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Title: History of the Jews, Vol. VI (of 6) - Containing a Memoir of the Author by Dr. Philip Bloch, a Chronological Table of Jewish History, an Index to the Whole Work
Author: Graetz, Heinrich
Language: English
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HISTORY OF THE JEWS

by

HEINRICH GRAETZ

VOL. VI

CONTAINING A MEMOIR OF THE AUTHOR BY DR. PHILIP BLOCH
A CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF JEWISH HISTORY
AN INDEX TO THE WHOLE WORK

[Illustration]



Philadelphia
The Jewish Publication Society of America
5717-1956

Copyright, 1898, by
The Jewish Publication Society of America

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be
reproduced in any form without permission in
writing from the publisher: except by a reviewer
who may quote brief passages in a review to be
printed in a magazine or newspaper.

Printed in the United States of America



PREFACE TO THE INDEX VOLUME.


With the Index Volume, the _Jewish Publication Society of America_
brings to a close the American edition of the “History of the Jews”
by Professor H. Graetz. A glance at the title-page and the table of
contents will show, that the celebrated historian cannot be held
directly responsible for anything this volume contains. The History
proper, as abridged under the direction of the author and translated
into English from the eleven volume German edition, is complete in five
volumes. In compiling this additional volume, the Publication Committee
was prompted by the desire to render the work readily available for
pedagogical purposes. To be of value to the general reader as well as
to the scholar, a work containing upwards of three thousand pages needs
to be equipped with indexes, tables, and helps of various kinds.

The importance of indexes can hardly be over-estimated. The English
jurist and writer who considered them so essential that he “proposed to
bring a Bill into Parliament to deprive an author who publishes a book
without an Index of the privilege of copyright” was not too emphatic.
In books of facts, such as histories, indexes are indispensable.
This has been fully recognized in the Society’s edition of Graetz’s
“History of the Jews.” Each of the five volumes, as it appeared, was
furnished with an adequate index. Yet there are two reasons justifying
and even requiring the compilation of a general index to the whole
work. The first is the reader’s convenience. All who use books to
any extent know the annoyance of taking volume after volume from the
shelf to find the desired information only in the last. In fact, the
separate indexes were compiled only because circumstances compelled the
publication of the single volumes at rather long intervals. The other
consideration is that Professor Graetz is the historiographer _par
excellence_ of the Jews. His work, at present the authority upon the
subject of Jewish history, bids fair to hold its pre-eminent position
for some time, perhaps decades. A comprehensive index to his work is,
therefore, at the same time an index to the facts of Jewish history
approximately as accepted by contemporary scholars--a sufficient reason
for its existence.

To make it a worthy guide to Jewish history in general, the index
necessarily had to be more than a mere compilation of the five separate
indexes. In the matter of the names of persons and places, accordingly,
the general index excels the others in the fullness and completeness
of the references. But its chief title to superiority over them lies
in its character as an Index of Subjects, illustrated by such captions
as _Blood Accusation_; _Conversions, forced_; _Coins_; _Emancipation
of the Jews_; _Bulls, Papal_; _Apostasy_ and _Apostates_; _Messiah_
and _Messianic_; _Bible_ under the headings _Law_, _Old Testament_,
_Pentateuch_, _Scriptures_, _Septuagint_, _Translations_, and
_Vulgate_; _Education_ under the headings, _Colleges_, _Rabbinical_
and _Talmudical_, _Law_, _Schools_, _Talmud_, and _Talmud Torah_.
These summaries will be suggestive, it is hoped, to the teacher of
Jewish history and to the student with sufficient devotion to the
subject to pursue it topically and pragmatically as well as in its
chronologic sequence. As an illustration of what use may be made of it,
the compiler has prefixed to the index a guide to the study of Jewish
history by means of the biographies of its great men, an apostolical
succession, as it were. Under the class-names there given, the names of
all persons of each class will be found grouped in the index. Again, if
it is desirable to trace out a topic, as, for instance, the development
of Hebrew grammar, or the cultivation of medicine among Jews, etc.,
the index is helpful by means of its lists of names of grammarians,
physicians, astronomers, historians, poets, etc., under these and
similar heads.

To facilitate its use, the student is urged to read the directions
preceding the index. Great difficulties attach to the systematic
arrangement of the names of persons connected with ancient and mediæval
history of all kinds. In Jewish history, even down to recent times,
these difficulties are largely increased by the comparatively late
introduction among Jews of family names in the accepted modern sense,
and by their introduction among Spanish Jews earlier than among the
others. The scheme adopted by Zedner, in his British Museum catalogue,
has been followed as far as the peculiarities of our author and his
subject, and its presentation in a modern language, permitted it. The
arrangement is not ideal, but every effort has been made to minimize
the difficulties.

In this preface, precedence has been given to the index, because, in
spite of the consensus of opinions among connoisseurs, the importance
of indexes and their usefulness are in some quarters still held to
stand in need of vindication. In the book, however, the first place
is occupied by a contribution whose value will be disputed by none,
namely, the Memoir of the author, the greatest historian of the Jews.
The Committee believes, not only that the public has a taste for
biographical studies, but that in this instance it will be pleased
with the choice of biographer, Dr. Philipp Bloch, rabbi of Posen,
a disciple of Graetz and for more than a quarter of a century his
intimate friend. Although not quite seven years have elapsed since
Graetz passed away, and many that were closely associated with him
are still among the living, it was not easy to find the man qualified
for the task of writing his biography. Graetz was not inclined to be
communicative about his early life or his emotional experiences. He had
met with disappointments that emphasized the reticence of his nature.
The venerable wife of the deceased historian was kind enough to put
all her husband’s literary remains at the disposal of the biographer,
who herewith acknowledges his deep obligation to her for the help
thus afforded his work. The greater part of material of this kind,
especially in the form of letters, Graetz burnt before his last change
of residence. But his interesting diary was spared. It was kept with
more or less regularity from 1832 to 1854, though for the latter part
of this period it is hardly more than a bald summary of events, and
the disappearance of loose leaves curtails the information that might
have been gathered from it. The biographer’s thanks are due also to the
Board of Curators of the Fränkel Bequests for kindly putting at his
service the documents in their archives bearing on Graetz’s connection
with the Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary, thus enabling him to
verify facts long in his possession. Dr. Bloch furthermore availed
himself of Dr. B. Rippner’s interesting brochure, “Zum siebzigsten
Geburtstage des Professors Dr. Heinrich Graetz,” and of Professor
Dr. David Kaufmann’s eloquent eulogy of his teacher, “H. Graetz, der
Historiograph des Judenthums.” The Committee believes, that in securing
the co-operation of Dr. Bloch it has been the instrument of eliciting
an important original contribution to Jewish biographical literature.

The Chronological Table is another feature of the volume to which
attention must be called. In the eighth volume of the German edition of
the “History,” Professor Graetz introduced a similar table, reciting
the succession of events from the Maccabæan struggle to the Expulsion
of the Jews from Spain and Portugal. The present analysis includes the
whole of Jewish history up to the year 1873 of this era. It assumes to
be nothing more than a summary of the “History of the Jews” by Graetz.
As no attempt has been made to indicate whether his conclusions are
endorsed by the scholars of our day, it becomes a duty to refer to the
vexed question of Biblical chronology. Since the time of Archbishop
Ussher (1580-1656)--not to mention the Talmudic _Seder Olam Rabba_--it
has been the subject of dispute, which is complicated by the various
eras, the Seleucidæan, the Roman, and the Era of the World, in use
among the Jews at different times. Even now the most diversified
opinions are held by scholars, and no system has met with general
acceptance. Graetz discusses the matter exhaustively in Note 19 of Vol.
I of the German original of his “History.” His researches led him to
oppose the results of the historians Niebuhr, Ewald, and Movers, and
of the Assyriologists Brandes, Smith, and Schrader. He inclines to the
views of Oppert, who applied the information derived from the Assyrian
inscriptions to the vindication of the Biblical chronology nearly
as determined by Ussher. Since Graetz wrote his note (1873), almost
amounting to a treatise, evidence for the one or the other opinion has
been strengthened or invalidated by the more minute and extended study
of the monuments, inscriptions, and other records of Egypt, Babylonia,
and Assyria. The reader interested in the subject is referred to the
works of such scholars as Duncker, Oppert, Kamphausen, and Eduard Meyer.

Finally, it is hoped, that the four maps accompanying the Index Volume
will meet with favor and frequent use. They have been inserted in
a pocket and not bound with the book, so that they may be removed
readily for reference in connection with any volume the student may
be reading. The two maps of Palestine and that of the Semitic World
are reproduced, with modifications, from Professor George Adam Smith’s
forthcoming Bible Atlas. The one of the Jewish-Mahometan World was made
for the Society by Mr. J. G. Bartholomew of the Edinburgh Geographical
Institute, the cartographer who drew the other three maps. The maps of
the Jewish-Mahometan World and the Semitic World are general reference
maps; the two of Palestine represent the political divisions of the
land, the one at the time of the Judges, the other at the time of Herod
the Great.

The Committee expresses the hope that this sixth volume, an epitome of
Jewish history, may “manifest its treasures,” “facilitate the knowledge
of those who seek it, and invite them to make application thereof.”

_March, 1898._



CONTENTS.


  MEMOIR OF HEINRICH GRAETZ                                  1


  TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY.

    Chronological Table                                     89

    Table of the Kings of Judah and Israel                 127

    Table of the High Priests (from the Captivity to
        the Dispersion)                                    128

    Genealogical Table of the Hasmonæan Dynasty            130

    Genealogical Table of the Herodian Dynasty             134


  INDEX.

    Index to the whole work                                139



HISTORY OF THE JEWS.



MEMOIR OF HEINRICH GRAETZ.


I.

YOUTH.

The disruption and final partition of the Polish kingdom by its three
neighboring states occurred in 1795. With its dissolution a new era
began in the history of the numerous Jewish communities in that part
of the Polish territory which passed under Prussian and Austrian
sovereignty. The event that thus ushered them into the world of
Western civilization may justly be considered as marking for them the
transition from the middle ages to modern times. Prussia allowed no
interval to elapse between the act of taking possession of her newly
acquired domain and its organization. It was incorporated into the
state as the provinces of South Prussia and New East Prussia. But after
1815 the Prussian crown remained in possession only of the Grand Duchy,
or the Province, of Posen, the district that had constituted the kernel
of Great Poland. This piece of land was of extreme importance to the
Jews, being the home of the most numerous, the oldest, and the most
respectable congregations. It was situated at only a short distance
from the Prussian capital, to which it appeared to have been brought
still nearer by the organic connection established with the older parts
of the state. It was natural to expect that, in consequence of the
political union, the economic relations with Berlin, always close,
would become more intimate and more numerous, and would develop new
business advantages. On the other hand, the capital was viewed with
distrust as the home of the movement radiating from Mendelssohn and his
school, which aimed at something beyond the one-sided Talmud study then
prevalent, and strove to bring modern methods of education and modern
science within reach of the younger generation.

The rigorous system of organization by which the Polish districts were
placed upon a Prussian basis induced so radical a transformation of
all the relations of life that the Jews experienced great difficulty
in adjusting themselves to the new order of things. Opposition to the
state authorities and the economic conditions was futile; there was
nothing for it but to try to adapt oneself without ado. By way of
compensation, the efforts to keep religious practices and traditional
customs pure, untouched by alien and suspicious influences, in the
grooves worn by ancient habit, were all the more strenuous. Talmudic
literature was to continue to be the center and aim of all study and
science, and religious forms, or habits regarded as religious forms,
were not to lose an iota of their rigidity and predominance. The urgent
charge of the Prussian government to provide properly equipped schools
to instruct and educate the young in a manner in keeping with the
spirit of the times was evaded, now by subterfuges, now by promises.
But in the long run the influences of the age could not fail to make
themselves felt. Sparks from the hearth of the emancipation movement
were carried into the Province, and burst into flame in one of the
great congregations, that of the city of Posen, particularly proud and
jealous of the Talmudic renown and the hoary piety of its Ghetto.

The position of rabbi in Posen had become vacant, and in 1802 it
was proposed to fill it with Samuel ben Moses Pinchas from distant
Tarnopol, the brother of the deceased rabbi. He was the author of
בית שמואל אחרון {Hebrew: Beyt Shmuel Acharon}, and an arch-Talmudist of
the old stamp. Under the shelter of assumed names, a number of the
younger men ventured to send the government a protest against the choice
of an “uncouth _Polack_.” It was alleged that the mass of the people
favored him on account of

    “the Kabbalistic fable which constructs a genealogy for this
    Podolian that makes it appear that he belongs to the stock from
    which the Jewish Messiah is to spring, etc.”

The government took the petition into consideration, and so informed
the signers. On account of the fictitious names the answer went astray.
Instead of reaching the petitioners, it fell into the hands of the
directors of the congregation and into those of the deputy rabbis, the
_B’ne Yeshiba_.

    “They immediately assembled all so-called scholars and Talmud
    disciples after the manner of the ancient Synhedrin, and invited
    the parents, parents-in-law, and relatives of all persons suspected
    of harboring heterodox ideas. Then they summoned each of us singly,
    put him into the center of a terrifying circle of rough students,
    and upbraided him in the following words, accompanied by the most
    awful curses: ‘Thou devilish soul that hast vowed thyself unto
    Satan! Thy appearance gives evidence of thy antipathy to our
    statutes; thy shaved beard, thy apparel (thy Jewish garb is only
    a sham), everything proves thee, thou impious one, a betrayer of
    Jewish mysteries to Christians. Thou readest German books. Instead
    of holy Talmud folios, thou keepest maps, journals, and other
    heathenish writings concealed in thy attic. Therefore, confess thy
    sin, that thou art one of the authors of the accursed memorial!
    Do penance as we shall direct. Deliver up to us thy unclean books
    immediately. Subscribe without delay to this sacred election of our
    rabbi; else, etc., etc.’”[1]

The hotly contested election of the rigidly Talmudic yet none the less
gentle rabbi was carried, but no effort availed to check the spread
of the new spirit. Steadily though slowly modern views gained the
upper hand, and in 1816 a Jewish private school of somewhat advanced
standing was successfully established in Posen. Now and again men of
independent fortune mustered up courage to send their children to the
_Gymnasium_ or to the higher Christian schools, of which, to be sure,
not a large number existed at the time. In 1824 the state interfered,
and ordered the establishment of German elementary schools in all the
Jewish communities of the Province giving evidence of vitality. The
situation now assumed a peculiar aspect. General culture, acquaintance
with the classic literature of Germany, France, and England, came to be
esteemed an accomplishment and a personal charm; yet beyond the three
R’s the rising generation was not given the opportunity of acquiring a
general education. On the contrary, the desire was to limit study to
that of rabbinic and Hebrew writings. In the larger communities, like
Posen and Lissa, the centers of Talmud study, a conscious effort was
made to frighten off young people, especially Talmud disciples, from
the acquisition of secular culture. It should be mentioned, however,
that in many of the smaller communities the longing for education
was encouraged as much as possible. So it came about that the highly
endowed, ambitious spirits of that generation in the Province had
to struggle most bitterly and painfully to make headway. But their
hardships were counterbalanced by the advantages they derived from the
conflict. Their intellectual energy and self-reliance came forth from
the contest steeled. Impregnated as almost all of them were with the
spirit of the Talmud, they had pierced to its essence, and, filled with
enthusiasm for the rabbinical heroes, they had breathed in devotion to
the ideals of Judaism.

This was the soil upon which Heinrich Graetz grew up, and such were the
conditions and agencies moulding the development of a man destined to
create an historical work, at once monumental and popular; embracing
thousands of years, the most widely separated regions, and the most
diversified fields of human activity; retracing with all the resources
of learning and ingenuity the magic, faded, illegible characters of the
evolution of Judaism, and illuminating them with colors of fairy-like
brilliance;--an historical work, which, by reason of the warmth of its
narrative style, has come to be a book of edification, in the best
sense of the word, unto the author’s brethren-in-faith.

Heinrich Hirsch Graetz was born October 31 (Cheshwan 21), 1817, in
Xions (pronounced Kshons), a wretched little village of 775 inhabitants
in the eastern part of the Province of Posen. In a family of two
brothers and one sister he was the first-born. His father, Jacob
Graetz, was a man of tall stature, who, dying in 1876, reached an age
of over ninety years. His mother, Vogel, of the family of Hirsch of
Wollstein, was of average height and robust physique, with lustrous
gray eyes. She died in 1848 only fifty odd years old. To her the son
showed most resemblance, both spiritually and physically. A little
butcher-shop yielded them an honest but paltry livelihood. In the
hope of improving their material condition, the family removed to
Zerkow, a few miles off, some years after Heinrich’s birth. At the
time the village contained not more than 800 inhabitants, among them a
single person able to read, a real estate owner, to whom all letters
were carried to be deciphered on the open street in solemn public
assembly.[2] But the Jewish congregation consisted of one hundred
members, and a remarkable increase in the population of the little town
seemed to give fair promise of a prosperous future. It is worthy of
mention, besides, that the scenery of Zerkow, wreathed round with hill
and stream, forest and meadow, is not so flat and unattractive as that
of most parts of the Province.

Here the boy received his first impressions, and here he enjoyed his
first instruction in a school distinguishable from a genuine _Cheder_
only inasmuch as it began in a measure to accommodate itself to the
modest demands made by the government upon a Jewish primary school.
He was taught reading, writing, ciphering, and the translation of the
Bible. Great love of study and marked talent became apparent in him;
he was therefore introduced to a knowledge of Hebrew and the Talmud.
When he was confirmed at thirteen, the age at which the boys of that
period were in the habit of deciding definitely on their careers, his
parents did not for a moment question the propriety of continuing
their son’s intellectual training. It would have been most natural to
send him to Posen, where a popular Talmud school was flourishing under
the direction of the highly esteemed Chief Rabbi Akiba Eger. But his
parents’ means were too slender to suffice for his maintenance, and
shyness and pride prevented young Graetz from making his way after the
fashion of beggar students. There was but one course, to send him to
Wollstein, where his mother had sisters and other relatives. Though
by no means possessed of great wealth, they were willing to give him
assistance. The Wollstein sojourn proved eminently favorable to his
development. The town, situated in the western part of the Province,
was not destitute of natural charms, to which the boy’s impressionable
mind eagerly responded. The population, chiefly German, numbered
2258 persons, among them 841 Jews,[3] by no means an inconsiderable
congregation. Besides, it was in fairly comfortable circumstances. It
had always taken pride in maintaining a Talmud school, which, at the
time of Graetz’s advent, was distinguished for the liberal, enlightened
spirit pervading it and the active encouragement accorded its students
in their desire for culture. Rumor had it that the rabbi, Samuel Samwel
Munk, who had been called from Bojanowo to Wollstein at the beginning
of the century, knew how to read and write German, and was in the
habit of reading German books and even journals in the hours that are
“neither day nor night.” At all events, he did not put obstacles in
their way, when his disciples, spurring each other on in the impetuous
rivalry of youth for pre-eminence, sought to slake their thirst for
secular knowledge.

Graetz arrived in Wollstein at the end of the summer of 1831, fourteen
years old. At that youthful age, the _Bachur_ had ventured to
undertake, in a Hebrew far from perfect, it must be confessed, a work
on the calendar entitled, “חשבון העתים {Hebrew: Cheshbon Ha’itim},
Jewish and German Chronology.”[4] He was a zealous attendant upon the
rabbi’s Talmudic lectures, and derived great profit from them. His
teacher conceived a lively and kind interest in him, as well as a high
opinion of his ability, though he did not suspect his future eminence.
Rabbinic studies did not occupy his mind to the exclusion of other
pursuits. Inextinguishable thirst for knowledge had taken possession of
him, and all books that fell in his way were read with avidity. Most of
the available literature consisted of romances of chivalry, of the kind
in vogue at that time. Among them “Raspo of Felseneck,” now completely
forgotten, made a particularly deep impression upon him. Reproved by
one of his patrons, and provided with more suitable books by him, he
read with keen enjoyment Campe’s narrative and moral writings. At the
same time historical books began to attract him strongly. Though he had
to confess to himself, somewhat crestfallen, that he did not understand
the greater part of what he read in them, he studied Bredow’s short
compendium of universal history, Becker’s large work on the same
subject, and a biography of Napoleon. He soon realized the necessity
of acquiring Latin and French. Without teacher, without guidance,
without counsel other than that afforded by like-minded companions, he
devoted himself to Meidinger’s French grammar and later to Bröder’s
Latin grammar, until he had gotten all between their covers by heart.
He was overjoyed when he could begin to read the classic writers of
foreign countries in their own languages. In his zeal, he permitted
himself to be governed by chance. Whatever fortune played into his
hands, he grasped at with instantaneous ardor, and pursued with
sporadic industry. He picks up a translation of Euclid, for instance.
At once he devotes himself to it heart and soul, difficult though he
finds it to gain a clear notion of geometric concepts and methods.
An itinerant rabbi from Poland, offering his own commentary upon the
Book of Job for sale, comes to Wollstein, and meets with appreciation
and respect. Reason enough for the enthusiastic and ambitious Talmud
disciple to take interest in nothing but Bible exegesis and Hebrew
grammar for months thereafter. Keen, discriminating love of nature,
to whose attractions he remained susceptible until his last days,
develops in him. He spares no effort to acquaint himself with the flora
of his native province and with the mysteries of the starry heavens.
Success was a foregone conclusion with one whose equipment consisted
of miraculously quick comprehension, a retentive memory, and industry
oblivious of all but its object; coupled with an iron constitution and
indestructible working powers, not in the least impaired by lack of
food and sleep.

Despite his modest demands, he constantly had to battle against want
and distress. His nature was proud, self-reliant, and, it must be
admitted, unpractical. An exaggerated sense of honor forbade his
seeking help even when a petition would have been justified. He
preferred to conceal his troubles. For example, he ate dry bread
on many a Sabbath, a day on which it was considered a privilege to
entertain Talmud disciples. Regardless of wind and weather, he would
slip off into the country, a book in his pocket, in order not to reveal
his helpless condition. Finally, in spite of his secretiveness, some
friend or other discovered his plight, and found ways and means of
relieving his distress. Of sanguine temperament, he sought and found
consolation in books. Graetz managed to read and study an amazing
quantity in the four years and a half of his Wollstein sojourn. His
most determined efforts were applied to the acquisition of the French
language and literature, his favorite studies, at that time ranking
high in the scale of accomplishments. The more important works of
Fénelon, Voltaire, Rousseau, and others, and the dramas of Racine and
Victor Hugo he knew thoroughly. He had read Lessing, Mendelssohn,
Schiller, and other classic writers of Germany, and was attracted
particularly to Wieland, to whose works he devoted earnest attention.
It is curious that the diary which he then kept does not contain a
single reference to Goethe, as if by chance or for some reason he had
remained in ignorance of the great poet’s works. On the other hand,
he became acquainted towards the end of the Wollstein period with the
writings of Börne, Heine, and Saphir, which vivified the proneness
to irony and satire dormant in him. The Latin authors gave him most
trouble. Yet he mastered Cornelius Nepos, Curtius, and several books
of Ovid’s Metamorphoses and of Virgil’s Æneid. That he accomplished
extensive reading of rabbinic literature at the same time, and did
not neglect his Talmudic studies, is attested by the distinction with
which Rabbi Munk honored Graetz, much to his surprise. At New Year
5595 (October, 1834), he was invested with the title _Chaber_, a
degree conferred only upon most worthy and most rarely endowed Talmud
disciples of his youthful age.

But now fermentation set in, and white flakes began to rise to the
surface of the young wine. Wholly self-taught, he had devoted himself
to reading without plan or method, following blind chance or humoring
his whims. In this way he had laid up a store of knowledge, promiscuous
as well as rich. A chaotic mixture of irreconcilable, disparate ideas
and opinions surged through his head, and excited tumultuous commotion
in his world of thought and feeling. In November, 1835, the following
entry was written in his diary:

    “By the various contradictory ideas that perplexed my
    brain--heathen, Jewish, and Christian, Epicurean, Kabbalistic,
    Maimonidian, and Platonic--my faith was made so insecure that, when
    a notion concerning God, eternity, time, or the like, assailed me,
    I wished myself into the abyss of the nether world.”

Although his humor and his opinions were somewhat unsettled, he by
no means had drifted from his moorings. The existence of God and the
immortality of the soul were the fixed poles of his emotional world to
which he clung. Another entry a little further on in his diary says:

    “Like furies such thoughts tugged at my heart-strings, when, as
    often happened, they arose, suggested by my poverty as well as by
    certain classes of books. Only the clear, star-studded sky, upon
    which my eyes were wont to rest with delight on Saturday evenings
    after sundown, renewed the blessed comforting consciousness in me:
    Yes, there is a God beyond the starry canopy!”

On the other hand, he began to chafe against the daily religious
practices of Judaism, which he had always observed with scrupulous
conscientiousness, as he had been taught to do. Even then he did not
neglect them, but he was offended by the multiplicity of ceremonies and
still more by the petty, poor-spirited, unæsthetic manner in which the
people among whom he lived observed them. They no longer were religious
observances; they were habits. Attributing the responsibility for these
conditions to the Talmud, he bore it ill-will. His repugnance grew
whenever he contrasted its style and method with those of the great
works of literature with which he had recently become conversant.
Comparisons of this kind did not serve to enhance the credit of the
rabbinic collection with him. There was another cause for irritation.
Up to that time he had lived, or rather studied, heedless of practical
concerns. Now his parents and relatives were probably beginning to
urge upon him the necessity of considering the choice of a vocation
or of turning to professional studies. So just a demand he could not
disregard, especially in the sensitive state of mind in which he then
found himself. Often he brooded over the question, “What next?” and
elaborated the most bizarre plans only to reject them. A seemingly
slight incident occurred which quelled the commotion in his breast. His
craft, helplessly driving among perilous crags, was guided into smooth
waters by a little book appearing just then under the title, “אגרת צפון
{Hebrew: Igeret Tzafon}, Nineteen Letters on Judaism, published by Ben
Usiel.”[5]

The partisans of the reform movement, who proposed to remodel or set
aside religious customs and traditional observances of historical
Judaism as incompatible with modern life, had up to that time
maintained the upper hand in the literary discussion of religious
affairs. They were exerting constantly increasing attraction upon
the younger generation, and were growing bolder and more impetuous
in their propaganda for the obliteration, as far as possible, of
religious peculiarities. Bent upon the preservation of old faith and
custom unimpaired, their opponents had at first refused to make any
concession whatsoever to the modern demands, and had even failed to
provide themselves with new weapons of defense. When the movement
assumed threatening dimensions, the conservatives faced it unprepared
and impotent. Bewildered strangers in the great world, habituated
to the social forms of the Ghetto, enmeshed in the web of Talmudic
ideas, they were wholly unable to put up an efficient leader or
regenerator. Suddenly that which had long been painfully lacking seemed
to incorporate itself in a young theologian. In the above-mentioned
anonymous work, “Nineteen Letters,” Samson Raphael Hirsch, rabbi at
Oldenburg, championed the undiminished value of all religious usages
with skill, eloquence, and intrepidity. His manner held out the hope
that he would breathe a new spirit into the old forms. The boldness
of the work in frankly presenting this point of view with all the
consequences springing therefrom produced the effect of a sensational
occurrence upon the Jewish public. Into the mind of Graetz, casting
about for an anchor for his disturbed feelings, it fell like a flash
of lightning, revealing the path to be followed in the search for his
ideals. He reports:

    “Often I spoke of it [religious doubt] to B. B., the only one to
    whom I could tell my thoughts on such subjects. Then he would
    allege the urgent necessity for reforms in view of the gradual
    decay of religion. But I realized, that reform, that is, the
    omission of a number of laws organically interwoven with the rest,
    would abrogate the whole Law. How delighted I therefore was with
    a new book, ‘אגרת צפון {Hebrew: Igeret Tzafon}, Nineteen Letters
    on Judaism, _anonymous_,’ in which a view of Judaism I had never
    before heard or suspected was defended with convincing arguments.
    Judaism was represented as the best religion and as indispensable
    to the salvation of mankind. With avidity I devoured every word.
    Disloyal though I had been to the Talmud, this book reconciled me
    with it. I returned to it as to a mistress deemed faithless and
    proved true, and determined to use my utmost effort to pierce to
    its depths, acquire a philosophical knowledge thereof, and, as many
    would have me believe that I might become a so-called ‘rabbi-doctor
    of theology’ (_studirter Rabbiner_), publicly demonstrate its truth
    and utility. I set about my task at once, beginning with the first
    folio ברכות {Hebrew: Berachot} and the first Book of Moses. I dwelt
    upon every point with pleasure, treating them not as remnants of
    antiquity, but as books containing divine help for mankind. My
    endeavor was materially advanced by the knowledge I had acquired
    here, among other things of theology, which only now I learned to
    esteem as a branch of science; of geometry--I had studied nearly
    the whole of the first three books of Euclid; and of history.”

After that he could not content himself with life in Wollstein; the
place had nothing more to offer him. The resolution to quit the town,
which had grown into his heart as his second home, was facilitated by
the removal of an uncle, depriving him of his strongest support; by
the usual disappointment and revulsion of feeling following the usual
extravagance of a youthful, fantastic love-affair; and by conflicts
with companions and patrons, caused to some extent doubtless by the
disharmonious state of his mind and aggravated by tittle-tattle. But
whither was he to turn to satisfy the yearnings of his soul? He decided
on Prague, the Mecca of the young Jewish theologians of the day, “a
city most famous for learning, hospitality, and other virtues.”


II.

THE APPRENTICE.

Graetz left Wollstein in April, 1836, and went to Zerkow to acquaint
his parents with his intentions and consult with them. Letters of
recommendation to families in Prague were obtained, and his parents
and other relatives made up a small purse for him. Graetz secured a
passport, packed his modest belongings in a handbag, and set out on his
journey in high spirits. Partly afoot, partly by stage when the fare
was not forbidding, he made his way to Breslau, and thence through
the Silesian mountains to the Austrian boundary, which he reached not
far from Reinerz. Here, though he was fortified with a passport, the
frontier inspector, like a cherub with a flaming sword, opposed his
entrance into Austria. He was unable to produce ten florins ($5) cash,
the possession of which had to be demonstrated by the traveler who
would gain admission to the land of the double eagle, unless he came
as a passenger in the mail-coach. Dismayed our young wanderer resorted
to parleying, and appealed to his letters of recommendation. In vain;
the official would hear of no compromise. Too proud and inflexible to
have recourse to entreaty or trickery, Graetz grimly faced about, and
much disheartened journeyed as he had come, over the same road, back
to Zerkow. His parents were not a little astonished at his return, and
equally rejoiced to have their son with them for some time longer. The
adventure may be taken as typical of the curious mishaps that befell
him in practical life, particularly at the beginning of his career.
They often cut him to the quick, but never shook his belief in his
lucky star. His originative and impressionable nature carried with it
the power of discerning important points of view and valid aims, but he
seems to have been too far-sighted and impetuous to lay due stress upon
the means and levers necessary for the attainment of ends.

For the moment he sought to drown remembrance of his abortive journey
in study. He became absorbed in Latin works; he read Livy, Cicero’s _de
natura deorum_, which compelled his reverential admiration, Virgil’s
Æneid, and the comedies of Terence. Besides, he busied himself with
Schrökh’s universal history and with his Wieland, whose “Sympathies,”
“Golden Mirror,” and other works “delighted, refreshed, and fascinated”
him “inexpressibly.” The Talmud and Hebrew studies claimed no less
attention; he was especially zealous about the exegesis of the Earlier
Prophets. Downcast by reason of the uncertainty of his future, and his
scorn piqued by the pettiness and narrow-mindedness of his provincial
surroundings, he found an outlet for his restlessness in all sorts of
wanton pranks, such as high-spirited youths are apt to perpetrate in
their “storm and stress” period. He ridiculed the rabbi, played tricks
on the directors of the congregation, annoyed the burgomaster, always
escaping unpunished, and even horrified his parents by accesses of
latitudinarianism, such as the following. On the day before the eve
of the Atonement Day, it is a well-known custom for men to swing a
living rooster and for women to swing a living hen several times about
their heads. At the same time a short prayer is recited, pleading
that the punishment due for the sins committed by the petitioner be
transferred to the devoted fowl. At the approach of the holy season,
Graetz announced that he would certainly not comply with the _Kapores_
custom, but his words were taken to be idle boastfulness. The fateful
evening came, and the seriocomic celebration was long delayed by the
non-appearance of the eldest son. The father’s wrath was kindled,
and he threatened to burn all books other than Hebrew found in the
possession of his heretic offspring. The mother set out to search
everywhere for her erring son. When she finally found him, he went home
with her in affectionate obedience, but nothing could induce him to
manipulate the rooster in the customary way. Unswung and uncursed the
bird had to be carried to the butcher, and only on the following day a
touching reconciliation was effected.

After the Fast, a bookdealer at Wollstein, a friend of his, who usually
kept him informed about new books on Jewish subjects, sent Graetz the
“Nineteen Letters by Ben Usiel,” which he had longed to possess. The
book again electrified him, and he conceived the idea of offering
himself as a disciple to its author, whose identity had meantime been
revealed. Samson Raphael Hirsch appeared to him to be the ideal of a
Jewish theologian of the time and of the confidence-inspiring teacher
for whom he had yearned, to obtain from him guidance and, if possible,
a solution of the manifold problems occupying his mind. Accordingly,
Graetz wrote to the District Rabbi (_Landesrabbiner_) of Oldenburg. He
did not conceal his views, but clearly and frankly laid bare the state
of his feelings and the course of his intellectual development. He was
successful. After a short time, Hirsch addressed the following letter
to him:

    “My dear young Friend:--With pleasure I am ready to fulfill, as far
    as in me lies, the wish expressed in your letter to me. You know
    the sentence of our sages, יותר משעגל רוצה לינק הפרה רוצה להניק
    {Hebrew: Yoter mishe’egel rotzeh linak, haparah rotzah l’hanik},[6]
    and if, as I should gladly infer from your letter, the views
    therein expressed are more than an evanescent mood; if it is your
    resolute determination to study _Torah_ for its own sake, you are
    most cordially welcome, and I shall expect to see you after
    פסח הבע''ל {Hebrew: Pesach haba aleynu l’tovah}.[7] But I have one
    request to make. In the ardor of your feelings, you have conceived
    an ideal picture of the author of the ‘Letters’ by far exceeding
    the real man in size. Reduce the picture by half, by three-fourths,
    indeed, and ask yourself whether you are still attracted by it. Do
    not expect to find an accomplished master, but a student occupied
    with research. If your heart still says _yes_, then come. I should
    like to be informed as soon as possible, whether I may expect
    you after _Pessach_, as I shall have to modify another relation
    accordingly. Be kind enough, too, if you have no objection, to
    let me know how you expect to support yourself here. I trust that
    you will neither take umbrage at this question nor misconstrue
    it. It was put only because I wanted to express my willingness to
    assist you as much as I can during your stay here, if it should
    be necessary. Therefore, I beg you to be as frank and unreserved
    in your answer as I ventured to be in my question. With kindest
    regards, etc.

    OLDENBURG, December 26, ’36.”

To this letter Graetz replied, that he did say “yes” from the bottom
of his heart; that it was his dearest ambition to devote himself to
genuine Judaism and its doctrines; that he especially desired to learn
the methods of Talmud study, particularly of the _Halakha_, pursued
by a man whom he admired profoundly; that as for his livelihood, the
satisfaction of the most elementary needs sufficed for him; and that
his parents would give him a small allowance.

In answer thereto, the formal invitation to come to Oldenburg was
extended by Hirsch on February I, 1837. He offered Graetz board and
lodging in his own house, with the understanding that his parents would
provide for other needs, and he expected his disciple after Passover
(in May). Wishing to visit relatives on the way and see the sights of
Berlin and Leipsic, Graetz set out as early as the beginning of April.
In Berlin the museum and the picture-gallery made a deep impression
upon him. That he was a remarkably sharp observer is shown in the
following accurate characterization of the preacher Solomon Plessner,
with whom he became acquainted in Berlin:

    “This famous man I also visited, and I found attractive features
    indicative of acuteness, but a neglected exterior and careless,
    ungrammatical speech, not guiltless of the Jewish sing-song
    (_mauscheln_). This surprises me, for his language in his sermons
    is pure and choice. He is between forty and fifty years old, wears
    a beard, and seems to be honestly and genuinely religious. But his
    manner is excited; he speaks with rapid utterance, all the while
    running to and fro and arranging his books absent-mindedly.”

In Leipsic he visited his countryman Fürst, concerning whom he reports:

    “A little man whose face was familiar to me from my childhood days
    came towards me. I handed him the letter given me by his mother.
    He said indifferently: I shall write in a few days. But when I
    told him the goal and purpose of my journey, and showed him the
    letters [from Hirsch], his attitude changed, and he talked with
    me in a very friendly way. Finally, when he recognized that I
    was not an ignoramus, he confided several matters to me, told me
    about his scientific adversaries, and boasted that he had taught
    Gesenius, that he had become reconciled with Ewald, that the
    greatest scholars corresponded with him, etc.... Our conversation
    grew more and more confidential, and finally we parted as friends.
    He invited me to visit him again, if I changed my mind and staid
    over פסח {Hebrew: Pesach}.... In case I did not remain, I had
    to promise that I would enter into correspondence with him....
    I was particularly pleased to find, that Fürst has no intention
    of accepting baptism, and that he means to promote the cause of
    Judaism.... To work for Judaism, he says, is the prime obligation
    of every Jew that devotes himself to study, by which he means
    strictly scientific, possibly also philologic study.”

In order not to fritter away all his time while traveling, Graetz
began to study Greek, and the Greek conjugations served to beguile
dreary hours, banishing remembrance of the mishaps that could not
fail to befall one with straitened means on so long a journey, and
counteracting the despondency which in consequence often seized upon
him. In a miserable village, in which he was forced to spend a whole
day on account of the Sabbath, he found a copy of the New Testament,
and read it for the first time. He describes the impression made upon
him by this first reading in the following words:

    “Despite the many absurdities and inconsistencies, the mildness
    of the character of Jesus attracted me; at the same time I was
    repelled, so that I was altogether confused.”

On May 8, finally, he arrived in Oldenburg, where a new world opened
before him.

In Samson Raphael Hirsch he met a man whose spiritual elevation and
noble character compelled his profound reverence, and who fully
realized all the expectations that he had harbored concerning him.
Hirsch was a man of modern culture, and his manner was distinguished,
even aristocratic, although he kept aloof from all social intercourse.
He was short of stature, yet those who came in contact with him were
strongly impressed by his external appearance, on account of his grave,
dignified demeanor, forbidding familiarity. With great intellectual
gifts and rare qualities of the heart, he combined varied theological
attainments and an excellent classical education. Comprehensive
or deep ideas cannot be said to have been at his disposal, but he
scintillated with original observations and suggestive sallies, which
put his new pupil into a fever of enthusiasm. He was the only teacher
from whom Graetz’s self-centered being received scientific stimulation;
perhaps the only man to exercise, so far as the stubborn peculiarity of
Graetz’s nature permitted it, permanent influence upon his reserved,
independent character.

On his arrival in Oldenburg, the new-comer was most kindly received by
Hirsch, and was at once installed in his house, of which thenceforth
he was an inmate. Instruction was begun on the very next day. The
forenoons were devoted to the Talmud, the late afternoons to the
Psalms. The disciple was singularly attracted and stimulated, fairly
elevated by the brilliant, penetrating method applied to the exegesis
of these works. Plan, order, and coherence were now imposed upon his
scientific acquirements. Hirsch took true fatherly interest in his
protegé; he exerted himself to discipline his mind and fix his moral
and religious standards. At the same time, as though even then a
suspicion of the unusual force and talent of this youth panting for
knowledge and instruction had dawned upon him, he guarded against
assuming the airs of a domineering pedagogue. Despite the difference
in age between them he treated him as an equal. He was endowed with
truly marvelous power to stir his disciple’s soul-life to its depths.
Every chord of Graetz’s being was set in vibration, and he solemnly
vowed to remain a true son and an honest adherent of Judaism under all
circumstances. Added years may have contributed to the result; but
at all events it is certain that Graetz developed visibly under this
master’s guidance.

The services required of him in the house of his teacher were mainly
those of an assistant. He accompanied the District Rabbi on his tours
of inspection, the tedium of their journeys being relieved with
discussions on Talmudic and Biblical subjects. He revised with Hirsch
the last part of the latter’s “Horeb,” helped him read the proof of
the last sheets of the book, which delighted and thrilled the young
man, and assisted him in various similar ways. How flattering an
opinion the punctilious rabbi must have held of his assistant is proved
by the fact, that when he had to go to a resort for the restoration
of his undermined health, he authorized him to render decisions on
questions of religious law (שאלות{Hebrew: Sh’eylot}) during his
absence. The assistant fulfilled his duties so conscientiously that the
responsibility oppressed him. He confessed that he had imagined the
rendering of correct decisions much easier. His enthusiasm burst into
flame when he received the following affectionate letter from Hirsch:

    “My dear Graetz:--I still owe you cordial thanks for your kind
    lines. I am delighted to hear that you are industrious, and that
    you keep to my time-schedule so well. Continue to study, for I,
    on my part, shall soon have forgotten how to study, and literally
    shall have to begin to learn all over again. Before my departure,
    I wanted to call your attention to something, and I do now what I
    then forgot. I have frequently seen you read the works of Bayle.
    They are a treasury of learning, and much information can be
    derived from them, but the man takes peculiar pleasure in laying
    stress upon דברי ערוה {Hebrew: Divrei ervah};[8] things of that
    kind are טמא {Hebrew: tamei} and מטמא {Hebrew: M’tamei}[9]. Pass
    lightly over such passages; they are unprofitable and harmful; read
    only what is purely scientific. Follow my advice, etc., etc.”

Such friendly and tactful admonitions, permitting the pupil to follow
out his own bent, were always employed by Hirsch, and they but served
to enkindle Graetz’s enthusiasm anew. In spite of the young man’s
critical propensities combined with a sanguine temperament, his devoted
attachment to his master by no means waned under the strain of daily
intimate intercourse, not even when he could no longer doubt his
ideal’s lack of historic depth and scientific, or rather philosophic
insight. Graetz’s nature strongly impelled him to form friendships,
and his attachments were fervent. He always felt a lively interest in
what went on about him, and even at that early time he was fond of
taking an active part in shaping the occurrences of the day, whenever
he thought, that by assuming the rôle of Providence he might be useful
to his friends in the ordering of their affairs--a disposition that
redounded later to the benefit of many of his pupils. In January,
1837, for instance, the belated news reached him from his home, with
which he kept up a steady correspondence, that the Chief Rabbi Akiba
Eger had died in Posen. Without being commissioned to do so, he wrote
to the directors of the Posen congregation, and brought Hirsch, whose
yearning for a wide sphere of activity he knew, to their notice. When
the directors entered into negotiations with Hirsch he broke out
into jubilation. In fact, a party favoring the pretensions of the
Oldenburg District Rabbi formed in Posen, but nothing more resulted.
The procedure was repeated when the Wollstein rabbinate fell vacant in
1840, except that Hirsch, to his disciple’s great disappointment, would
not share Graetz’s enthusiasm for Wollstein. From this it appears that
Graetz was not a recluse nor a bookworm. In Oldenburg, as everywhere,
he sought to meet people and cultivate friendly intercourse with them,
and his joyous nature readily yielded to the innocent gayety of social
pleasures.

At the same time he neglected neither his duties nor his studies. While
with Hirsch he acquired the English language, and finding some Syriac
books in the rabbi’s library, he began to devote himself to Syriac.
The study of the former language his master seems to have encouraged,
but not of the latter. Hirsch met his disciple with uniform kindness,
and returned his enthusiastic devotion with fatherly benevolence.
Graetz was treated as a member of his family. In the third year of
his Oldenburg sojourn, his relations with the mistress of the house
were disturbed by slight discords, such as cannot fail to arise in
long-continued, familiar intercourse, and tend now to strengthen, now
to abridge intimacy. With Graetz’s proud sense of independence they
finally sufficed to ruffle the tranquillity of a soul wholly absorbed
by the present. Anxiety about his future began to disquiet him. The
desire to decide definitely upon a career and the longing to see his
parents, who in the meantime had removed from Zerkow to Kosten near
Posen, a somewhat larger town, united to make his departure from
Oldenburg seem advisable.


III.

THE JOURNEYMAN.

The adieux were said with touching cordiality, and after an absence
of more than three years Graetz set his face homeward, and arrived in
Kosten in the middle of August, 1840. The younger people everywhere
received Hirsch’s disciple with joyous welcome, and induced him to
preach at Wollstein, Kosten, and Zerkow. His sermons, to be sure,
did not transport his audiences with enthusiasm, but they were ample
guarantees of the preacher’s fund of knowledge and originality. All
his friends, therefore, agreed, that it would be advisable for Graetz
to “study,” in the technical sense of the German word, that is, go
through the university and obtain a degree. They adduced the fact that
the smaller congregations at least, such as Wreschen, Wollstein, and
Kosten, in part had appointed “graduate rabbis” (_studirte Rabbiner_),
in part had resolved to fill their rabbinates with them.

To secure means for a university course, he agreed to accept a
position as tutor in Ostrowo, and entered upon his work at the end
of 1840. Ostrowo is a little town in the south-eastern part of the
Province, the seat of a large Jewish community, which at the time was
still completely under the sway of the graceless habits of Ghetto life.
Graetz felt thoroughly uncomfortable. His position in the house at
which he was engaged to teach did not please him, and in the town he
found no one with whom he cared to cultivate friendly intercourse. He
had submitted to tutoring, by no means an arduous occupation, in order
to lay by money, but he lacked financial talent and the ability to
economize. In fact, his devotion to his family connections, his good
nature, and his improvidence involved him in pecuniary embarrassments
so serious that the monologues in his diary overflow with pessimistic,
melancholy reflections. He sought indemnification in frequent
excursions to neighboring towns, in composing a Hebrew biography of
Mishna teachers under the title תולדות אבות {Hebrew: Toldot Avot},[10]
and, it appears, in reading the works of the Fathers of the Church. On
one of his little trips, the occasion being the betrothal of a friend
of his, he met the sister of the _fiancée_, a very young girl, who
attracted and pleased him, and who was destined to exert decisive and
salutary influence upon his life. The meeting acted like a soothing
charm upon his ill-humor, though he was far from anticipating the
consequences it bore. He remained in his position at Ostrowo for one
year and a half, until July, 1842, when a trivial occurrence ruptured
the irksome relation in a manner not altogether pleasant.

Now he went straightway to Breslau to the University. As he had not
been graduated from a _Gymnasium_, Graetz had to obtain ministerial
permission to attend the University. His petition was granted, and,
in October, 1842, he was matriculated. With reverential awe and
expectation the self-taught student entered the mysterious lecture
halls consecrated to pure science, only to leave them shrugging
his shoulders at the wisdom proclaimed, disappointed, his longings
unsatisfied. The knowledge of which he was master when he began his
University course was richer and more varied than ordinary students are
likely to start with, and though it was not systematically ordered nor
well-balanced, it formed a unit, and had already begun to crystallize
about a center. His apprenticeship years, in short, were over; the
maturity of his views and his judgment is unmistakable.

While at the University, he heard lectures on a wide variety of
subjects--on history, philosophy, Oriental languages, even physics--but
it does not appear that any left deep traces upon his mind. Even
Professor Bernstein, an Orientalist of considerable reputation, who
drew him into the circle of his close associates, did not understand
how to kindle his pupil’s zeal, usually so impetuous, for the thorough
study of Syriac and Arabic. Apparently Graetz had relinquished the
ambition to gain mastery of them. The only one to have success was
Professor Braniss, a philosopher in high esteem in his day, with whom
also Graetz cultivated intimate relations. He at all events must
have been instrumental in acquainting him with the Hegelian system
of philosophy, and in imbuing him with the recognition, that even
in the world of liberty, that is, man’s world of mental endeavor,
phases of development succeed each other in conformity with absolute
laws, chiefly of an ideal, non-mechanical nature; that therefore the
spiritual powers that produce the history of mankind by the realization
of ever higher ideas not only follow their indwelling laws, but at the
same time submit unconditionally to the law of cause and effect; and
that the paradox of opposites, the principle of thesis, antithesis, and
synthesis, is particularly helpful in the consideration of historical
phenomena.

Though Graetz was immersed in his studies, he did not fail to give
close attention to the occurrences in the Breslau Jewish community.
The events happening there in those days were not merely of local
interest. They cast their light and their shadow far beyond the
Silesian frontier, and were the cause of intense excitement in all
Jewish circles of Germany. In Breslau the orthodox and the reform views
of Judaism for the first time rushed at each other with full force in
the struggle for supremacy. Storm and conflict raged violently between
the old and the new. Blind to the conditions of the time, orthodoxy
stubbornly opposed a _non possumus_ to every offer looking to an
adjustment of difficulties. The representatives of the two parties,
the orthodox Solomon Tiktin on the one side and the progressive
Abraham Geiger on the other, sought to get the better of each other
with remorseless acrimony. Geiger won the upper hand, and even the
disruption of the Breslau congregation caused by Tiktin’s defeat did
not derogate from the reform champion’s victory.

Dr. Abraham Geiger should be classed among the most prominent rabbis
of his time. The modern development of the religious life had been
proceeding quietly though steadily, when it was convulsed to its depths
by the storm announced by his first appearance upon the rabbinical
scene. As a speaker and as a writer he handled a popular style with
masterful skill, which manifested itself in felicitous copiousness
rather than in the concentration of precise, forcible language. One of
the best pulpit orators among Jews, he succeeded in holding attention
and stimulating thought by his simple manner and brilliant turns of
expression. His published sermons, very limited in number, give not
even an approximate idea of the powerful impression produced by his
spoken words, totally unaided though they were by charms of person.[11]
His scholarly contributions to Jewish science are of pre-eminent and
of permanent value. He has rendered particularly valiant service by
his researches into the history of literature, a field in which he
was master. On the other hand, one sometimes misses thoroughness of
scholarly culture in his early productions, especially those of the
first part of his Breslau period. Besides, he was fond of obtruding his
reform bias. In spite of his scientific attainments, his historical
sense lacked profundity, and in spite of his great achievements in the
province of modern liturgy, his appreciation of the needs and emotions
of the people’s spiritual life was neither sufficiently delicate nor
sufficiently intense. At bottom he was a doctrinaire rationalist. His
religious program and aims, too, were not clearly and definitely put
forth. For example, his attitude towards the radical currents at that
time rolling their destructive waves over Judaism amounted to more than
benevolent neutrality. The observer cannot ward off the impression,
that he was inclined to steer straight for ethical deism, and was
restrained only by opportunist reasons. At this above all Graetz took
umbrage, and by and by his antipathy to Geiger was complete. A good
deal of sham and tinsel had probably slipped into the various tentative
organizations which Geiger endeavored to call into existence; perhaps
they were unavoidable concomitants of such efforts. It is possible,
too, that the unpleasant impression was reinforced by a tendency to
officiousness observable in Geiger--at worst a pardonable foible.
As Graetz was constituted, he felt so strong a repugnance to humbug
and pretense that he exercised neither forbearance nor consideration
towards such faults. He visited Geiger only once, possibly twice.
Immediately after Graetz had made himself at home in the lecture-rooms
of his department, he paid his respects to the two rabbinical
party-leaders. The entry in his diary is as follows:

    “I have made the acquaintance of Rabbi Tiktin. With what reverence
    I used to stand and look at the mail-clad names of the Tiktins on
    the first pages of רי''פים {Hebrew: Rifim}![12] As Charlemagne in
    his iron armor kept all intruders at a becoming distance, so the
    dignity of those theologic knights seemed to me to be enhanced by
    the long beards and the imposing Spanish canes[13] and the Talmudic
    dust. There was I sitting next to a descendant of those rabbinical
    נפילים {Hebrew: Nefilim}.[14] Ah! what a falling-off there has
    been! _Tempora mutantur et nos mutamur in illis._ To be sure, there
    is still the stately stature, still the Spanish cane. But the
    _ensemble_, a something not to be defined in words, is missing.
    Next to the rabbi, _nolentes volentes_, I place Dr. Geiger, a
    spare little man. Why he was so very kind to me I do not know.
    Of Hirsch we have not yet spoken, and probably shall not speak.
    But to what depths we have sunk! In the presence of fifty Jews,
    headed by a רב {Hebrew: Rav}, Dr. Freund[15] dares utter words like
    “rabbinically erratic inferences.” Cicero and Plato, then, are to
    be read as antidotes to rabbinical perversions. Zounds! And to-day
    Geiger delivered his first lecture on the Mishna. The Mishna is a
    collection of _religious notions, as they were formed and developed
    from the Exile to R. Jehuda Hanassi_. What insane logic!”

When, in March, 1843, the stiff-necked, tenacious champion of an effete
form of Judaism, the lion-warrior Solomon Tiktin, last representative
of a race of Talmudic heroes, wounded to the quick by his defeat,
was removed from the scene by death, Geiger stood at the zenith of
his fame. Since many a day no rabbi’s name had been so well-known as
Geiger’s in all the extent of German Jewry, none was so frequently
mentioned. In Silesia there was no more popular rabbi, and in Breslau
his word was potent, influential, and feared by his adversaries. His
scientific eminence was generally acknowledged; his eloquence dominated
the pulpit no less than the minds of his hearers. Who dared attack him
was badly used, and bore ridicule as well as injury from the fray.

In the course of the year 1844, the first signs of a slowly
crystallizing reaction became noticeable. Various germinating forces
looking to the formation of a new theologic party on a conservative
platform consolidated in that year under the leadership of Zacharias
Frankel. From this place and that, single barbed arrows, followed
by more and sharper ones, winged by irony and hard to parry, came
whizzing through the air, striking Geiger and his followers in the most
sensitive spots. A well-known weekly Jewish journal, _Der Orient_,
under the editorship of Dr. Fürst, published reports of the more
important occurrences in the Breslau community. The descriptions of
the anonymous correspondent were graphic, pungent, and critical. The
articles naturally aroused attention. In Breslau, as they continued
to appear week after week, they created a veritable sensation. The
two parties looked forward to each issue of the “Orient” with equal
expectancy, though otherwise with opposite feelings. In the orthodox
camp there was exultation. At last an expert writer had appeared,
who laid bare all sorts of evils fearlessly and unsparingly, and who
seemed to serve the cause of conservatism by his bold opposition to
Geiger. But who was the archer that sped his arrow with aim so true
and poise so elegant? Guesses were hazarded, a narrow search was
instituted, and especially the ranks of the Jewish students of theology
at that time gathered in Breslau, mostly about Geiger, were sharply
inspected. It was established beyond a doubt, that it was a _homo
novus_, a student from the Province--Graetz, who, proudly independent
of every sort of patronage, was earning a scant livelihood by giving
lessons. The amazement grew when Graetz, nearly simultaneously with
the just mentioned contributions to the “Orient,” published a critical
review, valuable even at this late day, of Geiger’s “Textbook of the
Mishnic Language.”[16] This critique, auspiciously ushering him into
the scientific world,[17] was begun in the literary supplement of the
“Orient” at the end of 1844, and continued as a series of articles
in the following year. It gave him the opportunity of expounding his
own views upon the subject and displaying advantageously a fund of
information, mastery of the material, philological tact, scientific
instincts, and considerable talent as a stylist. His criticism of the
book is often to the point, but rather severe and not entirely free
from animosity. It was characteristic of Graetz to express his opinion
clearly and directly. Geiger replied to the challenge in “The Israelite
of the Nineteenth Century”[18] in still more acrimonious articles,
which likewise are not wholly objective. In fact, they contain
approaches to personalities, and dwell upon slips and trivial details,
thus demonstrating the importance attached to the appearance of his
young antagonist in the arena. In any event, Graetz had drawn the
attention of a wider circle to himself, and in Breslau he had become at
one bound the central topic of interest in _Karlsstrasse_. The orthodox
partisans made advances to him, although he did not for a moment leave
them in doubt about his disapproval of their program and his dissent
from their religious views. He told them that he was pursuing his
own original ideas, and that his guiding principle was unalterable
loyalty to positive Judaism. However, he restrained them from many a
foolish and fanatic step. In the face of orthodox opposition Geiger
had energetically organized a religious school, which was prospering.
Graetz therefore advised the adherents of orthodoxy not to permit
themselves to lose touch with the younger generation, but to build up
a similar institution on conservative lines. The advice seems to have
fallen on fruitful soil. It was intimated to the counselor, that the
intention was to entrust him with the organization and superintendence
of a school of that kind, provided he obtained his University degree
before its opening. Besides, his name was beginning to be mentioned
in connection with vacant rabbinates. It was therefore necessary to
hasten his graduation. After a few weeks of severe application, he
finished his thesis, _De auctoritate et vi, quam gnosis in Judaismum
habuerit_, which secured him the doctorate from the University of Jena
in April, 1845. Under the title, “Gnosticism and Judaism,”[19] the
dissertation was published in that year as the first original product
of his pen. The work in every respect bears the peculiar stamp of his
scientific character. It is distinguished by familiarity with patristic
literature; by his method of explaining Talmud statements, commonly
taken to be general, as particular historical cases; by lucidity of
arrangement and presentation; and by his happy gift of divining the
occult relation between things, which enabled him to shed the first
rays of light upon the ספר יצירה {Hebrew: Sefer Yetzirah},[20] the
most enigmatic book of rabbinical literature. The thesis was received
kindly, and it gave him a place in the Jewish world of scholarship.

Such surprising successes swelled the breast of the literary novice,
who had worked his way to the front by arduous toil, with justifiable
and happy hopes. The halcyon days of young fame, at the remembrance of
which his face lighted up with pleasure even in old age, he planned to
spend with his parents. On his way home he passed through Krotoschin.
There, in his friend’s house, he met the half-grown girl of other days,
now in the flush of young womanhood. Her image, faint though it had
become in the background of his memory, had not faded entirely. She
was the daughter of Monasch, the proprietor of the well-known Hebrew
printing establishment. Each made a deep impression upon the other,
and encouraged to believe that his future might be considered assured,
Graetz did not conceal his feelings. They were requited, and the young
people plighted their troth. Graetz did not suspect that he had won a
strong womanly heart that would be his beacon and a prop to which he
would cling for support during the dark days soon to break over him.

All sorts of vague, undefined hopes arose before his view, and some of
them gradually assumed shape. The prospect of an honorable position,
such as he had longed for and aspired to, seemed about to be realized.
The rabbinate of Gleiwitz, one of the larger congregations of Upper
Silesia, taking rank in wealth and perhaps in size after Breslau, was
vacant, and the authorities were looking out for a man equipped with
rabbinic lore, standing upon the height of modern culture, and favoring
a sober, moderate reform movement. All entitled to a voice in the
matter fixed upon Graetz, whose reputation as a writer had spread to
them. He seemed the most suitable incumbent. By virtue of his native
talent and his attainments, it was thought that he would be able to
overrule or to meet the manifold, rather hazy views and demands of the
members of the congregation. The leading spirits among them declared
themselves in favor of his election. Nothing more was necessary than
to attract all the other circles of the community by proving his
homiletic ability in several trial sermons, the success of which seemed
a foregone conclusion. Before the great Holy Days of 1845 (5606) Graetz
received a Hebrew communication from the directors of the Gleiwitz
congregation, couched in the most flattering terms, assuring him of the
reversion of the rabbinate, and inviting him to preach the sermons in
their synagogue on the Day of Atonement.

At the appointed time, on the eve of the sacred day, he ascended
the pulpit, and the result was--a thoroughly unexpected fiasco, the
more deplorable as it shattered his own confidence in his oratorical
powers. He had forgotten his memorandum completely. Losing his presence
of mind, he had to leave the pulpit after saying a few words. His
friends and followers stood by him loyally, and did their utmost to
secure for him the opportunity of repairing the damage. He succeeded
in rehabilitating himself only partly; the ground lost could not be
recovered. The surprising mishap, it must be confessed now after the
lapse of time, was a stroke of good fortune for the ambitious scholar
and his life-work, ungentle though the impetus was that forced him into
the path for which he was peculiarly equipped and gifted. In those days
of universal fermentation, the religious life of Jewish communities was
crossed and agitated by opposite, confused, and stormy currents. A man
of uncontrollable impulse to be active and to exert independent, direct
influence whenever it might seem necessary, and prone to give utterance
to his convictions in truthful, incisive, and caustic language--a
quality of dubious value--would hardly have succeeded in steering his
rabbinical boat among the crags of party strife, usually carried on
with fanatic violence. He would either have had to become faithless to
his nature and genius, or, if that were not possible, eventually be
wrecked. At best, in case he had a high degree of tact and prudence at
his disposal, he would have consumed his finest powers in putting more
or less salutary measures into effect on a restricted field. Graetz,
who knew himself thoroughly, had always feared that he would not be in
his proper place in a rabbinical position. From the first he had felt a
shrinking at the thought of the duties and responsibilities of a rabbi.
A few days before he left for Gleiwitz he wrote in his diary:

    “Of all positions I am least adapted for that of rabbi; in every
    way I lack force of manner, an imposing presence. My knowledge,
    too, is highly defective, but my will is strong, energetic. If
    God’s service can be performed by an instrument of such caliber,
    then here am I ready for it, body and soul. But the preaching!”

In very truth the preacher’s Pegasus serves the noble enthusiasm of
the elect willingly and ardently, and as willingly lends his back to
mediocrity to execute more or less doubtful tricks before the eyes
and ears of the many-headed crowd. Graetz it threw in the critical
moment, and the fall affected him deeply and painfully. He who only a
short time before, almost without effort, had won literary triumphs,
and who as a rule shrank from no difficult undertaking, now despaired
of ever being able to wield the living word with the power with
which he directed the pen. In fact, he had been denied the external
qualifications of an orator. It cannot be said to have been his
appearance that stood in the way of success; he was of average height
and well-knit frame. But in loud speech his voice lacked modulation,
and his manner was ineffectual. Above all, he was incapable of posing;
in his character there was not the slightest trace of the actor, who,
as Goethe says, “might give points to a preacher.”


IV.

SCHOLAR AND TEACHER.

The above incident put a hopeless end to all the prospects he had
entertained. Again care for his daily bread stalked by his side like a
specter. The most deplorable aspect of his case was that his strength
did not emerge from this severe contest, as from former ones, steeled
and braced by cheering hopes for the future. Besides, he reproached
himself for having drawn another and a beloved person into his forlorn
life. Then the high-mindedness and unselfish devotion of the woman of
his choice sustained him, refreshing his weary soul with consolation
and encouragement, and calming the tumult of his wounded feelings.
His animal spirits rose again under the stimulus of an honorable
invitation, extended by Zacharias Frankel, to join a conference of
conservative rabbis called by him to meet at Dresden in September,[21]
1846, for the purpose of discussing the religious problems of the day
and uniting for concerted action.

At the very beginning of his career in Dresden, Dr. Zacharias Frankel
had developed fruitful activity in connection with the removal of the
political and civil disabilities, especially with regard to oaths,
under which his coreligionists in Saxony were laboring. None the less
he was essentially a scholar. Master of comprehensive knowledge of the
Talmud, which he had acquired with critical thoroughness, he laid the
foundations for the modern analysis of this work of literature. He made
it his life-task to promote the scientific study of the Talmud and
trace the evolution of the _Halakha_. The first-fruits of his literary
endeavor betrayed the serious, thorough scholar by the accuracy, the
scrupulous nicety, and the trustworthiness of his research, and
secured for him a high and undisputed position in the scientific
world. When the reform agitation within the Jewish community of
Germany developed into a rapid stream whose waters grew more and more
turbulent; when, on the one side, rabbinical conferences were planned
for the purpose of systematizing and sanctioning projected innovations,
and, on the other, distrust of the progressive leaders inspired the
fear that the resolutions and professions of such assemblies might
throw dangerous, inflammable material into the different congregations;
Frankel deemed it prudent to give up his reserve and actively influence
the religious movement. In 1844, accordingly, he began to publish the
quarterly “Journal for the Religious Interests of Judaism.”[22] It was
to bear a strictly scientific character, and at the same time discuss
the religious topics of the day. A sober, experienced, and tolerant
theologian, Frankel held the position, that in matters of faith as
in the other concerns of life the exigencies of the times have to be
considered, but that concessions to the modern spirit may not remove
us from historic ground, and that all modifications must result from a
scientific appreciation of the essence and traditions of Judaism.

All this appealed strongly to Graetz, and no sooner had he come into
public notice, in the year following the first appearance of the
journal, than he sought to establish relations with Frankel. The latter
met his advances with cordiality, and invited the young scholar to
become a contributor to his quarterly review. Graetz responded with a
brilliant and suggestive article, “The Septuagint in the Talmud.”[23]
It affords a striking example of his peculiar method of comparing
Talmud and Midrash passages with each other and with the statements
and quotations of the Fathers of the Church, thus determining the
historical elements of the Talmudic account and building theories upon
it. In the same year (1845), Frankel had gone to Frankfort-on-the-Main,
to the second rabbinical conference, with the hope of infusing a spirit
of moderation and conciliation into its proceedings and measures.
But he abandoned the hope on the passage of the resolution, that the
retention of Hebrew as the language of the synagogue service was only
“advisable,” not “essential” (_objektiv-nothwendig_). He, therefore,
withdrew from the conference in a public manner, and justified his
action in a formal declaration, equally dignified and firm.

On all sides Frankel’s course met with hearty approval. Its effect was
to startle the conservatives of every shade of opinion out of their
apathy. Numerous prominent communities sent him flattering addresses,
conveying their thanks and their unreserved commendation of his
resolute policy. Graetz had written an enthusiastic document, which
was circulated in Breslau, and was quickly covered with signatures.
In collecting them, he had not been able to resist the malicious
prompting to secure the names of notorious adherents of Geiger. The
latter had taken deep offense at Frankel’s secession, and had been
betrayed into abuse by his declaration. It is impossible to say now,
why Frankel did not at once utilize the disposition in his favor to
gather a large conservative party about himself. Only in the following
year, 1846, he took steps looking to this end. He issued invitations
to the conservative theologians of modern bias, summoning them to
a convention at Dresden, with the purpose perhaps of devising an
effective opposition to the third reform conference of rabbis to meet
at Breslau in July of the same year. But even this effort was not made
with the energy characteristic of Frankel and necessary to accomplish
the desired result. When Graetz arrived in Dresden in September,
1846, he was amazed to find that no one else had put in appearance.
Samson Raphael Hirsch, at that time District Rabbi of Emden, had
from the first refused co-operation with the movement, inasmuch as
he denied the authority, natural or conferred, of the modern rabbi
to modify the religious cult. Rapoport of Prague had declined the
invitation for reasons not specified. It is well-known that his
interests were enlisted only in scientific pursuits. Michael Sachs of
Berlin had excused himself on the plea of routine duties. For most of
the others the time and place of convention were not convenient. To
sue for support was out of the question with Frankel’s aristocratic
temperament. It was repugnant to him, or he did not know how, to
create sentiment in his own favor by agitation or self-advertisement.
He could not attract a party to his leadership by seductive wiles,
nor infuse fanatic factionalism into its ranks. Relying solely on the
justice of his cause, and appealing exclusively to the convictions
of his followers, he scorned petty tricks and artifices. That Graetz
was the only one to render unconditional obedience to his summons
must naturally have produced a deep impression upon him. The two
men, so different in years, disposition, and endowments, but at one
in views and aims, were brought close to each other by the personal
meeting. By tacit agreement they became companions in arms from that
moment unto the end. Graetz, at all events, recognizing that their
religious principles approximated each other, was resolved to take
his position in theological affairs by Frankel’s side, whenever so
doing involved no loss of independence. Frankel in turn evinced a
sense of their religious affinity by conferring upon Graetz, at his
request, the formal authorization for the exercise of rabbinical
functions התרת הוראה ({Hebrew: Hatarat hora’ah}). At the end of 1846,
Frankel gave up the publication of his journal to save his strength
for a better future. To this third and last annual series, Graetz had
contributed, besides several reviews, one of his important treatises,
that discussing “The Construction of Jewish History”[24] in several
articles. Bright and vivid in style and replete with fine thoughts
which even homiletes drew upon in various ways, the essay defines
clearly and sharply the considerations and points of view of essential
importance in a complete presentation of Jewish history. But the
author was still so prejudiced in favor of the technically philosophic
terminology and conceptions of his time that he was betrayed into
giving undue prominence to the transcendence of God as compared with
the monotheistic idea.

Though Graetz had won high respect by his scholarly productions
especially in theologic circles, he vainly looked about for a position,
no matter how modest, in which to strike root. At last the sky seemed
to grow brighter; he was cheered by the prospect of soon being able
to establish a home of his own, a prospect that proved a _fata
morgana_. By the end of 1846 the orthodox party in Breslau resumed
energetic operations. They had accepted as their rabbi Gedaliah, the
son of the deceased Solomon Tiktin, who had inherited from his father
only his tall stature, and they were preparing to open a religious
school for the propaganda of their principles. Its organization and
superintendence were entrusted to Graetz.[25] The Breslau community
was no longer a unit, the orthodox members having separated from the
congregation. But the seceders had no legally valid right to form
a body corporate. Moreover, on July 23, 1847, the law defining the
status of the Prussian Jews appeared, and it could not be determined
how conditions would be modified by it. Wealthy individuals in their
private capacity therefore assumed responsibility in the business
contracts of the orthodox party, particularly in the matter of the
new school. Then the political storms of 1848 swept over the Prussian
provinces. Economic disturbances occurred, and apprehensive of still
more serious ones, the wealthy patrons of the orthodox party recalled
their pledges. The complete collapse of the religious school followed
as the first sacrifice in orthodox circles claimed by the political
flood, whose waves carried destructive change to the most remote
relations between men. Graetz was again left stranded, without an
occupation, without a livelihood.

At that time all eyes were turned towards Vienna, where the popular
uprising had assumed vast dimensions and won surprising victories.
Democracy stood in battle array, and had gained possession of the
Austrian capital. It was fondly hoped that the fortune of war would
decide there in favor of the democratic party. A friend of Graetz, Dr.
B. Friedmann,[26] later rabbi in Mannheim, was at that time prominent
in Breslau as an effective popular speaker, and was a member of the
editorial staff of the democratic organ, the _Oderzeitung_. By his
intervention the curious proposition was made to Graetz to go to
Vienna as correspondent of the journal just mentioned. In his forlorn
state he acquiesced, though not without reluctance. On his journey
to Vienna, he felt impelled to leave the direct route and stop off
at Nikolsburg to pay a visit to his former teacher, Samson Raphael
Hirsch, who had meantime resigned the District Rabbinate of Emden
for that of Nikolsburg. Letters had passed between them constantly
since the Oldenburg days, and although Graetz was not in sympathy
with the rigidly traditional point of view occupied by Hirsch, and no
longer viewed the theologic attitude of his old guide with youthful
enthusiasm, but rather with critical, sober judgment, their friendly
relations of other times had suffered no diminution in cordiality.
Graetz’s love and reverence for Hirsch had not in the least evaporated,
and Hirsch still felt strongly attracted to the younger man. He was not
disposed to sanction his project of going to Vienna, the hot-bed of
revolution, and Graetz, who had little love and desire for the calling
of a political reporter, was easily persuaded to stay in Nikolsburg and
content himself with a subordinate place at the religious school of
the town. In the background, to be sure, the reversion of a teacher’s
position at a theologic seminary, projected and seriously considered by
Hirsch, loomed up before him.

Hirsch had long cherished the idea of founding a Jewish theologic
institute. He shared this dear ambition with the other prominent
rabbis of his generation, who hoped thus to further their wish to
perpetuate each one his own theologic bias. The establishment of a
theologic seminary was, in fact, one of the burning questions of the
day. Nikolsburg, where a popular Talmud school had flourished from time
immemorial, seemed to lend itself to the execution of Hirsch’s plan. It
was only necessary to use the existing institution as a foundation,
make the proper changes in its management, and infuse the new spirit
into it. Graetz was at once induced by his patron to give a course of
lectures on Jewish history to the students at Nikolsburg, who were well
versed in the Talmud, but whose training had been wholly dialectic.
The character of his auditors suggested the subject to the lecturer.
He treated the time of the Mishna and the Talmud, a period of which he
had previously made a thorough study, and to which he again devoted
serious research with a view to his academic purpose. Despite the zeal
with which he applied himself to his lectures and studies, his main
expectation suffered disappointment. The painfulness of his precarious
position became more pronounced as time passed. The fanatics of the
Nikolsburg Ghetto found fault even with the scrupulously religious
conduct of their District Rabbi; as for his disciple, he went up and
down among them a strange, repellant figure. Denunciations led the
local authorities to suspect him of democratic leanings, and he was
thus branded with the darkest stigma that could be fastened upon any
one, but particularly upon a foreigner, in the Austria of that day. All
the influence possessed by his friends had to be exerted to ward off
ugly complications and immediate expulsion.

It became more and more evident that the rabbinical seminary, upon
which Graetz had staked all his hopes, was only a bubble. Whether
the circumstances of place and time were unpropitious, or whether
Hirsch dropped the plan for other reasons, is doubtful.[27] Moreover,
the friendly relations between the two men began to be somewhat
strained. Therefore, the proposal to undertake the organization and
superintendence of a school, made him by the directors of the Jewish
community of Lundenburg, a little town in the Nikolsburg district
in the neighborhood of Vienna, was hailed by Graetz as release from
an untenable position. Negotiations were quickly concluded, and on
September 12, 1850, he was appointed director and superintendent of the
Jewish school at Lundenburg.

Before entering upon the duties of his office he hastened home, and in
the beginning of October, 1850, solemnized his marriage with the loyal
woman whose patience had never failed, who had never been discouraged
by hope deferred, and had never lost confidence in his ability. He
could not have found a truer, a braver comrade than the wife who shared
the fortunes of the rest of his career. By her harmonious, temperate,
and loving nature, she not only glorified his home and cheered cloudy
days, but also restrained his impetuous disposition, and moderated
his proneness to sharp, caustic, aggressive words. She understood the
needs of his inmost soul, in the recesses of which a reverberation was
sometimes heard as of vague, unfulfilled longings. His personality was
made up of many an incommensurable factor that baffled explanation.
With all his communicativeness he was reserved; the most intimate
emotions of his heart were never revealed. To outsiders he always
appeared wholly unruffled and serene, and no one suspected the thoughts
and feelings stormily surging through his being under its placid
surface. But in order to preserve his equanimity, he stood in need of
frank expression to some one or in some way. It was the outlet and
the purification of the easily excited and strongly reacting emotions
of a nature responding quickly to external pressure. Probably the
leaves of his diary served this purpose; most of them were written
under the stimulus of tense passion. From the day of his marriage the
record becomes more and more attenuated, until it ceases entirely. In
his life-companion he had found the responsive being devoted to him
in boundless veneration and sympathy, whose sentiments were a perfect
echo, clearer usually than the original sound, of his thought and
feeling. And as she took part in his soul-life, so she shared in his
intellectual plans. She made her husband’s scientific interests her
own, and in his scholarly research afforded him the efficient help of a
careful assistant.

The new principal began his work in Lundenburg on October 15 with
zeal and love for his task--he superintended, classified, taught, and
delivered solemn addresses. Apparently success was not lacking, for he
met with encouraging applause. In the shelter of his modest but happy
home, he resumed his literary plans and work. While preparing his
Nikolsburg lectures, he had gathered together an abundance of material
on the Talmudic era, which he now meant to put to use.

Before long, however, gray clouds cast a shadow on his idyllic
condition. The relation between him and Hirsch almost suffered an open
breach. When the newly married couple came to Nikolsburg to pay their
respects to him, Hirsch demanded that the young wife, in accordance
with a Talmudic custom, cover her beautiful hair with a sort of wig,
called _Scheitel_. She resisted the bidding politely but firmly, with
the pride of an offended woman. Graetz upheld his wife energetically,
and the two parties separated little pleased with each other. The
low-hanging mist apt to develop in the atmosphere of narrow,
undisciplined Ghetto life, particularly in a small Austrian community,
was more oppressive even and harder to bear. The Lundenburg rabbi, a
narrow-minded Talmudist, who feared to have his fame overshadowed by
Graetz’s, now and again asserted his official superiority unpleasantly.
Small town rivalries were fomented to annoy the notabilities of the
congregation by means of attacks upon the measures and the men they
favored. Such conditions made Graetz feel by their hidden venom that
unmixed joy is the portion of no mortal, least of all of the principal
of an Austrian communal school. Denunciations of him were again
rife. Those before the district court representing him as a democrat
incarnate were particularly troublesome. Happily the charges were
dismissed without in the least injuring him.

The year 1851 heightened his happiness; it brought him the joys of
fatherhood. A daughter was born to him, the only one in a family
of five children. His relation to her was always peculiarly close
and affectionate. In the same year Zacharias Frankel re-entered the
theologic arena with a monthly journal, which, unlike his earlier
venture, the _Zeitschrift_, was to be devoted first and foremost to
scientific interests. Graetz received a most honorable invitation to
become a contributor, and he gladly ranged himself under Frankel’s
banner. In quick succession he published in the first year of the
“Monthly Journal for the History and Science of Judaism”[28] (October,
1851-December, 1852) a series of historical monographs: “Jewish
Historical Studies;”[29] a review of Rapoport’s Encyclopedia; “Talmudic
Chronology and Topography;”[30] and “The Removable Highpriests of the
Second Temple Period”[31]--all of which evinced great erudition,
clear grasp of the subject, and mature judgment. They are of the
nature of special studies in preparation and as a foundation for a
connected account of the events from the downfall of the Jewish state
until the completion of the Talmud. He had long cherished the idea of
such a work, and he now reduced it to writing with great rapidity.

In the meantime, in the course of the year 1852, the complexion of
the district court seems to have changed, or the wind was blowing
from another quarter; at all events, Graetz suddenly and with
painful surprise became aware that unceasing intrigues and malicious
denunciations had at last taken effect upon the district governor.
He found himself exposed to serious annoyances and humiliations. No
effort to ward them off promising success, he resigned his position at
Lundenburg.

He felt impelled to return to his native Prussia, and determined to
remove to Berlin with his family. The decision was inspired by the
hope of easily finding in the capital a publisher for his history
of the Talmudic epoch, which was almost ready for the press. He was
furthermore actuated by the consideration, that in the prosecution of
the plan of writing a complete history of the Jews, already taking
shape in his mind, he could not well do without the libraries to be
found only in large cities. In the latter half of September, 1852,
he arrived in Berlin, and was kindly received by Dr. Michael Sachs
and other friends willing to serve him. Through Dr. Sachs he became
acquainted with the excellent Dr. Veit, who undertook the publication
of his work. During the winter _semester_ 1852-53 the directors of
the Berlin congregation invited him to deliver, for a honorarium, a
number of historical lectures before students of Jewish theology,
in a course in which the other speakers were Zunz and Sachs. His
lectures were received with approval.[32] At the close of one of
them, delivered in the middle of February, he was approached by Joseph
Lehmann, railway director and editor of a journal in good standing,
“Magazine for Foreign Literature,”[33] a man justly enjoying high
respect. Acting under the instructions of the Board of Curators of
the Fränkel Bequests in Breslau, Lehmann asked Graetz, whether he
would be disposed to become a member of the faculty of the rabbinical
seminary to be established at Breslau. At the same time he told him,
that negotiations with Dr. Frankel, Chief Rabbi of Dresden, were
pending with regard to the directorship, and that Frankel, among other
conditions of his acceptance, had demanded Graetz’s engagement as
teacher. The Board of Curators had assented cheerfully, and now desired
Graetz’s answer. Graetz made his consent dependent upon Frankel’s
final, favorable decision, which was received soon after. These
preliminaries over, the troublesome discussions on the organization of
the seminary began. In the first place, no model or scheme whatsoever
existed that might serve as a guide in the organization of a rabbinical
academy, with regard to such matters as the time-schedule, the
curriculum, and the choice of subjects. Its creation was pioneer work,
in furtherance of which there was no available experience; yet the
arrangements determined upon under such peculiar circumstances were
to bear within themselves the guarantee of practical and immediate
success. Besides, the will of the founder, Jonas Fränkel, contained
certain clauses, the execution of which, in view of the changed times,
might become a menace to the new institution.[34] The plan, curriculum,
and methods of the future seminary were determined by Zacharias
Frankel alone, who recognized the aim to be pursued with clearness and
practical insight, and so created the basis for the Jewish theology
of the present. His wish to secure a professionally trained man,
whose assistance might be freely drawn upon by himself and the Board
of Curators, was all the more willingly complied with, as from many
considerations an intermediary between the business and the pedagogic
heads seemed not superfluous. Frankel had parted from Dresden with a
heavy heart, and was inclined to seize the first fairly just pretense
to recall his word to the Curators. Thus it came about that Graetz
entered the service of the projected seminary on July 1, 1853, with
the assurance of being employed, under Frankel’s directorship, as one
of the principal teachers,[35] in case the statutes and the plans for
the institution met with governmental approval, which seemed not at all
doubtful.


V.

THE MASTER HISTORIAN.

At the same time Graetz’s book issued from the press under the title:
“History of the Jews from the Downfall of the Jewish State to the
Completion of the Talmud.”[36] This was really the sub-title. The chief
title-page ran as follows: “History of the Jews from the Earliest Times
until the Present Day. Volume IV,”[37] indicating that the author had
conceived more than the first sketchy plan of a complete history of the
Jews, and that the publication of the fourth volume first was merely an
accident in the order of production. Beginning with the account of the
Talmudic time turned out a happy hit. If the two literary events admit
of comparison, Graetz’s first important work has its only counterpart
in the biography of Rashi, with which Zunz, the creator of the science
of Judaism, inaugurated his notable activity. The enthusiasm of Zunz’s
contemporaries is said to have been kindled when Rashi, the eminent
interpreter of Bible and Talmud, familiar to them from their childhood
days, and esteemed an indispensable guide and companion in exegesis,
appeared to them divested of the vaporous halo of supernatural glory,
and translated into the sphere of human reality. Similarly the effect
was electrifying when a flood of brilliant light suddenly scattered the
mist of the dark epoch in which Mishna and Talmud, the authoritative
books of post-Biblical Judaism, were composed, and revealed to sight
life-size the rabbi-authors of those works, whose names and maxims
were matter of common knowledge. The pen of our historian had charmed
them out of the unreality of their existence. They had been habitually
looked upon as abstractions, doctrines incarnate. Not much more had
been known of them than that they had said, asked, and sometimes
wailed. At best, people had been inclined to imagine them a sort of
Kabbalists or Polish itinerant rabbis. Now it was seen that hot blood
and throbbing life pulsated in their veins. Their clear-cut, mental
features with their characteristic excellencies and shortcomings
distinguished one from the other. They stood before the reader in
checkered array, true knights by the grace of intellect, antique
figures, glowing with patriotism, of inflexible will and indestructible
faith. With equal vividness the author depicted the spiritual
atmosphere of the time with its humors, passions, fermentation, and
struggles; the surging and seething of ideas, factions, opinions, and
aims in wild disorder and violent opposition to one another; and the
final evolution of the impelling forces which determine the course of
historical events by the exchange of thrust and counterthrust. Graetz
wanted to make the heart-beat of the period perceptible to the senses.
Therefore, he was little concerned about the technical correctness
of his style and diction. He did not shrink from brusqueness in
words, nor from luridness and voluptuousness in coloring. Without
regard to sensitive feelings he chose the plainest, the most striking
expressions, that he might be understood by all; that no doubt as to
his opinion might suggest itself; that personages and events might
appear upon the canvas in a clear light and in the proper position, as
they were mirrored in his mind.

The book naturally aroused a great sensation upon its appearance. It
at once created an audience for itself with which it found a rich
measure of favor and applause. On the other hand, most of the author’s
scholarly colleagues at first reserved their opinions. They were taken
aback by the new data, which--as, for instance, the formation of
Christian sects--had been boldly pressed into service to complete the
picture, and they could not reconcile themselves to the description
of ancient conditions by means of modern catchwords and turns of
expression peculiar to the lighter forms of literature. For example,
Graetz characterizes Nachum of Gimso, in whose life mishap after mishap
redounded to his benefit, as the Candide[38] of the Tanaitic world of
legend. He seeks to reconstruct the details of the Bar-Cochba revolt,
the chapter on which is one of the most beautiful and touching in his
“History,” from single names and widely scattered debris. He goes so
far as to speak of two lines of defense, the Esdraelon line and the
Tur-Malka line.[39] He charges the eminent teacher Judah ha-Nassi with
irritability and sensitiveness.[40] Relying on Talmudic accounts, he
refuses to credit the Romans with a civilizing mission in Asia, and
describes their influence in Western Asia in particular as destructive
of culture and detrimental to morality. Such features of the work
confounded the critics and judges. They did not venture to decide
whether the boldness of genial originality was asserting itself, or
only the uncouthness of fantastic sensationalism, whose tinsel would
not stand the test of time. Moreover, the two religious parties looked
askance and with dissatisfaction at a book written to serve the truth
only and not available for any sort of propaganda. Loud and public
quarrel between them had ceased in the face of the world-stirring
events of 1848 and their consequences, but they were as sharply divided
as ever. The adherents of the reform party reproached the author
with having glorified the Talmud and its teachers, and with having
omitted to touch in “a single word”[41] upon the sorest spot, “the
petrifaction and ossification of Judaism” brought about by the code and
its exponents. The rigidly orthodox, on the other hand, were incensed
at the criticism, unwarranted in their eyes, to which he subjected the
bearers of tradition and at his effort to prove the body of traditional
doctrine the product of historical processes.[42]

But no voice dissented from the opinion, that in Graetz Jewish science
had gained an eminent promoter with astonishing scholarship at his
disposal. His qualifications and achievements were too extraordinary
to be belittled on account of the unavoidable errors that had slipped
into his history. It could not be denied, that research had received
a decided impetus, and that the sum of historical knowledge had been
considerably increased by Graetz’s results, which he had obtained
by his mastery over the two Talmuds and the Midrash literature; by
his close acquaintance with patristic works; by his effective way of
bringing these two widely separated literary spheres close to each
other, permitting the one to shed light on the other, and thus clearing
up critical points; by his happy gift first of discerning, in spite
of the rectification they frequently stood in need of, that certain
data scattered over various by-paths of literature were complementary,
and then of combining them with each other; and by his acuteness in
detecting with unerring glance, animating with spirit, and applying to
good purpose, long disused geographical names and obsolete terms lying
forgotten in some dark corner and buried under debris.[43] In view of
the fact that it required rare courage to venture upon the elaboration
of one of the obscurest and most difficult portions of Jewish history,
thoroughly neglected at that time in the way of special research and
monographs, even his opponents could “not help confessing that on
the whole he had fulfilled his task satisfactorily.”[44] There was
evidence, to be sure, of still higher courage in Graetz’s announcement,
made without fear or diffidence, on the title-page and in the preface
of his book, designated as the fourth volume, that he intended to
publish a complete history of the Jews, written in the same spirit of
critical research and in the same style. The promise gave occasion for
ironical insinuations. How could a single individual hope to accomplish
so great an undertaking? Was Graetz endowed with the creative, plastic
power of the genuine historian? Or, perhaps he expected to obtain the
laurels of the historian on credit!

On the whole, circumstances shaped themselves in a way favorable to
him, and facilitated the execution of his bold undertaking. It should
not be imagined that a community, or--still more extravagant idea--a
Mæcenas offered to furnish him with the means indispensable for the
accomplishment of a task such as he had set himself. Brilliant as his
achievement was, how much greater it might have been, if he, with his
genius for work, had been put in a position to examine and use at his
leisure the manuscript treasures of the various European libraries! Up
to the present day such good fortune has not befallen Jewish science.
It seems as though the Jewish race, endowed with an understanding
heart and an open hand for humane interests in general, has not yet
awakened to a full recognition of the debt of honor it owes its own
past. Graetz, however, was well content to be relieved of the irksome
care for his daily bread by the ratification, on April 10, 1854, on
the part of the Prussian government, of the statutes, the plan, and
the teaching staff of the Rabbinical Seminary. He returned to Breslau,
where his literary star had first risen, and where he had once tried
vainly to establish himself permanently. Thenceforth he remained there
in the congenial position of a regularly appointed teacher at the first
Jewish theologic institution, which was inaugurated, with Z. Frankel as
director, on August 10, 1854, under the name of “The Jewish Theological
Seminary founded by Fränkel.”[45]

It must be looked upon as providential that the task of first
impressing the modern spirit upon the theologic training for the
rabbinical office fell to the share of men of such eminent distinction
as Frankel, the director of the new institution, and Graetz and Jacob
Bernays, its regular teachers. The personality of each of the three was
strongly marked. Each one was a _homo trium litterarum_, in the sense
that in subordination to his specialty, he had acquired mastery over
the Hebrew-rabbinic, the classical, and the modern literature. By deep
and earnest thought each had arrived at a conservative view of Judaism.
Of the three, Jacob Bernays,[46] a scholar of far-reaching fame in
classical philology, doubtless possessed greatest ability as a teacher,
which, however, demanded talented pupils for its effective exercise.
Frankel’s forte lay in his tact as an organizer and in his practical
gifts; he exerted wholesome authority over his disciples in religious
as well as scientific matters. Both desired to impress their scientific
bias upon those that came under their influence. Graetz, on the other
hand, heeded the individuality of his pupils, and in his activity as
teacher had in mind especially their stimulation and encouragement.
Frankel was desirous of transferring to the Theological Seminary the
rigid discipline and detailed supervision of an elementary school,[47]
because his dearest object was to turn out thorough Talmudists and
professionally well-equipped rabbis. Bernays aspired to the romantic
splendor of a theologic faculty, and wanted to educate scholarly
theologians. With correct and healthy instinct, Graetz endeavored to
reconcile these opposite aims and identify the Seminary with a middle
course. Although Frankel grasped the rudder with a firm hand, he was
sensible enough to consider prudent counsel and kindly enough to give
scope to the wishes and views of his colleagues. In this way harmony
prevailed among the Seminary teachers, which reacted beneficially upon
the students. As long as he lived, Frankel justly maintained what
officially and morally was the dominant position in the Seminary. The
prosperity of the institution he considered the consummation of his
life-work, and being childless, he regarded his pupils as his children,
and took a truly paternal interest in their fortunes. Next to him
Graetz exercised the most generous hospitality towards the students. He
was ever ready to serve any one of them that needed help and advice.
Especially such as had aroused his interest, or had impressed him
favorably with their ability and character enlisted his sympathy, which
he manifested with all the ardor of his temperament. Like Frankel, he
identified himself completely with the Breslau Seminary. After many
thwarted plans and years of anxious uncertainty, he felt that, at
last, through his position as teacher at the Seminary, his vessel had
floated into deep, navigable waters, that he could venture to ply the
oars with full force, unfurl all the sails, and, favored by wind and
weather and propelled by the buoyant courage peculiar to his sanguine
nature, steer straight for the destination whither impulse drew him. It
was the first time that his official duties coincided with his inner
vocation. Faithful, zealous performance of the service he was engaged
to do promoted the work he had set himself as the goal of his life. In
regular, uninterrupted succession, volume after volume of his “History”
now began to appear in complete realization of his plan.

In 1856 the _third_ volume was published under the title, “History
of the Jews from the Death of Judas Maccabæus to the Downfall of the
Jewish State.”[48] It formed the complement and justification of his
view of the Talmudic epoch, the one with which he had begun as being
the period “least understood in its inner relations.” At the same time
the third volume distinctly bounds the spiritual territory in which the
Jewish history of the diaspora is rooted. For he intended to dispose
of the Jewish history of the diaspora down to the present time before
beginning the account of the Biblical and the early post-Biblical
periods. Therefore, when he published his fifth volume, “History of
the Jews from the Completion of the Talmud (500) to the Beginnings of
Jewish-Spanish Culture (1027),”[49] he had, as he said in the preface,
“got back on the right track.” Now every doubt was bound to vanish;
after many years a genuine historian had arisen unto Judaism.

The historian must not be confounded with the scholar. The chief tasks
of the latter are the critical examination of historical records, the
determining and grouping of facts, the identifying and differentiating
of persons, the demarcation of time and place, and the defining and
demonstrating of the causal relation between events, their succession,
and their interaction. The minute details to which his research happens
to be devoted at any moment are as important in his eyes as great and
comprehensive principles. Style, form, and manner, moreover, are minor
considerations with the scholar; he aims only at accuracy and lucid
presentation adapted to the subject-matter. The demands made upon the
historian are more numerous and more exacting. He must constantly carry
the whole in mind, he must have the ability to mould the historical
material with an artist’s creative power and restore the faded features
of the past by the life-bestowing word. First of all, he must be
equipped with unlimited mastery over the existing material and with
easy and sure grasp of all the phases of the historical process, in
order to be able to estimate every phenomenon duly, according to its
intrinsic value and its external effect, emphasize characteristic and
significant points, and allot to persons and events their proper place
in the historical succession. He cannot, of course, dispense with the
acumen that intuitively arrives at the inwardness of every detail.
For it is needful, not only to determine with critical penetration
the trustworthiness of existing traditions and documents, but also to
discern and demonstrate, as one traces the course of a stream with its
tributaries and branches, the presence of the primal forces at work
under the surface of things, giving them impetus and direction, and
of the factors that impede, strengthen, or divert the action of these
forces. From investigations of this kind the historian should derive
the chief points of view, those which grow naturally and logically out
of the course of events. The true historian must be endowed to a high
degree with a faculty for presaging, amounting almost to divination,
that he may, like a “backward-looking prophet,” overcome the inadequacy
and incompleteness of the material transmitted to him; restore the
defective parts by means of his plastic fancy; and everywhere recognize
as well as bring to the recognition of his readers, that historical
events in their connection are developments from within outward, the
outcome, not of a game of chance, but of the workings of absolute
law. For such results of his research and insight the historian must
then find adequate expression. His presentation of them must serve as
the clear, polished mirror reflecting the play of many-hued, chaotic
details in distinct and simply grouped pictures, and permitting the
peculiarities and characteristics of single persons and events to be
apparent, as the warp and the woof are distinguishable in the finished
fabric. Real life as it throbbed in the happenings of the past must
stand renewed before our eyes, and its fresh, warm breath as it brushes
us must constrain our souls to respond at once to its humors and
passions.

These qualities are the distinction of Graetz. By reason of their
possession and exercise he is a master historian, and his art manifests
itself in each of the twelve comprehensive volumes in which he has
thrown light upon the history of the Jewish race from its early
beginning to the present, a period of more than three thousand years,
with every part of the earth as the scene of its events. But we have
not yet come to the end of Graetz’s accomplishments as an historian.
The lack of special studies in the province of Jewish history made his
attempt to write a history of the Jews appear untimely and the prospect
of successful execution slight. His undertaking seemed to be opposed
not only by well-nigh insuperable inner and outer obstacles, but also
by stubborn prejudices. Graetz heeded nothing of all this. Unaided by
any committee or corporation, simply by virtue of his exuberant genius,
he executed the apparently impossible work. He created the history
of their race for his brethren-in-faith, and awakened in the general
public sympathetic interest in the past of Judaism. With bold hand he
ventured to brush aside the layer of dust and mould encrusting the
darkened portraits of the past, and restore freshness and color to the
faded, pale contours and forms.

The most important particulars upon which the value and influence of
his work depend deserve analysis.

Above all, Graetz, though he did not create it, was the first to define
and occupy the point of view from which the historical development
of Judaism must be judged. He cleared the whole historical field,
so as to be able to examine the various phases of this development
with ease and accuracy. As an historian, Graetz had had but a single
predecessor[50] who must be taken into account, Isaac Marcus Jost. In
1820, the latter began to publish a “History of the Israelites from
the Time of the Maccabees.”[51] Nine years later nine volumes had
appeared, bringing the history down to his own time. Under the title,
“Universal History of the Israelitish People,”[52] he published, in
1850, a two-volume epitome with corrections and improvements, covering
in addition the period from Abraham to the Maccabees. He did not prove
himself a real pioneer in either work. Jost was a scholar, but not an
historian; a noble man with admirable qualities, whose varied knowledge
gave a considerable impetus to Jewish historical work, but he had not
been singled out as the proclaimer of an historical revelation to be
spread far and wide in joyful, vigorous utterance. In view of the fact,
however, that no monographs on special phases of the subject existed
at his time, Jost’s achievement cannot be sufficiently admired. He
sought out and arranged the more or less obvious, but widely scattered
data, appraising their value and assigning to each its due place.
He thus produced a manual for the chaos of confusing details and
facts. In respect to manner, his presentation of the subject makes
the impression of an herbarium. His work consists of a collection
of persons and events, heaped up without reference to their inner
relations and classified only according to superficial and accidental
marks of resemblance. His speculations are prosy, and do not touch the
essence of their subject. His style is dry, diffuse, and monotonous,
destitute of fire and force, with nothing to indicate that the author
had a lively realization of the past. An admirer of the Roman system
and impregnated with Christian ideas, he was unconsciously oppressed
by the fear that he was not abreast of the times, and dreaded the
charge of partiality if he gave due credit to Judaism and Rabbinism.
This accounts for his misrepresentation of the Pharisees and their
successors, the Rabbis, and for his false, almost caricature-like
treatment of the Talmud and the literature depending upon it. He felt
that the consideration of Judaism from the point of view of history at
once becomes a glorification thereof, and under no circumstances did he
care to incur the imputation of being its apologist.[53]

Graetz entertained no such scruples. In the formation of his opinions
fear or timidity had no part; they did not curtail the expression
of his judgment regardless of the feelings of friend or foe. He was
the first to divest himself wholly of Christian prejudices in the
consideration of the Jewish past; the first to try to explain the
development of Judaism on inherent principles, as all similar phenomena
are explained. He was thus able to distribute light and shade justly,
without any attempt to gloss or slur facts. Graetz had been in Berlin
but a short time when he met Zunz at the house of Michael Sachs. The
two visitors had not yet made each other’s personal acquaintance. The
host presented Graetz, adding in praise of him, that he was about to
publish a Jewish history. “Another history of the Jews?” Zunz asked
pointedly. “Another history,” was Graetz’s retort, “but this time
a _Jewish_ history.”[54] And, in truth, Graetz was the first to
vindicate the fair claims of Jewish history; he did pioneer work in
establishing the validity of the Jewish point of view. Christianity
considers the belief in the Messiahship of the Son of God and in
the miracles reported in connection with his birth and death the
completion and fulfillment of the Law of Moses and of the prophetical
promises. Only what springs from this dogma can rise to a proper
conception of God, to the heights of true morality, and is capable of
promoting the advancement of civilization. Accordingly, having begotten
Christianity, Judaism fulfilled its religious mission, and the loss
of Jewish national independence occurring almost simultaneously with
the rise of Christianity, its spiritual importance was extinguished
and its historical progress arrested. Its development since then, it
is maintained, bears the marks of decrepitude and degeneration--is
nothing more than idolatry of the _Torah_ and religious formalism.
To this consciously or unconsciously biased view Graetz wished to
oppose a faithful presentation of facts, free from partiality,
personal predilections, or specious coloring. He held, that an
objective, unprejudiced account sufficed to demonstrate the vitality
of Judaism, asserting itself again and again in the midst of distress
and persecution; continuing to develop its monotheistic doctrines and
its ethical system undisturbed by the loss of a national background,
and borne onward only by virtue of its spirituality and ideality;
producing thinkers, poets, and even statesmen despite untold suffering;
and contributing zealously to the solution of the problems of human
civilization, uprooted and dispersed though its adherents were. This
point of view Graetz assumed energetically and applied consistently in
the elaboration of Jewish history, with the result that we owe to him
our conscious acquaintance with the various aspects of Judaism in all
their abundance and suggestiveness.

Besides making new sources available, Graetz gained fresh points
of view and surprising information from the old ones. He was
particularly successful in restoring to Jewish accounts that had
become hazy or sounded incredible a freshly colored background and
life-like reality, or at least in laying bare their kernel of fact,
by the discovery of hardly recognizable parallel passages and proofs
in non-Jewish authors. He sought everywhere, and was more or less
successful in finding and inserting in their place, connecting links
and complementary pieces. When he approached his bold undertaking
with the courage inspired by enthusiasm, Jewish history was a vast
field of debris, over which volcanic events had poured out their
lava, and the centuries had scattered their dust. Here and there a
gigantic ruin, some literary production, towered in solitude over the
wide stretches of the pathless, dismal waste, the only guide-posts to
direct the wanderer through the labyrinth of ruins and underbrush.
The great creators of Jewish science, to be sure, Zunz and Rapoport,
whose extraordinary deserts are not yet duly appreciated by their
brethren-in-faith, had already given the world their excellent works of
fundamental importance; yet the great tracts explored and made arable
by them seemed no more than smaller or larger islands in a vast sea
of rubbish. They did not afford vantage-ground from which the whole
could be overlooked. Rarely leaving the domain of literary history,
these scholars did not lead up to the positions that dominated the
field. In this respect particularly Graetz proved himself a pioneer.
Whatever epoch he may be considering, and however much he may seem to
be absorbed in details, he never takes his eye from the grand whole.
His purpose always is to clear a path through the rank underbrush,
or to trace on the exposed surfaces of shattered remains the lines
and veins that indicate the essential character and the trend of the
historical process. He was endowed with a number of qualities that
enabled him to introduce light, order, system, and classification into
the chaos of the historical material at his disposal. With rare energy
he plunged into the consideration of vast systems of thought, and
almost without an effort assimilated and grouped them. In his learned
notes he opposes varying accounts, proofs, and hints to one another,
and with an adroit hand and a perspicacious mind grasps the main idea
firmly and unravels the knotted thread. Finally, fear of error did not
deter him from taking a decided stand towards events and persons and
giving frank and vigorous expression to his views upon them. Let the
reader examine the essays that serve as introductions to certain parts
of his work, as, for instance, those in the fourth, fifth, and seventh
volumes, and he will appreciate the unerring eye that espies and never
loses from sight the motive ideas and the dominating points of view,
which not merely are sketched in a general, comprehensive way, but are
applied in detail. His “History” affords numerous illustrations of the
way in which Graetz promoted and enriched historical research. For
example, Saadiah Gaon had been discovered, as it were, by Rapoport,
and Geiger had made valuable contributions to our knowledge of him,
but the chapter about him in the “History”[55] first fully revealed
his epoch-making importance and his rich literary activity. Graetz was
the first to recognize and appreciate the notable influence exerted by
Chasdaï Crescas[56] upon philosophy and social conditions. The great
Disputation of Tortosa, of which we have a trustworthy Jewish account,
was nevertheless not understood in its historical bearing and political
effect until Graetz ingeniously confronted the Jewish source with
Christian reports.[57] The cloud of legend enveloping the enthusiasts
David Reubeni and Solomon Molcho,[58] whom students were inclined to
regard as no more than hallucinations or phantasmagoria, he resolved
into the reality of their fantastic adventures. In short, coupled with
rare sagacity in perceiving the true meaning of a mutilated text and
emending it accordingly, he had a remarkable instinct for piercing to
the reality of facts, no matter how grotesque they might appear.

Such endowments qualified Graetz to translate the Talmudic method of
thought and expression into the terms of modern feelings and views,
and give a model illustration of the critical examination of the
literature of Talmudic times and its use as a valuable historical
source. Non-Jewish scholars and sciolists were quick to brand the
apparently unintelligible or the curious passages abounding in rabbinic
literature as evidences of Talmudic ignorance or rabbinic folly, and
the Jews of the emancipation period, if they did not subscribe to
this verdict, at least hesitated whether or not to endorse it. Graetz
showed plainly that precisely the text of the historical narratives had
become wretchedly corrupted and would have to be restored. Besides,
he called attention to various features of the historical tradition
as told by the rabbis. Either they were treated pragmatically, with
their causes and results, or their presentation was intentionally
biased, or layers of legend had deposited themselves about the kernel
of fact, which awaited release from its envelopes. Over and above
all this, he urged that the concrete, figurative expressions of the
rabbis, derived from a sphere of thought foreign to us, must be
translated into modern concepts. For instance, in an ancient rabbinic
chronicle, the _Seder olam rabba_, it is reported that the war of
Vespasian is separated from that of Titus by an interval of twenty-two
years. Aside from the consideration that it is neither historical
nor justifiable to distinguish between a war of Vespasian and a war
of Titus, it is impossible to give a satisfactory explanation of the
period of twenty-two years. The same incomprehensible distinction
between Vespasian’s and Titus’ war occurs in the Mishna at the end of
the tractate _Sota_. Graetz changed a single letter, ט {Hebrew: tet}
into ק {Hebrew: kof}, and instead of טיטוס {Hebrew: Titus} (Titus), he
reads קיטוס {Hebrew: Kitus} (Kitus), _i. e._ Quietus. In this way he
discovered a rebellion in Palestine against Lucius Quietus. We know
none of its details, but its occurrence is beyond the peradventure
of a doubt. The conjecture, as simple as it is ingenious, has been
corroborated by a manuscript reading.[59] A narrative in tractate
_Sabbath_ 17_a_ is no less curious: “A sword was thrust into the
academy, with the words: Whoever desires may go in, but none may
come out,” etc. Graetz explains the enigma thus: in the first year
of the rebellion against Nero a terrorist synod was dominated by the
Shammaites.[60] In general, he considered the opposition between the
schools of Hillel and Shammai not merely theoretic but also political,
and he identified the rabid Zealots with extreme Shammaites.

    “Graetz is deserving of great praise for having established this
    fact [the existence of the terrorist synod], until then not
    sufficiently appreciated. In itself it is an extremely important
    result, and its value is heightened by reason of the data growing
    out of it.... At all events, Herr Graetz has won a second
    distinction of equally great importance by his use of the _Megilla
    Taanith_ as a historical source and his verification of its
    statements, even though many remain dubious.”

This is the opinion of the historian[61] Jost, surely a competent judge
in such matters.

Where so much light is radiated, there cannot fail to be some shadows.
Graetz’s admirable qualities have a reverse side. He often permits
subjective views to obtrude themselves too much, and in stating his
hypotheses he is apt to clothe them in terms too positive and incisive,
not heeding that events dovetail into each other; that men yield to
changeful humors and motives, often of a contradictory nature; and
that illogical, even irrational turns of language and thought may
occasionally occur in the texts. It surely is not astonishing to
find inaccuracies, human errors, and misconceptions here and there
in a gigantic work of twelve bulky volumes. Faults and shortcomings
vanish into forgetfulness by the side of the multiplicity of his
results and the grandeur of his achievement. Perspective, life-like
characterization, distinct outline, glowing color--these Jewish history
owes solely to Graetz’s rich fancy. He opened up new problems, created
the historical types, constructed the framework of Jewish history.
But his greatest achievement, one that cannot be rated sufficiently
high, is that of having procured a hearing with all strata of his
coreligionists by means of his charming, easy style. He revived the
consciousness of an illustrious past, glorious in spite of persecution
and degradation, and the belief in a future of spiritual triumph for
Israel. Energetic and ardent as his temperament was, he merged his
being in the past of his race, as it were, giving devoted study to
the most hidden emotions of the national soul. He associated with the
rabbis, philosophers, and poets whose features and forms he draws as
with companions and intimate friends. When storms are imminent in the
course of the history, he is visibly swayed by hope and fear, and
when a catastrophe has overwhelmed his people, he is bowed down with
anguish and grief. The reader sees his suffering, and cannot withhold
passionate sympathy. For instance, he trembles at the thought of
the disgrace and misfortune threatening Israel on account of the
aberrations of the pseudo-Messiah Sabbataï Zevi, and consoles himself
with the brilliant light of Jewish origin irradiating the world through
Spinoza. According to his favorite method of setting men and events
over against each other and permitting them to elucidate each other
by their very opposition, he sharply contrasts the two figures. He
represents both as the product of the Jewish passion for speculation
on the infinite, and shows how in the end both sever their connection
with Judaism; the one, lured on by the will-o’-the-wisp mysticism,
to sink into the abyss of deception and immorality; the other, borne
upward by philosophic thought, to soar to the calm but cold heights
of an ideal sage.[62] His creative, life-dispensing power wafted the
warm, liberating breath of spring over the dull apathy settling like an
icy crust on the soul-life of the Jewish brotherhood. He re-awakened
general interest in the spirit and the history of Judaism. The most
popular writer in the field of Jewish science, he could boast of
success phenomenal for a Jewish author; in a comparatively short
time, his voluminous work, apparently intended for scholars, attained
the distinction of a third, in parts even of a fourth, edition, and
in its English, French, Russian, and, last though not least, Hebrew
translations,[63] it has become the common possession of all the
author’s brethren-in-faith.

The only help extended to Graetz in the prosecution of his
comprehensive plan proceeded from the “Institute for the Promotion of
Israelitish Literature,”[64] founded in 1855 by Dr. Ludwig Philippson,
the most genial and most productive journalist among rabbis. In return
for a modest subscription price several books were issued annually,
among which a volume of Graetz’s “History” usually formed the chief
attraction. Through the “Institute,” a large circulation was secured
for the “History” from the first. The Society in turn was so dependent
upon Graetz’s work for its popularity that when, on account of a
misunderstanding with Philippson, Graetz refused to have the last
(eleventh) volume published by the “Institute,” it could not maintain
itself long.

On the other hand, there was not lack of hostility, jealousy, and
petty annoyances. His work was used everywhere, but not infrequently
without an open acknowledgment of its helpfulness. Especially at first
the faultfinders and finical critics plied their trade vigorously on
his work, as though any Talmudist considered a scholar in his small
circle needed but to dip his pen into ink to write a history superior
to Graetz’s. Even later, when recognition could not be withheld, praise
was given grudgingly, in half-hearted accents. The young theologians
of both parties, of the right and of the left wing, were indefatigable
in picking flaws of all kinds in his details. They did not realize how
effectually they were thus demonstrating his pre-eminence, and failed
to understand that so monumental a work cannot by any possible means
escape blemishes and malformations.

The “History” completed the breach between Graetz and his sometime
teacher, Samson Raphael Hirsch. The latter had left Nikolsburg
to act as the rabbi of a wealthy private congregation in
Frankfort-on-the-Main. Soon after his removal, he began to issue a
monthly journal, _Jeshurun_. In the second and third volumes of the
magazine appeared a passionate, violent review of the two parts of the
“History” then published, in which Hirsch sat in judgment on Graetz’s
heresies. The soreness of the critic is unmistakable. It is doubtful
whether his thrusts were not meant to strike the Jewish Theological
Seminary at Breslau rather than the “History.” Personal attacks usually
left Graetz unmoved, though he was in the habit of repelling them with
caustic brevity. But he never forgave hostility towards the young
institution. Thus the last slender ties that had still bound the two
men to each other were snapped asunder forever. For the rest, active
and joyous as his nature was, he did not trouble himself about his
critics, nor did they thwart the success of his work; its triumph was
complete. On the other hand, he was frankly proud of the distinction
conferred upon him by the Prussian government in making him, in
December, 1869, honorary professor of the Breslau University. This
governmental recognition went far towards compensating him for the lack
of regular professional advancement in his academic career, the sore
point in his life, at which spiteful antagonists delighted to aim their
shafts.

With the eleventh volume, published in 1870, he brought the history of
the Jews since the Maccabean struggle down to the present time (1848);
nine volumes had appeared in uninterrupted succession. To complete
and crown the work it was necessary to give an account of ancient
Jewish history covering the Biblical and three centuries and a half of
post-Biblical times. Graetz devoted scrupulous care to this portion
of his work. He considered its importance paramount, and regarded the
treatment of the early epochs as a most difficult task, requiring
for its adequate performance exegetical studies and original text
criticism. Graetz thought himself particularly qualified and endowed
for such work; it had always been his favorite pursuit. But before
attacking the history of Israel and ancient Judæa, he determined to
satisfy his longing to behold the Holy Land with his bodily eye, as he
had often sought to picture it to his mental eye. With equal force his
artistic impulse drew him to Palestine. He hoped to derive local color
and inspiration for the description of hoary events from the sight of
consecrated places, which had been their scenes and their witnesses.
As early as 1865, he had formed the plan of a journey to Palestine,
the execution of which became possible only in March, 1872, when two
friends joined him. Limited to his private resources and hampered by
consideration for his traveling companions, he was not able to make
his trip thoroughly satisfactory from a scientific point of view.
After all he obtained what he had journeyed abroad to find; he brought
back impressions, enthusiasm, inspiration. In quick succession the
two, or more accurately, three[65] parts of his work treating of the
Biblical and early post-Biblical time appeared between 1874 and 1876,
and his historical work was complete according to the plan he had
sketched for himself. It was the brilliant fulfillment of the promise
“to furnish a history of the Jews from the most ancient times to the
present day elaborated from the original sources,” which he had made
in 1854, when he began his career as an historian with the publication
of the fourth volume of his “History.” Grand in conception, clear and
perspicuous in execution, riveting attention by its charming style, the
work has not failed to find entrance into the hearts of the author’s
brethren-in-faith. It remains unsurpassed in the present, and the
future historian will realize that he cannot deviate from the great
lines laid down in it. The little blemishes and errors of various kinds
that disfigure all human creations do not affect the impression made by
the work as a whole. The discovery of hidden sources, now unsuspected,
may necessitate additions and changes in details, but the great points
of view, the pragmatic conception, the underlying thoughts, as he
deduces them from the intricate complexity of Jewish history, will
never be superseded. Graetz’s “History of the Jews,” voluminous though
it is, will forever remain an integral part of Jewish literature.


VI.

THE EXEGETE.

The first two, or rather three, parts of the “History” form the
transition to Graetz’s exegetical studies. In their excellencies as
well as in their shortcomings they betray all the characteristics of
his work in Bible exposition. Obviously Graetz had only awaited the
completion of the history of Judaism from the end of the Maccabean
struggle to the present time to enter, with all the vigor of his
intellect, upon the _second phase of his activity as a writer_, that
devoted to Bible exegesis and textual criticism. Exegetical studies,
no less than historical research, were a distinct life-aim with him.
They were begun in 1871, and continued without interruption until
unexpected death snatched the pen from his hand. To be accurate, the
second phase of his literary activity should be dated from 1869. In
that year Zacharias Frankel, wishing to devote all his energy to his
work on the so-called Jerusalem Talmud, transferred the _Monatsschrift_
to Graetz. He marked the beginning of his editorial management with
an essay on “The Ebionites in the Old Testament,”[66] the first of a
series in Old Testament exposition and Hebrew philology. In part, they
may be regarded as monographs in preparation for his history of the
Biblical times. The series was continued uninterruptedly, year after
year, until 1887, when Graetz discontinued the publication of the
_Monatsschrift_.

In view of the narrow compass of Biblical literature, comprising the
whole residue of ancient Israelitish writings and therefore the whole
treasury of the Hebrew language at our disposal, even those expounders
that cling to the word and to tradition with slavish faithfulness are
granted wide scope for individual judgments and subjective hypotheses,
depending for their acceptance not upon precise proof, but upon the
inquirer’s will and disposition. It is natural, then, that Graetz
with his strongly developed subjectivity, his delicately attuned ear,
and his gift of bold conjecture, should have reached conclusions
sharply contrasting with all accepted views and incapable of logical,
scientific demonstration. His results and explanations, the outcome
of a passionate desire for clearness and consistency, are often of
startling originality. All sorts of new questions were set on foot by
him, many fruitful suggestions may be traced to him, and he bore many
a trophy from the battlefields of textual criticism. The boldness of
his exegesis is illustrated by his treatment of the two Hagiographic
books, Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs, which, published in quick
succession in 1871, introduced him to the world as an exegete. He
attributes the composition of _Koheleth_ (or the Preacher, translation
and critical commentary)[67] to the reign of Herod, and places the
author of _Shir ha-Shirim_ (or the Song of Songs, translation and
critical commentary)[68] in the Macedonian-Syrian time. Though the
hypotheses concerning the time of the composition of the two books
and many other propositions are curious, and overwhelm the reader
by their pronounced deviation from all opinions hitherto advanced;
still it must be confessed, that the conjecture with regard to the
origin of Ecclesiastes is engaging in the extreme, and it cannot
be denied, that the translations are good and in unexceptionable
taste, that the remarks and references are instructive, and that the
older versions were used with care and attention. In the commentary
on Ecclesiastes, decidedly more valuable than that on the Song of
Songs, he offers besides interesting data with regard to the Greek
translation. Moreover, Graetz frequently adduced analogies from the
Mishna and the Talmud, made exhaustive use of whatever was advantageous
for textual criticism in the Talmudic literature, and thus brought
to light new material in such a way as to make it available for the
“higher criticism.” This, in fact, constitutes his real and permanent
distinction as an exegete.

His expositions were guided by two chief assumptions, both rooted in
the depths of his character. He held that in every Biblical work an
historical background can be discerned with more or less ease; that
even generalizations and reflections cannot conceal their connection
with special facts, which must be deduced and determined. Again, he
was of the opinion, that a contradiction or obscurity in a Biblical
passage cannot be resolved by a twisting of words and phrases or by
far-fetched analogies in remote though related idioms. They were
evidence to him that the text had come to grief, and that the original
text could be restored only by a conjecture, which might be disengaged
from the context, or patterned on a Talmudic parallel, or deduced from
older translations. He did not doubt that catastrophes, the centuries,
and perhaps also the incompetence of copyists, had mutilated the
original Bible text, and wrenched it out of shape, and he thought that
even later, when it had been fixed with scrupulous care, all sorts of
errors might have crept in.

According to these principles Graetz treated the Psalms. In 1881
he published a German translation of them, and in 1882-83 followed
a “Critical Commentary to the Psalms with Text and Translation.
2 vols.”[69] The commentary is designed on a generous scale, and
gives abundant evidences of ripe scholarship. But by the side of its
excellent features it contains many hazardous guesses and vague,
even though ingenious hypotheses. Justus Olshausen, an Orientalist
highly esteemed on account of his learning and his sobriety, who was
occupied with the critical examination of the Old Testament text for
philological purposes, says the following about the commentary on the
Psalms in a letter to the author:[70]

    “On account of its boldness your commentary will certainly arouse
    serious objections with the larger number of exegetes, themselves
    overbold in exegesis, but weak in criticism. As for me, you know
    that I am not affrighted by boldness in criticism when coupled with
    knowledge of the language and the subject-matter, with acumen,
    and, above all, with sound common sense. Doubtless, I shall not
    be able to agree with you in every case in which, overconfident
    perhaps, you may believe that you have hit upon the correct
    solution of a difficulty. That, however, does not prevent me from
    recognizing that your book, by reason of its abundance of excellent
    emendations, is a valuable addition to exegetical literature.”

Graetz undoubtedly hit upon many a happy guess, and applause was not
lacking, but in general his results met with opposition so decided
that we may surely expect a later generation to review the judgment
of our time and separate the chaff from the wheat. Not in the least
intimidated by the adverse criticism upon his exegetical methods, he
was resolved to remove the difficulties attaching to the Old Testament
language by all the means at his command. He thought himself justified
in his confidence in himself in matters of textual criticism, upon
which chiefly he concentrated his explanations in the course of
time. He grew more and more unrestrained in his efforts to restore
approximately the original text of the Bible by means of audacious
conjectures, which his sympathetic mind was never weary of devising. In
other fields he was always careful to keep in connection and in touch
with tradition; destructive tendencies were not at all characteristic
of him. But in his textual criticism he permitted his zeal to run away
with him, until he lost the solid ground of the Bible text and of
reality from under his feet. His acumen displayed and dissipated itself
chiefly in the blinding pyrotechnics of rocket-like emendations. Of
this character are his exegetical studies on the prophet Jeremiah,[71]
on the Proverbs of Solomon,[72] and his fine essay on Bible
exegesis.[73]

This kind of work was so attractive to him, that in the latter years
of his life he set about the execution of a long-cherished and widely
comprehensive plan for the critical examination and the emendation of
the text of the whole Bible. The realization of this plan was to be the
consummation and crown of his life’s labors. But he was not destined to
celebrate such unquestioned and brilliant successes in this field as
in that of history, where he had earned and received the laurels due a
pioneer. Yet, we must be careful not to underrate his exegetical and
critical achievements as to their intrinsic value and their influence.
His exegetical works and essays are replete with new points of view and
interesting suggestions. Many a germ that has since proved fruitful
can be traced to them, and they have had a lasting effect upon the
development of Bible exegesis. His works of this class, original and
important enough to fill a life of scholarly research, would suffice to
secure to their author an honorable name and a prominent place in the
history of Jewish science.


VII.

LAST YEARS.

From year to year Graetz received an increasing number of proofs of
the recognition and veneration paid him by a large circle of readers
and admirers and a growing band of friends and aspiring disciples.
But the enjoyment of his success was not to be unalloyed. In 1879 the
feeling against Jews in Germany, always on the point of breaking out,
was set free in the shape of an anti-Semitic movement, to serve as an
unfailing instrument for political agitation. Heinrich von Treitschke,
an historian characterized by patriotic ardor rather than scrupulous
adherence to word and truth, a writer with affecting, oratorical
pathos and a brilliant style at his command, soon assumed the rôle of
challenger in the fray. He was scandalized by the boasting spirit
which, he alleged, was in the ascendant in Jewish circles, and was
to be regarded as a menace to the German empire. He illustrated his
strictures by references to Graetz, who, he maintained, made use of
intemperate language in his polemics against Christianity, and in his
“History” had been guilty of applying disrespectful expressions to
the German nation.[74] Graetz replied, and Treitschke in turn made
him the subject of an article,[75] in which he tried to prove his
allegations. He quoted passages from the “History,” tearing them from
their context, and resorted to all sorts of sophistry. The leaders
of the intelligent portion of Berlin Jewry probably did not realize
the gravity of the situation. At all events, they were far from
having a clear idea of the means necessary for stemming the rapidly
swelling tide. They were disinclined, however, to suffer Treitschke’s
attacks to pass unrepulsed, for they had reason to suppose them to
be more than the venomous utterances of a professor. Thereupon H. B.
Oppenheim, a well-known politician and writer on political economy,
and highly esteemed for his disinterested and noble character, adopted
the mistaken course of sacrificing Graetz to Treitschke’s aggressive
charges without examining them. Confessedly he had not read Graetz’s
works, yet he disposed of their author summarily as “a man without
tact and fanatically one-sided, whose great learning has been rendered
nugatory by the absurdity of his practical deductions.”[76] This
peculiar defense of Judaism, to be sure, did not excite distressful
feeling in any one, but later events prove it to have been symptomatic
of the opinions and the mental constitution of the intellectual
notabilities of the Berlin Jewish community.

A Berlin Jew had been put at the head of the “Union of German
Israelitish Congregations,”[77] when its headquarters had been moved
from Leipsic to Berlin. Active and clever in practical affairs, he
invested the “Union” with dignity, and stirred it up to work and
enterprise. With his help all sorts of useful undertakings were
executed; among them, in 1885, a plan to promote the science of
Judaism, hitherto wholly neglected, along definite lines. A commission
was to be appointed to make means and sources for research into the
history of the Jews of Germany available under the protection of the
“Union.” The project was hailed with satisfaction by Jewish scholars.
It was hoped that it would eventually furnish the center from which
other scientific endeavors might radiate. All hopes of this kind were
early doomed to grievous disappointment. The leaders of the “Union”
lacked perception of the needs of the situation; they permitted an
ambitious young scholar of the Jewish faith, an “extraordinary”
professor at the University of Berlin, to become the governing spirit.
He was familiar with the mediæval government offices, and did valiant
service in the study of documents. But he was destitute of the most
elementary knowledge of Hebrew, and therefore could have no conception
of the peculiar difficulties the writer of Jewish history has to
grapple with. Besides, he had so completely identified himself with his
specialty and with the academic world of professors that a realizing
sense of the condition and needs of German Judaism was out of the
question. Under these circumstances serious mistakes were inevitable.
In the first place Graetz was disregarded, completely ignored, when
the commission which was to organize and superintend the historical
investigations was made up. The arbitrary exclusion of the only or, at
all events, the most eminent historian the Jews can boast of must be
considered a gross offense against good manners. What is more, the
good work was thereby deprived of the best and most valuable guarantee
of success. Personal animosity may have contributed to bring about the
deplorable action, but that does not alter the fact that Graetz was
most familiar with the field of work to be cultivated. None recognized
more clearly than he the desiderata[78] that occupied the attention
and guided the efforts of the scholars interested in Jewish history at
the time. Besides, he was an indefatigable, impulsive worker, and his
name was one to conjure with. The slight put upon Graetz called forth
decided ill-humor among his numerous friends and disciples, a large
portion of whom were the rabbinical heads of respected congregations.
Their irritation could not long remain without tangible effect.
Moreover, though the commission was composed of highly esteemed
scholars, among them Christians who were master historians of the
first rank, there was not one member who had attained to more than
respectable dilettanteism in his acquaintance with Jewish literature,
a thorough knowledge of which was indispensable for the proper
realization of the plan, and only one member who had given evidence
of his special interest in Jewish history by a work of note. This
exception was Professor Stobbe, a humane Christian scholar and eminent
jurist, who has described the historico-legal status of the German Jews
in “The Jews in Germany during the Middle Ages,”[79] a book that has
not yet been superseded. The absence of Jewish scholars, specifically
of Jewish historians, awakened distrust in the ability of the
commission. In fact, its achievements, as displayed in the “Journal for
the History of the Jews in Germany”[80] and in separate publications,
are far from realizing the expectations awakened by the boastful,
arrogant tone of scientific conceit in which the leaders announced
the undertaking, and are out of all proportion to the expenditures
incurred. The most ambitious production, “Documents on the History of
the Jews, etc.,”[81] is a fragment. Quietly, unnoticed, the experiment
died one day in the year 1892.[82]

The inconsiderate treatment accorded him by the Berlin coterie or other
circles did not cause Graetz much heart-ache, and whatever soreness
it may have produced was completely healed by London, whence he
received the flattering invitation to open the Anglo-Jewish Historical
Exhibition with a lecture. The honorable reception accorded him in
the English capital, the persons whose acquaintance he made, and the
impressions he carried home with him, all this refreshed him, and put
him into a buoyant frame of mind. The visit to England he accounted one
of the happiest and most enjoyable events of his life. The experiences
gathered there strengthened the hope, to which he had often given
expression, that salvation would arise for Judaism out of England and
America.

On October 31, 1887, he celebrated the seventieth anniversary of
his birth. His disciples and friends made it the occasion for an
extraordinary ovation, and from all countries and climes homage
was laid at his feet. An overwhelming number of addresses, gifts,
congratulatory letters, and poems proved that his achievements were in
the mind and his honor in the keeping of the whole body of intelligent
Jews. A particularly gratifying surprise came in the shape of a
diploma announcing that on October 27, 1888, he, the Jew, who had not
dealt leniently with the Spanish nation in his historical writings,
had been elected an honorary member of its section in history by the
Spanish Academy at Madrid.

Until the very last his body and mind retained remarkable elasticity
and vigor; time seemed to pass him by unnoticed. His indestructible
working powers and his literary fertility continued to be
astonishing.[83] Even after concentrating his efforts on exegetical
research, he was a vigilant reader of the monographs in whatever
civilized language, bearing, however remotely, on problems of the
science of Judaism. He gave the conclusions reached in them a critical
examination, and either noted them for the enrichment and correction of
a new edition of his “History,” or refuted them in special articles,
if they seemed sufficiently important. For, besides his historical and
exegetical works, in number and bulk an imposing array, he published
numberless essays and _Programmschriften_ on the most various subjects,
many of them real gems, models of clear writing and deep scholarship.
In some of them daring theories are advanced, as, for instance, the
one which he would never abandon, that the Massora originated with
the Karaites, from whose literary works the Rabbanites derived it.
The conjecture was received with a great display of indignation, but
its refutation was not equally emphatic, and it cannot be denied that
certain evidences may be interpreted in its favor.

Among his _Programmschriften_ the following deserve to be singled out:
“Visigothic Legislation with Regard to the Jews,”[84] in the annual
report of the Jewish Theological Seminary for 1858; “Frank and the
Frankists,”[85] in that for 1868; and “The Kingdom of Mesene and its
Jewish Population,”[86] in that for 1879. In the _Monatsschrift für
Geschichte und Wissenschaft des Judenthums_, of which, as mentioned
above, he was the editor from 1869, the greater part of the articles
issued from his pen. There is but one way of accounting for his
numerous achievements: he understood to perfection the art of utilizing
every moment.

Five o’clock in the morning found Graetz at his desk. Until nine he
gave uninterrupted attention to his literary work. After that hour he
was in the habit of devoting himself to his lectures. He carried on
an extensive correspondence, found leisure for all sorts of things,
and was fond of the innocent gayeties of social life. He retired late,
and in general needed but little sleep. His sound, almost invincible
nervous system was supplemented by a constitution calculated to supply
his extraordinary capacity for work with a proper physical basis. He
was of average height, and habitually bent forward his lean and spare,
but sinewy, muscular figure, built upon a strong bony frame. His face
was somewhat marred by pock-marks, but his head made a massive, unusual
impression. Soft, chestnut-brown, later gray hair, in fair though
not clustering abundance, crowned his board-like, square forehead.
His sharp, observant eyes, grayish-brown in color, betokened the
owner’s enjoyment of life, and a somewhat large, prominent nose with
its delicate nostrils, quivering like “feelers,” gave his long, oval,
bony face its characteristic searching expression. Sometimes sadness
played about his lips, but usually they were curled by mockery, irony,
and defiance, as though sarcastic words might dart out at any moment.
In point of fact, sharp satire occasionally spiced his conversation,
which, as a rule, however, was far from fulfilling the expectations
aroused by his writings. In his younger years happy moments found
him full of jokes and pranks for the delectation of his domestic
circle, and at all times he displayed unquenchable zest for life and
cheerful optimism. Love of family was a dominant trait in him. Towards
his wife his bearing was always tender and attentive, as though the
honeymoon had not passed; towards his daughter it was marked by the
perfection of gallantry; towards his sons he exercised forbearance and
self-sacrificing devotion, and his aged father he met with the filial
respect of Talmudic times. He enjoyed and cultivated intercourse with
friends. For a friend, for any person or cause that had enlisted his
sympathy, he was ready to pledge himself. Deeply moved by the sad
conditions prevalent in Palestine, he had brought thence a plan for
the education of Jewish orphans in Jerusalem. He and his traveling
companions founded a society, and he exerted himself to secure a
fund, small though it might be, for the promotion of its object. For
this purpose he took journey after journey, delivered lectures, at
first much against his inclination, in many cities, and even accepted
an invitation to go to Galicia, where he was received with joyful
demonstrations and overwhelmed with flattering homage. Encouraged by
such successes, he persisted, until he had put the society upon a
modest but secure basis, which enables it to continue its good work to
this day.

Robust and vigorous as he felt himself, he undertook in his old age
a work in which he meant to sum up his Bible studies of a critical
and exegetical character. He counted, not upon the sympathy of his
contemporaries, but upon the appreciation of a late posterity. All
subordinate occupations were dropped. In 1888 he even discontinued
the publication of the _Monatsschrift_, none of his pupils being able
then to assume the editorial management. In order to give a clear,
comprehensive review of the results of his Biblical text studies, he
proposed to print the Hebrew Bible in its entirety with emendations
and short notes justifying them. In 1891 all preparatory work was
completed, and the printing was begun. How he cherished this life-work
of his is evident from the prospectus. Contrary to his custom, he
addresses himself to his friends, and requests them to assist him in
his venture.

    “At the end of my life,” he says in the prospectus, “I have
    undertaken the laborious task of _summarizing_ the emendations
    of the text of the Holy Scriptures, the admissibility and
    justification of which no less than the necessity for which the
    accompanying prospectus sets forth.... I beg you to aid my efforts
    ... in order that the pecuniary risk incurred may not too far
    transcend my means.”

This prospectus appeared in July, 1891, and it was the last word that
issued from the author’s untiring pen for publication.

Although he was escaping the infirmities and ailments of the old,
and considered himself perfectly well, and certainly felt vigorous,
age had crept upon him insidiously. The action of his heart was so
much impaired that his physicians became anxious about his condition.
According to his annual custom he went to Carlsbad for the cure
of minor indispositions. Thence he had planned to go to Munich on
a few days’ visit to his oldest son, who occupied the position of
“extraordinary” professor of physics at the University there, and
then spend some time resting at Reichenhall with his son’s family.
Shortly before the time set for his departure from Carlsbad, where he
had not taken care of himself, he had a fainting spell of so serious
a nature that the physician urged Mrs. Graetz to return to Breslau
without delay. He considered the precaution exaggerated, and when he
finally yielded, he refused to forego the trip to Munich. There, at
his son’s house, he suffered, in the night between the sixth and the
seventh of September, a violent attack of colic. Under the influence of
opium administered by a physician the pain passed away, and he dropped
to sleep. When his wife arose early in the morning to observe his
condition, she found him lying in bed lifeless. His heart had ceased
to act, and so a life replete with work and rich in attainment had
too soon come to an end. His remains were transported to Breslau, and
three days later, in the presence of a numerous gathering of his pupils
and friends and amid demonstrations of general sympathy, they were
consigned to the grave in the Jewish cemetery.

His wife, whose days are devoted to the memory of her celebrated
husband, considered it incumbent upon her to publish his last work,
the manuscript of which was all but complete, but of which only a few
sheets had issued from the press at the time of Graetz’s death. The
editor is Professor W. Bacher of Buda-Pesth, one of Graetz’s disciples,
who has won honorable repute by his editions and his studies in the
history of Hebrew grammar and exegesis. Besides the editorial work
proper, he has been forced to supply from memoranda a considerable
piece in the Prophets, which by some mischance had gone astray. On the
whole, this critical Bible edition, by which the departed author set
great store, has been pursued by peculiar ill-luck. Unlike his other
productions it must miss the author’s pruning and correcting hand as
it passes through the press. It is doomed to appear as an incomplete
because a posthumous work. The title is: _Emendationes in plerosque
Sacræ Scripturæ Veteris Testamente libros secundum veterum versiones
nec non auxiliis criticis cæteris adhibitis. Ex relicto defuncti
auctoris manuscripto edidit Guil. Bacher. 3 Pts. Breslau, 1892-1894._
The Hebrew text of the Bible is treated boldly and subjectively. But it
remains for a later generation to pass final judgment upon the value of
Graetz’s contributions to the critical determination of the Bible text.
There can be no doubt that Graetz was as much a master in the field of
exegesis as in that of history.

The time will come when his contemporaries will be envied for the
privilege of having stood face to face with one so great and noble.
Those days, to be sure, will not know the grief and sorrow that befell
us when unexpectedly and without warning the revered teacher was
removed from our sight. Still less will there be a suspicion of the
self-reproaches that assail us too late for having frequently had a
keen eye for the detection of minute shortcomings and inadequacies, the
inherent foibles of the human kind, rather than a willing, attentive
ear to listen to the suggestions and solutions so lavishly offered.
After all, the most beautiful blossoms put forth by him, the best
fruits produced by his mind, are in his writings; he that can read may
enjoy them.

       *       *       *       *       *

    NOTE.--While this _Memoir_ was passing through the press, the
    commission on the history of the Jews of Germany, spoken of on pp.
    78-80, after five years of inactivity again showed signs of life in
    the form of a valuable publication by a rabbi: _Das Martyrologium
    des Nürnberger Memorbuches_ by Dr. S. Salfeld. At the same time,
    the promise of the completion of _Die Regesten zur Geschichte der
    Juden, etc._, is held out.



TABLES OF JEWISH HISTORY.


CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF JEWISH HISTORY.

  PERIOD                                                        PAGE
      I.  The Patriarchal Age                                     90

     II.  The Exodus                                              90

    III.  The Conquest of Canaan                                  90

     IV.  The Era of the Judges                                   90

      V.  The Kingdom (1067-977 B. C. E.)                         91

     VI.  Judah and Israel until the Capture of Samaria
            (977-719 B. C. E.)                                    92

    VII.  Judah until the Destruction of Jerusalem (719-586
            B. C. E.)                                             94

   VIII.  The Captivity (586-516 B. C. E.)                        95

     IX.  The Age of Ezra, Nehemiah, and the Scribes (516-332
            B. C. E.)                                             96

      X.  The Age of the Ptolemies and the Seleucidæ to
            Antiochus IV (332-175 B. C. E.)                       97

     XI.  The Age of the Maccabees (175-140 B. C. E.)             98

    XII.  The Hasmonæan Dynasty (140-37 B. C. E.)                100

   XIII.  The Herodian Dynasty (37 B. C. E.-72 C. E.)            102

    XIV.  The Epoch of the Mishna and the Tanaites
            (72-219 C. E.)                                       104

     XV.  The Epoch of the Talmud, the Amoraim, and the
            Saboraim (219-550 C. E.)                             106

    XVI.  From the Completion of the Talmud to the End of
            the Gaonate (550-1038 C. E.)                         108

   XVII.  The Age of Gebirol, Halevi, Rashi, and Maimonides
            (1038-1204 C. E.)                                    111

  XVIII.  From the Death of Maimonides to the Expulsion
            from Spain (1204-1492 C. E.)                         114

    XIX.  From the Expulsion from Spain to the Persecution
            in Poland (1492-1648 C. E.)                          120

     XX.  From the Persecution in Poland to the Present Time
           (1648-1873 C. E.)                                     123


I. THE PATRIARCHAL AGE.

B.C.E.

