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Title: Pottery and Porcelain, from early times down to the Philadelphia exhibition of 1876
Author: Elliott, Charles Wyllys
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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produced from images available at The Internet Archive)



                [Illustration: WEDGWOOD PORTLAND VASE]



                                POTTERY

                                  AND

                              PORCELAIN,

                           _FROM EARLY TIMES
             DOWN TO THE PHILADELPHIA EXHIBITION OF 1876_.

                                  BY

                        CHARLES WYLLYS ELLIOTT.

WITH ONE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-FIVE ILLUSTRATIONS, AND THE MORE IMPORTANT MARKS
                            AND MONOGRAMS.

                               NEW YORK:
                       D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
                          549 & 551 BROADWAY.

                                 1878.

                             COPYRIGHT BY
                       D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
                                 1877.



PREFACE.


What we have attempted has been to gather and present, in a way to be
easily understood, the most important facts respecting "Pottery and
Porcelain."

The study of this interesting subject has for more than a century been
constant in Europe, and notably so during the last twenty-five years. A
correct knowledge of it may now almost be called a liberal education. In
the United States something has been done; and the public mind is now
asking, "What is it that makes 'pottery and porcelain' so attractive to
scholars, statesmen, women, and wits?"

In some degree we have answered this question. My part of the work has
been to gather where I could such historical and technical facts and
such illustrations as seemed most valuable, not only to the student but
to the collector.

Many of these came from Europe, of course, where since Queen Anne's day
the love of "old china" has at times risen to enthusiasm. But I have
drawn from our own collections whenever it has been possible. In the
preparation and engraving of the illustrations I hope the judicious
critic, as well as the judicious public, will give due credit to the
publishers and their artists, who, it seems to me, deserve great praise
for having so well done what they have undertaken to do. Permit me to
say a word for _collectors_.

Busy men who are making railways and coal-pits, under the pleasing
illusion that they are developing the country more than the rest of us,
are apt to think a man with any hobby except that of making money is
wasting his time.

I would like to remind the reader that there are a few--many of them
young men and young women too--who have money enough for all reasonable
wants, and who do not care to waste time and life in getting _more_
money, for which they have no special uses; these persons find a
perennial occupation in the study, the comparison, the purchasing, the
collecting, of all that will illustrate their subject of study--their
hobby. Around this subject of pottery and porcelain may be grouped, if
one so pleases, all the habits, the wants, the inventions, the growths,
of human society.

Some have yet a notion that the study of the politics and the fightings
of man is most important; others, how man came to be an Arminian or an
Augustinian; others, whether the sun is or is not gradually cooling
down, and must finally cease to be, or whether, on the contrary, its
flames are fed by the self-sacrificing stars.

Without detracting from their labors, I beg leave to say that my great
hobby or central fact being the _home_, I hold that whatever makes that
interesting, beautiful, or useful, is, or should be, interesting,
beautiful, and useful, to all the world. I believe that what we call
politics, or government, is only valuable in that it helps to create and
to protect desirable homes; all the rest--all the speeches, and
processions, and crownings, and court-balls, and receptions, and
dinners--are "leather and prunella."

Therefore I believe the "art of living" is first and foremost; to know
how to make _this_ life comfortable and beautiful is all-important. Yet
there is not a teacher of this great art in all the land, although
"professors" are legion.

We may well ask, when we go to a house: "What have they there to tell
us--what to show us? What have they collected to interest, to please, to
instruct?"

If a person has only many bonds bearing coupons locked up in his
safe--delightful as the fact may be to him--what pleasure or
satisfaction is that to us?

But if in that house are gathered all the interesting examples of any
growth of Nature or of Art, what a pleasure to go there!--they may be
beetles, or butterflies, or stones, or shells, or silvers, or
porcelains. I thank God that here is a man who can and does collect--one
who does care for something which I too care for.

I wish, therefore, that every young man and young woman would get a
_hobby_ early in life to which he or she can at any time devote some
spare time and spare money. _Ennui_, the demon who afflicts the idle, is
thus exorcised, and vice loses its charming power.

The collector, too, does not waste his money. There is not a collection
of pictures or of minerals, of birds or of butterflies, of chinas or of
books, of armor or of gems, of laces or of tapestries, if made with
ordinary care and knowledge, but is worth more--often ten times or fifty
times more--than it has cost. Even in a pecuniary way, therefore, the
hobby is productive; and the collection is not only as interesting, but
it is as good as gold.

OUR COLLECTIONS.--Of collections of porcelain and pottery one must of
course look for great exhibitions to the museums of Europe--such as the
Kensington Museum, in London; the Cluny, in Paris; the Green Vaults, in
Dresden; the Oriental, at Leyden--and to private collections, such as
the Rothschilds have made at London and at Paris, to Lady Schreiber's,
and many more, in England.

What are accessible to us are the private collections of some of our own
people.

In New York, Mr. WILLIAM C. PRIME's collection is quite large, numbering
some four thousand pieces. It is particularly devoted to the porcelains
of Europe, and is an excellent collection. In it are some four or five
complete dinner-services of old Dresden and Sèvres porcelain, and many
single pieces which rank high.

Mr. S. P. AVERY's collection of Oriental porcelains is the most complete
we have, and is very rich in all the departments, especially the
Chinese. His pieces of "celestial blue" number more than any other
single collection in this country.

In the Loan Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art have been
exhibited many examples from Mr. Prime's collection of porcelains, and
about five hundred pieces of Oriental ware from Mr. Avery's, of nearly
every distinctive style made in China and Japan in their best times.

The collection of Mr. ROBERT HOE, Jr., is extremely choice in its
admirable specimens of Oriental porcelain. Its egg-shells, crackles, and
"celestial blues," are not to be excelled. In this collection are also
examples of other styles, among them some of the best of old Dresden.

Mr. W. L. ANDREWS, of New York, has a very choice collection of Oriental
porcelain, probably the best in the country, and, containing the most of
the "rose-back" and other "egg-shell."

Mr. EDWARD CUNNINGHAM, of Milton, Massachusetts, has many superb vases,
some of them of great size, obtained by himself in China.

In Albany, Mr. J. V. L. PRUYN has several complete dinner-services of
Sèvres porcelain, made for King Louis Philippe, one large service of
Lowestoft, and many other individual and interesting specimens. Some of
his examples of Sèvres painting cannot be surpassed. He has also a small
breakfast-service of "celestial blue," mounted in silver, which is
excellent.

In Boston, Mr. G. W. WALES's collection is very varied and rich. He has
excellent examples of Oriental and of European porcelains, and some
perfect pieces of "celestial blue." Many of his best specimens are on
loan in the Boston Art Museum.

Mrs. ANSON BURLINGAME's collection of Chinese porcelain, at Cambridge,
made while in China, is not large, but it has in it some of the best
examples of the "green," the "celestial blue," the "rose," and the
"chrysanthemum." Some of these have been exhibited in the Loan
Collection in Boston.

Dr. F. W. LEWIS and Mr. E. S. CLARKE, of Philadelphia, have small and
good collections, particularly devoted to Oriental porcelains.

Mr. W. S. VAUX and Dr. LEWIS have made interesting exhibitions of the
pottery of Greece and of Italy.

Mr. JOSEPH A. CLAY, of Philadelphia, has a small and valuable collection
of early Peruvian pottery, of the period before the Spanish Conquest.
There is also a varied collection of South and North American Indian
pottery in the Peabody Museum at Cambridge.

There may be, and probably are, in the United States many interesting
collections of which I know nothing. I am told that Mr. WALTERS, of
Baltimore, and Mr. PROBASCO, of Cincinnati, both have many very rare and
valuable pieces; but, I regret to say, I have had no opportunity of
seeing them.

I do not doubt that the love for these fine works of man's hand will
grow, that more and more small collections will be begun, and that time
will make them large and valuable and interesting.

A word of caution may be said to guard against imitations, which abound
in Europe. I hear now that the Chinese and Japanese are learning, all
too quickly, our Christian ways of counterfeiting, and are likely to
better the instruction.

In conclusion, I implore our people not to fill their houses with
imitations of old things--not even when the antiques are good is it
desirable to encourage porcelain-painters in that sort of thing: when it
comes to copying antiquity which is _poor_, it is inexcusable; and when
we reach the _counterfeiting_ of the antique, it smacks of baseness.

For this sort of thing we, the public, are responsible. The painter
paints what will sell.

No gentleman or lady should consent to be shabby, or to help other
people along that facile road. Let us keep our eyes open to any and all
_new_ work which is good, and especially to all which shows originality
and courage on the part of modelers or of painters. Let us moderns
admire the good in the Orientals, but let us worship our _own_ gods, and
dare and do for ourselves.

As far as practicable, I have in these pages pointed to examples, and
have illustrated by such as are owned in this country; so that many
persons who wish to examine these interesting works of fictile art may
see them for themselves.

The public collections are of course all open; and I am glad to say that
private collectors seem willing and ready to open their collections to
students as much as possible. It is human and pleasant to wish that
others should enjoy what we enjoy.

_Marks_, and especially upon porcelain, are not the most important
thing; but still they are important, and to many are most satisfactory.
I have therefore included in this volume all the prominent ones; so that
the book will be found useful not only to the collector at home, but
also to him who travels abroad.

The traveler who has a wise hobby gets a thousand times more pleasure
from his travels than he who has no purpose except change of place and
aimless movement. I suggest to the man who has none to try "pottery and
porcelain."

As to _prices_ of porcelain, etc., I have given those paid at actual
sales whenever I could find them; they will be of service to buyers and
collectors, as something of a guide to what they may safely pay.

_Books_ which may be referred to, and especially such as may be found in
some of our public libraries, are given at the end of the volume.

I hope the public will buy this book, and also good pottery and
porcelain.

_C. W. E._



CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.

UNGLAZED POTTERY.

The Pottery of the Stone Age.--The Lacustrine Dwellings.--Vases of the
Bronze Age.--Peruvian Pottery.--Mexican Pottery.--Pottery of Western
Mounds.--The Cesnola Collections.--Roman Pottery.--Saxon and
Scandinavian Pottery.--The Pottery of Ancient Gaul--of Ancient
Germany.....PAGE 13

CHAPTER II.

UNGLAZED POTTERY.--THE GREEK VASE.

Palaces of Homer's Heroes.--The Ceramicus at Athens.--Egyptian
Pottery.--Etruscan Tombs.--Good and Bad Vases.--Age of Vases.--Various
Styles.--The Archaic Style.--The Fine Style.--Beauty a Birthright.--Aspasia's
House.--Names of Vases.--The Cup of Arcesilaus.--Number of Extant
Vases.--Their Uses.--The Greek Houses.--Greek Women.--Greek Men.--The
Hetairai.--Etruscan Vases.....29

CHAPTER III.

UNGLAZED POTTERY AT THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1876.

Unglazed Water-Colors.--Clay Sketches.--Japanese Clay Figures.--Spanish
Pots.--Italian Peasant Pottery.--Egyptian.--Turkish.--Mexican.--Watcombe
Terra-cotta.--Copenhagen Pottery.....63

CHAPTER IV.

GLAZED POTTERY.--GRÈS DE FLANDRE, FRENCH, GERMAN, ETC.

Definition of Glaze.--Varnish.--Enamel in Egypt, Babylon.--The Arabs and
the Moors.--Grès de Flandre.--Cologne, Regensburg, Baireuth, Neuwied,
Grenzhausen, Coblentz.--Holland.--Beauvais.--Flanders.--Apostle-Mugs.
--Graybeards.--"Bellarmines."--"Pottle-Pots."--Modern Work.--Doulton
Stone-ware.--Early German Stone-ware at Breslau.--Hirschvogel.
--Nuremberg.....69

CHAPTER V.

GLAZED POTTERY.--MOORISH, PERSIAN, RHODIAN, ETC., ETC.

The Arabs in Spain.--Cordova, Granada, Seville.--Enamel and
Lustres.--Hispano-Moresque.--The Alhambra.--Tiles.--Vase of the
Alhambra.--Malaga.--Majorca and Maiolica.--Rhodian Pottery.--Damascus
Pottery.--Persian and Arabic Pottery.--Persian Porcelain.--Persian and
Arabic Tiles.....81

CHAPTER VI.

GLAZED POTTERY.--ITALIAN MAIOLICAS.

The Word Maiolica, or Majolica.--Italian Renaissance.--The Dark
Ages.--The Crusades.--The Mezza-Maiolica.--The True Maiolica.--Luca
della Robbia.--Urbino.--Xanto and Fontana.--Raffaelesque Ware.--Mr.
Fortnum.--Prices to-day.--Gubbio.--Maestro Giorgio.--The
Lustres.--Castel-Durante.--Faenza.--The Sgraffito.--Forli, Venice,
Castelli, etc.--Castellani.--Maiolicas at the Centennial.....95

CHAPTER VII.

FRENCH FAIENCE.--PALISSY WARE, AND HENRI-DEUX WARE.

Bernard Palissy.--The Catholics and the
Huguenots.--Saintes.--Figurines.--The Centennial
Exhibition.--Prices.--Henri-Deux--where made--when.--Copies at
Philadelphia.--List of Pieces extant, and Prices.....123

CHAPTER VIII.

FRENCH FAIENCE.--NEVERS, ROUEN, BEAUVAIS, ETC.

Number of Manufactories.--Their Rise and
Decline.--Nevers.--Prices.--Beauvais.--Rouen.--Moustiers.--Strasbourg,
or Haguenau.--Marseilles.--Sarreguemines.--Sinceny, Nancy, Creil,
Montpellier.--Paris.--Paris to-day.--Limoges.--Deck.....138

CHAPTER IX.

DUTCH DELFT AND ENGLISH EARTHEN-WARE.

Delft, Number of Fabriques.--Haarlem.--Paste.--Great
Painters.--Violins.--Tea-Services.--A Dutch Stable.--Broeck Dutch
Tiles.--England.--Queen Elizabeth.--Pepys's Diary.--Brown
Stone-ware.--The Tyg.--Lambeth Pottery.--Fulham Pottery.--Elers.--Elizabethan
Pottery.--Stoke-upon-Trent.--Josiah Wedgwood.--Cheapness.--Queen's-ware.
--Jasper-ware.--Flaxman.--Cameos.--Basalt.--The Portland Vase.--Prices.....153

CHAPTER X.

THE PORCELAIN OF CHINA.

Difficulties.--The Porcelain Tower at Nanking.--First Making of
Porcelain.--Kaolin and Pe-tun-tse.--Marco Polo.--Portuguese
Importation.--The City of King-te-chin.--Jacquemart's Groups.--Symbolic
Decoration.--Inscriptions.--The Ming Period.--The Celestial Blue.--The
Celadons.--Reticulated Cups.--The Crackle.--Various Periods.--Individualism.
--Marks and Dates.....175

CHAPTER XI.

THE PORCELAIN OF JAPAN.

Corean Porcelain.--Katosiro-ouye-mon.--The Province of Idsoumi.--Styles
prevailing in Japan.--Marks.--Japanese Blue.--Indian Porcelain.--Dutch
East India Company.--Egg-shell and Crackle.--Mandarin China.--Kaga
Ware.--Satsuma Ware.--Japanese Art.--The Philadelphia Exhibition.....210

CHAPTER XII.

THE PORCELAINS OF CENTRAL EUROPE--DRESDEN, BERLIN, HÖCHST, ETC.

Dresden China.--Porcelain in Europe.--The Alchemists.--Augustus
II.--Böttger.--Tschirnhaus.--Experiments.--Kaolin discovered.--Höroldt
and Kändler.--Fine Art, or Decorative Art.--Lindenir.--Angelica
Kauffmann.--Rococo-Work.--Collectors.--Marcolini.--Prices.--Marks.--Berlin.
--The Seven Years' War.--Frederick the Great.--Prices.--Marks.--Vienna.
--Stenzel.--Maria Theresa.--Lamprecht.--Prices.--Marks.--Hungary.--Herend.
--Fischer.--Marks.--Höchst, or Mayence.--Ringler.--Marks.--Frankenthal, or
Bavarian.--Carl Theodor.--Melchior.--Prices.--Marks.--Fürstenburg, or
Brunswick.--Von Lang.--Prices.--Marks.--Nymphenburg.--Heintzmann and
Lindemann.--Prices.--Marks.--Ludwigsburg, or Kronenburg.--Fulda.
--Hesse-Cassel.--Switzerland.--Marks.....229

CHAPTER XIII.

THE PORCELAIN OF FRANCE--ST.-CLOUD, CHANTILLY, SÈVRES, ETC.

Hard and Soft Porcelain.--Discovery of Kaolin.--St.-Cloud.--_Pâte
Tendre._--Marks.--Rouen.--Small Manufactories.--Marks of
same.--Chantilly.--Scéaux-Penthièvre.--Niderviller.--Marks.--Limoges.
--Sèvres.--Flower-Work.--Hard Porcelain, _Pâte Dure_.--The Grand Monarque.
--Florid Taste.--Boucher.--Vieux Sèvres.--Three Vases.--Greek Vases.--Prices
at Bernal Sale.--Chemists.--Colors used.--Collections.--Art
Museums.--Alexandra Brongniart.--Marks and Dates.....253

CHAPTER XIV.

THE PORCELAINS OF SOUTHERN EUROPE--ITALY, SPAIN, ETC.

Florentine, or Medicean.--Is it a True Porcelain?--The House of
Medici.--Marks.--Doccia Porcelain.--The MarquisGinori.--Beccheroni.--Present
Work.--Marks.--Venice.--Vezzi.--Cozzi.--Marks.--Turin.--Gioanetti.--Marks.
--Nove.--Terraglia.--Marks.--Capo di Monte.--Naples.--In
Relief.--Marks.--Spanish Porcelain.--Buen Retiro.--Marks.--Portugal.....274

CHAPTER XV.

THE PORCELAINS OF ENGLAND.

Bow.--Chelsea.--Derby.--Chelsea-Derby.--Lowestoft.--Worcester.--Chamberlains.
--Plymouth.--Bristol.--Pinxton.--Nantgaraw.--Swansea.--Turners.--Coalport.
--Coalbrookdale.--Herculaneum.--Shelton, New Hall.--Rockingham.--Spode,
Copeland.--Place.--Daniell.--Minton.--Prices and Marks.....288

CHAPTER XVI.

THE PORCELAINS OF NORTHERN EUROPE.

Holland and Belgium.--Oriental
Trade.--Weesp.--Marks.--Loosdrecht.--Amstel, Old and New.--Marks.--The
Hague.--Marks.--Lille.--Mark.--Tournay.--Marks.--Sweden.--Gustavus
Adolphus and Charles XII.--Marieberg.--Rörstrand.--Marks.--Denmark.
--Copenhagen.--Marks.--Russia.--Peter the Great.--Catherine II.--Marks.
--Tver.--Gardner.--Moscow.--Popoff.--Gulena.--Mark.--Poland.--Korzec.....319

CHAPTER XVII.

POTTERY AND PORCELAIN IN THE UNITED STATES.

The First Porcelain made here.--Bonnin and Morris.--Franklin
Institute.--William Ellis Tucker.--Tucker and Hemphill.--Thomas
Tucker.--General Tyndale.--Porcelain of T. C. Smith and Sons.--Early
Advertisements.--Josiah Wedgwood.--Lord Sheffield's Report.--Alexander
Hamilton's Report.--History of Norwich.--Samuel Dennis, New
Haven.--Isaac Hanford, Hartford.--Gallatin's Report.--The "Washington
Pitchers."--Lyman and Fenton, Vermont.--Rouse and Turner, New
Jersey.--Potteries at Trenton.--In Ohio.--The Centennial
Exhibition.....331



POTTERY AND PORCELAIN.



CHAPTER I.

UNGLAZED POTTERY.

     The Pottery of the Stone Age.--The Lacustrine Dwellings.--Vases of
     the Bronze Age.--Peruvian Pottery.--Mexican Pottery.--Pottery of
     Western Mounds.--The Cesnola Collections.--Roman Pottery.--Saxon
     and Scandinavian Pottery.--The Pottery of Ancient Gaul--of Ancient
     Germany.


[Illustration: FIG. 1.--_Bowl of the Stone Age._]

So ancient is the potter's art that it may be said to have begun with
the beginnings of man. A belief exists still in Silesia that there is a
mountain out of which cups and jugs spring spontaneously, as the
mushrooms shoot from the moist soil of the plains. Interwoven, then, as
pottery is with the history of the race, having relations daily and
hourly with man's universal and greatest vocation--the preparation of
the food which supports and continues _life_--it has had and will have
an interest as vital as it is wide-spread.

[Illustration: FIG. 2.--_Vase of the Stone Age._]

[Illustration: FIG. 3.--_Vase of the Bronze Age._]

MAN A COOKING ANIMAL.--Man is the only cooking animal, so far as I know.
It is easy to believe that archaic man, when he began to evolve from the
animal state, at once began to invent, and that, after he had discovered
the uses of fire, the first need was of vessels which could be used upon
the fire to seethe and boil.

And what do we find?

THE REINDEER AGE--THE STONE AGE.--Of prehistoric times, when the
reindeer roved free over Europe, even to the shores of the
Mediterranean, in the Stone age, even when man lived in caves and was
only able to fashion things with stones, a few pots have been found,
showing how early his wants led him to fashion things of clay.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--_Vase of the Bronze Age._]

The LACUSTRINE DWELLINGS of the Stone Age have given up a few traces of
men. The remains of lake-dwellers have been found mostly in Switzerland,
but somewhat in Ireland and Scotland. These reveal a people who built
their huts for safety upon piles or upon fascines anchored in the small
lakes. A variety of interesting things, consisting of spear-heads,
knives, hatchets, etc., have been found, some of flint, some of bone,
and some of bronze. Among these, which pertain to our subject, are a few
pots of clay, which have survived the gnawing tooth of Time.

[Illustration: FIG. 5.--_Bronze Age._]

In Figs. 1 and 2 are to be seen two of these. They are coarse and
clumsy, and are of blackish-gray clay, hardened in the sun or in an
insufficient fire. They are not turned upon a wheel, but show marks of
the fingers impressed in the soft clay. Yet we cannot but be struck with
the faint attempt at decoration to be seen on the foot of one of them,
even in that era of savageness.

[Illustration: FIG. 6.--_Bronze Age._]

[Illustration: FIG. 7.--_Bronze Age._]

The BRONZE AGE yields up pottery which does not yet show the invention
of the potter's wheel. The work is still moulded by the hand, but the
clay is better, and the forms begin to show clear indications of a
sense of proportion and a considerable degree of choice. The shapes are
in greater variety, and some of them certainly are good. Of the five
examples (Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7) none are very bad, and two (Figs. 3
and 4), if not three, are excellent.

[Illustration: FIG. 8.--_Peruvian._]

[Illustration: FIG. 9.--_Peruvian._]

The pointed bottom appears here as it does in the early forms of the
Greek amphora; and, as the illustrations show, this involves a necessity
for a further invention in the tripods upon which they rest. I have seen
no explanation of this more difficult construction, and can think of
none. It is certainly no easier to make the pointed than the flat
bottom, and it certainly is not so useful. Why, then, was it so common?
I can only suppose that when _first_ made the point was intended to be
thrust into the ground; but the moment they had hit upon the flat
bottom, that moment the point, I should fancy, would have been
abandoned; but it evidently was not. Perhaps they loved the _old_ as
some of us do, not because it was good, but _because it was old_. Who
can tell?

[Illustration: FIG. 10.--_Ancient Peru._]

[Illustration: FIG. 11.--_Ancient Peru._]

[Illustration: FIG. 12.--_Ancient Peru._]

How early the varied decoration showed itself we cannot know, but in
many examples of early fictile work, the meander, the chevron or
saw-tooth, and the fret, now called the Greek fret, are sure to
appear--and among the most diverse and distant nations; so, too, the
forms and the uses of the vessels.

[Illustration: FIG. 13.--_Ancient Peru._]

Do not these things show that man develops everywhere along a
corresponding line? They have not copied from one another, but a like
want has produced a similar result in all.

[Illustration: FIG. 14.--_Ancient Peru._]

[Illustration: FIG. 15.--_Ancient Peru._]

As we approach the historic ages, we find among the Egyptians, the
Mexicans, the Peruvians, the Greeks, the Assyrians, the Romans, the
Gauls, the Germans, the use of the potter's wheel, one of the earliest
machines made by man. Of the Egyptian and Greek pottery I shall have
something to say in a chapter upon the "_Greek Vase_."

[Illustration: FIG. 16.--_Roman Cup._]

The MEXICAN pottery, sometimes called _Aztec_, is usually of reddish
clay, and the vessels are almost identical in form and decoration with
those of the Peruvians, which will appear in their place. They are of
great variety, and must have been made in large numbers. The Mexicans
also made grotesques and idols of clay, which are usually hideous, and
are intended to be; for the gods of evil were those they feared and
worshiped most. These potteries are of unglazed clay, as are all those
we are now treating.

[Illustration: FIG. 17.--_Roman Vase._]

The civilizations which organized themselves in Mexico have always been
an interesting and curious study. When Cortez and his conquering,
gold-seeking white men reached the high lands of the beautiful interior
(1517), they found the splendid city of Mexico, built over and along the
shores of the inland lake, and stretching toward the foot-hills which
protect it from unfriendly winds. Here the Aztecs had organized society.
They had succeeded to the Toltecs, a prosperous, industrious, and
probably a peaceful people--a people coming from the warmer South, and
unable to cope with the more hardy Aztecs, who came down from the North.

[Illustration: FIG. 18.--_Roman Vase found at London._]

These Aztecs had not only developed the arts of architecture and
painting, as well as most of the mechanic arts; they had also reached to
a literature, to laws, to a religion most elaborate and splendid; and
they had not neglected to conquer and tax surrounding tribes, and make
them pay tribute, as all the "great" white nations of the world have
done. But all their civilizations, laws, religions, arts, were swept
into ruin by the conquering hand of Cortez and his successors.

And what have we now in Mexico? What has come of the destruction of the
great Indian races there? What but greed, anarchy, cruelty, ruin? It
would be a curious speculation now to picture what that country--the
most beautiful and most bountiful--might now be in the hands of its own
people, and with a government which could protect life and make labor
safe. As it is, its life and its art give us nothing to look at or to
enjoy.

Must man always destroy first in order that he may build up, and then be
himself destroyed? No remains have come to us of glazed pottery
belonging to these times; and it is probable that, their wants being
fewer, their climate milder, and their food simpler, invention was not
so much on the alert as it might have been in a colder and harsher
climate. That these races were for some unknown reason superior to those
living farther to the north, none will doubt when they know what they
accomplished as compared with the Indians of the United States.

The PERUVIANS were the most cultivated and comfortable nation upon the
Western Continent when Pizarro (1531) invaded, and, I may say, destroyed
them. Indeed, when we read the accounts given of them by the Spanish
writers themselves, we have only another proof that what we call
"carrying to other peoples the blessings of civilization and
Christianity" means rather the cursing them with cruelty and greed.

[Illustration: FIG. 19.--_Vase. Pottery of Ancient Gaul._]

A large collection of their pottery was shown at the United States
Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, and there is a sufficient and most
interesting exhibit of it in the Peabody Museum at Harvard in Cambridge.
In this collection, also, are to be found many examples of like unglazed
pottery found in the Western mounds of the United States by Professors
Shaler and Carr, who for some years have been engaged in researches in
Kentucky and at other points in the West.

Upon some examples of this American pottery (Figs. 8 to 15) are to be
seen decorations in color, mostly red, black, and brown; and it would
seem impossible that these colors should have lasted through so many
centuries, if they were not fixed by fire, and therefore were mineral.

[Illustration: FIG. 20.--_Pottery of Ancient Gaul._]

The decorations, too, were somewhat varied, but in none which I have
seen do they go beyond the elementary styles already mentioned.

The production of idols and fantastic vases, animals and grotesques,
must have been extensive, as so many of these have already been found;
indicating that they must have been common in their day. Examples of
this fantastic decoration and modeling are seen in Figs. 12 to 15--and
in Fig. 14 is an approach to portraiture. In one (Fig. 15) is seen the
double-bellied bottle, so much in use in China and Japan. The
twin-bottles seen in Figs. 8 and 9 are good examples of a fancy which
evidently pleased potter and people in those "good old Peruvian times."

A most singular fact is mentioned by Demmin, that on one of their
_casseroles_ the handle is clearly the phallus, symbol of life, found on
Egyptian sculptures, and once worshiped.

One curious fact is asserted by the French _savants_,[1] that there is
abundant evidence to show that through a long succession of years,
perhaps three thousand, the character of these American potteries grew
less and less pure and simple, and more and more debased and vulgar;
which one can well believe, when we see everywhere that whole nations,
some of them calling themselves civilized, have gone the same road,
downward from the good to the bad, and not upward toward the true and
the beautiful.

[Illustration: FIG. 21.--_Ancient Gaul._]

The opening of the CESNOLA collections, at the New York Museum of Arts,
shows us a vast number of early potteries which are as yet hardly
classified or understood. Many of them bear marks of Assyrian or of
Phoenician inspiration; and among them are rude vessels closely
resembling those of Peru, and also many grotesque forms of vases and
animals, such as mark the early attempts at Art in other nations. That
collection should be examined by those who are interested in this
subject.

The hand-book published by the Museum is full of condensed information,
and should be carefully preserved.

The pottery of the ROMANS went wherever their armies went. Thus it is
found in France, in England, in Germany, in Spain, etc., etc. This Roman
pottery has been found where excavations have been made, in Italy, in
France, in England, along the Rhine, and in other places. It is
distinguished as being more heavy and clumsy in form than that made in
Greece, and the color of the clay is red, lighter or darker. The best of
the Roman ware is often called _Samian_, because it was supposed to
resemble that made at Samos in Greece, though it is quite different. The
finest pieces approach to the color of sealing-wax, and have a lustre
thin and brilliant, which has given rise to some dispute whether or not
it is the result of an applied mineral varnish, or whether it is the
product of careful hand-friction, developed and perfected by a high
heat. The varnish, if such, is so thin that it has not been possible to
analyze and decide upon it.

[Illustration: FIG. 22.--_Ancient Gaul._]

This red Samian or Roman much resembles the polished red ware made
to-day in Egypt--of which a collection was shown in the recent
Philadelphia Exhibition, and this bore no varnish.

One thing remarked as to this Roman pottery is, that it is never
decorated with designs or ornaments in one or more colors. The
decoration is sometimes incised, but more often is in relief. This is
curious, too, as those master-potters, the Greeks, used colors in their
designs. These pieces are to be seen in the museums of Paris, London,
and elsewhere. The example engraved (Fig. 16) is a cup on which the
decoration is in relief, and the fillets and bands are carefully moulded
on the potter's wheel.

Figs. 17 and 18 were found in excavations made in 1845 in the city of
London, and are excellent examples of this pottery. They are now in the
Museum of Geology at London.

Fig. 17 is a sort of vase, or perhaps a drinking-cup, and is ornamented
with the head of an animal. It is described as of "a pale red with a
darkish-brown varnish."

Fig. 18 is called the "Cup of Samos," resembling so much as it does the
work made at Samos. While these pieces were found in the earth beneath
the city of London, many others have been found elsewhere; and much is
believed to have been made at the old Anglo-Roman town of Caistre, in
England, where remains of many furnaces have been unearthed.

[Illustration: FIG. 23.--_Ancient Gaul._]

Roman pottery has been found on the banks of the Rhine, near Bonn,
Coblentz, Mayence, in Baden, etc., etc.; in France, at Auvergne, and at
other points.

