased in a dark-colored skirt (black velvet is the best), and
her feet are firmly strapped to a wood rest at the back of the cabinet,
as shown in Fig. 2. The bust is supported upon a swing, in the front of
the cabinet. Four brass chains support a slab of wood about 28 inches
long by about 8 or ten inches in width.

Midway up the chains at each side is a cross piece of wood fixed to
the chains by which, when the lady grasps them with her hands, she can
easily lift the bust from the wood slab, allowing a sword to be passed
beneath the bottom of the bust and the top of the wood slab. When the
lady is supported upon the swing she cannot swing _forward_, but can
only swing with a slight _sideway_ motion, because if she attempted to
swing forward the slab of wood would then no longer support the bust,
and the performer would be in danger of breaking her back, as she would
have no other support to sustain her, except the back of the cabinet to
which her feet are strapped.

The slab of wood forming the swing is made in some cases with two
half-round holes, to allow the lady to place her hands through, to show
that she can pass her hands beneath her.

[Illustration: FIG. 1.]

The interior of the cabinet should be of one uniform color, if possible
of a dark blue or dark maroon. It should be about six feet in depth
by about five to seven feet across the front, according to fancy. The
front should have either _dark_ blue, maroon, or green baize curtains,
so made as to draw right across. On each side of the cabinet are
affixed two lamps, as in Fig. 1, with large plated reflectors about 10
or 12 inches in diameter. These should be so fixed that the curtains
can be drawn at the back of them; and thus, when lighted, reflect
a strong and powerful light _outward_, throwing the interior of the
cabinet into deep and gloomy shadow. It must be evident, therefore, to
the reader that the four lamps and reflectors play a very important
part in making this illusion perfect, because in consequence of a
strong, bright, and dazzling light being reflected into the eyes of the
spectators it is impossible for them to distinguish anything inside the
cabinet, beyond the bust and head of the lady.

The position for the lady performing is one of pain. In the first place
she has to be tightly strapped to the bust, which causes difficulty
in breathing and talking; and, again, the head must be held well back
to make it appear from the front as if the false bust and neck were
completely one and upright.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.]

Many ladies performing this illusion cannot help showing in their look
the pain and suffering they are experiencing even when before their
audiences, thereby spoiling the effect the illusion would have had if
their features had been composed and the face wreathed with smiles.

                        The Aerial Suspension.


This trick has been before the public for many years, but when
performed still causes considerable sensation. The apparatus required
is, first, a kind of iron corset, for which the performer doing
this trick must be properly measured and accurately fitted with it,
according to his or her size and build. This corset is strapped upon
the body, and attached to it is a rod passing down the right side
from beneath the arm, almost to the right knee. Below the arm is a
projecting piece so made as to fit into a socket, and almost in the
shape of a crutch; and the rod passing down the side of the performer
is so constructed that when a person has this apparatus strapped
securely upon him or her, and the projecting piece under the arm is
fitted into the socket of the pole, the body can be raised, and the
toes in rising will describe an arc of about 90 deg., assuming the
position shown in the figure. To effect this two poles are required of
the same length, one made of wood and the other of iron; the latter
being fitted into a socket in the stand, and having also a socket in
the top, in which is fixed the projecting piece under the arm, and
this rod therefore supports the whole weight of the body during the
performance. The two poles are both painted the same color, and to the
audience both appear to be the same.

The performer will have to provide a specially made costume to suit
the working of the apparatus. The young lady (we will imagine that it
is a lady who performs this suspension feat) is brought forward by the
professor, and the two rods are shown, and a stool is placed on the
stand on which the lady steps. The iron rod is now placed in position
and fixed under the right arm, and the wood rod is placed under the
left; the professor, now making a few passes with his hands, apparently
sends the lady performer into a mesmeric sleep, and gently draws the
rod from under the left arm and lays it down. Making a few more passes
he gradually raises the body of the lady into a horizontal position,
and she will appear to be suspended almost in the air. With a little
practice the body can be placed into any position. When the lady has
been suspended long enough, make a few more passes and gently lower
the body until in an upright position, and again place the wood rod
under the left arm and place the stool beneath her feet, and taking a
handkerchief wipe the lady’s face, and she will appear to awaken and
will step down from her exalted position.

An improvement has lately been introduced in the apparatus; the iron
column is hollow, and through the center another rod is worked from
beneath the stage, and in the socket of the iron rod at the top are
placed a number of teeth which catch corresponding teeth in the
projecting piece under the arm, and this being worked from below the
stage will cause the body of the lady to slowly rise into a horizontal
position without being so placed by the professor. This is certainly a
very great improvement in the mode of working, as while the professor
simply makes a few passes with his hands the body gradually rises,
apparently to the audience without any visible means whatever.

                          The Ghost Illusion.

This illusion, which created so much sensation in London and first
known here as “Pepper’s Ghost,” I will endeavor to explain, and make
the working of it as clear as I possibly can to the reader. It is
caused by the figure of a man or woman being reflected upon a sheet
of glass, and the audience looking through this glass, apparently see
the figure upon the stage, but in reality it is not so, being only
upon the glass. In the first place a sheet of plate glass perfectly
clear and without a blemish must be procured, and of such a size that
it will show the image or reflection of the performer who impersonates
the ghost. This glass is fixed at the front of the stage and inclined
slightly toward the audience. In front and below the stage a chamber
is made, completely concealed from the eyes of the audience, but
having an opening at the upper part, through which the reflection of
the person below is thrown upward upon the sheet of glass. The reader
can understand the position better by referring to the accompanying
cut. The body of the person to be reflected is against an inclined
plane, which is covered with black cloth. This inclined plane is fixed
upon castors, and the person leaning against it, moving this slightly
with his feet, either to the right or left, will cause it to appear as
if the ghost was either walking forward or backward. Below the stage
a person is placed with a powerful lantern, and the light from it is
thrown upon the figure representing the ghost, thus causing it to be
reflected strongly and brightly against the glass fixed above. The
stage must be darkened and dimly lighted, otherwise the ghost will
hardly be visible. In making various motions of the body the ghost
actor must reverse his movements; for example, if he raises his left
arm the figure reflected above will appear to raise its right arm. The
glass, as I stated before, must be without a blemish, and fixed at an
angle of 20 deg., inclining forward toward the audience, and the nearer
the audience are seated to it the larger the glass must be. The size
of the glass depends upon the height of the figure to be reflected and
the size of the stage and the theater or hall in which it is exhibited.
This again will be understood by referring to the figure, in which A
represents the eyes of that part of the audience seated in the lower
portion or body of the hall, while B represents the eyes of those who
are seated in the boxes or gallery, thus showing the angle by which
the height of the glass is determined, as the angles of incidence
are always equal to the angles of reflection; and the same angles
of incidence are likewise equal to the corresponding angles of the
reflected figure.


This illusion was invented in 1863 by Prof. Pepper, by whom it was
patented, and for a long period it was exhibited at the Polytechnic in
London, in various forms and guises, and drew thousands from all parts
to see this wonderful exhibition. Although it cannot now be classed
as a “novelty,” yet it still creates a great sensation whenever and
wherever it is exhibited.

[If the reader desires to pursue this subject further he is referred to
“The Art of Modern Conjuring,” by Prof. Henri Garenne, to whom we are
indebted for much that we present here. Ward, Lock & Co., publishers,
New York and London.]


                 Prescriptions of Eminent Physicians.

    _FRANK V. LUSE, M. D., Chicago, Ill._


    _Agnew._                       _Hazard._
    _Atthill._                     _Hebra._

    _Bartholow._                   _Liebreich._
    _Basham._                      _Luse._
    _Bibron._                      _Mackenzie._
    _Brande._                      _Milton._
    _Browne._                      _Mitchell, R. W._
    _Chapman._                     _Porcher._

    _Da Costa._                    _Ricord._
    _Dewees._                      _Ringer._

    _Ellis._                       _Schafhirt._
    _Fenner._                      _Squibbs._

    _Gerhard._                     _Tanner._
    _Getchell._                    _Thornton._
    _Gross._                       _Trousseau._

=Albuminuria (Bright’s Disease).=

    ℞ Tincturæ Ferri Chloridi                     f Ʒiij.
      Acidi Acetici diluti                        f Ʒij.
      Syrupi simplicis                            f ℥iss.
      Liquoris Ammonii Acetatis             q. s. ad f ℥iv.--M.