  1500 (about).     =Abraham= leaves Ur of the Chaldees.

                    Supreme power of _Joseph_ in Egypt.

                    _Jacob_ and his household occupy Goshen in Egypt.


II. THE EXODUS.

                    Birth of =Moses=.

                    The =Exodus=.

                    =Revelation at Mount Sinai.=

                    Worship of the Golden Calf.

                    Rebellion of Korah.

                    Death of Miriam and AARON.

                    The Israelites defeat the Emorite king Sihon at
                      Jahaz.

                    Og, king of Bashan, defeated at Edreï.

                    The prophecy of Balaam.

                    Reuben, Gad, and half of Manasseh settle in the land
                      east of the Jordan (Peræa).

                    DEATH OF MOSES.


III. THE CONQUEST OF CANAAN.

                    Leadership of JOSHUA.

                    Passage of the Jordan.

                    Capture of Jericho.

                    Submission of the Gibeonites.

                    Division of the land among the tribes.

                    The _Jebusites_ and others permitted to keep their
                      territory.

                    The TABERNACLE at Shiloh.

                    Death of Joshua.


IV. THE ERA OF THE JUDGES.

JUDGES.

  1. Othniel,
  2. Ehud,
  3. Shamgar,
  4. Deborah and Barak,
  5. Gideon,
  6. Abimelech,
  7. Thola,
  8. Jair,
  9. Jephthah,
  10. Samson,
  11. Ibzon,
  12. Elon,
  13. Abdon,
  14. Eli,
  15. Samuel.

                    Othniel delivers the southern tribes from an
                      Idumæan king.

                    Ehud routs Eglon, king of Moab.

                    Shamgar opposes the Philistines.

                    DEBORAH and Barak defeat Sisera, Jabin’s general,
                       at Mount Tabor.

                    GIDEON routs the Midianites under Zebah and
                       Zalmunna.

                    Abimelech leader of the Shechemites.

                    JEPHTHAH repulses the Ammonites in the
                      trans-Jordanic provinces.

                    SAMSON keeps the Philistines at bay.

                    Eli, priest and judge.

                    The Ark captured by the Philistines at Aphek.

                    =Samuel=, judge and prophet.

                    Levitical and prophetical schools formed.


V. THE KINGDOM.

(1067-977 B. C. E.)

KINGS.

  Saul,      David,      Solomon.

  =1067.=           =Saul= anointed king.

                    The Philistines defeated at Michmash.

                    Jabesh-Gilead saved from the Ammonites.

                    Agag, king of Amalek, defeated.

                    =David= anointed king.

                    The Gibeonites massacred by order of Saul.

                    David slays Goliath.

                    David flees before Saul, and leads the life of an
                      outlaw. He is on friendly terms with the king of
                      Moab, with Nahash, the Ammonite king, and Achish,
                      the Philistine king.

                    ZADOK high priest.

  1055.             Saul and Jonathan die in a battle with the
                      Philistines near Mount Gilboa.

  1055.             David king of Judah; Ishbosheth king of the
                      trans-Jordanic tribes.

  1051-1049.        Civil war between the houses of Saul and David.

                    _David sole king_ of the whole people; reigns at
                      Hebron for seven years.

                    Nathan and Gad prophets.

                    Jerusalem made the capital after the conquest of
                      the Jebusites.

                    The Philistines defeated at Mount Baal-Perazim.

                    Abiathar high priest in Jerusalem; Zadok in Gibeon.

                    The descendants of Saul, except Mephibosheth,
                      killed by the Gibeonites.

                    David victorious over Moabites, Ammonites, and
                      others.

                    Revolt of Absalom.

                    Sheba’s insurrection.

                    =Solomon= anointed king by Nathan.

  1015.             Death of David; succession of Solomon.

  1014.             Solomon begins the first Temple.

                    Zadok sole high priest.

  1007.             THE FIRST TEMPLE CONSECRATED.

                    Solomon establishes a fleet. Roads built. Commerce
                      extended. Foreign alliances.

                    The kingdom at its greatest extent. Literature
                      flourishes. Idolatry introduced.

                    Rebellion of JEROBOAM.

  977.              Death of Solomon.


VI. JUDAH AND ISRAEL UNTIL THE CAPTURE OF SAMARIA.

(977-719 B. C. E.)

(_See the Table of the Kings of Judah and Israel, p. 127._)

  =977.=            Rehoboam king of Judah.

                    Jeroboam king of Israel; rules at Shechem.

                    Rehoboam allies himself with the king of Damascus.

                    Shemaiah, prophet, averts a civil war.

  972.              Shishak, king of Egypt, ally of Jeroboam, enters
                      Jerusalem.

                    Jeroboam institutes calf-worship at Bethel and Dan;
                      Ahijah prophet.

  960.              Abijam, son of Rehoboam, king of Judah.

  957.              Asa, son of Rehoboam, king of Judah.

  955.              Nadab, son of Jeroboam, king of Israel.

  954.              Baasha destroys the house of Jeroboam, and rules at
                      Tirzah.

                    Asa forbids the worship of Astarte in Judah.

                    Baasha, assisted by Ethiopians and Syrians, makes
                      war upon Asa.

  933.              Elah, son of Baasha, king of Israel.

  932.              The house of Baasha exterminated by Zimri.

  932-928.          Civil war between Omri and Tibni.

  928.              Omri, the first king in Samaria, introduces the
                      worship of Baal and Astarte.

                    Alliance between Israel and Phœnicia. Jezebel
                      marries Ahab.

  922.              AHAB king of Israel.

  920 (about).      =Elijah= and the prophets persecuted by Jezebel.

  918.              Jehoshaphat king of Judah.

                    Micah (I) (Michaiah) prophesies.

  904.              Ahab victorious over Ben-hadad II, king of Aram
                      (Syria).

                    Alliance between Jehoshaphat and Ahab.

  901.              Ahaziah, son of Ahab, king of Israel.

  899.              Jehoram, son of Ahab, king of Israel.

                    Jehoram and Jehoshaphat defeat Mesa of Moab.

  894.              Joram, son of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah.

  888.              Ahaziah, son of Joram and Athaliah, king of Judah.

                    _Elisha_ and Jehu.

  887.              Jehu kills Jehoram and exterminates the house of
                      Omri; his followers kill Ahaziah.

                    Jehu king of Israel.

                    Athaliah queen of Judah; she has male members of the
                      house of David executed.

  881.              JOASH, son of Ahaziah, only surviving male
                      descendant of David in the direct line, king of
                      Judah.

  864.              The Temple repaired.

                    Hazael, king of Syria, conquers the trans-Jordanic
                      provinces of Israel.

  860.              Jehoahaz, son of Jehu, king of Israel.

                    Joash submits to Hazael.

  845.              Jehoash, son of Jehoahaz, king of Israel.

                    Samaria besieged by Ben-hadad III; Jehoash
                      victorious.

  843.              Amaziah, son of Joash, king of Judah.

                    Amaziah victorious over the Idumæans.

  840.              Death of Elisha.

                    Amaziah of Judah taken prisoner by Jehoash of Israel
                      at Beth-Shemesh; Jerusalem ransacked and its walls
                      destroyed.

  830.              Jeroboam II, son of Jehoash, king of Israel.

                    Jeroboam II re-conquers districts taken by the
                      Aramæans.

                    _Jonah_ prophesies.

  815.              Amaziah killed at Lachish.

                    The Idumæans invade Judah, and sell Judæan captives
                      as slaves. _First dispersion of Judæans._

  805.              Uzziah, son of Amaziah, king of Judah.

                    Earthquake and drouth.

                    Uzziah re-conquers districts lost since Solomon’s
                      time.

                    Jeroboam II takes Damascus and Hamath; peoples
                      become tributary to him.

                    Luxury in Samaria under Jeroboam II.

  800(about).       _Amos_, _Joel_, and _Hosea (I)_ prophesy.

  769.              Zechariah, son of Jeroboam II, king of Judah.

  768.              Shallum kills Zechariah and exterminates the house
                      of Jehu.

                    Shallum king of Israel.

  768.              Menahem kills Shallum and reigns over Israel.

                    Uzziah usurps the offices of the high priest in the
                      Temple.

                    _Pul, king of Assyria, invades the kingdom of
                      Israel_, acquires booty, and carries off
                      prisoners.

  757.              Pekahiah, son of Menahem, king of Israel.

  756.              Pekah kills Pekahiah.

  755.              Pekah king of Israel.

                    =Isaiah= utters his first prophecy.

  754.              Jotham, son of Uzziah, king of Judah.

                    _Zechariah (I)_ prophesies.

  739.              Ahaz, son of Jotham, king of Judah.

                    Pekah allies himself with Rezin of Damascus against
                      Tiglath-pileser II.

                    Ahaz disregards the warning of Isaiah and offers to
                      become a vassal of Tiglath-pileser II.

  738.              FIRST DEPORTATION OF ISRAELITISH CAPTIVES TO
                      ASSYRIA by Tiglath-pileser II.

                    Ahaz introduces Assyrian worship into Judah.

                    _Micah (II)_ prophesies.

  736.              Pekah killed by Hoshea.

  727.              _Hoshea_ last king of Israel.

                    Shalmaneser IV, king of Assyria, invades Israel.

                    Hosea (II) prophesies.

                    Hoshea refuses the yearly tribute to Shalmaneser IV.

  724.              HEZEKIAH, son of Ahaz, king of Judah.

  =719.=            Shalmaneser IV =captures Samaria=, puts an end to
                      the kingdom of Israel, and DEPORTS MOST OF ITS
                      SUBJECTS--THE SO-CALLED =Ten Lost Tribes=--TO
                      ASSYRIAN PROVINCES.


VII. JUDAH UNTIL THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM.

(719-586 B. C. E.)

(_See the Table of the Kings of Judah and Israel, p. 127._)

                    Hezekiah tries to banish idolatry.

                    Isaiah advises neutrality between Assyria and Egypt.

                    Shebna dictates the foreign policy.

                    Micah and Isaiah predict a glorious future for
                      Israel.

  711(about).       Sennacherib invades Judah and demands tribute.
                      Destruction of the Assyrian army.

                    Hezekiah makes a treaty with Merodach-baladan, king
                      of Babylon.

                    Literature flourishes.

  695.              Manasseh, son of Hezekiah, king of Judah.

                    Idolatry flourishes.

                    Esarhaddon, king of Assyria, takes Manasseh captive.

                    Manasseh restored.

                    Esarhaddon COLONIZES SAMARIA WITH CUTHÆANS.

  640.              Amon, son of Manasseh, king of Judah.

  638.              JOSIAH, son of Amon, king of Judah.

                    _Zephaniah_ prophesies.

                    Scythian invasion of Judah.

  627.              Josiah repairs the Temple.

                    =Jeremiah= (b. 645-640, d. 580-570) prophesies.

  621.              Hilkiah, high priest, finds a copy of the =Book
                      of the Law= in the Temple.

                    Huldah prophesies.

  608.              Necho, king of Egypt, _defeats Josiah at Megiddo_;
                      Josiah killed.

                    Jehoahaz (Shallum), second son of Josiah, king of
                      Judah.

  607.              Jehoiakim (Eliakim), oldest son of Josiah, made
                      king by Necho.

                    Idolatry flourishes. _Habakkuk_ prophesies.

  607-604           Uriah, prophet, beheaded.

                    Jeremiah’s life imperiled; Baruch his secretary.

  600.              Jehoiakim pays tribute to Nebuchadnezzar, king of
                      Babylon.

  598.              Jehoiakim allies himself with Egypt against
                      Nebuchadnezzar.

  596.              Jehoiachin, youngest son of Jehoiakim, king of
                      Judah.

                    Judah overrun by Nebuchadnezzar, Jerusalem
                      besieged by a Babylonian general,
                      Jehoiachin taken prisoner. FIRST DEPORTATION OF
                      JUDÆANS TO BABYLONIA.

  596.              Nebuchadnezzar makes Zedekiah (Mattaniah),
                      youngest son of Josiah, king of Judah.

  593.              Jeremiah advises submission to Nebuchadnezzar.

  591.              Zedekiah renounces allegiance to Babylonia.

  587.              THE FINAL SIEGE OF JERUSALEM BEGUN.

                    The siege of Jerusalem interrupted by the battle
                      between the Chaldæan army and Hophra, king of
                      Egypt.

  586, Tammuz 9.    First breach in the walls of Jerusalem.

                    Zedekiah taken prisoner and blinded; Seraiah, high
                      priest, and others beheaded by Nebuchadnezzar
                      at Riblah.

  =586=, Ab. 9.     =The Temple razed=, and =Jerusalem destroyed= by
                      Nebuzaradan, general of Nebuchadnezzar.

                    Second deportation of Judæans to Babylonia.


VIII. THE CAPTIVITY.

(586-516 B. C. E.)

BABYLONIAN KINGS.

  605. Nebuchadnezzar,
  561. Evil-merodach,
  559. Neriglissar,
  556. Laborosoarchod,
  555. Nabonad and Belshazzar.

PERSIAN KINGS.

  558. Cyrus,
  529. Cambyses,
  522. Pseudo-Smerdis,
  521. Darius I Hystaspis.

  586.              Gedaliah appointed governor of the remnant of Judah
                      by Nebuchadnezzar.

  586.              Jeremiah at Mizpah with Gedaliah.

                    Gedaliah murdered by Ishmael, son of Nethaniah.

                    Obadiah prophesies against Edom, which possesses
                      itself of southern Judæa.

                    Jeremiah and Baruch in Egypt with Johanan, son of
                      Kareah.

  582.              THIRD DEPORTATION OF JUDÆANS TO BABYLONIA by
                      Nebuchadnezzar.

                    =Ezekiel= (620-570) prophesies.

  561(about).       Jehoiachin honored by Evil-merodach.

                    _Descendants of the Ten Tribes deported by the
                      Assyrian kings mingle with the captives from
                      Judah._

  555(about).       The historical books of the Bible compiled in
                      Babylonia; literature flourishes.

                    Nabonad of Babylonia persecutes the exiles.

                    The =Babylonian Isaiah= prophesies.

  538.              CYRUS takes Babylon, and PERMITS THE EXILES
                      IN BABYLONIA TO RETURN TO PALESTINE.

  537.              ZERUBBABEL AND JOSHUA BEN JEHOZEDEK LEAD THE FIRST
                      RETURN.

                    Foundation of the second Temple laid.

  520.              _Haggai_ and _Zechariah (II)_ prophesy.

  516.              THE SECOND TEMPLE CONSECRATED.


IX. THE AGE OF EZRA, NEHEMIAH, AND THE SCRIBES.

(516-332 B. C. E.)

PERSIAN KINGS.

  521. Darius I Hystaspis,
  486. Xerxes I,
  465. Artaxerxes I Longimanus,
  425. Xerxes II,
  425. Sogdianus,
  425. Darius II Nothus,
  405. Artaxerxes II Mnemon,
  359. Artaxerxes III Ochus,
  338. Arses,
  336. Darius III Codomannus.

                    The Samaritans accuse the Judæans of disloyalty to
                      Persia.

                    The Judæans contract marriages with their heathen
                      neighbors.

  459.              EZRA LEADS THE SECOND RETURN with the permission
                      of Artaxerxes I Longimanus.

  457(about).       _Ezra prevails upon the people to repudiate their
                      heathen wives._

                    The Samaritans under Sanballat engage in
                      hostilities against the Judæans.

  444.              NEHEMIAH LEADS THE THIRD RETURN.

                    The Samaritans intrigue against Nehemiah.

                    Internal reforms by Nehemiah.

                    _Ezra reads the Law to the people at Jerusalem._

                    The wall of Jerusalem rebuilt.

                    Beginnings of the GREAT ASSEMBLY (Keneseth
                      ha-Gedolah).

  432.              Nehemiah returns to Persia.

                    MALACHI THE LAST OF THE PROPHETS.

  430-424.          Nehemiah returns to Jerusalem, and continues his
                      reforms.

  420(about).       The Samaritan Temple built on Mount Gerizim.

                    _Synagogues established_; _the Law studied_, and the
                      _present form of divine service introduced_,
                      probably by the Council of Seventy (Synhedrion)
                      (_Dibre Sopherim_).

  361-360.          Artaxerxes II banishes Judæans to Hyrkania.

  338(about).       Bagoas, general of Artaxerxes III, lays the Judæans
                      under tribute.

                    The Books of Chronicles written.

  332.              _Alexander the Great in Judæa._


X. THE AGE OF THE PTOLEMIES AND THE SELEUCIDÆ TO ANTIOCHUS IV.

(332-175 B. C. E.)

(_See the Table of the High Priests, p. 128._)

EGYPTIAN KINGS.

  323. Ptolemy I Soter,
  285. Ptolemy II Philadelphus,
  247. Ptolemy III Euergetes,
  222. Ptolemy IV Philopator,
  205. Ptolemy V Epiphanes,
  181. Ptolemy VI Philometor.

SYRIAN KINGS.

  312. Seleucus I Nicator,
  280. Antiochus I Soter,
  261. Antiochus II Theos,
  246. Seleucus II Callinicos,
  226. Seleucus III Ceraunus,
  223. Antiochus III the Great,
  187. Seleucus IV Philopator.

  323.              Death of Alexander the Great.

  320.              Jerusalem entered by Ptolemy I Soter. A large
                      number of Judæan prisoners carried to Egypt.

  312.              THE BEGINNING OF THE SELEUCIDÆAN ERA (Battle of
                      Gaza).

  301.              Judæa, a subdivision of Cœlesyria, tributary to
                      Egypt (Battle of Ipsus); the high priest the
                      political chief. Judæan colonies in
                      Græco-Macedonian countries; Greek colonies in
                      Judæa.

  300(about).       SIMON THE JUST high priest and the last of the MEN
                      OF THE GREAT ASSEMBLY.

  240.              After a struggle between the Ptolemies and the
                      Seleucidæ, Cœlesyria again adjudged to Egypt.

                    Onias II, high priest, refuses to pay tribute to
                      Egypt.

  230(about).       _Joseph, son of Tobiah_, and grandson of Simon the
                      Just, represents the Judæans at the court of
                      Ptolemy III Euergetes and Ptolemy IV Philopator,
                      and is made farmer of taxes.

                    Joseph introduces _Greek feasts and games at
                      Jerusalem_.

  218.              Judæa sides with Egypt against Antiochus III the
                      Great.

  209(about).       Hyrcanus, son of Joseph, Judæan representative at
                      the court of the Ptolemies.

                    The “Song of Songs” composed.

  203.              The Tobiades, the elder brothers of Hyrcanus,
                      Syrian partisans. Judæa tributary to Antiochus III
                      the Great.

                    The HELLENISTS and the CHASSIDIM (Assidæans) begin
                      to oppose each other.

  200(about).       _Jesus Sirach_ writes the apocryphal book
                      _Ecclesiasticus_.

  176(about).       Heliodorus, treasurer to Seleucus IV Philopator,
                      attempts to confiscate the Temple treasures.


XI. THE AGE OF THE MACCABEES.

(175-140 B. C. E.)

(_See the Table of the High Priests, p. 128._)

EGYPTIAN KINGS.

  181. Ptolemy VI Philometor,
  146. Ptolemy VII Physcon _and_ Ptolemy VIII Lathurus.

SYRIAN KINGS.

  175. Antiochus IV Epiphanes,
  164. Antiochus V Eupator,
  162. Demetrius I Soter,
  150. Alexander I Balas,
  146. Demetrius II Nicator _and_ Antiochus VI (son of Alexander Balas),
       Diodotus Tryphon, _and_ Antiochus VII Sidetes.

  175.              Antiochus IV Epiphanes ascends the throne of Syria.

  174.              The Hellenists induce Antiochus IV to divest Onias
                      III of the high-priestly dignity, and under Jason
                      obtain citizenship for Judæans
                      trained for the Greek combats.

                    Gymnasiums and the Greek games at Jerusalem.

  172.              Menelaus (Onias) the Benjamite made high priest by
                      Antiochus IV.

  171.              Death of Onias III; Menelaus guilty of Temple
                      robbery, but exonerated by Antiochus IV.

  168.              Antiochus IV attacks Jerusalem, and desecrates the
                      Holy of Holies.

  168, Tammuz 17.   A STATUE OF JUPITER PLACED IN THE TEMPLE by the
                      Syrians.

                    The Chassidim suffer martyrdom.

                    _Mattathias the Hasmonæan resists the Syrian
                      overseer._

  =167.=            =Judas Maccabæus= victorious in his first battle
                      with the Syrians under Apollonius.

  166.              Judas Maccabæus victorious over Heron at Beth-horon.

                    The Book of Daniel written.

                    Judas Maccabæus victorious over Gorgias at Emmaus.

  165.              Judas Maccabæus victorious over Lysias at Bethzur.

  165, Kislev 25.   THE TEMPLE RE-DEDICATED (Chanukah).

                    Judas Maccabæus and his brothers victorious over the
                      Idumæans, Ammonites, and Philistines.

  164.              Death of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.

  163.              Judas Maccabæus retreats before Lysias at
                      Beth-Zachariah; his brother Eleazar Hauran killed.

                    Jerusalem besieged by Lysias.

                    Judas Maccabæus high priest.

  162(about).       The _Onias Temple_ built at Leontopolis in Egypt by
                      Onias IV, son of Onias III, the first _Alabarch_.

                    The Hellenists calumniate Judas Maccabæus before
                      Demetrius I. Alcimus made high priest. Factions
                      under Judas and Alcimus.

  160.              Judas Maccabæus victorious over Nicanor at
                      Caphar-Salama and Adarsa. _He makes overtures to
                      the Romans._

                    The Judæans defeated at Eleasa by the Syrians under
                      Bacchides; JUDAS MACCABÆUS KILLED.

                    Parties in Judæa: Chassidim, Hasmonæans, Hellenists.

                    _Jonathan Haphus_, brother of Judas, defends himself
                      unsuccessfully against Bacchides; his brother
                      Johanan Gadi killed in a skirmish with the Bene
                      Amri.

  159.              Judæa evacuated by the Syrians.

  157.              The Syrian war renewed at the instigation of the
                      Hellenists.

  152.              Jonathan Haphus high priest; his friendship sought
                      by Demetrius I and Alexander Balas.

  152-143.          The Judæans under Jonathan Haphus participate in the
                      struggles between Alexander Balas, his son
                      Antiochus VI, Diodotus Tryphon, and Demetrius II
                      for the Syrian crown.

  =150=(about).     The Pentateuch translated into Greek: =the
                      Septuagint=.

  143.              Jonathan Haphus executed by Diodotus Tryphon.

  143.              Simon Tharsi, last of the Hasmonæan brothers, made
                      high priest and leader by the people.

  141.              End of the Hellenist party.

  140.              JUDÆA AND ROME ALLIES.


XII. THE HASMONÆAN DYNASTY.

(140-37 B. C. E.)

(_See the Genealogical Table of the Hasmonæan Dynasty, p. 130._)

EGYPTIAN KINGS.

  146. Ptolemy VII Physcon _and_ Ptolemy VIII,

  117. Ptolemy VIII Lathurus _and_ Alexander I,

   81. Alexander II,

   80. Ptolemy IX Auletes,

   51. Ptolemy X _and_ Cleopatra VI,

   47. Cleopatra VI [_and_ Ptolemy XI _and_ Ptolemy XII],

   30. Egypt a Roman Province.

SYRIAN KINGS.

  137. Antiochus VII Sidetes (_alone_),

  128. Demetrius II (_restored_) _and_ Alexander II Zabina,

  125. Seleucus V,

  125. Antiochus VIII Grypus _and_ Antiochus IX Cyzicenus,

   95. Seleucus VI, Antiochus X Eusebes, Philip, Demetrius III
         Eucærus, Antiochus XI Epiphanes, Antiochus XII Dionysius,

   83. Tigranes, king of Armenia,

   69. Antiochus XII Asiaticus,

   64. Syria a Roman Province.

B.C.E.

  140.              Simon made hereditary high priest and Nassi
                      (Prince).

  139.              Simon stamps coins by permission of Antiochus VII
                      Sidetes.

                    Cendebæus, general of Antiochus Sidetes, makes war
                      upon Simon.

  135.              Simon slain by his son-in-law; accession of JOHN
                      HYRCANUS I.

  135-123.          Wars with the rulers of the Seleucidæan house.

  133(about).       Embassy to Rome. Rome calls upon Antiochus VII to
                      make restitution to Judæa.

  120(about).       Samaria reduced; the Temple on Mount Gerizim
                      destroyed.

                    _Conquest of the Idumæans and their conversion to
                      Judaism._

                    John Hyrcanus again appeals to Rome in his
                      difficulties with Antiochus IX Cyzicenus.

                    John Hyrcanus victorious over the allies, Antiochus
                      IX Cyzicenus and Ptolemy VIII Lathurus.

  109.              Samaria destroyed; Judæa at the height of
                      prosperity; John Hyrcanus has coins struck.

                    Formation of the three sects: =Pharisees=,
                      =Sadducees=, =Essenes=; outbreak of hostilities
                      between the Pharisees and the Sadducees.

  106.              Accession of Aristobulus I. Discord in the family of
                      the king.

                    War with the Ituræans and Trachonites; Judæa
                      enlarged.

  105.              Accession of _Alexander (I) Jannæus_.

  98-96.            The seaport towns taken by Ptolemy VIII Lathurus
                      regained with the help of the Egyptian king’s
                      mother.

  94-89.            Contentions between the Pharisees and the Sadducees;
                      Alexander Jannæus opposed to the Pharisees.
                      800 Pharisees executed.

                    Alexander Jannæus adds trans-Jordanic territory to
                      Judæa.

  79.               _Salome Alexandra_, wife of Alexander Jannæus,
                      ascends the throne.

                    SIMON BEN SHETACH and JUDAH BEN TABBAI, Pharisee
                      leaders, reorganize the Synhedrion, and exclude
                      the Sadducæans. The queen favors the Pharisees.

  70.               Accession of _Hyrcanus II_.

  69.               Aristobulus II co-regent; quarrels between the
                      brothers.

                    _Antipater the Idumæan_ becomes the counselor of
                      Hyrcanus II.

  66.               Aretas, king of the Nabathæans, ally of Hyrcanus
                      II against Aristobulus II, takes Jerusalem.

                    Scaurus, the Roman legate, at the instance of
                      Aristobulus II, forces Aretas to raise the siege
                      of Jerusalem.

  63.               _Pompey captures Jerusalem_; Hyrcanus II made
                      Ethnarch; Aristobulus II a prisoner.

                    Alexander (II), son of Aristobulus II, enters
                      Jerusalem; subdued by Aulus Gabinius, Roman
                      governor of Syria.

  60.               _Shemaya_ and _Abtalion_ presidents of the
                      Synhedrion.

  56.               Aristobulus II escapes from Rome, opposes the Romans
                      in Judæa, and is taken captive a second time.

  55.               Alexander (II) routed by the Romans at Mount Tabor.

  53.               CRASSUS PLUNDERS THE TEMPLE.

                    Aristobulus II, set free by Julius Cæsar, is
                      poisoned by the followers of Pompey; Alexander
                      (II) decapitated.

  47.               At the petition of Antipater, Cæsar proclaims
                      Hyrcanus II high priest and Ethnarch.

                    The _Judæans of Alexandria_ governed by their own
                      Ethnarch, or _Alabarch_.

                    Phasael, oldest son of Antipater, governor of
                      Jerusalem; HEROD, second son of Antipater,
                      governor of Galilee.

                    Ezekias of Galilee decapitated by Herod.

                    Herod before the Synhedrion, protected by Hyrcanus
                      II; made governor of Cœlesyria by Sextus
                      Cæsar, Roman governor of Syria.

  43.               Antipater poisoned.

  42.               Herod and Phasael made Tetrarchs by Mark Antony.

  40.               Barzaphernes, Parthian general, takes Jerusalem,
                      proclaims Antigonus king, and incapacitates
                      Hyrcanus II for the high-priestly office by
                      mutilating his ears.

                    HEROD PROCLAIMED KING BY THE ROMAN SENATE.

  37.               _Herod marries Mariamne_, granddaughter of Hyrcanus
                      II.

                    Jerusalem besieged and taken by Herod and Sosius,
                      Mark Antony’s general; Antigonus executed.


XIII. THE HERODIAN DYNASTY.

(37 B. C. E.-72 C. E.)

(_See the Genealogical Table of the Herodian Dynasty, p. 134, and the
Table of the High Priests, p. 129._)

EMPERORS OF ROME.

  B. C. E. 31. Augustus,
     C. E. 14. Tiberius,
           37. Caligula,
           41. Claudius,
           54. Nero,
           68. Galba,
           69. Otho,
           69. Vitellius,
        69-79. Vespasian.

PROCURATORS OF JUDÆA.

(Subalterns to the Roman Legates or the Governors of Syria.)

  C. E. 6. Coponius,
        9. Marcus Ambivius,
       13. Annius Rufus,
       15. Valerius Gratus,
       26. Pontius Pilate,
       36. Marcellus (?)
       37. Marullus (?)
      [41. _Agrippa I king_],
       44. Cuspius Fadus,
       47. Tiberius Julius Alexander,
       48. Cumanus,
       52. Felix,
       60. Festus,
       62. Albinus,
    64-66. Gessius Florus.

  =37.=             =Herod I king.=

  35.               _Aristobulus (III)_, brother of Mariamne, high
                      priest, _killed_ by order of Herod.

  31.               Hyrcanus II executed.

  30(about).        HILLEL president of the Synhedrion; SHAMMAI deputy.

                    Herod in favor with Augustus, the first Roman
                      emperor.

  29.               _Mariamne executed._

  20(about).        _Herod rebuilds the Temple._

                    Asinai and Anilai found a small Jewish state in
                      Nahardea.

  6.                Execution of Mariamne’s sons, Alexander and
                      Aristobulus.

  4.                Death of Herod. _Archelaus_ possessor of Judæa and
                      Samaria; _Herod Antipas_ Tetrarch of Galilee and
                      Peræa; (Herod) Philip II Tetrarch of Gaulanitis,
                      Batanæa, Trachonitis, and Panias.

  3.                Revolt against Archelaus; the “War Period of Varus,”
                      governor of Syria. Leadership of _Judas the
                      Galilean, founder of the Zealots_.

  2.                Archelaus recognized as Ethnarch by Augustus.

  C.E.

  6.                Archelaus deposed; Judæa a Roman province; Coponius
                      _the first procurator_; Quirinius, governor of
                      Syria, takes a census for purposes of taxation.

  18 (about).       Izates and Helen of Adiabene embrace Judaism.
                      Conversions to Judaism in Rome.

  26.               _Pontius Pilate_ procurator.

                    _John the Baptist._

  =30= (about).     JESUS OF NAZARETH. =Rise of Christianity.=

  33.               Philip’s tetrarchy falls to Rome.

  37.               _Agrippa I_, favorite of Caligula, made king of
                      Philip’s tetrarchy.

  38.               The Jews of Alexandria persecuted by Flaccus.

  40.               PHILO JUDÆUS, ambassador to Caligula. The
                      emperor’s statue set up in the Temple.

                    Herod Antipas deposed; his tetrarchy added to King
                      Agrippa I’s territory.

  41.               Claudius restores the Alabarchate in Alexandria to
                      _Alexander Lysimachus_, brother of Philo.

                    AGRIPPA I receives Judæa and Galilee, Archelaus’
                      possessions, from Claudius, and IS KING OF THE
                      WHOLE OF PALESTINE.

                    GAMALIEL I THE ELDER, president of the Synhedrion.

  43.               Helen of Adiabene in Jerusalem.

  44.               Death of Agrippa I. _Herod II, prince of Chalcis,
                      titular king of Judæa._

                    Theudas, a false Messiah.

  48.               SAUL OF TARSUS, THE APOSTLE PAUL, converts the
                      heathen to Christianity. Death of Herod II.

  49.               AGRIPPA II, prince of Chalcis, TITULAR KING OF
                      JUDÆA.

                    _The Zealots and the Sicarii_ commit depredations.

  52.               Hostilities between Jews and the heathen at Cæsarea.

  53.               Agrippa II king of Philip’s tetrarchy.

  63.               _Joshua ben Gamala_, high priest, establishes
                      =elementary schools= in Judæa.

  64.               _Gessius Florus_, the last of the procurators.

  66.               The census taken by Cestus Gallus, governor of
                      Syria, at Jerusalem; the _Passover of the
                      Crushing_.

                    Renewed hostilities between the Jews and the heathen
                      of Cæsarea.

                    REBELLION AGAINST GESSIUS FLORUS in Jerusalem; the
                      Zealots under Eleazar ben Ananias.

                    End of the Roman garrison in Jerusalem.

                    Race hostilities between the Jews and the heathen in
                      Judæa, Syria, and Alexandria.

                    Cestius Gallus besieges Jerusalem.

                    Cestius Gallus retires from Jerusalem; Judæa ruled
                      by the Synhedrion, Simon II ben Gamaliel
                      president.

  66.               The prohibition of “_The Eighteen Things_” enacted
                      by the school of Shammai in consequence of the
                      continued hostilities between the Jews and the
                      heathen.

                    _War in Galilee_; FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS governor of
                      Galilee.

  66.               _John of Gischala_ accuses Josephus of duplicity
                      before the Synhedrion.

  67.               Gabara taken by Vespasian.

                    _Fall of Jotapata._ Josephus surrenders to the
                      Romans. Fall of Gamala.

                    The fall of Gischala completes the _conquest of
                      Galilee_ by the Romans.

                    The Idumæans enter Jerusalem as the allies of the
                      Zealots; civil war in Jerusalem; reign of terror
                      under the Zealots; the Synhedrion ceases to exist.

  68.               Peræa taken by Vespasian.

                    _Simon bar Giora_ enters Jerusalem, and renews the
                      civil war.

  69.               Vespasian proclaimed emperor; he leaves Judæa. TITUS
                      commander of the army in Judæa.

                    Civil dissension continues in Jerusalem.

  =70.=             TITUS BEGINS THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM.

                    Fall of the outer wall of Jerusalem; Bezetha in the
                      hands of the Romans.

                    Fall of the Tower of Antonia.

                    Famine in Jerusalem. Sacrifices cease to be brought
                      in the Temple.

                    BURNING OF THE TEMPLE. Titus in the Holy of Holies.

                    Zion, the upper city, burnt by Titus. =Complete
                      destruction of Jerusalem.=

                    An academy founded in Jamnia by JOCHANAN BEN ZAKKAI.

  71.               The fortresses Herodium and Machærus taken by
                      Bassus. Titus’ triumph; execution of Simon bar
                      Giora.

  72.               Masada taken by Silva; the last Zealots fall; JUDÆA
                      COMPLETELY CONQUERED. Death of Agrippa II.

                    The _Fiscus judaicus_ instituted by Vespasian.


XIV. THE EPOCH OF THE MISHNA AND THE TANAITES.

(72-219 C. E.)

  72.               Rebellion of the fugitive Zealots in Egypt and
                      Cyrene. The Onias Temple closed.

  80.               GAMALIEL II Patriarch, or president of the
                      Synhedrion at Jamnia; his colleagues ELIEZER BEN
                      HYRCANUS and JOSHUA BEN CHANANYA. Excommunication
                      first used.

                    _The daily prayers_ (“_Eighteen Benedictions_”)
                      _first formulated_.

                    The Minæan curse introduced into the prayers. Jewish
                      Christians (Nazarenes, Ebionites), heathen
                      Christians, and Gnostics.

  93.               JOSEPHUS completes his history of the Jews, THE
                      ANTIQUITIES.

  95(about).        Death of Josephus.

  115.              The Jews of Babylonia, Palestine, Egypt, Cyprus,
                      Cyrene, and Lybia rise against Trajan.

  118.              The Jews of Palestine rise against Trajan and
                      Hadrian; “War of Lucius Quietus.”

                    Joshua ben Chananya president of the Synhedrion.

  119.              AKYLAS, proselyte, makes a Greek translation of the
                      Scriptures.

  130.              AKIBA BEN JOSEPH president of the Synhedrion;
                      collects the Halachoth (_Mishna of R. Akiba_).

  =133.=            =Rebellion of Bar-Cochba= against Hadrian;
                      restoration of the Jewish State.

  134.              Magdala taken by Julius Severus.

  135.              FALL OF BETHAR; end of Bar-Cochba.

                    Persecutions by Turnus Rufus; Jerusalem called Ælia
                      Capitolina.

                    Akiba ben Joseph dies a martyr; the ten martyrs;
                      _Elisha ben Abuya_ (Acher) informs against
                      observing Jews.

  138.              Hadrian’s decrees revoked by Antoninus Pius. The
                      fugitive disciples of the Law return from
                      Babylonia, and organize a Synhedrion at Usha.

  140.              _Simon III_, son of Gamaliel II, president of the
                      Synhedrion, assisted by MEÏR, Judah ben Ilaï,
                      Nathan of Babylon, José ben Chalafta, and SIMON
                      BEN YOCHAI.

  161.              Revolution in Palestine against Antoninus Pius.

                    Verus Commodus, co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius,
                      persecutes the Jews of Palestine.

  165.              JUDAH I, THE HOLY, RABBI, PRESIDENT OF THE
                      SYNHEDRION.

  =189.=            =Compilation of the Mishna= (_Mishna di Rabbi
                      Judah_); Judah I and Nathan of Babylon the last of
                      the Tanaites.

  200.              Severus prohibits heathens from becoming Jews.

  210.              Gamaliel III, son of Judah I, president of the
                      Synhedrion.

                    The apocryphal Mishnas (Boraïtoth) compiled.


XV. THE EPOCH OF THE TALMUD, THE AMORAIM, AND THE SABORAIM.

(219-550 C. E.)

  219.              ABBA AREKA (RAB) OPENS THE ACADEMY AT SORA;
                      MAR-SAMUEL, principal of the academy at Nahardea,
                      declares the law of the land binding on the
                      Jews.

  225.              _Judah II_, son of Gamaliel III, president of the
                      Synhedrion, influences Alexander Severus to revive
                      the privileges of the Jews, and mitigates the
                      rigor of the Law.

                    Jochanan bar Napacha, _Simon ben Lakish_, and Joshua
                      ben Levi, Palestinian Amoraim.

  247.              _Huna_, principal of the Sora academy.

                    JUDAH BEN EZEKIEL FOUNDS AN ACADEMY AT PUMBEDITHA.

  259.              Odenathus destroys Nahardea. _Sheshet founds an
                      academy at Silhi._

  279.              _Ami and Assi_, heads of the college of Tiberias.

  280.              Judah III, son of Judah II, Patriarch, collects a
                      tax from foreign communities.

  297.              Judah ben Ezekiel, general Resh Metibta (principal
                      of both Sora and Pumbeditha).

  299.              Chasda principal of the Sora academy; Huna ben
                      Chiya, of the Pumbeditha academy.

  309.              _Rabba bar Nachmani_, principal of Pumbeditha; Rabba
                      bar Huna, principal of Sora.

  315.              _Emperor Constantine issues the first of his
                      anti-Jewish decrees._

  320.              _The Council of Illiberis (Spain) forbids
                      intercourse between Jews and Christians_.

  325.              The first _Church Council at Nice_ completely severs
                      Judaism and Christianity by making _the
                      celebration of Easter independent of the Jewish
                      calendar_.

  327.              Teachers of the Law banished from Palestine by
                      Constantine.

  330.              _Joseph ben Chiya_, principal of the Pumbeditha
                      academy, makes a Chaldaic translation of the
                      Prophets.

  333.              Abayi Nachmani, principal of Pumbeditha.

  338.              _Raba bar Joseph bar Chama, principal of the academy
                      at Machuza._

  339.              _Constantius forbids the marriage of a Jew with a
                      Christian woman, and the circumcision of Christian
                      and heathen slaves, under the penalty of death._

  351.              Religious persecutions in Palestine by the emperors
                      Constantius and Gallus and the Roman general
                      Ursicinus.

  352.              Nachman ben Isaac, principal of the Pumbeditha
                      academy.

  355.              _Papa bar Chanan founds an academy at Nares._

  356.              Chama of Nahardea, principal of the Pumbeditha
                      academy.

  359.              HILLEL II, PATRIARCH, INTRODUCES A FINAL, FIXED
                      CALENDAR.

  361.              Restoration of the Temple at Jerusalem under Julian
                      the Apostate.

  364.              Valentinian I and Valens extend toleration to the
                      Jews.

  375.              ASHI, THE REDACTOR OF THE BABYLONIAN TALMUD,
                      restores the Sora academy. At about this time THE
                      PALESTINIAN, OR JERUSALEM, TALMUD IS COMPLETED.

  390.              Amemar re-opens an academy at Nahardea.

  393.              Theodosius I confirms the exceptional position of
                      the Jews in the Roman empire.

  400.              Moses, the false Messiah of Crete.

  415.              Gamaliel VI deposed by Theodosius II.

                    Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, drives the Jews from
                      Alexandria.

                    Jews excluded from state offices in the Empire of
                      the East under Theodosius II.

  425.              EXTINCTION OF THE PATRIARCHATE.

  427.              DEATH OF ASHI, who, in the latter half of his life,
                      collected and arranged the explanations,
                      deductions, and amplifications of the Mishna,
                      included under the name =Talmud= (=Babylonian
                      Talmud=).

  455.              Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Jezdijird
                      III.

                    _Mar bar Ashi continues the compilation of the
                      Talmud._

  465.              The Council of Vannes (Gaul) prohibits the clergy
                      from taking part in Jewish banquets.

  471.              Persecution of the Babylonian Jews under Firuz
                      (Pheroces). The Exilarch Huna Mari and others
                      suffer martyrdom.

  490.              Babylonian Jews emigrate to India under Joseph
                      Rabban, and found a little _Jewish state in
                      Cranganor_.

  499.              Death of Rabina, the last of the Amoraim; COMPLETION
                      OF THE TALMUD COLLECTION.

  500(about).       _Abu-Kariba, Himyarite king, adopts Judaism_, and
                      converts his army and his people.

  511.              Mar-Zutra II, Prince of the Captivity (Exilarch),
                      establishes an independent Jewish state in
                      Babylonia under the Persian king Kobad.

  517.              _The Council of Epaone forbids Christians to take
                      part in Jewish banquets._

  518.              Persecution of the Jews by Kobad, king of Persia.

  530.              Death of Zorah Yussuf Dhu-Nowas, _last Jewish
                      Himyarite king_.

  531.              Giza in Sora and Semuna in Pumbeditha, the last
                      Saboraim.

  532.              Justinian I decrees that _the testimony of Jews
                      shall be valid only in Jewish cases_.

  538.              _The Council of Orleans forbids Jews to appear on
                      the street at Eastertide._

  =550=(about).     =Final redaction of the Babylonian Talmud.=


XVI. FROM THE COMPLETION OF THE TALMUD TO THE END OF THE GAONATE.

(550-1038 C. E.)

                    Samuel ben Adiya (500-560), Jewish poet in Arabia.

  553.              Justinian I decrees that the Scriptural portions in
                      the Synagogue liturgy be read in translation, and
                      orders the omission of alleged anti-Trinitarian
                      sentences from the liturgy.

  581.              Hormisdas IV, king of Persia, persecutes his Jewish
                      subjects; the teachers of the Law flee from the
                      Babylonian academies.

                    Chilperic, Merovingian king, forces baptism on the
                      Jews.

  589.              Reccared, Visigothic king, imposes irksome
                      restraints upon the Jews, and _completely isolates
                      them from Christians_.

                    Bahram Tshubin, usurper of the Persian throne,
                      friendly to the Jews; Pumbeditha re-opened by
                      Chanan of Iskia.

  590.              Pope Gregory I discountenances the forced conversion
                      of Jews.

  612.              Sisebut, Visigothic king, forces the Jews to accept
                      baptism or to emigrate.

  614.              The Jews of Palestine join the Persians in a war
                      against Emperor Heraclius.

  624.              The Benu-Kainukaa, a Jewish-Arabic tribe, driven
                      from Arabia by Mahomet.

  625.              The Benu-Nadhir, a Jewish-Arabic tribe, driven from
                      Arabia by Mahomet.

  627.              Extermination of the Benu-Kuraiza, a Jewish-Arabic
                      tribe.

                    Emperor Heraclius _forbids Jews to enter Jerusalem_,
                      and in other ways harasses the Palestinian Jews.

  629.              Dagobert orders the Jews of the Frankish empire to
                      accept baptism or to emigrate.

  633.              The Council of Toledo under Sisenand, Visigothic
                      king, and Isidore of Seville, forces backsliding
                      converts back into Christianity.

  638.              Chintila enacts that only professing Catholics shall
                      remain in Visigothic Spain; Jews emigrate.

  640.              Omar, the second Caliph, _banishes all Jews from
                      holy Arabia_. The “_Covenant of Omar_” imposes
                      restrictions upon Jews in the whole Mahometan,
                      world.

  642(about).       BOSTANAÏ, Exilarch, acknowledged by Omar.

  654.              Judaizing Christians of Toledo under Receswinth,
                      Visigothic king, swear loyalty to the Catholic
                      Church.

  658.              BEGINNING OF THE GAONATE; Mar-Isaac, head of the
                      Sora academy, takes the title GAON.

  670.              Hunaï, Gaon of Sora, and Mar-Raba, principal of
                      Pumbeditha, _reform the divorce laws_.

  681.              Judaizing Christians re-affirm their adherence to
                      Christianity under Erwig, Visigothic king.

  693.              Egica, Visigothic king, _forbids Jews to hold real
                      estate_.

  700(about).       RISE OF THE MASSORA AND OF NEO-HEBRAIC LITURGIC
                      POETRY. José bar José Hayathom the first Poetan.

  712.              Jews open the gates of Toledo to Tarik, the
                      Mahometan general.

  719.              Natronaï ben Nehemiah (Mar-Yanka), principal of
                      Pumbeditha.

  720.              Serene, the Syrian Messiah.

                    Omar II, Ommiyyade Caliph of Damascus, re-enacts
                      the “_Covenant of Omar_.”

  723.              Persecution of the Jews of the Byzantine Empire
                      under Leo the Isaurian.

  745(about).       ELEAZAR BEN KALIR (KALIRI), poetan.

                    _The Chazars under Bulan accept Judaism._

  749.              Obaiah Abu-Isa ben Ishak, precursor of the Messiah
                      in Ispahan.

  759.              _Jehuda the Blind_, Gaon of Sora, author of a
                      Talmudic compendium, _Halachoth Ketuoth_.

  761.              Dudaï principal of Pumbeditha.

                    =The Karaite schism led by Anan ben David.=

  787.              Charlemagne removes the Kalonymos family from Lucca
                      to Mayence to encourage Jewish learning in the
                      Frankish Empire. He introduces a _Jewish oath_.

  797.              Isaac sent by Charlemagne on an embassy to Haroun
                      Alrashid.

  800(about).       Judah Judghan, founder of a sect, introduces
                      Mutazilist philosophy into Judaism.

                    Benjamin ben Moses of Nahavend, founder of the
                      Maghariyites, spreads the Mutazilist philosophy
                      among the Karaites.

  807.              Haroun Alrashid introduces THE JEW BADGE into the
                      Abbasside Caliphate.

  825.              Contest for the Exilarchate between David ben Judah
                      and Daniel.

                    Rise of Karaite sects: Akbarites, Tiflisites, and
                      the followers of Moses of Baalbek.

  827(about).       Eberard, _Magister Judæorum_, under Louis I the
                      Pious, king of the Franks, protects the Jews
                      against Agobard, bishop of Lyons.

  842.              The title GAON assumed also by the Pumbeditha
                      principals; Paltoi ben Abayi _the first Gaon of
                      Pumbeditha_.

  845.              The Council of Meaux under Amolo, bishop of Lyons,
                      enacts anti-Jewish decrees, renewing those of
                      Constantine and Theodosius II.

  853.              The Abbasside Caliph Al-Mutavakkil _introduces Jew
                      badges_, and re-enacts the “_Covenant of Omar_.”

  869.              Mar-Amram ben Sheshna, Gaon of Sora, at the request
                      of a Spanish community, arranges the =order of
                      prayers= in use among European Jews.

  872.              Mar-Zemach I ben Paltoi, Gaon of Pumbeditha, author
                      of the _first Talmudic Dictionary_.

  880(about).       ELDAD HA-DANI.

  881.              _Nachshon ben Zadok_, Gaon of Sora, _discovers the
                      key to the Jewish calendar_.

  900(about).       Simon of Cairo writes the _Halachoth Gedoloth_, a
                      polemic against Karaism.

                    JOSIPPON compiled.

                    _Isaac ben Israeli I Suleiman_ (845-940), physician
                      and philologist at Kairuan.

  913.              SAADIAH BEN JOSEPH (892-942) attacks Karaism.

  917.              Mar-Kohen-Zedek II ben Joseph, Gaon of Pumbeditha,
                      tries to bring about the fall of the Exilarchate
                      and the academy of Sora. Hostilities against
                      Mar-Ukba.

  921.              _David ben Zaccaï_ made Exilarch.

  928.              _Saadiah installed as Gaon of Sora._ His
                      controversies with the Karaite _Solomon ben
                      Yerucham_, and his _translation of the Scriptures
                      into Arabic_.

  930.              Hostilities between Saadiah and David ben Zaccaï.

  934.              Saadiah writes his religious-philosophical work
                      EMUNOTH WE-DEOTH.

  940.              Death of David ben Zaccaï, the last Exilarch of
                      influence. END OF THE EXILARCHATE a few years
                      later.

  940(about).       MOSES AND AARON BEN ASHER, Massorets.

  942.              Death of Saadiah.

  945(about).       _Four scholars are sent from Sora to gather
                      contributions for the academy_: Shemarya ben
                      Elchanan settles in Cairo; CHUSHIEL, in Kairuan;
                      Nathan ben Isaac Kohen, in Narbonne; and MOSES BEN
                      CHANOCH, IN CORDOVA.

                    Abusahal Dunash ben Tamim (900-960), physician in
                      Kairuan.

  946.              _Sabbataï Donnolo_ (913-970), physician in Italy.

                    CHASDAÏ BEN ISAAC IBN-SHAPRUT (915-970), diplomat
                      under Abdul-Rahman III, Nagid of the Jews of the
                      Cordova Caliphate, patron of Jewish learning.

  950(about).       The Karaite controversialists Abulsari Sahal ben
                      Mazliach Kohen and Jephet Ibn-Ali Halevi.

                    _Menachem ben Saruk_ (910-970) and _Dunash ben
                      Labrat_ (Adonim, 920-970), the first Hebrew
                      grammarians. NEO-HEBRAIC POETRY FLOURISHES.

  980.              SHERIRA (920-1000), Gaon of Pumbeditha; his “LETTER”
                      a chronicle of Jewish events from the conclusion
                      of the Talmud to his time.

  985.              Chanoch ben Moses (940-1014) and Joseph Ibn-Abitur,
                      Cordova Talmudists.

                    Jacob Ibn-Jau, prince of the Jews of the Cordova
                      Caliphate.

  990.              JEHUDA IBN-DAUD (CHAYUJ), Hebrew grammarian.

  998.              HAÏ (969-1038), Gaon of Pumbeditha.

  1000(about).      GERSHOM BEN JEHUDA (960-1028), promoter of Talmud
                      study at Mayence, INTERDICTS POLYGAMY.

                    Simon ben Isaac ben Abun poetan.

  1002.             NATHAN BEN YECHIEL COMPILES THE ARUCH, A
                      TALMUDIC LEXICON.

  1008.             The Fatimide Caliph Hakim _decrees a Jew badge_, and
                      persecutes the Jews in various ways.

  1012.             Jews driven from Mayence by Emperor Henry II.

  1020.             ABULVALID MERVAN IBN-JANACH (995-1050), Hebrew
                      grammarian.

  1027.             SAMUEL HALEVI IBN-NAGRELA (993-1055), minister to
                      King Habus of Granada, Nagid of the Jews, patron
                      of Jewish learning, and Talmudic author.

  1034.             Death of Samuel Chofni, _last of the Sora Geonim_.

  1038.             The death of HAÏ, Gaon of Pumbeditha, marks the
                      END OF THE GAONATE.


XVII. THE AGE OF GEBIROL, HALEVI, RASHI, AND MAIMONIDES.

(1038-1204 C. E.)

  1038(about).      Chananel ben Chushiel and Nissim ben Jacob
                      Ibn-Shahin (1015-1055), Talmudists in Kairuan.

  1045.             =Solomon Ibn-Gebirol= (=Avicebron=, 1021-1070), poet
                      and philosopher, author of the “Kether Malkuth”
                      and the “Mekor Chayim.”

  1050(about).      _Bachya Ibn-Pakuda_, philosopher, writes the “Guide
                      to the Duties of the Heart.”

  1055.             _Abu Hussain Joseph Ibn-Nagrela_ (1031-1066),
                      minister to Badis of Granada, Nagid of the Jews,
                      and patron of Jewish learning.

  1056.             ISAAC BEN JACOB ALFASSI (1013-1103), Talmudist.

  1066.             Banishment of the Jews from Granada. _First
                      persecution of the Jews of Spain_ since its
                      conquest by the Mahometans.

  1069.             Isaac ben Baruch Ibn-Albalia (1035-1094), astronomer
                      to Al-Mutamed in Cordova, Nassi of the Jews,
                      Talmudist.

  1070.             =Rashi= (Solomon Yizchaki, 1040-1105), exegete and
                      Talmudist.

  1078.             Pope Gregory VII (Hildebrand) promulgates the
                      canonical _law against Jews’ holding offices in
                      Christendom_.

  1095.             Emperor Henry IV issues a decree against the
                      forcible baptism of Jews.

  1096.             THE FIRST CRUSADE: Suffering of the Jews of
                      Rouen, Treves, Speyer, Worms, Cologne, Ratisbon,
                      Prague, etc.

  1099.             The Jews of Jerusalem burnt in a synagogue by the
                      crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon.

  1100.             Abraham ben Chiya Albargeloni (1065-1136),
                      astronomer.

  1110.             =Moses Ibn-Ezra= (1070-1139), liturgical and erotic
                      poet.

                    Joseph ben Meïr Ibn-Migash Halevi (1077-1141),
                      Talmudist.

  1120.             =Jehuda ben Samuel Halevi= (1086-1142), poet and
                      philosopher, author of the Zion songs and of the
                      Chozari.

  1141.             Jehuda Halevi leaves Spain for Palestine.

                    THE TOSSAFISTS: the family of Rashi, especially his
                      grandsons JACOB TAM (1100-1171), and Samuel ben
                      Meïr (Rashbam, 1100-1160).

  1146.             _Beginning of the Almohade persecution_ in northern
                      Africa and southern Spain. Jews flee, or pretend
                      to accept Islam.

  1147.             THE SECOND CRUSADE. Pope Eugenius III absolves
                      crusaders from the payment of interest on debts
                      owing to Jews.

                    The crusaders attack the Jews of the Rhine country,
                      South Germany, and France.

                    In consequence of their protection by Emperor Conrad
                      III, the Jews are considered =servi cameræ=.

  1149.             Jehuda Ibn-Ezra, of Toledo, Nassi, steward of the
                      palace under Alfonso VII Raimundez. He persecutes
                      the Karaites.

  1150(about).      ABRAHAM BEN MEÏR IBN-EZRA (1088-1167), poet,
                      exegete, philosopher.

  1160(about).      _Jacob Tam calls the first rabbinical synod._

                    _Abraham Ibn-Daud Halevi_ (1110-1180), philosopher
                      and historian.

                    The Exilarchate revived by Mahomet Almuktafi.
                      Solomon (Chasdaï) Exilarch.

  1160(about).      _David Alrui_ pretends to be divinely appointed to
                      lead the Jews of the Bagdad Caliphate to
                      Jerusalem.

  1164(about).      =Moses ben Maimun= (Rambam, Maimonides, 1135-1204),
                      philosopher, writes his “Letter of Consolation.”

  1165.             _Benjamin of Tudela_ begins his travels in the East.

                    Serachya Halevi Gerundi (1125-1186), Talmudist.

  1168.             _Maimonides finishes his Arabic commentary on the
                      Mishna._

  1170(about).      Meshullam ben Jacob, Provençal patron of Jewish
                      learning.

                    _Judah ben Saul Ibn-Tibbon_ (1120-1190), physician
                      and translator.

                    DAVID KIMCHI, grammarian and exegete.

                    _Abraham ben David_ of Posquières (Rabed II,
                      1125-1198), Talmudist, Maimonides’ opponent.

  1170(about).      Jonathan Cohen of Lünel, Talmudist.

                    Jacob ben Meshullam, first promoter of THE KABBALA.

  1171.             The Jews of Blois burnt ON THE CHARGE OF HAVING USED
                      HUMAN BLOOD IN THE PASSOVER. The =blood
                      accusation=, or charge of ritual murder, preferred
                      for the first time.

                    Death of Jacob Tam.

                    Isaac ben Samuel (Ri) of Dampierre, Tossafist.

  1172.             Persecution of the Jews of Yemen. Messianic
                      excitement.

  1175(about).      Petachya of Ratisbon, traveler.

                    Samuel ben Ali Halevi, Gaon of Bagdad, opponent of
                      Maimonides.

  1177.             _Maimonides rabbi of Cairo._

  1179.             The Third Lateran Council passes decrees protecting
                      the religious liberty of the Jews.

  1180.             Maimonides finishes his MISHNE TORAH, or YAD
                      HA-CHAZAKA.

  1181.             _Philip II Augustus of France banishes the Jews from
                      his hereditary province._

  1187.             Saladin _permits Jews to enter Jerusalem_.

  1189.             _Attack on the Jews of London_ at Richard I’s
                      coronation. The excitement spreads to Lynn,
                      Norwich, Stamford, York, and Bury St. Edmund’s.

  1190(about).      Maimonides issues the “=Guide of the Perplexed=,”
                      dedicating it to Joseph Ibn-Aknin.

                    Abraham Ibn-Alfachar (1160-1223), diplomat under
                      Alfonso VIII of Castile.

                    Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn (1132-1200), liturgical
                      poet and author of a martyrology.

                    Massacre of the Jews of Germany from the Rhine to
                      Vienna under Emperor Henry VI.

                    _Samuel Ibn-Tibbon_ (1160-1239), translator.

  1190(about).      Süsskind of Trimberg, Jewish minnesinger.

                    Judah Sir Leon ben Isaac, the Pious (1166-1224),
                      Tossafist, author of the “_Book of the Pious_.”

                    Samson ben Abraham of Sens, Tossafist.

                    Isaac the Younger (Rizba), Tossafist; Jacob of
                      Orleans, Tossafist.

  1197.             _Hillali_, the oldest Hebrew copy of the Bible in
                      Spain, taken by the Almohades.

                    _Sheshet Benveniste_ (1131-1210), philosopher,
                      physician, Talmudist, diplomat, and poet.

  1198.             The Jews of France forbidden to move from province
                      to province.

  1204.             DEATH OF MAIMONIDES.


XVIII. FROM THE DEATH OF MAIMONIDES TO THE EXPULSION FROM SPAIN.

(1204-1492 C. E.)

  1209.             The Council of Avignon issues restrictive measures
                      against the Jews.

  1210(about).      Isaac the Blind, founder of =the Kabbala=.
                      Disciples: Azriel and Ezra.

                    JEHUDA ALCHARISI, poet.

  1210.             The Jews of England imprisoned by King John.

  1211.             _French and English rabbis emigrate to Palestine._

  1212.             The Jews of Toledo killed by crusaders under the
                      Cistercian monk Arnold. _First persecution of Jews
                      in Castile._

  =1215.=           THE FOURTH LATERAN COUNCIL under the pope INNOCENT
                      III, among many anti-Jewish measures, decrees the
                      =Jew badge=.

  1222.             The Council of Oxford imposes restrictions on the
                      English Jews.

  1223.             The rabbinical synod of Mayence regulates the
                      payment of the Jew taxes.

  1227.             The Council of Narbonne re-enacts the anti-Jewish
                      decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council.

  1229.             Pope Gregory IX antagonizes the Jews.

  1232.             The Jews of Hungary excluded from state offices.

                    _Meïr ben Todros Halevi Abulafia_ (1180-1244)
                      attacks Maimonides’ doctrine of the immortality of
                      the soul.

  1233.             Solomon ben Abraham of Montpellier, Jonah ben
                      Abraham Gerundi, and David ben Saul ally
                      themselves with the Dominicans, who BURN
                      MAIMONIDES’ WORKS IN MONTPELLIER AND PARIS.

  1235.             _Abraham Maimuni_ (1185-1254), physician and
                      philosopher.

  1235.             MOSES BEN NACHMAN (Ramban, 1195-1270), Talmudist,
                      exegete, Kabbalist, anti-Maimunist.

                    Jacob ben Abba Mari ben Simon (Anatoli), Jewish
                      scholar at the court of Frederick II.

                    BEBACHYA BEN NATRONAÏ NAKDAN (Crispia), fabulist
                      and punctuator.

  1235.             Gregory IX confirms the _Constitutio Judæorum_ of
                      Innocent III.

  1236.             Crusaders attack the Jewish communities of Anjou,
                      Poitou, etc.

  1239.             On the charges of the apostate Nicholas-Donin,
                      Gregory IX orders the Dominicans and Franciscans
                      to examine the Talmud, and burn it, if necessary.

  1240.             _Disputation before Louis IX_ of France between
                      Nicholas-Donin and the Jews, represented by
                      Yechiel of Paris, MOSES OF COUCY, Talmudist and
                      itinerant preacher, and two others.

  1240.             A Jewish Parliament assembled by Henry III.

  1242.             THE TALMUD BURNT AT PARIS.

  1244.             _Archduke Frederick I the Valiant, of Austria,
                      grants privileges to the Jews._

  1246.             The Council of Béziers _forbids Jews to practice
                      medicine_.

  1247.             _Pope Innocent IV issues a bull disproving the blood
                      accusation against the Jews._

  1254.             _The Jews expelled from his dominions by Louis IX of
                      France. End of the Tossafists._

  1257.             _Alfonso X, the Wise, of Castile, compiles_ a code,
                      containing a section of _anti-Jewish laws_.

  1263.             MOSES BEN NACHMAN opposes Pablo Christiani AT THE
                      DISPUTATION OF BARCELONA.

  1264.             The Jews of London attacked under Henry III.

  1267.             The Council of Vienna re-enacts the anti-Jewish
                      decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council.

  1271(about).      Pope Gregory X issues a bull deprecating the forced
                      baptism of Jews.

  1278.             The Jews of England imprisoned on the charge of
                      counterfeiting coin.

  1279.             The Council of Buda enacts anti-Jewish measures.

                    SOLOMON BEN ADRET (Rashba, 1245-1310), Talmudist.

                    _David Maimuni_ (1233-1300), grandson of Maimonides.

  1283.             Beginning of the massacres of the Jews of Germany
                      on the blood accusation.

                    Moses ben Chasdaï Taku (1250-1290), anti-Maimunist.

  1286.             MEÏR BEN BARUCH OF ROTHENBURG (1220-1293), chief
                      rabbi of Germany, imprisoned when about to
                      emigrate.

  1288.             _Saad Addaula_, minister of finance of the Persian
                      empire under Argun.

  1289.             _Maimonides’ works burnt at Accho._ Solomon Petit,
                      anti-Maimunist and Kabbalist; Hillel ben Samuel of
                      Verona (1220-1295), Talmudist and Maimunist.

  1290.             THE JEWS BANISHED FROM ENGLAND.

  1291.             The Jews of Accho imprisoned or executed by the
                      Sultan of Egypt.

  1295(about).      Publication of =the Zohar= by Moses de Leon;
                      Kabbalistic studies flourish.

  1298.             Persecution of the Jews in Germany instigated by
                      _Rindfleish_; Mordecai ben Hillel a martyr.

  1305.             THE BAN AGAINST THE STUDY OF SCIENCE pronounced
                      by Abba-Mari ben Moses; authorized by SOLOMON
                      BEN ADRET; urged by ASHER BEN YECHIEL (Asheri);
                      opposed by the Tibbonides led by _Jacob ben
                      Machir_ (Profatius) and the poet _Yedaya Penini
                      Bedaresi_.

  1306.             _The first expulsion of the Jews from France_ under
                      Philip IV the Fair.

  1310.             _Asheri compiles his Talmudic code._

  1313.             The Council of Zamora renews the canonical laws
                      hostile to the Jews.

  1315.             Louis X of France recalls the Jews.

  1320.             The _Pastoureaux_ persecutions in France (Gesereth
                      ha-Roïm).

  1321.             The _Leper_ persecution in France (Gesereth
                      Mezoraim). _The second expulsion of the Jews from
                      France._

  1328.             Persecution of the Jews of Navarre.

  1334.             _Casimir III the Great of Poland issues laws
                      friendly to the Jews._

  1336.             Disputation at Valladolid between the Jews and the
                      apostate Abner-Alfonso. Alfonso XI of Castile
                      forbids the use of _alleged blasphemous
                      expressions in the Hebrew prayers_.

                    Persecution of the Jews in Germany by the
                      _Armleder_.

  1337.             Joseph of Ecija and Samuel Ibn-Wakar favorites of
                      Alfonso XI of Castile. Gonzalo Martinez plans the
                      destruction of the Jews of Castile.

  1340.             JACOB BEN ASHERI (Baal ha-Turim, 1280-1340) compiles
                      his Talmudic code.

                    Nissim Gerundi ben Reuben (1340-1380), rabbi of
                      Barcelona.

  1342.             LEVI BEN GERSON (Gersonides, Maestro Leon de
                      Bagnols, 1288-1345), physician and philosopher.

  =1348.=           Persecution of the Jews in Europe on account of the
                      =Black Death=. Pope Clement VI issues two bulls
                      protecting the Jews.

  1350.             _Moses ben Joshua Narboni_ (Maestro Vidal,
                      1300-1362), philosopher.

  1350.             Aaron II ben Elia Nicomedi (1300-1369), Karaite
                      philosopher.

                    _Santob de Carrion_ (1300-1350), Jewish-Spanish
                      troubadour.

                    Samuel Abulafia, minister to Pedro the Cruel of
                      Castile.

  1351.             The cortes of Valladolid ask the abolition of the
                      judicial autonomy of Spanish-Jewish communities.

  1355.             The “Golden Bull” by Emperor Charles IV confers the
                      privilege of holding Jews on the Electors.

  1357.             Completion of the synagogue at Toledo built by
                      Samuel Abulafia.

  1360.             Samuel Abulafia dies under torture on the charge of
                      peculation.

                    Participation of the Jews of Castile in the civil
                      war (1360-1369) between Pedro the Cruel and Henry
                      de Trastamare, chiefly on the side of the former.

                    Manessier de Vesoul obtains from King John a decree
                      permitting Jews to dwell in France.

  1370(about).      Meïr ben Baruch Halevi of Vienna introduces the
                      conferring of authorization for the exercise of
                      rabbinical functions (_Morenu_). He and his
                      disciples, principally _Isaac of Tyrnau, compile
                      the customs (Minhagim) of the communities_.

  1371.             The Jews of Castile under Henry II compelled to wear
                      badges and give up Spanish names.

  1375.             Disputation at Avila between the apostate John of
                      Valladolid and Moses Cohen de Tordesillas.

  1376.             Disputation at Pampeluna between John of Valladolid
                      and Shem-Tob ben Shaprut.

                    Samuel Abrabanel at court under Henry II of Castile.

                    Chayim ben Gallipapa (1310-1380), innovator;
                      Menachem ben Aaron ben Zerach (1310-1385),
                      rabbinical author; Isaac ben Sheshet Barfat
                      (Ribash, 1310-1409), Talmudist; CHASDAÏ BEN
                      ABRAHAM CRESCAS (1340-1410), philosopher.

  1379.             Joseph Pichon, receiver-general of taxes in Seville,
                      murdered, probably at the instigation of Jews,
                      against whom the fury of the populace is turned.

  1380.             Juan I restricts the judicial autonomy of the
                      Castilian Jewish communities.

  1381.             A synod at Mayence regulates the rabbinical marriage
                      laws (Tekanoth Shum).

  1385.             Juan I of Castile revives the canonical restrictions
                      against the Jews.

  1389.             The charge of host desecration leads to the massacre
                      of the Jews of Prague.

  =1391.=           Ferdinand Martinez incites the mob against the Jews
                      of Seville. THE MASSACRE AND PLUNDER OF THE JEWS
                      SPREADS FROM CASTILE TO ARAGON, MAJORCA, AND OTHER
                      PARTS OF SPAIN. Many Jews converted to
                      Christianity: =Marranos=. Solomon Levi of Burgos
                      (Paul de Santa Maria, 1350-1435), begins his
                      machinations against Judaism.

  1392.             Joao I of Portugal forbids force in the conversion
                      of Jews.

  1394.             _Third and last expulsion of the Jews from France_,
                      under Charles VI.

  1396(about).      Writings in defence of Judaism by Joshua ben Joseph
                      Ibn-Vives Allorqui (Geronimo de Santa Fé), Chasdaï
                      Crescas, and _Profiat Duran_.

  1399.             Persecution of the Jews of Prague at the instigation
                      of the apostate Pessach; Lipmann of Mühlhausen
                      among the sufferers.

  1408.             _Alfonso X’s anti-Jewish laws revived_ under Juan II
                      of Castile.

                    Don Meïr Alguades, rabbi and physician, executed on
                      the charge of host desecration.

                    Kabbalistic studies flourish in Spain.

  1408.             Simon Duran (1361-1444), rabbi of Algiers.

  1410.             _Chasdaï Crescas publishes his religio-philosophic
                      work._

  1412.             Juan II issues an edict of twenty-four articles
                      designed to reduce the social prestige of the
                      Jews. Vincent Ferrer preaches Christianity in the
                      synagogues, and inflames the populace against the
                      Jews. SECOND GENERAL MASSACRE OF JEWS IN ALL THE
                      SPANISH PROVINCES. Numerous Jews submit to
                      baptism.

  1413.             _Religious disputation at Tortosa_ arranged by Pope
                      Benedict XIII between Geronimo de Santa Fé (Joshua
                      Lorqui), and Vidal ben Benveniste Ibn-Labi and
                      _Joseph Albo_. Many Jews submit to baptism.

  1415.             Benedict XIII forbids the study of the Talmud, and
                      _ordains the Jew badge_ and _Christian sermons for
                      Jews_.

  1419.             Martin V issues a bull deprecating the forced
                      conversion of Jews.

  1420.             Persecution of the Jews of Austria.

  1421.             _Jacob ben Moses Mölin Halevi_ (_Maharil_,
                      1365-1427), compiler of the German synagogue
                      liturgy and melodies.

  1426.             The Jews of Cologne banished.

  1428.             JOSEPH ALBO (1380-1444) publishes his philosophical
                      work IKKARIM.

  1431.             The Jews of South Germany persecuted on account of
                      the blood accusation.

  1431.             Menachem of Merseburg (Meïl Zedek) regulates divorce
                      proceedings.

  1432.             A synod at Avila under Abraham Benveniste Senior
                      provides for an _educational system for Jewish
                      Spain_ (the law of Avila).

                    Moses ben Isaac (Gajo) da Rieti (1388-1451), Italian
                      Jewish poet and physician.

  1434.             The COUNCIL OF BASLE renews old and devises new
                      canonical restrictions against Jews.

                    Annihilation of the Jews of Majorca.

  1441.             The Jews expelled from Augsburg.

  1442.             Eugenius IV issues a bull enforcing all the old
                      canonical restrictions against the Jews of Leon
                      and Castile.

  1445.             _The first Hebrew concordance_ by Isaac ben
                      Kalonymos Nathan.

  1447.             Nicholas V makes Eugenius IV’s bull applicable to
                      Italian Jews.

                    _Casimir IV of Poland grants unusual privileges to
                      Jews._

  1450.             The Jews of Bavaria persecuted.

  1451.             Nicholas de Cusa enforces the wearing of Jew badges
                      in Germany.

                    _Pope Nicholas V authorizes the appointment of
                      inquisitors for Marranos._

  1453.             The persecution of the Jews of Germany, Silesia, and
                      Poland at the instigation of John of Capistrano.

                    _The Jews favored in Turkey._ Moses Kapsali chief
                      rabbi.

  1454.             The privileges of the Polish Jews revoked.

  1460.             Alfonso de Spina publishes an attack upon Judaism.

  1468.             The Jews of Sepulveda charged with the blood
                      accusation.

  1470.             The Marranos of Valladolid attacked.

  1472.             The Marranos of Cordova attacked.

  1474.             The Marranos of Segovia attacked.

  1475.             Bernardinus of Feltre preaches against the Jews in
                      Italy.

                    The Jews charged with the murder of _Simon of Trent_
                      for ritual purposes; a persecution of the Jews of
                      Ratisbon follows.

  1480(about).      _Pico di Mirandola_ the first Christian scholar to
                    devote himself to Hebrew literature.

  =1480.=           =The Inquisition against the Marranos= established
                      in Seville and at other places in Castile.

  1482.             Pope Sixtus IV denounces the cruelties of the
                      Spanish Inquisition.

  1482.             THE INQUISITION AGAINST MARRANOS ESTABLISHED IN
                      ARAGON, THOMAS DE TORQUEMADA CHIEF INQUISITOR.

                    _Elias del Medigo_ (1463-1498), scholar.

  1483.             TORQUEMADA MADE INQUISITOR-GENERAL OF SPAIN.

  1484.             ISAAC BEN JEHUDA ABRABANEL (1437-1509), minister of
                      finance to Ferdinand and Isabella.

  =1492.=           =Expulsion of the Jews from Spain.=


XIX. FROM THE EXPULSION FROM SPAIN TO THE PERSECUTION IN POLAND.

(1492-1648 C. E.)

  1493              _Most Spanish Jews leave Portugal_; all remaining
                      behind are sold as slaves.

                    Simon Duran II (1439-1570), rabbi of Algiers.

  1494.             ISAAC ABRABANEL, minister of finance to two kings of
                      Naples.

  1496.             Manoel of Portugal orders the Jews to accept baptism
                      or leave the country.

  1497.             Manoel seizes Jewish children and has them baptized;
                      many Jews accept baptism; =all others banished
                      from Portugal=.

  1498.             THE EXILES SETTLED IN NAVARRE BANISHED.

  1499.             The Jews of Nuremberg banished.

  1502.             _Judah Leon Abrabanel_ (Medigo, 1470-1530) writes
                      his “Dialogues of Love.”

                    _Asher Lämmlein_ proclaims himself the forerunner of
                      the Messiah.

  1503(about).      Abraham Farissol (1451-1525), scholar at the court
                      of Ferrara.

                    _Gershon Cohen Soncinus_ establishes a _Hebrew
                      printing office_ in Prague.

                    Jacob Polak (1460-1530), the alleged originator of
                      the PILPUL METHOD OF TALMUD STUDY.

  1504.             _Abraham Zacuto_ finishes his chronicle, “Sefer
                      Yochasin.”

  1506.             Massacre of Marranos in Lisbon.

  1507.             Beginning of the feud between JOHN REUCHLIN and the
                      Humanists on the one side and, on the other,
                      PFEFFERKORN, the tool of the Dominicans led by
                      Hoogstraten, Victor von Karben, Arnold von
                      Tongern, Ortuinus Gratius, and the theological
                      faculties of various universities. The Talmud and
                      the Jews attacked and defended before Maximilian
                      I, Popes Alexander VI and Leo X. The last
                      publication by Pfefferkorn in 1521, near the
                      beginning of Luther’s Reformation.

  1507(about).      Obadiah Sforno, Jacob Mantin, Abraham de Balmes, and
                      ELIAS LEVITA (1468-1549), Hebrew grammarians,
                      teachers of Hebrew to Christians. Introduction of
                      Hebrew studies into German and French universities
                      through the efforts of Egidio de Viterbo,
                      Reuchlin, and Augustin Justiniani.

  1514 (about).     _Obadyah di Bertinoro_ (1470-1520), Talmudist and
                      preacher, improves Jerusalem.

  1516.             VENICE SETS APART A SPECIAL QUARTER FOR A GHETTO.

  1517(about).      David Ibn-Abi Zimra (1470-1573) _abolishes the
                      Seleucidæan era_ for the Egyptian Jews.

  1518(about).      _Samuel Abrabanel_ (1473-1550) employed as financier
                      by the viceroy of Naples; _Benvenida Abrabanela_.

  1519(about).      _Joseph ben Gershon Loans_ (Joslin of Rosheim,
                      1478-1554), representative and protector of the
                      German Jews.

  1520(about).      _Elias Mizrachi_ (1455-1527), chief rabbi of Turkey.

  1523 (about).     _Elias Kapsali_ (1490-1555), historian.

  1524.             The Jews of Cairo threatened with destruction by
                      Achmed Shaitan, viceroy of Egypt.

                    João III of Portugal employs Henrique Nunes
                      (Firme-Fé) as a spy upon the Marranos.

                    David Reubeni in Rome under the protection of Pope
                      Clement VII.

  1529.             SOLOMON MOLCHO (Diogo Pires, 1501-1532) begins his
                      Messianic agitation.

  1530(about).      Portuguese Marranos burnt by order of the Bishop of
                      Ceuta.

  1531.             CLEMENT VII ISSUES A BULL ESTABLISHING THE
                      PORTUGUESE INQUISITION FOR MARRANOS.

  1532.             Marranos forbidden to leave Portugal.

                    Molcho burnt by Emperor Charles V at Mantua.

                    Clement VII stops the proceedings of the Portuguese
                      Inquisition at the instance of Marranos.

  1535.             Eighteen hundred Marranos liberated from the
                      Portuguese Inquisition in obedience to a bull of
                      Paul III.

  1535(about).      Moses Hamon (1490-1565), physician to Sultan
                      Selim I.

  1536.             Paul III sanctions the Portuguese Inquisition.

  1538.             _The ordination of rabbis (Semicha)_ re-introduced
                      by _Jacob Berab_.

  1541.             Most of the Jews leave Naples, where they are
                      threatened with social degradation.

  1542.             The Jews of Prague banished.

                    Luther attacks the Jews.

  1548.             Portuguese Marranos again liberated on the
                      interference of Paul III.

  1550.             The Jews banished from Genoa.

  1552.             _Samuel Usque_ finishes his “Consolations for the
                      Sorrows of Israel.”

  1553.             The Talmud confiscated under Julius III in Italy.

  =1554.=           =Joseph Karo= (1488-1575), Kabbalist and Talmudist,
                      finishes his code, the =Shulchan Aruch=.

  1555.             Paul IV issues a severe bull against the Jews.

                    The Marranos of Ancona imprisoned and tried by the
                      =Inquisition=.

  1555.             _Amatus Lusitanus_ (1511-1568), physician.

  1556.             Sultan Solyman demands from Paul IV the release of
                      Turkish Marranos; _Donna Gracia Mendesia_
                      (1510-1568).

  1559.             The Talmud burnt at Cremona; prayer books burnt in
                      Vienna.

  1560(about).      JOSEPH BEN JOSHUA COHEN (1496-1575), historian,
                      writes his “Annals.”

                    JOSEPH IBN-VERGA completes the martyrology “Shebet
                      Jehuda,” begun by his grandfather and father.

  1561.             The Jews of Prague banished.

  1564.             _Pius IV permits the publication of the Talmud
                      without its name, and after having been submitted
                      to censorship._

  1566.             Pius V enforces all the canonical restrictions
                      against the Jews.

                    _Joseph Nassi_ (d. 1579) made Duke of Naxos by
                      Sultan Selim II.

  1568.             ISAAC LURYA LEVI (1534-1572), Kabbalist, pretends to
                      be the Messiah of Joseph.

                    CHAYIM VITAL CALABRESE (1543-1620),
                      Kabbalist, associate of Lurya.

  1569.             All the Jews in the Papal States except those of
                      Rome and Ancona expelled.

  1570.             AZARYA BEN MOSES DEÏ ROSSI (1514-1578), scholar.

  1570(about).      _Solomon Lurya_ (1510-1573) and MOSES BEN ISRAEL
                      ISSERLES (1520-1572), author of the “MAPPA,”
                      the continuation of the Shulchan Aruch, Polish
                      Talmudists.

  1574.             Solomon ben Nathan Ashkenazi negotiates peace
                      between Venice and Turkey.

  1576.             Stephen Bathori allows the Jews of Poland to carry
                      on trade without restrictions.

  1579.             Gracia Nassi establishes a Hebrew printing press in
                      Turkey. Esther Kiera, Turkish court-Jewess,
                      publishes Hebrew books.

  1581.             Gregory XIII forbids the employment of Jewish
                      physicians, re-ordains the confiscation of Hebrew
                      books, and re-introduces the _compulsory Christian
                      sermon for Jews_.

  1586.             Sixtus V permits Jews in the Papal States and the
                      printing of the Talmud.

                    David de Pomis (1525-1588), physician.

  1586(about).      The Jews of Poland establish the SYNOD OF THE FOUR
                      COUNTRIES; Mordecai Jafa probably its first
                      president.

  1587.             _Gedalya Ibn-Yachya_ (1515-1587), historian, has his
                      work printed.

  1592.             DAVID GANS (1541-1613) publishes his history.

  1593.             Isaac ben Abraham Troki (1533-1594), Karaite,
                      publishes his “CHISUK EMUNAH.”

                    Clement VIII expels the Jews from all the Papal
                      States except Rome and Ancona.

                    THE FIRST MARRANO SETTLEMENT MADE IN HOLLAND AT
                      AMSTERDAM under Jacob Tirado.

  1597.             The Jews expelled from various Italian
                      principalities; Ferrara ceases to harbor Marranos.

  1604.             Clement VIII issues a bull of absolution for
                      imprisoned Portuguese Marranos.

  1612.             _Portuguese Jews granted right of residence in
                      Hamburg._

  1614.             Vincent Fettmilch’s attack upon the Jews of
                      Frankfort.

  1615.             The Jews of Worms banished.

  1616.             Jews re-admitted into Frankfort and Worms.

  1617.             _Lipmann Heller_ (1579-1654) completes his
                      “_Tossafoth Yomtob_.”

  1619.             Permission accorded the Jews of Amsterdam to profess
                      their religion.

  1621(about).      _Sara Copia Sullam_ (1600-1641), poetess.

  1623.             _Excommunication of Uriel da Costa_ (1590-1640).

  1630.             Suffering of the Jews during the Thirty Years’ War
                      (1618-1648).

  1639(about).      A _Talmud Torah_ opened in Amsterdam. Saul Levi
                      Morteira, Isaac Aboab de Fonseca, and MANASSEH
                      BEN ISRAEL, rabbis of Amsterdam.

  1641(about).      LEO BEN ISAAC MODENA (1571-1649); Joseph Solomon
                      Delmedigo (1591-1655); and Simone Luzzatto
                      (1590-1663), scholars not wholly in accord with
                      the Judaism of their time.

  1646.             The Jews in Brazil side with the Dutch in their war
                      with the Portuguese.

  1648.             Beginning of the COSSACK PERSECUTIONS OF THE JEWS
                      IN POLAND UNDER CHMIELNICKI.


XX. FROM THE PERSECUTION IN POLAND TO THE PRESENT TIME.

(1648-1873 C. E.)

  1649(about).      Christian scholars in Holland devote themselves to
                      Hebrew literature.

  1655.             MANASSEH BEN ISRAEL goes to London to obtain from
                      Cromwell THE RE-ADMISSION OF THE JEWS INTO
                      ENGLAND.

  1657.             Cromwell permits Sephardic Jews settled in London to
                      open a burial ground.

  =1665.=           =Sabbataï Zevi= (1626-1676) publicly accepted as the
                      Messiah; his followers and opponents.

  1670.             BARUCH SPINOZA (1632-1677) publishes his
                      “Theologico-Political Treatise”; contemporary
                      Marrano poets and authors in Amsterdam.

                    The Jews banished from Vienna by Emperor Leopold I.

                    The Jews permitted to settle in the Mark Brandenburg
                      by Elector John George.

  1678(about).      Richard Simon, Father of the Oratory, makes
                      Rabbinical literature known to Christians.

  1679.             Mordecai of Eisenstadt renews the Sabbatian craze.

  1686(about).      _Jacob Querido_ represents himself as the successor
                      of Sabbataï Zevi.

  1690(about).      Swedish scholars study the history of the Karaites.

  1695(about).      Berachya represents himself as the successor of
                      Sabbataï Zevi; his sect, _the Donmäh_.

  1698.             _William Surenhuysius translates the Mishna into
                      Latin._

  1700.             John Andrew Eisenmenger attempts the publication of
                      his “_Judaism Unmasked_.”

  1707.             Jacob Basnage publishes his “History of the Jewish
                      Religion.”

  1713.             Nehemiah Chiya Chayon (1650-1726), Sabbatian, causes
                      a quarrel in the Amsterdam community; Solomon
                      Ayllon and _Chacham Zevi_ (Zevi ben Jacob
                      Ashkenazi, 1656-1678).

  1743.             MOSES CHAYIM LUZZATTO (1707-1747), poet and
                      Kabbalist, publishes his drama La-Yesharim
                      Tehilla.

  1745.             The Jews of Prague placed under severe restrictions
                      by Maria Theresa.

  1750(about).      =Chassidism= founded by ISRAEL BAALSHEM (1698-1759)
                      and BEER OF MIZRICZ (1700-1772); ELIJAH WILNA
                      GAON (1720-1797), its antagonist.

  1751.             Contest between JONATHAN EIBESCHÜTZ (1690-1764) and
                      JACOB EMDEN ASHKENAZI (1698-1776).

  1755.             =Moses Mendelssohn= (1728-1786) publishes his first
                      work.

  1759(about).      _Jacob Frank_, Sabbatian leader, founder of the
                      Frankist sect.

  1762.             Isaac Pinto publishes his “Reflections” in answer to
                      Voltaire’s defamation of Judaism.

  =1778.=             Mendelssohn publishes the first part of his
                      =Pentateuch translation=.

  1779.             _Lessing_ publishes his “_Nathan the Wise_.”

  1781.             _Christian William Dohm_ (1751-1820) publishes his
                      work “Upon the Civil Amelioration of the Condition
                      of the Jews.”

                    JOSEPH II of Austria abolishes the Jewish poll-tax,
                      and grants civil liberties to the Jews.

  1783.             Mendelssohn publishes “_Jerusalem, or upon
                      Ecclesiastical Power and Judaism_.”

  1783.             _Ha-Meassef_ founded by Mendelssohn’s followers
                      (_Measfim_).

  1787.             Mirabeau publishes his work “Upon Mendelssohn and
                      the Political Reform of the Jews.”

  1788.             The poll-tax removed from the Jews of Prussia.

  1789.             Abbé Grégoire publishes his “Proposals in Favor of
                      the Jews.”

  1790.             The French National Assembly grants citizenship to
                     the Sephardic Jews.

  =1791.=           =The French National Assembly grants full civil
                      rights to the Jews.=

  1796.             The Batavian National Assembly decrees citizenship
                      for the Jews.

  1803.             Israel Jacobson and Wolff Breidenbach agitate the
                      abolition of the poll-tax for Jews.

  1804.             Alexander I of Russia exempts certain classes of
                      Jews from the exceptional laws.

  1806.             NAPOLEON I SUMMONS THE ASSEMBLY OF JEWISH
                      NOTABLES; Abraham Furtado, president. Twelve
                      Questions propounded to the Assembly.

  1807.             THE GREAT SYNHEDRION CONVENED BY NAPOLEON;
                      Joseph David Sinzheim president.

  1808.             The Jews of Westphalia and of Baden emancipated.

  1811.             The Jews of Hamburg emancipated.

  1812.             The Jews of Mecklenburg and Prussia emancipated.

  1818 (about).     Consecration of the Temple of the HAMBURG REFORM
                      UNION, Gotthold Salomon, preacher.

  1819.             The beginning of the “Hep, hep!” persecutions.

                    Formation of the Society for the Culture and Science
                      of the Jews; Zunz, Gans, and Moser.

  1821.             Chacham Bernays opposes the Reform Temple Union
                      in Hamburg.

  1822.             _Isaac Marcus Jost_ (1793-1860) begins to publish
                      his history of the Jews.

  1825.             _Isaac Noah Mannheimer_ (1793-1864), rabbi in
                      Vienna, champion of the moderate party.

  1831.             Louis Philippe ratifies the law for the complete
                      emancipation of the French Jews.

                    _Gabriel Riesser_ (1806-1860), champion of the
                      emancipation of the German Jews.

                    Solomon Ludwig Steinheim (1790-1866), Jewish
                      religious philosopher.

                    _Nachman Cohen Krochmal_ (1785-1840), _Solomon
                      Jehuda Rapoport_ (1790-1867), _Samuel David
                      Luzzatto_ (1800-1865), Isaac Erter (1792-1851),
                      scholars, regenerators of Jewish science and
                      Hebrew style.

  1832.             LEOPOLD ZUNZ (1794-1886) publishes his first
                      epoch-making work.

  1833.             The _Kerem Chemed_, a Hebrew journal for Jewish
                      science, established.

  1835.             _Abraham Geiger_ (1810-1876), scholar and preacher.

  1836.             Franz Delitzsch publishes his “_History of
                      Neo-Hebraic Poetry_.”

  1839.             Sultan Abdul Meg’id grants citizenship to Turkish
                      Jews.

  1840.             THE DAMASCUS BLOOD ACCUSATION; _Moses Montefiore_
                      (1784-1885); _Adolf Crémieux_ (1796-1880);
                      _Solomon Munk_ (1802-1867).

  1842.             The “Society of the Friends of Reform” founded in
                      Frankfort.

  1844.             The first Rabbinical Conference at Brunswick; Samuel
                      Holdheim (1806-1860).

  1845.             The REFORM ASSOCIATION formed in Berlin.

                    The second Rabbinical Conference at Frankfort;
                      Zachariah Frankel (1801-1875).

                    _Michael Sachs_ (1808-1864) publishes his “Religious
                      Poetry of the Jews of Spain.”

  1848.             The emancipation of the Jews in the German states.

  1854.             The Breslau Jewish Theological Seminary founded.

  1858.             The oath “on the true faith of a Christian”
                      abolished in England; Jewish disabilities removed.

                    The Mortara abduction case.

  1860.             The ALLIANCE ISRAÉLITE UNIVERSELLE founded.

  1871.             The Anglo-Jewish Association founded.

  1873.             The Union of American Hebrew Congregations
                      established.


THE KINGS OF JUDAH AND ISRAEL. (1067-586 B. C. E.)

  SAUL 1067
  DAVID 1055
  SOLOMON 1015

  _Judah._                     _Israel._

  REHOBOAM            --977--  JEROBOAM I
  ABIJAM              --960
  ASA                 --957
                        955--  NADAB
                        954--  BAASHA
                        933--  ELAH
                        932--  OMRI-TIBNI
                        928--  OMRI
                        922--  AHAB
  JEHOSHAPHAT         --918
                        901--  AHAZIAH
                        899--  JEHORAM
  JORAM               --894
  AHAZIAH             --888
  ATHALIAH            --887--  JEHU
  JOASH               --881
                        860--  JEHOAHAZ
                        845--  JEHOASH
  AMAZIAH             --843
                        830--  JEROBOAM II
  PERIOD OF ANARCHY   --815
  UZZIAH              --805
                        769--  ZECHARIAH
                        768--  SHALLUM
                        768--  MENAHEM
                        757--  PEKAHIAH
                        755--  PEKAH
  JOTHAM              --754
  AHAZ                --739
                        736--  PERIOD OF ANARCHY
                        727--  HOSHEA
  HEZEKIAH            --724
                        719--  SAMARIA DESTROYED
  MANASSEH            --695
  AMON                --640
  JOSIAH              --638
  JEHOAHAZ            --608
  JEHOIAKIM           --607
  JEHOIACHIN          --596
  ZEDEKIAH            --596

  586 DESTRUCTION OF THE FIRST TEMPLE.


THE HIGH PRIESTS.

(FROM THE CAPTIVITY TO THE DISPERSION.)

  _Period._    _High Priest._                 _Civil Ruler._

  VIII
  586-516   JEHOZEDEK                       Babylonian Kings and
  B. C. E.                                    Cyrus

            JOSHUA B. JEHOZEDEK             Zerubbabel (Cyrus and
                                              Darius I)

  IX
  516-332   JEHOIAKIM                       Xerxes I
  B. C. E.
            ELIASHIB                        Nehemiah (Artaxerxes I)

            JOIADA                          Nehemiah (Darius II)

            JOHANAN B. JOIADA               Artaxerxes III

            JADDUA                          Alexander the Great

  X
  332-175   ONIAS I                         Ptolemy I Soter
  B. C. E.
            SIMON I THE JUST (300-270)      Ptolemy I Soter

            during the minority of
              Onias II:
            ELEAZAR (br. of Simon I)        Ptolemy II Philadelphus
            MANASSEH (br. of Onias I)       Ptolemy II Philadelphus

            ONIAS II (240)                  Ptolemy III Euergetes

            SIMON II                        Ptolemy IV Philopator

            ONIAS III (Jason his deputy)    Ptolemy V Epiphanes
                                              and Antiochus III

  XI
  175-140   JASON (174)                     Antiochus IV Epiphanes
  B. C. E.
            MENELAUS (Onias IV, 172.        Antiochus IV Epiphanes
              Lysimachus his deputy)

            JUDAS MACCABÆUS (163)           Antiochus V Eupator

            ALCIMUS (162-159)
              _appointed by_                Demetrius I Soter

            JONATHAN HAPHUS (152-143)       Alexander Balas

            SIMON (III) THARSI (143-135)    Simon Tharsi

  XII
  140-37    HYRCANUS I (135-106)            Hyrcanus I
  B. C. E.
            ARISTOBULUS I (106-105)         Aristobulus I

            ALEXANDER JANNÆUS (105-79)      Alexander (I) Jannæus

            HYRCANUS II (79-40)             Alexandra, Hyrcanus II,
                                              Aristobulus II, and
                                              Roman governors

            ANTIGONUS (40-37)               Antigonus


  _Period._    _High Priest._                  _Appointee._

  XIII
   37
 B. C. E.-  ANANEL (37-35)                  Herod I
 72 C. E.
            ARISTOBULUS (III) (35)          Herod I

            ANANEL (34, second term)        Herod I

            JOSHUA, of the family Phabi     Herod I

            SIMON (IV) B. BOËTHUS           Herod I

            MATTHIAS B. THEOPHILUS          Herod I
             (Joseph b. Ellem his
             deputy)

            JOASER B. SIMON (b. Boëthus)    Herod I

            ELEAZAR (brother of Joaser)     Archelaus

            JOSHUA, of the family Sié       Archelaus

            JOASER (second term)            Archelaus

            ANAN, of the family Seth        Quirinius, governor of Syria

            ISHMAEL I PHABI                 Valerius Gratus, procurator

            ELEAZAR B. ANAN                 Valerius Gratus, procurator

            SIMON (V) B. CAMYTH             Valerius Gratus, procurator

            JOSEPH CAIAPHAS (26-36)         Valerius Gratus, procurator

            JONATHAN B. ANAN                Vitellius, governor of Syria

            THEOPHILUS B. ANAN (brother     Vitellius, governor of Syria
              of preceding)

            SIMON (VI) B. BOËTHUS, of       Agrippa I
              the family Cantheras (41)

            MATTHIAS B. ANAN (brother       Agrippa I
              of Jonathan)

            ELIONAI B. HAKOPH (44)          Agrippa I

            JOSEPH B. CAMYTH (45)           Herod II

            ANANIAS B. NEBEDEUS (48)        Herod II

            ISHMAEL II PHABI (59-61)        Agrippa II

            JOSEPH CABI (61)                Agrippa II

            ANAN, of the family Anan        Agrippa II

            JOSHUA B. DAMNAI                Agrippa II

            JOSHUA B. GAMALA                Agrippa II

            MATTHIAS B. THEOPHILUS          Agrippa II

            PHINEAS B. SAMUEL (67, 68)      The People


[Illustration: THE HASMONÆAN DYNASTY (143-37 B.C.E.)]

                          Simon Hasmonai
                                |
                             Johanan
                                |
                            Mattathias
                            (_d._ 167)
                                |
     +-------------+------------+------------+-------------+
     |             |            |            |             |
  Johanan    =I. Simon        Judas       Eleazar      Jonathan      Simon
    Gadi        Tharsi=     Maccabæus     Hauran        Haphus      Psellus
  (_d. ab._    (143-135)   (_d._ 160)   (_d._ 163)    (_d._ 143)       |
    160)           |                                       |           |
                   |                                       |           |
       +-----------+------------+---------+------+       +-+-+       +-+-+
       |           |            |         |      |       |   |       |   |
   =II. John     Judah      Mattathias   Son  Daughter   Two |       | Eight
  Hyrcanus I.=  (_d._ 135)  (_d._ 135)          _m._    sons |       |  sons
   (135-106)                                  Ptolemy        |       |
       |                                      b. Habub       |       |
       |                                                     |       |
       +-----------------------+                      Daughter _m._ Mattathias
                               |                                 |   Eplias
            +----------+-------+--------+----------+---+         |
            |          |                |          |   |     Mattathias
            |      Antigonus   =IV. Alexander (I)  |  Son      Curtus
            |      (_d._ 105)         Jannæus=     |             |
            |                        (105-79)      |             |
  =III. Aristobulus I=                 _m._     Absalom        Joseph
       (106-105)                    =V. Salome                   |
          _m._                      Alexandra=                   |
    Salome Alexandra                 (79-70)                 Mattathias
                                        |                        |
                       +----------------+                  FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS
                       |                                     (_d. ab._ 95)
                       |                                         |
           +-----------+----------+                   +----------+--------+
           |                      |                   |          |        |
  =VI. Hyrcanus II=     =VII. Aristobulus II=     Hyrcanus    Julius   Agrippa
      (70-40)                  (69-63)
     (_d._ 31)                (_d._ 48)
        |                         |
        |           +-------------+-----+----------------+-----------+
        |           |                   |                |           |
 Alexandra _m._ Alexander (II)   =VIII. Antigonus=    Alexandra    daughter
            | (_d. ab._ 52)          (40-37)            _m._
            |                                       1. Philippion
     +------+--------+                              2. Ptolemy of Chalcis
     |               |
  Mariamne    Aristobulus (III)
  (_d._ 29)      (_d._ 35)
    _m._
   HEROD


[Illustration: THE HERODIAN DYNASTY (37 B.C.E.-70 C.E.)]

                               Antipater _m._ Cypros
                         (_d. 43 B.C.E._) | (_Arabian_)
                                          |
       +----------------------------------+-----+-------------+------+-------+
       |                                        |             |      |       |
       |                                       =I.            |      |       |
    Phasael                                  Herod I=       Joseph   |       |
       |                                      (37-4)          |      |       |
       |                                    (_King of         |      |       |
       |                                   Palestine_)        |   Pheroras   |
    Phasael                                   _m._            |      |       |
     _m._                           +------1. Doris           |      |       |
   Salampsio                        |+-----2. Mariamne I    Joseph   |       |
    (_d. of                         ||        (_d. 29_)      _m._    |       |
  Mariamne I_)                      ||        (_grandd.    Olympias  |       |
       |                            ||           of        (_d. of   |       |
       |                            ||        Hyrcanus    Malthace_) |       |
      ++----+-----+-----+----+      ||          II_)          |      |       |
      |     |     |     |    |      ||+---3. Mariamne II      |   Daughter   |
  Antipater | Alexander |  Cypros   |||      (_d. of          |     _m._     |
            |           |   _m._    |||      Simon b.         |    Son of    |
            |           | Agrippa I |||      Boëthus_)        |   Antipater  |
            |           |           |||+--4. Malthace         |            Salome
            |           |           ||||     (_Samaritan_)    |             _m._
            |           |           ||||+-5. Cleopatra        |    +----1. Joseph
          Herod     Alexandra       |||||      (_of       Mariamne |       (_uncle
                      _m._          |||||    Jerusalem_)    _m._   |         of
                     Timius         ||||| _m. five other  Herod II |        Herod
                    of Cyprus       |||||     wives_               |         I_)
                                    |||||       |                  |+---2. Costobar
                                    |||||     _three               ||+--3. Alexas
                                    |||||   children_              |||
                                    |||||                          |||
                                    |||||      +-------------------+||
                                    |||||      |             +------+|
        +---------------------------+||||      |             |       +-----+
        |                            ||||      |             |             |
     Antipater                       ||||  Antipater      Berenice       Alexas
       _m._                          ||||    _m._           _m._        Selsias
     Mariamne                        ||||   Cypros     1. Aristobulus     _m._
     (_d. of                         ||||   (_d. of       (_s. of        Cypros
   Aristobulus_)                     |||| Mariamne I_)    Mariamne I_)   (_d. of
                                     ||||      |       2. Uncle of     Antipater_)
                                     ||||      |          Antipater        |
                                     ||||      |                           |
  +----------------------------------+|||   Cypros                         |
  |                                   |||    _m._                        Cypros
  |       +---------------------------+||   Alexas
  |       |                            ||   Selsias
  |       |                            ||
  |       |                            |+------------------+---------+
  |       |                            |                   |         |
  | Herod [Philip]       +-------------+------------+      |         |
  |     _m._             |             |            |      |         |
  |   Herodias           |             |            |      |         |
  |    (_d. of         =II.          =III.       Olympias  |         |
  | Aristobulus_)   Archelaus=   Herod Antipas=    _m._    |         |
  |       |          (2 B.C.E.      (4 B.C.E.     Joseph   |       =IV.
  |       |          -6 C.E.)       -40 C.E.)     (_s. of  |  [Herod] Philip=
  |       |         (_Ethnarch     (_Tetrarch    Joseph_)  |     (4 B.C.E.
  |       |             of             of                  |     -33 C.E.)
  |       |          Judæa and       Galilee               |     (_Tetrarch
  |       |          Samaria_)     and Peræa_)           Herod       of
  |       |            _m._           _m._                      Gaulanitis,
  |       |          Glaphyra    1. Daughter                      Batanæa,
  |       |         (_wid. of       of Aretas                   Trachonitis,
  |     Salome     Alexander_)   2. Herodias                    and Panias_)
  |      _m._                       (_d. of                         _m._
  | 1. [Herod] Philip               Aristobolus_)                  Salome
  | 2. Aristobulus                                              (_d. of Herod
  |    (_s. of                                                    [Philip]_)
  |    Herod II_)
  |
  |
  +------+---------------------------+---------------+-------------+
         |                           |               |             |
         |                           |               |             |
      Alexander                 Aristobulus      Salampsio       Cypros
  (_d. 6 B.C.E._)             (_d. 6 B.C.E._)      _m._           _m._
        _m._                       _m._           Phasael       Antipater
      Glaphyra                   Berenice       (_nephew of  (_s. of Salome_)
  (_of Cappadocia_)          (_d. of Salome_)    Herod I_)
         |                           |
     +---+----------+                |
     |              |                |
  Alexander      Tigranes            |
     |          (_King of            |
  Tigranes      Armenia_)            |
     |                               |
  Alexander                          |
     |                               |
  _Descendants                       |
   not Jews_          +--------------+--------+-----------------+-------+-----+
                      |                       |                 |       |     |
                      |                       |                 |       |     |
                     =V.                    =VI.                |       |     |
                  Agrippa I=              Herod II=        Aristobulus  | Mariamne
                   (41-44)                 (44-48)             _m._     |   _m._
                  (_King of          (_Prince of Chalcis      Jatape    | Antipater
                 Palestine_)           and Titular King    (_of Emesa_) |  (_s. of
                    _m._                of Palestine_)          |       |  Doris_)
                   Cypros                    _m._               |       |
                   (_d. of          +-1. Mariamne               |       |
                  Phasael_)         |    (_d. of Joseph_)       |       |
                      |             | 2. Berenice             Jatape    |
    +------+------+---+---+--------+|    (_d. of Agrippa I_)            |
    |      |      |       |        ||            |                      |
    |      |      |       |        ||            |                      |
    |    =VII.    |       |        ||      +-----------+             Herodias
    | Agrippa II= |    Mariamne    ||      |           |               _m._
    |   (49-70)   |      _m._      || Bernicianus   Hyrcanus     1. Herod [Philip]
    | (_Prince of |+--1. Julius    ||                            2. Herod Antipas
    | Chalcis and ||     Archelaus |+------------+
    |Titular King ||  2. Demetrius |             |
    | of Judæa_)  ||               |         Aristobulus
    |             ||               |            _m._
    |             |+-------+       +--+        Salome
    |             |        |          |     (_d. of Herod
    |             |     Berenice      |       [Philip]_)
  Drusus       Berenice           Drusilla        |
                _m._                _m._       +--+-----+---------+
            1. Marcus            1. Aziz of    |        |         |
            2. Herod II             Emesa    Herod   Agrippa  Aristobulus
            3. Polemon of        2. Felix
               Cilicia                |
                                      |
                                Agrippa (III)



INDEX.


EXPLANATORY NOTES.

For the complete index of references to _Jews_, see under _Israelites_
until 586 B. C. E. (the Babylonian Captivity) and under _Judæans_ until
70 C. E. (the Dispersion), as well as under _Jews_ and _the Jews of_
and _the Judæans of_ the various cities and countries.

Persons living before 1600 will be found under their forenames. The
rule has been violated by indexing certain Spanish Rabbis and Marranos
living before this date under their surnames, and certain Germans
and Poles living after it under their forenames. In these cases
cross-references have been made.

Persons with the same descriptive cognomen, as _Gerundi_, _Ibn-Ezra_,
_Abrabanel_, _Abulafia_, are enumerated under it, but the references
are indexed as above.

Persons bearing the same forename, as _Abraham_, _Jacob_, etc., are
arranged in the order adopted by Joseph Zedner in his “Catalogue of the
Hebrew Books in the Library of the British Museum” (1867):

“1. Those distinguished by an epithet _only_, derived from their
birthplace, rank, or occupation, arranged after the alphabetical order
of the epithets.

“2. Those followed by the word _ben_ (son of) [in our Index preceded
by those with the Aramaic form _bar_, and followed by those with the
Arabic form _ibn_ and the English _son of_], arranged according to the
name of the father.

“3. Compound names of first and family names, as _Jacob Berab_, or two
first names, as _Jacob Zeeb_, [or of first name and birthplace when the
latter follows without a preposition, or is modified to include _of_,
as _Jacob Tus_, _Abraham Bedaresi_].

“4. Family names, as _Jacob (Henry)_.”

This arrangement of Zedner’s is, however, subordinate to the
class-divisions adopted by indexers and cataloguers in general, namely:
1. Popes, according to numbers; 2. Emperors; 3. Kings and Sovereign
Princes, by countries and by number in each country; 4. Others by
appellatives, neglecting prepositions and articles.

       *       *       *       *       *

The subjoined Table will enable the student approximately to refer
from the index of the American Edition of the “History” to the German,
when it is desirable to consult the notes and other additional matter
contained in the original.

    AMERICAN EDITION.             GERMAN.

    VOLUME I,    P. 1-178      =  VOLUME I.
    VOLUME I,    P. 179-487    =  VOLUME II.
    VOLUME I,    P. 487-531 }  =  VOLUME III.
    VOLUME II,   P. 1-320 }
    VOLUME II,   P. 321-635    =  VOLUME IV.
    VOLUME III,  P. 1-250      =  VOLUME V.
    VOLUME III,  P. 250-493    =  VOLUME VI.
    VOLUME III,  P. 494-650 }  =  VOLUME VII.
    VOLUME IV,   P. 1-126 }
    VOLUME IV,   P. 127-381    =  VOLUME VIII.
    VOLUME IV,   P. 382-675    =  VOLUME IX.
    VOLUME IV,   P. 676-708 }  =  VOLUME X.
    VOLUME V,    P. 1-290 }
    VOLUME V,    P. 291-703    =  VOLUME XI.


LISTS OF NAMES, ETC., IN THE INDEX.

    Academies, the Babylonian.
    Alliances, Jewish.
    Amoraim, the.
    Anti-Maimunists, the.
    Apostates.
    Astronomers and Mathematicians, Jewish.
    Church Councils.
    Codes, general, defining the status of the Jews.
    Codes, Jewish religious.
    Council, the Great, couples at the head of.
    Exilarchs, the.
    Fabulists, the.
    Frankists, the.
    Grammarians and Lexicographers, Jewish.
    Hasmonæan Dynasty, the, the members of.
    Herodian Dynasty, the, the members of.
    High Priests, the.
    Historians, Jewish.
    Historians of the Jews.
    Israel, the kings of.
    Israelites, the, the kings of.
    Journals, Jewish.
    Judah, the kings of.
    Judæa, the Roman governors of.
    Judaism, the sects of.
    Judges, the.
    Kabbalistic terms, the.
    Kabbalists, the.
    Karaite sects, the.
    Karaite writers, the.
    Maimunists, the.
    Massorets.
    Measfim, the.
    Messiahs, the.
    Nahardea, the academy of, principals of.
    Patriarchs, the.
    Philosophers, Jewish.
    Physicians, Jewish.
    Poets, Jewish.
    Procurators of Judæa.
    Prophets, the.
    Pumbeditha, the academy of, principals of.
    Rabbis.
    Rabbis, itinerant.
    Sabbataï Zevi, the followers of.
    Sabureans, the.
    Sora, the academy of, Geonim of.
    Sora, the academy of, principals of.
    Synhedrion, the, presidents of.
    Syria, the Roman governors of.
    Talmudists.
    Tanaites, the.
    Travelers, Jewish.
    Writers (Historians, Pamphleteers, Scholars, etc.), non-Jewish, on
      Jewish subjects.

An almost complete biographical history of the Jews can be collated by
following up through the Index the biographies of the persons grouped
below. The column on the left consists of the class-names of the
secular chiefs of the Jewish community; the column on the right, of
those of the spiritual chiefs; the middle column, whether connecting
the other two or replacing them, of those whose position, powers, and
influence were, or were supposed to be, both spiritual and secular.

  ----                         PATRIARCHS.            ----
          {Moses
  LEADERS { and                   MOSES.              HIGH PRIESTS.
          {Joshua.

  JUDGES.                          ----               HIGH PRIESTS.

  KINGS.                        PROPHETS.             HIGH PRIESTS.
          {Zerubbabel,            EZRA
  LEADERS {Ezra, and              and                 HIGH PRIESTS.
          {Nehemiah.            PROPHETS.

  ----                        HIGH PRIESTS.           ----

  ----                      HASMONÆAN DYNASTY         ----
                       (Princes and High Priests).

  HERODIAN DYNASTY.}                                 {HIGH PRIESTS.
  ROMAN PROCURATORS}                                 {PRESIDENTS OF
    OF JUDÆA.      }              ----               { THE SYNHEDRION.
  ROMAN GOVERNORS  }                                 {TEACHERS OF THE
    OF SYRIA.      }                                 { Law (Tanaites).

  ----                PRESIDENTS OF THE SYNHEDRION    ----
                      (under the titles Patriarch,
                       Nassi, Prince, and Rabban)
                                  and
                          TEACHERS OF THE LAW
                        (Tanaites and Amoraim).

  PRINCES OF THE CAPTIVITY.}                     {PRESIDENTS OF THE
  (EXILARCH, RESH GALUTHA).}                     { BABYLONIAN
                                                 { ACADEMIES, GEONIM.

                      PHYSICIANS AND PHILOSOPHERS.
                                 POETS.
                         TALMUDISTS AND RABBIS.



Index


  =A=

  =Aaron=, high priest, member of the tribe of Levi, =1=, 12.
    countenances idolatry, =1=, 14.
    meets Moses on Horeb, =1=, 15.
    descendants of. _See_ Aaronides.

  =Aaron de la Papa.= _See_ Papa, Aaron de la.

  =Aaron of York=, chief rabbi of England, =3=, 588.
    sums paid to Henry III by, =3=, 591.

  =Aaron ben Asher=, Massoret, criticised by Saadiah, =3=, 196, 207.
    corrects Bible manuscripts, =3=, 207.
    as a poet, =3=, 223.

  =Aaron (II) ben Elia Nicomedi= (1300-1369), Karaite philosopher,
        =4=, 95.

  =Aaron (I) ben Joseph, the Elder= (1270-1300), Karaite physician,
        disciple of Nachmani, =3=, 607; =4=, 71.
    fixes the Karaite prayer book, =4=, 71.

  =Aaron ben Meshullam= (1170-1210), scholar, =3=, 396.
    Maimunist, attacks Meïr Abulafia, =3=, 524.

  =Aaron ben Zerach=, martyr, =4=, 144.

  =Aaron ben Zion Ibn-Alamâni=, physician at Alexandria, =3=, 340.

  =Aaron Ibn-Sarjadu= (943-960), opponent of Saadiah, =3=, 194,
        195, 196, 200.
    reconciled with Saadiah, =3=, 200-1.
    Gaon of Pumbeditha, =3=, 202.
    death of, =3=, 207-8.
    in Sherira’s “Letter,” =3=, 233.

  =Aaron Cohen=, of Narbonne, elegy by, =4=, 49.

  =Aaron Halevi= (1235-1300), Talmudist, =3=, 621.

  =Aaronides=, the, oppose idolatry under Manasseh, =1=, 283.
    dismissed for not participating in idolatrous worship, =1=, 284.
    massacred at the first fall of Jerusalem, =1=, 314.
    return with Zerubbabel, =1=, 352.
    rejected by Nehemiah, =1=, 378.
    provided for, under Ezra, =1=, 382.
    exiled by Nehemiah, =1=, 386.
    officiate on Gerizim, =1=, 390.
    honor Judah I’s remains, =2=, 467.
    in charge of Judah II’s remains, =2=, 487.
    in Arabia, =3=, 55.
    make Abraham ben David’s grave, =3=, 490.
    _See also_ High priests, the; Priests, the.

  =Ab, the Ninth of=, celebration of, by Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 152, 159.

  =Abaka= (Abagha), Tartar king in Persia, =3=, 638.

  =Abayi Nachmani= (280-338), Babylonian Amora, =2=, 560.
    disciple of Rabba bar Nachmani, =2=, 575, 580, 583.
    principal of the Pumbeditha Academy, =2=, 583.
    youth of, =2=, 583-4.
    integrity of, =2=, 584.
    decrease of students under, =2=, 584-5.
    dialectics of, =2=, 585.
    death of, =2=, 585.
    rebukes Raba bar Joseph, =2=, 586.

  =Abba of Accho=, ordination of, =2=, 540.
    modesty of, =2=, 541.

  =Abba bar Abba=, Amora, father of Mar-Samuel, =2=, 511.

  =Abba-Areka= (Rab), Amora, authorized to teach in Babylon, =2=,
        454, 479, 511.
    adds supplements to the Mishna, =2=, 470.
    opposed to the purchase of oil from heathens, =2=, 484.
    reception of, in Babylonia, =2=, 512.
    made Agora-nomos, =2=, 512.
    introduces excommunication into Babylonia, =2=, 517.
    compared with Hillel, =2=, 517.
    wife of, =2=, 517.
    modesty of, =2=, 517-18.
    descendants of, =2=, 518, 544.
    opposes Persian innovations, =2=, 521.
    yields to Magian demands, =2=, 526.
    influence of, on Jewish Babylonia, =2=, 544.

  =Abba-Mari ben Isaac=, sheriff of St. Gilles, =3=, 399.

  =Abba-Mari ben Moses= (Don Astruc En-Duran), follower of Nachmanides,
        =4=, 27-8.
    appeals to Ben Adret, =4=, 28, 29.
    fails to win Jacob ben Machir’s aid, =4=, 31.
    aggressive anti-Maimunist, =4=, 32.
    adherents of, =4=, 33-4.
    secures the support of Asheri, =4=, 38.
    draws up the ban against the study of science, =4=, 38, 39.
    opposed by the Tibbonides, =4=, 41-2.
    in Perpignan, =4=, 50.

  =Abba Saul=, a Tanaite, =2=, 330.

  =Abbadides=, the, in Seville, =3=, 315.

  =Abbahu=, a Palestinian Amora, =2=, 531.
    and the observance of the Law in Samaria, =2=, 534.
    secular culture of, =2=, 537-8.
    education of the daughter of, =2=, 537.
    and Diocletian, =2=, 538.
    Hebrew style of, =2=, 538.
    attacks Christian dogmas, =2=, 539-40.
    modesty and generosity of, =2=, 540-1.
    on the Greek theatre, =2=, 542.
    makes Cæsarea an academic city, =2=, 543.
    sons of, =2=, 543.

  =Abbasside Caliphate= (Caliphate of the East, Bagdad Caliphate), the,
        weakness of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 431.
    conquered by Hulagu, =3=, 606.

  =Abbasside Caliphate, the, the Jews of=, in the ninth century, =3=,
        145-6, 176-80.
    under Al-Mutadhid, =3=, 183.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 428-33.

  =Abbassides=, the, opponents of the Ommiyyades, =3=, 125.

  =Ab-beth-din=, president of the Council of Seventy, =1=, 395.
    deputy of the president of the Synhedrion, =2=, 360, 404.
    office of, ceases, =2=, 453.

  =Abdallah Ibn-Allah=, vizir, prevents the forced conversion of Jews
        to Islam, =3=, 312.

  =Abdallah Ibn-Hakam=, murders the king of Saragossa, =3=, 266.

  =Abdallah Ibn-Sabâ=, partisan of Ali, =3=, 90.

  =Abdallah Ibn-Salâm=, Jewish disciple of Mahomet, =3=, 73.

  =Abdallah Ibn-Tumart=, incites the Moors against the Almoravides,
        =3=, 357-8.
    founds the Almohades, =3=, 358.

  =Abdallah Ibn-Ubey=, opponent of Mahomet, =3=, 75.
    protects the Benu-Kainukaa, =3=, 77.
    promises aid to the Benu-Nadhir, =3=, 78.

  =Abdallah, son of Saura=, Jewish opponent of Mahomet, =3=, 74.

  =Abdallah Almamun= (813-833), son of Haroun Alrashid, at war with his
        brother, =3=, 145.
    prosperity of the Abbasside Caliphate under, =3=, 146.
    adopts the Mutazilist theology, =3=, 147.
    appealed to by rival parties in the Pumbeditha academy, =3=, 155.
    the last of the tolerant caliphs of the East, =3=, 176.
    reduces the power of the Exilarchs, =3=, 177.

  =Abdel-latif=, Mahometan physician, on Maimonides, =3=, 473, 488.

  =Abdon=, judge, =1=, 66.

  =Abdul-Malik=, Ommiyyade caliph, tolerance of, =3=, 110.

  =Abdul Meg’id=, sultan of Turkey, =5=, 634.
    emancipates the Jews, =5=, 641, 664.
    orders a revision of the Rhodes trial, =5=, 647.
    secures the Turkish Jews against the blood accusation, =5=, 662.

  =Abdulmumen=, Almohade ruler of northern Africa, tries to force Islam
        upon his subjects, =3=, 358-60, 451.

  =Abdul-Rahman III=, Ommiyyade caliph, appealed to in behalf of Moses
        ben Chanoch, =3=, 209-10.
    Moslem culture under, =3=, 214.
    appoints Chasdaï Ibn-Shaprut interpreter, =3=, 216.
    death of, =3=, 222.

  =Abel=, Psychic type of the Gnostics, =2=, 377.

  =Abel.= _See_ Abel-Bethmaachah.

  =Abel-Bethmaachah=, refuge of Sheba, =1=, 149-50.
    the region of, subjugated by Ben-hadad I, =1=, 191.

  =Abelè-Zion=, ascetic Karaites in Jerusalem, =3=, 182. _See also_
        “Mourners of Zion,” the.

  =Abenacar, Isaac= (Manuel Pimentel), first Jew buried at Ouderkerk,
        =4=, 672.

  =Abendana, Jacob=, rabbi of London, =5=, 214.

  =Abenhuacar.= _See_ Samuel Ibn-Wakar.

  =Abensur, Daniel=, millionaire in Hamburg, =5=, 205.

  =Abia=, king of Arabia, at war with Izates of Adiabene, =2=, 217-18.

  =Abiathar=, the family of, under David’s protection, =1=, 100.
    partisan of David, =1=, 107, 112.
    made high priest, =1=, 120.
    on the persecution of the Gibeonites, =1=, 123.
    against Absalom, =1=, 141.
    urges the recall of David, =1=, 146.
    supports Adonijah, =1=, 152.
    of the priestly house of Ithamar, =1=, 155.
    deposed, =1=, 160.

  =Abi-Ezri.= _See_ Eleazar ben Joel Halevi.

  =Abigail=, wife of David, =1=, 134.

  =Abijah=, son of Samuel, judge, =1=, 79.

  =Abijam=, son of Rehoboam, king of Judah, =1=, 189.

  =Abilene=, given to Agrippa II, =2=, 245.

  =Abimaï=, son of Abbahu, =2=, 543.

  =Abimelech=, judge, =1=, 63.

  =Abin, Amora=, emigrates from Judæa, =2=, 567.

  =Abinadab=, guards the Ark of the Covenant, =1=, 119.

  =Abinadab=, son of Saul, death of, =1=, 103.

  =Abinerglus= (Abennerig), father-in-law of Izates, =2=, 216.

  =Abishag=, wife of David, and Adonijah, =1=, 160.

  =Abishai=, brother of Joab, kills Abner, =1=, 111.
    saves David, =1=, 117.
    commander in the Ammonite war, =1=, 127.
    conducts the Idumæan war, =1=, 128-9.
    against Absalom, =1=, 141, 144.
    conducts the war against Sheba, =1=, 149.

  =Ablaat=, astronomer, friend of Mar-Samuel, =2=, 521.

  =Abner=, cousin of Saul, qualities of, =1=, 84-5.
    frees Israel from the Philistines, =1=, 108.
    makes Ishbosheth Saul’s successor, =1=, 108.
    actual founder of the kingdom of the Ten Tribes, =1=, 108.
    jealous of Joab, =1=, 109.
    power of, =1=, 109.
    kills Asahel, =1=, 110.
    accused of coveting Rizpah, =1=, 110.
    joins David, =1=, 110-11.
    murdered, =1=, 111-12.

  =Abner of Burgos.= _See_ Alfonso Burgensis.

  =Aboab, Immanuel=, defends Rabbinical Judaism, =5=, 55.

  =Aboab, Isaac=, rabbi of Toledo, friend of Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 341.
    negotiates for the settlement of Spanish exiles in Portugal, =4=,
        352, 365.
    death of, =4=, 366.

  =Aboab, Isaac, de Fonseca= (1606-1693), rabbi at Amsterdam, instructs
        at the Talmud Torah, =4=, 681.
    member of the first Rabbinical college, =4=, 682.
    as a preacher, =4=, 682-3.
    vacillating character of, =4=, 683.
    goes to Brazil, =4=, 693.
    on the war in Brazil, =4=, 694.
    devotee of the Kabbala, =5=, 52.
    translates Kabbalistic works, =5=, 54, 88.
    and Spinoza, =5=, 92.
    Sabbatian, =5=, 139, 160.

  =Aboab, Samuel=, rabbi at Venice, and Luzzatto, =5=, 240.

  =Aboda Zara=, Mishnic treatise on idolaters, =2=, 477.

  =Abodah=, the, Day of Atonement Temple service, poem on, =3=, 114-15.

  =Aboget=, alleged poisoner of wells, =4=, 102.

  =Abrabanel.= _See_ Dormido; Isaac ben Judah; Isaac II, son of Isaac;
        Isaac III, son of Judah Leon; Judah Leon; Samuel I; Samuel II.

  =Abrabanel family=, the, descended from David, =3=, 43.

  =Abrabanela.= _See_ Benvenida.

  =Abradhi=, caliph of the East, vizir of, favors Saadiah, =3=, 200.

  =Abraham=, disciple of Meïr of Rothenburg, =4=, 74.

  =Abraham=, monk, convert to Judaism, =3=, 21.

  =Abraham=, patriarch, acquires Machpelah, =1=, 4.
    monotheist, =1=, 5.
    virtues of, =1=, 6.
    revered by the Israelites, =1=, 6-7.
    impresses Mahomet, =3=, 71.
    in the Zohar, =4=, 23.

  =Abraham of Aragon=, oculist, =3=, 583.

  =Abraham de Balmes=, physician and grammarian, =4=, 411.
    instructs Christians in Hebrew, =4=, 473.

  =Abraham de Beya=, traveler in Portuguese employ, =4=, 368.

  =Abraham of Granada=, Kabbalist, =4=, 196-7.

  =Abraham de Herrera.= _See_ Herrera, Abraham de.

  =Abraham ben Chasdaï=, Maimunist, as poet, =3=, 388, 560.
    denounces Solomon of Montpellier, =3=, 544.
    epigram by, =3=, 544.

  =Abraham ben Chiya Albargeloni= (1065-1136), astronomer, =3=,
        313; =4=, 120.

  =Abraham ben David of Posquières= (Rabed II, 1125-1198), Talmudist,
        as a controversialist, =3=, 389, 399.
    disciple of Abraham ben Isaac, =3=, 392.
    friend of Judah Ibn-Tibbon, =3=, 397.
    writes a Mishna commentary, =3=, 399.
    criticises Maimonides’ Mishne-Torah, =3=, 490.
    death of, =3=, 490.
    alleged founder of the Kabbala, =3=, 547.

  =Abraham ben Isaac=, head of the college of Narbonne, =3=, 392.
    son-in-law of, =3=, 399.

  =Abraham ben Meïr Ibn-Ezra= (1088-1167), personality of, =3=, 366-7,
        381.
    attitude of, towards the Karaites, =3=, 366.
    and Jehuda Halevi and Moses Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 367.
    poetry of, =3=, 367-8.
    as an exegete, =3=, 368, 370-1, 371-3.
    poverty of, =3=, 368-9.
    in the East, =3=, 369.
    in Rome, =3=, 369-71.
    as a grammarian, =3=, 371, 374.
    adheres to the Massora, =3=, 371.
    at Mantua and Lucca, =3=, 371.
    in southern France, =3=, 373.
    poem on, by Jacob Tam, =3=, 373, 376.
    in London, =3=, 373-4.
    as philosopher, =3=, 373.
    defends the Sabbath eve, =3=, 374.
    last years of, =3=, 374-5.
    son of, =3=, 375.
    influence of, on Italian Jews, =3=, 423.
    attacked by Nachmani, =3=, 534, 608.
    the works of, used by Raymund Martin, =3=, 622.
    denounced as a heretic, =3=, 624.
    admired by Yedaya Bedaresi, =4=, 43.
    the works of, studied in the fourteenth century, =4=, 143-4.
    the Pentateuch commentary by, commented upon, =4=, 144.
    commentary on the works of, =4=, 191.
    exegesis of, praised by Reuchlin, =4=, 442.
    commentary by, in the Bomberg Bible, =4=, 476.
    studied by Spinoza, =5=, 88.

  =Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia= (1240-1291), Kabbalist, =4=, 3, 11,
        622.
    youth and ideals of, =4=, 4-5, 19.
    system of, =5=, 5-6, 14.
    disciples of, =4=, 6, 8, 10.
    in Italy, =4=, 6.
    imprisoned, =4=, 7.
    Messianic claims of, =4=, 7-8.
    works of, =4=, 8.
    declared a heretic, =4=, 625.

  =Abraham ben Sherira.= _See_ Mar-Abraham.

  =Abraham Ibn-Alfachar= (1160-1223), favorite of Alfonso III of
        Castile, =3=, 384-5.
    ambassador to Morocco, =3=, 385.
    encourages Talmud study, =3=, 386.

  =Abraham Ibn-Daud Halevi= (1110-1180), physician, philosopher, and
        historian, =3=, 363-6.
    parentage of, =3=, 364.
    attainments of, =3=, 364.
    as an historian, =3=, 364, 365-6.
    as a scientist, =3=, 364.
    as a philosopher, =3=, 364-5.
    style of, =3=, 366.
    death of, =3=, 386.
    the work of, consulted by Basnage, =5=, 196.

  =Abraham Ibn-Shoshan=, scholar, Spanish exile in Egypt, =4=, 393.

  =Abraham Ibn-Zarzal=, physician and astrologer, =4=, 116.

  =Abraham, son of Manessier= de Vesoul, =4=, 150.

  =Abraham Bedaresi=, poet, elegy by, =3=, 579.
    compared with his son, =4=, 42.

  =Abraham Benveniste Senior=, dignitary at the court of Juan II of
        Castile, =4=, 228.
    frames the law of Avila, =4=, 229.
    promotes the marriage of Isabella of Castile, =4=, 280.
    friend of Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 341.
    accepts baptism, =4=, 351.
    _See also_ Coronel.

  =Abraham Bibago=, favorite of John II of Aragon, =4=, 275.

  =Abraham Farissol= (1451-1525), Bible commentator and geographer,
        =4=, 411-12.
    protegé of Hercules d’Este I, =4=, 412-13.
    polemic writings of, =4=, 413.

  =Abraham Israel=, excommunicates Eibeschütz’s opponents, =5=, 264.

  =Abraham Klausner=, compiles the customs of various communities,
        =4=, 134.

  =Abraham Levi=, Spanish exile, Kabbalist, =4=, 481.

  =Abraham (Abulmeni) Maimuni= (1185-1254), son of Maimonides, his
        successor, =3=, 493.
    Talmudist and philosopher, =3=, 495.
    visited by rabbis emigrating to Palestine, =3=, 505.
    and the attacks upon his father, =3=, 525-6, 545.

  =Abraham Maimuni II=, great-grandson of Maimonides, converts Karaites
        to Rabbanism, =4=, 71-2.

  =Abraham Menz=, director of the Padua college, =4=, 410.

  =Abraham Saba=, Kabbalist, leaves Portugal, =4=, 381.

  =Abraham Yizchaki=, anti-Sabbatian, =5=, 220-1.

  =Abraham Zacuto=, disciple of Isaac Aboab, pronounces his funeral
        oration, =4=, 366.
    author of an astronomical calendar, =4=, 367, 372.
    escapes from Portugal, =4=, 378.
    at Tunis, =4=, 391.
    writes the Sefer Yochasin, =4=, 391.
    flees to Turkey, =4=, 392.
    compared with Elias Kapsali, =4=, 407.
    chronicle of, published, =4=, 608, 629.
    great-grandson of, =4=, 678.

  =Abraham Zacuto Lusitano= (1576-1642), physician, honor paid
        to, =4=, 678.

  =Abrianim=, transgressors of the Law, addressed by Jesus, =2=, 152.

  =Absalom=, son of David, instigates the murder of Amnon, =1=, 134.
    seeks refuge with Talmai of Geshur, =1=, 134-5.
    pardoned, =1=, 136.
    plots with Ahithophel, =1=, 136, 138-44.
    description of, =1=, 137.
    hailed as king in Hebron, =1=, 139.
    in Jerusalem, =1=, 142-3.
    accepts Hushai’s advice, =1=, 143.
    killed, =1=, 144-5.
    mourned by David, =1=, 145.
    monument of, =1=, 145.
    children of, =1=, 145.

  =Absalom=, son of John Hyrcanus, =2=, 34.
    in Pompey’s triumph, =2=, 67.

  =Abt=, friend of Mendelssohn, =5=, 303.

  =Abtalion= (Pollion), head of the Synhedrion, =2=, 71-2.
    maxims of, =2=, 72; =3=, 573.
    disciples of, =2=, 72, 96.
    opposed to Antigonus, =2=, 85-6.
    counsels submission to Herod, =2=, 88.
    spared by Herod, =2=, 89.
    death of, =2=, 90.

  =Abu-Abdullah Mahomet Alnasir=, Almohade caliph, invades Andalusia,
        =3=, 506-7.
    decrees Jew badges, =3=, 512.

  =Abu-Afak=, poet, opponent of Mahomet, =3=, 74.

  =Abu Amr Joseph ben Chasdaï.= _See_ Joseph ben Chasdaï.

  =Abu-Amr Joseph ben Zadik Ibn-Zadik= (1080-1148), philosopher,
        =3=, 314-15.
    as a poet, =3=, 315.
    death of, =3=, 361.

  =Abu-Amran Moses=, founder of a Karaite sect, =3=, 157-8.

  =Abu-Amranites=, Karaite sectaries, =3=, 158.

  =Abu-Amrun Musa ben Maimun Obaid Allah=, Arabic name of Maimonides,
        =3=, 447.

  =Abu Ayub= (Solomon Ibn-Almuallem), poet and physician, =3=, 312.

  =Abu Ayub Sulaiman Ibn-Yachya.= _See_ Solomon Ibn-Gebirol.

  =Abu-Bekr=, Mahomet’s general, repulsed at Kamus, =3=, 82.

  =Abudiente, Abraham Gideon=, Sabbatian, =5=, 155.

  =Abu Fadhl Chasdaï= (1040), Arabic Jewish poet, vizir to the king of
        Saragossa, =3=, 280.

  =Abuhajaj Joseph Ibn-Ezra=, brother of Moses Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 319.
    son of, =3=, 361.

  =Abu Hussain Joseph Ibn-Nagrela.= _See_ Joseph Ibn-Nagrela.

  =Abu-Ibrahim Isaac Ibn-Ezra=, brother of Moses Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 318.

  =Abu Ibrahim Isaac Ibn-Kastar ben Yasus= (Yizchaki, 982-1057),
        physician and philosopher, =3=, 273.

  =Abu-Isa.= _See_ Obaiah Abu-Isa ben Ishak.

  =Abu Ishak al-Elviri=, Mahometan poet, enemy of the Jews of
        Granada, =3=, 278.

  =Abu Ishak Ibn-Mohajar=, vizir to the Almoravide Ali, =3=, 312.

  =Abu Jacob Yussuff Almostansir=, Almohade ruler of Morocco, =3=, 385.

  =Abu-Jafar Ibn-Aljezzar=, Mahometan disciple of Isaac Israeli, =3=,
        181.

  =Abu Jafar Almansur=, caliph, imprisons Anan ben David, =3=, 129-30.

  =Abu-Kariba Assad Toban=, king of Yemen, besieges Yathrib, =3=, 62.
    convert to Judaism, =3=, 63.
    end of, =3=, 63.
    sons of, =3=, 64.

  =Abulafia.= _See_ Abraham ben Samuel; Abulafia, Moses; Joseph ben
        Todros; Levi ben Todros; Meïr ben Todros Halevi; Samuel ben
        Meïr Allavi; Todros ben Joseph.

  =Abulafia=, Marrano, agent of Ferdinand and Isabella, opposes the
        Inquisition, =4=, 313.
    burnt at the stake, =4=, 317.

  =Abulafia, Moses=, accused of ritual murder, =5=, 636.
    tortured, =5=, 636-7.
    turns Mahometan, =5=, 638.

  =Abulafia family=, the, of the nobility of Jewish Spain, =3=,
        236; =4=, 116.
    members of, perish during the Black Death, =4=, 113.

  =Abul-Ala=, Arabic poet, =3=, 199.

  =Abul Arab Ibn-Moïsha=, Mahometan theologian and poet, friend of
        Maimonides, =3=, 456.
    accuses Maimonides of apostasy from Islam, =3=, 474.

  =Abul-Barkat Hibat-Allah ben Malka.= _See_ Nathaniel.

  =Abulhassan=, king of Morocco, at war with Castile, =4=, 84.

  =Abulhassan Abraham ben Meïr Ibn-Kamnial=, physician, vizir to the
        Almoravide Ali, =3=, 312.
    patron of Moses Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 320.

  =Abulhassan Jehuda ben Samuel Halevi (Ibn-Allevi).= _See_
        Jehuda Halevi.

  =Abulhassan Jehuda Ibn-Ezra=, brother of Moses Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 318.

  =Abulkasim Ibn-Alarif=, vizir of Habus, patron of Samuel Ibn-Nagrela,
        =3=, 256.

  =Abulkassim Mahomet.= _See_ Al-Mutamed.

  =Abulmeni Abraham Maimuni.= _See_ Abraham Maimuni.

  =Abulsari Sahal ben Mazliach Kohen=, propagandist for Karaism,
        =3=, 203-5.
    as controversialist, =3=, 204-5.
    Hebrew style of, =3=, 204, 206.

  =Abulvalid Mervan Ibn-Janach.= _See_ Jonah Marinus.

  =Abu Mansur Samuel ben Chananya=, Nagid, invites Jehuda Halevi to
        Cairo, =3=, 340-1.
    successor of, =3=, 443.

  =Abumelik=, leads a Moorish army against Castile, =4=, 84.
    killed, =4=, 85.

  =Abunassar Azaria=, son of Joseph Ibn-Nagrela, flees to Lucena, =3=,
        279.
    death of, =3=, 284.

  =Abu-Sahal Ali= (835-853), medical writer, =3=, 146.

  =Abusahal Dunash ben Tamim.= _See_ Dunash ben Tamim.

  =Abu Said ben Chalfon Halevi=, friend of Jehuda Halevi, =3=, 340.

  =Abu-Yussuf Chasdaï ben Isaac Ibn-Shaprut.= _See_ Chasdaï
        Ibn-Shaprut.

  =Abu-Yussuff Almansur=, Almohade prince, introduces a garb for
        apostate Jews, =3=, 511-12.

  =Abuzurj-Mihir=, inventor of chess, =3=, 7.

  =Abydos=, Sabbataï Zevi imprisoned at, =5=, 148, 151.
    enriched by the Sabbatians, =5=, 149.