This finer work is supposed to date about the first century of our era.
It is classed by M. Demmin as being made at Arezzo, the ancient Aretium,
in Tuscany.

COMMONER styles of Roman pottery were made, and many examples of these
have been found of a coarser clay, and varying in color, gray, black,
and yellow, or light paleish red; sometimes with a black or brown
varnish. These were doubtless made for the common uses of the kitchen.
The drinking-cups of this pottery often bore inscriptions, such as
_Ave_, welcome; _Vivas_, live; _Bibe_, drink; _Vive, bibe multum_, live
and drink much, etc.

[Illustration: FIG. 24.--_Ancient German._]

Pottery was undoubtedly made by the Saxons, the Scandinavians, the
Gauls, and the Germans, before the coming of Roman armies and Roman
potters. Of these early remains examples have been found in the
_barrows_ of England, and in other excavations.

M. Cleuziou published a work in 1872, "La Poterie Gauloise,"[2] warmly
and strenuously claiming for the Gauls an art and a pottery before the
coming of the all-grasping Romans; who, he asserts, not only stole their
country, but also have claimed to be their benefactors and civilizers
when they were not. I cannot, of course, discuss the question here. The
engravings given (Figs. 19, 20, 21, 22, 23) are quoted by M. Figuier,
from whom I take them, as examples of this early and curious work. Some
of these certainly seem to indicate an inspiration original and quite
different from what we see among the Romans. Later, and after the coming
of the Romans, there were produced in Gaul vases and other articles,
which may well be called "_Gallo-Romaine_," or _Gallic-Roman_.

[Illustration: FIG. 25.--_German Pottery._]

[Illustration: FIG. 26.--_German Pottery._]

The GERMAN potters also produced at a very early day large quantities of
pottery, which has a character of its own. That it must have been very
extensively made and used is evident from the many specimens exhumed in
various parts of Germany; in such numbers, indeed, that the peasantry
have a profound belief they are the work of the dwarfs, and that they
sprout spontaneously like mushrooms, as I have said. The examples we
present are more simple than most of the Roman work, and the decoration
is more severe. (Figs. 24, 25, 26.)

Pots, vases, and children's toys, are also found in tombs in various
parts of Germany, some of which show decided marks of art.

In some of these are found the ashes of the dead, in others bones broken
up, and so preserved.



CHAPTER II.

UNGLAZED POTTERY.--THE GREEK VASE.

     Palaces of Homer's Heroes.--The Ceramicus at Athens.--Egyptian
     Pottery.--Etruscan Tombs.--Good and Bad Vases.--Age of
     Vases.--Various Styles.--The Archaic Style.--The Fine
     Style.--Beauty a Birthright.--Aspasia's House.--Names of
     Vases.--The Cup of Arcesilaus.--Number of Extant Vases.--Their
     Uses.--The Greek Houses.--Greek Women.--Greek Men.--The
     Hetairai.--Etruscan Vases.


The GREEK VASE has come to be a synonym for beauty of form. Not that
every Greek vase is perfect--by no means--but that the Greeks had come
to feel and were able to express perfection of form in it as it had not
been done before, and as it has not been better done since.

[Illustration: FIG. 27.--_Egyptian Kylix._]

So much interest hangs around this expression of the potter's art, that
we give more space to the subject than to many other branches of the
art. Keeping this perfection in mind, the manner of life of those
Greeks, out of which the Greek vase grew, becomes of value, and is
indeed of most interest.

How did the Greeks live, and why was the Greek vase made?

That the finest houses or palaces of the chiefs of the Heroic or Homeric
period were larger, and more marked by barbaric splendor, than were the
dwellings of the great in the days of Pericles, is admitted.

We give from Mr. Bryant's translation of the Iliad a brief description
of Hector's return to Troy from the battle-field:

    "And now had Hector reached the Scean gates
     And beechen tree. Around him flocked the wives
     And daughters of the Trojans eagerly;
     Tidings of sons and brothers they required,
     And friends and husbands. He admonished all
     Duly to importune the gods in prayer,
     For woe he said was near to many a one."

He passed onward in search of Andromache:

    "And then he came to Priam's noble hall,
     A palace built with graceful porticoes,
     And fifty chambers near each other walled
     With polished stone, the rooms of Priam's sons,
     And of their wives; and opposite to these
     Twelve chambers for his daughters, also near
     Each other; and with polished marble walls,
     The sleeping-rooms of Priam's sons-in-law
     And their unblemished consorts. There he met
     His gentle mother on her way to seek
     Her fairest child Laodice."

That the description is glorified, we need not doubt, for that is the
province of poetry; and poor is the poet who does not see the beauty
through the squalor, the sunshine through the cloud.

The Greek house of the time of Pericles was much smaller and less
splendid than this.

It is a curious fact to know that most of what remains to us of the
_living_ Greeks and Egyptians has been saved for us by the dead. Not a
complete house of the living exists; while those of the dead have been
unearthed not only in Greece, but in parts of Italy, which in many
places was colonized by Greeks, and in which Greek customs and Greek
art had a strong hold.

[Illustration: FIG. 28.--_Egyptian Bottle, Side and Front View._]

The Egyptians honored their dead, the Greeks honored their dead, and the
Romans honored their dead. Let them have our thanks; for, because of
that, things of interest and beauty are left to us.

In their tombs have been found gold-work, jewels, manuscripts, vases:
all of which tell their stories of the way men lived, how they worked,
what they sought; all of which show us that man then was the same as man
is now--if you pricked him he bled, if you tickled him he laughed. We
are apt to think that the Past was ignorant, brutal, savage. Have we,
boastful as we are, made porcelain better than the Chinese? Have we made
vases more beautiful than the Greeks? Poetry more musical?

In the far past man was savage, brutal, ignorant; and there is in man
still the latent tiger. In the civilization of which we boast, there
exist in all great cities, side by side with luxury and splendor,
poverty, wretchedness, squalor, brutality.

In the days of Pericles, in those days when the Amphora and the Temple
reached their most perfect development, the influences of Art and Poetry
were most potent upon that small democratic oligarchy which possessed
Athens and tyrannized over Greece. Then the tiger lay down in the midst
of a wonderful wealth of architecture, sculpture, poetry, eloquence,
painting (we suppose), and pottery. Then a whole district of the city to
the northwest of the Acropolis and the Areopagus was occupied by the
shops of the potter and the painter, and was known as the CERAMICUS, or
_Keramicus_, as it now is often spelled. From that centre went out into
all the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea thousands upon thousands of
those vases and pots which were made and decorated there, and from whose
pictures we have drawn much of our knowledge of Greek life, art,
manners, and dress.

[Illustration: FIG. 29.--_Egyptian Vase._]

In this high time of ART lay the seeds of corruption and death. The
Athenian Greek became critical, refined, weak, luxurious, corrupt,
base; and then he went to decay. In some tombs (Fig. 30) opened in
Italy, the body is found lying at length in the middle, and about it
stand perfect vases, love-offerings of friends: were they once filled
with perfumes upon which the spirit of the dead was wafted away? We
place flowers in the graves of our lovely ones, and, beautiful as they
are, they vanish with the dead. But the Greek vase remains to us after
the lapse of two thousand years.

[Illustration: FIG. 30.--_Tomb found in the Environs of Naples._]

When the Greeks--how early--began to fashion their fine work is not
surely known; but pottery of theirs exists dating as far back as 700 B.
C. Behind them were the Assyrians and the Egyptians, both nations great
in war and great in the arts of peace. The remains we have of both show
the Egyptians to have been the masters, with whom began those arts which
grew and bore fruit in Assyria and in Greece. But the art of the
Egyptians seems never to have reached the lightness, the delicacy, the
exquisite beauty of line, which yet glorify the fictile art of Greece.
Older than the oldest writings of the Hebrews, older than Homer, is the
potter's wheel; through all history it has been the friend and companion
of man; its products are part of his daily life; and delicate, brittle
as they are, they have proved more enduring than the Pyramids.

[Illustration: FIG. 31.--_The Archaic Period._]

Nearly all the pieces of pottery found in Egypt belong to those things
which went into the daily uses of life. Most of them are of common clay,
with common forms, and rude finish; and they seem to have been of all
shapes and designed for many purposes. Great casks, vases, pots for oil,
for grain, for meats, for wines, for drugs, for lamps; children's
marbles, checkers, toys, rings, amulets, bottles, etc., etc., are among
the many things shaped by the potter in Egypt.

Of those things made for ornamental purposes, there still exist some
vases which approach the simple beauty of the Greek; of which we give
one as pictured by Wilkinson in his work upon the antiquities of Egypt.

Fig. 27 is an _Egyptian kylix_ or _drinking-cup_. It much resembles the
Greek kylix or cylix, except that the foot is less perfect.

[Illustration: FIG. 32.--_The Departure of Achilles, from Vase in the
Louvre._]

The highly-ornamented bottle (Fig. 28, _aryballos_) is another thing
made purely for purposes of luxury, which Potiphar's wife used to hold
her dainty perfumes--perfumes which, we may easily believe, would add to
her dangerous charms. It is modeled from the African calabash, which was
the first vessel used there for carrying water. Form and decoration are
both perfect in this small bottle.

[Illustration: FIG. 33.--_Kylix, of an Early Form._]

We add a figure of very ancient Egyptian pottery, an early example of
the efforts of that people at the human figure in clay. It is made to
serve the purposes of a vase, whether for religious uses or other we do
not know (Fig. 29).

[Illustration: FIG. 34.--_Kylix, Finer Form._]

The terra-cotta earthenware vases and cups of the Greek and Etruscan
potters, by universal consent, have come to be accepted as the most
beautiful and satisfactory. That they were thus perfect from the start,
and always so, no one need maintain; but that from Greece and from many
parts of it should have come such a vast number of vessels, nearly all
of which are beyond criticism, is what no one can fully explain.

Whence came the inspiration, the perception of beauty, which made the
ordinary potter an artist, no man can tell.

It is not possible that the men who worked at the potter's wheel in
Athens, or in Samos, or in Crete, were "educated," as we say it, to such
a fine sense of the beautiful. We, with all the education we can put
into our people, do not equal them. We can no more explain this than we
can tell how such a wonderful growth of beautiful cathedrals shot up
into life in France in what we call the "Middle Ages." Nor was this
perfection only to be found among the potters who worked in Greece. It
brought forth works fit for gods in Cyrenaica, on the northern coast of
Africa, in great abundance; of which farther on we give an example in
the _Cup of Arcesilaus_. The wandering potters who went into Italy, and
there produced those beautiful vases, were Greeks. We have been in the
habit of calling them "Etruscan vases," because they have been found in
largest numbers and in most perfect preservation in Etruria. But it is
now well known that the real Etruscan potters never reached the same
technical skill, or had any such eye for form, as was common among the
Greeks.

[Illustration: FIG. 35.--_Greek Rhyton, in the Louvre._]

I have mentioned the tombs--that many of the finest Greek vases have
been found in those of Italy, and particularly in the part once called
Etruria. In Fig. 30 is shown one of these tombs discovered near Naples.
In it may be seen the remains of the body, with vases of various shapes
standing or hanging on the wall. Most of the vases found with the dead
in Greece were buried in the soil, and are thus less perfect than those
found in Italy.

[Illustration: FIG. 36.--_Greek Amphora, Panathenaic._]

GOOD AND BAD.--While, then, we can exalt the Greek vase to a foremost
place in the perfection of form, let us say that there are very many
Greek vases and pots which are _bad_, _common_, _vulgar_. So that no
buyer, no student, must admire with his eyes shut. Hardly any
considerable collection is without these bad things. Therefore, whoever
seizes upon a Greek vase with the belief that it is beautiful because it
is Greek, may wake some day to dash his god to pieces as false.

[Illustration: FIG. 37.--_Amphora, from the Louvre._]

Let us guard, too, against another chance for disappointment. Nearly all
the best vases extant have lain for centuries underground; they have
lost the freshness and fineness of their polish; their coloring is often
defaced; they are, perhaps, scratched or chipped. Seeing these rather
dilapidated examples of the fictile art with eyes of extravagant
expectation, one may feel disappointment or disgust. But let him look on
till he sees and feels the subtile springing lines which shot from the
brain of the potter, and inspired his hand to shape the vase.

[Illustration: FIG. 38.--_Amphora._]

As to the age of the Greek vases there are some evidences. The Greek
poet Pindar, who lived between 520 and 440 B. C., describes the amphoræ,
those painted vases which were given as prizes at the Panathenaic
festivals (see Fig. 36), and they are spoken of by Aristophanes, Strabo,
and others.[3]

Many attempts have been made to classify the works of the Greek potters,
and the result is of some value, though a considerable degree of
vagueness must attach to such as cannot be fixed by any signature or by
the subject. Demmin,[4] Brongniart,[5] Birch, and others, have attempted
classifications. We give here a sketch of that of the last as, on the
whole, the most simple and probable; the writer follows Gerhard:

1. The "Ancient" or "Archaic" style, from B. C. 700 to 450.

2. The "Fine Style" from B. C. 450 to 328. The best were during the time
of Phidias.

3. The Decadence, from B. C. 228 to the end of the Social Wars, B. C.
87. This includes all made in Italy down to the time of Augustus, at
which period most of the towns and works in "Magna Græcia" and the south
of Italy had been destroyed.

To the first or Archaic period are attributed the vases with yellow
ground, having brown and maroon figures, mostly hatchings, flowers, or
rude representations of animals, such as the goat, the pig, the stork,
etc., etc. Whenever the human figure appears on the vases of this period
it is shorter and less graceful than that on later work.

The next period is likely to show the figures in yellow upon black
ground; the designs here are more beautiful; the subjects are
mythological, historical, and poetical, and the human figures often have
the grace and beauty which mark the best period of Grecian art.

The Decadence is marked by coarser work, less purity of form, and
grosser and clumsier designs.

The paste or clay at times approaches the hardness of "terra-cotta;" at
others it is so soft as to be scratched with a knife, and is easily
broken. Its color varies: the earlier or Archaic period is mostly of a
pale lemon-color; the clay used at Athens and Melos was a pale red; and
in the best period of Greece the color becomes a warm orange; while
those found in Italy usually called Etruscan are always of a dull,
rather pale, red. Upon these grounds figures were painted in black,
brown, yellow, and red.

[Illustration: FIG. 39.--_Amphora._]

Perspective those true artists did not strive after. The Greeks sketched
in their designs in clean lines, and colored them with flat color,
touching the muscles and articulations here and there to bring out more
fully the action; but to rival the painter upon his canvas, that was not
attempted upon pottery. It seems desirable to give some notion, as well
as can be done in black-and-white, of what the earlier vases were like;
and we, therefore, transcribe here some examples given by Birch, which
show, not only the style of the decoration, but the forms, of the
Archaic period (see Fig. 31).

The animals shown are rude and clumsy, and are arranged in bands, which
are sown with flower-shapes without order or meaning. The forms, too,
of the pots themselves, especially the two largest, are wholly lacking
in that fine, subtile grace which marks them during the time of the
"Fine Style." That the Art of Greece was not born full-grown and perfect
like the goddess Minerva is certain; but that it grew and grew fast to
its perfectness in that most keen and cunning Greek brain is also
certain.

The time of the "Fine Style" was the time of Pericles, of Aspasia, of
Æschylus, of Phidias; the time when the most beautiful of the beautiful
Greek temples was built on the Acropolis sacred to Minerva; when
sculpture, painting, poetry, and architecture, reached their height;
when the human form and the human face arrived at such a divine beauty
as they had never reached since the days of paradise, and have not again
reached. In this wonderful time the Greek vase was born into its perfect
form.

Some peculiarities of the old or Archaic style, after it passed the
simple method of decoration already described, and when it began to
treat the human figure, are thus specified by Mr. Birch: "The faces of
the females are white to indicate superior delicacy of complexion, and
the pupils of their eyes, which are more elongated than those of the
male figures, are red. The eyes of the men are engraved and of a form
inclining to oval, the pupils circular. The eyes of the women are
sometimes made like those of men, especially on those vases on which the
faces are colored black upon a white ground. The forms are rather full
and muscular, the noses long, the eyes oblique and in profile, the pupil
as if seen in front, the extremities long and not carefully finished,
the outlines rigid, the attitudes _à plomb_, the knees and elbows
rectangular, the draperies stiff, and describing perpendicular, angular,
and precise oval lines. The faces are generally in profile, full faces
being very rare."

We quote again as to the work upon the Fine style: "In this the figures
are still red, and the black grounds are occasionally very dark and
lustrous. The ornaments are in white, and so are the letters. The
figures have lost that hardness which at first characterized them; the
eyes are no longer represented oblique and in profile; the extremities
are finished with greater care, the chin and nose are more rounded, and

[Illustration: FIG. 40.--_Krater (Vase Campanienne), from the Louvre._]

have lost the extreme elongation of the earlier school. The limbs are
fuller and thicker, the faces noble, the hair of the head and beard
treated with greater breadth and mass, as in the style of the painter
Zeuxis, who gave more flesh to his figures, in order to make them appear
of greater breadth and more grandiose, adopting the ideas of Homer, who
represents even his females of large proportions. The great charm of
these designs is the beauty of the composition and the more perfect
proportion of the figures. The head is oval, three-quarters of which are
comprised from the chin to the ear, thus affording a guide to its
proportions, which are far superior to those of the previous figures.
The disproportionate shape of the limbs disappears, and the countenance
assumes its natural form and expression. The folds of the drapery, too,
are freer, and the attitudes have lost their ancient rigidity. The
figures are generally large, and arranged in groups of two or three on
each side, occupying about two-thirds of the height of the vase."

The design we have given to illustrate in some degree the "Fine Style"
is the "Departure of Achilles" (Fig. 32), taken from a vase in the
Louvre.

In our modern time it has come to pass that men worship strength, power,
words, gold, brass--everything but beauty. They care little to have
beautiful things about them, less to be beautiful themselves, to create
beautiful children, or to do beautiful work. And what is the result?
Often they are as unlovely in their souls as in their persons; and so,
while we boast of great cities, and long railways, and amazing
cotton-mills, we boast not of beautiful men who make beautiful work.
Perfection tends to perfection, and ugliness to ugliness. Therefore, let
the perfect man and the perfect woman marry, that thus we may have the
perfect race once more. To bring this to pass we must insist upon
perfect form and perfect decoration in all things about us; we must know
beauty and value it. One step to this great end is to study the Greek
vase. The next step is to make every home a temple of art.

What can we not believe of such a house as that of Aspasia in Athens,
when she was virtually the wife of Pericles in the best period of
Greece? That it was graced surely by works of divinest beauty; that
these exquisite vases which we are praising stood upon her shelves,
graced her pedestals, and adorned the corners specially made for their
reception. We may believe that the potters themselves presented their
beautiful work to the most distinguished woman of all Greece; that the
victor in the Panathenaic games should ask a place for his prize in the
atmosphere of light and learning which surrounded this remarkable woman.

The shapes and uses of the Greek vases, cups, jugs, etc., etc., are
many. We mention here those most known as follows: for holding oil,
wine, etc., etc., _amphora_, _pelice_, _stamnos_; for carrying water,
etc., _hydria_, _kalpis_, or _calpis_; for mixing wine and water, etc.,
_krater_, _oxybaphon_, _kelebe_; for pouring water, wine, etc.,
_oenochoe_, _cruche_, or _kruche_, _olpe_, _prochoos_; for cups and
drinking-vessels, _cylix_, or _kylix_, _kantharos_, _kyathos_, _rhyton_,
_skyphos_, _phiale_, etc., etc.; for perfumes, ointments, etc.,
_lekythos_, or _lecythos_, _alabastron_, _cotyle_, or _kotyle_,
_aryballos_, etc.

[Illustration: FIG. 4.--_Hydria._]

The vases most known are these:

The _amphora_ (Figs. 36, 37, 38, 39), a name applied to vases with two
handles, sometimes with a pointed base to thrust into the ground or to
be set into a tripod; great numbers of these exist, and in various
shapes, some of which will appear in our illustrations.

The _amphoræ_ were used to hold wine, oil, wheat, and a great variety of
other articles.

The _hydria_ (Figs. 41 and 42) and _kalpis_ were used to carry water.
The former has one handle.

The _krater_ or _crater_ (Fig. 40) was a large, open-mouthed vessel used
for mixing wine with water.

The _cruche_ (Fig. 43) and _oeochoe_ were jugs or pitchers used to pour
liquids at the symposia.

The _kylix_ or _cylix_ (Figs. 33 and 34), the _rhyton_ (Fig. 35), and
the _kyathos_, were drinking-cups used at feasts.

The _lekythos_, and _kotyle_ and _alabastron_, were used for perfumes,
pomatums, and other such luxuries for the bath and the toilet; and we
may believe, from the number of these found, that woman in those antique
days was careful to enhance her charms.

[Illustration: FIG. 42.--_Hydria._]

We give two examples of the cylix or kylix used for a drinking-cup,
which always carried two handles. The first (Fig. 33) is of the earliest
period, and is more severe than the last. It is ornamented with the
Greek fret, with zigzags or chevrons, etc., etc., of simple design.

The other (Fig. 34) is more graceful and finished in form, and has a
more elaborate design, which, however, seems to me quite behind the work
found on the cups of the "Fine Style."

[Illustration: FIG. 43.--_Vase for Libations._]

We give some particulars of the Greek vases, mostly from the collections
of the Louvre at Paris.

Some of the AMPHORÆ were designed for particular uses; as, for example,
for prizes to the victors of the public games (Fig. 36). The fashion
which prevails with us of giving cups for prizes at our races, etc.
(usually pieces of silver), is a fashion which began with the Greeks,
and has continued till to-day.

Sometimes these vases were filled with oil made from the olive blessed
by Minerva. We may well believe such amphoræ so won were highly valued;
and this will explain the curious history of the one now in the Museum
of the Louvre.

In 1827 this good find came to light: "They recently found at Capoue the
vase given to the victor at the athletic games at Athens in the year 332
before Christ. Beside the vase lay the skeleton of the victor, the
Athenian himself, as was supposed. The vase is of clay covered with
paintings, showing upon one side the goddess Pallas Athene (Fig. 36)
launching a javelin; on the other side is a group of wrestlers, a young
man who is a looker-on, a judge, and an old man holding a wand. At the
top is found the name of the ruler of Athens in the year 332 B. C., and
the words '_Prize given at Athens_.'" The victor is vanquished, his name
and fame are forgot, but the vase is perfect after the lapse of
twenty-two centuries.

The vase next presented (Fig. 37) is an amphora decorated with
equestrian figures, marked by that archaic stiffness which some value.
Its height is put by Figuier at thirty-seven centimetres--about fifteen
inches. The color is yellowish; it is shaped with much care; the black
varnish is brilliant, and is laid upon the yellow body; the outlines are
incised to limit the figures; and the parts in relief are of a rusty red
and unpolished.

The great amphora (Fig. 38) is in the Louvre Museum, and is one of the
most perfect known. We see this form, as well as many others of the
Greek amphora, in all modern work. The clay is yellowish, and is covered
with a deep black. The figures are reserved on the yellow and are well
brought out by the black. The simplicity and dignity of this vase can
hardly be excelled, and they are in striking contrast with the
over-decorated things, so many of which have been made at Sèvres and
Meissen. The great virtue of reticence was known and observed among the
Greek artists.

The next (Fig. 39) is of a more uncommon form than the others, in its
swelling out at the base. The handles, too, are rare, and the twisting
together at the top quite peculiar.

The great vase KRATER (Fig. 40), called "Campanienne," is some fifteen
inches in height, and is perfect in form and decoration. The figures are
painted in black upon its surface. They have been found in great numbers
in various parts of Italy.

The hydria (Figs. 41 and 42) is a water-jug; another term which is used
for the same vessel is _kalpis_, but the latter has two handles. These
vary much in form, decoration, and beauty. The one (Fig. 41) has a black
ground with red figures; the other (Fig. 42) is just the reverse.

[Illustration: FIG. 44.--_Lekythos._]

The _cruche_ or vase shown in Fig. 43 is supposed to have been used for
libations when sacrifices were made to the gods. The neck and mouth are
peculiar. This example has a red body covered with a black varnish, the
designs showing the red.

The LEKYTHOS is a sort of cylindrical amphora, with a straight neck and
a single handle. This beautiful vase was made to contain perfumes and
unguents, which were largely in use.

The figure (44) here given is a perfect example of this delicate vase,
and is painted with colored clays, which are fixed to the body of the
vase by heat, and are, therefore, indestructible.

[Illustration: FIG. 45.--_Pot for Infusion._]

A pot for infusion (Fig. 45) is easily understood. It is a Greek
ancestor to our teapot, and is marked by that elegance of form which
appears in much of the work of the Grecian potters.

The curious cup (Fig. 46) called a COUTHON is about eight inches in
diameter. Our illustration shows at A the top of the cup with the open
centre, while at B and C may be seen the peculiar involuted form. Just
what uses this could have been put to does not appear. It is more an
object of curiosity and gracefulness than of use. Just in what way such
a pot can have been turned is not plain to the uninitiated soul.

The CUP OF ARCESILAUS (shown in Figs. 47 and 48) is one of the most
graceful and beautiful things which has come down to us from the Greeks.
It is supposed to date back to the time of Pindar, some 500 years before
Christ. The cup is now to be seen in the collection of the Rue de
Richelieu in Paris; it was found in Etruria, but was made by a potter of
Cyrene. It is discovered that at this African city was a great pottery
for the making of Greek vases, out of which have come some of the most
perfect found; among them this one. So far had the art and culture of
the Greeks spread even then. The cup is about thirteen inches in
diameter. Its name comes from the King of Cyrenaica, whose glories were
sung by Pindar. The clay is very fine, and is of a delicate red; and
this has been almost hidden by a black which appears solidly at the
handles and foot. The design is put on with a colored clay or _engobe_
of a yellowish-white, which is fixed by the fire; and it is believed
that it must have passed through the furnace some three times.

The picture (Fig. 48) is curious and interesting. The king is shown
sitting on the deck of a vessel afloat, holding his sceptre. Before him
his servants are weighing baskets of merchandise, and below the deck
others are seen carrying away the baskets into the hold. Now, what is
this they are weighing and carrying away?

[Illustration: FIG. 46.--_A Couthon._]

M. de Witte, in making his catalogue, decides that the Greek word near
the manager who is pointing to the scales means _silphium_ or
_asafoetida_: the most odious of flavors to us, but one which still
provokes delicious titillations in some Orientals. Altogether, we get a
glimpse of life in this early Pindaric time; we see that a king then was
not a mere figure-head, but a real king who oversaw his cargoes, and
probably loved asafoetida, and was fond of making money, as some of
our sovereigns are to-day.

The _number_ of these vases, cups, etc., now existing in Europe is very
great--at least 20,000, and some experts make the number as high as
70,000. The best-known collections are--at Naples in the Museo
Borbonico, 2,000; in the Vatican at Rome, 1,000; at Florence, 700; at
Turin, 500; at Vienna, 300; at Berlin, 1,690; at Munich, 1,700; at
Dresden, 200; at Carlsruhe, 200; at Paris, the Louvre, 1,500;
Bibliothèque Nationale, 500; at London, British Museum, 2,600. There are
also a great many in private collections throughout the world.

What the keen and artistic mind wants to know is, not only what fine
work was done by the Greeks, but why they did it--what, indeed, made
that life more beautiful than any we find in all the earlier histories
of man.

Through the wrecks and convulsions of time this crowd of delicate,
perishable things still exists; what vast numbers must have been made
and destroyed in the varying populations of Greece, Rome, Tyre,
Carthage, and wherever Grecian civilizations and tastes made their way,
it is not easy for the mind to compass. And we must remember that these
things we now describe were not in every man's hand; they were in a good
degree for the rich and well-to-do. No slave (and slaves then abounded)
used a _kylix_ from which to drink his wine, nor an _oenochoe_ from which
to pour it.

That vases and cups were used and made especially as tokens of affection
to be placed in the tombs, we know; that they were fashioned and painted
for prizes at the Panathenaic games of Greece, we know; and that they
were used in many ways in the symposia and feasts, we also know; and the
numbers made must have been nigh countless. No satisfactory explanation
of this profusion has so far been hit upon.

The potteries, of course, must have been many; for Brongniart cites in
Greece proper twelve now known cities where vases were made; in Italy,
some fourteen; and we know, also, that they were made in most

[Illustration: FIG. 47.--_Cup of Arcesilaus, View of the Outside._]

of the colonies where Greek customs stamped themselves. The demand for
all this product was, of course, equal to the supply. While we know that
Greek civilizations had reached a high place, and that man, physically
and intellectually, had come nigh to perfection, _woman_ had not kept
pace with him. The home then was not what we now make it, or attempt to,
a temple in which all of comfort, all of luxury, all of beauty, are
gathered. The Greek house, even in Athens, was rarely, large; the
principal _salons_ for the feasts were used only by men, for the ladies
of the house did not appear at those times. The women's apartments were
more secluded, and were not used for show; we should not, therefore,
expect them to be _filled_ with objects of art and ornament, though they
would not, of course, be excluded. That there should be, as we have
shown there was, a great production of articles devoted to the tastes of
the fairer sex is easy to understand, and for them, as well as for men,
were made the beautiful _lekythoi_, the _alabastron_, and other
articles, for perfumes, for the toilet, and the bath; for these we can
account. The life of the married woman was not then passed in public and
out-of-doors as it now has come to be; she was not the central or only
or principal figure around which society revolved; nor did the social or
intellectual, the artistic or literary life find its centre or its
applause with her. That she frequented the theatres with men is not
believed, though she had her own opportunities for the indulgence of
this taste; and it seems probable that some representations--as the
tragedies--were open for both men and women. Her life partook of the
seclusion which stamped the Asiatic courts. She had many duties and
occupations; for the wife, with her maidens or her slaves, not only must
prepare and serve the food, she must also spin and weave and make the
garments for her household.

[Illustration: FIG. 48.--_Cup of Arcesilaus, View of the Inside._]

The care and education of children, the supervision of the house and the
slaves, the production of stuffs and garments, of perfumes and unguents,
gave necessary occupations in great profusion, and such as would
alleviate _ennui_--such as would put amusements into a second rather
than a first place in her heart.

But the truth is that her life was so dull, so devoid of exciting cares,
that many women, and among them some of the most beautiful, most witty,
and most cultivated of Greece, preferred the seductive and exciting
dangers of the life of the _hetaira_ to the safe and frigid
respectability and dullness of the married wife.

[Illustration: FIG. 49.--_Etruscan Vase._]

That dress was a matter of important thought with woman there also, is
beyond doubt; and the textures of the _chitons_ and _himations_, the
proper colors of their bands and their girdles, caused much perplexity
to the beautiful Greek maiden, as they have to the beautiful American of
to-day. But the Greek seems to have escaped one great misery and
mystery--_her fashions did not change_; no staff of designing men was
working with swift brain, hand, and pencil, in Athens or Corinth, to
perplex her delicate mind with fashion-books, thus forcing her into
exquisite torture, and keeping her there. The pictures upon the vases
continuing through many centuries, show no very marked changes in dress.
Was woman, then, supremely happy? Who can say! Besides dress, there can
be no question, from the large numbers of perfume-bottles and vases of
clay, as well as from the quantity of those of glass found by Cesnola in
his excavations, that a very great degree of luxury, if not of dandyism,
was reached by the women as well as the men in that "good old day of
Greece." We know something of the luxury, the lavish daintiness of
Alcibiades and his friends, but very little of that of their wives.