  Sig. Take a dessertspoonful every six hours.               _Basham._

=Alcoholism (Chronic).=

    ℞ Tincturæ Capsici
      Tincturæ Zingiberis                         āā f ℥j.
      Tincturæ Valerianæ ammo
      Tincturæ Gentianæ comp                      āā f ℥ij.--M.

  Sig. Take a dessertspoonful in a teacupful of hop tea three or four
  times a day.                                              _Gerhard._

=Amenorrhœa (Absence of Menstrual Flow).=

    ℞ Myrrhæ                                      gr. viij.
      Pulveris Jalapæ                             gr. xv.
      Ferri Sulphatis exsiccatæ
      Pulveris Aloes et Canellæ                   āā Ʒj.
      Syrupi simplicis                            q. s.

  Fiat massa et divide in pilulas l.

  Sig. Take two or three pills at bedtime, for several nights
  successively.                                          _N. Chapman._


    ℞ Potassii Iodidi                             Ʒiij.
      Extracti Belladonnæ fluidi                  f Ʒj.
      Extracti Lobeliæ fluidi                     f Ʒij.
      Extracti Grindeliæ fluidi                   f ℥ss.
      Aquæ destillatæ                              āā f ℥iss.--M.

  Sig. Take a tablespoonful every two, three, or four hours, as
  necessary.                                              _Bartholow._

    ℞ Foliorum Belladonnæ
      Foliorum Hyoscyami                          āā gr. iij.
      Extracti Opii aquosi                        gr. one-fifth.
      Aquæ Laurocerasi                            q. s.

  Moisten the leaves with a solution of the opium extract in the
  cherry-laurel water. Let them dry thoroughly and roll into a
  cigarette. Two to four of these cigarettes may be smoked
  every day.                                              _Trousseau._


    ℞ Resinæ Podophilli                           gr. 1/4
      Resinæ Jalapæ
      Extracti Colocynthidis compositi
      Gambogiæ                                    āā gr. iiss.
      Olei Juniperi                               q. s.

  Misce et fiant pilulæ No. ii.

  Sig. One dose, at bedtime.                                    _Guy._

=Burns and Scalds.=

    ℞ Plumbi Carbonatis                           ℥iv.
      Olei Lini                                   q. s.
      Tere simul et fiat pinguentum.

  Sig. Apply liberally on linen or lint.                      _Gross._

    ℞ Acidi Salicylici                            Ʒj
      Olei Olivæ                                  f ℥viij.--M.

  Sig. Apply to burn, covering with linen or lint.        _Bartholow._

=Biliary Calculi (Stone in the Bile Duct).=

    ℞ Chloroformi purificati                      Ʒij.
      Olei Cinnamomi                              gtt. viij.
      Spiritus Camphoræ
      Tincturæ Opii deodoratæ                     āā f Ʒiss.
      Spiritus Vini                               f Ʒiij.--M.

  Sig. Dose, from five to thirty drops, in sweetened water, every hour
  or two.                                                _Hartshorne._

=Renal or Vesical Calculi (Stone in Kidney or Bladder).=

    ℞ Liquoris Potassæ                            f ℥ss.
      Tincturæ Humuli                             f ℥iss.
      Infusi Calumbæ                              f ℥iv.
      Syrupi Aurantii Corticis                    f ℥ij.

  Fiat mistura.

  Sig. Take a tablespoonful three times daily.             _H. Green._


    ℞ Arsenici Iodidi                             gr. j.
      Extracti Conii                              ℈ij.

  Fiat massa, et divide in pilulas xvi.

  Sig. Take one pill morning and night.                     _Marsden._


    ℞ Quininæ Hydrochloratis                      gr. xxiv.
      Potassii Chloratis                          Ʒij.
      Acidi Hydrochlorici                         ♏ xl (!)
      Tincturæ Ferri Chloridi                     f Ʒij.
      Tincturæ Cardamomi                          f ℥iss.
      Aquæ destillatæ                       q. s. ad f ℥vj.--M.

  Sig. Take a tablespoonful every three hours, diluted.      _Gerhard._

=Nasal Catarrh.=

    ℞ Sodæ carbonatis
      Sodæ biboratis                              āā Ʒ ij.
      Liq. sodæ chlorinatæ                        ℥ ss.--Ʒij.
      Glycerini                                   ℥ j.
      Aquæ                                     ad ℥ vj.--M.

  Sig. Apply cold by means of a hand-spray apparatus.
                                                     _Pugin Thornton._

    ℞ Borax                                       Ʒ iij.
      Salicylic acid                              Ʒ ij.
      Glycerine                                   ℥ ijss.
      Water, to make                              ℥ iij.

  Sig. From one to two drachms in one-half pint of water, applied by
  means of a douche. Is especially useful in catarrh with ulceration,
  usually due to syphilis.

  For simple catarrh use the following:

    ℞ Chloride of ammonium
      Borax                                       āā gr. x.
      Aquæ                                        Oss.--M.

  Sig. Use with a douche, spray-producer, or by means of insufflation.
                                                      _Lennox Browne._


    ℞ Tinct. Opii
      Tinct. Capsici
      Spts. Camphoræ                              āā ℥j.
      Chloroformi                                 f Ʒiij.
      Alcoholis                             q. s. ad. ℥v.--M.

  Sig. Dose five drops to one teaspoonful.                  _Squibbs._

In time of epidemic cholera, or diarrhœa, when any person has two
movements of the bowels more than natural within the twenty-four hours,
the second one should be followed by a dose of this mixture to be
repeated after every movement that follows. If the movements increase
in frequency or in copiousness after the second dose of the medicine
has been taken a physician should be sent for at once, and a double
dose be taken after each movement until he arrives. Immediately after
taking the first dose the person should go to bed and remain there for
twelve hours after the diarrhœa has entirely ceased.

    ℞ Acidi Sulphurici                            Ʒss.
      Morphinæ Sulphatis                          gr. 1/3.
      Spiritus Vini Gallici                       f Ʒiss.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             f ℥iij.--M.

  Sig. Inject under the skin of the arms, legs, and over the stomach
  every hour until the symptoms are relieved. (_When rice-water
  discharges, vomiting, cramps, and shrinkage of the extremities
  supervene._)                        _R. W. Mitchell, Memphis, Tenn._

    ℞ Creasoti                                    gtt. j.
      Aquæ Camphoræ
      Infusi Gentianæ compositi                   āā f Ʒvj.--M.

  Sig. One dose every two hours. (_In the cold stage._)
                                       _J. T. Jones, Nashville, Tenn._

=Cholera Infantum.=

    ℞ Plumbi Acetatis                             gr. viij.
      Acidi Acetici diluti                        gtt. vj.
      Tincturæ Opii deodoratæ                     gtt. iv.
      Syrupi simplicis
      Aquæ Menthæ piperitæ                        āā f ℥ss.--M.

  Sig. Dose a teaspoonful every two or three hours. (_For a child two
  years old._)                                             _Da Costa._

    ℞ Cannabis Indicæ                             gr. j.
      Pulveris Opii                               gr. ss.
      Camphoræ                                    gr. ij.

  Misce et fiat pilula.

  Sig. Take at bedtime. _Lombe Atthill._


    ℞ Extracti Stillingiæ fluidi                  f Ʒv.
      Tincturæ Belladonnæ
      Tincturæ Nucis Vomicæ
      Tincturæ Physostigmatis                     āā f Ʒj.--M.