  =Academies, the Babylonian=, authority of the principals of, =2=, 547.
    closed under Kobad, =3=, 4.
    re-opened, =3=, 5.
    work of, =3=, 6.
    give religious instruction to the Arabian Jews, =3=, 59.
    principals of, deposed by the Exilarchs, =3=, 91.
    independent of each other in internal affairs, =3=, 96.
    organization of, under the caliphs, =3=, 96-7.
    office of the president of, not hereditary, =3=, 96.
    meetings of, in Adar and Elul, =3=, 97.
    income of, =3=, 97-8.
    prayers for the departed at, =3=, 101.
    the heads of, excommunicate Anan ben David, =3=, 134.
    the Karaites on, =3=, 134-5.
    and the election of the Exilarch, =3=, 137.
    hold aloof from Islam theology, =3=, 148.
    respect paid to, in the ninth century, =3=, 160.
    _See also under_ Pumbeditha _and_ Sora.

  =Academies, the Babylonian=, list of:
    Firuz-Shabur,
    Machuza,
    Nahardea,
    Nares,
    Nisibis,
    Pumbeditha,
    Shekan-Zib,
    Silhi,
    Sora.

  =Academies, the Palestinian=, origin of, =2=, 324.
    established by the disciples of Jochanan ben Zakkai, =2=, 335.
    frequented by Babylonian students, =2=, 511, 531.
    decline of, =2=, 543, 548, 560.
    method of, =2=, 557-8.
    _See under_ Acbara; Bekiin; Cæsarea; Emmaus; Jamnia; Lydda;
        Sepphoris; Tiberias; Schools.

  =Academy at Jerusalem=, founded by the Vegas, =5=, 126.

  =Academy of Sciences at Berlin=, prize of, won by Mendelssohn,
        =5=, 303-4.
    Mendelssohn proposed as member of, =5=, 308.

  =Acbara=, seat of Jannaï’s academy, =2=, 470.

  =Accho= (Acco; Acre; Ptolemais; St. Jean d’Acre), built by the
        Canaanites, =1=, 3.
    surrenders to Shalmaneser, =1=, 264.
    fortifications of, destroyed by Ptolemy I, =1=, 417.
    the inhabitants of, threaten the Galilean Judæans, =1=, 475.
    Jonathan Haphus meets Demetrius at, =1=, 496.
    Jonathan Haphus taken prisoner at, =1=, 499.
    surrenders to Ptolemy VIII, =2=, 40.
    Vespasian prepares for his Judæan campaign at, =2=, 285.
    Talmudists in, in the twelfth century, =3=, 427.
    Maimonides at, =3=, 456.
    Nachmani at, =3=, 605.
    Kabbalist center, =3=, 626.
    Kabbalists of, burn the “Guide of the Perplexed,” =3=, 631.
    Maimonides’ tomb at, desecrated, =3=, 631.
    Maimunists in, =3=, 631.
    David Maimuni at, =3=, 632-3.
    the Jews of, blotted out, =3=, 650.

  =Acha of Diphta=, proposed as principal of the Sora academy, =2=, 627.

  =Acha ben Jacob=, on Chama of Nahardea, =2=, 595.

  =Achaï bar Huna=, Amora, compiler of the Babylonian Talmud, =2=, 631.

  =Achaia=, Paul establishes Christian communities in, =2=, 227.

  =Achbâr=, teacher of the Law among the Arabic Jews, =3=, 59.

  =Acher.= _See_ Elisha ben Abuya.

  =Achiab=, prevents Herod from committing suicide, =2=, 116.

  =Achish=, Philistine king, in friendly relations with David,
        =1=, 101-2.
    acknowledges David king, =1=, 108.

  =Achitub=, grandson of Eli, high priest at Nob, =1=, 79.

  =Achiya=, first Exilarch known, =2=, 509.

  =Achiya.= _See also_ Chiya.

  =Achmed I=, sultan, Jewish women under, =4=, 629, 630.

  =Achmed Shaitan=, viceroy of Egypt, treachery of, =4=, 395.
    avenges himself on the Jews of Cairo, =4=, 395-6.

  =Achunaï.= _See_ Chananya.

  =Acosta, Uriel= (Gabriel). _See_ Costa, Uriel da.

  =Acra=, the, a part of Jerusalem, burnt by Titus, =2=, 308.

  =Acra= (Acrapolis; Baris; Birah), the, the Temple citadel, built by
        Nehemiah, =1=, 382, 524.
    garrisoned by Scopas, =1=, 433.
    Greek games taught in, =1=, 445.
    refuge of the Hellenists, =1=, 454.
    occupied by Menelaus, =1=, 470, 478.
    besieged by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 478.
    Hellenists leave, =1=, 480.
    reinforced by Bacchides, =1=, 491.
    besieged by Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 496.
    surrenders to Simon Tharsi, =1=, 523.
    the towers of, taken down, =1=, 524.
    called Birah, =1=, 524-5.
    wife and children of Aristobulus II imprisoned in, =2=, 58.
    called Antonia, =2=, 106.
    _See_ Antonia.

  =Acrabatene=, the Samaritans of, slaughtered by the Zealots, =2=, 243.

  =Acrabattine=, the Idumæans driven out of, by Judas Maccabæus, =1=,
        474.
    invested by Simon bar Giora, =2=, 293.

  =Acrapolis=, the. _See_ Acra, the.

  =Acre.= _See_ Accho.

  =Actian games=, the, introduced into Jerusalem, =2=, 105.

  =Actium=, the battle of, won by Octavius, =2=, 96.

  =Ada=, a Babylonian Amora, =2=, 579.

  =Adalbert=, bishop of Prague, and the slave-trade of Jews, =3=, 305.

  =Adam=, the book of, Sibylline chronicle, quoted, =2=, 462.

  =Adam Kadmon=, Kabbalistic term, the original man, =5=, 121, 143.

  =Adamantius=, apostate Jew in Alexandria, =2=, 619.

  =Adams, Hannah=, history of the Jews by, =5=, 593.

  =Adarsa=, the battle of, won by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 485.

  =Adath Jeshurun=, the body of advanced Jews in Amsterdam, innovations
        of, =5=, 457.

  =Aden=, the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 436.

  =Adher-Baijan= (Aserbeidsan), Samuel Ibn-Abbas in, =3=, 442.

  =Adher-Baijan, the Jews of=, in the twelfth century, =3=, 430-33.
    urged to join David Alrui, =3=, 431.
    followers of David Alrui, =3=, 433.

  =Adiabene=, description of, =2=, 216.
    the nobles of, conspire against Izates, =2=, 217-18.
    the people of, friendly to the Judæans, =2=, 219.
    in alliance with the Zealots, =2=, 256.
    the royal house of, aids Judæa against Rome, =2=, 264.
    the princes of, the only Judæan insurgents spared by Rome, =2=,
        311.
    conquered by Trajan, =2=, 393-4.
    laid waste by Severus, =2=, 464.

  =Adido=, Simon Tharsi assembles his forces at, =1=, 500.

  =Adiya=, father of the poet Samuel, =3=, 68.

  =Adnan=, ancestor of the Arabs, =3=, 61.

  =Adolph of Nassau=, emperor, refuses to surrender Meïr of Rothenburg’
        s body, =4=, 35.
    war of, with Albrecht, =4=, 35.
    death of, =4=, 36.

  =Adonijah=, son of David, opposes Absalom, =1=, 135.
    rebels, =1=, 151-4.
    supporters of, =1=, 152.
    royal display of, =1=, 152.
    Nathan opposed to, =1=, 153.
    acknowledged king, =1=, 153.
    pays homage to Solomon, =1=, 154.
    killed, =1=, 160.

  =Adonim.= _See_ Dunash ben Labrat.

  =Adoniram=, superintendent of the building of the first Temple, =1=,
        163, 172.
    accompanies Rehoboam to Shechem, =1=, 181.
    killed, =1=, 182.

  =Adonis=, Baal of the Phœnicians, =1=, 54.
    statue of, worshiped at Bethlehem, =2=, 422.

  =Adora=, Idumæan fortress, demolished by John Hyrcanus, =2=, 8.

  =Adoyot=, the oldest Mishna compilation, =2=, 343, 460.

  =Adraat=, chief town of Batanæa, =3=, 77.
    Benu-Nadhir settle in, =3=, 79.

  =Adrammelech=, son of Sennacherib, murders him, =1=, 280.

  =Adramyttium=, treasure-house in, for the half-Shekel contributions,
        =2=, 53.

  =Adrianople=, Karaites move to, =4=, 269.
    the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 405.
    Joseph Karo at, =4=, 557.
    Sabbataï Zevi at, =5=, 154-66.
    Nathan Ghazati at, =5=, 158-9, 161.
    Sabbatians of, devoted to Sabbataï, =5=, 163.
    Cardoso at, =5=, 207.
    Sabbatians in, =5=, 210.

  =Adrianople, the Jews of=, divided into national groups, =4=, 478.
    consider trading with Pesaro, =4=, 579.

  =Adullam=, David at, =1=, 116.

  =Adultery=, ritual for suspected cases of, abolished, =2=, 238.
    laws against, inviolate, =2=, 424.

  “=Advice= to the Representatives of the People,” by Van Swieden,
        against the emancipation of the Dutch Jews, =5=, 453-4.

  =Ælia Capitolina=, name of Jerusalem under Hadrian, =2=, 421-2.

  =Ælius Hadrian.= _See_ Hadrian.

  =Afia, Aaron=, scientist in Salonica, =4=, 405.

  =Africa (northern)=, Karaites influential in, in the tenth
        century, =3=, 207.
    Jewish captives transported to, =3=, 213.
    students from, at the Cordova Talmud school, =3=, 228.
    part of the Fatimide Caliphate, =3=, 248.
    Talmud authorities of, in the eleventh century, =3=, 248-9.
    Abraham Ibn-Ezra in, =3=, 369.
    asylum for persecuted Jews in the fifteenth century, =4=, 197-8.
    the Sephardic liturgy adopted in, =4=, 198.
    Portuguese conquests on the coast of, =4=, 218.
    Marranos flee to, =4=, 318.
    Spanish exiles in, =4=, 352, 358, 361-2, 389-96.
    descendants of Portuguese Marranos in, =4=, 381.
    Spanish spoken in, by the exiles, =4=, 389.
    emigration of Portuguese Marranos to, forbidden, =4=, 508.

  =Africa (northern), the Jews of=, conspire against the Visigothic
        empire, =3=, 108.
    aid Tarik, =3=, 109.
    persecuted, =3=, 357-60, 451.

  =Africa, Visigothic=, the Jews of, enjoy civil and political
        equality, =3=, 45.

  =Agada=, the, popular exposition of the Prophets and historical
        writings, =2=, 328-9.
    of Jochanan ben Zakkai, =2=, 329.
    used by R. Meïr, =2=, 440.
    the study of, preferred in Judæa, =2=, 540.
    cultivated by the brothers of Rabba bar Nachmani, =2=, 575-6.
    cultivated under Theodosius II, =2=, 623.
    in the synagogue forbidden by Justinian I, =3=, 14.
    manifests the spirit of Judaism, =3=, 15.
    frequent use of, in the synagogues of the East, =3=, 16.
    cultivated among the Arabic Jews, =3=, 59.
    replaced by neo-Hebraic poetry, =3=, 116.
    cultivated by Eleazar ben Kalir, =3=, 117.
    studied by French and Italian Jews in the ninth century, =3=, 160.
    used by Rashi, =3=, 288.
    used by the Tossafists, =3=, 345.
    effect of, on Asiatic Jews, =3=, 440.
    contains philosophical doctrines according to Maimonides, =3=, 479.
    reconciled with philosophy by Abraham Maimuni, =3=, 495.
    rejected by Maimonides, =3=, 523, 533.
    accepted literally by Solomon ben Abraham, =3=, 527-8.
    view of, held by Nachmani, =3=, 533, 535, 599-600.
    in the Kabbala, =3=, 549, 552.
    used by Pablo Christiani, =3=, 599.
    rationalized by Solomon ben Adret, =3=, 619.
    used by Raymund Martin, =3=, 622.
    authority of, =4=, 214.
    declared without authority by Chayim Ibn-Musa, =4=, 237.
    quoted, =4=, 242.
    reviled by Aaron Margalita, =5=, 194.
    used by Mannheimer, =5=, 581.

  =Agag=, Amalekite king, defeated by Saul, =1=, 91-2.
    killed, =1=, 93.

  =Agape=, the meal of the Nazarenes, =2=, 223.

  =Agen=, meeting-place of the Pastoureaux, =4=, 56.

  =Agobard=, bishop of Lyons, incites rebellion again Louis the
        Pious, =3=, 164.
    refuses to restore a runaway slave to a Lyons Jew, =3=, 164.
    tries to set Louis the Pious against the Jews, =3=, 165-8.
    joins the conspiracy against the empress, =3=, 168.
    successor to, =3=, 170.

  =Agora-nomos=, inspector of markets, Abba-Areka appointed
        as, =2=, 512.
    choice of, left to the Jews, =2=, 616.

  =Agriculture=, among the Jews of the Frankish and Burgundian
        kingdoms, =3=, 35.
    occupation of the Jews of Crissa, =3=, 424.
    Jews restricted to, by Frederick II, =3=, 569.
    occupation of the immigrants in Palestine, =4=, 74.
    _See also_ Real estate.

  =Agrigentum=, Jews in, in the sixth century, =3=, 28.

  =Agrippa I= (10 B. C. E.-44 C. E.), grandson of Mariamne,
        distinguished by Caligula, =2=, 175.
    educated with the son of Tiberius, =2=, 175.
    appointed to an office in Tiberias, =2=, 175.
    courtier of the governor of Syria, =2=, 175.
    supplanted by his brother, =2=, 175.
    assisted by Alexander Lysimachus, =2=, 175-6.
    kindly treated by Tiberius, =2=, 176.
    imprisoned, =2=, 176.
    released, =2=, 177.
    king of Philip’s tetrarchy, =2=, 177.
    accuses Herod Antipas of treachery to Caligula, =2=, 177.
    ruler of Galilee and Peræa, =2=, 177.
    rouses the resentment of the Alexandrian Greeks, =2=, 181-182.
    and Caligula’s edict concerning images, =2=, 188-9.
    king of all Palestine, =2=, 190.
    coins in honor of, =2=, 190, 194.
    change in the character of, =2=, 191.
    popularity of, =2=, 191-2.
    piety of, =2=, 192.
    sends gifts to Athens, =2=, 193.
    favors Cæsarea and Sebaste, =2=, 194.
    plans of, for Judæa, =2=, 194-5.
    hampered by Vibius Marsus, =2=, 195.
    allied with Eastern princes, =2=, 195-6.
    death of, =2=, 196.
    memory of, insulted, =2=, 196-7.

  =Agrippa II= (27-92), son of Agrippa I, proposed as king of
        Judæa, =2=, 196.
    introduces Judæan envoys to Claudius, =2=, 198.
    prince of Chalcis, =2=, 235.
    and his sister, =2=, 235.
    titular king of Judæa, =2=, 236.
    king of Philip’s tetrarchy, =2=, 245.
    given four towns and Tiberias, =2=, 245-6.
    accused of encroaching upon the privileges of the Temple
        authorities, =2=, 247-8.
    bribed to make Joshua ben Gamala high priest, =2=, 249.
    summons all Judæans to Jerusalem for the Passover of 66, =2=, 251.
    opposed to revolutionary measures, =2=, 257-8.
    flees from Jerusalem, =2=, 258.
    sends troops to Jerusalem, =2=, 259.
    palace of, burnt, =2=, 260.
    sends a contingent to the Roman army, =2=, 264-5.
    Tiberias under, =2=, 273.
    Varus, representative of, =2=, 274-5.
    the inhabitants of Gamala revolt against, =2=, 275.
    relation of, to Josephus, =2=, 278.
    meets Vespasian, =2=, 285.
    lacks patriotism, =2=, 288-9.
    pays homage to Galba, =2=, 299.
    helps Titus in the siege of Jerusalem, =2=, 302.
    spectator at the death of Judæans in the arena of Cæsarea
        Philippi, =2=, 312.
    fall of, =2=, 317.
    and Justus of Tiberias, =2=, 319-20.
    alleviates the burdens of the conquered Jews, =2=, 332, 333.
    Galilee given to, =2=, 333.
    treatment of, by Titus, =2=, 388.
    death of, =2=, 388.

  =Agrippina=, wife of Claudius, favorable to the Herodians, =2=, 245.

  =Aguilar, Baron de=, saves the Jews of Moravia from exorbitant
        taxes, =5=, 252.
    intercedes for the Moravian and Bohemian Jews, =5=, 253.

  =Aguilar, de=, governor of Palma, asks for Gibraltar as a refuge for
        Marranos, =4=, 282.

  =Aguilar, Raphael Moses d’=, Sabbatian, =5=, 139, 160.

  =Aguilar=, the Jews of, destroyed, =4=, 125.

  =Ahab=, son of Omri, wife of, =1=, 194, 196-7.
    ascends the throne of Israel, =1=, 196.
    character of, =1=, 196.
    builds an ivory palace, =1=, 201-2.
    reproved by Elijah, =1=, 202-3.
    a famine announced to, =1=, 203.
    summons the priests of Baal to Carmel, =1=, 203-4.
    stops the persecution of the prophets, =1=, 204.
    imprisons Michaiah, =1=, 205.
    ally of Ben-hadad II, =1=, 205.
    ally of Jehoshaphat, =1=, 206.
    death of, =1=, 206.
    destruction of the house of, =1=, 211-12.

  =Ahasuerus.= _See_ Xerxes.

  =Ahaz=, king of Judah, character of, =1=, 257.
    ally of Tiglath-Pileser, =1=, 258.
    warned by Isaiah, =1=, 258-9.
    introduces Assyrian idolatry into Judah, =1=, 260-1.
    not buried in the royal mausoleum, =1=, 267.

  =Ahaziah=, son of Ahab, reign of, over Israel, =1=, 206-7.

  =Ahaziah=, son of Joram, king of Judah, killed by Jehu’s followers,
        =1=, 211.

  =Ahijah=, of Shiloh, prophet, at the consecration of the Temple, =1=,
        167.
    rebukes Solomon, =1=, 175.
    prophesies success to Jeroboam, =1=, 175.
    prophesies the end of Jeroboam’s line, =1=, 188.

  =Ahikam=, father of Gedaliah, =1=, 319.

  =Ahikam=, son of Shaphan, saves Jeremiah, =1=, 303.

  =Ahimaaz=, messenger from Hushai to David, =1=, 143.

  =Ahinoam=, wife of Saul, =1=, 95.

  =Ahishar=, Solomon’s major-domo, =1=, 172.

  =Ahithophel=, councilor of David, =1=, 122-3.
    grandfather of Bathsheba, =1=, 133.
    opposed to Solomon’s succession, =1=, 135.
    plots with Absalom, =1=, 136, 138-43.
    with Absalom in Jerusalem, =1=, 142.
    advice of, rejected by Absalom, =1=, 143.
    suicide of, =1=, 143.

  =Ahmed=, khan of the Mongol kingdom in Persia, =3=, 638.

  =Ahmed Coprili=, Turkish grand vizir, orders the arrest of Sabbataï
        Zevi, =5=, 146.
    imprisons Sabbataï at Abydos, =5=, 148.

  =Ahriman.= _See_ Angro-Mainyus.

  =Ahunai=, teacher of the Law, during Kobad’s persecutions, =3=, 4.

  =Ahura-Mazda=, Persian god of light, influence of the conception of,
        on Judaism, =1=, 402.

  =Ai=, attacked by the Israelites, =1=, 33.

  =Aibu=, father of Abba-Areka, =2=, 511.

  =Aibu=, son of Abba-Areka, =2=, 518.

  =Aidug=, Arab king, defeats Zorah Yussuf, =3=, 64.

  =Ain-tab=, the new-moon announced at, =2=, 458.

  =Airvi= (Eravi), king of Cranganor, and the Jews of India, =3=, 630.

  =Aix-la-Chapelle=, the Jews of, oppose the study of science, =4=, 33.
    the Congress of, the emancipation of the Jews discussed by,
        =5=, 525-7.

  =Ajubides=, the, make Egypt the Islam center, =3=, 457.

  =Akbara=, Karaite center, =3=, 157.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 429.

  =Akbarites=, the, a Karaite sect, =3=, 157.

  =Akiba ben Joseph=, teacher of the Law, suggested as successor to
        Gamaliel II, =2=, 342.
    effects the re-instatement of Gamaliel II, =2=, 345.
    informs Eliezer ben Hyrcanus of his excommunication, =2=, 347.
    legends concerning the youth of, =2=, 350-1.
    intellectual development of, =2=, 351-2.
    system of, =2=, 352-3.
    arranges the Halachas in groups, =2=, 353.
    disciples and wife of, =2=, 354-5.
    in the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 355.
    and Ishmael ben Elisha, =2=, 355-6.
    theosophist, =2=, 381.
    saying of, =2=, 381.
    opposes Gnostic influences, =2=, 382.
    disciples of, proselytes, =2=, 384.
    and Akylas, =2=, 385.
    and Flavius Clemens, =2=, 387, 389, 391.
    influences Nerva, =2=, 392.
    opposes reckless charity, =2=, 405.
    prepares for the revolt against Hadrian, =2=, 408; =5=, 724-5.
    attracted to Bar-Cochba, =2=, 409.
    at Lydda, =2=, 423.
    evades Roman spies, =2=, 424.
    martyrdom of, =2=, 428-9.
    disciples of, ordained, =2=, 429.
    disciples of, return to Judæa, =2=, 433.
    favorite disciple of, =2=, 436.
    dialectics of, adopted by Meïr, =2=, 438-40.
    first compiler of the Mishna, =2=, 460.
    position of, compared with Rabba bar Nachmani’s, =2=, 579.

  =Akko.= _See_ Accho.

  =Akra di Coche=, a Babylonian fortification, =2=, 507.

  =Akrabattine.= _See_ Acrabattine.

  =Akrish.= _See_ Isaac ben Abraham Akrish.

  =Akylas= (Aquila), convert to Judaism, translates the Scriptures into
        Greek, =2=, 385.
    superintends the rebuilding of Jerusalem, =2=, 401.
    mourns for Gamaliel II, =2=, 404.

  =Akylas, translation of the Scriptures by=, literal, =2=, 386.
    used by Jews and Ebionites, =2=, 387.
    used by Origen, =2=, 489.
    Targum Onkelos based on, =2=, 581.
    recommended to Jewish congregations by Justinian I, =3=, 14.

  =Alabarch= (Arabarch, Ethnarch), the, prince of the Judæans in Egypt,
        =1=, 507, 510.
    office of, confirmed by Cæsar, =2=, 76.
    controls the Nile harbor, =2=, 102.
    dignity of, restored by Claudius, =2=, 191.
    _See also_ Alexander Lysimachus; Ethnarch.

  =Al-ablak=, castle of Samuel Ibn-Adiya, =3=, 68, 69.

  =Aladhid=, last Fatimide caliph of Egypt, =3=, 443.

  =Aladil=, sultan, receives emigrant rabbis kindly, =3=, 506.

  =Alagon, Blasco de=, conspires against Pedro Arbues, =4=, 329.

  =Alami.= _See_ Solomon Alami.

  =Alani=, the, of the Crimea, friendly to the Jews, =3=, 123.

  =Alarcos=, Alfonso VIII defeated at the battle of, =3=, 387.

  =Alashkar.= _See_ Moses ben Isaac Alashkar.

  =Albalag.= _See_ Isaac Albalag.

  =Albalia.= _See_ Ibn-Albalia.

  =Albanian Gates=, the, Jews settle in, =3=, 124.

  =Albargeloni.= _See_ Abraham ben Chiya Albargeloni.

  =Albergeloni.= _See_ Isaac ben Reuben Albergeloni.

  =Albert I=, emperor, war of, with Adolph of Nassau, =4=, 35.
    punishes the Rindfleisch followers, =4=, 36.
    demands a ransom for Meïr of Rothenburg, =4=, 37.
    claims authority over the French Jews, =4=, 47.

  =Albert II=, emperor, imprisons the Jews of Austria, =4=, 223.
    banishes the Jews from Austria, =4=, 224.
    hostile to the Jews, =4=, 249.
    son of, cruel to the Jews, =4=, 262-3.

  =Albert=, duke of Bavaria, under the influence of John of
        Capistrano, =4=, 258.

  =Albert von Brandenburg=, archbishop of Mayence, convenes a diet to
        consider the Jewish question, =4=, 463.
    ordered to drop the Jewish question, =4=, 464.

  =Albert of Munich=, son-in-law of Maximilian I, =4=, 428.

  =Albertina=, the. _See_ Königsberg, the university of.

  =Albertus Magnus=, the works of, translated, =4=, 69.

  =Albi.= _See_ Alby.

  =Albigenses=, the, origin of, =3=, 390.
    in Béziers, =3=, 394, 395.
    relation of, to the Jews, =3=, 501.
    crusade against, =3=, 501-2.
    and the council of Montpellier, =3=, 508.
    and the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 509.
    the war against, ended, =3=, 519.
    extirpation of, by the Inquisition, =3=, 542.

  =Albinus=, procurator of Judæa, appointed by Nero, =2=, 248.
    appealed to against Anan, =2=, 248-9.
    taxes Judæa heavily, =2=, 249.
    punishes the Sicarii, =2=, 249.

  =Albo.= _See_ Joseph Albo.

  =Albrecht I.= _See_ Albert I.

  =Alby=, the council of, forbids Jews to practice medicine among
        Christians, =3=, 582, 583.
    the Jews of, perish, =4=, 57.

  =Alcala=, the academy at, =4=, 145.
    the Jews of, ridiculed, =4=, 181.

  =Alcana=, street in Toledo occupied by Jews, =4=, 118.

  =Alcaniz=, the Jews of, converted, =4=, 214.

  =Alcantara=, the Order of, and Gonzalo Martinez, =4=, 85-6.

  =Alcharam.= _See_ Mecca.

  =Alcharisi.= _See_ Jehuda Alcharisi.

  =Alcimus= (Jakim), leader of the Hellenists, appointed high
        priest, =1=, 482.
    slays sixty Chassidim, =1=, 483.
    attracts the Hellenists, =1=, 483.
    fears Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 483.
    appeals to Demetrius I, =1=, 484.
    informs against Nicanor, =1=, 484.
    withdraws from Jerusalem, =1=, 485.
    takes possession of Jerusalem, =1=, 487.
    has the “Soreg” destroyed, =1=, 492.
    death of, =1=, 492, 508.

  =Alcolea=, the Jews of, converted, =4=, 214.

  =Aldea de los Judios=, village given to Jewish soldiers, =3=, 592.

  =Aldobrandini=, prevents the expulsion of the Ferrara Jews, =4=, 660.

  =Aleman, Jochanan=, Kabbalist, teacher of Pico di Mirandola, =4=, 291.

  =Alembert, d’=, approves of Pereira’s sign language, =5=, 343.

  =Alenu prayer=, the, misrepresented by Pessach-Peter, =4=, 178.
    attacked by Wülfer, =5=, 185.
    denounced by apostates, =5=, 191.
    exonerated by Michaelis, =5=, 191.
    regulations concerning, =5=, 192.

  =Aleppo= (Haleb), the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 426.
    Jehuda Ibn-Abbas settles at, =3=, 442.
    the Jewish liturgy of, changed, =3=, 466.
    taken by Hulagu, =3=, 606.
    the battle of, gives Egypt to the Turks, =4=, 393.
    Sabbataï Zevi in, =5=, 133.

  =Alessandria=, the Jews of, in the sixteenth century, =4=, 653.

  =Alexander III=, pope, convenes a Church Council, =3=, 376.
    orders the enforcement of anti-Jewish decrees, =3=, 400.
    finances of, managed by a Jew, =3=, 421.

  =Alexander VI= (Borgia), pope, and the Aragon Inquisition, =4=, 319.
    banishes the Jews from Rome, =4=, 363.
    the favor of, bought by the Portuguese Marranos, =4=, 379.
    friendly to the Jews, =4=, 407.
    employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 407-8.
    Reuchlin at the court of, =4=, 434.

  =Alexander I=, of Judæa. _See_ Alexander Jannæus.

  =Alexander II=, of Judæa, son of Aristobulus II, marries Hyrcanus II’
        s daughter, =2=, 58.
    seizes Jerusalem, =2=, 70.
    has coins struck, =2=, 70.
    subdued by Aulus Gabinius, =2=, 70-1.
    rebels against Rome, =2=, 73.
    beheaded, =2=, 75.

  =Alexander the Great=, of Macedon, destroys the Persian empire, =1=,
        412.
    legends about, =1=, 412-13.
    tolerance of, =1=, 413, 415.
    favors the Judæans, =1=, 414-15, 418.
    conquests of, =1=, 415.
    confusion after the death of, =1=, 416.

  =Alexander=, of Poland, hostile to the Jews, =4=, 419.

  =Alexander I=, of Russia, inquires into the condition of the Jews,
        =5=, 472-3.
    enforces attendance at schools, =5=, 473.
    and the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 525, 527.

  =Alexander=, apostate, accuses Jews of blasphemy, =4=, 591.

  =Alexander=, son of Mariamne, designated successor to Herod, =2=, 112.
    marriage of, =2=, 112.
    executed, =2=, 113.

  =Alexander=, Zealot leader, =2=, 238.
    attacks the Samaritans of Acrabatene, =2=, 243.

  =Alexander Balas=, pretender to the Syrian throne, ally of Jonathan
        Haphus, =1=, 494, 496.
    marriage of, =1=, 496.
    death of, =1=, 496.
    son of, on the throne, =1=, 497-8.

  =Alexander (I) Jannæus= (105-79), third son of Hyrcanus I, =2=, 34.
    banished to Galilee, =2=, 38-9.
    favors the Pharisees, =2=, 39.
    military character of, =2=, 39.
    defeated by Ptolemy VIII, =2=, 40.
    ally of Ptolemy VIII’s mother, =2=, 41.
    takes Gaza, =2=, 41.
    mediates between the Pharisees and Sadducees, =2=, 42.
    sides with the Sadducees, =2=, 42-3.
    refuses to offer the water libation, =2=, 43.
    defeated by the Nabathæan king, =2=, 44.
    Pharisees revolt against, =2=, 44.
    defeated by Eucærus, =2=, 44.
    forces Eucærus to retreat, =2=, 45.
    crucifies eight hundred Pharisees, =2=, 45.
    conquests of, =2=, 45-6.
    coins of, =2=, 46.
    builds fortresses, =2=, 46, 315.
    end of, =2=, 47.
    appoints his wife his successor, =2=, 47.
    sons of, =2=, 47.
    towns conquered by, declared free, =2=, 67.

  =Alexander Lysimachus=, Alabarch of Alexandria, aids Agrippa I, =2=,
        175-6, 181.
    brother of Philo, =2=, 185.
    released from prison, =2=, 190.
    sons of, =2=, 198, 235.
    descendant of, =2=, 395.

  =Alexander Polyhistor=, writer friendly to the Judæans, =2=, 179.

  =Alexander Severus= (222-235), emperor, friendly to Jews and Judaism,
        =2=, 481-3.
    and Judah II, =2=, 482.
    presents a gold candlestick to a synagogue, =2=, 482.
    taught Jewish customs by Romanus, =2=, 482.
    anarchy after the death of, =2=, 486, 526.

  =Alexander, Tiberius Julius.= _See_ Tiberius Julius Alexander.

  =Alexander Zabina=, rival of Demetrius Nicator for the Syrian
        throne, =2=, 6.
    disputes the Syrian throne with Antiochus VIII, =2=, 6.
    acknowledged king by Hyrcanus I, =2=, 6.
    fall of, =2=, 7.

  =Alexandra.= _See_ Salome Alexandra.

  =Alexandra=, daughter of Aristobulus II, marries two princes of
        Chalcis, =2=, 75.

  =Alexandra=, daughter of Hyrcanus II, marries the son of Aristobulus
        II, =2=, 58.
    betroths her daughter Mariamne to Herod, =2=, 81.
    obtains Mark Antony’s favor for her son, =2=, 91.
    accuses Herod of her son’s murder, =2=, 92.
    threatened with death, =2=, 93.
    imprisoned, =2=, 94, 96.
    death of, =2=, 105.

  =Alexandria=, Judæans settle in, =1=, 418.
    center of the Egyptian Judæans, =1=, 504-5.
    busts of Caligula placed in the synagogues of, =2=, 182.
    wheat imported from, for Jerusalem, =2=, 218.
    study of the Law in, =2=, 359.
    synagogue of, destroyed, =2=, 398.
    Karaite community in, =3=, 182.
    Jehuda Halevi at, =3=, 339-40.
    Spanish spoken at, by the exiles, =4=, 388.
    rabbis of, favor the establishment of schools, =5=, 663.
    _See also under_ Egypt.

  =Alexandria, the Jews of=, rebel against Trajan, =2=, 396.
    punished by Martius Turbo, =2=, 398.
    ill-treated by Cyril, =2=, 618-19.
    receive fugitives from Palestine, =3=, 23.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 444.
    object to Maimonides’ Mishne-Torah, =3=, 472.
    appeal to Mehmet Ali in the Damascus affair, =5=, 647.
    rejoice over the release of the Damascus prisoners, =5=, 660.

  =Alexandria, the Judæans of=, influence those of Jerusalem, =1=, 427.
    occupy the Delta district, =1=, 504.
    under Ptolemy VII, =1=, 519.
    under Ptolemy VIII, =2=, 12.
    well treated by Cæsar, =2=, 76.
    unkindly treated by Cleopatra, =2=, 94.
    antagonized by the Greeks, =2=, 178, 181.
    conspiracies against, =2=, 181-2.
    forced into the harbor, =2=, 182-3.
    forced to worship Caligula’s statues, =2=, 183-4.
    send envoys to Caligula, =2=, 186-7; =5=, 654.
    well treated by Claudius, =2=, 190-1.
    have a synagogue in Jerusalem, =2=, 201.
    impregnated with Greek views, =2=, 208-9.
    apostasy among, =2=, 209.
    massacred, =2=, 263-4.
    undisturbed by the Roman war, =2=, 313.
    fugitive Zealots betrayed by, =2=, 317-18.
    and the closing of the Temple of Onias, =2=, 322.

  =Alexandrian school of philosophy.= _See_ Judæo-Alexandrian school.

  =Alexandrion=, fortress, built by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 46.
    surrenders to Pompey, =2=, 64.
    garrisoned by Aristobulus II, =2=, 73.
    Mariamne confined in, =2=, 96.
    fire signals on, =2=, 363.

  =Alfachar.= _See_ Ibn-Alfachar.

  =Alfadhel=, vizir of Saladin, employs Maimonides, =3=, 472-3, 489.
    acquits Maimonides of apostasy, =3=, 474.

  =Alfarda=, Strangers’ Tax, in Spain, =4=, 344.

  =Alfassi.= _See_ Isaac ben Jacob Alfassi.

  =Alfonsine Tables=, the, used by scientists, =4=, 367.

  =Alfonso I=, of Aragon, conquers Saragossa, =3=, 316.

  =Alfonso II=, of Aragon (1162-1196), the Jews under, =3=, 387-8.

  =Alfonso VI=, of Castile, employs Jews on diplomatic missions,
        =3=, 291-2.
    the Jews under, =3=, 292-3.
    admonished to dismiss Jews from state offices, =3=, 294.
    conquers Toledo, =3=, 294.
    opposed by a Mahometan league, =3=, 295-6.

  =Alfonso VII Raimundez=, of Castile (1126-1157), rebels against his
        parents, =3=, 316.
    Jewish favorite of, =3=, 361.
    death of, =3=, 363, 366.

  =Alfonso VIII= (=III=), of Castile (the Noble, 1166-1214), minority
        of, =3=, 363.
    the Jews under, =3=, 384-7.
    employs a Jew as ambassador, =3=, 385.
    Jewish mistress of, =3=, 386.
    assisted by the Toledo Jews against the Almohades, =3=, 386-7.
    defeated at Alarcos, =3=, 387.
    reproached for his humane treatment of the Jews, =3=, 499.
    appeals to Innocent III against the Mahometans, =3=, 507.
    protects the Jews of Toledo, =3=, 507.

  =Alfonso X=, of Castile (the Wise, 1252-1284), the Jews under,
        =3=, 592-6.
    patron of learning, =3=, 592.
    gives a village to his Jewish soldiers, =3=, 592.
    and the Jews of Seville, =3=, 592-3.
    employs Jews, =3=, 593-4, 615.
    reproached by Nicholas III, =3=, 594, 615.
    degrades the Jews, =3=, 594-5.
    Jews in the code of, =3=, 595-6.
    code of, in Spanish America, =3=, 596.
    executes his Jewish Almoxarif, =3=, 616.
    imprisons the Jews, =3=, 616.
    son of, rebels, =3=, 616.
    death of, =3=, 616.
    anti-Jewish statutes of, revived, =4=, 194-5.

  =Alfonso XI=, of Castile (1325-1380), the Jews prosperous under, =4=,
        52, 75-6.
    Jewish favorites of, =4=, 79-80.
    petitioned against usury, =4=, 80.
    makes a Jew farmer of revenues, =4=, 80.
    Jews accused before, =4=, 83.
    accuses Gonzalo Martinez of treason, =4=, 85.
    besieges Valencia, =4=, 86.
    death of, =4=, 113.
    bastard sons of, oppose Pedro the Cruel, =4=, 113.
    wife of, =4=, 114.
    law of, renewed, =4=, 193.

  =Alfonso II=, of Ferrara, death of, =4=, 660.

  =Alfonso IX=, of Leon, does not compel the Jews to wear a
        badge, =3=, 513.

  =Alfonso II=, of Naples, patron of Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 360, 383-4.

  =Alfonso III=, of Portugal (1248-1279), the Jews under, =3=, 618.

  =Alfonso V=, of Portugal, takes Jews captive at Arzilla, =4=,
        286-7, 339.
    employs Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 337-8.
    prosperity of the Jews under, =4=, 338-9.
    code of, =4=, 339.
    Jewish favorites of, =4=, 339.
    death of, =4=, 340.

  =Alfonso=, brother of Henry IV, of Castile, crowned, =4=, 278.
    death of, =4=, 279.

  =Alfonso=, duke of Poitou, employs a Jewish oculist, =3=, 583.

  =Alfonso=, Infante of Portugal, releases Marranos, =4=, 517.

  =Alfonso of Aragon=, archbishop, protects Marranos, =4=, 330.

  =Alfonso de Cartagena=, influences Eugenius IV against the Jews,
        =4=, 249-50.

  =Alfonso de Spina=, Franciscan, attacks the Spanish Jews, =4=, 276.
    confessor of Alvaro de Luna, =4=, 271.
    writes a work against the Jews, =4=, 277.
    anti-Jewish work by, reprinted, =4=, 415.

  =Alfonso of Valladolid.= _See_ Alfonso Burgensis.

  =Alfonso Burgensis= (Abner of Burgos, Alfonso of Valladolid,
        1270-1346), apostate, hostile to the Jews, =4=, 81, 342.
    infidel, =4=, 81-2.
    sacristan, =4=, 82.
    attacks the Jews in Hebrew, =4=, 82.
    reply to, by Isaac Pulgar, =4=, 82.
    accuses the Jews before Alfonso XI, =4=, 83.
    disciple of, =4=, 141-2.
    work of, refuted, =4=, 143.
    charges of, repeated, =4=, 213.

  =Algazi, Moses Joseph=, rabbi of Cairo, seconds Munk’s efforts to
        establish schools, =5=, 664.

  =Algazi, Solomon=, opposes the Sabbatian movement, =5=, 144.

  =Alghazali=, mystic philosopher, Mahometan, =3=, 273, 357.

  =Algiers=, refuge for the Jews of Spain, =4=, 197.
    tax imposed on Marrano fugitives in, =4=, 199.
    the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 361, 390-1.

  =Alguades, Meïr.= _See_ Meïr Alguades.

  =Alhakem=, Ommiyyade caliph, employs Chasdaï Ibn-Shaprut, =3=,
        222, 227.
    obtains an Arabic translation of the Mishna, =3=, 237.
    appealed to in behalf of Chanoch ben Moses, =3=, 238.
    appealed to by Joseph Ibn-Abitur, =3=, 238.
    death of, =3=, 239.
    founds a medical school at Cordova, =3=, 261.

  =Ali=, Mahomet’s general, defeats Marhab, =3=, 82.
    the Judæo-Babylonian community under, =3=, 90.
    the candidate of a party, =3=, 90.
    aided by Jews and Christians, =3=, 90.
    house of, and the Ommiyyades, =3=, 92.

  =Ali= (1106-1143), the second Almoravide ruler, the Jews under, =3=,
        312.

  =Ali Ibn-Isa=, vizir of Abradhi, favors Saadiah, =3=, 200.

  =Ali Ibn-Rahmadan=, mathematician, and Joseph Delmedigo, =5=, 76.

  =Ali Halevi=, Gaon of Bagdad, =3=, 429.
    son of, =3=, 438.

  =Ali Ikbal Addaula=, prince of Denia, patron of Yizchaki, =3=, 273.

  =Alice of Montmorency=, persecutes the Toulouse Jews, =3=, 514.

  =Alkabez.= _See_ Solomon Alkabez.

  =Alkadir=, caliph of the East, Sherira arraigned before, =3=, 233-4.

  =Alkalaï.= _See_ Isaac ben Jacob Alfassi.

  =Alkamel=, sultan, employs a Jewish physician, =3=, 495.

  =Alkuti= (Chepez), Jewish philosopher, sayings of, used by
        Ibn-Gebirol, =3=, 267.

  =Allatif.= _See_ Isaac ben Abraham Ibn-Latif.

  =Allebrandus=, bishop of Worms, protects the Jews, =3=, 301-2.
    offers the Jews baptism, =3=, 302.

  =Allegorical= poems in Hebrew literature, =1=, 158-9.

  =Allegorists=, the, Alexandrian Jewish school of Scripture
        interpreters, =2=, 208-9, 329.
    Philo among, =2=, 210.
    misrepresentations of, accentuate the legal side of Judaism, =2=,
        471.
    compared with the Mutazilists, =3=, 147.

  =Allegorization=, the, of the Scriptures by the mystics and the
        philosophers, =4=, 23-4.

  “=Alliance Israélite Universelle=,” the outgrowth of Crémieux’s
        activity in the East, =5=, 664.
    founders of, =5=, 701.

  =Alliances, Jewish=, value of, =5=, 704. _See_:
    Alliance Israélite Universelle,
    Anglo-Jewish Association,
    Israelitische Allianz,
    Union of American Hebrew Congregations.

  =Allorqui.= _See_ Joshua ben Joseph Ibn-Vives.

  “=Al-Luma’, Rikmah=,” grammar and exegesis by Ibn-Janach, =3=, 263.

  =Almagest=, the, translated into Arabic, =3=, 146.

  =Almaida, Manuela Nuñez da=, poetess, =5=, 203.

  =Almalek Alashraf=, Egyptian sultan, besieges Accho, =3=, 650.

  =Almamun.= _See_ Abdallah Almamun.

  “=Almansor=,” dramatic poem by Heine, =5=, 548-9.

  =Almanzi=, Italian Jewish scholar, =5=, 622.

  =Almeida, Lopes de=, Portuguese ambassador to Sixtus IV, =4=, 340.

  =Almeirin=, residence of the Portuguese king, =4=, 493.

  =Almeria=, captured by the Almohades, =3=, 448.

  =Almohades= (Almovachides, Unitarians), the, a Mahometan sect, =3=,
        358.
    under Abdulmumen, =3=, 358-9.
    take Andalusia, =3=, 360-1.
    persecute the Spanish Jews, =3=, 360-2.
    irruptions of, into Christian territory, =3=, 363.
    drive the Jews from Andalusia, =3=, 384.
    attack Castile, =3=, 386-7.
    drive the Jews from Ceuta, =3=, 424.
    drive the Ibn-Abbas to Asia, =3=, 442.
    capture Cordova, =3=, 447-8.
    capture Almeria, =3=, 448.
    Jewish fugitives from, received in Sicily, =3=, 569.

  =Almoravides=, the, the Jews well treated by, =3=, 296, 311-13.
    attack the Arabs of Andalusia, =3=, 316.
    rebellion against, =3=, 357.
    dynasty of, destroyed by Abdulmumen, =3=, 358.

  =Almosnino.= _See_ Moses Almosnino.

  =Almotassem=, of Almeria, invades Granada, =3=, 278.

  =Almovachides=, the. _See_ Almohades, the.

  =Almoxarif=, treasurer in Castile, =3=, 593; =4=, 75, 79,
        138, 160, 169.
    Jews excluded from the position of, =4=, 158.

  =Alms-giving=, in Judæa after Ezra and Nehemiah, =1=, 393-4.

  =Al-Muktadir= (908-932), caliph of the East, banishes Mar-Ukba,
        =3=, 184.
    restores the Exilarch to office, =3=, 185.
    appealed to by the partisans of Saadiah and of David ben Zaccaï,
        =3=, 195-6.
    death of, =3=, 196.

  =Al-muktadir Billah=, king of Saragossa, patron of Abu Fadhl
        Chasdaï, =3=, 280.

  =Almustadhi=, Abbasside caliph, and the Exilarch Daniel, =3=, 438.

  =Almustanjid=, Abbasside caliph, and the Exilarch Daniel, =3=, 438.

  =Al-Mutadhid= (892-902), caliph of the East, the Jews under, =3=, 183.

  =Al-Mutamed Ibn-Abbad= (Abulkassim Mahomet), king of Seville, patron
        of Isaac Ibn-Albalia, =3=, 283, 284.
    ally of Alfonso VI of Castile, =3=, 294.
    kills Alfonso’s ambassador, =3=, 295.
    joins the Mahometan league against Alfonso, =3=, 295-6.

  =Al-Mutavakkil= (849-856), caliph of the East, re-enacts Omar’s laws
        against the Jews, =3=, 176-7.

  =Almuthadid=, king of Seville, receives Jewish fugitives kindly,
        =3=, 279-80.

  =Alnakvah family=, the, of the nobility of Jewish Spain, =3=, 235.

  =Alnasir Ledin Allah=, Abbasside caliph, patron of David of
        Mosul, =3=, 506.

  =Alphabet=, the Phœnician, adopted by other nations, =1=, 3.
    the Assyrian, adopted by the Judæans, =1=, 395-6.

  =Alroy=, or Alrui. _See_ David Alrui.

  =Alsace, the Jews of=, suffer during the Armleder persecutions, =4=,
        97.
    declared outlaws, =4=, 107.
    abasement of, =5=, 347-8.
    taxes paid by, =5=, 348, 446.
    forced into usury, =5=, 349.
    blackmail levied on, =5=, 349.
    receipts from, forged, =5=, 350.
    protected by Louis XVI, =5=, 350-1.
    memorialize the crown, =5=, 351, 352.
    Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation among, =5=, 430.
    petition for alleviation of burdens, =5=, 431.
    complaints of and charges against, =5=, 434.
    number of, =5=, 435.
    complain to the National Assembly, =5=, 436.
    attacked, =5=, 437, 524, 542.
    appeal to Grégoire, =5=, 437.
    exposed to attack, =5=, 440.
    emancipation of, opposed, =5=, 441, 447.
    under special protection, =5=, 446.
    relieved of taxes, =5=, 446.
    occupations of, =5=, 475-6.
    in danger of massacre, =5=, 477.
    equality of, restored, =5=, 525.

  =Alsaid Ibn-Sina Almulk=, poet, on Maimonides, =3=, 473.

  =Al Tanchik=, by Ibn-Janach, =3=, 263.

  =Altiflisi.= _See_ Abu-Amran Moses.

  =Altona=, the Jewish cemetery at, =4=, 688.
    Judah Chassid in, =5=, 213.
    printing press in, =5=, 255.

  =Altona, the council of=, espouses Eibeschütz’s cause, =5=, 264-5.
    punished for its treatment of Jacob Emden, =5=, 265.
    urges Eibeschütz to submit to a rabbinical court, =5=, 268.

  =Altona-Hamburg=, the rabbis of, and Moses Meïr Kamenker, =5=, 230.

  =Alva, the duke of=, barbarity of, =4=, 601.
    and the Jews, =4=, 662.

  =Alvalensi.= _See_ Samuel Alvalensi.

  =Alvarez, Alfonso=, de Villasandino, Spanish satirist, =4=, 181.

  =Alvernes de Gras.= _See_ Suasso, Isaac.

  =Alypius=, of Antioch, oversees the rebuilding of the Temple, =2=,
        599, 600.

  =Amadeus=, duke of Savoy, imprisons Jews on account of the Black
        Death, =4=, 103-4.

  =Amadia=, birthplace of David Alrui, =3=, 430, 431, 432.

  =Amalarich of Bena=, philosopher, disciples of, burnt, =3=, 503.

  =Amalasuntha=, daughter of Theodoric, =3=, 31.

  =Amalekites=, the, dwell with the tribe of Judah, =1=, 39.
    war of, with Saul, =1=, 91-2.
    burn Ziklag, =1=, 106-7.

  =Amali=, the, a Gothic family, =3=, 27.

  =Amalrich of Jerusalem=, campaign of, =3=, 444.

  =Amantius=, governor of the East, punishes rioters, =3=, 17.

  =Amasa=, cousin of David, joins Absalom, =1=, 139.
    lacks military genius, =1=, 143.
    influences the men of Judah, =1=, 146.
    commander against Sheba, =1=, 148.
    killed by Joab, =1=, 149.

  =Amasia= (Amazia), the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 405.
    the Jews of, accused of murder, =4=, 553.

  =Amasis=, reigns over Egypt, =1=, 327.
    opponent of Cyrus, =1=, 343.

  =Amatus (Chabib) Lusitanus= (João Rodrigo de Castel-Branco),
        physician, =4=, 569-70.
    medical works by, =4=, 570.
    in Salonica, =4=, 580.
    death of, =4=, 610.

  =Amaziah=, of Judah, reconquers Edom, =1=, 222-3.
    respects the Law, =1=, 223.
    at war with Jehoash of Israel, =1=, 224-5.
    taken prisoner, =1=, 225.
    conspiracy against, =1=, 226.
    murder of, =1=, 226.
    interred in Jerusalem, =1=, 228.

  =Amaziah=, high priest of the bull-worship under Jeroboam
        II, =1=, 233.
    opposes Amos, =1=, 236-7.

  =Ambivius, Marcus=, second procurator of Judæa, =2=, 135.

  =Ambrosius of Milan=, bishop, incites persecutions of Arians and Jews,
        =2=, 612-13.
    rebukes mild treatment of Jews, =2=, 614.
    accuses the Jews, =2=, 614.

  =Amemar= (390-420), Amora, opens an academy at Nahardea, =2=, 606.
    subordinates himself to Ashi, =2=, 606.
    at the court of Jezdijird, =2=, 610.

  =Amemar bar Mar-Janka= (469-70?), Amora, executed, =2=, 629.

  =Am-ha-Arez=, the ignorant, addressed by Jesus, =2=, 152.

  =Ami=, Amora, defends a political offender, =2=, 529-30.
    subordinates himself to the Babylonian authorities, =2=, 531, 537.
    investigates the educational institutions of Judæa, =2=, 532.
    investigates the observance of the Law in Samaria, =2=, 534.
    appeals to Abbahu, =2=, 538.
    meets the corpse of Huna, =2=, 548.
    disciples of, =2=, 560.

  =Amigo, Abraham=, Talmudist and Kabbalist, =5=, 126.

  =Ammon=, an Egyptian god, =1=, 9.

  =Ammonite district=, the, governed by Aretas, =1=, 447.

  =Ammonites=, the, idolatry of, =1=, 55.
    attack Ephraim and Judah, =1=, 64.
    defeated by Jephthah, =1=, 64-5.
    invade the territory of Gad and Manasseh, =1=, 80.
    besiege Jabesh-Gilead, =1=, 89-90.
    at war with David, =1=, 126-7.
    subdued by David, =1=, 128-9.
    declared bondmen by Solomon, =1=, 163.
    attracted to Palestine, =1=, 173.
    regain independence, =1=, 185.
    urge Zedekiah to revolt, =1=, 310.
    in friendly relations with the Judæans, =1=, 362.
    hostile to the Judæans during the Syrian invasion, =1=, 474.
    defeated by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 474.
    as proselytes, =2=, 343, 383-4.

  =Amnon=, eldest son of David, killed, =1=, 134.

  =Amolo=, bishop of Lyons, adversary of the Jews, =3=, 171, 172-3.

  =Amon=, of Judah, idolatry under, =1=, 285-6.
    murdered, =1=, 286.

  =Amoraim=, the, connection of, with the Tanaites, =2=, 479.
    expounders of the Mishna, =2=, 489.
    compared with the Tanaites, =2=, 490, 590.
    decisions of, =2=, 515.
    of Galilee, methods of, =2=, 557.
    last, in Judæa, compile the Jerusalem Talmud, =2=, 612.
    Babylonian, create Talmudic dialectics, =2=, 635.
    loss of creative power in the disciples of (_See_ Sabureans,
        the), =3=, 5.
    _See also_ Law, the, the teachers of.

  =Amoraim=, the, list of:
    Abayi Nachmani,
    Abba of Accho,
    Abba bar Abba,
    Abba Areka (Rab),
    Abbahu,
    Abin,
    Acha of Diphta,
    Acha ben Jacob,
    Achaï bar Huna,
    Ada,
    Amemar,
    Amemar bar Mar-Janka,
    Ami,
    Ashi, son of Simaï,
    Assi,
    Chaggai,
    Chama of Nahardea,
    Chananya,
    Chanina bar Chama,
    Chasda of Cafri,
    Chiskiya ben Chiya,
    Chiya bar Abba,
    Chiya bar Abba-Areka,
    Dimé,
    Huna,
    Huna ben Chiya,
    Huna ben Joshua,
    Isaac bar Joseph,
    Jannaï,
    Jeremiah,
    Jochanan bar Moryah,
    Jochanan bar Napacha,
    Jonah II,
    Jonathan ben Amram,
    José (Babylonian),
    José (Palestinian),
    Joseph ben Chiya,
    Joshua ben Levi,
    Judah II,
    Judah III,
    Judah ben Chiya,
    Judah ben Ezekiel,
    Kama,
    Levi bar Sissi,
    Mar bar Ashi,
    Mar-Sheshet,
    Mar-Ukban,
    Mar-Zutra,
    Meshershaya bar Pacod,
    Nachman ben Isaac,
    Nachman ben Jacob,
    Papa bar Chanan,
    Raba bar Joseph bar Chama,
    Rabba bar Abbahu,
    Rabba bar Chana,
    Rabba bar Huna (Rab Abba),
    Rabba bar Matana,
    Rabba bar Nachmani,
    Rabina,
    Samuel,
    Samuel (Arioch),
    Samuel bar Bun,
    Samuel bar Judah,
    Shila,
    Simaï bar Ashi,
    Simlaï,
    Simon bar Abba,
    Simon bar Kappara,
    Simon ben Lakish,
    Tanchuma bar Abba,
    Ulla,
    Ushaya the Elder,
    Ushaya the Younger,
    Zeïra.

  =Amorites=, the, a subdivision of the Canaanites, =1=, 3.
    defeat the tribe of Dan, =1=, 39.

  =Amos=, prophet, depicts the debauchery in Israel, =1=, 234.
    beauty of the prophecies of, =1=, 235-6.
    intrepidity of, =1=, 237.
    prophesies concerning Judah, =1=, 237.
    prophesies concerning Israel, =1=, 247.

  =Amram.= _See_ Mar-Amram ben Sheshna.

  =Amram ben Isaac Ibn-Shalbib=, physician and secretary to Alfonso VI
        of Castile, =3=, 292.
    ambassador to Seville, =3=, 295.

  =Amram Efrati=, rabbi of Valencia, =4=, 162.

  =Amru=, king of Yemen, =3=, 64.

  =Amschel=, promotes the emancipation of the Frankfort Jews, =5=, 505.

  =Amschel=, Talmudist, opponent of Israel Bruna, =4=, 302.

  =Amsterdam=, the first Portuguese Marranos in, =4=, 665-75.
    the first synagogue in, =4=, 667.
    the second synagogue in, =4=, 671.
    Hebrew printing press in, =4=, 675.
    called new Jerusalem, =4=, 676.
    the first synagogue of, honored, =4=, 678.
    third synagogue of, =4=, 680.
    German Jews settle in, =4=, 680-1.
    union of the Portuguese congregations of, =4=, 681.
    Jewish school in, =4=, 681-2.
    Polish-Jewish fugitives in, =5=, 16.
    the synagogue of, visited by an English ambassador, =5=, 33-4.
    Joseph Delmedigo at, =5=, 79.
    the secular authorities of, and Spinoza, =5=, 95.
    the Sabbatian movement in, =5=, 139, 150.
    stagnation of the trade of, =5=, 149.
    new synagogue at, =5=, 166-7.
    Chayon at, =5=, 220.
    repudiates Chayon, =5=, 231.
    Luzzatto at, =5=, 242.
    split in the Jewish community of, =5=, 457-8.
    the German rabbi of, opposes the Reform movement, =5=, 571.
    rabbinical college at, =5=, 700.

  =Amsterdam, the Jews of=, religious government of, =4=, 684-5.
    influence of, =4=, 685.
    branches of, =4=, 685, 693; =5=, 50.
    desirous of settling in England, =5=, 18.
    mourn for Isaac de Castro-Tartas, =5=, 32.
    alarmed at Spinoza’s scepticism, =5=, 90-1, 92.
    try Spinoza, =5=, 92.
    lay him under the lesser ban, =5=, 93.
    lay him under the greater ban, =5=, 94.
    culture of, =5=, 109.
    and Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 155.
    warned against Sabbatian emissaries, =5=, 220.
    marriages of, =5=, 453.
    oppose their own emancipation, =5=, 454, 457.
    number of, =5=, 455.
    send messengers to the French Synhedrion, =5=, 496.

  =Amsterdam, the Portuguese Jews (Marranos) of=, disturbed in their
        religious exercises, =4=, 666.
    pay a tax on corpses, =4=, 673.
    intolerant treatment of, =4=, 673.
    culture of, =4=, 674, 677-8.
    invited to settle in Denmark, =4=, 675.
    early in the seventeenth century, =4=, 677.
    wealth of, =4=, 677; =5=, 205.
    devotion of, to Judaism, =4=, 678-9.
    found benevolent institutions, =4=, 679.
    morality of, =4=, 679-80.
    espouse Chayon’s cause, =5=, 223, 225.
    abuse Chacham Zevi, =5=, 224.
    urged to oppose Chayon, =5=, 225.
    Chacham Zevi summoned before the council of, =5=, 226.
    send Chayon to the East, =5=, 227.
    hold aloof from the Eibeschütz controversy, =5=, 264.

  =Amsterdam, the rabbis of=, mediocrity of, =4=, 682.
    Poles, =5=, 17, 206.
    try Spinoza, =5=, 92-4.
    sentence Moses Meïr Kamenker, =5=, 230.

  =Anabaptists=, the, enthusiasm of, =4=, 470.

  =Anahita= (Anaitis), Persian goddess of love, =1=, 408.

  =Anakim=, the aboriginal inhabitants of Canaan, =1=, 2.

  =Anan= (Seth), a family of high priests, =2=, 237.

  =Anan=, governor of the Temple, envoy to Rome, =2=, 244.

  =Anan= (Ananias, son of Eleazar?) of the family of Anan, high priest
        under Agrippa II, =2=, 236.
    favors Sadducæism, =2=, 248, 271.
    dismissed, =2=, 248-9.
    house of, burnt, =2=, 260.
    important post of, =2=, 271.
    supports the charges against Josephus, =2=, 281.
    incites a civil war, =2=, 295.
    party of, overpowered, =2=, 295-6.
    executed, =2=, 296.

  =Anan=, of the family of Seth, high priest, =2=, 135.

  =Anan ben David=, aspirant to the Exilarchate, =3=, 128.
    opponents and adherents of, =3=, 129.
    imprisoned, =3=, 129.
    permitted to emigrate, =3=, 130.
    opposes the Talmud, =3=, 130; =5=, 727.
    works of, =3=, 131.
    uses Mishnic rules of interpretation, =3=, 131.
    abolishes the fixed calendar, =3=, 131.
    rigor of, =3=, 132-3.
    exegesis by, =3=, 133.
    accepts Jesus and Mahomet, =3=, 133-4.
    excommunicated, =3=, 134.
    the Exilarch of the Karaites, =3=, 135.
    memorial service for, =3=, 135.
    mediocrity of, =3=, 135.
    son of, his successor, =3=, 136.
    characterized by Saadiah, =3=, 189.
    descendants of, =3=, 444.

  =Anan ben Jonathan=, advises the surrender of Jerusalem, =2=, 265.

  =Ananel=, high priest, appointed by Herod, =2=, 90.
    deposed, =2=, 91.
    re-appointed, =2=, 92.
    successor to, =2=, 107.

  =Ananel di Foligno=, apostate, denounces the Talmud, =4=, 564.

  =Anania=, merchant, converts Izates of Adiabene, =2=, 216.

  =Anania=, physician to Izates of Adiabene, =2=, 217.

  =Ananias=, high priest. _See_ Anan of the family of Anan.

  =Ananias=, son of Onias IV, Egyptian general, sides with Cleopatra,
        =2=, 10, 12.
    prevents an invasion of Judæa, =2=, 41.

  =Ananites=, the, appeal to the caliph, =3=, 129.
    exiles, =3=, 134.
    differ with their founder on various points, =3=, 136.
    _See_ Karaites, the.

  =Anastasius=, the Sinaite, Patriarch at Antioch, killed by the
        Jews, =3=, 18.

  =Anathoth=, birthplace of Jeremiah, =1=, 289, 290.

  =Anatoli, Jacob.= _See_ Jacob ben Abba Mari ben Simon Anatoli.

  =Anavim=, the (the Gentle), disciples of Isaiah, =1=, 254.
    and Hezekiah, =1=, 267.
    sufferings of, under Manasseh, =1=, 283-4.
    spread the doctrines of God, =1=, 286.
    nucleus of a nationalistic party in Babylonia, =1=, 337-8.

  =Anbar.= _See_ Firuz-Shabur.

  =Ancona=, Marranos permitted to settle in, =4=, 408, 500.
    Solomon Molcho at, =4=, 501.
    Marranos well treated in, =4=, 525, 526.
    refuge of the Neapolitan Jews, =4=, 544.
    trade of, diverted to Pesaro, =4=, 579, 580.
    Jews of, try to regain their trade, =4=, 579.
    Jews permitted to remain in, on their expulsion from the Papal
        States, =4=, 591, 659.

  =Ancona, the Marranos of=, protected by three popes, =4=, 568.
    persecuted by Paul IV, =4=, 568-9.
    tried by the Inquisition, =4=, 570-1.

  =Andalusia=, broken up into small kingdoms, =3=, 255.
    Berbers and Arabs at war in, =3=, 316.
    conquered by the Almohades, =3=, 360.
    Jews driven from, =3=, 384.
    invaded by the Almohades, =3=, 506-7.
    taxation of the Jews of, =3=, 617.
    the Marranos of, taught by Jews, =4=, 334-5.
    expulsion of the Jews from, proposed, =4=, 336.
    _See also under_ Spain; Spain, Visigothic.

  =Andalusian school=, the, of Jewish poetry, =3=, 223-4.

  =Andrade, Abraham=, rabbi, deputy to the Assembly of Jewish Notables,
        =5=, 484, 490.

  =Andreas=, of Hungary, excommunicated for employing Jews, =3=, 521.

  =Andreas Beltran=, Marrano, denounces the Talmud, =4=, 213.

  =Andreias= (Lucuas), leader of the Jews of Cyrene, =2=, 395.

  =Andrew=, disciple of Jesus, =3=, 153.

  =Andro=, Joseph Nassi duke of, =4=, 596.

  =Andromachos=, governor of Cœlesyria, killed by the Samaritans, =1=,
        414.

  =Andronicus=, lieutenant of Antiochus Epiphanes, murders Onias
        III, =1=, 448.

  =Andronicus=, son of Messalam, Judæan champion, =1=, 516.

  =Angels=, imported into Judaism, =1=, 403.

  =Angiel=, one of the Sefiroth, =4=, 17.

  “=Anglo-Jewish Association=,” the, founders and work of, =5=, 703.

  =Angoulême=, the Jews of, maltreated, =3=, 570.

  =Angro-Mainyus=, Persian god of darkness, and Judaism, =1=, 402.
    transformed into Satan, =1=, 403.

  =Anilaï= (Chanilai), robber chieftain, =2=, 202.

  =Anjou=, rabbis from, at the first rabbinical synod, =3=, 377.

  =Anjou, the Jews of=, observe a fast, =3=, 380.
    under Henry II, =3=, 409.
    maltreated, =3=, 570.

  =Anna=, wife of Joceus of York, death of, =3=, 415.

  “=Annals of Persecution, The=,” by Joseph Cohen, =4=, 590.

  “=Annals of the Kings= of France and of the house of Othman, The,” by
        Joseph Cohen, =4=, 556.

  =Ano=, wife of Jeroboam I, =1=, 184.

  =Ansar=, allies of Mahomet, =3=, 73.

  =Anteri, Jacob=, rabbi of Damascus, charged with ritual murder, =5=,
        638.
    translates Talmud passages, =5=, 640.

  =Anthropomorphists=, literalist expounders of the Koran, =3=, 148.
    among the Jews, =3=, 152.

  =Antigonus=, Macedonian general, and Ptolemy I, =1=, 417.

  =Antigonus of Soho=, disciple of Simon the Just, saying of, =1=, 422.

  =Antigonus=, son of Aristobulus II, graces Pompey’s triumph, =2=, 67.
    escapes from Rome, =2=, 72.
    second captivity of, =2=, 73.
    protected by Ptolemy of Chalcis, =2=, 75.
    seeks the aid of Cæsar, =2=, 75-6.
    plots against Herod, =2=, 80-1.
    king of Judæa, =2=, 82-3.
    has coins struck, =2=, 83.
    character of, =2=, 85.
    dissension between, and the Synhedrists, =2=, 85-6.
    declared an enemy of Rome, =2=, 86.
    beheaded, =2=, 89.
    sister of, =2=, 94.

  =Antigonus=, son of John Hyrcanus, besieges Samaria, =2=, 10.
    alleged murder of, =2=, 36-7.
    campaign of, against the Ituræans and Trachonites, =2=, 37.
    death of, =2=, 38.

  =Anti-Maimunists=, the, opponents of Moses ben Maimun, =3=, 523-4.
    led by Solomon ben Abraham, =3=, 527.
    excommunicated by the Jews of Aragon, =3=, 537.
    invite the Dominicans into the controversy, =3=, 542-3.
    subdued by the burning of the Talmud, =3=, 579-80.
    of Palestine, excommunicated, =3=, 632-3.
    _See also under_ Maimunist controversy, the; Maimunists, the.

  =Anti-Maimunists=, list of:
    Daniel ben Saadiah,
    David ben Saul,
    Jehuda bar Joseph Ibn-Alfachar,
    Jonah ben Abraham Gerundi (the Elder),
    Meïr ben Todros Halevi Abulafia,
    Moses ben Chasdaï Taku,
    Moses ben Nachman,
    Samson ben Abraham,
    Solomon ben Abraham,
    Solomon Petit,
    Tossafists, the, of northern France, =3=, 529.

  =Antioch=, Judæans settle in, =1=, 419.
    gladiatorial combats introduced in, =1=, 444.
    partly destroyed by Judæans, =1=, 497.
    Verus Commodus at, =2=, 47.
    number of Judæans in, =2=, 201-2.
    Nazarenes in, =2=, 222-3.
    Judæan Christians of, =2=, 231.
    the Judæans of, protected by Titus, =2=, 313.
    residence of Niger, =2=, 463.

  =Antioch, the Jews of=, interest Christians in Judaism, =2=, 613-14.
    dispossessed of their synagogues, =2=, 621-2.
    murdered by the green faction, =3=, 10-11.
    massacre the Christians, =3=, 18.
    subdued, =3=, 18.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 426.

  =Antiochus=, of Commagene, favorite of Caligula, =2=, 189.
    allied with Agrippa I, =2=, 195.
    son of, =2=, 195, 235.

  =Antiochus III=, the Great, of Syria, defeated at Raphia, =1=, 425-6.
    takes Egypt, =1=, 432.
    enters Jerusalem, =1=, 432.
    besieges the Acra, =1=, 433.
    repairs the Temple, =1=, 433.
    defeated by the Romans, =1=, 434.
    death of, =1=, 434.

  =Antiochus IV Epiphanes=, of Syria, hostage at Rome, =1=, 434, 442-3.
    characterization of, =1=, 442-3.
    accession of, described in Daniel, =1=, 443-4.
    introduces gladiatorial combats into Syria, =1=, 444.
    petitioned to admit Judæan athletes to citizenship, =1=, 444-5.
    makes Menelaus high priest, =1=, 447.
    summons Menelaus to justify himself, =1=, 448.
    punishes Onias III’s murder, =1=, 448.
    exonerates Menelaus, =1=, 449.
    war of, with Egypt, =1=, 450-1.
    desecrates the Temple, =1=, 451, 455.
    calumniates Judaism, =1=, 452-3.
    treats the Judæans cruelly, =1=, 453-4.
    orders the worship of the Greek gods in Jerusalem, =1=, 454-5.
    sacrifices ordered on the birthday of, =1=, 456.
    dependencies of, revolt, =1=, 463.
    determines to exterminate the Judæans, =1=, 463-4.
    son of, entrusted to Lysias, =1=, 463.
    in the East, =1=, 466.
    death of, =1=, 477.
    appoints a regent, =1=, 477.
    persecutes the Samaritans, =1=, 516.

  =Antiochus V Eupator=, of Syria, accession of, =1=, 477.
    appealed to by the Hellenists, =1=, 478.
    treaty of, with the Judæans, =1=, 480, 488.
    makes Judas Maccabæus high priest, =1=, 481.
    Rome displeased with, =1=, 482.

  =Antiochus VI=, of Syria, on the throne, =1=, 497-8.
    cause of, espoused by the Hasmonæans, =1=, 498, 499.

  =Antiochus VII Sidetes=, of Syria, assisted by Simon Tharsi, =1=, 525.
    permits Simon to strike coins, =1=, 525, 528.
    hostile to Simon, =1=, 528-9.
    investigates Simon’s assassination, =1=, 530.
    abandons the assassin, =1=, 531.
    besieges John Hyrcanus, =2=, 3-4.
    grants a truce, =2=, 4.
    counselors of, advise the suppression of Judaism, =2=, 4.
    yields up Judæan fortresses, =2=, 4-5.
    seeks the alliance of John Hyrcanus, =2=, 5.
    death of, =2=, 5.

  =Antiochus VIII Grypus=, of Syria, succession of, opposed, =2=, 6.
    poisons his mother, =2=, 6.
    harasses the Idumæans of Samaria, =2=, 9.

  =Antiochus IX Cyzicenus=, of Syria, hostile to John Hyrcanus, =2=, 9.
    forbidden by Rome to molest the Judæans, =2=, 9.
    aids Samaria, =2=, 10.
    defeated by the sons of John Hyrcanus, =2=, 10.
    allied with Ptolemy VIII, =2=, 10.

  =Antiparo=, Joseph Nassi duke of, =4=, 596.

  =Antipas I.= _See_ Herod Antipas, son of Malthace and Herod I.

  =Antipas=, of the Herodian family, wickedness of, =2=, 236.

  =Antipas=, treasurer of the Synhedrion, suspected of Roman
        proclivities, =2=, 294.

  =Antipater=, the Idumæan, counselor of Hyrcanus II, =2=, 59.
    intrigues against Aristobulus II, =2=, 59.
    bribes Scaurus, =2=, 62.
    envoy to Pompey, =2=, 63.
    governor of Judæa, =2=, 66-7.
    supports Rome, =2=, 70.
    causes the death sentence of Pitholaus, =2=, 75.
    offers his services to Cæsar, =2=, 75.
    tries to coerce the Judæans into loyalty to Cæsar, =2=, 77.
    wife and sons of, =2=, 77.
    warns Herod, =2=, 78.
    urges mild measures upon Herod, =2=, 79.
    poisoned, =2=, 80.

  =Antipater=, son of Herod I, conspires against the sons of Mariamne,
        =2=, 112-13.
    conspires against Herod, =2=, 113.
    convicted of attempted parricide, =2=, 114.
    executed, =2=, 116.

  =Antipater=, son of Jason, envoy to Rome, =1=, 526.

  “=Anti-Phædon=,” by John Balthasar Kölbele, =5=, 316.

  =Anti-Semitism=, prevalence of, =5=, 704.

  =Antitaktes=, an extreme sect of Jewish Christians, =2=, 370.

  =Anti-Talmudists.= _See_ Frankists.

  =Anti-Trinitarians=, a Christian sect of the Reformation period, =4=,
        541.
    in Poland, =4=, 647.

  =Anton, Charles= (Moses Gerson Cohen), apostate, descent and history
        of, =5=, 267.
    writes a panegyric on Eibeschütz, =5=, 267.
    denies the existence of Sabbatians, =5=, 271.

  =Antonia=, daughter of the triumvir, ward of Alexander Lysimachus,
        =2=, 176.

  =Antonia=, sister-in-law of Tiberius, advocate of the Judæans, =2=,
        172.
    patroness of Agrippa I, =2=, 176.

  =Antonia=, fortress of the Temple, named for Mark Antony, =2=, 106.
    communicates with the Temple, =2=, 109, 111.
    vestments of the high priests kept in, =2=, 129.
    pontifical robes removed from, =2=, 172.
    strengthened by Agrippa I, =2=, 195.
    invested by Cumanus, =2=, 242.
    first wall of, taken by Titus, =2=, 305.
    _See also_ Acra, the.

  =Antoninus=, a Jew recommended by Pope Gelasius, =3=, 29.

  =Antoninus=, name of Alexander Severus in Jewish sources, =2=, 482.

  =Antoninus Pius=, emperor, clemency of, =2=, 432.
    revokes Hadrian’s decrees, =2=, 433.
    revolution in Judæa under, =2=, 447.
    death of, =2=, 447.

  =Antony, Mark=, member of the second triumvirate, favors Herod,
        =2=, 81, 87.
    beheads Antigonus, =2=, 89.
    interested in Aristobulus (III), =2=, 91, 93.
    fall of, =2=, 96.

  =Antwerp=, Amatus Lusitanus at, =4=, 569.
    the Jews of, expelled, =4=, 662.

  =Anusim=, forced converts, =4=, 179.
    _See_ Marranos, the.

  =Anzarbi=, Arabic medical authority, taught by Jews, =3=, 146.

  =Apamea=, treasure house in, for the Temple contributions, =2=, 53.

  =Apelles=, of Ascalon, favorite of Caligula, =2=, 187.

  =Apelles=, Syrian overseer, resisted by the Maccabees, =1=, 459.

  =Aphek=, battle of, between Israelites and Philistines, =1=, 70.

  =Apherema=, taken by the Samaritans, =1=, 410.

  =Aphrodite=, worshiped by the Persians, =1=, 108.

  =Apion=, Greek writer, misrepresents Judaism, =2=, 180-1.
    envoy to Caligula, =2=, 186.
    contrasted with Philo, =2=, 187.
    charges of, refuted by Josephus, =2=, 390.
    Josephus’ work against, translated, =4=, 608.

  =Apis=, black bull, worshiped by the Egyptians, =1=, 9.

  =Apocalypse=, the Christian, by John, =2=, 369.

  =Apocrypha=, the, rejected from the Canon, =2=, 344.
    translated into Greek, =2=, 359.
    considered part of the Canon by Christians, =2=, 359, 488.
    canonized by the Council of Nice, =2=, 624.

  =Apollo=, Onias III takes refuge in the temple of, at Daphne, =1=,
        448.

  =Apollonius=, ambassador to Rome, =2=, 4-5.

  =Apollonius=, commander of Cœlesyria, confiscates the Temple
        treasures, =1=, 438.

  =Apollonius=, Syrian general, in the war with Jonathan Haphus, =1=,
        496.

  =Apollonius=, Syrian general, takes Jerusalem, =1=, 453-4.
    defeated by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 462.

  =Apollonius Malo=, Greek writer, maligns Judaism, =2=, 178-9.

  =Apollonius Molo=, Greek writer, hostile to the Judæans, =2=, 68.

  =Apollos=, of Alexandria, Christian teacher, =2=, 231.

  “=Apology= for the Honorable Nation of the Jews,” by Edward Nicholas,
        =5=, 28-9.

  =Apostasy to Christianity= among Jews after the destruction of
        Jerusalem, =2=, 322.
    in the early Christian centuries, =2=, 377.
    under Constantine, =2=, 562-3.
    in Hamburg, =4=, 687, 690.
    in Vienna, =4=, 706.
    among the Chassidim, =5=, 213.
    among the Frankists, =5=, 287.
    among the Jews of Germany, =5=, 420.
    in Berlin, =5=, 587.
    _See also under_ Conversions to Christianity; Marranos, the.

  =Apostasy to Islam= among Jews in the East in the twelfth century,
        =3=, 441-2.
    among Sabbatians, =5=, 153-4, 211.
    among Chassidim, =5=, 213.
    _See also under_ Conversions to Islam.

  =Apostasy to paganism= among Jews in Alexandria, =2=, 184.

  =Apostate=, an, the disappearance of, causes annoyance to the Jews of
        Paris, =4=, 175.
    in Breslau, charges the Jews with host desecration, =4=, 261.

  =Apostates=, account of, by Philo, =2=, 184.
    in Alexandria, =2=, 209.
    act as spies upon the Jews under Hadrian, =2=, 425.
    Constantine protects the Jews against, =2=, 564.
    excommunicated by the later Patriarchs, =2=, 612-13.
    decisions concerning, by Natronaï ben Nehemiah, =3=, 122.
    repentant, kindly received by Gershom ben Jehuda, =3=, 264.
    permitted by Emperor Henry IV to return to Judaism, =3=, 306.
    returning, unkindly treated by the Jews, =3=, 308-9.
    forbidden to retain Jewish customs, =3=, 510.
    house for, in England, =3=, 644.
    validity of the evidence of, =4=, 36-7.
    force the Jews to attend church, =4=, 132.
    inform against Marranos, =4=, 180.
    in Spanish satiric literature, =4=, 181.
    favored by the Council of Basle, =4=, 246.
    employed as censors, =4=, 566, 659.
    annoy the Jews of the Papal States, =4=, 581, 584.
    refrain from defending the German Jews, =5=, 533.
    Heine on, =5=, 548-9, 551-2.
    assert the falsity of the blood accusation, =5=, 650.
    _See also under_ Apostasy; Conversions; Marranos, the.

  =Apostates=, list of:
    Abraham Senior, the family of
    Abulafia, Moses
    Adamantius,
    Alexander,
    Alfonso Burgensis,
    Ananel di Foligno,
    Anton, Charles
    Asher of Udine,
    Astruc Raimuch,
    Astruc Sibili,
    Baptista, John
    Bonafoux, Daniel Israel
    Börne, Ludwig
    Chananya, nephew of Joshua,
    Chayon, Nehemiah, son of
    Cohen, Nehemiah
    Diego de Valencia,
    Donin (Nicholas),
    Drusilla,
    Du Vallié, Paul
    Eliano, Victor
    Ferrus, Pero
    Frank, Jacob
    Friedländer, David, the family of
    Gans, Edward
    Gershom ben Jehuda, son of
    Gerson, Christian
    Guidon,
    Heine, Heinrich
    Herz, Henrietta
    Isaac of Mayence,
    Isaac Ibn-Ezra,
    John of Valladolid,
    Joseph,
    Joseph de Vesoul,
    Joshua ben Joseph Ibn-Vives,
    Juan de España,
    Kahtz, Christian
    Karben, Victor von
    Levi ben Shem Tob,
    Levi, Wolf
    Levin, Rachel
    Machault, Denys
    Margalita, Aaron
    Margaritha, Anton
    Mendelssohn, Dorothea
    Mendelssohn, Henrietta
    Moro, Joseph
    Nathaniel (Hibat-Allah),
    Neander, Augustus
    Nunes, Henrique
    Pablo Christiani,
    Paul, apostle,
    Pedro de la Caballeria,
    Pessach-Peter,
    Pfefferkorn, Joseph
    Riccio, Paul
    Sabbataï Zevi,
    Samuel Ibn-Abbas,
    Samuel Abrabanel (Juan de Seville),
    Schwarz, Peter
    Sixtus Senensis,
    Solomon Levi of Burgos (Paul de Santa Maria),
    Tiberius Julius Alexander,
    Uriah of Mayence,
    Vayol, Hans
    Wenzel, Francis
    Wolfkan of Ratisbon.

  =Apostles, the twelve=, trusted disciples of Jesus, =2=, 158.
    sent out by the early Christians, =2=, 220.

  =Apostole=, mission tax, collected by the Patriarchs, =2=, 487.

  =Apostoli=, messengers of the Synhedrion, =2=, 535.

  =Appian=, historian, persecuted by Jewish rebels, =2=, 396.

  =Apries= (Hophra), of Egypt, at war with Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 312.
    defeated, =1=, 313.
    ally of Judah, =1=, 318.
    receives Judæans kindly, =1=, 324.
    dethroned, =1=, 327.

  =Apulia=, the Jews of, liable to curial duties, =2=, 616.
    invaded by the Mahometans, =3=, 212.
    Jews from, form a congregation in Constantinople, =4=, 402.

  =Aquet=, suspected of well poisoning, =4=, 104.

  =Aquila.= _See_ Akylas.

  =Aquinas, Thomas=, works of, translated, =4=, 69.
    studied by Solomon Levi, =4=, 183.

  =Aquitania=, rabbis from, at the first rabbinical synod, =3=, 377.
    gathering place of crusaders, =3=, 570.

  =Arabarch.= _See_ Alabarch, the.

  =Arabia=, trade with, under Uzziah, =1=, 230.
    (Auranitis) Paul flees to, =2=, 226.
    Jewish fugitives flee to, =2=, 317, 319, 419.
    Jews settle in, =2=, 629; =3=, 54-5.
    Babylonian Jews emigrate to, =3=, 4.
    position of Jews in, in the sixth century, =3=, 53.
    _See also_ Auranitis.

  =Arabia, the Jews of=, similarity of, to the Arabs, =3=, 56.
    alienate Mahomet’s followers, =3=, 74-5.
    rejoice at Mahomet’s death, =3=, 84.
    possess good taste, =3=, 111.
    find the authority of the Talmud irksome, =3=, 119-20.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 436-7.

  =Arabia, northern= (Hejas), inhabitants of, descended from Ishmael,
        =3=, 60, 61.

  =Arabia, northern (Hejas), the Jews of=, =3=, 54-6.
    lead a Bedouin life, =3=, 57.
    distinguish themselves in poetry, =3=, 57-8.
    intelligence of, =3=, 58.
    religious affairs among, =3=, 58-9.
    relation of, to the Arabs, =3=, 60-1.
    history of, =3=, 67-71.
    dispossessed by Mahomet, =3=, 76-83.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 436-7.

  =Arabia, southern, inhabitants of=, descended from Yoktan, =3=, 60.
    called Kachtanites, =3=, 61.
    _See also_ Himyarites, the; Yemen.

  =Arabia, southern=, the Jews of, =3=, 56.
    the Jews of, trade with India, =3=, 57.
    a Jewish kingdom in, =3=, 62-7. _See under_ Yemen.

  =Arabia Felix=, southern Arabia, =3=, 56.

  =Arabic=, spoken by Jews of Mahometan countries, =3=, 110-11.
    used by the Gaon of Sora officially, =3=, 178.
    translation of the Bible into, =3=, 189-90.
    used in Sherira’s responses, =3=, 232.
    spoken by the Jews of Andalusia, =3=, 235.
    the Mishna translated into, =3=, 237.
    spoken by Italian Jews in the twelfth century, =3=, 423.
    translations from, made by Jews, =3=, 593.
    taught as a means of conversion, =3=, 597; =4=, 245.
    forgotten by the Spanish Jews, =4=, 60.

  =Arabic poetry= influences neo-Hebraic poetry, =3=, 116, 224.

  =Arabs=, the, love the Scriptures, =3=, 59.
    adopt the Jewish calendar, =3=, 59-60.
    relation of, to the Jews, =3=, 60.
    supremacy of, =3=, 86-7.
    helped by the Jews and Samaritans, =3=, 87.
    enthusiasm of, for their language, =3=, 110-111.
    obtain access to scientific literature through Jews, =3=, 111.
    influence the revival of Hebrew, =3=, 111.
    at war with the Chazars, =3=, 138.
    defeated by the Chazars, =3=, 139.
    unkindly treated by the Spanish Berbers, =3=, 261.
    _See also under_ Mahometans, the; Nabathæans, the.

  =Arach=, the family of, intermarries with the Ammonites, =1=, 362.

  =Aradus=, built by the Canaanites, =1=, 3.
    refuses obedience to Antiochus IV, =1=, 463.

  =Aragon=, Jews in, in the twelfth century, =3=, 384.
    ally of Castile against the Almohades, =3=, 387.
    forced converts in, relapse into Judaism, =4=, 180.
    Ferdinand of Castile becomes king of, =4=, 205, 206.
    the Inquisition established in, =4=, 319.
    opposed to the Inquisition, =4=, 319, 328.
    privileges of, canceled, =4=, 326.
    inquisitors appointed for, =4=, 326.
    exiles from, form a congregation in Constantinople, =4=, 402.

  =Aragon, the Jews of=, under Alfonso II, =3=, 387-8.
    under Pedro II, =3=, 497-8.
    prevent anti-Jewish legislation, =3=, 508.
    exempt from wearing the Jew badge, =3=, 514-15.
    in the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 530, 536, 537.
    letter to, denouncing Solomon of Montpellier, =3=, 544.
    under Jayme I, =3=, 596-7.
    regarded as “servi cameræ,” =3=, 597.
    debate with Pablo Christiani, =3=, 602.
    persecuted in the fourteenth century, =4=, 77.
    massacred on account of the Black Death, =4=, 102-3.
    helped by the higher classes, =4=, 103.
    under Pedro IV and Juan I, =4=, 145.
    possess penal jurisdiction, =4=, 155.
    persecuted in 1391, =4=, 170-1, 172.
    converted, =4=, 206, 214.
    at the disputation of Tortosa, =4=, 214.
    under John II, =4=, 274, 275.
    warned of approaching danger, =4=, 336.
    proclamation expelling, =4=, 347-8.
    possessions of, sequestrated, =4=, 350.

  =Aragon, the Marranos of=, =4=, 309.
    try to suppress the Inquisition, =4=, 329.

  =Aram=, home of Abraham, =1=, 4. _See_ Syria.

  =Arama, Isaac.= _See_ Isaac Arama.

  =Aramæans=, the, help the Ammonites against David, =1=, 126-7.
    _See under_ Damascus, the kingdom of; Syria.

  =Aramaic=, learnt by the Judæans in Babylon, =1=, 330-1.
    spoken by the Judæans in Hasmonæan times, =2=, 14, 15.
    spoken in Galilee, =2=, 149.
    words in the Mishna, =2=, 461.

  =Aranda, Counts de=, try to suppress the Aragon Inquisition, =4=, 329.

  =Aranda, de=, Marrano bishop, burnt by Torquemada, =4=, 333.

  =Arari, David=, accused of ritual murder, =5=, 636, 638.
    persecuted, =5=, 636-7.

  =Araunah.= _See_ Ornah.

  =Arbachshter.= _See_ Ardashir.

  =Arbues, Pedro=, de Epila, inquisitor in Aragon, =4=, 326.
    plot against, by the Marranos, =4=, 329.
    killed in church, =4=, 330.
    honor paid to the memory of, =4=, 330-1.
    Marranos concerned in the murder of, sheltered in Navarre, =4=, 357.

  =Arcadius= (395-408), emperor of the East, insignificance
        of, =2=, 615.
    the Jews under, =2=, 616.

  =Archelaus=, of Cappadocia, daughter of, =2=, 112, 128.

  =Archelaus= (Herod II), son of Herod I, sovereign of Judæa and
        Samaria, =2=, 119.
    promises to abolish unjust laws, =2=, 120-1.
    attacks those offering the Passover sacrifices, =2=, 121.
    forbids the celebration of Passover, =2=, 122.
    puts Jerusalem under Quintilius Varus, =2=, 122-3.
    ethnarch of Judæa, =2=, 127.
    deposes the high priest Joasar, =2=, 127.
    war of, against Athronges, =2=, 128.
    marries Glaphyra, =2=, 128.
    exiled by Augustus, =2=, 128.
    property of, confiscated by Augustus, =2=, 129.

  =Archelaus, Julius=, brother-in-law of Agrippa II, =2=, 235.

  =Archipelago=, the, Cardoso in, =5=, 207.

  =Archisynagogus=, title of the rabbi of Speyer, =3=, 297.

  =Architecture=, under Herod, =2=, 106-7, 118.

  =Ardashir= (Arbachshter), establishes the dynasty of the Sassanides,
        =2=, 513, 523.
    restores the Zoroastrian doctrine, =2=, 524.

  =Ardashir=, populated with Jews, =2=, 507. _See also_ Ctesiphon.

  =Ardebil=, Armenian fortress, taken by the Chazars, =3=, 139.

  “=Are philosophical= truths susceptible of mathematical
        demonstration?” prize essay by Mendelssohn, =5=, 303-4.

  “=Are there means= to make the Jews happier and more useful in
        France?” prize question of a Metz society, =5=, 434-5.

  =Areobindus=, minister of Justinian I, =3=, 15.

  =Aretas=, Nabathæan king, and the high priest Jason, =1=, 447, 481.

  =Aretas=, Nabathæan king, overthrown, =2=, 45.

  =Aretas=, Nabathæan king, helps Hyrcanus II, =2=, 59.
    besieges Aristobulus II, =2=, 60.
    raises the siege of Jerusalem, =2=, 62.
    defeated by Aristobulus II, =2=, 62.
    attacked by Scaurus, =2=, 70.

  =Aretas=, Nabathæan king, aids Quintilius Varus, =2=, 126.

  =Aretas=, Nabathæan king, at war with Herod Antipas, =2=, 173.

  =Aretas Philodemus=, Nabathæan king, creates the office of Judæan
        ethnarch, =2=, 202.

  =Argent, d’=, marquis, friend of Mendelssohn, =5=, 304.

  =Argentière=, the Jews of, oppose the study of science, =4=, 33.

  =Argob=, fortress, besieged by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 47.

  =Argun= (1284-1291), khan of the Perso-Mongolian realm, employs
        Saad-Addaula as physician and financier, =3=, 638, 646.
    distinguishes Saad-Addaula, =3=, 647.
    enters into diplomatic connections with Europe, =3=, 647.
    sickness and death of, =3=, 649.

  =Arianism=, toleration of, under Valentinian I, =2=, 603; =3=, 44.
    hostility to, by Ambrosius of Milan, =2=, 612.
    less hostile to Jews than Catholicism, =3=, 26.
    persecuted in Spain, =3=, 46.

  =Arias Montana=, publishes a polyglot Bible, =4=, 651.

  =Arias, Jean=, instigates a persecution, =4=, 279.

  =Arias, Joseph Szemach=, translator of Josephus, =5=, 113.
    uninfluenced by Spinoza, =5=, 117.

  =Arioch.= _See_ Samuel.

  =Aristides=, Church teacher, demonstrates the independence of
        Christianity, =2=, 431.

  =Aristobulus (Judah) I=, son of John Hyrcanus, defeats Antiochus
        IX, =2=, 10.
    removes his mother from the regency, =2=, 35.
    first Hasmonæan to assume a royal title, =2=, 35.
    coins of, =2=, 35.
    dissensions under, =2=, 36.
    imprisons his mother and brothers, =2=, 36.
    hostile to the Pharisees, =2=, 36.
    accused of matricide and fratricide, =2=, 36-7, 38.
    campaign of, against the Ituræans and Trachonites, =2=, 37.
    death of, =2=, 37-8.

  =Aristobulus II=, son of Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 47.
    protects the Sadducees, =2=, 55.
    conspires against Hyrcanus, =2=, 56.
    character of, =2=, 58.
    made king, =2=, 58.
    besieged, =2=, 60.
    bribes Scaurus, =2=, 62.
    defeats Aretas, =2=, 62.
    has coins struck, =2=, 62.
    bribes Pompey, =2=, 62-3.
    summoned to Damascus by Pompey, =2=, 63.
    at war with Pompey, =2=, 64-7.
    in Pompey’s triumph, =2=, 67.
    escapes from Rome, =2=, 72.
    garrisons Alexandrion, =2=, 73.
    surrenders Machærus, =2=, 73.
    second captivity of, at Rome, =2=, 73.
    freed by Cæsar, =2=, 75.
    poisoned, =2=, 75.
    wife and daughters of, in Chalcis, =2=, 75.

  =Aristobulus (III)=, brother of Mariamne, high priest, =2=, 91.
    popularity of, =2=, 92.
    murdered, =2=, 92.

  =Aristobulus=, brother of Agrippa I, supplants him, =2=, 175.
    opposes Caligula, =2=, 188.
    wife of, =2=, 195.
    begs for a truce, =2=, 197.

  =Aristobulus=, son of Mariamne, designated successor to Herod, =2=,
        112.
    marriage of, =2=, 112.
    executed, =2=, 113.

  =Aristotle=, the Ten Categories of, compared with the Ten
        Commandments, =3=, 197.
    sayings of, used by Ibn-Gebirol, =3=, 267.
    system of, as presented by Jehuda Halevi, =3=, 328.
    dominance of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 331.
    works of, translated into Hebrew, =3=, 398.
    popular among Jews, =3=, 448-9.
    philosophy of, interpreted by Ibn-Sina, =3=, 478.
    theories of, in Jewish writings, =3=, 479.
    denounced by Nachmani, =3=, 534.
    works of, translated into Latin, =3=, 566-7.
    in Immanuel Romi’s work, =4=, 66.
    opposed by Gersonides, =4=, 93.
    authority of, questioned by Chasdaï Crescas, =4=, 146.
    Ethics of, translated, =4=, 193.
    quoted by Jewish preachers, =4=, 232.
    writings of, expounded by Judah ben Yechiel, =4=, 289.
    system of, expounded by Elias del Medigo, =4=, 290.
    studied by Polish Jews, =4=, 633.

  =Ark of the Covenant=, the, =1=, 23, 41.
    taken by the Philistines, =1=, 70-2.
    made by Achitub, =1=, 79.
    removed to Jerusalem, =1=, 119-120.
    transferred to the Temple, =1=, 166.

  =Arles= (city), Jews participate in battles before, =3=, 36.
    Jews remain in, after their banishment from France by Charles
        VI, =4=, 177.

  =Arles= (district), first Jewish settlement of Gaul in, =3=, 35.

  =Arles=, kingdom of, demanded by Albrecht I, =4=, 47.

  =Armada=, the, collapse of, =4=, 663.

  =Armenia=, the Jews of, taken by Shabur II, =2=, 591.
    invaded by the Chazars, =3=, 138.
    visited by Petachya, =3=, 421.

  =Armenians= (Tartars?), converted to Judaism, =3=, 439-40.

  =Armentarius=, name borne by Gallic Jews, =3=, 36.

  =Armleder= (Leather-arms) persecutions, the, of the German Jews,
        =4=, 97-8.

  =Arnheim=, adviser of the duke of Alva, =4=, 662.

  =Arnim=, representative of the romantic school, =5=, 515.

  =Arnold=, cardinal bishop of Cologne, protects the Jews, =3=, 352.

  =Arnold of Brescia=, denounces the popes, =3=, 370.

  =Arnold of Citeaux=, organizes the crusade against the Albigenses,
        =3=, 502.
    organizes a crusade against the Spanish Mahometans, =3=, 507.
    instigates an attack upon the Toledo Jews, =3=, 507.

  =Arnoldists=, the, party opposed to Reuchlin, =4=, 456.

  =Arnstadt=, the Jews of, persecuted, =3=, 611.

  =Arnstein, Nathan Adam von=, wife of, =5=, 414.

  =Ar-Rabbi Mor= (Arraby Moor), title of the chief rabbi of Portugal,
        =3=, 618; =4=, 158-9, 380.
    duties, assistants, and jurisdiction of, =4=, 159.

  =Arsaces=, the dynasty of, fall of, =2=, 513, 523.

  =Arsaces=, satrap of Parthia, revolts from Antiochus IV, =1=, 463.

  =Arsenios=, Samaritan favorite of Empress Theodora, =3=, 17.

  =Arta= (Larta), the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.
    Spanish exiles in, =4=, 406.
    the Jews of, split up into national groups, =4=, 478.

  =Artaban=, fined for using Mezuzzoth, =2=, 424.

  =Artabanus=, of Parthia, invites Izates to act as arbitrator, =2=,
        217.

  =Artabanus IV= (211-226), of Parthia, and Abba-Areka, =2=, 513.
    overthrown, =2=, 523.

  =Artaxerxes I Longimanus=, of Persia, assists Ezra, =1=, 366.
    influenced by Judæan favorites, =1=, 371.
    makes Nehemiah governor of Judæa, =1=, 373.

  =Artaxerxes II Memnon=, of Persia, Egypt rebels against, =1=, 407.
    banishes Judæans, =1=, 408.
    killed, =1=, 409.

  =Artaxerxes III Ochus=, of Persia, =1=, 407.

  =Artaxias=, of Armenia, independent of Antiochus IV, =1=, 463.

  =Artemion=, leader of a Jewish rebellion on Cyprus, =2=, 397.

  =Artemion=, the school of, deface the Septuagint, =2=, 386.

  =Artisans=, among the Alexandrian Judæans, =1=, 505.
    among the teachers of the Law, =2=, 344, 348, 441, 442, 575.
    _See_ Handicrafts; Trades.

  =Aruch=, Talmudic dictionary, by Mar-Zemach I ben Paltoi, =3=, 179.
    by Nathan ben Yechiel, =3=, 290, 421.
    _See also_ Lexicon, Talmudical.

  =Arverna.= _See_ Auvergne.

  =Arzilla=, Jews taken captive at, =4=, 286, 339.
    Portuguese Marranos in, =4=, 381.

  =Asa=, king of Judah, accession of, =1=, 189.
    forbids the worship of Astarte, =1=, 190.
    at war with Baasha, =1=, 190-1.
    ally of Ben-hadad I, =1=, 191.

  =Asahel=, Joab’s brother, killed by Abner, =1=, 110.

  =Asaph=, psalmist, =1=, 79, 120-1.

  =Asaphites=, descendants of Asaph, =1=, 120.

  =Asara be-Tebeth.= _See_ Fast of Tebeth.

  =Ascalon= (Askelon), Philistine port, =1=, 54.
    left in the possession of the Philistines by David, =1=, 117.

  =Ascalona=, the Jews of, exterminated, =4=, 170.

  =Ascarelli, Deborah=, poetess, =5=, 68.

  =Ascarelli, Joseph=, husband of the preceding, =5=, 68.

  =Ascension=, the dogma of, attacked by Abbahu, =2=, 539-540.

  =Ascetics=, among the Arabian Jews, =3=, 437.

  =Asclepiadotus=, lawyer, opposes Belisarius, =3=, 32.
    murdered, =3=, 32.

  =Ashdod= (Azotus), Philistine port, =1=, 54.
    the Ark of the Covenant at, =1=, 71.
    left in the possession of the Philistines by David, =1=, 117.
    conquered by Uzziah, =1=, 231.
    destroyed, =1=, 496.
    revenue from, left to Salome, =2=, 120.

  =Asher, the tribe of=, acquires land in the north, =1=, 37.
    relation of, to the Phoenicians, =1=, 53.
    twenty towns of, given to Hiram, =1=, 164.
    descendants of, around Nishabur, =3=, 433.

  =Asher, tribesmen of=, join Gideon, =1=, 62.
    join Solomon’s fleet, =1=, 170.

  =Asher of Udine=, apostate, charges Jews with blasphemy, =4=, 584.

  =Asher ben Jehuda=, hero of Solomon Ibn-Sakbel’s romance, =3=, 318.

  =Asher ben Meshullam=, ascetic, =3=, 396-7.

  =Asher ben Yechiel= (Asheri, 1250-1327), Tossafist, =4=, 34-5.
    accepts the evidence of baptized Jews, =4=, 37.
    settles in Toledo, =4=, 37.
    opposed to the study of science, =4=, 37-8, 39, 50, 86-7.
    opinion of, sought by Abba-Mari, =4=, 38.
    influence of, on the Spanish Jews, =4=, 51.
    as Talmudist, =4=, 51.
    severity of, =4=, 53.
    sons of, =4=, 87.
    prefers Germany, =4=, 90, 96.
    _See also_ Asheri family, the.

  =Asher Lämmlein=, poses as the forerunner of the Messiah, =4=, 482.
    adherents of, =4=, 483.

  =Asher, Saul=, deplores the decay of morality among the Jews, =5=,
        419.
    writes against Fichte, =5=, 463.

  =Asheri.= _See_ Asher ben Yechiel; Jacob ben Asheri; Jehuda ben Asher
        I; Jehuda ben Asher II.

  =Asheri family=, the, loses members by the Black Death, =4=, 113.
    members of, martyrs in 1391, =4=, 169-70.
    _See_ Asher ben Yechiel.

  =Ashi= (352-457), principal of the Sora academy, wealth of, =2=, 605.
    re-builds the academy of Sora, =2=, 606.
    receives the title of Rabbana, =2=, 606.
    authority of, =2=, 606.
    makes Sora the center of Jewish life, =2=, 607.
    collects the Talmud, =2=, 607-9.
    completes the work of Judah I, =2=, 609.
    decisions of, =2=, 609.
    at the court of Jezdijird, =2=, 610.
    suppresses the Messianic hope, =2=, 610-11.
    death of, =2=, 611.
    successors of, =2=, 626.
    son of, =2=, 626.

  =Ashkabá=, prayer for the departed at the Babylonian academies, =3=,
        101.

  =Ashkenasi.= _See_ Saul Cohen Ashkenasi.

  =Ashkenazi.= _See_ Solomon ben Nathan.

  =Ashkenazi, Jacob=, Talmudist and Sabbatian, =5=, 150.

  =Ashkenazi, Jacob Emden.= _See_ Emden, Jacob.

  =Ashkenazi, Zevi.= _See_ Zevi Ashkenazi.

  =Ashmodai=, a demon introduced from Magianism, =1=, 403.

  =Ashmun=, a Canaanite god, =1=, 54.

  =Ashura=, name for the Atonement Day among the Arabian Jews, =3=, 58.
    fast day instituted by Mahomet, =3=, 73.

  =Asia=, the Jews of, esteem Mahometans, =3=, 88-9.
    loses the leadership of Judaism, =3=, 207.
    Karaites obtain influence in, =3=, 207.
    low estate of Judaism in, =3=, 440.
    Messianic hopes in, =4=, 497.
    _See also_ East, the; Abbasside Caliphate, the.

  =Asia Minor=, conquered by Alexander the Great, =1=, 412.
    votive offerings from, seized by Flaccus, =2=, 68-9.
    women in, converted to Judaism, =2=, 215.
    Greek-Christian communities in, =2=, 227.
    study of the Law in, =2=, 358-9.
    chief seat of the Pagan Christians, =2=, 367.
    districts of, rebel against Hadrian, =2=, 399.
    the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 405-6.

  =Asia Minor, the Jews of=, celebrate two days of the new-moon, =2=,
        363.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 426.
    molested by Greek Catholics, =4=, 552-3.
    Sabbatians, =5=, 137.

  =Asia Minor, the Judæans of=, send contributions to the Temple, =2=,
        52.
    protected by Cæsar, =2=, 76.
    have a synagogue at Jerusalem, =2=, 201.
    make annual pilgrimages to Jerusalem, =2=, 220.

  =Asinaï= (Chasinaï), robber chief near Nahardea, =2=, 202.

  “=Asiré ha-Tikwah=,” drama by Joseph Penso, =5=, 113.

  =Askaloni, Joseph=, manager of Reyna Nassi’s printing press, =4=, 628.

  =Askelon.= _See_ Ascalon.

  =Asma=, poetess, satirizes Mahomet, =3=, 76.

  =Asochis.= _See_ Sichin.

  =Assad=, teacher of the Law, converts the Yemenites to Judaism,
        =3=, 62-3.

  =Assassins=, the, plot against Saad-Addaula, =3=, 648-9.

  =Assembly, the Great.= _See_ Great Assembly, the.

  =Asser=, deputy to the Synhedrion, =5=, 497.

  =Asser, Carolus and Moses=, members of the Felix Libertate, =5=, 452.
    zealous in the emancipation struggle, =5=, 454.

  =Assi=, Palestinian Amora, subordinates himself to the Babylonian
        authorities, =2=, 531, 537.
    investigates the educational institutions of Judæa, =2=, 532.
    investigates the observance of the Law in Samaria, =2=, 534.
    appeals to Abbahu, =2=, 538.
    meets Huna’s corpse, =2=, 548.
    disciples of, =2=, 560.

  =Assidæans=, the. _See_ Chassidim, the; Hasmonæans, the; Maccabees,
        the.

  =Assyria=, doom of, predicted by Isaiah, =1=, 272-3.
    invaded by the Scythians, =1=, 287.
    power of, declines, =1=, 287, 296.
    fall of, =1=, 303.

  =Assyrian= customs introduced into Judah, =1=, 260-1.
    characters used for the Scriptures, =1=, 395-6.

  =Assyrians=, the, extend their territory, =1=, 246.
    host of, destroyed at Lachish, =1=, 277.
    defeat the Medes, =1=, 287.

  =Astarte, worship of=, by the Canaanites, =1=, 54.
    in Samuel’s time, =1=, 75.
    under Solomon, =1=, 175.
    under Rehoboam, =1=, 189.
    under Omri, =1=, 195.
    under Jeroboam II, =1=, 233.
    under Hezekiah, =1=, 269.
    _See also_ Idolatry.

  =Asti=, French exiles settle in, =4=, 177.

  =Astorga=, the Jews of, converted by Vincent Ferrer, =4=, 205.

  =Astronomers and mathematicians=, Jewish, list of:
    Abraham ben Chiya Albargeloni,
    Abraham ben Meïr Ibn-Ezra,
    Abraham Zacuto,
    Bonet de Lates,
    David Gans,
    Isaac ben Baruch Albalia,
    Isaac ben Joseph Israeli II,
    Jacob ben Machir Tibbon,
    Judah ben Moses Cohen,
    Judah Ibn-Verga,
    Levi ben Gerson,
    Meïr Alguades,
    Moses ben Israel Isserles,
    Profiat Duran,
    Sahal Rabban,
    Samuel Ibn-Abbas,
    Simon ben Zemach Duran,
    Vecinho, Joseph
    Zag Ibn-Said.

  =Astronomical knowledge=, the, of the teachers of the Law, =2=, 336,
        344-5, 349, 521.

  =Astronomy=, studied in Portugal, =4=, 367-8.
    studied by Polish Jews, =4=, 633.

  =Astruc En-Duran.= _See_ Abba-Mari ben Moses.

  =Astruc Levi=, at the Tortosa disputation, =4=, 208.
    ascribes no authority to the Agada, =4=, 214.
    refuses to accept baptism, =4=, 215.

  =Astruc Raimuch= (Francisco God-flesh, Dios-Carne), apostate,
        expounds Christian dogmas, =4=, 182.

  =Astruc Sibili=, informs against the Palma Jews, =4=, 246.
    imprisoned and baptized, =4=, 247.

  =Astruc, Aristides=, founder of the “Alliance Israélite Universelle,”
        =5=, 701.

  =Astyages=, of Media, dethroned by Cyrus, =1=, 342.

  =Asverus=, name of Alexander Severus in the Jewish sources, =2=, 482.

  =Atel.= _See_ Volga.

  =Athaliah=, Ahab’s daughter, marriage of, =1=, 206.
    introduces idolatry into Judah, =1=, 209.
    upholds Baal worship in Jerusalem, =1=, 212, 214.
    executes members of the house of David, =1=, 213.
    six years’ rule of, =1=, 215.
    murder of, =1=, 216.

  =Athenion=, favorite of Ptolemy II, envoy to Jerusalem, =1=, 423.
    and Joseph, son of Tobiah, =1=, 424, 425.

  =Athenion=, general of Cleopatra, sent against Herod, =2=, 95.

  =Athens=, gifts sent to, by Judæan kings, =2=, 193.
    Judæans in, =2=, 203.
    the Jews of, oppose Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 124.

  =Athias=, editor of the Ferrara Spanish Bible, =4=, 576.

  =Athias, Isaac=, Chacham of Hamburg, =4=, 689.

  =Athronges=, a shepherd, assumes the royal title, =2=, 125.
    war of, with Archelaus, =2=, 128.

  =Atonement, Day of=, forbidden to be observed, =2=, 572.
    among the Arabs, =3=, 58.
    liturgy of, =3=, 113-14.
    a second, =4=, 626.

  =Atra=, besieged by Trajan, =2=, 399.

  =Attalus=, of Pergamus, proclaims Antiochus IV king of Syria, =1=,
        443.

  =Attaman.= _See_ Hetman.

  =Atzbaha.= _See_ Elesbaa.

  =Aubriot, Hugues=, prevôt of Paris, protects the Jews, =4=, 151.

  =Auerbach, Jacob=, fair-preacher in Leipsic, =5=, 573.
    Heine on, =5=, 577.

  =Auerstädt=, defeat of, =5=, 495.

  “=Augenspiegel=,” the, Reuchlin’s pamphlet against Pfefferkorn,
        =4=, 446-8.
    excitement created by, =4=, 448.
    adverse opinions of, =4=, 450.
    charges against, =4=, 451.
    burning of, ordered, =4=, 451-2.
    cleared of the charge of heresy, =4=, 455.
    declared heretical by the University of Paris, =4=, 460.
    translation of, =4=, 460.

  =Augsburg, the Jews of=, saved from the Rindfleisch persecution, =4=,
        36.
    perish during the Black Death persecutions, =4=, 110.
    imprisoned, =4=, 163.
    re-admission of, petitioned for, =4=, 127-8.
    expelled, =4=, 249, 413.

  =August=, of Brunswick, has Templo’s work translated, =5=, 114-15.

  =Augustine=, Church Father, hates the Jews, =2=, 625.

  =Augustus= (Octavius), member of the second triumvirate, =2=, 81.
    favors Herod, =2=, 86.
    wins the battle of Actium, =2=, 96.
    confirms Herod’s royal dignity, =2=, 101-2.
    favors the Egyptian Judæans, =2=, 102-3.
    favors the Roman Judæans, =2=, 103.
    increases Herod’s territory, =2=, 103.
    power of, over Herod, =2=, 105.
    statue of, erected in Cæsarea, =2=, 106.
    asked to ratify Antipater’s death-sentence, =2=, 114.
    condemns the execution of Herod’s sons, =2=, 116.
    executor of Herod’s will, =2=, 120.
    appealed to by the Herodians, =2=, 122.
    seizes Herod’s treasures, =2=, 123.
    makes Judæa an ethnarchy, =2=, 126-7.
    exiles Archelaus, =2=, 128.
    instructions of, to the governor of Syria, =2=, 129.
    death of, =2=, 135.

  =Augustus III=, of Poland, and the Frankists, =5=, 283.

  =Auranitis= (Hauran, Havvoth Jair), the Gileadites take possession
        of, =1=, 64.
    Paul flees to, =2=, 226.
    given to Agrippa II, =2=, 245.
    cavalry from, sent to Jerusalem, =2=, 259, 260.
    _See also_ Arabia.

  =Aurelian=, emperor, conquers Zenobia, =2=, 530.

  =Aurum coronarium= (crown money), tax imposed on Judæa, =2=, 463.
    collected by the Patriarchs, =2=, 487, 535.

  =Austrasia=, the Jews of, in the sixth century, =3=, 40.

  =Austria=, Frederick the Valiant’s Jewish statute confirmed
        for, =3=, 635.
    Jews emigrate to, from Hungary, =4=, 111.
    John of Capistrano in, =4=, 258.
    Jewish exiles from, take refuge in Poland, =4=, 263, 420.
    Polish Jewish fugitives in, =5=, 16.
    at war with Prussia, =5=, 251.
    willing to grant citizenship to the Jews, =5=, 518.
    protects the Frankfort Jews, =5=, 520.
    in the Quadruple Alliance, =5=, 658.
    Jews concerned in the reorganization of, =5=, 697.
    Jewish association in, =5=, 703.

  =Austria, the Jews of=, fill offices, =3=, 516, 567.
    protected by Frederick the Valiant’s Jewish statute, =3=, 567-9.
    suffer during the Rindfleisch persecution, =4=, 36.
    suffer from the Deggenburg persecution, =4=, 98.
    accused of well poisoning, =4=, 110.
    suffer during the Hussite agitation, =4=, 222-4.
    charged with host desecration, =4=, 223-4.
    banished, =4=, 224, 427.
    restrictions placed on, =4=, 585.
    threatened with expulsion, =4=, 652.
    condition of, improved by Joseph II, =5=, 357-8.
    letter addressed to, by Wessely, =5=, 368.
    continued abasement of, =5=, 461.
    freed from the poll-tax, =5=, 464.
    new taxes imposed on, =5=, 508.
    under Francis I, =5=, 523.
    influence of Mannheimer on, =5=, 579.
    growing self-respect of, =5=, 582.

  =Austria, Lower=, the Jews of, banished, =4=, 585.

  =Austrian Succession=, the, War of, and the Jews of Prague,
        =5=, 251-2.

  =Autobiography= of Josephus, =2=, 390.
    of Uriel da Costa, =5=, 64-5.
    of Solomon Maimon, =5=, 409.

  =Auto-da-fé=, the first, of Marranos, =4=, 317.
    _See also_ Marranos, the; Inquisition, the.

  =Auvergne= (Arverna), Jews in, in the sixth century, =3=, 35.

  =Auxerre=, rabbi of, at the first rabbinical synod, =3=, 377.

  =Averroës= (Ibn-Roshd), commentaries by, on Aristotle, translated,
        =3=, 566-7.
    views of, opposed by Gersonides, =4=, 93.
    admired by Narboni, =4=, 94.
    quoted by Jewish preachers, =4=, 232.
    system of, expounded by Elias del Medigo, =4=, 290.

  =Avesta=, the, laws of clean and unclean in, =1=, 402.

  =Avicebrol= (Avicebron), name of Solomon Ibn-Gebirol among the
        schoolmen, =3=, 271.

  =Avicenna.= _See_ Ibn-Sina.

  =Avigedor Kara=, rabbi of Prague, on friendly terms with Emperor
        Wenceslaus, =4=, 166.

  =Avignon=, the council of, forbids the employment of Jews in state
        offices, =3=, 503-4.
    the papacy at, =4=, 162.
    Jews remain in, after their banishment from France, =4=, 177, 659.
    David Reubeni in, =4=, 499.
    the Sabbatian movement in, =5=, 141.
    Jews in, during the French Revolution, =5=, 436.

  =Avignon, the Jews of=, oppose the study of science, =4=, 33.
    tolerated by the popes, =4=, 177.
    expelled, =4=, 592.
    honor Crémieux and Montefiore, =5=, 658.

  =Avila, de=, Marrano bishop, burnt by Torquemada, =4=, 333.

  =Avila=, the Messiah of, =4=, 8-9, 9-10.
    religious disputation at, =4=, 140-2.
    Henry IV deposed at, =4=, 278.
    law of, =4=, 229.

  =Avila, the Jews of=, under Sancho, =3=, 617.
    converted by Vincent Ferrer, =4=, 205.

  =Avitus=, bishop, presides over the council of Epaone, =3=, 37.
    forcibly converts the Jews of Clermont, =3=, 38-9.
    celebrated in a poem, =3=, 39.

  =Avran=, commander under Lysimachus the Benjamite, =1=, 449.

  =Ayllon, Solomon= (1667-1728),
    Sabbatian, profligacy of, =5=, 210.
    youth of, =5=, 214.
    rabbi of London, =5=, 214.
    rabbi of Amsterdam, =5=, 215.
    on Chacham Zevi, =5=, 221.
    mistrusted by the Portuguese community, =5=, 222.
    supports Chayon’s cause, =5=, 222-3.
    refuses reconciliation with Chacham Zevi, =5=, 224.
    acquits Chayon of heresy, =5=, 224-5.
    Brieli writes to, =5=, 225.
    summons Chacham Zevi before the Council, =5=, 226.
    abandons Chayon, =5=, 231.

  =Azael=, name of a Sefirah, =4=, 17.

  =Azariah.= _See_ Uzziah.

  =Azariah=, general of Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 476.

  =Azariah=, high priest, contest of, with Uzziah, =1=, 245.

  =Azariah ben Zadok=, high priest under Solomon, =1=, 167.

  =Azarya ben Moses deï Rossi= (1514-1578), attainments of, =4=, 614.
    connects the Talmud with other ancient writings, =4=, 614.
    works by, =4=, 615.
    as a critic, =4=, 615.
    declared a heretic, =4=, 616.

  =Azeka=, offers opposition to Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 311.

  “=Azharoth=,” composed by Isaac ben Reuben Albergeloni, =3=, 284.

  =Aziz=, of Emesa, husband of Drusilla, =2=, 235.

  =Azotus.= _See_ Ashdod.

  =Azriel=, Kabbalist, reduces the Kabbala to a system, =3=,
        548; =4=, 14.
    history of, unknown, =3=, 548.
    clothes the Kabbala in philosophical language, =3=, 549, 556.

  =Azzel Ibn-Samuel=, one of the Benu-Kuraiza, =3=, 81.


  =B=

  =Baal=, altar to, in Samaria, =1=, 197.
    priests of, assemble by order of Elijah, =1=, 203-4.

  =Baal, the worship of=, among the Canaanites, =1=, 54.
    by Ammonites and Moabites, =1=, 55.
    at Ophrah, =1=, 62.
    in Samuel’s time, =1=, 75.
    under Omri, =1=, 195.
    under Athaliah, =1=, 212, 214.
    removed from Jerusalem, =1=, 216-17.
    under Jeroboam II, =1=, 233.
    abolished by Menahem, =1=, 244.
    _See also_ Astarte; Idolatry.

  =Baal ha-Turim.= _See_ Jacob ben Asheri.

  =Baal-Peor.= _See_ Peor.

  =Baal-Perazim=, mount, scene of a Philistine defeat, =1=, 116.

  =Baal-Shem.= _See_ Israel of Miedziboz.

  =Baal-Zebub=, idol, consulted by Ahaziah, =1=, 207.

  =Baalbek=, a Karaite center, =3=, 158.
    captured by Hulagu, =3=, 606.

  =Baalis=, king of Ammon, protects Judæan fugitives, =1=, 318.
    instigates Gedaliah’s murder, =1=, 322.

  =Baaltis.= _See_ Astarte.

  =Baasha=, of Israel, kills Nadab, =1=, 189.
    ascends the throne, =1=, 190.
    allied with the king of Egypt, =1=, 190.
    at war with Asa, =1=, 190-1.
    allied with Ben-hadad I, =1=, 191.
    takes Ramah, =1=, 191.
    death of, =1=, 191.

  =Bab al Abwab=, Persian wall against the Chazars, =3=, 138.

  =Baba ben Buta=, follower of Shammai, =2=, 133.

  =Babenberg=, the princes of, permit Jews to fill state offices, =3=,
        567.

  =Babylon=, inhabitants of, colonized in Samaria, =1=, 285.
    description of, =1=, 330.
    fall of, =1=, 349-50.
    the goddess of love worshiped in, =1=, 408.
    the Judæans of, aid Judæa against Rome, =2=, 264.
    study of the Law in, =2=, 358.

  =Babylonia=, the scene of Jewish activity, =2=, 503-4, 531, 537; =3=,
        160; =5=, 726.
    three meanings of, in Jewish history, =2=, 504-5.
    resembles the Holy Land, =2=, 544.
    Jewish public life in, =2=, 547.
    independent of Judæa, =2=, 548.
    rise of, =2=, 557.
    the study of the Law flourishes in, =2=, 574-5.
    called Irak by the Arabs, =3=, 89.
    loses intellectual supremacy, =3=, 193, 210, 228.
    Jewish communal life in, in the tenth century, =3=, 194.
    visited by Petachya, =3=, 421.

  =Babylonia, Jewish=, described, =2=, 504.
    compared with Judæa, =2=, 505.
    districts of, =2=, 505.
    towns of, =2=, 505-8.
    fertility of, =2=, 507-8.
    scene of the war between Julian and Shabur II, =2=, 601.
    Sora the center of, =2=, 607.
    constitution of, =3=, 93-101.
    communal constitution of, =3=, 98-100.
    power of, =3=, 100-1.
    mystic doctrines flourish in, =3=, 154.

  =Babylonia, the Jews of=, resist Trajan, =2=, 393, 397.
    favorable position of, =2=, 508.
    political chief of, =2=, 508-11.
    needs of, produce a new development of the Law, =2=, 511.
    resort to the academies of Galilee, =2=, 511, 531.
    religious ignorance of, =2=, 513.
    immorality of, =2=, 516-17, 579.
    establish the sanctity of the law of the land, =2=, 520.
    suffer under Magian supremacy, =2=, 524-5.
    on friendly terms with the Magi, =2=, 525-6.
    injured by Odenathus, =2=, 527.
    luxurious habits of, =2=, 588.
    oppressed by Shabur II, =2=, 591-2.
    favor Julian the Apostate, =2=, 597.
    well treated by Jezdijird, =2=, 609-10.
    persecuted, =2=, 626, 627-8; =3=, 8.
    suffer under Zendik communism, =3=, 2-3.
    rebel under Mar-Zutra II, =3=, 3-4.
    independence of, =3=, 3-4.
    kindly treated by Bahram Tshubin, =3=, 8-9.
    prosperous under Chosru II, =3=, 9-10.
    help the Arabs, =3=, 89.
    form a separate community under the Exilarch, =3=, 89.
    oppose Moawiyah, =3=, 90, 92.
    ill-treated by the caliphs of the East, =3=, 176-7.

  =Babylonia, the Judæans of=, kindly treated, =1=, 329-30, 331.
    government and possessions of, =1=, 330.
    easily learn Aramaic, =1=, 330-1.
    practice idolatry, =1=, 332.
    cherish Hebrew literature, =1=, 334-6.
    joined by the descendants of the Ten Tribes, =1=, 335-6.
    mourning of, =1=, 337-8.
    make proselytes, =1=, 338-9.
    adopt Chaldæan superstitions, =1=, 339-40.
    occupations and wealth of, =1=, 339-40.
    literature produced by, =1=, 340-2.
    not desirous of returning to Palestine, =1=, 340, 341.
    beg for permission to return to Palestine, =1=, 342-3.
    hate Babylon, =1=, 343.
    persecuted, =1=, 343-4.
    divided into the worldly and the pious, =1=, 349.
    interested in the war with Cyrus, =1=, 349.
    cured of idolatry by the fall of Babylon, =1=, 350.
    permitted to return to Palestine, =1=, 351.
    number of, returning under Cyrus, =1=, 352.
    sympathy of, with the returning exiles, =1=, 354-5.
    national enthusiasm of, =1=, 363-5.
    accompany Ezra to Palestine, =1=, 366.
    send contributions to the Temple, =2=, 52.
    welcome Hyrcanus II, =2=, 90.
    own large tracts of land, =2=, 202.
    in Batanæa, =2=, 274.
    massacred by Varus, =2=, 275.
    retreat to Gamala, =2=, 275.

  =Bacchides=, Syrian general, sent to Jerusalem, =1=, 482.
    slays Judæans at Beth-Zachariah, =1=, 483.
    encamps before Jerusalem, =1=, 486.
    defeats the Judæans at Eleasa, =1=, 487.
    reduces the whole country, =1=, 491.
    leaves Judæa, =1=, 492.
    makes a truce with Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 493-4.

  =Bacchus=, worshiped in Alexandria, =1=, 428.

  =Bacharach=, the Jews of, massacred, =3=, 636.

  =Bachiel Ibn-Alkonstantini=, physician, Maimunist, =2=, 536, 537.

  =Bachurim=, Talmud students, =4=, 640; =5=, 567.

  =Bachya Ibn-Pakuda=, moral philosopher, system of, =3=, 271-2.
    ascetic, =3=, 272.
    work of, translated, =3=, 392, 397.

  =Badajoz=, Henrique Nunes murdered at, =4=, 490.
    attacked by Spanish Marranos =4=, 498.

  =Baden, the Jews of=, the blood-accusation against, =3=, 564.
    obtain political freedom, =5=, 502-3.
    persecuted, =5=, 530-1.
    honor Riesser, =5=, 601.

  =Badis=, Berber king, supported by Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 258.
    makes him vizir, =3=, 258.
    makes him chief of the Granada congregations, =3=, 259.
    avenges Balkin’s death, =3=, 275.
    orders the massacre of the Granada Arabs, =3=, 276.
    mistrusts Joseph Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 277.

  =Baffa=, sultana, favorite of, =4=, 629.

  =Bagdad=, a scientific center, =3=, 146.
    the Mutazilist theology taught at, =3=, 147.
    in the Pumbeditha district, =3=, 156.
    Saadiah at, =3=, 196.
    Sabbataï Donnolo at, =3=, 213.
    birthplace of Dunash ben Labrat, =3=, 226.
    Abraham Ibn-Ezra in, =3=, 369.

  =Bagdad, the Jews of=, prosperous under Al-Mutadhid, =3=, 183.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 428.
    Talmudical college of, =3=, 429, 438.
    invited to join David Alrui, =3=, 431.
    enthusiastic for David Alrui, =3=, 432.
    Maimunists, =3=, 633.
    attacked by the Mongols, =3=, 649-50.

  =Bagdad Caliphate=, the. _See_ Abbasside Caliphate, the.

  =Bagoas= (Bagoses), Syrian commander, murders Artaxerxes III, =1=,
        409.
    levies a tax on the daily sacrifice, =1=, 409-10.

  =Bahir=, a Kabbalistic manuscript, =3=, 556, 557.

  =Bahram Tshubin=, Persian general, ascends the throne, =3=, 8.
    friendly to the Jews, =3=, 8-9.
    dispossessed by Chosru II, =3=, 9.

  =Bahurim=, David passes through, =1=, 142.

  =Bail=, defends the Jews, =5=, 522.

  =Bailly=, mayor of Paris, favors the emancipation of the Jews, =5=,
        445.

  =Bairut.= _See_ Beyrout.

  =Bajazet (Bajasid) II=, sultan, censures the expulsion of the Spanish
        Jews, =4=, 356.
    receives Spanish exiles kindly, =4=, 364, 400.
    Jews under, =4=, 402.

  =Baki, Simon=, rabbi, superstition of, =5=, 201-2.

  =Balaam=, magician, employed against the Israelites, =1=, 28.

  =Balak=, king of Moab, hostile to the Israelites, =1=, 28.

  “=Balance, The=,” grammatical work by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 371.

  =Balanyiar=, Jews settle in, =3=, 124, 139.

  =Balch=, birthplace of Chivi Albalchi, =3=, 198.

  =Baldwin IV=, of Jerusalem, banishes the Jews, =3=, 427.

  =Baldwin=, archbishop of Canterbury, induces Richard I to dismiss the
        Jews from his palace, =3=, 410.
    and Benedict of York’s baptism, =3=, 411.

  =Balkin= (Bologgin), of Granada, abdicates in favor of Badis, =3=,
        258.
    death of, =3=, 258, 275.
    partisans of, leave Granada, =3=, 258.
    Joseph Ibn-Nagrela secretary to, =3=, 274.

  =Bamberg=, the council of, enforces Jew badges, =4=, 255.
    the Jews of, persecuted, =5=, 529.

  =Band of Virtue=, the, founded by Berlin Jewesses, =5=, 423, 425.

  =Bandito=, suspected of well poisoning, =4=, 104.

  =Baptism=, the moral meaning of, taught by John the Baptist, =2=, 146.
    value of, examined by Chasdaï Crescas, =4=, 188.

  =Baptista, John= (Solomon Romano), grandson of Elias Levita, apostate,
        denounces the Talmud, =4=, 564.

  =Bar=, the Jews of, slaughtered by Cossacks, =5=, 11.

  =Barak=, judge, leads the Israelites against Jabin, =1=, 61.

  =Barbaro, Mark Antonio=, Venetian consul, and Solomon Ashkenazi, =4=,
        605.

  =Barbary states=, the, Marranos emigrate to, =4=, 485.
    Polish-Jewish fugitives in, =5=, 16.

  =Barbastro=, the Jews of, converted, =4=, 214.
    the Marranos of, conspire against Arbues, =4=, 330.

  =Barcelona=, the disputation at, =3=, 598-601.
    bishop of, appointed censor of the Talmud, =3=, 603.
    report of the disputation at, =3=, 603-4.
    Kabbala taught in, =4=, 6.
    Marranos from, in Algiers, =4=, 199.
    the Inquisition established in, =4=, 332.
    Jews disappear from, =4=, 354.
    exiles from, form a congregation in Constantinople, =4=, 402.

  =Barcelona, the Jews of=, the leaders of northern Spain, =3=, 387-8.
    entreat Nachmani to break off the disputation, =3=, 600-1.
    opposed to the study of science, =4=, 29, 33, 40.
    charged with causing the Black Death, =4=, 102-3.
    persecuted, =4=, 171-2.

  =Bar-Chanina=, teacher of Jerome, =2=, 623-4.

  =Bar-Cochba=, attacks Akiba, =2=, 409.
    described as the Messiah, =2=, 410.
    confidence of, =2=, 411.
    victories of, =2=, 411.
    coins of, =2=, 411.
    hostile to Christians, =2=, 412.
    restores the Jewish state, =2=, 412, 413.
    strongholds of, =2=, 414-15.
    particulars of the revolt of, =2=, 415-16.
    loses the strongholds of the north, =2=, 416.
    causes the death of Eleazar of Modin, =2=, 418.
    end of, unknown, =2=, 419.

  =Barebones Parliament.= _See_ Parliament, the Short.

  =Bar-Eleaza=, son-in-law of Judah I, =2=, 455-6.

  =Barfat Crescas=, imprisoned, =4=, 150.

  =Barfat.= _See_ Isaac ben Sheshet Barfat; Zarak.

  =Bari=, the four Sora emissaries captured at, =3=, 203.

  =Baris.= _See_ Acra, the; Antonia.

  =Bar-Kappara.= _See_ Simon bar Kappara.

  =Bar-Kasha=, and Rab, =2=, 518.

  =Bar-Kosiba=, real name of Bar-Cochba.

  =Barlæus, Caspar=, Socinian, and Manasseh ben Israel, =5=, 22.

  =Barnabas.= _See_ Jose Barnabas.

  =Barnave=, favors the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 441.

  =Barrios, Miguel (Daniel) de=, historian, =5=, 202.
    versifier, =5=, 204.

  =Bartholomaion=, demon exorcised by Simon ben Yochaï, =2=, 449.

  =Baruch=, ancestor of the Ibn-Albalias, early settlement of, in
        Spain, =3=, 43.

  =Baruch of Benevento=, Kabbalist, =4=, 481.

  =Baruch ben Samuel=, Talmudist, member of the Mayence synod, =3=, 517.

  =Baruch Ibn-Albalia=, birth of the son of, =3=, 322.

  =Baruch, son of Neriah=, reads Jeremiah’s prophecies in the
        Temple, =1=, 304.
    taken prisoner by the Chaldæans, =1=, 315.
    attends Jeremiah in Mizpah, =1=, 320.
    taken captive by Ishmael, =1=, 322.
    rescued, =1=, 323.
    in Egypt, =1=, 324.
    in Babylon, =1=, 328.
    brings Jeremiah’s writings to Babylon, =1=, 336.
    writes a history of Israel, =1=, 336-7.
    Letter of, translated, =2=, 359.

  =Baruch Gad=, Palestinian emissary, on the Sons of Moses, =5=, 126.

  =Baruch Yavan=, carries the Eibeschütz controversy to Poland,
        =5=, 262-3.

  =Baruch, Jacob=, Börne’s father, deputy to the Congress of
        Vienna, =5=, 513.

  =Baruch, Löb= (Louis). _See_ Börne, Ludwig.

  =Barzaphernes=, Parthian commander, =2=, 82.

  =Barzillai=, aids David, =1=, 144.

  =Bashan=, the inhabitants of, appeal to Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 474-5.

  =Basilius= (850-866), emperor, tries to convert the Jews, =3=, 175-6.

  =Basilius=, Jewish slave-dealer, and Pope Gelasius, =3=, 29.

  =Basle=, the Talmud printed at, =4=, 589.
    Alsatian Jews escape to, =5=, 437.

  =Basle, the Council of=, renews the anti-Jewish measures of previous
        councils, =4=, 245, 248, 251, 264.
    excludes Jews from university degrees, =4=, 245.
    favors baptized Jews, =4=, 246.
    degrades Eugenius IV, =4=, 249, 250.
    decree of, concerning Jewish physicians disregarded, =4=, 407.

  =Basle, the Jews of=, protected from the Black Death persecutions,
        =4=, 106, 108.
    banishment of, demanded, =4=, 106-7.
    burnt, =4=, 107.

  =Basmath=, daughter of Solomon, =1=, 177.

  =Basnage, Jacob= (1653-1723), historian of the Jewish dispersion, =5=,
        195, 593.
    on the persecutions of the Jews, =5=, 195-6.
    consults Jewish historians, =5=, 196.
    faults of the history by, =5=, 196-7.
    prejudiced, =5=, 197.
    importance of the history by, =5=, 197.
    disciples of, =5=, 197.
    history of, suggested by Manasseh ben Israel, =5=, 202.

  =Bassan, Isaiah=, teacher of Moses Chayim Luzzatto, =5=, 235.
    espouses Luzzatto’s cause, =5=, 238, 241.
    makes Luzzatto promise not to teach Kabbala, =5=, 239.
    has Luzzatto’s writings in safekeeping, =5=, 239.
    permits Luzzatto to publish Kabbalistic works, =5=, 239.

  =Bassora=, under the jurisdiction of the Sora academy, =3=, 98.
    the Mutazilist theology taught in, =3=, 147.
    the Gaon of Sora at, =3=, 202.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 437.

  =Bassus=, Vespasian’s governor of Judæa, =2=, 315.

  =Basula, Moses.= _See_ Moses Basula.

  =Batanæa=, given to Philip by Herod’s will, =2=, 119.
    under Philip, =2=, 137.
    given to Agrippa II, =2=, 245.
    cavalry from, sent to Jerusalem, =2=, 259, 260.
    Babylonian Judæans in, =2=, 274.
    Porphyry a native of, =2=, 502.
    the Benu-Kainukaa settle in, =3=, 77-8.

  =Batavian Republic, the, the Jews of=, emancipation of, =5=, 452.
    number of, =5=, 453, 455.
    disabilities of, =5=, 453.
    writings hostile to, =5=, 453.
    hold aloof from the National Assembly, =5=, 454.
    emancipated, =5=, 456-7.
    appointed to public offices, =5=, 458.
    protection of, in Germany, =5=, 458, 463.
    _See also_ Emancipation of the Dutch Jews; Holland.

  =Bath-Kol=, heavenly voice, =2=, 337, 338.

  =Bathori, Stephen=, election of, as king of Poland, =4=, 642.
    the Jews prosperous under, =4=, 642-3.

  =Bathsheba=, wife of Uriah the Hittite, becomes David’s wife, =1=,
        132.
    sons of, =1=, 133.
    made first queen, =1=, 134.
    pleads for Solomon’s succession, =1=, 153.

  =Bathyra=, Judæan fortress in Batanæa, =2=, 274.

  =Baudin=, suppresses evidence in favor of the Damascus Jews, =5=, 637.

  =Bavaria=, John of Capistrano in, =4=, 258.
    the poll-tax abolished in, =5=, 468.

  =Bavaria, the Jews of=, suffer from the Rindfleisch persecution,
        =4=, 35-6.
    suffer from the Hartmann von Deggenburg persecution, =4=, 98.
    during the Black Death persecutions, =4=, 110.
    accused of aiding the Hussites, =4=, 222.
    assaulted by the imperial army, =4=, 225.
    expelled, =4=, 253-4.
    during John of Capistrano’s visit, =4=, 258.
    taxed for the defense of the Ratisbon Jews, =4=, 305.
    take refuge in Poland, =4=, 420.
    accused of child-murder, =4=, 545-6.
    partial emancipation of, =5=, 508.

  =Bayonne=, the kings of Castile and of France meet at, =4=, 2.

  =Bayonne, the Jews of=, addressed in behalf of the Moravian and
        Bohemian Jews, =5=, 253.
    in Malesherbes’ commission, =5=, 432.
    prosperity of, =5=, 436.
    emancipated, =5=, 442-3.

  =Bayreuth=, the Jews of, persecuted, =5=, 530.

  =Beatrice=, wife of Juan I of Castile, heir to Portugal, =4=, 158.
    proposes David Negro as chief rabbi, =4=, 161.

  =Beaucaire= (Belcaire), the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 400.

  =Be-Chatim=, home of Achaï bar Huna, =2=, 631.

  =Bechinath ha-Dath=, work of Elias del Medigo, =4=, 293.

  =Bechinath Olam=, by Yedaya Bedaresi, =4=, 49.

  =Bedaresi.= _See_ Abraham; Yedaya En-Bonet.

  =Bedr=, battle of, between Mahomet and the Koraishites, =3=, 76.