There was, however, an evil thing in Greece, and one which the Greek
wife felt strongly, keenly--it was the _hetairai_, the _demi-monde_ of
the great cities. Nowhere except in England and America has the virtue
of married woman been held at so extreme and exalted a height, nowhere
has its sale been lowered to such a depth, as in Athens.

Among the _hetairai_ of Athens and Corinth were found the most
beautiful, the most brilliant, and the most highly-cultivated women of
Greece; to them every attraction was of inestimable value, and whatever
would charm men was to be sought and seized. That among them were women
of great mental gifts, of much political knowledge, of highly-cultivated
artistic perceptions, we have every reason to believe; that the
_hetairai_ made their houses as attractive as possible we may also
believe; and in them, we do not doubt, were found some of the best
examples of the art of Greece outside the temples and the gymnasia. Here
we may suppose that the fine vases found appreciative recipients, as
well as appreciative admirers among men. That all who sold their charms
were what we term "abandoned" is not true; they did not so consider
themselves, and were not so esteemed among the men or women of Greece;
that some of them, many of them, became so, is beyond doubt true. But
among them some (how many who can tell?) were cultivated, interesting,
able, there is no doubt; and that they continued so. It was long the
fashion to suppose and to say that the poetess Sappho, and the
politician Aspasia, were courtesans, which hardly any man will now
maintain. As to the former less is known, but Aspasia, though not
legally married to Pericles (as she could not be), was virtually his
wife and partner through all his life, in his schemes for governing,
exalting, and beautifying Athens. Her house then was the most beautiful,
the most complete, and the most attractive, in Athens; and to it
resorted the most noted statesmen, rhetoricians, philosophers, wits, and
artists, of that most remarkable city and time.

[Illustration: FIG. 50.--_Etruscan Vase._]

It is a misfortune to us that no Greek house of the time of

[Illustration: FIG. 51.--_Etruscan Vase._]

Pericles, the perfect day of a most remarkable and highly-æsthetic
civilization, remains; either its stone-walls, or in pictures on its
temple-walls or on its vases. The great catastrophe which overwhelmed
Herculaneum and Pompeii has secured to us the means of knowing how the
luxurious Roman lived in those little seaside cities eighteen hundred
years ago; a time when Cæsar was hardly dead, and Jesus almost unknown.
Every house in Athens and in Corinth, in Samos and in Melos, has been
swept away by the besom of war or the feathered wing of Time. We know
what we do know from the verses of the poets or the allusions of the
playwrights, and that is all; but from these we gather that the house or
home was a place rather for the woman than for the man; that in it the
woman, though not exactly a prisoner as in the harems of the Asiatic
kings, was expected to stay and to find "her sphere." The porter sat at
the door of the house, and when the woman walked forth she went
accompanied by her slave, and it was known for what she went.

The life of the Greek man was essentially and in his best hours outside
his own house. By the Greek man we now mean the upper or more wealthy
classes; all these had their work done by slaves. He went forth in the
early morning to visit the theatres, where he was entertained with the
dramas of Æschylus, of Euripides, of Aristophanes; he breakfasted; he
visited the markets; he went to the bath; to the hairdresser; he
conversed in the porticoes; he frequented the gymnasia, where he could
talk or listen, where he could exercise and enjoy his body, where
beautiful bodies and philosophic tongues found free play and ample room.
Everything of politics, of poetry, of art, of scandal, was a delight to
the keen and active intellect of the Greek; as in St. Paul's day, he was
eager to hear or see some new thing: and when such a ruler as Pericles
had grasped the purse and the sword, and had gathered together in the
small city of Athens all the sculptures, all the poetry, all the
eloquence, all the pictures, all the vases, to adorn and glorify it, the
Greek man may be said--using our expressive American phrase--"to have
had a good time!"--as good as he has been able yet to see in the long
history of the race.

[Illustration: FIG. 52.--_Etruscan Vase._]

Knowing as much as we do of the life of the Greek man and the Greek
woman, need we be surprised that the rather sharp-tempered Xantippe,
wife of that delightful vagabond and philosopher, Socrates--he who
puzzled the too conscious sophists and pleased the simpler people, who
loved the true and hated the false; he who lived for wisdom and not for
power; who cared much for mind and less for money; who basked in the
sunshine of the porticoes and pined in the shadows of his own
house--need we be surprised that this wife of his was driven to go forth
at times to seek her vagrant lord in the throng of the market-place or
the excitements of the Academy, and to lead him thence to the place of
his wife and children? Need we be surprised that her speech was then
unmelodious, unconjugal, and that she became a sport and by-word for the
wicked wits of that brilliant city?

[Illustration: FIG. 53.--_Etruscan Vase._]

But with his faults Socrates had the great virtues of serenity and
patience, always indispensable in the married man, at least.

If the vases had only preserved for us the portraits of Xantippe and
Socrates, or even of the room they lived in, how much would we thank
them! As to the _pictures_ upon the vases, the best of them seem to be
copied or adapted by the vase-painters from pictures of the best artists
of Greece, made to illustrate the worship or the doings of the gods, the
great deeds of the heroes, the feats at games, the triumphs at the
feasts, etc., etc. Many of these are but carelessly, even poorly, put
upon the vases; the _best_ are those we must look for to admire, to
enjoy, and to emulate.

The _tub of Diogenes_, there is reason to believe, was a great earthen
vase or pot--the PITHOS. These were built up of clay by the Greeks by
hand around a frame, and were afterward baked. As they sometimes reached
the dimensions of over three feet in diameter and six or seven feet in
height, it is plain that they could not be turned upon the potter's
wheel. It is easy, too, to understand what an excellent shelter such a
pot would make for such a cynical philosopher as Diogenes, who needed a
very cheap rent. But if a wicked boy _should_ throw a cruel stone some
fine evening, striking the pot in a weak spot, the rent might end in a
convulsion and ruin.

ETRUSCAN VASES.--The "_Etruscan vase_" not being what we have here
described and figured as the "Greek vase," it remains to say briefly
that the vases and pots made by the Etruscans before the coming of the
Greek potters were quite different; ruder and less fine in form and in
decoration. Indeed, it is not likely that the painted vase found in
Italy, known as the Greek vase, was ever the work of the Etruscan
workmen. The Etruscan pottery was thicker, less ornamental, and it
indicates a different race and lower æsthetic development. In the Museum
of Art at Boston is now placed a collection of Etruscan work which is
said to be unique in this country as well as in England. In this are a
number of vases which are ornamented with heads and figures in relief,
not sharp and fine; these are wholly covered with a black color. A few
which are painted are quite different and inferior to the work of the
Greeks. The collection was secured in Italy by Mr. J. J. Dixwell, who
has been so good as to present it to the museum. Figs. 49, 50, 51, 52,
53, are examples of some of the vases in the Museum of the Louvre, which
present the general style and character of this work; they show clearly
how much the real Etruscan vase differs from the true Greek vase.



CHAPTER III.

UNGLAZED POTTERY AT THE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1876.

     Unglazed Water-Colors.--Clay Sketches.--Japanese Clay
     Figures.--Spanish Pots.--Italian Peasant
     Pottery.--Egyptian.--Turkish.--Mexican.--Watcombe
     Terra-cotta.--Copenhagen Pottery.


The reports of the judges have not yet appeared, so that we do not and
cannot know what their awards may be. But as so many persons who saw and
judged for themselves may never see these reports, it may therefore
serve to remind them of many things there if I put down here my own
notes of what I saw and admired.

My notes do not cover the whole ground, by any means, but I think they
touch upon the best examples of the unglazed work, of which, however,
the quantity in no degree equaled that of the glazed pottery or faience;
and, indeed, it could not, because for most of the uses of life it is
valueless. The glazed pots are of course much stronger, and, for
household uses, have almost entirely supplanted the other. Unglazed pots
and pans are still in common domestic use, but they have a glaze on the
_inside_ which renders them capable of holding liquids. Unglazed vessels
are much used along the shores of the Mediterranean for the purpose of
cooling water, the percolation and evaporation from the surface bringing
the water to a delicious coolness, which is grateful to the parched
palate; indeed, it is much more wholesome than the intense coldness
created by the use of ice. Many a dyspeptic stomach with us would
gladden if refreshed with the crisp water produced by the Spanish or
Egyptian coolers, which are now made feverish with the icy American
draughts poured into them.

In Paris are still made many small figures in unglazed clay, some of
which are full of artistic effects; they are sketches in clay, and are
valuable when they are such. A great many are made at some of the
potteries in England, which are useless as works of art, and are useful
only as cheap decorations. Some of them are well moulded, and are
pleasing. I noticed none of these at the Exhibition, though it is likely
they were represented there.

A very fine example of this sort of unglazed figure-work was to be seen
in a case in the Japanese collection sent by Kiriu Kosko Kuwaisha. It
was a much higher class of work than the Peruvian, of which an
illustration is given at page 19, and in its way could hardly be
excelled. The figure was about twelve inches high, and seemed to be an
intense embodiment of Japanese jollity; its half-shut eyes, lolling
tongue, and relaxed figure, told the story perfectly. My Japanese guide,
philosopher, and friend, did not consider it in any way a god, though it
was so like the Chinese Poutai, god of content, that one wondered. If it
indeed had been a domestic god, our keen Japanese gentleman would not
have been likely to urge that view to us, who have less regard for other
people's gods even than for our own.

Not far from the Japanese exhibit was to be seen in the Spanish
collection a pyramid of unglazed pottery, nearly or quite all of a
light-buff color. It had this value, that it was such as is in use
to-day in the houses of the common people; and that is about all we can
say for it. The whole of it has been bought for the Pennsylvania School
of Art. Why they should want a hundred pieces of this work one may well
be at a loss to know, unless it is true that to own what nobody else has
is always a pleasure.

Throughout the southern countries of Europe, in Spain, France, Italy,
Greece, Turkey, and on the southern shores of the Mediterranean, this
kind of pottery is made and used, and in some cases it has much merit in
its forms; when decorated, it often reaches a _naïve_ and fascinating
kind of art.

Some very pretty, simple, and original pieces of this sort of pottery
have been brought to us from time to time from Naples, though I have
never seen any for sale. I learn from one of the Castellanis that in
many places of Italy this sort of work is made to-day, much of it for
decorative purposes. At some of them vases and other vessels which are
distinctly traditions derived from the Greek potters of a thousand years
ago are still made; at others are made pots and vases, cups and
_bénitiers_, which have sprung out of the simple artistic feeling of the
potters themselves, and which have that flavor of genuineness which
cannot be too much encouraged. The tendency everywhere is to _copy_
something; let us, as far as we can, buy the real and disparage the
copy. A hundred pieces of this peasant pottery were sent me a few years
ago, but they were wrecked upon the "vexed Bermoöthes," and are lying at
the bottom of the sea.

A few pieces of a light-gray body in the Egyptian collection were
excellent both in form and in their many-colored decoration. These
pieces were like, but better than, most of that which comes out from
Africa through Tangier, of which we saw none in the Main Building, but
learned that there was a collection in the Tunisian Building. Many good
pieces of this barbaric pottery are in the country, though most of the
specimens are glazed. These Egyptian pots have this vast merit, that
they have come from the personal wants and the depths of the moral
consciousness of the Egyptians themselves; from potters who know no
language, no country, and no art, but their own; and therefore they are
in no way imitations of what has been done in France, or England, or
Boston.

The dark-red terra-cotta ware from Egypt was mostly in small pieces, but
was excellent in its modeling and finish; and it was satisfactory to see
that it was much bought by our people. This clay, with its polished
surface, is peculiar to Egypt; at least we see it nowhere else.

This red Egyptian ware, is much like the red Roman ware often called
Samian, which has been spoken of in a preceding chapter. Some larger
pieces have been brought by private parties from Egypt, which have much
merit in form, as well as in incised decoration.

The Turks sent a few examples of their simple pottery, some of it
unglazed, and some covered with a deep-green glaze, which were simply
what they pretended to be. Their polychrome decoration was also good,
but not so good as the Egyptian.

Mexico, too, sent a small collection of this sort of work, which

[Illustration: FIG. 54.--_Danish Pottery._]

smacked yet of the Aztec races, but too little of it to be of much use.
A few glazed pots painted in the native fashion were excellent, and were
bought up quickly, because they suggested Montezuma and his brown
people, who have been wholly consumed by the greedy whites. The belief
of Señor Alejandro Cassarin, the potter or dealer who sent from Mexico,
evidently was that this native spontaneous pottery, which doubtless is
yet to be found, in out-of-the-way places, is not a thing to be proud
of--at least, it is not to be sent to us; that what we want is a very
poor imitation of European porcelain. Nor is such a delusion his alone.

Of terra-cotta work in red and in buff there was a good show, mainly
from England and Denmark. The clay, the modeling, and the finish, were
quite perfect in many of these. The Watcombe people, in England, had
already reached perfection in the color and texture of their clay; and
the Greek vases, as well as jugs, ewers, and a variety of things--their
own designs--could not have been bettered some three years ago. They
were then satisfied to insure a simplicity which touched perfection. In
their exhibit at Philadelphia it was clear that they are no longer
satisfied with this, or that a jaded taste needs excitement. The work
sent us constantly says, "We are trying to do something new and
surprising, if nothing better than before." The principal novelty was
the combining of two colors of clay in the same pot; as, for example, a
lighter body with a darker red for the handles, mouldings, and
ornaments. Dignity and repose were thus lost, and no new pleasure was
supplied. We felt sure that this would not last. And then, when bands of
color or polychrome decoration are used on the fine red clay, they
nearly always do harm; and the inevitable tendency to overdo cannot be
restrained. Their modeled figures seemed to have neither the delicacy of
the parian nor the sketchy freedom of some of the French designers. The
color of the clay and the finish of the Watcombe terra-cotta vases are
superior to any I have ever seen.

Some years ago the Copenhagen potters made a very considerable success
in their revival of the Greek vase, both plain and painted in black,
with Greek figures of horses, warriors, women, etc. (Fig. 54). These
have had for the last ten years a large sale; and as we cannot have the
real Greek vases because of their scarcity and price, it is well to have
some examples so well copied as these are. But there is a limit to one's
capacity for copies of Greek vases, and it seems positive that we have
reached it. We hope so. Ipsen's widow sent us some of the yellow vases
and pots, most delicately and delightfully painted with the lotus and
other Egyptian designs, which for subtilty of color and precision of
touch cannot be surpassed. These we were glad to see our people buying,
and not the other.

Among much that was commonplace, there were many examples of good work
in the department of unglazed pottery. It would have been a great
satisfaction to have met with more which showed _courage_ and
_freshness_ of design. While the public are not so responsive to these
as one could wish, there is still enough to encourage potters and
designers in this direction, if they will only believe it.



CHAPTER IV.

GLAZED POTTERY.--GRÈS DE FLANDRE, FRENCH, GERMAN, ETC.

     Definition of Glaze.--Varnish.--Enamel in Egypt, Babylon.--The
     Arabs and the Moors.--Grès de Flandre.--Cologne, Regensburg,
     Baireuth, Neuwied, Grenzhausen,
     Coblentz.--Holland.--Beauvais.--Flanders.--Apostle-Mugs.
     --Graybeards.--"Bellarmines."--"Pottle-Pots."--Modern
     Work.--Doulton Stone-ware.--Early German Stone-ware at
     Breslau.--Hirschvogel.--Nuremberg.


Before saying anything about the various styles of glazed pottery, it
may be well to give the definitions of glaze, as presented by Marryatt,
thus:

"GLAZE (_Glauçure_, _Vernis_, Fr.).--The composition used for coating
pottery is composed chiefly of lead and silex. That for porcelain is
analogous to flint-glass (whence the derivation _glassing_ or
_glazing_). In fact, this term may be applied to any substance that
covers the surface of the piece; as, for instance, that produced by the
decomposition of salt on stone-ware. M. Brongniart classes the different
kinds of glazing, or vitreous substances with which pottery is covered
when finished, into three kinds:

"'_Varnish._--Every vitrifiable substance, transparent and plumbiferous,
which melts at low temperature, generally inferior to that required for
the baking of the paste: common pottery, fine earthen-ware.

"'_Enamel._--A vitrifiable substance, opaque, generally stanniferous
(tin): majolica and common earthen-ware.

"'_Couverte._--A vitrifiable substance, earthy, which melts at a high
temperature equal to that of the baking of the paste: hard porcelain,
some stone-wares....'

"The mark caused by the absence of glaze is very apparent in Oriental
porcelain, the bottom edge being rough and sandy. This defective
appearance is obviated in Europe by supporting the piece upon a tripod
with very small points (_prenettes_, Fr.). The three ugly marks upon old
Chelsea china are caused by the clumsy tripod which was employed."

The use of glaze and of tin to form the glaze or enamel seems to have
been known to the Chinese beyond the time when Occidental records were
kept. It appears, according to Sir Gardiner Wilkinson and Mr. Samuel
Birch, that very early indeed the Egyptian potters knew the use of the
siliceous glaze, composed of sand and potash or soda; and also that
small sepulchral figures have been found, coated with enamels made from
oxides of tin or copper, dating as far back as the sixth dynasty (B. C.
3703). In the museums of Europe are preserved tiles and bricks taken
from the temples or palaces of Egypt and Babylon, and they must have
been largely used long before our historical time. These glazed bricks
are supposed to date back twenty-five hundred years before our era.

Mr. Birch, in his "History of Ancient Pottery," says that the use of
these bricks was probably learned by the Assyrians from the Egyptians,
"who at a very early period had inlaid in this manner the chamber of the
Pyramid at Saqquara."

He says: "The glazed or enameled bricks from Nimrúd are of the usual
kiln-dried kind, measuring thirteen and a half inches square, and about
four and a half inches thick. They were laid in rows horizontally above
the slates of sculpture of the Mosul marble, and seem to have been
employed in the construction of cornices. They are glazed on one of the
narrow sides or edges only, having on this edge various patterns,
chiefly of an architectural nature, such as guilloche or chain
ornaments, bands of palmettes or helices, and fleurettes or flowers of
many petals. The colors employed were blue, black, yellow, red, and
white. The glaze, which is much decomposed, easily exfoliates, and the
colors have lost much of their freshness. It would appear that patterns
of tolerably large size were executed in this manner, each brick having
its appropriate portion enameled upon it.... Another brick, found by Mr.
Layard in the earliest palace of Nimrúd, has an horizontal line of
inscription in arrow-headed characters of a darker color, and with
square heads like nails. Its tenor was of the usual purport: 'This is
the great palace of "Asar-aden-pal."' Bricks of this glazed kind were
found chiefly in the space between the great bulls which flanked the
entrances of the chambers. From Nimrúd were also brought corbels of blue
faience, or what has been called porcelain, the under part modeled to
represent the five fingers of the hand."

This much is given to show how the glaze was applied to pottery by the
nations of that very early time. Where they got their knowledge--whether
they discovered it for themselves in their search into the secrets of
Nature, or whether they derived it from the great world of life which
lay beyond in the far East--we do not and cannot know. But why this so
valuable knowledge was not applied universally by those acute peoples to
the utensils of every-day life, and to all which we now call "artistic
pottery," remains a curious question. That it was applied to some
things, we know; for small vases, toys, marbles, etc., etc., have been
found among the Egyptian tombs coated with this enamel; but most of the
pottery found in Egypt is without glaze, which would indicate that what
was in ordinary daily use was unglazed. Examples of this enameled ware
are to be seen in the British and other museums of Europe.

Coming to the Greeks, it is singular that nothing of this enamel-glaze
is found. The inference is, that they had not the knowledge of it, and
that the art must have been lost; for surely so valuable and beautiful
an art, if known, must have been applied by so æsthetic a people as the
Greeks to the uses of life.

Upon the Greek vases, of which so many examples remain, there appears
sometimes to have been used a very thin and very transparent varnish;
but this does not seem to have been a glaze made either of glass, or of
lead, or of tin. If it was a varnish, and not a polish, the
probabilities point to its being a thin wash of soda or potash. This
varnish served to protect the painting, but did not prevent the
percolation of water.

The Greek methods prevailed among the Romans. Among the great numbers of
potters, and the vast production of pottery, the Romans seem not to have
used the glaze. All that remains of their work, found in Gaul, in
Britain, and in other parts of Europe, is the unglazed ware.

The Arabs and the Moors brought into Europe a knowledge of the
stanniferous (tin) glaze, as has been explained more fully elsewhere. To
this keen and most energetic civilization Europe owes its beginnings in
the arts of pottery, as well as in many other things.

The value of the glaze in all the arts of life cannot be estimated. When
the only cooking-utensils were those made of unglazed pottery, the
cooking was of the simplest, if not most insufficient, character.
Indeed, at that time it is not likely that meat was cooked in the pot at
all. In addition to this, the difficulty of making unglazed vessels
capable of holding wine, oil, etc., without wasting them slowly, must
have forbidden those things being kept to such a time as to insure
perfection, not to mention the inevitable loss.

It is likely that such unglazed pots were then painted on the inside
with some resinous substance which in a degree met the difficulty, but
which, at the same time, imparted a flavor to the wine which we cannot
believe to have been delicious.

Between China and the Spanish Moors exist a wide gap and centuries of
time, in which glazed pottery and porcelain intended for the uses of
domestic life seem to have been unknown. And this, too, was among the
Greeks, the Phoenicians, the Romans--nations eager for every good
thing, astute, keen, grasping. Among the remains of Roman art have been
found a few pieces of pottery upon which are traces of the use of a
glaze; but, if it was used at all, it seems to have been almost an
accident--not at all as with us, to complete and perfect the work.

To the Moors and the Moorish civilization of Spain, Europe owes the
knowledge or the introduction of this most valuable art, which has
enabled her to reach such perfection in the making of fictile ware as we
now see and enjoy.

Not only has the glaze (and enamel) given great strength to pottery, and
increased its use to an infinite variety: it has also enabled most
nations, beginning with the Chinese, to add to its beauty, and, indeed,
to develop or create a method of artistic expression which is peculiar
and most interesting. This subject will be treated more fully, in the
progress of this work, in a chapter upon decorating porcelain and
pottery.

After the work of the Moors in Spain, which will be treated in a
separate chapter, one of the earliest applications of the glaze in
Europe was upon a hard sort of _stone-ware_ made at various places along
the Rhine, and in Flanders and Germany. It has come to be known under a
generic title of GRÈS DE FLANDRE, while but little of it was really made
in Flanders. A great centre of its manufacture and sale, as early as the
1300's of our era, was at Cologne; and a more fit name for it would be
Grès de Cologne; still, the usual name is the one the world knows it by.

The body or paste of which this is composed differs from the faiences or
earthen-wares of which we write.

It is harder, heavier, and much more durable. The commoner kinds are
made so by a considerable mixture of siliceous sand; while in the finer
kinds, known as Grès de Flandre, there are mixed with the paste other
clays, such as _terre de pipe_ and _kaolin_. This hard and heavy body
has long been used for common stone-ware jugs and pots made for
every-day use. In China it was and is still used as a body for vases and
dishes, which received a covering or "engobe," and upon that an artistic
finish--such as the crackle-vases, and many others.

The glaze upon what we know as Grès de Flandre was made by using in the
furnace common salt; the fumes of which, combining with the fused silex,
resulted in what is termed the _salt-glaze_. This requires a high degree
of heat, in which no colors will stay except the blue of cobalt, a
brown, and a violet.

The Grès de Flandre, of which we give two illustrations (Figs. 55 and
56), is now well known under that name. Its color is a liquid gray, and
its decoration is made with the blue of cobalt. Some pieces of this ware
are highly and beautifully decorated, as is seen on the fine fountain
now in the museum of the Louvre (Fig. 55). Most of the figures and
reliefs are made with moulds, which have a quaint interest; they were
cut in wood, carefully, often with considerable artistic expression. The
best work of this sort was made in the fourteenth and fifteenth
centuries, and is mostly German.

[Illustration: FIG. 55.--_Grès de Flandre Fountain, Musée du Louvre._]

There were factories at Cologne, at Regensburg, at Baireuth, at Neuwied,
at Grenzhausen, at Coblentz, and at other places along the Rhine. The
same work was also made in Holland, in Flanders, and in Beauvais. Many
pieces of this style of work were decorated with figures of saints, and
other sacred emblems. Some pieces, such as salt-cellars, inkstands, and
candlesticks, were carefully modeled by hand, and have thus an added
interest. I know of but few pieces of this work in our museums, while
those of Europe have made special attempts to secure examples of it; for
it has a peculiar character of its own, and in many cases is delicious
in color and most quaint and artistic in its forms and decoration. Often
coats-of-arms are found impressed upon tankards and bottles and flagons
of this work, and most of these are German. They were evidently
reproduced from the moulds, and sold to others than the persons whose
arms they bore.

[Illustration: FIG. 56.--_Pilgrim-shaped Grès Bottle, in the British
Museum._]

The making of this ware was undoubtedly one step by which Böttcher at
last succeeded in making true porcelain at Dresden.

Fig. 56 is a pilgrim-bottle, bought at the Bernal sale by the British
Museum for eighteen pounds.

At Baireuth were made, in the 1600's, some very curious mugs, called
_Apostle-Mugs_, because the figures of the twelve apostles were worked
in relief around the cup. The clay was a dark-brown, but the dresses of
the figures and the inscriptions were painted in colors. Mr. Frederick
J. Betts, of New York, has one of these interesting bits of work; they
are now hardly ever offered for sale.

[Illustration: FIG. 57.--_Brown Graybeard or Bellarmine._]

The _Graybeards_, or _Longbeards_, or _Bellarmines_, were made largely
in the Low Countries for their own uses, and were exported to England.
We give an illustration (Fig. 57) of one in Mr. Prime's collection.
There is also an excellent one, I believe, in possession of Dr. Breck,
of Springfield, Massachusetts. These were intended for use, and usually
carried from one quart to three gallons. They were always in brown--at
least I have seen none in the gray; but their decoration was sometimes
touched with the violet-color. They are a very handsome and decorative
bottle. The name of "Bellarmine" was given them because, in the
sixteenth century, when these bottles were made and used, the Cardinal
Bellarmin was sent into the Low Countries to counteract the movements of
the pernicious Reformers then so zealously at work there. He was
cordially hated by the Protestants, and received from them his due share
of contumely. Having a short stature and a large stomach, like the
Longbeard bottles, and, as they said, holding like them much vinous or
other liquor, they soon called the bottle a Bellarmine, which name it
bears to this day--so that, indeed, it may be said, the bottle has
immortalized the man.

These bottles were largely in use on the Continent and in England all
through Shakespeare's time, and one was dug up on the site of the
"Boar's Head at Eastcheap." The "pottle-pot," as the bottle was then
called, held about two quarts. In one of the old English plays, Clodpate
says: "Uds-buds, my head begins to turn round; but let's into the house.
'Tis dark, we'll have one Bellarmine more, and then Bonus Nocius."

Sometimes these Graybeards were handsomely mounted, and came to be
ranked high among the household gods. An inventory of the Duke of
Burgundy, made in 1467, speaks of one of them as being decorated with
silver and gold: "Ung hault _Goblet de Terre_ ouvré et chiqueté à ung
visaige d'un heremite, garny au dessus et au dessoubs d'argent doré, et
le couvercle aussi d'argent doré."

Upon the Rhine these stone pots are still made for common uses, and
largely; the same sort of clay is also extensively converted into
seltzer-water bottles. Near Coblentz are several potteries devoted to
this sort of work. At these places, since the great desire for
interesting pottery has sprung up, some very fair copies of the old
_grès_ have been made. At first they were made with considerable care,
and then had _some_ value, showing us, as they did, what this very
quaint and very original pottery was; and they were of value, as we
could not have the originals. But now there is no restraint, and they
are turned out by the ship-load in a slovenly style, and are to be seen
in every shop-window. Fortunately, they do not pretend to be the _real_
thing; and, fortunately, they will have but a short existence, as they
do not grow out of any true want or true use.

DOULTON STONE-WARE.--On the other hand has sprung up at Lambeth,
England, in the potteries of the Doultons, stone-ware which is true,
original, artistic, and delightful. This is the same paste as the

[Illustration: FIG. 58.--_Doulton Ware._]

_grès_; but, instead of imitating that, a scale and a variety of colors
have been developed which the old _grès_ could not at all touch. By
means of thousands of experiments and much scientific knowledge, colors
have been found which will bear the heat, and some of the results
attained there of color alone are gratifying.

No pains or cost have been spared by the Messrs. Doulton to bring about
the best work. Artists have been employed--indeed, have been created--to
invent and to bring forth works novel in design and color; and they have
done it. We cannot but welcome their work with open hands and open
hearts; and we have reason to believe that the public has welcomed it
with open purses. A very fine exhibition of this work was made at the
United States Centennial Festival at Philadelphia, which attracted much
and deserved praise. Among the artists early engaged were some ladies
named Barlow, I think, who did excellent work. One of them etched in the
wet clay groups of animals which were spirited and fascinating; the
other, I believe, did flowers and plants. These ladies went to _work_,
and thus solved the "woman question," so far as it concerned themselves.
Their work was much valued by collectors as far back as five or six
years.

Besides this style, many decorated vases, bottles, jugs, cups, etc.,
etc., have been made, of which examples will be seen in our illustration
(Fig. 58).

Not only have great variety and beauty of form been reached, but the
methods of decoration are equally varied. One of the most elaborate is
in the use of beads in lines or singly, so as to produce a jeweled
effect, often very brilliant and very finished; this is in danger of
being carried to excess.

So many pieces of their work have been brought to the United States,
that those interested can see them for themselves, and will need no
further description.

EARLY GERMAN GLAZED POTTERY.--Before leaving this subject a few words
may be said upon the early German work in pottery.

We know but little of the history of the German or Teutonic tribes
before the time of Cæsar; but it was found then that here existed
strong, handsome, vigorous races, who had reached an unexpected degree
of civilization. They had brilliant arms and armor; they respected
woman, and honored old age. In the museums are found examples of the
early German unglazed pottery, so much like that found in Egypt, in
Gaul, in Peru, and in most other parts of the globe, examples of which
are shown in our first chapter upon unglazed pottery. Just when they
began to use the glaze for the finishing and protection of pottery, we
do not know. But it is known that it was in use there some two hundred
years before it had been applied in Italy in the 1400's A. D. There are
evidences sufficient to prove that the use of enamel, in which tin was
an element, was known in Germany as early as the thirteenth century.

The most famous piece of this early glazed pottery is to be seen in the
Church of the Cross, at Breslau, Prussian Silesia. It is a great
monument of pottery, built in honor of the founder of the church, Henry
IV. of Silesia. He lies at length, the size of life, wearing his armor
and his crown, and with a sword in the right hand, a shield in the left.
Around the sarcophagus upon which he lies are twenty-one figures in
bass-relief, the whole executed in the style of the earliest
German-Gothic. Upon the monument is an inscription, saying that Henry
IV. died on the night of St. John, in 1290, etc., etc. This does not
prove that the monument was executed then; but there are other proofs
that it was made about that time, in the dress, etc., etc.

The name most conspicuous among the early potters of Germany is
Hirschvogel, who worked at Nuremberg, and who, indeed, founded potteries
there which continued through the century. He was born in 1441, and died
in 1525. He appears to have been a painter upon glass, but from that
went to the production of glazed pottery. Large plaques in bass-relief
exist of this work, and also artistic earthen-ware stoves, some of which
are elaborately and beautifully modeled. Examples of these, as well as
pots, cruches, etc., etc., are to be seen in the museum at Nuremberg.
The work of the German potters appears to have been finished with the
glaze earlier than that of any others of Europe, except that of the
Moors, in Spain.



CHAPTER V.