  Sig. Dose, twenty drops in water, three times a day before meals.
  (_In habitual constipation._)                           _Bartholow._

    ℞ Cascara Cordial                             ℥ij.

  Sig. Teaspoonful three times a day before meals.             _Luse._

=General Debility.=

    ℞ Pulveris Aloes Socotrinæ                    ℥j.
      Pulveris Zedoariæ
      Pulveris Gentianæ
      Pulveris Rhei
      Agarici                                     āā Ʒj.
      Spiritus Vini Gallici                       Οij.
      Macera per dies septem, cola, et adde--
      Syrupi simplicis                            f ℥ij.--M.

  Sig. Dose, a tablespoonful three times a day in water. (This is the
  celebrated Baûme de Vie, or Elixir of Life.)

=Delirium Tremens.=

    ℞ Quininæ Hydrochloratis                      ℈ij.
      Acidi Hydrochlorici diluti                  f Ʒiss.
      Syrupi Zingiberis                           f ℥iss.
      Aquæ destillatæ                       q. s. ad f ℥iv.--M.

  Sig. Dose, a dessertspoonful in hop tea every two hours. (_In the
  preliminary stage known as horrors._)                     _Gerhard._

    ℞ Chloral Hydratis                            Ʒss.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             f Ʒij.--M.

  Sig. One dose. (_To enforce sleep._)                    _Liebreich._

    ℞ Antimonii et Potassii Tartratis             gr. j.
      Tincturæ Aconiti Radicis                    f Ʒss.
      Tincturæ Opii                               f Ʒij.
      Aquæ destillatæ                       q. s. ad f ℥iv.--M.

  Sig. Dose, a dessertspoonful in porter every two or three hours. (_In
  strong and robust patients with boisterous delirium._)     _Ringer._

=Diarrhœa (Children.)=

    ℞ Bismuthi Subnitratis                        gr. x.
      Pulveris Calcii Phosphatis                  gr. xij.
      Sacchari Lactis                             Ʒss.

  Misce et fiant chartulæ No. x.

  Sig. One powder after each evacuation. (_In wasting diarrhœa of
  children._)                                                _Hazard._

    ℞ Sodii Bicarbonatis                          Ʒss.
      Tincturæ Catechu                            f Ʒij.
      Syrupi Rhei aromatici
      Tincturæ Cinchonæ compositæ                 āā f ℥ss.
      Tincturæ Opii camphoratæ                    f ℥j.--M.

  Sig. Dose, for a child two or three years old, a teaspoonful every
  two or three hours.                                      _Getchell._

=Diarrhœa (Adults).=

    ℞ Cupri Sulphatis
      Morphinæ Sulphatis                          āā gr. j.
      Quininæ Sulphatis                           gr. xxiv.

  Misce et fiant pilulæ No. xii.

  Sig. Take one pill three times a day. (_In chronic cases_).

    ℞ Pulveris aromatici                          Ʒiij.
      Spiritus Ammonii aromatici                  f Ʒiij.
      Tincturæ Catechu                            f Ʒx.
      Tincturæ Cardamomi compositæ                f Ʒvj.
      Tincturæ Opii deodoratæ                     f Ʒj.
      Misturæ Cretæ                         q. s. ad f ℥xx.--M.

  Sig. Dose, eight drachms for an adult; four drachms for a child of
  twelve years; two drachms for seven years old, after each liquid
  motion. (_General cholera and diarrhœa mixture._)  _Henery Beasley._


    ℞ Tincturæ Opii deodoratæ                     f Ʒij.
      Vini Ipecacuanhæ                            f Ʒij.
      Olei Ricini                                 f ℥ij.
      Pulveris Acaciæ
      Syrupi simplicis
      Aquæ Cinnamomi                              āā q. s.

  Fiat emulsio, secundum artem, ad f ℥vj.

  Sig. Take a tablespoonful every two hours.                _Gerhard._

    ℞ Tincturæ Hamamelis                          f Ʒss.
      Elixiris simplicis                          f Ʒiiiss.
      Syrupi simplicis                            f ℥ss.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             f ℥j.--M.

  Sig. Dose, a teaspoonful every two or three hours. (_Where there is
  much blood._)                                              _Ringer._

=Dysmenorrhœa (Difficult Menstruation.)=

    ℞ Camphoræ                                    ℈j.
      Alcoholis                             q. s. ut fiat pulvis.
    Dein adde--
      Pulveris Acaciæ
      Sacchari albi                               āā Ʒj.
      Aquæ Cinnamomi                              f ℥j.

  Fiat mistura.

  Sig. Dose, the one-half the instant pain is felt; if not relieved in
  an hour or two, give the remainder.                        _Dewees._

    ℞ Extracti Gelsemii fluidi                    f Ʒiiss.
      Elixiris simplicis                          f Ʒvss.
      Syrupi Aurantii Corticis                    f ℥j.--M.

Sig. Take a teaspoonful every two hours. _Porcher._

    ℞ Tincturæ Opii deodoratæ                     f Ʒij.
      Extracti Cimicifugæ                         f ℥ss.
      Syrupi simplicis                            f Ʒx.--M.

  Sig. Take a teaspoonful every three or four hours. (_To restore the
  menstrual flow after suddenly checked._)                   _Ringer._


    ℞ Pulveris Radicis Rhei                       Ʒj.
      Pulveris Aloes                              ℈ij.
      Sodii Bicarbonatis                          Ʒij.
      Valerianæ contusæ
      Serpentariæ contusæ
      Gentianæ contusæ
      Quassiæ contusæ                             āā ℥ss.
      Spiritus Frumenti                           Οij.

  Macera in vaso leviter clauso per horas bis quatuor viginta, et cola.

  Sig. Dose, a wineglassful three times a day.            _Liebreich._


    ℞ Ammonii Bromidi
      Potassii Iodidi                             āā ℈viij.
      Potassii Bromidi                            Ʒvj.
      Sodii Bicarbonatis                          Ʒij.
      Tincturæ Calumbæ                            f ℥ij.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             f ℥vj.--M.

  Sig. Take a dessertspoonful after each meal, and a tablespoonful at
  bedtime.                                            _Brown-Séquard._

=Eyes (Inflammation of).=

    ℞ Morph. Sulph                                gr. iij.
      Zinci Sulph                                 gr. ij.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             ℥j.--M.

  Sig. Apply two drops directly to the eye.                    _Luse._


    ℞ Iodi                                        ℈j.
      Potassii Iodidi                             gr. iv.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             ♏vj.
      Adipis                                      ℥j.--M.

  Sig. Apply once daily. (_With unbroken skin._)              _Hebra._

    ℞ Fellis Bovini recentis                      f Ʒiij.
      Balsami Peruviani                           f Ʒj.--M.

  Sig. Apply two or three times a day. (_With broken or unbroken
  skin._)                                                _Hugh Smith._

=Gonorrhœa and Gleet.=

    ℞ Liquoris Potassæ                            f Ʒj.
      Balsami Copaibæ                             f ℥ss.
      Tincturæ Cubebæ                             f Ʒvj.
      Liquoris Morphinæ Sulphatis                 f ℥j.
      Aquæ Camphoræ                         q. s. ad f ℥vj.--M.

  Sig. Take a tablespoonful four times a day.        _D. Hayes Agnew._

    ℞ Hydrastinæ                                  Ʒj.
      Mucilaginis Acaciæ                          f ℥iv.--M.

  Sig. A half ounce as an injection. (_In chronic gonorrhœa and
  gleet._)                                                _Bartholow._

    ℞ Zinci Sulphatis
      Acidi tannici                               āā gr. xv.
      Aquæ Rosæ                                   f ℥vj.--M.

  Sig. A half ounce as an injection two or three times daily. (_In
  gleet._)                                                   _Ricord._

    ℞ Morphinæ Acetatis                           gr. vj.
      Plumbi Acetatis
      Zinci Sulphatis                             āā gr. viij.
      Creasoti                                    gtt. viij.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             f ℥vj.--M.