  =Beer of Mizricz= (Berish, 1700-1772), founder of new Chassidism, =5=,
        375, 379.
    learning of, =5=, 379.
    habits of, =5=, 379-80.
    pilgrimages to, =5=, 380, 407.
    simulates inspiration, =5=, 380-1.
    emphasizes the importance of the Sabbath, =5=, 381-2.
    apostles of, =5=, 383.
    adopts the Portuguese ritual, =5=, 386-7.
    death of, =5=, 392.
    a relative of, supreme Zaddik, =5=, 393.
    sayings by, =5=, 393.
    disciples of, =5=, 393.

  =Beer, Jacob=, private synagogue of, in Berlin, =5=, 563.

  =Beersheba=, frontier town of ancient Israel, =1=, 129.
    pilgrimages to, =1=, 232.

  =Behaim, Martin=, at João II’s astronomical congress, =4=, 367.

  =Bekashoth ha-Memin=, prayer by Yedaya Penini, =4=, 43.

  =Bekiin=, center for the teaching of the Law under Gamaliel II, =2=,
        335, 348.

  =Bel=, temple of, rebuilt by Alexander the Great, =1=, 415.

  =Bela IV=, of Hungary, invites Jewish agents into his country, =3=,
        613.
    introduces Frederick the Valiant’s Jewish statute, =3=, 613-14.

  =Belgium=, Jews in, in the sixth century, =3=, 35.
    the Jews of, during the Black Death persecutions, =4=, 112.
    Catholic agitators in, hostile to the Jews, =5=, 655.

  “=Belief= of the Universe, The,” by Chayon, =5=, 219-20.

  =Belillos, Jacob=, rabbi of Venice, and Luzzatto, =5=, 239.

  =Belisarius=, Jewish soldiers fight against, =3=, 4.
    removes the Temple vessels to Constantinople, =3=, 26.
    in Italy, =3=, 31.
    opposed by the Jews of Naples, =3=, 32.

  =Belkis=, supposed name of the Queen of Sheba, =1=, 173.

  “=Bellerophon=,” satire by Lefrank, =5=, 471-2.

  =Bellieta=, suspected of well poisoning, =4=, 104.

  =Belmonte, Bienvenida Coen=, Jewish poetess, =5=, 203.

  =Belmonte, Jacob Israel=, poet, interested in the Amsterdam
        Marranos, =4=, 665.

  =Belmonte, Manuel=, poet, founder of an academy of poetry, =5=, 113.

  =Belmontes=, the, millionaires at Amsterdam, =5=, 205.

  =Belvedere=, the Nassi palace at Constantinople, =4=, 597.
    Hebrew printing press at, =4=, 628.

  =Ben-Adret.= _See_ Solomon ben Abraham ben Adret.

  =Benaiah=, commander of David’s mercenaries, =1=, 122.
    in the Ammonite war, =1=, 126.
    opposes Absalom, =1=, 141.
    acknowledges Solomon king, =1=, 153.
    kills Adonijah and Joab, =1=, 160.

  =Ben Asai= (Azai). _See_ Simon ben Asai.

  =Ben Asher.= _See_ Moses and Aaron ben Asher.

  =Benavente=, the Jews of, converted by Vincent Ferrer, =4=, 205.

  =Ben-Batiach=, Zealot leader, aids Jochanan ben Zakkai, =2=, 323.

  =Bendama=, and the Jewish Christians, =2=, 370.

  =Ben David=, Messiah, =2=, 144.

  =Ben-David, Lazarus= (1762-1832), philosopher, =5=, 405.
    admires Kant’s philosophy, =5=, 409.
    lectures on Kant, =5=, 410.
    deplores the decay of morality among Jews, =5=, 419.
    leaves attacks on Judaism unanswered, =5=, 469.
    influences Heine, =5=, 546.
    member of the Society for Culture, =5=, 583.

  =Bene Amri=, the, attack the Hasmonæans, =1=, 491.

  =Bene Bathyra=, presidents of the Synhedrion, =2=, 90, 358.
    resign in favor of Hillel, =2=, 99.

  =Bene-Berak=, home of Akiba, =2=, 355.

  =Benedict XII=, pope, unable to protect the Jews, =4=, 99.

  =Benedict XIII= (Pedro de Luna), pope, debates with Shem-Tob ben
        Isaac Shaprut, =4=, 142.
    confers ecclesiastic offices upon Solomon Levi, =4=, 184, 190.
    employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 200.
    plans the conversion of the Spanish Jews, =4=, 206-7.
    arranges the disputation at Tortosa, =4=, 207.
    plans the annihilation of the Talmud, =4=, 209.
    and Jewish delegates to Tortosa, =4=, 210.
    pomp displayed by, =4=, 210-11.
    refuses to release the Jews from the disputation, =4=, 211.
    presides over the disputation, =4=, 212.
    threatens the Jewish delegates with death, =4=, 213, 239.
    issues a bull against the Talmud and the Jews, =4=, 215-16.
    deposed by the council of Constance, =4=, 216, 228.
    sets up a papal court at Peñiscola, =4=, 217.
    originates the sermon for Jews, =4=, 655.

  =Benedict XIV=, pope, acquits the Jews of the blood accusation, =5=,
        282.

  =Benedict of York=, accepts baptism, =3=, 411.
    returns to Judaism, =3=, 411.
    death of, =3=, 413.
    house of, burnt, =3=, 413.

  =Bene Korach.= _See_ Korah, the sons of.

  =Bene Mikra.= _See_ Karaites, the.

  =Benet, Mordecai=, leader of the orthodox party, =5=, 567, 572.

  =Benevento=, the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.
    the Inquisition for Marranos at, =4=, 385.

  =Benfelden=, the council at, banishes the Jews of the upper
        Rhine, =4=, 107.

  =Ben-hadad I=, of Damascus, ally of Israel and Judah, =1=, 191.
    defeats Omri, =1=, 195.

  =Ben-hadad II=, of Damascus, besieges Samaria, =1=, 205.
    defeated by Ahab, =1=, 205.
    treachery of, =1=, 205.
    defeats Ahab and Jehoshaphat, =1=, 206.
    murdered, =1=, 210.

  =Ben-hadad III=, of Damascus, defeated, =1=, 221-2.

  =Benisch, Abraham=, founder of the “Anglo-Jewish Association,”
        =5=, 703.

  =Benjamin, the tribe of=, acquires Gibeon, =1=, 38.
    holds assemblies at Shiloh, =1=, 41.
    opposed to intermarriages with the heathen, =1=, 56.
    aids Ehud against the Moabites, =1=, 60.
    attacked by the Philistines, =1=, 64.
    aids Saul, =1=, 85.
    accuses David of destroying the house of Saul, =1=, 124.
    sides with Absalom, =1=, 139-40.
    hesitates to recall David, =1=, 146.
    meets David at the Jordan, =1=, 147.
    closely united with Judah, =1=, 174.
    loyal to Rehoboam, =1=, 182.
    members of, return from the Captivity, =1=, 352.

  =Benjamin of Canterbury=, Tossafist, =3=, 409.

  =Benjamin of Fermo=, patron of Immanuel Romi, =4=, 68.

  =Benjamin of Tiberias=, and Emperor Heraclius, =3=, 19, 22.

  =Benjamin ben Jonah= of Tudela, traveler, =3=, 388-9; =4=, 127.

  =Benjamin ben Moses= of Nahavend (800-820), spreads the Mutazilist
        philosophy, =3=, 150-1.
    founder of the Makariyite sect, =3=, 151.

  =Benjamin Assia=, physician, scorns the teachers of the Law,
        =2=, 589-90.

  =Ben-Kafren= (Ephraim), defends Menachem ben Saruk, =3=, 227.

  =Ben Kohelet=, work by Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 260.

  =Ben Mishle=, work by Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 260.

  =Ben-Naphtali=, criticises the Ben Ashers, =3=, 207.

  =Ben-Nazar.= _See_ Odenathus.

  =Ben Shaltiel-Chen.= _See_ Serachya ben Isaac.

  =Ben Soma.= _See_ Simon ben Zoma.

  =Ben Tehillim=, work by Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 260.

  =Benu-Aus=, the, Arabic family, relations of, to the Jews, =3=, 55.
    conversions among, to Judaism, =3=, 61.
    hostile to Jewish rule, =3=, 67.
    the Jews of Yathrib dependent on, =3=, 68.
    feuds of, =3=, 70-1.

  =Benu-Bachdal=, the, Jewish-Arabic tribe, =3=, 54-5.

  =Benu-Kainukaa=, the, Jewish tribe in northern Arabia, =3=, 55.
    invited to accept Islam, =3=, 74, 76-7.
    forced to surrender to Mahomet, =3=, 77.
    settle in Batanæa, =3=, 77-8.
    preserve love for Arabic, =3=, 111.
    object to Talmudic restraints, =3=, 119.

  =Benu-Kinanah=, the, Arab tribe converted to Judaism, =3=, 61.

  =Benu-Kuraiza=, the, a Jewish-Arabic tribe, =3=, 54-5.
    threatened by Mahomet, =3=, 77.
    make war upon Mahomet, =3=, 80.
    slaughtered, =3=, 81.

  =Benu-Nadhir=, the, a Jewish-Arabic tribe, =3=, 54-5.
    threatened by Mahomet, =3=, 77.
    meditate treachery against Mahomet, =3=, 78.
    forced to emigrate, =3=, 78-9.
    war with, justified in the Koran, =3=, 79.
    organize an alliance against Mahomet, =3=, 79-80.
    rouse the Jews of Chaibar to resist Mahomet, =3=, 82.
    preserve love of Arabic, =3=, 111.
    object to Talmudic restraints, =3=, 119.

  =Ben Usiel=, champion of the orthodox party, =5=, 627.

  =Benvenida Abrabanela=, wife of Samuel II Abrabanel, character
        of, =4=, 409.
    friend of the duchess of Tuscany, =4=, 410, 544.
    supports David Reubeni, =4=, 493.
    prevents the banishment of the Naples Jews, =4=, 543.

  =Benveniste.= _See_ Abraham Benveniste Senior; Benveniste Ibn-Labi;
        Benveniste, Chayim; Isaac; Joseph ben Ephraim Ibn-Benveniste
        Halevi; Judah; Sheshet; Vidal ben Benveniste Ibn-Labi.

  =Benveniste Ibn-Labi=, part translator of Aristotle’s Ethics, =4=,
        193.

  =Benveniste, Chayim= (1603-1673), rabbi of Smyrna, Sabbatian, =5=,
        136.
    disappointed in Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 155.

  =Benveniste family=, the, of the nobility of Jewish Spain, =3=, 236.
    Gracia Mendesia of, =4=, 571.

  =Ben Yasus.= _See_ Abu Ibraham Isaac Ibn-Kastar ben Yasus.

  =Ben-Zeeb=, one of the Measfim, =5=, 400.

  =Be-Rab=, Abba-Areka’s school, =2=, 514.

  =Berab.= _See_ Jacob Berab.

  =Berachoth=, the eighteen, introduced by Gamaliel II, =2=, 363.

  =Berachya ben Natronaï Nakdan= (Crispia, 1230-1270), fabulist, =3=,
        560.

  =Berachya, son of Jacob Querido=, Messiah, followers of, =5=, 211.
    soul of, in Jacob Frank, =5=, 274.
    prayers addressed to, =5=, 274.

  =Berber princes=, the, receive Jewish refugees kindly, =4=, 198.

  =Berbers=, the, establish themselves in southern Spain, =3=, 256.
    hostile to the Spanish Arabs, =3=, 261, 276, 316.
    incensed against the Jews, =3=, 275.
    slay Joseph Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 278.

  =Berdaa.= _See_ Derbend.

  =Berenice=, daughter of Agrippa I, marriage of, =2=, 235.
    Drusilla envious of, =2=, 236.
    appeals to Gessius Florus, =2=, 254.
    popularity of, =2=, 257.
    palace of, burnt, =2=, 260.
    captivates Titus, =2=, 289, 299.
    wins Tiberius Alexander to Vespasian’s side, =2=, 300.
    influence of, over Titus, =2=, 302, 307.
    in the arena of Cæsarea Philippi, =2=, 312.
    honored at the court, =2=, 317.
    fall of, =2=, 317.
    obtains pardon for Justus of Tiberias, =2=, 319-20.
    consoles her conquered coreligionists, =2=, 333.
    abandoned by Titus, =2=, 388.

  =Berenice=, Herod’s niece, marriage of, =2=, 112.
    friend of Antonia, =2=, 176.

  =Bergamo=, Bernardinus of Feltre in, =4=, 296.

  =Berish.= _See_ Beer of Mizricz.

  =Berlin=, settlement of Jews in, =5=, 174.
    Chayon at, =5=, 218-20.
    subscribers to Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation in, =5=, 329.
    the Free School of, =5=, 416.
    the progressive party in, =5=, 418.
    Jewish physicians of, a class, =5=, 461.
    the University of, arbiter between the Jews and the Senate of
        Frankfort, =5=, 520.
    Jacobson transplants the Reform movement to, =5=, 562-3.
    private synagogues in, closed, =5=, 563.
    appoints no rabbi, =5=, 566.
    a German Jewish church in, =5=, 683.
    rabbinical colleges at, =5=, 700.

  =Berlin, the Jews of=, threatened with expulsion, =4=, 652.
    under Frederick I, =5=, 190.
    split into two parties, =5=, 219.
    culture of, =5=, 294-5.
    enterprises of, =5=, 396-7.
    devoted to literary pursuits, =5=, 397.
    encourage the Meassef, =5=, 399.
    influenced by Herz, =5=, 407.
    disseminators of culture, =5=, 410-11.
    the salons of, =5=, 412-13, 422-23.
    millionaires, =5=, 414.
    begin the emancipation struggle, =5=, 414-16.
    influence of, =5=, 416-17.
    apostasy among, =5=, 420, 587.
    procure an order against anti-Jewish pamphlets, =5=, 469.
    object to Napoleon’s Synhedrion, =5=, 494-5.
    antipathy to, weakened, =5=, 691.
    _See also_ Reform of Judaism, the.

  “=Berlin religion=,” the, opposition to, =5=, 333.

  =Bernal=, Abraham Nuñes and Marcus da Almeyda, Marranos, martyrs, =5=,
        92.

  =Bernaldez, Andreas=, pastor, on the Spanish Jewish exiles, =4=, 349.

  =Bernard of Clairvaux=, abbot, preaches the second crusade, =3=, 349.
    preaches the repudiation of Jewish debts, =3=, 349.
    prevents a persecution of the French Jews, =3=, 351, 356.
    appealed to, by the archbishop of Mayence, =3=, 352.
    denounces Rudolph, =3=, 353.
    influences Rudolph, =3=, 353.

  =Bernard of Sienna=, master of John of Capistrano, =4=, 257.

  =Bernard, Isaac=, Mendelssohn’s employer, =5=, 296, 303.

  =Bernardinus of Feltre=, Franciscan, preaches against the Jews in
        Italy, =4=, 296.
    failure of, =4=, 296-7.
    in Trent, =4=, 297.
    raises the blood accusation, =4=, 298.

  =Bernardo=, Dominican, incites the mob against Marranos, =4=, 487.

  =Bernays, Isaac= (1792-1849), opposes the Hamburg reforms, =5=, 574.
    characteristics of, =5=, 574-5, 577.
    chief work by, =5=, 575.
    criticises Mendelssohn and his school, =5=, 575.
    appointed to the Hamburg rabbinate, =5=, 576.
    character of the sermons by, =5=, 577.
    Heine on, =5=, 577.
    respected by the orthodox, =5=, 577-8.
    influence of, in Germany, =5=, 582.
    influence of, on Steinheim, =5=, 602.
    Ben Usiel disciple of, =5=, 627.
    forbids the use of the Reform Temple prayer book, =5=, 673.
    attacked by the Reform Temple Union, =5=, 673.
    supported by the rabbi of Altona, =5=, 674.

  =Bernays, Jacob=, founder of the Breslau seminary, =5=, 700.

  =Berne=, the Jews of, accused of well poisoning, =4=, 104-5.
    consuls of, spread the charge against the Jews, =4=, 105.

  =Bernhard=, treasurer of the Frankish empire, friendly to the
        Jews, =3=, 162.
    rebellion against, =3=, 166.

  =Bernstorff=, Danish minister, decides against Eibeschütz, =5=, 265.

  =Bernstorff=, deputy to the Congress of Vienna, favors the
        emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 519.
    on the emancipation of the Jews at Aix, =5=, 527.

  =Berr, Berr Isaac= (1744-1828), member of Malesherbes’ commission,
        =5=, 431.
    a representative French Jew, =5=, 436.
    delegate to the National Assembly, =5=, 438, 440.
    on the emancipation of the French Jews, =5=, 448-9.
    projects a French Bible translation, =5=, 449.
    son of, =5=, 460.
    deputy to the Assembly of Jewish Notables, =5=, 482.
    opposes Sabbath sessions, =5=, 486.
    candidate for the presidency, =5=, 487.
    answers the imperial commissioners, =5=, 490.

  =Berr, Cerf= (Herz Medelsheim, 1730-1793), representative of the
        Alsatian Jews, =5=, 351.
    character of, =5=, 430.
    services of, to the Alsatian Jews, =5=, 430, 431.
    services of, to the government, =5=, 430.
    draws Jews to Strasburg, =5=, 431.
    member of Malesherbes’ commission, =5=, 431.
    a representative French Jew, =5=, 436.
    accused of bribing, =5=, 447.
    culture of the family of, =5=, 476.
    brother-in-law of, =5=, 484.

  =Berr, Lipmann Cerf=, speaks in the Assembly of Jewish Notables, =5=,
        487.

  =Berr, Michael= (1780-1843), first Jewish attorney in France,
        addresses the princes of Europe, =5=, 460.
    deputy to the Assembly of Jewish Notables, =5=, 482.
    a state officer in Westphalia, =5=, 500.
    member of the Westphalian Consistory, =5=, 501.
    addresses the Congress of Aix on the emancipation of the
        Jews, =5=, 527.

  =Berthold=, bishop of Strasburg, at the council of Benfelden, =4=,
        107.

  =Bertinoro.= _See_ Obadiah di Bertinoro.

  =Bertolio=, abbé, favors the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 445.

  =Bertrand=, cardinal-legate, forbids baptized children to return to
        Judaism, =3=, 514.

  =Berytus.= _See_ Beyrout.

  =Besht.= _See_ Israel of Miedziboz.

  =Bessarabia=, Frankists in, =5=, 283.

  =Bethany=, Jesus in, =2=, 160.
    the Synhedrion removed to, =2=, 240.
    suburb of Jerusalem, =2=, 292.

  =Bethar=, fortress, =2=, 414.
    Bar-Cochba retreats to, =2=, 416-17.
    legends about, =2=, 417.
    siege of, =2=, 417-19.
    fall of, =2=, 418-19.

  =Betharamata.= _See_ Beth-Ramatha.

  =Beth-Din=, name of the Synhedrion, =2=, 325.

  =Bethel=, taken by the Ephraimites, =1=, 34.
    description of, =1=, 45.
    Samuel holds assemblies at, =1=, 78.
    a center of idolatry, =1=, 186.
    an association of prophets at, =1=, 205, 234.
    visited by Elijah, =1=, 208.
    bull-worship at, =1=, 233.
    capital of Jeroboam II, =1=, 233.
    Amos at, =1=, 235, 236.
    Cuthæans worship at, =1=, 285.
    purged of idolatry, =1=, 294.
    priests of, killed, =1=, 295.
    military station under Hadrian, =2=, 419.

  =Bethhagla=, fortress, besieged by Bacchides, =1=, 493.

  =Beth-Haran=, balm of Gilead found near, =1=, 43.

  =Beth-horon=, battle of, won by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 462.
    camp of Nicanor at, =1=, 485.
    Cestius Gallus retreats from, =2=, 266-7.

  =Beth Israel=, third Amsterdam synagogue, =4=, 680.

  =Beth Jacob=, first Amsterdam synagogue, =4=, 667, 671.
    poem in honor of, =4=, 678-9.

  =Bethlehem=, birthplace of David, =1=, 95-6.
    camp of the Philistines, =1=, 116.
    children of, murdered by Herod, =2=, 116.
    the expected birthplace of the Messiah, =2=, 161.
    statue of Adonis worshiped at, =2=, 422.
    nunnery at, =2=, 623.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 427.

  =Bethmaon=, Josephus and the men of Tiberias meet at, =2=, 279.

  =Bethome=, Pharisee fortress, =2=, 45.

  =Bethoron.= _See_ Beth-horon.

  =Bethpage=, suburb of Jerusalem, =2=, 292.

  =Beth-Ramatha= (Betharamata), palace of, destroyed, =2=, 125.
    re-named Livia, =2=, 138.

  =Bethsaida=, Jesus in, =2=, 157.

  =Bethsan= (Bethshan). _See_ Bethshean.

  =Bethshean= (Bethsan, Scythopolis), bodies of Saul and Jonathan
        dishonored at, =1=, 104.
    Greek citizens of, resist Joseph, =1=, 425.
    refuge of Antiochus IX, =2=, 10.
    recovered by the sons of John Hyrcanus, =2=, 11.
    Judæans of, massacred, =2=, 262-3.
    sparsely inhabited by Jews in the sixth century, =3=, 12.

  =Bethshearim=, temporary seat of the Synhedrion, =2=, 452.

  =Beth-Shemesh=, battle of, between the kings of Israel and Judah,
        =1=, 224-5.

  =Bethsur.= _See_ Beth-Zur.

  =Beth-Waad=, religious school in the Sopheric age, =1=, 396.

  =Beth-Zachariah=, the battle of, Judas Maccabæus defeated
        at, =1=, 479.
    Judæans slain at, by Bacchides, =1=, 483.

  =Beth-Zur= (Bethsur), Judas Maccabæus victorious at, =1=, 469-70.
    stronghold against the Idumæans, =1=, 473.
    garrison of, surrenders to Lysias, =1=, 479.
    reinforced by Bacchides, =1=, 491.
    Hellenists take refuge in, =1=, 494.
    garrisoned by the Hasmonæans, =1=, 498.
    under Simon Tharsi, =1=, 523, 524.
    Alexander Jannæus and Cleopatra make a league at, =2=, 41.

  =Beugnot=, Napoleon’s state councilor, favors Jewish emancipation,
        =5=, 480.
    helps to frame the Westphalian constitution, =5=, 500.

  =Beyrout=, the Judæans of, perish in the arena, =2=, 312.

  =Beyrout (Bairut, Berytus), the Jews of=, in the twelfth century, =3=,
        426.
    protected by European consuls, =5=, 641.
    appeal to European Jews, =5=, 651.

  =Bezalel Masserano=, requests permission for Jews to own Talmud
        copies, =4=, 658.

  =Bezetha=, suburb of Jerusalem, fortified by Agrippa, =2=, 195.
    destroyed by Cestius Gallus, =2=, 265.
    seized by the Romans, =2=, 303.

  =Béziers= (Biterræ), Jews in, in the sixth century, =3=, 35.
    synagogue of, sold, =4=, 48.

  =Béziers, the council of=, inflicts hardships upon the Albigenses,
        =3=, 581.
    renews ancient restrictions against the Jews, =3=, 581-2.
    prohibits Jews from practicing medicine among Christians, =3=,
        582, 583.

  =Béziers, the Jews of=, attacked at Eastertide, =3=, 173-4, 394.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 394-5.
    under Count Roger, =3=, 395.
    suffering of, during the Albigensian crusades, =3=, 502-3.
    excommunicate Solomon of Montpellier, =3=, 530.

  =Bible=, the. _See_ Law, the; Old Testament, the; Pentateuch, the;
        Scriptures, the; Septuagint, the; Translation; Vulgate, the;
        _and under its various books_.

  =Bible exegesis.= _See_ Exegesis.

  “=Bible for Israelites=,” by Sachs, =5=, 693.

  “=Biblical Orient=, The,” ascribed to Isaac Bernays, =5=, 575.
    on the symbolism of Judaism, =5=, 575-6.
    emphasizes the historical mission of the Jews, =5=, 576.

  =Bidkar=, follower of Jehu, =1=, 211.

  =Biester=, admirer of Mendelssohn, =5=, 372.

  =Bilbeïs, the Jews of=, in the twelfth century, =3=, 444.

  =Bing, Isaiah Berr= (1759-1805), writes a defense of the Jews, =5=,
        434.

  =Birah=, the. _See_ Acra, the; Antonia.

  =Birath=, camp of Bacchides, =1=, 486.

  =Birchath ha-Minim=, curse of the Jewish Christians, =2=, 379-80.

  =Biri=, religiousness of the inhabitants of, =2=, 480.

  =Birtha.= _See_ Bitra.

  =Biterræ.= _See_ Béziers.

  =Bither.= _See_ Bethar.

  =Bitra=, the Jews of, hostile to Julian the Apostate, =2=, 601-2.

  =Black Death=, the, ravages of, =4=, 100, 133, 135.
    Jews charged with having caused, =4=, 101-2, 188; =5=, 728.
    in southern France, =4=, 102.
    in Spain, =4=, 102-3, 112-13.
    in Switzerland, =4=, 103-5, 106-7.
    in Germany, =4=, 105, 111, 133.
    in Austria, =4=, 110.
    in Hungary, =4=, 111.
    in Poland, =4=, 111-12.
    in Belgium, =4=, 112.
    in Catalonia, =4=, 112-13.
    in Castile, =4=, 113.

  =Black Forest=, the, the Jews of, molested by Lutheran peasants,
        =4=, 542-3.

  =Black Prince=, the. _See_ Edward, prince of Wales.

  =Black Sea=, the, Jews settle on the shores of, =3=, 123.
    serfs on, =5=, 2.

  =Blanche=, mother of Louis IX, at the disputation on the Talmud, =3=,
        576.
    refuses to banish the Jews, =3=, 585.

  =Blanche de Bourbon=, wife of Pedro the Cruel, =4=, 116-17.
    party of, =4=, 117.
    meditates the banishment of the Spanish Jews, =4=, 117.
    murder of, resolved on, =4=, 121-2.
    death of, attributed to the Jews, =4=, 122.
    illegality of the marriage of, =4=, 122.

  =Blandrata=, disciple of Servetus, =4=, 647.

  =Bloch, Mattathias=, emissary of Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 133, 137.

  =Blois=, the Jews of, charged with the blood accusation, =3=, 378-81.
    fast prescribed for, =3=, 380-1.

  =Blood accusation=, the, first preferred in Blois in 1171, =3=,
        378-81.
    under Philip Augustus, =3=, 402.
    in Germany in the twelfth century, =3=, 418.
    preferred by Innocent III, =3=, 499.
    against the Baden Jews, =3=, 564.
    in Germany and France in the thirteenth century, =3=, 583-5.
    disproved by Innocent IV, =3=, 584-5, 635.
    in England under Henry III, =3=, 591.
    believed by Alfonso X, =3=, 596.
    under Rudolph of Habsburg, =3=, 635-7.
    at Mayence, =3=, 636.
    at Munich, =3=, 636-7.
    in England, =3=, 643.
    against the Jews of Austria, =4=, 223-4.
    in South Germany, =4=, 227.
    against the Jews of Palma, =4=, 246-7.
    against the Jews of Silesia, =4=, 261-2.
    forbidden by Casimir IV of Poland, =4=, 264.
    against the Jews of Trent, =4=, 298-9, 304, 307.
    in Ratisbon, =4=, 301-2, 304-5.
    not believed by Emperor Frederick III, =4=, 305.
    the Jews of Castile charged with, =4=, 343-4.
    the Jews of Neuburg charged with, =4=, 545.
    injustice of, shown by a Lutheran pastor, =4=, 545-6.
    preferred by Dr. John Eck, =4=, 546-7.
    preferred by Luther, =4=, 550.
    denounced by Stephen Bathori, =4=, 642.
    preferred by William Prynne, =5=, 45.
    Manasseh ben Israel defends the Jews from, =5=, 47-9.
    the Jews of Metz charged with, =5=, 174-5.
    Richard Simon disproves, =5=, 175-6.
    Moses Germanus disproves, =5=, 177.
    denounced by John Wülfer, =5=, 185.
    denounced by Wagenseil, =5=, 187.
    endorsed by Eisenmenger, =5=, 187, 188.
    preferred by the Frankists, =5=, 279.
    Jews acquitted of, by Benedict XIV, =5=, 282.
    Jews acquitted of, by Clement XIII, =5=, 285.
    Believed by the papal nuncio Serra, =5=, 286.
    not refuted at Lemberg, =5=, 287.
    threatened to be brought in Damascus, =5=, 633.
    the Damascus Jews charged with, =5=, 636.
    alleged to be proved from the Talmud, =5=, 639.
    brought against the Jews of Rhodes, =5=, 640-1.
    a Jülich Jew charged with, =5=, 642.
    groundlessness of, asserted by apostates, =5=, 650.
    groundlessness of, asserted by the London rabbis, =5=, 654-5.
    refuted by Mehmet Ali, =5=, 661.
    firman securing the Turkish Jews against, =5=, 662.
    refuted by Zunz, =5=, 669.
    _See also_ Child-murder; Host-desecration.

  =Boabdil.= _See_ Muley Abu-Abdallah.

  =Bodenlaube=, castle, Süsskind of Trimberg at, =3=, 420.

  =Bodo=, bishop, accepts Judaism, =3=, 168-9.
    hatred of, towards Christians, =3=, 169.

  =Boëthius=, a notability of the sixth century, =3=, 31.

  =Boëthus=, a family of high priests, =2=, 108, 237.

  =Boëthusans=, a Sadducee sect, =2=, 108.

  =Bohemia=, Jews in, in the ninth century, =3=, 144.
    a Talmud center, =3=, 420-1.
    adopts Frederick the Valiant’s Jewish statute, =3=, 569.
    Jews emigrate to, from Hungary, =4=, 111.
    Austrian exiles settle in, =4=, 224.
    Polish Jewish fugitives in, =5=, 16.
    Jewish exiles from Vienna settle in, =5=, 173.
    the Sabbatian movement in, =5=, 208, 228.
    Jews excluded from parts of, =5=, 523.
    rabbis of, oppose the Brunswick conference, =5=, 682.

  =Bohemia, the Jews of=, carry on the slave trade, =3=, 305.
    suffer during the first crusade, =3=, 305.
    determine to emigrate, =3=, 307.
    plundered, =3=, 308.
    suffer during the second crusade, =3=, 356.
    address Solomon ben Adret on religious questions, =3=, 620.
    suffer during the Hartmann von Deggenburg persecution, =4=, 98.
    charged with host-desecration, =4=, 164-6.
    threatened with expulsion, =4=, 417.
    take refuge in Poland, =4=, 420, 631-2.
    charged with incendiarism, =4=, 544.
    exiled, =4=, 544.
    recalled, =4=, 545.
    submit religious questions to the Polish Talmudists, =4=, 639.
    heavily taxed, =4=, 652, 702; =5=, 508.
    rights of, extended, =4=, 707.
    suspected of treason, =5=, 252.
    banished, =5=, 252.
    modify their synagogue service, =5=, 582.

  =Böhme, Jacob=, mystic, disciple of, =5=, 24.

  =Boleslav Pius=, confirms Frederick the Valiant’s Jewish statute, =4=,
        111, 263.

  =Bologgin.= _See_ Balkin.

  =Bologna=, synod at, =4=, 218.
    Jewish printing house in, =4=, 289.
    Marranos well treated at, =4=, 525.

  =Bologna, the Jews of=, expelled, =3=, 421.
    persecuted by Pius V, =4=, 590-1.
    flee to Ferrara, =4=, 591.

  =Bomberg, Daniel=, publishes the Babylonian Talmud, =4=, 468.
    a rabbinical Bible, =4=, 476.

  =Bonafides=, character in “Nathan the Wise,” =5=, 325.

  =Bonafoux Vidal=, opposes the study of science, =4=, 28.

  =Bonafoux, Daniel Israel=, Sabbatian, =5=, 207.
    convert to Islam, =5=, 208.

  =Bonald, Louis Gabriel Ambroise=, French reactionary leader, and the
        emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 477-9.
    maligns the Jews, =5=, 478, 485.
    in league with Molé, =5=, 479.

  =Bonastruc de Porta.= _See_ Moses ben Nachman.

  =Bonastruc Desmaëstre=, at the Tortosa disputation, =4=, 208.

  =Bonastruc, Isaac.= _See_ Isaac Bonastruc.

  =Bonet.= _See_ David Bonet Buen-Giorno.

  =Bonet=, a Jew of Montpellier, =3=, 395.

  =Bonet de Lates=, physician, to Pope Alexander VI, =4=, 407-8.
    to Leo X, =4=, 408.
    letter to, from Reuchlin, =4=, 453, 454.
    espouses Reuchlin’s cause, =4=, 454.

  =Bonfed.= _See_ Solomon ben Reuben Bonfed.

  =Bonifaccio, Balthasar=, accuser of Sarah Sullam, =5=, 70.

  =Boniface VIII=, pope, at odds with Philip IV of France, =4=, 44.

  =Boniface IX=, pope, forbids the forcible baptism of Jews, =4=, 173.

  =Bonnet, Caspar=, work of, translated by Lavater, =5=, 309.
    works of, criticised by Mendelssohn, =5=, 312-13, 314-15.
    disclaims connection with Lavater, =5=, 313-14.

  =Bonosus=, governor of the East, subdues the Jews of Antioch, =3=,
        18.

  “=Book of Creation=, The,” commentary on, =3=, 197.

  “=Book of Riches=, The,” work by Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 261.

  “=Book of the Pious=, The,” by Judah Sir Leon ben Isaac, =3=, 408.

  =Book of the Wars of God=, early Hebrew poetry, =1=, 29.

  “=Book of Wisdom=, The,” against paganism, =2=, 205-8.

  =Boppard=, the blood accusation in, =3=, 418, 637, 639.

  =Boraïta=, an apocryphal Mishna, =2=, 470.

  =Boraïtas=, explained by Abba-Areka, =2=, 515.
    by Rabba bar Nachmani, =2=, 578.

  =Bordeaux=, the Marranos in, =5=, 341.
    German Jews in, =5=, 342.
    struggle in, between German and Portuguese Jews, =5=, 342-3.
    foreign Jews ejected from, =5=, 343-4.

  =Bordeaux, the Jews of=, maltreated by crusaders, =3=, 570.
    perish during the Pastoureaux massacres, =4=, 56.
    addressed in behalf of the Moravian and Bohemian Jews, =5=, 253.
    in Malesherbes’ commission, =5=, 432.
    number of, =5=, 435.
    prosperity of, =5=, 436.
    join the National Guard, =5=, 438.
    on the Jewish question, =5=, 442.
    emancipated, =5=, 442-3.
    not affected by Napoleon’s restrictive laws, =5=, 499.

  =Borgia=, cardinal. _See_ Alexander VI, pope.

  =Börne, Ludwig= (1786-1837), employed in the Frankfort ducal police,
        =5=, 505, 541.
    defends the German Jews, =5=, 533.
    as a Jew, =5=, 536.
    as a German, =5=, 536-7.
    apostle of liberty, =5=, 537, 538-9.
    resemblance of, to Mendelssohn, =5=, 538.
    despises the Jews of his time, =5=, 538, 540.
    sobriety of, =5=, 538.
    life of, in Frankfort, =5=, 539.
    style of, =5=, 539.
    feeling of, for Jews, =5=, 539-40.
    insults offered to, as a Jew, =5=, 540-1.
    defends the Jews, =5=, 541-2.
    publishes a journal, =5=, 542.
    becomes a Christian, =5=, 542.
    wit of, =5=, 542.
    on the “hep, hep!” persecutions, =5=, 542-3.
    answers Dr. Holst, =5=, 543-4.
    compared with Heine, =5=, 544.
    early home-life of, =5=, 545.
    debt of the Jews to, =5=, 556.
    debt of Germany to, =5=, 556.
    compared with Erter, =5=, 615.

  =Boso=, king of Burgundy, and the Jews, =3=, 175.

  =Bosporus=, the, Jews settle on, =3=, 123.
    a Karaite community on, =3=, 182.

  =Bosporus= (Kertch), capital of the Crimea, =3=, 222.

  =Bossuet=, bishop, applauds Richard Simon’s exegesis, =5=, 179.

  =Bostanaï=, Exilarch, restores the office to power, =3=, 10.
    recognized as chief of the Jews, =3=, 89.
    marries a daughter of Chosru, =3=, 89.
    vassal of the Mahometans, =3=, 89.
    permitted to wear a signet ring, =3=, 89-90.
    dissensions among the sons of, =3=, 91.
    descendants of, and the college presidents, =3=, 91.
    descendants of, inherit the Exilarchate, =3=, 94.
    Sherira a descendant of, =3=, 232.
    line of, described in Sherira’s “Letter,” =3=, 233.

  =Bostra=, birthplace of Simon ben Lakish, =2=, 495.

  =Botarel, Moses.= _See_ Moses Botarel.

  =Bourbon dynasty=, the, restored to the French throne, =5=, 512, 596.

  =Bourges=, the archbishop of, anti-Jewish sentiments of, =3=, 171.

  “=Bow and Buckler=,” polemic by Simon ben Zemach Duran, =4=, 238.

  =Brabant=, soldiers of, enlisted against the Hussites, =4=, 225.

  =Brahe, Tycho=, astronomer, and David Gans, =4=, 638.

  =Brancas=, duke of, given the Jews of Metz, =5=, 348, 446.

  =Brandenburg=, the Mark of, Jews settle in, =5=, 173-4.

  =Brandenburg, the Mark of, the Jews of=, accused of host-desecration,
        =4=, 439-40.
    charged with child murder, =4=, 440.
    burnt, =4=, 440.
    threatened with expulsion, =4=, 652.

  =Bray=, the Jews of, suffer martyrdom, =3=, 404.

  =Brazil=, Paul de Pina in, =4=, 670.
    the Jewish community in, =4=, 693-4.

  =Breidenbach, Wolff= (1751-1829), interested in the abolition of the
        poll-tax, =5=, 467, 468, 472.

  =Bremen=, Jews admitted into, =5=, 507.

  =Bremen, the Jews of=, threatened with banishment, =5=, 512.
    banished, =5=, 520.

  =Brendel=, professor, attacked for defending the Jews, =5=, 528.

  =Brentano=, representative of the romantic school, =5=, 515.

  =Breslau=, the clergy of, upbraided by John of Capistrano, =4=,
        260-1.
    Chayon at, =5=, 218.
    anti-Jewish pamphlets published in, =5=, 470.
    rabbi of, opposes the Reform movement, =5=, 571.
    the Hamburg reforms adopted in, =5=, 573.
    a German-Jewish church in, =5=, 682.
    a Jewish seminary at, =5=, 699, 700.

  =Breslau, the Jews of=, during the Black Death persecutions,
        =4=, 109-10.
    engaged in money-lending, =4=, 260.
    charged with host-desecration, =4=, 261.
    tortured, =4=, 261.
    burnt or banished, =4=, 262-3.
    join the “Society of Friends,” =5=, 418.
    apostasy among, =5=, 420.

  =Bresselau, Mendel J.=, Hebrew style of, =5=, 398.
    establishes a society and a journal, =5=, 398, 399.
    compiles a liturgy, =5=, 564.
    scourges the orthodox party, =5=, 572.
    secretary of the Reform Temple Union, =5=, 672.

  =Bretagne=, the Jews of, under Henry II, =3=, 409.

  “=Bridle= for the Jews, The,” by Raymund Martin, =3=, 622.

  =Brieli, Jehuda Leon= (1643-1722), rabbi of Mantua, innovations
        of, =5=, 200.
    opponent of the Kabbala, =5=, 200.
    opposes Chayon, =5=, 225.

  =Bristol=, a Jew of, tortured by King John, =3=, 505.

  =Britain=, rebels against Hadrian, =2=, 399.

  =Brody=, the Chassidim in, =5=, 388.
    ban against the Chassidim published in, =5=, 392.
    Chassidistic writings burned in, =5=, 393.
    beginnings of culture among the Jews of, =5=, 612.

  =Broglie, Duc de=, opposes the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 447.

  =Bromet, Herz=, member of the Felix Libertate, =5=, 453.
    zealous for the emancipation of the Dutch Jews, =5=, 454.
    deputy to the National Assembly, =5=, 458.

  =Broussa=, the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 405.
    the Jews of, and the Pesaro trade, =4=, 579.

  =Brühl=, Saxon minister. Jewish agent of, =5=, 263.
    and Eibeschütz’s supporters, =5=, 263.
    indifferent about Polish affairs, =5=, 282.

  =Bruna, Israel.= _See_ Israel Bruna.

  =Brunetta=, a Jewess of Trent, on friendly terms with Christians, =4=,
        297.
    charged with the blood accusation, =4=, 298.

  =Brunhilde=, of Austrasia, permits Jews to own slaves, =3=, 34.

  =Brünn=, the Jews of, banished, =4=, 263.
    Israel Bruna exiled from, =4=, 302.
    Jews under restrictions in, =5=, 523.

  =Brunswick=, rabbinical conference at, =5=, 677-8, 681-2.

  =Brunswick, the duke of=, honors Mendelssohn, =5=, 308.
    commends Mendelssohn’s reply to Lavater, =5=, 313.
    conversation of, with Mendelssohn, on Christian dogmas, =5=, 315.

  =Brunswick, the Jews of=, expelled, =4=, 652.
    deprived of civil rights, =5=, 512.

  =Brunswick-Lüneburg= abolishes the poll-tax, =5=, 467.

  =Bruria= (Valeria), wife of Rabbi Meïr, =2=, 436.

  =Brussels, the Jews of=, during the Black Death persecutions, =4=,
        112.
    expelled, =4=, 662.

  =Brutus=, Roman leader, suicide of, =2=, 81.

  =Buchholz=, opposes Jewish emancipation, =5=, 468, 472.

  =Buda=, the council of, anti-Jewish decrees of, =3=, 614-15.

  =Buda-Pesth=, rabbinical college at, =5=, 700.
    _See also_ Pesth.

  =Budnians=, anti-Trinitarian sect, =4=, 647.

  =Budny, Simon=, translates the Bible into Polish, =4=, 647.

  =Buen-Giorno.= _See_ David Bonet Buen-Giorno.

  =Buffon=, praises Pereira’s sign language, =5=, 343.

  =Bugia= (Buja), refuge for Spanish Jews, =4=, 197.
    suffering of Spanish exiles in, =4=, 361.

  =Bulan=, king of the Chazars, convert to Judaism, =3=, 139-40, 327.

  =Bulgarians=, the, friendly to the Jews, =3=, 123.
    vassals to the Chazars, =3=, 138.

  =Bulls, papal=, by Benedict XIII, =4=, 215-16.
    Boniface IX, =4=, 173.
    Clement IV, =3=, 602.
    Clement VI, =4=, 103, 105, 173.
    Clement VII, =4=, 507, 515, 516.
    Clement VIII, =4=, 671.
    Eugenius III, =3=, 349-51.
    Eugenius IV, =4=, 229, 250, 251.
    Gregory IX, =3=, 564.
    Gregory X, =3=, 635.
    Innocent III, =3=, 497.
    Innocent IV, =3=, 584-5; =4=, 165.
    Julius III, =4=, 565.
    Martin V, =4=, 219-20, 226.
    Nicholas V, =4=, 253, 254, 256, 287.
    Paul III, =4=, 516, 522, 526.
    Paul IV, =4=, 566.
    Pius IV, =4=, 588, 589.
    Pius V, =4=, 591.
    Sixtus IV, =4=, 311, 319, 321, 322.
    Sixtus V, =4=, 655-6, 658.
    against the immigration of Jews in Palestine, =4=, 274.

  =Buol Schauenstein=, Count von, protects the Frankfort Jews, =5=, 530.

  =Burgos=, Kabbala taught in, =4=, 6.
    disputation at, =4=, 140.
    coronation of Juan I at, =4=, 156.

  =Burgos, the cortes of=, make the Jews responsible for the civil war,
        =4=, 124-5.
    oppose the employment of Jews, =4=, 229.

  =Burgos, the Jews of=, under Sancho, =3=, 617.
    taxed heavily, =4=, 123, 124.
    persecuted, =4=, 170.
    converted, =4=, 205.

  =Burgundians, the, the empire of, the Jews of=, not considered a
        distinct race, =3=, 35.
    occupations of, =3=, 35-6.
    discriminated against, =3=, 37.

  =Burgundy=, the Jews of, presented to the Church, =3=, 175.

  =Burnt-offerings=, Samuel on the importance of, =1=, 74.
    Jochanan ben Zakkai on, =2=, 324, 325.

  =Burrus=, Nero’s secretary, bribed to oppose the Judæans, =2=, 247.

  =Bury St. Edmunds=, the Jews of, butchered, =3=, 415.

  =Busche, Hermann von=, partisan of Reuchlin, =4=, 456.

  =Buxtorf, John=, senior (1564-1639), renders rabbinical studies
        accessible to Christians, =5=, 21.

  =Buxtorfs=, the, introduce rabbinical literature to Christians, =5=,
        179.

  =Byk, Jacob Solomon=, Hebrew style of, =5=, 617.

  =Byron=, quoted, =4=, 127.

  =Byzantine emperors=, the, Jews under, =5=, 725-6.

  =Byzantine empire=, the, attacked by the Agadists, =3=, 16.
    in fear of the Chazars, =3=, 138.
    fall of, =4=, 267.
    toleration of, =4=, 285.

  =Byzantine empire, the, the Jews of=, under Arcadius, =2=, 615-16.
    forbidden to build synagogues, =2=, 617.
    treated with hostility, =3=, 10.
    forced into Christianity, =3=, 122-3.
    emigrate, =3=, 123-4.
    in the ninth century, =3=, 175-6.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 424-8.
    not admitted to military offices, =3=, 425.
    brutal treatment of, =3=, 425.
    poets among, =3=, 426.


  =C=

  =Cabades.= _See_ Kobad.

  =Caballeria, Alfonso de=, Marrano, tries to suppress the Aragon
        Inquisition, =4=, 329.

  =Caballo, Jules=, founder of the “Alliance Israélite Universelle,”
        =5=, 701.

  =Cabiri=, the seven planets worshiped by the Canaanites, =1=, 54.

  =Cabrera=, governor of the castle of Segovia, =4=, 283.

  =Cabul=, fortress, =2=, 414.
    fall of, =2=, 416.
    religiousness of the inhabitants of, =2=, 480.

  =Caceres, Simon de=, opens a Jewish burial-ground in London, =5=, 49.

  =Cacina=, Roman consul, and Titus, =2=, 317.

  =Cadiz=, Marranos flee to, =4=, 313.
    victims of the Inquisition in the archbishopric of, =4=, 317.
    taken by the English, =4=, 665.

  =Cæsar, Julius=, in the first triumvirate, =2=, 73.
    frees Aristobulus II, =2=, 75.
    favors Antipater, =2=, 75-6.
    kindly disposed to the Judæans, =2=, 76, 179.
    hated by the Judæans of Palestine, =2=, 77.
    murder of, =2=, 79.
    remits the tax during the Sabbatic year, =2=, 469.

  =Cæsar, Sextus=, governor of Syria, honors Herod, =2=, 78.
    makes Hyrcanus II responsible for the life of Herod, =2=, 78.

  =Cæsarea= (Mazaca). _See_ Mazaca.

  =Cæsarea= (Straton), beautified by Herod, =2=, 106.
    trade and shipping of, =2=, 118.
    seat of the procurator, =2=, 129.
    residence of Herod (Philip), =2=, 173.
    favored by Agrippa I, =2=, 194.
    destroyed by an earthquake, =2=, 408-9.
    made an academic city, =2=, 543.
    anti-Christian riot in, =3=, 17.
    played into the hands of the Arabs, =3=, 87.

  =Cæsarea (Straton), the Greek inhabitants of=, rejoice over
        Agrippa I’s death, =2=, 196.
    hate the Judæans, =2=, 246-7.
    quarrel with the Judæans, =2=, 252-3.

  =Cæsarea (Straton), the Jews of=, Greek culture of, =2=, 538.
    devoted to circus sports, =2=, 626.

  =Cæsarea (Straton), the Judæans of=, deprived of civil rights, =2=,
        247.
    exterminated, =2=, 262.
    perish in the arena, =2=, 312.

  =Cæsarea Philippi=, built by the tetrarch Philip, =2=, 138.
    capital of Philip’s tetrarchy, =2=, 158.
    Judæans of, perish in the arena, =2=, 312.

  =Cæsars=, the, sacrifices offered for, =2=, 103.

  =Cafri=, native town of Rabba bar Chana, =2=, 454.

  =Cain=, the Choic type of the Gnostics, =2=, 377.

  =Cainites=, a Gnostic sect, =2=, 375.

  =Cairo= (Fostat), a Karaite community in, =3=, 182.
    Talmud study encouraged in, =3=, 208, 210.
    Jehuda Halevi at, =3=, 340-1.
    two synagogues of, =3=, 444.
    Karaites of, =3=, 444; =4=, 71.
    Maimonides at, =3=, 457-92.
    hospital at, =3=, 495.
    Spanish spoken at, =4=, 388.
    Spanish exiles in, =4=, 392-96.
    Purim of, =4=, 396.
    Joseph Delmedigo at, =5=, 76.

  =Cairo, the Jews of=, in the twelfth century, =3=, 444.
    maltreated, =4=, 396.
    establish schools, =5=, 664.
    reconciled with the Karaites, =5=, 664.

  =Calabrese.= _See_ Chayim Vital Calabrese.

  =Calabria=, the Jews of, subject to curial duties, =2=, 616.
    invaded by the Mahometans, =3=, 212.

  =Calahorra=, Abraham Ibn-Ezra dies at, =3=, 374.

  =Calatayud=, the Marranos of, conspire against Pedro Arbues, =4=, 330.

  =Calatayud, the Jews of=, excommunicate anti-Maimunists, =3=, 537.
    converted, =4=, 214.

  =Calatrava=, fortress, taken by Jehuda Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 361.

  =Calderon=, dramatist, =5=, 112.

  =Calderon, the Jewish=, =5=, 110-11.

  =Calendar=, the, arranged by the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 326.
    fixed by astronomical calculations, =2=, 336.
    fixed by the Patriarchs, =2=, 362-3.
    corrected by Akiba’s disciples, =2=, 433.
    arranged by Chananya, =2=, 443.
    drawn up by Mar-Samuel, =2=, 521-2, 574.
    the computation of, forbidden, =2=, 571.
    fixed adopted by Hillel II, =2=, 572-4.
    method of calculating, =2=, 573.
    Jewish, adopted by the Arabs, =3=, 59-60.
    fixed, abolished by Anan ben David, =3=, 131.
    fixed, rejected by the Tiflisites, =3=, 158.
    key to, by Nachshon ben Zadok, =3=, 179.
    Karaite, attacked by Saadiah, =3=, 190-1.
    rules of, collected by Saadiah, =3=, 196.
    work on, by Dunash ben Tamim, =3=, 211, 217.
    Isaac Ibn-Albalia on, =3=, 283.
    accuracy of, demonstrated, =3=, 313.
    work on, by Maimonides, =3=, 451.
    used by the Karaites, =4=, 270.
    _See also_ Ibbur.

  =Caligula=, emperor, distinguishes Agrippa I, =2=, 174-5, 176.
    divine honor to the images of, =2=, 183-4.
    hates the Judæans, =2=, 187.
    statues of, in the Temple, =2=, 188-9.
    assassinated, =2=, 189.
    Judaism defended before, =5=, 654.

  =Caliphate of the East=, the. _See_ Abbasside Caliphate, the.

  =Calixtus=, pope, convenes a Church Council in France, =3=,
        376; =4=, 275.

  =Callimandrus=, Egyptian general against the Judæans, =2=, 11.

  =Calliopas=, charioteer, causes a riot, =3=, 11.

  “=Calumniator, The=,” sobriquet of Joshua Lorqui, =4=, 217.

  =Calvin=, and Michael Scotus, =4=, 541.

  =Cambridge=, the Jews of, expelled, =3=, 641.

  =Cambyses=, of Persia, death of, =1=, 358.

  =Camith=, family of high priests, =2=, 237.

  =Campanton.= _See_ Isaac ben Jacob Campanton.

  =Campeggio=, cardinal, on the commission on the Portuguese
        Inquisition, =4=, 514.

  =Campo Formio=, peace of, and the poll tax of French Jews in
        Germany, =5=, 464.

  =Campo-Mayor=, refuge for Spanish Marranos, =4=, 498.

  “=Can the Jews= remain in their present condition without harm to the
        state?” anti-Jewish pamphlet, =5=, 469-70.

  =Canaan=, entry of Israelites into, =1=, 1, 32.
    description of the coast of, =1=, 2-3.
    claimed by the Israelites, =1=, 4-5.
    rapid conquest of, =1=, 39-40.
    becomes the Holy Land, =1=, 41.
    not entirely conquered, =1=, 50-1.
    _See_ Palestine.

  =Canaanites=, the, description of, =1=, 2-4.
    subdivisions of, =1=, 3.
    trade of, =1=, 3.
    cities of, =1=, 3.
    at war with Asher and Naphtali, =1=, 37.
    dwell with the tribe of Judah, =1=, 39.
    in dread of the Israelites, =1=, 40.
    heathenism of, =1=, 51.
    idol worship of, =1=, 54.
    relations of, to the Israelites, =1=, 56-8.
    suffer under David, =1=, 131.
    help to build the Temple, =1=, 163.
    _See_ Gibeonites; Jebusites; Philistines, etc.

  =Candia.= _See_ Crete.

  =Canea=, the Jews of, importance of, =4=, 406.

  =Canon=, the, of the Holy Writings, completed, =2=, 344.
    _See_ Scriptures, the.

  =Cansino family=, the, dragomans in Oran, =5=, 169.

  =Cantheras=, family of high priests, =2=, 237.

  =Caorsini= (Ultramontanes), usury practiced by, =3=, 510.

  =Capernaum= (Kephar Nahum), Jesus successful in, =2=, 153-7.
    the first church at, =2=, 565.

  =Capets=, the first, the Jews oppressed under, =3=, 241-2.

  =Caphar-Salama=, the battle of, Judas Maccabæus victorious
        at, =1=, 484.

  =Caphtor=, the original home of the Philistines, =1=, 54.

  =Capistrano.= _See_ John of Capistrano.

  =Capnion.= _See_ Reuchlin, John.

  =Capo d’Istrias=, Russian plenipotentiary, and the emancipation of
        the Jews, =5=, 527.

  =Cappadocia=, study of the Law in, =2=, 358.
    the Jews of, under Shabur I, =2=, 520, 526.

  “=Captives of Hope=, The,” drama by Joseph Penso, =5=, 113.

  =Captivity=, the, the return from, =1=, 351-6.
    _See_ Babylonia, the Judæans of.

  =Captivity, the, Princes of.= _See_ Exilarchate, the; Exilarchs, the.

  =Capua=, the Jews of in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.
    Hillel of Verona in, =3=, 629.

  =Carabas=, impersonates Agrippa I, =2=, 182.

  =Caracalla=, emperor, vices of, =2=, 468.
    relation of, to the Jews, =2=, 468-9.
    exacts the tax during the Sabbatic year, =2=, 469.

  =Caraffa, Pietro.= _See_ Paul IV, pope.

  =Çarça, Samuel.= _See_ Samuel Çarça.

  =Carcassonne=, Jews in, in the sixth century, =3=, 35.

  =Cardoso, Abraham Michael= (1630-1706), Marrano, resumes Judaism, =5=,
        163.
    occupations and morality of, =5=, 164.
    figures as a Sabbatian prophet, =5=, 164-5.
    proclaims himself Sabbataï’s successor, =5=, 207.
    writings of, =5=, 208, 248.
    writings of, burned, =5=, 220.

  =Cardoso, (Isaac) Fernando= (1615-1680), Marrano physician, resumes
        Judaism, =5=, 163.
    occupations and life of, =5=, 164.
    anti-Sabbatian, =5=, 164, 165.
    Sachs compared with, =5=, 688.

  =Cardozo, Elihu Aboab=, erects a synagogue at Hamburg, =4=, 689.

  =Carenton=, the Jews of, attacked by crusaders, =3=, 355.

  =Carians=, the, mercenary troops employed by Athaliah, =1=, 214.
    in sympathy with Joash, =1=, 215-6.

  =Carinthia=, the Jews of, expelled, =4=, 427.

  =Carlovingians=, the last, the Jews oppressed under, =3=, 241-2.

  =Carlsruhe=, the Jews of, persecuted, =5=, 530.
    the Hamburg reforms adopted in, =5=, 573.

  =Carmel, Mount=, description of, =1=, 44.
    considered holy by the Canaanites, =1=, 51.
    Elijah lives on, =1=, 203.
    Elisha lives on, =1=, 208.
    north-western limit of Judæa under Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 46.

  =Carmelite district=, the, of Paris, commends the Jews, =5=, 444.

  =Carmona=, the Marranos of, resist the Inquisition, =4=, 313.
    conspirators of, burnt, =4=, 317.

  =Carpentras=, rabbi of, at the first rabbinical synod, =3=, 377.

  =Carpentras, the Jews of=, not banished by Charles VI, =4=, 177.
    wealth of, =4=, 592.
    number of, =5=, 436.
    honor Crémieux and Montefiore, =5=, 658.

  =Carrion=, the Jews of, under Sancho, =3=, 617.
    persecuted, =4=, 170.
    Carthage, captured by Genseric, =2=, 611.
    the Temple vessels removed from, =3=, 26.

  =Carvajal, Fernandez= (Isaac), a Jew secretly living in London, =5=,
        38.
    opens a Jewish burial ground, =5=, 49.

  =Casalmaggiore=, the Jews of, number of, =4=, 653.

  =Casimir III=, the Great, of Poland, extends the privileges of the
        Jews, =4=, 111, 263.
    protects the Jews, =4=, 111.
    Jewish mistress of, =4=, 112.

  =Casimir IV=, of Poland, extends the privileges of the Jews, =4=,
        263-5, 419.
    under Capistrano’s influence, =4=, 265-6.
    revokes the privileges of the Jews, =4=, 266.
    sons of, =4=, 419, 631.
    statute of, confirmed by Sigismund III, =4=, 643.

  =Caspe=, the Jews of, converted, =4=, 214.

  =Caspian Sea=, the, Jews settle on the coast of, =3=, 123.
    island in, refuge of the Chazars, =3=, 222.

  =Cassander=, ally of Ptolemy I, at the battle of Ipsus, =1=, 417.

  =Cassel=, meeting place of the Westphalian consistory, =5=, 501.

  =Cassiodorus=, minister of Theodoric, =3=, 30.
    homiletic exposition of the Psalms by, =3=, 31.
    on the Jews, =3=, 31.

  =Cassius, Avidius=, rebel, death of, =2=, 463.

  =Cassius Longinus, Caius=, legate of Crassus, retreats before the
        Parthians, =2=, 74.
    defeats the Judæan army, =2=, 74.
    governor of Syria, forces contributions from Judæa, =2=, 80.
    suicide of, =2=, 81.

  =Cassius Longinus, Caius=, governor of Syria, occupies Jerusalem, =2=,
        197.

  =Castel-Branco, João Rodrigo de.= _See_ Amatus Lusitanus.

  =Castellane, de=, deputy to the National Assembly, =5=, 439.

  =Castel-Narbonnais=, refuge of the Jews from the Pastoureaux, =4=,
        56.

  =Castile=, lacks Talmud schools in the twelfth century, =3=, 322.
    Jews in, in the twelfth century, =3=, 384.
    war of, with Morocco, =4=, 84.
    civil war in, =4=, 118-19, 120-2, 123-6.
    union of, with Portugal, =4=, 161.
    quarrel about the rabbinate of, =4=, 161-2.
    forced converts in, relapse into Judaism, =4=, 180.
    Marranos of, =4=, 309. _See under_ Marranos.
    exiles from, form a congregation in Constantinople, =4=, 402.
    _See also under_ Spain.

  =Castile, the Jews of=, under Alfonso VI, =3=, 292-3.
    under Alfonso Raimundez, =3=, 361, 363.
    oppose the Almohades, =3=, 387.
    under Alfonso VIII, =3=, 499.
    first persecution of, =3=, 507.
    in the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 530, 536, 544.
    under Alfonso X, =3=, 592-6.
    under Ferdinand III, =3=, 592.
    employed at court, =3=, 593-4.
    degraded by Alfonso X, =3=, 594-6.
    fined, =3=, 616.
    under Sancho, =3=, 616-17.
    taxed, =3=, 617; =4=, 125-6.
    send deputies to Huete, =3=, 617.
    number of, =3=, 617.
    opponents of science, =4=, 38.
    in the fourteenth century, =4=, 51-3.
    leaders of the Spanish-Jewish community, =4=, 75.
    under Alfonso X, =4=, 75-6.
    guilty of usury, =4=, 80.
    Gonzalo Martinez conspires against, =4=, 84-5.
    neglect Jewish science, =4=, 86-7, 91.
    not held responsible for the Black Death, =4=, 113.
    under Pedro the Cruel, =4=, 113-26.
    aid Maria de Padilla, =4=, 117.
    in the civil war, =4=, 118-19, 120-2, 123-6.
    Pedro’s opponents hostile to, =4=, 120-1.
    held responsible for the civil war, =4=, 124-5, 167.
    reduced to beggary by the civil war, =4=, 137.
    under Henry II, =4=, 137-8.
    hostility to, =4=, 138.
    degraded by outward signs, =4=, 139.
    forced into religious debates, =4=, 140-2.
    possess penal jurisdiction, =4=, 155.
    deprived of criminal jurisdiction, =4=, 157.
    accusations against, =4=, 157.
    under Henry III, =4=, 193.
    under Juan II, =4=, 194, 203-4, 205-6, 228-9.
    assaulted, =4=, 204-5.
    bull against, =4=, 250-1.
    appeal to Juan II, =4=, 251.
    insecurity of, under Juan II, =4=, 252-3.
    under Henry IV, =4=, 274-6.
    low position of, in Henry IV’s statute book, =4=, 278.
    indispensable as financiers, =4=, 279-80.
    warned of approaching danger, =4=, 336.
    protected by Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 343-4.
    help the Marranos, =4=, 344.
    proclamation expelling, =4=, 347-8.
    _See also under_ Spain.

  =Castile, New=, the Jews of, taxed, =3=, 617.

  =Castro=, an English Jew, and the Damascus affair, =5=, 653.

  =Castro, de=, a noble Castilian family, =3=, 363.

  =Castro, Abraham de=, Selim I’s master of the mint, benevolence
        of, =4=, 393.
    informs against the Egyptian viceroy, =4=, 395.

  =Castro, Balthasar (Isaac) Orobio de= (1620-1687), Marrano, professor
        of metaphysics at Salamanca, tortured, =5=, 116.
    professor of medicine at Toulouse, =5=, 117.
    associates with Spinoza, =5=, 117.
    refutes Spinoza’s views, =5=, 167.
    prominence of, =5=, 199-200.

  =Castro, Bendito (Baruch Nehemiah) de=, physician, Sabbatian, =5=,
        140, 150.

  =Castro, Moses de=, antagonist of Jacob Berab, =4=, 534-5.

  =Castro, Rodrigo de= (1560-1627), Marrano physician, ability of,
        =4=, 686-7.
    owns landed property, =4=, 688.

  =Castro-Tartas, Isaac de=, Marrano, martyrdom of, =5=, 31-2.

  =Casuistry=, in the Mishna, =2=, 475-6.

  =Catalina of Lancaster=, regent for Juan II of Castile, =4=, 193.
    issues edicts concerning the Jews, =4=, 203-4, 205-6, 275.
    death of, =4=, 217, 228.

  =Catalonia=, part of Aragon, =3=, 387.

  =Catalonia, the Jews of=, in the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 530.
    massacred, =4=, 102-3.
    provide against the Black Death persecutions, =4=, 112-13.
    possess penal jurisdiction, =4=, 155.
    persecuted in 1391, =4=, 172.
    converted, =4=, 214.
    loyal to their faith, =4=, 215.
    possessions of, sequestrated, =4=, 349.

  =Catechumens=, the house of, supported by the Jews, =4=, 566.

  =Catherine=, empress of Russia, member of the Berlin Academy, =5=,
        308.
    at war with Poland, =5=, 388.

  =Catherine=, of Portugal, hostile to the Marranos, =4=, 489.

  =Catherine de Medici=, queen mother in France, and Joseph
        Nassi, =4=, 598.
    proposes her son for the Polish throne, =4=, 604.

  =Catholic Church=, the, rise of, =2=, 500.

  =Catholic Church, the German=, established, =5=, 682.

  =Catholic reaction=, the, =4=, 650-1.
    the Jews suffer under, =4=, 652-3.

  =Catholicism=, more hostile to the Jews than Arianism, =3=, 26.
    overthrown in England, =4=, 541.
    and the romantic movement, =5=, 516.
    _See_ Christianity.

  =Catholics=, the, toleration of, under Valentinian I, =2=, 603.
    hate Theodoric, =3=, 29, 30.
    antagonized by the Arian Visigoths, =3=, 44-5.
    in the Damascus affair, =5=, 650-1, 662.
    _See_ Christians, the.

  =Catholics, the Greek=, molest the Turkish Jews, =4=, 552-3.

  =Cathunho, Isaac=, Marrano in Pernambuco, =4=, 693.

  =Catullus=, Roman governor of Cyrene, executes Zealots, =2=, 318.

  =Caucasus=, the, Jews settle in, =3=, 123.
    under the Exilarch’s jurisdiction, =3=, 429.

  =Cavilhão=, Jewish center in Portugal, =4=, 159.

  =Ceba, Ansaldo=, priest and poet, tries to convert Sarah Sullam,
        =5=, 69-70.

  =Cendebæus=, Syrian general, invades Judæa, =1=, 529.

  =Ceneda=, wagers a pound of his own flesh, =4=, 657.

  =Cenedæus=, of Adiabene, relatives of, aid Judæa against Rome, =2=,
        264.

  =Censorship= of the press introduced by Caraffa, =4=, 563.
    in Germany, =5=, 532.

  =Censorship= of the Talmud under Jayme I of Aragon, =3=, 603.
    advised by two popes, =4=, 658.
    abuses of, =4=, 659, 660.
    _See under_ Talmud, the.

  =Census=, a, taken by David, =1=, 137-8.
    of Judæans ordered by Augustus, =2=, 129.
    arouses terror and dissension, =2=, 130.
    resisted by the Zealots, =2=, 133-4.
    in 66, =2=, 251.

  “=Centuries=,” by Amatus Lusitanus, =4=, 570.

  =Cervera=, the Jews of, persecuted, =4=, 94, 103.

  =Cesis, de=, cardinal, on the commission on the Portuguese
        Inquisition, =4=, 514.

  =Ceuta=, the Jews of, emigrate, =3=, 424.
    battle of, =4=, 390.

  =Ceylon=, the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 436.

  =Chabar=, teacher of the Law among the Arabian Jews, =3=, 59.

  =Chaberim=, fellows, =2=, 364.

  =Chabib.= _See_ Amatus Lusitanus.

  =Chabulon.= _See_ Cabul.

  =Chaburah=, order, =2=, 364.

  =Chacham=, officer of the Synhedrion, =2=, 360.
    office of, ceases, =2=, 453.
    title of the Amsterdam rabbis, =4=, 681.
    title of the Hamburg rabbis, =4=, 689; =5=, 577.

  =Chacham Zevi.= _See_ Zevi Ashkenazi.

  =Chacon=, Castilian farmer of taxes, =4=, 275.

  =Chadija=, wife of Mahomet, =3=, 71.

  =Chages, Jacob= (1620-1674), recluse at Jerusalem, =5=, 126.
    teacher of Nathan Ghazati, =5=, 131.
    threatens Sabbataï Zevi with excommunication, =5=, 132.

  =Chages, Moses=, denounces Chayon’s work as heretical, =5=, 222.
    excommunicates Chayon, =5=, 224.
    abused by the Amsterdam Portuguese Jews, =5=, 224.
    excommunicated and driven from Amsterdam, =5=, 226.
    in Altona, =5=, 231.
    opposes Luzzatto’s Kabbala, =5=, 238.
    threatens Kabbalistic writers with the ban, =5=, 239.
    forbids the study of Kabbala to young men, =5=, 241.
    deprecates leniency towards Eibeschütz, =5=, 249-50.
    opposes the Eibeschütz Talmud edition, =5=, 251.
    returns to Palestine, =5=, 256.

  =Chaggai= (Haggai), teacher of the Law, attacks Judah II, =2=, 485.
    a Palestinian Amora, =2=, 560.
    member of the last Synhedrion, =2=, 567.

  =Chaibar=, Israelites settle in, =3=, 54.
    the Benu-Nadhir settle in, =3=, 79.

  =Chaibar, the Jews of=, descendants of the Rechabites, fortifications
        held by, =3=, 55.
    threatened by Mahomet, =3=, 81-2.
    roused against Mahomet, =3=, 82-3.
    driven away by Omar, =3=, 85.
    preserve love for Arabic, =3=, 111.
    object to Talmudic restraints, =3=, 119.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 437.

  =Chaifa=, burial place of Nachmani and Yechiel of Paris, =3=, 608.

  “=Chain= of Tradition, The,” by Gedalya Ibn-Yachya, =4=, 616.

  =Chaireas=, commander of the fortress Joazer, =1=, 474.

  =Chakan= (Chagan), title of the Chazar kings, =3=, 138.

  =Chalafta=, member of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 357.

  =Chalcis=, prince of. _See_ Herod II.

  =Chaldæan= garrison in Judah, =1=, 321.

  =Chaldæans=, the. _See_ Nebuchadnezzar.

  =Chaldaic= translations of Scriptures, =2=, 581-2.

  =Chaldee=, taught as a means of conversion, =4=, 245.

  =Chalil=, vizir, tries to save Esther Kiera, =4=, 630.

  =Chama of Nahardea= (356-377), Amora, =2=, 593.
    principal of the Pumbeditha academy, =2=, 594.
    insignificance of, =2=, 594-5.

  =Chama ben Anilaï=, a Jew of Sora, =2=, 545-6.

  =Chamath=, military station under Hadrian, =2=, 419.

  =Chambéry=, supposed center of the well poisoners, =4=, 102.

  =Chamiz, Joseph=, physician, and Leo Modena, =5=, 67.
    Kabbalist, =5=, 74.

  =Champagne=, the home of Talmud studies after Rashi, =3=, 289.
    Talmud college of, =3=, 403.

  =Chanan=, prince of the Jews of Taima, =3=, 437.

  =Chanan of Iskia=, restores the Pumbeditha academy, =3=, 9.

  =Chananel ben Chushiel=, recognized as a Talmud authority, =3=,
        211, 248.
    busies himself with the Jerusalem Talmud, =3=, 249.
    consults Haï Gaon, =3=, 252.
    eulogizes Haï Gaon, =3=, 253.
    Alfassi disciple of, =3=, 285.
    writings of, the basis of Nathan ben Yechiel’s lexicon, =3=, 290.

  =Chananel Ibn-Askara=, Kabbalist, =4=, 74.

  =Chananya=, Agadist, =2=, 575-6.

  =Chananya= (Achunaï), brother of Anan ben David, candidate for the
        Exilarchate, =3=, 129.
    death of, =3=, 137.

  =Chananya=, nephew of Joshua ben Chananya, joins Christianity, =2=,
        370.
    withdrawn from Jewish Christian influences, =2=, 443.
    establishes a Synhedrion at Nahor-Pakod, =2=, 443.
    arranges the calendar, =2=, 443.
    and Simon II, =2=, 443-4.
    dissolves his Synhedrion, =2=, 444.

  =Chananya=, principal of the Sora academy, =3=, 10.

  =Chananya.= _See also_ Chanina.

  =Chanceller=, Jewish Portuguese official, =4=, 159.

  =Chanilaï.= _See_ Anilaï.

  =Chanina=, teacher of the Law, =2=, 330.

  =Chanina.= _See_ Mar-Chanina.

  =Chanina bar Chama=, refused permission to teach, =2=, 456.
    to be appointed teacher by Gamaliel III, =2=, 466.
    the oldest of the Amoraim, =2=, 490.
    work of, =2=, 490-1.
    compared with Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, =2=, 491.
    deserted by his disciples, =2=, 491.
    veneration for, =2=, 491.
    characterizes the people of Sepphoris, =2=, 491-2.
    old age of, =2=, 492.
    protects Mar-Samuel’s daughter, =2=, 528.
    disciples of, =2=, 531.

  =Chanina ben Abbahu=, at Tiberias, =2=, 543.

  =Chanina (Chananya) ben Teradion=, member of the Jamnia Synhedrion,
        =2=, 357.
    refuses obedience to Hadrian’s decrees, =2=, 427.
    suffers martyrdom, =2=, 429.
    wife and daughter of, =2=, 429, 436.

  =Chaninaï=, Babylonian Jewish judge, declares Bostanaï’s son
        legitimate, =3=, 91.

  =Chaninaï=, Exilarch, =3=, 10.

  =Chaninaï=, principal of the Pumbeditha academy, =3=, 10.

  =Chaninaï Kahana ben Huna= (765-775), Gaon of Sora, =3=, 137.

  =Chanoch ben Moses= (940-1014), attainments of, =3=, 229.
    rabbi of Cordova, =3=, 230.
    chief of the Andalusian Jews, =3=, 236.
    dispute about the position of, =3=, 237-8.
    deposed and re-instated, =3=, 240.
    on the death of Jacob Ibn-Jau, =3=, 241.
    death of, =3=, 241.

  =Chanukah= (Hanukkah), Feast of Lights, instituted, =1=, 472-3.
    introduced into Egypt, =2=, 6-7.
    observed by pagans, =2=, 384.
    abolished by Anan ben David, =3=, 132.

  =Charag=, poll-tax of the Babylonian Jews, =2=, 508.

  =Chares=, leader of the Zealots in Gamala, =2=, 289.

  =Charisi.= _See_ Jehuda Alcharisi.

  =Charlemagne=, predecessors of, and the Jews, =3=, 40.
    contributes to the advancement of the Jews, =3=, 141, 143.
    protects the Jews, =3=, 142.
    embassy of, to Haroun Alrashid, =3=, 143.
    oath imposed by, on Jews testifying against Christians, =3=, 144.

  =Charles IV=, emperor, protects the Jews, =4=, 106.
    gives the Jews of Worms to the town, =4=, 108.
    at war with Gunther of Schwarzburg, =4=, 109.
    punishes the murderers of Jews, =4=, 109-10.
    and the Jews of Nuremberg, =4=, 110.
    asked to permit Jews to return to Augsburg, =4=, 127-8.
    grants “servi cameræ” to the electors, =4=, 128.
    deed of, concerning the Jews, =4=, 695.

  =Charles V=, emperor, ambassador of, employs a Jewish physician, =4=,
        411.
    opposed to Reuchlin, =4=, 464.
    adherents of, =4=, 468.
    declares Luther an exile, =4=, 469.
    refuses freedom of belief to Marranos, =4=, 484.
    empowers the Inquisition to proceed against Lutherans, =4=, 485.
    Nunes sent to, to learn about the Inquisition, =4=, 490.
    threatens the liberty of Italy, =4=, 492.
    treats Rome as a hostile city, =4=, 497.
    liberates Reubeni from the Spanish Inquisition, =4=, 499.
    crowned king of Italy, =4=, 503.
    instrumental in the establishment of the Portuguese Inquisition,
        =4=, 507, 509, 517, 518.
    delivers Molcho and Reubeni to the Mantua Inquisition, =4=, 510.
    imprisons Reubeni, =4=, 511.
    hated by Clement VII, =4=, 514.
    victorious at Tunis, =4=, 517.
    hostile to Paul III, =4=, 526.
    banishes the Jews from Naples, =4=, 544.
    renews the privileges of the Jews, =4=, 547.
    in debt to the Mendes bank, =4=, 572.
    orders the Mendes property to be seized, =4=, 573.
    expels the Jews from the Netherlands, =4=, 661-2.

  =Charles VII=, anti-emperor, occupies Prague, =5=, 251.

  =Charles of Anjou=, king of Sicily, employs a Jewish physician, =3=,
        628.

  =Charles=, of Baden, grants the Jews political freedom, =5=, 502-3.

  =Charles I=, of England, promotes the cause of liberty, =5=, 25.

  =Charles II=, of England, the Jews under, =5=, 141.

  =Charles II=, the Bald (843), king of the western Franks, friendly to
        the Jews, =3=, 170, 172.
    condition of the Jews under, =3=, 170-4.

  =Charles III=, the Simple (899-914), of France, grants the
        possessions of the Narbonne Jews to the Church, =3=, 175.

  =Charles IV=, of France, death of, =4=, 77.

  =Charles V=, of France, permits Jews to return, =4=, 129.
    increases the privileges of the Jews, =4=, 131, 133.
    prohibits forced attendance of Jews at churches, =4=, 132.
    death of, =4=, 150.

  =Charles VI=, of France, protects the Jews, =4=, 152.
    and the rights of Jewish creditors, =4=, 174.
    banishes the Jews, =4=, 175-6.
    protects the exiles, =4=, 176.

  =Charles VIII=, of France, conquers Naples, =4=, 360.
    alliance against, =4=, 373.

  =Charles IX=, of France, and the election of a Polish king, =4=, 604.

  =Charles X=, of France, the emancipation of the Jews under, =5=, 596.

  =Charles III=, of Navarre, employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 184.

  =Charles X=, of Sweden, at war with Poland, =5=, 15.

  =Charles XI=, of Sweden, inquires into Karaism, =4=, 182.

  =Charles XII=, of Sweden, inquires into Karaism, =4=, 184.

  =Chasda of Cafri= (217-309), a Babylonian Amora, =2=, 545.
    disciple of Rab, =2=, 552-3.
    good fortune of, =2=, 553, 576, 585.
    estrangement between, and Huna, =2=, 553.
    principal of the Sora academy, =2=, 553.
    death of, =2=, 553, 583.

  =Chasdaï= (670-730), Exilarch, =3=, 92.

  =Chasdaï ben Abraham Crescas= (1340-1410), philosopher, =4=, 145-7.
    as Talmudist, =4=, 146.
    exposes the weakness of Aristotelianism, =4=, 146.
    disciple of Nissim Gerundi, =4=, 146.
    character of, =4=, 147.
    orthodoxy of, =4=, 149.
    authority of, =4=, 149-50, 230.
    imprisoned, =4=, 150, 155.
    appealed to about the French rabbinate, =4=, 150, 153.
    son of, martyr, =4=, 172.
    describes the persecution of 1391, =4=, 172.
    intrigue against, =4=, 185.
    attacks the Christian dogmas, =4=, 187-8.
    influences Profiat Duran, =4=, 190.
    religious philosophy of, =4=, 191-3, 240.
    creed of, =4=, 193.
    disciple of, =4=, 208, 239.
    anti-Christian polemic by, translated, =4=, 235.
    views of, endorsed by Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 342.
    studied by Spinoza, =5=, 88.

  =Chasdaï ben Solomon= of Tudela, rabbi, denounces Chayim ben
        Gallipapa, =4=, 149.
    ambition of, =4=, 162.

  =Chasdaï Ibn-Shaprut= (915-970), makes science a principle of
        Judaism, =3=, 187.
    first representative of Judæo-European culture, =3=, 188.
    protects Moses ben Chanoch, =3=, 209-10, 228.
    corresponds with Dunash ben Tamim, =3=, 211, 217.
    the founder of Judæo-Spanish culture, =3=, 215, 223.
    modern character of, =3=, 215-16.
    attainments of, =3=, 216.
    as diplomat, =3=, 216, 218-19.
    homage paid to, =3=, 217.
    corresponds with Dossa, son of Saadiah, =3=, 217.
    translates the work of Dioscorides, =3=, 218.
    grieves over the Jewish dispersion, =3=, 219.
    communicates with the king of the Chazars, =3=, 219-22.
    honored by Alhakem, =3=, 222.
    inspires poets, =3=, 223-4.
    and Menachem ben Saruk, =3=, 224-5, 226-7.
    invites Dunash Ibn-Labrat to Cordova, =3=, 226.
    encourages the study of the Talmud in Spain, =3=, 227-8.
    favors Chanoch ben Moses, =3=, 230.
    death of, =3=, 230.
    unique in Spanish-Jewish history, =3=, 313.

  =Chassidim= (Chasidim, Assidæans), the, Nazarites under Simon the
        Just, =1=, 422.
    opposed to the Hellenists, =1=, 435-6.
    piety of, =1=, 436, 490.
    exponents of the teachings of, =1=, 436.
    incite the Judæans to steadfastness, =1=, 457.
    hiding-places of, betrayed, =1=, 457-8.
    killed in the caves, =1=, 458.
    follow Mattathias the Hasmonæan, =1=, 460.
    betrayed by Alcimus, =1=, 483.
    a distinct party, =1=, 489.
    compared with the Hasmonæan party, =1=, 489-90.
    incensed at the destruction of the “Soreg,” =1=, 492.
    withdraw from public life, =2=, 16.
    called Essenes, =2=, 16. _See_ Essenes, the.
    give rise to the Pharisees, =2=, 16. _See_ Pharisees, the.
    _See also under_ Hasmonæans, the; Maccabees, the.

  =Chasinaï.= _See_ Asinaï.

  =Chassidim=, the, Polish Sabbatian sect, emigrate, =5=, 212.
    exhort to penance, =5=, 212.
    supported by Samuel Oppenheim, =5=, 213.
    accept Islam and Christianity, =5=, 213.

  =Chassidim, the (new)=, mock at the Talmudists, =5=, 379.
    form a brotherhood, =5=, 383-5.
    introduce innovations, =5=, 386.
    divide into two branches, =5=, 388.
    slander Elijah Wilna, =5=, 391.
    excommunicated, =5=, 391-2.
    conduct of, under persecution, =5=, 392-3.
    put themselves under “Rebbes,” =5=, 392.
    read only Chassidistic works, =5=, 393.
    second interdict against, =5=, 393-4.
    writings of, burned, =5=, 393.
    resist the opening of secular schools, =5=, 394.
    writings of, forbidden in Galicia, =5=, 394.
    efforts to suppress, =5=, 394.
    persecute readers of non-Hebrew books, =5=, 608, 611.
    attacked by Joseph Perl, =5=, 612.
    joined by Erter, =5=, 613.

  =Chassidism, the (new)=, opposed to Rabbinical Judaism, =5=,
        375, 379.
    founders of, =5=, 375.
    character of, =5=, 380-1.
    the leaders of, =5=, 381-3.
    circumstances favoring the spread of, =5=, 383-6, 387.
    opposed by the Mendelssohnians, =5=, 394.
    prevents the spread of culture among Russian Jews, =5=, 473.
    revolt from, and culture in Galicia, =5=, 611.

  =Chastelard=, the Jews of, suspected of well poisoning, =4=, 104.

  =Chateaubriand=, on Judaism, =5=, 427, 428.
    reactionary influence of, =5=, 477, 478.

  =Chatel=, the Jews of, suspected of well poisoning, =4=, 103-4.

  =Châtelet=, refuge of the Jews of Paris, =4=, 151.

  =Chaumette=, instrumental in setting up the religion of Reason, =5=,
        450.

  =Chaves, Jacob de=, pupil of Luzzatto, =5=, 242.

  =Chaves, Moses de=, patron of Luzzatto, =5=, 242.

  =Chaya=, daughter of Elias Schor, Frankist, =5=, 275.

  =Chayim of Landshut=, appoints three rabbis for Germany, =4=, 227.

  =Chayim of Lublin=, excommunicates Eibeschütz’s opponents, =5=,
        261, 262.
    deprived of his rabbinate, =5=, 263.

  =Chayim ben Gallipapa= (1310-1380), rabbi of Pampeluna, proposes
        innovations, =4=, 148-9.

  =Chayim Ibn-Musa= (1390-1460), polemic writer against Christianity,
        =4=, 235-7.
    controversy of, with a Christian, =4=, 236.
    refutes Nicholas de Lyra’s charges, =4=, 237.
    rules by, for religious controversies, =4=, 237.

  =Chayim Benveniste.= _See_ Benveniste, Chayim.

  =Chayim Cohen=, disciple of Jacob Tam, =3=, 381.

  =Chayim Malach=, leader of a Sabbatian sect, =5=, 212.
    doctrines of, =5=, 213.
    joins the Donmäh, =5=, 214.
    travels of, =5=, 214.

  =Chayim Vital Calabrese= (1543-1620), Kabbalist, youth of, =4=, 623.
    meets Isaac Lurya, =4=, 623-4.
    spreads reports about Lurya’s gifts, =4=, 624.
    usurps authority over Lurya’s disciples, =4=, 625.
    alleged forerunner of the Messiah, =4=, 625; =5=, 53.
    in Palestine and Syria, =5=, 52-3.
    invites Kabbala enthusiasts to Damascus, =5=, 53.
    alleges possession of Lurya’s manuscripts, =5=, 53.
    brother and son of, =5=, 53.
    writings of, sought, =5=, 54.
    Messianic speculation in the Kabbala of, =5=, 120-1.
    adherents of, in Jerusalem, =5=, 125.
    descendant of, =5=, 267.
    disfigures Judaism, =5=, 559.

  =Chayon, Nehemiah Chiya= (1650-1726), Sabbatian, education
        of, =5=, 215.
    character of, =5=, 215-16.
    doctrines of, =5=, 216-17.
    excommunicated, =5=, 216.
    publishes a pamphlet, =5=, 217.
    preaches Sabbatian doctrines at Prague, =5=, 217-18.
    submits his work to Naphtali Cohen, =5=, 218.
    enters into relations with Löbele Prosnitz, =5=, 219.
    prints his work in Berlin, =5=, 219-20.
    at Amsterdam, =5=, 220.
    denounced, =5=, 221-2.
    work of, denounced, =5=, 222.
    supported by Ayllon and Pinto, =5=, 223.
    work of, examined by a Portuguese committee, =5=, 223.
    excommunicated, =5=, 224, 231.
    acquitted of heresy, =5=, 224-5.
    homage paid to, =5=, 225.
    opposed by Brieli, =5=, 225.
    calumniates his opponents, =5=, 226.
    exposed, =5=, 227.
    disgrace of, =5=, 227.
    ban removed from, =5=, 228.
    returns to Europe, =5=, 230-1.
    death of, =5=, 231.
    son of, =5=, 231.
    influences Eibeschütz, =5=, 248.

  =Chayuj.= _See_ Jehuda Ibn-Daud.

  =Chayyat.= _See_ Judah ben Jacob Chayyat.

  =Chazanuth=, synagogue chanting, =3=, 118.

  =Chazaria=, the Crimean peninsula, =3=, 138.
    the Ten Tribes in, =3=, 141.

  =Chazars=, the, friendly to the Jews, =3=, 123.
    Jews settle in the capital of, =3=, 124.
    found a kingdom, =3=, 138.
    warlike, =3=, 138.
    conquer the Crimea, =3=, 138.
    converted to Judaism, =3=, 139-40, 327-30.
    victorious over the Arabs, =3=, 139.
    taught the Bible and Talmud, =3=, 140.
    influences of Judaism on, =2=, 141.
    judicial system of, =3=, 141.
    information about, brought to Spain, =3=, 219-20.
    power of, in the tenth century, =3=, 221.
    flee before Sviatislav, =3=, 222.
    Jewish princes of, take refuge in Spain, =3=, 254.
    the land of, visited by Petachya, =3=, 421.

  =Chazraj=, the, Arabic family, relations of, to the Jews, =3=, 55.
    conversions among, to Judaism, =3=, 61.
    hostile to Jewish rule, =3=, 67.
    Jews of Yathrib, dependent on, =3=, 68.
    feuds of, =3=, 70-1.

  =Chebrath Dorshe Leshon Eber=, society for the promotion of the
        Hebrew language, =5=, 398-9.

  =Chelebi, Raphael Joseph=, mint-master at Cairo, benevolence of,
        =5=, 124-5.
    devotee of the Kabbala, =5=, 125.
    interested in Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 125, 127.
    the Jerusalem Jews appeal to, =5=, 127-8.
    Sabbataï Zevi married in the house of, =5=, 129.
    letter to, from Nathan Ghazati, =5=, 131.
    rewarded by Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 145.
    encourages the Italian Sabbatians, =5=, 160.

  =Chemnitz=, leader hostile to the Jews of Worms, =4=, 698.

  =Chemosh=, Ammonite and Moabite god, =1=, 55.
    worshiped on the Mount of Olives, =1=, 175.

  =Chepez Alkuti.= _See_ Alkuti.

  =Cherem.= _See_ Excommunication.

  =Cherethites=, the, mercenary troops under David, =1=, 122.
    in the Ammonite war, =1=, 126.
    employed against Sheba, =1=, 149.
    attend Solomon, =1=, 153.

  =Chesheb-Efod=, mathematical work by Profiat Duran, =4=, 191.

  =Chess=, inventor of, =3=, 7.

  =Chiddush=, a novelty in Talmud explanations, =4=, 641.

  =Chiddushim=, Talmudic explanations by Nachmani, =3=, 532.

  =Chiddushim=, theoretic discussion of the Talmud, =3=, 345.

  =Child-murder=, charged against Israel Bruna, =4=, 302-5.
    Manasseh ben Israel exonerates the Jews from, =5=, 42.

  =Child-murder, the charge of against the Jews=, of Zurich, =4=, 105.
    of Spain, =4=, 276.
    of Sepulveda, =4=, 278-9.
    of Trent, =4=, 298-9.
    discredited by the Doge of Venice, =4=, 299.
    of Frankfort, =4=, 299-300.
    forbidden in Portugal, =4=, 372.
    believed by Maximilian I, =4=, 414.
    of the Mark of Brandenburg, =4=, 440.
    _See also_ Blood accusation, the.

  =Childebert I=, forbids the Jews to appear on the street at
        Eastertide, =3=, 37.
    anti-Jewish decrees of, revived, =3=, 171.

  =Chillon=, the Jews of, suspected of well poisoning, =4=, 103-4.
    the castellan of, spreads evidence against the Jews, =4=, 108.

  =Chillukim=, hair-splitting Talmudic discussions, =4=, 641.

  =Chilperic=, Merovingian king, forces Christianity upon the
        Jews, =3=, 39.

  =Chindaswinth= (642-652), Visigothic king, kindly disposed towards
        the Jews, =3=, 101-2.

  =Chinon=, college of, sold, =4=, 48.
    the Jews of, martyrs, =4=, 57-8.

  =Chintila= (638-642), Visigothic king, forces Jews into Catholicism,
        =3=, 51-2, 101.

  =Chinuch Nearim=, Berlin Free School, curriculum of, =5=, 416.

  =Chios=, the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.
    prophets on, silenced by Sabbataï’s apostasy, =5=, 157.
    Nathan Ghazati on, =5=, 160.

  =Chiskiya=, Gaon of Pumbeditha and Exilarch, executed, =3=, 254.
    sons of (Ibn-Daudi), in Spain, =3=, 254, 275.

  =Chiskiya=, prince of the Cairo Karaites, =3=, 444.

  =Chiskiya ben Chiya=, offends Judah ha-Nassi, =2=, 457.
    adds supplements to the Mishna, =2=, 470.
    disciple of Judah I, =2=, 511.

  =Chiskiya ben Reuben=, member of the Mayence synod, =3=, 517.

  =Chivi Albalchi=, the first rationalistic Bible critic, =3=, 199.

  =Chiya=, a Babylonian buried in Palestine, =2=, 548.

  =Chiya (Achiya) bar Abba=, Amora, characterization of, =2=, 454, 531.
    punished by Judah I, =2=, 455.
    sons of, =2=, 457, 470, 511.
    announces the new-moon at Ain-tab, =2=, 458.
    adds supplements to the Mishna, =2=, 470.
    Mishnic compilation of, authoritative, =2=, 471.
    intercedes for Abba-Areka, =2=, 512.
    investigates the Judæan educational institutions, =2=, 532.
    collects the Patriarch’s tax, =2=, 536.
    supported by Beth-Silvani, =2=, 536.
    leaves Judæa, =2=, 536.
    ignorant of the Bible, =2=, 536.
    rigor of, =2=, 536-7.
    appeals to Abbahu, =2=, 538.
    Agadist, =2=, 540.

  =Chiya=, son of Abba-Areka, learned in the Law, =2=, 518.

  =Chmielniecki, Bogdan= (1595-1657), grievances of, against
        Jews, =5=, 7.
    organizes the Haidamak troops, =5=, 8.
    conditions of peace, proposed by, =5=, 12, 14.

  =Chochmoth=, the sciences, studied under Measfim influence,
        =5=, 402-3.

  =Chocim=, Jacob Frank at, =5=, 27.

  =Chodar-Warda=, son of Jezdijird III, at war with his brother, =2=,
        628.

  =Choics.= _See_ Gnosticism.

  =Chorazin=, Jesus in, =2=, 157.

  =Choreas=, Caligula’s murderer, =2=, 189.

  =Chorin, Aaron=, aids the Reform movement, =5=, 571.
    recalls his approval of the movement, =5=, 571.

  =Chosru (Chosroes) I Nushirvan=, of Persia, imposes a poll-tax upon
        the Jews, =3=, 5.
    son of, =3=, 7.
    protects his dominions against the Chazars, =3=, 138.

  =Chosru II= (590-628), of Persia, supplanted, =3=, 8-9.
    protected by Mauritius, =3=, 9.
    prosperity of the Jews under, =3=, 9-10.
    at war with the Byzantine empire, =3=, 19.
    incapacity of, =3=, 22.
    death of, =3=, 22.

  =Chozari= (Chosari), philosophical work by Jehuda Halevi, =3=,
        327-36, 338.
    translated into Hebrew, =3=, 397.

  =Chrestus=, apostle at Rome, =2=, 202, 231.

  =Christ=, the. _See_ Messiah, the.

  =Christian IV=, of Denmark, invites Jews to settle there, =4=, 675.
    employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 692; =5=, 115.

  =Christian VII=, of Denmark, subscribes to Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch
        translation, =5=, 334.

  “=Christian Denunciation, The=,” by Wagenseil, =5=, 186.

  =Christian dogmas=, in the Zohar, =4=, 23.
    debated at Avila, =4=, 141.
    expounded by Astruc Raimuch, =4=, 182.
    in the Kabbala, =4=, 292.
    belief in, threatened, =5=, 682.

  =Christian dogmas, the, criticised=, by Abbahu, =2=, 539-40.
    Solomon Bonfed, =4=, 182.
    Joshua Ibn-Vives, =4=, 186-7.
    Chasdaï Crescas, =3=, 187-8.
    Profiat Duran, =4=, 189.
    Joseph Ibn-Shem Tob, =4=, 235.
    _See also under_ Disputation; Polemical works against Christianity.

  =Christian names= forbidden to Jews, in Spain, =4=, 52, 139.
    in Prussia, =5=, 630.

  =Christian nurses=, Jews forbidden to employ, =3=, 294, 400, 508,
        582; =4=, 566.

  =Christian servants, Jews forbidden to keep=, by the third Lateran
        Council, =3=, 400, 418, 422.
    by the Council of Avignon, =3=, 504.
    by French Church Councils, =3=, 508.
    by the Council of Oxford, =3=, 516.
    by the Council of Béziers, =3=, 581, 582.
    by the code of Alfonso X, =3=, 595.
    by the Council of Vienna, =3=, 611.
    under Juan II, of Castile, =4=, 203, 205.
    by Eugenius IV, =4=, 250, 253.
    by Paul IV, =4=, 566.
    by Pius IV, =4=, 588.

  =Christian servants, Jews keep=, under Charles the Bold, =3=, 172.
    in Speyer, =3=, 298.

  =Christian slaves=, not permitted to become Jews, =2=, 564, 567, 615;
        =3=, 46, 171-2.
    become Jews in Visigothic Spain, =3=, 45.

  =Christian slaves, Jews forbidden to keep=, by the Theodosian code,
        =2=, 617; =3=, 28-9.
    by Gregory I, =3=, 33-4.
    by Reccared, =3=, 46.
    by Sisebut, =3=, 48.
    by the Council of Rouen, =3=, 294.
    in Hungary, =3=, 521.
    _See also_ Slave-trade, the; Slaves.

  =Christian state=, the, founded by Constantius, =2=, 568.

  =Christianity=, Essenism with foreign elements, =2=, 142.
    origin of, in Messianic longings, =2=, 142-3.
    helped by the exegesis of the Pharisees, =2=, 166.
    averse to Phariseeism, =2=, 171.
    power of, over Rome, =2=, 174.
    indebted to the apostle Paul, =2=, 225, 365.
    does not appeal to cultivated Greeks, =2=, 229.
    relation of, to Judaism, according to Paul, =2=, 229-30.
    schism in, =2=, 230, 232, 365.
    influences the Jewish peasants, =2=, 364.
    development of, belongs to Jewish history, =2=, 365.
    equivalent to the teaching of Paul, =2=, 373.
    elements of, =2=, 373-4.
    as viewed by the Gnostics, =2=, 377.
    influences Judaism, =2=, 380-1.
    mocked at by Hadrian, =2=, 407-8.
    independent of Judaism, =2=, 431.
    laws hostile to, promulgated by Severus, =2=, 464.
    admired by Alexander Severus, =2=, 481.
    becomes the Catholic Church, =2=, 500.
    new dogmas of, =2=, 500-1.
    oppresses Judaism and Samaritanism, =2=, 535.
    proselytizing efforts of, =2=, 539.
    persecuted by Diocletian, =2=, 539.
    triumphant, =2=, 559, 560.
    influence of, on Constantine, =2=, 561-2.
    completely separated from Judaism, =2=, 563-4.
    shaped by Constantius, =2=, 566.
    confined by Julian the Apostate, =2=, 596.
    and Magianism, =2=, 627.
    forced upon the Samaritans, =3=, 16-17.
    tolerant in western Europe, =3=, 34.
    among the Chazars, =3=, 139-40.
    barbarous during the Middle Ages, =3=, 187.
    objections of, to Judaism answered by Saadiah, =3=, 198.
    contest of, with Islam, =3=, 297.
    characterized by Jehuda Halevi, =3=, 328-9, 330.
    belief of, in the supernatural, =5=, 305.
    dethronement of, by the French thinkers, =5=, 305-6.
    Mendelssohn on, =5=, 313-14.
    characterized by Heine, =5=, 552.
    _See also_ Christian dogmas; Christians; Polemical works against
        Christianity.

  =Christianity, conversions to.= _See_ Apostasy; _and under_
        Conversion.

  =Christianity, Pauline=, hostility of, accentuates the legal
        character of Judaism, =2=, 471.
    produces the Talmud, =3=, 127.

  =Christians=, the, regarded as conjurors, =2=, 170.
    consider the Apocrypha part of the Bible, =2=, 359, 489.
    accuse Jews of cursing Jesus, =2=, 380.
    propaganda of, in the pagan world, =2=, 383.
    tamper with the Septuagint, =2=, 385-6.
    of Judæa, receive Hadrian with servility, =2=, 406.
    accounts by, of Bar-Cochba, =2=, 412.
    persecuted by Hadrian, =2=, 430-1.
    separate themselves from the Jews, =2=, 431.
    appeal to Marcus Aurelius, =2=, 449.
    intercourse of, with the heathen interdicted, =2=, 476-7.
    complain of the indifference of the Jews, =2=, 483.
    primitive sects of, merged into the Catholic Church, =2=, 500.
    persecuted by the Magi, =2=, 524.
    persecuted by Diocletian, =2=, 533, 539.
    called Galilæans by Julian, =2=, 596.
    reproached for having forsaken Judaism, =2=, 597.
    malign Julian, =2=, 599.
    object to the rebuilding of the Temple, =2=, 600-1.
    well treated by Jezdijird, =2=, 609-10.
    oppress Judæa, =2=, 611.
    refuse to recognize the authority of the Patriarchs, =2=, 612-13.
    forbidden to trade with Jews, =2=, 620.
    controversies with, interest the Jews in Scripture studies, =2=,
        623.
    persecuted by Jezdijird III, =2=, 627-8.
    of Babylonia suffer from Zendik communism, =3=, 2-3.
    persecuted by Hormisdas IV, =3=, 8.
    in possession of Palestine, =3=, 11.
    Jewish witnesses cannot testify against, =3=, 12, 102, 520; =4=,
        250.
    of Jerusalem perish at the hands of Persians and Jews, =3=, 19.
    forbidden to eat at Jewish banquets in Gaul, =3=, 36, 37.
    forbidden to hold intercourse with Jews, =3=, 36, 37, 407, 499, 595,
        611; =4=, 216, 245, 250, 560, 590.
    forbidden to marry Jews in Spain, =3=, 44, 46.
    ill-treated in Yemen, =3=, 64, 65.
    Mahomet’s revelation against, =3=, 78.
    driven out of Najaran, =3=, 85.
    restrictions against, in the covenant of Omar, =3=, 87-8.
    Jewish testimony against, accepted, =3=, 144.
    persecuted under the sons of Haroun Alrashid, =3=, 145.
    Frankish, respect Judaism, =3=, 163.
    antagonized by Bishop Bodo, =3=, 169.
    called Mozarabs among the Mahometans, =3=, 215.
    persecuted by Hakim, =3=, 247.
    invade Mahometan Spain, =3=, 291.
    persecuted by Abdulmumen, =3=, 359.
    permitted to testify against Jews, =3=, 422.
    deny equal rights to the Marranos, =4=, 256-7.
    study Hebrew, =4=, 471-4.
    interested in the Kabbala, =4=, 481.
    devote themselves to Hebrew literature, =5=, 21-2.
    interested in the Sabbatian movement, =5=, 137, 151.
    interested in Judaism and the Jews, =5=, 176.
    attracted by Jewish literature, =5=, 178-9.
    Hebraists, attack the Jews, =5=, 184.
    and the Eibeschütz-Emden controversy, =5=, 262.
    subscribers to Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation, =5=, 329.
    _See also_ Christianity; Ebionites; Greek Christians; Jewish
        Christians; Judæan Christians; Nazarenes; Pagan Christians.

  =Christians, the early.= _See_ Jewish Christians, the; Judæan
        Christians, the; Nazarenes, the, etc.

  =Christians, the Judaizing=, under Receswinth, =3=, 104.
    under Erwig, =3=, 106-7.
    forbidden to own real estate, =3=, 107-8.
    _See also_ Marranos, the.

  =Christians, the Nestorian=, help the Arabs in Babylonia, =3=, 89.
    side with Ali, =3=, 90.

  =Christians, the Syrian=, and the science of grammar, =3=, 7.
    make scientific literature accessible to the Arabs, =3=, 111.

  =Christina=, of Sweden, student of Hebrew, =5=, 21.
    Manasseh ben Israel recommended to, =5=, 22, 23.
    Manoel Texeira’s guest, =5=, 140.
    intercedes for the Jews of Vienna, =5=, 171.

  =Chronicles, the Books of=, written by a Levite, =1=, 411.

  =Chrysostom.= _See_ John Chrysostom.

  =Church appurtenances=, Jews forbidden to buy, =3=, 377.

  =Church councils=, occupied with the Jewish question, =3=, 25.
    discuss the slave-trade of the Jews, =3=, 40.
    convened in France by the fugitive popes, =3=, 376-7.

  =Church councils, list of=:
    Alby,
    Avignon (1209),
    Bamberg (1451),
    Basle (1431-1443),
    Béziers (1246),
    Buda (1279),
    Clermont (1095),
    Constance (1414),
    Epaone (517),
    Exeter (1287),
    Illiberis (320),
    Lateran, the third (1179)
    Lateran, the fourth (1215)
    Lateran, the fifth (1512-1517)
    Lyons (829),
    Mâcon (581),
    Meaux (845),
    Montpellier,
    Narbonne (1227),
    Nice (325),
    Orleans (538, 545),
    Oxford (1222),
    Paris (615, 846, 1212),
    Rome (1078),
    Rouen (1231),
    Toledo (589, 633, 652?),
    Tours (1231),
    Trent (1545),
    under Chintila (638),
    under Erwig,
    under Wamba,
    Vannes (465),
    Vienna (1267),
    Zamora (1313).

  =Church Fathers=, the, works of, connected with the Talmud, =4=, 614.

  “=Church= of the Mother of God,” synagogue in Constantinople, =3=,
        26.

  =Chushiel= (950-980), emissary from Sora, settles in Kairuan, =3=,
        208, 210.
    title of, =3=, 211.
    disciples of, =3=, 211.

  =Chuzpit=, interpreter of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 357, 429.

  =Cicero=, animosity of, to Judæans, =2=, 68-70.
    indebted to Greek writers, =2=, 179.

  =Cidellus=, Jewish adviser of Alfonso VI of Castile, =3=, 292.

  =Cilicia=, mercenaries of, hired by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 39.
    Greek-Christian communities in, =2=, 227.
    the Jews of, punish an apostate, =2=, 565.

  =Cincinnati=, rabbinical college at, =5=, 700.

  =Circumcision=, observed by Babylonian proselytes, =1=, 339.
    observed by Babylonian Judæans, =1=, 364.
    whether optional or imperative with proselytes, =2=, 384-5.
    forbidden by Hadrian, =2=, 422, 424.
    permitted by Antoninus Pius, =2=, 433.
    of slaves, forbidden, =2=, 567, 615; =3=, 46.
    practiced by the heathen Arabs, =3=, 61.
    discussed in Frankfort, =5=, 676-7.
    _See also under_ Proselytes.

  “=Citizen’s Cry= against the Jews, The,” published in Metz, =5=, 434.

  =Citizenship= granted to Judæans in Egypt, =1=, 418, 503.
    granted to Judæans in Antioch, =1=, 419.
    granted to Judæan athletes, =1=, 445.
    withdrawn from the Alexandrian Judæans, =2=, 182.
    restored to the Alexandrian Judæans, =2=, 191.
    Judæans of Cæsarea deprived of, =2=, 247.
    Roman, under Caracalla, =2=, 468.
    Roman, of the Jews, guarded by Gregory I, =3=, 33.
    accorded to the Jews of Gaul, =3=, 35.
    enjoyed by the Jews of Castile, =3=, 292-3.
    obtained by the Jews of Tudela, =3=, 388.
    enjoyed by the Jews of Messina, =3=, 423.
    enjoyed by Jews in the Holy Roman Empire, =4=, 443.
    _See also_ Emancipation of the Jews, the.

  =Civil offices=, Honorius III objects to Jews in, =3=, 515.
    Henry II of Castile refuses to exclude Jews from, =4=, 125.
    exclusion from, requested in Lisbon, =4=, 160.

  =Civil offices, Jews excluded from=, by Theodosius II, =3=, 28, 171.
    by the Council of Toledo, =3=, 46.
    by the Council of Mâcon, =3=, 39, 171.
    in the Empire of the East, =3=, 175, 425.
    by the Arabs, =3=, 216.
    by Gregory VII, =3=, 293.
    by Innocent III, =3=, 400.
    by the Council of Avignon, =3=, 504.
    by the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 510.
    in Hungary, =3=, 521.
    by Frederick II, =3=, 567, 569.
    by the Council of Béziers, =3=, 582.
    by Alfonso X, =3=, 595.
    by the Council of Vienna, =3=, 611.
    by the Council of Buda, =3=, 614.
    by Rudolph of Habsburg, =3=, 635.
    by Juan II, =4=, 194-5, 203, 228, 229.
    by Benedict XIII, =4=, 216.
    by the Council of Basle, =4=, 245.
    by Eugenius IV, =4=, 250.
    by Henry IV, =4=, 278.
    _See_ Magisterial offices.

  =Civil offices, Jews fill=, under Al-Mutadhid, =3=, 183.
    in Moslem Spain, after Abdul-Rahman III, =3=, 234-5.
    under Alfonso VIII of Castile, =3=, 384.
    in Messina, =3=, 423.
    in Toulouse, =3=, 501, 514.
    in Austria, =3=, 516-17, 567.
    under Alfonso X, =3=, 593, 596, 615.
    _See_ Magisterial offices.

  =Civil war=, between the houses of Saul and David, =1=, 109-10.
    David and Absalom, =1=, 138-44.
    the Zealots and the Peace Party in Jerusalem, =2=, 259-70.
    the Zealots and the Moderates in Jerusalem, =2=, 295.
    the Zealots and the Sicarii, =2=, 297-9.
    Pedro the Cruel and Henry de Trastamare, =4=, 118-26.

  “=Claims= of the Jews to German Citizenship,” by Rühs, =5=, 517.

  =Claudius=, emperor, makes Agrippa I king over Palestine, =2=, 190.
    makes Herod II prætor and prince of Chalcis, =2=, 190.
    treats the Judæans well, =2=, 190-1, 193.
    and the fortification of Jerusalem, =2=, 195.
    and Agrippa II, =2=, 196.
    makes the governor of Judæa independent of the governor of
        Syria, =2=, 197.
    makes Herod II titular king of Judæa, =2=, 198.
    names Tiberius Julius Alexander governor of Judæa, =2=, 198.
    expels Judæans from Rome, =2=, 202.
    makes Agrippa II king of Chalcis, =2=, 235.
    makes Felix governor of Galilee, =2=, 242.
    banishes Cumanus, =2=, 245.
    gives Agrippa II a kingdom, =2=, 245.
    death of, =2=, 245.

  =Clemens of Alexandria=, Father of the Church, critical spirit
        of, =2=, 488.

  =Clemens, Flavius=, proselyte, sons of, proclaimed Cæsars, =2=, 387.
    and four teachers of the Law, =2=, 387, 389, 391.
    condemned to death, =2=, 389.
    and Josephus, =2=, 389, 391.

  =Clement III=, pope, resists the return of forced converts to Judaism,
        =3=, 306, 308.
    orders the confiscation of the Talmud, =3=, 602.

  =Clement IV=, pope, appealed to against Nachmani, =3=, 605.

  =Clement VI=, pope, has Gersonides’ astronomical treatise
        translated, =4=, 93.
    arrests the Black Death persecutions, =4=, 103.
    declares the Jews innocent of well poisoning, =4=, 105.
    forbids the forced baptism of Jews, =4=, 173.

  =Clement VII=, pope, friendly to the Jews, =4=, 407.
    grants David Reubeni an audience, =4=, 492.
    efforts of, for the liberty of Italy, =4=, 492.
    treats Reubeni with distinction, =4=, 492-3.
    addressed on the Portuguese Inquisition, =4=, 500.
    permits Marranos to profess Judaism, =4=, 500.
    intercourse of, with Molcho, =4=, 503.
    honors Molcho publicly, =4=, 505.
    opposes the Portuguese Inquisition, =4=, 505.
    saves Molcho from the stake, =4=, 507.
    establishes the Portuguese Inquisition, =4=, 507.
    sympathizes with the Marranos, =4=, 509.
    innocent of Molcho’s death, =4=, 512.
    stays the Portuguese Inquisition, =4=, 513.
    absolves Marranos for leaving the Church, =4=, 513-14.
    motive of, in protecting the Marranos, =4=, 514.
    appoints a commission on the Portuguese Inquisition, =4=, 514.
    death of, =4=, 515.
    briefs of, enforced by Paul IV, =4=, 516.
    absolves the Marranos of Ancona, =4=, 568.

  =Clement VIII=, pope, grants an amnesty to the Marranos, =4=, 528.
    expels the Jews from the Papal States, =4=, 659.
    forbids the reading of the Talmud, =4=, 659.
    incorporates Ferrara with the Papal States, =4=, 660.
    absolves Portuguese Marranos, =4=, 671.

  =Clement IX=, pope, death of, =5=, 171.

  =Clement XIII=, pope, acquits the Jews of the blood accusation,
        =5=, 285-6.

  =Clemente, Philip=, Marrano, tries to suppress the Aragon
        Inquisition, =4=, 329.

  =Cleopatra I=, sister of Antiochus IV, wife of Ptolemy V, =1=, 450.

  =Cleopatra II=, sister and wife of Ptolemy VI, claimant of the
        Egyptian throne, =1=, 506.
    marries Ptolemy VII Physcon, =1=, 518.

  =Cleopatra III=, second wife of Ptolemy VII, mother of Ptolemy VIII,
        espouses the cause of Judæa, =2=, 10.
    defended by Judæan soldiers, =2=, 12.
    sends an army against her son, =2=, 40-1.
    in league with Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 41.

  =Cleopatra VI=, friendly to Herod, =2=, 86.
    favors Aristobulus (III), =2=, 92.
    summons Herod to answer for Aristobulus’ death, =2=, 92-3.
    receives the district of Jericho, =2=, 93.
    unkind to the Alexandrian Judæans, =2=, 94.
    schemes against Herod, =2=, 94-5.
    death of, =2=, 102.
    body-guard of, given to Herod, =2=, 103.

  =Cleopatra=, wife of Demetrius Nicator, kills her son, =2=, 6.

  =Cleopatra of Jerusalem=, wife of Herod, =2=, 119.

  =Clermont=, the Jews of, and Bishop Avitus, =3=, 38-9.
    the council of, resolves upon a crusade, =3=, 297.

  =Clermont-Tonnerre=, Count, defends the Jews, =5=, 440.
    favors the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 441.

  =Closener of Strasburg=, historian, on the persecution of the
        Jews, =4=, 106.

  =Clotaire II=, Merovingian king, hostile to the Jews, =3=, 40.

  =Clovis=, founder of the Frankish kingdom, =3=, 35.
    Jews in the army of, =3=, 36.
    converted, =3=, 36.

  =Coblenz=, the Jews of, persecuted, =3=, 611.

  =Cochelet=, French consul-general, interferes in the Damascus
        affair, =5=, 647.
    ordered to stop the Damascus trial, =5=, 649.
    hinders Montefiore and Crémieux in Egypt, =5=, 659, 660.

  =Codes, general=, defining the status of the Jews. _See under_
    Alfonso X of Castile,
    Alfonso V of Portugal,
    Henry IV of Castile,
    Napoleon,
    Theodosius,
    Visigothic.

  =Codes, Jewish religious.= _See_
    Asher ben Yechiel,
    Mishna, the
    Mishne Torah,
    Mordecai Jafa,
    Moses ben Israel Isserles,
    Shulchan Aruch,
    Turim.

  =Cœlesyria=, Macedonian province, Judæa belongs to, =1=, 414.
    conquered by Ptolemy I, =1=, 416.
    revolts from Ptolemy II, =1=, 423.
    Joseph, tax-gatherer of, =1=, 425.
    Herod governor of, =2=, 79.

  =Cohen, Aaron.= _See_ Aaron Cohen.

  =Cohen, Chayim.= _See_ Chayim Cohen.

  =Cohen, Daniel=, scientist, =4=, 405.

  =Cohen (Soncino), Gershon=, establishes a printing house in
        Prague, =4=, 418.

  =Cohen, Isaac.= _See_ Isaac Cohen Shalal.

  =Cohen, Jehuda.= _See_ Jehuda ben Solomon Cohen Ibn-Matka.

  =Cohen, Jonathan.= _See_ Jonathan Cohen.

  =Cohen, Joseph ben Joshua.= _See_ Joseph ben Joshua Cohen.

  =Cohen, Joshua Falk=, president of the Synod of the Four Countries,
        =4=, 645.
    Talmudist, =4=, 703.

  =Cohen, Judah.= _See_ Judah ben Moses Cohen.

  =Cohen, Malachi=, rabbi of Leghorn, espouses the cause of
        Eibeschütz, =5=, 264.

  =Cohen, Moses.= _See_ Moses Cohen de Tordesillas; Moses ben Judah.

  =Cohen, Moses Gerson.= _See_ Anton, Charles.

  =Cohen, Naphtali=, Kabbalist, patron of Chayon, =5=, 217.
    approves of Chayon’s work, =5=, 218.
    refrains from exposing Chayon, =5=, 219.
    exposes Chayon, =5=, 227.

  =Cohen, Nehemiah=, announces the approach of the Messiah, =5=, 152.
    summoned by Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 152.
    disagrees with Sabbataï, =5=, 153.
    turns Mahometan, =5=, 153.
    betrays Sabbataï, =5=, 153.
    returns to Poland, =5=, 154.

  =Cohen, Nehemiah Vital=, rabbi of Venice, and Luzzatto, =5=, 239.

  =Cohen, Perachyah=, physician and scientist, =4=, 405.

  =Cohen, Raphael= (1722-1803), rabbi of the “three communities,”
        opposes Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation, =5=, 330, 331,
        333.
    objects to the study of the sciences, =5=, 402.
    retirement of, =5=, 566.
    son-in-law of, =5=, 570.
    grandson of, =5=, 598.

  =Cohen, Sabbataï=, commemorates the Cossack massacres, =5=, 13.

  =Cohen, Samuel.= _See_ Samuel Cohen ben Daniel.

  =Cohen, Saul.= _See_ Saul Cohen Ashkenazi; Saul Astruc Cohen.

  =Cohen, Shalom=, employed by the Hamburg Dayanim, =5=, 573.

  =Cohen, Simcha.= _See_ Simcha Cohen.

  =Cohn, Isidore=, founder of the “Alliance Israélite Universelle,”
        =5=, 701.

  =Coimbra=, the Inquisition at, =4=, 508.

  =Coin=, counterfeiting of, denounced by the Mayence synod, =3=, 517.
    clipping of, charged against the English Jews, =3=, 642.

  =Coinage=, the right of, enjoyed by the Jews of Hungary, =3=, 521.

  =Coins= struck by Simon Tharsi, =1=, 525, 528.
    by John Hyrcanus, =2=, 12.
    by Aristobulus I, =2=, 35.
    by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 46.
    by Salome Alexandra, =2=, 48.
    by Aristobulus II, =2=, 62.
    by Alexander, son of Aristobulus II, =2=, 70.
    by Antigonus, =2=, 83.
    for Agrippa I, =2=, 190, 194.
    by the Zealots, =2=, 268.
    in honor of Simon ben Gamaliel, =2=, 269.
    Judæan, under Vespasian, =2=, 292.
    commemorating Titus’ victory, =2=, 314.
    by Nerva, =2=, 392.
    by Hadrian, =2=, 407, 419.
    by Bar-Cochba, =2=, 411.

  =Collectants=, a Dutch sect, =5=, 94.

  =Colleges=, established in Spain by the law of Avila, =4=, 229.

  =Colleges, Rabbinical=, at Metz, =5=, 597-8, 700.
    at Padua, =5=, 624, 700.
    at Breslau, =5=, 699-700.
    at various places, =5=, 700.

  =Colleges, Talmudical=, at Narbonne, =3=, 143, 242, 392.
    in western countries founded by emissaries from Sora, =3=, 208.
    at Cordova, =3=, 209, 228.
    in Egypt and the Fatimide Caliphate, =3=, 210.
    at Kairuan, =3=, 210-11, 248.
    in Spain, =3=, 236.
    at Mayence, =3=, 243, 247.
    at Lucena, =3=, 322.
    at Toledo, =3=, 338, 362.
    in Spain, closed, =3=, 361, 384.
    at Dampierre, =3=, 403.
    at London, =3=, 409.
    at Bagdad, =3=, 429, 633.
    in France, closed, =4=, 48.
    at Paris, =4=, 133.
    at Alcala, =4=, 145.
    at Padua, =4=, 410.
    in Poland, =4=, 420, 634, 639.
    at Cremona, =4=, 582.
    at Prague, =5=, 249.
    the decay of, =5=, 566-7, 569.
    _See also under_ Academies; Schools.

  =Collegium Germanicum=, propagandist seminary, =4=, 654.

  =Collier, Thomas=, refutes anti-Jewish charges, =5=, 46.

  “=Colloquium Middelburgense=,” controversial work, =4=, 691.

  =Colmar=, the Jews of, banished, =4=, 416.

  =Cologna, Abraham Vita di= (1755-1832), deputy to the Assembly of
        Jewish Notables, =5=, 488, 490.
    second vice-president of the Synhedrion, =5=, 495.
    member of the French consistory, =5=, 502.
    conservative, =5=, 559.

  =Cologne=, fair of, visited by Jews, =3=, 243.
    university of, and the confiscation of Hebrew books, =4=, 437, 441.
    theologians of, sanction the burning of the “Augenspiegel,”
        =4=, 452.

  =Cologne, the Dominicans of.= _See_ Dominicans, the, of Cologne.

  =Cologne, the Jews of=, privileges of, abolished by Constantine, =2=,
        563.
    settlement of, =3=, 41.
    protected during the first crusade, =3=, 304.
    massacred at Neus, =3=, 304-5.
    persecuted during the second crusade, =3=, 352.
    represented at the first rabbinical synod, =3=, 377.
    protected during the Black Death persecutions, =4=, 106, 108.
    banished, =4=, 227, 413.

  =Columbus=, aided by Joseph Vecinho, =4=, 368.

  =Comet=, a, orbit of, calculated by Joshua ben Chananya, =2=, 349.

  =Comino=, the isle of, Abraham Abulafia on =4=, 8.

  “=Commentary=,” Talmudical work by Rashi, =3=, 288.

  =Commerce=, under Uzziah, =1=, 230.
    pursued by Alexandrian Judæans, =1=, 504.
    under the Herodians, =2=, 118.
    between Jews and Christians forbidden, =2=, 620; =4=, 203, 216.
    among the Jews of the Frankish and Burgundian kingdoms, =3=, 35.
    in the hands of Jews in the eighth century, =3=, 142-3.
    international, in the hands of Jews, =3=, 162.
    in the hands of the Jews under the Saxon emperors, =3=, 242-3.
    the, of southern France, carried on by Jews, =3=, 391.
    the, of Venice, in the fifteenth century, =4=, 285.
    of the Turkish Jews, =4=, 401.
    of the Jews in Poland, =4=, 419.
    capacity for, an argument for the admission of Jews into England,
        =5=, 40-1.
    the, of the Jews, described by Simone Luzzatto, =5=, 82-3.
    stagnation of, during the Sabbatian movement, =5=, 149.
    forbidden partly to the Jews of Alsace, =5=, 348.
    the, of Jews under the Napoleonic law, =5=, 524-5.

  =Commercial Hall=, meeting place of the Synhedrion in Bethany, =2=,
        239.

  =Commodus=, emperor, profligacy of, =2=, 447.
    death of, =2=, 448, 463.

  “=Communities= of the Friends of Light,” Protestant societies, =5=,
        682, 683.

  “=Compositions=,” grammatical work by Yizchaki, =3=, 273.

  “=Concerning= the Jews and their Lies,” by Luther, =4=, 548-9.

  “=Concerning= the superstitions of the Jews,” letter addressed to
        Louis the Pious, =3=, 167-8.

  =Conciliador=, the, by Manasseh ben Israel, translated, =5=, 22.

  =Concordance of the Bible=, by Isaac Nathan ben Kalonymos, =4=,
        234-5.

  =Condottieri=, Italian mercenaries, =4=, 286.

  =Confederation War=, the, Jews suffer during, =5=, 387-8.

  =Confession= of Faith, the, recital of, forbidden, =3=, 15.

  =Confessional=, the, discussed by the Jews of France, =3=, 343.

  “=Confessions=,” by Heine, =5=, 553-5.

  =Confirmation=, the rite of, introduced into German Jewish
        communities, =5=, 562, 573.

  =Confiscation= and burning, the, of Hebrew books, by the Dominicans,
        =3=, 542-3.
    by Gregory IX, =3=, 574-6, 578-9.
    by Pfefferkorn, =4=, 429-31, 437-8, 441, 444.
    under Julius III, =4=, 565.
    under Paul IV, =4=, 567, 583, 584-5.
    under Pius V, =4=, 590.
    under Gregory XIII, =4=, 654.
    at Kamieniec, =5=, 282.
    _See also under_ Talmud, the.

  “=Conflict= of Duties, the, Letter on,” by Solomon Duran I, =4=, 238.

  =Conforte, David=, itinerant rabbi and historian, =5=, 202.

  =Congress.= _See_ Aix-la-Chapelle; Rastadt; Vienna.

  =Coniah.= _See_ Jehoiachin.

  =Conrad III=, emperor, protects the Jews during the second crusade,
        =3=, 351, 416.
    joins the second crusade, =3=, 353, 354.

  =Conrad of Wintertur=, exculpates the Jews from the charge of well
        poisoning, =4=, 106, 108.

  =Consistorial organization=, in France, approved by Napoleon, =5=,
        498.
    established in Westphalia, =5=, 501-2.

  “=Consolation= for the Sorrows of Israel,” by Samuel Usque,
        =4=, 558-61.

  =Constance, the Council of=, and Benedict XIII, =4=, 212, 216.
    condemns Ferrer, =4=, 217.
    anarchy during, =4=, 218.
    elects Martin V pope, =4=, 219.
    condemns John Huss to death, =4=, 221.
    expenses of, borne by the Jews, =4=, 248.

  =Constance (Costnitz), the Jews of=, charged with well poisoning, =4=,
        105.
    wait on Martin V, =4=, 219.

  =Constance= (lake), the cities on, the Jews of, charged with well
        poisoning, =4=, 105.

  =Constantia=, queen-mother, contends for the regency in Castile, =4=,
        52.

  =Constantine I=, emperor, puts Judaism on an equality with
        Christianity, =2=, 561.
    under the influence of Christianity, =2=, 561-2.
    abolishes the privileges of the Jews, =2=, 563; =5=, 725.
    closes Jerusalem to the Jews, =2=, 564; =3=, 11-12.
    protects the Jews against apostates, =2=, 564.
    anti-Jewish restrictions of, revived, =3=, 23, 171.

  =Constantine VIII= (944-949), Byzantine emperor, and Abdul-Rahman
        III, =3=, 218.

  =Constantine=, African town, refuge for Spanish Jews, =4=, 197.

  =Constantine Dragosses=, last Byzantine emperor, =4=, 267.

  =Constantinople=, the Temple vessels in, =3=, 26-7.
    Karaite center, =4=, 69, 71, 269.
    fall of, =4=, 267.
    Spanish spoken at, by the exiles, =4=, 388.
    the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 402-4.
    the Mendes-Nassi family in, =4=, 577.
    rabbis of, advise the diversion of Jewish trade from Ancona, =4=,
        580.
    rabbis of, excommunicate Daud, =4=, 599.
    description of, by Moses Almosnino, =4=, 608.
    Joseph Delmedigo at, =5=, 76.
    Sabbataï Zevi at, =5=, 145-8.
    effect of Sabbataï’s apostasy in, =5=, 157.
    Sabbatians excommunicated in, =5=, 157, 159.
    Sabbataï Zevi banished to, =5=, 166.
    Cardoso at, =5=, 207.
    Chayim Malach banished from, =5=, 214.
    Chayon at, =5=, 227-8.
    rabbis of, espouse the cause of Eibeschütz, =5=, 264.
    a rabbi of, accused of using human blood, =5=, 640.
    revision of the Rhodes trial at, =5=, 647.

  =Constantinople, the Jews of=, inhabit a separate quarter, =3=, 26.
    expelled, =3=, 26.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 425.
    divided into national groups, =4=, 402, 478.
    taxed, =4=, 402.
    have a political representative, =4=, 404.
    collect a ransom for Polish-Jewish captives, =5=, 8.
    appeal to the European Jews, =5=, 651.

  =Constantius=, emperor, influence of, on the Church, =2=, 566.
    teachers of the Law banished from Judæa under, =2=, 566-7.
    hostile to the Jews, =2=, 567-8.
    founder of the Christian state, =2=, 568.
    re-enacts Hadrian’s edicts against the Jews, =2=, 571.
    makes Julian co-emperor, =2=, 595.
    law of, with regard to the slaves of Jews revived, =2=, 615.
    law of, concerning the Patriarchs re-enacted, =2=, 616.

  =Constitutio Judæorum=, issued by Innocent III, =3=, 497.

  =Constitution of the Directory=, the, recognizes the emancipation of
        the Jews, =5=, 452.

  =Constitution, the French=, ratified by Louis XVI, =5=, 447.

  “=Constitutions=, The,” code of the Inquisition compiled by
        Torquemada, =4=, 326-8.
    introduced into Portugal, =4=, 508.

  =Conti, Vincent=, prints the Zohar, =4=, 583.

  =Contra-Remonstrants=, the, a Dutch sect, =4=, 673.

  “=Contrasts= and Greatness of Constantinople,” by Moses Almosnino,
        =4=, 608.

  =Controversial literature=, in Spain in the fifteenth century,
        =4=, 232-8.
    _See also_ Polemical works against Christianity.

  “=Conversations= and Recollections,” by Moses Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 320.

  =Conversion=, the, of the Himyarites, =3=, 56.

  =Conversion, the, of the Jews to Christianity=, promoted by
        Constantine, =2=, 562, 564.
    desired by Theodoric, =3=, 29-30.
    hoped by Bernard of Clairvaux, =3=, 353.
    means used for, by Raymond de Penyaforte, =3=, 520.
    encouraged by Louis IX, =3=, 570.
    projected by Benedict XIII, =4=, 206-7.
    designed by the Council of Basle, =4=, 245-6.
    attempted in Ratisbon, =4=, 301.
    measures for, devised by Pfefferkorn, =4=, 425-6.
    unpopular, =4=, 426-7.
    measures for, devised by Gregory XIII, =4=, 654-5, 706.
    hoped for by Cromwell, =5=, 43.
    agitated by Charles XI of Sweden, =5=, 182.
    agitated by Wagenseil, =5=, 186.
    urged by Rühs, =5=, 517.
    _See also_ Apostasy; Apostates.

  =Conversion, the forced, of Jews to Christianity=, objected to by
        Gregory I, =3=, 33.
    objected to by Henry IV, =3=, 298.
    forbidden by the third Lateran Council, =3=, 421.
    deprecated by Gregory IX, =3=, 570.
    deprecated by Gregory X, =3=, 635.
    advised by Duns Scotus, =3=, 644; =4=, 277.
    forbidden by Clement VI, =4=, 103, 173.
    deprecated by Innocent IV, =4=, 165.
    forbidden by Boniface IX, =4=, 173.
    deprecated by Martin V, =4=, 220.
    advocated by John of Capistrano, =4=, 277.
    condemned by Ferdinand Coutinho, =4=, 375.
    attempted by Manoel of Portugal, =4=, 377.
    objected to by Paul III, =4=, 517-18.
    _See also_ Marranos, the.

  =Conversions, forced, of Jews to Christianity=, in Magona, =2=,
        619-20.
    in Clermont, =3=, 38-9.
    under Chilperic, =3=, 39.
    under Sisebut, =3=, 48, 49-50.
    under Chintila, =3=, 51-2, 101.
    under Receswinth, =3=, 102-4.
    under Erwig, =3=, 106-7.
    under Leo the Isaurian, =3=, 122-3.
    under Basilius, =3=, 176.
    in Mayence, =3=, 246, 303.
    in Treves, =3=, 300.
    in Worms, =3=, 301-2.
    in Bohemia, =3=, 305, 356.
    in Blois, =3=, 380.
    in France, =3=, 403, 570; =4=, 48, 56.
    in Toulouse, =3=, 514.
    during the Rindfleisch persecution, =4=, 36.
    in Speyer, =4=, 107.
    in Strasburg, =4=, 108.
    in Hungary, =4=, 111.
    in Castile, =4=, 126, 137, 205.
    in Seville, =4=, 169.
    in Cordova, =4=, 169.
    in Toledo, =4=, 170.
    in Valencia, =4=, 171.
    in Gerona, Barcelona, and Lerida, =4=, 172.
    in Aragon, =4=, 206, 214.
    in Austria, =4=, 224.
    in Palma, =4=, 247.
    in Bavaria, =4=, 254.
    of children in Breslau, =4=, 262.
    in Trent, =4=, 298.
    in Spain at the expulsion, =4=, 351.
    in Navarre, =4=, 358.
    in Genoa, =4=, 363.
    in Malaga, =4=, 370.
    of children at San Thomas, =4=, 371.
    in Portugal, =4=, 374, 375-6, 378.
    in the Mark of Brandenburg, =4=, 440.
    in Poland, =5=, 7-8.
    _See also_ Apostasy; Apostates; Marranos, the.

  =Conversions, forced, of Jews to Islam=, by Omar, =3=, 120.
    decreed by Hakim, =3=, 247-8.
    in Morocco, =3=, 358-9.
    in northern Africa, =3=, 359-60.
    in Lucena, =3=, 311-12, 361.
    under Abdulmumen, =3=, 451-6.
    in Yemen, =3=, 461.
    Maimonides on, =3=, 462-4.
    _See also_ Apostasy; Apostates.

  =Conversions, forced, of Jews to Magianism=, =2=, 629.

  =Conversions to Judaism=, in Babylon, =1=, 338-9.
    under Zerubbabel, =1=, 356.
    made by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 46.
    among the Romans under Tiberius, =2=, 136-7.
    among the heathen, =2=, 215-19, 383-5.
    among the Roman soldiers of Titus, =2=, 306.
    Tacitus and Josephus on, =2=, 384.
    forbidden by Antoninus Pius, =2=, 433.
    forbidden by Constantine, =2=, 562.
    among slaves forbidden, =2=, 564, 567-8, 615; =3=, 46.
    during the Persian occupation of Palestine, =3=, 21.
    forbidden by the councils of Orleans, =3=, 37.
    among the Arabs, =3=, 61-3.
    punishable with death by the code of Alfonso X, =3=, 595.
    _See also_ Circumcision; Proselytes.

  =Conversions to Paganism= in Alexandria, =2=, 184.

  =Converts, forced, to Christianity=, a menace to the Spanish
        Jews, =4=, 179.
    emigrate from Spain, =4=, 179.
    relapse into Jewish ceremonies, =4=, 180.
    _See_ Marranos, the.

  =Converts, forced, to Judaism=, the Idumæans under John Hyrcanus,
        =2=, 8-9.
    the Ituræans and Trachonites under Aristobulus I, =2=, 37.

  =Converts to Christianity=, cannot return to Judaism, =3=, 49-50,
        306, 308.
    _See also_ Apostates; Christians, Judaizing; Marranos, the.

  =Converts to Judaism.= _See_ Circumcision; Conversions to Judaism;
        Proselytes.

  =Copenhagen=, the Jews of, persecuted, =5=, 531.

  =Copia, Sarah.= _See_ Sullam, Sarah Copia.

  =Copia, Simon=, father of Sarah Sullam, =5=, 69.

  =Coponius=, first procurator of Judæa, =2=, 129.
    administration of, =2=, 135.

  =Cordova=, ancient gateway in, =3=, 42.
    Jews masters of, =3=, 109.
    seat of a Talmud school, =3=, 210, 228, 236.
    birthplace of Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 255.
    taken by Suleiman, =3=, 255, 262.
    medical school at, =3=, 261.
    home of the Albalias, =3=, 283.
    synagogues of, destroyed, =3=, 360.
    Talmud school of, destroyed, =3=, 384.
    taken by the Almohades, =3=, 447-8.
    the Inquisition in, =4=, 325.
    Jews disappear from, =4=, 354.
    exiles from, form a congregation in Constantinople, =4=, 402.
    disturbance in, caused by the Inquisition, =4=, 484.
    autos-da-fé in, =5=, 91, 92.

  =Cordova, the Jews of=, ransom Moses ben Chanoch, =3=, 209.
    choose him as their rabbi, =3=, 209.
    appeal to Abdul-Rahman III, =3=, 209-10.
    Chasdaï Ibn-Shaprut political chief of, =3=, 217.
    prosperity of, =3=, 229.
    side against Joseph Ibn-Abitur, =3=, 238.
    Jacob Ibn-Jau chief of, =3=, 239.
    emigrate, =3=, 255.
    murdered in 1391, =4=, 169.

  =Cordova, the Marranos of=, attacked, =4=, 281-2.
    flee to Granada, =4=, 351.

  =Corfu=, the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 363-4.
    Isaac Abrabanel at, =4=, 384.
    rites of the Jews of, followed in Greece, =4=, 406.
    Nathan Ghazati at, =5=, 160.
    honors shown to Crémieux in, =5=, 668.

  =Corinth=, Judæans in, =2=, 203.
    Paul establishes a Christian community in, =2=, 228.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.

  =Cornelianus, Atidius=, governor of Syria, defeated by the
        Parthians, =2=, 447.

  =Cornelius=, Judæan envoy to Claudius, =2=, 197-8.

  =Coronel=, baptismal name of Abraham Senior’s family, =4=, 351.

  =Coronel, David Senior=, Marrano in Pernambuco, =4=, 693.

  =Coronello=, Joseph Nassi’s deputy, =4=, 597.

  =Correa, Isabel=, Marrano poetess, =5=, 114.

  “=Correction= of the False Teacher,” by Isaac Nathan ben Kalonymos,
        =4=, 234.

  =Cosmas=, bishop of Prague, protects the Jews during the first
        crusade, =3=, 305, 307.

  =Cossacks=, the, origin and independence of, =5=, 2.
    efforts to convert, =5=, 2-3.
    highly taxed, =5=, 3.
    Jews further the enslavement of, =5=, 6.
    insurrections of, =5=, 6, 7.
    organized into Haidamak troops, =5=, 8.
    massacres of the Jews by, =5=, 9-12.
    make peace with the Poles, =5=, 12.
    attack the Jews, =5=, 14, 15.
    second treaty with, =5=, 14.
    losses inflicted upon the Jews by, =5=, 15.
    persecutions by, influence Judaism, =5=, 16-17.
    ravages of, in Poland, =5=, 388.

  =Costa, Duarte Nuñes da=, Portuguese agent in Hamburg, =4=, 692.