GLAZED POTTERY.--MOORISH, PERSIAN, RHODIAN, ETC., ETC.

     The Arabs in Spain.--Cordova, Granada, Seville.--Enamel and
     Lustres.--Hispano-Moresque.--The Alhambra.--Tiles.--Vase of the
     Alhambra.--Malaga.--Majorca and Maiolica.--Rhodian
     Pottery.--Damascus Pottery.--Persian and Arabic Pottery.--Persian
     Porcelain.--Persian and Arabic Tiles.


Before giving some particulars of the interesting examples of pottery
which have come to us from the Arabs and the Moors of Spain, it may be
well to devote a few moments to the people themselves.

I have thought it well to group under one head a number of their
productions, because they are peculiar, and because they seem to have
sprung from one centre, or to have grown up under a corresponding sense
of the beautiful, so different from that of other peoples.

Beginning with the pottery of the Spanish Moors, now called
_Hispano-Moresque_, and which is the latest, we run backward to the
_Rhodian_, the _Arabic_, the _Damascene_, and the _Persian_. From what
examples I have been able to see of these, they certainly show a strong
family likeness in their colors, their designs, and their clays.

It is hardly to be supposed that this grew out of their religion, or
that the fervid soul of Mohammed fired the souls of his followers with
that striking and low-toned and intense and subtile harmony of blues,
greens, and browns, which is so often seen on their tiles and dishes. It
is more likely that, beginning somewhere, the Arabian potters carried
with them wherever they went their colors and their secrets; and that
what was desired in Persia, or Damascus, or Cairo, must be desired
wherever the "followers of the faithful" were found; and thus they went
to work to produce these various fictile wares which are now so much
sought for.

One of the most curious, most interesting, and most picturesque episodes
in modern history is that of the Moors in Spain.

From the year 712 to the time of the discovery of America, in 1492,
these Moslems held possession of the finest parts of Spain, including
the cities of Cordova, Granada, and Seville. Of these, Cordova and
Seville are older than the Romans. In the first century they were fought
over by Cæsar and Pompey, but were not destroyed. The shores of Spain
were visited by the ships of Tyre, and afterward by the Greeks; but
these came as traders, rather than as conquerors. The old inhabitants,
the Iberians, were brave and determined; but they could not organize,
could not resist the invading arms of Rome, which swept over the world
under the leadership of some one able and daring leader. Then came in
the Vandals and the Goths. They swarmed down upon Italy, and into Spain,
where they became strong and great. As we read history, we see almost
nothing but one long, fierce, destructive fight, and we wonder that
there could have been any art, any learning, any kindness, in the world;
for every man's hand was against every man, and the chief vocation of
great men was to rob and enslave other men. So it has been, so it is
now; the forms change, the fact remains. We have our feudal barons
to-day. But how came the Moors--the Arabs, rather--in Spain? Briefly
this may be answered:

The amazing, almost miraculous power with which _Mohammed the Promised_
had inspired the Arabian race led them forth to conquer and convert.
They went east and they went west, until they stretched along the shores
of the Mediterranean Sea and reached the Pillars of Hercules.

Could the narrow strait stop their way? They passed over it like dry
land, and spread their victorious bands over the southern part of the
peninsula, and possessed themselves of the lovely lands of Andalusia,
Estremadura, Castile, and even penetrated to the cold and savage
mountains of Navarre.

What were these Moors? Were they savage beasts, cruel robbers?

They appear to have brought into Spain not only Art, but the arts,
sciences, learning, literature. Under the strong and able rule of
Abderrahman III. (912 to 961), agriculture, science, trade, and decent
living, throve as they never yet had done in Spain. During the five or
six centuries in which the Moors held the land, it is easy to believe
that Spain enjoyed a greater measure of worldly prosperity than before
or since. In this time Cordova, the seat of the caliphate, grew to have
a population of a million souls; it had three hundred mosques and nine
hundred baths. Its greatest mosque, begun in 786, shone with four
thousand silver lamps, and its dome was raised aloft on twelve hundred
slender pillars.

The city of Granada was built, and upon the sides of its mountain sprang
into being the fairy fortress and palace of the _Alhambra_. Its halls,
its courts, its galleries, its arabesques, its fretwork, its fountains,
even in their ruin, tell us of the power of this singular people.

In Seville, too, the _Alcazar_ and the _Giralda_ even now bear beautiful
witness to their art, their skill, their industry.

There seems little question now that the Moorish potters brought with
them into Spain the arts which the Persian or Arabian potters knew, not
only for the preparing the clays, but that they also had the secret for
making the _stanniferous enamel_, or glaze, into which the use of tin
enters. They also applied to the decoration of their wares certain
_lustres_, which Demmin says were produced by the fumes of bismuth, of
antimony, or of arsenic. It is not probable that gold was a component
part of these lustres.

Just when the Moors went to work to make their tiles and their lustred
dishes, we do not know. But as ornamental tiles--_azulejos_--were used
to decorate their walls, we conclude that the production began almost at
once. These tiles were not only used in bands or strips on the walls;
they were also used as pavements, and the floors of the Alhambra were
glittering with them, some few of which still remain there.

Mr. Ford's description of them, thus quoted by Marryat, says: "Moorish
very fine, and most ancient; surface plain, painted and enameled blue;
the elaborate designs in gold lustre. The inscription on the shield is
the well-known motto of the Mussulman founders of the palace of Granada:
'There is no conqueror but God.' The date of its manufacture may be
placed about 1300."

[Illustration: FIG. 59.--_From the Alhambra._]

Our engraving of one of these tiles (Fig. 59) gives a good
representation of the design, but it cannot, of course, express the
color. No one can fail to see how far away it is from the commonplace
and the ordinary geometric patterns into which the dull man invariably
falls; no one can fail to be struck with the simple intricacy which
interests, we cannot tell why.

Another remarkable piece of their work is _The Vase of the Alhambra_
(Fig. 60), one of the most beautiful and most interesting vases anywhere
known. This is sometimes called "La Jarra," and is figured in Owen
Jones's "Alhambra," where will be found much more that is worthy of
attention. This is supposed to have been made about 1320. I take the
description from Marryat's work: "It is of earthen-ware; the ground
white, the ornaments either blue of two shades, or of that gold or
copper lustre so often found in Spanish and Italian pottery. This
beautiful specimen of Moorish workmanship, which is four feet three
inches in height, was discovered, with another similar to it, beneath
the pavement of the Alhambra, and is said to have been filled with
gold. It was copied in 1842, at the manufactory of Sèvres, from drawings
made in Spain by Dauzats." It has since been copied by Deck, of Paris.

[Illustration: FIG. 60.--_The Vase of the Alhambra._]

_Malaga_ was probably the place where the best of the Moorish work was
made, and there the manufacture continued for centuries. At Valencia
faiences were afterward largely produced, as they are still.

The examples of Moorish dishes remaining are marked by a peculiar
_lustre_, which I have mentioned, which is either a lighter or a darker
yellow, and sometimes of a deep coppery color.

[Illustration: FIG. 61.--_Hispano-Moresque Plate._]

A very fine example of this golden lustred ware is in the collection of
Mr. Wales, at Boston, through whose kindness I am enabled to present the
accompanying illustration (Fig. 61). It is now, I think, hung in the
loan collection of the Museum of Arts at Boston, with many other of his
valuable and interesting pieces.

That any pieces of this work should yet be in existence may excite our
surprise.

The struggle between the Christians and the Moslems for the possession
of the government and the religion of Spain went on through the
centuries. Yet through all these troubled centuries these Moors found
time to build great cities, and to create those beautiful examples of
their peculiar architecture which are so satisfactory even in ruin. They
also did more to encourage learning and the arts than any other nation
of Europe; so that their schools and their scholars became renowned the
world over, and were flocked to by Christian students.

In due time internal dissensions weakened them; then they went to ruin,
and at last were driven out of Spain by the combined Christians. Then it
was that the bitterness of war was intensified with the hatreds of
religion; and then it was that a war of destruction was waged, not only
against the persons of the "vile Moslems," but against all their works;
so that nothing should remain to tell the story of their hated supremacy
and their hated religion. Then it was that the Moorish potters of Malaga
and Valencia were slaughtered or expelled, and then, too, their
handiwork went with them into wholesale destruction.

In this wreck and ruin, it is singular that the mosques, those finest
monuments of the arts and the industry of the Moors, were spared.

These remain, and a few examples of their pottery, of which we have
striven to give some idea, though faint.

One thing seems to be admitted on all hands, viz.: that to the Moors of
Spain Europe owes either the invention or the introduction of siliceous
or glass-glazed wares, and that from that date begins all improvements
in fictile work; that directly from it came the potteries of the
Balearic Islands, and that from Majorca came not only the names into
Italy, but in all probability the potters or their secrets, which
resulted in the production, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, of
the wares now so famous under the name of _Majolica_, or, as it is now
spelled, MAIOLICA, of which we shall have something to say further on.

RHODIAN POTTERY.--Pursuing this subject eastward, we find traces of a
lustred pottery on the island of _Sicily_, believed to be the work of
Arabic potters.

Still farther eastward, upon the island of Rhodes, have been found many
plates and dishes, now classed as _Rhodian_, sometimes as _Persian_, and
sometimes as _Damascus_ ware. The styles of this work, their colors and
their designs, seem to group them together, and it is difficult to
separate them in any consistent way.

The first I saw of these were hung on the walls of the house of Mr.
Frederick Leighton, the distinguished artist of London. While following
his art on the island of Rhodes, he had heard that some pottery of this
sort was now and then to be found on the island; the pieces he saw were
very bold and striking, and tradition there said that they were the work
of Persian potters, who, as prisoners, had centuries before been placed
on the island. Finding clay to their hands, they went to work at their
trade, and, with little doubt, practised it diligently through a long
time, and handed it down to their children.

Whatever was the truth of the tradition, a search among the poor people
of the island unearthed many pieces of the ware, which Mr. Leighton
brought with him to London. This was repeated on a second visit, until
now this private collection is probably one of the best in England.

Upon his second return, Mr. Leighton told me he found in London, for
sale, plates and dishes of the same character and coloring which were
said to have been brought around from Persia; so that, whatever may have
been the origin of this ware, whether Rhodes, Persia, or Damascus, the
product was almost the same.

Mr. Fortnum, in his "Hand-Book upon Maiolica," says:

"The paste varies in quality more than in kind, being of a gray-white
color and sandy consistence, analogous to that of the Persian wares. The
decoration is more generally rich in color, the ground white, blue,
turquoise, tobacco-color, and lilac, sometimes covered with scale-work,
with panels of Oriental form or leafage, large sprays of flowers,
particularly roses, tulips, hyacinths, carnations, etc., the colors used
being a rich blue, turquoise, green, purple, yellow, red, black. The
forms are elegant: large bowls on raised feet; flasks or bottles
bulb-shaped with elongated necks; pear-shaped jugs with cylindrical
necks and loop-handle; circular dishes or plates with deep centres, etc.
An interesting example of the highest quality of this ware is in the
writer's possession, and is described and figured in color in vol. xlii.
of the 'Archæologia.' It is a hanging-lamp made for and obtained from
the Mosque of Omar at Jerusalem, signed and dated June, 1549.

"Two leading varieties are known in collections: namely, _Damascus
proper_; known by its evenness of surface and rich glaze with subdued
but harmonious coloring, certain tones of which are peculiar to this
variety; for example, a dull lilac or purple, replacing the embossed red
so conspicuous on the Rhodian, and used against blue, which is of two or
three shades, the turquoise being frequently placed against the darker
tone; a sage green is also characteristic. The dishes of this variety
usually have the outer edge shaped in alternating ogee.

"This kind is much more uncommon than the other, RHODIAN or LINDUS, to
which the greater number of pieces known in collections as 'Persian
ware' belong. It is to Mr. Salzmann that we owe the discovery of the
remains of ancient furnaces at Lindus, in the island of Rhodes, from the
old palaces of which he collected numerous examples. This variety,
although extremely beautiful, is generally coarser than the former, and
the decoration more marked and brilliant. A bright-red pigment, so
thickly laid on as to stand out in relief upon the surface of the piece,
is very characteristic and in many cases is a color of great beauty; the
predominant decoration of the plates consists of two or three sprays of
roses, pinks, hyacinths, and tulips, and leaves, sometimes tied together
at the stem and spreading over the entire surface of the piece in
graceful lines; the border frequently of black and blue scroll-work.
Ships, birds, and animals, are also depicted; and a shield-of-arms
occurs on some pieces."

A few of these striking Rhodian plates are to be seen in America; and I
here engrave one (Fig. 62) from Mr. W. C. Prime's collection, which is
an excellent example. It shows a group of flowers starting from a point,
the central stalk being that of a purple hyacinth. This method of
grouping was a favorite one with these painters. These plates vary in
price in Europe from fifteen to seventy-five dollars each.

Of the DAMASCUS pottery little can be said, because little is known.
From time to time plates and dishes are purchased there and brought to
us, which possess the general character already described as Rhodian,
but are thought to have a delicacy and fineness not found in that
pottery. A very handsome example is in Mr. Wales's collection, which
bears a little gilding, and which, perhaps, may be classed as of
Damascus.

[Illustration: FIG. 62.--_Persian and Rhodian Pottery._]

Of PERSIAN and ARABIC pottery it is impossible, in the vagueness
existing with respect to it, to do more than make a few suggestions.

We cannot do better than to read what Mr. Fortnum has gathered with
regard to this ware:

"We do not derive any information from M. de Rochchouart on the subject
of the lustred wares, except in his description of the tiles of the
Mosque of Natinz of the twelfth century; nor do we learn anything of
that variety of creamy white pottery having the sides pierced through
the paste, but filled with the translucent glaze, and which is believed
to be the Gombr[=o]n ware of Horace Walpole's day. But he gives
interesting information on the subject of the tiles used for decoration,
of which the finest are those mentioned above; those of Ispahan and of
the period of Shah Abbas being also admirable for their exquisite
design.

"The Persian glazed pottery known to us may be divided into:

"_A._ Wares, generally highly baked, and sometimes semi-translucent.
Paste, fine and rather thin, decorated with ruby, brown, and coppery
lustre, on dark-blue and creamy-white ground.

"_B._ Wares, of fine paste, highly baked, semi-translucent, of creamy
color and rich, clear glaze, running into tears beneath the piece of a
pale sea-green tint. Its characteristic decoration consisting of holes
pierced through the paste, and filled in with the transparent glaze: the
raised centres, etc., are bordered with a chocolate brown or blue
leafage, slightly used. This is supposed to be the Gombr[=o]n ware.

"_C._ Wares, frequently of fine paste, and highly baked to
semi-transparency: the ground white; decoration of plants and animals,
sometimes after the Chinese, in bright cobalt blue, the outlines
frequently drawn in manganese; some pieces with reliefs and imitation
Chinese marks also occur; this variety is perhaps more recent than the
others."

This description may apply rather to a sort of semi or imperfect
_porcelain_ of Persian manufacture, as to the reality of which there has
been and is much doubt, rather than to the peculiar class of faience of
which we have been writing.

As to the _porcelain_ or hard faience of PERSIA, here and there are to
be met with singular examples, which, because of a peculiar style of
painting, combined with a certain coarseness or imperfectness of paste,
have usually been relegated to the less dexterous potters of Persia.
That pottery has been made in Persia, far back in the dimness of the
Dark Ages, there seems to be no doubt; just what it was remains a doubt;
because even then a sort of commerce, probably by sea and land, existed
with China, and thence came porcelains of various qualities and many
designs. We are apt to believe that, until our day, there were few
"cakes and ale"--little art, or only coarse fabrics. Whereas fine and
admirable work of many sorts, and especially in porcelain and pottery,
had reached perfection before our European or Western civilization
began. Out of China came porcelain to Persia; out of Persia and
Phoenicia came pottery to us.

Of the Persian porcelain, or hard pottery, a single example is to be
seen in Mr. Avery's collection, now in the Museum of Art at New York. It
was bought at the Vienna Exhibition from Prince _Ehtezad-es-Saltenet_,
uncle to the Shah of Persia, and we may suppose it, therefore, to have
about it the true flavor of genuineness. It is a bowl of rather coarse
ware, approaching to the hardness, if not the translucency, of
porcelain; it is painted with blue of a common color, and with a not
very interesting design; and is valuable as an example of the probable
work of Persian potters.

But there exist many pieces of pottery besides these, which have usually
been called Persian because of their peculiarities of design and of
coloring. Some of these approach closely to the work already designated
as Rhodian or Damascene. In the upper plate of Fig. 62, from Mr. Prime's
collection, is shown one of these, which the owner is inclined to
believe may be Persian and not Rhodian. So also the painted faience egg
(Fig. 62), obtained by him from a lamp in a mosque of the Holy Land. The
face and the coloring do certainly impress one with a Persian faith,
though it may not be easy to explain the reason why.

In my possession is a sweetmeat-pot covered with an "engobe" or "slip,"
upon which are boldly painted in colors flowers and leaves; these last
are peculiar in shape, and are by some believed to be Persian work--I
doubt it, but it is possible.

We have a few words to say of the Persian or Arabic TILES. These have
been found inlaid upon the walls of mosques and palaces and tombs in
Damascus, in Cairo, in Ispahan. As far back as the palmy days of Babylon
and Assyria, these enameled or glazed bricks or tiles were used to
decorate the walls of their buildings; and that is about all we know.
These bricks remain; for, of all the works of man, the brick is
seemingly imperishable.

It is also certain that upon some of these bricks or tiles is found a
glaze or enamel made with the use of tin; so that what is now called
_stanniferous_ enamel was known at that early day, and long before it
was used in Italy by _Luca della Robbia_, who at one time was supposed
to have invented it.

The example here given (Fig. 63) is a very beautiful plaque, made up of
many pieces, and is remarkable for the splendor of its color, rather
than for any perfectness of design. It is interesting, however, as
showing the dresses of the cavaliers of the Persian court.

[Illustration: FIG. 63.--_Persian Plaque._]

In the walls of Damascus, of Jerusalem, and of Cairo, these tiles were
imbedded for ornamental and decorative purposes, and from them they have
been gathered by those good people called "collectors." In Fig. 62 is an
engraving of one in Mr. Prime's collection, which gives simply the
lines, but wholly fails to give the magic and mystery of color which
endues it with beauty. This cannot be described, nor can it be
pictured; the combinations of blues are too subtile for the palette of
the painter; they have been sublimated in the fiery heats of the
furnace.

A few of these tiles are in possession of Mr. Prime and of Mr. Wales;
and a very fine collection is now in the house of Mr. Leighton, of
London, of which I have spoken. He has had them imbedded in the walls of
his halls, which they tinge with their peculiar and pensive light.



CHAPTER VI.

GLAZED POTTERY.--ITALIAN MAIOLICAS.

     The Word Maiolica, or Majolica.--Italian Renaissance.--The Dark
     Ages.--The Crusades.--The Mezza-Maiolica.--The True Maiolica.--Luca
     della Robbia.--Urbino.--Xanto and Fontana.--Raffaelesque Ware.--Mr.
     Fortnum.--Prices to-day.--Gubbio.--Maestro Giorgio.--The
     Lustres.--Castel-Durante.--Faenza.--The Sgraffito.--Forli, Venice,
     Castelli, etc.--Castellani.--Maiolicas at the Centennial.


The term MAIOLICA, or _Majolica_, as has been often explained, came from
the island of Majorca, whence came to Italy, in the twelfth century,
some of those peculiar potteries already described under the name of
_Hispano-Moresque_.

The Balearic Islands, lying in such convenient proximity to the
mainland, were then possessed by the active and enterprising Moors--that
most daring and doing race, who had planted the standard of the Prophet
in Southern Europe. From these convenient islands they could organize
pleasant surprises upon the coasts of Italy, and gratify themselves with
much plunder. While human nature can bear and does bear much marauding,
there comes a time when endurance ceases to be a virtue, and then--war
ensues. Such a time had come in the twelfth century, when the Pisans,
and their friends along the Italian coasts, determined to plunder,
rather than be plundered; and then they pounced upon the hated Moors of
the islands, and turned the tables upon them. It is believed that, among
the spoils carried away to Italy, were many pieces of the peculiar wares
made by the Moors in these islands as well as in Spain. That these
examples, and some of the potters themselves, were carried away to the
Italian coast, is most likely; and that the Italians, always a people
with quick sensibilities, and a ready perception of the beautiful, if
not of the good or the true, at once saw that here was a manufacture
ready to their hands, which combined use and beauty, as their own did
not. At any rate, it was during the most vivid period of the _Italian
Renaissance_ (1350 to 1600) that the production of the highly-decorated
fictile work, known as Maiolica, sprang up, culminated, and went to
decay.

Through the centuries called the Dark Ages, art and literature had not
died; their fires were kept bright in the monkish cell, where some
Alcuin, in England or in France, traced with painful pen the lives of
the saints, or the romaunts of the Lady; and touched their illuminated
margins with those exquisite colors which feed the eye with a pleasant
surprise now, when centuries have passed, and books lie about our feet
as thick as leaves in Vallambrosa's vales. During this dark time art and
literature flourished among the Saracens along the African coast, and
grew into splendor in the halls of Cordova and Seville.

But a day was at hand when Peter the Hermit made his pilgrimage to the
"Holy City" (1093), and came back to preach his fiery crusades against
the abominations with which the Moslems defiled the sepulchre of the
Lord. Then through some two centuries Europe was converted into
religious camps, from which streamed out toward Jerusalem the armies of
the Cross--the Crusaders--and that Oriental world was thus mingled in a
great warlike confusion with the Occidental world of Europe.

How does all this touch upon the small matter of Italian maiolicas, of
which I treat? Thus: these religious wars made Venice, Leghorn, and
Genoa, into great centres of commercial activity, and into them flowed
wealth, as well as every kind of merchandise and manufacture known in
the East. The people of these small kingdoms grew rich, and vastly so.
The Dandolos, the Dorias, the Medicis, founded princely families, and
became patrons of learning and art. Then, too, the Church grew great,
all-powerful, and rich; for the fervor of piety, which fired all hearts,
sought expression not only in shedding its blood to rescue the holy
places, it poured in of its earnings or plunderings rivers of wealth to
enrich the coffers of the Church. The popes, the cardinals, the bishops,
grew great, not so much in religious truth, but more in lands, in
castles, in gold, and in goods. Thus every prelate and every patriarch
became a prince, with gold to give, and favors to bestow. Then they
became, all through Italy, patrons of art and fosterers of learning.

We see in this the spring out of which flowed the "Renaissance" of
literature and the arts, and which resulted in the architecture, the
painting, the poetry, the maiolicas, and the luxury, of that new Italian
life.

The term _maiolica_, in its generic sense, means what _delft_ does in
Holland, _faience_ in France, and _earthen-ware_ in England. All are
soft pottery, covered with an opaque glaze called enamel. The term was
once applied only to the lustred wares of Spain and Italy; but now it
has come to mean such dishes--ewers, vases, etc., etc.--as were made in
Italy during the period of the Renaissance, which have an expression of
art, and can be termed decorative; perhaps it goes still further, for
the druggists' pots (Fig. 64), then much in use, and which may perhaps
be classed wholly with the useful, are not excluded; for upon some of
these much decoration was put. The word also carries a subdivision
called _mezza-maiolica_.

[Illustration: FIG. 64.--_Druggist's Pot._]

MEZZA-MAIOLICA.--We cannot attempt to give a history of all the
potteries which sprang into being in Italy during this time; it would be
both difficult and useless. Of course, we know that many existed, and
must have existed even from the days of the Roman dominion. But, under
the influences mentioned, they took on a new life. Not only had striking
examples come to the Italians from the Moors of Majorca, but beyond
question many others had reached them from time to time from the East.
Common and unglazed potteries gave place to the better sorts; and a vast
stride was taken when the vessel came to be protected by a glaze made
with the use first of lead (_plumbiferous_), and then of tin
(_stanniferous_).

The Italian writers assert that the use of lead--the _plumbiferous
glaze_--was applied in Urbino as early as 1300. Why need we doubt it? At
Pesaro it reached its perfection about 1540. The common earthen or red
ware of the country was dipped into a _slip_ or "_engobe_" of white
clay; then it was dried or baked; then painted, and afterward covered
with a thin skin of lead-glaze, which was fixed with the fire.

The colors used in decorating these pieces were few, being mostly
yellows, greens, blues, and black. This lead-glaze was soft, but it had
a sort of metallic, iridescent lustre, which is one of its peculiarities
and beauties. It is almost useless to attempt with the engraving to
express fully the characteristics of this ware; the colors we cannot
give. One piece (Fig. 65) will serve to show the kind of design often
used, which bears unquestioned testimony to its Moorish parentage.

This finer work seems to have been made about 1500 to 1550, and at
Pesaro.

The TRUE MAIOLICA is that which is covered with a glaze made with the
oxide of tin and siliceous sand. This _stanniferous glaze_ or enamel
takes the place of the "slip" or "engobe," and covers the potter's clay
with a clear white enamel, upon which the colors can be laid.

The avidity with which the new art was seized upon in Italy by dukes and
priests, by workmen and artists, we can hardly comprehend. It would seem
that the whole Italian world then rushed into every form of art and
literature with an eagerness only to be explained by a desire to make
good the Lost Ages--often called the "Dark Ages."

Furnaces and potters sprang out of the ground, and almost every good
town sooner or later had its "botega." Of these we may mention as among
the most noted: Urbino, Gubbio, Pesaro, Castel-Durante, Faenza, Forli,
Caffagiolo, Siena, Deruta, Venice, Castelli, besides many others.

[Illustration: FIG. 65.--_Mezza-Maiolica._]

Before giving some particulars of these manufactures, it may be well to
refer to a name which seems to take precedence of others among the
artists in ceramic work in Italy. This man was LUCA DELLA ROBBIA, born
in the year 1400. M. Ritter says of him: "He was a sculptor first, and a
potter afterward. An artist of the highest power, he was inspired with
all the marvelous æsthetic force and subtilty and fertility of his age
and of his country. He was not satisfied, as other sculptors are, with
form-beauty alone, but cast about to add to his moulded figures the
further beauties of coloring and surface-texture. He no doubt well knew
the wares of the Moors of Spain, and probably was acquainted with the
secret of the tin-glaze already used by the Italian potters. It is
needless to assume, as most writers do, that he discovered tin-glazes
for himself; but he at any rate adopted the process, and he has left us
bass-reliefs and even life-sized statues covered with a fine
stanniferous polychrome-glaze, which are among the wonders of Italian
Renaissance art, and which to this day are, in their way, unsurpassed
triumphs of skill."

The portrait (Fig. 66) which we give shows him to be among the strong
and able men, who might not only stand before kings, but might be a king
himself.

[Illustration: FIG. 66.--_Portrait of Luca della Robbia._]

There are but few pieces of his work in this country--so far as I know,
only these: one a Virgin and Child, in possession of Mr. Prime, of New
York; the other now in the loan collection of the Art-Museum at New
York, the property of Mrs. Robert M. Grinnell. It is thus described:
"The child Jesus lies on a mass of green grass. White lilies with yellow
stamens spring up behind him. The Virgin kneels; above her two winged
cherub heads, and two arms stretched down hold a crown over her head. On
the crown, yellow and blue spots." From the description, the reader
will not be likely to rank this among works of the finest art. These
works were produced to meet the religious wants of the time and people,
and were in great demand. But to-day, for other than religious reasons,
they sell for twenty times the prices they then did.

In Fig. 67 is to be seen a _retable_, now in the Museum of the Louvre,
which is probably among the best examples of his style of work. These
bass-reliefs were at first done with white figures on a blue ground;
subsequently other colors were introduced, such as greens, browns, and
yellows. His four sons and a nephew carried on the same styles of work,
but failed to improve upon their master.

From the two or three pieces of the work which I have seen, I could
value them as examples in the history of ceramics; as _works of art_,
for myself not at all.

Italian writers naturally wish to claim for Luca della Robbia all
possible merit, and particularly that he discovered and first applied in
Europe (outside of Spain) the enamel made from tin; thus raising him to
a high rank as a discoverer and originator, as well as an artist. Much
discussion and speculation has been indulged in, which is, however, of
but little interest to us, and probably less to Della Robbia himself.
What he did do, and for which he deserved praise, was, that he seems to
have worked at the new business he had taken up with honesty and
persistency; that he was patient and painstaking. These are always good.
He was merchant enough to make what then would sell; that is, works for
the ornamentation of churches and altars, one of which we have
illustrated.

He was successful, and that was a satisfaction to him as it is to us.

He made, besides altar-pieces, rondels and squares to be set into walls,
upon which were masks, scrolls, fruit, flowers, buds, etc., etc.; and
these were sometimes white, and sometimes enameled with various colors.

His nephew Andrea followed his lead, but did not improve upon his
master; and _his_ four sons, Giovanni, Luca, Ambrosio, and Girolamo,
continued to make the same description of reliefs, but greatly inferior
to those of the first Della Robbia.

[Illustration: FIG. 67.--_Altar-Piece, by Luca della Robbia, in the
Museum of the Louvre._]

URBINO.--The Dukes of Urbino were foremost in encouraging and developing
the maiolica work of Italy; and around them, as a sort of centre, the
ceramic art seems to have gathered.

I give from Mr. Fortnum's book a brief account, which may interest
many. Having had whatever good could be derived from the great and
valuable collections of the Kensington Museum, and being a man of keen
perceptions and sound judgment, whatever he writes deserves respect. He
says:

"In 1443 what had been but an unimportant mountain fief was erected into
a duchy, and the house of Montefeltro ruled a fair territory in the
person of the infamous Oddantonio, the first Duke of Urbino. On his
violent death in 1444, Federigo, his illegitimate brother, succeeded to
the dukedom. Of enlightened mind, as well as of martial capacity, he
developed the native capabilities of the country, and gathered about him
at the court of Urbino the science and learning of the period. He built
a noble castellated palace at Urbino, for the embellishment of which he
invited the leading artists of the day. A patron of all art, and a great
collector, he encouraged the manufacture of the maiolica wares which
flourished under his reign. On his death, in 1482, his son Guidobaldo I.
continued his father's patronage to the ceramic artists of the duchy,
although much occupied in the Italian wars consequent on the French
invasion by Charles VIII. Passeri states that fine maiolica (by which he
means that covered with the tin-enamel) was introduced into Pesaro in
1500; and there is some reason to believe that the new process came from
Tuscany. It differed materially in composition and manufacture from the
'mezza-maiolica' wares, to which it was very superior, and was known as
'porcellana,' a name applied at that period in Italy to the choicer
description of enameled earthen-ware. Passeri also states that in the
inventory of the ducal palaces a large quantity of painted 'maiolica'
vases were included under this name. The superior whiteness of the
enamel, more nearly approaching to that of Oriental porcelain, was
probably the reason for its adoption; but we must not confound the term
as used in this sense with its technical meaning in reference to a
decorative design known as 'a porcellana.'"

These famous manufactories of maiolica at Urbino, Gubbio, Pesaro, and
Castel-Durante, sprang into life about the end of the fifteenth and the
beginning of the sixteenth centuries. That of Urbino perhaps took the
lead, being so directly under the patronage of the dukes.

The two most distinguished artists here were _Francisco Xanto Avelli da
Rovigo_ and _Orazio Fontana_; they are commonly spoken of as "_Xanto_"
and "_Fontana_." Besides these were Battista Franco and Raffaelle del
Calle, among the best painters upon maiolica.