  Sig. As an injection twice daily.                     _H. H. Smith._

    ℞ Zinci Sulphatis                             ℥j.
      Aluminis                                    ℥iij.--M.

  Sig. Dissolve a teaspoonful in one pint of water and inject three
  times a day. (_In females._)                               _Hazard._

=Hay Fever.=

    ℞ Potassii arsenitis                          gr. xv.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             f ℥j.


  Unsized white paper to be thoroughly moistened with this solution,
  cut into twenty equal parts, and each part rolled into a cigarette,
  two or three of which may be smoked daily.              _Trousseau._

    ℞ Tincturæ Aconiti Radicis                    f Ʒiss.
      Glycerini                                   f Ʒiiss.--M.

  Sig. Apply to outside of nose.                             _Ringer._

=Headache (See Liniments).=

    ℞ Ætheris
      Spiritus Ammoniæ aromatici                  āā f Ʒj.
      Aquæ Camphoræ                               f Ʒx.
      Tincturæ Cardamomi compositæ                f Ʒj.

  Misce pro haustu.

  Sig. Take two to three times a day. (_In nervous headache._)

    ℞ Atropinæ Sulphatis                          gr. ss.
      Chinoidinæ                                  Ʒj.

  Misce et fiant pilulæ No. lx.

  Sig. One pill twice or thrice a day. (_In sick headache._)

=Hemorrhoids (Piles).=

    ℞ Pulveris Jalapæ
      Potassii Bitartratis
      Potassii Nitratis                           āā ℥ss.
      Confectionis Sennæ                          ℥j.
      Syrupi simplicis                            q. s.

  Misce et fiat electuarium.

  Sig. A bolus the size of a hazel-nut three times a day.     _Ellis._

    ℞ Fluid Ext. Ohio Buckeye                     ℥j.
      Fluid Ext. Horse Chestnut                   ℥j.
      Alcohol                                     ℥iv.
      Water                                       ℥iv.
      Simple Elixir                               ℥vi.

  Sig. Dose, one teaspoonful.                             _Mackenzie._

    ℞ Olei Theobromæ                              ℥ss.
      Extracti Krameriæ                           ℈ij.
      Pulveris Opii                               gr. v.

  Misce secundum artem, et fiant suppositoria No. x.

  Sig. Use one morning and night.                       _J. Pancoast._

=Impotence and Sexual Debility.=

    ℞ Pulveris Cantharidis                        gr. xviij.
      Pulveris Opii
      Pulveris Camphoræ                           āā gr. xxxvj.
      Confectionis Rosæ                           q. s.

  Misce et fiant pilulæ No. xxxvi.

  Sig. Take one pill at night. (_From general debility._)    _Hazard._

    ℞ Extracti Vanillæ fluidi                     f ℥j.

  Sig. Dose, a teaspoonful at night. (_In old people._)     _Gerhard._

    ℞ Phosphori                                   gr. ss.
      Ætheris                                     f ℥ss.
    Solve, et adde--
      Tincturæ Cantharidis
      Tincturæ Nucis Vomicæ                       āā f ℥ss.--M.

  Sig. Take thirty drops three or four times a day.            _Vogt._

    ℞ Fluid Ext. Damiana                          1 ounce.
      Dialysed Iron                               1/2 ounce.
      Tinct. Cantharides                          1/2 ounce.
      Acid Phosphoric (diluted)                   1/2 ounce.
      Lemon juice                                 1/2 ounce.
      Glycerine                                   2 ounces.
      Simple Elixir, q. s. to make                1 pint.

  Sig. Dose, one teaspoonful three times a day. (_Useful in all cases
  of sexual debility. A most efficient nerve tonic._)
                                                 _Kilner’s Formulary._


    ℞ Zinci Sulphatis
      Aluminis                                    āā Ʒiss.
      Glycerini                                   f ℥vj.--M.

  Sig. Add a tablespoonful to a pint of water and inject night and
  morning.                                                   _Hazard._

=Menorrhagia (Excessive Menstrual Flow).=

    ℞ Tincturæ Ferri Chloridi                     f Ʒiiss.
      Acidi Phosphorici diluti                    f Ʒiiiss.
      Syrupi Acidi citrici                  q. s. ad f ℥iv.--M.

  Sig. Take a dessertspoonful three times a day. (_When pale and
  debilitated._)                                            _Gerhard._

    ℞ Acidi Gallici                               gr. xv.
      Acidi Sulphurici aromatici                  ♏xv.
      Tincturæ Cinnamomi                          f Ʒij.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             f ℥ij.--M.

  Sig. One dose, to be taken every four hours until bleeding ceases.
  (_In profuse bleeding._)                                   _Hazard._

=Neuralgia (See Liniments).=

    ℞ Strychninæ Sulphatis                        gr. j.
      Morphinæ Sulphatis
      Acidi arseniosi                             āā. gr. iss.
      Extracti Aconiti                            gr. xv.
      Quininæ Sulphatis                           Ʒj.

  Misce et fiant pilulæ No. xxx.

  Sig. Take one pill three times a day.                 _S. D. Gross._

=Nymphomania (Excessive Sexual Desire).=

    ℞ Potassii Bromidi                            Ʒvj.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             f ℥v.--M.

  Sig. Three teaspoonfuls before dinner and four at bedtime.

=Rattlesnake Bite.=

    ℞ Hydrargyri Chloridi corrosivi               gr. ij.
      Potassii Iodidi                             gr. iv.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             ♏v.
    Solve et adde--
      Bromi                                       Ʒv.--M.

  Sig. Take ten drops in a tablespoonful of wine or brandy every
  fifteen or twenty minutes. (_Recommended by Bibron, Prince Paul of
  Wuertemberg, W. A. Hammond, and others._)                  _Bibron._

=Rheumatism (See Liniments).=

    ℞ Sodii Bicarbonatis                          Ʒij.
      Acidi Salicylici                            Ʒiij.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             āā f ℥ij.--M.

  Sig. One teaspoonful every four hours.              _N. B. Kennedy._

    ℞ Pulveris Guaiaci Resinæ
      Potassii Iodidi                             āā gr. x.
      Tincturæ Colchici Seminis                   f Ʒss.
      Aquæ Cinnamomi
      Syrupi simplicis                       āā q. s. ad f ℥j.--M.

  Sig. A dessertspoonful to a tablespoonful thrice daily. (_In chronic
  rheumatism._)                               _Philadelphia Hospital._


    ℞ Extracti Belladonnæ                         gr. one-sixth.
      Extracti Stramonii                          gr. one-fifth.
      Extracti Cannabis Indicæ                    gr. 1/4.
      Extracti Aconiti                            gr. 1/3.
      Extracti Opii                               gr. 1/2.
      Extracti Hyoscyami                          gr. 2/3.
      Extracti Conii                              gr. j.
      Pulveris Glycyrrhizæ                        q. s.

  Misce et fiat pilula.

  Sig. Take three, four, and even five pills a day. _pro re nata._

=Spermatorrhœa (See Impotence).=

    ℞ Quininæ Sulphatis                           gr. vj.
      Acidi Sulphurici diluti                     f Ʒj.
      Tincturæ Cardamomi compositæ                f Ʒiij.
      Aquæ Cinnamomi                              f ℥vss.--M.

  Sig. Two tablespoonfuls twice daily.                       _Milton._

    ℞ Pulveris Opii                               gr. v.
      Camphoræ                                    ℈iv.
      Pulveris Acaciæ
      Syrupi simplicis                            āā q. s.

  Fiat massa in pilulas No. xl. dividenda.

  Sig. Take two pills three times a day.                     _Waring._

    ℞ Potassii Bromidi                            ℥j.
      Aquæ destillatæ                       q. s. ad f ℥ij.--M.