  =Costa, Emanuel da=, Marrano, martyrdom of, =4=, 520-1.

  =Costa, Isaac Atias da=, civic honors of, =5=, 458.

  =Costa, Joseph da=, and Manasseh ben Israel, =5=, 34.

  =Costa, Uriel (Gabriel) da= (1590-1640), as a Marrano, =5=, 56.
    studies the Scriptures, =5=, 57.
    returns to Judaism, =5=, 57.
    at odds with Amsterdam Judaism, =5=, 58-9.
    excommunicated, =5=, 59.
    attacked by Samuel da Silva, =5=, 59.
    publishes a work hostile to Judaism, =5=, 59-60.
    retracts, =5=, 60-1.
    formulates a natural religion, =5=, 61.
    fails to conform to Jewish usages, =5=, 62.
    restrains Christians from becoming Jews, =5=, 62.
    refuses to do penance, =5=, 62.
    penance imposed upon, =5=, 63-4.
    autobiography of, =5=, 64-5.
    suicide of, =5=, 64.
    violence of, =5=, 84.
    case of, compared with Spinoza’s, =5=, 92, 93, 97.

  =Costnitz.= _See_ Constance.

  =Costobar=, prevents the escape of fugitives from Jerusalem, =2=, 89.

  =Costobar=, of the Herodian family, wickedness of, =2=, 236.
    accuses Gessius Florus before Nero, =2=, 268.

  =Cotys=, king of Armenia Minor, ally of Agrippa I, =2=, 195.

  =Cotys=, Byzantine commander, subdues the Jews of Antioch, =3=, 18.

  =Council of Elders=, the, instituted by Moses, =1=, 25-6.

  =Council of Seventy=, the. _See_ Council, the Great.

  =Council, the Great=, of Seventy, work of, =1=, 394-5.
    institutes Chanukah, =1=, 472-3.
    informs the Egyptian Judæans of the independence of Judæa, =1=,
        522.
    composed of Sadducees, =2=, 42.
    chief post in, given up to the Pharisees, =2=, 48-9.
    reorganized, =2=, 50.
    called the Great Synhedrion, =2=, 71.
    _See_ Synhedrion, the.

  =Council, the Great=, couples at the head of:
    José, son of Joëzer.        José, son of Johanan.
    Joshua, son of Perachia.    Matthai of Arbela.
    Judah ben Tabbai.           Simon ben Shetach.
    Shemaya.                    Abtalion.
    Hillel I.                   Shammai.

  =Councils, Church.= _See_ Church Councils.

  “=Counsels and Lessons=,” by Santob de Carrion, =4=, 115.

  =Couples.= _See_ Council, the Great.

  =Courts of justice=, held on Mondays and Thursdays in Judæa, =1=,
        394.
    restored to the Jews by Alexander Severus, =2=, 482.
    purified by Abba-Areka, =2=, 517.
    _See also_ Jurisdiction, Jewish, autonomous.

  =Coutinho, Ferdinand=, bishop of Algarve, opposes the forcible
        baptism of Jews, =4=, 375.
    describes the baptism of Jewish children, =4=, 376.
    opposes the Portuguese Inquisition, =4=, 500.

  =Cracow=, Jews massacred in, on the charge of well poisoning, =4=,
        111.
    the Jews of, number of, =4=, 632.
    the German population of, =5=, 3.
    Chassidistic writings burned in, =5=, 393.

  =Cranganor=, destroyed, =2=, 630.

  =Crassus=, member of the first Triumvirate, receives Syria, =2=, 73.
    robs the Temple, =2=, 74.
    slain, =2=, 74.

  =Creation=, Kabbalistic theory of, =3=, 552-3.
    theory of, held by Isaac Lurya, =4=, 619.

  =Creed=, the, by Albo, =4=, 240.
    by Chasdaï Crescas, =4=, 193.

  =Creed, the, by Maimonides=, =3=, 459-60.
    effect of, =3=, 469, 470.
    objected to, by Chasdaï Crescas, =4=, 193.

  =Creizenach, Michael= (1789-1842), advocate of the Reform movement,
        =5=, 674-5.

  =Crémieux, Adolf= (1796-1880), espouses the cause of the Damascus
        Jews, =5=, 643-4.
    acts in conjunction with the English Jews, =5=, 645, 651.
    appeals to Louis Philippe, =5=, 645.
    announces the faithlessness of Louis Philippe, =5=, 651.
    appeal to, from Damascus, =5=, 651.
    sent to Egypt, =5=, 652.
    at the London meeting, =5=, 653.
    hampered by the French ministry, =5=, 658.
    sets out for Egypt, =5=, 658.
    honors shown to, =5=, 658-9, 667-8.
    introduces himself to Mehmet Ali, =5=, 659.
    influences the European consuls and Mehmet Ali, =5=, 660.
    tries to establish schools in Egypt, =5=, 663, 671.
    services of, acknowledged, =5=, 669-72.
    declines a medal, =5=, 671.
    president of the “Alliance Israélite Universelle,” =5=, 702.

  =Cremona=, the Talmud burnt at, =4=, 582-3.

  =Cremona, the Jews of=, number of, =4=, 653.
    expelled, =4=, 660.

  =Crescas, Barfat=, imprisonment of, =4=, 150.

  =Crescas, Chasdaï.= _See_ Chasdaï ben Abraham Crescas.

  =Crescas Vidal=, opposes the study of science, =4=, 28-9.
    reproaches Samuel Sulami for harboring a heretic, =4=, 29.

  =Crete= (Candia), the Judæans of, make annual pilgrimages to
        Jerusalem, =2=, 220.
    a false Messiah in, =2=, 610-11.
    restored to Turkey, =5=, 661.
    the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 363-4, 406.
    the Talmud burnt in, =4=, 565.
    Cardoso on, =5=, 207.

  =Crimea=, the, Jews of the Byzantine empire settle in, =3=, 123-4.
    the Karaites spread to, =3=, 182.
    the land of the Chazars, =3=, 222.
    the Karaites in, in the twelfth century, =3=, 435.
    Karaites emigrate from, =4=, 269.
    Jews of Poland transported to, =5=, 8.

  =Crispia.= _See_ Berachya ben Natronaï Nakdan.

  =Crissa=, the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.

  “=Critical History= of the Old Testament, The,” by Richard
        Simon, =5=, 179.

  =Croatia=, the Jews of, proscribed, =3=, 614.

  =Crœsus=, at war with Cyrus, =1=, 343.

  =Cromwell, Oliver=, obtains religious liberty for England, =5=, 25-6.
    inspired by the Old Testament, =5=, 26, 27.
    regards the Jews favorably, =5=, 27.
    dissolves the Long Parliament, =5=, 34.
    Protector, =5=, 35.
    favors the re-settlement of Jews in England, =5=, 35, 42-3.
    invites Manasseh ben Israel to England, =5=, 38.
    receives Manasseh, =5=, 38-9.
    hopes to convert the Jews, =5=, 43.
    assembles a commission on the Jewish question, =5=, 43-5.
    followers of, favor the admission of Jews, =5=, 44.
    reported the Messiah of the Jews, =5=, 45.
    dismisses Manasseh honorably, =5=, 49.
    acquits the Marrano Robles, =5=, 49.
    permits a Jewish burial ground in London, =5=, 49.

  =Crossen=, the duchy of, Jews settle in, =5=, 173.

  =Crown money.= _See_ Aurum coronarium.

  =Crusade=, a, against the Albigenses, =3=, 501-3.
    against the Mahometans in Spain, =3=, 507.
    preached by order of Gregory IX, =3=, 570.
    organized by Louis IX with Jewish money, =3=, 585.

  =Crusade, the first=, Jews during, =3=, 298-305, 308, 309.
    disgraceful end of, =3=, 306.

  =Crusade, the second=, Jews during, =3=, 349-56.

  =Crusade, the third=, participators in, =3=, 404, 411, 418.
    preached by Fulko de Neuilly, =3=, 405.

  =Crusade, the fourth=, and the Jews, =3=, 496-7.

  =Crusaders=, fall upon Jews in the English towns, =3=, 412-13.

  =Crusades=, the, begin with massacres of the Jews, =4=, 222.

  =Crzemieniec=, Jewish children slaughtered in, =5=, 12.

  =Ctesiphon= (Ardashir), capital of the Parthians, =2=, 506.
    populated with Jews, =2=, 507.
    escapes seizure by Julian the Apostate, =2=, 602.

  =Cuenca=, the Jews of, under Sancho, =3=, 617.
    autos-da-fé in, =5=, 91, 92.

  =Cuenqui, Abraham=, Sabbataï Zevi’s biographer, =5=, 212.

  =Cumanus= (48-52), procurator of Judæa, =2=, 241.
    places a cohort in the Temple, =2=, 242.
    punishes the profanation of the Scriptures, =2=, 242-3.
    sides with the Samaritans, =2=, 243.
    hated in Jerusalem, =2=, 244.
    called to Rome to justify himself, =2=, 244.
    banished, =2=, 245.

  =Curiel, Jacob=, unites the Portuguese congregations of Amsterdam,
        =4=, 681.
    Portuguese agent in Hamburg, =4=, 692.

  =Cuthæans=, the, a mixed population colonized in Samaria, =1=, 285.
    _See_ Samaritans, the.

  =Cyaxares=, of Media, defeats the Assyrians, =1=, 287.
    puts an end to Assyria, =1=, 303.

  =Cyclades=, the, Joseph Nassi duke of, =4=, 596.

  =Cycle= of Rabbi Nachshon, the, key to the Jewish calendar, =3=, 179.

  =Cydonia=, original home of the Philistines, =1=, 54.

  =Cypros=, wife of Agrippa I, appeals to Herodias, =2=, 175.
    hostage for her husband, =2=, 176.

  =Cypros=, wife of Antipater, =2=, 77.

  =Cyprus=, refuge of Ptolemy VIII, =2=, 12.
    seized by Ptolemy VIII, =2=, 40.
    wheat imported from, for Jerusalem, =2=, 218.
    the Judæans of, make annual pilgrimages to Jerusalem, =2=, 220.
    promised to Joseph Nassi, =4=, 600.
    taken by the Turks, =4=, 601.
    as a Jewish state, =4=, 611.

  =Cyprus, the Jews of=, rebel against Trajan, =2=, 394.
    Martius Hurbo sent against, =2=, 398.
    join an expedition against the Christians of Tyre, =3=, 20.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 424-5.

  =Cyrenaica=, the Judæans of, have a synagogue in Jerusalem, =2=, 201.
    the Jews of, rebel against Trajan, =2=, 394, 395, 396.

  =Cyrene=, Judæans settle in, =1=, 419.
    position of the Judæans in, =1=, 503.
    given to Ptolemy VII, =1=, 507.
    the Judæans of, make annual pilgrimages to Jerusalem, =2=, 220.
    Zealots take refuge in, =2=, 317, 318.
    Jewish revolt in, =2=, 331.
    the Jews of, revolt from Trajan, =2=, 395, 397.

  =Cyril=, bishop of Alexandria, ill-treats the Jews, =2=, 618-19;
        =3=, 23.

  =Cyrus=, of Persia, dethrones the Median king, =1=, 342.
    at war with Crœsus, =1=, 343.
    called the instrument of God by Isaiah, =1=, 348.
    conquers Babylon, =1=, 349-50.
    proclaims himself king of Babylon, =1=, 350.
    permits the Judæans to return to Palestine, =1=, 351-2.
    sends an escort with the returning exiles, =1=, 355.

  =Czarnicki=, Polish general, ill-uses the Jews, =5=, 15.

  =Czechowic, Martin=, Polish Unitarian, writes against Judaism, =4=,
        648.

  =Czenstochow=, Frank imprisoned at, =5=, 288, 289.

  =Czernigov=, the Jews of, massacred, =5=, 10.


  =D=

  =Dabaritta=, the Judæans of, plunder Agrippa II’s agent, =2=, 279.

  =Dævas=, Persian evil spirits, =1=, 403.

  =Dafiera.= _See_ Solomon Dafiera.

  “=Dagger= of Faith, The,” anti-Jewish work by Raymund Martin,
        =3=, 622-3.

  =Dagobert= (629), Merovingian king, hostile to the Jews, =3=, 40.

  =Dagon=, Philistine god, =1=, 55.
    temple of, burnt, =1=, 496.

  =Dâï=, forerunner of the Messiah, =3=, 124.

  =Dalalat al Haïrin.= _See_ “Guide of the Perplexed, The.”

  =Dalberg, Karl von=, imperial chancellor, aids Breidenbach, =5=, 468.
    favors the emancipation of Jews, =5=, 504.
    grants civil rights to the Jews of Frankfort, =5=, 505.

  =Dalburg=, bishop of Worms, refuses to judge the Reuchlin
        case, =4=, 454.

  =Dallim= (Ebionim), disciples of Isaiah, =1=, 254.

  =Dalmatia=, the Jews of, proscribed, =3=, 614.

  =Damascus= (Aram, Syria), belongs to the king of Israel, =1=, 127.
    king of, defeated by David, =1=, 127.
    taken by Rezon, =1=, 177, 183.
    king of, makes a treaty with Rehoboam, =1=, 183.
    extended by Tabrimon, =1=, 183.
    conquered by Jeroboam II, =1=, 232.
    besieged by Tiglath-Pileser, =1=, 259.
    subdued by Sennacherib, =1=, 270.
    the goddess of love, worshiped in, =1=, 408.
    taken by the Hasmonæans, =1=, 498.
    number of Judæans in, =2=, 202.
    women of, adopt Judaism, =2=, 215.
    the Nazarene community in, =2=, 222-3.
    the apostle Paul in, =2=, 226, 227.
    Jehuda Halevi at, =3=, 342.
    captured by Hulagu, =3=, 606.
    the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 399-400.
    Chayim Vital Calabrese in, =5=, 52-3.

  =Damascus affair=, the, reported in the French journals, =5=, 642.
    taken up by Crémieux, =5=, 644.
    considered in England, =5=, 645.
    the Austrian report on, =5=, 646.
    in the hands of Mehmet Ali, =5=, 647.
    tried by a court of European consuls, =5=, 648.
    trial of, stopped by Thiers, =5=, 649.
    in the French Chamber of Deputies, =5=, 649-50.
    view of, among Catholics, =5=, 650-1.
    in Parliament, =5=, 652-3.
    discussed by London Jews, =5=, 653-4.
    a Mansion House meeting protests against, =5=, 656-7.
    rejoicing at the termination of, =5=, 667, 669.
    plans for commemorating, =5=, 669, 670, 671.
    account of, by Erter, =5=, 671.
    Munk on, =5=, 671-2.

  =Damascus, the Jews of=, in an expedition against the Christians of
        Tyre, =3=, 20.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 426-7.
    liturgy of, changed, =3=, 466.
    cause of, espoused by various governments, =5=, 633.
    number of, =5=, 634.
    suspected of ritual murder, =5=, 635, 636.
    arrested and tortured, =5=, 636-7.
    houses of, destroyed, =5=, 637.
    evidence favoring, suppressed, =5=, 637.
    confess under torture, =5=, 638.
    pronounced guilty by Ratti Menton, =5=, 640.
    appeal to the European Jews, =5=, 642, 651.
    torture of, stopped, =5=, 648.
    release of, =5=, 660-1.
    new crusade against, incited by Catholics, =5=, 662.

  =Dan, the tribe of=, late settlement of, =1=, 39.
    isolation of, =1=, 51.
    attacked by the Philistines, =1=, 64.
    oppressed by the Philistines, =1=, 66.
    around Nishabur, =3=, 433.

  =Dan=, northern frontier town of Israel, =1=, 129.
    occupied by Sheba’s followers, =1=, 149-50.
    center of idolatry, =1=, 186, 233.
    subjugated by Ben-hadad I, =1=, 191.

  “=Danger= to the Welfare and Character of the Germans through the
        Jews,” by J. F. Fries, =5=, 521.

  “=Dangerous= Courses, The,” by Joseph Penso, =5=, 113.

  =Daniel=, the supposed grave of, causes a quarrel, =3=, 434-5.

  =Daniel, the Book of=, written during the Maccabæan struggle,
        =1=, 465-6.
    language of, =1=, 465.
    consolations offered by, =1=, 465.
    prophesies the end of the Syrian power, =1=, 465-6.
    additions to, =2=, 359.
    prophecy of, thought to be verified, =2=, 482-3.
    explained by Jochanan bar Napacha, =2=, 494-5.
    as explained by Christians, =2=, 502.
    commentary on, by Porphyry, =2=, 502.
    a verse of, applied to Odenathus, =2=, 527.
    a prophecy of, applied to Julian the Apostate, =2=, 598.
    commentary on, by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 373.
    Nissim Gerundi on, =4=, 120.
    Gallipapa on, =4=, 149.
    commentary on, by Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 482.
    Simone Luzzatto on, =5=, 81.

  =Daniel=, friend of Immanuel Romi, =4=, 66.

  =Daniel=, Karaite, candidate for the Exilarchate, =3=, 155.

  =Daniel ben Saadiah=, anti-Maimunist, =3=, 525-6.
    excommunicated, =3=, 526.

  =Daniel, son of Solomon= (Chasdaï?, 1165-1175), Exilarch, =3=, 438.
    death of, =3=, 439.

  =Dante=, friend of Immanuel Romi, =4=, 65.
    imitated by Immanuel Romi, =4=, 66, 67.
    quoted, =4=, 325.

  =Danz=, Frankfort deputy to the Congress of Vienna, objects to the
        emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 519.

  =Daphne=, Verus Commodus at, =2=, 447.

  =Darius=, king of Persia, permits the rebuilding of the Temple, =1=,
        359.

  =Darius=, commander of Agrippa II’s troops, =2=, 259.

  “=Dark Age=,” the Jewish, =4=, 617.

  =Darke ha-Talmud=, work by Isaac Campanton, =4=, 230.

  =Darmstadt=, the Jews of, persecuted, =5=, 530.

  =Daroca=, the Jews of, converted, =4=, 206, 214.

  =Darshanim=, Jewish preachers, deliver sermons in the vernacular,
        under Louis the Pious =3=, 163.

  =Daub=, professor, protects the Jews of Heidelberg, =5=, 531.

  =Daud=, physician, traduces Joseph Nassi, =4=, 598-9.
    banished and excommunicated, =4=, 599.

  =Dauphiné=, Jews remain in, after the expulsion by Charles
        VI, =4=, 177.

  =David=, king, anointed, =1=, 95-6.
    poetic talent of, =1=, 96.
    under Samuel’s influence, =1=, 96-7.
    and Goliath, =1=, 97.
    soothes Saul’s melancholy, =1=, 98.
    victorious over the Philistines, =1=, 98-9.
    attacked by Saul, =1=, 99.
    marries Michal, =1=, 100.
    outlawed, =1=, 100.
    in friendly relations with Ammonites and Philistines, =1=, 100-2.
    at Ziklag, =1=, 101-2.
    to help the Philistines against Saul, =1=, 102.
    routs the Amalekites, =1=, 106-7.
    chosen king by Judah, =1=, 107.
    ally of Achish, =1=, 107-8.
    resides at Hebron, =1=, 109.
    and Abner, =1=, 110-12.
    rules over the whole kingdom, =1=, 112.
    subdues the Jebusites, =1=, 113-14.
    resides at Jerusalem, =1=, 114.
    at war with the Philistines, =1=, 115-18.
    at Adullam, =1=, 116.
    saved by Abishai, =1=, 117.
    ally of Hiram, =1=, 118.
    builds a cedar palace, =1=, 119.
    makes Jerusalem the center of religious life, =1=, 119-20.
    introduces choral song into the religious service, =1=, 120.
    as Psalmist, =1=, 120-1.
    as king, =1=, 121.
    loyalty to, =1=, 121-2.
    army of, =1=, 122.
    favorite and councilor of, =1=, 122-3.
    surrenders Saul’s descendants to the Gibeonites, =1=, 123.
    buries the remains of Saul and Jonathan, =1=, 124.
    at war with the Moabites, =1=, 125-6.
    at war with the Ammonites, =1=, 126-7.
    at war with the Aramæans, =1=, 127.
    at war with the Ammonites and Idumæans, =1=, 128-9.
    enlarges his territory, =1=, 129-30.
    faith of, =1=, 130.
    lenient towards conquered races, =1=, 131.
    betrays Uriah, =1=, 131-2.
    rebuked by Nathan, =1=, 133.
    and Absalom, =1=, 134-7.
    orders a census, =1=, 137-8.
    conspiracy against, =1=, 138-44.
    leaves Jerusalem, =1=, 140-1.
    faithful followers of, =1=, 141-2, 144.
    enemies of, =1=, 142.
    victorious over Absalom, =1=, 144.
    mourns Absalom, =1=, 145.
    invited to Jerusalem by the northern tribes, =1=, 146.
    pardons Amasa, =1=, 146.
    met by embassies of Benjamites and Judæans, =1=, 146-8.
    suppresses Sheba’s revolt, =1=, 148-50.
    returns to Jerusalem, =1=, 150.
    restrained from building a Temple, =1=, 150-1.
    debility of, =1=, 151.
    has Solomon acknowledged king, =1=, 153.
    death of, =1=, 154.
    summary of the reign of, =1=, 154-5.
    number of wives of, =1=, 161.
    descendants of, the only ones entitled to the crown, =1=, 527-8.
    a descendant of, the Messiah, =2=, 143, 144.
    descent from, traced by Spanish families, =3=, 43.
    Israelites under, settle in northern Arabia, =3=, 54.
    in Immanuel Romi’s work, =4=, 67.
    favorite character of the Puritans, =5=, 26.

  =David=, candidate for the Exilarchate, =3=, 439.

  =David=, German immigrant in Turkey, =4=, 271.

  =David=, principino of the Neapolitan Jews, =3=, 424.

  =David of Mosul=, Exilarch in Jerusalem, =3=, 506.
    excommunicates Daniel ben Saadiah, =3=, 526.

  =David de Pomis= (1525-1588), physician, employed by Christians, =4=,
        653.
    attainments of, =4=, 656.
    defense of Jewish physicians by, =4=, 656-7.
    Talmudic dictionary by, =4=, 657.

  =David ben Daniel=, Exilarch of Mosul, excommunicates Solomon
        Petit, =3=, 632.

  =David ben Judah= (825-840), Exilarch, =3=, 155-6.

  =David ben Kalonymos=, Tossafist, member of the Mayence synod, =3=,
        517.

  =David ben Maimun=, brother of Maimonides, =3=, 451, 457.

  =David ben Saul=, excommunicates the Maimunists, =3=, 529.
    excommunicated, =3=, 530, 536-7.

  =David ben Zaccaï= (940), Exilarch, deposes Kohen-Zedek, =3=, 186.
    appoints two Geonim of Sora, =3=, 192-3.
    excommunicates the congregation of Fars, =3=, 194.
    injustice of, =3=, 194-5.
    contest of, with Saadiah, =3=, 195-6, 200-1.
    cause of, espoused by Aaron Ibn-Sarjadu, =3=, 200.
    death of, =3=, 201.
    great-grandson of, =3=, 254.

  =David Ibn-Abi Zimra= (1470-1573), scholar, Spanish exile in
        Cairo, =4=, 393.
    rabbi of Cairo, =4=, 394.
    abolishes the Seleucidæan era, =4=, 394-5.
    reverses the liturgical changes made by Maimonides, =4=, 395.
    Kabbalist, =4=, 481.

  =David Ibn-Albilla=, philosopher, =4=, 91.

  =David Ibn-Yachya=, rabbi at Naples, =4=, 410.

  =David Ibn-Yachya Negro=, foresees the expulsion of the Jews from
        Portugal, =4=, 339.

  =David Abudarham=, a Jew of Castile, =3=, 617.

  =David Alrui= (Alroy, Ibn-Alruchi, Menahem ben Solomon), attainments
        of, =3=, 430.
    summons the Jews of the East to return to Jerusalem, =3=, 431.
    imprisoned, =3=, 431-2.
    death of, =3=, 433.

  =David Bonet Buen-Giorna=, Marrano, persuaded to remain a
        Christian, =4=, 188.
    epistle to, =4=, 188-90.

  =David Gans= (1541-1613), historian and astronomer, works of,
        =4=, 638-9.
    consulted by Basnage, =5=, 196.
    refutes Eibeschütz’s defense, =5=, 270.

  =David Kimchi= (1160-1235), grammarian and lexicographer, =3=,
        393-4, 561.
    grammatical and exegetical work of, =3=, 394.
    Maimunist, =3=, 530-1, 540-1.
    denounces Solomon of Montpellier, =3=, 544.
    works of, used by Raymund Martin, =3=, 622.
    commentary of, in the Bomberg Bible, =4=, 476.

  =David Maimuni= (1223-1300), grandson of Maimonides, aided by Solomon
        ben Adret, =3=, 620.
    Nagid of Egypt, friend of the Exilarch Yishaï, =3=, 627.
    appealed to by Hillel of Verona, =3=, 631.
    in the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 632-3.

  =David Negro Ibn-Yachya=, counselor of Ferdinand I of Portugal,
        =4=, 159-60.
    leaves Lisbon, =4=, 160.
    chief rabbi of Castile, =4=, 161, 162.

  =David Rafan=, discovers the Zohar to be a forgery, =4=, 20-1.

  =David Reubeni=, travels of, in the East, =4=, 491.
    description of, =4=, 491-2.
    at Rome, =4=, 492, 493.
    honored by the Jews, =4=, 493.
    received by João III of Portugal, =4=, 493, 498.
    considered the forerunner of the Messiah, =4=, 494, 497-8.
    repulses the Marranos and Solomon Molcho, =4=, 495-6.
    opposed by Miguel de Silva, =4=, 498-9.
    leaves Portugal, =4=, 499.
    prisoner in Spain, =4=, 499.
    in Avignon, =4=, 499.
    and Molcho, =4=, 504.
    and the Venetian senate, =4=, 504.
    petitions Charles V, =4=, 509-10.
    confined by the Spanish Inquisition, =4=, 511.

  =David’s chapel=, Franciscan church on Mount Zion, =4=, 274.

  =Daya=, character in “Nathan the Wise,” =5=, 324.

  =Dayan=, title of the judges in Jewish Babylonia, =3=, 98.
    title of Moses ben Chanoch, =3=, 229.

  =Dayane-di-Baba=, judges of the gate, in Babylonia, =2=, 547.

  =Dayanim=, assistants of the rabbis, =5=, 566, 569.

  =Dead Sea=, the, description of, =1=, 43.

  =Debir=, the, the Holy of Holies, =1=, 165.

  =Debir= (Kirjath-Sepher), taken by the tribe of Judah, =1=, 38.

  =Deborah=, judge, inspires resistance to Jabin, =1=, 61.

  =Debts owing to Jews=, the interest on, repudiated by Eugenius III,
        =3=, 349, 351.
    the repudiation of, not permitted by Maria de Molina, =4=, 52.
    the repudiation of, urged by Louis the Rich, =4=, 254.

  =Decapolis=, league of towns, freed from Judæan rule, =2=, 67.

  =Deckendorf= (Deggendorf), the Jews of, massacred, =4=, 98.

  “=Declaration=,” by Manasseh ben Israel, concerning the admission of
        Jews into England, =5=, 39-42.

  “=Defense= of the Rational Worshipers of God,” by Reimarus, =5=, 320.

  “=Definitions= and Descriptions,” by Isaac Israeli, =3=, 181.

  =Deï Rossi.= _See_ Azarya ben Moses deï Rossi.

  =Deity=, the, Israelitish conception of, =1=, 24, 402.

  =Delaborde=, Count, on the Turkish Jews, =5=, 649-50.

  “=Delight= of all Mankind,” epithet of Titus, =2=, 304.

  =Delitzsch, Franz=, admires neo-Hebraic poetry, =5=, 628-9.

  =Della Ruvere, Marco=, nuncio in Portugal, =4=, 514.

  =Della Volta, Samuel Vita=, physician and scholar, =5=, 622.

  =Del Medigo.= _See_ Elias del Medigo.

  =Delmedigo, Joseph Solomon= (1591-1655), sceptic, =5=, 56, 75-6.
    ancestry and education of, =5=, 75.
    wanderings of, =5=, 76-80.
    mathematical attainments of, =5=, 76.
    among Karaites, =5=, 76-7.
    as physician, =5=, 76, 80.
    defends the Kabbala, =5=, 78.
    at Amsterdam, =5=, 79.
    preacher, =5=, 79-80.
    end of, =5=, 80.
    hypocrisy of, =5=, 84.

  =Delmedigo, Judah=, son of Elias, rabbi of Canea, =4=, 406.

  =Dembowski, Nicolas=, bishop of Kamieniec, persecutes the
        Frankists, =5=, 278.
    Frankists make a partial confession of Christianity before, =5=,
        279.
    favors the Frankists, =5=, 279-80.
    consents to disputations between Frankists and Talmudists, =5=,
        280, 281-2.
    confiscates and burns the Talmud, =5=, 282.
    death of, =5=, 282.

  =Dembowski=, Frankist family, =5=, 289.

  =Demetrius I=, of Syria, sent to Rome as hostage, =1=, 443.
    throne of, usurped by Antiochus IV, =1=, 443.
    plots to depose Antiochus V, =1=, 481.
    escapes from Rome, =1=, 482.
    kills Antiochus V, =1=, 482.
    appoints Alcimus high priest, =1=, 482.
    sends Bacchides to Jerusalem, =1=, 482, 486.
    sends Nicanor to Judæa, =1=, 484.
    leaves the religious freedom of the Judæans undisturbed, =1=,
        488, 491-2.
    seeks the friendship of Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 494, 495-6.

  =Demetrius II Nicator=, of Syria, contests the throne with Alexander
        Balas, =1=, 496.
    appealed to by the Hellenists, =1=, 497.
    exempts the Judæans from taxation, =1=, 497.
    besieged in his palace, =1=, 497.
    seeks help with Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 497.
    flees from Antioch, =1=, 498.
    negotiates with Simon Tharsi, =1=, 521.
    acknowledges the independence of Judæa, =1=, 521.
    expedition of, against Persia, =1=, 525.
    defeated by the Parthians, =2=, 5.
    deposed by Alexander Zabina, =2=, 6.
    death of, =2=, 6.

  =Demetrius=, librarian of Ptolemy II, advises the translation of the
        Law, =1=, 514.

  =Demetrius=, son of Antigonus, defeated, =1=, 417.

  =Demetrius=, son-in-law of Agrippa I, =2=, 235.

  =Demiurge=, creator of the world, in the Gnostic system, =2=, 375.

  =Demons, exorcism of=, in Galilee, =2=, 148.
    by the Essenes, =2=, 151.
    by Jesus, =2=, 156-7.
    by the disciples of Jesus, =2=, 170.

  =Denia=, home of Isaac Albergeloni, =3=, 284.

  =Denmark=, the Protestant Reformation in, =4=, 469.
    Jews invited to settle in, =4=, 675.
    rabbis of, willing to excommunicate Luzzatto, =5=, 241.
    favors the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 519, 531.

  =Derasha.= _See_ Agada.

  =Derbend= (Berdaa), Jews settle in, =3=, 124.
    refuge of the Chazars, =3=, 222.

  =Derketades=, royal Assyrian house, last member of, =1=, 258.

  =Derush.= _See_ Agada.

  =Descartes=, philosophy of, studied by Spinoza, =5=, 89.
    characteristics of, =5=, 90.

  =Desfar, Juan=, governor of Palma, protects the Jews, =4=, 246, 247.

  =Dessau=, subscribers to Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation
        in, =5=, 329.

  =Deuteronomy, the Book of=, found in the Temple, =1=, 289, 292-3.
        _See under_ Law, the.

  =Deuterosis=, code of Rabbi Akiba, =2=, 354.

  =Deuterotes=, the Tanaites, =2=, 371.

  =Deutz, Menahem=, member of the French consistory, =5=, 502.

  =Deutz=, the Jews of Cologne take refuge in, =4=, 227.

  =De Wette=, exegete, =5=, 623, 695.

  =De Witt, John=, friend of Spinoza, =5=, 107, 108.

  =Deza=, archbishop of Seville, second inquisitor general, =4=,
        356, 484.

  =Dhor el-Khedib=, highest peak of Lebanon, =1=, 44.

  =Dialoghi d’amore= (“Dialogues of Love”), by Leon Abrabanel,
        =4=, 480-1.

  =Dias, André=, Marrano, assassin of Henrique Nunes, =4=, 490.

  =Dibre Sopherim=, the work of the Council of Seventy, =1=, 395.
    traditional Jewish lore, =2=, 19, 472.
    _See_ Law, the oral.

  =Dictionaries=, Chaldean and Rabbinical, by Elias Levita, =4=, 474.

  =Dictionary.= _See_ Aruch; Iggaron; Lexicon; Machbereth.

  =Diderot=, praises Pereira’s sign language, =5=, 343.

  =Diebitsch, von=, defender of the Jews, =5=, 470.

  =Diego de Valencia=, apostate, Spanish satirist, =4=, 181.

  =Dietary laws=, the, observed by the Babylonian Judæans, =1=, 364.
    observed by the Judæan Christians of Antioch, =2=, 231.
    obeyed by the Jews of Gaul, =3=, 36.
    observed by the Jews of Arabia, =3=, 58.
    made severer by Anan ben David, =3=, 132.
    not observed by the “Friends of Reform,” =5=, 675.
    declaration against, withdrawn, =5=, 676.

  =Dieterich.= _See_ Theodoric of Burgundy.

  =Diez=, friend of Dohm, on the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 358-9.

  =Dimé=, Palestinian Amora, banished from Judæa, =2=, 567.

  =Dimuh=, so-called synagogue of Moses at, =3=, 445.

  =Dina d’malchuta dina=, sanctity of the law of the land, =2=, 519.

  =Diniz= (1279-1325), of Portugal, Jews under, =3=, 618.

  =Dio Cassius=, historian, on the revolt under Bar Cochba, =2=, 411.
    on the fall of Bethar, =2=, 418-19.

  =Dio Kart=, birthplace of Huna, =2=, 545.

  =Diocæsarea.= _See_ Sepphoris.

  =Diocletian=, emperor, tolerant, =2=, 533.
    accuses Judah III of disloyalty, =2=, 533-4.
    and Abbahu, =2=, 538.
    persecutes Christianity, =2=, 539.

  =Diodorus=, ambassador to Rome, =2=, 4-5.

  =Diodotus Tryphon=, general of Alexander Balas, puts the latter’s son
        on the throne, =1=, 497-8.
    friendly to Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 498.
    seeks to make himself king, =1=, 498-9.
    takes Jonathan Haphus prisoner, =1=, 499.
    negotiates with Simon Tharsi for tribute, =1=, 500-1.
    has Jonathan Haphus executed, =1=, 501.
    Simon Tharsi hostile to, =1=, 521.
    at odds with Antiochus Sidetes, =1=, 525, 528, 529.

  =Diogenes=, Sadducee, favorite of Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 42.
    advises the crucifixion of Pharisees, =2=, 45.
    put to death by the Pharisees, =2=, 55.

  =Diokna Kadisha=, Kabbalistic term, =4=, 538.

  =Dionysus=, worshiped in Alexandria, =1=, 428.
    festival of, in Judæa, =1=, 428, 456-7.

  =Dios-Carne.= _See_ Astruc Raimuch.

  =Dioscorides=, work of, translated, =3=, 218.

  =Diospolis.= _See_ Lydda.

  =Dioterich.= _See_ Theodoric.

  =Disciples=, meaning of, =2=, 357.
    _See_ Law, the, the teachers of.

  =Dispersion=, the, of Judæans under Uzziah, =1=, 227.
    after the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 317-18.
    in the lands of the Seleucidæ and the Ptolemies, =1=, 420-1.
    value of, =2=, 200-1.

  =Disputation=, between Judæans and Samaritans in Alexandria,
        =1=, 516-17.
    between Donin and four rabbis, =3=, 576-8.
    between Pablo Christiani and Nachmani, =3=, 598-604.
    at Burgos, =4=, 140.
    at Avila, =4=, 140-2.
    at Pampeluna, =4=, 142.
    at Tortosa, =4=, 207-15.
    at Kamieniec, =5=, 280-1.
    at Lemberg, =5=, 285-7.

  =Disputations=, between Jews and Christians, under Basilius,
        =3=, 175-6.
    in France in the twelfth century, =3=, 343.
    _See under_ Polemical works against Christianity.

  “=Distinction=,” anti-Karaite work by Saadiah, =3=, 192.

  “=Diversions=,” satire by Joseph ben Sabara, =3=, 559.

  =Divine Service=, the. _See_ Liturgy, the.

  =Divorce=, abolished by Obaiah Abu-Isa ben Ishak, =3=, 124.
    bills of, criticised after delivery to the wife, =3=, 378.
    discussed by the Assembly of Jewish Notables, =5=, 489, 491.
    discussed by the French Synhedrion, =5=, 497.

  =Divorce law=, the, as formulated by the Pharisees, =2=, 50.
    according to the school of Shammai, =2=, 132.
    as interpreted by Meïr, =2=, 439.
    alleviations of, proposed by Judah II, =2=, 484.
    regulated by Abba Areka, =2=, 516-17.
    reformed by Hunaï and Mar-Raba, =3=, 92.
    changed by Gershom, =3=, 244.
    modified by the Troyes synod, =3=, 378.
    changed by Menachem of Merseburg, =4=, 228.

  =Divorces=, frequent among Kabbalists, =4=, 627; =5=, 210.

  =Djabar, the Jews of=, pillaged, =5=, 641.

  =Dnieper=, the, colonies of serfs on, =5=, 2.

  =Doag=, captain of the guard under Saul, =1=, 91.

  =Dob Beer.= _See_ Beer of Mizricz.

  =Dohm, Christian William= (1751-1820), friend of Mendelssohn,
        =5=, 351-2.
    plea by, for the amelioration of the condition of the Jews,
        =5=, 352-62.
    inspired by Mendelssohn, =5=, 356, 361, 366.
    admits the depravity of the Jews, =5=, 361.
    criticised by Mendelssohn, =5=, 361-2.
    enlists Mirabeau’s sympathies for the Jews, =5=, 366.
    fails to impress Frederick the Great, =5=, 414.
    helps to frame the Westphalian constitution, =5=, 500.
    entertains a distorted view of Jewish history, =5=, 593.

  =Dok=, fortress, Simon Tharsi assassinated in, =1=, 530.
    Ptolemy ben Habub shut up in, =1=, 531.

  =Dolmäh.= _See_ Donmäh.

  =Domingo=, founder of the Dominican order, =3=, 519.

  =Dominicans=, the, originate in the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 509.
    persecutions by, in southern France, =3=, 519.
    entrusted with the extirpation of the Albigenses, =3=, 542.
    interfere in the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 542-3.
    preach Jew hatred, =3=, 565.
    judges of the Talmud, =3=, 575, 602-3.
    at Donin’s disputation, =3=, 576.
    charge the Jews of England with the blood accusation, =3=, 591.
    taught Hebrew and Arabic for conversion purposes, =3=, 597, 621.
    in the Barcelona synagogue, =3=, 601.
    appeal to Clement IV against Nachmani, =3=, 605.
    enforce Jew badges, =3=, 613.
    in Hungary, =3=, 614.
    and Robert de Redingge’s conversion, =3=, 641.
    deliver sermons to the Jews of England, =3=, 643-4.
    denounce the Jews of England, =3=, 645.
    arouse hatred against the Hussites and the Jews, =4=, 222, 226.
    hate the Jews, =4=, 308.
    try to convert the Jews of Spain, =4=, 350.
    work for the expulsion of the Portuguese Marranos, =4=, 486-7.
    incite the mob against the Marranos, =4=, 487.
    have the Jews of Genoa banished, =4=, 554.
    arouse Cremona against the Jews, =4=, 582.

  =Dominicans, the, of Cologne=, and their crusade against Judaism,
        =4=, 424-6.
    wish to confiscate the Talmud, =4=, 425, 426, 428.
    devise measures for the conversion of the Jews, =4=, 426.
    urge Maximilian I to deliver the Jews to them, =4=, 428-9.
    eager to associate Reuchlin with themselves, =4=, 432.
    suspect Reuchlin of heresy, =4=, 435-6.
    obtain Maximilian’s fourth mandate, =4=, 440-1.
    decide upon the burning of the Talmud, =4=, 444.
    declare the Hebrew Bible heretical, =4=, 445.
    publish a refutation of Reuchlin’s defense, =4=, 445-6.
    sanction the burning of the “Augenspiegel,” =4=, 452.
    try to overthrow the Speyer decision against Hoogstraten, =4=,
        455-6, 458.
    hatred of, for the Jews, increases, =4=, 457.
    threaten to withdraw allegiance from the papacy, =4=, 459.
    abuse Maximilian I, =4=, 459.
    rejoice over the University of Paris decision, =4=, 460.
    have the “Augenspiegel” translated, =4=, 460.
    plan the extermination of the Jews of Germany, =4=, 462-3.
    complain of the treatment accorded them, =4=, 465-6.

  =Dominicus Haman Epiphanes=, pseudonym of a Jewish champion, =5=, 471.

  =Domitia=, empress, Josephus a favorite of, =2=, 389.

  =Domitian=, emperor, celebration of the birthday of, =2=, 312.
    celebrates his triumph over Judæa, =2=, 314-15.
    Jews troubled under, =2=, 345, 384, 388-9.
    cousin of, convert to Judaism, =2=, 387.
    Josephus a favorite of, =2=, 389.
    prosecutes Josephus, =2=, 391.

  =Domitilla, Flavia=, convert to Judaism, =2=, 387, 389.

  =Domna, Julia=, wife of Severus, =2=, 468.

  =Donin= (Nicholas), Talmudist, excommunicated by the French rabbis,
        =3=, 572-3.
    apostatizes, =3=, 573.
    causes the persecution of the Jews of Poitou, =3=, 573.
    brings charges against the Talmud, =3=, 573-4.
    disputation of, with four rabbis, =3=, 576-8.
    and Pablo Christiani, =3=, 598, 599, 602.
    charges of, repeated, =4=, 213.
    instigates the burning of the Talmud, =4=, 460.

  =Donmäh= (Dolmäh), the, followers of Berachya, =5=, 211.
    descendants of, in Salonica, =5=, 211.
    joined by Chayim Malach, =5=, 214.
    address prayers to their leaders, =5=, 274.

  =Donnolo.= _See_ Sabbataï Donnolo.

  =Dora=, besieged by Antiochus Sidetes, =1=, 528, 529.
    Greek youths of, introduce statues into the synagogues, =2=, 193.

  =Doria, Andrea=, doge of Genoa, opposed to the expulsion of the
        Jews, =4=, 554.
    employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 555.

  =Doria, Gianettino=, and Joseph Cohen, =4=, 555.

  =Doris=, first wife of Herod, =2=, 112.

  =Dormido, David Abrabanel=, petitions Parliament to permit Jews to
        settle in England, =5=, 35.

  =Dorotheus=, Judæan envoy to Rome, =2=, 197-8.

  =Dortmund=, Jews tolerated in, =4=, 686.

  =Dortus= of Jerusalem, tries to incite a rebellion against
        Cumanus, =2=, 244.

  =Dositheus=, companion of Onias IV, espouses Ptolemy VI’s cause, =1=,
        506, 507.

  =Dossa ben Nachman= (Archinas), teacher of the Law, =2=, 330.

  =Dossa ben Saadiah=, author, =3=, 202.
    in correspondence with Chasdaï Ibn-Shaprut, =3=, 217.

  “=Doubts= of the Religion of Jesus,” by Joseph Ibn-Shem Tob, =4=, 235.

  =Dowry=, the law of, according to Meïr, =2=, 439.

  =Draï=, the Jews of, persecuted, =3=, 360.

  =Drama=, the, in Jewish literature, =5=, 112.

  =Dresden=, Jews permitted to live in, =5=, 509.

  =Dresden, the Jews of=, assisted by Mendelssohn, =5=, 344.
    present an address to the Synhedrion, =5=, 496.

  =Drome=, rabbi of, at the first rabbinical synod, =3=, 377.

  =Drouth=, under Uzziah, =1=, 229-30.

  =Drusilla=, youngest daughter of Agrippa I, affianced to Epiphanes of
        Commagene, =2=, 195, 235.
    married to Aziz, =2=, 235.
    married to Felix, =2=, 235, 245.
    envious of Berenice, =2=, 236.

  =Drusus=, son of Tiberius, educated with Agrippa I, =2=, 175.

  =Drusus=, a tower on the wall of Cæsarea, =2=, 106.

  =Dsimma=, Mahometan tax, =3=, 110.

  =Duarte de Pinel.= _See_ Usque, Abraham.

  =Dubno, Solomon=, writes the commentary to Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch
        translation, =5=, 329, 332.
    alienated from Mendelssohn, =5=, 334.

  =Duchan, Jacob Israel=, Sabbatian, =5=, 156.

  =Dudaï ben Nachman= (761-764), principal of Pumbeditha, opponent of
        Anan ben David, =3=, 129.

  =Duelling=, permitted to Jews under Alfonso VI, =3=, 293.

  =Du Guesclin, Bertrand=, aids Henry de Trastamare, =4=, 123, 124.
    cruelty of, to the Jews of Castile, =4=, 126.
    kills Pedro the Cruel, =4=, 126.

  =Dulcigno=, Sabbataï Zevi banished to, =5=, 166.

  =Dunash ben Labrat= (Adonim, 920-970), poet, founder of Judæo-Spanish
        culture, =3=, 215.
    introduces meter into the Hebrew language, =3=, 223.
    supplements Menachem ben Saruk, =3=, 225.
    circumstances of, =3=, 226.
    criticises Saadiah’s works, =3=, 226.
    controversy of, with the disciples of Menachem ben Saruk,
        =3=, 226-7.
    disciples of, grammarians and poets, =3=, 237.
    grammar by, known to Rashi, =3=, 289.

  =Dunash ben Tamim= (Abusahal, 900-960), disciple of Isaac Israeli,
        =3=, 181, 211-12.
    admiration of, for Saadiah, =3=, 192.
    physician to a caliph, =3=, 211.
    works of, =3=, 211.
    and Chasdaï Ibn Shaprut, =3=, 217.

  =Dunin.= _See_ Donin.

  =Duns Scotus=, scholastic philosopher, counsels compulsory baptism of
        Jews, =3=, 644; =4=, 277.

  =Duport=, favors the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 441, 447-8.

  =Duran.= _See_ Profiat; Simon ben Zemach; Simon (II); Solomon (I).

  =Dury, John=, writes against the admission of Jews into England, =5=,
        46.

  =Düsseldorf=, the Jews of, persecuted, =5=, 530.

  “=Duties= of the Heart, The,” by Bachya Ibn-Pakuda, translated, =3=,
        397.

  =Du Vallié, Antoinette=, mother of the next, =5=, 175.

  =Du Vallié, Paul=, apostate, testifies falsely in a blood accusation
        case, =5=, 175.

  =Dyeing=, trade of the Jews of Jerusalem, =3=, 427, 606.

  =Dzalski=, Frankist family, =5=, 289.


  =E=

  =Earthquake=, under Uzziah, =1=, 229, 236.
    under Hyrcanus II, =2=, 61.
    under Herod, =2=, 95.
    under Hadrian, =2=, 408.
    at Lisbon, =4=, 505.
    at Ferrara, =4=, 615.

  =East=, the, conversions to Judaism in, =2=, 383.

  =East, the, the empire of.= _See_ Byzantine Empire, the.

  =East, the, the Jews of=, affected by Islam theology, =3=, 148.
    persecuted, =3=, 245-8.
    poor, =5=, 205.
    admire the European Jews, =5=, 662-3.
    _See also under_ Abbasside Caliphate, the; Byzantine Empire, the.

  =East, the, the Roman governors of.= _See_ Amantius; Bonosus.

  =East India Company=, the, Jews interested in, =4=, 677.

  =Easter=, the date of, fixed, =2=, 563-4.
    to be celebrated before the Passover, =3=, 13.
    tax to be paid at, by Jews, =3=, 510.

  =Eastertide attacks upon Jews=, in France, =3=, 173-4.
    in Béziers, =3=, 394.
    in Prague, =4=, 164.
    in Majorca, =4=, 246.
    in Trent, =4=, 298.

  =Eastertide, Jews forbidden to appear in public during=, by the
        Councils of Orleans, =3=, 37.
    by the Council of Mâcon, =3=, 39, 171.
    by the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 510.
    by the Council of Narbonne, =3=, 518.
    by the Council of Béziers, =3=, 582.
    by the code of Alfonso X, =3=, 595.
    in Ratisbon, =3=, 635.
    by Eugenius IV, =4=, 250.
    by Henry IV of Castile, =4=, 278.

  =Ebal=, mountain, described, =1=, 45.

  “=Eben Bochan=,” polemic by Shem-Tob ben Isaac Shaprut, =4=, 142.

  =Eben ha-Ezer=, scene of battles between Israelites and Philistines,
        =1=, 70, 78.

  =Eberard=, Magister Judæorum, under Louis the Pious, =3=, 161.
    and the bishop of Lyons, =3=, 164, 166.

  =Eberhard von Cleve=, Dominican provincial, complains of the
        treatment of his order, =4=, 465-6.

  =Ebionim= (Dallim), disciples of Isaiah, =1=, 254.

  =Ebionites= (Ebionim), the, followers of Jesus, =2=, 168, 366.
    communists, =2=, 220.
    disappearance of, =2=, 373.
    use Akylas’ Scripture translation, =2=, 387.
    merged into the Catholic Church, =2=, 500.
    _See under_ Jewish Christians, the; Judæan Christians, the.

  =Ecbatana=, taken by Cyrus, =1=, 342.
    the goddess of love worshiped in, =1=, 408.

  =Ecclesiastes, the Book of=, holiness of, discussed in the Synhedrion,
        =2=, 343-4.
    exposition of, by Samuel Ibn-Tibbon, =3=, 398.
    commentary on, by Nathaniel of Bagdad, =3=, 442.

  =Ecclesiasticus, the Book of=, by Jesus Sirach, =1=, 439-41.
    considered apocryphal, =2=, 344.
    translated into Greek, =2=, 359.

  =Ecija=, the Jews of, persecuted, =4=, 170.

  =Eck, Dr. John=, writes against the Jews, =4=, 546-7.
    accusations of, repeated by Luther, =4=, 548, 549, 550.

  =Eden=, garden of, name applied to Paradise, =1=, 404.

  =Edessa=, destroyed, =2=, 398.
    the Christians of, persecuted, =2=, 524.
    the Jews of, massacred, =2=, 599.
    taken by Nureddin, =3=, 349.

  =Edict=, banishing the Jews from Spain, =4=, 347-8.

  =Edict of Grace=, the, for Marranos, =4=, 315.

  =Edles, Samuel=, Talmudist, =4=, 703.

  =Edom.= _See_ Idumæans, the.

  =Education= among the Jews. _See under_ Academies; Colleges; Law, the;
        Schools; Talmud, the; Talmud Torah.

  =Edward I=, of England, Jews under, =3=, 640-6.
    stops the denunciations of coin counterfeiters, =3=, 643.
    and the charge of blasphemy against the Jews, =3=, 643.
    permits the Dominicans to preach to the Jews, =3=, 643-4.
    erects a house for Jewish converts, =3=, 644.
    banishes the Jews, =3=, 645.

  =Edward=, Prince of Wales (the Black Prince), aids Pedro the Cruel,
        =4=, 124, 125.

  =Edzardus, Esdras=, Hamburg preacher, and David de Lara, =5=, 115.
    and the Sabbatian movement, =5=, 151.

  =Efodi.= _See_ Profiat Duran.

  =Eger, Akiba=, reverence paid to, =5=, 567.

  =Eger, Samuel=, protests against reforms, =5=, 562.

  =Egica=, Visigothic king, forbids Jews to hold real estate,
        =3=, 107-8.

  =Egidio de Viterbo=, cardinal, sides with Reuchlin, =4=, 457.
    patron of Elias Levita, =4=, 472, 564.
    interested in the Kabbala, =4=, 481, 583.
    opposes the Portuguese Inquisition, =4=, 507.

  =Egilbert=, bishop of Treves, forcibly baptizes Jews, =3=, 300, 306.

  =Eglon=, king of Moab, killed by Ehud, =1=, 60.

  =Eglon=, king of, defeated by Joshua, =1=, 34-5.

  =Egypt=, priests of, =1=, 10.
    allied with Solomon, =1=, 170.
    hostile to Ben-hadad III, =1=, 221.
    helps the Idumæans against Uzziah, =1=, 226.
    allied with Hoshea, =1=, 263.
    allied with Hezekiah, =1=, 270.
    counsels resistance to Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 304, 306, 309.
    Judæans take refuge in, =1=, 317, 318, 324.
    rebels against Persia, =1=, 407-8.
    given to Ptolemy I, =1=, 418.
    Judæans settle in, =1=, 419.
    taken by Antiochus III and Philip V of Macedon, =1=, 432.
    wars of, with Antiochus IV, =1=, 450-1, 452-3.
    number of Judæans in, =2=, 201.
    Zealots flee to, =2=, 317-18.
    study of the Law in, =2=, 359.
    succumbs to the Arabs, =3=, 86.
    Rabbanites in, in the ninth century, =3=, 180.
    Karaites spread to, =3=, 182.
    schools founded in, by the emissaries from Sora, =3=, 208, 210.
    part of the Fatimide Caliphate, =3=, 248.
    Jehuda Halevi in, =3=, 339-41.
    Abraham Ibn-Ezra in, =3=, 369.
    Maimonides in, =3=, 445, 457.
    Louis IX taken prisoner in, =3=, 585.
    in the Zohar, =4=, 23.
    Karaites of, inclined to Rabbanism, =4=, 72.
    the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 392-6.
    taken by the Turkish sultan, =4=, 393.
    Isaac Lurya in, =4=, 618, 622.
    conquered by Napoleon, =5=, 459.
    Crémieux’s schools in, =5=, 671.

  =Egypt, the Jews of=, celebrate two days of the new-moon, =2=, 363.
    rebel against Trajan, =2=, 394, 395-8.
    hail the Mahometans as liberators, =3=, 88-9.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 443-5.
    governed by a Nagid, =3=, 443.
    lack of culture of, =3=, 444-5.
    pilgrimages of, =3=, 445.
    under Saladin, =3=, 461.
    liturgy of, changed by Maimonides, =3=, 465-6.
    exhorted to establish schools, =5=, 663.

  =Egypt, the Judæans of=, practice idolatry, =1=, 326-7.
    neglected under Amasis, =1=, 327.
    settlement of, encouraged, =1=, 503.
    equality of, with the Greeks, =1=, 503.
    alliance of, sought by Syrians and Egyptians, =1=, 503-4.
    faithful to the Ptolemies, =1=, 504.
    occupations of, =1=, 504-5.
    Greek learning of, =1=, 505.
    espouse the cause of Ptolemy VI, =1=, 507.
    recognize Onias IV as ethnarch, =1=, 507.
    sacrifice in the Temple of Onias, =1=, 509.
    maintain connection with the Temple at Jerusalem, =1=, 509; =2=,
        52.
    pleased with the Septuagint, =1=, 511-12.
    originate the sermon, =1=, 515.
    dispute with the Samaritans, =1=, 517.
    informed of the independence of Judæa, =1=, 522-3.
    urged to celebrate Chanukah, =2=, 6-7.
    prosperous under Cleopatra and Ptolemy VIII, =2=, 12.
    devoted to the cause of Octavius, =2=, 102.
    control the Nile harbors, =2=, 102.
    make annual pilgrimages to Jerusalem, =2=, 220.
    go to Jerusalem for the Passover of 66, =2=, 251.

  =Egyptians=, the, culture of, =1=, 8.
    pantheon of, =1=, 9.
    enslave the Israelites, =1=, 11.
    refuse to liberate the Israelites, =1=, 16-17.
    at the Red Sea, =1=, 18-19.

  =Ehud=, judge, routs the Moabites, =1=, 60-1.

  =Eibeschütz, Jonathan= (1690-1764), disciple of Nehemiah Chayon, =5=,
        218.
    supposed Sabbatian, =5=, 229, 248.
    early education of, =5=, 246-7.
    as a Talmudist, =5=, 247.
    mysticism of, =5=, 248.
    weakness of the character of, =5=, 248-9.
    as teacher in Prague, =5=, 249, 250.
    excommunicates the Sabbatians, =5=, 249.
    clemency shown towards, =5=, 249-50.
    in intercourse with Jesuits, =5=, 250.
    obtains the right of printing the Talmud, =5=, 250.
    and the rabbinate of Metz, =5=, 251.
    accused of treason, =5=, 252.
    intercedes for the Jews of Moravia and Bohemia, =5=, 253.
    declared a traitor, =5=, 253.
    popular in Metz, =5=, 253.
    rabbi of the “three communities,” =5=, 254, 256.
    distributes amulets, =5=, 257, 260.
    called on by Emden to clear himself of the charge of Sabbatianism,
        =5=, 258.
    supported by his disciples, =5=, 258, 259.
    cause of, espoused by the “three communities,” =5=, 260-1.
    opponents of, excommunicated, =5=, 261.
    publishes an encyclical, =5=, 261-2.
    invited to exculpate himself, =5=, 262, 263.
    excommunicated, =5=, 263-4.
    cause of, espoused by some rabbis, =5=, 264.
    case of, submitted to the king of Denmark, =5=, 265, 268, 269.
    letter to, from Ezekiel Landau, =5=, 265-6.
    associates himself with an apostate, =5=, 267.
    protected by the princes of Brunswick, =5=, 267-8.
    before a rabbinical court, =5=, 268-9.
    publishes a defense, =5=, 270.
    supposed to be a secret Christian, =5=, 270.
    again acknowledged rabbi of the “three communities,” =5=, 271.
    and the Frankists, =5=, 289.
    distrust of, =5=, 289.

  =Eichhorn=, exegete, =5=, 623, 695.

  =Eighteen Benedictions.= _See_ Berachoth.

  “=Eighteen Things=, The,” decreed by the school of Shammai, =2=, 270.
    permitted by Judah II, =2=, 483-4.

  =Eisenach=, the Jews of, during the Black Death persecutions, =4=,
        109.

  =Eisenmenger, John Andrew=, Hebraist, revives the blood accusation,
        =5=, 187.
    title of the book by, against the Jews, =5=, 188.
    charges raised against the Jews by, =5=, 188-9.
    work of, suppressed, =5=, 190.
    death of, =5=, 190.
    _See_ “Judaism Unmasked.”

  “=Eisenmenger the Second=, an open letter to Fichte,” by Saul
        Asher, =5=, 463.

  =Ekron=, Philistine city, =1=, 54.
    left in the possession of the Philistines, =1=, 117.
    center of Baal-zebub worship, =1=, 207.
    given to Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 496.
    fortified by the Syrians, =1=, 529.

  =Elah=, king of Israel, dissipation and death of, =1=, 192.

  =El-Arish=, taken by Napoleon, =5=, 459.

  =El-Arish=, the river of Egypt, boundary under David, =1=, 129.

  =Elath=, port on the Red Sea, =1=, 170, 171, 177, 230.

  =Elchanan ben Isaac=, descendant of Rashi, Tossafist, martyr, =3=,
        404.

  =Eldad=, Karaite, adventurer, =3=, 182.
    spreads the news of the Jewish Chazar kingdom, =3=, 220.

  =Elder=, title of the ordained, =2=, 361.

  =Elders=, Council of the, formed by Moses, =1=, 25-6.

  =Eleanor=, mother of Edward I, hostile to the Jews, =3=, 641, 645.

  =Eleanor=, wife of Edward I, favorably inclined to the Jews, =3=, 644.

  =Eleanora=, wife of Louis VII of France, accompanies him on the
        second crusade, =3=, 349.

  =Eleasa=, camp of Judas Maccabæus at, =1=, 486.
    the battle of, Judas Maccabæus falls in, =1=, 487.

  =Eleazar=, Galilæan Judæan, persuades Izates of Adiabene to be
        circumcised, =2=, 217.

  =Eleazar=, high priest, and the Septuagint, =1=, 514.

  =Eleazar=, Jewish name of Bishop Bodo, =3=, 169.

  =Eleazar=, one of David’s warriors, =1=, 116.

  =Eleazar of Antioch=, refuses to sacrifice to the Greek gods, =1=,
        456.

  =Eleazar of Modin=, member of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 357.
    prays for Bethar, =2=, 417.
    accused as a spy, =2=, 417-18.

  =Eleazar ben Ananias=, leader of the Zealots, =2=, 256.
    brings about the rupture with Rome, =2=, 258-9.
    relations of, to the leader of the Sicarii, =2=, 260-1.
    destroys the Roman garrison of Jerusalem, =2=, 261.
    disinterestedness of, =2=, 261.
    governor of Idumæa, =2=, 270.

  =Eleazar ben Arach=, disciple of Jochanan ben Zakkai, =2=, 324, 326.
    tries to establish a school at Emmaus, =2=, 334.

  =Eleazar ben Azariah=, president of the Synhedrion, =2=, 342.
    vice-president of the Synhedrion, =2=, 345.
    and Flavius Clemens, =2=, 387, 389, 392.
    influence of, on Nerva, =2=, 392.

  =Eleazar ben Dinai=, Zealot leader, =2=, 238.
    exterminates the Samaritans of Acrabatene, =2=, 243.

  =Eleazar ben Jacob=, disciple of Akiba, =2=, 433.

  =Eleazar ben Jair=, grandson of Judas of Galilee, leader of the
        Sicarii, =2=, 239.
    flees from Jerusalem, =2=, 261.
    commander of Masada, =2=, 292, 316.

  =Eleazar ben Jehuda= (Rokeach), Kabbalist, at the Mayence
        synod, =3=, 517.

  =Eleazar ben Joel Halevi= (Abi-Ezri), Talmudist, at the Mayence
        synod, =3=, 517.

  =Eleazar ben Joseph= of Chinon, martyr, =4=, 49.

  =Eleazar ben Joseph= (ben Chalafta), accompanies Simon ben Jochai to
        Rome, =2=, 449.

  =Eleazar ben Kalir=, the greatest of the poetans, =3=, 116-17, 245.
    poetry of, rugged, =3=, 223.

  =Eleazar ben Poira=, Pharisee, reproves John Hyrcanus, =2=, 32.

  =Eleazar ben Shamua=, teacher of Judah I, =2=, 451.

  =Eleazar ben Simon=, Zealot leader, treasurer of the Temple, =2=,
        270-1, 301.
    opposed to the Synhedrion, =2=, 293-4.

  =Eleazar ben Simon= (ben Jochai), reproaches the Samaritans with
        having altered the Law, =2=, 457.
    denounces Jewish freebooters to the Romans, =2=, 464-5.

  =Eleazar Chasma=, in the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 357.

  =Eleazar Hawran=, son of Mattathias the Hasmonæan, =1=, 459.
    death of, =1=, 479.

  =Eleazar.= _See also under_ Eleazer and Eliezer.

  =Eleazer=, commander of Machærus, =2=, 315.

  =Eleazer ben Nathan= of Mayence, at the first rabbinical synod, =3=,
        377.

  =Eleazer ben Simon= of Cologne, at the first rabbinical synod, =3=,
        377.

  =Eleazer.= _See also under_ Eleazar and Eliezer.

  =Elegabalus=, emperor, vices of, =2=, 468.
    relations of, to the Jews, =2=, 469-70.

  =Elesbaa= (Atzbaha), king of Ethiopia, at war with the Jewish king of
        Yemen, =3=, 66.

  =Elhanan=, of Bethlehem, Israelite champion under David, =1=, 117.

  =Eli=, judge, characterization of, =1=, 69.
    inveighs against idolatry, =1=, 70.
    sons of, =1=, 70.
    death of, =1=, 71.
    grandson of, =1=, 79.
    descendants of, murdered by Saul, =1=, 100.
    descendants of, inhabit Mamal, =2=, 575.

  =Elia.= _See_ Mar-Elia.

  =Eliakim=, in Speyer, Rashi’s Talmud teacher, =3=, 286.

  =Eliakim=, son of Hilkiah, made Sochen, =1=, 272.

  =Eliakim.= _See_ Jehoiakim.

  =Eliam=, father of Bathsheba, =1=, 133.

  =Eliano, Victor=, grandson of Elias Levita, apostate, =4=, 564.
    defames the Talmud, =4=, 583.
    editor of the Cremona Zohar, =4=, 584.

  =Elias of London=, chief rabbi of England, =3=, 588.
    asks permission for the Jews to leave England, =3=, 590-1.
    deposed, =3=, 591.

  =Elias del Medigo= (Cretensis, 1463-1498), philosopher, =4=,
        289, 290-3.
    classical culture of, =4=, 290.
    teacher of Pico di Mirandola, =4=, 290-1.
    umpire chosen by the University of Padua, =4=, 291.
    public lecturer on philosophy, =4=, 291.
    denounces the Kabbala, =4=, 292; =5=, 78.
    views of, on the Talmud and religion, =4=, 292-3.
    character of the influence of, =4=, 293.
    hostility to, =4=, 293.
    and Judah Menz, =4=, 295.
    disciple of, =4=, 386.
    sons and relatives of, leaders in Canea, =4=, 406.
    descendant of, =5=, 75.

  =Elias ben Elkanah Kapsali= (1490-1555), rabbi at Canea, and Judah
        Delmedigo, =4=, 406.
    as an historian, =4=, 406-7.
    style of, =4=, 557.

  =Elias Chendali=, husband of Esther Kiera, =4=, 629.

  =Elias Cretensis.= _See_ Elias Del Medigo.

  =Elias Halevi=, Rabbanite teacher of Karaites, =4=, 270.

  =Elias Levita= (1468-1549), grammarian, teacher of Christians, =4=,
        471, 507.
    pupils of, =4=, 472.
    publishes a Hebrew grammar, =4=, 472.
    mediocrity of, =4=, 472.
    on the accents and vowel signs, =4=, 472-3.
    declines to go to France, =4=, 473-4.
    establishes a Hebrew press at Isny, =4=, 474.
    grandchildren of, apostates, =4=, 564.

  =Elias Mizrachi= (1455-1526), rabbi of Constantinople, character and
        attainments of, =4=, 402-3.
    feud of, with the Karaites, =4=, 403.
    protects the Karaites, =4=, 403-4.

  =Elias Montalto=, physician, employed by Christians, =4=, 653.
    dissuades Paul de Pina from becoming a monk, =4=, 670.
    buried at Ouderkerk, =4=, 672-3.
    physician to Maria de Medici, =4=, 673.

  =Eliashib=, high priest, countenances marriages between Judæans and
        Samaritans, =1=, 362.
    in friendly communication with the Samaritans, =1=, 383.
    dismissed by Nehemiah, =1=, 385.

  =Eliezer ben Hyrcanus=, disciple of Jochanan ben Zakkai, =2=, 326.
    teacher of the Law at Lydda, =2=, 335.
    opposes decisions by the Bath-Kol, =2=, 338.
    brother-in-law of Gamaliel II, =2=, 339.
    excommunicated, =2=, 339-40, 347-8.
    devotion of, to tradition, =2=, 346-7, 356.
    called Sinai, =2=, 347.
    opposed to Gamaliel II, =2=, 347.
    end of, =2=, 348.
    ban removed from, =2=, 350.
    supposed teacher of Akiba, =2=, 351.
    and the Jewish Christians, =2=, 370.
    on the admission of proselytes, =2=, 384.
    and Akylas, =2=, 385.
    mourns for Gamaliel II, =2=, 404.
    condemns the instruction of women in the Law, =2=, 474.
    compared with Chanina bar Chama, =2=, 491.

  =Eliezer Kapsali=, Rabbanite teacher of Karaites, =4=, 270.

  =Eliezer.= _See also under_ Eleazar and Eleazer.

  =Elijah=, the Tishbite, prophet, character of, =1=, 199.
    a Nazarite, =1=, 200.
    disciples of, =1=, 200.
    rebukes Ahab, =1=, 202-3.
    announces a famine, =1=, 203.
    assembles the priests of Baal, =1=, 203-4.
    flees from Jezebel, =1=, 204.
    instructed to anoint Jehu, =1=, 204.
    chooses Elisha as his successor, =1=, 207.
    prophesies the death of Ahaziah, =1=, 207.
    disappears, =1=, 207.
    result of the activity of, =1=, 208.
    precursor of the Messiah, =2=, 143.
    in the Zohar, =4=, 12, 16.

  =Elijah, disciples of=, Nazarites, =1=, 200.
    persecuted by Jezebel, =1=, 201.
    saved by Obadiah, =1=, 201.
    on Mount Carmel, =1=, 203.

  =Elijah Wilna= (1720-1797), draws attention to the Scriptures, =5=,
        329, 390.
    disinterestedness of, =5=, 389.
    critical powers of, =5=, 389-90.
    simple exegetical method of, =5=, 390.
    fondness of, for the Kabbala, =5=, 390-1.
    slandered by the Chassidim, =5=, 391.
    excommunicates the Chassidim, =5=, 392, 393.
    persecutes the Chassidim, =5=, 394.

  =Elijah Zevi=, brother of Sabbataï, =5=, 145.

  =Elionai=, high priest, under Agrippa I, =2=, 198.

  =Elisha=, Essene, punished for the use of Tephillin, =2=, 424.

  =Elisha=, father of Ishmael, =2=, 427.

  =Elisha=, prophet, successor to Elijah, =1=, 207.
    accompanies Elijah, =1=, 208.
    lives on Mount Carmel, =1=, 208.
    hates Jehoram, =1=, 208-9.
    disciple of, appoints Jehu king of Israel, =1=, 210.
    position of, compared with Elijah’s, =1=, 217-18.
    in Samaria, =1=, 218.
    respected by Jehoash of Israel, =1=, 223-4.
    influence of, on Jehoash, =1=, 225.

  =Elisha ben Abuya= (Acher), teacher of the Law, apostate, =2=,
        358, 377.
    theosophist, =2=, 381.
    assists Hadrian in persecuting the Law, =2=, 426.
    and Meïr, =2=, 437.
    daughters of, =2=, 452.

  =Elisha Gallaico=, member of Karo’s rabbinical college, =4=, 616.

  =Elishama=, keeper of the lists, favors submission to Nebuchadnezzar,
        =1=, 305.

  =Elizabeth=, of Brunswick, has Templo’s work translated, =5=, 114-15.

  =Elizabeth=, of England, and Maria Nuñes, =4=, 664.

  =Elkanah Kapsali=, of Candia, ransoms Spanish exiles, =4=, 364.

  =Elon=, judge, =1=, 66.

  =Elulai=, king of Tyre, subdued by Shalmaneser, =1=, 263.

  =El-Uz.= _See_ Usha.

  =Elvira.= _See_ Illiberis.

  =Elymæans=, the, have a synagogue in Jerusalem, =2=, 201.

  =Elymais=, falls to Nabopolassar, =1=, 303.

  =Emancipation of Jews=, the, advocated by John Toland, =5=, 197-8.
    favored by Mirabeau, =5=, 433-4.
    accomplished by the French, =5=, 459.
    urged by Michael Berr, =5=, 460-1, 527.
    opposed by Fichte, =5=, 462.
    dependent on that of French Jews, =5=, 480.
    favored by Dalberg, =5=, 504.
    favored by Hardenberg, =5=, 507.
    favored by Denmark, =5=, 519, 531.
    advocated before the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, =5=, 525-7.
    favored by Alexander I, =5=, 527.
    urged by Italian Jews, =5=, 527.
    advocated by Zunz, =5=, 621.
    hindrances to, in Judaism, =5=, 675.
    completed by the February revolutions, =5=, 696-7.
    _See also_ Citizenship.

  =Emancipation= of the Austrian Jews, the, by Joseph II, =5=, 357-8.

  =Emancipation= of the Baden Jews, the, =5=, 502-3.

  =Emancipation= of the Bavarian Jews, the partial, =5=, 508.

  =Emancipation= of the Dutch Jews, the, celebrated by Friedrichsfeld,
        =5=, 400.
    promoted by French victories, =5=, 452.
    opposed by Van Swieden, =5=, 453-4.
    opposed by representative Amsterdam Jews, =5=, 454.
    Jewish advocates of, =5=, 454-5.
    Christian objections to, =5=, 455-6.
    favored by Noel, =5=, 456.
    passed by the National Assembly, =5=, 456.
    does not delight the Jews, =5=, 456-7.

  =Emancipation= of the English Jews, the, =5=, 336-8, 430, 698.
    discussed in Parliament, =5=, 601.
    advocated by O’Connell, =5=, 653.

  =Emancipation= of the Frankfort Jews, the, =5=, 505.
    discussed in the Senate, =5=, 598.

  =Emancipation= of the French Jews, the, promoted by Cerf Berr, =5=,
        430, 431.
    discussed by the National Assembly, =5=, 439-41.
    favored by the heroes of the Revolution, =5=, 441.
    opposition to, =5=, 441-2.
    equivocal decision on, =5=, 442.
    granted to the Portuguese section, =5=, 442-3, 444-5.
    subject of a petition to the National Assembly, =5=, 443.
    before the Paris Commune, =5=, 443-5.
    Abbé Mulot on, =5=, 443-4.
    opposed by the Duc de Broglie, =5=, 447.
    advocated by Duport, =5=, 447-8.
    passed by the National Assembly, =5=, 448.
    celebrated by Berr Isaac Berr, =5=, 448-9.
    recognized by the Constitution of the Directory, =5=, 452.
    endangered, =5=, 476.
    objected to by Bonald, =5=, 478-9.
    laid before Napoleon’s council, =5=, 479.
    determines that of Jews in other countries, =5=, 480.
    advocated by Beugnot, =5=, 480.
    opposed by Napoleon, =5=, 480.
    urged by Regnault and Ségur, =5=, 480-1.
    guaranteed by Napoleon, =5=, 492.
    curtailed by Napoleon, =5=, 498-9.
    under Louis XVIII, =5=, 524-5.
    curtailed under the Bourbons, =5=, 596.
    considered by Louis Philippe, =5=, 597.
    advocated by Mérilhou, =5=, 597.
    completed in the Chamber of Peers, =5=, 597.

  =Emancipation= of the German Jews, the, promoted by Dohm’s plea,
        =5=, 356-7.
    promoted by the French, =5=, 459.
    urged by the Peace Congress of Rastadt, =5=, 463.
    writers against, =5=, 468-70, 472.
    retarded by the reaction after Napoleon’s fall, =5=, 512.
    urged before the Congress of Vienna, =5=, 513-14.
    favored by Hardenberg and Metternich, =5=, 514.
    promised in the constitution drawn up by Humboldt, =5=, 514.
    retarded by Teutomania, =5=, 516.
    opposed by Rühs, =5=, 517.
    promised by the Act of Federation, =5=, 518.
    opposed by the Hanse Towns, =5=, 519.
    favored by Holstein, =5=, 519.
    defeated at the Congress of Vienna, =5=, 519-20.
    pamphlet literature against, =5=, 521.
    favored by Krämer, =5=, 521-2.
    leads to estrangement from Judaism, =5=, 560.
    Riesser interested in, =5=, 599-600.
    on the programme of the liberal party, =5=, 602.

  =Emancipation= of the Hessian Jews, the, legalized, =5=, 601.

  =Emancipation= of the Italian Jews, the, undone by Pius VII, =5=, 518.

  =Emancipation= of the Jews in the Hanse Towns, the, =5=, 506-7.

  =Emancipation= of the Mecklenburg Jews, the, =5=, 507.

  =Emancipation= of the Prussian Jews, the, struggle for, begun,
        =5=, 414-16.
    partial, =5=, 507.
    granted by Frederick William III, =5=, 508, 630.
    a dead letter, =5=, 524.

  =Emancipation= of the Turkish Jews, the, by Abdul Meg’id, =5=, 641.

  =Emancipation= of the Westphalian Jews, the, =5=, 500-1.
    medal commemorative of, =5=, 501.

  =Emanuel=, Byzantine emperor, and his Jewish physician, =3=, 425.

  =Embicho=, bishop of Würzburg, protects the Jews, =3=, 354.

  =Emden, Jacob= (Ashkenazi, Jabez, 1698-1776), grandson of Jacob
        Ashkenazi, anti-Sabbatian, =5=, 221.
    son of Chacham Zevi, studies of, =5=, 254-5.
    character of, =5=, 255.
    as rabbi, =5=, 255.
    candidate for the rabbinate of the “three communities,” =5=, 255-6.
    antipathy of, to heretics, =5=, 256.
    induced not to expose Eibeschütz, =5=, 257-8.
    calls on Eibeschütz to clear himself, =5=, 258.
    punished by the Council, =5=, 258-9.
    persecuted in Altona, =5=, 260.
    excommunicated and flees to Amsterdam, =5=, 261.
    returns to Altona, =5=, 265, 266.
    historian of the Sabbatian movement, =5=, 266.
    maligned by Charles Anton, =5=, 267.
    refutes Eibeschütz’s defense, =5=, 270.
    appealed to by the Polish rabbis, =5=, 277-8.
    exposes the Zohar as a forgery, =5=, 278.
    sanctions Frankist persecutions, =5=, 278.
    triumphant, =5=, 289.
    refers the Schwerin Jews to Mendelssohn, =5=, 318.
    opposes Mendelssohn on the subject of hasty burial, =5=, 318-19.

  =Emden=, Portuguese Marranos arrive at, =4=, 665.
    Jews tolerated in, =4=, 686.

  =Emek ha-Bacha=, by Joseph ben Joshua Cohen, =4=, 590, 608.

  =Emesa=, native town of Julia Domna, =2=, 468.

  =Emicho.= _See_ Emmerich.

  =Emim=, descendants of the Anakim and Rephaim, =1=, 2.

  =Emmaus= (Gimso), Synhedrion established at, =2=, 71.
    burnt, =2=, 126.
    effort to establish an academy at, =2=, 334.
    destroyed by an earthquake, =2=, 408-9.

  =Emmerich= (Emicho), of Leiningen, leader of the first crusade,
        massacres the Jews, =3=, 303.
    disgraceful end of the crusaders under, =3=, 306.
    accused before Henry IV, =3=, 307.

  “=Emunoth=,” Kabbalistic work by Shem Tob ben Joseph, =4=, 197.

  =Emunoth we-Deoth=, philosophical work by Saadiah, =3=, 197-8.

  =Endor=, camp of Gideon, =1=, 62.
    Saul’s camp, =1=, 103.
    the witch of, =1=, 103.

  “=Enemy= of the Jews, The,” Pfefferkorn’s second pamphlet, =4=,
        427-8.

  =Engadi=, Essene center, =2=, 25.

  =Engel=, friend of Mendelssohn, =5=, 372.

  =England=, rabbis of, emigrate to Jerusalem, =3=, 505-6.
    Marranos unkindly received in, =4=, 509.
    struggles for religious freedom in, =5=, 25-8.
    Jews gradually establish themselves in, =5=, 49-50.
    anomalous position of Jews in, =5=, 50.
    ambassador of, intercedes for the Moravian and Bohemian
        Jews, =5=, 253.
    the first country to emancipate the Jews, =5=, 430.
    in the Quadruple Alliance, =5=, 658.

  =England, the Jews of=, protected during the second crusade, =3=, 356.
    prosperous under Henry II, =3=, 409.
    under Richard I, =3=, 409-16.
    abused at Richard’s coronation, =3=, 410-11.
    massacre of, =3=, 412-16.
    under John, =3=, 416, 504-5.
    imprisoned, =3=, 505.
    wear the Jew badge, =3=, 515, 516.
    hated on account of their usurious rates, =3=, 571.
    under Henry III, =3=, 587-92.
    Christians not permitted to sell food to, =3=, 588.
    tax imposed on, =3=, 589.
    charges against, =3=, 589.
    pledged to the king’s brother, =3=, 590.
    restrictions put on, by the Church, =3=, 590.
    not permitted to leave England, =3=, 591.
    the blood accusation preferred against, =3=, 591.
    under Edward I, =3=, 640-6.
    the statute of Judaism passed against, =3=, 642.
    charged with counterfeiting and clipping coin, =3=, 642.
    imprisoned, =3=, 642-3, 645.
    forced to listen to Dominican sermons, =3=, 643.
    denounced to Honorius IV, =3=, 645.
    banished and ill-treated, =3=, 645-6.
    take refuge in France, Germany, Spain, =3=, 646.
    emancipation of, advocated, =5=, 197-8.
    pay the alien duty, =5=, 337.
    urge their emancipation, =5=, 337.
    naturalization of, =5=, 337-8.
    under Polish influence, =5=, 558.
    emancipation of, =5=, 601, 653, 698.
    act in the Damascus affair, =5=, 644-5, 651-2.
    public-spiritedness of, =5=, 703.
    number of, =5=, 703.

  =England, the re-settlement of Jews in=, prospects of, =5=, 18-19.
    suggested by Messianic hopes, =5=, 28.
    negotiations for, interrupted, =5=, 34.
    before the Short Parliament, =5=, 34.
    the subject of three petitions, =5=, 35.
    reasons for, stated by Manasseh ben Israel, =5=, 39-42.
    favored by Cromwell, =5=, 42-3.
    in the hands of a commission, =5=, 43-5.
    objections to, =5=, 44-5.
    literature on, =5=, 45-6.

  =Enns=, the Jews of, charged with host desecration, =4=, 223.

  =Enoch, the Book of=, Kabbalistic source, =4=, 17.

  =Enoch Saporta=, Rabbanite teacher of Karaites, =4=, 270.

  =Enriquez, Antonio de Gomez.= _See_ Paz, Enrique Enriquez de.

  =En-Rogel=, spring south of Jerusalem, =1=, 114.

  =Ensheim, Moses=, one of the Measfim, mathematician, and the
        emancipation of the French Jews, =5=, 401, 450.

  =Ensisheim=, tower of, Meïr of Rothenburg imprisoned in, =3=, 639.

  =En-Sof=, title of God in the Kabbala, =3=, 550.
    emanations of, =3=, 550-1.
    in the Zohar, =4=, 14.
    the son of heaven, =5=, 124.

  =En-Vidal Ephraim Gerundi=, rabbi of Majorca, =4=, 162.
    martyr, =4=, 171.

  =En-Zag Vidal de Tolosa=, rabbi, calumniated, =4=, 155.

  =Epaone=, the council of, forbids Christians to take part in Jewish
        banquets, =3=, 37.

  =Épée, de l’=, Abbé, anticipated by Pereira, =5=, 343.

  =Ephes-Damim=, scene of David’s victory over Goliath, =1=, 97.

  =Ephesus=, a Greek-Christian community in, =2=, 227.
    chief seat of the Pagan Christians, =2=, 367.

  =Ephoros=, Jewish overseer in Greece, Macedonia, Illyria, =3=, 27.

  =Ephraim, the tribe of=, in contact with the Egyptians, =1=, 7.
    takes Bethel, =1=, 34.
    claims the central lands of Canaan, =1=, 35-6.
    and the Danites, =1=, 39.
    holds assemblies at Shiloh, =1=, 41.
    opposes intermarriages with the heathen, =1=, 56.
    keeps worshipers from Shiloh, =1=, 57.
    assists Ehud against the Moabites =1=, 60.
    in conflict with Manasseh, =1=, 63.
    attacked by the Ammonites, =1=, 64.
    quarrels with Jephthah, =1=, 65.
    oppressed by the Philistines, =1=, 71.
    not well disposed towards David, =1=, 114.
    sides with Absalom, =1=, 140.
    persuaded to separate from Solomon, =1=, 176.
    chooses Jeroboam as king, =1=, 182-3.
    end of, =1=, 265-6.

  =Ephraim of Tyre=, head of the Jews of Tyre, =3=, 426.

  =Ephraim ben Jacob= of Bonn (1132-1200), Talmudist and liturgical
        poet, =3=, 419.

  =Ephraim=, mountain, description of, =1=, 45.

  =Epicrates=, general of Ptolemy VIII, fights against the Judæans,
        =2=, 11.

  =Epicurus=, teachings of, accepted in Judæa, =1=, 429.

  =Epiphanes=, son of Antiochus of Commagene, affianced to Drusilla,
        =2=, 195, 235.

  =Epistles= to the Hebrews, the, urge the separation of Jewish
        Christians from Jews, =2=, 371.

  =Epistolæ= Obscurorum Virorum, by Crotus Rubianus, a Reuchlinist
        work, =4=, 461-2.
    _See_ “Letters of Obscurantists.”

  =Eras= used by the Jews, =1=, 417; =2=, 134; =3=, 433; =4=, 394-5.

  =Erasmus=, as humanist, =4=, 432, 433.
    supposed author of the “Letters of Obscurantists,” =4=, 462.
    on hatred of the Jews, =4=, 462-3.
    in the pantomime on the Reformation, =4=, 468.

  =Eravi.= _See_ Airvi.

  =Erfurt=, refuge of Archbishop Ruthard of Mayence, =3=, 307.

  =Erfurt, the Jews of=, persecuted, =3=, 611.
    during the Black Death persecutions, =4=, 109.

  =Erfurt, the university of=, consulted regarding the confiscation of
        Hebrew books, =4=, 437, 441.
    theologians of, sanction the burning of the “Augenspiegel,”
        =4=, 452.

  =Ergas, Joseph=, Kabbalist, denounces Chayon, =5=, 227.

  =Ermengarde=, princess of Narbonne, Jews under, =3=, 392.

  “=Errors= of the Doctrine of the Trinity,” by Michael Servetus, =4=,
        541.

  =Erter, Isaac= (1792-1851), Galician scholar, re-animates the Hebrew
        language, =5=, 612-13, 617.
    education and marriages of, =5=, 613.
    self-culture of, =5=, 613-14.
    influence of Rapoport and Krochmal on, =5=, 614.
    excommunicated, =5=, 614-15.
    satirizes Orenstein, =5=, 615.
    style of, =5=, 615-16.
    poverty of, =5=, 616.
    poetry of, compared with S. D. Luzzatto’s, =5=, 623.
    writes an account of the Damascus affair, =5=, 671.

  =Erwig=, Visigothic king, usurper, enacts anti-Jewish laws,
        =3=, 106-7.

  =Esarhaddon=, king of Assyria, reduces Babylonia, =1=, 284.
    takes Manasseh prisoner, =1=, 285.

  =Esau=, honored by a Gnostic sect, =2=, 375.

  =Eschenloer=, town clerk of Breslau, protests against cruelty towards
        Jews, =4=, 262.

  =Escrivao=, Jewish-Portuguese official, =4=, 159.

  “=Eshkol ha-Kofer=,” Karaite work by Jehuda ben Elia Hadassi, =3=,
        362.

  =Eskapha, Joseph=, Talmudist, teacher of Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 118.
    excommunicates him, =5=, 122.

  =Eskeles, Issachar Berush=, intercedes for the Moravian Jews, =5=,
        252, 253.

  =Eski-Crimea.= _See_ Sulchat.

  =Esperaindo, Juan de=, assassin of Arbues, =4=, 330.

  =Essenes=, the, offshoot from the Assidæan party, =2=, 16-17, 24.
    give rise to the Pharisees, =2=, 17.
    wherein opposed to the Pharisees, =2=, 18.
    allied with the Pharisees, =2=, 24.
    rigid celebration of the Sabbath by, =2=, 24.
    Nazarite practices of, =2=, 24-5.
    celibates, =2=, 25.
    settle in Engadi, =2=, 25.
    communism of, =2=, 26.
    habits of, =2=, 26-7.
    mysticism of, =2=, 27-8.
    popular, =2=, 29.
    fatalists, =2=, 30.
    avoid the Temple, =2=, 30.
    initiation into the brotherhood of, =2=, 30-1.
    prophetic power ascribed to, =2=, 100.
    exempt from swearing allegiance to Herod, =2=, 108.
    conception of the Messianic age by, =2=, 145.
    the first to proclaim the advent of the Messiah, =2=, 145.
    Jesus attracted to, =2=, 150-1.
    displeased with Jesus, =2=, 162.
    followers of Jesus, =2=, 219-20.

  =Essenism=, the kernel of Christianity, =2=, 142.

  =Essex=, Earl of, takes Cadiz, =4=, 665.

  =Essinger, Samuel=, testifies in favor of Eibeschütz, =5=, 262.

  =Estella=, the Jews of, massacred, =4=, 77-8, 144.

  =Esther= (Esterka), mistress of Casimir III, =4=, 112.

  “=Esther=,” epic by Ansaldo Ceba, =5=, 69, 70.

  =Esther, the Book of=, additions to, =2=, 359.
    read in Spanish translation, =4=, 148.

  =Estori Parchi=, on the suffering of the French Jews, =4=, 48-9.
    emigrates to Palestine, =4=, 49.
    on the Karaites, =4=, 72.

  =Etam=, springs of, supply the second Temple, =1=, 421.

  =Etampes, d’=, Count, protects the French Jews, =4=, 130, 132.

  =Eternal Punishment=, dogma of, in the Kabbala, =4=, 292.

  =Ethbaal I=, of Tyre, allied with Omri of Israel, =1=, 194.

  =Ethbaal II=, of Tyre, vassal of Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 304.
    rebels against Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 306.
    urges war against Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 309.

  =Ethics=, The, by Aristotle, translated, =4=, 193.
    by Spinoza, =4=, 167.

  =Ethnarch=, the prince of the Judæans in Egypt. _See_ Alabarch, the.

  =Ethnarch, office of=, created for the Judæans of the Nabathæan
        kingdom, =2=, 202.

  =Ethnarch, title of=, conferred on Hyrcanus II, =2=, 66, 76.
    on Archelaus, =2=, 127.
    on the President of the Synhedrion, =2=, 360.

  =Eucærus=, king of Syria, invades Judæa, =2=, 44.
    forced to retreat, =2=, 45.

  =Euchel, Isaac Abraham=, Hebrew style of, =5=, 398.
    establishes the Chebrath Dorshe Leshon Eber, =5=, 398.
    founds a journal, =5=, 399.
    mediocrity of, =5=, 417.
    founder of the “Society of Friends,” =5=, 418.

  =Eugenius III=, pope, absolves the debtors of Jews from payment,
        =3=, 349-51.

  =Eugenius IV=, pope, exhorts Juan II of Castile to humiliate the
        Jews, =4=, 229.
    hostile to the Jews, =4=, 249, 275.
    confirms the privileges of Jews, =4=, 249.
    influenced by Alfonso de Cartagena, =4=, 249-50.
    revives anti-Jewish restrictions, =4=, 250-1.
    issues a bull against the Italian Jews, =4=, 251.
    and John of Capistrano, =4=, 257.

  =Eulæus=, guardian of Ptolemy V’s sons, rules Egypt, =1=, 450.

  =Eumenes=, king of Pergamus, proclaims Antiochus IV king of
        Syria, =1=, 443.

  =Euonymus= of Gadara, philosopher, and Meïr, =2=, 437-8.

  =Euphrates=, the, depredations in the district of, =2=, 527.
    fortresses on, captured by Hulagu, =3=, 606.

  =Euphrates, the, district of, the Jews of=, rebel against
        Trajan, =2=, 397.
    opposed by Lucius Quietus, =2=, 398-9.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 428-33.
    _See also under_ Babylonia.

  =Eupolemos=, Judæan envoy to Rome, =1=, 485.

  =Eupraxios=, Byzantine viceroy, Sabbataï Donnolo, physician
        to, =3=, 213.

  =Europe=, the seat of Judaism in the twelfth century, =3=, 383.

  =Europe, the Jews of=, in the sixth and seventh centuries, =3=, 24-5.
    in the latter half of the eighth century, =3=, 141.
    in the tenth century, =3=, 212.
    admired by the Jews of the East, =5=, 662-3.

  =Europe, western=, early Jewish settlements in, =3=, 35.
    position of the Jews of, =5=, 704.

  =Eusebius=, bishop of Cæsarea, historian, asperses Judaism, =2=, 562.
    patron of Joseph the apostate, =2=, 565.

  =Eusebius=, chamberlain of Constantius, burdens the Jews with
        taxes, =2=, 572.

  =Eutropius=, chamberlain of Arcadius, favorably inclined to the Jews,
        =2=, 615-16.
    fall of, =2=, 616.

  =Evangelists=, the, and the revolt of Bar-Cochba, =2=, 412-13.
    describe Hadrian’s persecutions, =2=, 431.

  =Evangels=, the, colored by Jewish and Pagan Christian views,
        =2=, 368-9.
    influence of, on Judaism, deprecated by the Tanaites, =2=, 378.

  =Evil-Merodach=, king of Babylon, releases Jehoiachin, =1=, 331.
    murdered, =1=, 331.

  =Evora=, Jewish center in Portugal, =4=, 159.
    the Marranos of, spied upon, =4=, 490.
    tribunal of the Inquisition at, =4=, 508.

  =Ewald, Heinrich=, historian of Israel, =5=, 696.

  =Ewald, Johann Ludwig=, defends the Jews, =5=, 522.

  “=Examination= of the Pharisaic Traditions, An,” by Uriel da
        Costa, =5=, 60.

  “=Example= of Human Life, An,” autobiography of Uriel da Costa,
        =5=, 64-5.

  =Exchequer= of the Jews, in England, =3=, 588.

  =Excommunication=, as used by Gamaliel II, =2=, 339, 347.
    regulated by the Usha Synhedrion, =2=, 405.
    practiced by Simon II, =2=, 446.
    introduced into Babylonia, =2=, 517.
    used by Judah ben Ezekiel, =2=, 551-2.
    the right of, granted to the Patriarchs, =2=, 612-13.
    as dispensed in Jewish Babylonia, =2=, 99-100.
    introduced among the Karaites, =3=, 151.
    freely used by Paltoi ben Abayi, =3=, 177.
    threatened for violating the secrecy of a letter, =3=, 245.
    threatened for reproaching a repentant apostate, =3=, 246.
    threatened for accepting an office from Christian authorities, =3=,
        518.
    pronounced in Poland only with the concurrence of the whole
        community, =4=, 265.
    employed by the rabbis of Turkey, =4=, 599.
    objected to by Mendelssohn, =5=, 362-3.
    forbidden by the Austrian government, =5=, 614.

  =Excommunication of=, the community of Fars, =3=, 194.
    Joseph ben Isaac Ibn-Abitur, =3=, 238.
    informers and traitors revived, =3=, 378.
    fault-finders with a bill of divorce after its delivery, =3=, 378.
    the Maimunists, =3=, 528-9, 535.
    the Anti-Maimunists, =3=, 530, 536.
    Donin, =3=, 572-3.
    students of science, =4=, 39-40.
    Uriel da Costa, =4=, 58-63.
    Spinoza, =5=, 93, 94.
    Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 122.
    Chayim Malach, =5=, 214.
    Nehemiah Chayon, =5=, 216, 224.
    Chacham Zevi, =5=, 226.
    Podolian Sabbatians, =5=, 228.
    Sabbatians at Frankfort, =5=, 230.
    Moses Chayim Luzzatto, =5=, 240, 242.
    Eibeschütz’s opponents, =5=, 259, 261.
    Eibeschütz, =5=, 263-4.
    the Frankists, =5=, 276-7.
    Wessely, =5=, 370.
    the Chassidim, =5=, 392, 393.
    young Galician scholars, =5=, 614.

  =Exegesis of the Bible=, taught Origen by the Jews, =2=, 488.
    Simlaï’s sober method of, =2=, 499, 501-2.
    incorrect, favored by the Talmud, =2=, 633.
    by Anan ben David, =3=, 133.
    freedom in, the principal dogma of Karaism, =3=, 157.
    special study of the Karaites, =3=, 180.
    cultivated by the Spanish Jews in the tenth and eleventh
        centuries, =3=, 235.
    by Ibn-Janach, =3=, 262, 263.
    by Yizchaki, =3=, 273.
    by Rashi, =3=, 288.
    by Moses ben Samuel Ibn-G’ikatilia, =3=, 290.
    supplanted by the study of the Talmud in Spain, =3=, 317.
    by the Tossafists, =3=, 345-6.
    by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 368, 370-1, 371-3.
    by David Kimchi, =3=, 394.
    decay of, in the post-Maimunic time, =3=, 561.
    neglected in Spain in the fourteenth century, =4=, 91.
    Jewish, praised by Reuchlin, =4=, 441-2.
    scientific, founded by Richard Simon, =5=, 178.
    by S. D. Luzzatto, =5=, 623-4.
    by Sachs, =5=, 692-3.
    by the rationalistic school, =5=, 695-6.
    _See also_ Scriptures, the, commentary on.

  =Exeter=, the Council of, anti-Jewish decrees of, =3=, 645.

  “=Exilarch=, the, Feast of,” court at the Exilarch’s, =3=, 95.

  =Exilarchate=, the, on an equality with the Patriarchate, =2=, 454.
    extinction of, a condition of the advent of the Messiah, =2=, 457.
    in abeyance after Kobad’s persecutions, =3=, 4.
    from 589 to 640, =3=, 10.
    restored to power by Bostanaï, =3=, 10.
    hereditary in the house of Bostanaï, =3=, 94, 137.
    as viewed by the Jews of distant lands, =3=, 100.
    co-extensive with the Ommiyyade Caliphate, =3=, 100.
    dependent on the Gaonate, =3=, 137.
    contests for, =3=, 155, 439.
    decay of, =3=, 183, 188.
    attachment to, =3=, 185-6.
    during Saadiah’s Gaonate, =3=, 193-4.
    end of, =3=, 201-2.
    revived in the twelfth century, =3=, 369, 428.
    extent of, =3=, 428-9.
    revived in the thirteenth century, =3=, 627.

  =Exilarchs=, the (Princes of the Captivity, Resh-Galutha), leaders of
        the Jews in the East, =2=, 393.
    political chiefs of the Babylonian Jews, =2=, 508.
    vassals of Persia, =2=, 508.
    royal position of, =2=, 508-9.
    descendants of David, =2=, 509.
    supreme judges of the Jewish community, =2=, 509; =3=, 93.
    revenues of, =2=, 509-10; =3=, 96.
    homage paid to, =2=, 510, 515, 606-7.
    religious ignorance of, =2=, 510.
    political and spiritual authority of, =2=, 511.
    devoted to the study of the Law, =2=, 544.
    appoint judges, =2=, 547; =3=, 98, 428.
    barbarity of, in the time of the Amoraim, =2=, 554.
    exercise civil and judicial functions, =3=, 89.
    depose the principals of the Babylonian academies, =3=, 91.
    history of, dark, =3=, 92.
    office of, political, =3=, 93.
    installation of, =3=, 94-5.
    annual court at the house of, =3=, 95.
    authority of, lessened by the Karaite schism, =3=, 137.
    power of, reduced, =3=, 177, 183.
    hold public assemblies at Pumbeditha, =3=, 177.

  =Exilarchs=, the, list of:
    Achiya,
    Bostanaï,
    Chananya (Achunaï),
    Chaninaï,
    Chasdaï,
    Chiskiya,
    Daniel, son of
    Solomon (Chasdaï?),
    David of Mosul,
    David ben Daniel,
    David ben Judah,
    David ben Zaccaï,
    Huna,
    Huna-Mari,
    Josiah Hassan,
    Judah ben David,
    Judah ben David, son of
    Kafnaï,
    Mar-Kahana,
    Mar-Ukban,
    Mar-Zutra I,
    Mar-Zutra II,
    Nathan,
    Nehemia,
    Solomon,
    Solomon (Chasdaï?),
    Yishaï ben Chiskiya,
    Zaccaï ben Achunaï.

  =Exile=, the Babylonian, described, =5=, 720-1. _See_ Babylonia, the
        Judæans of.

  =Exorcism.= _See_ Demons, exorcism of.

  =Ezekias=, leads the revolt in Galilee against Rome, =2=, 77.
    executed, =2=, 77-8.
    son of, =2=, 125.

  =Ezekiel=, prophet, encourages and rebukes the Babylonian exiles,
        =1=, 332-4.
    prophecy of, leads to theosophic speculations, =2=, 380-1.
    pilgrimages to the grave of, =3=, 440-1.
    in Immanuel Romi’s work, =4=, 67.

  =Ezer ha-Emuna=, work by Moses Cohen de Tordesillas, =4=, 141.

  =Eziongeber=, port on the Red Sea, =1=, 170.

  =Ezobi= (Esobi). _See_ Joseph Ezobi ben Chanan.

  =Ezra=, descent of, =1=, 365.
    studies the Law, =1=, 365.
    leads a company of Judæans to Palestine, =1=, 366.
    opinion of, on intermarriages, =1=, 367-8.
    induces the Judæans to repudiate their heathen wives, =1=, 368-9.
    opposition to the severity of, =1=, 370.
    reads the Law in Jerusalem, =1=, 378-80.
    subordinates the priesthood to the Scriptures, =1=, 379.
    exacts an oath from the Judæans to observe the Law, =1=,
        380-1, 387-8.
    at the consecration of the walls of Jerusalem, =1=, 381.
    guardian of the Temple, =1=, 382.
    regulations ascribed to, =1=, 395.
    the chief of the Scribes, =2=, 19.
    Mahomet on, =3=, 76.
    pilgrimages to the supposed grave of, =3=, 441.

  =Ezra=, Kabbalist, reduces the Kabbala to a system, =3=, 548.

  =Ezra Gatiño=, commentator on Ibn-Ezra’s Pentateuch commentary, =4=,
        144.


  =F=

  =Fables=, written by Meïr, =2=, 436.

  “=Fables= of Ancient Times,” by Ibn-Sahula, =3=, 560.

  =Fabulists=, list of:
    Berachya ben Natronaï Nakdan,
    Ibn-Sahula,
    Meïr.

  =Fadak=, submits to Mahomet, =3=, 83.

  =Fadus, Cuspius=, procurator, strengthens Rome in Judæa, =2=, 197.
    rising of Theudas under, =2=, 198.
    deposed, =2=, 198.

  =Fagius, Paulus=, disciple of Reuchlin, and Elias Levita, =4=, 474.

  “=Faith= and Creed,” by Saadiah, =3=, 197-8.

  =Falaquera.= _See_ Shem-Tob Falaquera.

  =Falcos=, the Jews of, attacked, =4=, 78.

  =Falero, Abraham Aboab=, builds the second synagogue at Hamburg, =4=,
        691.

  =Faliachi, Jacob=, Sabbatian, =5=, 156.

  =Falk, Jacob Joshua=, rabbi of Metz and Frankfort, =5=, 251.
    against Eibeschütz, =5=, 262, 263, 268, 269.
    disciple of, =5=, 263.

  =Fall=, the. _See_ Original Sin.

  =Fall, the, of the Angels=, dogma of, in the Kabbala, =4=, 292.

  =Famagusta=, besieged by the Turks, =4=, 600.
    taken, =4=, 601.

  “=Familianten=,” privileged Jews, =5=, 253.

  =Famine=, in Israel under Ahab, =1=, 203.
    in Judah under Uzziah, =1=, 229-30.
    in Jerusalem during the siege of Titus, =2=, 304, 305-6.
    under Marcus Aurelius, =2=, 451.

  =Farchi, Chayim Maalem=, Jewish minister at Accho, =5=, 460.

  =Farchi, Raphael Murad=, accused of ritual murder, =5=, 639.
    restored to his position, =5=, 661.

  =Farchi family=, the, accused of ritual murder, =5=, 638.

  =Farissol, Abraham.= _See_ Abraham Farissol.

  =Farnese, Alexander.= _See_ Paul III, pope.

  =Farnese, Alexander=, cardinal, intercedes for the Jews, =4=, 567.

  =Faro=, Count of, friend of Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 338.

  =Faro=, Jewish center in Portugal, =4=, 159.

  =Farraj Ibn-Solomon= (Farragut), physician to Charles of Anjou, =3=,
        628.

  =Fars.= _See_ Hamadan.

  =Farsistan=, the Exilarch’s income from, =3=, 96.

  =Fast=, proclaimed under Jehoiakim, =1=, 304.
    in memory of Gedaliah, =1=, 325.
    in memory of the Blois martyrs, =3=, 380-1.
    during the disputation with Donin, =3=, 577.
    on the anniversary of the burning of the Talmud, =3=, 579.
    against Gonzalo Martinez, =4=, 85.
    to avert the Black Death persecutions, =4=, 100.
    during the Hussite war, =4=, 225-6.
    commemorating the Nemirov massacre, =5=, 13.

  =Fast days=, observed by the Babylonian exiles, =1=, 337.

  =Fast of Tammuz abolished=, by Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 151-2.
    by the Sabbatians, =5=, 159.

  =Fast of Tebeth=, abolished by Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 143.

  “=Father= of the Judæans.” _See_ Ragesh.

  =Fatimide Caliphate=, the, Talmud schools established in, =3=, 210.
    Jewish science in, =3=, 211.
    fanaticism of, =3=, 212.
    Joseph ben Isaac Ibn-Abitur in, =3=, 238.
    the Jews of, persecuted, =3=, 247-8.
    extent of, =3=, 248.
    consequences of the fall of, =3=, 461.

  =Fauma Kadin=, Sarah Zevi’s Mahometan name, =5=, 154.

  =Fayum=, Saadiah’s birthplace, =3=, 188.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 444.

  =Feast of Ingathering=, celebrated in the eighth month, =1=, 186.
        _See_ Tabernacles, the feast of.

  =Feast of Lights.= _See_ Chanukah.

  =February revolution=, the, completes the emancipation of the Jews,
        =5=, 696-7.

  =Federation= of the German states, Act of, assures citizenship to the
        Jews, =5=, 518.

  =Felgenhauer, Paul=, mystic, Messianic speculations of, =5=, 35-6.

  =Felix=, governor of Galilee, husband of Drusilla, =2=, 235, 242,
        245.
    rouses the Zealots against the Samaritans, =2=, 243.
    sides with the Galilæans, =2=, 244.
    procurator of Judæa, rapacity of, =2=, 245.
    allied with the Sicarii, =2=, 246.
    sides with the Greeks against the Judæans, =2=, 247.

  =Felix Libertate=, Dutch club, joined by Jews, =5=, 453.

  “=Fence=,” the, about the Law, =1=, 397.

  =Ferber, von=, and the Jews of Dresden, =5=, 344.

  =Ferdinand I=, emperor, permits the expulsion of the Bohemian
        Jews, =4=, 544.
    expels the Jews from Lower Austria, =4=, 585.
    expels the Jews of Prague, =4=, 585-6.
    embassy of, negotiates with Joseph Nassi, =4=, 597.
    appeals to Joseph Nassi, =4=, 601.

  =Ferdinand II=, emperor, reproves Hamburg for permitting a synagogue,
        =4=, 689-90.
    protects the Jews, =4=, 701-2.
    imprisons Lipmann Heller, =4=, 705.
    fines him, =4=, 706.
    introduces conversion sermons in Vienna, =4=, 706.

  =Ferdinand III=, emperor, extends the rights of the Bohemian
        Jews, =4=, 707.

  =Ferdinand I=, of Aragon, regent of Castile, =4=, 194.
    issues an anti-Jewish edict, =4=, 203-4.
    becomes king of Aragon, =4=, 205.
    defers to Vincent Ferrer, =4=, 206.
    arranges for the disputation at Tortosa, =4=, 207.
    advises Benedict XIII to abdicate, =4=, 216.
    threatens to besiege Benedict XIII, =4=, 217.
    death of, =4=, 217.

  =Ferdinand II=, of Aragon. _See_ Ferdinand V, of Castile,
        the Catholic.

  =Ferdinand III=, of Castile, the Holy, hostile to the Jews, =3=, 519.
    employs a Jewish physician, =3=, 537.
    Jews under, =3=, 592.

  =Ferdinand IV=, of Castile, employs a Jewish treasurer, =4=, 51-2.
    death of, =4=, 52.

  =Ferdinand V=, of Castile (II, of Aragon), the Catholic, marriage
        of, =4=, 280.
    ascends the throne of Castile, =4=, 284.
    avarice of, =4=, 310, 318.
    sanctions the Inquisition for Marranos, =4=, 310-11.
    obtains sanction for the Inquisition in Aragon, =4=, 319.
    introduces the Inquisition into his hereditary lands, =4=, 325-6.
    inclined to revoke the Jewish edict of banishment, =4=, 348.
    confiscates the possessions of the Jews of his hereditary
        lands, =4=, 350.
    threatens Navarre for protecting Marranos, =4=, 357.
    urges the expulsion of the Jews from Navarre, =4=, 358.
    and Judah Leon Abrabanel, =4=, 384, 385.
    establishes the Inquisition at Benevento, =4=, 385.
    _See also_ Ferdinand and Isabella.

  =Ferdinand (V) and Isabella (I)=, of Castile, establish the
        Inquisition in Spain, =4=, 309.
    appoint the commission to frame the statute for the Inquisition,
        =4=, 312.
    papal letter to, concerning the Inquisition, =4=, 318.
    refuse to modify the rigors of the Inquisition, =4=, 322.
    ask for an inquisitor-general, =4=, 324.
    establish the Inquisition at Seville, =4=, 335.
    urged to expel the Jews from Seville, =4=, 336.
    protect the Jews from chicanery, =4=, 336.
    appoint Isaac Abrabanel minister of finance, =4=, 343.
    secret treaty of, with Boabdil, =4=, 345.
    enter Granada, =4=, 345.
    decide on the expulsion of the Jews, =4=, 346-7.
    proclamation of, expelling the Jews, =4=, 347-8.
    confiscate the treasures of the exiles, =4=, 354-5.
    censured for the expulsion of the Jews, =4=, 356.
    marry their daughter to Manoel of Portugal, =4=, 372-3.
    oppose the Portuguese Marranos at Rome, =4=, 379.

  =Ferdinand I=, of Naples, employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 287.
    receives Spanish exiles kindly, =4=, 358-9.
    patron of Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 359, 383.
    refuses to expel the Jews, =4=, 359-60.
    death of, =4=, 360.

  =Ferdinand I=, of Portugal, prosperity of the Jews under, =4=, 158-9.
    Jewish favorites of, =4=, 159-60.
    death of, =4=, 160.

  =Ferdinand=, duke of Braganza, friend of Isaac Abrabanel, =4=,
        338, 340-1.

  =Ferdinand de Medici=, duke of Tuscany, receives Jewish exiles from
        the Papal States, =4=, 659.
    permits the use of the expurgated Talmud, =4=, 659.

  =Fermo=, residence of Immanuel Romi, =4=, 68.

  =Fernando, Manuel, de Villa-Real=, Marrano, martyr, =5=, 91.

  =Ferrajo, Lucio=, tries to prove the blood accusation out of the
        Talmud, =5=, 639.

  =Ferrara=, Hillel of Verona in, =3=, 629.
    Jewish printing house in, =4=, 289.
    Jewish exiles in, =4=, 412-13.
    Marranos well treated at, =4=, 526.
    refuge of the Neapolitan Jews, =4=, 544.
    Samuel Usque at, =4=, 558.
    the Talmud burnt in, =4=, 565.
    a refuge for Marranos, =4=, 568, 569.
    refuge of Gracia Mendesia, =4=, 575.
    Marranos of, in distress, =4=, 581.
    refuge of the Jewish exiles from the Papal States, =4=, 592.
    becomes part of the Papal States, =4=, 660.
    no longer a refuge for Marranos, =4=, 661.
    earthquake in, =4=, 615.

  =Ferrara, the Jews of=, liberties of, =3=, 628.
    appeal for permission to own the Talmud, =4=, 658.
    attached to the house of Este, =4=, 660.

  =Ferrer.= _See_ Vidal ben Benveniste Ibn-Labi.

  =Ferrer, Vincent=, humility of, =4=, 200-1.
    revives flagellation, =4=, 201.
    as an orator, =4=, 201.
    fanaticism of, =4=, 201-2.
    crusade of, against the Jews, =4=, 202.
    extorts Christian confession from the Marranos, =4=, 202-3.
    influences Jews to accept Christianity, =4=, 204-5, 206, 214.
    procures the crown of Aragon for Ferdinand of Castile, =4=,
        205, 206.
    denounces Benedict XIII, =4=, 216.
    death of, =4=, 217.
    refused aid by João I of Portugal, =4=, 218.
    in Savoy, =4=, 218.
    terror of, spreads to Germany and Italy, =4=, 218.
    policy of, adopted by the Council of Basle, =4=, 246.
    compared with John of Capistrano, =4=, 257.
    compared with Bernardinus of Feltre, =4=, 296.

  =Ferrus, Pero=, apostate, satirist, =4=, 181.

  =Festus=, procurator of Judæa, administration of, =2=, 247-8.

  =Fettmilch, Vincent=, leader of the Frankfort guilds against the Jews,
        =4=, 696-7.
    attacks the Jew quarter, =4=, 697.
    hanged, =4=, 699-700.

  =Fez=, Dunash ben Labrat in, =3=, 226.
    Maimun’s family in, =3=, 451-6.
    forced converts emigrate to, =4=, 179.
    suffering of Spanish exiles in, =4=, 361-2.
    the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 390.

  =Fez, the Jews of=, consult Haï Gaon, =3=, 252.
    persecuted, =3=, 360.
    fortunes of, =5=, 168.

  =Fezara=, the, Arab tribe, promise assistance to the Jews of
        Chaibar, =3=, 82.

  =Fichte=, classes Jews with the nobility and clergy, =5=, 461.
    opposes the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 462, 468.
    Saul Asher refutes, =5=, 463.

  =Fields=, the blessing of, by Jews, forbidden, =2=, 620; =3=, 44.

  =Fifth Monarchy=, the, believers in, regard the Jews favorably,
        =5=, 23, 27.
    view of, held by Christians, =5=, 37.
    as interpreted by Manasseh ben Israel, =5=, 38.
    believers in, fix the Messianic year, =5=, 120.

  =Firme-Fé.= _See_ Nuñes, Henrique.

  =First-born=, the, Mosaic law of, as interpreted under Ahaz, =1=, 261.

  =Firuz= (Pheroces, 457-484), Sassanian king, persecutes the Jews, =2=,
        628-30; =3=, 1.
    persecutes the Jews of Ispahan, =2=, 629.
    closes the Jewish schools, =2=, 629.
    forces Magianism upon Jews, =2=, 629.
    death of, =2=, 630.

  =Firuz-Shabur= (Anbar), important Babylonian town, =2=, 505.
    the Jews of, in the war between Julian the Apostate and Shabur
        II, =2=, 601.
    academy opened at, =3=, 8, 9.
    taken by Ali, =3=, 90.

  =Fiscus Judaicus=, tax instituted by Vespasian, =2=, 316.
    extorted from the Jews, =2=, 332.
    _See_ Tax.

  “=Five Evidences= of the Faith,” Sabbatian work, =5=, 162.

  =Flaccus=, prætor in Asia Minor, seizes upon the votive offerings in
        the Temple, =2=, 68.
    defended by Cicero, =2=, 68-70.

  =Flaccus, Pomponius=, governor of Syria, Agrippa I courtier
        of, =2=, 175.
    tool of the Alexandrians, =2=, 181.
    deprives Judæans of Alexandrian citizenship, =1=, 182.
    deposed, =2=, 183.

  =Flagellants=, the, in Hanover, =4=, 111.
    under Vincent Ferrer, =4=, 201.
    condemned by the Council of Constance, =4=, 217.

  =Flanders=, Spanish spoken in, by the exiles, =4=, 387.
    Portuguese Marranos imprisoned in, =4=, 509.

  =Flavian house=, the, and the Jews, =2=, 388.

  =Flavio Jacopo de Evora=, on Amatus Lusitanus, =4=, 610.

  =Flavius Josephus.= _See_ Joseph ben Matthias.

  =Florence=, commerce of, in the fifteenth century, =4=, 285.
    Elias del Medigo lectures on philosophy at, =4=, 291.
    the Jews of, protected against Bernardinus of Feltre, =4=, 297.
    the Marranos of, not molested, =4=, 500.
    the Portuguese Jews of, wealthy, =5=, 205.

  =Florentin, Solomon=, Talmudist, supporter of Jacob Querido, =5=, 210.

  =Florus, Gessius= (64-66), last procurator of Judæa, rapacity and
        profligacy of, =2=, 249-50.
    favors the Sicarii, =2=, 250.
    bribed by the Judæans of Cæsarea, =2=, 252-3.
    imprisons Judæan deputies, =2=, 253.
    demands a part of the Temple treasures, =2=, 253.
    in Jerusalem, =2=, 253-4.
    plunders the upper town, =2=, 254.
    appealed to by Berenice, =2=, 254.
    demands a friendly reception for his troops, =2=, 254.
    troops of, attack the Temple, =2=, 255.
    leaves Jerusalem, =2=, 255.
    Jerusalem rebellious towards, =2=, 258.
    refuses to aid the Peace party, =2=, 259.
    refrains from interference between the Zealots and the Roman
        garrison in Jerusalem, =2=, 261-2.
    enslaves the Judæans in Cæsarea, =2=, 262.
    accused before Nero, =2=, 268.

  =Fons Vitæ=, philosophical work by Solomon Ibn-Gebirol, =3=, 270-1.
        _See_ “Fountain of Life, The.”

  =Fonseca Pinto y Pimentel, Sarah de=, Jewish poetess, =5=, 203.

  =Fontaine, de=, Countess, owns the Jews of Metz, =5=, 348, 446.

  =Fontanes=, reactionary influence of, =5=, 477, 479.

  “=Fool’s Voice=, The,” by Leo Modena, =5=, 73.

  =Forli=, Hillel of Verona in, =3=, 629.
    synod at, =4=, 218.

  “=Fortalitium Fidei=,” anti-Jewish work by Alfonso de Spina, =4=,
        277, 415.

  “=Fortress=, The,” polemic, =4=, 234.

  =Fortunatus, Venantius=, poet, celebrates the achievements of
        Avitus, =3=, 39.

  =Forum Judicum=, Visigothic code, translated into Castilian,
        =3=, 594-5.

  =Fossano=, French exiles settle in, =4=, 177.

  =Fostat.= _See_ Cairo.

  =Fould, Achille=, questions Thiers on the Damascus affair, =5=, 649.

  “=Fountain= of Life, The,” (Mekor Chayim, Fons Vitæ), philosophical
        work by Solomon Ibn-Gebirol, =3=, 270.
    translated into Latin, =3=, 270.
    used by the schoolmen, =3=, 271.

  =Four Countries, the, Synod of= (Vaad Arba Arazoth), functions of,
        =4=, 643-4; =5=, 3-4.
    authority of, =4=, 644.
    supposed originator of, =4=, 645.
    president of, =4=, 645.
    and the Kamieniec disputation, =5=, 281.
    forbidden to assemble, =5=, 387.
    dissolution of, favorable to Chassidism, =5=, 387.

  =Fourth of August=, the, glory of, =5=, 437.

  =Fox Fables=, the, by Berachya ben Natronaï, =3=, 560.

  =Fraga=, the Jews of, converted, =4=, 214.

  “=Fragments= of an Unknown,” published by Lessing, =5=, 320-1.
    effect of, =5=, 321-2.
    attributed to Mendelssohn, =5=, 322.

  =France=, Talmud schools established in, =3=, 208.
    Talmudists of, imported into Egypt, =3=, 444.
    rabbis of, emigrate to Jerusalem, =3=, 505-6.
    rabbis of, in sympathy with Solomon Petit, =3=, 627.
    refuge of the Jews banished from England, =3=, 646.
    quarrel about the chief rabbinate of, =4=, 152-3, 162.
    the Protestant Reformation in, =4=, 469.
    professorships for Hebrew instituted in, =4=, 471, 473, 474.
    Portuguese Marranos arrested in, =4=, 509.
    ambassador of, and Joseph Nassi, =4=, 595, 598-9.
    Joseph Nassi seizes the merchant vessels of, =4=, 597.
    the Measfim in, =5=, 401.
    the first country to emancipate the Jews, =5=, 430.
    congregations of, present addresses to the Synhedrion, =5=, 496.
    Central Consistory of, keeps aloof from the Reform movement, =5=,
        572.

  =France, the Jews of=, participate in the memorial services at the
        Babylonian academies, =3=, 101.
    advanced under Charlemagne, =3=, 141.
    devote themselves to the Agada, =3=, 160.
    under Charles the Bald, =3=, 170-4.
    decrees against, revived, =3=, 171.
    tax levied on, =3=, 172.
    antagonized by Bishop Amolo, =3=, 172-3.
    exposed to Easter attacks, =3=, 173-4.
    under Charles the Simple, =3=, 175.
    treated as the wards of the king, =3=, 175.
    yield precedence to the Jews of Spain, =3=, 236.
    oppressed under the last Carlovingians and the first Capets,
        =3=, 241-2.
    the clergy arouse hatred against, =3=, 241.
    accused of using spells against Christians, =3=, 242.
    not creative in the eleventh century, =3=, 281.
    occupations of, =3=, 281.
    compared with the Christians, =3=, 281.
    devoted to the study of the Talmud, =3=, 281, 343-5.
    protected during the first crusade, =3=, 299.
    beginnings of culture among, =3=, 343.
    debts owing to, repudiated, =3=, 349-51.
    Louis VII roused against, =3=, 349-50.
    a persecution of, prevented, =3=, 351.
    martyrdom of, during the second crusade, =3=, 354-6.
    Jewish culture of, =3=, 357.
    and the secular courts, =3=, 377.
    observe a fast for the Jews of Blois, =3=, 380.
    banished by Philip Augustus, =3=, 402-3.
    charges against, by Innocent III, =3=, 499.
    forbidden to employ Christian nurses, =3=, 508.
    suffer during Gregory IX’s crusade, =3=, 570.
    forced into Christianity, =3=, 570.
    appeal to Gregory IX, =3=, 570.
    under Louis IX, =3=, 570-1.
    charged with usury, =3=, 571.
    fast during the disputation with Donin, =3=, 577.
    charged with the blood accusation, =3=, 583-5.
    banished by Louis IX, =3=, 585-6.
    return of, =3=, 586.
    forced to wear a badge, =3=, 612.
    address Solomon ben Adret for religious decisions, =3=, 620.
    banished by Philip IV, =3=, 646; =4=, 46.
    reasons for the exile of, =4=, 47.
    suffering of, =4=, 47-9.
    emigrate, =4=, 49.
    recalled by Louis X, =4=, 53.
    conditions for the re-admission of, =4=, 53-4.
    privileges of, extended by Philip V, =4=, 54.
    massacred by the Pastoureaux, =4=, 55-7.
    accused of poisoning wells, =4=, 57.
    permitted to return by John the Good, =4=, 129.
    privileges granted to, =4=, 129-31, 150.
    hostility to, =4=, 131, 132.
    attacked by mobs, =4=, 151-2.
    refuse to submit to the German chief rabbi, =4=, 152-3.
    conditions of the residence of, in France, =4=, 174.
    forced into usury, =4=, 174.
    banished by Charles VI, =4=, 175-6.
    remain in certain towns and provinces, =4=, 176-7.
    settle in Germany and Italy, =4=, 177.
    number of, =5=, 435.
    not united for concerted action, =5=, 436.
    petition for admission into the fraternity of the French
        people, =5=, 438.
    Saint Etienne speaks in behalf of, =5=, 439.
    improvement of, planned by Berr Isaac Berr, =5=, 449.
    interested in the government, =5=, 449-50.
    and the religion of Reason, =5=, 451-2.
    recognized as equals by the Constitution of the Directory, =5=, 452.
    object to the poll-tax in Germany, =5=, 464-5.
    in danger of losing their privileges, =5=, 474.
    opposed by the reactionary party, =5=, 477-8.
    deprived temporarily of civil equality, =5=, 482.
    restrictive laws for, =5=, 498-9.
    rights of, not curtailed after Napoleon’s fall, =5=, 512-13.
    restrictions against not renewed, =5=, 524-5.
    rapid advance of, =5=, 557.
    under Polish influence, =5=, 558.
    influenced by the Reform movement, =5=, 582-3.
    and the Damascus affair, =5=, 644, 651.
    asked to support Crémieux’s Eastern schools, =5=, 671.

  =France, the Jews of, emancipation of.= _See_ Emancipation of the
        French Jews, the.

  =France, northern=, home of Talmudic studies after Rashi, =3=, 289.
    rabbis of, at Donin’s disputation, =3=, 576.

  =France, northern, the Jews of=, devoted to Talmud study, =3=, 289,
        290, 345, 407-8.
    expect the Messiah, =3=, 298.
    prosperous in the twelfth century, =3=, 343.
    banished during the third crusade, =3=, 405.
    received by Philip Augustus, =3=, 405-6.
    not permitted to move from province to province, =3=, 406.
    forbidden to buy property confiscated from Jews, =3=, 406-7.
    treated as bondmen, =3=, 407.
    naïve faith of, =3=, 549.
    wear Jew badges, =3=, 612.

  =France, southern=, Judæans in, =2=, 203.
    culture and rulers of, =3=, 390.
    tolerance in, =3=, 390.
    Spanish culture introduced into, =3=, 392.
    Jews from, in Palestine, =3=, 427-8.
    rabbis of, renounce Solomon of Montpellier, =3=, 539, 541.
    _See also_ Languedoc; Narbonne; Provence.

  =France, southern, the Jews of=, dependent on vassal princes, =3=,
        242.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 389-91.
    idolize Maimonides, =3=, 488-9.
    Maimonides on, =3=, 492.
    relation of, to the Albigenses, =3=, 501, 513-14.
    suffer during the Albigensian crusade, =3=, 501-3.
    not employed as state officials, =3=, 503-4.
    send delegates to the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 509.
    struggle against badges, =3=, 513.
    Innocent III’s decrees enforced against, =3=, 518.
    Maimunists, =3=, 526-7.
    excommunicate Solomon of Montpellier, =3=, 530.
    philosophical leanings of, =3=, 549.
    ordered to enter into disputations with Pablo Christiani, =3=, 602.
    obtain the abrogation of the law on badges, =3=, 612.
    persecuted in the fourteenth century, =4=, 53.
    during the Pastoureaux rising, =4=, 56-7.
    massacred on the charge of having caused the Black Death, =4=, 102.
    hostility towards, =4=, 132.

  =Francesco Maria I=, duke of Urbino, brings Molcho to Pesaro, =4=,
        501.

  =Francesco Maria II=, duke of Urbino, David de Pomis dedicates a book
        to, =4=, 657.

  =Francis I=, of Austria, emperor, imposes restrictions on the
        Jews, =5=, 508.
    the Jews under, =5=, 523.
    intolerance of, =5=, 579.

  =Francis I=, of France, patron of Hebrew learning, =4=, 473.

  =Franciscans= (Minorites), the, order of, originates in the Fourth
        Lateran Council, =3=, 509.
    persecutions by, in southern France, =3=, 519.
    in the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 542-3.
    judges of the Talmud, =3=, 575.
    free English Jews imprisoned on the blood accusation, =3=, 591.
    censors of the Talmud, =3=, 603.
    in Hungary, =3=, 614.
    mock at the Dominicans, =3=, 641.
    object to a synagogue on Mount Zion, =4=, 274.
    espouse Reuchlin’s cause, =4=, 457.

  =Franciscus of Sardinia=, persecutes the Damascus Jews, =5=, 639-40.

  =Franco, (Christoval) Mordecai Mendes=, Marrano in Holland, =4=, 667.

  =Franco, Nicolo=, papal nuncio, urges the Inquisition for
        Marranos, =4=, 310.

  =Franco, Samuel=, Kabbalist, =4=, 405.

  =Franconia, the Jews of=, suffer during the Rindfleisch persecution,
        =4=, 35.
    privileges granted to, =4=, 259.
    banished, =4=, 259-60.
    attacked by Lutheran peasants, =4=, 542.
    persecuted, =5=, 529.

  =Frank, Eva=, daughter of Jacob Frank, =5=, 289.

  =Frank, Jacob=, roguery of, =5=, 272.
    joins the Sabbatians, =5=, 272.
    accepts Islam, =5=, 272.
    Kabbalistic views of, =5=, 273.
    considered an incarnation of the Messiah, =5=, 273, 274.
    leader of the Polish Sabbatians, =5=, 273-4.
    prayers addressed to, =5=, 274.
    emigrates to Turkey, =5=, 276.
    advises his followers to accept Christianity, =5=, 278-9, 284.
    invited to return to Podolia, =5=, 283.
    baptized, =5=, 287-8.
    betrayed, =5=, 288.
    end of the career of, =5=, 289.

  =Fränkel, David=, rabbi of Berlin, Mendelssohn’s teacher, =5=, 293-4.

  =Fränkel, Jonas=, founder of the Breslau Seminary, =5=, 700.

  =Frankel, Sæckel=, compiles Hebrew prayers, =5=, 564.

  =Frankel, Zachariah= (1801-1875), orthodox leader, compared with
        Holdheim, =5=, 684.
    character and scientific activity of, =5=, 684, 694-5.
    attitude of, towards reforms, =5=, 684-5.
    at the Frankfort rabbinical conference, =5=, 685.
    founder of the Breslau seminary, =5=, 700.

  =Frankenberg, Abraham von=, mystic, on the restoration of
        Israel, =5=, 24.

  =Frankfort=, duchy of, created, =5=, 505.

  =Frankfort-on-the-Main=, diet at, to consider the Jewish question,
        =4=, 463, 464.
    Jews tolerated in, =4=, 686.
    refuses to receive Portuguese Jews, =4=, 695.
    Polish-Jewish fugitives in, =5=, 16.
    rabbis of, Poles, =5=, 17, 206.
    Joseph Delmedigo at, =5=, 80.
    “Judaism Unmasked” printed at, =5=, 189.
    Judah Chassid at, =5=, 213.
    Moses Meïr Kamenker at, =5=, 229-30.
    Börne’s life in, =5=, 539.
    without a rabbi, =5=, 566.
    Talmud school of, closed, =5=, 567.
    honor shown to Crémieux at, =5=, 668.
    the Reform movement in, =5=, 674.
    rabbinical conference at, =5=, 683-4, 685-6.

  =Frankfort-on-the-Main, the Jews of=, burn themselves to escape
        persecution, =4=, 109.
    charged with child murder, =4=, 299-300.
    threatened with expulsion, =4=, 417, 696.
    confiscation of the books of, by Pfefferkorn, =4=, 429-30, 438.
    appeal to Uriel von Gemmingen, =4=, 430.
    send a representative to Maximilian I, =4=, 430-1, 436-7.
    extermination of, suggested by Pfefferkorn, =4=, 463.
    submit disputes to the Polish Talmudists, =4=, 639.
    number of, =4=, 694.
    antipathy to, =4=, 694-5.
    restrictions imposed on, =4=, 695-6, 700.
    houses of labeled, =4=, 696.
    attacked by Fettmilch, =4=, 697.
    flee, =4=, 697-8.
    re-admitted, =4=, 699.
    celebrate Purim-Vincent, =4=, 700.
    protected by Ferdinand II, =4=, 701.
    oppose Eibeschütz’s Talmud edition, =5=, 251.
    petition for emancipation, =5=, 465-6.
    miserable condition of, =5=, 466.
    relieved of the poll-tax, =5=, 468.
    oppressed, =5=, 503.
    freed from the Ghetto, =5=, 504.
    new laws for, =5=, 504-5.
    emancipation of, =5=, 505.
    under restrictions after Napoleon’s fall, =5=, 512, 520.
    send deputies to the Congress of Vienna, =5=, 513.
    rely on Prussia and Austria, =5=, 520-1.
    persecuted, =5=, 529.
    purchase political rights, =5=, 541.

  =Frankfort-on-the-Main, the senate of=, orders the surrender of
        Hebrew books, =4=, 429.
    withdraws aid from Pfefferkorn, =4=, 430.
    forbids the sale of Hebrew books, =4=, 431.
    protects Hebrew books on sale at the Fair, =4=, 438.
    directed to return the Hebrew books, =4=, 439.
    discusses the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 598.
    and circumcision, =5=, 676-7.

  =Frankfort-on-the-Oder=, the theological faculty of, permits Jews to
        live in Hamburg, =4=, 687.
    Jews settle in, =5=, 174.
    regulations for the Fair at, =5=, 415.

  =Frankfurter, Naphtali=, devotee of the Kabbala, =5=, 55.
    complains of the scorn for the Talmud, =5=, 56.

  =Frankists=, the, Sabbatian sect, origin of, =5=, 274.
    opposed to Rabbinical Judaism, =5=, 274.
    charged with dissoluteness, =5=, 275-6.
    excommunicated, =5=, 276-7.
    the persecution of, sanctioned by Emden, =5=, 278.
    handed over to the Inquisition, =5=, 278.
    inclined towards Christianity, =5=, 278-9.
    attacked by the Talmud Jews, =5=, 279.
    charge the Talmud Jews with the blood accusation, =5=, 279.
    favored by Bishop Dembowski, =5=, 279-80.
    disputations of, with the Talmudists, =5=, 280, 281, 286-7.
    confession of faith by, =5=, 280, 285.
    persecuted, =5=, 283.
    apply for baptism, =5=, 284.
    baptized, =5=, 287.
    customs of, =5=, 289.
    families descended from, =5=, 289.
    regard Eibeschütz as the great Gaon, =5=, 289.

  =Frankists=, list of:
    Chaya, daughter of Elisha Schor,
    Krysa, Jehuda Leb
    Nachman ben Samuel Levi,
    Schor, Elisha
    Solomon of Rohatyn.

  =Franks, the, the empire of=, independent of the Church, =3=, 37.
    Jew hatred introduced into, =3=, 38-9.
    extent of, under Charlemagne, =3=, 142.
    Jews spread in, =3=, 144.

  =Franks, the, the empire of, the Jews of=, permitted to carry on the
        slave trade, =3=, 34.
    not considered a separate race, =3=, 35.
    occupations of, =3=, 35-6.
    protected by Charlemagne, =3=, 142.
    education of, cared for by Charlemagne, =3=, 143.
    oath imposed on, =3=, 144.
    under Louis the Pious, =3=, 161-70.
    have free access to court, =3=, 162.
    synagogues of, visited by Christians, =3=, 163.
    and Agobard of Lyons, =3=, 164-8.

  =Frederick I Barbarossa=, emperor, considers the Jews “servi cameræ,”
        =3=, 416-17.
    includes Jews in his general peace, =3=, 418.

  =Frederick II=, emperor, Jews under, =3=, 516.
    introduces the Jew badge into Naples and Sicily, =3=, 518.
    Gregory IX the enemy of, =3=, 519.
    patron of learning, =3=, 565.
    corresponds with a Jewish scholar, =3=, 565-6.
    brings Jacob Anatoli to Naples, =3=, 566-7.
    reproached with heterodoxy, =3=, 567, 580.
    excludes Jews from public offices, =3=, 567.
    censures Frederick the Valiant, =3=, 569.
    executes the decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 569.
    lays imposts upon Jewish immigrants, =3=, 569.
    forces Innocent IV to retire to Lyons, =3=, 584.
    the Jews persecuted after the death of, =3=, 611.

  =Frederick III=, emperor, has a Jewish favorite, =4=, 224.
    accession of, =4=, 249.
    Jews under, =4=, 293-4.
    claims the Jews of Ratisbon, =4=, 300, 416.
    orders Israel Bruna’s release, =4=, 303.
    defers Israel Bruna’s execution, =4=, 304.
    protects the Jews of Ratisbon, =4=, 305-6.
    recommends the Jews to his son, =4=, 413.
    daughter of, =4=, 428.
    Reuchlin at the court of, =4=, 433.
    ennobles Reuchlin, =4=, 435.

  =Frederick V=, of Denmark, and the Eibeschütz controversy, =5=,
        265, 269, 271.
    wife of, =5=, 267.
    reinstates Eibeschütz, =5=, 268.

  =Frederick I=, of Prussia, Jews under, =5=, 190-1.
    and the Alenu prayer, =5=, 191-2.
    exerts himself in behalf of “Judaism Unmasked”, =5=, 192-3.
    lays the Midrash Rabba under the ban, =5=, 194-5.
    court-Jewess of, =5=, 219.

  =Frederick II=, the Great, of Prussia, at war with Austria, =5=, 251.
    reputed patron of the Jews, =5=, 251.
    the Jews of Berlin under, =5=, 294.
    illiberality of, =5=, 296.
    poetry of, criticised by Mendelssohn, =5=, 302.
    summons Mendelssohn to Sans-Souci, =5=, 302-3.
    makes Mendelssohn a “Schutzjude,” =5=, 304.
    antipathy of, to Jews, =5=, 304.
    objects to Mendelssohn as a member of the Berlin Academy, =5=, 308.
    enraged against Voltaire, =5=, 339.
    appoints Dohm superintendent of the archives, =5=, 351.
    in need of money, =5=, 396.
    culture under, =5=, 410-11.
    popularizes French literature, =5=, 411.
    treatment of the Jews by, =5=, 414, 415.

  =Frederick the Valiant, archduke of Austria, Jewish statute of=,
        =3=, 567-9.
    introduced into a number of countries, =3=, 569, 613-14.
    confirmed by Rudolph of Habsburg, =3=, 635.
    confirmed in Poland, =4=, 111.

  =Frederick=, elector palatine, corresponds with Abraham Zacuto
        Lusitano, =4=, 678.
    re-admits the Jews into Worms, =4=, 699.

  =Frederick the Wise=, elector of Saxony, patron of Luther, =4=, 469.

  =Frederick=, commissioner sent by Louis the Pious to Agobard, =3=,
        166.

  =Frederick Franz=, duke of Mecklenburg, emancipates the Jews, =5=,
        507.

  =Frederick William=, elector of Brandenburg, invites Jewish exiles to
        his state, =5=, 173-4.