During the time of these artists many elaborate pictures were painted by
them upon the vases and plates of Urbino. Following the mezza-maiolica,
the work at first showed much of the Oriental character of design, and
the lustred surfaces were continued. But soon ambition seized them, and
they transferred to the surface of the clay elaborate scriptural,
historical, and allegorical subjects. Original designs were made to some
extent; but to a larger extent the great pictures of the great masters
were seized upon--such as Raffaelle's "Triumph of Galatea," and other
works of the same sort. The engravings of Marc Antonio and of Albert
Dürer, then just at hand, gave easy aid; and with such helps, with a
rich and art-loving public to encourage them, we can see how the
production should flourish. The vase (Fig. 68) is a good example of one
of their best works.

These fine pieces were used as presents by grandees to grandees, and by
princes to princes. Pieces and sets were painted expressly as gifts for
lovers, for espoused persons, for safe deliveries; as marks of favor,
and as persuasives for favors to come. Then grew up a large production
of plates painted expressly for lovers, upon which the portrait of the
lady was painted; in many cases, I am sure, with unnecessary ugliness,
but with a sufficiently lovely motto to atone in some degree for the
injury, no doubt unwittingly done--such as "diva" or "paragon di tutti."
These are known as _amatorii_, and are much prized.

In Fig. 69 we give one of these amatorii, and one of the most pleasing;
some are of supreme ugliness. This one is dedicated to _Vanna
Bella_--the beautiful Vanna; and in its time was more beautiful than
now, for it was the inspiration of love.

Among the fancies indulged in upon the amatorii plates and jugs are
mentioned such as these:

On one, we have two hands clasped over a fire; and above, a golden heart
pierced by two darts.

On another, a heart transfixed with a sword and an arrow over a burning
flame, bedewed with tears falling from two eyes placed above.

[Illustration: FIG. 68.--_Maiolica Vase, David and Bath-sheba._]

On a saucer is a youth kissing a lady, and giving her a flower--_Dulce
est amare_.

On another is a greyhound with a heart in its mouth--_Per mento di mia
fè in te_, etc.

All of these are sufficiently youthful and sentimental to meet the wants
of the valentine-makers of to-day.

But the subjects of paintings were not all either divine or historical
or amatory. Many subjects painted from the old mythology had a too
palpable quality which we more fastidious people might call coarse, if
not roughly vulgar; and such subjects do not heighten the pleasure we
expect to find in examining these works.

The "_Raffaelle ware_," as it is sometimes called in England, had a
quality of design which is peculiar, and therefore an example of it may
be of service here (Fig. 70). The combination of scrolls, masks, Cupids,
flowers, buds, etc., which marks this style of work, is found more or
less to pervade much of the ornamentation of what is known as Italian
Renaissance.

[Illustration: FIG. 69.--_Example of Amatorii._]

It has sometimes been said that Raffaelle himself painted upon the
maiolica, but it is not proved; and the finest pieces were not made
until after his death.

It is true that many of his pictures were copied or adapted by the
maiolica-painters for their own uses; and it is also asserted that some
of his pupils painted upon the clay. Marryat states that the engraver
_Marc Antonio_--good prints of whose works now sell to collectors for
enormous prices, beautiful specimens of which have been shown in the
famous collection of Mr. Rose, of London--was in the height of his
powers when the brilliant young painter Raffaelle was in the full
command of his; and that the engraver lived in the house of the painter,
worked with him under his own eye, and was influenced by his
inspirations. We cannot wonder, therefore, that the finest results were
thus produced. But it is not to be believed that either of them worked
upon the clay. Copies of their pictures were painted upon the maiolica
by other hands, and vastly inferior ones to theirs.

[Illustration: FIG. 70.--_Raffaelle Ware._]

What is known as Raffaelle, or Raffaellesque maiolica, are not those
pieces which carry copies of Raffaelle's pictures, but those, like the
example seen in Fig. 70, which are ornamented with arabesques, chimeras,
scrolls, etc.

Of the painting of Xanto, a competent critic, Mr. J. C. Robinson, thus
writes:

"Xanto's works may be considered to represent perfectly the 'Majoliche
istoriate,' and he certainly had a talent for the arrangement of his
works in composition, nearly all his subjects being 'pasticci;' the
various figures or groups introduced being the invention of other
artists copied with adroit variations over and over again, and made to
do duty in the most widely different characters. As an original
artist--if, indeed, he can be so considered--he may be classed with the
more mannered of the scholars of Raffaelle. His designs are generally
from classical or mythological subjects. Xanto's execution, although
dexterous, is monotonous and mechanical; his scale of coloring is crude
and positive, full of violent oppositions, the only merit, if merit it
be, being that of a certain force and brightness of aspect; in every
other respect his coloring is commonplace, not to say disagreeable even;
blue, crude opaque yellow, and orange tints, and bright verdigris green,
are the dominant hues, and are scattered over the pieces in full,
unbroken masses, the yellow especially meeting the eye at the first
glance. In the unsigned pieces, before 1531, the glaze is better and
more transparent, the execution more delicate, and the outline more hard
and black, than in the later specimens. Some of Xanto's wares are
profusely enriched with metallic lustres, including the beautiful ruby
tint; these specimens, however, form but a small, percentage of the
entire number of his works extant. This class of piece is, moreover,
interesting from the fact that the iridescent colors were obviously not
of Xanto's own production, but that, on the contrary, they were applied
to his wares by Mo. Giorgio, and the supposed continuers of Giorgio's
'fabrique' in Gubbio. Many pieces are extant which, in addition to
Xanto's own signature, nearly always written in dark-blue or olive tint,
are likewise signed with the monogram 'N' of the Giorgio school in the
lustre-tint; and one specimen, at least, has been observed which, though
painted by Xanto, has been signed in the lustre-tint by Maestro Giorgio
himself."

At this time there came to Urbino some artists who took the name of
_Fontana_, whose works have a great fame--when known; their name
originally is believed to have been Pellipario. These brothers appear to
have founded a factory or "botega" of their own at Urbino, where they
did much work which reached a high reputation. But little of it,
however, is surely known; for these painters, like most of the
maiolica-painters, but rarely signed their pieces.

"With regard to the Fontana family, chiefs among Italian ceramic
artists, we quote from the notice by Mr. Robinson appended to the
Soulages catalogue. He tells us that 'the celebrity of one member of
this family has been long established by common consent. Orazio Fontana
has always occupied the highest place in the scanty list of maiolica
artists, although at the same time nothing was definitely known of his
works. Unlike their contemporary Xanto, the Fontana seem but rarely to
have signed their productions, and consequently their reputation as yet
rests almost entirely on tradition, on incidental notices in writings
which date back to the age in which they flourished, and on facts
extracted at a recent period from local records. No connected account of
this family has as yet been attempted, although the materials are
somewhat less scanty than usual. There can be no doubt that a
considerable proportion of the products of the Fontana "boteghe" is
still extant, and that future observations will throw light on much that
is now obscure in the history of this notable race of industrial
artists. Orazio Fontana, whose renown seems to have completely eclipsed
that of the other members of his family, and, in fact, of all the other
Urbinese artists, is first mentioned by Baldi, at the beginning of the
seventeenth century, in his eulogy of the state of Urbino pronounced
before Duke Francesco Maria II.... From documents cited by Raffaelli, it
is established beyond doubt that the original family name was
_Pellipario_, of Castel-Durante, Fontana being an adopted surname; and
it is not immaterial to observe that down to the latest mention of any
one of the family (in 1605) they are invariably described as of
Castel-Durante.... The Fontana were undoubtedly manufacturers as well as
artists, i.e., they were the proprietors of "vaserie." Of the first
Nicola, as we have only a brief incidental notice, nothing positive can
be affirmed; but with respect to his son Guido we have the testimony
both of works still extant and of contemporary documents. We know,
also, that Guido's son Orazio also had a manufactory of his own, and the
fact is established that between 1565 and 1571 there were two distinct
Fontana manufactories--those of father and son. What became of Orazio's
establishment after his death, whether continued by his brother Camillo
or reunited to that of the father, there is no evidence to show. With
respect to the remaining members of the family, our information is of
the scantiest kind. Camillo, who was inferior in reputation as a painter
only to his elder brother, appears to have been invited to Ferrara by
Duke Alfonso II., and to have introduced the maiolica-manufacture into
that city. Of Nicola, the third (?) son, we have only incidental mention
in a legal document, showing that he was alive in the year 1570. Guido,
son of Camillo, lived till 1605; and of Flaminio, who may either have
been son of Camillo or of Nicola, Dennistoun's vague notice asserting
his settlement in Florence is all I have been able to collect. No signed
pieces of Camillo, Flaminio, Nicola the second, or Guido the second,
have as yet been observed.

"'A considerable proportion of the Fontana maiolica is doubtless still
extant; and it is desirable to endeavor to identify the works of the
individual members of the family, without which the mere knowledge of
their existence is of very little moment; but this is no easy task;
although specimens from the hands of one or other of them are to be
undoubtedly found in almost every collection, the work of comparison and
collation has as yet been scarcely attempted. The similarity of style
and technical characteristics of the several artists, moreover, working,
as they did, with the same colors on the same quality of enamel-ground,
and doubtless in intimate communication with each other, resolves itself
into such a strong family resemblance that it will require the most
minute and careful observation, unremittingly continued, ere the
authorship of the several specimens can be determined with anything like
certainty. The evidence of signed specimens is, of course, the most to
be relied on, and is indeed indispensable in giving the clew to complete
identification in the first instance; but in the case of the Fontana
family a difficulty presents itself which should be noticed in the
outset. This difficulty arises in determining the authorship of the
pieces signed "_Fatto in botega_," etc.--a mode of signature, in fact,
which proves very little in determining individual characteristics,
inasmuch as apparently nearly all the works so inscribed are painted by
other hands than that of the proprietor of the Vaseria. In cases,
however, in which the artist has actually signed or initialed pieces
with his own name, of course no such difficulty exists, but the
certainty acquired by this positive evidence is as yet confined in the
case of the Fontana family to their greatest name, Orazio.'"

With regard to the artistic quality of this work, I will quote the
criticism of a competent judge, Mr. Fortnum, as upon the general
question I have a few words to say further on; for it is unfortunately
true that too many buy for the name, and not the merit. He says:

"The celebrated vases made for the _spezieria_ of the duke were produced
at the Fontana fabrique, and subsequently presented to the Santa Casa at
Loreto, where many of them are still preserved. Those shown to the
writer on his visit to that celebrated shrine some few years since did
not strike him as being of such extraordinary beauty and great artistic
excellence as the high-flown eulogy bestowed upon them by some writers
would have led him to expect. The majority of the pieces are drug-pots
of a not unusual form, but all or nearly all of them are 'istoriati,'
instead of being, as is generally the case, simply decorated with
'trofei,' 'foglie,' 'grotesche,' the more usual and less costly
ornamentation. Some of the pieces have serpent-handles, mask-spouts,
etc., but he vainly looked for the magnificent vases of unsurpassed
beauty; nor, indeed, did he see anything equal to the shaped pieces
preserved in the Bargello at Florence. The work of the well-known hands
of the Fontana fabrique is clearly recognizable, and several pieces are
probably by Orazio. Some, more important, preserved in a low press, were
finer examples. We have said that the pieces individually are not so
striking, but, taken as a whole, it is a very remarkable service, said
to have originally numbered three hundred and eighty vases, all painted
with subjects after the designs of Battista Franco, Giulio Romano,
Angelo, and Raffaelle; and, as the work of one private artistic pottery
in the comparatively remote capital of a small duchy, it bears no slight
testimony to the extraordinary development of every branch of
art-industry in the various districts of Italy during the sixteenth
century."

At the period of which we write, Italy had become the leading nation of
Europe in all that pertained to literature and the arts; her painters,
sculptors, and poets, had thrown over her people and history a glory, or
rather a glamour, which was but the iridescence which whispered of
decay. Within a century all had sunk into insignificance and palsy.
To-day the world visits Italy to see with curious eyes what she _has_
been, not what she is.

The art and the maiolica which she now produces are but copies, and too
often bad copies, of that past. The manufactories of _Ginori_ at
Florence, and of _Giustiniani_ at Naples, make much good work; but, so
far as I have seen, they blindly copy the shapes, the colors, and the
decoration, of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and attempt
nothing more. And the pity is that we, who buy to-day, seem to _want_
only those!

In our pursuit of art it may be well to remember that no nation can be
created by "art," and none can be saved by it. When it is enlisted only
in copying the past, it means feebleness and decay.

From about the year 1500 to 1560 is counted the "fine period" of
maiolica-painting, when the painters of whom I have spoken were
transferring the compositions of such artists as Raffaelle, Giulio
Romano, and Parmegiano, to the clay. These have always had a great
value, and always will. The prices vary as the fashion varies. I find at
the Bernal sale, in 1856, the prices quoted range from five to one
hundred and twenty pounds, since which time they have enormously
increased, so that Marryat quotes one piece at eight hundred and eighty
pounds; and a beautiful ruby-lustred dish of _Gubbio_ maiolica,
exhibited in Sir Richard Wallace's collection at Bethnal Green, _was
said_ to have cost forty thousand dollars, which one easily doubts. The
most extreme prices were and are paid for the elaborate figure-pieces
copied from the works of Raphael and others. When to these are added the
brilliant lustres of Gubbio, we have all that maiolica can show.

When the fabric began to decline in quality, the elaborate
figure-painting rapidly went out of use, and arabesques of all kinds,
conceits of all kinds--birds, boys, monsters, anything--came in to vary
the decoration: these could be done by inferior painters; and the
decline of maiolica was as sudden as its rise had been rapid.

GUBBIO.--I have spoken of a beautiful plate, brilliant with its
ruby-lustre, exhibited at Bethnal Green in the collection of Sir Richard
Wallace. The work done at this small town of Gubbio is noted for its
_lustres_; for, while other maiolicas also were decorated with these
exquisite flashings of color, these had a marked superiority. The
paintings applied there, like those at Urbino, Castel-Durante, and the
other "botegas," were in considerable variety, including sacred,
profane, and historical subjects; the beauty and the value of these
colored lustres were soon discovered. To one man the especial honor has
been given of making them, whether he was the discoverer or not. He is
known as _Maestro Giorgio Andreoli_, usually called "Maestro Giorgio."
He was not only a painter and designer, but he early saw and seized upon
the magical art of imparting an added beauty by the use of what is
termed _lustre_. It was applied before his day by the Moors of Spain and
Majorca, and also by the potters at Pesaro. But Giorgio seems to have
produced results finer than any; and one, the ruby-color, seems to be
identified with him. Besides the ruby, he used, with great effect, gold,
silver, and copper lustres; and not only were these applied to the
paintings done under his eye, but works from other factories were sent
to him to be endued with this subtile charm.

I cannot do better than to give here the results of Mr. Fortnum's
careful study of this subject:

"Chiefly under the direction of one man, it would seem that the produce
of the Gubbio furnaces was for the most part of a special nature;
namely, a decoration of the pieces with the lustre-pigments, producing
those brilliant metallic-ruby, golden, and opalescent tints which vary
in every piece, and which assume almost every color of the rainbow as
they reflect the light directed at varying angles upon their surface.
That the Gubbio ware was of a special nature, and produced only at a few
fabriques almost exclusively devoted to that class of decoration, is to
be reasonably inferred from Piccolpasso's statement, who, speaking of
the application of the maiolica-pigments, says, '_Non ch'io ne abbia
mai fatto ne men veduto fare._' He was the maestro of an important
botega at Castel-Durante, one of the largest and most productive of the
Umbrian manufactories, within a few miles, also, of those of Urbino,
with which he must have been intimately acquainted and in frequent
correspondence. That he, in the middle of the sixteenth century, when
all these works were at the highest period of their development, should
be able to state that he had not only never applied or even witnessed
the process of application of these lustrous enrichments, is, we think,
a convincing proof that they were never adopted at either of those seats
of the manufacture of enameled pottery. Although much modified and
improved, lustre-colors were not invented by Italian artists, but were
derived from the potters of the East, probably from the Moors of Sicily,
of Spain, or of Majorca. Hence (we once more repeat) the name 'majolica'
was originally applied only to wares having the lustre enrichment; but,
since the decline of the manufacture, the term has been more generally
given: all varieties of Italian enameled pottery being usually, though
wrongly, known as 'maiolica.'

"That some of these early _bacili_, so well known, and apparently the
work of one artist, were made at Pesaro, whence the secret and probably
the artist passed to Gubbio, is far from improbable. The reason for this
emigration is not known, but it may be surmised that the large quantity
of broom and other brush-wood necessary for the reducing process of the
reverberatory furnace in which this lustre was produced might have been
more abundantly supplied by the hills of Gubbio than in the vicinity of
the larger city on the coast. That the process of producing these
metallic effects was costly, we gather from Piccolpasso's statement that
sometimes not more than six pieces out of a hundred succeeded in the
firing.

"The fame of the Gubbio wares is associated almost entirely with one
name, that of Giorgio Andreoli. We learn from the Marchese Brancaleoni
that this artist was the son of Pietro, of a 'Castello' called 'Judeo,'
in the diocese of Pavia; and that, accompanied by his brother Salimbene,
he went to Gubbio in the second half of the fifteenth century. He
appears to have left and again returned thither in 1492, accompanied by
his younger brother Giovanni. They were enrolled as citizens on the 23d
of May, 1498, on pain of forfeiting five hundred ducats if they left the
city in which they engaged to continue practising their ceramic art.
Patronized by the dukes of Urbino, Giorgio was made 'castellano' of
Gubbio. Passeri states that the family was noble in Pavia. It is not
known why or when he was created a 'Maestro'--a title prized even more
than nobility--but it is to be presumed that it took place at the time
of his enrollment as a citizen, his name with the title 'Maestro' first
appearing on a document dated that same year, 1498. Piccolpasso states
that maiolica-painters were considered noble by profession. The family
of Andreoli and the 'Casa' still exist in Gubbio, and it was asserted by
his descendant, Girolamo Andreoli, who died some forty years since, that
political motives induced their emigration from Pavia.

"Maestro Giorgio was an artist by profession, not only as a draughtsman,
but as a modeler; and, being familiar with the enameled terra-cottas of
Luca della Robbia, is said to have executed with his own hands and in
their manner large altar-pieces. We were once disposed to think that
great confusion existed in respect to these altar-pieces in _rilievo_,
and were inclined to the belief that, although some of the smaller
lustred-works may have been modeled by Giorgio, the larger altar-pieces
were really only imported by him. Judging from the most important which
we have been able to examine, the 'Madonna del Rosario,' portions of
which are in the museum at Frankfort-on-the-Main, it seemed to approach
more nearly to the work of some member of the Della Robbia family. This
fine work is in part glazed, and in part colored in distemper on the
unglazed terra-cotta, in which respect it precisely agrees with works
known to have been executed by Andrea della Robbia, assisted by his
sons. There are no signs of the application of the lustre-colors to any
portion of the work, but this might be accounted for by the great risk
of failure in the firing, particularly to pieces of such large size and
in high-relief. Be this as it may, from a further consideration of the
style of this work and the record of others, some of which are
heightened with the lustre-colors, and the fact stated by the Marchese
Brancaleoni that a receipt for an altar-piece is still preserved in the
archives of Gubbio, we are inclined to think that history must be
correct in attributing these important works in ceramic sculpture to
Maestro Giorgio Andreoli. If they were his unassisted work, he deserves
as high a place among the modelers of his period as he is acknowledged
to have among artistic potters.

"Maestro Giorgio's manner of decoration consists of foliated scrolls and
other ornaments terminating in dolphins, eagles, and human heads,
trophies, masks, etc.; in the drawing of which he exhibited considerable
power, with great facility of invention. These 'grotesche' differ
materially from those of Urbino and Faenza, approaching more to the
style of some of the Castel-Durante designs. In the drawing of figures,
and of the nude, Giorgio cannot be ranked as an artist of the first
class. From 1519 his signature, greatly varied, occurs through
succeeding years. It would be useless to repeat the many varieties,
several of which will be seen in the large catalogue and among the marks
on specimens in other collections. We believe that to whim or accident
may be ascribed those changes that have tasked the ingenuity of
connoisseurs to read as other names. His finer and more important pieces
were generally signed in full, 'Maestro Giorgio da Ugubio,' with the
year, and sometimes the day of the month."

It may be said that the secret of this ruby-lustre was soon lost, and
has not been fully recovered; although admirable pieces are now made in
England.

It is impossible to convey in any engraving the subtile beauty imparted
by these lustres; it seems to me that this is by far the finest and most
fascinating quality of the maiolicas.

Of the work made at CASTEL-DURANTE but little need be said in addition
to what has been written upon the general subject of Italian maiolica.

This was a small town in the neighborhood of Urbino; which town since
then has been dignified with the name of Urbania, after Pope Urban VIII.

At Castel-Durante pottery was made long before it reached the name and
fame of maiolica. Through a book left by a potter of the place, named
Piccolpasso, it is perhaps better known than by the maiolica made
there. This manuscript book, which he illustrated with pen-and-ink
drawings, gives some account of the wares produced there. I believe the
book is now the property of the Kensington Museum at London. There are
some few signed examples of the maiolica of Castel-Durante in the
collections of England and of the Continent. I know of none in the
United States. Of a piece owned by Mrs. H. T. Hope, of England, Mr.
Robinson says in his enthusiastic way, "In the design and execution of
the painting, splendor of color, and perfection of enamel-glaze, this
magnificent piece is a triumph of the art."

The ware made here is said to be recognized by "a pale buff-colored
paste, and great richness and purity of the glaze." Still none but an
expert--a person who has made these productions a study--could
distinguish them from those made at some other Italian factories.

FAENZA.--Under the name of _Faenza_, an old town of Roman Italy, all
sorts of waifs and strays which have no other home are likely to be
classed. Its productions have no such peculiarities as mark those of
Urbino, Gubbio, and some other Italian "botegas." But for the antiquity
and extent of its potteries, and also because it seems to have given the
name "_faience_" to all earthen-ware pottery made in France, it has a
certain importance. I therefore give a single extract from what Mr.
Fortnum has written about it. As there are a considerable number of
these druggist's pots (see Fig. 64) in this country, the matter may be
of interest. He writes:

"From an early period Faenza seems to have produced a large number of
electuary-pots and pharmacy-bottles; a pair are in the Hôtel Cluny, one
bearing the name FAENZA, the other 1500. Many of these vases are
decorated in the style known as _a quartiere_, being divided into
compartments, painted in bright yellow, etc., on dark blue, with
foliated and other ornament, and usually having a medallion with profile
head or subject on one side, under which the name of the drug in Gothic
lettering is inscribed on a ribbon. A curious example is in the British
Museum: a large flask-shaped bottle of dark-blue ground with yellow
leafage and with twisted handles, upon the medallion of which is
represented a bear clasping a column, with the inscription, '_et
sarrimo boni amici_,' allusive, in all probability, to the
reconciliation of the rival houses of Orsini and Colonna in 1517.

"We would here refer to the frequent occurrence on these vases, as
occasionally upon other pieces, of pharmaceutical and ecclesiastical
signs, letters, etc., surmounted by the archiepiscopal cross and other
emblems which we believe have reference to the uses of monastic and
private pharmacies for which the services were made, and not to be
confounded, as has been too frequently the case, with the marks of
_boteghe_ or of the painters of the piece. These emblems have no other
value to us than the clew which they might afford to patient
investigation of the locality and brotherhood of the conventual
establishment to which they may have belonged, and among the archives of
which may be recorded the date and the fabrique by which they were
furnished. But what are of far greater interest are those admirable
early pieces, painted by ceramic artists of the first rank, who, beyond
a rare monogram or date, have left no record of their place or name; and
whose highly-prized works, for their authors are several, are jealously
guarded in our public and private museums. Some of these, with
reasonable probability, are believed to have been executed at Faenza.
Several examples are preserved, of an early character, perhaps the work
of one hand, who marked them on the back with a large 'M' crossed by a
paraph. They are usually plateaux with raised centre, on which is a
portrait-head, or shallow dishes with flat border. Variations of the
letter 'F' are found on pieces, some of which are fairly ascribable to
this fabrique; but we need not point out the fact that many other
localities of the manufacture can claim the same for their initial
letter, and that the characteristics and technical qualities of the
pieces themselves are a necessary test.

"Later in the sixteenth century, when subject-painting, covering the
whole surface of the piece, was in general fashion (_istoriata_), the
unsigned works produced at Faenza are difficult to distinguish from
those of other fabriques. Some examples exist in collections, as one in
the Louvre, with the subject of a cavalry-skirmish, and inscribed,
'_1561 in Faenca_;' but we have no knowledge of their painters, and even
the occurrence of the name of that city is but rarely met with. Her
wares are usually richly ornamented on the back with imbrication, as
was the manner of Manara, or with concentric lines of blue, yellow, and
orange.

"Of the pottery produced at Faenza during the seventeenth and the last
century we have but little record. Some pharmacy-vases are mentioned by
M. Jacquemart, signed 'Andrea Pantales Pingit, 1616,' but the signature
does not appear to be accompanied by the name of that city. In 1639
Francesco Vicchij was the proprietor of the most important fabrique.

"A modern establishment professes to occupy the premises of the ancient
Casa Pirota, where we have seen fairly good reproductions of the
ordinary _sopra azzuro_ plates of the old botega; but these are but weak
imitations, and the glory of Faentine ceramic art must be looked for in
museums."

The "SGRAFFIATO" wares of Italy do not come under the head of maiolica.
The term is used to designate work where the design is scratched or
incised upon the clay; and in Italy, often upon a white clay laid over a
darker clay, so that the design shows through the lighter "slip" or
"engobe," as the covering is called.

Of _Forli_, _Venice_, _Castelli_, or _Abruzzi_, and the many other
manufactories of maiolica, it will be almost useless to write here. We
have few, if any, examples of the work in this country; and without
examples it is difficult to make the subject interesting.

I have not attempted to give any "marks" of maiolica, for two reasons:
one, that we have so little opportunity for purchasing that the
knowledge of the marks, such as they are, would be almost wholly
useless; and, second, these marks are of little use anywhere. Few of the
painters were in the habit of marking their work; and, when they did,
their marks seem to have had no uniformity, and were varied in many
whimsical ways. Those who wish to buy pieces of maiolica, unless they
have made the matter a study, will hardly do it without consulting a
person of experience; and a person of experience will not be guided
solely by the marks.

It can do no harm to say that admirable counterfeits are now made, both
in Italy and in France (probably also in Germany), of the finest of the
old maiolicas, design, color, and all complete. Even judicious chippings
of edges and mild cracks are added to please the exacting connoisseurs.
Any person, therefore, who is looking for the best specimens of "genuine
old" maiolicas, at the _smallest prices_, will be fairly and fully met
in the shops of the Continent.

[Illustration: FIG. 71.--_From the Kensington Collection._]

With regard to some of the most celebrated maiolica, I have quoted the
judgments of two most competent writers as to the beauties of two of the
most famous artists. It is far from being high praise. I venture to say,
in addition, that much, very much, of what I have had the opportunity to
see, strikes me forcibly as being crude and poor in color, bad in
drawing, uninteresting in design, and wretched in clay and in glaze. Not
that there are not good and beautiful works among the maiolicas; but it
seems to me they are few.

Besides this, I believe the great maiolica-painters, such as Xanto and
Giorgio, were wholly wrong in attempting to transfer to pottery the
pictures of Raffaelle and Giulio Romano; at least, they can be but very
poor representations of the pictures themselves, and therefore unjust to
their models, and useless to us as examples of high art.

We copy here (Fig. 71), from Mr. Fortnum, one of the elaborate
figure-pieces of maiolica in the Kensington collection; which, as it
seems to us, is a striking proof of what has just been said.

In the collections of the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston are to be seen
ten or twelve plates, bowls, etc., which give a fair exhibition of the
work of the sixteenth-century painters. Some of these are attributed to
the best masters, the Fontana and Xanto, and one has the mark of Xanto.

The large and varied collection of Italian maiolicas brought to the
Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876 is now (May, 1877) to be seen in the
rooms of the Metropolitan Museum of Art at New York, and it offers an
excellent opportunity for examining and studying these styles of fictile
work.

WHAT IS DOING IN ITALY NOW.--A very large show of Italian maiolica of
to-day was made at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876.
What did we find there? Hundreds of imitations. Italy especially has
been devoting herself with great industry to reproductions of the vases,
ewers, tazzas, plaques, dishes, and so on, of the past; and some very
fair ones were sent from Pesaro, Rome, and Faenza. The vases and ewers
bearing figure-pieces or mythological pictures had a certain quality
peculiar to this style of work which at first may excite distaste rather
than desire, but after a time may induce a mild sort of assent; more, we
believe, from the low and quiet tones and harmonies of color than from
any marked excellence of either the form of the vase or the painted
subject. The two names most conspicuous as potters in Italy
now--_Ginori_ at Florence, and _Giustiniani_ at Naples--did not appear
among the exhibitors, so far as we know. Of Ginori's work we give a fine
example in Fig. 71_a_. But if draughtsmen and artists so good would only
give us their pictures of the life of Italy to-day as they so well could
do--of the peasants and their donkeys, their vine-dressing and
wine-making, their fishing, their cooking, their street-work in its
thousand varieties! That they could, and do not; that they continue on
and on with the stupid round of copy after copy in all departments of
art, may mean that the good public who have money to spend want these
copies, and therefore potters and painters sink from the clear air of
invention and originality into the dull inanities of copying.

[Illustration: FIG. 71 _a_.--_Maiolica Vase, by Ginori._]



CHAPTER VII.

FRENCH FAIENCE.--PALISSY WARE, AND HENRI-DEUX WARE.

     Bernard Palissy.--The Catholics and the
     Huguenots.--Saintes.--Figurines.--The Centennial
     Exhibition.--Prices.--Henri-Deux--where made--when.--Copies at
     Philadelphia.--List of Pieces extant, and Prices.


Bernard Palissy.--Over the name and fame of Palissy hangs an aureola of
glory. He was a potter, and he learned his trade through much
perseverance and much suffering. But, more than that, he was a
Protestant in the days of the Leaguers, when to be a Protestant in
France meant to persecute or to be persecuted; and it meant also peril
and probable death. Palissy was born about 1510, and died in 1590. He
lived, therefore, through the times of the bitter and cruel wars of the
Huguenots and the Catholics, when political and religious and social
intrigues divided the nobility of France into factions, which were not
only ready to, but did, rend each other's throats. He lived--he, a
Protestant--through the wholesale butcheries of St. Bartholomew (1572),
when it is asserted that from twenty to one hundred thousand Protestants
were slaughtered in the kingdom of France in cold blood.

Palissy was one of those Protestants, was known as one, and he was not
slaughtered. From this fact has come a good part of his glory, as a few
words may serve to explain.

For a long time the struggle for power between the Catholic party and
the Huguenot party had raged, with varying fortunes, when both sides
pillaged and persecuted, and true religion was driven to the wall, or
fled from France. At last the Catholic party, under the lead of the Duke
of Guise, secured the preëminence, and in due time--in 1559--severe
edicts were issued against the Protestants. Palissy was not safe; but by
that time he had acquired reputation as a potter, and had made pieces of
his rustic ware for the king and for members of the court. He was known
to the king; and the queen-mother, Catherine de' Medicis, brought him to
Paris, established his furnaces in the grounds of the Tuileries, made
him a servant of the king, and so saved him for the time from the
persecutions which swept away his brethren.