  Sig. Take a teaspoonful three times a day. (_In the strong and
  plethoric_).                                            _Bartholow._


“Ricord’s Mixture,” which has been so highly recommended in syphilitic
affections is composed as follows:

    ℞ Hydrarg. Iod. rub                           gr. iv.
      Potass. Iod                                 ℥j.
      Fl. Ext. Sarsap. comp                       ℥j.
      Aquæ                                  q. s. ad ℥v.--M.

  Sig. Teaspoonful.

    ℞ Potass. Iodid                               Ʒij.
      Hydrarg. Biniodid                           gr. ss.
      Syr. Aurant. Cort                           ℥j.
      Tinct. Aurant. Cort                         Ʒj.
      Aquæ                                     ad ℥iv.--M.

  Sig. Teaspoonful in water after eating. (_Mixed treatment._)

    ℞ Hydrarg. Chlor. Corros                      gr. ij.
      Potassii Iodidi                             Ʒij.
      Tr. Cinchona Co                             ℥ij.
      Aquæ dist                                   ℥ij.--M.

  Sig. Take one drachm three times a day. Discontinue when gums get
  sore and resume again when soreness is gone.                 _Luse._

    ℞ Acidi Nitro-Muriatici diluti                f Ʒiiss.
      Syrupi Stillingiæ compositi                 f Ʒxiiiss.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             f ℥ij.--M.

  Sig. Dose, one to two teaspoonfuls three times a day, with
  denutrition. (_In cases saturated with the approved remedies, but
  still presenting patches on the skin and mucous membranes._)


    ℞ Granati Corticis Radicis                    ℥ss.
      Seminum Peponis                             ℥j.
      Extracti Filicis maris ætherei              f Ʒj.
      Pulveris Ergotæ                             Ʒj.
      Pulveris Acaciæ                             Ʒij.
      Olei Tiglii                                 ♏ij.

  Thoroughly bruise the granate bark and pumpkin-seed, and with the
  ergot boil in eight ounces of water for fifteen minutes, and strain
  through a coarse cloth. Rub up well the croton oil and extract
  of male fern with the acacia, and form into an emulsion with the
  decoction. Take at one dose at 10 o’clock in the morning, having
  eaten no breakfast and having taken a full dose of Rochelle salts
  the previous night. This expels the worm alive and entire within
  two hours, the head firmly fastened to the side of its own body.

    ℞ Pulveris Kamalæ                             gr. v-x.
      Syrupi Aurantii Florum                      f Ʒss.
      Mucilaginis Tragacanthæ                     Ʒj.
      Aquæ destillatæ                             f ℥j.

  Misce et fiat haustus.

  Sig. Take early in the morning four hours after a purge. (For a child
  two to five years. _Tapeworm._).                           _Tanner._


       ♏.  Minim, 1-60 part of a fluid drachm,
     gtt.  Gutta, drop; guttæ, drops.
      ℈j.  Scrupulus vel scrupulum, a scruple=20 grains.
      Ʒj.  Drachma, a drachm=60 grains.
    f Ʒj.  Fluidrachma, a fluid or measured drachm.
      ℥j.  Uncia, a troyounce=480 grains.
    f ℥j.  Fluiduncia, a fluidounce.
     lbj.  Libra, a pound, understood in prescription to apply to an
            officinal pound of 5,760 grains.
      Οj.  Octarious, a pint.
      gr.  Granum, a grain; plural grana, grains.
      ss.  Semis, half, affixed to signs as above.



  Ad                                      To, up to.
  Ad libitum                  Ad lib.     At pleasure.
  Adde                        Add.        Let it or them be added.
  Ampulla                                 A large bottle.
  Ana                         A āā.        Of each.
  Aqua-bulliens               Aq-bull.    Water--boiling.
  Aqua-fervens                Aq-ferv.    Water--hot.
  Aqua-destillata             Aq-dest.    Water--distilled.
  Bene                                    Well.
  Bis in dies                 Bis ind.    Twice daily.
  Bulliat, bulliant           Bull.       Let boil.
  Cape. Capiat                Cap.        Take, Let him take.
  Capsula                     Caps.       Capsule.
  Ceratum                     Cerata.     A Cerate.
  Charta (_Karta_)            Chart.      A paper (medicated).
  Chartula (_Kartula_)        Chart.      A little paper for a powder.
  Cibus                       Cib.        Food.
  Cochleare magnum            Coch mag.   A tablespoon.
  Cochleare parvum            Coch parv.  A teaspoon.
  Cola. Colatus               Col.        Strain, Strained.
  Collyrium                   Collyr.     An eye wash.
  Collutorium                 Collut.     A mouth wash.
  Compositus                  Co. Comp.   Compound.
  Congius                     C.          A gallon.
  Confectio                   Conf.       A confection.
  Cortex                      Cort.       Bark.
  Cum                                     With.
  Decoctum                    Decoc.      A decoction.
  Dilute, Dilutus             Dil.        Dilute.
  Dimidius                    Dim.        One-half.
  Divide                      D. Div.     Divide (thou.)
  Dividendus                  Dividend.   To be divided.
  Dividatur in partes æquales D in p æq.  Let it be divided into equal
  Dosis                       Dos.        A dose.
  Emplastrum                  Emp.        A plaster.
  Enema                       Enem.       An enema.
  Extende supra               Exten Sup.  Spread upon.
  Extractum                   Ext.        An extract.
  Fac. fiat. fiant            F.          Make, Let be made.
  Filtrum                     Fil.        A filter, Filter (thou).
  Fluidus                     Fl. f.      Fluid.
  Gargarisma                  Garg.       A gargle.
  Glyceritum                  Glyc.       A Glycerite.
  Gutta, Guttæ                Gtt.        A drop, Drops.
  Guttatim                    Guttat.     Drop by drop.
  Haustus                     Haust.      A draught.
  In dies                     Ind.        Daily.
  Infusum                     Inf.        An infusion.
  Injectio                    Inj.        An injection.
  Instar                      Inst.       Like.
  Lac                                     Milk.
  Layena                                  A flask or bottle.
  Libra                       Lb ℔        A pound.
  Linteum                                 Lint.
  Liquor                      Liq.        A solution.
  Lotio                                   A lotion.
  Mane primo                  Mane pr.    Very early in the morning.
  Magnus                      Mag.        Large.
  Massa                       Mass.       A pill mass.
  Mica panis                  Mic pan.    A crumb of bread.
  Misce                       M.          Mix.
  Mistura                     Mist.       A mixture.
  Mucilago                    Mucil.      A mucilage.
  Nox. Nocte Maneque                      Night; At night and in the
  Numems, Numero              No.         A number, In number.
  Octarius                    O.          A pint.
  Ovum, Ovi                   Ov.         An egg.
  Optimus                     Opt.        Best.
  Pars                        Par.        A part.
  Partes æquales              P æ.        Equal parts.
  Parvus                      Parv.       Small.
  Pediluvium                              A foot bath.
  Pencilium Camelinum         Pencil Cam. A camel’s-hair pencil or
  Per fistulam vitreum                    Through a glass tube.
  Phiala                      Phil.       A vial.
  Pilula                      Pil.        A pill.
  Pro re nata                 P r n.      According to circumstances,
  Pulvis                      Pulv.       A powder.
  Quantum Sufficiat           Q S.        As much as is necessary.
  Quaqua hora                 Q h.        Every hour.
  Saturatus                   Sat.        Saturated.
  Scatula                     Scat.       A box.
  Semissis                    Ss.         A half.
  Semidrachma                 Semidr.     A half drachm.
  Sesuncia                    Sesunc.     An ounce and a half.
  Signa                       S Sy.       Sign.
  Sine                                    Without.
  Solve, Solutus              Solv.       Dissolve, Dissolved.
  Solutio                     Sol.        A solution.
  Spiritus                    Spr.        A spirit.
  Statim                      Stat.       Immediately.
  Suppositoria                Suppos.     A suppository.
  Syrupus                     Syr.        A syrup.
  Talis                       Tal.        Such or like.
  Tinctura                    Tra Tr
                                Tinct.    A tincture.
  Trochischus (_Trokiscus_)   Troch.      A troche.
  Tritura                     Trit.       Triturate.
  Tere Simul                  Ter Sim.    Rub together.
  Ter in di                   T i d.      Three times a day.
  Unguentum                   Ungt.       An ointment.
  Vinum                       Vin.        A wine.
  Vehichulum                  Vehic.      A menstrum.
  Vitellus                    Vit.        The yolk (of an egg).
  Vitello Ovi Solutus         V O S.      Dissolved in yolk of an egg.