  =Frederick William I=, of Prussia, court Jew of, =5=, 219.

  =Frederick William II=, of Prussia, and the emancipation of the Jews,
        =5=, 414, 416.
    Mirabeau on Prussia under, =5=, 419.
    abrogates the poll-tax, =5=, 464.

  =Frederick William III=, of Prussia, tutor of, =5=, 372.
    attends Herz’s lectures, =5=, 406.
    grants some political rights to Jews, =5=, 507, 508.
    nullifies the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 524.
    interrupts the Reform movement in Berlin, =5=, 563.
    forbids Jews to bear Christian names, =5=, 630.

  =Free Towns=, the. _See_ Hanse Towns, the.

  =Freedom= of Conscience, in the French National Assembly, =5=, 439.

  =Freemasons’ Lodge=, the first Jewish, hearth of the Reform
        movement, =5=, 674.

  =Freiburg, the Jews of=, protected during the Black Death
        persecutions, =4=, 106.
    burnt, =4=, 107.

  =French=, the, in Naples, =4=, 384.

  =French literature=, attracts the German Jews, =5=, 411.

  =French Revolution=, the, characterized, =5=, 429.
    outbreak of, =5=, 435.
    excesses of, =5=, 436-7.
    progress of, =5=, 441.
    Jews take no part in the atrocities of, =5=, 450.
    reaction from, =5=, 477-8.

  =French translation=, a, of the Bible projected, =5=, 449.

  =Frenks=, the. _See_ Frankists, the.

  =Fresco, Moses=, rabbi of Constantinople, urges the Jews to study
        Turkish, =5=, 664.

  =Friedländer, Bärmann=, prominent Königsberg Jew, =5=, 397.

  =Friedländer, David= (1750-1834), promotes the revival among
        Jews, =5=, 397.
    successor to Mendelssohn, =5=, 412.
    urges the abolition of the Jewish poll-tax, =5=, 414.
    representative of the Berlin Jewish community, =5=, 415.
    director of the Berlin Free School, =5=, 416.
    mediocrity of, =5=, 417.
    deplores the decay of morality among Jews, =5=, 419.
    makes overtures to the Church, =5=, 421-2, 426.
    children of, baptized, =5=, 422.
    leaves attacks on Judaism unanswered, =5=, 469.
    consulted by Jacobson, =5=, 502.
    efforts of for the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 508.
    on the “hep, hep!” persecutions, =5=, 534.
    influence of, on Heine, =5=, 546.
    Heine’s criticism of, =5=, 547.
    followers of, criticised by Bernays, =5=, 574-5.
    and Mannheimer, =5=, 580.
    member of the Society for Culture, =5=, 583.
    Jost a disciple of, =5=, 595.

  =Friedländer, Meyer=, prominent Königsberg Jew, =5=, 397.

  =Friedländer, Wolf=, prominent Königsberg Jew, =5=, 397.

  =Friedrichsfeld, David=, one of the Measfim, =5=, 400.
    refutes Van Swieden, =5=, 454.

  “=Friends= of Reform,” Society of the, =5=, 675-6.

  =Fries, J. F.=, attacks the Jews, =5=, 521.

  =Friesland, East=, Jews live in, =4=, 665.

  =Frohbach=, astronomical work by, =4=, 638.

  =Fronto=, guardian of Jerusalem, =2=, 311.

  =Fuero juzgo=, Visigothic code, translated, =3=, 594-5.

  =Fueros=, Spanish law of custom, grants citizenship to Jews, =3=, 292.

  “=Fulfillment= of Prophecy, The,” by Pierre Jurieu, =5=, 176.

  =Fulko de Neuilly=, preaches the third crusade, =3=, 405.

  =Fulvia=, Roman patrician, proselyte, =2=, 136, 215.

  =Funes=, the Jews of, attacked, =4=, 78.

  =Furin al-Mizrayim=, Purim of Cairo, =4=, 396.

  =Furtado, Abraham=, member of Malesherbes’ commission, =5=, 432.
    a representative French Jew, =5=, 436.
    deputy of the French Jews, =5=, 438.
    ancestry and youth of, =5=, 483.
    rôle played by, during the Revolution, =5=, 483.
    president of the Assembly of Jewish Notables, =5=, 487.
    speech of, in answer to the imperial commissioners, =5=, 489-90.
    speeches of, before the Synhedrion, =5=, 495, 497.
    view held by, of Judaism, =5=, 496.
    informs Napoleon of anti-Jewish agitation, =5=, 498.

  =Fürth=, the Jews of, indifferent to the confiscation of Hebrew
        books, =4=, 438.
    rabbis of, Poles, =5=, 17.
    Jewish exiles from Vienna settle in, =5=, 173.
    interdicts Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation, =5=, 331-2.
    Talmud school of, closed, =5=, 567.
    rabbi of, opposes the Reform movement, =5=, 571.
    honor shown to Crémieux at, =5=, 668.

  =Future life=, the, doctrine of, =1=, 404-6.
    in the Mishna, =2=, 473.


  =G=

  =Gabaot=, Roman camp under Cestius Gallus, =2=, 265-6.

  =Gabara=, ordered not to protect Josephus, =2=, 281.
    taken by Vespasian, =2=, 286.

  =Gabata=, Galilæan fortress, =2=, 56.

  =Gabinius, Aulus=, governor of Syria, subdues Alexander, =2=, 70.
    divides Judæa into provinces, =2=, 71.
    defeats Alexander, =2=, 73.

  =Gabriel=, the name of an angel, =1=, 403.
    makes revelations to Mahomet, =3=, 71.

  =Gad=, Chaldæan god of fortune, =1=, 340.

  =Gad=, prophet, joins David, =1=, 100, 113.
    orders David to sacrifice on Mt. Moriah, =1=, 138.

  =Gad, the tribe of=, asks for land east of the Jordan, =1=, 29-30.
    appeals to Samuel for help, =1=, 80.
    territory of, taken by Hazael, =1=, 220.
    descendants of, in Chaibar, =3=, 437.

  =Gadara=, incorporated with Judæa, =2=, 103.

  =Gaffarelli, Jacob=, Christian Kabbalist, taught by Leo Modena, =5=,
        71.

  =Gailan=, emir, persecutes Sabbatians, =5=, 151.
    oppresses the Jews, =5=, 168.

  =Galaïgo, Joseph Chayim=, addresses Mendelssohn, =5=, 369.

  =Galaistes=, governor of Gabata, assists Aristobulus, =2=, 56.

  =Galante, Moses=, adherent of Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 132.

  =Galatia=, a Greek-Christian community in, =2=, 227.

  =Galatino=, interested in the Kabbala, =4=, 481, 583.

  =Galba=, emperor, short reign of, =3=, 299.

  =Galen=, writings of, elaborated by Maimonides, =3=, 473.

  =Galerius=, emperor, persecutes Christianity, =2=, 539.

  =Galicia, the Jews of=, proscribed by the Council of Buda, =3=, 614.
    resist the opening of secular schools, =5=, 394.
    described by Rohrer, =5=, 472.
    taxed, =5=, 508.
    oppressed, =5=, 523.
    affected by the Reform movement, =5=, 582.
    beginnings of culture among, =5=, 611-12.
    improvement of, undertaken by the “Israelitische Allianz,”
        =5=, 703.

  =Galician school=, the, founders of, =5=, 607.
    Hebrew style of, =5=, 617.
    contribute to the Kerem Chemed, =5=, 621.
    inspire the contributors to the Scientific Journal, =5=, 625.

  =Galilæan Synod=, the, second assembly of the teachers of the Law at
        Usha, =2=, 434.

  =Galilæans=, name given to Christians, =2=, 596.

  =Galilee=, lake, description of, =1=, 42.

  =Galilee=, province, description of, =1=, 45.
    Gelil Haggoyim, =1=, 164.
    appeals to Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 475.
    rescued by Simon Tharsi, =1=, 475.
    Judæans of, emigrate, =1=, 475.
    Judæans of, killed, =1=, 486.
    restored to Judæa, =2=, 76.
    declares in favor of Antigonus, =2=, 85.
    subdued by Herod, =2=, 87.
    given to Herod Antipas, =2=, 119.
    Roman troops in, to fight Judas the Galilæan, =2=, 126.
    under Herod Antipas, =2=, 137.
    lack of culture in, =2=, 148.
    morality in, =2=, 148.
    language of, =2=, 148-9.
    Jesus in the towns of, =2=, 157.
    a Messiah from, not acceptable, =2=, 161.
    given to Agrippa I, =2=, 177.
    pilgrims from, murdered, =2=, 243.
    under the command of Josephus, =2=, 272, 278-9.
    divided into Upper and Lower, =2=, 272.
    civil war in, =2=, 282-3.
    strength of, broken by Josephus, =2=, 285, 286.
    subject to Rome, =2=, 288.
    Zealots of, possess three fortified places, =2=, 289.
    end of the Roman conquest of, =2=, 290.
    fugitives from, in Jerusalem, =2=, 291.
    recovers under Jewish governors, =2=, 333.
    the seat of the Synhedrion, =2=, 458.
    Babylonian students in the academies of, =2=, 511.
    first churches in, =2=, 565.
    Jews inhabit the cities of, in the sixth century, =3=, 12.
    prevalence of mysticism in, =4=, 617.

  =Galilee, the Jews of=, join the Persian general, =3=, 19.
    join an expedition against the Christians of Tyre, =3=, 20.

  =Galileo=, teacher of Joseph Delmedigo, =5=, 75.

  =Gallaico, Elisha.= _See_ Elisha Gallaico.

  =Gallienus=, emperor with Odenathus, =2=, 528.

  =Gallipoli=, the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.

  =Gallus=, emperor, campaign of, against the Persians, =2=, 568.
    death of, =2=, 572.

  =Gallus, Cestius=, governor of Syria, on the turbulent state of
        Judæa, =2=, 250-1.
    arranges a demonstration in Jerusalem in 66, =2=, 251-2.
    in communication with the Peace party, =2=, 257.
    sends a deputy to Jerusalem, =2=, 257.
    campaign of, near Jerusalem, =2=, 264-6.
    retreats, =2=, 266-7.
    losses of, =2=, 267.
    death of, =2=, 284.

  =Gama, Vasco da=, aided by Joseph Vecinho’s instruments, =4=, 367.

  =Gamala=, capital of Gaulanitis, taken by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 45.
    birthplace of Judas the Galilæan, =2=, 125.
    focus of insurrection in Galilee, =2=, 273.
    impregnable position of, =2=, 274.
    refuge of the Babylonian Judæans, =2=, 275.
    revolts from Agrippa II, =2=, 275.
    taken by Vespasian, =2=, 289-90.

  =Gamaliel I=, the Elder, grandson of Hillel, president of the
        Synhedrion, =2=, 192-3.
    gentle reforms of, =2=, 193.
    grants heathens the right of gleaning, =2=, 478.

  =Gamaliel II=, Patriarch, president of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=,
        334.
    tries to reconcile the schools of Hillel and Shammai, =2=,
        335, 336-8.
    humanity of, =2=, 336.
    regulates the calendar, =2=, 336, 356.
    journeys of, =2=, 336.
    character of, misunderstood, =2=, 336.
    inquires into the character of students of the Law, =2=, 338-9.
    uses excommunication, =2=, 339-40, 347.
    contest of, with Joshua ben Chananya, =2=, 340-2.
    deposed, =2=, 341.
    rejects Moabites and Ammonites as proselytes, =2=, 343.
    reconciled with Joshua, =2=, 344-5.
    reinstated, =2=, 345.
    opposes Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, =2=, 347.
    death of, =2=, 350, 404, 479.
    introduces set prayers, =2=, 363.
    supposed relation of, to the Jewish Christians, =2=, 379.
    and Akylas, =2=, 385.
    journey of, to Rome, =2=, 387.
    and Flavius Clemens, =2=, 387, 389, 391.
    influences Nerva, =2=, 392.
    funeral of, =2=, 404.
    sons of, =2=, 404, 479.

  =Gamaliel III=, Patriarch, instructions of his father to, =2=, 466.
    recommends trades, =2=, 467.
    advises caution in intercourse with the Romans, =2=, 467-8.
    and Abba-Areka, =2=, 512.

  =Gamaliel IV=, Patriarch, scant knowledge of the Law of, =2=, 532.

  =Gamaliel V=, Patriarch, successor to Hillel II, =2=, 612.

  =Gamaliel VI= (Batraah, 370-425), last of the Patriarchs, =2=, 612.
    dignities bestowed on, =2=, 617-18.
    physician, =2=, 618.
    last of the house of Hillel, =2=, 618.

  =Gans, David.= _See_ David Gans.

  =Gans, Edward=, apostate, =5=, 551, 587.
    founder of the Society for Culture, =5=, 583.
    selfishness of, =5=, 585.
    reproaches the Jews, =5=, 586.
    desires a professorship, =5=, 587.
    compared with Riesser, =5=, 600.
    compared with Steinheim, =5=, 607.

  =Gaon=, title of the principal of the Sora Academy, =3=, 90-1, 93.
    of the principal of the Pumbeditha academy, =3=, 93, 177.
    of Isaac Ibn-Sakni, =3=, 285.
    of the head of the Bagdad college, =3=, 429.
    of Samuel ben Ali Halevi, =3=, 438.
    of Eibeschütz, =5=, 289.
    of Elijah Wilna, =5=, 389.
    _See also_ Gaonate, the; Geonim, the; Pumbeditha, the academy of,
        principals of; Sora, the academy of, principals of.

  =Gaon of Castile=, Isaac Campanton, =4=, 230.

  =Gaonate=, the, Anan ben David hostile to, =3=, 130.
    European and African Jews independent of, =3=, 208, 210.
    decline of, =3=, 231, 253.
    _See also_ Gaon; Geonim, the.

  =Garcilaso=, Spanish ambassador to Rome, opposes the Portuguese
        Marranos, =4=, 379.

  =Gascony, the Jews of=, under Henry II, =3=, 409.
    banished, =3=, 646.
    during the Pastoureaux massacres, =4=, 56.

  “=Gate of Heaven=, The,” Kabbalistic work by Abraham de Herrera, =5=,
        54.

  =Gates=, the, of the second Temple, =2=, 111.

  =Gath=, Philistine city, =1=, 54, 80.
    surrendered to the Israelites, =1=, 117.
    returned to the Philistines, =1=, 117-18.
    conquered by Hazael, =1=, 221.
    conquered by Uzziah, =1=, 231.

  “=Gatherer=, The,” (Ha-Meassef), a Hebrew journal, =5=, 399.
    editors of, =5=, 400.
    interest in, =5=, 403, 404.
    contributors to, in Berlin, =5=, 411.

  =Gatiño, Ezra.= _See_ Ezra Gatiño.

  =Gaucelin, de=, lords of Lünel, Jews under, =3=, 396.

  =Gaul=, early Jewish settlements in, =3=, 35.

  =Gaul, the Jews of=, =3=, 35-40.
    names borne by, =3=, 36.
    intermarry with Christians, =3=, 36.
    obey the dietary laws, =3=, 36.
    treated with hostility, =3=, 37-40.

  =Gaulanitis= (Gaulonitis), invaded by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 44, 45.
    given to Philip, =2=, 119.
    given to Agrippa II, =2=, 245.
    a field in, given to Judah II, =2=, 482.

  =Gauls=, body-guard of Cleopatra, given to Herod, =2=, 103.

  =Gayo da Rieti.= _See_ Moses ben Isaac da Rieti.

  =Gayo, Maëstro.= _See_ Isaac ben Mordecai.

  =Gaza=, Philistine port, =1=, 54.
    left in possession of the Philistines, =1=, 117.
    frontier town of Israel, =1=, 129.
    taken by Necho, =1=, 297.
    taken by Alexander the Great, =1=, 412.
    battle of, =1=, 417.
    Greek citizens of, resist Joseph, =1=, 425.
    Jewish prisoners sold at the slave markets of, =2=, 419.
    proclaimed the Holy City of the Sabbatians, =5=, 132.
    Jews of, flee before Napoleon, =5=, 459.

  =Gaza, the district of=, overrun by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 40.
    surrenders to Ptolemy VIII, =2=, 40.
    taken by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 41.

  =Gazara=, fortified by Bacchides, =1=, 491.
    surrenders to Simon Tharsi, =1=, 523.
    fortified by Simon Tharsi, =1=, 524.
    the son of Simon Tharsi at, =1=, 525.
    claimed by Antiochus Sidetes, =2=, 4-5.
    a Synhedrion established at, =2=, 71.

  =Geba.= _See_ Gibeah.

  =Gedaliah=, son of Ahikam, overseer of the Judæan fugitives, =1=,
        315.
    governor of Judah, disciple of Jeremiah, =1=, 319.
    guardian of Zedekiah’s daughters, =1=, 319.
    joined by Jeremiah, =1=, 320.
    erects a sanctuary at Mizpah, =1=, 321.
    informed of Ishmael’s treachery, =1=, 322.
    murder of, =1=, 322.
    a fast on the anniversary of the murder of, =1=, 325.

  =Gedaliah Levi=, quarrels with Vital Calabrese, =5=, 52.

  =Gedalya Ibn-Yachya= (of the Italian branch, 1515-1587), historian,
        expelled from Ravenna, =4=, 592.
    works of, =4=, 616.
    consulted by Basnage, =5=, 196.

  =Gedalya Ibn-Yachya I= (of the Turkish branch), patron of Jewish
        literature, =4=, 609.

  =Gedalya Ibn-Yachya II=, patron of Jewish literature, =4=, 609.

  =Gehazi=, disciple of Elisha, =1=, 218.
    recounts Elisha’s deeds, =1=, 223.

  =Ge-henna.= _See_ Hinnom.

  =Geiger, Abraham= (1810-1874), scholar, characteristics of, =5=, 626.
    attitude of, towards the Talmud, =5=, 626, 669.
    devoted to the reform of Judaism, =5=, 626.
    journal of, =5=, 626, 632.
    at the Frankfort rabbinical conference, =5=, 685.

  =Gelasius=, pope, kind to Jews, =3=, 29.

  =Geldern, Betty von=, Heine’s mother, =5=, 545.

  =Gelil Haggoyim=, =1=, 164. _See_ Galilee.

  =Gelimer=, grandson of Genseric, in the triumph of Belisarius, =3=,
        26.

  =Gemara.= _See_ Talmud, the Babylonian.

  =Gemara di Bene Ma’araba.= _See_ Talmud, the Jerusalem.

  =Gematria=, Kabbalistic term, =4=, 5.

  =Gemmingen, Uriel von=, archbishop of Mayence, the Frankfort Jews
        appeal to, =4=, 430.
    not friendly to Pfefferkorn, =4=, 430, 431.
    appointed commissary, =4=, 437.
    and the confiscation of Hebrew books, =4=, 437, 441.
    favors the Jews, =4=, 438.
    delays the execution of the judgment against Reuchlin, =4=, 452.

  “=General Privilege=” for the Jews, issued by Frederick the
        Great, =5=, 304.

  =Genesareth.= _See_ Tiberias, lake.

  =Genesis=, treatise on, by Samuel Ibn-Tibbon, =3=, 398.

  =Geneva=, the lake of, scene of Black Death persecutions, =4=, 103-4.

  =Genoa=, commerce of, in the fifteenth century, =4=, 285.
    suffering of the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 362-3.
    Judah Leon Abrabanel in, =4=, 384.

  =Genoa, the Jews of=, under the Ostrogoths, =3=, 28.
    seek permission to repair the synagogue, =3=, 30.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.
    banished, =4=, 553-4.

  =Genseric=, the Vandal, carries the Temple vessels to Africa, =2=,
        611.

  =Gentz, Frederick von=, on Jewish women, =5=, 413.
    immorality of, =5=, 423.
    reactionary leader, =5=, 477, 512.

  =Geonim=, the, beginning of the epoch of, =3=, 90-1.
    history of, dark, =3=, 92.
    duties of, =3=, 93.
    power of, as viewed by the Jews of distant lands, =3=, 100.
    decisions of, binding, =3=, 118-19.
    opposed to the Exilarchs, =3=, 137.
    literary works of, in the ninth century, =3=, 178-9.
    favor scientific pursuits, =3=, 187.
    responses of, criticised, =3=, 198.
    chronicle of, by Sherira, =3=, 233.
    Talmudic work of, surpassed by Spanish Talmudists, =3=, 282.
    _See also_ Gaon; Gaonate, the; Pumbeditha, the academy of,
        principals of; Sora, the academy of, principals of.

  =George II=, of England, ratifies the naturalization of the Jews,
        =5=, 337-8.

  =George=, of Hesse, forbids the use of a sentence in the Alenu
        prayer, =5=, 185.

  =George=, bishop of Speyer, tries the Reuchlin-Hoogstraten case,
        =4=, 454-5.

  =Gepidæ=, the, overrun Rome, =3=, 27.

  =Gerasa=, besieged by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 45.

  =Gere ha-Zedek=, true proselytes, in the daily prayers, =2=, 384.

  =Gerizim, Mount=, description of, =1=, 45.
    the Samaritan Temple on, =1=, 390.
    Temple of, destroyed, =2=, 8.
    temple to Jupiter on, =2=, 422.

  =Gerlach=, archbishop of Mayence, obtains Jews as “servi cameræ” =4=,
        128.

  =German-Frankish empire=, the. _See_ Franks, the, the empire of.

  =German language=, the, carried to Poland by German Jews, =4=, 421.

  =German merchants= antagonize Jews in Poland, =4=, 632.

  =German translation of the Bible= by Luther, =4=, 469, 475.
    by Sachs, =5=, 693.

  =German translation of the Pentateuch by Mendelssohn.= _See under_
        Pentateuch, the.

  =Germans=, the simplicity of, =4=, 422.
    purity of, =4=, 423.

  =Germanus, Moses=, proselyte, =5=, 177-8.

  =Germany=, Jewish emigrants from, held up in Lombardy, =3=, 638-9.
    refuge of the Jews banished from England, =3=, 646.
    preferred to Spain by the Asherides, =4=, 90, 96.
    re-admits Jews soon after the Black Death, =4=, 127-8.
    French exiles settle in, =4=, 177.
    exiles from, take refuge in Poland, =4=, 263.
    exiles from, form a congregation in Constantinople, =4=, 402.
    professorships for Hebrew instituted in, =4=, 471.
    Messianic hopes connected with Solomon Molcho in, =4=, 497.
    Portuguese Marranos perish in, =4=, 509.
    religious parties in, =5=, 25.
    the Sabbatian movement in, =5=, 160, 228.
    Chayim Malach in, =5=, 214.
    feeling of solidarity developed in, =5=, 515.
    the romantic movement in, =5=, 515-16.
    debt of, to Börne and Heine, =5=, 556.
    _See also_ Franks, the, the empire of.

  =Germany, the Jews of=, in the sixth century, =3=, 40-1.
    advanced under Charlemagne, =3=, 141.
    yield precedence to the Jews of Spain, =3=, 236.
    under the Saxon emperors, =3=, 241, 242-3.
    compelled to be tradesmen, =3=, 242-3.
    lack of culture among, =3=, 243.
    not creative in the eleventh century, =3=, 281.
    occupations of, =3=, 281.
    compared with the Christians, =3=, 281.
    devoted to the study of the Talmud, =3=, 281, 419.
    suffer during the crusades, =3=, 297, 351-4.
    under Henry IV, =3=, 298.
    expect the Messiah, =3=, 298.
    dependent on the emperor, =3=, 308.
    gloom and bigotry of, =3=, 309.
    debts owing to, repudiated by the pope, =3=, 349.
    become “servi cameræ,” =3=, 356-7, 416-17, 516, 569.
    degradation of, =3=, 357.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 416-21.
    protected by the emperors during the crusades, =3=, 416.
    privileges of, =3=, 417-18.
    massacred under Henry VI, =3=, 418-19.
    high morality of, =3=, 419.
    little affected by the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 516-17.
    heavily taxed, =3=, 517.
    naïve faith of, =3=, 549.
    accused of aiding Jenghis-Khan, =3=, 580-1.
    charged with the blood accusation, =3=, 583-5, 635.
    persecuted after Frederick II’s death, =3=, 611-12.
    address Solomon ben Adret for religious decisions, =3=, 620.
    in the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 624.
    piety of, =3=, 625.
    determine to emigrate, =3=, 634, 637.
    offer to ransom Meïr of Rothenburg, =3=, 639-40.
    persecuted by Rindfleisch, =4=, 35-7.
    neglect the Talmud in the fourteenth century, =4=, 96.
    under Louis IV, =4=, 96-7.
    during the Armleder persecutions, =4=, 97-8.
    during the Black Death persecutions, =4=, 105-111.
    intellectual decay among, =4=, 133-4.
    effect of persecution on, =4=, 166.
    under Sigismund, =4=, 218.
    privileges of, confirmed, =4=, 219.
    liturgy of, compiled by Maharil, =4=, 225.
    fast during the Hussite wars, =4=, 225-6.
    neglect the Talmud in the fifteenth century, =4=, 227.
    hatred of, increases, =4=, 248; =5=, 528, 532-3.
    bear the expenses of the Council of Constance, =4=, 248.
    under Albert II, =4=, 249.
    terrified by John of Capistrano, =4=, 258.
    urged to emigrate to Turkey, =4=, 271-3.
    under Frederick III, =4=, 293-4, 413.
    influence the Jews of Italy, =4=, 294.
    speak a corrupt jargon, =4=, 388-9.
    representative of, =4=, 414.
    uncertain lot of, under Maximilian I, =4=, 414-15.
    find a refuge in Poland, =4=, 418, 420.
    carry the German language to Poland, =4=, 421.
    expulsion of, proposed, =4=, 427.
    ordered to submit their books to Pfefferkorn, =4=, 429.
    citizens of the Holy Roman Empire, =4=, 443.
    the extermination of, planned, =4=, 462-3.
    narrow-mindedness of, =4=, 479.
    adherents of Asher Lämmlein, =4=, 483.
    suffer through the Protestant Reformation, =4=, 542-3.
    submit questions to the Polish Talmudists, =4=, 639.
    submit disputes to the Synod of the Four Countries, =4=, 644.
    during the Catholic reaction, =4=, 652, 653.
    seek refuge in Amsterdam, =4=, 680.
    in the seventeenth century, =4=, 694-5.
    under Matthias, =4=, 700-1.
    and the Thirty Years’ War, =4=, 701.
    help the Jews of Poland, =4=, 707-8; =5=, 16.
    intercede for the Jews of Vienna, =5=, 171.
    poverty of, =5=, 205.
    Dohm’s apology begins the emancipation of, =5=, 356-7.
    after Mendelssohn’s death, =5=, 395-6.
    attracted to French literature, =5=, 411.
    apostasy among, =5=, 420.
    decay of morality among, =5=, 422.
    emancipated by the French, =5=, 459.
    not well thought of, =5=, 461-3.
    subject to the poll-tax, =5=, 464.
    in the constitution drawn up by Humboldt, =5=, 514.
    attacked by J. F. Fries, =5=, 521.
    defenders of, =5=, 521-3, 533-4.
    the “hep, hep!” persecutions of, =5=, 528-32.
    writers among, =5=, 534-5.
    rapid advance of, =5=, 557.
    under Polish influence, =5=, 558.
    estranged from Judaism, =5=, 560.
    influenced by Bernays and Mannheimer, =5=, 582.
    effect of the July Revolution on, =5=, 598, 600.
    forced into reforms, =5=, 628.
    and the Damascus affair, =5=, 669.
    rupture among, =5=, 672, 674.

  =Germany, the Jews of, emancipation of.= _See_ Emancipation of the
        German Jews, the.

  =Germany, rabbis of=, in sympathy with Solomon Petit, =3=, 627.
    insignificance of, =4=, 133.
    willing to excommunicate Luzzatto, =5=, 241.
    oppose the Reform movement, =5=, 571.
    protest against the Brunswick rabbinical conference, =5=, 682.

  =Germany, North=, the Jews of, few in number, =4=, 111.
    the Protestant Reformation in, =4=, 469.
    Jews tolerated in the towns of, =4=, 686.

  =Germany, South, the Jews of=, charged with the blood accusation, =4=,
        227.
    attacked by Lutheran peasants, =4=, 542.

  =Germany, Young=, the creation of Börne and Heine, =5=, 556.
    compelled to advocate Jewish emancipation, =5=, 602.

  =Gerona=, Serachya Halevi Gerundi persecuted by the Jews of, =3=, 389.
    home of the Kabbala, =3=, 556; =4=, 1.
    the Jews of, persecuted, =4=, 172.

  =Geronimo de Santa Fé.= _See_ Joshua ben Joseph Ibn-Vives Allorqui.

  =Gerrick=, commissioner of Louis the Pious to Agobard, =3=, 166.

  =Gershom ben Jehuda= (960-1028), disciple of Leontin, founds a Talmud
        school at Mayence, =3=, 242, 243.
    writes commentaries on the Talmud, =3=, 243-4.
    authority of, =3=, 244, 245.
    studies the Massora, =3=, 244.
    forbids polygamy, =3=, 244.
    regulates the carrying of letters, =3=, 244-5.
    penitential hymns by, =3=, 246.
    son of, an apostate, =3=, 246.
    protects repentant apostates, =3=, 246.
    memory of, perpetuated by the Mayence community, =3=, 247.
    consults Haï Gaon, =3=, 252.
    introduces Talmud study in France and Germany, =3=, 281.
    Talmudical work of, supplanted by Rashi’s, =3=, 288.
    abrogation of the polygamy ordinance of, =3=, 378.

  =Gerson, Christian=, vilifies the Talmud, =5=, 181.

  =Gersonides.= _See_ Levi ben Gerson.

  =Gerundi.= _See_ En-Vidal Ephraim; Jacob ben Sheshet; Jonah ben
        Abraham; Nissim; Serachya Halevi.

  =Gerville, Cahier de=, favors the emancipation of the Jews,
        =5=, 444-5.

  =Gesenius=, exegete, =5=, 623, 695.

  =Gesereth ha-Roïm.= _See_ Pastoureaux.

  =Gesereth Mezoraim=, the persecution caused by lepers in France,
        =4=, 57-8.

  =Ghassanids=, the, Arab tribe, =3=, 67, 68.

  =Ghatafan=, the, Arab tribe, induced to make war upon Mahomet, =3=,
        79.
    distrustful of their allies, =3=, 80.
    promise help to the Jews of Chaibar, =3=, 82.

  =Ghazati.= _See_ Nathan Benjamin Levi.

  =Ghent=, the Jews of, expelled, =4=, 662.

  =Ghetto=, Venetian Jew quarter, the first in Italy, =4=, 408.
    _See_ Jew’s quarter.

  =Ghinucci, Geronimo de=, cardinal, and the Portuguese Inquisition,
        =4=, 507, 516, 520.

  =Ghirondi=, rabbi of Padua, scholar, =5=, 622.

  =Ghuzz=, Turkish tribe, allied with the Jews of Khorasan, =3=, 434.

  =Gibbethon=, Danite city, occupied by the Philistines, =1=, 189.
    attacked by Elah’s army, =1=, 192.
    Omri chosen king at, =1=, 192.

  =Gibeah= (Geba), Philistine garrison of, killed by Jonathan, =1=, 85.
    Saul’s capital, =1=, 89, 91.
    inhabitants of, flee before the Philistines, =1=, 104.

  =Gibeon=, Joshua’s victory at, =1=, 34-5.
    seat of a high priest, =1=, 120.

  =Gibeonites=, the, submit to Joshua, =1=, 34.
    massacre of, under Saul, =1=, 94.
    murder the descendants of Saul, =1=, 123.
    under Ezra, =1=, 367.

  =Gibraltar=, the fortress of, asked as a refuge for Marranos, =4=,
        282.

  =Gideon=, judge, delivers the Israelites from the Midianites,
        =1=, 62-3.
    the ideal of Oliver Cromwell, =5=, 26.

  =Gihon=, river west of Jerusalem, =1=, 114.

  =Gilboa=, mount, description of, =1=, 44.
    battle of, between Saul and the Philistines, =1=, 103.

  =Gilead=, balm of, where found, =1=, 43.
    description of, =1=, 50.
    first scene of Elijah’s activity, =1=, 200.

  =Gilead, the inhabitants of=, prosperity of, =1=, 64.
    appeal to Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 474-5.
    emigrate to Judæa, =1=, 476.

  =Gilgal=, camp of the Israelites, =1=, 32, 40.
    Samuel holds popular assemblies at, =1=, 78.
    Saul at, =1=, 85-6.
    the tribes pay homage to Saul at, =1=, 90.
    Samuel reproves Saul at, =1=, 92-3.
    David met at, by the men of Judah, =1=, 146, 147.
    an association of prophets at, =1=, 205.
    visited by Elijah, =1=, 208.
    development of the prophetical school at, =1=, 234.

  =Gilion=, Evangels, =2=, 378.

  =Gil-Nunjoz=, bishop of Palma, charges the Jews with the blood
        accusation, =4=, 246.

  =Gilo=, birthplace of Ahithophel, =1=, 123.

  =Gimso=, explanation of, =2=, 330.
    _See_ Emmaus.

  =Ginæa=, murder of Galilæans at, =2=, 243.

  =Girgashites=, the, subdivision of the Canaanites, =1=, 3.

  =Gischala=, the Judæans of, forced into insurrection, =2=, 272-3.
    in possession of the Zealots, =2=, 289.
    taken by Titus, =2=, 290.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 427.

  =Giulio=, cardinal, and Reubeni, =4=, 492.

  =Giza=, teacher of the Law, flees during Kobad’s persecutions,
        =3=, 4.
    principal of the Sora academy, =3=, 5.
    Saburean, =3=, 6.
    commits the Talmud to writing, =3=, 6-7.
    successors to, not known, =3=, 7.

  =Gladiatorial= combats introduced into Antioch, =1=, 444.

  =Glaphyra=, daughter of Archelaus of Cappadocia, wife of Alexander,
        =2=, 112.
    second and third husband and son of, =2=, 128.

  =Glass-working=, occupation of the Antioch Jews, =3=, 426.

  =Gleaning=, the right of, granted to heathens, =2=, 478.

  =Gleim=, admires “Phædon,” =5=, 307.

  =Gley=, priest, interested in Napoleon’s Synhedrion, =5=, 494.

  =Glogau=, the Jews of, massacred, =4=, 111.
    Chayon at, =5=, 218.
    Jews from, settle in Brandenburg, =5=, 174.

  “=Glorious Stone=, or the Image of Nebuchadnezzar, The,” by Manasseh
        ben Israel, =5=, 37-8.

  “=Glory= to the Virtuous,” drama by Luzzatto, =5=, 242-4.

  =Glynn=, Lord Chief Justice, on Cromwell’s commission for the Jewish
        question, =5=, 43.

  =Gnosis=, the higher knowledge of God, =2=, 374.

  =Gnosticism=, spread of, =2=, 374.
    sects of, =2=, 375.
    system of, =2=, 375-7.
    influence of, on Judaism, =2=, 377, 380-1.
    Akiba deprecates the influence of, =2=, 382.

  =Gnostics=, the, theosophists, =2=, 374-7.
    mystic-allegoric language of, =2=, 374.
    the God of, =1=, 375-6.
    influence Elisha ben Abuya, =2=, 377.
    tamper with the Septuagint, =2=, 386.
    hostility of, accentuates the legal character of Judaism, =2=, 471.

  =God=, the name of, not pronounced, =2=, 413.

  =Godard=, and the emancipation of the French Jews, =5=, 443.

  =God-flesh, Francisco.= _See_ Astruc Raimuch.

  =Godfrey=, bishop of Würzburg, grants privileges to the Jews, =4=,
        259.
    banishes the Jews, =4=, 259-60.

  =Godfrey of Bouillon=, takes Jerusalem, =3=, 308.

  =Goethe=, admires “Phædon,” =5=, 307.
    expresses regard for Solomon Maimon, =5=, 409.
    romanticism of, =5=, 423.
    prejudices of, against the Jews, =5=, 461, 462.

  =Goldberg, Samuel Löb=, founder of the “Kerem Chemed,” =5=, 621.

  =Goldbergs=, the, Hebrew style of, =5=, 617.

  “=Golden Bull=,” the, issued at the Diet of Nuremberg, =4=, 128.

  “=Golden Penny=,” the, tax imposed on the Jews, =4=, 96-7, 166.

  =Goldschmidt, Moritz=, founder of the “Israelitische Allianz,”
        =5=, 703.

  =Goldsmid brothers=, the, in the Damascus affair, =5=, 645.

  =Golgotha=, the place of skulls, =2=, 165.
    temple to Venus on, =2=, 422.

  =Goliath=, Philistine champion, =1=, 95.
    killed by David, =1=, 97.

  =Gomez=, archbishop of Toledo, at the Burgos disputation, =4=, 140.

  =Gomez, Antonio Enriquez de.= _See_ Paz, Enrique Enriquez de.

  =Gomez, Duarte.= _See_ Usque, Solomon.

  =Gomez, Isaac, de Sosa=, Marrano poet, =5=, 113.

  =Gonsalvo de Cordova=, viceroy of Naples, employs a Jewish physician,
        =4=, 384-5.
    descendant of, a Jewish author, =4=, 385, 666; =5=, 54.
    opposes the banishment of the Jews, =4=, 385.
    dismissal of, =4=, 385.

  =Gonzago, Ludovico=, duke, employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 287.

  =Gonzago, Vicenzo=, duke of Mantua, permits the use of the expurgated
        Talmud, =4=, 659.

  =Gonzalez, Luis=, Marrano, tries to suppress the Inquisition, =4=,
        329.

  =Gonzalo de Santa Maria=, son of Solomon Levi, Benedict XIII’s agent,
        =4=, 216, 217.

  =Good Friday.= _See_ Eastertide.

  “=Good News= of the Messiah for Israel,” by Paul Felgenhauer, =5=,
        36.

  =Gorgias=, Syrian general, invades Judæa, =1=, 467.
    at Emmaus, =1=, 468.
    defeated by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 468-9, 476.

  =Görres=, romanticist, =5=, 516.

  =Goshen=, home of the Israelites in Egypt, =1=, 7.
    in the Zohar, =4=, 23.

  =Gospels=, the four, translated into Hebrew, =4=, 143.

  =Gotha=, the Jews of, during the Black Death persecutions, =4=, 109.

  =Goths=, the, invade the Roman empire, =2=, 527.
    in Rome, =3=, 27.

  =Göttingen=, Jews tolerated in, =4=, 686.

  =Gottschalk=, crusader, and the Jews, =3=, 298.

  =Göze=, opponent of Lessing, =5=, 326.

  =Gozolas=, name borne by Gallic Jews, =3=, 36.

  =Gracian.= _See_ Solomon Gracian.

  =Gradis, David=, member of Malesherbes’ commission, =5=, 432.
    representative French Jew, =5=, 436, 438.

  =Graes, Ortuin de= (Ortuinus Gratius), inspires anti-Jewish
        pamphlets, =4=, 424.
    writes the “Mirror for Admonition,” =4=, 425.
    helps Pfefferkorn with “The Enemy of the Jews,” =4=, 428.
    tool of Hoogstraten, =4=, 450.
    “Letters of Obscurantists” directed against, =4=, 461.

  =Grammar, a Hebrew=, by Saadiah in Arabic, =3=, 190.
    by Abulsari Sahal ben Mazliach Kohen, =3=, 204.
    by Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 261.
    by Ibn-Janach, =3=, 262-3.
    by Yizchaki, =3=, 273.
    by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 371.
    by David Kimchi, =3=, 394.
    by Profiat Duran, =4=, 191.
    by Judah ben Yechiel, =4=, 289-90.
    by Ibn-Gebirol, =3=, 267.
    by Reuchlin, =4=, 434.
    by Elias Levita, =4=, 472.

  =Grammar, Hebrew, the study of=, stimulated by Karaism, =3=, 136.
    among the Spanish Jews, =3=, 235, 317; =4=, 91.
    decays in the post-Maimunic period, =3=, 561.

  =Grammarians and Lexicographers=, Jewish, list of:
    Aaron ben Asher,
    Abraham de Balmes,
    Abraham ben Meïr Ibn-Ezra,
    Abu Ibrahim Isaac Ibn-Kastar ben Yasus,
    Abulsari Sahal ben Mazliach Kohen,
    David de Pomis,
    David Kimchi,
    Dunash ben Labrat,
    Elias Levita,
    Jacob Tam,
    Jehuda Ibn-Balam,
    Jehuda Ibn-Daud,
    Jephet Ibn-Ali Halevi,
    Jonah Marinus,
    Joseph ben Isaac Kimchi,
    Judah ben Yechiel,
    Lara, David Coen de
    Mar-Zemach I ben Paltoi,
    Menachem ben Saruk,
    Moses ben Asher,
    Moses ben Samuel Ibn-G’ikatilia,
    Moses Kimchi,
    Musaphia, Benjamin
    Nachshon ben Zadok,
    Nathan ben Yechiel,
    Profiat Duran,
    Saadiah,
    Samuel Halevi Ibn-Nagrela,
    Solomon Ibn-Gebirol,
    Solomon Lurya.

  =Granada=, called the city of the Jews, =3=, 42.
    the Jews masters of, =3=, 109.
    Talmud school of, =3=, 236.
    Cordova Jews emigrate to, =3=, 255.
    capital of the Berber kingdom, =3=, 256.
    home of the descendants of the Exilarchs, =3=, 275.
    massacre of the Arabs of, =3=, 276-7.
    invaded by Almotassem, =3=, 278.
    Mahometan court of, cultured, =3=, 291.
    conspiracy against the Mahometans of, =3=, 316.
    home of the Ibn-Ezra brothers, =3=, 318.
    Talmud school of, destroyed, =3=, 384.
    Samuel Ibn-Wakar farms the import duties of, =4=, 80-1.
    at war with Castile, =4=, 84-5.
    ally of Pedro the Cruel, =4=, 125, 126.
    forced converts emigrate to, =4=, 179, 318, 351.
    war of Ferdinand and Isabella with, =4=, 344.
    Jewish physicians of, =4=, 344.
    fall of, =4=, 345-6.
    entered by Ferdinand and Isabella, =4=, 345.
    Jews disappear from, =4=, 354.
    autos-da-fé in, =5=, 91-2.

  =Granada, the Jews of=, Samuel Ibn-Nagrela chief of, =3=, 259.
    enjoy complete equality, =3=, 261.
    Joseph Ibn-Nagrela chief of, =3=, 274.
    arouse the hatred of the Berbers, =3=, 275, 278.
    persecuted by the Berbers, =3=, 278-80, 281.
    Arabic scholars, =4=, 60.
    protected by Boabdil’s treaty, =4=, 345.

  =Granville=, Lord, English ambassador at Paris, presents Montefiore
        at court, =5=, 668.

  =Granville, Ranulph de=, courtier of Richard I, protects the
        Jews, =3=, 410.

  =Grapte=, granddaughter of Helen of Adiabene, erects a palace in
        Jerusalem, =2=, 219.

  =Grattenauer=, opposes the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 468, 472.
    refuted, =5=, 470, 471.

  =Gratus, Valerius=, fourth procurator of Judæa, =2=, 135, 137.

  =Great Assembly= (Keneseth ha-Gedolah), the, under Ezra and
        Nehemiah, =1=, 381.
    a permanent religious council, =1=, 394.
    traditional laws ascribed to, =2=, 19.

  “=Great Assembly=, the,” the court of the Exilarch, =3=, 95.

  =Greece=, Jews from, form a congregation in Constantinople, =4=, 402.

  =Greece, the Jews of=, celebrate two days of the new-moon, =2=, 363.
    autonomy of, =3=, 27.
    occupations of, =3=, 175.
    not permitted to hold office, =3=, 175.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 424-5.
    in the sixteenth century, =4=, 406.
    molested by the Greek Catholics, =4=, 552-3.

  =Greek art=, under John Hyrcanus, =2=, 14.
    under Herod, =2=, 118.

  =Greek Christian= communities, established by Paul, =2=, 227-8.

  =Greek Christians=, the, despise the Judæan Christians, =2=, 231.
    differences between, and Judæan Christians, =2=, 232.
    _See_ Pagan Christians.

  =Greek colonies=, in Judæa, =1=, 419.

  =Greek culture=, in Judæa in the third century, =1=, 426, 427-9.
    acquired by Jews in the Amoraim period, =2=, 537-8.

  =Greek customs=, among the Judæans, =1=, 427, 527.

  =Greek games=, introduced into Judæa, =1=, 445.

  =Greek islands=, the, the Spanish exiles on, =4=, 363-4.

  =Greek Judæans=, the, become Nazarenes, =2=, 219-20, 221.
    attack the Law, =2=, 221-2.

  =Greek language=, the, spoken by Judæans in Hasmonæan times, =2=, 15.
    study of, forbidden by the teachers of the Law under Hadrian, =2=,
        400.
    acquirement of, permitted by Jochanan bar Napacha, =2=, 494.
    spoken by the Jews of Italy in the twelfth century, =3=, 423.

  =Greek learning=, the, of the Alexandrian Judæans, =1=, 505.

  =Greek philosophy=, an aid to Christianity, =2=, 373.

  =Greek poems=, by a Samaritan and a Judæan, =1=, 517.

  =Greek translation of the Scriptures=, by Akylas, =2=, 385, 386-7.
    ordered to be read in the synagogues by Justinian I, =3=, 14-15.
    _See also_ Septuagint, the.

  =Greek translations= of Hebrew works, =2=, 359.

  =Greek words= in the Mishna, =2=, 461.

  =Greeks=, the, characteristics of, =1=, 411.
    influence of, on the Judæans, =1=, 427-9.
    in Judæa, hate the Judæans, =1=, 434; =2=, 246-7.
    learn Judaism through the Septuagint, =1=, 512-14.
    beyond the Jordan, hostile to Judæa, =2=, 7.
    cultured, opposed to Christianity, =2=, 229.
    and Jews, contrasted, =5=, 706-8.

  =Grégoire=, Abbé, influenced by Ensheim, =5=, 401.
    champion of the Jews, =5=, 432.
    competes for the Metz prize on the Jewish question, =5=, 434-5.
    in the National Assembly, =5=, 435, 440.
    exhorts the Jews to obtain naturalization, =5=, 436.
    intercedes for the Alsatian Jews, =5=, 437.
    entertains a distorted view of Jewish history, =5=, 593.

  =Gregory I=, pope, protects the Jews against forced conversions,
        =3=, 25, 33.
    forbids Jews to own slaves, =3=, 33, 34.
    remits the land-tax of converts, =3=, 33.
    praises Reccared for his attitude towards the Jews, =3=, 34, 46.

  =Gregory VII= (Hildebrand), pope, on the venality of the clergy, =3=,
        287.
    and the Jews, =3=, 293, 298.
    forbids Jews to hold offices in Christian countries, =3=, 293-4.
    tries to arrest the influence of the Jews at the Castilian
        court, =3=, 294.

  =Gregory IX=, pope, permits the burning of the Talmud, =4=, 460.
    hostile to the Jews, =3=, 519, 520.
    enforces the decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 521.
    banishes philosophical writings from the University of Paris, =3=,
        528.
    establishes the Inquisition in France, =3=, 542.
    legate of, in the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 542.
    re-issues the Jewish constitution of Innocent III, =3=, 564.
    reproaches Frederick II with heterodoxy, =3=, 567.
    orders a crusade, =3=, 570.
    deprecates the compulsory baptism of Jews, =3=, 570.
    the Talmud accused before, =3=, 573-4.
    orders the confiscation of the Talmud, =3=, 574-5.

  =Gregory X=, pope, protects Jews against forcible baptism, =3=, 635.

  =Gregory XIII=, pope, forbids the employment of Jewish physicians,
        =4=, 653-4.
    puts the Jews under the Inquisition, =4=, 654.
    orders the confiscation of the Talmud, =4=, 654.
    institutes sermons for Jews, =4=, 654-5, 706.

  =Gregory=, bishop of Tours, charges a poet to celebrate the
        achievements of Avitus, =3=, 39.

  =Grimani, Dominico=, cardinal, employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 411.
    in the Reuchlin-Hoogstraten case, =4=, 458.

  =Grodno=, Mordecai Jafa rabbi at, =4=, 645.

  =Groede=, burial ground of the Dutch Jews at, =4=, 672.

  =Gröningen, Martin von=, translates the “Augenspiegel,” =4=, 460.

  =Grotius, Hugo=, studies Hebrew, =5=, 21.
    introduced to Manasseh ben Israel, =5=, 22.

  =Grund, Christian=, advocate of Jewish emancipation, =5=, 463, 465-6.

  =Guarini=, work of, translated, =5=, 114.

  =Gudeo=, papal legate, presides over the Council of Vienna, =3=, 611.

  =Guebres, neo-Persians.= _See_ Sassanides.

  =Guglielmo di Portaleone=, Italian physician, =4=, 287.

  “=Guide= of the Perplexed, The” (Moréh Nebuchim, Dalalat al Haïrin),
        religious philosophical work by Maimonides, =3=, 477-85.
    addressed to Joseph Ibn-Aknin, =3=, 478.
    connects Judaism and philosophy, =3=, 478-9, 485-6.
    explains the Jewish doctrine of the universe, =3=, 479.
    on the influence of God on the universe of entities, =3=, 480-1.
    on the nature of sin, =3=, 481-2.
    on the intellectual and moral powers of man, =3=, 482-3.
    on the prophetic faculty and the prophets, =3=, 482-4.
    on miracles, =3=, 483.
    on Moses, =3=, 483-4.
    on revelation, =3=, 484-5.
    supplants all other Jewish religious-philosophical systems, =3=,
        486; =4=, 479.
    effect of, on the Mahometan and Christian world, =3=, 486.
    Latin translation of, =3=, 486, 542-3; =4=, 60, 474.
    weakness of, =3=, 486-7.
    condemned by Mahometans, =3=, 488.
    condemned by Abraham ben David, =3=, 490.
    Hebrew translation of, =3=, 490-2.
    assailed by anti-Maimunists, =3=, 523.
    satirized, =3=, 538.
    denounced by Solomon Petit, =3=, 626.
    studied by the Italian Jews, =3=, 629.
    ordered to be burnt at Accho, =3=, 631.
    defended by Shem-Tob Falaquera, =3=, 634.
    attacked by Aaron ben Elia Nicomedi, =4=, 95.
    neglected in Spain in the fourteenth century, =4=, 143.
    studied by Moses Isserles, =4=, 638.
    studied by Mendelssohn, =5=, 295.
    studied by Solomon Maimon, =5=, 407.

  =Guido Ubaldo=, duke of Urbino, permits Marranos to live in Pesaro,
        =4=, 569, 578.
    banishes the Marranos, =4=, 580-1.

  =Guidon=, physician, convert to Islam, employed to convert Sabbataï
        Zevi, =5=, 153-4.

  =Guienne=, the Jews of, under Henry II, =3=, 409.
    wells of, poisoned, =4=, 57.

  =Guilds=, the, antagonize the Jews in Frankfort, =4=, 695, 696.
    antagonize the Jews in Worms, =4=, 698-9.
    persecute the Jews in Poland, =5=, 1.
    arouse passion against the Jews of Prussia, =5=, 191.

  =Guldberg, von=, Danish minister, and Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch
        translation, =5=, 333.

  =Gumpertz, Aaron Solomon=, friend of Mendelssohn, =5=, 295.

  =Gumprecht=, obtains the emancipation of the Jews of Frankfort, =5=,
        505.

  =Gunther of Schwarzberg=, at war with Emperor Charles IV, =4=,
        109, 110.

  =Gustavus Adolphus=, the daughter of. _See_ Christina of Sweden.

  =Guttenstein, de=, count, imprisons Pfefferkorn, =4=, 424.

  =Gymnasia=, introduced into Jerusalem, =1=, 445.


  =H=

  =Haaja.= _See_ Haï.

  =Haarlem=, Jews not permitted to settle in, =4=, 685.

  =Haatakah=, tradition, among the Karaites, =3=, 159.

  =Habakkuk=, apocryphal additions to, =2=, 624.

  =Habor=, the Ten Tribes colonized in, =1=, 265.

  =Habus=, king of Granada, vizir of, patron of Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=,
        256.
    makes Samuel Ibn-Nagrela minister, =3=, 256-7.
    poems addressed to, =3=, 257.
    parties formed at the death of, =3=, 258.
    makes Samuel Ibn-Nagrela chief of the Granada Jews, =3=, 259.
    employs Jewish officials, =3=, 319.

  =Hadad=, prince of Idumæa, allied with Shishak, =1=, 176.
    regains possession of Idumæa, =1=, 176-7.

  =Hadadezer=, king of Zobah, ally of the Ammonites, defeated by David,
        =1=, 126-7.

  =Hadrian=, pope, hostile to the Jews, =3=, 142.

  =Hadrian=, emperor, hostile to the Jews, =2=, 350; =5=, 724-5.
    rebellions against, =2=, 399.
    clemency of, to the rebels, =2=, 400.
    deposes and executes Lucius Quietus, =2=, 400-1.
    permits the restoration of the Temple, =2=, 401-2.
    withdraws the permission, =2=, 402-3.
    visits Judæa, =2=, 406.
    and Joshua ben Chananya, =2=, 406-7.
    coins of, =2=, 407, 419.
    projects the rebuilding of Jerusalem as a pagan city, =2=, 407.
    mocks at Judaism, =2=, 407-8.
    first action of, against Bar-Cochba, =2=, 411.
    concerned about the Bar-Cochba rebellion, =2=, 413-14.
    sends Julius Severus to Judæa, =2=, 414.
    persecutes Jewish prisoners and fugitives, =2=, 419-20.
    taxes the Jews heavily, =2=, 420.
    decrees laws against Judaism, =2=, 421, 423-6.
    sends Turnus Rufus to Judæa, =2=, 421.
    rebuilds Jerusalem, =2=, 421-2.
    column in honor of, =2=, 422.
    erects heathen temples in Judæa, =2=, 422.
    tries to graft paganism on Judaism, =2=, 422.
    cruelty of, to the dead, =2=, 430.
    persecutes the Christians, =2=, 430-1.
    death of, =2=, 432.
    decrees of, revoked, =2=, 433.
    edict of, revived, =3=, 23.

  =Hagadah=, the. _See_ Agada, the.

  =Hagenau=, the duke of, Jews of Alsace tributary to, =5=, 348.

  =Haggaï=, Jewish name of Robert de Redingge, =3=, 641.

  =Haggaï=, prophet, urges the completion of the second Temple, =1=,
        359.
    extols Zerubbabel, =1=, 360.

  =Haggaï.= _See also_ Chaggaï.

  =Haggeth=, wife of David, =1=, 135.

  =Hagin (Chayim) Denlacres=, chief rabbi of England, =3=, 644.

  =Hagiographa=, the, commentaries on, by Solomon ben Yerucham, =3=,
        206.
    by Joseph Kara, =3=, 346.

  =Haï ben David= (890-897), Gaon of Pumbeditha, =3=, 183.

  =Haï (Haaja, Haya) ben Sherira= (969-1038), chief judge, =3=,
        233, 250.
    Gaon of Pumbeditha, =3=, 234, 250.
    popularity of, =3=, 234, 250.
    authority of, rivaled by Gershom ben Jehuda’s, =3=, 244.
    character and attainments of, =3=, 250.
    compared with Saadiah, =3=, 250.
    consults the Patriarch of the Eastern Christians, =3=, 250.
    consults the Koran, =3=, 251.
    commentary on the Talmud by, =3=, 251.
    denounces mysticism, =3=, 251-2.
    consulted by African and European Talmudists, =3=, 252, 260.
    the head of Judaism, =3=, 252.
    revives the academy of Sora, =3=, 253.
    eulogies on, =3=, 253.

  =Haï Gaon.= _See_ Haï ben Sherira.

  =Haidamaks=, the, ravages of, among Polish Jews, =5=, 8-10,
        11-12, 388.
    _See_ Cossacks, the.

  =Hakim=, Fatimide caliph, decrees the conversion of Jews to
        Islam, =3=, 247.
    ordains Jew badges, =3=, 247-8.
    expels the Jews, =3=, 248.
    assassination of, =3=, 248.

  =Halacha=, the, oral teaching, =2=, 328, 329.
    knowledge of, acquired by pagans, =2=, 384.
    cultivated by Rabba bar Nachmani, =2=, 576, 578.
    neglected under Theodosius II, =2=, 623.
    _See also_ Law, the oral; Mishna, the.

  =Halacha, the, the study of=, scorned by the Nazarenes, =2=, 371.
    declines in Judæa, =2=, 540.
    new method of, introduced by Judah ben Ezekiel, =2=, 545.
    strengthens the judgment, =2=, 625.

  =Halachas=, the, Gamaliel II maintains the authority of, =2=,
        338, 339.
    arrangement of, by Akiba, =2=, 353, 354.
    collected by the half-Tanaites, =2=, 470-1.
    _See also_ Law, the oral; Mishna, the.

  =Halachic= development, the, of the Law, =5=, 723-4.

  “=Halachoth=,” by Alfassi, =3=, 286.

  =Halachoth Gedoloth=, by Simon of Cairo, =3=, 179.

  =Halachoth Ketuoth=, work by Judah the Blind, =3=, 136.
    supplemented by Halachoth Gedoloth, =3=, 179.

  =Halah=, the Ten Tribes colonized in, =1=, 265.

  =Halberstadt=, the Talmud school of, closed, =5=, 567.

  =Haleb.= _See_ Aleppo.

  =Halevi, Aaron.= _See_ Aaron Halevi.

  =Halevi, Abraham.= _See_ Abraham Ibn-Daud Halevi.

  =Halevi, Abu Said ben Chalfon.= _See_ Abu Said.

  =Halevi, Ali.= _See_ Ali Halevi.

  =Halevi, Eleazar ben Joel.= _See_ Eleazar ben Joel Halevi.

  =Halevi, Elia=, French Jewish poet, =5=, 460.

  =Halevi, Elias.= _See_ Elias Halevi.

  =Halevi, Isaac.= _See_ Isaac ben Asher Halevi; Isaac Halevi.

  =Halevi, Jacob ben Moses Mölin.= _See_ Jacob ben Moses.

  =Halevi, Jehuda.= _See_ Jehuda Halevi.

  =Halevi, Jephet Ibn-Ali.= _See_ Jephet Ibn-Ali Halevi.

  =Halevi, Joseph ben Ephraim Ibn-Benveniste.= _See_ Joseph ben Ephraim
        Ibn-Benveniste Halevi.

  =Halevi, Joseph ben Meïr Ibn-Migash.= _See_ Joseph ben Meïr
        Ibn-Migash.

  =Halevi, Joseph Amarkala.= _See_ Joseph Amarkala Halevi.

  =Halevi, Meïr ben Baruch.= _See_ Meïr ben Baruch Halevi.

  =Halevi, Meïr ben Todros.= _See_ Meïr ben Todros Halevi.

  =Halevi, Moses Uri.= _See_ Moses Uri Halevi.

  =Halevi, Samuel.= _See_ Samuel ben Abraham Ibn-Chasdaï; Samuel ben
        Ali Halevi; Samuel Halevi; Samuel Halevi Ibn-Nagrela.

  =Halevi, Serachya.= _See_ Serachya Halevi Gerundi; Serachya
        Halevi Saladin.

  =Halfen=, Azaria and Solomon, rabbis at Damascus, charged with ritual
        murder, =5=, 638.
    ordered to translate suspicious Talmud passages, =5=, 640.

  =Halicz=, Karaites in, =5=, 182.

  =Halle, Aaron.= _See_ Wolfsohn, Aaron.

  =Halles district=, the, of Paris, opposes the emancipation of the
        Jews, =5=, 445.

  =Hamadan= (Fars), center of the Judghanites, =3=, 149-50.
    the community of, excommunicated, =3=, 194.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 434.

  =Hamath=, the inhabitants of, colonized in Samaria, =1=, 285.

  =Hamburg=, settlement of Jews in, =4=, 685-8.
    the Lutherans of, object to Jews, =4=, 685, 687, 691-3.
    refuses permission to German Jews to settle there, =4=, 685-6.
    harbors Portuguese Jews as “traders,” =4=, 686-7.
    admits Jews under restrictions, =4=, 688.
    bank of, supported by Jews, =4=, 689.
    synagogues at, =4=, 689-90, 691.
    German Jews in, =4=, 691.
    posts of honor occupied by Jews in, =4=, 692.
    called “little Jerusalem,” =4=, 693.
    Joseph Delmedigo at, =5=, 78.
    the Sabbatian movement in, =5=, 139, 140-1, 150, 151, 155.
    stagnation of trade in, =5=, 149.
    Jews from, settle in Brandenburg, =5=, 174.
    Portuguese Jews of, wealthy, =5=, 205.
    rabbis of, Poles, =5=, 206.
    Lessing at, =5=, 319-20.
    the Reform movement in, =5=, 563-4.
    Talmud school of, closed, =5=, 567.
    the Dayanim of, oppose the Reform Temple, =5=, 570, 573.
    the “hep, hep!” persecution in, =5=, 573.
    Bernays appointed to the rabbinate of, =5=, 576-7.
    conflagration in, =5=, 674.
    _See also_ Reform Temple Union, the.

  =Hamburg, the Jews of=, described by John Miller, =4=, 690.
    wish to settle in England, =5=, 18.
    emancipated, =5=, 506.

  =Ha-Meassef=, a Hebrew journal, =5=, 339. _See_ “Gatherer, The.”

  =Hamma=, Jews tolerated in, =4=, 686.

  =Hammuna=, friend of Chanina bar Chama, =2=, 456.

  =Hamon, Isaac=, physician in Granada, power of, =4=, 344.

  =Hamon, Joseph=, physician to Selim I, =4=, 401.

  =Hamon, Moses=, physician to Solyman I, patron of Jewish literature,
        =4=, 401.
    family of, exempt from taxes, =4=, 402.
    protector of the Turkish Jews, =4=, 553.
    disposes the sultan in favor of the Mendes family, =4=, 575.

  =Hanameel=, cousin of Jeremiah, =1=, 290.

  =Hananel=, gate, tower at, in Jerusalem, =1=, 231.

  =Hanania.= _See_ Chananya.

  =Hananiah=, informs Nehemiah of the distress of the Judæans, =1=,
        372.
    commander of the Birah, =1=, 382.

  =Hanau, Solomon=, teacher of Wessely, =5=, 367.

  =Hanau=, Jews permitted to settle in, =4=, 695.
    rabbi of, opposes the Reform movement, =5=, 571.

  =Handicrafts=, Jews engage in, =3=, 401, 425, 426, 427, 606.
    Jews forbidden to engage in, =4=, 203, 205, 216.
    discussed by the French Synhedrion, =5=, 497.
    _See_ Artisans; Trades.

  “=Handspiegel=,” by Pfefferkorn, Reuchlin’s reply to, =4=, 446-8.

  =Hanna Bachari Bey=, opponent of the Damascus Jews, =5=, 633, 635.

  =Hannah=, mother of Samuel, =1=, 73.

  =Hanover=, the flagellants in, =4=, 111.
    Jews tolerated in, =4=, 686.
    Chayon at, =5=, 231.
    the Jews of, deprived of civil rights, =5=, 512.

  =Hanse Towns=, the, object to the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 519.

  =Hanse Towns, the, the Jews of=, emancipated under French
        influence, =5=, 506.
    send a deputy to the Congress of Vienna, =5=, 513.
    oppression of, disapproved of, =5=, 514.
    deprived of the rights secured by French influence, =5=, 519.

  =Hanukkah.= _See_ Chanuka.

  =Hanun=, king of the Ammonites, at war with David, =1=, 126-7, 129.

  =Haphtarah=, the lesson from the Prophets, =1=, 400.

  =Haquinet=, son of Manessier de Vesoul, =4=, 150.

  =Hardenberg=, Prussian minister, and the emancipation of the Jews,
        =5=, 507, 527.
    disapproves of the oppression of the Jews, =5=, 514.
    carelessness of, =5=, 519-20.

  =Hariri= of Basra, Arabic poet, imitated by Solomon Ibn-Sakbel, =3=,
        318.

  =Harith Ibn-Abu Shammir=, kills the Jewish chiefs of Yathrib, =3=,
        67.
    feud of, with Samuel Ibn-Adiya, =3=, 68, 69.

  =Harith Ibn-Amru=, Kendite prince, proselyte, =3=, 63.

  “=Harmony of Heaven=, The,” by Judah Leon Abrabanel, =4=, 480.

  =Haroun Alrashid=, Abbassid caliph, and Charlemagne, =3=, 143.
    re-enacts the “covenant of Omar,” =3=, 145.
    death of, =3=, 145.

  =Harp=, Lake of the. _See_ Tiberias.

  =Harrach=, count, patron of Ben-David, =5=, 410.

  =Harrison=, General, Jewish spirit of, =5=, 34.

  =Hartmann von Deggenburg=, leads a massacre of Jews, =4=, 98.

  =Hartmann, Frederick Traugott=, opponent of the Jews, =5=, 359, 361.

  =Hasmonæan dynasty=, the, the members of:
    Alexander I Jannæus,
    Alexander (II),
    Antigonus,
    Aristobulus I,
    Aristobulus II,
    Hyrcanus I, John
    Hyrcanus II,
    Salome Alexandra,
    Simon Tharsi.

  =Hasmonæan party=, the, leaders of, =1=, 489.
    comparison of, with the Assidæans, =1=, 489.
    aims of, =1=, 489-90.
    attacked by the Bene-Amri, =1=, 491.
    defeated by Bacchides, =1=, 491.
    fight for Antiochus VI, =1=, 498.

  =Hasmonæans=, the, and Greek art, =2=, 14.
    palace of, in Jerusalem, =2=, 14.
    mausoleum of, =2=, 14.
    hated by the Pharisees, =2=, 33.
    assume the royal title, =2=, 35.
    contrast between the first and the last, =2=, 84.
    temporary character of the rule of, =2=, 143.
    _See also_ Maccabees, the.

  =Hasselbauer=, bishop of Prague, friend of Eibeschütz, =5=, 250.

  =Hathor=, an Egyptian goddess, =1=, 9.

  =Hatti Sherif=, firman emancipating the Turkish Jews, =5=, 641, 664.

  =Hauran= (Havvoth Jair). _See_ Auranitis.

  “=Havayot= d’Abayi ve Raba,” =2=, 585.

  =Haya.= _See_ Haï ben Sherira.

  =Hazael=, of Damascus, at war with Jehoram of Israel, =1=, 210.
    gains territory from Jehu, =1=, 220-1.
    at war with Jehoahaz and Joash, =1=, 221.

  =Hazor=, rallying place of the Canaanites, =1=, 37.

  =Heathen=, the, view held by, of Judæans and Judaism, =2=, 203.
    adopt Judaism, =2=, 215-19.
    disgusted with the deification of human beings, =2=, 228.
    Judæans forbidden to deal with, =2=, 270.
    join the Bar-Cochba rebellion, =2=, 410.
    intercourse with, regulated by the Mishna, =2=, 476-8.
    intercourse with, interdicted by Tertullian, =2=, 476-7.
    permitted to glean, =2=, 478.
    purchases from, permitted by Judah II, =2=, 483-4.
    become acquainted with Jewish literature, =2=, 502.
    relaxing of the laws against, =2=, 525.

  =Heber=, the Kenite, in Charisi’s Tachkemoni, =3=, 559.

  =Hebert=, sets up the religion of Reason, =5=, 450.

  =Hebrew alphabet=, the, Assyrian characters of, =1=, 395.

  “=Hebrew Chrestomathy=,” by Adam Martinet, =5=, 628, 629.

  =Hebrew grammar.= _See_ Grammar.

  =Hebrew language=, the, cherished by the Babylonian exiles, =1=,
        340, 364.
    Judæans ignorant of, =1=, 386.
    cultivated under the Hasmonæans, =2=, 14-15.
    called New-Hebrew (Neo-Hebrew), =2=, 15.
    used in the historical writings, =2=, 16.
    mispronounced in Galilee, =2=, 149.
    of the Mishna, =2=, 461.
    spoken in Judæa, =2=, 461-2.
    learnt by Origen, =2=, 488.
    in the Amoraim period, =2=, 538-9.
    interest in, under Theodosius II, =2=, 623, 625.
    Jews forbidden to teach Christians, =2=, 624.
    revived under Arab influence, =3=, 111-12.
    furnished with vowel points, =3=, 112.
    neglected in the ninth century, =3=, 157.
    studied by Menachem ben Saruk, =3=, 224-5.
    promoted by the controversy under Chasdaï Ibn-Shaprut, =3=, 226-7.
    improvement in, in the twelfth century, =3=, 317.
    taught as a means for conversion, =3=, 597, 640-1; =4=, 245.
    words of, used by Spanish satirists, =4=, 181.
    study of, introduced into Germany by Reuchlin, =4=, 432, 433, 434.
    panegyric on, by Reuchlin, =4=, 433-4, 436.
    study of, at the German universities advised by Reuchlin, =4=, 443.
    studied by Egidio de Viterbo, =4=, 457.
    professorships for, instituted, =4=, 471, 473, 474.
    studied by Christians, =4=, 471-4, 651.
    widely studied in Holland, =5=, 21.
    society for the promotion of, =5=, 398-9.
    a bond for the Jews of western Europe, =5=, 402.
    love of, prevents apostasy, =5=, 420.
    importance of, in the Jewish liturgy, =5=, 562.
    omission of, from the divine service objected to, =5=, 564.
    Portuguese pronunciation of, adopted in Hamburg, =5=, 571.
    retained in the Vienna Temple, =5=, 580.
    renaissance of, through Erter, =5=, 613, 616.
    banishment of, from the liturgy proposed by Holdheim, =5=, 680.
    abolition of, in the liturgy discussed, =5=, 685.
    _See also_ Grammar, Hebrew; Literature, Jewish.

  =Hebrew literature=, allegories in, =1=, 158-9.
    under Hezekiah, =1=, 279.
    during the Babylonian Captivity, =1=, 334-6, 340-2.
    in the Persian period, =1=, 410-11.
    translated into Greek, =2=, 359.
    _See also_ Literature, Jewish; Judæo-Greek literature; Poetry.

  “=Hebrew Physician=, The,” by David de Pomis, =4=, 656-7.

  “=Hebrew Rites=, The,” by Leo Modena, =5=, 71-2, 180.

  =Hebrew writings.= _See_ Confiscation and burning of Hebrew books.

  =Hebron=, king of, defeated by Joshua, =1=, 34-5.
    chief city of Judah, =1=, 38, 77.
    residence of David, =1=, 109.
    David leaves, =1=, 114.
    Absalom declared king in, =1=, 139.
    owned by Idumæans, =1=, 435, 474.
    Jewish prisoners sold at the slave markets of, =2=, 419.
    Maimonides in, =3=, 457.
    occupations of the Jews of, =4=, 75.
    Sabbataï Zevi at, =5=, 128.

  =Hechal=, the Holy Place, =1=, 165.

  =Hegel=, influence of, on Edward Gans, =5=, 583.
    on Young Israel, =5=, 585.

  =Heidelberg=, the Jews of, persecuted, =5=, 530-1.

  =Heidelberg, the University of=, on the confiscation of Hebrew books,
        =4=, 437, 441.
    Spinoza offered a professorship at, =5=, 108.

  =Heidenheim, Wolf=, one of the Measfim, Massoretic studies
        of, =5=, 400.

  =Heilmann=, rabbi, opponent of Eibeschütz, =5=, 262, 263, 268, 269.

  =Heilperin, Jechiel=, historian, =5=, 202.

  =Heine, Heinrich= (1799-1854), as a Jew, =5=, 536, 544.
    as a German, =5=, 537.
    as poet, =5=, 537.
    as a thinker, =5=, 544-5.
    character of, =5=, 545, 555-6.
    love of, for his mother, =5=, 545.
    Jewish education of, =5=, 545-6.
    pride of, in his race, =5=, 546.
    attitude of, towards Judaism, =5=, 546.
    influence of Berlin Jewish society on, =5=, 546.
    joins the Society for the Culture of Jews, =5=, 547.
    criticises the Jews, =5=, 547-8.
    contempt of, for apostates, =5=, 548-9, 551-2.
    glorifies Jewish history in the “Rabbi of Bacharach,” =5=, 549-50.
    baptism of, =5=, 550-1.
    characterizes Judaism and Christianity, =5=, 552.
    on Shylock, =5=, 552-3.
    on Moses, =5=, 553-5.
    inspired by Jewish poetry, =5=, 555, 694.
    on the “hep, hep!” persecutions, =5=, 556.
    debt of the Jews to, =5=, 556.
    debt of Germany to, =5=, 556.
    on Isaac Bernays, =5=, 577.
    on Moses Moser, =5=, 583.
    on the journal of the Society for Culture, =5=, 586.
    on Edward Gans’s apostasy, =5=, 587.
    compared with Steinheim, =5=, 607.
    compared with Erter, =5=, 615-16.
    on Hellenism and Judaism, =5=, 688.

  =Hejas=, the Jews settle in, =3=, 54.
    _See_ Arabia, northern.

  =Hejira=, the, Mahomet’s flight from Mecca, =3=, 73.

  =Helam=, the battle of, the Aramæans defeated at, =1=, 127.

  =Helen=, queen of Adiabene, proselyte, =2=, 216-17.
    visits Jerusalem, =2=, 218, 224.
    gift of, to the Temple, =2=, 218.
    mausoleum of, =2=, 219.

  =Helicon=, favorite of Caligula, =2=, 187.

  =Heliodorus=, treasurer of Seleucus II, tries to force his way into
        the Temple, =1=, 438.
    murders Seleucus, =1=, 443.

  =Heliopolis= (Onion), district containing the Temple of Onias, =1=,
        508.
    revenues of, devoted to the Temple, =1=, 508.
    called the Arabian province, =1=, 510.

  =Helisachar=, incites the sons of Louis the Pious against their
        step-mother, =3=, 166.

  =Helkias=, son of Onias IV, general, sides with Cleopatra, mother of
        Ptolemy VIII, =2=, 10, 12.
    death of, =2=, 41.

  =Hell=, attorney, levies blackmail on the Jews of Alsace, =5=, 349.
    prevents debtors from paying Jews, =5=, 350.
    banished, =5=, 350.

  =Hell=, belief in, derived from Magianism, =1=, 403.

  =Hellenism=, the attacks of, accentuate the legal character of
        Judaism, =2=, 471.

  =Hellenists=, the, aims of, =1=, 435-6.
    Onias III opposed to, =1=, 437.
    persecute Onias III, =1=, 438-9, 444.
    condemned by Jesus Sirach, =1=, 440-1.
    invite the interference of Antiochus IV, =1=, 444.
    introduce games and gymnasia into Judæa, =1=, 444-6.
    refuse to sacrifice to Hercules, =1=, 446.
    procure Jason’s dismissal, =1=, 446-7.
    disapprove of Menelaus as high priest, =1=, 447.
    take refuge in the Acra, =1=, 454.
    betray the hiding places of the Chassidim, =1=, 457-8.
    appeal to Antiochus V, =1=, 478.
    lose favor at the Syrian court, =1=, 480.
    oppose Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 480, 482.
    fear Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 483.
    masters of Palestine, =1=, 488.
    called “Traitors of the Covenant,” =1=, 489.
    plan to deliver Jonathan and Simon to the Syrians, =1=, 493.
    deserted by Bacchides, =1=, 494.
    take refuge in Bethzur, =1=, 494.
    appeal to Demetrius II, =1=, 497.
    driven out of Bethzur, =1=, 498.
    secret understanding of, with Diodotus Tryphon, =1=, 500.
    driven from their strongholds, =1=, 523.
    seek refuge in Egypt, =1=, 523.
    end of, =1=, 523-4.

  =Heller, Lipmann= (1579-1654), Talmudist, character and attainments
        of, =4=, 703.
    commentary on the Mishna by, =4=, 704.
    rabbi of Vienna and Prague, =4=, 704-6.
    apportions the war tax, =4=, 704.
    accused and imprisoned, =4=, 705.
    fined and deprived of his office, =4=, 706.
    relaxes the Jewish marriage law, =5=, 13.
    draws up penitential prayers, =5=, 13.

  =Heman=, grandson of Samuel, psalmist, =1=, 79, 120-1.

  =Hengstenberg=, exegete, =5=, 695.

  =Henna.= _See_ Hinnom.

  =Hennigs, Augustus von=, Danish state councilor, interested in
        Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation, =5=, 333, 334.

  =Henrique=, bishop of Ceuta, and the prosecution of Marranos, =4=,
        499.

  =Henrique=, Infante of Portugal, grand inquisitor, deposition of,
        demanded by Paul III, =4=, 521.
    sends a list of Marrano delinquencies to Rome, =4=, 523.

  =Henry II=, emperor, banishes the Jews from Mayence, =3=, 245-6.

  =Henry IV=, emperor, and the Jews of Worms, =3=, 293.
    issues a decree in favor of the Jews, =3=, 298.
    permits Jews forcibly baptized to return to Judaism, =3=, 306.
    grants protection to the Jews, =3=, 308, 416.

  =Henry VI=, emperor, Jews massacred under, =3=, 418-19.

  =Henry of Anjou= (III of France), candidate for the Polish throne,
        =4=, 604, 605.

  =Henry II= (de Trastamare), of Castile, rival of Pedro the
        Cruel, =4=, 114.
    gains allies against Pedro, =4=, 122.
    maligns his brother, =4=, 122-3.
    begins war with his brother, =4=, 123.
    taxes the Jews of Burgos, =4=, 123, 124.
    gains Toledo and Seville, =4=, 124.
    leaves Spain, =4=, 124.
    takes northern Spain, =4=, 124.
    refuses to exclude Jews from state offices, =4=, 125.
    taxes the Jews, =4=, 125-6.
    victorious at Montiel, =4=, 126.
    accession of, =4=, 136.
    attitude of, towards Jews, =4=, 137, 138.
    decrees Jew badges, =4=, 139.
    discriminates against Jewish creditors, =4=, 139.
    forces Jews into religious debates, =4=, 140.
    Jewish courtiers of, =4=, 156.
    death of, =4=, 156.
    Jews hated under, =4=, 167.

  =Henry III=, of Castile, discord early in the reign of, =4=, 167.
    regents for, quell the riot against the Jews of Seville, =4=, 168.
    confers dignities upon Solomon Levi, =4=, 184.
    employs Jewish physicians, =4=, 185, 190.
    advised not to employ Jewish officials, =4=, 185.
    Jews under, =4=, 193.
    death of, =4=, 193, 196.
    appoints Solomon Levi executor of his will, =4=, 194.

  =Henry IV=, of Castile, the Jews under, =4=, 274-6.
    plunders the houses of Jews and Marranos, =4=, 274.
    employs Jewish officials, =4=, 275.
    forbids the Jews to dress luxuriously, =4=, 275-6.
    disproves the charge of child murder against the Jews of
        Spain, =4=, 276.
    punishes the murderers of the Jews of Medina del Campos, =4=, 278.
    statute book of, assigns a low position to the Jews, =4=, 278.
    deposed, =4=, 278.
    reproached with partiality towards the Jews, =4=, 279-80.
    protects the Marranos of Valladolid, =4=, 281.
    death of, =4=, 283.
    opposes the establishment of the Inquisition, =4=, 310.

  =Henry I=, of England, grants privileges to the Jews, =3=, 504.

  =Henry II=, of England, the Jews prosperous under, =3=, 409.

  =Henry III=, of England, the Jews under, =3=, 570-1, 587-92.
    the minority of, =3=, 587-8.
    appoints a chief rabbi, =3=, 588.
    restrains the intolerance of the Church, =3=, 588.
    summons a Jewish Parliament, =3=, 589-90.
    refuses the Jews permission to leave England, =3=, 591.
    deposes Elias of London, =3=, 591.
    protects the Jews of London, =3=, 592.

  =Henry VIII=, of England, overthrows Catholicism, =4=, 541.

  =Henry II=, of France, Obadiah de Sforno dedicates his works
        to, =4=, 411.
    treats Neapolitan Jews kindly, =4=, 544.
    confiscates the Mendes property, =4=, 574.
    refuses to pay the Mendes-Nassi family his debt, =4=, 596, 597.

  =Henry III=, of France. _See_ Henry of Anjou.

  =Henry IV=, of France, and Manuel Pimentel, =4=, 672.

  =Henry of Orange=, well disposed towards Jews, =4=, 678.

  =Henry de Trastamare.= _See_ Henry II, of Castile.

  =Henry I=, archbishop of Mayence, protects the Jews during the second
        crusade, =3=, 352-3.

  =Henry=, bishop of Ratisbon, enforces anti-Jewish restrictions, =4=,
        301.
    attempts to convert the Jews, =4=, 301.
    charges Israel Bruna with child-murder, =4=, 303.
    urges an inquiry against the Jews, =4=, 304.

  =Henry Julius=, duke of Brunswick, expels the Jews, =4=, 652.

  “=Hep, hep!=” cry, the, against the Jews, =5=, 528-32.
    Rachel Levin on, =5=, 534.

  =“Hep, hep!” persecutions=, the, Börne on, =5=, 542-3.
    Heine on, =5=, 556.
    in Hamburg, =5=, 573.

  =Hephzi-bah=, wife of Hezekiah, =1=, 280.

  =Heraclius=, emperor of the East, sues for peace with Chosru
        II, =3=, 19.
    allies himself with the Jews, =3=, 21-2.
    makes peace with the Persians, =3=, 22.
    persecutes the Jews of Palestine, =3=, 22-3, 47.
    forbids Jews to enter Jerusalem, =3=, 23.

  =Hercules d’Este I=, duke of Ferrara, patron of Abraham Farissol,
        =4=, 412-13.

  =Hercules d’Este II=, duke of Ferrara, friend of the Jews, =4=, 544.
    protects the Marranos, =4=, 569.
    protects Gracia Mendesia, =4=, 575.

  =Hercules=, chief of the Jewish community of Arta, =3=, 424.

  =Hercules=, demi-god, Jason sacrifices to, =1=, 446.

  =Herder=, admires “Phædon,” =5=, 307.
    aversion of, to Jews, =5=, 462.

  =Heresy=, signs of, enumerated by the Inquisition, =4=, 315-16.

  =Hermandad=, the, union of Spanish towns, enforces anti-Jewish
        measures, =4=, 251.

  =Hermann III=, bishop of Cologne, protects the Jews during the first
        crusade, =3=, 304.

  =Hermann the Carpenter=, leader of the first crusade in Cologne, =3=,
        303, 306.

  “=Hermitage=” (Stübel), the Zaddik’s room, =5=, 382.

  =Hermon= (Anti-Lebanon), mountain, description of, =1=, 44.
    Jesus at, =2=, 158.

  =Herod I= (37-3), son of Antipater, governor of Galilee, =2=, 77.
    subdues Ezekias, =2=, 77-8.
    honored by Sextus Cæsar, =2=, 78.
    before the Synhedrion, =2=, 78-9.
    governor of Cœlesyria, =2=, 79.
    assassinates Malich, =2=, 80.
    betrothed to Mariamne, =2=, 81.
    tetrarch of Judæa, =2=, 81.
    opposed by the Parthians, =2=, 82.
    escapes to Rome, =2=, 83, 86.
    favored by Antony, =2=, 86.
    proclaimed king of Judæa by the Roman Senate, =2=, 86.
    struggle of, with Antigonus, =2=, 87.
    marries Mariamne, =2=, 87.
    besieges Jerusalem, =2=, 87-8.
    has Antigonus beheaded, =2=, 89.
    policy of, =2=, 89.
    kills the Synhedrists, =2=, 89.
    appoints Ananel high priest, =2=, 90.
    tries to obliterate his Idumæan descent, =2=, 90.
    fears Hyrcanus and Aristobulus (III), =2=, 90-1.
    brings Hyrcanus to Jerusalem, =2=, 91.
    proclaims Aristobulus (III) high priest, =2=, 91.
    has him murdered, =2=, 92.
    accused before Cleopatra, =2=, 92-3.
    orders the murder of Mariamne, =2=, 93.
    threatened by a sister of Antigonus, =2=, 94.
    at war with Malich, =2=, 94-5.
    orders the execution of Hyrcanus II, =2=, 96.
    confines Mariamne in Alexandrion, =2=, 96.
    appoints Hillel president of the Synhedrion, =2=, 96, 99.
    appoints Menahem deputy, =2=, 100.
    received with favor by Octavius, =2=, 101-2.
    territory of, increased, =2=, 103.
    executes Mariamne, =2=, 104.
    quells Alexandra’s sedition, =2=, 105.
    submits to Augustus, =2=, 105.
    ornaments Sebaste and Cæsarea, =2=, 106.
    exhausts the people by taxation, =2=, 107.
    degrades the high priesthood, =2=, 107.
    marries Mariamne II, =2=, 107.
    requires an oath of allegiance from his subjects, =2=, 108.
    remodels the Temple, =2=, 109-11.
    distrustful of his family, =2=, 112.
    appoints Antipater his successor, =2=, 112, 113.
    executes Mariamne I’s sons, =2=, 113.
    conspiracy against, =2=, 113.
    appoints Herod Antipas his successor, =2=, 114.
    contest of, with the Pharisees, =2=, 114-15.
    attempts suicide, =2=, 115-16.
    executes Antipater, =2=, 116.
    orders executions for the day of his death, =2=, 116.
    death of, =2=, 117.
    territory added to Judæa by, =2=, 118.
    will of, =2=, 119-20.
    sends gifts to Athens, =2=, 193.
    palace of, stormed by the Zealots, =2=, 260.
    palace of, in Galilee destroyed by Josephus, =2=, 279.

  =Herod II=, brother of Agrippa I, prætor and prince of Chalcis, =2=,
        190.
    allied with Agrippa I, =2=, 196.
    opposes Cuspius Fadus, =2=, 197.
    asks for a truce, =2=, 197.
    titular king of Judæa, =2=, 198.
    death of, =2=, 199, 235.
    widow of, =2=, 235.

  =Herod ben Gamala=, partisan of Rome, =2=, 274.

  =Herod ben Miar=, partisan of Rome, =2=, 274.

  =Herod= (Antipas), son of Cleopatra of Jerusalem and Herod I,
        disinherited, =2=, 119.

  =Herod= (Philip), son of Mariamne II and Herod I, disinherited, =2=,
        119.
    wife of, =2=, 173.

  =Herod Antipas= (Antipas I), son of Malthace and Herod I, successor
        to Herod I, =2=, 114.
    ruler of Galilee and Peræa, =2=, 119.
    envious of Archelaus, =2=, 120.
    builds Tiberias, =2=, 137-8.
    character of, =2=, 138.
    beheads John the Baptist, =2=, 147.
    pursues Jesus, =2=, 160.
    abandons his wife to marry Herodias, =2=, 173.
    defeated by the Nabathæans, =2=, 173.
    assisted by Vitellius, =2=, 173.
    procures an office for Agrippa I, =2=, 175.
    banished to Lyons, =2=, 177.

  =Herod Philip=, son of Cleopatra of Jerusalem. _See_ Philip, tetrarch.

  =Herodian dynasty=, the, the members of:
    Agrippa I,
    Agrippa II,
    Archelaus,
    Herod I,
    Herod II,
    Herod Antipas,
    Philip.

  =Herodian time=, the, characterized, =5=, 723.

  =Herodians=, the, appeal to Augustus, =2=, 122.
    petition for the removal of obnoxious emblems from the Roman
        standard, =2=, 139.
    oppose John the Baptist, =2=, 147.
    morality of the opponents of, =2=, 151.
    immorality of, =2=, 236.

  =Herodias=, wife of Herod (Philip), daughter of, =2=, 147.
    illegal marriage of, with Herod Antipas, =2=, 173.
    appealed to by Cypros, =2=, 175.
    envious of Agrippa I, =2=, 177.
    banished to Lyons, =2=, 177.

  =Herodium=, fortress, burial place of Herod I, =2=, 117.
    surrenders to Bassus, =2=, 315.

  =Heron=, Syrian commander, defeated by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 462.

  =Herrera, Abraham (Alonzo) de=, descendant of Gonsalvo de Cordova, in
        Amsterdam, =4=, 666.
    identifies the Kabbala with Neo-platonism, =5=, 54, 88.

  =Herrera, Pedro de.= _See_ Pedro de Herrera.

  =Herrera=, prophetess of, burnt, =4=, 494.

  =Herschel, Solomon=, rabbi of London, repeats Manasseh ben Israel’s
        oath concerning ritual murder, =5=, 654-5.

  =Heruli=, the, overrun Rome, =3=, 27.

  =Herz Medelsheim.= _See_ Berr, Cerf.

  =Herz, Henrietta=, influence of, in Berlin, =5=, 412-13.
    salon of, =5=, 413, 422-3, 540.
    influence of romanticism on, =5=, 423.
    relation of, to Schleiermacher, =5=, 423.
    and Dorothea Mendelssohn, =5=, 424.
    apostasy of, =5=, 425-6.

  =Herz, Leb=, Sabbatian, =5=, 152.

  =Herz, Marcus= (1747-1803), physician, translates the “Vindiciæ
        Judæorum,” =5=, 362.
    youth and education of, =5=, 405.
    distinguished by Kant, =5=, 405-6.
    as a physician, =5=, 406.
    marriage of, =5=, 406.
    lectures on Kant’s philosophy, =5=, 406.
    influences Berlin Jews, =5=, 407.
    house of, a center of culture, =5=, 412.
    mediocrity of, =5=, 417.
    disapproves of Dorothea Mendelssohn, =5=, 424.

  =Heschels, Leb=, rabbi, opposes Eibeschütz, =5=, 262, 263, 268, 269.

  =Hesychius=, consular agent, accused by Gamaliel V, =2=, 613.

  =Hess, Hermann=, chancellor of the University of Mayence, and the
        confiscation of Hebrew books, =4=, 437.

  =Hess, Isaac=, introduces Mendelssohn to Lessing, =5=, 297.

  =Hesse, the Jews of=, deprived of civil rights, =5=, 512.
    emancipated, =5=, 601.

  =Hetman= (Attaman), Cossack chieftain, =5=, 2.

  =Hewn-stone Hall=, meeting place of the Synhedrion in Jerusalem, =2=,
        239.

  =Hexapla=, parallel texts of Bible versions by Origen, =2=, 488-9.

  =Hezekiah=, king of Judah, virtues of, =1=, 266-7.
    limited power of, =1=, 267-8.
    banishes idolatry, =1=, 267.
    celebrates the Passover, =1=, 268.
    allied with Egypt, =1=, 270.
    assures Sennacherib of his submission, =1=, 274.
    refuses to surrender to Sennacherib, =1=, 274-5.
    illness of, =1=, 276.
    recovers, =1=, 277.
    honors Merodach-baladan’s embassy, =1=, 278-9.
    marriage of, celebrated, =1=, 279.
    Hebrew literature under, =1=, 279.
    burial of, =1=, 280.

  =Hibat-allah.= _See_ Nathaniel.

  =Hiel= of Bethel fortifies Jericho, =1=, 201.

  =Hieronymus.= _See_ Jerome.

  =High priests=, the, seat of, in Shiloh, =1=, 41.
    dignity of, raised under Joash, =1=, 219.
    heads of the Council of Seventy, =1=, 394.
    considered political chiefs, =1=, 418.
    installed by the Roman procurator, =2=, 129, 137.
    vestments of, kept in the Antonia, =2=, 129.
    chosen by the Roman governor, =2=, 172, 197.
    chosen by Herod II, =2=, 198.
    chosen from certain families, =2=, 237.
    feuds among, =2=, 237.
    power of, under Agrippa II, =2=, 246.
    short terms of, =2=, 249.
    deputy to, =2=, 330.
    _See also_ Aaronides; Priests.

  =High priests=, the, list of:
    Aaron,
    Abiathar,
    Achitub,
    Alcimus,
    Alexander Jannæus,
    Amaziah (Bethel),
    Anan, of the family Seth,
    Anan, of the family Anan,
    Ananel,
    Ananias,
    Antigonus,
    Aristobulus I,
    Aristobulus II,
    Aristobulus III,
    Azariah,
    Azariah ben Zadok,
    Eleazar,
    Eli,
    Eliashib,
    Elionai,
    Hilkiah,
    Hyrcanus I, John
    Hyrcanus II,
    Ishmael II,
    Jaddua,
    Jason,
    Jehoiada,
    Jehoiakim,
    Joaser,
    Johanan, son of Joiada,
    Joiada,
    Jonathan ben Anan,
    Jonathan Haphus,
    Joseph, of the house of Camyth,
    Joseph Caiaphas,
    Joshua, of the family of Phabi,
    Joshua, of the family of Sié,
    Joshua ben Damnai,
    Joshua ben Gamala,
    Joshua, son of Jehozedek,
    Judas Maccabæus,
    Manasseh,
    Mathias ben Theophilus,
    Menelaus the Benjamite,
    Onias I,
    Onias II,
    Onias III,
    Phineas,
    Phineas ben Samuel,
    Seraiah,
    Simon I,
    Simon II,
    Simon, son of Boëthus,
    Simon Tharsi,
    Uriah,
    Zachariah ben Jehoiada,
    Zadok.

  =High-roads=, the king’s, built by Solomon, =1=, 171-2.

  “=High Tower, The=,” drama by Luzzatto, =5=, 235.

  =Hilchetha Gabriatha=, Talmud commentary by Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=,
        259.

  =Hildebrand.= _See_ Gregory VII.

  =Hilderic= of Nismes, governor of Septimania, revolts against Wamba,
        =3=, 104-5.
    promises the Jews religious liberty, =3=, 105.

  =Hildesheim=, Jews tolerated in, =4=, 686.
    the Jews of, deprived of civil rights, =5=, 512.

  =Hildesheimer=, the Frankfort deputy to the Synhedrion, =5=, 497.

  =Hilduin=, incites the sons of Louis the Pious against their
        step-mother, =3=, 166.

  =Hilkia=, treasurer of the Temple, envoy to Nero, =2=, 248.

  =Hilkiah=, high priest, charged with the repairs of the Temple, =1=,
        289.
    finds the Book of the Law, =1=, 292.
    counsels Josiah, =1=, 293.
    ancestor of Ezra, =1=, 365.

  =Hillali=, oldest copy of the Bible in Spain, destroyed, =3=, 387.

  =Hillel I=, appointed president of the Synhedrion, =2=, 96, 99.
    disciple of Shemaya and Abtalion, =2=, 96.
    character of, =2=, 96-7.
    maxims of, =2=, 97-8.
    justifies the oral law, =2=, 98.
    justifies new laws, =2=, 99.
    enacts the Prosbol, =2=, 100.
    followers of, swear allegiance to Herod, =2=, 108.
    death of, lamented, =2=, 130.
    descendants of, presidents of the Synhedrion, =2=, 130, 192.
    spreads the knowledge of the Law in Judæa, =2=, 149.
    the model of Jesus, =2=, 149-50.
    quoted by Philo, =2=, 213.
    compared with Philo, =2=, 214.
    followers of, support the Peace party, =2=, 256.
    the founder of Talmudic Judaism, =2=, 327.
    laws of interpretation by, =2=, 327, 338.
    laws of interpretation by, supplemented, =2=, 331, 356.
    reverence paid to the house of, =2=, 360.
    compared with Abba Areka, =2=, 517.
    end of the house of, =2=, 618.

  =Hillel, disciples of=, distinguished, =2=, 131.
    conception of the Messiah held by, =2=, 144.
    morality of, =2=, 151.

  =Hillel, the school of=, =2=, 101.
    conciliatory, =2=, 131.
    disputes with the school of Shammai under Gamaliel II, =2=,
        333, 336-8.
    deductions of, condemned by Joshua ben Chananya, =2=, 350.
    estimation of, by the Nazarenes, =2=, 372.
    extends the application of tradition, =2=, 462.

  =Hillel II=, brother of Judah II, censured for irreligiousness, =2=,
        480.
    Agadist, =2=, 487.
    maxim of, =2=, 487.
    consulted by Origen, =2=, 487.
    versed in the Scriptures, =2=, 487, 488.
    Patriarch, unselfishness of, =2=, 560.
    defamed by Joseph the apostate, =2=, 566.
    adopts a fixed calendar, =2=, 572-4.
    honored by Julian the Apostate, =2=, 597, 598.

  =Hillel ben Samuel= of Verona (1220-1295), Talmudist, founder of
        Italian Jewish culture, =3=, 629; =4=, 59.
    Maimunist, =3=, 629, 630.
    accomplishments of, =3=, 629.
    tries to prevent a renewal of the Maimunist controversy, =3=,
        631-2.

  =Himyar=, ancestor of the Arabs, =3=, 61, 62.

  =Himyara=, part of southern Arabia, =3=, 54.

  =Himyarite kingdom=, the Jewish, =3=, 62-7.

  =Himyarites=, the, conversion of, to Christianity projected, =4=, 298.

  =Hinderbach=, bishop of Trent, charges the Jews with child
        murder, =4=, 298.

  =Hinkmar=, bishop of Rheims, anti-Jewish feelings of, =3=, 171.
    favorite of Charles the Bald, =3=, 172.

  =Hinnom= (Ge-henna), the vale of, south of Jerusalem, =1=, 115.
    tower at the gate of, =1=, 231.
    Ahaz sacrifices to Moloch in, =1=, 260-1.
    sacrifices in, under Manasseh, =1=, 283.
    Moloch worship in, under Jehoiakim, =1=, 300.
    gives its name to hell, =1=, 404.

  =Hippicus=, tower in the wall of Jerusalem, refuge of the Roman
        garrison, =2=, 260.
    left undemolished by Titus, =2=, 309.

  =Hippodrome=, the, in Jerusalem, occupied during the disturbance by
        Sabinus, =2=, 123.

  =Hippos=, incorporated with Judæa, =2=, 103.

  =Hiram=, of Tyre, allied with David, =1=, 118.
    allied with Solomon, =1=, 162.
    supplies material for the Temple, =1=, 164.
    supplies Solomon with sailors, =1=, 170.

  =Hiram=, artist in bronze, employed in the building of the
        Temple, =1=, 165.

  =Hiram=, brother of Merbal, king of Phœnicia, =1=, 342.

  =Hirsch= (Hirschel), Berlin jeweler, excites Voltaire’s animosity,
        =5=, 339.

  =Hisham=, Ommiyyade caliph, =3=, 239.
    releases Jacob Ibn-Jau, =3=, 241.

  =Historians, Jewish=, consulted by Basnage, =5=, 196.

  =Historians, Jewish=, list of:
    Abraham Ibn-Daud Halevi,
    Abraham Zacuto,
    Almosnino, Moses
    Barrios, Miguel de Baruch,
    Conforte, David
    David Gans,
    Elias ben Elkanah Kapsali,
    Ephraim ben Jacob,
    Gedalya Ibn-Yachya,
    Heilperin, Jechiel
    José ben Chalafta,
    Joseph ben Joshua Cohen,
    Joseph ben Matthias (Josephus),
    Josephus, pseudo-
    Joseph Ibn-Verga,
    Jost, Isaac Marcus
    Justus, son of Pistus,
    Löwisohn, Solomon
    Luzzatto, Samuel David
    Profiat Duran,
    Rapoport, Solomon Jehuda
    Samuel Shulam,
    Sherira,
    Usque, Samuel
    Usque, Solomon.

  =Historians of the Jews=, list of:
    Adams, Hannah
    Basnage, Jacob
    Ewald, Heinrich.

  =Historical writings= of the Jews, the, carried into the Babylonian
        Exile, =1=, 335.
    compiled by Baruch, =1=, 336-7.
    collected by the Sopherim, =1=, 400.
    translated into Greek, =1=, 514.

  =History, Jewish=, cultivated in Hasmonæan times, =2=, 15-16.
    beginnings of, =4=, 554.
    in the “Moniteur,” =5=, 485.
    distorted, =5=, 592-3.
    by Christians, =5=, 593.
    by Jews, =5=, 593-6.
    as viewed by Krochmal, =5=, 609-10.
    the “Kerem Chemed” devoted to, =5=, 621.
    a review of, =5=, 705-31.

  “=History= of neo-Hebraic Poetry,” by Franz Delitzsch, =5=, 628-9.

  “=History= of the Jews,” by Gedalya Ibn-Yachya, =4=, 616.

  “=History= of the People of Israel, The,” by Ewald, =5=, 696.

  “=History= of the Religion of the Jews,” by Jacob Basnage, =5=, 197.

  “=History= of the World,” by Gedalya Ibn-Yachya, =4=, 616.

  =Hittites=, the, subdivision of the Canaanites, =1=, 3.
    suffer under David, =1=, 131.
    mercenary troops under David, =1=, 137.
    declared bondmen by Solomon, =1=, 163.
    king of, hostile to Ben-hadad III, =1=, 221.

  =Hivites=, the, subdivision of the Canaanites, =1=, 3.
    submit to Joshua, =1=, 34.
    declared bondmen by Solomon, =1=, 163.

  =Hochmeister=, title of rabbis in Franconia, =4=, 259.

  =Hochstraten.= _See_ Hoogstraten, Jacob.

  =Hodges=, English consul-general, services of, in the Damascus affair,
        =5=, 653, 659.

  =Hodki=, Haidamak leader, =5=, 10.

  =Holdheim, Samuel= (1806-1860), Talmudist, at the Brunswick
        rabbinical conference, =5=, 678, 681.
    opposes Talmudic Judaism, =5=, 678, 680-1.
    secular studies of, =5=, 678.
    temperament of, =5=, 679.
    chief rabbi of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, =5=, 679.
    view held by, of Judaism, =5=, 680-1.
    compared with Frankel, =5=, 684.
    at the Frankfort rabbinical conference, =5=, 685.
    preacher of the Berlin Reform Association, =5=, 686.
    innovations of, =5=, 686-7.
    compared with Sachs, =5=, 687-8, 692.
    Sachs’s opinion of, =5=, 691.

  =Holland=, soldiers of, in the imperial army against the Hussites,
        =4=, 225.
    a refuge for Jews, =4=, 661, 676-7, 678.
    second Jewish colony of, =4=, 685.
    learning in, =5=, 20-1.
    war of, with England, and the re-settlement of Jews in England, =5=,
        34.
    displeased with the efforts to settle Jews in England, =5=, 46.
    rabbis of, prepared to excommunicate Luzzatto, =5=, 241.
    ambassador of, intercedes for the Moravian and Bohemian
        Jews, =5=, 253.
    funds advanced to, by Isaac Pinto, =5=, 340.
    the Measfim in, =5=, 400-1.
    _See also_ Amsterdam; Batavian Republic, the.

  =Holmes, Nathaniel=, Puritan, attitude of, towards the Jews, =5=, 27.
    on the place of the Jews in the Messianic time, =5=, 29-30.

  =Holst, Ludwig=, attacks the Jews, =5=, 543.

  =Holstein=, favors the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 519.

  =Holwan=, the Exilarch’s income from, =3=, 96.

  =Holy City=, the, beginnings of, =1=, 114. _See_ Jerusalem.

  =Holy Days=, the, kept by the Babylonian Judæans, =1=, 364.

  =Holy Ghost=, the, dogma of, introduced into Christianity, =2=,
        500-1.

  =Holy Land=, the. _See_ Palestine.

  =Holy of Holies=, the, Debir, =1=, 165.
    entered by Antiochus Epiphanes, =1=, 451-2.
    entered by Pompey, =2=, 66.
    the Romans desecrate, =2=, 124.
    entered by Titus, =2=, 308.

  =Holy Place=, the, Hechal, =1=, 165.

  =Holy Roman Empire=, the, dismembered, =5=, 465. _See_ Rome; Germany.

  =Holy Sepulcher=, the, Church of, fear that Jews will gain possession
        of, =4=, 272, 274.

  =Holy Week.= _See_ Eastertide.

  =Homberg, Herz=, assists Mendelssohn in his Pentateuch translation,
        =5=, 334.
    teacher in an Austrian school, =5=, 369.
    one of the Measfim, =5=, 401-2.

  =Homel=, the Jews of, massacred, =5=, 10.

  =Homem, Gaspar Lopez=, Portuguese Marrano, =4=, 664.

  =Homem, Mayor Rodrigues=, Marrano, sends her daughter toHolland,
        =4=, 664-5.
    emigrates to Holland, =4=, 667.

  =Homer=, read by the Alexandrian Judæans, =1=, 505.
    Greek views of the world in, =2=, 208.

  “=Homilies= of the Jews in Divine Worship,” by Zunz, =5=, 620-1.

  =Honorius III=, pope, enforces anti-Jewish decrees, =3=, 513.
    exempts the Toulouse Jews from wearing badges, =3=, 514.
    prevents the employment of Jews as diplomats, =3=, 514.

  =Honorius IV=, pope, bids the English clergy proceed against the
        Jews, =3=, 645.

  =Honorius=, emperor of the West, and the Jews, =2=, 616-17, 622.
    forbids the collection of the Patriarch’s tax, =2=, 617.
    forbids Jews to enter military service, =2=, 617.

  =Hooghe, Romein de=, poet, on the Amsterdam synagogue, =5=, 167.

  =Hoogstraten, Jacob=, Dominican general in Cologne, =4=, 424.
    and the confiscation of Hebrew books, =4=, 437, 441.
    decides that the Talmud ought to be burnt, =4=, 444.
    proposes the indictment of the Jews, =4=, 444.
    accuses Reuchlin of heresy, =4=, 450.
    tries Reuchlin and the “Augenspiegel,” =4=, 451.
    orders the burning of the “Augenspiegel,” =4=, 451-2.
    the examination of, ordered by Leo X, =4=, 454.
    fails to appear for trial, =4=, 454.
    convicted of slander, =4=, 455.
    appeals to Leo X, =4=, 455.
    tries to have the Speyer judgment overturned, =4=, 458.
    summoned to Rome, =4=, 458.
    satirized in the “Letters of Obscurantists,” =4=, 461.
    asks for a decision by council, =4=, 464.
    influences Leo X to suspend his case, =4=, 465.
    leaves Rome in disgrace, =4=, 465.
    life of, endangered, =4=, 465.

  =Hoornbeek, John=, anti-Jewish author, =5=, 46.

  =Hophni=, son of Eli, character and death of, =1=, 70.

  =Hophra.= _See_ Apries.

  =Horeb=, mount, scene of the first revelation to Moses, =1=, 15.

  =Hormisdas IV=, of Persia, character of, =3=, 7-8.
    persecutes the Jews, =3=, 8.
    murdered, =3=, 8.

  =Hosannas, Day of=, a second Day of Atonement, =4=, 626.

  =Hosea= (I), prophet, under Jeroboam II, prophecies of, =1=, 240-2.

  =Hosea= (II), prophet, under Hoshea, =1=, 251.

  =Hoshea=, son of Elah, murders Pekah, =1=, 260.
    king of Israel, =1=, 263.
    ally of Egypt and vassal to Shalmaneser, =1=, 263.
    withdraws his tribute from Shalmaneser, =1=, 264.
    fortifies Samaria, =1=, 264.
    imprisoned for life, =1=, 264.

  =Hosiander=, probable author of the “Little Book about the Jews,”
        =4=, 545.

  =Host desecration=, the charge of, believed by Maximilian
        I, =4=, 414.

  =Host desecration, charged against the Jews= of Röttingen, =4=, 35.
    of Deckendorf, =4=, 98.
    of Prague, =4=, 164-6.
    of Segovia, =4=, 195-6.
    of Austria, =4=, 223.
    of Silesia, =4=, 261.
    of Passau, =4=, 306.
    of the Mark of Brandenburg, =4=, 437, 440.
    _See also_ Blood accusation, the; Child murder.

  =Hosts, God of=, meaning of, =1=, 130-1.

  =House of Commons=, the, passes the Statute of Judaism, =3=, 642.

  “=House of God=, The,” Kabbalistic work by Abraham de Herrera, =5=,
        54.

  “=House of Jacob=,” first Amsterdam synagogue, =4=, 667.

  =House of the Forest of Lebanon=, Solomon’s armory, =1=, 108.

  =Howan=, the Temple of, Jewish children brought up as Magians
        in, =2=, 629.

  =Howdon=, Lord, on the Damascus affair, =5=, 656.

  =Hubmaier, Balthasar=, Anabaptist, agitates against the Jews,
        =4=, 542-3.

  =Huesca=, the Jews of, excommunicate the anti-Maimunists, =3=, 537.
    the Marranos of, conspire against Pedro Arbues, =4=, 330.

  =Huet, Peter Daniel=, and Manasseh ben Israel, =5=, 22.

  =Huete=, meeting of the deputies of Castile congregations
        at, =3=, 617.
    the Jews of, persecuted, =4=, 170.

  =Hufnagel=, translates Wessely’s “Songs of Glory,” =5=, 404.

  =Hugh=, chaplain of Toulouse, and the Jews, =3=, 174.

  =Hugh Capet=, of France, death of, said to have been caused by the
        Jews, =3=, 242.

  =Hujej Ibn-Achtab=, chief of the Benu-Nadhir, =3=, 78.
    induces Arabian tribes to make war against Mahomet, =3=, 79, 80.
    killed, =3=, 81.
    daughter of, =3=, 83.

  =Hulagu=, Tartar sultan, ravages of, =3=, 606.
    founder of the Mongol kingdom in Persia, =3=, 638.

  =Huldah=, prophetess under Josiah, =1=, 286, 293.

  =Humanists=, the, espouse Reuchlin’s cause, =4=, 456.
    courted by Leo X, =4=, 465.
    favor Charles V’s election, =4=, 468.

  =Humboldt, Wilhelm von=, relation of, to Henrietta Herz, =5=, 423.
    draws up a constitution for Germany, =5=, 514.

  =Huna=, on the refugees from Sepphoris, =2=, 571.

  =Huna= (212-297), Babylonian Amora, chief teacher at Sora, =2=, 545.
    agriculturist, =2=, 545.
    and Chama ben Anilaï, =2=, 546.
    charitableness of, =2=, 546.
    presides over the Metibta, =2=, 547-8.
    death of, =2=, 548.
    and Judah ben Ezekiel, =2=, 552.
    and Chasda, =2=, 553.
    and Mar-Sheshet, =2=, 553-4.

  =Huna=, Exilarch, buried in Judæa, =2=, 455, 509.

  =Huna bar Nathan=, at the court of Jezdijird, =2=, 610.

  =Huna ben Chiya=, principal of the Pumbeditha academy, wealth
        of, =2=, 576.
    opposition to, =2=, 577.
    death of, =2=, 577.

  =Huna ben Joshua=, teacher at the academy of Nares, =2=, 593-4.

  =Huna-Mar= (488-508), Exilarch, Amora, =2=, 631; =3=, 3.

  =Huna-Mari=, Exilarch, executed by Firuz, =2=, 629.
    learned in the Law, =2=, 631.

  =Hunaï=, Gaon of Sora, reforms the divorce law, =3=, 92.

  =Hundt, Hartwig=, pamphlet by, against the Jews, =5=, 532.

  =Hungary=, adopts Frederick the Valiant’s Jewish statute, =3=, 569.
    Jews invited into, =3=, 613.
    Jewish exiles from, take refuge in Poland, =4=, 263.
    Messianic hopes connected with Solomon Molcho in, =4=, 497.
    Polish-Jewish fugitives in, =5=, 16.
    the Sabbatian movement in, =5=, 208.
    rabbis of, protest against the Brunswick rabbinical conference, =5=,
        682.

  =Hungary, the Jews of=, condition of, in early days, =3=, 520.
    possess the right of coinage, =3=, 521.
    farmers of salt mines and taxes, =3=, 521.
    kindly treated by Andreas, =3=, 521.
    the decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council enforced against, =3=,
        521.
    indispensable to the prosperity of the country, =3=, 613.
    proscribed by the Council of Buda, =3=, 614-15.
    banished by Louis I, =4=, 111.
    liturgy of, arranged by Maharil, =4=, 225.
    urged to emigrate to Turkey, =4=, 271-2.
    Sabbatians, =5=, 149.
    modify their divine service, =5=, 582.

  =Huns=, the, incursions of, =2=, 604.
    aid Kobad, =3=, 2.

  =Huozmann.= _See_ Rüdiger.

  =Hurwitz, Isaiah= (Sheloh), devotee of the Kabbala, =5=, 52, 55.

  =Hurwitz, Phineas Levi= (1740-1802), rabbi of Frankfort, opposes
        Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation, =5=, 331.
    death of, =5=, 566.

  =Hurwitz, Sabbataï=, draws up penitential prayers, =5=, 13.

  =Hurwitz, Salkind=, competes for the Metz prize on the Jewish
        question, =5=, 434.
    in the National Guards, =5=, 443.

  =Hushai=, David’s favorite, =1=, 122.
    faithful to David in Absalom’s rebellion, =1=, 141-2.
    pretends to submit to Absalom, =1=, 142-3.

  =Huss, John=, attacks the papacy, =4=, 221.
    condemned to death, =4=, 221-2.

  =Hussite war=, the, and the Jews, =4=, 222.
    cruelties of, =4=, 224-6.
    German Jews in sympathy with, =4=, 226.

  =Hussites=, the, hated by Emperor Albert II, =4=, 249.
    excite Catholic bigotry, =4=, 258.
    protect the Jews of Ratisbon, =4=, 301.
    the Dominicans threaten to ally themselves with, =4=, 459.

  =Hutten, Ulrich von=, agent at the imperial court, instructed to aid
        the Jews, =4=, 431.
    espouses Reuchlin’s cause, =4=, 456-7.
    supposed author of the “Letters of Obscurantists,” =4=, 462.
    enemy of ecclesiastical domination, =4=, 465.
    favors Charles V, =4=, 468.
    in the pantomime on the Reformation, =4=, 468.

  =Hypatia=, killed by monks, =2=, 619.

  =Hyrcanion=, fortress, built by John Hyrcanus, =2=, 46.
    held by a sister of Antigonus, =2=, 94.

  =Hyrcanists=, the, Hyrcanus II’s party, defend the Temple, =2=, 65.

  =Hyrcanus I, John=, son of Simon Tharsi, =1=, 520.
    lives at Gazara, =1=, 525.
    defeats Cendebæus, =1=, 529.
    escapes from Ptolemy ben Habub, =1=, 530-1.
    mother of, imprisoned, =1=, 531; =2=, 2.
    reign of, =2=, 1.
    contest of, with Ptolemy ben Habub, =2=, 2-3.
    besieged by Antiochus Sidetes, =2=, 3-4.
    sends an embassy to Rome, =2=, 4-5.
    furnishes Syria troops against Parthia, =2=, 5.
    acknowledges Alexander Zabina king of Syria, =2=, 6.
    Samaritan campaign of, =2=, 7-8.
    destroys the Temple on Gerizim, =2=, 8.
    converts the Idumæans forcibly to Judaism, =2=, 8-9.
    appeals to Rome, =2=, 9.
    besieges Samaria, =2=, 9.
    destroys Samaria, =2=, 10.
    conquests of, =2=, 11-12.
    has coins struck, =2=, 12.
    worldly ambition of, =2=, 13.
    erects a mausoleum at Modin, =2=, 14.
    employs Pharisees and Sadducees, =2=, 31.
    offended by the Pharisees, =2=, 32-3.
    fills the high offices with Sadducees, =2=, 33.
    death of, =2=, 33.
    sons of, =2=, 34.

  =Hyrcanus I, John, the wife of=, queen, supplanted by Aristobulus
        I, =2=, 35.
    imprisonment and death of, =2=, 36.

  =Hyrcanus II=, son of Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 47.
    proclaimed high priest, =2=, 48, 76.
    conspiracy against, =2=, 56.
    accession and character of, =2=, 57.
    defeated at Jericho by Aristobulus, =2=, 58.
    deprived of the royal dignity, =2=, 58.
    aided by the Nabathæan king, =2=, 59.
    refuses to supply the sacrificial lamb during the siege of
        Jerusalem, =2=, 60.
    summoned to Damascus, =2=, 63.
    favored by Pompey, =2=, 64.
    made ethnarch, =2=, 66, 76.
    leaves Jerusalem, =2=, 70.
    petitioned to punish Herod, =2=, 78.
    permits the Synhedrion to summon Herod, =2=, 78.
    reproved by Shemaya, =2=, 79.
    adjourns the Synhedrion, =2=, 79.
    takes counsel with Malich, =2=, 80.
    mutilated, =2=, 82.
    dethroned, =2=, 82-3.
    taken captive to Babylon, =2=, 83.
    welcomed by the Babylonian Judæans, =2=, 90.
    returns to Palestine, =2=, 91.
    executed, =2=, 96.
    descendants of, in Nahardea, =2=, 551.

  =Hyrcanus=, son of Joseph, his father’s representative in Egypt,
        =1=, 429-30.
    favored by Ptolemy IV, =1=, 430.
    rebuked for extravagance, =1=, 430.
    successor of his father, =1=, 431-2.
    flees to Alexandria, =1=, 432.
    in favor with Ptolemy V, =1=, 437.
    wealth of, =1=, 437.
    betrayed by the Hellenists, =1=, 444.
    tax-collector for the king of Egypt, =1=, 444.

  =Hyrkania=, Judæans banished to, =1=, 408.


  =I=

  =Ibbur=, impregnation of the soul, Kabbalistic term, =4=, 621.

  =Ibbur=, work on the calendar by Isaac Ibn-Albalia, =3=, 283.
    _See also_ Calendar.

  =Iberia=, early Jewish settlements in, =3=, 35. _See_ Spain.

  =Ibleam=, Zechariah, king of Israel, murdered at, =1=, 243.

  =Ibn-Abbas.= _See_ Jehuda and Samuel Ibn-Abbas.

  =Ibn-Abbas=, plots to depose Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 258.

  =Ibn-Abi Musa=, plots to depose Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 258.

  =Ibn-Abi Obsaibiya=, physician, colleague of Abraham Maimuni, =3=,
        495.

  =Ibn-Abitur.= _See_ Joseph ben Isaac Ibn-Abitur.

  =Ibn-Abitur family=, the, opposes Chanoch ben Moses, =3=, 238.

  =Ibn-Albalia.= _See_ Baruch Ibn-Albalia; Isaac ben Baruch Albalia.

  =Ibn-Albalia family=, the, early settlement of, in Spain, =3=, 43.

  =Ibn-Alfachar.= _See_ Abraham Ibn-Alfachar; Jehuda bar Joseph
        Ibn-Alfachar.

  =Ibn-Alfachar family=, the, of the nobility of Jewish Spain, =3=,
        235, 537.

  =Ibn-Alfara=, Arabic poet, elegy by, =3=, 279.

  =Ibn-Aljami.= _See_ Nathaniel.

  =Ibn-Alruchi= (Arruchi). _See_ David Alrui.

  =Ibn-Benveniste Halevi.= _See_ Joseph ben Ephraim Ibn-Benveniste
        Halevi.

  =Ibn-Chabib.= _See_ Jacob Ibn-Chabib.

  =Ibn-Chasdaï.= _See_ Abraham ben Chasdaï; Samuel ben Abraham
        Ibn-Chasdaï.

  =Ibn-Daud.= _See_ Abraham Ibn-Daud Halevi; Jehuda Ibn-Daud (Chayuj).

  =Ibn-Daud family=, the, traces descent from David, =3=, 43.

  =Ibn-Daudi=, the, descendants of the last Exilarch, settle in
        Spain, =3=, 254.

  =Ibn-Ezra.= _See_ Abraham ben Meïr; Abuhajaj Joseph; Abu-Ibrahim
        Isaac; Abulhassan Jehuda; Isaac ben Abraham; Jacob;
        Jehuda; Moses.

  =Ibn-Ezra family=, the, Chasdaï Ibn-Shaprut a member of, =3=, 215.
    of the nobility of Jewish Spain, =3=, 235.

  =Ibn-Falyaj family=, the, of the nobility of Jewish Spain, =3=, 236.

  =Ibn-Farussal.= _See_ Solomon Ibn-Farussal.

  =Ibn-Gebirol.= _See_ Solomon Ibn-Gebirol.

  =Ibn-Giat.= _See_ Isaac ben Jehuda; Judah.

  =Ibn-Giat family=, the, of the nobility of Jewish Spain, =3=, 236.

  =Ibn-G’ikatilia.= _See_ Isaac Ibn-G’ikatilia; Moses ben Samuel
        Ibn-G’ikatilia.

  =Ibn-Janach.= _See_ Jonah Marinus.

  =Ibn-Jau.= _See_ Jacob Ibn-Jau.

  =Ibn-Kamnial.= _See_ Abulhassan Abraham ben Meïr Ibn-Kamnial.

  =Ibn-Labi.= _See_ Vidal ben Benveniste Ibn-Labi.

  =Ibn-Migash.= _See_ Joseph ben Meïr; Meïr ben Joseph.

  =Ibn-Migash family=, the, of the nobility of Jewish Spain, =3=, 236.

  =Ibn-Misha’l=, Jewish diplomat, =3=, 284.

  =Ibn-Nagrela.= _See_ Joseph Ibn-Nagrela; Samuel Halevi Ibn-Nagrela.

  =Ibn-Raz=, assailant of Rabbinical Judaism in Leo Modena’s work,
        =5=, 73-4.

  =Ibn-Roshd.= _See_ Averroës.

  =Ibn-Rumahis=, Moorish admiral, captures and sells the four
        emissaries from Sora, =3=, 203, 208, 209.

  =Ibn-Sahal.= _See_ Joseph ben Jacob Ibn-Sahal.

  =Ibn-Sahula= (1245), fabulist, =3=, 560.

  =Ibn-Said= (Sid). _See_ Zag Ibn-Said.

  =Ibn-Sakbel.= _See_ Solomon Ibn-Sakbel.

  =Ibn-Sakviyah=, Karaite writer, opposed by Saadiah, =3=, 192.

  =Ibn-Satanas.= _See_ Joseph ben Isaac Ibn-Abitur.

  =Ibn-Shalbib.= _See_ Amram ben Isaac Ibn-Shalbib.

  =Ibn-Shem Tob.= _See_ Joseph ben Shem Tob; Shem Tob ben Joseph
        Ibn-Shem-Tob.

  =Ibn-Shoshan.= _See_ Abraham; Joseph ben Solomon Ibn-Shoshan; Solomon
        ben Joseph Ibn-Shoshan.

  =Ibn-Shoshan family=, the, members of, die from the Black
        Death, =4=, 113.

  =Ibn-Sina= (Avicenna), Mahometan interpreter of Aristotle, =3=, 478.

  =Ibn-Tibbon.= _See_ Jacob ben Machir; Judah ben Moses; Judah ben Saul;
        Moses; Samuel.

  =Ibn-Verga.= _See_ Joseph; Judah; Solomon.

  =Ibn-Vives.= _See_ Joshua ben Joseph Ibn-Vives.

  =Ibn-Wakar.= _See_ Jehuda; Samuel.

  =Ibn-Yachya.= _See_ David; David Negro; Gedalya; Gedalya I; Gedalya
        II; Joseph; Moses; Solomon Ibn-Gebirol.

  =Ibn-Yachya family=, the, Turkish branch of, =4=, 609.
    Italian branch of, =4=, 616.

  =Ibn-Yachya-Negro.= _See_ David; Judah.

  =Ibn-Yachya-Negro=, two brothers, favorites of Alfonso V, of
        Portugal, =4=, 339.

  =Ibn-Yaish=, prominent at the court of Alfonso XI, of Castile, =4=,
        84.

  =Ibn-Zachariah Yachya Chayuj.= _See_ Jehuda Ibn-Daud.

  =Ibn-Zadik.= _See_ Abu-Amr Joseph ben Zadik Ibn-Zadik.

  =Ibrahim=, sultan, war of, with Venice, =5=, 119.

  =Ibzan=, judge, =1=, 66.

  =Icabo=, character in Samuel Usque’s work, =4=, 558, 559, 560.

  =Idolatry=, among the Egyptians, =1=, 9-10.
    practiced by the Israelites in Egypt, =1=, 11.
    among the Israelites in the desert, =1=, 23-4.
    of the Israelites at Baal-Peor, =1=, 28.
    the Israelites reclaimed from, by Samuel, =1=, 75-6.
    under Solomon, =1=, 175.
    under Jeroboam, =1=, 186-7.
    under Omri, =1=, 195-6.
    under Jezebel, =1=, 197-8.
    under Joram, =1=, 209.
    under Jeroboam II, =1=, 233.
    under Menahem, =1=, 244, 247.
    under Ahaz, =1=, 260-1.
    removed by Hezekiah, =1=, 268.
    under Manasseh, =1=, 282-3.
    uprooted by Josiah, =1=, 294-5.
    relapse into, under Jehoiakim, =1=, 299-300.
    under Jehoiachin, =1=, 306.
    practiced by Judæans in Egypt, =1=, 326-7.
    among the Babylonian exiles, =1=, 332, 339, 340.
    stamped out among the Judæans by the fall of Babylon, =1=, 350.
    laws against, inviolate under all circumstances, =2=, 424.
    regulations against, in the Mishna, =2=, 476-8.
    practiced by the Arabs, =3=, 72.
    _See also_ Astarte; Baal, the worship of.

  =Idumæa=, urges Zedekiah to revolt from Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 310.
    ruled by procurators, =2=, 137.
    Eleazar ben Ananias governor of, =2=, 270.

  =Idumæan=, applied to Herod and Rome, =2=, 114-15.

  =Idumæans=, the, antagonize the Israelites in the desert, =1=, 27.
    characteristics of, =1=, 55.
    relations of, to the Israelites, =1=, 56-9.
    routed by Othniel, =1=, 60.
    attracted to Palestine under Solomon, =1=, 173.
    gain independence, =1=, 185.
    revolt of, from Judah, =1=, 209.
    conquered by Amaziah, =1=, 222-3.
    attack Jerusalem under Uzziah, =1=, 226-7.
    defeated by Uzziah, =1=, 230.
    allies of Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 314.
    molest fugitive Judæans, =1=, 318.
    appropriate Judæan territory, =1=, 325-6.
    settled to the south of Judæa, =1=, 355.
    in possession of Judæan territory, =1=, 435.
    hostile to the Judæans during the Syrian invasions, =1=, 473, 474.
    defeated by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 474.
    hostile to Judæa under John Hyrcanus, =2=, 7.
    forcibly converted to Judaism, =2=, 8-9.
    colony of, in Samaria, =2=, 9, 10.
    expeditions of, against Simon bar Giora, =2=, 293.
    help the Zealots against Anan, =2=, 295-6.
    disliked by the Zealots and the Moderates, =2=, 296.
    allied with the aristocratic party, =2=, 298.
    one of the factions in Jerusalem, =2=, 301.
    try to make terms with Titus, =2=, 309.

  =Ifra-Ormuzd=, mother of Shabur II, leans towards Judaism, =2=,
        580, 592-3.
    generous towards the Pumbeditha academy, =2=, 581.
    protects the Jews, =2=, 592.
    assists Raba bar Joseph, =2=, 592.

  =Iggaron=, Hebrew lexicon by Saadiah, =3=, 190.

  =Iggeret Teman=, by Maimonides, =3=, 462-4.

  =Ignatius=, Christian martyr, =2=, 621.

  =Ijon=, subjugated by Ben-hadad I, =1=, 191.

  =Ikkarim=, work by Joseph Albo, =4=, 239.

  =Ilai=, member of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 357.

  =Ilhas Perdidas.= _See_ San Thomas.

  =Illiberis (Elvira), the Council of=, forbids Christians to trade
        with Jews, =2=, 620.
    anti-Jewish decrees of, =3=, 43, 44.

  =Illyria=, synagogues of, protected by Arcadius, =2=, 616.
    the Jews of, autonomous, =3=, 27.

  =Ilpha=, companion of Jochanan bar Napacha, =2=, 493.

  =Imam=, founder of the Fatimide dynasty, =3=, 212.

  =Imamate=, the, the high priesthood among the Mahometans, =3=, 110.

  =Immaculate Conception=, the, dogma of, attacked by Chasdaï
        Crescas, =4=, 187.

  =Immanuel ben Solomon Romi= (1265-1330), poet, under Maimunist
        influence, =3=, 630; =4=, 60.
    characterization of, =4=, 63-4.
    position of, in the Roman Jewish community, =4=, 64-5.
    friend of Dante, =4=, 65.
    works of, =4=, 65-7.
    place of, in neo-Hebraic poetry, =4=, 67; =5=, 112.
    in Fermo, =4=, 68.
    on the poets of his time, =4=, 68.

  =Immorality=, under Jeroboam II, =1=, 233-4.
    under Jotham, =1=, 249-50.
    under Ahaz, =1=, 261.
    under Jehoiakim, =1=, 300.
    under Zerubbabel, =1=, 358.
    of the Judæan aristocracy, =2=, 234.
    of Judæans under the Roman dominion, =2=, 237-8.
    among the Jews of Babylonia, =2=, 516-17, 579.
    among the Marranos at Amsterdam, =4=, 680.
    among the Jews of Prussia, =5=, 419-20, 422.

  =Immortality of the soul=, the dogma of, in the “Guide of the
        Perplexed,” =3=, 482, 488.
    Maimonides’ treatment of, attacked, =3=, 524.
    in the Kabbala, =3=, 554.
    doubt cast upon, by the French thinkers, =5=, 305-6.
    Mendelssohn tries to restore the belief in, =5=, 306-7.

  =Imnestar=, the Jews of, punished for Purim pleasantry, =2=, 621.

  =Imrulkais Ibn-Hojr=, Arabic poet, protected by Samuel Ibn-Adiya,
        =3=, 68-9.

  “=In Praise= and Honor of Emperor Maximilian,” anti-Jewish pamphlet
        by Pfefferkorn, =4=, 439.

  “=In Refutation= of Anan,” by Saadiah, =3=, 189.

  =Incarnation, the dogma of=, refuted by Moses Cohen de Tordesillas,
        =4=, 141.
    expounded by Astruc Raimuch, =4=, 182.
    refuted by Solomon Bonfed, =4=, 182.
    attacked by Chasdaï Crescas, =4=, 187.
    criticised by Joseph Ibn-Shem Tob, =4=, 235.
    in the Kabbala, =4=, 292.
    Jews averse to, =5=, 420.
    belief in, threatened, =5=, 682.

  =Index expurgatorius=, the, Kabbalistic writings on, =4=, 584.

  =India=, trade with, under Solomon, =1=, 170.
    Uzziah revives the trade with, =1=, 230.
    Jews settle in, =2=, 629-30.
    south Arabian Jews trade with, =3=, 54, 57.
    under the Exilarch’s jurisdiction, =3=, 429.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 435-6.
    desire of the Portuguese to reach, =4=, 367.

  =Infessura=, chancellor of Rome, on Sixtus IV, =4=, 321.

  =Informers=, among the Jewish Christians, =2=, 378-9.
    during Hadrian’s persecutions, =2=, 425-6.
    under Severus, =2=, 464-5.
    against the Jews of Sepphoris, =2=, 570.
    the excommunication of, revived, =3=, 378.
    decree against, by the Mayence synod, =3=, 517.
    against Jews in Spain, =4=, 155-6.

  =Innocent II=, pope, convenes a Church Council in France, =3=, 376.

  =Innocent III=, pope, persecutes Raymond VI of Toulouse, =3=,
        400, 501-2.
    preaches the third crusade, =3=, 405.
    refuses to sanction Philip Augustus’ marriage, =3=, 406.
    baneful influence of, =3=, 496.
    protects the Jews against the crusaders, =3=, 496-7.
    and Pedro II of Aragon, =3=, 497-8.
    reproaches Philip Augustus with disregard of anti-Jewish decrees,
        =3=, 498-9.
    reprimands Alfonso III of Castile for kindly treatment of
        Jews, =3=, 499.
    threatens excommunication for intercourse with Jews, =3=, 499.
    threatens Count Nevers for favoring the Jews, =3=, 500.
    organizes the Albigensian crusade, =3=, 502.
    asked to decree a crusade against the Mahometans, =3=, 507.
    convokes the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 508-9.
    introduces Jew badges, =3=, 511-12.
    death of, =3=, 513.
    anti-Jewish decrees of, enforced in southern France, =3=, 518.
    anti-Jewish decrees of, in Hungary, =3=, 520-1.
    degrades the Jews, =3=, 563.
    Jewish constitution of, re-issued, =3=, 564.
    anti-Jewish decrees of, confirmed, =3=, 611.

  =Innocent IV=, pope, appealed to, in behalf of the Talmud, =3=, 579.
    condemns the blood accusation, =3=, 583-5, 635.
    opposes the forcible baptism of Jews, =4=, 165.

  =Innocent VII=, pope, opposes the expulsion of the Jews, =4=, 346.

  =Innocent VIII=, pope, urges the establishment of the Portuguese
        Inquisition, =4=, 368.

  =Innocents=, the, legend concerning the slaughter of, =2=, 116.

  “=Inquiry= into Light and Truth,” directed against Mendelssohn, =5=,
        363.

  “=Inquiry= into Probability,” essay by Mendelssohn, =5=, 299.

  =Inquisition=, the, established in France, =3=, 542.
    meets opposition in Navarre, =4=, 357.
    established at Benevento, =4=, 385.
    condemns Molcho to the stake, =4=, 506-7.
    at Rome authorized, =4=, 525.
    burns the Talmud and other Hebrew writings in Italy, =4=, 565.
    tries the Marranos of Ancona, =4=, 568, 570.
    permits the printing of the Zohar, =4=, 583.
    persecutes the Bologna Jews, =4=, 590-1.
    in the Netherlands, =4=, 601, 662.
    the Jews of Italy put under, =4=, 654.
    cruelties of, to Jews, recounted by Manasseh ben Israel, =5=, 31-2.

  =Inquisition, the Portuguese=, commission for the establishment
        of, =4=, 365.
    planned by João III, =4=, 490.
    idea of, abandoned, =4=, 490-1.
    plans for, mooted, =4=, 499-500.
    establishment of, opposed, =4=, 500, 505.
    established by Clement VII, =4=, 507.
    inhumanity of, complained of by the Marranos, =4=, 509.
    proceedings of, stopped by Clement VII, =4=, 513.
    power of, abrogated by Clement VII, =4=, 514.
    commission on, =4=, 514-15.
    reconsideration of, ordered by Paul III, =4=, 516.
    arrested by Paul III, =4=, 517.
    sanctioned by Paul III, =4=, 518, 527.
    cruelty of, =4=, 519-20.
    practically abrogated by Paul III, =4=, 520.
    rules of, enforced, =4=, 521.
    crippled, =4=, 522.
    described by Samuel Usque, =4=, 522.
    described by an assembly of cardinals, =4=, 523.
    imprisons Marranos, =4=, 670.

  =Inquisition, the Spanish=, first germs of, =4=, 167.
    deals with Judaizing Marranos, =4=, 256.
    and the Jews, =4=, 308.
    established by Ferdinand and Isabella, =4=, 309.
    views on the establishment of, =4=, 310.
    authorized by Sixtus IV, =4=, 311.
    commission to frame the statute for, =4=, 312.
    statute of, ratified, =4=, 312.
    judges of, =4=, 312.
    established in Seville, =4=, 312-13.
    distrust of, =4=, 313.
    orders the surrender of fugitive Marranos, =4=, 313-14.
    first victims of, =4=, 314.
    publishes the Edict of Grace, =4=, 315.
    heresy defined by, =4=, 315-16.
    first auto-da-fé ordered by, =4=, 317.
    cruelty of, censured by Sixtus IV, =4=, 318-19.
    established in Aragon, =4=, 319, 330.
    opposition to, in Aragon, =4=, 319, 328-9.
    opposition to, in Sicily, =4=, 319-20.
    judges of, cannot be Marranos, =4=, 321.
    rigors of, modified by Sixtus IV, =4=, 322.
    confined at first to the southern part of the country, =4=, 323.
    description of, by Samuel Usque, =4=, 324-5.
    tribunals of, established by Torquemada, =4=, 325.
    in Ferdinand’s hereditary lands, =4=, 325-6.
    code of, by Torquemada, =4=, 326-8.
    the introduction of, resisted by the northern provinces, =4=, 332.
    increase of the victims of, =4=, 332.
    established in Barcelona and Majorca, =4=, 332.
    described by Isaac Arama, =4=, 332.
    in Seville, =4=, 335.
    turned against the enemies of the Jews, =4=, 355.
    victims of, under Torquemada, =4=, 356.
    evil effects of, =4=, 356.
    described by Peter Martyr, =4=, 484.
    Christian victims of, =4=, 485.
    executes Marranos denounced by David Reubeni, =4=, 511.

  =Interest=, the charging of, forbidden by the Council of Narbonne,
        =3=, 518. _See under_ Usury.

  =Intermarriages=, between the heathen and the Israelites, =1=, 56-7.
    between the Judæans and the Samaritans, =1=, 361-2, 383.
    with Ammonites and Moabites prohibited, =1=, 362.
    Ezra on, with the heathen, =1=, 367-9.
    law against, expounded by Ezra, =1=, 380.
    dissolved by Nehemiah, =1=, 386.
    between Jews and Christians forbidden by Constantius, =2=, 567.
    forbidden by the Council of Illiberis, =2=, 620.
    in Gaul, =3=, 36.
    between the Vangioni and Jewish women, =3=, 41.
    in Spain in the sixth century, =3=, 44.
    prohibited by the Council of Toledo and Reccared, =3=, 46.
    between Jews and Arabs, =3=, 56-7.
    supposed to be prevented by Jew badges, =3=, 511.
    in Hungary, =3=, 521.
    in southern Spain, =3=, 527.
    denounced by Moses of Coucy, =3=, 546.
    prohibited by the code of Alfonso X, =3=, 595.
    objected to by the Remonstrants, =4=, 674.
    discussed by the Assembly of Jewish Notables, =5=, 489, 491.
    discussed by the French Synhedrion, =5=, 496-7.
    permitted in Mecklenburg, =5=, 507.