It must be remembered that those were days in which many men
_believed_--believed that their truth or faith was the only thing to
save them from the eternal fires of hell. Palissy was one of those
earnest, intense, narrow natures who believed their faith was the only
true faith for man. All the influence of the queen, the persuasions of
the priests, and even the appeals of the king, could not shake him.
Palissy has written his own story, and it has the interest of romance
and the fervor of faith. When he was eighty years old he was thrown into
the Bastile, with other stanch Huguenots, because of his faith. The
king, Henry III., is reported to have said:

"My good friend, you have now been five-and-forty years in the service
of my mother and myself; we have allowed you to retain your religion in
the midst of fire and slaughter. Now I am so hard pressed by the Guises
and my own people, that I am constrained to deliver you up into the
hands of your enemies, and to-morrow you will be burned unless you are
converted."

Inflexible to the last, the old man is reported to have answered the
king in this wise:

"Sire, I am ready to resign my life for the glory of God. You have told
me several times that you pity me; and I in my turn pity you, who have
used the words '_I am constrained_.' It was not spoken like a king,
sire; and these are words which neither you nor those who constrain you,
the Guisards and all your people, will ever be able to make me utter,
for I know how to die."

The whole world admires pluck; and that, we cannot doubt, marked the
character of the man. We need only to look at his face (Fig. 72) to
believe that he might have said those words. And those who came after
him, inheriting in a degree the hatred of the Catholics which he
enjoyed, have not allowed the words nor the fame of the man to die.

But he was not put to death; he lingered out his last year in the
prisons of the Bastile, and then departed.

The story he left behind him, of his own struggles and sufferings in
seeking and finding the arts of the potter, has been intensified by his
admirers; they have added to its intrinsic interest by telling of his
patience, his endurance, his suffering, and his final success--that
which can be imparted by the glow of admiring souls, who see in him a
hero such as they would themselves wish to be, but are not.

[Illustration: FIG. 72.--_Bernard Palissy._]

That story is briefly this: He was born poor, but he had patience,
industry, and an aspiring nature. He studied, he learned, he sought; he
became something of a draughtsman, a painter, a surveyor, a writer.
Glass-painting may be said to have been his occupation, or one of them;
and, in following this, he came quickly into sympathy with cognate
arts. We can well believe, therefore, that when he saw a
beautifully-enameled cup--whether one of those now so famous as the
_Henri-Deux_ ware, or whether one of those already made at Nuremberg by
_Hirschvogel_ (probably the latter)--we can well believe that it
inspired his soul with enthusiasm, and held him with the tenacity we
know to have marked his character.

From that day he was possessed; he had a mastering thought: it was to
discover the secrets of this art, and to apply them to the production of
like ware in France, where it was not known. With little or no knowledge
of chemistry, with none of pottery, he set himself to the task. He
worked persistently, indefatigably, but darkly, ignorantly, wastefully,
and at last only reached a half-success. He did this, too, by
sacrificing largely of his own life for sixteen years, and, more than
that, as he has himself told the story, by the hard and almost cruel
sacrifice of the decent comforts of life of his wife and family. He
borrowed the money of his friends and neighbors to conduct his
experiments; he burned his tables and chairs to heat his furnaces; he
could not pay his assistants; he could bear the tears and reproaches of
his wife and his friends, and did so for years; and all this for what
some persons call the "glorious result" of discovering a glaze for
pottery--which had already been known and was in full practice at
Nuremberg, only a hundred miles from him! If, as is stated by Demmin, he
did himself visit Nuremberg to see and learn what was there being done,
his course becomes still more inexplicable and unpraiseworthy. And what
makes the matter still more curious is that, after all, he did not
succeed in discovering or applying the stanniferous enamel; for M.
Demmin states positively that his glaze was the plumbiferous glaze, and
not the stanniferous. Quoting his words, he says: "On ne rencontre pas
la moindre parcelle d'émail stannifère, blanc ou autres, sur les
poteries attribuées à ce maître. Le _blanc_ est une terre blanchâtre
qui, couverte d'un vernis incolore, conserve sa blancheur."

If, therefore, it may be questioned whether the object of discovering a
stanniferous glaze was worthy the sacrifice of sixteen years of his own
life, as well as of the peace and comfort of his friends and family; and
if, after all, he did not discover it; and if, besides that, he might
have obtained it from Hirschvogel without all this tribulation, and did
not--we may well be at a loss to understand the high praise which in
some quarters has been lavished on Palissy; and for myself I am not
willing to continue it. Martyrdom is usually a very poor business, and
the cause of good pottery certainly does not demand it.

[Illustration: FIG. 73.--_Large Oval Dish, from the Museum of the
Louvre._]

The work begun at _Saintes_ about 1535, and afterward carried on at
Paris, is marked by peculiarities which for a long time were supposed to
be confined to the wares of Palissy. These were the use of shells,
lizards, snakes, fish, frogs, insects, and plants, in high-relief upon
the surface of his plates and dishes. This will be shown in the example
we give (Fig. 73), which is one of the finest pieces of this work
extant, now in the museum of the Louvre. And even this is now believed
by some competent experts to be of modern manufacture.

These natural objects were modeled with considerable care, and colored
to represent the real things, so that they have a value to the
naturalist as well as to the potter.

[Illustration: FIG. 74.--_Palissy Dish._]

As works of ceramic art, can we accord them a high rank, or can we get
much satisfaction in their contemplation? Can we accept them as _art_ at
all? Admit them to be clever imitations--and that is all, it seems to
me, we can do--and they fall to the place of prettiness, and rank with
wax-flowers and alabaster-apples.

[Illustration: FIG. 75.--_A Basket, by Palissy, in the Kensington
Museum._]

It is quite certain that work of this sort was done by many potters
after Palissy, if not by his contemporaries; and collectors have been
induced to pay great prices for things alleged to be the work of
Palissy which are now known not to have been made by him. In addition to
this, the world is full of counterfeits of this sort of thing which
out-Palissy Palissy; and the extravagant prices once paid for
counterfeits cannot now be obtained for what are known to be genuine.

[Illustration: FIG. 76.--_Perpendicular View, showing the Marguerites on
the Edge._]

The other two examples shown in Figs. 74, 75, and 76, differ from the
first; and it may be doubted whether these are not to be attributed to
some other potter than Palissy. The cornucopia on Fig. 74 was a favorite
decoration at Rouen, and might readily enough find a place there.

This style of work, being made in moulds, can be easily and cheaply
reproduced.

At one time a large number of _figurines_, such as "The Nurse" and
others, were attributed to Palissy, notwithstanding that the dresses,
and in some cases the persons, did not exist until after the time of
Palissy; but it is now asserted that there is nothing at all to prove
that Palissy ever made this style of work.

A great number of examples may be seen of so-called "Palissy" in the
Kensington Museum at London and in the Louvre at Paris. But they nowhere
hold the high places they once did, nor do they bring the prices they
once did. In the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia of 1876 a great
variety of this sort of work was shown, made by the clever potters of
the day in Europe.

[Illustration: FIG. 77.--_Palissy Jug, from the Museum of the Louvre._]

A very large sale has been found within the last twenty years for
imitations of Palissy ware, and these have been made with great skill by
Barbizôt and Aviso, of France, and by Minton, of England; indeed, some
of these seem much better than any I have seen supposed to be the
genuine thing. The virtues most needed are, of course, patience and a
keen faculty of imitation--art in any good sense is not essential.

The sales of Palissy ware at the Bernal sale were not at the high
figures they afterward reached. The prices ran from seven to one hundred
and sixty-two pounds, the latter price having been paid for a circular
dish twelve and a half inches in diameter, which, having been broken
into pieces and mended, was bought by the Baron Rothschild.

We give, in Fig. 77, another style of work--a very beautiful jug in the
collection of the Louvre. It is there placed among the works of Bernard
Palissy; and there are various other pieces of like work so catalogued
in the public and private collections of Europe. But there are doubts as
to these, which in some minds approach to certainty--doubts whether
Palissy himself worked at all with the human form. It is well known that
he was a naturalist, a geologist, a scientist, but it is not certain
that he was an artist in this direction. Some students assert distinctly
that he was not; and it seems most probable that he was not a modeler of
the human figure.

As work like this, shown in the last illustration, has for so long a
period been attributed to him, it has seemed desirable to give an
example of it in our pages. That it is work of his time, if not made by
him or under his direction, is not questioned.

HENRI-DEUX WARE: FAIENCE D'OIRON.--This unique earthen-ware for years
perplexed the lovers of pottery. It seemed to appear from Touraine and
La Vendée, and only here and there a piece. It was so peculiar, so
different from any and all the known styles, that no one could decide
whence it came or by whom it was made. The impression--and it was only
an impression--seemed to be that it must have come out of Italy, and
that Benvenuto Cellini was as likely as any one to have had to do with
its designs or execution; and this simply because he was known to have
stamped his peculiar taste upon works which might be classed with this
only in expressing the finer forms and decorations of the Italian
Renaissance.

A few pieces only of this ware came to light from time to time, but they
were eagerly seized upon, and they gave rise to much speculation. Why
there should be so few, and why no traces of like ware were found in
other directions, remained for a time a mystery. But it was solved. I
quote here from a paper by Mr. Ritter, which sums up what is now known
upon the subject; he writes with the knowledge and appreciation of a
practical potter:

"It was so late as the year 1839 that M. André Pottier, a French writer
on art, first announced to the world the existence of the singular
species of pottery now known as 'Henri-Deux' ware. He gave it as his
opinion that it was the production of Florentine artists working in
France. Until thus brought to the knowledge of connoisseurs, the very
existence of this exquisite ware had been forgotten. It soon, however,
became famous. Every corner of Europe was ransacked for specimens of it.
Dukes, princes, and millionaires, contended with the heads of national
museums for the few pieces still to be found. No ware ever yet became so
costly; for every hundred pounds that a rare piece of Sèvres or maiolica
will fetch, the 'Henri-Deux' will bring its thousand. As yet only about
fifty pieces have come to light; and of these fifty more than one-half
have found their way into the galleries of our wealthier English
amateurs.

"Those who see a specimen of this rare and precious pottery for the
first time are apt to be extremely disappointed. They see a vase, or a
ewer, or a candlestick, of fantastic shape, covered with a thin,
greenish-yellow glaze, the coloring not by any means brilliant, and the
surface seemingly inlaid and incrusted with the innumerable details of a
most elaborate ornamentation, made out in quiet browns, blacks, and sad
neutral tints. Nothing is less striking to a casual or an ignorant
observer--nothing in the whole range of decorative art so absolutely
exquisite in design and effect to the cultivated appreciation of a
connoisseur in Renaissance-work.

"No sooner was the ware discovered than speculations began as to its
maker, its date, and the locality of its fabrication. On no single point
did the ten or twelve French writers on the subject come to an
agreement, and a certain amount of unsolved mystery still attaches to
all these points. There is no so-called 'potter's mark' on any of the
pieces except one, and this solitary mark is not recognizable as that of
any known potter. It may be tortured into a monogram, or assumed to be a
device, at the pleasure of those who form their various theories on the
origin of the ware.

"The pieces are decorated with the arms of French royal and noble
families. One piece has on it the salamander surrounded by flames, the
device of Francis I. of France; and very many out of the fifty bear the
well-known monogram of Henry II. worked into the ornamentation of the
surface--a circumstance which has given the ware its name. The date is,
therefore, more or less fixed to the short period between 1540 and 1560,
or twenty years. As to the nationality of the artist, the best
authorities join in thinking he must have been a Frenchman, because the
work is essentially of the style of the somewhat distinctive French
Renaissance then prevailing. The precise locality of its production
could only be inferred to be somewhere in Touraine, because a majority
of the pieces can be traced as coming from that province.

"Such was the mystery which hung about all connected with this curious
ware--a mystery which not a little enhanced the interest taken in it,
and perhaps the estimation in which it was held.

"This mystery is now, to a great extent, cleared up.

"At the court of King Francis lived a widow lady of high birth, named
Hélène de Hangest. Her husband had been governor of the king, and
Grand-Master of France. She was herself an artist, and a collection of
drawings by her of considerable artistic merit is preserved. They are
portraits of the celebrities of the period. She was in favor at court;
the king himself composed a rhymed motto to each of her portraits, and
some of these verses are written in his own hand. It is established that
Hélène de Hangest set up a pottery at her Château of Oiron, and that
Francis Charpentier, a potter, was in her employ. To his hand, under the
auspices of the Châtelaine of Oiron, is due the famous ware of
'Henri-Deux.'

"Mr. J. C. Robinson gives it as his opinion that the technical merit of
the 'Henri-Deux' ware is very small. With due deference to Mr.
Robinson, who, as a rule, writes well and learnedly upon this and
cognate matters, we do not think he would say this if he had been able
to appreciate the subject from a potter's point of view. The _body_ of
the 'Henri-Deux' ware is of admirable texture and quality; the mode in
which the various clays are incorporated into the substance of the
pieces without shrinking or expansion, the clearness, thinness, and
smoothness of the glaze--which, by-the-way, is plumbiferous--all these
things are so many marvels of skillful manipulation, and fill the mind
of a practical potter with admiration."

These curious and interesting facts were brought to light by the
researches of a French _savant_, M. B. Fillon, about 1862.

[Illustration: FIG. 78.--_Henri-Deux Faience Vase._]

It appears that this ware was not made for sale, and that it was not
sold, but was made for presents, and therefore was produced only in
small quantities. The clay itself is what the French term _terre de
pipe_, and what we know as pipe-clay--a white, delicate, and very light
clay. The inlaying, or the incised lines which are filled with colored
clays, are most delicately cut, and so much resemble work done by
book-binders that some persons have suggested that they were made with
the tools used in the bookbinder's trade. At any rate, one should give
these pieces a close look, for any thoroughly good piece of work is a
source of supreme satisfaction. Admirable copies have been made of some
pieces of this work by an artist named Toft, which were exhibited at
Philadelphia in 1876 by Minton, of England.

[Illustration: FIG. 79.--_Henri-Deux Salt-cellar._]

We give, in Figs. 78 and 79, two examples, more to exhibit something of
the forms and conceits indulged in than to show the delicacy and
precision of the work, which are perfect. Fig. 78 is termed a _biberon_;
it is but seven inches high. "The upper part is white, the ornaments
yellow; and the lower part black, with white ornaments. On the shield
underneath the spout are the three crescents interlaced." Fig. 79 is a
salt-cellar.

After the decease of Madame Hélène de Hangest, who was the widow of
Arthur Gouffier, a gentleman of rank, the manufacture of this peculiar
ware was continued at the Château d'Oiron by her son, Claude Gouffier;
but the production was still limited, and it is doubtful if any pieces
were ever sold. It is therefore of great rarity and of corresponding
money-value, only fifty-three specimens of it being known to exist.

The interest in these pieces is such now that many persons may like to
know where they are and what they are thought to be worth. I transcribe
from Chaffers as follows:

In England there are twenty-six pieces:

---------------------+----------------------------+==>
                     |                            |
    DESCRIPTION.     |          Owner.            |
                     |                            |
---------------------+----------------------------+==>
 1. Large ewer       | H. Magniac                 |
 2.   "    "         | Sir Anthony de Rothschild  |
 3.   "    "         |       "           "        |
 4. Candlestick      |       "           "        |
 5. Hanap            |       "           "        |
 6. Tazza            |       "           "        |
 7. Cover of a cup   |       "           "        |
 8. Bouquetière      |       "           "        |
 9. Candlestick      | Andrew Fontaine            |
10. Biberon          |   "       "                |
11. Salt-cellar      |   "       "                |
12. Biberon          | Baron Lionel de Rothschild |
13. Salt-cellar      |       "           "        |
14. Tazza            | Duke of Hamilton           |
15. Salt-cellar      |  "         "               |
16.   "    "         | George Field, Esq.         |
17. Part of ewer     | H. T. Hope                 |
18. Small ewer       |   "    "                   |
19.   "    "         | M. T. Smith                |
20. Biberon          | J. Malcolm                 |
21. Salt-cellar      | South Kensington Museum    |
22. Tazza and cover  |       "          "         |
23. Tazza            |       "          "         |
24. Candlestick      |       "          "         |
25. Salver           |       "          "         |
26. Salt-cellar      |       "          "         |
---------------------+----------------------------+==>

---------------------+--------------------------------+-------+----------
                     |                                |       |
    DESCRIPTION.     |        Whence obtained.        | Cost. | Estimated
                     |                                |       |   Value.
---------------------+--------------------------------+-------+----------
 1. Large ewer       | Odiot sale, 1842               |   £96 |  £1,500
 2.   "    "         | Strawberry Hill, 1842          |    20 |   1,200
 3.   "    "         | De Monville collection         |   140 |   1,200
 4. Candlestick      | Préaux sale, 1850              |   208 |   1,000
 5. Hanap            | De Bruge sale, 1849            |    20 |     500
 6. Tazza            | Préaux sale, 1850              |    44 |     500
 7. Cover of a cup   | Unknown                        |       |     150
 8. Bouquetière      | Bought of a curé at Tours      |    48 |     800
 9. Candlestick      | Bought a century ago           |       |   1,000
10. Biberon          |    "          "                |       |     800
11. Salt-cellar      |    "          "                |       |     500
12. Biberon          | Bought of Madame Delaunay      |       |     800
13. Salt-cellar      | Strawberry Hill, 1842          |    21 |     300
14. Tazza            | Préaux sale, '50; Rattier, '59 |   280 |     500
15. Salt-cellar      |      "             "           |    80 |     300
16.   "    "         | ...                            |       |     300
17. Part of ewer     | De Bruge sale, 1849            |    16 |     300
18. Small ewer       |          "         "           |    20 |     600
19.   "    "         | Bought as Palissy              |       |     600
20. Biberon          | Pourtalès sale, 1865           | 1,100 |   1,100
21. Salt-cellar      | Soltykoff, 1861, to Napier     |   268 |     300
22. Tazza and cover  |     "            "             |   450 |     500
23. Tazza            | Poitiers, 50 s., Delange       |   180 |     180
24. Candlestick      | De Norzy sale                  |   640 |     750
25. Salver           | Espoulart, 1857                |   180 |     400
26. Salt-cellar      | Addington collection           |   300 |     300
---------------------+--------------------------------+-------+----------

In France there are twenty-six pieces:

--------------------+--------------------------+==>
                    |                          |
    DESCRIPTION.    |        Owner.            |
                    |                          |
--------------------+--------------------------+==>
27. Tazza           | Le Duc d'Uzes            |
28. Cover of cup    |   "     "                |
29. Pilgrim's bottle|   "     "                |
30. Tazza and cover | M. Hutteau d'Origny      |
31.   "        "    | Musée de Cluny           |
32. Salt-cellar     | Baron A. de Rothschild   |
33. Jug or canette  |     "           "        |
34. Small ewer      |     "           "        |
35. Candlestick     | Baron G. de Rothschild   |
36  Hanap           |     "           "        |
37. Tazza           | Baron James de Rothschild|
38. Biberon         | Museum of the Louvre     |
39. Salt-cellar     |    "           "         |
40.   "    "        |    "           "         |
41.   "    "        |    "           "         |
42. Tazza           |    "           "         |
43. Salt-cellar     |    "           "         |
44. Tazza           |    "           "         |
45.   "             | Sèvres Museum            |
46. Cover of cup    |   "       "              |
47. Salt-cellar     | Madame d'Yvon            |
48.   "     "       | Comte de Tussau          |
49.   "     "       |   "         "            |
50.   "     "       |   "         "            |
51. Cover of tazza. | M. B. Delessert          |
52. Biberon         |                          |
--------------------+--------------------------+==>

--------------------+-----------------------------+-------+----------
                    |                             |       |
    DESCRIPTION.    |       Whence obtained.      | Cost. | Estimated
                    |                             |       |   Value.
--------------------+-----------------------------+-------+----------
27. Tazza           |                             |       |    £500
28. Cover of cup    |                             |       |     150
29. Pilgrim's bottle|                             |       |     800
30. Tazza and cover |                             |       |     500
31.   "        "    | Bought by M. Thoré in 1798  |   £20 |     500
32. Salt-cellar     |                             |       |     300
33. Jug or canette  | Bought by Strauss, £600     |   800 |   1,000
34. Small ewer      | Préaux sale, 1850           |    44 |     500
35. Candlestick     |                             |       |  £1,000
36  Hanap           |                             |       |     500
37. Tazza           | South of France, 1860       |  £480 |     500
38. Biberon         | Sauvageot, from Tours       |       |     800
39. Salt-cellar     | Sauvageot, from Lehrié, 1824|     5 |     300
40.   "    "        | Sauvageot, from Troyes      |       |     300
41.   "    "        |     "            "          |       |     300
42. Tazza           | Sauvageot, bo't as Palissy  |     8 |     500
43. Salt-cellar     | Revoil collection, 1828     |       |     300
44. Tazza           |    "               "        |       |     500
45.   "             |                             |       |     500
46. Cover of cup    |                             |       |     150
47. Salt-cellar     |                             |       |     300
48.   "     "       |                             |       |     300
49.   "     "       |                             |       |     300
50.   "     "       |                             |       |     300
51. Cover of tazza. | South of France, by Rutter. |     4 |     150
52. Biberon         |                             |       |
--------------------+-----------------------------+-------+----------

In Russia, one piece:

--------------------+---------------------------+==>
    DESCRIPTION.    |           Owner.          |
                    |                           |
--------------------+---------------------------+==>
53. Biberon.        | Prince Galitzin           |
--------------------+---------------------------+==>

--------------------+------------------------------+-------+----------
    DESCRIPTION.    |        Whence obtained.      | Cost. | Estimated
                    |                              |       |   Value.
--------------------+------------------------------+-------+----------
53. Biberon.        | Préaux sale, 1850            |  £100 |    £800
--------------------+------------------------------+-------+----------



CHAPTER VIII.

FRENCH FAIENCE.--NEVERS, ROUEN, BEAUVAIS, ETC.

     Number of Manufactories.--Their Rise and
     Decline.--Nevers.--Prices.--Beauvais.--Rouen.--Moustiers.--Strasbourg,
     or Haguenau.--Marseilles.--Sarreguemines.--Sinceny, Nancy, Creil,
     Montpellier.--Paris.--Paris to-day.--Limoges.--Deck.


Of French faiences, the _Palissy_ ware and the _Henri-Deux_ have been
already treated.

I now propose to give some account of the most prominent among the very
large number of potteries which, in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and
eighteenth centuries, sprang up in various parts of France. Mr.
Chaffers, in his work upon "Pottery," etc., enumerates one hundred and
sixty-five factories which in 1790 petitioned the National Assembly that
they might not be ruined by the floods of cheap pottery then being sent
in from England; and this was not the whole number in France.

Great skill and much good taste have been expended upon the faiences of
France, and some of the work rises into the region of art. Much of that
found in collections and museums is of this kind. But it should not be
forgotten that the great purpose and business of those manufactories was
the production of dishes, plates, and services, for the table--for the
uses of life. And in this direction the production in France was very
large and profitable, until the time when, as said above, the
introduction of cheap wares from England ruined the makers. These
disastrous changes and whimseys of trade, disagreeable as they may be to
the masters and the workmen who are ruined, do give a certain zest and
variety to human history; they relieve life from the monotony and
dullness which usually attends upon unbroken prosperity. As some of the
_doctrinaires_ tell us, they are really blessings--often very much in
disguise; at least, they seem so to those who are the immediate
sufferers.

Nearly the whole of the French potteries went down about the period of
the great Revolution, from the effects of the wares introduced from
England, and the troubles growing out of the political disorders. Within
this last quarter of a century a noted revival has come to this most
interesting industry, of which some notice will be made hereafter.

It is the fine examples of the work of the older potteries which
collectors are desirous to get.

_Marks_ are often found upon pieces of the faiences of France, the delft
of Holland, etc.; but I do not reproduce them here, partly because they
are much less important than those on the porcelains, and partly because
we should have almost no occasion for their use.

NEVERS.--It is supposed that at Nevers was made the first enameled
pottery in France, in the days of Catherine de' Medicis. M. Broc de
Ségange, in his work "La Faïence, les Faïenciers et les Émailleurs de
Nevers,"[6] traces the beginning of the work to an Italian named
_Conrad_, who probably came to France with the queen, and was
naturalized in 1578. He and his brothers began the manufacture about
that time. Another famous potter there was _Pierre Custode_.

It was inevitable that the early faience of Nevers should bear a
likeness to that which had grown up so rapidly in Italy, and had
impressed itself so vividly upon the artistic mind of Europe. But it was
not an imitation. We have little if any examples of this work in our
country, and I give Marryat's brief distinction:

"The Nevers pottery differs in many points from its Italian original.
The outlines of the figures are traced in violet, the flesh in yellow.
The red color is seldom used, but a copper-green is peculiar to this
ware. Blue and yellow are the predominating colors, separated by a line
of white. The sea is represented by undulating lines of blue, in the
style of Orazio Fontana, and the Urbino school. The lips of the ewers
are in the form of leaves, the handles in that of dragons."

[Illustration: FIG 80.--_Faïences of Nevers._]

Demmin separates the work done here into four styles or periods, as
follows:

"1. The Italian, 1602 to 1670.

"2. The Persian, about 1640.

"3. The Chinese and Dutch, 1640 to 1750.

"4. The popular and patriotic, about 1789."

The examples shown (Fig. 80) are of the later periods, and partake of a
general character which prevailed at other manufactories of the periods
in France.

The colors during the Persian period were often effective, and the
lapis-lazuli blue was rich.

A very great quantity of plates, vases, dishes, etc., was made, many of
them rude and cheap, during the time of the French Revolution, which
were decorated with revolutionary emblems, pictures of the destruction
of the Bastile, with the liberty-cap, and with patriotic cries, such as
"_Liberté, égalité, ou mort!_" and "_Vive le roi citoyen!_"

At the beginning of the eighteenth century there were twelve
manufactories, or "_fabriques_," in full blast at Nevers. At the present
time there is a very considerable production of faience at Nevers, much
of which is only the imitations or reproductions of that made in the
earlier centuries. Nothing of special interest, so far as I know, was
shown at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia.

At the Bernal sale was "No. 1981: A pair of bottles of Nevers ware,
light blue, spirally fluted with dark-blue flowers; twelve inches high.
Eleven pounds.--_J. S. Forbes, Esq._"

BEAUVAIS.--How early pottery was made at Beauvais is not certainly
known; one of the earliest notices is of a pot of Charles VI. in 1399,
"Un godet de terre de Beauvais, garny d'argent;" and Rabelais mentions
this work more than once, in this way, "Une salière de terre; et ung
goubelet de Beauvoys," etc. Various pieces of this very quaint and
interesting pottery are extant in the museums of Europe. The great plate
we illustrate is in the Imperial Library at Paris, and bears the date of
1511 (Fig. 81). It is of fine paste, and is about seventeen inches in
diameter. Its ornaments are in relief, and are the arms of France and of
Brittany at that period. Many elaborate and decorative pieces were made
here, and some of them were designed and were used for presents to
distinguished personages who visited the city. Not only were these
works of luxury made, but large quantities of household work were
manufactured for the uses of France; and there was a very considerable
export of it to England.

[Illustration: FIG. 81.--_Beauvais Pottery._]

ROUEN.--One of the most extensive productions of pottery in France began
at Rouen as early as 1542; and after 1640 were made here many large and
highly-decorated pieces, of which we give some illustrations. Just when
work of this kind was first produced does not clearly appear; but a very
considerable number of fabriques were established in this city, and many
men and women were employed. There is no question that at one time the
potteries of Delft had a considerable influence upon the work at Rouen,
and much that was then made

[Illustration: FIG. 82.--_Rouen Faience._]

showed traces of imitation. Pieces of large size were produced, such as
fountains, vases, busts, figures and figurines, and even mantel-pieces.
Work was done for the table, some of which holds high rank. When Louis
XIV. sent his silver to be minted in 1713, to pay for his extravagant
wars, he had it replaced by a service made at Rouen. Some pieces in the
Sèvres Museum, marked with the _fleur-de-lis_, may have belonged to
this.

[Illustration: FIG. 83.--_Rouen Faience._]

Many of the rich and the noble followed his example, and the result was
that a marvelous impulse was given to the increase and the perfection of
the faiences at Rouen. Before the final closing of the works, about
1789 or 1790, some eighteen extensive fabriques were in active work.

The variety of articles made at Rouen was very great, ranging from
salt-cellars and candlesticks to mantel-pieces and stoves.

[Illustration: FIG. 84.--_Rouen Faience._]

The paste of the Rouen faience is stronger than that of Delft, and the
pieces I have seen show a reddish clay through the breaks of the enamel.

Many of the paintings indicate much taste and skill. It seems to me that
this work is marked by more originality, and by a finer perception of
the fit and the beautiful, than any other French pottery. The pieces
shown in Figs. 82 and 83, as far as engravings can do it, prove this.
They do not show the variety and the richness of color which distinguish
much of the best work.

The early Rouen work, in a considerable degree following the Delft, was
painted, as some suppose, by men brought from there. Imitations of the
Chinese at one time were in vogue; and a good deal of work was done in
blue--_en camaïeu_--in one color only. But the colored or polychrome
Rouen is most distinctive, most brilliant, and most desired. One of the
styles most sought for is termed _à la corne_, showing cornucopias
combined with flowers and birds. It is very effective. The example
engraved is a beautiful plate from Mr. Wales's collection at Boston
(Fig. 84). Many pieces of this ware are in existence, and they are found
in all the museums and in many private collections of Europe. Mrs. Moses
Ives, at Providence, has some perfect examples, gathered by her from old
houses in Rhode Island. Her belief is, that they got into Rhode Island
from ships captured by privateers and brought into Newport, where their
cargoes were sold and scattered. It seems probable.

MOUSTIERS.--Within the last twenty-five years the faience of Moustiers
has been separated from that of other places in France, into which it
had once been merged.

The little town in the department of the _Lower Alps_ seems to have had
a fabrique as early as 1686, when the records mention the name of
_Antoine Clerissy_ as _maître fayensier_. Two other names are known as
master-potters of that town--_Olery_ and _Roux_. All these made
ornamental work of an excellent class, some of which is much valued.

Three styles of decoration are assigned to these potters. The earliest
is recognized as being painted in blue camaieu (in one color), with
subjects--hunting-scenes, escutcheons and armorial bearings,
country-scenes, figures of the time of Louis XIV., etc. Most of these
are assigned to Clerissy.

The second style runs from about 1700 to 1745. "The specimens of this
period are better known to amateurs, and not so rare; they are also
decorated in blue camaieu, with highly-finished and gracefully-interlaced
patterns, among which are Cupids, satyrs and nymphs, terminal figures,
garlands of flowers, masks, etc.; and canopies resting on consoles, or
brackets, from which hangs drapery bordered or framed with foliage and
hatched spaces; mythological personages, vases of flowers, and other
designs, being frequently introduced; the centre subjects are classical
or _champêtre_ figures in costume of the time, sometimes coats-of-arms.
Some of the faience of this period is painted in cobalt-blue in the
Chinese style, which M. Davillier attributes to Pol Roux, and refers to
a similar plate in the Sèvres collection bearing the arms of _le grand
Colbert_." In this style there is evidently a following of the maiolicas
of Italy in what is known as the Raffaelesque ware. But that was never,
I believe, painted in blue.

[Illustration: FIG. 85.--_Faience of Moustiers._]

The third style, running from 1745 to 1789, is almost always painted in
polychrome; the colors are blue, brown, yellow, green, and violet.
Garlands of flowers, fruits, and foliage, are used. Mythological
subjects also appear--Cupids, medallions, gods and goddesses, etc. To
this class apparently belongs our illustration (Fig. 85). Some of these
ornamental pieces are well painted, and latterly have been much sought
for, but they do not rank with the work of Nevers or Rouen. At the time
of the French Revolution there was a large industry in pottery at
Moustiers--some twelve fabriques being in full activity. Nearly all have
disappeared,[7] and the town has dwindled into one-third its former
size.