    A drop=usually about 1/2 minim.
    A teaspoonful=60 drops f Ʒj.
    A dessertspoonful=f Ʒij.
    A tablespoonful=f ℥ss.
    A wineglassful=f ℥ij.
    A teacupful=f ℥ix.


Having fixed upon the bulk of his liquid he will remember that there
are in

    1 fluid ounce, 8 teaspoonfuls each 1 fluid drachm.
    2 fluid ounces, 15 teaspoonfuls each 1 fluid drachm.
    4 fluid ounces, 30 teaspoonfuls each 1 fluid drachm.
    4 fluid ounces, 15 dessertspoonfuls each 2 fluid drachms.
    6 fluid ounces, 20 dessertspoonfuls each 2 fluid drachms.
    6 fluid ounces, 12 tablespoonfuls each 1/2 fluid ounce.
    8 fluid ounces, 15 tablespoonfuls each 1/2 fluid ounce.
    1 pint, 30 tablespoonfuls, each 1/2 fluid ounce.
    1 pint, 8 wineglassfuls each 2 fluid ounces.


      _From_   |     _To_     |_Days._||    _To_     |_Days._
    January 1  | September 30 |  273  || October 7   |  280
    February 1 | October 31   |  273  || November 7  |  280
    March 1    | November 30  |  275  || December 5  |  280
    April 1    | December 31  |  275  || January 5   |  280
    May 1      | January 31   |  276  || February 4  |  280
    June 1     | February 28  |  273  || March 7     |  280
    July 1     | March 31     |  274  || April 6     |  280
    August 1   | April 30     |  273  || May 7       |  280
    September 1| May 31       |  273  || June 7      |  280
    October 1  | June 30      |  273  || July 7      |  280
    November 1 | July 31      |  273  || August 7    |  280
    December 1 | August 31    |  274  || September 6 |  280

The above Obstetric “Ready Reckoner” consists of two columns, one
of calendar, the other of lunar months, and may be read as follows:
A patient has ceased to menstruate on the first day of July; her
confinement may be expected at soonest about the 31st of March (_the
end of nine calendar months_); or at latest, on the 6th of April (_the
end of ten lunar months_). Another has ceased to menstruate on the 20th
of January; her confinement may be expected on the 30th of September,
plus 20 days (_the end of nine calendar months_), at soonest; or on
the 7th of October, plus 20 days (_the end of ten lunar months_), at


       COMMON NAMES.                  CHEMICAL NAMES.

    Aqua Fortis                    Nitric Acid.
    Aqua Regia                     Nitro-Muriatic Acid.
    Blue Vitriol                   Sulphate of Copper.
    Cream of Tartar                Bitartrate Potassium.
    Calomel                        Chloride of Mercury.
    Chalk                          Carbonate Calcium.
    Caustic Potassa                Hydrate Potassium.
    Chloroform                     Chloride of Gormyle.
    Common Salt                    Chloride of Sodium.
    Copperas, or Green Vitriol     Sulphate of Iron.
    Corrosive Sublimate            Bi-Chloride of Mercury.
    Diamond                        Pure Carbon.
    Dry Alum                       Sulphate Aluminum and Potassium.
    Epsom Salts                    Sulphate of Magnesia.
    Ethiops Mineral                Black Sulphide of Mercury.
    Fire Damp                      Light Carburetted Hydrogen.
    Galena                         Sulphide of Lead.
    Glauber’s-Salt                 Sulphate of Sodium.
    Glucose                        Grape Sugar.
    Goulard Water                  Basic Acetate of Lead.
    Iron Pyrites                   Bi-Sulphide Iron.
    Jeweler’s Putty                Oxide of Tin.
    King’s Yellow                  Sulphide of Arsenic.
    Laughing Gas                   Protoxide of Nitrogen.
    Lime                           Oxide of Calcium.
    Lunar Caustic                  Nitrate of Silver.
    Mosaic Gold                    Bi-Sulphide of Tin.
    Muriate of Lime                Chloride of Calcium.
    Nitre of Saltpetre             Nitrate of Potash.
    Oil of Vitriol                 Sulphuric Acid.
    Potash                         Oxide of Potassium.
    Realgar                        Sulphide of Arsenic.
    Red Lead                       Oxide of Lead.
    Rust of Iron                   Oxide of Iron.
    Salmoniac                      Muriate of Ammonia.
    Salt of Tartar                 Carbonate of Potassa.
    Slacked Lime                   Hydrate Calcium.
    Soda                           Oxide of Sodium.
    Spirits of Hartshorn           Ammonia.
    Spirit of Salt                 Hydrochloric or Muriatic Acid.
    Stucco, or Plaster of Paris    Sulphate of Lime.
    Sugar of Lead                  Acetate of Lead.
    Verdigris                      Basic Acetate of Copper.
    Vermillion                     Sulphide of Mercury.
    Vinegar                        Acetic Acid (Diluted).
    Volatile Alkali                Ammonia.
    Water                          Oxide of Hydrogen.
    White Precipitate              Ammoniated Mercury.
    White Vitriol                  Sulphate of Zinc.

                 Proprietary and Elegant Preparations.


Medicated pads are quite popular with many who have tried them, and
a multitude of remarkable cures are attributed to their use. We here
present formulas equal to the best, and as they are quite simple to
prepare they can now be tried with but little expense:

=Liver Pad.=

    Red Cinchona Bark (powder)                 4 ounces.
    Fenugreek Seed (powder)                    1 ounce.
    Mandrake Root (powder)                     1 ounce.
    Black Root (powder)                        1 ounce.
    Gum Guaiac (powder)                        3 ounces.
    Bayberry Bark (powder)                     4 drachms.
    Oil of Eucalyptus                          4 drachms.

Grind the drugs with the powdered guaiac and add the oil. The above is
sufficient for two pads, which should be made into an oblong or diamond
shape, with linen or muslin, and worn over the pit of the stomach.
Liver pads are recommended for all diseases arising from a disordered

=Kidney Pad.=

Useful in all diseases of the kidneys.

    Digitalis Leaves                           2 ounces.
    Black Cohosh                               1 ounce.
    Gum Benzoin (powdered)                     1 ounce.
    Gum Guaiacum (powdered)                    1 ounce.
    Juniper berries                            1 ounce.
    Queen of the Meadow                        1 ounce.
    Oil Juniper                                2 ounces.

Grind the drugs to a moderately fine powder, and mix with the oils and
gums. Make an oblong pad and wear over the kidneys.

=Lung Pad.=

Useful in consumption and diseases of the lungs.

    Grindelia Robusta                          1 ounce.
    Skullcap Leaves                            1 ounce.
    Blueberry Root                           1/2 ounce.
    Blood Root                               1/2 ounce.
    Yerba Santa                            1-1/2 ounces.
    Gum Ammoniac                               1 ounce.
    White Pine Turpentine Gum              1-1/2 ounces.
    Oil of Tar                                 1 ounce.
    Oil of Eucalyptus                          1 ounce.
    Oil of Sassafras                           1 ounce.

Grind the drugs to a moderately fine powder and mix them with the oils
and gums. Make an oblong pad and wear well up to the throat.