  “=Investigation= into the Evidences of Christianity against
        Unbelievers,” by Caspar Bonnet, =5=, 309.

  “=Investigation= of Religion, The,” by Elias del Medigo, =4=, 293.

  “=Investigation= of Van Swieden’s Work in Reference to the Civil
        Rights of the Jews,” by Friedrichsfeld, =5=, 454.

  =Ionians=, the, buy Judæans as slaves, =1=, 227.

  =Ipsus=, battle of, =1=, 417.

  =Irak=, name for Babylonia among the Arabs, =3=, 89.
    divided in jurisdiction between Sora and Pumbeditha, =3=, 98.
    _See_ Babylonia.

  =Isaac=, ambassador from Simon II to Nahar-Pakod, =2=, 443-4.

  =Isaac=, father of Chasdaï Ibn-Shaprut, patron of men of letters, =3=,
        216, 224.

  =Isaac=, the Jew attached to Charlemagne’s embassy to Haroun
        Alrashid, =3=, 143.

  =Isaac.= _See_ Mar-Isaac.

  =Isaac of Accho=, Kabbalist, at the siege of Accho, =3=, 650.
    suspicious of the authenticity of the Zohar, =4=, 20.

  =Isaac the Blind= (1190-1210), founder of the Kabbala, doctrines and
        disciples of, =3=, 547-8.

  =Isaac the Elder.= _See_ Isaac ben Samuel.

  =Isaac de Leon=, last rabbi of Toledo, disciple of, =4=, 392.

  =Isaac of Mayence=, repentant, apostate, =3=, 303.

  =Isaac of Salzuflen=, refused the right of settlement in Hamburg,
        =4=, 685-6.

  =Isaac of Vienna=, disciple of Judah Sir Leon, =3=, 409.

  =Isaac the Younger.= _See_ Isaac ben Abraham.

  =Isaac ben Joseph=, Palestinian Amora, banished from Judæa, =2=, 567.

  =Isaac ben Abba-Mari=, Talmudist, =3=, 399-400.

  =Isaac ben Abraham= (Rizba, the Younger), Tossafist, =3=, 408.

  =Isaac ben Abraham Akrish= (1489-1575), Spanish exile, wanderings
        of, =4=, 386.

  =Isaac ben Abraham Ibn-Ezra=, accompanies his father on his journeys,
        =3=, 369, 375.
    apostate to Islam, =3=, 442.

  =Isaac ben Abraham Ibn-Latif= (1220-1290), Kabbalist, system
        of, =4=, 3-4.

  =Isaac ben Abraham Troki= (1533-1596), Karaite writer, antagonizes
        Christianity, =4=, 648-9.

  =Isaac ben Asher Halevi= (Riba), of Speyer, Tossafist, =3=, 345.

  =Isaac ben Baruch Albalia= (1035-1094), descent of, =3=, 282.
    at Cordova and Granada, =3=, 283.
    works of, =3=, 283.
    escapes the massacre of Granada, =3=, 283.
    as astronomer, =3=, 283.
    chief of the Jews of Seville, =3=, 283-4.
    hostility of, to Alfassi, =3=, 313.
    descendant of, =3=, 364.

  =Isaac ben Eliakim=, rabbi of Würzburg, martyr, =3=, 354.

  =Isaac ben Jacob Alfassi= (Alkalaï, 1013-1103), Talmudist, disciple
        of Nissim and Chananel, =3=, 282, 285.
    originality of, =3=, 285-6.
    death of, =3=, 309.
    elegies on, =3=, 310, 323.
    makes Lucena famous, =3=, 311.
    hostility of, to Isaac Ibn-Albalia, =3=, 313.
    disciples of, distinguished, =3=, 314.
    successor of, =3=, 315.
    college of, attended by Jehuda Halevi, =3=, 322.
    commentaries of, annotated by Serachya Halevi Gerundi, =3=, 389.
    commentary on the Talmudic work of, by Jonathan of Lünel, =3=, 397.
    method of, followed by Nachmani, =3=, 532.
    Talmudic decisions by, justified by Nachmani, =3=, 532.

  =Isaac ben Jacob Campanton= (1360-1463), Talmudist, =4=, 230.

  =Isaac ben Jacob Halaban=, Tossafist, =3=, 421.

  =Isaac ben Jehuda Ibn-Giat= (1030-1089), poet, philosopher, Talmudist,
        =3=, 282, 284.
    disciple of, =3=, 314.

  =Isaac ben Joseph of Corbeil=, author of a religious manual, =3=, 587.

  =Isaac ben Joseph Caro=, escapes from Portugal, =4=, 378.

  =Isaac ben Joseph Israeli II=, astronomer, =4=, 51.

  =Isaac (I) ben Judah Abrabanel= (1437-1509), descent of, =4=,
        169, 337.
    friend of Yechiel of Pisa, =4=, 286-7.
    collects a ransom for Jewish prisoners, =4=, 287, 339.
    minister of finance to Ferdinand and Isabella, =4=, 336-7, 343.
    character and ability of, =4=, 337.
    financier for Alfonso V of Portugal, =4=, 337-8.
    noble and learned friends of, =4=, 338, 341.
    instructs the Italian Jews how to receive the Portuguese
        embassy, =4=, 340.
    family of, =4=, 340, 360, 383-4, 408-10.
    flees to Toledo, =4=, 341.
    as commentator, =4=, 342-3.
    orthodoxy of, =4=, 342.
    protects the Castilian Jews, =4=, 343-4.
    tries to have the edict of banishment revoked, =4=, 348.
    goes to Naples, =4=, 359.
    commentary by, on the Books of Kings, =4=, 359.
    employed by kings of Naples, =4=, 359, 360.
    in Sicily, =4=, 383-4.
    in Venice, =4=, 385.
    consulted by the Venetian senate, =4=, 385-6.
    old age of, =4=, 386.
    censures the impure language of the German Jews, =4=, 388-9.
    death of, =4=, 409.
    condemns free thinkers, =4=, 479.
    and Messianic expectations, =4=, 482.

  =Isaac ben Leon=, a Granada Jew, supports Balkin, =3=, 258.

  =Isaac ben Meïr= of Rameru, grandson of Rashi, Tossafist, =3=,
        345, 375.

  =Isaac ben Mordecai= (Maëstro Gayo), physician, =3=, 628.

  =Isaac ben Moses.= _See_ Profiat Duran.

  =Isaac ben Moses Ibn-Sakni=, given the title Gaon at Pumbeditha, =3=,
        282, 284-5.
    awakens interest in Talmud studies in Bagdad, =3=, 429.

  =Isaac ben Reuben Albergeloni=, Talmudist and liturgical poet, =3=,
        284.

  =Isaac ben Samuel= (Ri, the Elder), great-grandson of Rashi,
        Tossafist, completes Rashi’s commentary, =3=, 403.
    college of, =3=, 403-4.
    collects the “old Tossafoth,” =3=, 404.
    son of, a martyr, =3=, 404.
    forbids Jews to buy confiscated property, =3=, 406-7.

  =Isaac ben Sheshet Barfat= (Ribash, 1310-1409), Talmudist, =4=,
        145-6, 148.
    disciple of Solomon ben Adret, =4=, 147.
    opposed to the study of science, =4=, 147.
    rigid piety of, =4=, 147, 148, 149.
    rabbi of Saragossa, =4=, 148.
    opposes Chayim ben Gallipapa’s innovations, =4=, 149.
    authority of, =4=, 149-50.
    imprisonment of, =4=, 150.
    appealed to, in a dispute about the French chief rabbinate, =4=,
        150, 153.
    chief rabbi of Tlemçen, =4=, 198-9.
    protects Marrano fugitives, =4=, 199.
    attacked by Simon Duran, =4=, 199.

  =Isaac ben Simeon=, a Spanish Jew, has the Jewish prayers
        compiled, =3=, 178.

  =Isaac ben Suleiman Israeli I= (845-940), physician, medical author,
        and philosopher, =3=, 180-1.
    admiration of, for Saadiah, =3=, 192.
    influence of, on Jewish science in the Fatimide Caliphate, =3=, 211.

  =Isaac ben Todros=, Kabbalist, disciple of, =4=, 74.

  =Isaac Ibn-Albalia.= _See_ Isaac ben Baruch Albalia.

  =Isaac Ibn-G’ikatilia=, disciple of Menachem ben Saruk, defends
        him, =3=, 227.
    poet, =3=, 237.
    teacher of Ibn-Janach, =3=, 261.

  =Isaac Ibn-Sahal=, teacher of Ibn-Janach, =3=, 261.

  =Isaac (Zag) Ibn-Said=, compiler of the Alfonsine Tables, =4=, 367.

  =Isaac Ibn-Sakni.= _See_ Isaac ben Moses Ibn-Sakni.

  =Isaac Ibn-Zachin=, commits suicide to avoid baptism, =4=, 376.

  =Isaac (I) Abrabanel.= _See_ Isaac (I) ben Judah Abrabanel.

  =Isaac (II) Abrabanel=, son of Isaac ben Judah, physician, =4=,
        340, 385.

  =Isaac (III) Abrabanel=, son of Judah Leon, baptized, =4=, 361.

  =Isaac Albalag=, philosopher, mysticism of, =4=, 24.
    accused of heresy, =4=, 342.

  =Isaac Arama=, on the Inquisition, =4=, 332.

  =Isaac Benveniste=, physician, tries to prevent anti-Jewish
        legislation, =3=, 508.
    has delegates sent to the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 509.
    tries to have the decree on Jew badges repealed, =3=, 513.
    honored by Honorius III, =3=, 515.

  =Isaac Bonastruc=, has a tax imposed on Marrano fugitives, =4=, 199.

  =Isaac Cohen Shalal=, Nagid of Egypt, wealth and learning
        of, =4=, 392.
    in Jerusalem, =4=, 398.

  =Isaac Halevi=, of Worms, on Rashi, =3=, 287.

  =Isaac Hamon.= _See_ Hamon, Isaac.

  =Isaac Israeli I.= _See_ Isaac ben Suleiman Israeli I.

  =Isaac Israeli II.= _See_ Isaac ben Joseph Israeli II.

  =Isaac Lurya Levi= (1534-1572), descent and youth of, =4=, 618.
    under the influence of the Zohar, =4=, 618-19.
    evolves a system from the Zohar, =4=, 619-22.
    considers himself the Messiah of the branch of Joseph, =4=,
        622, 624.
    goes to Safet, =4=, 622.
    glorified by Chayim Vital Calabrese, =4=, 623-4.
    disciples of, =4=, 624.
    glorified after death, =4=, 624-5.
    principles of, taught in Italy, =4=, 625.
    harm done by, =4=, 625-7; =5=, 559.
    lays stress on devotion in prayer, =4=, 626.
    the Sabbath in the system of, =4=, 626.
    introduces a second Day of Atonement, =4=, 626.
    influence of, on the Judaism of the seventeenth century, =5=, 51-2.
    disciples of, spread his Kabbala, =5=, 52.
    manuscripts by, =5=, 53-4.
    Kabbala of, accepted by Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 118, 119.
    Messianic speculations in the works of, =5=, 120-1.
    works of, studied by Chelebi, =5=, 125.
    Jerusalem Jews adherents of, =5=, 125.
    writings of, influence Luzzatto, =5=, 236.
    prayer book of, used by the Chassidim, =5=, 386-7.

  =Isaac Nathan ben Kalonymos=, polemic works by, =4=, 234.
    Bible concordance by, =4=, 234-5.

  =Isaac Pulgar=, refutes the charges of Alfonso Burgensis, =4=, 82.
    philosopher, =4=, 91.

  =Isaac Sanjari=, converts Bulan to Judaism, =3=, 140.

  =Isaac Triest=, Jewish advocate before Maximilian I, =4=, 436-7.

  =Isaac Tyrnau=, compiles the customs of various communities, =4=, 134.
    orthodoxy of, =4=, 227.

  =Isaac Zarfati=, urges the German Jews to emigrate to Turkey,
        =4=, 271-3.

  =Isaacs=, the five, =3=, 282.

  =Isabella I=, the Catholic, of Castile, candidate for the
        throne, =4=, 279.
    marriage of, =4=, 280.
    accession of, =4=, 284.
    superstition of, =4=, 310.
    hesitates to sanction the Inquisition for Marranos, =4=, 311.
    attitude of, towards the Marranos, =4=, 311-12.
    annoyed by opposition to the Inquisition, =4=, 320.
    _See also_ Ferdinand and Isabella.

  =Isabella II=, of Castile, daughter of the preceding, to marry Manoel
        of Portugal, =4=, 373.
    hostile to the Jews, =4=, 373, 379-80.
    demands the banishment of the Jews, =4=, 374.
    cruelty of, =4=, 376.
    death of, =4=, 381.

  =Isabelle=, countess of Chartres, persecutes the Jews of Blois, =3=,
        379.

  =Isaiah, the Babylonian=, prophet, describes the suffering of the
        exiles, =1=, 344.
    oratory of, =1=, 344-5.
    consolation given by, =1=, 345-6.
    describes Israel as the apostle to the nations, =1=, 346-7.
    prophesies the fall of Babylon, =1=, 347-8.

  =Isaiah, son of Amoz=, prophet, prophecies of, =1=, 251-3.
    wife of, =1=, 251.
    disciples of, =1=, 253-4, 279. _See_ Anavim, the.
    warns Ahaz against the Assyrian alliance, =1=, 258-9.
    advises neutrality between Egypt and Assyria, =1=, 270.
    reproves Shebna, =1=, 271.
    predicts the doom of Assyria, =1=, 272-3.
    predicts Sennacherib’s failure, =1=, 273, 276.
    exhorts Hezekiah not to surrender, =1=, 275.
    reproves Hezekiah for his reception of Merodach-baladan’s
        embassy, =1=, 279.
    in Immanuel Romi’s work, =4=, 67.

  =Isaiah, the Book of=, reading of, forbidden by Justinian I, =3=, 15.
    commentary on, by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 373.

  =Isaiah ben Abba-Mari=, authorized to ordain disciples in
        France, =4=, 152.
    relieves Jochanan of his office as chief rabbi, =4=, 152, 162.
    appoints his relations to the French rabbinates, =4=, 153.

  =Isaiah Chassid=, Sabbatian leader, =5=, 213, 229.

  =Isambert=, French deputy, charges Ratti Menton with cruelty, =5=,
        650.

  =Isavites=, adherents of Obaiah Abu-Isa ben Ishak, =3=, 125.

  =Iscion=, Jewish printing house in, =4=, 289.

  =Isebab=, teacher of the Law, clerk of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=,
        357.
    charitably inclined, =2=, 405.
    martyr, =2=, 429.

  =Ishbi of Gath=, Philistine champion, =1=, 117.

  =Ishbosheth=, son of Saul, made king of the Ten Tribes by
        Abner, =1=, 108.
    peaceable disposition of, =1=, 109.
    deserted by Abner, =1=, 110.
    mourns Abner, =1=, 112.
    death of, =1=, 112.

  =Ishmael=, ancestor of the northern Arabs, =3=, 60.

  =Ishmael II=, high priest, appointed by Agrippa II, =2=, 246.
    envoy to Nero, =2=, 248.

  =Ishmael of Akbara=, founds a Karaite sect, =3=, 157.

  =Ishmael ben Elisha=, teacher of the Law, opponent of Akiba’s system,
        =2=, 355-6.
    martyr, =2=, 356, 427-8.
    praises Simon ben Nanos, =2=, 358.
    nephew of, =2=, 370.
    deprecates Minæan influence on Judaism, =2=, 378.
    emigrates to Usha, =2=, 405.
    at Lydda, =2=, 423.
    counsels religious laxness as a measure of self-preservation, =2=,
        424.
    Meïr disciple of, =2=, 436.
    method of, in southern Judæa, =2=, 442.

  =Ishmael ben José= (ben Chalafta), teacher of the Law, ill-treated by
        the Samaritans, =2=, 457-8.
    denounces Jewish freebooters to the Romans, =2=, 464-5.
    denounced, =2=, 465.

  =Ishmael Ibn-Nagrela.= _See_ Samuel Halevi Ibn-Nagrela.

  =Ishmael, son of Nethaniah=, protected by Baalis of Ammon, =1=,
        317-18.
    treacherous to Gedaliah, =1=, 321-2.
    kills Gedaliah, =1=, 322.
    takes refuge with the Ammonites, =1=, 322-3.
    end of, unknown, =1=, 325.

  =Ishmael Almansur Ibnul’Kaim=, Fatimide caliph, patron of Dunash ben
        Tamim, =3=, 211.

  =Ishmael Chanina=, rabbi of Bologna, steadfastness of, =4=, 591.

  =Ishmaelites=, the northern Arabians, =3=, 61.

  =Isidore=, archbishop of Seville, presides over the Council of
        Toledo, =3=, 49.
    writes two books against the Jews, =3=, 50.

  =Isidorus=, an Alexandrian actuary, hostile to the Judæans, =2=, 181.
    envoy of the Greek Alexandrians to Caligula, =2=, 186.

  =Isis=, Egyptian goddess, =1=, 9.

  =Islam=, the faith of Mahomet, =3=, 71.
    intolerance of, =3=, 87-8.
    divided on the election of the fourth caliph, =3=, 90.
    among the Chazars, =3=, 139.
    champion of, tries to convert Bulan, =3=, 139-40.
    philosophy of, called Kalâm, =3=, 146-9.
    theology affects the Jews of the East, =3=, 148.
    objections of, to Judaism, answered by Saadiah, =3=, 198.
    conversion to, decreed by Hakim, =3=, 247.
    contest of, with Christianity, =3=, 297.
    characterized by Jehuda Halevi, =3=, 329, 330.
    characterized as idolatry by a Jewish writer, =3=, 453.
    _See also_ Conversions, forced, of Jews to Islam.

  =Isle de France=, the inheritance of the kings of France, =3=, 401.
    Jews banished from, by Philip Augustus, =3=, 402-3.
    the Jews of, not permitted to move to Champagne, =3=, 406.

  =Isny=, Hebrew printing house at, =4=, 474.

  =Ispahan=, Armenian Jews colonized in, =2=, 591.
    called Jehudia, =2=, 591.

  =Ispahan, the Jews of=, persecuted by Firuz, =2=, 629.
    adherents of Obaiah Abu-Isa ben Ishak, =3=, 124.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 434.

  =Ispahanites=, adherents of Obaiah Abu-Isa ben Ishak, =3=, 125.

  =Israel (Ten Tribes), the house of=, renounces allegiance to
        David, =1=, 140.
    revolts from David, =1=, 148-50.
    dislike of, to Judah under Solomon, =1=, 174.

  =Israel (Ten Tribes), the kingdom of=, first indications of, =1=, 109.
    founded by Jeroboam, =1=, 183.
    subjects of, worship at Jerusalem, =1=, 185.
    idolatry introduced into, by Jeroboam, =1=, 185-7.
    loyalty to monotheism in, under Ahab, =1=, 198-9.
    luxury in, =1=, 232.
    immorality in, under Jeroboam II, =1=, 233.
    idolatry in, under Menahem, =1=, 244, 247.
    invaded by Pul, =1=, 246-7.
    power of, under Menahem, =1=, 247.
    invaded by Tiglath-Pileser II, =1=, 259-60.
    inhabitants of, carried to Assyria, =1=, 260.
    debauchery of the nobles of, under Hoshea, =1=, 262-3.
    end of, =1=, 264-5.
    _See also_ Samaria, etc.

  =Israel (Ten Tribes), the kings of=, list of:
    Ahab,
    Ahaziah,
    Baasha,
    Elah,
    Hoshea,
    Jehoahaz,
    Jehoash,
    Jehoram (Joram),
    Jehu,
    Jeroboam I,
    Jeroboam II,
    Menahem,
    Nadab,
    Omri,
    Pekah,
    Pekahiah,
    Shallum,
    Tibni,
    Zechariah,
    Zimri.

  =Israel (whole nation)=, history of, by Baruch, =1=, 336-7.
    _See under_ Israelites, the.

  =Israel, Young=, under Hegel’s influence, =5=, 585.

  =Israel of Enns=, charged with host desecration, =4=, 223.

  =Israel of Kozieniza=, leader of the Chassidim, =5=, 393.

  =Israel of Miedziboz= (Baal Shem, Besht, 1698-1759), founder of the
        new Chassidism, =5=, 375.
    early life of, =5=, 376.
    intense devoutness of, =5=, 376-7.
    visions of, =5=, 377.
    occupation of, =5=, 378.
    miracles done by, =5=, 378.
    followers of, =5=, 378-9.
    successor of, =5=, 379.
    introduces pilgrimages, =5=, 380.
    sayings by, =5=, 393.

  =Israel Bruna= (1400-1480), rabbi of Ratisbon, =4=, 300, 302.
    calumniated by an apostate, =4=, 302, 303.
    misfortunes of, =4=, 302.
    opposition to, in Ratisbon, =4=, 302-3.
    imprisoned, =4=, 303.
    protected by Frederick III, =4=, 303-4.
    released, =4=, 304.

  =Israel Isserlein=, defends Israel Bruna, =4=, 302.
    death of, =4=, 303.

  =Israel Najara=, Damascus poet, =4=, 609.

  =Israel Saruk=, teaches Lurya’s principles in Italy, =4=, 625.

  =Israel Zamosc=, teaches Mendelssohn, =5=, 295.

  =Israel, Abraham.= _See_ Abraham Israel.

  =Israeli I.= _See_ Isaac ben Suleiman Israeli I.

  =Israeli II.= _See_ Isaac ben Joseph Israeli II.

  =Israelites=, the (whole nation), entry of, into the Holy Land,
        =1=, 1, 32.
    claim Canaan, =1=, 4-5.
    in Egypt, =1=, 7-18.
    influenced by the Egyptians, =1=, 8-9, 10.
    Egyptian bondmen, =1=, 11.
    degenerate in slavery, =1=, 11-12.
    liberation of, =1=, 16-18.
    pass through the Red Sea, =1=, 18-19.
    at Mount Sinai, =1=, 20-1.
    influence of the Sinaitic revelation on, =1=, 22.
    worship idols in the desert, =1=, 23-4.
    wanderings of, in the desert, =1=, 25-31.
    elect judges in the desert, =1=, 26.
    wars of, in the desert, =1=, 26-9.
    opposed by the Idumæans, =1=, 27.
    defeat Sihon, =1=, 27.
    practice idolatry at Baal-Peor, =1=, 28.
    cross the Jordan, =1=, 31.
    defeated at Ai, =1=, 33.
    defeat the five kings of Canaan, =1=, 34-5.
    conquest of Canaan by, =1=, 39-40.
    and the heathen practices of the Canaanites, =1=, 51, 57-9.
    relation of, to the neighboring nations, =1=, 53-9.
    intermarriages of, with the heathen, =1=, 56-7.
    oppressed by the Moabites, =1=, 60.
    oppressed by the Philistines, =1=, 61.
    oppressed by Jabin, =1=, 61.
    oppressed by the Midianites, =1=, 61-3.
    attacked by the Philistines, =1=, 70-2.
    idolatry of, under Samuel, =1=, 75.
    warfare of, with the Philistines and Ammonites, =1=, 80.
    demand a king, =1=, 80.
    choose a king, =1=, 82-3.
    condition of, at the beginning of Saul’s reign, =1=, 84.
    defeat the Philistines at Michmash, =1=, 86-9.
    defeat the Amalekites, =1=, 91-2.
    wage war with Achish, =1=, 102-4.
    divided into two kingdoms, =1=, 109.
    David king of, =1=, 112.
    wage war with the Philistines, =1=, 115-18.
    champions of, in the Philistine war, =1=, 117.
    at war with Moabites, Ammonites, etc., =1=, 125-9.
    enlargement of the territory of, =1=, 129-30.
    _See also_ Jews, the; Judæans, the.

  =Israelites, the (whole nation), the kings of=, list of:
    David,
    Rehoboam,
    Saul,
    Solomon.

  “=Israelitische Allianz=,” founders and object of, =5=, 703.

  “=Israel’s Hope=,” by Manasseh ben Israel, =5=, 31-2, 33.

  =Issachar, the tribe of=, acquires pasture land in the north,
        =1=, 36-7.
    relation of, to the Phœnicians, =1=, 53.

  =Isserlein, Israel.= _See_ Israel Isserlein.

  =Isserles.= _See_ Moses ben Israel Isserles.

  =Issor=, a proselyte of Machuza, =2=, 587-8.

  =Italy=, loses its importance, =2=, 560.
    a province of the Byzantine Empire, =3=, 32.
    under the Lombards, =3=, 33.
    Talmud scholars of, in the tenth century, =3=, 212.
    French exiles settle in, =4=, 177.
    Austrian exiles settle in, =4=, 224.
    tolerance in, in the fifteenth century, =4=, 285.
    German rabbis in, hostile to philosophy, =4=, 293.
    Marranos flee to, =4=, 318, 485.
    Spanish exiles go to, =4=, 352, 407-10.
    ships of, carry Spanish exiles, =4=, 358.
    Spanish spoken in, by the exiles, =4=, 387.
    Spanish exiles leaders in, =4=, 389.
    professorships for Hebrew instituted in, =4=, 471.
    Jewish fugitives in, gather in national groups, =4=, 478.
    the Kabbala in, =4=, 481; =5=, 488.
    liberty of, defended by Clement VII, =4=, 492.
    Polish Jewish fugitives in, =5=, 16.
    rabbis of, Poles, =5=, 206.
    the Sabbatian movement in, =5=, 209.
    congregations of, present addresses to the Synhedrion, =5=, 496.
    rabbis of, oppose the Reform movement, =5=, 571.
    attitude of, towards the Damascus affair, =5=, 650.
    _See also under_ Rome.

  =Italy, the Jews of=, in the fifth and sixth centuries, =3=, 27-34.
    governed by the decrees of Theodosius I, =3=, 29-30.
    and Pope Gelasius, =3=, 29.
    under Theodoric, =3=, 29-30.
    Cassiodorus on, =3=, 31.
    support Theodatus, =3=, 31-2.
    under the Byzantine rule, =3=, 32.
    under the Lombards, =3=, 33.
    under Pope Gregory I, =3=, 33-4.
    devoted to the Agada in the ninth century, =3=, 160.
    banishment of, decreed by Louis II, =3=, 174.
    yield precedence to the Jews of Spain, =3=, 236.
    uncultured in the eleventh century, =3=, 290.
    political position of, favorable, =3=, 290.
    culture of, before Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 369.
    taught the importance of Hebrew grammar, =3=, 371.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 421-4.
    not interested in Talmud study, =3=, 421.
    favorable condition of, under Alexander III, =3=, 421.
    speak four languages, =3=, 423.
    influence of Abraham Ibn-Ezra on, =3=, 423.
    address Solomon ben Adret for religious decisions, =3=, 620.
    in the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 624.
    refuse to support Solomon Petit, =3=, 627-8.
    political condition of, in the thirteenth century, =3=, 628.
    influenced by Maimonides’ philosophical works, =3=, 629-30.
    culture of, in the fourteenth century, =4=, 59.
    Maimonides’ works translated for, =4=, 60.
    distress of, during Vincent Ferrer’s crusade, =4=, 218.
    delegates of, wait on Martin V, =4=, 219.
    poetry of, in the fifteenth century, =4=, 230.
    Eugenius IV’s bull against, =4=, 251.
    Nicholas V’s bull against, =4=, 253.
    Nicholas V abolishes the privileges of, =4=, 254.
    privileges of, as financiers, =4=, 286.
    as physicians, =4=, 287.
    on friendly terms with Christians, =4=, 287-8.
    culture of, in the fifteenth century, =4=, 289.
    as printers, =4=, 289.
    participate in the renaissance, =4=, 289, 290.
    influence of German immigrants on, =4=, 294.
    the clergy arouses ill-will against, =4=, 295-6.
    Bernardinus of Feltre preaches against, =4=, 296.
    instructed how to receive the Portuguese embassy, =4=, 340.
    popes friendly to, =4=, 407.
    joined by numerous exiles, =4=, 408.
    ruled over by the immigrants, =4=, 408.
    adherents of Asher Lämmlein, =4=, 485.
    submit questions to the Polish Talmudists, =4=, 639.
    suffer from the Catholic reaction, =4=, 653-5.
    under the jurisdiction of the Inquisition, =4=, 654.
    conversion of, planned by Gregory XIII, =4=, 654-5.
    bribe the censors, =4=, 659.
    poor, =5=, 205.
    emancipated by the French, =5=, 459.
    send deputies to the Assembly of Notables, =5=, 482, 488.
    emancipation of, nullified by Pius VII, =5=, 518.
    address the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, =5=, 527.
    influenced by the moderate Reform movement, =5=, 582-3.
    _See also under_ Franks, the, the empire of, the Jews of; Rome,
        the Jews of.

  =Italy, Lower=, the Jews of, protected by Gregory I, =3=, 33.

  =Italy, northern=, the Jews of, number of, =3=, 423-4.

  =Italy, southern, the Jews of=, in the twelfth century, =3=, 421-4.
    driven away by the Catholic reaction, =4=, 653.

  =Itil= (Atel). _See_ Volga, the.

  =Itil= (Atel), capital of the Chazars, captured, =3=, 222.

  =Ittai=, commander of mercenary troops under David, =1=, 137.
    faithful to David in the war with Absalom, =1=, 141.
    commander at Mahanaim, =1=, 144.

  =Ittur=, Talmudic work by Isaac ben Abba-Mari, =3=, 400.

  =Ituræa=, conquest of, planned by John Hyrcanus, =2=, 13.

  =Ituræans=, the, converted by Aristobulus I, =2=, 37.

  =Itzig, Daniel=, connected by marriage with Friedländer, =5=, 397.
    daughter of, =5=, 413.
    representative of the Berlin Jewish community, =5=, 415.

  =Itzig, Fanny=, holds a salon in Vienna, =5=, 413-14.

  =Itzig, Itzig Daniel=, director of the Berlin Free School, =5=, 416.

  =Ivan IV=, of Russia, candidate for the Polish throne, =4=, 603.
    refuses to permit Jews to trade in Russia, =4=, 633.

  =Izates=, prince of Adiabene, converted to Judaism, =2=, 216.
    accession of, =2=, 216-17.
    arbitrator in Parthia, =2=, 217.
    war of, with Abia of Arabia, =2=, 217-18.
    sons of, study Hebrew, =2=, 218.
    death of, =2=, 218-19.
    relatives of, aid Judæa against Rome, =2=, 264.


  =J=

  =Jaabez, Joseph.= _See_ Joseph Jaabez.

  =Jaazer=, fortress taken by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 474.

  =Jabbok=, the, river, description of, =1=, 46.

  =Jabesh-Gilead=, besieged by the Ammonites, =1=, 89-90.
    the inhabitants of, bury Saul and Jonathan, =1=, 104, 107.

  =Jabez.= _See_ Emden, Jacob.

  =Jabin=, Canaanite king, oppresses the Israelites, =1=, 61.

  =Jabin=, king of Hazor, defeated by Joshua, =1=, 37.

  =Jabne.= _See_ Jamnia.

  =Jabustrissa=, the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.

  =Jacob=, another name for the tribe of Judah, =1=, 76.

  =Jacob=, brother of Jesus. _See_ James.

  =Jacob=, the patriarch, buys land near Shechem, =1=, 4.

  =Jacob=, Syrian priest, incites a crusade against the Damascus
        Jews, =5=, 662.

  =Jacob of Belzyce=, controversialist, =4=, 648.

  =Jacob of Kephar Samia=, a Jewish Christian, =2=, 370.

  =Jacob of London=, Talmudist, chief rabbi of England, =3=, 504.

  =Jacob the Minæan=, physician, defends the dogma of the Ascension,
        =2=, 539.

  =Jacob of Navarre=, shelters a Marrano, =4=, 357-8.

  =Jacob of Orleans=, Tossafist, founds a school in London, =3=, 409.
    commits suicide, =3=, 411.

  =Jacob de Perpignan=, permitted to remain in Bordeaux, =5=, 344.

  =Jacob of Segovia=, Kabbalist, =4=, 2.

  =Jacob ben Abba Mari ben Simon Anatoli= (1200-1250), Maimunist, at
        the court of Frederick II, =3=, 566.
    as a translator, =3=, 566, 567.
    public discourses of, =3=, 566.
    influences Italian Jewish culture, =3=, 629.
    attacked by the anti-Maimunists, =4=, 32, 39, 40, 41.

  =Jacob ben Asheri= (Baal ha-Turim, 1280-1340), Talmudist, piety of,
        =4=, 87-8.
    poverty and disinterestedness of, =4=, 88.
    religious code of, =4=, 88-90, 537, 539.
    _See also_ Turim.

  =Jacob ben Eleazar=, messenger to the Chazars, =3=, 220.

  =Jacob ben Machir Tibbon= (Profiat, 1236-1312), scientist,
        attainments of, =4=, 30-1.
    chief of the enlightened party, =4=, 31.
    appeals to Solomon ben Adret, =4=, 33.
    excommunicates the opponents of science, =4=, 40-2.

  =Jacob ben Meshullam=, the Nazarite, first promoter of the
        Kabbala, =3=, 396.

  =Jacob ben Moses Mölin Halevi= (Maharil, 1365-1427), compiles the
        customs of various communities, =4=, 135.
    orders a fast during the Hussite wars, =4=, 225-6.
    rigid orthodoxy of, =4=, 227.

  =Jacob ben Nathaniel Ibn-Alfayumi=, Talmudist of Yemen, =3=, 436.
    appeals to Maimonides, =3=, 462, 464.

  =Jacob ben Natronaï=, Gaon of Sora, =3=, 184, 185, 186.

  =Jacob ben Nissim Ibn-Shahin=, disciple of Chushiel, Talmudist, =3=,
        211.
    elicits Sherira’s “Letter,” =3=, 233.
    disciple of, =3=, 252.

  =Jacob ben Samuel=, disciple of Saadiah, defends him, =3=, 204.
    Karaite reply to, =3=, 204-5, 206.

  =Jacob ben Sheshet Gerundi= (1243-1246), Kabbalist, =3=, 556.

  =Jacob ben Sosa=, Idumæan leader, helps the Zealots, =2=, 295, 301.

  =Jacob ben Yechiel Loans=, physician to Emperor Frederick
        III, =4=, 413.
    favored by Maximilian I, =4=, 414.
    teacher of Reuchlin, =4=, 433.

  =Jacob Ibn-Chabib=, scholar, =4=, 405.

  =Jacob Ibn-Ezra=, father of the poet Moses, official under
        Habus, =3=, 319.

  =Jacob Ibn-Jau=, supports Joseph Ibn-Abitur, =3=, 238, 240.
    chief judge of the Andalusian Jews, =3=, 239.
    loses his power, =3=, 240-1.
    death of, =3=, 241.

  =Jacob Ibn-Nuñez=, physician to Henry IV of Castile, =4=, 275.

  =Jacob, son of Judas the Galilean=, insurrectionary leader,
        crucified, =2=, 199.

  =Jacob, son of Zebedee=, disciple of Jesus, =2=, 153.

  =Jacob Abbassi=, translator of Maimonides’ Mishna commentary, =4=,
        60.

  =Jacob Abi-Ayub=, physician, executed on a charge of murder, =4=, 553.

  =Jacob Almansur=, Almohade leader, at war with Alfonso VIII,
        =3=, 386-7.

  =Jacob Berab= (1474-1541), Spanish exile, rabbi of Fez, =4=, 390.
    in Egypt, =4=, 393.
    Talmudist, =4=, 418.
    tries to re-introduce the Semichah, =4=, 531-2.
    and Levi ben Chabib, =4=, 533-4, 536.
    reason adduced by, for the revival of ordination, =4=, 535.
    forced to leave Palestine, =4=, 535.
    ordains four Talmudists, =4=, 535-6.
    death of, =4=, 536.

  =Jacob Emden.= _See_ Emden, Jacob.

  =Jacob Jehuda Leon.= _See_ Leon.

  =Jacob Joshua Falk.= _See_ Falk, Jacob Joshua.

  =Jacob Mantin.= _See_ Mantin, Jacob.

  =Jacob Pascate=, supposed well poisoner, =4=, 102.

  =Jacob Perpignano= (1170), head of the Marseilles Jewish community,
        =3=, 400.

  =Jacob Polak= (1460-1530), Talmudist, alleged originator of the
        Pilpul, =4=, 418.

  =Jacob Querido=, supposed son of Sabbataï Zevi, reverenced by the
        Sabbatians, =5=, 209.
    declared the Messiah, =5=, 210.
    profligacy of, =5=, 210.
    accepts Islam, =5=, 211.
    death of, =5=, 211.
    son of, =5=, 211.
    prayers addressed to, =5=, 274.

  =Jacob Tam= of Rameru (1100-1171), Tossafist, respected by the king
        of France, =3=, 343.
    grandson of Rashi, =3=, 345.
    attacked by crusaders, =3=, 355.
    poem by, on Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 373, 376.
    character and life of, =3=, 375-6.
    as a grammarian, =3=, 376.
    presides over rabbinical synods, =3=, 376-8.
    orders mourning for the Jews of Blois, =3=, 380-1.
    death of, =3=, 381.
    disciples of, in England, =3=, 409.
    ancestor of the Ibn-Yachya family, =4=, 609.

  =Jacob Tus=, translates the Pentateuch into Persian, =4=, 401.

  =Jacob Weil.= _See_ Weil, Jacob.

  =Jacobacio=, cardinal, on the commission to examine Paul III’s
        Inquisition bull, =4=, 520.

  =Jacobi=, accuses Lessing of Spinozism, =5=, 372.

  =Jacobson, Israel= (1769-1828), procures the abolition of the poll-tax
        in Brunswick Lüneburg, =5=, 467.
    character of, =5=, 500-1.
    commemorates the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 501.
    effects consistorial organization in Westphalia, =5=, 501-2.
    president of the consistory, =5=, 501, 502.
    foolhardiness of, =5=, 502.
    desires reforms, =5=, 502.
    influence of Heine on, =5=, 546.
    the reforms of, =5=, 561-2.
    private synagogue of, in Berlin, =5=, 562-3.
    delivers German sermons, =5=, 563.
    party of, =5=, 568.
    aids the Hamburg Temple, =5=, 568.
    enlists the aid of Libermann, =5=, 568, 571.
    disciples of the school of, =5=, 578, 595.
    and Mannheimer, =5=, 580.
    advises the Society for Culture, =5=, 583.

  =Jacoby, Joel=, author of the “Plaints of a Jew,” =5=, 631, 632.

  =Jacopo, Flavio=, poet, =4=, 610.

  =Jaddua=, high priest, and Alexander the Great, =1=, 413.

  =Jael=, Kenite woman, murders Sisera, =1=, 61.

  =Jaen=, home of Chasdaï Ibn-Shaprut’s ancestors, =3=, 216.
    the Jews of, captives, =4=, 126.
    Inquisition tribunals in, =4=, 325.
    the Marranos of, flee, =4=, 351.

  =Jafa, Mordecai.= _See_ Mordecai Jafa.

  =Jaffa, Marcus Schlesinger=, only Jew permitted in Venice, =5=, 172.

  =Jaffa.= _See_ Joppa.

  =Jager, Johann.= _See_ Rubianus, Crotus.

  =Jahaz=, the Israelites victorious at, =1=, 27.

  =Jakim.= _See_ Alcimus.

  =James= (Jacob), brother of Jesus, =2=, 148.
    leader of the Law-abiding Nazarenes, =2=, 169, 222.
    rebukes Peter, =2=, 231.

  =Jamnia= (Jabne), conquered by Uzziah, =1=, 231.
    occupied by Gorgias, =1=, 476.
    revenue from, given to Salome, =2=, 120.
    possession of the Roman emperors, =2=, 324.
    school established at, =2=, 324-5, 334-5.
    Simon II at, =2=, 434.

  =Jamnia, the Synhedrion of.= _See_ Synhedrion, the, of Jamnia.

  =Jampol=, the blood accusation at, =5=, 279.

  =Jannaï=, disciple of Judah I, on the relation between the Jews and
        Romans, =2=, 469.
    permits the cultivation of the land in the Sabbatical year, =2=,
        469.
    adds supplements to the Mishna, =2=, 470.

  =Jannaï=, neo-Hebraic poet, introduces rhyme, =3=, 116.
    poems of, versified Agadas, =3=, 116.
    disciple of, =3=, 116.

  =Janow, Hirsch= (1750-1785), rabbi of Posen, opposes Mendelssohn’s
        Pentateuch translation, =5=, 330.
    acuteness and godliness of, =5=, 330-1.

  =Japha= (Japhia), taken by Vespasian, =2=, 287.

  =Japhet ben Elia=, Talmudist, =3=, 427.

  =Jarmuk=, the, description of, =1=, 46.

  =Jarmuth=, king of, defeated by Joshua, =1=, 34-5.

  =Jaroslav, Aaron=, assists in Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation,
        =5=, 334.

  =Jaroslaw=, meeting place of the Polish Talmudists, =4=, 640,
        644; =5=, 3.

  =Jason=, brother and son of high priests, Hellenist, =1=, 435.
    representative of Onias III, =1=, 439.
    buys the high priesthood, =1=, 444.
    introduces games and gymnasia into Judæa, =1=, 444-6.
    sends ambassadors to Olympian games, =1=, 446.
    deposed by Antiochus IV, =1=, 446-7.
    takes refuge with Aretas, =1=, 447.
    enters Jerusalem with troops, =1=, 451.
    death of, =1=, 480-1.

  =Jason=, son of Eleazar, Judæan envoy to Rome, =1=, 486.

  =Jatape=, daughter of Samsigeramus, wife of Aristobulus, =2=, 195.

  =Jayme I=, of Aragon, recommends Isaac Benveniste to the pope, =3=,
        515.
    exhorted not to employ Jews as diplomats, =3=, 515.
    employs a Jewish physician, =3=, 536.
    considers the Jews “servi cameræ,” =3=, 596-7.
    under the influence of Raymond de Penyaforte, =3=, 597; =4=, 77.
    invites Nachmani to a disputation, =3=, 598.
    expresses admiration for Nachmani, =3=, 601.
    appoints censors for the Talmud, =3=, 602-3.
    tries Nachmani on the charge of blasphemy, =3=, 604.
    reprimanded by Clement IV, =3=, 605.

  =Jean d’Acre.= _See_ Accho.

  =Jean de Vendières.= _See_ John of Gorze.

  =Jebilé=, the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 426.

  =Jebirol.= _See_ Solomon Ibn-Gebirol.

  =Jebus.= _See_ Jerusalem.

  =Jebusites=, the, subdivision of the Canaanites, =1=, 3.
    compact of, with Judah, =1=, 38.
    hold territory in the center of Palestine, =1=, 51.
    barrier between Ephraim and Judah, =1=, 77.
    subdued by David, =1=, 113-14.
    occupy Mount Moriah, =1=, 119.
    suffer under David, =1=, 131.
    declared bondmen by Solomon, =1=, 163.

  =Jeconiah.= _See_ Jehoiachin.

  =Jedidiah=, name of Solomon, =1=, 133.

  =Jeduthun=, psalmist, =1=, 79, 120-1.

  =Jehoahaz=, son of Jehu, king of Israel, at war with Syria, =1=, 221.

  =Jehoahaz= (Shallum), son of Josiah, king of Judah, deposed by Necho,
        =1=, 298-9.

  =Jehoash=, king of Judah. _See_ Joash.

  =Jehoash= (Joash), son of Jehoahaz, king of Israel, defeats Ben-hadad
        III, =1=, 221-2.
    shows respect for the Law, =1=, 223.
    reinstates the Shunamite, =1=, 223-4.
    takes Amaziah of Judah prisoner, =1=, 224-5.
    ransacks Jerusalem, =1=, 225.
    death of, =1=, 225.

  =Jehoiachin= (Jeconiah, Coniah), son of Jehoiakim, king of Judah,
        opposes Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 306, 307.
    practices idolatry, =1=, 306.
    exiled to Babylonia, =1=, 307.
    distinguished by Evil-Merodach, =1=, 331.
    son of, =1=, 342.
    grandson of, =1=, 351.

  =Jehoiada=, high priest, loyal to the house of David, =1=, 214, 215.
    anoints Joash king, =1=, 215-16.
    removes Baal-worship from Jerusalem, =1=, 216-17.
    raises the position of the high priest, =1=, 219-20.
    death of, =1=, 220.

  =Jehoiakim= (Eliakim), son of Josiah, king of Judah, pays tribute to
        Necho, =1=, 299.
    idolatry and immorality under, =1=, 299-300.
    slays Uriah, the prophet, =1=, 301.
    refuses allegiance to Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 304.
    orders Jeremiah to be killed, =1=, 305.
    vassal of Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 306.
    rebels against Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 306.
    death of, =1=, 307.

  =Jehoiakim=, high priest, leader of the Judæan community after the
        exile, =1=, 360, 362.

  =Jehoram= (Joram), son of Ahab, king of Israel, accession
        of, =1=, 207.
    at war with Moab, =1=, 208-9.
    at war with Hazael of Damascus, =1=, 210.
    killed by Jehu, =1=, 210-11.

  =Jehoram=, son of Jehoshaphat. _See_ Joram.

  =Jehoshaphat=, king of Judah, ally of Ahab, =1=, 206.
    at war with Ben-hadad II, =1=, 206.
    at war with Mesa, =1=, 209.
    death of, =1=, 209.

  =Jehoshebah=, daughter of Joram of Judah, saves Joash from
        Athaliah, =1=, 213.
    wife of Jehoiada, raises Joash in the Temple, =1=, 215-16.

  =Jehozabad=, a noble of Judah, kills Joash, =1=, 221.
    anointed, =1=, 210.
    kills Jehoram of Israel and Ahab’s other descendants, =1=, 211-12.
    homage paid to, =1=, 212.
    exterminates Baal-worship in Israel, =1=, 212.
    loses territory, =1=, 220-1.
    favorite character with the Puritans, =5=, 26.

  =Jehuda bar Joseph Ibn-Alfachar=, bears the title prince, =3=, 385.
    physician to Ferdinand III of Castile, =3=, 537.
    anti-Maimunist, =3=, 540-1.
    censured, =3=, 544.

  =Jehuda ben Asher I= (1284-1349), Talmudist, piety of, =4=, 87-8.
    rabbi of Toledo, authority of, =4=, 90.
    disciple and successor of, =4=, 145.

  =Jehuda ben Asher II=, great-grandson of Asheri, martyr, =4=, 170.

  =Jehuda ben David Melun=, at the disputation with Donin, =3=,
        576, 578.

  =Jehuda ben Elia Hadassi=, Karaite writer, =3=, 362-3.

  =Jehuda ben Isaac ben Sabbataï=, satirist, =3=, 559-60.

  =Jehuda ben Isaac Ibn-Wakar=, treasurer to the regent of Castile, =4=,
        52.
    piety and severity of, =4=, 53.

  =Jehuda ben Meïr= (Leon, Leontin), founder of the scientific study of
        the Talmud, =3=, 242.
    teacher of Gershom ben Jehuda, =3=, 242, 243.

  =Jehuda ben Moses ben Daniel= (Leone Romano, 1292), Italian Jewish
        scholar, =4=, 60, 68-9.
    teacher of Robert of Naples, =4=, 68.
    as translator, =4=, 69.

  =Jehuda ben Nathan= (Riban), son-in-law of Rashi, Tossafist, =3=, 345.

  =Jehuda ben Shamua=, petitions Turnus Rufus, =2=, 432.

  =Jehuda ben Samuel Halevi.= _See_ Jehuda Halevi.

  =Jehuda ben Solomon Cohen Ibn-Matka= (1247), Jewish scholar in
        correspondence with Frederick II, =3=, 565-6.

  =Jehuda Ibn-Abbas=, poet, =3=, 318, 426.
    the son of, =3=, 442.

  =Jehuda Ibn-Balam= (1070-1100), grammarian, =3=, 290.

  =Jehuda Ibn-Daud= (Ibn-Zachariah Yachya Chayuj), defends Menachem ben
        Saruk, =3=, 227.
    recognizes the triliteral root in Hebrew, =3=, 237.
    teacher of Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 255.
    compared with Ibn-Janach, =3=, 262.
    grammatical work of, translated into Hebrew, =3=, 371.

  =Jehuda Ibn-Ezra=, commander of Calatrava, protects the Jews against
        the Almohades, =3=, 361-2.
    steward of the imperial palace, =3=, 362.
    persecutes the Karaites, =3=, 362-3.

  =Jehuda Alcharisi=, on Abu Ayub, =3=, 312.
    on the Jews of Barcelona, =3=, 387-8.
    on Samuel ben Abraham Ibn-Chasdaï Halevi, =3=, 388.
    translates Maimonides’ Mishna commentary, =3=, 492; =4=, 60.
    satirist, =3=, 559.
    in Immanuel Romi’s work, =4=, 67.

  =Jehuda Halevi= (Abulhassan Jehuda ben Samuel Halevi, 1086-1142),
        writes an elegy on Isaac Alfassi, =3=, 310, 323.
    elegy by, on Solomon Ibn-Farussal, =3=, 313.
    eulogizes Joseph ben Meïr Ibn-Migash, =3=, 315, 322, 323.
    on Moses Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 321.
    importance of, as a poet, =3=, 321-2; =4=, 67; =5=, 112.
    character of, =3=, 322.
    student at Lucena, =3=, 322.
    early poems of, =3=, 322.
    friendship of, with Moses Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 323.
    love poems by, =3=, 323.
    attainments and occupations of, =3=, 323-4.
    theory of, on poetry, =3=, 324.
    nature descriptions by, =3=, 325.
    religious poems by, =3=, 325.
    the national poetry of, =3=, 325-6, 327-8.
    religious philosophical system of, =3=, 326-7, 330-6.
    philosophical work by, =3=, 327-36.
    on philosophy, Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, =3=, 328-31.
    characterizes Judaism in detail, =3=, 331-6.
    compares Talmudic Judaism and Karaism, =3=, 334.
    view of, on Israel’s suffering, =3=, 335-6.
    view of, on the Holy Land, =3=, 336-7.
    longing of, for the Holy Land, =3=, 338.
    sets out for Palestine, =3=, 338-9.
    journey of, through Spain, =3=, 339.
    at sea, =3=, 339.
    at Alexandria, =3=, 339-40.
    at Cairo, =3=, 340-1.
    in Jerusalem, =3=, 342.
    at Tyre and Damascus, =3=, 342.
    death and epitaph of, =3=, 342.
    and Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 367.
    philosophical work of, translated into Hebrew, =3=, 397.
    in Immanuel Romi’s work, =4=, 67.
    compared with Luzzatto, =5=, 233-4.
    glorified by Heine, =5=, 555.
    time of, described by Samuel David Luzzatto, =5=, 625.

  =Jehuda Leb Krysa.= _See_ Krysa.

  =Jehuda.= _See also under_ Judah; Judas.

  =Jehudaï.= _See_ Judah the Blind.

  =Jehudia=, Ispahan, =2=, 591.

  =Jelal Addaulah=, caliph of Bagdad, executes the last Gaon and
        Exilarch, =3=, 254.

  =Jena=, the theological faculty of, permits Jews to live in
        Hamburg, =4=, 687.
    battle of, =5=, 495.

  =Jenghis-Khan=, the Jews of Germany accused of aiding, =3=, 580-1.

  =Jephet Ibn-Ali Halevi= (950-990), Karaite, controversialist,
        =3=, 205-6.
    works, ability, and style of, =3=, 206.
    poetry of, =3=, 223.

  =Jephthah=, judge, defeats the Ammonites, =1=, 64-5.
    humbles the Ephraimites, =1=, 65.
    daughter of, =1=, 66.

  =Jeremiah=, Palestinian Amora, =2=, 560.

  =Jeremiah= (645 or 640-580 or 570), prophet, character of, =1=,
        289-90.
    style of the prophecies of, =1=, 290-1.
    the first prophecy by, =1=, 291.
    announces universal ruin, =1=, 296.
    lamentation by, for Josiah, =1=, 297.
    prophecies of, under Jehoiakim, =1=, 301.
    danger of, =1=, 302.
    saved by Ahikam, =1=, 303.
    has his prophecy read in the Temple, =1=, 304-5.
    ordered to be killed, =1=, 305.
    protected by the princes, =1=, 306.
    counsels submission to Babylonian rule, =1=, 310.
    rôle of, during the siege, =1=, 311-12.
    reproaches Zedekiah with perjury, =1=, 312.
    imprisoned, =1=, 312-13.
    taken captive by the Chaldæans, =1=, 314.
    lamentations of, over Jerusalem, =1=, 316.
    disciple of, =1=, 319.
    considerately treated by Nebuzaradan, =1=, 319-20.
    joins Gedaliah at Mizpah, =1=, 320.
    taken captive by Ishmael, =1=, 322.
    rescued, =1=, 323.
    advises against emigration to Egypt, =1=, 324.
    goes to Egypt, =1=, 325.
    rebukes the Egyptian Judæans for idolatry, =1=, 326-7.
    end of, =1=, 327-8.
    writings of, studied by the Babylonian exiles, =1=, 336.
    on the conduct of Jews in foreign lands, =2=, 520.

  =Jericho=, taken by Joshua, =1=, 32, 33.
    David passes, when fleeing from Absalom, =1=, 142.
    fortified by Hiel, =1=, 201.
    an association of prophets at, =1=, 205, 234.
    visited by Elijah, =1=, 208.
    Hyrcanus II defeated at, =2=, 58.
    a Synhedrion established at, =2=, 71.
    Aristobulus (III) murdered at, =2=, 92.
    district of, given to Cleopatra, =2=, 93.
    Herod attempts suicide in, =2=, 116.
    palace at, burnt, =2=, 125.
    some Benu-Nadhir settle in, =3=, 79.

  =Jeroboam I=, employed by Solomon as superintendent of buildings, =1=,
        174.
    incites rebellion against Solomon, =1=, 175-6.
    flees to Egypt, =1=, 176.
    returns to Palestine, =1=, 180.
    leader of the Shechemite rebellion, =1=, 180-2.
    chosen king by the Ephraimites, =1=, 182-3.
    allied with Shishak, =1=, 184.
    fortifies Israelitish towns, =1=, 185.
    introduces calf-worship, =1=, 185-7.
    rebuked by Ahijah, =1=, 188.
    death of, =1=, 189.
    end of the house of, =1=, 189.

  =Jeroboam II=, king of Israel, at war with the Aramæans, =1=, 225.
    in friendly relations with Uzziah, =1=, 231, 232.
    conquests and luxuriousness of, =1=, 232.
    immorality and idolatry under, =1=, 233-4.
    death of, =1=, 234.

  =Jerome= (Hieronymus, 331-420), Church Father, taught by Jewish
        teachers, =2=, 623-4.
    translates the Scriptures into Latin, =2=, 625.
    hates the Jews, =2=, 625; =4=, 552.
    on the Talmud, =3=, 577.
    on a supposed Jewish formula of imprecation, =4=, 83.
    exegetical works of, used by Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 342.
    pattern of Reuchlin, =4=, 433, 435.

  =Jerome Bonaparte=, king of Westphalia, and the emancipation of the
        Jews, =5=, 500, 501.
    reprimands Jacobson, =5=, 562.

  =Jerubbaal.= _See_ Gideon.

  =Jerusalem=, the site of, occupied by the Jebusites, =1=, 3.
    king of, defeated by Joshua, =1=, 34-5.
    physical features of, =1=, 114-15.
    becomes the royal residence, =1=, 114.
    fortified and extended, =1=, 118-19.
    center of religious life, =1=, 119-20.
    prosperity and importance of, under Solomon, =1=, 168-9.
    religious center for the northern tribes, =1=, 185.
    fortified by Rehoboam, =1=, 185.
    Baal-worship at, under Athaliah, =1=, 212.
    Jehoiada ends Baal-worship in, =1=, 216-17.
    the first conquest of, =1=, 225.
    deprived of fortifications, by Jehoash, =1=, 226.
    fortified by Uzziah, =1=, 231.
    fortified by Jotham, =1=, 249.
    besieged by Rezin and Pekah, =1=, 258, 259.
    fortified against Sennacherib, =1=, 271.
    celebration of the Passover at, under Josiah, =1=, 295.
    the nation gathers in, to pray for help against Nebuchadnezzar, =1=,
        304.
    besieged by generals of Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 307.
    fortified by Zedekiah, =1=, 311.
    besieged by Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 311-12.
    siege of, raised, =1=, 312.
    siege of, resumed, =1=, 313.
    taken by the Chaldæans, =1=, 313-14.
    destroyed by Nebuzaradan, =1=, 315.
    destruction of, mourned by the Babylonian Jews, =1=, 337-8.
    return of exiles to, under Zerubbabel, =1=, 354-6.
    arrival of Ezra in, =1=, 366.
    attacked by Sanballat, =1=, 371.
    taken by Sanballat, =1=, 372.
    Nehemiah rebuilds the fortifications of, =1=, 374-5.
    settlers invited to, by Nehemiah, =1=, 377-8.
    the Law read in, by Ezra, =1=, 378-80.
    the walls of, consecrated, =1=, 381-2.
    a religious school established in, =1=, 396.
    suffering in, under Bagoas, =1=, 409-10.
    taken by Ptolemy I, =1=, 416.
    the fortifications of, destroyed by Ptolemy I, =1=, 417.
    improved by Simon the Just, =1=, 421.
    entered by Antiochus III, =1=, 432.
    taken by Scopas, =1=, 432.
    athletic contests introduced in, =1=, 435.
    gymnasia introduced in, =1=, 445.
    occupied by Sostrates, =1=, 447.
    occupied by Jason, =1=, 451.
    taken by Antiochus Epiphanes, =1=, 451.
    entered by Apollonius, =1=, 453-4.
    entered by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 471.
    desolate condition of, after the Syrian depredations, =1=, 471-2.
    besieged by Lysias, =1=, 479-80.
    occupied by Alcimus, =1=, 487.
    fortified by Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 494.
    fortified by the Hasmonæans, =1=, 498.
    venerated by the Egyptian Judæans, =1=, 509.
    celebrated by Philo the Elder, =1=, 517-18.
    besieged by Antiochus Sidetes, =2=, 3-4.
    taken by Aristobulus II, =2=, 58.
    besieged by Aretas, =2=, 60.
    siege of, raised at the order of Rome, =2=, 62.
    besieged by Pompey, =2=, 64-6.
    walls of, razed, =2=, 67.
    taken by Alexander, son of Aristobulus II, =2=, 70.
    a Synhedrion established in, =2=, 71.
    entered by Crassus, =2=, 74.
    walls of, rebuilt by Cæsar, =2=, 76.
    besieged by the Parthians, =2=, 82.
    besieged by Herod, =2=, 87-8.
    Herod’s buildings in, =2=, 105.
    the people of, hate Herod, =2=, 107.
    in charge of Quintilius Varus, =2=, 122-3.
    Jesus in, =2=, 161-2.
    fortified by Agrippa I, =2=, 195.
    occupied by Cuspius Fadus, =2=, 197.
    foreign synagogues in, =2=, 201.
    visited by Helen of Adiabene, =2=, 194, 218.
    famine in, =2=, 218.
    mausoleum of Helen in, =2=, 219.
    annual pilgrimages to, =2=, 220.
    the Synhedrion removed from, =2=, 239.
    rebels against Cumanus, =2=, 244.
    Agrippa II resides in, =2=, 247.
    the Passover celebration of 66 in, =2=, 251.
    the upper city of, plundered, =2=, 254.
    the insurrection against Rome begins in, =2=, 255, 261.
    garrisoned with Roman troops, =2=, 255.
    conciliated by Agrippa II, =2=, 257-8.
    the Roman garrison of, surrenders to the Zealots, =2=, 260.
    the walls of, strengthened, =2=, 268.
    rallying place of the patriots, =2=, 291-2.
    fortifications of, =2=, 292.
    undisturbed by Vespasian for two years, =2=, 297.
    parties in, =2=, 301.
    besieged by Titus, =2=, 301-10.
    summoned to surrender, =2=, 302.
    attacked from the north, =2=, 303.
    famine in, =2=, 304, 305-6.
    upper city of, taken, =2=, 309.
    remnant in, after the Roman siege, =2=, 311.
    the religious center, =2=, 322.
    replaced by Jamnia as a religious center, =2=, 325.
    rebuilt by Hadrian, =2=, 407, 421-2.
    in the hands of the Jews under Bar-Cochba, =2=, 411.
    ploughed over, by Turnus Rufus, =2=, 421.
    Jews forbidden to enter, =2=, 433, 564; =3=, 23, 87.
    permission for Jews to pray at, obtained from Marcus Aurelius,
        =2=, 457-8.
    Jews permitted by Alexander Severus to enter, =2=, 482.
    a Christian city, =2=, 597; =3=, 11.
    taken by Sharbarza, =3=, 19.
    not given to the Jews by the Persians, =3=, 21.
    entered by Heraclius, =3=, 22.
    Temple vessels removed to, by Justinian I, =3=, 27.
    Arabian Jews pray towards, =3=, 58.
    turning towards, in prayer instituted by Mahomet, =3=, 73.
    taken by Omar, =3=, 87.
    conflict in, between the Karaites and the Rabbanites, =3=, 135.
    asceticism of the Karaites in, =3=, 181-2.
    Jehuda Halevi at, =3=, 342.
    Christian kingdom of, attacked by Nureddin, =3=, 349.
    Christian pilgrims permitted by Saladin to enter, =3=, 405.
    return to, projected by David Alrui, =3=, 431.
    Maimonides in, =3=, 457.
    Jews allowed by Saladin to settle in, =3=, 474.
    mourning in, for Maimonides, =3=, 492-3.
    rabbis of France and England emigrate to, =3=, 505-6.
    notable for its illustrious dead, =3=, 506.
    devastated by the Tartars, =3=, 605-6.
    Nachmani in, =3=, 606.
    pilgrims to, in the fourteenth century, =4=, 73-4.
    the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 396-8.
    improved morally by the exiles, =4=, 397, 398.
    ordinances for the government of, =4=, 398.
    subordinated to Safet, =4=, 533.
    rabbis of, support Jacob Berab, =4=, 534.
    Sabbataï Zevi at, =5=, 126-7.
    rabbis of, threaten Sabbataï Zevi with excommunication, =5=, 132.
    replaced by Gaza as the Sabbatian Holy City, =5=, 132.
    Chayim Malach in, =5=, 213-14.
    rabbis of, excommunicate Chayon, =5=, 216.

  =Jerusalem, the Jews of=, join an expedition against the Christians
        of Tyre, =3=, 20.
    burnt during the first crusade, =3=, 308.
    dyers in the twelfth century, =3=, 427.
    banished by Baldwin IV, =3=, 427.
    occupations of, =4=, 74-5.
    wish to build a synagogue on Mount Zion, =4=, 273-4.
    offended by Jacob Berab, =4=, 532.
    suffer through the Cossack wars, =5=, 16, 125, 127.
    Kabbalists, =5=, 125-6.
    credulity of, =5=, 126.
    appeal to Chelebi, =5=, 127-8.
    adherents of Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 132.
    oppose Napoleon, =5=, 459-60.

  =Jerusalem=, a Babylonian. _See_ Nahardea.

  =Jerusalem=, the, of the Occident, =4=, 136.

  “=Jerusalem=,” by Mendelssohn, on ecclesiastical power and Judaism,
        =5=, 364-6.
    praised by Kant, =5=, 365.
    effect of, on Michaelis, =5=, 365-6.

  =Jerusalem Talmud=, the. _See_ Talmud, the Jerusalem.

  =Jesheboam=, one of David’s warriors, =1=, 116.

  =Jeshurun, Isaac=, falsely charged with child murder, =5=, 42.

  =Jesiba de los Pintos=, Jewish school at Rotterdam, =4=, 685.

  =Jesirat-ul-Amar=, the Jews of, well treated by Zenki, =3=, 429.

  =Jesse=, father of David, =1=, 96.

  =Jesse, Henry=, enthusiast for Israel’s restoration, =5=, 24, 35.

  =Jessel, Sir George=, Master of the Rolls, =5=, 699.

  =Jesuits=, the, order of, authorized by Paul III, =4=, 524.
    welcomed in Portugal, =4=, 525.
    influence of, =4=, 650.
    instigate persecutions of the Jews in Poland, =5=, 1.
    alienate the Cossacks, =5=, 2.
    hold intercourse with Eibeschütz, =5=, 250.

  =Jesurun, David=, poet, escapes from the Inquisition to Amsterdam,
        =4=, 669.

  =Jesurun, Rohel= (Paul de Pina), Marrano poet, leans towards
        Christianity, =4=, 669.
    returns to Judaism, =4=, 670.
    festival songs by, =4=, 678-9.

  =Jesus of Nazareth= (Galilee), birthplace and family of, =2=, 148-9.
    moral purity of, =2=, 149.
    religiousness of, =2=, 149-50.
    Hillel the model of, =2=, 149-50.
    disciple of John the Baptist, =2=, 150.
    doctrines of, similar to Essenism, =2=, 150-1.
    addresses himself to the lowest classes, =2=, 152.
    unsuccessful in Nazareth, =2=, 153.
    disciples of, =2=, 153, 157-8.
    teachings of, =2=, 154-5.
    relation of, to Judaism, =2=, 155-6.
    merit of, =2=, 156.
    miracles of, =2=, 156-7.
    in the towns of Galilee, =2=, 157.
    declares himself the Messiah, =2=, 158.
    calls himself the “son of man,” =2=, 158-9.
    public sentiment against, =2=, 159-60.
    followers of, in Bethany, =2=, 160.
    in the Temple, =2=, 161.
    reception of, in Jerusalem, =2=, 161-2.
    betrayed by Judas Iscariot, =2=, 163.
    trial of, =2=, 163-6.
    declared guilty of blasphemy by the Synhedrion, =2=, 164.
    execution of, according to the Roman law, =2=, 164-5.
    not mentioned by Judæan historians, =2=, 166.
    followers of, after his death, =2=, 166.
    resurrection of, =2=, 168.
    attitude of the disciples of, to Judaism, =2=, 168.
    denied by Simon Peter, =2=, 169.
    disciples of, claim miraculous power, =2=, 169-70.
    compared with Philo, =2=, 214.
    the Messianic character of, held to have annulled the Law, =2=, 221.
    followers of, who cling to the Law, not molested, =2=, 222.
    the resurrection of, and the apostle Paul, =2=, 225-6.
    according to Paul, sets aside the Law, =2=, 230.
    appeals to the Jewish peasants, =2=, 364.
    as regarded by the Jewish Christians, =2=, 366, 367.
    as regarded by the Pagan Christians, =2=, 367.
    gradually endowed with divine attributes by the Jewish Christians,
        =2=, 370.
    said to have been cursed by the Jews three times daily, =2=, 380;
        =5=, 185-6.
    denial of, demanded of Christians by Bar-Cochba, =2=, 412.
    spread of the worship of, counteracted by the Synhedrion, =2=, 413.
    called “Lord,” =2=, 413.
    Julian the Apostate’s opinion of, =2=, 596.
    as viewed by Anan ben David, =3=, 133-4.
    in the Talmud, =3=, 574, 577, 578.
    Messianic character of, confirmed by the Bible and Talmud according
        to Pablo Christiani, =3=, 598, 599.
    in the Biblical and rabbinical writings, according to Raymund
        Martin, =3=, 622.
    the advent of, discussed by Chasdaï Crescas, =4=, 188.
    proved the Messiah from the Talmud by Joseph Lorqui, =4=, 207,
        208-9, 211, 212.
    dogma of the divinity of, found in the Kabbala, =4=, 292.
    said to be alluded to, in the Alenu prayer, =5=, 185.

  =Jesus ben Sapphia=, Zealot leader in Tiberias, =2=, 274.
    sets fire to a palace in Bethmaon, =2=, 279.
    leader of discontented Galileans, =2=, 280.

  =Jesus, son of Pantheras=, the Jesus of the Talmud, according to
        Yechiel of Paris, =3=, 577.

  =Jesus Sirach= (200-176), describes Simon the Just in Ecclesiasticus,
        =1=, 421-2.
    the book of proverbs by, =1=, 439-41.
    defends social pleasures, =1=, 439.
    recommends the employment of medical skill, =1=, 439-40.
    condemns the Hellenists, =1=, 440-1.
    urges obedience to the Law, =1=, 440.
    reviews Jewish history, =1=, 440-1.
    the proverbs of, considered apocryphal, =2=, 344.
    the book of, translated into Greek, =2=, 359.

  =Jethro=, father-in-law of Moses, =1=, 26.

  =Jew badges=, decreed by Omar I, =3=, 88.
    decreed by Haroun Alrashid, =3=, 145.
    introduced by Al-Mutavakkil, =3=, 176-7.
    ordained by Hakim, =3=, 247-8.
    introduced by the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 511-12.
    supposed to prevent intermarriages, =3=, 511.
    decreed by Almohade princes, =3=, 511-12.
    the use of, spreads through Europe, =3=, 512.
    effect of, on the wearers, =3=, 512-13.
    the Jews struggle against, =3=, 513.
    enforced in Spain, =3=, 513.
    not enforced in southern France and Aragon, =3=, 514-15.
    worn by the Jews of England, =3=, 515.
    decreed by the Council of Oxford, =3=, 516.
    introduced into Naples and Sicily, =3=, 518.
    enforced by the Council of Narbonne, =3=, 518.
    introduced into Hungary, =3=, 521.
    enforced by Frederick II in Sicily and Naples, =3=, 569.
    enforced by the Council of Béziers, =3=, 582.
    insisted on in England under Henry III, =3=, 590.
    ordained in the code of Alfonso X, =3=, 595.
    enforced by the Council of Vienna, =3=, 612.
    enforced by Louis IX of France, =3=, 612.
    abrogated at the instance of the Jews of southern France, =3=, 612.
    re-introduced into France by Philip III, =3=, 613.
    decreed by the Council of Buda, =3=, 614.
    not used in Portugal, =3=, 618.
    decreed in England by the Statute of Judaism, =3=, 642.
    insisted on in Montpellier, =4=, 54.
    in France under John the Good, =4=, 131, 133.
    decreed for the Jews of Castile under Henry II, =4=, 139.
    not worn by the Vesoul family, =4=, 150.
    insisted upon in Castile under Juan II, =4=, 203.
    enjoined by Benedict XIII’s bull, =4=, 216.
    decreed by the Council of Basle, =4=, 245.
    decreed by Eugenius IV, =4=, 250.
    enforced by Nicholas de Cusa, =4=, 255.
    enforced in Naples, =4=, 258.
    decreed by Henry IV of Castile, =4=, 278.
    worn in Morocco, =4=, 389.
    for the Portuguese Marranos under João III, =4=, 519.
    ordered for the Jews of Bohemia, =4=, 545.
    enforced by Paul IV, =4=, 566.
    enforced by Pius V, =4=, 590.
    worn by the Frankfort Jews, =4=, 695.
    Jews released from wearing, in Vienna, =4=, 702.
    proposed by Rühs, =5=, 517.

  =Jew quarters.= _See_ Ghetto; Jew’s quarter, the.

  “=Jew-roaster=,” name assumed by German families, =3=, 611.

  =Jew streets=, in Austria, =5=, 523.
    _See_ Jew’s quarter, the.

  =Jewish Christians=, the, antagonized by Tarphon of Lydda, =2=, 357.
    condemned by Samuel the Younger, =2=, 358.
    observe the Law, =2=, 365-6.
    view of Jesus held by, =2=, 366.
    called Ebionites, =2=, 366.
    as propagandists, =2=, 366.
    differ from Pagan Christians, =2=, 367.
    hate Paul, =2=, 367, 368.
    views of, in the evangels, =2=, 369.
    hate Rome, =2=, 369.
    relation of, to the Jews, =2=, 369-70.
    and the Tanaites, =2=, 370.
    gradually endow Jesus with divine attributes, =2=, 370.
    sects of, =2=, 370.
    separate from the Jews, =2=, 370-2, 431.
    merge into the Pagan Christians, =2=, 373.
    accused of damaging the Jews with the Roman authorities, =2=, 378.
    discussed by the Synhedrion, =2=, 379-80.
    inimically treated by Bar-Cochba, =2=, 412.
    spy upon the Jews under Hadrian, =2=, 425.
    persecuted by Hadrian, =2=, 430-1.
    the Mishna not hostile to, =2=, 476.
    _See also_ Ebionites, the; Judæan Christians, the; Nazarenes, the.

  =Jewish Church=, the German, the founding of, =5=, 682, 686.
    and Sachs, =5=, 691.

  =Jewish converts.= _See_ Apostates.

  “=Jewish Curiosities=,” by Schudt, =5=, 549.

  =Jewish history.= _See under_ History.

  “=Jewish Letters=,” to Voltaire, by a priest, =5=, 346-7.

  =Jewish Literature.= _See under_ Literature.

  =Jewish state=, the, restored under Bar-Cochba, =2=, 412.
    the restoration of, conditioned on the appearance of the
        Messiah, =2=, 600.
    Spinoza on, =5=, 103-7.

  =Jews=, the, libeled by Manetho, =1=, 511.
    kindly treated by Vespasian and Titus, =2=, 331.
    the solidarity of, =2=, 367-8; =5=, 632-3.
    relation of, to the Jewish Christians, =2=, 369-70.
    breach between, and the Jewish Christians, =2=, 370-2.
    apostasy among, in the early Christian centuries, =2=, 377.
    said to have cursed Jesus three times daily, =2=, 380; =5=, 185-6.
    tamper with the Septuagint, =2=, 386.
    use Akylas’ translation of Scripture, =2=, 387.
    extermination of, decreed by Rome, =2=, 387.
    and the Flavian house, =2=, 388.
    suffering of, under Domitian, =2=, 388-9.
    hate Josephus, =2=, 389, 391.
    kindly treated by Nerva, =2=, 391-2.
    oppose Trajan, =2=, 393-4.
    in rebellion against Hadrian, =2=, 399-401.
    attempt the restoration of the Temple, =2=, 401-3.
    peaceable disposition of, described by Hadrian, =2=, 407.
    outraged by the rebuilding of Jerusalem as a pagan city, =2=, 407.
    prepare for a revolt against Hadrian, =2=, 408.
    join the standard of Bar-Cochba, =2=, 410.
    obtain possession of Jerusalem under Bar-Cochba, =2=, 411.
    the Romans kindly treated by, =2=, 411-12.
    heavily taxed by Hadrian, =2=, 420.
    spied upon by renegades and Jewish Christians, =2=, 425-6.
    forbidden to enter Jerusalem, =2=, 433, 564; =3=, 23, 87.
    persecuted under Antoninus Pius, =2=, 446.
    persecuted under Verus Commodus, =2=, 447.
    enmity between, and the Samaritans, =2=, 457-8, 534.
    unkindly treated by Marcus Aurelius, =2=, 463.
    cruelly treated by Commodus and Niger, =2=, 463-4.
    under Caracalla, =2=, 468-9.
    under Elegabalus, =2=, 469-70.
    kindly treated by Alexander Severus, =2=, 481-2, 482-3.
    permitted to enter Jerusalem, =2=, 482.
    consulted by Origen on Bible exegesis, =2=, 488.
    hostile to Zenobia, =2=, 529-30.
    Diocletian tolerant to, =2=, 533.
    weakened by hostility to the Samaritans, =2=, 535.
    included in Constantine’s act of toleration, =2=, 561.
    dignitaries of, exempt from onerous civic duties, =2=, 561.
    aspersed by Church dignitaries under Constantine, =2=, 562.
    forbidden to make converts, =2=, 562, 564.
    privileges of, abolished by Constantine, =2=, 563.
    protected by Constantine against converts, =2=, 564.
    hostility to, shown by Constantine, =2=, 566-7.
    regarded as atheists under Constantine, =2=, 572.
    rescued from oppression by Julian, =2=, 572.
    oppressed by Shabur II, =2=, 591.
    benevolence of, admired by Julian, =2=, 596-7.
    not interested in the rebuilding of the Temple by Julian,
        =2=, 599-600.
    toleration of, under Valentinian I and Valens, =2=, 603.
    antagonized by Ambrosius and Chrysostom, =2=, 613-14.
    mock at the Christians, =2=, 620-1.
    forbidden to teach Christians Hebrew, =2=, 624.
    superiority of, in Scripture studies, =2=, 624.
    hated by Jerome and Augustine, =2=, 625.
    preserved by the Talmud, =2=, 635.
    competent witnesses only in their own cases under Justinian I,
        =3=, 12-13.
    treated kindly by the popes, =3=, 25.
    well treated in Arian countries, =3=, 26.
    and the fall of Rome, =3=, 27-8.
    suffer persecution from the German tribes, =3=, 28.
    Isidore of Seville writes against, =3=, 50.
    antagonized by Mahomet, =3=, 75-6.
    Mahomet’s revelations against, =3=, 75, 78.
    hostility to, in the Koran, =3=, 84.
    restrictions against, in the covenant of Omar, =3=, 87-8.
    freer in Islam than in Christian lands, =3=, 88.
    reverence of, for Jewish Babylonia, =3=, 100-1.
    of Mahometan countries speak Arabic, =3=, 110-11.
    corrupt language of, in the seventh and eighth centuries, =3=, 111.
    make scientific literature accessible to the Arabs, =3=, 111.
    in the eighth century control commerce, =3=, 142-3.
    under the Merovingian kings, =3=, 143.
    considered the wards of the emperor by Louis the Pious, =3=, 170.
    persecutions of, in the eleventh century, =3=, 245-8.
    not permitted to hold office in Christian countries, =3=, 293-4.
    during the first crusade, =3=, 298-305.
    Jehuda Halevi’s view of the suffering of, =3=, 335-6.
    superiority of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 347.
    treatment of, in Christian and Mahometan countries, =3=, 348.
    persecutions of, increase in the twelfth century, =3=, 348-9.
    forbidden by a rabbinical synod to purchase Church appurtenances,
        =3=, 377.
    the morality of, described by Joseph Kimchi, =3=, 393.
    forbidden to keep Christian domestics, =3=, 400.
    banished from the Isle de France, =3=, 402-3.
    debts owing to, repudiated during the third crusade, =3=, 405.
    not allowed to live in Mecca and Medinah, =3=, 436.
    allowed by Saladin to settle in Jerusalem, =3=, 474.
    the position of, affected by the death of Maimonides and the
        ascendancy of the papacy, =3=, 494.
    protected against the crusaders by Innocent III, =3=, 496-7.
    denounced by Innocent III, =3=, 498-501.
    decrees against, by the Fourth Lateran Council, =3=, 510-11.
    isolated in speech and manners by the Jew badge, =3=, 512-13.
    mission of, in the Kabbalistic system, =3=, 553.
    persecutions of, after the thirteenth century, =3=, 563-4, 610-11.
    scholarliness of, =3=, 565.
    absorbed in the study of the Talmud in the thirteenth century,
        =3=, 571-2.
    banished from the hereditary dominions of Louis IX, =3=, 585-6.
    exonerated from the blood accusation by Innocent IV, =3=, 635.
    protected against forced baptism by Gregory X, =3=, 635.
    banished from England, =3=, 645.
    permitted in Palestine under the Egyptian Sultans, =4=, 73.
    charged with causing the Black Death, =4=, 101.
    desolation of, after the Black Death, =4=, 127.
    indispensable to the Christians in the fourteenth century,
        =4=, 127-8.
    restrictions laid upon, by Benedict XIII’s bull, =4=, 215-16.
    and the Hussite war, =4=, 222.
    accused of supplying Hussites with money, =4=, 222.
    appeal to Martin V, =4=, 226.
    feared by the papacy in the fifteenth century, =4=, 254.
    well received in Italy in the fifteenth century, =4=, 286.
    jeopardized by the blood accusation against the Jews of
        Trent, =4=, 299.
    suffering of, attributed to heresy, =4=, 343.
    divided into German speaking and Spanish speaking Jews, =4=, 421.
    rights of, advocated by Reuchlin, =4=, 443-4.
    indictment of, proposed by Hoogstraten, =4=, 444.
    intercourse with, defended by Reuchlin, =4=, 447-8.
    in the “Letters of Obscurantists,” =4=, 461.
    Luther on, =4=, 470.
    affected by the Protestant Reformation, =4=, 471.
    morality of, in the Middle Ages, =4=, 477.
    lack spirituality, =4=, 477-8.
    split up into national groups, =4=, 478.
    narrow-mindedness of, in the Middle Ages, =4=, 479.
    suffer through the Reformation, =4=, 540.
    hatred of, fed by the Unitarian tendencies of the Reformation, =4=,
        542.
    attacked by Eck and Luther, =4=, 546-52.
    restrictions against, under Pius V, =4=, 590.
    persecution of, during the Catholic reaction, =4=, 652.
    prospects of the re-settlement of, in England, =4=, 18-19.
        _See_ England.
    prejudices against, in England, =5=, 19.
    favorably regarded by Christian visionaries, =5=, 23.
    enthusiasts for the restoration of, =5=, 24-5.
    favorably regarded by the Puritans, =5=, 27.
    defended by Richard Simon, =5=, 181.
    attacked by Christian Hebraists, =5=, 184.
    defended by Surenhuysius, =5=, 194.
    degradation of, in the seventeenth century, =5=, 199-200, 204-5.
    poverty of, =5=, 205-6.
    speak a jargon in the eighteenth century, =5=, 300.
    artificial studies of, =5=, 300-1.
    neglect the Bible, =5=, 328.
    slandered by Voltaire, =5=, 340.
    condition of, described by Dohm, =5=, 353.
    emancipated in the wake of French victories, =5=, 459. _See_
        Emancipation.
    prejudices of Goethe against, =5=, 461.
    Fichte on, =5=, 461-3.
    and Napoleon, =5=, 474, 481.
    maligned by Bonald, =5=, 478.
    the emancipation of, dependent on that of the French Jews, =5=, 480.
    in the French wars, =5=, 511.
    excluded from Tyrol, =5=, 523.
    Heine on, =5=, 547-8, 553-5.
    debt of, to Börne and Heine, =5=, 556.
    rapid advance of, =5=, 557.
    historical mission of, =5=, 576, 718-19.
    self-respect of, =5=, 590.
    effect of the July revolution on, =5=, 596-8.
    criticised by Riesser, =5=, 599-600.
    contrasted with the Greeks, =5=, 706-8.
    the religion of, =5=, 709.
    faults of, =5=, 713-14.
    literature of, =5=, 714.
    _See also_ Israelites, the; Judæans, the; _and under the various
        countries, cities, etc._

  “=Jews=, The,” by Lessing, =5=, 297, 320, 360.

  “=Jews=, The, and their Just Claims on the Christian States,” by
        August Krämer, =5=, 522.

  =Jews, the, conversion of.= _See under_ Conversion.

  =Jews, the, emancipation of.= _See under_ Emancipation.

  =Jew’s quarter=, the, in Rome, =2=, 68.
    in Constantinople, =3=, 26, 425.
    in Speyer, =3=, 298.
    at Palermo, =3=, 567.
    in Seville, =3=, 593.
    of Toledo, =4=, 118.
    of Seville, mobbed, =4=, 169.
    in Palma, =4=, 171.
    Castilian Jews forced into, =4=, 203.
    decreed by the Council of Basle, =4=, 245.
    decreed by Eugenius IV, =4=, 250.
    decreed by Henry IV of Castile, =4=, 278.
    enforced by the cortes of Toledo, =4=, 335.
    first, in Italy, =4=, 408.
    enforced by Paul IV, =4=, 566.
    in Vienna, =4=, 702; =5=, 172.
    in Alsace and Metz, =5=, 348.
    of Frankfort destroyed, =5=, 503-4.
    Roman Jews return to, =5=, 518.
    _See also_ Ghetto; Jew street, the; Juderia.

  =Jews, secret.= _See_ Christians, Judaizing; Marranos, the.

  =Jezaniah=, Judæan emigrant to Egypt, =1=, 324.

  =Jezdijird= (400-420), Sassanian king, friendly to the Jews,
        =2=, 609-10.

  =Jezdijird III= (440-457), Sassanian king, persecutes the Jews,
        =2=, 627-8.

  =Jezebel=, daughter of Ethbaal, marries Ahab, =1=, 194.
    character of, =1=, 197.
    builds a temple to Baal, =1=, 197.
    persecutes Elijah’s disciples, =1=, 201.
    has Naboth killed, =1=, 202.
    threatens Elijah, =1=, 204.
    end of, =1=, 211.

  =Jezreel=, son of Hosea, =1=, 240.

  =Jezreel=, the plain of, in Canaan, =1=, 36.
    description of, =1=, 44.
    Philistines encamp in, =1=, 102.
    Ahab’s winter palace in, =1=, 201-2.
    towns in, restored to Judæa, =2=, 76.

  =Jikatilla.= _See_ Joseph ben Abraham Jikatilla.

  =Joab=, warrior, joins David, =1=, 100.
    jealous of Abner, =1=, 109.
    ends the civil war, =1=, 110.
    kills Abner, =1=, 111.
    receives a house at Jerusalem, =1=, 119.
    field officer under David, =1=, 122.
    conducts the Ammonite war, =1=, 126-7, 128-9.
    captures the Water-Town of Rabbath Ammon, =1=, 128.
    faith of, =1=, 130.
    ordered to expose Uriah the Hittite, =1=, 132.
    partisan of Absalom, =1=, 135.
    employs the woman of Tekoah to plead for Absalom, =1=, 135-6.
    takes up a military census, =1=, 137.
    faithful to David in the civil war with Absalom, =1=, 141.
    commander against Absalom at Mahanaim, =1=, 144.
    reproaches David for long mourning over Absalom, =1=, 145.
    replaced by Amasa, =1=, 148.
    victorious over Sheba, =1=, 149-50.
    supporter of Adonijah, =1=, 152.
    killed by Benaiah, =1=, 160.
    family of, forms a league in Babylon, =1=, 330.
    favorite character of the Puritans, =5=, 26.

  =Joachim I=, elector of Brandenburg, has thirty Jews burnt, =4=, 440.

  =Joachim II=, elector of Brandenburg, alleged to have been poisoned
        by a Jew, =4=, 652; =5=, 188.

  =Joah=, chancellor, under Josiah, =1=, 292.

  =Joan=, pope, satire on, =3=, 169.

  =Joanna=, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, proposed as wife to
        Manoel of Portugal, =4=, 373.

  =Joanna=, queen of Naples, appoints John of Capistrano inquisitor of
        the Jews, =4=, 258.

  =João I=, of Portugal, Grand Master of Avis, rival of Leonora, =4=,
        160.
    regent of Portugal, =4=, 161.
    popularity of, as king, =4=, 173.
    promotes conquests on the coast of Africa, =4=, 217-18.
    refuses assistance to Vincent Ferrer, =4=, 218.

  =João II= (1481-1495), of Portugal, character of, =4=, 340.
    executes the Duke of Braganza, =4=, 341.
    confiscates the property of Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 341.
    negotiations with, for the settlement of the Spanish Jews in
        Portugal, =4=, 352.
    baptizes the son of Judah Leon Abrabanel, =4=, 361.
    permits Spanish exiles to settle in Portugal, =4=, 365-6.
    summons an astronomical congress, =4=, 367.
    delivers Marranos to the Inquisition, =4=, 368.
    insists upon the Spanish exiles’ leaving Portugal at the appointed
        time, =4=, 368-9.
    sells Spanish exiles as slaves, =4=, 370-1.
    sends the children of Spanish exiles to San Thomas, =4=, 371.
    death of, =4=, 371.
    cause of the misfortunes of, =4=, 373.

  =João III= (1522-1557), of Portugal, hostile to the Marranos,
        =4=, 488-90.
    resolves to introduce the Inquisition, =4=, 490.
    gives up the plan of establishing the Inquisition, =4=, 490-1.
    receives David Reubeni, =4=, 493, 498.
    treats the Marranos more kindly, =4=, 493-4.
    withdraws his favor from David Reubeni, =4=, 498-9.
    urged to introduce the Inquisition, =4=, 499-500.
    cupidity of, censured by Pucci, =4=, 505.
    chooses Duarte de Paz for a secret mission, =4=, 512.
    tries to influence Paul III in favor of the Inquisition, =4=, 515.
    disobeys the papal injunction to absolve the Marranos, =4=, 516.
    rigor of, towards the Marranos, =4=, 518-19.
    enforces the rules of the Inquisition, =4=, 521.
    forbids emigration, =4=, 524.
    requested by the pope to treat the Marranos mildly, =4=, 527.
    tries to make good Catholics of the Marranos, =4=, 528.

  =Joaser=, coadjutor of Josephus in Galilee, =2=, 278, 279.

  =Joaser=, son of Simon b. Boëthus, high priest, the deposition of,
        demanded, =2=, 121.
    deposed, =2=, 127.
    again installed, =2=, 127.
    defends the Roman census, =2=, 134.
    deposed by Quirinius, =2=, 135.

  =Joash=, king of Israel. _See_ Jehoash.

  =Joash=, king of Judah, escapes the slaughter of Athaliah, =1=, 213.
    raised in the Temple, =1=, 215-16.
    anointed king, =1=, 216.
    repairs the Temple, =1=, 218-19.
    stones the high priest Zachariah, =1=, 220.
    yields to Hazael, =1=, 221.
    killed, =1=, 221.

  “=Job=,” poem by Jacob Israel Belmonte, =4=, 665.

  =Job, the Book of=, composed during the captivity, =1=, 341-2.
    expounded by Simon ben Lakish, =2=, 496-7.
    commentary on, by Rashi, =3=, 346.
    paraphrased by Zarak Barfat, =4=, 140.

  =Joceus=, a wealthy Jew of York, takes refuge in the citadel, =3=,
        413.
    end of, =3=, 415.

  =Joceus=, chief rabbi of England, =3=, 588.

  =Jochai=, a friend of the Romans, =2=, 440.

  =Jochanan=, secretary to Gamaliel I, =2=, 192.

  =Jochanan of Alexandria=, the sandal maker, disciple of Akiba, =2=,
        433.

  =Jochanan bar Moryah=, Amora, =2=, 609.

  =Jochanan bar Napacha= (199-279), chief of the Amoraim, =2=, 479.
    and Judah II, =2=, 485, 493, 494.
    description of the beauty of, =2=, 492-3.
    method of, =2=, 493.
    at Tiberias, =2=, 493-4.
    leniency of, =2=, 494.
    explains the prophecy of Daniel, =2=, 494-5.
    morality of, =2=, 495.
    misfortunes of, =2=, 495.
    opponent of, =2=, 495, 497.
    restores order in southern Judæa, =2=, 498.
    on Abba Areka, =2=, 514.
    decisions of, =2=, 515.
    and Mar-Samuel, =2=, 522-3.
    alarm of, on account of the Babylonian Jews, =2=, 525.
    feeling of, against Palmyra, =2=, 529, 530.
    disciples of, =2=, 531.
    decision of, with regard to the new-moon, =2=, 532.
    view of, on the Samaritans, =2=, 534.
    permits Jewish women to acquire Greek culture, =2=, 537.
    quoted by Abbahu, =2=, 537.

  =Jochanan ben Gudgada=, member of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 357.

  =Jochanan ben Mattathiah Provenci=, elected chief rabbi of
        France, =4=, 152.
    relieved of his office by Isaiah ben Abba-Mari, =4=, 152, 162.
    appeals to Spanish authorities, =4=, 153.

  =Jochanan ben Nuri=, member of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 357.
    upholds the ordinances of Gamaliel II, =2=, 405.

  =Jochanan ben Torta=, opposes Akiba’s Messianic hopes, =2=, 410.

  =Jochanan ben Zakkai=, disciple of Hillel, =2=, 131.
    abolishes the ritual for cases of suspected adultery, =2=, 238.
    abrogates the sin offering for murders, =2=, 239.
    leader of the faithful Judæans, =2=, 240.
    vice-president of the Synhedrion, =2=, 240.
    importance of, =2=, 322-3.
    member of the Peace party, =2=, 323.
    takes refuge in the camp of Titus, =2=, 323-4.
    receives permission to establish a school at Jamnia, =2=, 324.
    mourns for the Temple, =2=, 324.
    forms a Synhedrion at Jamnia, =2=, 325.
    changes made by, =2=, 326.
    disciples of, =2=, 326.
    proficient in the oral Law, =2=, 328.
    lectures by, =2=, 328-9.
    on the advantages of peace, =2=, 329.
    intercourse of, with pagans, =2=, 329, 331.
    gentle character of, =2=, 331-2.
    description of Israel in mourning by, =2=, 332.
    compared with Jeremiah and Zerubbabel, =2=, 333.
    death of, =2=, 333.
    maxim of, with regard to the study of the Law, =2=, 338-9.
    on Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, =2=, 346.

  =Jochanan Aleman.= _See_ Aleman.

  =Jochanan.= _See also_ Johanan; John; Jonathan.

  =Joel=, prophet, exhortations of, under Uzziah, =1=, 230.
    under Jeroboam II, =1=, 237-40.

  =Joel=, son of Samuel, acts as judge in Beersheba, =1=, 79.

  =Joel, Emanuel=, founder of the Breslau seminary, =5=, 700.

  =Johanan=, father of Mattathias, the Hasmonæan, =1=, 459.

  =Johanan=, son of Joiada, high priest, slays his brother in the
        Temple, =1=, 409.

  =Johanan=, son of Kareah, chief of the Judæans in Palestine after the
        fall of Jerusalem, =1=, 318.
    submits to Gedaliah, =1=, 321.
    informs Gedaliah of Ishmael’s treachery, =1=, 322.
    pursues Ishmael, =1=, 322-3.

  =Johanan=, son of Simon Tharsi. _See_ Hyrcanus I, John.

  =Johanan Gadi=, son of Mattathias, the Hasmonæan, =1=, 459.
    leader of the Hasmonæan party, =1=, 489.
    killed by the Bene Amri, =1=, 491.

  =Johanan.= _See also_ Jochanan; John; Jonathan.

  =Johannsen=, bishop of Speyer, protects the Jews during the first
        crusade, =3=, 300-1.

  =John XXII=, pope, opposes a crusade, =4=, 35.
    sister of, hostile to the Jews, =4=, 61.

  =John XXIII=, pope, vices of, =4=, 201.

  =John II=, of Aragon. _See_ Juan II, of Aragon.

  =John II=, of Brabant, protects the Jews of Brussels, =4=, 112.

  =John=, of England, the Jews under, =3=, 416, 504-5.
    pretends friendship for the Jews, =3=, 504.
    appoints Jacob of London chief rabbi, =3=, 504.
    protects the Jews of London, =3=, 505.
    imprisons the English Jews, =3=, 505.

  =John=, the Good, of France, captivity of, =4=, 128-9.
    permits the Jews to return to France, =4=, 129.
    curtails the privileges of the Jews, =4=, 131.

  =John=, author of the Apocalypse, hates Rome, =2=, 369.

  =John=, the Baptist, Essene, beliefs of, =2=, 145-6.
    influence of, on the Judæan poor and the aristocracy, =2=, 146-7.
    imprisoned and beheaded, =2=, 147.
    Jesus the disciple of, =2=, 150.
    the work of, continued by Jesus, =2=, 151.
    identified with Elijah, =2=, 158.

  =John=, Judæan envoy to emperor Claudius, =2=, 197-8.

  =John=, leader of the Idumæans, helps the Zealots, =2=, 295.

  =John of Capistrano=, Franciscan, hostile to the Jews, =4=,
        249, 258-63.
    executes Nicholas V’s anti-Jewish bull, =4=, 253.
    characteristics of, =4=, 257.
    used by the popes to restore their authority, =4=, 257-8.
    inquisitor of the Jews, =4=, 258.
    in Germany, =4=, 258-60.
    in Bavaria, =4=, 258-9.
    in Franconia, =4=, 259-60.
    in Silesia, =4=, 260-3.
    in Poland, =4=, 263, 265-6, 418.
    preaches a crusade against the Turks, =4=, 268.
    advocates the baptism of Jewish children, =4=, 277.
    exalted by Bernardinus of Feltre, =4=, 296.

  =John of Gischala.= _See_ John ben Levi.

  =John of Gorze= (Jean de Vendières), ambassador from Otho I to
        Abdul-Rahman III, =3=, 219.

  =John of Valladolid=, apostate, in religious disputations with Jews,
        =4=, 140, 141, 209.

  =John ben Levi=, of Gischala, leader of the insurrection in Upper
        Galilee, =2=, 273.
    troops of, =2=, 273.
    repugnant to Josephus, =2=, 279-81.
    accuses Josephus before the Synhedrion, =2=, 281.
    escapes to Jerusalem, =2=, 290.
    helps the Zealots of Jerusalem, =2=, 295.
    heroism of, =2=, 296-7.
    leader of the Galilean Zealots in Jerusalem, =2=, 301.
    destroys Roman works, =2=, 304.
    hopefulness of, =2=, 305.
    refuses to lay down arms, =2=, 309.
    in Titus’ triumph, =2=, 313.
    in a Roman dungeon, =2=, 314.

  =John, son of Zebedee=, disciple of Jesus, =2=, 153.
    leader of the early Christians, =2=, 169, 222.

  =John.= _See also_ Jochanan; Johanan; Jonathan; Juan.

  =John Albert= of Poland, hostile to the Jews, =4=, 419.

  =John Casimir=, of Poland, permits forced converts to return to
        Judaism, =5=, 13.
    guards the rights of Jews in making a treaty, =5=, 14.

  =John Chrysostom=, bishop of Antioch, preaches against Jewish
        institutions, =2=, 613-14.

  =John George=, elector of Brandenburg, accuses Lippold of poisoning
        Joachim II, =4=, 652.
    expulsion of the Jews by, =5=, 173.

  =John Hyrcanus.= _See_ Hyrcanus I, John.

  =John Maurice=, of Nassau, stadtholder of Brazil, assisted by
        Marranos, =4=, 693.

  =John Sobieski=, of Poland, scatters the Karaites, =5=, 182.

  =Joiada=, high priest, under Nehemiah, =1=, 386.
    sons of, =1=, 409.

  =Joigny=, represented at the first rabbinical synod, =3=, 377.

  =Jokthel=, name of Petra changed into, =1=, 223.

  =Jollivet=, French government commissioner, protests against the
        imposition of a poll-tax on French Jews in Germany, =5=, 465.

  =Jonadab=, son of Rechab, a Nazarite, =1=, 200; =3=, 55.
    helps Jehu to exterminate Baal-worship, =1=, 212.

  =Jonah=, fisherman, sons of, disciples of Jesus, =2=, 153.

  =Jonah II=, Palestinian Amora, =2=, 560.
    member of the last Synhedrion, =2=, 567.
    permits bread baking on the Sabbath for the Roman army, =2=, 568.

  =Jonah=, prophet, encourages war with the Aramæans, =1=, 225.

  =Jonah=, rabbi of Vienna, counsels self-destruction to escape the
        Black Death persecutions, =4=, 110.

  =Jonah ben Abraham Gerundi= the Elder, excommunicates the
        Maimunists, =3=, 529.
    excommunicated, =3=, 530, 536-7.
    aided by Nachmani, =3=, 536.
    refers the Maimunist controversy to the Dominicans, =3=, 542-3.
    repents of his persecution of Maimonides’ works, =3=, 579-80, 624.
    makes public confession, =3=, 580.
    author of Talmudical works, =3=, 580.
    disciple of, a Maimunist, =3=, 629.

  =Jonah Marinus= (Abulvalid Mervan Ibn-Janach, 995-1050), grammarian,
        =3=, 261-4.
    teachers of, =3=, 261.
    as a poet, =3=, 261-2.
    studies medicine, =3=, 261, 262.
    hostile to Samuel Ibn-Nagrela, =3=, 262, 313.
    creator of Hebrew syntax, =3=, 263.
    works of, =3=, 263.
    calmness and clearness of, =3=, 263-4.
    and Ibn-Gebirol, =3=, 264.
    adversely criticised by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 371.
    works of, translated into Hebrew, =3=, 397.

  =Jonathan=, keeper of the lists, jailer of Jeremiah, =1=, 313.

  =Jonathan=, nephew of David, Israelite champion, =1=, 117.

  =Jonathan=, priest, messenger from Hushai to David, =1=, 143.

  =Jonathan=, Sadducee leader, friend of John Hyrcanus, =2=, 31.
    estranges Hyrcanus from the Pharisees, =2=, 33.

  =Jonathan=, tax-gatherer, deputy of the Judæans of Cæsarea, =2=, 253.

  =Jonathan=, teacher of the Law, in the south of Judæa, =2=, 442.

  =Jonathan=, Zealot leader, accuses Josephus of disloyalty to
        Rome, =2=, 318.

  =Jonathan ben Absalom=, general under Simon Tharsi, =1=, 500.

  =Jonathan ben Amram=, disciple of Judah I, rebukes him, =2=, 451.

  =Jonathan ben Anan=, high priest, appointed by Vitellius, =2=, 172.
    former high priest, envoy to Rome, =2=, 244.
    seeks the appointment of Felix as procurator of Judæa, =2=, 245.
    assassinated, =2=, 246.

  =Jonathan ben Nachman= (Archinas), teacher of the Law at the fall of
        Jerusalem, =2=, 330.

  =Jonathan ben Uziel=, disciple of Hillel, =2=, 131.

  =Jonathan, son of Saul=, qualities of, =1=, 84.
    destroys the Philistine garrison at Gibeah, =1=, 85.
    defeats the Philistines at Michmash, =1=, 86-8.
    condemned to death by Saul, =1=, 88-9.
    friendship of, with David, =1=, 97, 98.
    death of, =1=, 103.
    body of, dishonored, =1=, 104.
    remains of, buried, =1=, 124.

  =Jonathan, son of Simon Tharsi.= _See_ Hyrcanus I, John.

  =Jonathan Cohen=, of Lünel, writes a commentary on Alfassi’s
        Talmudical work, =3=, 397.
    advocates the study of science by Jews, =3=, 397.
    reverence of, for Maimonides, =3=, 489, 526.
    emigrates to Jerusalem, =3=, 505, 506.

  =Jonathan Eibeschütz.= _See_ Eibeschütz, Jonathan.

  =Jonathan Haphus=, son of Mattathias, the Hasmonæan, =1=, 459.
    in command beyond the Jordan, =1=, 475.
    leader of the Hasmonæan party, =1=, 489.
    made the leader of the people, =1=, 490.
    weakness of the forces of, =1=, 491.
    strengthens his defences, =1=, 492-3.
    authority of, =1=, 493.
    defends Bethhagla, =1=, 493.
    makes a truce with Bacchides, =1=, 493-4.
    friendship of, sued for by Demetrius I and Alexander Balas,
        =1=, 494-5.
    officiates as high priest on the Feast of Tabernacles, =1=, 495.
    ally of Alexander Balas, =1=, 494, 496.
    entertained by Ptolemy VI and Alexander Balas, =1=, 496.
    loyal to Alexander Balas, =1=, 496.
    receives Ekron, =1=, 496.
    besieges the Acra, =1=, 496.
    compact of, with Demetrius II, =1=, 497.
    espouses the cause of Antiochus VI, =1=, 497-8, 499.
    distinguished by Diodotus Tryphon, =1=, 498.
    taken prisoner, =1=, 499.
    executed, =1=, 501.
    burial of, at Modin, =1=, 501.
    achievements of, =1=, 501-2.
    ancestor of Flavius Josephus, =1=, 502.
    state of Judæa after the death of, =1=, 501-2, 519-20.

  =Jonathan Levi Zion=, advocate of the Jews before Maximilian I,
        =4=, 436-7.

  =Jonathan.= _See also_ Jochanan; John; Jonathan.

  =Jonghe, Isaac de=, zealous for the emancipation of the Jews, =5=,
        455.

  =Jonghe, Lublink de=, objects to the emancipation of the Jews,
        =5=, 455-6.

  =Joppa= (Jaffa), fortifications of, destroyed by Ptolemy I, =1=, 417.
    taken by Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 496.
    Simon Tharsi sends a detachment to, =1=, 500.
    taken by Simon Tharsi, =1=, 524.
    claimed by Antiochus Sidetes, =1=, 529.
    in the possession of Antiochus Sidetes, =2=, 4-5.
    in the possession of Antiochus IX, =2=, 9.
    taken by Vespasian, =2=, 288.

  =Joram=, son of Ahab. _See_ Jehoram.

  =Joram= (Jehoram), son of Jehoshaphat, marries Athaliah, =1=, 206.
    king of Judah, introduces idolatry, =1=, 209.
    death of, =1=, 211.

  =Joram=, son of Tôi, king of Hamath, congratulates David on his
        victories, =1=, 127.

  =Jordan=, the, Israelites cross, =1=, 29, 32.
    description of, =1=, 42, 46.

  =José= (471-520), Amora, principal of the Pumbeditha school,
        completes the Babylonian Talmud, =2=, 630-1.

  =José=, brother of Jesus, =2=, 148.

  =José=, the Galilean, member of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 357.
    at Lydda, =2=, 423.

  =José=, Palestinian Amora, =2=, 560.
    member of the last Synhedrion, =2=, 567.
    permits bread baking on the Sabbath for the Roman army, =2=, 568.
    on the second day of the festivals, =2=, 573.

  =José of Phaeno=, servant of Judah I, =2=, 466.

  =José bar José Hayathom=, the first poetan., poems of, =3=, 114-15.
    artificiality of the works of, =3=, 115.
    founder of neo-Hebraic poetry, =4=, 67.

  =José ben Chalafta=, disciple of Akiba, =2=, 433.
    on Meïr, =2=, 437.
    artisan, =2=, 442.
    historian, =2=, 442.
    on Meïr and Nathan, =2=, 446.
    on the Romans, =2=, 448.
    banished to Laodicea, =2=, 448.
    son of, in Rome, =2=, 449.

  =José, son of Joëzer=, opponent of the Hellenists, =1=, 436.
    probable end of, =1=, 483.

  =José, son of Johanan=, opponent of the Hellenists, =1=, 436.

  =José Barnabas= of Cyprus, proselytizes among the heathen, =2=, 219.
    disciple of the apostle Paul, =2=, 227.
    observes the dietary laws, =2=, 231.

  =José.= _See also under_ Joseph.

  =Joseph I=, emperor, refuses to remove the ban from “Judaism
        Unmasked,” =5=, 193.

  =Joseph II=, emperor, improves the condition of the Jews, =5=, 357-8.
    forbids the circulation of an anti-Jewish work, =5=, 359.
    hymn to, by Wessely, =5=, 368.
    reforms of, opposed by the pious, =5=, 369.
    reforms of, welcomed by the cultured, =5=, 370.
    reforms of, resisted in Galicia, =5=, 394.
    abolishes the poll-tax on Jews, =5=, 415, 464.
    the Jewish regulations of, disregarded by Francis I, =5=, 523.

  =Joseph=, Jewish king of the Chazars, addressed by Chasdaï
        Ibn-Shaprut, =3=, 220-1, 222.
    residence of, =3=, 221.
    answers Chasdaï Ibn-Shaprut, =3=, 221-2.

  =Joseph=, duke of Mantua, banishes rabbis, =4=, 295.

  =Joseph=, the tribes of, claim the central lands of Canaan,
        =1=, 35-6.

  =Joseph=, apostate under Constantine, persecutes the Palestinian Jews,
        =2=, 564-5.
    made comes, =2=, 565.
    builds churches in Galilee, =2=, 565.
    defames Hillel II, =2=, 566.
    possible connection of, with Constantine’s persecution of the
        Jews, =2=, 567.

  =Joseph=, brother of Herod, guardian of Mariamne, =2=, 83.
    besieged in Masada, =2=, 87.

  =Joseph=, brother-in-law of Herod, ordered to murder Mariamne in case
        of his death, =2=, 93.
    calumniated by his wife, =2=, 93.
    beheaded, =2=, 94.

  =Joseph=, Karaite, permits lights on the Sabbath, =4=, 269.

  =Joseph=, of the house of Camyth, high priest under Herod
        II, =2=, 198.

  =Joseph of Arimathea=, disciple of Jesus, =2=, 160.

  =Joseph of Arli=, Kabbalist, hopes in the Messiah as announced by
        Molcho, =4=, 511-12.

  =Joseph de Avila=, discovers the Zohar to be a forgery, =4=, 20-1.

  =Joseph of Ecija.= _See_ Joseph ben Ephraim Ibn-Benveniste Halevi.

  =Joseph of Gamala=, Zealot leader, =2=, 289.
    death of, =2=, 290.

  =Joseph of Nazareth=, father of Jesus, =2=, 148.

  =Joseph de Vesoul=, apostate, =4=, 150.

  =Joseph bar Abba= (814), mystic, principal of the Pumbeditha
        academy, =3=, 154.

  =Joseph ben Abraham Jikatilla=, Kabbalist, =4=, 3, 6.
    writings of, =4=, 10.
    works of, used by Reuchlin, =4=, 466.

  =Joseph ben Chasdaï=, a Cordova poet, eulogizes Samuel Ibn-Nagrela,
        =3=, 273.
    son of, =3=, 274, 280.

  =Joseph ben Chiya= (270-333), refuses the Pumbeditha principalship,
        =2=, 577-8.
    superstition of, =2=, 578.
    flees from Pumbeditha, =2=, 580.
    principal of the Pumbeditha academy, =2=, 581.
    characteristics of, =2=, 581.
    method of, =2=, 581.
    devotes himself to the Targum, =2=, 581-2.
    severity of, =2=, 582.
    death of, =2=, 583.

  =Joseph ben Chiya= (828-833), principal of the Pumbeditha
        academy, =3=, 155.
    resigns, =3=, 156.
    re-installed, =3=, 156.

  =Joseph ben Ephraim Ibn-Benveniste Halevi=, of Ecija, prominent at
        the court of Alfonso XI of Castile, =4=, 76, 79.
    attack on, in Valladolid, =4=, 79.
    jealous of Samuel Ibn-Wakar, =4=, 80, 81.
    patron of Gonzalo Martinez, =4=, 83.
    end of, =4=, 84.

  =Joseph ben Gershom Loans= (Joslin, Josselman of Rosheim, 1480-1555),
        representative of the German Jews, =4=, 414.
    warns Molcho and Reubeni against petitioning Charles V, =4=, 510.

  =Joseph ben Gorion=, a moderate zealot, =2=, 271.

  “=Joseph ben Gorion.=” _See_ Josippon.

  =Joseph ben Isaac Ibn-Abitur= (Ibn-Satanas or Santas), candidate for
        the Cordova rabbinate, =3=, 229-30, 238.
    liturgical poetry of, =3=, 236.
    translates the Mishna into Arabic, =3=, 237.
    excommunicated, =3=, 238.
    appeals to Alhakem, =3=, 238.
    refuses the Cordova rabbinate, =3=, 240.

  =Joseph ben Isaac Kimchi= (1150-1170), introduces Spanish culture
        into southern France, =3=, 392.
    polemical work by, against Christianity, =3=, 392-3.

  =Joseph ben Israel=, father of Manasseh, Marrano, emigrates to the
        Netherlands, =4=, 671.

  =Joseph ben Jacob Ibn-Sahal= (1070-1121), rabbi of Cordova, poetry
        of, =3=, 314.

  =Joseph ben Joshua Cohen= (1496-1575), historian and physician,
        dazzled by Molcho, =4=, 511.
    expelled from Genoa, =4=, 544, 555.
    historical works by, =4=, 555-6, 560, 590, 608.
    style of, =4=, 556, 557.

  =Joseph ben Kisma=, member of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 357.
    counsels subservience to Hadrian’s decrees, =2=, 426-7.

  =Joseph ben Matthias= (Flavius Josephus, 38-95), historian,
        descendant of Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 502.
    does not mention Jesus in his works, =2=, 166.
    a moderate Zealot, =2=, 271.
    governor of Galilee, =2=, 272, 275-6.
    education of, =2=, 276.
    at Rome in his youth, =2=, 276-7.
    secretly a Roman partisan, =2=, 277-8.
    relation of, to Agrippa II, =2=, 278.
    administration of, =2=, 278-9.
    opposed by Jesus ben Sapphia, =2=, 279.
    relation of, to John of Gischala, =2=, 279-81.
    duplicity of, =2=, 280-1.
    deposed by the Synhedrion, =2=, 281.
    deceives the envoys of the Synhedrion, =2=, 282.
    wins credulous Galileans to his side, =2=, 282-3.
    re-instated, =2=, 283.
    breaks the strength of Galilee, =2=, 283-4.
    defeated by Vespasian, =2=, 285.
    appeals to the Synhedrion for aid, =2=, 286.
    at Jotapata, =2=, 287-8.
    gives himself up to the Romans, =2=, 288.
    execrated by the Judæans, =2=, 293, 389, 391.
    made commander of Titus’ body-guard, =2=, 302.
    tries to persuade Jerusalem to surrender, =2=, 304.
    witness of Titus’ triumph in Rome, =2=, 314.
    rewarded by Vespasian and Titus, =2=, 317.
    given the name Flavius Josephus, =2=, 317.
    as an historian, =2=, 319.
    on Jewish customs observed by pagans, =2=, 384.
    considers circumcision optional with proselytes, =2=, 385.
    favorite of Domitian, =2=, 389.
    and Flavius Clemens, =2=, 389, 391.
    completes his Jewish history, =2=, 389-90.
    vindicates himself against the attacks of Justus of Tiberias, =2=,
        390.
    vindicates his race against Apion, =2=, 390.
    prosecuted by Domitian, =2=, 391.
    death of, =2=, 391.
    immortalizes the war of the Zealots, =2=, 415.
    works of, read at the court of Louis the Pious, =3=, 162.
    history of, the basis of Josippon, =3=, 180.
    the work of, against Apion, translated, =4=, 608.
    the works of, connected with the Talmud by Azarya deï Rossi, =4=,
        614.
    a work of, translated by Arias, =5=, 113.
    the history of, continued by Basnage, =5=, 195.
    the works of, studied by Frankel, =5=, 684.

  =Joseph ben Meïr Ibn-Migash Halevi= (1077-1144), Talmudist, eulogized
        by Jehuda Halevi, =3=, 315, 322, 323.
    successor to Alfassi, =3=, 315-16, 323.
    respect for, =3=, 316.
    condemns a traitor to be stoned, =3=, 317.
    son and disciples of, =3=, 317, 447.

  =Joseph ben Pilat=, Talmudist in Damascus, =3=, 426.

  =Joseph ben Sahara=, satirist and physician, =3=, 559.

  =Joseph ben Satia=, Gaon of Sora, =3=, 196.
    successor to Saadiah, =3=, 202.
    abandons the academy of Sora, =3=, 202.

  =Joseph ben Shem Tob Ibn-Shem Tob= (1400-1460), philosopher and
        preacher, dignitary at the Castilian court, =4=, 228-9.
    polemic works of, =4=, 235.
    opposed to his father’s views, =4=, 243.
    religio-philosophical system of, =4=, 244.

  =Joseph ben Solomon Ibn-Shoshan= (1135-1204-5), favorite of Alfonso
        VIII of Castile, =3=, 384.
    erects a synagogue in Toledo, =3=, 384.
    encourages the study of the Talmud, =3=, 384, 385-6.
    poem on, =3=, 388.

  =Joseph ben Solomon Kolon= (1460-1490), rabbi of Mantua, wanderings
        of, =4=, 294.
    authority of, =4=, 294-5.
    controversies of, =4=, 295.
    rabbi of Pavia, =4=, 295.

  =Joseph ben Todros Abulafia=, Kabbalist, =4=, 2.

  =Joseph Ibn-Aknin=, disciple of Maimonides, attacked by Mar-Sacharya,
        =3=, 477.
    “The Guide of the Perplexed” addressed to, =3=, 478.
    cautioned by Maimonides against letting his book fall into the
        hands of the Mahometans, =3=, 486.
    finds Maimonides’ system inconsistent with Judaism, =3=, 487.
    urges the excommunication of Daniel ben Saadiah, =3=, 526.

  =Joseph Ibn-Alfual=, translator of Maimonides’ Mishna commentary, =4=,
        60.

  =Joseph Ibn-Jau=, supports Joseph Ibn-Abitur, =3=, 238, 239.

  =Joseph Ibn-Migash=, supports Balkin, =3=, 258.
    leaves Granada, =3=, 258.
    occupies a high office in Seville, =3=, 280.

  =Joseph Ibn-Nagrela= (1031-1066), eulogized by Joseph ben
        Chasdaï, =3=, 273.
    vizir and Nagid, =3=, 274, 275.
    secretary to Balkin, =3=, 274.
    wife of, =3=, 274.
    protects the sons of the last Gaon, =3=, 275.
    as Talmudist, =3=, 275.
    accused of poisoning Balkin, =3=, 275.
    opposes the massacre of the Granada Arabs, =3=, 276-7.
    loses the favor of Badis, =3=, 277.
    accused of treason, =3=, 278.
    killed, =3=, 278.
    wife and son of, flee to Lucena, =3=, 279.
    library of, =3=, 279.
    elegy on, =3=, 279.
    patron of Isaac Ibn-Albalia, =3=, 283.
    patron of Isaac Ibn-Giat, =3=, 284.

  =Joseph Ibn-Verga=, historian, =4=, 555.
    ancestors of, =4=, 556.
    historical work of, =4=, 557.
    style of, =4=, 557.
    arraignment of the Jews by, =4=, 557.

  =Joseph Ibn-Yachya=, at the disputation of Tortosa, =4=, 208.

  =Joseph Ibn-Yachya=, pleads with the Portuguese Jews for the Spanish
        exiles, =4=, 366.

  =Joseph, son of Tobiah=, leader of the Judæans, =1=, 423-4.
    flatters the Egyptian ambassador, =1=, 424.
    at the court of Ptolemy III, =1=, 424-5.
    tax-gatherer of Cœlesyria and Phœnicia, =1=, 425.
    favorite of Ptolemy IV, =1=, 425-6.
    wealth of, enriches Judæa, =1=, 426-7.
    introduces Dionysian festivals into Judæa, =1=, 428.
    son of, his representative, =1=, 429-30.
    death of, =1=, 431.
    descendants of, called Tobiades, =1=, 432.

  =Joseph, son of Zachariah=, general of Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 476.

  =Joseph Albo= (1380-1444), at the disputation of Tortosa, =4=,
        208, 233.
    holds the Agada to be authoritative, =4=, 214.
    refuses to accept baptism, =4=, 215.
    writes an account of a religious controversy, =4=, 234.
    physician and philosopher, =4=, 239.
    on freedom of inquiry, =4=, 240.
    on the articles of the creed, =4=, 240.
    style of, =4=, 240.
    religio-philosophical system of, =4=, 240-3.
    on salvation of the soul, =4=, 240, 243.

  =Joseph Al-Kabri= persecutes the Karaites in Spain, =3=, 362.

  =Joseph Amarkala Halevi=, prince of the Jews about Nishabur, =3=, 433.

  =Joseph Barihan Alfalach=, representative of the Mosul congregation,
        and David Alrui, =3=, 433.

  =Joseph Caiaphas=, high priest, president of the tribunal that tried
        Jesus, =2=, 163, 164.
    removed from office, =2=, 172.

  =Joseph Ezobi ben Chanan= (1230-1250), poet, works of, translated,
        =3=, 561.
    advice of, to his son, =3=, 561.

  =Joseph Hamon.= _See_ Hamon, Joseph.

  =Joseph Jaabez=, attributes the suffering of the Jews to their heresy,
        =4=, 343, 479.

  =Joseph Kara=, Bible exegete, =3=, 345-6.
    writes commentaries on the Prophets and the Hagiographa, =3=, 346.

  =Joseph Karo= (1488-1575), infected with Messianic enthusiasm by
        Molcho, =4=, 496-7, 537.
    longing of, for martyrdom, =4=, 511.
    ordained by Jacob Berab, =4=, 536, 538.
    learning and wanderings of, =4=, 537.
    elaborates Jacob Asheri’s code, =4=, 537, 539.
    visions of, =4=, 537-8.
    among the Kabbalists, =4=, 538.
    Messianic dreams of, =4=, 538-9.
    code by, intended to bring about religious unity, =4=, 539, 612.
    chief rabbi of Safet, =4=, 540.
    appealed to on the question of trade with Ancona, =4=, 580.
    excommunicates Daud, =4=, 599.
    publishes the “Shulchan Aruch,” =4=, 612.
    Spanish tendencies of the code of, =4=, 613.
    orders Azarya deï Rossi’s works to be burned, =4=, 616.
    code of, commented upon by Moses Isserles, =4=, 637.
    the highest Jewish authority in the seventeenth century, =5=, 51.
    _See also_ Shulchan Aruch, the.

  =Joseph Kaspi=, philosopher, =4=, 87, 91.

  =Joseph Orabuena=, physician, chief rabbi of Navarre, =4=, 184-5.

  =Joseph Pichon=, receiver general of taxes under Henry II of
        Castile, =4=, 138.
    denounced by Jewish courtiers, =4=, 156.
    condemned as a traitor, =4=, 156.
    beheaded by the Jews, =4=, 156.
    the execution of, arouses excitement against the Jews, =4=,
        157-8, 167.

  =Joseph Rabban=, leader of the Jews in India, =2=, 629-30.
    special rights conferred on, =2=, 630.

  =Joseph Saragossi=, Kabbalist, disciple of, =4=, 393.
    reforms life in Safet, =4=, 399.
    introduces the Kabbala into Safet, =4=, 399.

  =Joseph Tob-Elem=, writes a commentary on Abraham Ibn-Ezra’s
        Pentateuch commentary, =4=, 144.

  =Joseph Zapateiro de Lamego=, traveler, employed by João II of
        Portugal, =4=, 368.

  =Joseph Zevi=, brother of Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 145.

  =Josephus, Flavius.= _See_ Joseph ben Matthias.

  =Josephus=, pseudo-. _See_ Josippon.

  =Joshua=, father of Narboni, =4=, 94.

  =Joshua=, leader of the Israelites, =1=, 31, 32-3.
    victory of, at Gibeon, =1=, 34-5.
    contest of, with the tribes of Joseph, =1=, 36.
    defeats Jabin, =1=, 37.
    dwells among the Ephraimites, =1=, 41.
    declining years of, =1=, 50.
    death of, =1=, 52.
    Israelites under, settle in Arabia, =3=, 54.

  =Joshua=, of the family of Phabi, made high priest, =2=, 107.

  =Joshua=, of the family of Sié, made high priest, =2=, 127.

  =Joshua deï Cantori=, defames the Talmud, =4=, 583.

  =Joshua ben Chananya=, teacher of the Law, disciple of Jochanan ben
        Zakkai, =2=, 324, 326.
    contemporary of Gamaliel II, =2=, 335.
    opposes decisions by the Bath-Kol, =2=, 337.
    dispute of, with Gamaliel II, =2=, 340-2.
    on the admission of proselytes, =2=, 343, 384.
    reconciled with Gamaliel II, =2=, 344-5.
    artisan, =2=, 344, 348, 442.
    character of, =2=, 348.
    popularity and homeliness of, =2=, 349.
    astronomical knowledge of, =2=, 349.
    condemns Shammai’s rules, =2=, 349-50.
    conciliatory intercourse of, with the Roman rulers, =2=, 350.
    removes the ban from Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, =2=, 350.
    obtains lucrative posts for poor scholars, =2=, 345, 357.
    nephew of, =2=, 370, 443.
    and Akylas, =2=, 385.
    journey of, to Rome, =2=, 387.
    and Flavius Clemens, =2=, 387, 389, 391.
    influence of, on Nerva, =2=, 392.
    advises against the rebellion against Hadrian, =2=, 403-4.
    leader of the people under Hadrian, =2=, 404.
    mourns for Gamaliel II, =2=, 404.
    president of the Synhedrion, =2=, 404.
    and Hadrian, =2=, 406-7.
    tries to induce Hadrian not to rebuild Jerusalem, =2=, 407-8.
    death of, =2=, 408.
    disciples of, discard the Jewish garb, =2=, 424.
    praises the Halachic knowledge of Bruria, =2=, 436.

  =Joshua ben Damnai=, high priest, =2=, 249.

  =Joshua ben Gamala=, high priest, obtains his office through
        bribery, =2=, 249.
    improves the educational system of Judæa, =2=, 249.
    procures the governorship of Galilee for Josephus, =2=, 277-8.
    suspected of Roman proclivities, =2=, 294.
    executed by the Zealots, =2=, 296.

  =Joshua ben Joseph Ibn-Vives Allorqui= (Geronimo de Santa Fé),
        epistle of, attacking Christian dogmas, =4=, 186-7.
    physician to Benedict XIII, =4=, 200.
    instrument for the conversion of the Jews of Spain, =4=, 206,
        231-2.
    champion of Christianity at the disputation of Tortosa, =4=, 207.
    proves the Messiahship of Jesus from the Talmud, =4=, 208-9, 211,
        212.
    accuses the Talmud of blasphemy, =4=, 213-14.
    end of, unknown, =4=, 217.
    charges of, refuted, =4=, 232, 238.
    leaves the Marranos unconvinced, =4=, 256.

  =Joshua ben Karcha=, denounces Eleazar ben Simon, =2=, 465.

  =Joshua ben Levi=, teacher of the Law, collects the Patriarch’s tax
        in Rome, =2=, 486, 498.
    accompanies Chanina bar Chama to Cæsarea, =2=, 491.
    prays for rain, =2=, 492.
    reputation of, =2=, 497.
    restores order in southern Judæa, =2=, 498.
    legends about, =2=, 498.
    and Ulla bar Kosher, =2=, 530.

  =Joshua, son of Jehozedek=, high priest, leader of the exiles
        returning under Cyrus, =1=, 352.
    erects an altar on the site of the Temple, =1=, 356.
    urges the completion of the second Temple, =1=, 359.
    sole leader of the Judæan community, =1=, 360.

  =Joshua, son of Joiada=, slain by his brother, =1=, 409.

  =Joshua, son of Perachia=, Pharisee leader, maxim of, =2=, 20.

  =Joshua Falk Cohen.= _See_ Cohen, Joshua Falk.

  =Joshua Lorqui.= _See_ Joshua ben Joseph Ibn-Vives Allorqui.

  =Joshua Sirach.= _See_ Jesus Sirach.

  =Josiah=, son of Amon (638-608), king of Judah, minority of, =1=, 286.
    averts the capture of Jerusalem by the Scythians, =1=, 288.
    fears to suppress idolatry, =1=, 288.
    repairs the Temple, =1=, 288-9.
    under the influence of Jeremiah, =1=, 289.
    receives the Book of the Law found in the Temple, =1=, 292, 293.
    has the Book of the Law read to the people, =1=, 294.
    uproots idolatry, =1=, 294-5.
    desecrates the idolatrous altar at Bethel, =1=, 295.
    summons the nation to celebrate Passover at Jerusalem, =1=, 295.
    social conditions under, =1=, 296.
    mortally wounded at Megiddo, =1=, 297.
    sons of, =1=, 298.

  =Josiah=, teacher of the Law, in the south of Judæa, =2=, 442.

  =Josiah Hassan=, appointed Exilarch by Saadiah, =3=, 195, 196.
    banished to Khorasan, =3=, 196.

  =Josippon= (“Joseph ben Gorion,” pseudo-Josephus), history of the
        Jews between the destruction of the first and the second Temple,
        =3=, 179-80.

  =Joslin of Rosheim.= _See_ Joseph ben Gershom Loans.

  =Josselman Rosheim.= _See_ Joseph ben Gershom Loans.

  =Jost, Isaac Marcus= (1793-1860), historian, basis of the history by,
        =5=, 594-5.
    service rendered by, =5=, 595.
    objections to the work of, =5=, 595-6.
    limitations of, =5=, 609, 610.
    compared with Rapoport, =5=, 619.

  =Jotapata=, resistance of, to Vespasian, =2=, 285-6, 286-7.
    fall of, =2=, 287.

  =Jotham=, son of Uzziah, regent of Judah, =1=, 246.
    king, ally of Pekah and Rezin, =1=, 248.
    state of the kingdom under, =1=, 248-50.
    death of, =1=, 257.

  =Jotham=, brother of Abimelech, parable of, =1=, 63.

  =Jourdan=, French general, frees the Jews from the Frankfort Ghetto,
        =5=, 503-4.

  =Journals=, Jewish, list of:
    Ha-Meassef, =5=, 399-400.
    Journal for the Science of Judaism, =5=, 585.
    Kerem Chemed, =5=, 621, 625.
    Orient, The, =5=, 693.
    Scientific Journal, The, =5=, 625.
    Zion, =5=, 693.

  =Jovianus=, emperor, concludes peace with Shabur II, =2=, 602.
    religious toleration under, =2=, 602.

  =Jozachar=, a noble of Judah, kills Joash, =1=, 221.

  =Juan I=, of Aragon, Jews under, =4=, 145, 170.
    Chasdaï Crescas at the court of, =4=, 146.

  =Juan II=, of Aragon, the Jews under, =4=, 274, 275.

  =Juan I=, of Castile, coronation of, =4=, 156.
    punishes Fernan Martin, =4=, 157.
    deprives the Jews of criminal jurisdiction, =4=, 157.
    confirms anti-Jewish restrictions, =4=, 158.
    possible heir to Portugal, =4=, 158.
    regent of Portugal, =4=, 160-1.
    makes David Negro chief rabbi of Castile, =4=, 161.
    gives up Portugal, =4=, 162.
    death of, =4=, 167.

  =Juan II=, of Castile, Jews under, during his minority, =4=, 193-4.
    anti-Jewish edict issued in the name of, =4=, 203-4.
    issues a second edict concerning the Jews, =4=, 205-6.
    admits Jews to state affairs, =4=, 228-9.
    confirms the law of Avila, =4=, 229.
    refuses consent to anti-Jewish bulls, =4=, 251.
    protects the Jews, =4=, 251-2.
    weakness of, =4=, 252-3.
    complains of the backsliding Marranos, =4=, 256.

  =Juan de Abadia=, Marrano, tries to suppress the Inquisition, =4=,
        329.
    hires an assassin to kill Pedro Arbues, =4=, 329-30.
    suicide of, =4=, 331.

  =Juan de España= (the Old), apostate, Christian propagandist, =4=,
        233.

  =Juan de Lucena=, minister to Aragon, urges the expulsion of the Jews,
        =4=, 348-9.
    brother of, persecuted by the Marranos, =4=, 355.

  =Juan de Sevilla.= _See_ Samuel Abrabanel.

  =Juan de Seville=, intercedes for the Marranos, =4=, 322-3.
    circulates Sixtus IV’s bull against the Inquisition, =4=, 323.

  =Juan Alfonso=, governor of Seville, threatened by a mob, =4=, 168.

  =Juan Alfonso de Albuquerque=, minister to Pedro the Cruel,
        recommends a Jew as minister of finance, =4=, 115-16.
    falls into disgrace, =4=, 117.

  =Juan Arias=, bishop of Avila, delivers up the Jews of Sepulveda to
        butchery, =4=, 279.

  =Juan Emanuel=, regent for Alfonso XI of Castile, the Jews under,
        =4=, 52-3.

  =Juba=, king of Numidia, marries Glaphyra, =2=, 128.

  =Jubilee=, the year of, ceases to exist as a year of release, =1=,
        393.

  =Judæa=, under Gedaliah, =1=, 319-23.
    depopulated by Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 325.
    becomes a Persian dependency, =1=, 351.
    part of Cœlesyria under Macedonian rule, =1=, 414.
    conquered by Ptolemy I, =1=, 416.
    falls to Ptolemy I after the battle of Ipsus, =1=, 418.
    revolts from Ptolemy II, =1=, 423.
    Dionysian festivals introduced into, =1=, 428.
    at peace under Joseph, son of Tobiah, =1=, 430.
    under Seleucidæan kings, =1=, 432.
    ravaged by the Syrians, =1=, 433.
    invaded by Gorgias, =1=, 467.
    invaded by Lysias, =1=, 469.
    reduced by Bacchides, =1=, 491.
    the army of, under Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 498.
    after the death of Jonathan Haphus, =1=, 501-2, 519-20.
    independent under Simon Tharsi, =1=, 520.
    independence of, acknowledged by Demetrius II, =1=, 521.
    the Judæans in Egypt apprised of the independence of, =1=, 522-3.
    allied with Rome, =1=, 526.
    a monarchy under Simon Tharsi, =1=, 526.
    under John Hyrcanus, =2=, 1, 11-12.
    extent of, under Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 46.
    prosperity of, under Salome Alexandra, =2=, 48.
    one of the conquered provinces of Rome, =2=, 67.
    divided into five provinces, =2=, 71.
    burdens of, lessened by Cæsar, =2=, 76.
    forced to pay a money contribution to Cassius Longinus, =2=, 80.
    free from foreign soldiery under Antigonus, =2=, 83.
    pays a tax to Rome, =2=, 87.
    invaded by Sosius, =2=, 88.
    extent of, under Herod, =2=, 103.
    extent of, under the Herodians, =2=, 118.
    towns of, adorned with Greek art, =2=, 118.
    given to Archelaus by Herod’s will, =2=, 119.
    made an ethnarchy by Augustus, =2=, 127.
    wholly subject to Rome, =2=, 128.
    ruled by procurators, =2=, 137.
    compared with Galilee, =2=, 148.
    given to Agrippa I by Claudius, =2=, 190.
    the kingdom of, at its greatest extent, =2=, 190.
    prosperity of, under Agrippa I, =2=, 191.
    a Roman province on Agrippa I’s death, =2=, 197.
    the governor of, independent of the governor of Syria, =2=, 197.
    Roman dominion oppressive in, =2=, 233.
    aristocracy of, immoral, =2=, 234.
    severity of the Roman governors of, =2=, 241.
    under Cumanus, =2=, 242.
    under Felix, =2=, 245-7.
    turbulent state of, under Gessius Florus, =2=, 250-1.
    aroused against Rome, =2=, 262.
    aided against Rome by foreign Judæans, =2=, 264.
    the property of Vespasian, =2=, 312.
    triumph over, celebrated at Rome, =2=, 314-15.
    fortresses of, in arms, =2=, 315.
    after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, =2=, 321.
    under Roman governors, =2=, 333.
    in rebellion against Trajan, =2=, 394-5.
    in rebellion against Hadrian, =2=, 399-400, 403, 408.
    visit of Hadrian to, =2=, 406.
    desolate condition of, under Hadrian, =2=, 431.
    revolution in, under Antoninus Pius, =2=, 447.
    sanctity of, =2=, 458.
    Hebrew spoken in, =2=, 461-2.
    Marcus Aurelius in, =2=, 463.
    under Commodus, =2=, 463.
    falls into the background, =2=, 503, 531.
    compared with Babylonia, =2=, 505.
    educational institutions of, investigated by Judah III, =2=, 532.
    youths of, go to Babylonia for study, =2=, 537.
    Babylonia independent of, =2=, 548.
    burials in, =2=, 548.
    scene of the coming of the Messiah, =2=, 548-9.
    decline of, =2=, 557, 560.
    teachers of the Law banished from, =2=, 566-7.
    dialectics unknown in, =2=, 591.
    the head of the Jewish communities in the Roman empire, =2=, 611.
    last Halachic authorities of, =2=, 612.
    Biblical studies in, under Theodosius II, =2=, 623-5.
    _See also_ Canaan; Israel, the kingdom of; Judah; Palestine.

  =Judæa, the Roman governors of=, list of:
    Bassus,
    Quietus, Lucius
    Rufus, Tinnius
    Silva.
    _See also_ Procurators, the, of Judæa; Syria, the Roman
        governors of.

  =Judæan Christians=, the, the early Christians, =2=, 168.
    customs of, =2=, 168.
    displeased with Paul, =2=, 230, 231.
    declare the Law binding, =2=, 231.
    differences between, and pagan Christians, =2=, 232.
    _See also_ Ebionites, the; Jewish Christians, the; Nazarenes, the.