STRASBOURG, OR HAGUENAU.--The beginnings of a faience fabrique here were
probably about 1721. _Hannong_ was a potter, who came to the town from
Germany and established himself at Haguenau, near to or a part of
Strasbourg. This had been a German city until Louis XIV. clutched it and
made it French and Catholic. In 1870 the Germans took it back, and are
now converting it to German and Protestant. The faience made here has
never taken so high a place as that made at the other fabriques I have
mentioned. But some of the decorated pieces--vases especially--were of
good form and pleasing coloring. The most common painting was roses and
flowers, in a free, bold, and rather rough style. Sometimes this has
been confounded with delft; but it is quite different. It more resembles
the pottery made at Marseilles.

Some of the marks on the faience are like those on the porcelain which
was made here for a short time; these were an "H." or "P. H." combined,
indicating the maker's name--_Hannong_.

The MARSEILLES potteries were in full activity at the beginning of the
1700's--a single piece exists which is marked 1697. In the middle of
this century the number of fabriques had increased to some twelve,
employing about two hundred and fifty workmen. All have gone down.

The faience made here followed that of Moustiers for its best work, and
that of Strasbourg for the more common. The flower-painting done here is
said to be distinct from that of Strasbourg, in that the flowers are
perceptibly raised by the paint; while in that of Strasbourg the
painting is melted into the glaze. A very pleasing style of classic
vases, made here in the time of Louis XV., are painted in camaieu
rose-color, the wreaths and ornaments often being in relief.

At SARREGUEMINES, in the Moselle country, very beautiful faience was
made in the last century--about 1775--some of which was highly finished
in the lathe. Work was made there, too, with white figures on blue and
colored grounds, much resembling the jasper ware made by Wedgwood.

There is an extensive pottery now at work at Sarreguemines, in which
great quantities of domestic pottery are made for the market.

At SINCENY, NANCY, CREIL, MONTPELLIER, and many other small places,
potteries were at work in the last century; few, if any, of which
continued beyond the great Revolution.

PARIS, too, had many small fabriques of faience, but none of them
reached much importance. The name of _Briot_ is yet kept in mind.

TO-DAY (1876) France has burst into a great blossoming, not only of
porcelain, but of decorative faience.

In Paris, _Collinot_ has made a style of relief-enamel, in imitation of
_cloisonné_, which is rich and effective in color, and often very
beautiful; many have followed him.

BARBIZÔT has made and is making the imitations of Palissy better than
Palissy himself.

BRIANCHON has made and perfected a lustrous ware like mother-of-pearl,
which he calls "_Nacre_;" it is pretty and fanciful, and is very like
what is made in Ireland, and called _Belleek_.

DURAND RUEL had, in his exhibitions in 1875, some of the most superb and
richly-colored faience-vases I have ever seen; but the name of their
manufacturer was not made known.

LAURIN, CHAPELET, and some other artists at Bourg-la-Reine, struck out a
style of faience-painting about the same time--1874 to 1875--which, for
richness and mystery of color, freedom and force of design, and for
_delicious_ treatment--if I may call it so--has rarely been surpassed.
It is original, and different from anything the Orientals have done, and
quite as good.

[Illustration: FIG. 86.--_Limoges Faience._]

The HAVILANDS, at Limoges, have gone on with this work, and have not let
it falter; their exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876 was excellent. I
venture to include my notes made at the Exhibition:

But, in the way of earthen-ware, nothing in the French or English
exhibits is at all equal to the vases, bottles, etc., shown by Haviland,
from Limoges. These, we were told frankly and with all desire to

[Illustration: FIG. 87.--_Limoges Faience._]

give the artists their due share, were modeled by Lindencher and painted
by Lafon (we hope we have their names right). The forms of the pots and
the relief-modelings are bold, unconventional, and excellent. The artist
has studied Nature, and art also, but not to copy. This is true too of
Lafon, whose lavish and daring use of color is remarkable. Nothing is
niggled or petty, as in this kind of work nothing should be. As examples
of real art, they are equal to the best work of China and Japan; and a
true man would wish rather a hundred such vases as the Pennsylvania
Industrial Museum has bought, than one of those great vases from Sèvres
which stand in the French picture-gallery. This is the same kind of
art-work which for a few years has been done by Chapelet and a little
band of artists near Paris, some of which has been brought to Boston by
the Household Art Company, and has had a tedious sale. These painters
are artists in color. Bold and strange as the work is, nothing is
glaring, showy, bright, or flashy; throughout there is that reserve
which indicates strength and creates confidence.

I give also some illustrations of their work, which in a faint degree
exhibit its excellence. The color cannot be expressed (Figs. 86 and 87).

DECK, of Paris, should not be forgotten. I believe he is an Alsatian;
he, his brother, and sister, are all fine specimens of the
German-French; they have been at work since 1859 in producing some of
the most beautiful things to be made; and the work done there now sells
at high prices. T. Deck is himself an artist; but many others are
engaged there in making flower, figure, and other paintings. Their
exhibitions at London have attracted much attention, and their
productions have been quickly sold.

No doubt other artists are to-day engaged at Paris in this fascinating
work, which is attracting so much attention, and feeding well the desire
for the useful and the beautiful.

Great establishments, with hundreds of workmen, are now in full activity
at _Nevers_, at _Gien_, at _Nancy_, producing wares at low prices, which
have much merit, and for every-day uses are good. Mostly they follow the
old designs, and attempt little else. As they do not pretend that these
are anything more than that, and as the prices are very reasonable, they
reach a great sale.



CHAPTER IX.

DUTCH DELFT AND ENGLISH EARTHEN-WARE.

     Delft, Number of Fabriques.--Haarlem.--Paste.--Great
     Painters.--Violins.--Tea-Services.--A Dutch Stable.--Broeck Dutch
     Tiles.--England.--Queen Elizabeth.--Pepys's Diary.--Brown
     Stone-ware.--The Tyg.--Lambeth Pottery.--Fulham
     Pottery.--Elers.--Elizabethan Pottery.--Stoke-upon-Trent.--Josiah
     Wedgwood.--Cheapness.--Queen's-ware.--Jasper-ware.--Flaxman.
     --Cameos.--Basalt.--The Portland Vase.--Prices.


There was a day (about 1650) when the Dutch town of Delft had fifty
manufactories of earthen-ware, and employed in them over seven thousand
people. To-day she has but one--if even that--and the work done there
has sunk into insignificance. To those who are fond of change, of
excitement, this will be a pleasant fact to know; it goes to show that
Macaulay's prophecy, that the coming New-Zealander will sit on the piers
of London Bridge in the "good time that is coming," and moralize over
the ruins of London, may come true--pleasanter for the New Zealand
_savant_ than for the English statesman!

Haydn's "Dictionary of Dates" states that pottery was made at Delft as
early as 1310; and there are records of its importation from there into
England in the time of King Henry IV. (1399 to 1413). The great industry
was undoubtedly stimulated by the close knowledge of Japanese and
Oriental porcelains which the Dutch merchants at a very early day and
for so long a time had access to; which they brought to Holland in such
large quantities, and which by them were distributed over Europe. But
the cost of these was, of course, very considerable for those times; and
the discovery of good clays in Holland gave the Dutch every facility for
engaging in the manufacture, which they had the wit to seize and the
skill to develop; so that they were able to make earthen-ware of good
quality, with creditable ornamentation, at comparatively small prices.

The Dutch were then the great "traders" of the world. They soon sent
this pottery far and wide, into Germany, France, and England; and they
got much money for it. Holland grew rich.

Haarlem was also a centre for this industry; but it made less impression
there than at Delft, and went down sooner; so that but little is known
of it.

The _paste_ of the Delft, or at least some of it, is of a fine quality,
so that it was worked quite thin, and yet preserved sufficient strength
for use. To make this, a good deal of pains and skill was applied to it
before it went to the deft hand of the modeler.

Of course, the great production at Delft was for the uses of the table,
and its work did much to effect a revolution in the household-art of the
table. Before this production the plates and dishes of the common people
were of wood or "tre;" often only a square bit of board upon which the
meat could be laid and cut. The better-off people had plates of pewter,
and kings and princes indulged in those of silver.

Boitet, writing in 1667 of Delft, says:

"One of the principal branches of industry at present consists in the
manufacture of a kind of porcelain[8] which nowhere in Europe is made of
such fine quality and so cheap. For some years, indeed, porcelain has
been manufactured in Saxony, and also at some places in France. The
former is finer than that made at Delft, but more expensive likewise,
and therefore not much in general use; whereas the Delft porcelain, on
account of its more moderate price, is more salable; and it is sent not
alone to most places in Europe, but even to Asia also. The clay of which
it is made comes from the neighborhood of Maestricht, and is purified in
Delft by divers processes. Besides larger articles for general use,
complete services are made here, ornamented with escutcheons, as they
may be desired, beautifully gilt and painted, almost equal to the East
Indian in transparency, and surpassing such in the painting. Many
persons of property have such sets with their escutcheons made here,
which then pass for Japan or Chinese porcelain."

We must receive M. Boitet's judgment that the Delft "_surpassed_ the
East Indian (or Chinese) in the painting" with many grains of allowance.
Still, when it is known that many services were painted with landscapes
after Berghem, and that William Vandervelde, Van der Meer, and Jan
Steen, painted some of the ware themselves, we may easily believe that
many pieces of delft had a character of their own, which gave it a very
high rank.

I have myself never seen such pieces of these, and hardly know where to
look for them. Marryat says that in the Sèvres Museum is a large dish,
in the centre of which is a landscape, with animals and figures after
Berghem, which is one of the finest examples known; and that other fine
pieces are in the Japan Museum at Dresden. Some of these finest pieces
are (or were) in the collection of M. Demmin at Paris; one of them is a
portrait of Jan Steen himself about twenty-five or thirty years of age,
with flowing light hair covered with a cap or bonnet.

Of the paintings upon delft by Van der Meer, Demmin enumerates a number;
among which the "Head of a Woman," a "Landscape," and a "View of Delft,"
are at the Hague; the "Porch at Delft, upon which 'le Taciturne' was
assassinated," is in the Museum at Amsterdam; and a variety of
portraits, landscapes, city views, etc., are in private collections.

Demmin describes a very elaborately-painted picture upon delft tiles in
the Gallery Suermondt at Aix-la-Chapelle, containing a country-house, a
figure of a woman, a well and a person drawing water from it, a pigeon,
a tree, and the sunlight shooting through it and touching the walls of
the house here and there.

This very elaborate picture, so well and minutely painted, has been
attributed both to Ruysdael and to Hobbema; it is now ascribed to Van
der Meer.

This is work which will bring any price, because it is so difficult and
so uncommon; but it is not what I should value upon delft or porcelain.
It can never be _so good_ as upon canvas; it is much more difficult to
make it, and a small accident ruins it past repair.

It is not "decorating china;" it is simply trying to make a picture with
materials unsuited for the purpose; and its only merit is that it shows
difficulties overcome. It is precisely the same in principle as the
mosaics. It would have been idiotic for Raffaelle to have made the
Dresden Madonna in mosaic or on porcelain.

[Illustration: FIG. 88.--_Delft._]

In the decorative work of the Delft potters it seems to me the things to
desire are the fine plates and dishes painted, as many of them are, with
luminous blues almost equal to the celestial blues of China, such as we
see in Fig. 88; and the vases, the flagons, the cups and mugs, in every
style and shape; the same things in polychrome, with those bold groups
of flowers, equal in their way to the work of the Orientals. Besides,
there are the figures of peasants, etc.; also their cows and horses,
which have a quaint interest not easily explained.

The Dutch potters ran into many things, such as small foot-stoves,
barbers' basins, casters, salt-cellars, etc. About much of the good
delft is that same quaint, countrified beauty of which I have spoken. It
is good, because it is real and native to the people and its painters.
When they left this and went to imitating the Chinese and the Japanese,
their work seems to me almost worthless; because it was an _imitation_,
and it was _inferior_.

In one of the largest workshops, or fabriques, a custom prevailed that
one should read portions of the Bible, which all might hear and all
might discuss. This was a time when religious heat was fervent; when the
great questions of church direction and free thought were rife; when
Catholic and Protestant often went from the assault of the tongue to
that with the arquebuse. This practice no doubt made good Protestants,
but also without doubt poor potters.

The most curious pieces of delft known are four _violins_, still extant,
very carefully made and very carefully painted. One is (or was) in the
museum at Rouen, one at the Conservatoire at Paris, the third in the
collection of M. Demmin, and the fourth in a private collection at
Utrecht. The story still lives that these four violins were made by the
master-modelers for marriage-gifts to the four daughters of the master
of the fabrique, about to marry four young potters; and that the music
for the dance was drawn from them. It was a pretty conceit.

Some elaborate dinner-services were made at Delft, which required much
skill and much work. The covers of the dishes were modeled in the
likeness of birds or fish, indicating whatever was to be served in them;
these were painted carefully to imitate Nature, so that the guest, in
seeing the table, would know if it were a turkey, a pheasant, a
ptarmigan--whatever luxury had been provided for his delectation.

TEA-SERVICES.--It is possible there are persons who believe that tea has
always been known, and that the lovely tea-services out of which, we
sometimes drink it have existed from the time of Noah and the Deluge;
not so.

Pepys, in his "Diary," speaks of it in 1661 as "a China drink of which I
had never drunk before." And at that time it sold in England at fifty or
sixty shillings a pound--an enormous price.

Tea and coffee pots were first brought to Holland from China, and do not
appear earlier than about 1700; so that those which came over in the
Mayflower and the Half-Moon and the Ark must have been made by Elder
Brewster and Henry Hudson and Leonard Calvert from the "depths of their
moral consciousness."

Tea, we must remember, was not drunk in England earlier than about 1660,
and then but rarely; and coffee was introduced into England about 1637.

Teapots have from time to time been a collector's fancy, and persons
have again and again got together four or five hundred, of all patterns
and decorations. Nothing would be more pleasing in this way at the
afternoon tea, when every guest should have each his own service, and
every one beautiful.

That the use of delft-ware for ornament throughout Holland was great is
evident from the number of decorated plates and vases, many of large
size, and many showing a careful style of painting; these are now
constantly coming from that country, and they are not counterfeits. Most
of them certainly are rudely but effectively painted, and are very
decorative. Upon a farm, not far from Amsterdam, the cows during the
summer season being upon the pastures, I found the stables carefully
cleansed and whitewashed, and the stalls and walls hung with large and
gayly-painted plates and plaques; and some pieces of brass-work were
added to impart a desired brilliancy.

Nearly every house, great and small, in the palmy days of Holland had
more or less decorative delft-ware hung upon its walls and placed upon
its mantel-pieces; many of these have been carefully treasured up, and
they are the stores from which the world now makes its drafts.

A favorite decoration was a garniture for the mantel-shelf, consisting
of three covered and two uncovered vases, such as are seen in Fig. 89.
They are often painted in blue alone, which for a long time was the
prevailing color, and which sometimes nearly equaled the best blues of
China. The ones here figured are of an excellent blue, and show a
religious subject--the Virgin, Child, and St. John.

The variety of decoration was great; but mostly of birds, flowers,
fruit, and other objects of Nature.

[Illustration: FIG 89.--_Delft._]

Afterward these, as well as plates, dishes, mugs, etc., were painted
with many colors; and some of these were quite rude and garish, to suit
a low and garish taste. But, as decoratives, these too have a certain
value.

At the small village of Broeck, some seven miles from Amsterdam, there
was in 1870 a very nice collection of delft for sale, among which were a
dozen or more large plates of the best blue. It was the collection of a
woman who had for a long time been a dealer there.

The town of Broeck, as most know, has been a point to visit; it was at
one time the cleanest spot in the known world, no horse or cow or other
animal being permitted in its streets. In those days it was a sort of
country-seat for the rich Amsterdam merchants. It is changed now.

The _marks_ upon delft are mostly those of the individual painters, and
may be found in considerable variety in Demmin's more elaborate work.

[Illustration: FIG. 90.--_Delft Plate._]

Fig. 90 is a good representation of the bold painting of the Delft
workmen. These great plates, when standing on shelves or fastened to the
wall, produce a striking and pleasing effect. They are now much sought
for; and the high-class work brings high prices, though not such prices
as the Italian maiolicas.

TILES were made from an early period in Holland, and during the
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in great quantities. They were
used to decorate fireplaces, stoves, walls, hearths, etc. The blue and
brown Scripture-tiles were made in great numbers, and found a wide and
ready sale. They are rude, quaint, and interesting--are not _art_ at
all, but whimsical expressions of a religious sentiment. They are still
made in Holland almost identical in design and feeling with those
produced three hundred years ago.


ENGLISH POTTERY OR EARTHEN-WARE.

Very primitive unglazed pottery was made in England by the Britons and
Saxons before the days of written history. Some account is given, in the
chapter upon "Unglazed Pottery," of the red Roman unglazed ware found in
London and elsewhere, which, beyond any reasonable doubt, was made
largely in England. An account of the use and production of glazed
pottery in England will be in place here.

Down to the times even of Queen Elizabeth (1558 to 1603) we know that
trenchers of wood, and cups and bottles of wood as well as of leather
(these were called "black jacks"), were in common use even in good
houses. As late as 1663, Pepys, in his most entertaining "Diary," says
that at the lord-mayor's feast meats were served on wooden dishes, and
were eaten off trenchers. The common dishes in Queen Elizabeth's
housekeeping were of wood; while those for the queen's table were of
silver, or possibly of pewter. These silver and pewter services
prevailed on the tables of the wealthy till some time after the
introduction of porcelain from China, and delft from Holland, which came
in in considerable quantities about 1650 and later.

The first glazed ware made in England seems to have been the brown
stone-ware, which, Chaffers says, was in use down to about 1680, and
mostly in the shape of pitchers, jugs, and bottles. It did not at first
come into use for table-dishes.

After this dishes were made of coarse and gritty clay, not at all equal
to the delft-ware, upon which a lead-glaze was used of a greenish or
dark-yellowish color. This lead or plumbiferous glaze continued in use
for a long time; but when it was _first_ used in England seems unknown.
Salt-glaze was used in Staffordshire in 1680.

One of the earliest attempts at "fancy" in English pottery is to be seen
in the drinking-cup called a "_tyg_," which has three handles, intended
for three friends; so that each could drink from his own lip in
succession. Mugs with two and four handles were also made.

At LAMBETH it is believed that some Dutch potters made earthenware
resembling delft as early as 1650. A patent was granted to some potters
by the name of Van Hamme in 1676. Various pieces of glazed pottery with
English designs remain, bearing dates from 1642 down to 1682, which it
is thought were made here.

At FULHAM stone-ware of a fine quality seems to have been made by a Mr.
Dwight as early as 1671. This, in the accounts of the day, was sometimes
called "_porcellane_." There is reason to believe that a good degree of
advance was reached here, and that the work approached that made at
Cologne, now called "Grès de Flanders." Figures and busts were also made
here, a few of which are still extant.

Two gentlemen named ELERS, who came to England with William of Orange,
were clever men, and one of them was a chemist. They discovered clay at
Bradwell, and established a pottery there, where for a time they
produced good ware from the red clay. But curious eyes were at work to
discover their processes, and one Astbury, pretending to be a
half-witted fellow, succeeded in doing it; and then their business was
ruined and broken up.

From Paul Elers descended the wife of Richard Lovel Edgeworth, whose
daughter is known as Maria Edgeworth.

A white salt-glazed stone-ware was made in Staffordshire about 1700,
which has been called "Elizabethan." This often had designs made from a
mould applied to the surface.

STOKE-UPON-TRENT, in Staffordshire, very early became a centre for
potter's work, as it is to-day; the country there for miles being a
string of villages, filled with furnaces and the houses of potters.

It is not my purpose to attempt a detailed history of the immense
pottery industries which have been developed in and about
Staffordshire--potteries which, for variety and extent, have never been
equaled, unless perhaps in China. There is, however, one potter, whose
life and work have had a distinguished influence upon the potteries of
England, to whom some space must be given; he is JOSIAH WEDGWOOD.

Born in 1730 at Burslem, he came from an ancestry of potters, and he
breathed the air of the potteries, so that he may be said to have been a
born potter. He was one of thirteen children; he grew up with the small
amount of school education then in vogue in that part of
England--especially among his class of _workers_--and was apprenticed to
a potter when he was but fourteen years old.

The English nation has in these latter days gone into a sort of frenzy
upon the subject of school education, having got the impression that
that will enable them to compete with or excel all the nations of the
world. This I believe to be a mistake. I may, I think, fairly point to
Germany, whose commissioner at the American Exhibition writes home that
the productions of Germany are marked by lack of taste, lack of
thoroughness, and lack of honesty; in other words, Germany, with the
most thorough system of common-school education, is distinguished for
the "cheap and nasty" in her work.

What was it, then, I may ask at this point, which made Josiah Wedgwood,
this unschooled boy, the most able and successful potter of England, and
perhaps of all the world? I attempt to answer it by stating my belief
_that he was not living for riches, but for excellence_. He worked all
his life to combine the useful with the beautiful more and more
perfectly; and in a surprising degree he succeeded. This was not because
of his intellectual ability, but because of his sense of _honor_.

The world has gone into a craze for intellect--not at all for _honesty_.
I mean by honesty not a sickly sort of conscientiousness, which often
hinders; but honesty of intention, showing itself in work. To illustrate
my meaning, I may say that my own experience has been that the larger
part of mankind are quite willing to "shab" a thing--to do it
poorly--provided it will sell, and give them their wages.

This, it seems to me, was just what made Wedgwood what he was; he could
not do that. All the work of his I have seen was done as well as it
could be done. I do not mean that all his designs were good or his
decorations faultless; but, as it was, it _was as well done as he could
do it_.

[Illustration: FIG. 91.--_Portrait of Wedgwood._]

It seems to me that in his portrait (Fig. 91) a good deal of this
robust, manly, honorable character is to be traced. I like to think that
the face here, as in many cases, is a sort of promise of the man.

I cannot do better than to quote, from one of Wedgwood's catalogues, his
own words, which are better than any sermon, better than much
"burnt-offering and sacrifice;" which phrase of the prophet shows that
there were shabby fellows then, even in the days of God's Jews. I quote:

"A competition for cheapness, and not for excellence of workmanship, is
the most frequent and certain cause of the rapid decay and entire
destruction of arts and manufactures.

"The desire of selling much in a little time, without respect to the
taste or quality of the goods, leads manufacturers and merchants to ruin
the reputation of the articles which they make and deal in; and while
those who buy, for the sake of a fallacious saving, prefer mediocrity to
excellence, it will be impossible for them either to improve or keep up
the quality of their works.

"All works of art must bear a price in proportion to the skill, the
taste, the time, the expense, and the risk, attending the invention and
execution of them. Those pieces that for these reasons bear the highest
price, and which those who are not accustomed to consider the real
difficulty and expense of making fine things are apt to call dear, are,
when justly estimated, the cheapest articles that can be purchased; and
such are generally attended with much less profit to the artist than
those that everybody calls cheap.

"Beautiful forms and compositions are not to be made by chance; and they
never were made nor can be made in any kind at small expense; but the
proprietors of this manufactory have the satisfaction of knowing, by a
careful comparison, that the prices of many of their ornaments are much
lower than, and all of them as low as, those of any other ornamental
works in Europe of equal quality and risk, notwithstanding the high
price of labor in England; and they are determined to give up the making
of any article rather than to degrade it."

From all this is it not evident that Wedgwood too found his world full
of _shabby buyers_? I think so; and that has been the misfortune of
others. While the buyers are apt to vituperate the workmen, in too many
cases _they_ are the culprits.

Few will dispute it, that nearly all the manufacturing and trading world
has been sliding downward into shabbiness since Wedgwood's day; and few
will dispute it, that the _mania_ to "buy cheap and sell dear" always
did and always will debase any people.

It is not my purpose to give any detailed history of the life and doings
of Wedgwood. All who are enough interested will find these in his
"Life," by Llewellynn Jewitt, and in that by Miss Meteyard, both of
which are full, and are profusely illustrated. What I can do here is to
call attention to some of the most distinctive things accomplished by
this great potter.

Almost from the first, Wedgwood perceived or felt that there were good
and bad both in form and decoration; and he set to work to secure
perfection in both. While all his life he wished to make, and did make,
vases and other works for purely ornamental and artistic purposes, in
which the expression of beauty alone was sought, he had that practical
sense which taught him to apply his skill and his perception first to
the production and improvement of earthen-ware which came into the daily
uses of life. Out of this came his "queen's-ware," which soon had such a
reputation for form and quality that it went in large quantities all
over the trading world.

From this it should be known that Wedgwood made the money with which he
carried forward those investigations and experiments which at last
culminated in his finest works of fictile art.

It may as well be said here that even _his_ art-work made him no money,
although many of his pieces were reproduced. The fifty copies of the
"Portland Vase"--of which more hereafter, and which sold for fifty
guineas each--cost him more than he got for them. It is best to say
this, because some men and women think that artists are sure to become
rich. No man should attempt to be an artist with such an expectation;
for, while here and there one is caught on the wave of fashion and borne
onward to fortune, the number of these is few. No artist must expect a
_speedy_ recognition for good work.

Wedgwood would not have been Wedgwood had he not had a foundation for
his art-work in his "queen's-ware." Upon this ware a word of explanation
may be desirable. He early brought this every-day ware to great
perfection, not only of form, but of paste and glaze. It was not
painted, but was of a creamy white; and, being at such a small price, it
went into very wide use. Having sent some pieces of it as a present to
Queen Charlotte, she was induced to order a complete table-service, and
to request that it might be called "queen's-ware" thenceforth, as it is
to this day.

This service was painted in the best style then in vogue by the two
chief artists at the works, _Thomas Daniell_ and _Daniel Steele_.

One of the most remarkable dinner-services made by Wedgwood was for the
Empress Catharine II. of Russia, for her palace near St. Petersburg
called _Grenouillière_. It is thus described by Chaffers:

"This splendid service was commenced in April, 1773, and had upward of
twelve hundred views of the seats of noblemen and gentlemen in England,
and a green frog was painted underneath each piece. The form chosen was
the royal pattern, and was made of the ordinary cream-color ware, with a
delicate saffron-tint. The views were in purple camaieu, bordered with a
gadroon pattern in Indian-ink, and round the edge a running wreath of
mauve flowers and green leaves. The two services for dinner and dessert
consisted of nine hundred and fifty-two pieces, had twelve hundred and
forty-four enamel views, which cost, on an average, twenty-one shillings
each, the borders and frogs to each about fifteen shillings more; making
the entire cost, with fifty-one pounds eight shillings and fourpence for
the cream-ware itself, a total of twenty-three hundred and fifty-nine
pounds two shillings and one penny, without calculating many extras. The
price ultimately paid by the empress was stated to be three thousand
pounds. In June, 1774, the service was sufficiently completed to exhibit
at the new rooms in Portland House, Greek Street, Soho, No. 12, where it
remained on show for nearly two months. The empress showed it to Lord
Malmesbury when he visited the Grenouillière in 1779."

I may refer here also to his partnership with Mr. Bentley as another of
the important elements of his success. Bentley was a man with capital,
and also a man with an artistic sense; and he coöperated heartily with
Wedgwood in a desire for thorough work, for excellence, and for profit.

The artistic work for which Wedgwood is so distinguished is what the
pottery collector is most interested in. This, as Wedgwood himself has
said of all good work, was not the result of chance. From the first he
used his _own_ brains and those of others. He studied whatever he could
find to improve his profession, and became something of a chemist; so
that the values of clays and silex, and the composition and use of
metallic oxides for coloring them, grew to be an art in themselves in
his hands.

The work upon which Wedgwood applied his inventions and his art may be
classified in this way:

1. Queen's-ware, for the table.

2. Terra-cotta, to represent porphyry, granite, etc.

3. Basalt, or black Egyptian.

4. White biscuit.

5. Bamboo, cream-colored biscuit.

6. Jasper, or onyx.

7. A hard porcelain biscuit, for chemists, etc.

He conceived that he could produce a paste or body so fine, compact, and
homogeneous, as to be finished without a glaze, and, at the same time,
be susceptible of receiving color in purity and perfection throughout
this body. This he succeeded in doing, and this is what is now known
over all the world as Wedgwood's jasper, or onyx. This is the ware upon
which he afterward applied the cameo ornaments in white upon a ground or
body of various tints--blues, sage-green, and purple. At first the color
permeated the whole paste; afterward it was applied on the surface only
by means of a "dip." This was begun about the year 1776, and went onward
till the end of his life.

It is of interest for us to know how the beautiful cameo ornaments used
on this ware were obtained. The enthusiasm and the sense of honor which
inspired Wedgwood gave him access soon to the best people and the best
collections in England. In the collections of Sir William Hamilton, and
others, were the exquisite intaglios found in the antique art-work of
Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Wedgwood took most careful and delicate
impressions of these, and from these his careful and delicate cameos
were formed. Not only did he draw thus from the ancients, he also
enlisted the best designers and workmen wherever he could find them, and
among these the most distinguished was the sculptor Flaxman. It may
interest the rising sculptor to know that Flaxman's price for designs
made for Wedgwood was a half-guinea each. At this time he was a young
man struggling into recognition; and he was glad of the opportunity, as
well as of the money, which Wedgwood gave him. His designs all bear
unmistakable indications of Greek inspiration, and he has been called an
"English Greek."

Miss Meteyard, in her "Life of Wedgwood," quotes a number of the bills
paid to Flaxman. One in 1775 runs thus: "A pair of vases, one with a
satyr, the other with a triton-handle, three guineas; bass-reliefs of
the Muses and Apollo, Hercules and the lion, Hercules and the boar,
Hercules and Cerberus, Bacchus and Ariadne, Jupiter, Juno, Minerva,
Justice and Hope--for each of these he received ten shillings and
sixpence; table of the four seasons, two pounds and two shillings," etc.

Flaxman modeled, too, a goodly number of busts of distinguished persons.

Models and designs were also procured from artists in Italy, many of
which were made under the supervision of Flaxman while he was studying
and working there.

Of this jasper was made a great variety of objects, besides vases and
tea-services. Of the last we engrave portions of one in possession of
Mr. Wales, of Boston, which is as near perfection as any work of this
kind can be (Fig. 92).

[Illustration: FIG. 92.--_Old Wedgwood._]

This jasper-ware was used in many ways, as the following list will
indicate. It shows something of the variety of art-work made by
Wedgwood:

1. Cameos and intaglios.

2. Bass-reliefs, medallions, and tablets.

3. Kings and illustrious persons of Asia, Egypt, Greece, etc.

4. Busts of kings, emperors, popes, etc., down to modern times.

5. Heads of poets, painters, divines, etc.

6. Busts, statuettes, animals, etc.

7. Lamps and candelabra.

8. Ornamental vases and antique vases.

9. Painted Etruscan (Greek) vases, etc.

So great was the production of the cameos and antique ornaments, and so
greatly were they used as articles of jewelry, for settings in
furniture, etc., that over two thousand different moulds and designs
were made. We engrave here one of these small cameos, which, however,
fails to convey a full sense of the delicate character of the work (Fig.
93). They reached almost the perfection of gems.