=Wonder Liniment.=

    Oil of Sassafras                           8 ounces.
    Oil of Cloves                              2 ounces.
    Oil of Turpentine                          4 ounces.
    Stronger Water of Ammonia                  1 ounce.
    Sulphuric Ether                            4 ounces.
    Chloroform                                 2 ounces.
    Camphor                                    2 ounces, av.
    Alcohol sufficient to make                 1 gallon.

Mix and dissolve.

As a universal liniment for both internal and external use this is
without an equal for relieving pain. It is used where any liniment is
likely to do good in all aches and pains. Preparations of this nature
when used externally should be applied plentifully and vigorously.
This is the reason why itinerant venders of liniments under various
titles such as Wizard Oil, Pain Killer, Instant Relief, etc., produce
such remarkable cures in public. Their remedies all possess more or
less remedial value, but without brisk and patient rubbing they would
do as little good when applied externally as so much cold water. Now
that a reliable formula is at hand a quantity of this Wonder Liniment
can be prepared at a minimum cost without paying for bottles, labels,
advertising, salaries, rents, etc., which are the necessary expenses of
all medicine firms, and which ultimately are borne by the consumer.

=Liquid Lightning.=

An excellent liniment for external application, which has been sold
under various names, is prepared as follows:

    Essential Oil of Mustard                   2 drachms.
    Aconitia                                   2 grains.
    Glycerine                                  2 ounces.
    Alcohol                                    4 ounces.

Mix, and apply by rubbing with the hand. This is useful in rheumatism,
neuralgia, headache, toothache, and all nervous pains.

=Perry Davis’ Pain Killer.=

    Spirits of Camphor                         2 ounces.
    Tincture of Capsicum;                      1 ounce.
    Tincture of Guaiac                       1/2 ounce.
    Tincture of Myrrh                        1/2 ounce.
    Alcohol                                    4 ounces.


=Hamlin’s Wizard oil.=

    Tincture of Camphor                        1 ounce.
    Aqua Ammonia                             1/2 ounce.
    Oil of Sassafras                         1/2 ounce.
    Oil of Cloves                              1 drachm.
    Chloroform                                 2 drachms.
    Turpentine                                 1 drachm.
    Alcohol                                3-1/2 ounces.


=Mexican Mustang Liniment.=

    Petroleum                                  } Equal parts
    Olive Oil                                  } and mix.
    Carbonate of Ammonia                       }

=Merchant’s Gargling Oil.=

    Linseed Oil                            2-1/2 pints.
    Spirits of Turpentine                  2-1/2 pints.
    Western Petroleum                          1 pint.
    Liquor Potassa                             1 ounce.
    Sap Green                                  1 drachm.


=Radway’s Ready Relief.=

This remedy, according to Peckolt, is an ethereal tincture of capsicum
with alcohol and camphor.

                           Liver Regulator.

    Senna Alex                                12 drachms.
    Podophyllin                                3 drachms.
    Leptandria Virg                            3 drachms.
    Virginia Snake Root                        6 drachms.
    Ginseng                                    3 drachms.
    Alcohol                                    6 ounces.
    Boiling water, to make                     1 quart.

Dose, teaspoonful to one-half wineglassful, as needed. For all bilious
diseases or disorders arising from torpidity of the liver, dyspepsia,
bilious headache, costiveness, sour stomach, jaundice, heartburn,
nervousness, restlessness, etc.

                   Elixir Cascara Sagrada Compound.

    Fluid Extract Cascara                      4 ounces.
    Tincture Nux Vomica                        1 drachm.
    Glycerine                                  2 ounces.
    Syrup of Ginger                            2 ounces.
    Peppermint Water                           4 ounces.
    Simple Elixir, to make                     1 pint.

Mix and filter.

Dose, one teaspoonful before eating. For headache, constipation,
biliousness, dyspepsia, or all diseases arising from torpidity of the
liver. _Kilner’s Formulary._

                    Dr. Hamilton’s Blood Purifier.

Better than S. S. S. or any blood medicine on the market. A specific
for scrofula, syphilis, rheumatism, and all impurities of the blood:

    Black Cohosh                               1 ounce.
    Blood Root                               1/2 ounce.
    Poke Root                                  1 drachm.
    Elder Flowers                          1-1/2 ounces.
    Sassafras Bark                           1/2 ounce.
    Spikenard Root                         1-1/2 ounces.
    Alcohol                                    4 ounces.
    Water                                      4 ounces.
    Simple Elixir, q. s. to make               1 pint.

Macerate the drugs with alcohol and water, and after a few days
transfer to percolator. Percolate till clear, and then add to simple

Dose, one to two teaspoonfuls three times a day.

                         Blood Purifying Tea.

    Burdock Root, cut                          2 ounces.
    Blue Flag Root, cut                        2 ounces.
    Dandelion Root, cut                    1-1/2 ounces.
    Sassafras Root, cut                      1/2 ounce.
    Sarsaparilla Root, cut                     2 ounce.
    Wild Cherry Bark, cut                      1 ounce.
    Yellow Dock Root, cut                    1/2 ounce.

Mix thoroughly. Take two ounces of the tea and steep in a quart of
water, with gentle heat, for two hours; strain off 1-1/2 pints into
a quart bottle and add half a pint of alcohol and 4 ounces of sugar.
The dose is a wineglassful for adults before meals and at bedtime;
children, in proportion to age.

                 Warner’s Safe Kidney and Liver Cure.

In Germany each maker of patents must furnish the Government with the
formula for the patent he makes. This is the one furnished by Warner
for “Safe Kidney and Liver Cure.” Each bottle contains:

    Extract of Lycopus Virginiana (the herb) 308 grains.
    Extract of Hepatica (the herb)           232 grains.
    Extract of Gaultheria                  7-1/2 grains.
    Potassium Nitrate                         39 grains.
    Alcohol (90°)                          2-1/2 ounces.
    Glycerine                                 10 drachms.
    Water, sufficient to make                  1 pint.

Any one can now make this preparation equally as well as Warner.
_Fenner’s Formulary._

                       Electric Catarrh Remedy.

This remedy, under various electrical names, is inclosed in a closely
stoppered bottle or box containing a bit of zinc and copper to which is
attached a piece of cotton or sponge saturated with the preparation,
which is very volatile and irritating to the mucuous membrane, and
produces by inhalation a decided effect at once. The patient is
led to believe that there is some electrical value attached to the
combination, and, strange to say, in the face of such absurdity it has
many votaries; however, notwithstanding the electrical deception it
has merits as an inhalant, and remarkable cures of catarrh, headache,
neuralgia, etc., are ascribed to its use. The following is the required

    Essential Oil of Mustard                   1 ounce.
    Carbolic Acid                              1 ounce.
    Oil of Hemlock                             1 ounce.
    Camphor                                    1 ounce.
    Alcohol                                    4 ounces.

Mix and dissolve. This can also be used as an external application,
though not so good as another under the head of “Liquid Lightning” (see
page 119).

                            Catarrh Snuff.

    Calomel                                    1 drachm.
    Camphor, pulverised                        1 drachm.
    Acacia                                     2 drachms.

                            Catarrh Salve.

The following remedy for catarrh, and other uses for which it is
recommended, was patented by William H. Thomas of Los Angeles, Cal.
From the nature of its ingredients and mode of preparation we are led
to believe that it is the most elegant and effective of all the “salve
catarrh remedies” that have been brought to our notice:

    Petrolatum                                 1 ounce.
    Pimento (powd. allspice)                   4 grains.
    Thymol                                     4 grains.
    Boracic Acid                               2 grains.
    Subnitrate of Bismuth                      2 grains.
    Spirit of Wintergreen                      3 drops.
    Cassia Lanceolata Leaves (senna)         1/4 ounce.