  =Judæans=, the, deported to Babylonia, =1=, 307.
    banished, urge war against Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 309.
    flee to Egypt, =1=, 317, 318.
    fugitive, molested after the fall of Jerusalem, =1=, 318.
    remain in Judah, =1=, 318-19, 321.
    return to Jerusalem from the countries about, =1=, 356.
    moral degeneracy of, under Zerubbabel, =1=, 358.
    accused of disloyalty to Persia, =1=, 361.
    intermarry with the Samaritans, =1=, 361-3.
    neglect the Law, =1=, 366.
    receive Ezra with respect, =1=, 367.
    repudiate their heathen wives, =1=, 368-9.
    in part opposed to Ezra’s severity, =1=, 370.
    appeal to Nehemiah for aid, =1=, 372.
    intrigue with Tobiah against Nehemiah, =1=, 376.
    swear not to enslave the poor, =1=, 377.
    listen to Ezra’s reading of the Law, =1=, 378-80.
    repudiate their heathen wives, =1=, 380.
    swear to observe the Law, =1=, 380-1.
    consecrate the walls of Jerusalem, =1=, 381-2.
    disregard Nehemiah’s injunctions, =1=, 383-4.
    dissensions among, =1=, 384.
    reforms among, introduced by Nehemiah on his second visit,
        =1=, 385-8.
    hostility of, to the Samaritans, =1=, 392.
    influence of the Samaritan sect on, =1=, 392-3.
    cultivate the Law, =1=, 393-7.
    cruelly treated under Artaxerxes II and III, =1=, 408-9.
    taxed by Bagoas, =1=, 409-10.
    hostility of the Samaritans to, =1=, 410.
    legends about, and Alexander the Great, =1=, 412-13.
    taxed by the Macedonians, =1=, 413.
    favored by Alexander the Great, =1=, 414-15.
    refuse to help in rebuilding the temple to Bel, =1=, 415.
    taken captive by Ptolemy I, =1=, 416.
    pay tribute to the Egypto-Macedonian court, =1=, 418.
    settle in Alexandria, =1=, 418.
    settle in Antioch, =1=, 419.
    colonies of, in the Græco-Macedonian countries, =1=, 418-19.
    dispersed in the lands of the Ptolemies and Seleucidæ, =1=, 420-1.
    choose Joseph as their leader, =1=, 424.
    under Greek influence, =1=, 426, 427-9.
    well treated by Antiochus III, =1=, 433.
    hated by surrounding nations, =1=, 434-5.
    split up into Hellenists and Chassidim, =1=, 435-6.
    trained in Greek athletics, =1=, 445-6.
    at the Olympian games at Tyre, =1=, 446.
    dissatisfied with Menelaus as high priest, =1=, 447.
    kill Lysimachus, =1=, 449.
    accused of partisanship for Egypt, =1=, 449.
    national party of, favored at the Egyptian court, =1=, 451.
    cruelly treated by Antiochus Epiphanes, =1=, 453.
    commanded to sacrifice to the Greek gods, =1=, 454-5.
    persecuted by the overseers of Antiochus IV, =1=, 456-7.
    extermination of, planned by Antiochus IV, =1=, 463-4.
    defended by Ptolemy Macron, =1=, 476-7, 478.
    granted religious freedom by Antiochus V, =1=, 480, 488.
    split up into parties, =1=, 489.
    alliance with, sought by Demetrius I, =1=, 495.
    exempted from taxation, =1=, 497.
    destroy a portion of Antioch, =1=, 497.
    defeat Diodotus Tryphon, =1=, 499.
    regret the existence of the Temple of Onias, =1=, 509.
    object to the Greek translation of the Law, =1=, 512.
    count from the date of Simon Tharsi’s accession, =1=, 522.
    in the army of Antiochus Sidetes celebrate the Sabbath and the
        holidays, =2=, 5.
    permitted to ship goods duty free from their ports, =2=, 9.
    development of, under John Hyrcanus, =2=, 13-15.
    Greek art among, =2=, 14.
    cultivate the Hebrew language, =2=, 14-15.
    literature of, under the Hasmonæans, =2=, 15-16.
    religion of, divided into sects, =2=, 16-31.
    make the half-Shekel collections in spring, =2=, 52.
    flee to Egypt during the siege of Jerusalem by Aretas, =2=, 60.
    with republican views appeal to Pompey, =2=, 63-4.
    oppose Cæsar, =2=, 77.
    present their grievances to Archelaus, =2=, 120-1.
    appeal to Augustus to make Judæa a Roman province, =2=, 126-7.
    petition for the removal of obnoxious emblems from the Roman
        standard, =2=, 139.
    influenced by John the Baptist, =2=, 146-7.
    morality of the middle class of, =2=, 151.
    complain of Pontius Pilate’s cruelty, =2=, 172.
    leniently treated under Tiberius, =2=, 172-3.
    object to the images of the emperors on the Roman standards, =2=,
        173.
    dispersed in the Roman and Parthian empires, =2=, 200-3.
    of the dispersion visit the Temple, =2=, 201.
    as regarded by the heathen, =2=, 203.
    view held by, of paganism, =2=, 204.
    manifest proselytizing tendencies, =2=, 215-19.
    in Greek cities proselytized by Nazarenes, =2=, 222.
    displeased with the apostle Paul, =2=, 229, 230.
    hindered by Rome, in the free exercise of religion, =2=, 234.
    immorality of, under the Roman dominion, =2=, 237-8.
    resent the presence of a Roman cohort in the Temple, =2=, 242.
    hated by the Greek and Roman inhabitants of Judæa, =2=, 246-7.
    deprived by Nero of civil rights in Cæsarea, =2=, 247.
    well treated by Nero and Poppea Sabina, =2=, 248.
    number of, in Jerusalem at Passover 66, =2=, 251.
    quarrel with the heathen in Cæsarea, =2=, 252-3.
    parties among, =2=, 256.
    aroused by the treatment of the Cæsareans, =2=, 262.
    loyalty of, defended before Nero, =2=, 268.
    joined by the Samaritans against Rome, =2=, 268.
    massacre of, by the heathen, =2=, 269.
    forbidden to buy articles of food from the heathen, =2=, 270.
    after the destruction of Jerusalem, =2=, 311-12, 321-2.
    friendly to Rome, rewarded by Vespasian, =2=, 316-17.
    _See also_ Israelites, the; Jews, the; Judæans, the, _of various
        cities and countries_.

  =Judæo-Alexandrian school=, the, of Allegorists, =2=, 208-9, 329.
    combat paganism, =2=, 214-15.

  =Judæo-Greek literature=, among the Judæans in Egypt, =1=, 515-16;
        =2=, 204-8.

  =Judæo-Greek writers=, spread Judæan doctrines, =2=, 204-8.

  =Judah, the house of=, renounces allegiance to David, =1=, 140.

  =Judah, the kingdom of=, first indications of, =1=, 109.
    dislike of, to Israel, under Solomon, =1=, 174.
    founded, =1=, 183.
    religious conditions in, under Rehoboam, =1=, 188-9.
    subjects of, sold as slaves under Uzziah, =1=, 227.
    weakness of, at the beginning of Uzziah’s reign, =1=, 237.
    licentiousness of the princes of, under Jotham, =1=, 249-50.
    Assyrian idols introduced into, =1=, 260-1.
    degradation of the nobles of, under Ahaz, =1=, 261.
    freed from idolatry by Hezekiah, =1=, 268.
    fortified towns of, taken by Sennacherib, =1=, 272.
    golden age of, under Hezekiah, =1=, 279.
    idolatry in, under Manasseh, =1=, 282-3.
    ravaged by the Scythians, =1=, 287.
    end of, =1=, 305.
    taken by Nebuchadnezzar’s army, =1=, 307.
    importance of, =1=, 308.
    power of the nobles of, =1=, 308-9.

  =Judah, the kings of=, list of:
    Abijam,
    Ahaziah,
    Amaziah,
    Amon,
    Asa,
    Jehoahaz (Shallum),
    Jehoiachin (Jeconiah),
    Jehoiakim (Eliakim),
    Jehoshaphat,
    Joash,
    Joram (Jehoram),
    Josiah,
    Manasseh,
    Rehoboam,
    Uzziah,
    Zedekiah (Mattaniah).

  =Judah, the tribe of=, successful warriors in the desert, =1=, 26.
    war of, for territory, =1=, 38.
    description of the land of, =1=, 45.
    isolation of, =1=, 51, 76-7, 109.
    delivered by Othniel, =1=, 60.
    attacked by the Ammonites and Philistines, =1=, 64.
    enters national life, =1=, 77.
    virtues of, =1=, 77.
    chooses David as king, =1=, 107.
    hesitates to recall David after Absalom’s revolt, =1=, 146.
    sends an embassy to meet David, =1=, 146-7.
    quarrels with the northern tribes, =1=, 148.
    loyal to Rehoboam, =1=, 182.
    members of, return under Zerubbabel, =1=, 352.

  =Judah=, brother of Jesus, =2=, 148.

  =Judah=, chief rabbi of Portugal and minister of finance, =3=, 618.

  =Judah=, coadjutor of Josephus in Galilee, =2=, 278, 279.

  =Judah=, Essene seer, =2=, 38.

  =Judah=, father of Solomon Ibn-Gebirol, =3=, 265.

  =Judah=, favorite of Charles the Bald, =3=, 170.

  =Judah I= (ha-Nassi, Rabbi), Patriarch, son of Simon III, closes the
        activity of the Tanaites, =2=, 450.
    talents of, =2=, 450-1.
    teachers of, =2=, 451.
    made Patriarch, =2=, 451.
    generosity of, =2=, 451-2.
    invests the Patriarchate with autocratic power, =2=, 452-4.
    lives at Sepphoris, =2=, 452.
    called Rabbi, =2=, 453.
    disciples of, =2=, 454-7, 511.
    severity of, towards his disciples, =2=, 454-6.
    punishes Chiya, =2=, 455.
    refuses to authorize Simon bar Kappara to teach, =2=, 456.
    cured by Samuel, =2=, 456.
    offended by Judah and Chiskiya, =2=, 457.
    admits the testimony of a Samaritan, =2=, 457.
    moderates the laws of tithes, =2=, 458-9.
    contemplates the abolition of the year of release, =2=, 459-60.
    completes the Mishna, =2=, 460-1.
    revises his own code, =2=, 461.
    prefers Hebrew, =2=, 461.
    gives tradition a settled form, =2=, 462.
    the last of the Tanaites, =2=, 462.
    rebuked by the widow of Eleazar ben Simon, =2=, 465.
    death of, =2=, 465-7.
    appoints his sons to offices, =2=, 466.
    dying wishes of, =2=, 466.
    announcement of the death of, =2=, 466-7.
    funeral of, =2=, 467.
    called “the Holy,” =2=, 467.
    maxims of, =2=, 472.
    work of, completed by Ashi, =2=, 609.

  =Judah II= (Rabbi, Rabbenu, 228), Patriarch, son of Gamaliel
        III, =2=, 479.
    censured for irreligiousness, =2=, 480.
    in favor with Alexander Severus, =2=, 480-3.
    royal authority of, =2=, 481-2.
    Roman dress of, =2=, 483.
    leniency of, =2=, 483-5.
    permits the purchase of articles of food from the heathen,
        =2=, 483-4.
    alleviations proposed by, =2=, 484-5.
    attacks on, =2=, 485-6.
    covetousness of, =2=, 486.
    draws a revenue from the Jewish communities, =2=, 486-7.
    reverence for, =2=, 487.
    death of, =2=, 487.
    Jochanan bar Napacha the companion of, =2=, 493.
    questions Levi bar Sissi on the neo-Persians, =2=, 525.

  =Judah III= (280-300), Patriarch, has scant knowledge of the
        Law, =2=, 532.
    determines the new-moon, =2=, 532.
    investigates the educational institutions of Judæa, =2=, 532.
    accused of disloyalty, =2=, 533-4.
    levies a tax for the Patriarchate, =2=, 536.
    accused of Christian leanings, =2=, 565.

  =Judah IV=, Patriarch, son of Gamaliel V, =2=, 612.

  =Judah=, proselyte, informs against Simon ben Yochai, =2=, 448.

  =Judah=, treasurer of Ferdinand I of Portugal, =4=, 159.
    removed from office, =4=, 160.
    proposed as chief rabbi of Castile, =4=, 161, 162.
    imprisoned, =4=, 161.

  =Judah (Laudadeus) de Blanis=, physician and Kabbalist, =4=, 411.

  =Judah the Blind= (Jehudaï, 759-762), Gaon of Sora, opposed to Anan
        ben David, =3=, 129.
    author of Halachoth Ketuoth, =3=, 136.
    work of, supplemented, =3=, 179.
    work of, superseded, =3=, 286.

  =Judah ben Baba=, member of the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 357.
    ordains Akiba’s disciples, =2=, 429; =4=, 536.
    suffers martyrdom, =2=, 429.

  =Judah ben Bathyra=, teacher of the Law in Nisibis, =2=, 358, 443.
    effects the dissolution of the Synhedrion at Nahar-Pakod, =2=, 444.

  =Judah ben Chiya=, offends Judah I ha-Nassi, =2=, 457.
    adds supplements to the Mishna, =2=, 470.
    Babylonian disciple of Judah I, =2=, 511.

  =Judah ben Ezekiel=, Babylonian Amora, founds the academy of
        Pumbeditha, =2=, 545, 549.
    descent of, =2=, 549.
    dialectic system of, =2=, 550.
    and his brother, =2=, 550-1.
    severity of, with regard to purity of race, =2=, 551-2.
    excommunicates a Nahardean, =2=, 551-2.
    principal of the Sora Metibta, =2=, 552.
    method of, used by Chasda, =2=, 553.
    acuteness of the disciples of, =2=, 575.
    objects to emigration, =2=, 576.

  =Judah ben Ilai=, disciple of Akiba, returns to Judæa, =2=, 433.
    receives the members of the Synhedrion of Usha, =2=, 433-4.
    diplomacy of, =2=, 442.
    artisan, =2=, 442.
    praises Rome, =2=, 448.
    rewarded by Rome, =2=, 448.

  =Judah ben Jacob Chayyat=, Kabbalist, describes the suffering of the
        Spanish exiles, =4=, 369-70, 481.

  =Judah ben Joseph Ibn-Alfachar.= _See_ Jehuda bar Joseph Ibn-Alfachar.

  =Judah ben Moses Cohen=, physician to Alfonso X, =3=, 593.

  =Judah ben Moses Ibn-Tibbon=, chief of the Tibbonide party, =4=, 32.

  =Judah ben Saul Ibn-Tibbon= (1120-1190), physician and translator,
        pedantry of, =3=, 397.
    works translated by, =3=, 397.
    Hebrew style of, =3=, 398.

  =Judah ben Tabbaï=, Nassi of the Great Council, re-organizes
        it, =2=, 49.
    called “Restorer of the Law,” =2=, 49.
    rigorous in administering the Law, =2=, 53-4.
    maxim of, =2=, 54.
    disciples of, =2=, 72.

  =Judah ben Yechiel= (Messer Leon, 1450-1490), rabbi and physician in
        Mantua, =4=, 289.
    author of books on grammar, logic, and rhetoric, =4=, 289-90.
    as a classical scholar, =4=, 289-90.
    hostility to, =4=, 293.
    controversy of, with Joseph Kolon, =4=, 295.
    banished from Mantua, =4=, 295.

  =Judah ben Zippori=, Pharisee, instigates an uprising against
        Herod, =2=, 115.
    burnt alive, =2=, 115.
    death of, avenged, =2=, 121.

  =Judah Ibn-Giat=, poet, =3=, 318.

  =Judah Ibn-Verga=, Kabbalist and astronomer, teaches Marranos, =4=,
        335.
    martyrdom of, =4=, 336.
    as a chronicler, =4=, 556.
    consulted by Basnage, =5=, 196.

  =Judah Ibn-Yachya-Negro=, prevents the forced baptism of the Jews of
        Portugal, =4=, 218.

  =Judah, son of David ben Zaccaï=, quarrels with Saadiah, =3=, 195.
    appointed Exilarch, =3=, 201.
    son of, =3=, 201-2.

  =Judah, son of Simon Tharsi=, =1=, 520.
    general, =1=, 529.
    assassinated, =1=, 530.

  =Judah Benveniste=, leader of the Spanish exiles in Salonica, =4=,
        405.

  =Judah Chassid=, leader of a Sabbatian sect in Poland, exhorts to
        penance, =5=, 212.
    emigrates, =5=, 212.
    effect of preaching of, =5=, 212-13.
    death of, =5=, 213.
    nephews of, =5=, 213.

  =Judah Del Medigo.= _See_ Del Medigo.

  =Judah Judghan= (800), of Hamadan, imparts a Mutazilistic tendency to
        Judaism, =3=, 149-50.
    asceticism of, =3=, 150.
    founder of a sect, =3=, 150.

  =Judah Leon Abrabanel= (Hebræus, Medigo, 1470-1530), treasurer to a
        Portuguese prince, =4=, 337.
    describes his father, =4=, 339.
    referred to, =4=, 340.
    property of, confiscated by Alfonso V of Portugal, =4=, 341.
    forbidden to leave Toledo, =4=, 360.
    flees to Naples, =4=, 360.
    son of, forcibly baptized, =4=, 361.
    at Genoa, =4=, 384.
    pursuits of, =4=, 384.
    physician to Gonsalvo de Cordova, =4=, 384-5.
    in Venice, =4=, 385.
    without influence in Italy, =4=, 409.
    as philosopher, =4=, 480-1.
    Italian style of, =4=, 480.
    Hebrew verses of, addressed to his son, =4=, 480.
    esteemed by Italians, =4=, 481.

  =Judah Menz= (1408-1509), rabbi in Padua, Talmudist, =4=, 294.
    controversy of, with Elias del Medigo, =4=, 295.
    narrowness of, =4=, 295.
    disciples of, =4=, 406.
    as a teacher, =4=, 410.

  =Judah Siciliano=, Italian man of letters, =4=, 60.
    poet, praised by Immanuel Romi, =4=, 68.

  =Judah Sir Leon ben Isaac= (1166-1224), Tossafist, =3=, 408.
    writes the “Book of the Pious,” =3=, 408-9.
    disciples of, =3=, 409, 539.

  =Judah.= _See also under_ Jehuda; Judas.

  “=Judah’s= Rod of Correction,” history by Joseph Ibn-Verga, =4=, 557.

  =Judaism=, a religious conviction after the formation of the
        Samaritan sect, =1=, 393.
    Magian influence on, =1=, 402-5.
    incompatible with Greek games, =1=, 445.
    calumniated by Menelaus, the Benjamite, =1=, 449-50.
    calumniated by Antiochus Epiphanes, =1=, 452.
    becomes known through the Greek version of the Pentateuch,
        =1=, 512-13.
    misrepresented by the Greek translation of the Law, =1=, 513-14.
    development of, under the Hasmonæans, =2=, 16-17.
    sects of, =2=, 16-31.
    leaning of Romans towards, =2=, 136.
    Roman proselytes to, under Tiberius, =2=, 136-7.
    universality of, =2=, 141.
    how introduced to the heathen, =2=, 142.
    attitude of Jesus to, =2=, 155-6.
    as viewed by the heathen, =2=, 203.
    allegorized to suit Greek notions, =2=, 208-9.
    apostasy from, among the Alexandrians, =2=, 209.
    humanitarian laws of, as expounded by Philo, =2=, 211-12, 213-14.
    embraced by the heathen, =2=, 215-19.
    leanings towards, taken advantage of by the Nazarenes, =2=, 219.
    taught by Paul as an introduction to Christianity, =2=, 228, 229.
    relation of, to Christianity according to Paul, =2=, 229-30.
    hampered by Rome, =2=, 234.
    dangers to, after the destruction of Jerusalem, =2=, 322.
    dissociated from the Temple by Jochanan ben Zakkai, =2=, 324-5.
    reviled by the Nazarenes, =2=, 371-2.
    consolidation of, after the fall of the second Temple, =2=, 373.
    as viewed by the Gnostics, =2=, 377.
    influence of the Minæans on, deprecated, =2=, 378.
    Gnostic or semi-Christian ideas in, =2=, 380-1.
    saved from Gnostic influences by Akiba, =2=, 382.
    influence of, upon the pagan world, =2=, 382-3.
    conversions to, from paganism, =2=, 383-5.
    Tacitus on the conversions to, =2=, 384.
    mocked at by Hadrian, =2=, 407-8.
    laws against, decreed by Hadrian, =2=, 421.
    Hadrian attempts to graft paganism on, =2=, 422.
    persecuted by Hadrian, =2=, 423-6.
    independence of Christianity of, demonstrated to Hadrian, =2=, 431.
    laws against, promulgated by Severus, =2=, 464.
    legal character of, due to the Mishna, =2=, 471.
    admired by Alexander Severus, =2=, 481.
    Greek civilization equal to, according to Jochanan bar Napacha, =2=,
        494.
    in foreign lands, =2=, 520.
    oppressed by Christianity, =2=, 535.
    placed on an equality with Christianity, =2=, 561.
    aspersed by Church dignitaries under Constantine, =2=, 562.
    conversions to, forbidden by Constantine, =2=, 562, 564.
    separated from Christianity at the Council of Nice, =2=, 563.
    interest of Julian the Apostate in, =2=, 596.
    protected by Theodosius the Great, =2=, 614-15.
    preserved by the Talmud, =2=, 635.
    among the Arabian Jews in the sixth century, =3=, 58-9.
    inspires Mahomet, =3=, 71-2.
    taught the Chazars by fugitive Greek Jews, =3=, 139.
    account of the conversion of the Chazars to, =3=, 139-40.
    influence of, on the Chazars, =3=, 141.
    rationalistic tendency imparted to, =3=, 149-50.
    orthodox adherents of, oppose the rationalists, =3=, 152-3.
    mysticism in, =3=, 153-5.
    Karaite interpretation of, variable, =3=, 157.
    revered by the Empress Judith, =3=, 162.
    revered by the Christians of the Frankish empire, =3=, 163.
    promotes science during the Middle Ages, =3=, 187.
    assumes a European character in the tenth century, =3=, 188.
    Christian and Islam objections to, answered by Saadiah, =3=, 199.
    leadership of, lost by Asia, =3=, 207.
    the center of, in Spain, =3=, 229.
    gloomy character of, in Germany, =3=, 309.
    as expounded by Jehuda Halevi, =3=, 330, 331-6.
    as characterized by Abraham Ibn-Daud, =3=, 364-5.
    in Asia in the twelfth century, =3=, 440-2.
    as presented by Maimonides in his Mishne-Torah, =3=, 467.
    and philosophy in Maimonides’ “Guide of the Perplexed,” =3=, 478-9.
    loses by Maimonides’ philosophical system, =3=, 487.
    condition of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 446-7.
    the creed of, drawn up by Maimonides, =3=, 459-60.
    divided by the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 546-7.
    as interpreted by Nachmani, =3=, 533-5.
    Albo on the possibility of changing, =4=, 242.
    effect of the Protestant Reformation on, =4=, 471.
    influence of the Shulchan Aruch on, =4=, 613.
    influence of Lurya’s Kabbala on, =4=, 625-7.
    attacked by Martin Czechowic, =4=, 648.
    influence of the Cossack persecutions on, =5=, 16-17.
    condition of, in the seventeenth century, =5=, 51-2.
    reform of, proposed by Leo Modena, =5=, 73-4.
    defended by Simone Luzzatto, =5=, 81-4.
    antagonized by Spinoza, =5=, 97-8, 101-3.
    discredited by the Kabbala, =5=, 166.
    glorified by Spinoza, =5=, 167.
    attracts Christians, =5=, 176.
    influenced by Lessing, =5=, 298.
    Mendelssohn’s early attitude towards, =5=, 310.
    human additions to, according to Mendelssohn, =5=, 311, 317.
    binding only upon Jews, =5=, 312.
    Mendelssohn’s glorification of, =5=, 314-15.
    as defined by Mendelssohn, =5=, 364.
    consequences of the renaissance of, =5=, 374-5.
    view of, taken by Schleiermacher, =5=, 426-7.
    view of, held by Chateaubriand, =5=, 427.
    view of, held by Furtado, =5=, 496.
    characterized by Heine, =5=, 552.
    excrescences of, =5=, 557-9.
    barbarous aspect of, under Polish influence, =5=, 558.
    disfigurement of, among the Portuguese, =5=, 559.
    reform of, suggested, =5=, 559. _See_ Reform, the, of Judaism.
    reconciliation of, with culture, =5=, 560.
    as viewed by Bernays, =5=, 575-6.
    journal for the science of, =5=, 585.
    love for, fostered by the Society for Culture, =5=, 588.
    the renaissance of, =5=, 589-90, 591-2, 607.
    defined by Steinheim, =5=, 604-6.
    the narrowing of, by the new school of scholars, =5=, 627.
    view of, held by Holdheim, =5=, 680-1.
    the first to recognize the rights of man, =5=, 709-10.
    the moral system of, =5=, 710-11.
    free from asceticism, =5=, 712.

  =Judaism, the sects of=, list of:
    Boëthuseans,
    Chassidim,
    Donmäh,
    Essenes,
    Frankists,
    Isavites,
    Judghanites,
    Karaites (and their sects),
    Menachemists,
    Pharisees,
    Sabbatians,
    Sadducees,
    Samaritans.

  =Judaism, conversions to.= _See_ Conversions to Judaism.

  “=Judaism=, or the Jewish Doctrine,” attack by John Miller, =4=, 692.

  =Judaism, Rabbinical.= _See_ Rabbinical Judaism.

  =Judaism, Talmudical.= _See_ Talmudical Judaism.

  =Judaism, the Reform of.= _See_ Reform, the, of Judaism.

  =Judaism, the Statute of=, passed by the House of Commons, =3=, 642.

  “=Judaism Unmasked=,” by Eisenmenger, full title of, =5=, 188.
    suppressed, =5=, 189-90.
    cause of, supported by Frederick I of Prussia, =5=, 192-3.
    under ban for forty years, =5=, 193.

  =Judaizantes=, sect called forth by the Protestant Reformation, =4=,
        541.

  =Judas the Galilean=, champion against the Romans, =2=, 125.
    seizes the arsenal of Sepphoris, =2=, 125.
    escapes from Quintilius Varus, =2=, 126.
    leader of the Zealots, =2=, 133.
    resists the Roman census, =2=, 133-4.
    conception of the Messiah held by the disciples of, =2=, 144.
    morality of the followers of, =2=, 151.
    sons of, =2=, 199.
    grandsons of, =2=, 239.

  =Judas ben Jair=, killed by the Romans, =2=, 315.

  =Judas Aristobulus=, Judæan of priestly lineage, teacher of the
        Egyptian king, =1=, 519.
    petitioned to introduce the Chanukah celebration into Egypt, =2=,
        6-7.

  =Judas Iscariot=, follower of Jesus, betrays him, =2=, 163.

  =Judas Maccabæus=, son of Mattathias, the Hasmonæan, =1=, 459.
    chosen to succeed his father as commander, =1=, 461.
    characterization of, =1=, 461.
    defeats Apollonius, =1=, 461-2.
    defeats Heron, =1=, 462.
    joined by the half-Hellenized, =1=, 464.
    exhorts his troops at Mizpah, =1=, 467.
    divides his army among his brothers, =1=, 468.
    dismisses all excused from military service by the Law, =1=, 468.
    defeats Gorgias, =1=, 468-9, 476.
    defeats Lysias, =1=, 469-70.
    consecrates the Temple, =1=, 471-3.
    fortifies the Temple mount, =1=, 473.
    defeats the Idumæans and Ammonites, =1=, 474.
    appealed to by Judæans in the provinces, =1=, 474-5.
    rescues the trans-Jordanic provinces, =1=, 476.
    besieges the Acra, =1=, 478.
    defeated at Beth-Zachariah, =1=, 479.
    besieged in Jerusalem, =1=, 479-80.
    made high priest, =1=, 481.
    hated by the Hellenists, =1=, 481.
    accused before Demetrius I, =1=, 482.
    retreats to the mountains, =1=, 482.
    gathers a new army to oppose Alcimus and Bacchides, =1=, 483.
    treats with Nicanor, =1=, 484.
    defeats Nicanor, =1=, 484, 485.
    negotiates with Rome, =1=, 485-6.
    encamps at Eleasa, =1=, 486.
    falls on the battlefield of Eleasa, =1=, 487.
    achievements of, compared with his brother Jonathan’s, =1=, 501-2.
    state of Judæa after the death of, =1=, 501, 519-20.
    model of Cromwell, =5=, 26.

  =Judas.= _See also under_ Jehuda; Judah.

  =Judenbreter=, name assumed by German families, =3=, 611.

  =Jüdenbühl=, in Nuremberg, scene of the burning of the Jews, =4=, 110.

  =Judenmeister=, rabbis, appointed by order of Sigismund, =4=, 227.

  =Judenstättigkeit=, permissive residence of Jews in Frankfort, =4=,
        695; =5=, 503.
    indulgently interpreted, =4=, 696.
    abolished by Emperor Matthias, =4=, 700.

  =Juderia=, the, of Seville, destroyed by a mob, =4=, 169. _See_ Jew’s
        quarter, the.

  =Judges=, Jews forbidden to act as, by the Council of Mâcon,
        =3=, 39, 171.

  =Judges, the warrior=, deliver the Israelites from servitude, =1=,
        59.
    activity of, characterized, =1=, 68-9.
    un-Jewish character of, =5=, 715.

  =Judges=, the, list of:
    Abdon,
    Abimelech,
    Barak,
    Deborah,
    Ehud,
    Elon,
    Gideon,
    Ibzan,
    Jephthah,
    Othniel,
    Samson,
    Samuel,
    Shamgar.

  =Judghanites=, a Jewish sect, =3=, 150.

  =Judgment Chamber=, in the House of the Forest of Lebanon, =1=,
        168-9.

  =Judith, the Book of=, admitted into the Canon by Christians, =2=,
        488.

  =Judith=, wife of Louis the Pious, friendly to Judaism, =3=, 162.
    calumniated by Bishop Agobard, =3=, 164.
    rebellion incited against, =3=, 166.
    conspiracy against, joined by Agobard, =3=, 168.

  =Juglar, Gaspard=, inquisitor in Aragon, =4=, 326.

  =Julian the Apostate=, emperor, delivers the Jews from the oppression
        suffered under Constantine, =2=, 572.
    character of, =2=, 595.
    in possession of undivided power, =2=, 595.
    plans of, =2=, 595.
    opposes Christianity, =2=, 596.
    interest of, in Judaism, =2=, 596.
    admires the benevolence of the Jews, =2=, 596-7.
    predilection of, for the sacrificial cult, =2=, 597.
    favors the Jews of the Roman empire, =2=, 597.
    letter of, to the Jewish communities, =2=, 598.
    accuses the Christians of preventing the rebuilding of the
        Temple, =2=, 601.
    in the Persian war, =2=, 601-2.
    death of, =2=, 602.

  =Julian=, Metropolitan of Toledo, presides over an anti-Jewish
        Council, =3=, 107.

  =Julian ben Sabar=, Samaritan king, =3=, 13, 16.

  =Julianus=, leader of the rebellion against Trajan in Judæa, =2=, 395.
    threatened by Lucius Quietus, =2=, 401.

  =Julias=, built by the tetrarch Philip, =2=, 138.

  =Jülich=, a Jew of, accused of ritual murder, =5=, 642.

  =Julius II=, pope, friendly to the Jews, =4=, 407.
    employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 408.

  =Julius III=, pope, petitioned for absolution for the Marranos, =4=,
        528.
    the Talmud denounced before, =4=, 564.
    signs the decree against the Talmud, =4=, 565.
    protects Hebrew writings except the Talmud, =4=, 565.
    death of, =4=, 566.
    confirms the privileges of the Marranos of Ancona, =4=, 568.
    employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 569.

  =Julius Archelaus=, husband of Mariamne, daughter of Agrippa
        I, =2=, 235.

  =Julius Capellus=, partisan of Rome in Tiberias, =2=, 274.

  =Jullos=, name given to Hillel II by Origen, =2=, 487.

  =July revolution=, the, effect of, on Europe, =5=, 596.
    on the Jews, =5=, 596, 598, 600.

  “=Jumpers=, the,” origin of, =5=, 378.

  =Juno=, the Argive, statue of, raised by Herod in Cæsarea, =2=, 106.

  =Jupiter, statue of=, placed in the Temple by Antiochus Epiphanes,
        =1=, 455.
    destroyed by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 472.

  =Jupiter, temple of=, adorned with a golden vine destined for the
        Temple at Jerusalem, =2=, 63.
    on Gerizim, =2=, 422.

  =Jupiter Capitolinus=, temple to, in Jerusalem, =2=, 422.

  =Jupiter, Olympian=, statue of, raised by Herod in Cæsarea, =2=, 106.

  =Jurieu, Pierre=, Huguenot, on the future of the Jews, =5=, 176.

  =Jurisdiction, Jewish, autonomous=, withdrawn by Verus, =2=, 447-8.
    restored by Alexander Severus, =2=, 482.
    exercised by Raba in a criminal suit, =2=, 592.
    under the Patriarchs, =2=, 613.
    under Arcadius, =2=, 616.
    forbidden in mixed suits, =2=, 617; =3=, 28.
    in civil suits in Greece, southern Italy, etc., =3=, 27, 28, 423.
    in Cologne, =3=, 41.
    under the Exilarchs, =3=, 89.
    in Speyer, =3=, 297.
    under Henry IV, =3=, 298.
    in Castile, etc., =4=, 116, 155, 157, 203.
    exercised by Ar-Rabbi Mor, =4=, 159.
    in Vienna, =4=, 702.
    in Poland, =5=, 3.
    _See also_ Courts of Justice; Witnesses.

  =Jussuf Pasha=, governor of Rhodes, persecutes the Jews on the blood
        accusation, =5=, 640-1.
    dismissed from his post, =5=, 647.

  =Justi=, court preacher, denounces Mendelssohn’s review of Frederick
        II’s poetry, =5=, 302.

  =Justin I=, emperor of the East, enforces the anti-Jewish laws of
        Theodosius II, =3=, 10.
    appealed to, to make war upon Zorah Nowas, =3=, 66.

  =Justin II=, emperor of the East, oppresses the Samaritans,
        =3=, 17-18.
    expels the Jews from their quarter in Constantinople, =3=, 26.

  =Justinian I= (483-565), emperor, closes the schools of philosophy in
        Greece, =3=, 7.
    interferes with the religious liberty of the Jews, =3=, 12-16.
    enacts that Jews are competent witnesses only in their own cases,
        =3=, 12-13.
    orders translations of the Law to be used by Jewish congregations,
        =3=, 14-15.
    forbids the recital of the confession of faith, =3=, 15.
    removes the Temple vessels from Constantinople to Jerusalem, =3=,
        27.
    rule of, feared by the Jews of Italy, =3=, 31.
    made exarch of Ravenna, =3=, 32.
    appealed to by Imrulkais Ibn Hojr, =3=, 69.

  =Justiniani, Augustin=, bishop of Corsica, introduces the study of
        Hebrew into France, =4=, 473, 474.
    has Moses Kimchi’s grammar printed, =4=, 474.
    has a Latin translation of the “Guide of the Perplexed”
        made, =4=, 474.

  =Justus of Tiberias=, historian, does not mention Jesus, =2=, 166.
    leader of the Roman insurrection in Tiberias, =2=, 274.
    historian of the Roman war, =2=, 319.
    ambiguous conduct of, =2=, 319-20.
    attacks Josephus, =2=, 390.


  =K=

  =Kaab=, teacher of the Law, converts Abu-Kariba to Judaism,
        =3=, 62-3.
    goes to Yemen to convert the people, =3=, 63.

  =Kaab Ibn-Asharaf=, Jewish opponent of Mahomet, =3=, 74.

  =Kaab Ibn-Assad=, chief of the Benu-Kuraiza, =3=, 80.
    killed by Mahomet, =3=, 81.

  =Kaaba=, the, the Square, the holy place of the Arabs, =3=, 60.
    number of idols in, =3=, 72.
    Moslem turn towards, in prayer, =3=, 75.

  =Kaarat Kesef=, by Joseph Ezobi, =3=, 561.

  =Kabbala=, the, Jacob ben Meshullam the first promoter of, =3=, 396.
    as used by Nachmani, =3=, 535.
    rise of, in the thirteenth century, =3=, 547.
    earliest promoters of, =3=, 547.
    reduced to a system, =3=, 548.
    youth of, =3=, 548.
    put into philosophical language, =3=, 549.
    counterpoise to the Maimunist philosophy, =3=, 529.
    compromise between faith and philosophy, =3=, 549, 623.
    theosophy of, =3=, 550.
    principles of, concerning God, =3=, 550-1.
    theory of emanation in, =3=, 551-2.
    theory of creation in, =3=, 552-3.
    on the mission of Israel, =3=, 553.
    mystical importance of prayer in, =3=, 553-4.
    on metempsychosis, =3=, 554.
    on retribution, =3=, 555.
    on the soul of the Messiah, =3=, 555.
    great age fraudulently claimed for, =3=, 556.
    promoted by Nachmani, =3=, 556-7.
    transplanted to Palestine by Nachmani, =3=, 607.
    to be taught in secret, according to Solomon ben Adret, =3=, 619.
    progress of, in Spain, =4=, 1-23.
    furtherance of, through the Zohar, =4=, 22.
    studied in Palestine, =4=, 74-5.
    in Spain in the fourteenth century, =4=, 91.
    influence of, increases in Spain, =4=, 196.
    studied by Pico di Mirandola, =4=, 291-2, 433, 443.
    Christian dogmas in, =4=, 292.
    translated into Latin, =4=, 292, 443.
    denounced by Elias del Medigo, =4=, 292.
    introduced into Safet by Joseph Saragossi, =4=, 399.
    in Salonica, =4=, 405.
    defended by Reuchlin, =4=, 442-3, 466-7.
    admired by Egidio de Viterbo, =4=, 457.
    carried to Italy and Turkey by Spanish exiles, =4=, 481.
    Christian scholars interested in, =4=, 481.
    affects the liturgy, =4=, 481.
    expectation of the Messiah the center of, =4=, 482, 483.
    Safet center of, =4=, 538.
    esteemed by the Church, =4=, 583.
    influence of, in Palestine in the sixteenth century, =4=, 617.
    spread of, =4=, 617.
    induces a Jewish “dark age,” =4=, 617.
    influence of, on Judaism, =4=, 625-7.
    corrupting influence of, =4=, 626-7.
    influence of, on seventeenth century Judaism, =5=, 51-2.
    as taught by Vital Calabrese, =5=, 52-3.
    spread by Israel Saruk, =5=, 54.
    spread by Abraham de Herrera, =5=, 54.
    identified with Neo-platonism, =5=, 54.
    beginnings of the criticism of, =5=, 55.
    attacked by Leo Modena, =5=, 67, 74.
    ridiculed by Joseph Delmedigo, =5=, 77.
    defended by Joseph Delmedigo, =5=, 78-9.
    Simone Luzzatto on, =5=, 84.
    studied by Spinoza, =5=, 88.
    influence of, on Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 118-19.
    taught by Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 119.
    Messianic speculation in, =5=, 120-1.
    at variance with Rabbinical Judaism, =5=, 144, 277.
    brings discredit on Judaism, =5=, 166.
    opposed by Jehuda Leon Brieli, =5=, 200.
    supposed to teach the Trinity, =5=, 216.
    unhealthy influences of, =5=, 232-3.
    Moses Chayim Luzzatto under the influence of, =5=, 236.
    study of, forbidden to young men, =5=, 241, 277.
    generally opposed by the rabbis, =5=, 245.
    sways the minds of Polish Jews, =5=, 382.
    views of, held by Elijah Wilna, =5=, 390-1.
    supporters of, in Italy, =5=, 488.
    disfigures Judaism, =5=, 539.
    _See also_ Zohar, the.

  =Kabbala, the higher=, of Abraham Abulafia, =4=, 5-6.

  =Kabbalistic terms=:
    Adam Kadmon,
    Diokna Kadisha,
    En-Sof,
    Gematria,
    Ibbur,
    Kartiel,
    Kelifa (Kelifoth),
    Kewanoth,
    King,
    Malka Kadisha,
    Matronita,
    Nizuz (Nizuzoth),
    Notaricon,
    Olam ha-Tikkun,
    Parsophin (Parzufim),
    Sefiroth,
    Shechina,
    Tsiruf.

  =Kabbalistic writings=, on the Index expurgatorius, =4=, 584.

  =Kabbalists=, the, opposed to the Maimunists in the interpretation of
        ceremonies, =3=, 554.
    distort the Scriptures, =3=, 556.
    opposed to Maimunists and Talmudists, =3=, 558.
    of Accho, in the Maimunist controversy, =3=, 631-3.
    and Solomon Molcho, =4=, 496-7.
    at Safet, =4=, 622-3.
    divorces frequent among, =4=, 627; =5=, 210.

  =Kabbalists=, list of:
    Abraham of Granada,
    Abraham ben David,
    Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia,
    Abraham Levi,
    Abraham Saba,
    Aleman, Jochanan
    Azriel,
    Baruch of Benevento,
    Chananel Ibn-Askara,
    Chayim Vital Calabrese,
    Cohen, Naphtali
    David Ibn-Abi Zimra,
    Eleazar ben Jehuda,
    Ergas, Joseph
    Ezra,
    Frankfurter, Naphthali
    Herrera, Abraham de
    Hurwitz, Isaiah
    Isaac of Accho,
    Isaac the Blind,
    Isaac ben Abraham Ibn-Latif,
    Isaac Cohen Shalal,
    Isaac Lurya Levi,
    Israel Saruk,
    Jacob of Segovia,
    Jacob ben Meshullam,
    Jacob ben Sheshet Gerundi,
    Joseph of Arli,
    Joseph ben Abraham Jikatilla,
    Joseph ben Todros Abulafia,
    Joseph Karo,
    Joseph Saragossi,
    Judah de Blanis,
    Judah ben Jacob Chayyat,
    Judah Ibn-Verga,
    Levi ben Todros Abulafia,
    Luzzatto, Moses Chayim
    Meïr ben Gabbai,
    Molcho, Solomon
    Moses de Leon,
    Moses ben Isaac Alashkar,
    Moses ben Nachman,
    Moses Botarel,
    Moses Zacuto,
    Oppenheim, David
    Samuel of Medina-Celi,
    Samuel Franco,
    Shem-Tob ben Abraham Ibn-Gaon,
    Shem-Tob ben Joseph Ibn-Shem Tob,
    Solomon of Moravia,
    Solomon ben Abraham b. Adret,
    Solomon Petit,
    Taytasak, Joseph
    Todros ben Joseph Halevi Abulafia.

  =Kabul.= _See_ Cabul.

  =Kachtan=, ancestor of the Arabs, =3=, 61, 62.

  =Kachtanites=, the southern Arabians, =3=, 61.

  =Kadish=, the Exilarch mentioned in, =3=, 95.

  =Kaffa= (Theodosia), a Karaite community in, =3=, 182.

  =Kafnaï=, Exilarch, =3=, 10.

  =Kahal Kados=, congregation in Pernambuco, =4=, 693.

  =Kahana.= _See_ Mar-Kahana.

  =Kahana, Jacob=, rabbi of Frankfort, exposes Kamenker, =5=, 229.
    exacts a promise from Luzzatto, =5=, 241.

  =Kahir=, Caliph of the East, deposes Saadiah, =3=, 196, 200.

  =Kahira.= _See_ Cairo.

  =Kahiya=, political representative of the Turkish Jews, =4=, 404.

  =Kahtz, Christian=, apostate, tries to create prejudice against the
        Jews, =5=, 191.

  =Kaila=, Arab tribe, relations of, to the Jews, =3=, 55.

  =Kailan race=, the. _See_ Benu-Aus, the; Chazraj, the.

  =Kailil=, brother of Rabba bar Nachmani, =2=, 575-6, 583.

  =Kaimakam=, deputy vizir, =5=, 147.

  =Kairuan= (Maghreb), the Jewish community of, =3=, 137.
    center of science in the ninth century, =3=, 146, 180.
    the Exilarch Mar-Ukba at, =3=, 185, 210.
    new school founded in, by Chushiel, =3=, 208, 210.
    chief town of the Fatimide Caliphate, =3=, 210.
    study of the Talmud at, =3=, 210-11.
    the Jews of, confer the title Rosh on Chushiel, =3=, 211.
    Joseph Ibn-Abitur in, =3=, 238.
    school at, presided over by Chananel and Nissim bar Jacob, =3=, 248.
    the Jerusalem Talmud studied at the school of, =3=, 249.
    decay of the school at, =3=, 249.
    the Jews of, false Mahometans, =3=, 360.

  =Kala-Ibn-Hammad=, birthplace of Alfassi, =3=, 285.

  =Kalâm=, Arabic philosophy of religion, =3=, 146-7.

  =Kalba-Sabua=, father-in-law of Akiba, =2=, 351, 355.

  =Kaliri.= _See_ Eleazar ben Kalir.

  =Kalish=, the Jews of, massacred on the charge of well poisoning, =4=,
        111.

  =Kallahs=, public lectures at the Babylonian academies, =2=, 515;
        =3=, 5-6, 97.

  =Kaller, Alexander=, promotes education among the Galician
        Jews, =5=, 394.

  =Kalmann=, German immigrant in Turkey, =4=, 271.

  =Kalmann of Ratisbon=, repentant apostate, condemned to the
        stake, =4=, 288.

  =Kalonymos=, Italian Jew, attendant of Otto the Great, =3=, 243.

  =Kalonymos=, the Prince, head of the Jewish community of Beaucaire,
        =3=, 400.

  =Kalonymos=, scholar brought to Mayence by Charlemagne, =3=, 143.

  =Kalonymos=, Talmudist, rabbi of Worms, =3=, 290.

  =Kalonymos ben Kalonymos= (1287-1337), scholar at the court of Robert
        of Naples, =4=, 61-2.
    writer on ethics and satirist, =4=, 62-3.
    praised by Immanuel Romi, =4=, 68.

  =Kalonymos ben Todros=, head of the community of Narbonne, =3=, 392.
    sides with Abba-Mari, =4=, 34.
    asked to prepare the ban against the study of science, =4=, 38.
    draws up the ban, =4=, 39.

  =Kama=, friend of Samuel, meets Abba-Areka, =2=, 512.
    appointed judge, =2=, 512.
    rebukes the Exilarch, =2=, 513.

  =Kanaim.= _See_ Zealots, the.

  =Kamenker, Moses Meir.= _See_ Moses Meïr Kamenker.

  =Kameoth= (Kamea), amulets, =3=, 153.
    used by rabbis, =5=, 201-2.
    distributed by Eibeschütz, =5=, 257.

  =Kamerau=, the, a noble family, claim the Jews of Ratisbon, =4=, 300.

  =Kamieniec=, disputation at, between Frankists and Talmudists, =5=,
        280, 281.
    the Talmud burnt at, =5=, 282.

  =Kamus=, fortress of the Chaibar Jews, =3=, 55.
    holds out against Mahomet, =3=, 82.
    fall of, =3=, 83.

  =Kandy.= _See_ Ceylon.

  =Kant, Immanuel=, unsuccessful candidate for the prize of the Berlin
        Academy, =5=, 303, 304.
    on Mendelssohn’s “Jerusalem,” =5=, 365.
    meeting of, with Mendelssohn, =5=, 398.
    distinguishes Marcus Herz, =5=, 405-6.
    Herz lectures on the philosophy of, =5=, 406.
    philosophy of, admired by Ben-David, =5=, 409.
    Ben-David lectures on the philosophy of, =5=, 410.
    philosophy of, studied by Krochmal, =5=, 608.

  =Kapsali.= _See_ Elias ben Elkanah; Eliezer; Elkanah; Moses Kapsali.

  =Kara.= _See_ Avigedor Kara; Joseph Kara; Simon Kara.

  =Karaim.= _See_ Karaites.

  =Karaism=, the religion of the sect founded by Anan ben David, =3=,
        130.
    original character of, obscure, =3=, 131.
    rigidity of, =3=, 131-3.
    unsettled character of, =3=, 133.
    causes dissension among the Rabbanites, =3=, 156-7.
    freedom in exegesis the principal dogma of, =3=, 157.
    sects of, =3=, 157-8.
    lack of union in, =3=, 158.
    first signs of the decay of, =3=, 181.
    ascetic character of, in Jerusalem, =3=, 181-2.
    propaganda for, =3=, 182.
    expounded by Solomon ben Yerucham, =3=, 203.
    propaganda for, by Abulsari Sahal ben Mazliach Kohen, =3=, 203-5.
    spread by Jephet Ibn-Ali Halevi, =3=, 205-6.
    spreads during the tenth century, =3=, 206-7.
    attacked by Samuel ben Chofni, =3=, 253.
    inferiority of, to Talmudical Judaism proved by Jehuda Halevi, =3=,
        334.
    criticised by Shemarya Ikriti, =4=, 69-70.
    in the fourteenth century, =4=, 70.
    centers of, =4=, 71.
    liturgy of, fixed, =4=, 71.
    petrifaction of, illustrated, =4=, 269-70.
    not attractive to Richard Simon, =5=, 180, 181.
    inquired into by Charles XI of Sweden, =5=, 182.
    account of the origin of, by Samuel ben Aaron, =5=, 183.
    account of, by Mordecai ben Nissan, =5=, 183-4.
    inquired into by Charles XII of Sweden, =5=, 184.

  =Karaite sects=, the, list of:
    Abu-Amranites (Tiflisites),
    Akbarites,
    Makaryites,
    Moses of Baalbek, followers of.

  =Karaite writers=, the, list of:
    Aaron ben Elia Nicomedi,
    Aaron ben Joseph the Elder,
    Abulsari Sahal ben Mazliach Kohen,
    Anan ben David,
    Benjamin ben Moses of Nahavend,
    Ibn-Sakviyah,
    Isaac ben Abraham Troki,
    Jehuda ben Elia Hadassi,
    Jephet Ibn-Ali Halevi,
    Mordecai ben Nissan,
    Samuel ben Aaron,
    Solomon ben Yerucham.

  =Karaites= (Ananites), the, followers of Anan ben David, =3=, 134.
    excommunicated by the heads of the academies, =3=, 134.
    renounce connection with the Rabbanites, =3=, 134.
    acknowledge Anan ben David as the legitimate Exilarch, =3=, 135.
    hold a memorial service for Anan ben David, =3=, 135.
    study the Bible, =3=, 136, 189.
    of Mutazilist tendency, =3=, 149, 150-1.
    adopt the ban, =3=, 151.
    tradition among, =3=, 159.
    marriage laws of, =3=, 159.
    opposed by Natronaï II, =3=, 178.
    opposed by Simon of Cairo, =3=, 179.
    scientific pursuits of, =3=, 180.
    shun the Rabbanites, =3=, 182.
    spread of, in the East, =3=, 182.
    attacked by Saadiah, =3=, 189.
    calendar of, attacked by Saadiah, =3=, 190-1.
    defended by Solomon ben Yerucham, =3=, 191.
    later works of Saadiah against, =3=, 192.
    fond of philosophical disputations, =3=, 197.
    lexicographical work of, superseded by Menachem ben Saruk’
        s, =3=, 225.
    expect the Messiah in the eleventh century, =3=, 247.
    views of, occasionally endorsed by Samuel ben Meïr, =3=, 346.
    persecuted in Spain in the eleventh century, =3=, 362.
    humbled by Jehuda Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 362-3.
    rise of, after the fall of Jehuda Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 366.
    and Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 366.
    regarded as idolaters by Samson ben Abraham, =3=, 408.
    in Constantinople in the twelfth century, =3=, 425.
    in Damascus, =3=, 427.
    in Askalon, =3=, 427.
    degeneracy of, in Asia in the twelfth century, =3=, 443.
    of Cairo, governed by a Nassi, =3=, 444.
    of Alexandria, =3=, 444.
    treatment of, by Maimonides, =3=, 465.
    disciples of Nachmani, =3=, 607.
    the way for, paved by the religious philosophers, =3=, 625.
    inclined to a reconciliation with Rabbanites, =4=, 71-2.
    institute pilgrim prayers, =4=, 73-4.
    in Poland under Casimir IV, =4=, 265.
    emigrate to Turkey, =4=, 269.
    ignorance of, =4=, 269.
    taught by Rabbanite teachers, =4=, 269.
    celebration of the Sabbath by, =4=, 269-70.
    efforts to reconcile, to Talmudic Judaism, =4=, 270.
    protected by Elias Mizrachi in Constantinople, =4=, 403-4.
    and Joseph Delmedigo, =5=, 76-7.
    Polish and Lithuanian, degradation of, =5=, 182-3.
    scattered by order of John Sobieski, =5=, 182.
    invited to go to Sweden, =5=, 183.
    accused of conspiring with Krochmal against the Talmud, =5=, 608.
    treated of in the Scientific Journal, =5=, 626.
    in Cairo reconciled with the Rabbanites by Munk, =5=, 664.
    history of, cleared up by Munk, =5=, 666.
    rise of, =5=, 727.

  =Karben, Victor von= (1442-1515), apostate, employed to write
        anti-Jewish pamphlets, =4=, 424-5.
    suggested as Pfefferkorn’s coadjutor, =4=, 432.
    directs the confiscation of Hebrew books, =4=, 437, 441.
    decides that the Talmud ought to be burnt, =4=, 444.

  =Karl Ludwig=, count-palatine, offers Spinoza a professorship, =5=,
        108.

  =Karlinians=, a branch of the Chassidim, =5=, 388, 391.

  =Karmisin=, the Exilarch Mar-Ukba banished to, =3=, 184.

  =Karo.= _See_ Joseph Karo.

  =Kartiel=, name of a Sefira, =4=, 17.

  =Kaspi.= _See_ Joseph Kaspi.

  =Kasser ben Aaron=, reconciles Aaron Ibn-Sarjadu with Saadiah,
        =3=, 200-1.

  =Kasr=, home of David ben Zaccaï, =3=, 186.

  =Katzenellenbogen, Ezekiel=, rabbi of the “three communities,”
        excommunicates Kamenker, =5=, 238.
    forbids the study of Kabbala to young men, =5=, 241.

  =Kazimierz, the Jews of=, number of, =4=, 632.

  =Kedeshim=, the holy men of the Canaanites, =1=, 54.

  =Kedeshoth=, Canaanite priestesses, =1=, 54.
    in Samaria, =1=, 198.
    maintained in Jerusalem under Manasseh, =1=, 283.

  =Kedoshim= (saints), martyrs of the first crusade, =3=, 302.
    graves of, visited, =3=, 309.

  =Keeper of the lists= (rolls), under David, =1=, 122.
    manager of war, =1=, 305, 313.
    beheaded by Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 314.

  =Kefar Nahum.= _See_ Capernaum.

  =Kelifa= (Kelifoth), Kabbalistic term for sin in the Zohar, =4=, 17,
        620; =5=, 120.

  =Kenas.= _See_ Census.

  =Kendites=, the, an Arab tribe, adopt Judaism, =3=, 63.
    chief of, protected by Samuel Ibn-Adiya, =3=, 68-9.

  =Keneseth ha-Gedolah.= _See_ Great Assembly, the.

  =Kenites=, the, Moses with, =1=, 13-14.
    aid the Israelites in the desert, =1=, 26.
    aid Judah, =1=, 38.
    allies of the Israelites, =1=, 61.

  =Kephar Lekitaja=, military station established by Hadrian, =2=, 419.

  =Kephas.= _See_ Peter.

  =Kepler=, and David Gans, =4=, 638.

  =Kerbella=, the battle of, the Ommiyyades defeated at, =3=, 125.

  =Kerek.= _See_ Kir-Moab.

  =Kerem Chemed=, Hebrew journal devoted to Jewish science, =5=,
        621, 693.
    contributors to, =5=, 621-2.

  =Kermanshah.= _See_ Karmisin.

  =Kertch=, Jews of the Byzantine empire settle in, =3=, 123.
    Karaites in, in the ninth century, =3=, 182.
    capital of the Crimea, =3=, 222.

  =Kether Malchuth=, philosophical poem by Ibn-Gebirol, =3=, 270.

  =Kewanoth=, Kabbalistic term, devotion, =5=, 121.

  =Khataib=, Sephardic synagogue at Damascus, =4=, 400.

  =Khemarim=, idolatrous priests, under Manasseh, =1=, 283.

  =Khiva=, the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 435.

  =Khorasan=, under the jurisdiction of the Pumbeditha academy,
        =3=, 98, 184.
    the Exilarch banished to, =3=, 196.
    ambassadors from, bring news to Spain of the Jewish Chazar
        kingdom, =3=, 220.
    under the jurisdiction of the Exilarch, =3=, 428.

  =Khorasan, the Jews of=, believe themselves descendants of the Ten
        Tribes, =3=, 433.
    occupations of, =3=, 433.
    allied with the Ghuzz, =3=, 434.
    aid Jenghis-Khan, =3=, 581.

  =Khozars=, the. _See_ Chazars, the.

  =Kiddush=, the, blessing over wine at the beginning of the Sabbath,
        instituted, =1=, 398.

  =Kiera, Esther=, court Jewess in Turkey, patroness of Jewish
        literature, =4=, 608, 629.
    influence of, under Murad III, =4=, 629.
    death of, =4=, 629-30.

  =Kiev=, tributary to the Chazars, =3=, 138.
    the Jews banished from the district of, =5=, 12.

  =Kilavun=, sultan of Egypt, and David Maimuni, =3=, 620.
    the Jewish subjects of, under the Damascus Exilarch, =3=, 627.

  =Kimchi family=, the, at Narbonne, =3=, 392; =4=, 442.
    _See_ David; Joseph ben Isaac; Moses Kimchi.

  =Kinanah Ibn-ol-Rabia=, incites Arabian tribes to war against
        Mahomet, =3=, 79.
    leader of the Jews of Chaibar, =3=, 82.
    death of, =3=, 82-3.

  =King=, Kabbalistic term, =4=, 18.

  =Kingdom of God=, the, predicted by a Judæan poet in Egypt, =2=, 143.

  =Kingdom of Heaven=, the, hastening of, the object of Essene
        asceticism, =2=, 145.
    brought by the second advent of Jesus, =2=, 167.
    according to Paul, =2=, 226.

  =Kings, the Books of=, commentary on, by Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 359.

  =Kinnereth.= _See_ Tiberias, lake.

  =Kir-Haraseth.= _See_ Kir-Moab.

  =Kir-Moab= (Kerek, Kir-Haraseth), Moabite fortress, =1=, 209.

  =Kiryath-Jearim=, the Ark of the Covenant at, =1=, 72.
    the Ark removed from, =1=, 119.

  =Kiryath-Sepher= (Debir), taken by the tribe of Judah, =1=, 38.

  =Kish=, father of Saul, =1=, 83.

  “=Kitab Al-Assval=,” lexicon by Ibn-Janach, =3=, 263.

  =Klausner.= _See_ Abraham Klausner.

  =Kley= transplants the Reform movement to Hamburg, =5=, 563-4.
    inefficiency of, =5=, 564.
    Heine on, =5=, 577.

  =Klonowicz=, Polish poet, assails the Jews, =4=, 643.

  =Kobad=, king of the neo-Persians, tool of Mazdak, =3=, 1.
    disciple of Mazdak, =3=, 2.
    dethroned by the nobles, =3=, 2.
    persecutes Jews and Christians, =3=, 3-4.
    death of, =3=, 5.

  =Koberger, Antonius=, opponent of the Jews in Nuremberg, =4=, 415.

  =Kodesh ha-Kodashim=, by Ibn-Labi Ferrer, =4=, 234.

  =Kofrim=, unbelievers, antagonists of the Sabbatians, =5=, 144.
    Sabbataï Zevi proposes capital punishment for, =5=, 150.

  =Kohen.= _See_ Abulsari Sahal; Nathan ben Isaac; Solomon Kohen.

  =Kohen-Zedek II ben Joseph= (917-936), Gaon of Pumbeditha, character
        of, =3=, 183.
    causes dissension between Sora and Pumbeditha, =3=, 184.
    forces the Exilarch Mar-Ukba to remove, =3=, 184.
    has Mar-Ukba banished a second time, =3=, 185.
    deposed by David ben Zaccaï, =3=, 186.
    recognized as Gaon by the Exilarch, =3=, 186.
    proposes the closing of the Sora academy, =3=, 192.
    jealous of Saadiah, =3=, 194.
    espouses the side of David ben Zaccaï against Saadiah, =3=, 195.
    death of, =3=, 200.
    son of, =3=, 208.

  “=Kol Sachal=,” by Leo Modena, =5=, 73.

  =Kölbele, John Balthasar=, writes a pamphlet against Mendelssohn,
        =5=, 316-17.

  =Kolon, Joseph.= _See_ Joseph ben Solomon Kolon.

  =Kompse bar Kompse=, partisan of Rome in Tiberias, =2=, 274.

  =Koniecpolski, house of=, controls Cossack colonization, =5=, 3.
    employs Bogdan Chmielnicki, =5=, 7.

  =Königsberg=, a Jewish cemetery at, =5=, 190.
    the University of, admits Jews, =5=, 398-405.
    the Hamburg reforms adopted in, =5=, 573.

  =Königsberg, the Jews of=, burnt, =5=, 110-11.
    in Mendelssohn’s time, =5=, 397-8.
    join the “Society of Friends,” =5=, 418.
    apostasy of, =5=, 420.

  =Konstantinov=, the synod of, excommunicates Frankists, =5=, 277.

  =Koom=, defeat of Judghanites at, =3=, 150.

  =Korachites.= _See_ Korah, the sons of.

  =Korah=, Samuel descended from, =1=, 73.
    honored by the Cainites, =2=, 375.

  =Korah, the sons of=, Samuel ancestor of, =1=, 79.
    psalmists, =1=, 120.
    compose psalms on Sennacherib’s failure, =1=, 278.
    compose a love-song in honor of Hezekiah’s marriage, =1=, 279.

  =Korahites.= _See_ Korah, the sons of.

  =Koraishites=, the, defeated by the Mahometans at Bedr, =3=, 76.
    induced to make war upon Mahomet, =3=, 79.
    distrustful of their allies, =3=, 80.

  =Koran=, the, and Jewish sources, =3=, 72.
    spread by the Jewish disciples of Mahomet, =3=, 73.
    revelations against the Jews in, =3=, 75, 78.
    war with the Nadhirites justified in, =3=, 79.
    on the slaughter of the Benu Kuraiza, =3=, 81.
    accepted by the Moslem as the word of God, =3=, 84.
    on the position of woman, =3=, 92.
    rationalistic expounders of, =3=, 147.
    violence done to the text of, =3=, 148.
    consulted by Haï Gaon for the explanation of Biblical words, =3=,
        251.

  =Korban Mussaph=, special Sabbath and festival sacrifice, =1=, 401.

  =Kosmann=, defender of the Jews, =5=, 470.

  =Kotzebue=, assassination of, =5=, 528, 533.

  =Kovad.= _See_ Kobad.

  =Krämer, August=, favors the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 521-2.

  =Krems=, the Jews of, perish during the Black Death persecutions, =4=,
        110.

  =Krochmal, Nachman Cohen= (1785-1840), founder of the Galician
        school, =5=, 607.
    Jewish and philosophical studies of, =5=, 608.
    partially hostile to Talmudism, =5=, 608.
    accused of conspiring with Karaites against the Talmud, =5=, 608-9.
    method of instruction of, =5=, 609.
    uses the Talmud in historical researches, =5=, 609-10.
    admiration for, =5=, 610.
    Rapoport disciple of, =5=, 610, 614, 617.
    influence of, on young Galicians, =5=, 614.
    style of, =5=, 617.
    influence of Rapoport on, =5=, 617-18.
    devotes himself to encyclopædic studies, =5=, 618.
    the father of Jewish science, =5=, 619.
    contributor to the Kerem Chemed, =5=, 622.
    as exegete, =5=, 695, 699.

  =Krysa, Jehuda Leb=, Frankist rabbi, =5=, 275.
    makes a Catholic confession of faith, =5=, 285.

  =Kryvonoss=, Haïdamak leader, =5=, 9.

  =Kufa=, given to Jewish exiles by Omar, =3=, 85.
    residence of Ali, =3=, 90.
    capital of eastern Islam, =3=, 93.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 437.
    Ezekiel’s grave near, =3=, 440-1.

  =Kunigunde=, sister of Maximilian I, marries her father’s
        enemy, =4=, 428.
    becomes abbess of a Franciscan convent, =4=, 428.
    gives Pfefferkorn a letter to Maximilian, =4=, 428-9.
    influences Maximilian to issue mandates against the Jews, =4=,
        437, 440-1.

  =Kuraiza Place=, the market place of Medina, =3=, 81.

  =Kuranda, Ignatz=, founder of the “Israelitische Allianz,” =5=, 703.

  =Kuru-Gismu=, Hebrew printing press at, =4=, 628.

  =Kusari.= _See_ Chozari.

  =Kussiel.= _See_ Yekutiel.

  =Kypros.= _See_ Cypros.


  =L=

  =La Asumção, Diogo de=, Franciscan, professes Judaism, =4=, 668.
    martyr, =4=, 669.
    influences Rohel Jesurun, =4=, 669, 670.

  =Labienus=, persuades the Parthians to invade Syria, =2=, 82.

  =Lachish=, king of, defeated by Joshua, =1=, 34-5.
    Amaziah killed in, =1=, 226.
    headquarters of Sennacherib, =1=, 273.
    offers opposition to Nebuchadnezzar, =1=, 311.

  =Ladislaus II=, of Bohemia and Hungary, appealed to by the Jews of
        Ratisbon, =4=, 303.
    and the Jews of Bohemia, =4=, 417.

  =Ladislaus IV=, of Hungary, confirms the anti-Jewish decrees of the
        Council of Buda, =3=, 615.

  =Ladislaus V= (Posthumus), of Hungary, and Capistrano, =4=, 262.
    sanctions the expulsion of Jews from Silesia, =4=, 262-3.

  =Lænas, Popillius=, Roman deputy to Antiochus Epiphanes, =1=, 453.

  =La Fare=, bishop of Nancy, opposes the emancipation of the Jews, =5=,
        441, 462.

  =La Fuente=, Juan de, inquisitor, cruelty of, =4=, 484.

  =Lagarto, Jacob=, first Talmudical author in South America, =4=, 693.

  =Lagrange=, lauds a mathematical work by Ensheim, =5=, 401.

  =La Guardia=, the Jews of, charged with the blood accusation, =4=,
        343.

  =Laguna, Lopez= (Daniel Israel, 1660-1720), Marrano poet in
        Jamaica, =5=, 203.

  =Lahmi=, brother of Goliath, Philistine champion, =1=, 117.

  =Lamartine=, and the Turkish Jews, =5=, 649.

  =Lamentations=, the, of Jeremiah, =1=, 316, 319.

  =Lämmlein, Asher.= _See_ Asher Lämmlein.

  =Lampo=, an Alexandrian hostile to the Judæans, =2=, 181.

  =Landau, Ezekiel= (1720-1793), rabbi of Jampol, declares the
        Eibeschütz amulets Sabbatian, =5=, 265-6.
    distrusts Eibeschütz, =5=, 289.
    opposes Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation, =5=, 330.
    objects to the study of the sciences, =5=, 402.
    opponent of the Berlin movement, =5=, 417.
    death of, =5=, 566.

  =Landfried=, ambassador from Charlemagne to Haroun Alrashid, =3=, 143.

  =Landsberg=, Jews settle in, =5=, 174.

  =Landtag=, the Prussian, Jews in, =5=, 697.

  =Langton, Stephen=, archbishop of Canterbury, hostile to the
        Jews, =3=, 504.
    convenes a Church Council at Oxford, =3=, 516.

  “=Language of Truth=, The,” pamphlet in the Eibeschütz controversy,
        =5=, 266.

  =Languedoc, the Jews of=, in the tenth century, =3=, 242.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 389-91.
    and the ban against science, =4=, 40.
    protected by the governor, =4=, 132.

  =Laniado, Joseph=, accused of ritual murder, =5=, 636.
    tortured, =5=, 636-7.
    dies under the torture, =5=, 638.

  =Lansac, de=, French ambassador, =4=, 577.

  =Laodicea= (Leda), treasure house in, for the half-Shekel
        contributions to the Temple, =2=, 53.
    Herod at, =2=, 93.
    Verus Commodus at, =2=, 447.
    place of exile of José ben Chalafta, =2=, 448.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 426.

  =La Papa, Aaron de.= _See_ Papa, Aaron de la.

  =La Peyrère, Isaac=, on Israel’s restoration, =5=, 24-5.
    in intercourse with Manasseh ben Israel, =5=, 25.

  =Laplace=, lauds a mathematical work by Ensheim, =5=, 401.

  =Lara, de=, noble Castilian family, =3=, 363.

  =Lara, David Coen de= (1610-1674), preacher and philologist, =5=, 115.
    unaffected by Spinoza’s attack upon Judaism, =5=, 117.

  =Larta.= _See_ Arta.

  =Laskorun=, Frankists surprised at, =5=, 275.

  =Lateran Council, the third=, forbids Jews to keep Christian nurses
        or domestics, =3=, 400, 418, 421-2.
    forbids forcible baptism, =3=, 421.
    the decrees of, disregarded by Philip Augustus, =3=, 498-9.

  =Lateran Council, the fourth=, convoked by Innocent III, =3=, 508-9.
    purposes of, =3=, 509.
    Jewish delegates to, =3=, 509.
    results of, =3=, 509.

  =Lateran Council, the fourth, anti-Jewish decrees of=, =3=, 509-11.
    confirmed by the Council of Narbonne, =3=, 518.
    re-enacted by the Councils of Rouen and Tours, =3=, 520.
    enforced in Hungary, =3=, 521.
    executed by Frederick II, =3=, 569.

  =Lateran Council, the fifth=, the Reuchlin case submitted
        to, =4=, 464.
    declares for Reuchlin, =4=, 465.

  =Lathier=, opponent of the Jews of Alsace, =5=, 524-5.

  =Latin translations= of the Scriptures, ordered to be read in Jewish
        congregations, =3=, 14-15. _See also_ Vulgate, the.

  =Latin words=, in the Mishna, =2=, 461.

  =Laurilla=, Dutch consul, protects the Jews of Beyrout, =5=, 641.

  =Laurin=, Austrian consul-general in Turkey, interferes in the
        Damascus affair, =5=, 647.
    thanked by the London meeting, =5=, 653.
    thanked by the Jews of Alexandria, =5=, 660.

  =Lavater, John Caspar=, attracted by Mendelssohn’s physiognomy,
        =5=, 308-9.
    determines to convert Mendelssohn, =5=, 309-10.
    letter addressed to, by Mendelssohn, =5=, 311-13.
    unpopularity of, =5=, 313.
    apologizes to Mendelssohn, =5=, 314.
    anecdotes concerning, =5=, 315.

  =La Vega, de.= _See_ Penso, Joseph.

  =Law= (Torah, Pentateuch), the, carried to Babylon by the
        priests, =1=, 334.
    observed by the Babylonians, =1=, 364.
    studied by Ezra, =1=, 365.
    read to the people by Ezra, =1=, 378-80.
    the Judæans swear to observe, =1=, 380-1.
    displaces prophecy, =1=, 385.
    strict observance of, =1=, 387.
    held sacred by the Samaritans, =1=, 392.
    the fundamental law of the commonwealth, =1=, 393-4.
    study of, =1=, 396.
    the “fence” about, =1=, 397-8.
    unspiritual tendency of the laws of clean and unclean in,
        =1=, 401-2.
    studied and observed by the Chassidim, =1=, 436.
    the observance of, urged by Jesus Sirach, =1=, 440-1.
    aspersed by Menelaus, =1=, 449-50.
    translated into Greek, =1=, 510-14. _See_ Septuagint, the.
    study and observance of, under Salome Alexandra, =2=, 51.
    knowledge of, spread by the schools of Hillel and Shammai, =2=, 149.
    transgressors of, addressed by Jesus, =2=, 152.
    desertion from, among the Alexandrians, =2=, 209.
    observance of, urged by Philo, =2=, 210-14.
    attempts to harmonize, with philosophy, =2=, 212-13.
    attacked by Greek Judæans, =2=, 221-2.
    upheld by the apostle Paul, =2=, 221.
    to be abrogated for the conversion of the heathen, =2=, 225.
    abrogated, according to Paul, by the appearance of Jesus, =2=,
        226, 229-30.
    declared binding by certain apostles, =2=, 231.
    adhered to, by Judæan Christians, =2=, 232.
    enforced by the Jamnia Synhedrion, =2=, 363-4.
    declared unnecessary by Paul, =2=, 365.
    observed by the Jewish Christians, =2=, 365-6.
    disregarded by the Pagan Christians, =2=, 367.
    the observance of, forbidden by Hadrian, =2=, 422.
    said to have been altered by the Samaritans, =2=, 457.
    the instruction of women in, =2=, 474.
    classification of the commands in, =2=, 499.
    observance of, in Samaria, =2=, 534.
    Chaldaic and Syriac translations of, =2=, 581-2.
    said to contain references to Mahomet, =3=, 76.
    knowledge of, esteemed, =3=, 113.
    held to be binding by Anan ben David, =3=, 134.
    Tossafoth in explanation of, =3=, 345.
    analyzed in the “Guide of the Perplexed,” =3=, 484-5.
    abrogated according to Raymund Martin, =3=, 622.
    Persian translation of, =4=, 401.
    significance of, =5=, 716-17, 721.
    Halachic development of, =5=, 723-4.
    _See also_ Mishna, the; Scriptures, the; Talmud, the.

  =Law, the, the Book of= (Deuteronomy), found in the Temple,
        =1=, 292-3.
    read to the people in Jerusalem, =1=, 294.
    read by Ezra in Jerusalem, =1=, 378-80.

  =Law, the, commentary on=, by Philo, =2=, 212.
    by Solomon ben Yerucham, =3=, 206.
    by Chananel ben Chushiel and Nissim bar Jacob, =3=, 249.
    by Samuel ben Chofni, =3=, 253.
    by Samuel ben Meïr, =3=, 346.
    by Abraham Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 371-2.
    by Moses of Coucy, =3=, 586.
    by Nachmani, =3=, 607-8.
    _See also_ Scriptures, the, commentary on.

  =Law, the, the disciples of=, meaning of, =2=, 357.

  =Law, the, the reading of=, instituted, =1=, 396.
    at divine service in the Sopheric age, =1=, 399.
    the Exilarch the first called to, =3=, 95.

  =Law, the, the scroll of=, burnt by Antiochus Epiphanes, =1=, 455.
    burnt by the overseers of Antiochus Epiphanes, =1=, 457.
    carried with the Judæan army under Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 467.
    profaned by a Roman soldier, =2=, 243.
    burnt by Ursicinus, =2=, 569.
    burnt in Nancy, =5=, 451.

  =Law, the, the teachers of=, called Rabbis, =2=, 335.
    disunited, =2=, 335.
    forbid the study of Greek under Hadrian, =2=, 400.
    meet at Lydda, =2=, 423-4.
    artisans, =2=, 441, 442, 575.
    demands upon, in the time of Judah I, =2=, 453-4.
    displeased with Judah II, =2=, 485-6.
    severity of, to each other, =2=, 547.
    banished from Judæa under Constantine, =2=, 566-7.
    superstition of, =2=, 578.
    luxurious habits of, =2=, 588-9.
    a privileged class, =2=, 589.
    scorned, =2=, 589-90.
    as compilers, =2=, 605.
    persecuted by Kobad, =3=, 4.
    persecuted by Hormisdas, =3=, 8.
    averse from the use of Latin and Greek in the synagogue, =3=, 14.
    attack the Byzantine empire, =3=, 16.
    among the Arabian Jews, =3=, 59, 62.
    _See also_ Amoraim; Geonim; Sabureans; Sopherim; Tanaites.

  =Law, the, translations of.= _See under_ Pentateuch, the;
        Translation.

  =Law, the oral= (Tradition), early origin of, =1=, 396-7.
    study of, under Salome Alexandra, =2=, 51.
    Pharisee study of, begins, =2=, 72.
    justified by Hillel, =2=, 98-9.
    knowledge of, spread by the schools of Hillel and Shammai, =2=, 149.
    the study of, encouraged by Jochanan ben Zakkai, =2=, 326.
    systematized by Hillel, =2=, 327-8.
    committed to memory, =2=, 328.
    methods of establishing, =2=, 328.
    taught outside of Jamnia, =2=, 335.
    disinterested study of, =2=, 338-9.
    the earliest code of, =2=, 343.
    as deduced by Akiba, =2=, 352-3.
    Akiba’s code of, =2=, 353-4.
    as deduced by Ishmael ben Elisha, =2=, 355-6.
    the study of, outside of Judæa, =2=, 358-9.
    unity of, established, =2=, 405.
    the study of, forbidden by Hadrian, =2=, 426.
    importance of the study of, =2=, 427, 473-4, 544.
    knowledge of, transplanted from Asia to Europe, =2=, 443.
    codification of, completed, =2=, 460, 462.
    new development of, in Babylonia, =2=, 511.
    neglected in Babylonia, =2=, 513-14.
    the study of, flourishes in Babylonia, =2=, 574-5.
    the distinguishing feature of Judaism, =2=, 608.
    _See also_ Halacha, the; Mishna, the; Talmud, the; Tanaites.

  =La-Yesharim Tehilla=, drama by Luzzatto, =5=, 242-4.

  =Lazarus=, disciple of Jesus, =2=, 160.

  =Leather-arms.= _See_ Armleder.

  =Leb Herz=, Sabbatian, =5=, 152.

  =Lebanon=, mountain range, description of, =1=, 42, 44.
    wood from, used for Solomon’s Temple, =1=, 164.

  =Leblin=, chamberlain of the Duke of Austria, =3=, 567.

  =Lecha Dodi=, Sabbath song, =4=, 538.

  “=Lectures= upon the Modern History of the Jews,” by Löwisohn, =5=,
        594.

  =Leda.= _See_ Laodicea.

  =Lee, Johanna=, founder of the Shakers, =5=, 378.

  =Lefrank=, satirist, Jewish champion, =5=, 471-2.

  =Leghorn=, Elias Montalto at, =4=, 673.
    the Sabbatian movement in, =5=, 149.
    Nathan Ghazati at, =5=, 161.
    the Portuguese Jews of, wealthy, =5=, 205.
    rabbis of, espouse the cause of Eibeschütz, =5=, 264.
    rabbi of, opposes the Reform movement, =5=, 571.

  =Leghorn, the Jews of=, care for the Polish Jewish fugitives, =5=,
        16.
    excepted from Napoleon’s restrictive laws, =5=, 499.
    show honor to the Jewish envoys to Egypt, =5=, 658.

  =Lehren, Hirsch=, interested in the Damascus affair, =5=, 649.
    appeal to, from Damascus, =5=, 651.
    protests against the Brunswick rabbinical conference, =5=, 682.

  =Leibzoll.= _See_ Poll-tax.

  =Leipsic=, Jews permitted to live in, =5=, 509.
    a Reform synagogue in, =5=, 573.

  =Leipsic, the battle of=, celebrated by Jewish preachers, =5=, 528.
    consecration of the Hamburg Temple on the anniversary of, =5=, 564.

  =Lejbovicz.= _See_ Frank, Jacob.

  =Lemberg=, meeting place of the Polish Talmudists, =4=, 640.
    the German population of, =5=, 3.
    the Jews of, suffer through the Cossacks, =5=, 11.
    Sabbatianism in, =5=, 228.
    disputation at, between Frankists and Talmudists, =5=, 285-7.
    Frankists baptized at, =5=, 288.
    beginnings of culture among the Jews of, =5=, 612.

  =Lemberg= (district), Jacob Frank the leader of the Sabbatians in,
        =5=, 273-4.

  =Lemon, Herz de=, member of the Felix Libertate, =5=, 453.
    zealous for the emancipation of the Dutch Jews, =5=, 455.
    deputy to the National Assembly, =5=, 458.

  =Lemos, Henrietta de.= _See_ Herz, Henrietta.

  =Lenæus=, guardian of Ptolemy V’s sons, =1=, 450.

  =Leo X=, pope, friendly to the Jews, =4=, 407, 592.
    employs a Jewish physician, =4=, 408.
    appealed to by Reuchlin, =4=, 453, 454.
    worldly character of, =4=, 453-4.
    orders the examination of Hoogstraten and Reuchlin, =4=, 454.
    appealed to by Hoogstraten, =4=, 455.
    appoints Cardinal Grimani judge in Reuchlin’s cause, =4=, 458.
    yields to Hoogstraten, =4=, 464.
    submits the Reuchlin affair to the fifth Lateran Council, =4=, 464.
    suspends the Reuchlin suit, =4=, 465.
    Reuchlin’s work on the Kabbala dedicated to, =4=, 466.
    encourages the printing of the Talmud, =4=, 468, 565.

  =Leo of Crema=, a wealthy Italian Jew, =4=, 287.

  =Leo Hebræus.= _See_ Judah Leon Abrabanel.

  =Leo the Hebrew.= _See_ Levi ben Gerson.

  =Leo the Isaurian=, emperor, forces baptism upon the Jews of the
        Byzantine empire, =3=, 122-3.
    forces Jews to emigrate, =3=, 139.
    oppresses the Jews, =3=, 175.

  =Leo Medigo.= _See_ Judah Leon Abrabanel.

  =Leo the Philosopher=, emperor of the Byzantine empire, punishes
        backsliding Jewish converts, =3=, 176.

  =Leo (Judah) ben Isaac Modena= (1571-1649), sceptic, =5=, 56.
    ancestry of, =5=, 65.
    precocity of, =5=, 65.
    varied attainments of, =5=, 65-6.
    lacks genius and character, =5=, 66.
    scepticism of, =5=, 66-7.
    on card playing, =5=, 67.
    on the transmigration of souls, =5=, 67.
    member of the Venice rabbinate, =5=, 67.
    and Sarah Sullam, =5=, 70.
    teacher of Christians, =5=, 71.
    publishes a work on Jewish customs, =5=, 71-2, 81.
    attacks the Kabbala, =5=, 74.
    death of, =5=, 74.
    teacher of Joseph Delmedigo, =5=, 75.
    fickleness of, =5=, 84.
    criticism of the Kabbala by, attacked by Luzzatto, =5=, 240.

  =Leon, the Jews of=, in the twelfth century, =3=, 384.
    suffer from the forces of Castile and Aragon, =3=, 387.
    not compelled to wear Jew badges, =3=, 513.
    letter to, denouncing Solomon of Montpellier, =3=, 544.
    taxed under Sancho, =3=, 617.
    accept baptism under Vincent Ferrer, =4=, 205.

  =Leon.= _See_ Jehuda ben Meïr; Judah ben Yechiel.

  =Leon de Bagnols.= _See_ Levi ben Gerson.

  =Leon of Filneck=, character in “Nathan the Wise,” =5=, 324.

  =Leon, Jacob Jehuda= (Templo, 1603-1671), supposed author of
        “Colloquium Middelburgense,” =4=, 691.
    work of, on the Temple, =5=, 114-15.
    work of, translated, =5=, 115.
    translator of the Psalms, =5=, 115.
    unaffected by Spinoza’s attack on Judaism, =5=, 117.

  =Leone Romano.= _See_ Jehuda ben Moses ben Daniel.

  =Leonora=, duchess of Tuscany, friend of Benvenida Abrabanel, =4=,
        410, 553, 544.

  =Leonora=, widow of Ferdinand I, regent of Portugal, =4=, 160.
    removes Jews from office, =4=, 160.
    renounces the regency, =4=, 160-1.
    quarrels with Juan I of Castile, =4=, 161.

  =Leonora de Guzman=, mistress of Alfonso XI of Castile, arouses his
        suspicions against Gonzalo Martinez, =4=, 85.
    sons of, oppose Pedro the Cruel, =4=, 113.
    causes the ill-treatment of Alfonso’s wife, =4=, 114.

  =Leonore d’Este=, attachment of the Jews to, =4=, 660.

  =Leontin.= _See_ Jehuda ben Meïr.

  =Leontopolis=, the Temple of Onias built at, =1=, 508.

  =Leopold I=, emperor, decrees the banishment of the Jews, =5=, 170.
    refuses to revoke the decree of banishment, =5=, 171-2.
    re-admits Jews into Vienna, =5=, 189.
    decrees the suppression of “Judaism Unmasked,” =5=, 190.
    appealed to, in behalf of Eisenmenger’s book, =5=, 192-3.

  =Leopold II=, of Austria, imposes new restrictions on the
        Jews, =5=, 508.

  =Leopold=, duke of Austria, Jewish treasurer of, =3=, 418.

  =Leopoldstadt=, assigned to the Jews of Vienna, =4=, 702; =5=, 172.

  =Lepanto=, the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.

  =Lepers=, the, at Bethany, =2=, 160.
    treatment of, in the Middle Ages, =4=, 57.

  =Lepidus=, member of the second triumvirate, =2=, 81.

  =Lerida=, resists the introduction of the Inquisition, =4=, 332.

  =Lerida, the Jews of=, excommunicate the anti-Maimunists, =3=, 537.
    persecuted in 1391, =4=, 172.
    converted by Vincent Ferrer, =4=, 214.

  =Lerin=, count of, receives the Spanish exiles, =4=, 358.

  =Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim=, liberality of, =5=, 296.
    becomes acquainted with Mendelssohn, =5=, 297.
    attitude of, towards Jews, =5=, 297, 336.
    admiration of, for Mendelssohn, =5=, 298, 302.
    has Mendelssohn’s first work printed, =5=, 299.
    on the Lavater controversy, =5=, 319.
    becomes acquainted with the Reimarus family, =5=, 319-20.
    publishes the “Fragments of an Unknown,” =5=, 320-1.
    attacked on account of the “Fragments,” =5=, 322-3.
    writes his “Nathan the Wise,” =5=, 323-7.
    aided by Moses Wessely, =5=, 326.
    loses caste through “Nathan the Wise,” =5=, 326.
    death of, =5=, 326, 327.
    accused of Spinozism, =5=, 372.
    influence of, on German Jews, =5=, 412.

  “=Letter= of Aristas,” translated by Azarya deï Rossi, =4=, 615.

  “=Letter=” of Gaon Sherira, on Jewish history, =3=, 232-3.

  “=Letter= of Warning, The,” by Solomon Alami, quoted, =4=, 154-5.

  “=Letter= of Zeal,” by Eibeschütz, =5=, 261.

  =Letters=, the carrying of, regulated by Gershom ben Jehuda,
        =3=, 244-5.

  “=Letters of Obscurantists=, The,” by Crotus Rubianus, a Reuchlinist
        work, =4=, 461-2.
    on the Jews and the Talmud, =4=, 461.
    effect of, =4=, 462.
    attributed to various authors, =4=, 462.
    compared with Perl’s attacks on Chassidism, =5=, 612.

  =Levelers=, the, Jewish spirit among, =5=, 28. _See_ Puritans, the.

  =Leven, Narcisse=, founder of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, =5=,
        701.

  =Levi, the tribe of=, learns from the Egyptians how to write, =1=, 8.
    free from Egyptian idolatrous practices, =1=, 12.
    faithful to Moses, =1=, 18.
    _See_ Levites, the; Priests, the.

  =Levi= (Matthew), publican, follower of Jesus, =2=, 153.

  =Levi bar Sissi=, teacher of the Law in Simonias, =2=, 454.
    adds supplements to the Mishna, =2=, 470.
    son of, =2=, 497.
    on the neo-Persians, =2=, 525.

  =Levi ben Abraham ben Chayim=, of Villefranche (1240-1315),
        allegorist, system of, =4=, 24-5.
    at Perpignan, =4=, 25.
    opposed by Abba-Mari, =4=, 28.
    forced to leave Samuel Sulami’s house, =4=, 29.
    ancestor of Gersonides, =4=, 91.

  =Levi ben Gerson= (Ralbag, Gersonides, Leon de Bagnols, Leo the
        Hebrew, 1288-1345), philosopher, =4=, 87, 91.
    scientific education of, =4=, 91.
    as astronomer, =4=, 91-2.
    life of, =4=, 92.
    religious philosophy of, =4=, 92-3.
    fearlessness of, =4=, 92.
    denounced as a heretic, =4=, 93.
    astronomical treatise of, translated into Latin, =4=, 93, 103.
    predicts the beginning of the Messianic period, =4=, 120.
    authority of, questioned by Chasdaï Crescas, =4=, 146.
    Isaac ben Sheshet’s view of, =4=, 147.
    accused of heresy by Shem Tob ben Joseph, =4=, 197.
    adversely criticised by Isaac Abrabanel, =4=, 342.
    exegesis of, praised by Reuchlin, =4=, 442.
    commentary of, published in the Bomberg Bible, =4=, 476.

  =Levi ben Jacob Chabib=, rabbi of Jerusalem, Talmudist, forced
        baptism of, =4=, 378, 532-3.
    attainments of, =4=, 533.
    relation of, to Jacob Berab, =4=, 533-4.
    ordained by Jacob Berab, =4=, 534.
    antagonizes Jacob Berab, =4=, 534, 535, 536.
    confesses his forced baptism, =4=, 536.

  =Levi ben Shem Tob=, apostate, advises the baptism of Jewish
        children, =4=, 375.

  =Levi ben Todros Abulafia=, Kabbalist, =4=, 2.

  =Levi, Aaron.= _See_ Montezinos, Antonio de.

  =Levi, Abraham.= _See_ Abraham Levi.

  =Levi, Astruc.= _See_ Astruc Levi.

  =Levi, David= (Ture Zahab), Talmudist, =5=, 152.

  =Levi, Elisha=, Palestinian emissary, father of Nathan Ghazati, =5=,
        130.

  =Levi, Gedaliah.= _See_ Gedaliah Levi.

  =Levi, Isaac Lurya.= _See_ Isaac Lurya Levi.

  =Levi, Isaiah=, Sabbatian, =5=, 152.

  =Levi, Nathan Benjamin.= _See_ Nathan Benjamin Levi.

  =Levi, Raphael=, charged with the blood accusation, =5=, 175-6.
    guilt of, believed in by Eisenmenger, =5=, 188.

  =Levi, Solomon.= _See_ Solomon Levi.

  =Levi, Wolf=, apostate, =5=, 213.

  =Levin (Varnhagen), Rachel=, characteristics of, =5=, 413.
    on the “hep, hep!” persecution, =5=, 534.
    influence of the salon of, on Heine, =5=, 546.

  =Levirate marriage=, the, regulated by the synod of Mayence, =3=, 518.

  =Levita, Elias.= _See_ Elias Levita.

  =Levite=, a, author of the books of Chronicles, =1=, 411.

  =Levites=, the, punish the idolatrous Israelites in the desert, =1=,
        24.
    left without territory, =1=, 40.
    reside at Shiloh, =1=, 41, 69.
    opposed to intermarriages with the heathen, =1=, 56.
    dispersed among the tribes, =1=, 57.
    reprove the people for idolatry, =1=, 58.
    scattered from Shiloh, =1=, 72.
    join Samuel in a guild, =1=, 76.
    assist Samuel, =1=, 78.
    faithful to David in the civil war with Absalom, =1=, 141.
    service of, in the Temple, =1=, 167-8.
    settle in Judah to escape idol worship, =1=, 187.
    recalled to the Temple under Josiah, =1=, 289.
    carry the Psalms into the Babylonian exile, =1=, 334.
    return from the Captivity under Zerubbabel, =1=, 352.
    leave Jerusalem, =1=, 372.
    lack of, in Jerusalem under Nehemiah, =1=, 377.
    explain the Law as read by Ezra, =1=, 378-9.
    at the consecration of the walls of Jerusalem, =1=, 381-2.
    tithes for, collected under Ezra, =1=, 382.
    lose their income, =1=, 383.
    return to the Temple, =1=, 386.
    abandon the Temple under Apollonius, =1=, 454.
    re-instated by the Maccabees, =1=, 473.
    officiate in the Temple of Onias, =1=, 508.
    _See also_ Levi, the tribe of; Priests, the.

  =Levy, Maurice=, acquaints Napoleon with the anti-Jewish agitation,
        =5=, 498.

  =Lewin, Hirschel=, rabbi of Berlin, and Mendelssohn, =5=, 317.

  =Lexicon, Hebrew= (Aruch, Dictionary, Iggaron, Machbereth), by
        Saadiah, =3=, 190.
    by Menachem ben Saruk, =3=, 225, 226.
    by Ibn-Janach, =3=, 263.
    by Solomon ben Abraham Parchon, =3=, 423.

  =Lexicon, Talmudical=, by Mar-Zemach I ben Paltoi, =3=, 179.
    by Nachshon ben Zadok, =3=, 179.
    by Nathan ben Yechiel, =3=, 290.
    by David de Pomis, =4=, 657.
    _See also_ Aruch.

  =Lexicons, Talmudical=, revised, =5=, 115.

  =Libanius=, teacher of Julian the Apostate, =2=, 595.

  =Libermann, Eleazar=, aids the Reform movement, =5=, 568, 569, 571.

  =Libertini=, the, synagogues of, =2=, 103, 201.

  =Libertinus=, prefect of Sicily, razes a synagogue to the
        ground, =3=, 34.

  “=Library= of the Fine Arts, The,” Mendelssohn contributes
        to, =5=, 300.

  =Liebmann, Jost=, court jeweler, favorite of Frederick I of
        Prussia, =5=, 190.
    wife of, =5=, 190, 219.
    permitted to have a private synagogue, =5=, 191.
    son-in-law of, =5=, 219.

  =Liegnitz=, the Jews of, charged with host desecration, =4=, 261.

  “=Light= of the Exile, The,” Gershom ben Jehuda, =3=, 243.

  “=Light= of the Eyes,” by Azarya deï Rossi, =4=, 615.
    declared heretical, =4=, 616.
    fate of, among Jews and Christians, =4=, 616-17.

  =Lima, David de=, builds the third synagogue at Hamburg, =4=, 691.

  =Limpo, Balthasar=, bishop, abuses Paul III before the Council of
        Trent, =4=, 525-6.

  =Lincoln, the Jews of=, protected against the crusaders, =3=, 413.

  =Lindau=, the Jews of, charged with well poisoning, =4=, 105.
    burnt on the blood accusation, =4=, 227.

  =Lipmann= (Tab-Yomi) of Mühlhausen, defends the Alenu prayer, =4=,
        178.

  =Lipmann, Solomon=, temporary chairman of the Assembly of Jewish
        Notables, =5=, 487.

  =Lippe=, Jews tolerated in, =4=, 686.

  =Lippe-Schaumburg=, the Prince of, honors Mendelssohn, =5=, 308.

  =Lippold=, physician, accused of poisoning Elector Joachim
        II, =4=, 652.

  =Lisbon, the Jews of=, agitation against, =4=, 160.
    ransom Jewish captives, =4=, 339.
    port open to the Jews on their banishment from Portugal, =4=,
        374, 376-7.
    exiles from, form a congregation in Constantinople, =4=, 402.
    earthquake at, =4=, 505.
    tribunal of the Inquisition in, =5=, 508.
    autos-da-fé in, =5=, 32, 91.

  =Lisbon, the Marranos of=, worship at a synagogue, =4=, 485.
    massacre of, =4=, 487.
    life of, inquired into, =4=, 489.
    spied upon by Henrique Nunes, =4=, 490.

  =Lisbona, Samuel=, father-in-law of Nathan Ghazati, =5=, 130.

  =Lissa, Jacob=, leader of the orthodox party, =5=, 567.

  =Lissa=, Mendelssohn’s Pentateuch translation forbidden in, =5=, 332.
    the Jews of, burn Wessely’s letter, =5=, 370.
    the rabbi of, opposes the Reform movement, =5=, 571.

  =Literature, Jewish=, in Hasmonæan times, =2=, 15-16.
    becomes known to the heathen, =2=, 502.
    Reuchlin on, =4=, 441-3.
    attractive to Christians, =5=, 178, 179.
    _See under_ Hebrew literature; Judæo-Greek literature; Rabbinical
        literature; Poetry.

  =Literature, Jewish mediæval=, treated by Sachs, =5=, 693-4.
    by Zunz, =5=, 694.

  =Lithuania=, a refuge for exiled Jews, =4=, 418-19.
    rabbinical schools established in, =4=, 420.
    united with Poland, =4=, 631.
    the Protestant Reformation in, =4=, 646-7.
    Karaites in, =5=, 182-3.
    the Chassidim in, =5=, 388.

  =Lithuania, the Jews of=, the blood accusation launched against, =4=,
        642.
    represented in the Synod of the Four Countries, =4=, 644.
    suffer from the Cossacks, =5=, 14.

  “=Little Book= about the Jews, The,” disproves the blood accusation,
        =4=, 545-6.

  =Liturgical poetry=, introduced, =3=, 113-14, 117-18.
    cultivated by the Jewish Andalusian school, =3=, 224.
    by minor poets, =3=, 236, 259-60, 367, 376, 419.
    by Simon ben Abun, =3=, 245.
    by Moses Ibn-Ezra, =3=, 320.
    _See under_ Neo-Hebraic poetry; Piyutim; Poetanim; Poetry; Poets.

  =Liturgy=, the, arranged by the Sopherim, =1=, 398-400.
    Gamaliel II introduces the Berachoth into, =2=, 363.
    amplification of, by poetanic compositions, =3=, 113-14, 117-18.
    of the Karaites, =3=, 132; =4=, 71, 73-4.
    of the European Jews, compiled by Mar Amram ben Sheshna, =3=, 178.
    arranged by Saadiah, =3=, 196.
    Sephardic, adopted in northern Africa, =4=, 198.
    German, compiled by Maharil, =4=, 225.
    affected by the Kabbala, =4=, 481.
    of the Chassidim, =5=, 386-7.

  =Liturgy, the changes in=, made by Maimonides, =3=, 466.
    made by Abi Zimra, =4=, 395.
    in Amsterdam, =5=, 457.
    made by Jacobson, =5=, 562.
    made by Kley, =5=, 564.
    approved by some authorities, =5=, 569.
    in Vienna, =5=, 580, 581-2.
    made by the Hamburg Temple Reform Union, =5=, 673.
    in Mecklenburg-Schwerin, =5=, 679.

  =Livia=, empress, heiress of Salome, sister of Herod, =2=, 128.

  =Livia.= _See_ Beth-Ramatha.

  =Livorno.= _See_ Leghorn.

  =Loans.= _See_ Jacob ben Yechiel; Joseph ben Gershom.

  =Lobato, Diego Gomez=, and Paul de Pina, =4=, 669-70.

  =Löbele Prossnitz=, Sabbatian, supporter of Chayon, =5=, 219.
    denounced, =5=, 229.
    in intercourse with Eibeschütz, =5=, 248, 249.

  =Lodi, the Jews of=, number of, in the sixteenth century, =4=, 653.
    expelled, =4=, 660.

  =Lodomeria=, the Jews of, proscribed by the Council of Buda, =3=, 614.

  =Logos=, the, in Philo’s philosophy, =2=, 213.
    in the Church, =2=, 500, 501.

  =Logrono=, the Jews of, persecuted, =4=, 170.

  =Lombards=, the, usury practiced by, =3=, 510.

  =Lombardy=, German Jewish immigrants held up in, =3=, 638.

  =London=, Abraham Ibn-Ezra in, =3=, 373-4.
    Jews secretly domiciled in, =5=, 38.
    excitement in, about the admission of Jews, =5=, 44.
    Jewish burial ground in, =5=, 49.
    first synagogue in, =5=, 50.
    the Sabbatian movement in, =5=, 141.
    the Mansion House meeting in, =5=, 655-7.
    celebration of Montefiore’s return to, =5=, 670.
    rabbinical college at, =5=, 700.

  =London, the Jews of=, prosperous under Henry II, =3=, 409.
    attacked by a mob at Richard I’s coronation, =3=, 410-11.
    protected by John, =3=, 505.
    attacked, =3=, 591-2, 643.
    protected by Henry III, =3=, 592.
    hold a meeting on the Damascus affair, =5=, 653-4.

  =London, the Portuguese Jews of=, wealthy, =5=, 205.
    hold aloof from the Eibeschütz controversy, =5=, 264.

  =Longinus=, rhetorician, at the court of Zenobia, =2=, 529.

  =Longobard code=, the, no mention of Jews in, =3=, 33.

  =Lope de Vega=, dramatist, =5=, 112.

  =Lopes de Almeida=, Portuguese ambassador to Rome, =4=, 340.

  =Lopes-Dubec=, member of Malesherbes’ commission, =5=, 432.
    deputy of the French Jews, =5=, 438.

  =Lopez=, Portuguese Marrano, protected by Sixtus V, =4=, 655.

  =Lopez, Balthasar=, Marrano, burnt at the stake, =5=, 91-2.

  =Lopez, Juan, del Barco=, inquisitor appointed by Sixtus IV, =4=, 312.

  =Lopez, Pedro, de Ayala=, poet, on the Jews of Castile, =4=,
        121, 122.

  =Lorch=, the Jews of, the murderers of, punished, =3=, 635.

  =Lord Mayor=, office of, held by Jews, =5=, 698.

  =Lord’s Supper=, the. _See_ Transubstantiation.

  =Lorqui.= _See_ Joshua ben Joseph Ibn-Vives.

  =Lorraine=, rabbis from, at the first rabbinical synod, =3=, 377.

  =Lorraine, the Jews of=, petition for alleviation, =5=, 431.
    representatives of, in Malesherbes’ commission, =5=, 431.
    number of, =5=, 435.
    complain to the National Assembly, =5=, 436.
    send a delegate to the National Assembly, =5=, 438.
    emancipation of, opposed by the Duc de Broglie, =5=, 447.

  “=Los Rumbos peligrosos=,” novels by Joseph Penso, =5=, 113.

  =Lost Islands=, the. _See_ San Thomas.

  =Louis the Pious= (814-840), emperor, the Jews under, =3=, 161-70.
    wife of, =3=, 162.
    refuses to countenance Agobard’s anti-Jewish proceedings,
        =3=, 165-6.
    sons of, excited against his wife, =3=, 166, 168.
    heresy of, in protecting the Jews, =3=, 167.
    letter addressed to, by the bishops assembled at Lyons, =3=, 167-8.
    and the conversion of Bishop Bodo, =3=, 168-70.
    originates the theory that the Jews are the emperor’s wards, =3=,
        170.

  =Louis II= (855), emperor, decrees the banishment of the Italian
        Jews, =3=, 174.

  =Louis the German=, king of Germany, Bible commentary dedicated
        to, =3=, 163.

  =Louis IV=, the Bavarian, emperor, imposes a tax on the Jews,
        =4=, 96-7.
    tries to protect the Jews during the Armleder persecutions, =4=,
        98.
    sons of, deliver the Jews to the mob, =4=, 110.

  =Louis VI=, of France, the Jews prosperous under, =3=, 343.

  =Louis VII=, of France, the Jews prosperous under, =3=, 343.
    joins the second crusade, =3=, 349.
    roused against the Jews by Peter the Venerable, =3=, 349-50.
    permits the repudiation of debts owing to Jews, =3=, 351.
    friendly to Jews, =3=, 400-1.
    resists the anti-Jewish decrees of the third Lateran Council, =3=,
        508.

  =Louis IX=, of France, has the Talmud burnt, =4=, 460, 578-9.
    hostile to the Jews, =3=, 519.
    encourages the conversion of Jews, =3=, 570.
    fixes the rate of interest, =3=, 571.
    orders a disputation on the Talmud, =3=, 576.
    brother of, =3=, 583.
    confiscates the property of Jews to organize a crusade, =3=, 585.
    taken prisoner, =3=, 585.
    banishes the Jews from his hereditary dominions, =3=, 585-6.
    insists upon the Jew badge, =3=, 612.

  =Louis X=, of France, recalls the Jews, =4=, 53-4.

  =Louis XII=, of France, influenced against Reuchlin, =4=, 459, 464.
    confessor of, patron of Hebrew literature, =4=, 473.

  =Louis XIV=, of France, celebrated by Enriquez de Paz, =5=, 110.
    renews the privileges of the Jews of Metz, =5=, 174.
    orders criminal charges against the Jews to be tried by the royal
        council, =5=, 176.
    presents the Jews of Metz to the house of Brancas, =5=, 348, 446.

  =Louis XV=, of France, confirms the right of the Portuguese to expel
        German Jews from Bordeaux, =5=, 342, 343.

  =Louis XVI=, of France, implored to expel the Jews from Alsace, =5=,
        350.
    orders lawsuits against usurers to be decided by the state
        councilor, =5=, 350-1.
    abolishes the poll-tax on Jews, =5=, 415, 432.
    government of, helped by Cerf Berr, =5=, 430.
    grants privileges to Cerf Berr, =5=, 431.
    disposed to ameliorate the condition of the Jews, =5=, 431.
    approves of the emancipation of the Portuguese Jews, =5=, 442.
    grants special protection to Alsatian Jews, =5=, 446.
    removes taxes from the Jews of Alsace, =5=, 446.
    ratifies the Constitution, =5=, 447.
    confirms the emancipation of the Jews, =5=, 448.

  =Louis XVIII=, of France, reactionary court of, =5=, 512.
    government of, does not renew the anti-Jewish restrictions,
        =5=, 524-5.
    the emancipation of the Jews under, =5=, 596.

  =Louis I=, of Hungary and Poland, banishes the Jews, =4=, 111.

  =Louis=, duke of Anjou, regent of France, confirms the privileges of
        the French Jews, =4=, 50.
    protects the Jews of Paris, =4=, 151, 152.

  =Louis the Rich=, duke of Bavaria, plunders and expels the Jews,
        =4=, 253-4.
    under the influence of John of Capistrano, =4=, 258.

  =Louis=, duke of Bavaria-Landshut, claims the Jews of Ratisbon, =4=,
        300.
    attempts to convert the Jews, =4=, 301.

  =Louis of Brandenburg=, orders the Jews of Königsberg to be burnt,
        =4=, 110-11.

  =Louis=, count of Darmstadt, protects the Jewish exiles from
        Worms, =4=, 699.

  =Louis Philippe=, of France, the emancipation of the Jews under,
        =5=, 596-7.
    ratifies the law making rabbis state officers, =5=, 597.
    supports Mehmet Ali, =5=, 633, 634.
    appealed to on the Damascus affair, =5=, 645.
    struggle of, with Thiers, =5=, 648.
    deceives the hopes of the French Jews, =5=, 651, 658.
    ambiguous attitude of, =5=, 668.
    receives Montefiore, =5=, 668.

  =Louise=, of Prussia, death of, mourned by the Berlin Jews, =5=, 508.

  =Louvain=, the university of, sanctions the burning of the
        “Augenspiegel,” =4=, 452.

  =Löwe, Joel=, editor of the Meassef, =5=, 400.
    mediocrity of, =5=, 417.

  =Löwisohn, Solomon= (1789-1822), Jewish historian, =5=, 594.

  =Löwy, Albert=, founder of the “Anglo-Jewish Association,” =5=, 703.

  =Loyola, Ignatius=, power of, over Paul III, =4=, 525.
    efforts of, to re-establish the supremacy of the papacy, =4=, 562.

  =Lübeck=, objects to Jewish inhabitants, =5=, 506.
    Jews admitted into, =5=, 506.

  =Lübeck, the Jews of=, threatened with banishment, =5=, 512.
    banished, =5=, 520.

  =Lubienski, Wratislaw=, archbishop of Lemberg, Frankist petition to,
        =5=, 284-5.

  =Lublin=, meeting place of the Polish Talmudists, =4=, 640.
    meeting place of the Synod of the Four countries, =4=, 644,
        645; =5=, 3.
    the German population of, =5=, 3.
    synod of, relaxes the Jewish marriage laws, =5=, 13.

  =Lucca=, home of the Kalonymos family, =3=, 143.
    Abraham Ibn-Ezra in, =3=, 371-3.
    the Jews of, in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.

  =Lucena= (city), the Talmud school of, famous, =3=, 236.
    refuge of the Jews of Granada, =3=, 279.
    a Jew of, threatens to betray his coreligionists, =3=, 317.
    Jehuda Halevi studies at, =3=, 322, 323.
    the school of, closed by the Almohades, =3=, 361, 384.
    Jews disappear from, =4=, 354.

  =Lucena, the Jews of=, correspond in Arabic with the Gaon of
        Sora, =3=, 178.
    famous through Alfassi, =3=, 311.
    Islam forced on, =3=, 311-12.
    pretend to accept Islam, =3=, 361.

  =Lucena= (district), early settlement of Jews in, =3=, 43.

  =Lucero, Diego Rodriguez=, hangman in Cordova, cruelty of, =4=, 484.
    disciple of, =4=, 489.

  =Lucilla=, daughter of Marcus Aurelius, cured by Simon ben
        Yochaï, =2=, 449.

  =Lucuas= (Andreias), leader of the Jews of Cyrene against
        Trajan, =2=, 395.

  =Lucullus=, Roman commander, attacks Tigranes, of Armenia, =2=, 56.

  =Luna, Alvaro de=, favorite of Juan II of Castile, invites the aid of
        Jews, =4=, 228.
    protects the Jews, =4=, 251-2.
    complains of the backsliding of the Marranos, =4=, 256.
    confessor of, =4=, 277.

  =Luna, Pedro de.= _See_ Benedict XIII.

  =Lünel=, Serachya Halevi Gerundi at, =3=, 389.
    letter to the wise men of, by Meïr Abulafia, =3=, 524.
    synagogue of, sold, =4=, 48.

  =Lünel, the Jews of=, in the twelfth century, =3=, 396-8.
    learning of, =3=, 396.
    scientific tendency of, =3=, 397.
    letter to, from Maimonides, =3=, 489.
    ask Maimonides to translate his “Guide of the Perplexed” into
        Hebrew, =3=, 491-2.
    exhorted by Maimonides to study the Talmud scientifically, =3=, 492.
    excommunicate Solomon of Montpellier, =3=, 530.
    oppose the study of science, =4=, 33.
    accused of outraging the image of Jesus, =4=, 55.

  =Luneville=, deputies from, to the National Assembly, and Isaac
        Berr, =5=, 438.
    the peace of, =5=, 464, 465.

  =Lupus=, governor of Alexandria, executes fugitive Zealots, =2=, 318.

  =Lupus=, Trajan’s general in Egypt, =2=, 395.

  =Lurya.= _See_ Isaac Lurya Levi; Solomon.

  =Lusitano.= _See_ Abraham Zacuto Lusitano.

  =Lusitanus, Amatus.= _See_ Amatus Lusitanus.

  =Luther, Martin=, character of, =4=, 467.
    in the pantomime on the Protestant Reformation, =4=, 468.
    at the diet of Worms, =4=, 469.
    on the Wartburg, =4=, 469.
    translates the Bible, =4=, 469.
    on the Jews, =4=, 470-1, 547-52.
    learns Hebrew, =4=, 473, 475.
    encourages the study of the Bible, =4=, 474.
    pamphlet by, =4=, 548.
    proves the Messiahship of Jesus, =4=, 548.
    reviews the suffering of the Jews, =4=, 549.
    attacks the Talmud, =4=, 549-50.
    treatment of Jews proposed by, =4=, 550-1.
    advises the expulsion of the Jews, =4=, 551-2.

  =Lutherans=, the, in Spain, persecuted by the Inquisition, =4=, 485.
    the meetings of, in Poland, the model of the Synod of the Four
        Countries, =4=, 645.

  =Luzk=, the Karaites of, =4=, 265; =5=, 182.

  =Luzzatto, Moses Chayim= (1707-1747), dramatic poet, =5=, 203-4.
    a prey to Kabbalistic influences, =5=, 233.
    ancestry and early education of, =5=, 233.
    poetic gifts of, =5=, 233-4.
    studies in Hebrew meter by, =5=, 234.
    composes a drama on Samson, =5=, 234.
    style of, =5=, 234.
    imitation of the psalter by, =5=, 234.
    a second drama by, =5=, 235.
    imitates the style of the Zohar, =5=, 235.
    devoted to the Kabbala, =5=, 236.
    writes a second Zohar, =5=, 237.
    communicates his Kabbala to disciples, =5=, 237-8.
    opposed by Moses Chages, =5=, 238.
    refuses to justify himself, =5=, 238.
    promises not to teach Kabbala in Europe, =5=, 239.
    surrenders his writings to Bassan, =5=, 239.
    publishes Kabbalistic writings, =5=, 239.
    offends the Venetian rabbinate, =5=, 239-40.
    accusations against, =5=, 240.
    excommunicated by the Venetian rabbinate, =5=, 240, 242.
    promises to give up Kabbala, =5=, 241.
    received kindly at Amsterdam, =5=, 242.
    supports himself by polishing lenses, =5=, 242.
    publishes a drama, =5=, 242-4.
    influence of, on the modern time, =5=, 244.
    goes to Safet, =5=, 244.
    death of, =5=, 244-5.
    model of Bresselau, =5=, 398.
    disciple of, =5=, 401.

  =Luzzatto, Samuel David= (1800-1865), scholar, disinterestedness and
        enthusiasm of, =5=, 622-23.
    gifts of, =5=, 623.
    poetry of, =5=, 623.
    devotes himself to Biblical exegesis, =5=, 623.
    view held by, of the Massora, =5=, 624.
    historical studies of, =5=, 624-5.
    as exegete, =5=, 695, 699.

  =Luzzatto, Simone= (Simcha, 1590-1663), on usury, =5=, 41.
    sceptic, =5=, 56.
    member of the Venice rabbinate, =5=, 67.
    attainments of, =5=, 80.
    on the relation of faith to science, =5=, 80-1.
    sobriety of, =5=, 81.
    on Jewish rites, =5=, 81.
    defends Judaism and the Jews, =5=, 81-4.
    on the Talmud and Kabbala, =5=, 84.
    moderation of, =5=, 84.

  =Lybia=, the Jews of, rebel against Trajan, =2=, 394, 396.

  =Lydda= (Diospolis), taken by the Samaritans, =1=, 410.
    besieged by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 45.
    center for the teaching of the Law under Gamaliel II, =2=,
        335, 346.
    restored to Judæa by Cæsar, =2=, 76.
    meeting place of the teachers of the Law after the fall of
        Bethar, =2=, 423.
    the inhabitants of, praised by Chanina bar Chama, =2=, 492.
    seat of Joshua ben Levi’s academy, =2=, 497.
    birthplace of Simlaï, =2=, 498.
    refuge of Ulla bar Kosher, =2=, 530.
    seat of a Jewish revolt against Rome, =2=, 570.
    partially destroyed, =2=, 570.
    the original text of the Bible studied at, =2=, 623.

  =Lydia.= _See_ Crœsus.

  =Lynn=, the Jews of, massacre of, =3=, 411-12.

  =Lyons=, the Council of, to humble the Jews, =3=, 167-8.
    rabbi of, at the first rabbinical synod, =3=, 377.
    Innocent IV at, =3=, 584.

  =Lyons, the Jews of=, ill-treated by Agobard, =3=, 164-5.
    under the protection of Louis the Pious, =3=, 165-6.

  =Lysanias=, son of Ptolemy of Chalcis, incites the Parthians against
        Herod and Phasael, =2=, 82.

  =Lysias=, Syrian commander, lieutenant of the country between Egypt
        and the Euphrates, =1=, 463.
    commissioned to march against Judæa, =1=, 464.
    chooses his subaltern officers, =1=, 466-7.
    defeated by Judas Maccabæus, =1=, 469-70.
    guardian of Antiochus V, =1=, 477.
    invades Judæa, =1=, 478-80.
    takes Bethzur, =1=, 479.
    forces Judas Maccabæus to retreat, =1=, 479.
    besieges the Temple, =1=, 479.
    razes the fortifications of the Temple, =1=, 480.
    executes Menelaus, =1=, 480.
    disobeys Rome, =1=, 481.
    death of, =1=, 482.

  =Lysimachus=, ally of Ptolemy I, at the battle of Ipsus, =1=, 417.

  =Lysimachus=, the Benjamite, Hellenist, opposed to Onias III, =1=,
        437.
    Jerusalem left in charge of, =1=, 448.
    spoils the Temple, =1=, 448.
    killed, =1=, 449.

  =Lysimachus, Alexander.= _See_ Alexander Lysimachus.


  =M=

  =Maachah=, wife of Rehoboam, worships Astarte, =1=, 188-9.
    regent for Asa, =1=, 189.
    idolatry of, hateful to the people of Judah, =1=, 190.

  =Maamad=, public sittings of the rabbis of Amsterdam, =4=, 684.

  =Maasé Efod=, Hebrew grammar by Profiat Duran, =4=, 191.

  =Maasseiah=, governor of Jerusalem, appointed over the Temple
        funds, =1=, 292.

  =Maccabæus.= _See_ Judas Maccabæus.

  =Maccabæan time=, the, characterized, =5=, 722-3.

  “=Maccabee=, The,” by Miguel Silveyra, =5=, 111.

  =Maccabees=, the, father and five sons, =1=, 458-9.
    re-consecrate the Temple, =1=, 472-3.
    _See_ Hasmonæans, the.

  =Maccabees, the first Book of=, originally written in Hebrew, =2=,
        16.
    considered apocryphal, =2=, 344.

  “=Maccabees=, the, History of.” _See_ Josippon.

  =Macedonia=, dissolution of the kingdom of, =1=, 416.
    Paul establishes Greek-Christian communities in, =2=, 227.

  =Macedonia, the Jews of=, autonomy of, =3=, 27.
    in the twelfth century, =3=, 424.

  =Machærus=, Judæan fortress, built by Alexander Jannæus, =2=, 46.
    surrenders to the Romans, =2=, 73.
    surrenders to Bassus, =2=, 315.

  =Machault, Denys=, apostate, disappearance of, =4=, 175.

  =Machbereth=, Hebrew dictionary by Menachem ben Saruk, =3=, 225.
    criticised by Dunash Ibn-Labrat, =3=, 226.

  “=Machbi=,” device on Molcho’s banner, =4=, 510.

  =Machir=, assists David in the war with Absalom, =1=, 144.

  =Machir=, a learned Jew, head of the Narbonne congregation, =3=, 143.
    ancestor of Kalonymos ben Todros, =3=, 392.

  =Machpelah=, cave of, acquired by Abraham, =1=, 4.

  =Machuza= (Maoga-Malka), a city of Babylonia, description of,
        =2=, 506-8.
    inhabited by Jews, =2=, 507.
    the Persian army stationed at, =2=, 591.
    destroyed by Julian the Apostate, =2=, 602.
    capital of a Jewish state, =3=, 4.

  =Machuza=, the academy of, under Raba bar Joseph bar Chama, =2=, 571,
        584-5, 590.
    produces the Talmud, =2=, 591.
    decline of, =2=, 593.

  =Machuza, the Jews of=, descended from proselytes, =2=, 507, 586.
    luxurious habits of, =2=, 507.
    peculiarities of, =2=, 586.
    marriages of, =2=, 586-7.
    made captives by Kobad, =3=, 4.
    put to death by Mebodes, =3=, 9.

  =Machuza=, a district of Jewish Babylonia, =2=, 505.

  =Mâcon=, the Council of, passes anti-Jewish resolutions, =3=, 39.

  =Madaba.= _See_ Medaba.

  =Madain=, the Jews of, silence a Mahometan crier, =3=, 428.

  =Madrid=, the Jews of, under Sancho, =3=, 617.

  =Madrid, the cortes of=, petition Alfonso XI concerning usury, =4=,
        80.
    ask for anti-Jewish laws, =4=, 80.

  =Maella=, the Jews of, converted by Vincent Ferrer, =4=, 214.

  =Mæsa=, grandmother of Elegabalus, =2=, 469.

  =Maëstro Gayo.= _See_ Isaac ben Mordecai.

  =Magdala= (Tarichæa), Judæan troops surrender to the Romans
        at, =2=, 75.
    Jesus in, =2=, 154, 157.
    rebels against Josephus, =2=, 280.
    Jewish stronghold in the Bar-Cochba revolt, =2=, 414.
    fall of, =2=, 416.
    dissatisfied with a decision by Simon ben Yochaï, =2=, 449.

  =Magdeburg=, Jews in, in the ninth century, =3=, 144.
    a church at, granted the revenue derived from Jews, =3=, 243.

  =Magdeburg, the Jews of=, persecuted in the thirteenth century, =3=,
        611.
    banished, =4=, 416.
    suffer during the Black Death persecution, =4=, 111.

  =Maggid=, the dream-interpreter, of Solomon Molcho, =4=, 496.
    of Joseph Karo, =4=, 497, 537-8.
    of Moses Chayim Luzzatto, =5=, 236, 237.

  =Maghariyites=, a Karaite sect, =3=, 151.

  =Maghreb.= _See_ Kairuan.

  =Magi=, the, practices of, forbidden by Rab, =2=, 521.
    recover credit under Ardashir, =2=, 524.
    persecute the Christians, =2=, 524.
    molest the Jews of Babylonia, =2=, 524-5.
    fanaticism of, diminishes, =2=, 525-6.
    and Ashi, =2=, 605.
    and Jezdijird, =2=, 609-10.
    influence of, over the Sassanian monarchs, =2=, 627.
    and the Jews of Ispahan, =2=, 629.
    religion of, reformed by Mazdak, =3=, 1-2.
    cause a persecution of the Jews, =3=, 8.

  =Magian= influence on Judaism, =1=, 402-5.

  =Magister Judæorum=, officer in the Frankish empire, =3=, 161.

  =Magisterial offices=, certain classes of Jews exempt from, under
        Constantine, =2=, 561, 563, 616.
    Jewish exemption from, abolished by Theodosius I, =2=, 615.
    Jews exempt from, under Arcadius, =2=, 616.
    Jews forced to assume, by Justinian, =3=, 13.
    Jews excluded from, by the Council of Paris, =3=, 40.
    Jews exempt from, in Cologne, =3=, 41.
    _See_ Civil offices.

  =Magnus, Marcus=, court Jew of Frederick William I, =5=, 219.

  =Magona=, the Jews of, forced into Christianity, =2=, 619-20.

  =Magyars=, the, made intolerant by the papacy, =3=, 614.

  =Mahadia.= _See_ Kairuan.

  =Mahanaim=, seat of Saul’s family after his death, =1=, 108, 110.
    battle of, in the war with Absalom, =1=, 144.
    David welcomed at, =1=, 144.

  =Maharil.= _See_ Jacob ben Moses Mölin Halevi.

  =Mahdi=, the founder of the Fatimide dynasty, =3=, 212.

  =Maher-Shalal-Chash-Baz=, son of Isaiah, =1=, 259.

  =Mahomet=, inspired by Judaism, =3=, 71-2.
    revelations to, from Gabriel, =3=, 71.
    declaims against idolatry and immorality, =3=, 72.
    tries to win over the Jews of Yathrib, =3=, 73.
    character of, =3=, 74.
    Jewish opponents of, =3=, 74-5.
    gives up Jewish ceremonies, =3=, 75-6.
    antagonism of, to Jews, =3=, 76.
    victorious at Bedr, =3=, 76.
    drives the Benu-Kainukaa from Arabia, =3=, 76-8.
    victorious over the Benu-Nadhir, =3=, 78-80.
    exterminates the Benu-Kuraiza, =3=, 80-1.
    victorious over the Jews of Chaibar, =3=, 81-3.
    attempt to poison, =3=, 83-4.
    the Jews of Medina intrigue against, =3=, 84.
    death of, =3=, 84.
    acknowledged as the prophet by conquered nations, =3=, 86.
    as viewed by Anan ben David, =3=, 134.

  =Mahomet II=, Turkish conqueror of the Byzantine empire, threatens
        Christendom, =4=, 267.
    friendly to the Jews, =4=, 268.

  =Mahomet IV=, sultan, influence of Jewish women under, =4=, 629.
    considers the case of Sabbataï Zevi, =5=, 153.
    receives Sabbataï into Islam, =5=, 154.

  =Mahomet Alemin=, son of Haroun-Alrashid, war of, with his
        brother, =3=, 145.
    death of, =3=, 146.

  =Mahomet Almansur=, Hajib of Hisham, and Jacob Ibn-Jau, =3=,
        239, 240-1.

  =Mahomet Almuktafi=, Abbasside Caliph, revives the Exilarchate, =3=,
        428.

  =Mahomet Bey=, vizir, attacks Achmed Shaitan, =4=, 396.

  =Mahomet Sokolli=, vizir, antagonizes Joseph Nassi, =4=, 596, 599,
        602.
    favorable to Venice, =4=, 600.
    employs a Jewish agent, =4=, 603, 605.
    supplants Joseph Nassi, =4=, 627.
    advises the confiscation of Joseph Nassi’s property, =4=, 628.

  =Mahometan (pseudo) Jews=, despair of, =3=, 452.
    exhorted to remain true to Judaism, =3=, 452.
    condemned as apostates and idolaters, =3=, 453-4.
    defended by Maimonides, =3=, 454-6.

  =Mahometans=, the, looked upon by the Jews as liberators from the
        Christian yoke, =3=, 88-9.
    conspire with the Jews to overthrow the Visigothic-Spanish
        empire, =3=, 108.
    conquer Visigothic Spain, =3=, 109.
    culture of, in Spain under the Ommiyyade caliphs, =3=, 214.
    traditions of, used by Haï Gaon, =3=, 251.
    in Spain, crusade against, =3=, 507.
    condition of, in Hungary, =3=, 520-1.
    proscribed in Hungary, =3=, 615.
    distrusted by Argun, khan of Persia, =3=, 647.
    intrigue against Saad-Addaula, =3=, 648-9.
    usurers in Castile, =4=, 80.
    the crusades against, begin with massacres of Jews, =4=, 222.
    placed under restrictions by Eugenius IV, =4=, 250.
    persecuted, =4=, 251.
    protected by Juan II of Castile, =4=, 252.
    the Jews under, =5=, 726-7.

  =Mahon.= _See_ Magona.

  =Maillotins=, the, attack the Jews of France, =4=, 152.

  =Maimaran, Joseph=, adviser of Muley Ismail, =5=, 168.

  =Maimi, Simon.= _See_ Simon Maimi.

  =Maimon, Solomon= (1753-1800), on Hirsch Janow, =5=, 331.
    philosophical thinker, =5=, 405, 407-9.
    character and studies of, =5=, 407, 408.
    goes to Germany, =5=, 407-8.
    wanderings of, =5=, 408.
    autobiography of, =5=, 409.
    fame of, =5=, 409.

  =Maimonides, Moses.= _See_ Moses ben Maimun.

  =Maimun ben Joseph=, father of Maimonides, Talmudist and scientist,
        disciple of Joseph Ibn-Migash, =3=, 317, 447.
    influence of, on his son, =3=, 447.
    a fugitive from the Almohades, =3=, 448.
    teacher of his son, =3=, 448.
    emigrates to Fez, =3=, 451.
    family of, assumes Islam, =3=, 451.
    exhorts the pseudo-Mahometan Jews to remain true to Judaism, =3=,
        452.
    emigrates to Palestine and Egypt, =3=, 456-7.
    death of, =3=, 457.

  =Maimun Asha=, Arabic poet, protected by Shoraich, =3=, 70.

  =Maimuni.= _See_ Abraham (Almeni) Maimuni; Abraham Maimuni II; David
        ben Maimun; David Maimuni; Moses ben Maimun.

  =Maimunist controversy=, the, =3=, 530.
    in verses, =3=, 538, 544.
    compromise in, proposed by Nachmani, =3=, 539-40.
    taken up by the Dominicans, =3=, 542-3.
    causes a division in Judaism, =3=, 546-7.
    causes the neglect of poetry, =3=, 558-9.
    allayed by the burning of the Talmud, =3=, 579-80.
    breaks out anew in the time of Solomon ben Adret, =3=, 623-4.
    in Germany, Italy, and Palestine, =3=, 624-34.
    in Accho, =3=, 631, 632-3.
    solution of, proposed by Hillel of Verona, =3=, 631-2.
    revived by the Tibbonide party in Montpellier, =4=, 32-3, 42.
    =See also= Anti-Maimunists, the; Maimunists, the.

  =Maimunists=, the, partisans of Moses ben Maimun, =3=, 523; =5=, 728.
    war declared against, by Solomon ben Abraham, =3=, 527.
    excommunicated by Solomon ben Abraham, =3=, 528-9.
    excommunicate Solomon of Montpellier, =3=, 530.
    try to alienate the French rabbis from Solomon of Montpellier, =3=,
        539.
    denounce Solomon of Montpellier, =3=, 543-4.
    opposed to the Kabbalists in the explanation of ceremonies, =3=,
        554.
    break away from the Talmud, =3=, 557-8.
    in Perpignan, =4=, 25.
    in Montpellier, =4=, 32-3.
    _See also_ Anti-Maimunists, the; Maimunist controversy, the.

  =Maimunists=, list of:
    Aaron ben Meshullam,
    Abraham ben Chasdaï,
    Bachiel Ibn-Alkonstantini,
    David ben Daniel,
    David Kimchi,
    Hillel ben Samuel of Verona,
    Jacob ben Abba-Mari ben Simon Anatoli,
    Jonathan Cohen of Lünel,
    Levi ben Abraham ben Chayim,
    Moses ben Isaac Alashkar,
    Moses ben Jehuda Cohen,
    Samuel ben Abraham Saporta,
    Samuel Cohen ben Daniel,
    Yishaï ben Chiskiya.

  =Main(e) district, the, the Jews of=, under Henry II, =3=, 409.
    emigrate, =3=, 638.
    find a refuge in Poland, =4=, 420.

  =Maiora=, martyr, =4=, 570.

  =Majorca=, French Jews emigrate to, =4=, 49.
    quarrel about the chief rabbinate of, =4=, 162.
    forced converts in, relapse into Judaism, =4=, 180.
    Marranos from, in Algiers, =4=, 199.
    the Inquisition established on, =4=, 332.

  =Majorca, the Jews of=, persecuted, =4=, 77, 171.
    take refuge in northern Africa, =4=, 198.
    converted by Vincent Ferrer, =4=, 206.
    extermination of, =4=, 246-7.

  =Makariyites=, a Karaite sect, =3=, 151.

  =Maksen=, leader of the Sinhajas, =3=, 256.

  =Malabar=, the coast of, Jews emigrate to, =2=, 630.

  =Malach, Chayim.= _See_ Chayim Malach.

  =Malach ham-Maveth=, angel of death, =1=, 403.

  =Malache Chabalah=, evil spirits, introduced into Judaism from
        Magianism, =1=, 403.

  =Malachi=, last of prophets, =1=, 384-5.

  =Malaga=, Jews masters of, =3=, 109.
    Samuel Ibn-Nagrela at, =3=, 255.
    Berber city, =3=, 256.
    family of Ibn-Gebirol emigrate to, =3=, 268.
    suffering of the Spanish exiles in, =4=, 369-70.

  =Malchishua=, son of Saul, death of, =1=, 103.

  =Malchus.= _See_ Porphyry.

  =Malchuth Shamayim.= _See_ Kingdom of Heaven, the.

  =Malcom.= _See_ Milcom.

  =Malesherbes=, institutes a Jewish commission to ameliorate the
        condition of the Jews, =5=, 431.

  =Malich=, king of the Nabathæans, at war with Herod, =2=, 94-5.
    vassal of Herod, =2=, 95.

  =Malich=, counselor of Hyrcanus II, poisons Antipater, =2=, 80.
    assassinated by Herod, =2=, 80.

  =Malka bar Acha= (771-773), principal of the Pumbeditha academy, =3=,
        37.

  =Malka Kadisha=, Kabbalistic term, the Messiah, =5=, 143.

  =Mallo=, Portuguese inquisitor, =4=, 521.

  =Malmed=, collection of sermons by Jacob Anatoli, =3=, 566.
    attacked by the party of Abba-Mari, =4=, 32.
    read by the Tibbonides, =4=, 39.
    falls under the ban, =4=, 40.

  =Malshim= (Malsin), traitors, =4=, 156.

  =Malta=, Marranos transported to, =4=, 570.

  =Malta, the Knights of=, attack Jewish exiles, =4=, 592.
    forbidden to make slaves of Jews, =4=, 656.

  =Malthace=, the Samaritan, wife of Herod, =2=, 119.

  =Mamal= (Mamala), city of Galilee, inhabitants of, of the family of
        Eli, =2=, 575.

  =Mammæa=, mother of Alexander Severus, admires Christianity, =2=, 481.

  =Mammon, scorn of=, taught by the Essenes, =2=, 145.
    taught by Jesus, =2=, 150.

  =Mamson=, suspected of well poisoning, =4=, 104.

  =Manasseh=, king of Judah, son of Hezekiah, =1=, 280.
    state of the kingdom under, =1=, 281-4.
    idolatry introduced under, =1=, 282-3.
    taken prisoner by Esarhaddon, =1=, 285.
    death of, =1=, 285.

  =Manasseh, the tribe of=, claims the central lands of Canaan,
        =1=, 35-6.
    holds assemblies at Shiloh, =1=, 41.
    opposed to intermarriage with the heathen, =1=, 56.
    members of, join Gideon, =1=, 62.
    in conflict with Ephraim, =1=, 63.
    appeals to Samuel for help against Ammon, =1=, 80.
    territory of, taken by Hazael, =1=, 220.
    descendants of, in Chaibar, =3=, 437.

  =Manasseh=, member of Eliashib’s household, marries a daughter of
        Sanballat, =1=, 383.
    banished by Nehemiah, =1=, 386.

  =Manasseh=, relative of Simon the Just, acts as high priest, =1=, 423.

  =Manasseh ben Israel= (1604-1657), emigrates to the Netherlands, =4=,
        671.
    member of the Amsterdam rabbinical college, =4=, 682.
    characterized by Antonio Vieira, =4=, 683.
    education of, =4=, 683.
    characterization of, =4=, 683-4.
    qualifications of, for effecting the re-settlement of Jews in
        England, =5=, 19-20.
    attainments of, =5=, 20.
    as a preacher, =5=, 20.
    esteemed by Jews and Christians, =5=, 20.
    treatises of, welcomed by Christian scholars, =5=, 22.
    consulted by Christian scholars, =5=, 22-3.
    sought by Christian visionaries, =5=, 23-5.
    and Messianic expectations, =5=, 24.
    reasons adduced by, for the re-settlement of Jews in England, =5=,
        28, 39-42.
    encouraged by English writings, =5=, 28-30.
    on the fortunes of the Ten Tribes, =5=, 30-3.
    publishes “Israel’s Hope,” =5=, 31-2.
    describes the terrors of the Inquisition, =5=, 31-2.
    submits “Israel’s Hope” to Parliament, =5=, 33.
    negotiations of, interrupted, =5=, 34.
    receives a safe-conduct to London from the Short Parliament,
        =5=, 34-5.
    war delays the departure of, =5=, 35.
    petitions Parliament to permit Jews to settle in England, =5=, 35.
    the Messianic work by Felgenhauer dedicated to, =5=, 36-7.
    expounds Jewish Messianic ideas, =5=, 37-8.
    invited to England by Cromwell, =5=, 38.
    petition presented by, to Cromwell, =5=, 38-9.
    acts as the representative of European Jews, =5=, 39.
    on the trade of the Jews, =5=, 40-1.
    defends the Jews against three charges, =5=, 41-2.
    proposal by, for the admission of Jews into England, =5=, 44.
    refutes theological objections to the admission of Jews, =5=, 45.
    defends his course before the Dutch government, =5=, 46.
    disappointment of, =5=, 46-7.
    defends the Jews against the blood accusation, =5=, 47-9.
    honorably dismissed by Cromwell, =5=, 49.
    death of, =5=, 50.
    devotee of the Kabbala, =5=, 55.
    teacher of Spinoza, =5=, 86, 87.
    outlines a history of the Jews, =5=, 202.
    work by, translated by Marcus Herz, =5=, 362.
    oath of, concerning the blood accusation taken by the London
        rabbis, =5=, 655.

  =Manchester=, the Jews of, hold meetings for the Damascus affair, =5=,
        654, 657.

  =Manessier de Vesoul=, negotiates the return of the Jews to
        France, =4=, 129.
    appointed receiver-general, =4=, 130-1, 132, 133.
    active in behalf of the Jews, =4=, 132.
    death of, =4=, 150.
    sons of, =4=, 150, 151, 152.

  =Manetho=, an Egyptian priest, libels the Jews, =1=, 511.

  =Manichæans=, persecuted by Jezdijird III, =2=, 627.

  =Manna=, description of, =1=, 20.

  =Mannheim=, Moses Meïr Kamenker in, =5=, 229.

  =Mannheimer, Isaac Noah= (1793-1864), intellectual qualities
        of, =5=, 578.
    attractiveness of, =5=, 578.
    dignity of, =5=, 579.
    fitted for his work in Vienna, =5=, 580.
    attitude of, towards Reform Judaism, =5=, 580.
    changes sanctioned by, =5=, 580.
    as a pulpit orator, =5=, 581.
    personality of, =5=, 582.
    influence of, in Germany, =5=, 582.
    compared with Sachs, =5=, 690.
    helps to reorganize Austria, =5=, 697.

  =Manoel the Great=, of Portugal, releases the Spanish exiles, =4=,
        372.
    employs Abraham Zacuto, =4=, 372.
    kindly disposed towards the Jews, =4=, 372.
    sues for the hand of Isabella II of Castile, =4=, 372-3.
    banishes the Jews, =4=, 374.
    orders Jewish children to be baptized, =4=, 375-6.
    cruelty of, =4=, 376.
    limits the Jews to one port of departure, =4=, 376.
    tries to force the Jews into Christianity, =4=, 377.
    adopts milder measures towards the Portuguese Marranos, =4=, 379.
    delivers Spanish Marranos to the Inquisition, =4=, 379-80.
    permits the last Jews to leave Portugal, =4=, 380-1.
    grants freedom from molestation to the Jews for a term, =4=, 485.
    checks the emigration of Marranos, =4=, 485-6.
    forbids the use of insulting names for Marranos, =4=, 486.
    orders of, concerning Marranos, =4=, 488.
    counselors of, protect the Marranos, =4=, 488.

  =Manrique, Inigo=, chief judge of appeals for Marrano cases, =4=, 320.

  =Mansfeld=, general, plunders the Jews, =4=, 701.

  =Mantin, Jacob= (1490-1549), physician and scholar, ambition
        of, =4=, 411.
    instructs Christians in Hebrew, =4=, 473.
    persecutes Molcho, =4=, 506-7.
    physician to Paul III, =4=, 515.

  =Mantua=, Abraham Ibn-Ezra in, =3=, 371.
    the Talmud burnt in, =4=, 565.
    refuge of the Jewish exiles from the Papal States, =4=, 592.
    rabbis of, forbid young men to read Azarya de