The boracic acid, subnitrate of bismuth, thymol, and pimento is placed
in a mortar and reduced to a fine powder. The leaves of the cassia
lanceolata are subjected with the petrolatum to a sufficient degree of
heat to extract the active principles of the leaves, after which the
petrolatum is strained off and added to the powdered substances before
mentioned with the spirit of wintergreen, the whole being thoroughly
commingled and mixed in any convenient manner. In using the compound
it is applied locally in the usual manner by means of the fingers or
any material by which the application can be thoroughly effected. As
an ointment it is especially applicable to the treatment of catarrh,
malignant sores, abrasions, and other affections where a local remedy
can be applied.

                  Rubber Patching and Waterproofing.

Capt. Paul Boyton, the famous aquatic voyager in his rubber suit, has
furnished us two practical suggestions in regard to patching rubber
boots, coats, etc., and also to waterproof sails, tents, awnings, and
similar fabrics.

=To Patch a Rubber Boot or Garment.=

Take a piece of sand-paper and roughen the edges of the break as far
around as the size of the patch. Next apply rubber cement to the
roughened surface, and at the same time cement a piece of rubber cloth
or cloth well coated with the cement. Let both remain for four hours in
a place free from dust. Then put on another thin coat of cement and let
them lay for about two hours. Next place the patch carefully over the
break and hammer well together. Let stand for a few hours and the place
will be as strong and tight as ever. Be sure the patch and the article
to be patched are perfectly dry before applying the cement.

Pure natural rubber or rubber cement can be obtained at any rubber
store, also prepared patch cloth.

=To Make Rubber Cement.=

Take half a pound of pure natural rubber, cut it into small pieces, and
dissolve it in a sufficient quantity of 100 proof naptha. It will take
from two to three days to dissolve properly.

=To Waterproof Canvas or Cloth.=

Take one pound of yellow paraffine wax and dissolve in one quart of
benzine. Apply with a brush.

                    To Make Tissues Incombustible.

The Societé d’Encouragement of Paris has recently awarded a prize of
2,000 francs to J. A. Martin of Paris for the following preparations
for making tissues fire-proof. The conditions under which the award was
offered were as follows: The ingredients constituting the preparations
must be cheap and easily applied, must neither injure the tissues
themselves nor their colors, must be neither of a poisonous nor caustic
nature, must not change in a very moist nor very dry atmosphere, and
finally the impregnated tissues and wood must remain incombustible
after they have been exposed for one month to a temperature of 100° to
120° Fahr. It was found that Martin’s fluids made the tissues and the
surface of wood incombustible, that they do not attack the tissues and
their colors, and that they remained incombustible after having been
exposed for several months in a drying chamber to a temperature of 97°
Fahr. The experiments were made by the Society and at the same time in
the different Paris theaters.

=For all Light Tissues.=

    Ammonium Sulphate                          8 parts.
    Pure Ammonium Carbonate                2-1/2 parts.
    Boracic Acid                               3 parts.
    Starch                                     2 parts.
    Water                                    100 parts.

Two-fifths part of dextrine (or the same quantity of gelatine) may be
substituted for the 2 parts of starch. The fluid is heated to 85° Fahr.
and the tissues immersed in it until they are thoroughly permeated.
They are then slightly wrung and dried sufficiently for ironing. The
quantity of the starch or dextrine or gelatine may be changed according
as the tissues are to be more or less stiff.

=For Painted Decorations and Wood.=

    Sal-ammoniac                              15 parts.
    Boracic Acid                               5 parts.
    Glue                                      50 parts.
    Gelatine                               1-1/2 parts.
    Water                                    100 parts.

Add sufficient powdered talc to give the mass the necessary
consistency. For use it is heated to 120° or 140° Fahr. and applied
with a brush. For decorations already painted it suffices to apply it
to the back and wooden frames.

=For Coarse Linen, Ropes, Straw, and Wood.=

    Sal-ammoniac                              15 parts.
    Boracic Acid                               6 parts.
    Borax                                      3 parts.
    Water                                    100 parts.

The fluid is heated to 220° Fahr. and the articles are submerged in it
for 15 to 20 minutes, wrung out slightly, and dried.--_Techno-Chemical
Receipt Book._

                         Gold and Silver Inks.

Take equal parts of gold leaf (or silver leaf) and honey. Triturate
them in a mortar until perfectly fine, add about 30 parts hot water,
and triturate. Allow to settle and pour off the water. Triturate again
with fresh hot water. Allow to settle and pour off as before. Repeat
the washing several times until the honey is all washed out, then dry
the powdered gold leaf and mix it with water and gum arabic. It must
be shaken occasionally while writing. Very fine bronze may be made
into ink by adding water and gum arabic and shaking occasionally while
writing. (For other inks see page 20.)

                         Worcestershire Sauce.

The composition of this sauce is a trade secret, but a variety of
similar sauces are found on the market. A good imitation may be made as

Chop the green outer covering of unripe walnuts 5 pounds, bruise them
to a pulp in a mortar, pour upon them 6 pints of good strong vinegar,
and after standing a day heat to boiling and strain with strong
pressure. To the liquid thus obtained add garlic, grated to a pulp,
2 ounces; capsicum, in fine powder, 2 ounces; black pepper, 1 ounce;
cinnamon, 1-1/2 ounces; nutmeg, 1/2 ounce; allspice, 1 ounce; cloves,
1/2 ounce, all in fine powder; salt, 12 ounces; brown sugar, 8 ounces,
and enough good vinegar to make 1 gallon of the finished product. This
is to stand for some time, with frequent agitation, and then be put up
in bottles.

                             Butter Color.

Annatto, fresh and of good quality, 2 pounds; salad oil of good quality
without flavor (purified cotton-seed oil is best), sufficient to make
1 gallon. Rub the annatto with a portion, about one-third, of the oil
and macerate it by the heat of a water-bath for 12 hours, stirring
occasionally, pour off the liquid and add to the residue another
portion, about one-third of the oil, and macerate as before, adding
the product of the portion before reserved, then add the remainder of
the oil to the sediment, macerate as before and add the product to
the reserved portions to make 1 gallon of butter color.--_Fenner’s

                   Rarey’s Original Horse Liniment.

    Alcohol (95°)                              8 ounces.
    Spirit of Turpentine                       8 ounces.
    Oil of Sassafras                           1 ounce.
    Oil of Pennyroyal                          1 ounce.
    Oil of Origanum                            1 ounce.
    British Oil                                1 ounce.
    Tincture of Arnica                         1 ounce.
    Tincture of Cantharides                    1 ounce.
    Tincture of Camphor                        1 ounce.
    Aqua Ammoniæ                               1 ounce.

Mix them, and make a liniment.

                           Hog Cholera Cure.

Powdered mandrake, 4 pounds; powdered charcoal, 2 pounds; powdered
resin, 1 pound; powdered saltpetre, 1 pound; powdered madder, 1 pound;
powdered bicarbonate of soda, 11 pounds. Mix thoroughly. Give a
tablespoonful daily in feed; as a preventive, give twice a week.

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Typographic corrections:

  impotance --> impotence
  corrossve --> corrosive
  ounoe --> ounce
  herd --> herb
  remakable --> remarkable
  indellible --> indelible
  flower --> flour
  childen --> children
  tranfer --> transfer
  maxing --> making
  diciduous --> deciduous
  proscrastination --> procrastination
  cusiness --> business
  flowder --> flower
  thiir --> their
  examins --> examine
  Sprupi --> Syrupi x2
  or --> of
  natual --> natural
  Alluminum --> Aluminum
  Morhinæ --> Morphinæ
  Potasssii --> Potassii
  Potassi --> Potassii
  Patassii --> Potassii
  Postassii --> Potassii
  Brown-Sequard --> Brown-Séquard
  geletine --> gelatine
  competion --> competition
  Leibreich --> Liebreich
  destilatæ --> destillatæ
  ‘ n’ --> ‘in’
  ‘ nch’ --> ‘inch’
  ‘ earned’ --> ‘learned’
  ‘ t’ --> ‘it’
  ‘ orm’ --> ‘form’
  ‘nam ’ --> ‘name’
  14 --> 41
  36 --> 35
  20 --> 10

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