[Illustration: FIG. 93.--_Wedgwood Cameo._]

[Illustration: FIG. 94.--_Teapot._]

Fig. 94, a teapot, which is not remarkable for beauty of form or
execution, is given as an example of the work done by the English
potters before Wedgwood's day, to meet the ordinary wants of common
life. It should be kept in mind, in estimating Wedgwood's character,
that he combined, in an eminent degree, the _artistic_ and the
_commercial_ faculties, and thus was able to produce results of a
striking kind. Like Shakespeare, he was omnivorous, and browsed wherever
the pastures were sweet. All food was good which could be turned into
delectable milk.

Some of the most perfect of Wedgwood's work was made in the black
_basalt_; which, however, lacks the brilliancy that colors gave to the
jasper-ware. The example engraved (Fig. 95) is from Mr. Wales's
collection.

[Illustration: FIG. 95.--_Wedgwood Basalt._]

In 1787 the most celebrated vase of antiquity, called the "Barberini
Vase," and now the "Portland Vase," was to be sold by auction. Wedgwood
was inspired with a desire to possess it; probably with the intention of
making copies. He kept bidding upon it, but his competitor was the
Duchess of Portland, who also was inspired with the desire of ownership.
Finally, when the price had reached eighteen hundred guineas, she sent
Wedgwood word that he should have the _loan_ of the vase, if he would
withdraw his competition. It was so agreed; and Wedgwood set to work. He
paid Webber five hundred guineas to make the model, for he was not
allowed to make a mould. He then produced fifty copies (some say fewer)
in his jasper-ware, the body being black, with a tinge of blue; the
reliefs being in white. It was as nearly a perfect reproduction as could
be made by the hand of man. As I have said, the cost of these was more
than the price received. This remarkable piece of antiquity is now in
the British Museum. It was once shown to a crazed man, who, with a blow
of his stick, broke it into a dozen pieces. It is, however, thoroughly
repaired.

The original vase is nine and three-fourths inches high and twenty-one
and three-fourths inches in circumference. Wedgwood's reproduction of it
was pronounced by the best judges to be faultless. It was exhibited at
all the principal courts of Europe by his son in 1791. The moulds are
still in existence, and other copies have frequently been made by
Wedgwood's successors, but they are not equal to the first in finish. We
give a photograph of this celebrated vase as a frontispiece.

Miss Meteyard gives the following account of this renowned vase: "The
original vase is supposed to have been manufactured in the glass-works
of Alexandria at their best period. Brought thence to Rome, it was used
as a receptacle for the ashes of the funeral-pyre, as it was found
inclosed in a sarcophagus of excellent workmanship, and this in a
sepulchral chamber beneath a mound of earth called Monte del Grano,
about three miles from Rome, on the road to ancient Tusculum. The
discovery was made between the years 1623 and 1644, during the
pontificate of Urban VIII. (Barberini). An inscription on the
sarcophagus, which was otherwise covered with fine bass-reliefs, showed
it to have been dedicated to the memory of the Emperor Alexander
Severus, and his mother, Julia Mammæa, both of whom were killed in the
year 235, during the revolt in Germany. The vase, ten inches in height,
was deposited in the library of the Barberini family, and the
sarcophagus in the museum of the capital. The material of which the
former is composed was, by Montfauçon and others, conjectured to be a
precious stone, but Wedgwood's examination proved it to be formed of
glass; the ground being a dark blue, so nearly approaching black as to
appear to be of that color, except when held in a strong light. The
white bass-reliefs are of glass or paste, the material having been fused
on in a mass, and then cut out by the skill and patience of the
gem-engraver. The subjects of these bass-reliefs, as also the age and
place of production of the vase, are points so wholly unknown as to be
open to conjecture and criticism. With respect to the first, critics
have differed. They have been generally considered to bear reference to
the Eleusinian mysteries; but one of the most learned critics of our own
day, whose works on 'Gems' are known to every artist, scholar, and man
of taste, considers that one of the group represents Peleus approaching
Thetis. At best, the vase must ever remain what Erasmus Darwin termed
it, 'Portland's mystic urn.' Wedgwood valued the copy represented at two
hundred pounds."

I must say for myself that, having seen the original--now in the British
Museum, where it is most jealously guarded--I cannot but admire the
careful and beautiful cutting of the figures in the designs which
surround the body; but I did not when I saw it, nor do I now, think the
form of the vase in any degree equal to the best of the Greek or
Etruscan vases.

Wedgwood's life was an active and a productive one. He learned how to
live, not from books, not in schools, but in doing the work his hands
found to do. He was born a potter, he remained a potter, and he died a
potter. He did not esteem his occupation a thing to be dropped as soon
as possible, that he might be something else; or, as many persons are
apt to do, that he might do nothing. Work, to him, was not only
honorable, it was _necessary_. The old notion, that work was a curse,
never entered his sound head.

It is an honorable thing that his merits were recognized while he lived;
for this is rare in the heat and hurry and competition of this day of
ours. Before he died, in 1795, he was made a Fellow of the Royal
Society, and of the Society of Antiquaries; and was recognized by a
large number of people as a thorough worker and an able man. Since his
death, honors have descended on his head. His "Life" has been carefully
written by Mr. Jewitt and by Miss Meteyard; and Mr. Gladstone, England's
ablest man, has spoken with generous and discriminating praise of him
and his works.

In many private collections, as well as in all public ones, these works
are prized; and not the least interesting and valuable of these
collections is that of Mr. Gladstone, now loaned to the city of
Liverpool.

The prices which fine pieces of Wedgwood's work have sold for will be
seen in the following, from a sale of Mrs. Brett's, in England, in
1864:

  Plaques, white on blue ground, "Virgil reciting before Augustus,"
      7-1/2 by 18 inches                                £44
  Five groups, infant bacchanals, 5 by 23 inches         64
  Basin, with Cupids and figures                         10

At a sale of De la Rue's, in 1866:

  Pair of two-handled seaux, with satyrs, gnomes, etc.   £39 18_s._
  Dish, nautilus-shell                                     9 10_s._
  Large bowl on foot, with boys, festoons, etc.           27  6_s._

Busts in black-ware sold as follows:

  De Witt                                                £17 17_s._
  Seneca                                                  15
  Bacon                                                   10 10_s._
  Venus                                                   15 15_s._
  Cato                                                     9 10_s._

At Mr. Marryat's sale:

  A black tazza supported on three figures, 11 inches              £6 10_s._
  A pair of black vases and covers, with white figures in cameo,
      12 inches                                                    46
  A black lamp, with red figures                                    2 10_s._
  A granite vase, with handles, gilt ornaments, etc., 9 inches      4  4_s._
  A watch-stand, with Cupid in relief in white, on sage-green
      ground, 6 inches                                              8
  A candlestick, in form of a tree, with Cupids ditto, 11 inches,  16

Staffordshire now smokes for miles with the fires of her kilns, and vast
quantities of wares are produced. Within the last twenty-five years a
growing desire has been felt to bestow upon these articles of every-day
use some grace of form and some decoration of art; and in both the
English and the French pottery of to-day beauty and use are combined.



CHAPTER X.

THE PORCELAIN OF CHINA

     Difficulties.--The Porcelain Tower at Nanking.--First Making of
     Porcelain.--Kaolin and Pe-tun-tse.--Marco Polo.--Portuguese
     Importation.--The City of King-te-chin.--Jacquemart's
     Groups.--Symbolic Decoration.--Inscriptions.--The Ming Period.--The
     Celestial Blue.--The Celadons.--Reticulated Cups.--The
     Crackle.--Various Periods.--Individualism.--Marks and Dates.


No people and no civilization have been or are still of greater interest
than those of the "Flowery Kingdom;" and, spite of much study and
careful investigation, of none are we less certain than of these.
Through thousands of years a peculiar people have developed a peculiar
social system--most striking, most distinct, and, in its way, as
complete as any other, even if compared with ours, of which we loudly
boast. And now this singular people--a people who have grown into a
population of four hundred millions, having their barriers broken down
by the guns and rams of England, so that trade should enter--are
themselves coming out to do the work of the world cheaper than any
others can do it. We see them in Batavia, in Siam, in Singapore, in
great numbers, as workers, as brokers, as merchants, as manufacturers,
and now they are flowing a steady tide into California; and who can say
where the flood will reach, where it will stop, and whom it will
submerge? No other question of such importance now presses upon us as
this.

But here we have to deal only with one of the most perfect and most
beautiful of industries--one which seems to have had its rise and its
culmination with this strange people.

What we know of it we can hardly be said to _know_. The Chinese have
always kept their own secrets, and have not cared to convert us to their
methods, or to cater to our ways. We therefore gather, here and there, a
scrap of information upon the subject of porcelains; we get, when we
can, examples of their work; we try to learn something of their
processes; but, after all, can only submit what we gather with some
misgivings as to the absolute truth.

We do not know how to spell their names in our letters, and they vary
infinitely; so too the inscriptions upon their plates and dishes vary
with the knowledge and the fancy of the translator. Of course, we
approximate to the truth, but not more; for no two Chinese quite agree
as to what this most flexible writing may mean. As to dates on the
pieces, some certainty seems to have been reached; and such is valuable.
I have added to this article _marks_ and dates as now understood by the
best authorities in England, and as arranged by Mr. A. W. Franks, who is
the latest writer upon the subject. The knowledge of these helps the
student, and is valuable to the collector.

[Illustration: FIG. 96.--_Pou-tai, "The God of Content."_]

The opening cut (Fig. 96) in our chapter shows the Chinese god
Pou-tai--the "God of Content." He is described as "corpulent, his chest
uncovered, mounted upon or leaning on the wine-skin which holds his
terrestrial goods; his face, with half-closed eyes, beaming with an
eternal laugh."

His image, done in porcelain, is found in the workshops of China, where
men wish more than they can obtain; he allays, perhaps, but does not
quench. This image would be most useful--at least, most suggestive--if
it could be set up in every _bourse_ of the Western world.

[Illustration: FIG. 97.--_The Porcelain Tower at Nanking._]

The Nanking Tower (Fig. 97) once stood near the city of Nanking, from
which city much of our finest porcelain comes. It was built with bricks
or pottery, the face of which was coated with a dip or slip of
porcelain; and the whole thing was valuable and interesting as a
monument of the potter's art. It is now razed to the ground, the last
destruction being that of the Taiping rebels.

The history of pottery is in a good degree the history of man. All
nations have done something in this way, from the rude clay pots of the
barbarians, through the gayly-painted dishes of the incipient
civilization, up to the culmination of the art, when perfection seems to
have been reached in China through the centuries extending up to the
sixteenth. This manufacture, which reached in China and Japan to the
point of finest art, has not been surpassed by any civilized race, if
equaled. I am unable to do anything but admire a people whose workmen
did and liked to do such fine and faithful work, and found such large
patronage for it; and it seems a ludicrous and stupid judgment for us,
who admire and pay for the sculptures of Mr. Mills and Miss Ream, to
call those peoples barbarians!

Are they not justified in calling _us_ "outside barbarians?"

This chapter will treat briefly upon these Oriental productions, and I
hope no apology is needed.

Three thousand years (2697 B. C.) before our Christian era these Chinese
were great potters, had reached to a high point in form and decoration;
and porcelain, the finest pottery, began to be made some two hundred
years before our era. At that time our ancestors were in a state of
gross, if not beastly, barbarism; while _they_ showed skill, taste,
refinement, in this and in other ways.

As late as the seventeenth century cups and trenchers of "honest tre,"
or wood, were used in the best castles of England, and the dishes were
often square bits of board; and down even to a much later day the
fingers were used to carry the meat to the mouth.

Some two hundred years, then, before Christ, it appears that the Chinese
had discovered and applied to the making of porcelain two fine clays,
one called _kaolin_, and the other _pe-tun-tse_; the first is a decayed
feldspar; combined, these clays produce the fine semi-transparent body
which we call china or porcelain. All china, then, has in a greater or
less degree this quality of translucency. It appears, therefore, that
most of the Canton ware brought to us is not porcelain at all, but
simply a kind of stone or earthen ware, coated with an enamel or "slip,"
which sometimes may contain porcelain.

So, too, the most beautiful Satsuma ware from Japan is not porcelain,
but a fine sort of pottery or earthen-ware, the decoration of which is
most marked and harmonious.

For more than two thousand years the "heathen Chinee" has been working
at the production of porcelain--and apparently most intelligently and
skillfully. He has accomplished this:

1. The materials used are selected with the greatest care.

2. They are combined, and ground, and mixed, with consummate knowledge.

3. The articles desired are turned and modeled with great precision and
dexterity, oftentimes with the keenest perception of beauty of line.

4. The decorations exhibit an exquisite feeling as to value and harmony
of color, and freedom of design.

This combination of knowledge, skill, and taste, the Chinese were the
first to combine in pottery and porcelain, and they have not been
excelled.

To those who are ignorant, it seems a very paltry thing to make a
dinner-plate; but to make a perfect one requires most of the best
faculties of man. Ignorant and foolish people hold the china-lovers in
contempt; we reciprocate: we believe that the man who does not perceive
and enjoy all this beautiful handiwork is willfully ignorant or pitiably
stupid: he has our pity and our prayers.

Traces of porcelain are found in the ancient tombs and among the mummies
of Egypt, in the form of small bottles as here shown (Fig. 98). Just
what was their use or significance we do not know; but some think they
prove that intercourse existed between those countries in very early
days.

Marco Polo visited China in the latter half of the thirteenth century,
and he told of the great factories for the production of porcelain
there; and how certain kinds of earth were collected, and, after being
exposed to air and rains for thirty or forty years, were then fit to be
made into cups and bowls. Great quantities were sold in the city. "For a
Venetian groat you may purchase eight porcelain cups."

Beginning of course with useful articles simply, this manufacture
progressed until pots and vases and dishes were made for purely
decorative purposes.

[Illustration: FIG. 98.--_Porcelain Bottle, from Egyptian Tomb._]

As porcelain was introduced into Europe by the Portuguese about the year
1518, we are obliged to pierce into the dimness of the past with the aid
of the Chinese themselves. M. Julien,[9] a Frenchman, has compiled from
the Chinese writings mostly all we know, some parts of which may come
into this chapter. Jacquemart, Marryat, Chaffers, Demmin, and others,
have drawn from him.

As early as the Tchoin dynasty (about 583) fine qualities were produced,
and the court of the emperors demanded it. Artists began to appear, and
rare and rarer qualities were made. We find that different styles were
sought for and were held in highest esteem; that "the Tsin held the blue
china in high estimation;" the Soni or Sui (581 to 618) gave the
preference to green. The Thang dynasty (618 to 907) required that it
should be white; and in 621 Ho made porcelain for the emperor of a white
ground, "brilliant as jade;" while the Emperor Tchi-tsong (954 to 959)
gave his family name to a beautiful blue, the most highly esteemed of
all the ancient porcelains of China.[10] How fine this was we cannot
know, as it is not likely that any piece of it exists with us, even if
among the Chinese. The production grew, until in 1369 in the city of
King-te-chin, according to the statement of Father d'Entrecolles, it
was estimated at a million pieces a year. A vast and varied industry in
making china was carried forward here, down even to the present times,
when the Taiping rebels (who we are told were _Christians_) completely
destroyed it.

From the accounts, mostly of the French missionaries, it seems that
while the three thousand furnaces at King-te-chin baked the porcelain
which was modeled there, it was taken to Nanking and Canton to be
decorated; and, as far as we know, the painting of Nanking was superior
to that of Canton. King-te-chin is swept away, and Nanking is almost
destroyed; so that we can expect no more fine art-work in porcelain from
China.

It is likely, however, that much decoration was done at the great city
of King-te-chin; but what we know now as "the celestial" or Nanking blue
was probably done at Nanking; of this more will be said in the progress
of this chapter.

It is impossible here to dwell upon or to know much of the various
descriptions of china made down to the period of the Ming dynasty (1368
to 1649). Upon the productions of this period the Chinese collectors and
antiquaries place the highest value--in many cases much greater even
than is now given to them in Europe.

Some examples of this period are to be seen in Europe and a few in
America.

One of our commissioners, who met the Chinese and Japanese at the Vienna
Exposition, was told by them that they were purchasing choice pieces of
porcelain, intending to take them back to their countries, where they
are more valuable than in Europe: for, from the earliest days, it seems
that both the Chinese and Japanese have been keen critics and lovers of
this most fascinating work.

Jacquemart and others have attempted to arrange the decorated work into
groups as follows:

The ARCHAIC--of which perhaps none exists.

The CHRYSANTHEMO-PÆONIENNE.

The FAMILLE-VERT, or GREEN.

The FAMILLE-ROSE, or PINK.

Besides these are many sub-varieties. These groups indicate the style
of decoration of which we shall attempt to give some sketches, although,
as they want color, they must necessarily be faint.

The chrysanthemo-pæonienne exhibits the use in various ways of the
chrysanthemum and peony. We give here examples to show the style of
decoration, as far as we are able to do it without color.

[Illustration: FIG. 99.--_Pot from Mrs. Burlingame's Collection._]

Fig. 99 is a pot from Mrs. Burlingame's collection. It stands about
twenty inches high, and is a fine example of the early style of work.
The paste and glaze are not so good as in the rose family, but still all
is excellent. The chrysanthemums are yellow, red, and black. This work
is no doubt very old.

We give (Fig. 100) a sketch of a small snuff-bottle from the same
collection, drawn the real size. It is a perfect piece of work: the
paste

[Illustration: FIG. 100.--_From Mrs. Burlingame's Collection._]

[Illustration: FIG. 101.--_From Mrs. Burlingame's Collection._]

is a fine white; the overturned preserve-pot is a clear lemon-yellow,
with a little color in the rings; the grasshopper is alive and is
brilliant with greens, blacks, and blues. The stopper is a bit of purple
amethyst. It is so _complete_ that it fills the mind with satisfaction,
more thorough than the sight of St. Peter's can give.

[Illustration: FIG. 102.--_Chinese Vase._]

[Illustration: FIG. 103.--_From Miss Wyman's Collection._]

The _famille-vert_, or green, is so called because a clear, brilliant
green is the only or prevailing color.

The plate here shown (Fig. 101) is also from Mrs. Burlingame's
collection. The paste is a brilliant white, the glaze perfect; and the
dragons, in green, have all that freedom and fancy for which the early
Chinese artists were remarkable.

The vase, Fig. 102, also belonging to the green-family, from Jacquemart,
is a beautiful example of this style of work. The figures are most
deftly drawn and colored. The subject we suppose to be historical.

[Illustration: FIG. 104.--_From Mr. Wales's Collection._]

The _famille-rose_, or red, describes a group where the rose and ruby
colors are the distinguishing ones. This fine color is produced from
gold. Nearly all of this work shows the color in low-relief.

Three very fine examples are given of this rose-family.

Fig. 103 is an octagon plate, with an exquisitely flowered and diapered
border, from the collection of Miss Wyman, of Cambridge.

Figs. 104 and 105 are equally good, from Mr. Wales's collection. In this
class rank the delicate egg-shell cups and saucers with "rose-backs," in
which Mr. Andrews's collection at New York is so rich.

In these three divisions is contained much of the very best productions
of China. The chrysanthemum and peony decoration was probably most in
use, and was made in greater quantities than any. Some of the older
pieces of this show the chrysanthemum in black (Fig. 99), as well as in
other colors. The body of this group is not so fine as the two later
descriptions, but the decoration is full of beauty and variety. In the
green and rose groups, the paste, the decoration, and the coloring,
reached perfection; and it is impossible to surpass the best work of
these classes.

[Illustration: FIG. 105.--_From Mr. Wales's Collection._]

But in all this work there is no imitation, no absolute copying of the
flower, the bud, the landscape, the lady.

The Chinese were fond of a symbolic or fabulous decoration. The
engraving (Fig. 106) pictures a conflict going on between the spirits or
demons of the water and the air; it is most free and effective. This
vase belongs to the collection of Mrs. Burlingame.

I saw in England a small blue vase, at Mr. Talbert's, upon which was
shown the Trinity (three figures) in a sort of balcony in the sky;
beneath them was a sea of fire, out of which appeared the dragon or
devil spitting venom at the Godhead, one of which was warding it off
with a drawn sword. It was curious, if not true, and showed their
notions of European beliefs, obtained, no doubt, from the early
missionaries.

The Dog of Fo is one of the sacred symbolic animals, and was placed at
the thresholds of temples to defend them from harm.

[Illustration: FIG. 106.--_From Mrs. Burlingame's Collection._]

He has feet armed with claws, a great grinning face full of teeth, a
curly mane, and might be supposed to be modeled, by an Oriental fancy,
from the lion. Sometimes this creature has been described as a chimera.

The fong-hoang also is sometimes pictured. This is a strange and
immortal bird, which descends from the regions of highest heaven to
bless mankind. It bears a fleshy head, soft silky feathers about its
neck, the body ending with a tail combining the feathers of the peacock
and the argus pheasant.

In very early centuries this bird was the symbol of royalty.

Other symbolic and sacred creatures are often pictured, among them the
kylin, which was believed to foretell good fortune.

"Its body is covered with scales; its branched head represents that of
the dragon; its four delicate feet are terminated by cloven hoofs,
resembling those of a stag; it is so gentle and benevolent,
notwithstanding its formidable aspect, that it avoids, in its light
step, to tread under foot the smallest worm."[11]

The dragon, symbol there of empire and power, is thus described:

"It is the largest of reptiles with feet and scales; it can make itself
dark or luminous, subtile and thin, or heavy and thick; can shorten or
lengthen itself at pleasure. In the spring it rises to the skies, in the
autumn it plunges into the water. There are the scaly dragon, the winged
dragon, the horned and the hornless dragon, and the dragon rolled within
itself, which has not yet taken its flight into the upper regions."[12]

The example (Fig. 101) shows this dragon as pictured by the Chinese.

The dragon is shown with five claws, for the imperial household; four
claws, for a lower rank in China; while in Japan the creature is usually
figured with but three claws. He appears to have been accepted as the
symbol of power, much as the lion has been with Occidental nations.

The white stag, the axis deer, and the crane, express longevity; the
mandarin duck, affection.

Symbolism also prevailed in the uses of colors and of flowers. Green and
vermilion upon the walls of a house belonged only to the emperors.

The primary colors were applied in this way:

Red belonged to fire;

Black to water;

Green to wood;

White to metal;

Earth was represented by a square;

Fire by a circle;

Water by a dragon;

Mountains by a hind.

Pots and vases were made for special occupations, such as those for
soldiers, governors, writers, etc. Jacquemart describes a bowl in his
collection:

"It is a cup of 'the learned;' at the bottom is seen the author, seated
under a fir-tree, in deep meditation; his _ssé_, placed near him,
permits him to modulate the songs he may have composed. On the exterior
we see the scholar, with his elbows on the table, surrounded by his
literary treasures. He reflects, and from his forehead, which he leans
on his hand, issues a stroke which unrolls into a vast phylactery, upon
which the painter has traced various scenes of the drama to which his
genius is giving birth." In Mr. Avery's collection is an admirable
example of this cup.

Vases, figures, etc., were made for religious uses, and upon the
household altars were placed vases for burning perfumes, cups and bowls
for wine, images of Fo and other representative deities.

Use was, at the beginning, the motive for the production of all fictile
dishes; and china was at first, and it has always been, made for the
purposes of the table. Twelve small dishes of fine porcelain were
presented to Mrs. Burlingame while at Peking; and the high compliment
was enhanced by the fact that they were sent to her unwashed after they
had been eaten from by the Chinese owner. The paste and glaze are
excellent, and the decoration of the outsides exquisite; but the insides
show painting of a much commoner type.

A gift of this kind is considered the height of courtesy in China, where
the visitor is treated as a friend.

In Chinese houses are found decorative pieces of the highest excellence
and value. It is no uncommon thing for a piece of rare china to sell for
a thousand dollars there.

Many of them bear inscriptions, such as: "A precious thing to offer;"
"Splendid, like the gold of the house of Jade;" "I am the friend of
Yu-Tchouen."

The chrysanthemo-pæonienne, the customary decoration, while most in use,
is, so far as I know, never seen on dinner-services sent to us.

I may ask attention to a characteristic of all the best Oriental art:
_it is not imitative_--not absolutely a copy.

The artist seizes the _spirit_, the action, the color, of a bird or
flower, and, by a few fine, keen strokes, fastens them upon the china.
No attempt is made to display a botanical or ornithological specimen.
All is free, bold, effective--a sketch, but not a slovenly one. It is
not easy for words to explain this.

Now, the methods of the Occidental and civilized peoples, as we call
them, are the reverse of this. At Sèvres and Dresden, for example, is to
be seen the most elaborate, careful, and detailed penciling or imitation
of a flower, or a face, or a landscape, requiring extreme and persistent
attention and labor.

This is copying--the _spirit_ is rarely seized; the other is art, and is
certainly the highest and the most satisfactory.

The Oriental feels;

The Occidental reasons.

The Oriental perceives and creates;

The Occidental criticises and copies.

Herein lies a supreme difference, sufficient to explain why so much of
the Oriental china touches the imagination, and why the European china
so rarely does.

The Oriental leads us away out of the region of the real and the
commonplace, into a state of ideal and spiritual-sensuous art. He is
never without body, the real part, the base of all life and art; but he
has glorified it by a display of the fine and subtile essence which may
be called its soul.

This is not always so. Often he is most clumsy and rude in form, and
common in decoration; but, when he is an _artist_, he is the finest we
know of.

It is probable that the Chinese had some blue equivalent to cobalt

[Illustration: FIG. 107.--_From Mrs. Burlingame's Collection._]

from an early day, but the real cobalt blue was introduced into China
from Europe during the Ming period (about 1500). They at once seized it,
and from it was produced that charming variety known as the "heavenly"
or "celestial" blue; the glaze, the clay, and the color, are all
perfect; and it certainly deserves its name of heavenly. A mania for it
has existed, and continues to exist, in Europe. One of the finest
collections in England--that of Mr. Rossetti, the poet--was recently
sold. In America, Mr. Avery and Mr. Hoe, of New York, Mr. Wales, of
Boston, and Mrs. Burlingame, of Cambridge, have many beautiful examples.
Fine pieces of this blue sell for from twenty-five to

[Illustration: FIG. 108.--_Celestial Blue Teapot._]

[Illustration: FIG. 109.--_Celestial Blue Snuff-Bottle._]

five hundred dollars. The color varies from light to dark; some
collectors choose one, some the other. Some pieces are known as the
"six-mark," and many attach an added value to this evidence; but it does
not seem to indicate greater perfection: many of the finest pieces I
have seen have no potter's mark. Within the last twenty-five years a
very active desire for these fine blues has broken out in England, which
does not abate. It has not been so keen in France, and prices have not
there gone so high.

[Illustration: FIG. 110.--_Pot in Boston Art Museum._]

This celestial blue was painted at Nanking, and is a wholly different
thing from the ordinary Canton blue of trade. It is probable that some
of this blue dates back to the Ming dynasty. The color was mostly
painted under the glaze.

This luminous blue is nothing like the turquoise, which also the Chinese
carried to great perfection. The turquoise was produced from copper, the
celestial from cobalt.

The pieces Figs. 107, 108, and 109 are excellent examples of the
celestial blue. Fig. 107 is a large vase of Mrs. Burlingame's, and has
the stately palm which is much used in this color. The vase is some
eighteen inches high. Fig. 108 is a delicately-formed teapot, with
exquisite glaze and paste, the blue showing in the reserves and along
the handle and spout. It was given to the writer by a gentleman in
Holland. Fig. 109 is a most dainty bit, a small snuff-bottle. There are
some few others in this country--two of them, mounted in silver, belong
to Mr. Schlesinger, of Boston.

[Illustration: FIG. 111.--_Incense-Pot, from Mr. Avery's Collection._]

The Art-Museum of Boston has now two exquisite pots of turquoise blue,
bought at the sale of Mr. Heard's collection for some six hundred
dollars. We picture one of these to show the form, and the dragon which
finishes the top (Fig. 110). The dragon is in dark red, the pot in
turquoise blue; but this blue has another and a rare quality: it is
covered all over with delicate spots or dots of the same color, what is
called "soufflé"--this is said to be produced by blowing the color
through a fine screen or gauze on to the clay.

The sea-greens (_céladons_) are among the rarest Chinese colors, and
some pieces are thought to be among the oldest--dating back possibly one
thousand years.

The violets and crimsons are also rare and beautiful; they are almost
always applied to vases and bottles; and are often flamed, splashed, or
clouded.

The imperial yellow, some pieces of which are in the Green Vaults at
Dresden, was never sold; it was made only for the royal family of
Peking. I have not seen it, but it is described as a very clear and
beautiful citron-color. Marryat mentions two pieces in Mr. Beckford's
collection as having been sold for their weight in gold; they would now
sell for ten times that.

The small incense-pot (Fig. 111) is from Mr. Avery's collection. It is a
very pure lemon-yellow, and is quaint in form and peculiar in every way.

Nothing can be better here than the condensed information prepared for
his catalogue by Mr. A. W. Franks. It is as follows:

"The tints are very numerous; we find, for instance, sea-green or
_céladon_, yellow, red, blue, purple, brown, black, and several
variegated hues. These glazes owe their color to various metallic
oxides, of which an account may be found in the 'History of
King-te-chin,' book vi., section xi. The exact tint must be in some
measure due to the amount of firing which the vase has undergone, and
the mottlings and other variations of color which they present must have
been to a certain extent accidental.

"Among these simple colors the first place must be assigned to the
bluish or sea-green tint, termed by the French _céladon_. It is probably
of considerable antiquity; and it is remarkable that the earliest
specimen of porcelain that can now be referred to as having been brought
to England before the Reformation--the cup of Archbishop Warham, at New
College, Oxford--is of this kind. By the Persians and Turks it is termed
_mertebani_, and it is much valued by them as a detector of poisonous
food. Specimens of this porcelain were sent to Lorenzo de' Medici, in
1487, by the Sultan of Egypt. It owes its preservation, no doubt, to its
great thickness. The surface is sometimes covered with impressed or
engraved patterns filled in with the glaze.

"Yellow glazed porcelain is much valued by collectors, owing to the
supposed scarcity of specimens of this color, it being the imperial
color of the reigning dynasty. Many of them, however, bear dates of the
Ming dynasty, when the imperial color was green, and can therefore have
no relation to the emperor.

"The red glaze is of considerable antiquity; some of the vases made
under the Sung dynasty at Tsing-cheou are mentioned as resembling
chiseled red jade. One tint, the _sang de boeuf_ of French collectors,
is much valued in China. Occasionally portions of red glazed vases
appear purple, owing probably to a different chemical condition of the
coloring-matter in those parts.

"Blue glazes must have come into use in very early times, as blue is
stated to have been the color of the vases of the Tsin dynasty (A. D.
265 to 419). The tints appear to have varied greatly, one of the most
celebrated being the blue of the sky after rain, which was the tint
selected for the palace use by the Emperor Chi-tsung (954 to 959).

"The purple glaze is another beautiful variety. Specimens of this color
are mentioned as early as the Sung dynasty (900 to 1279). The brown and
coffee-colored glazes do not appear to be very ancient, as Père
d'Entrecolles, writing in 1712, mentions them as recent inventions.

"A brilliant black glaze is by no means common, excepting where it is
used in combination with gilding, and is probably not very ancient, as a
brilliant black is said to have been invented under the reign of the
Emperor Keen-lung (1736 to 1795).

"The variegated and mottled glazes may properly be included under this
head, as they owe their appearance not so much to a difference in the
coloring-matter as in the mode in which it is applied. They are called
by the French _flambé_, and were no doubt originally accidentally
produced. According to Père d'Entrecolles (second letter, section xi.),
such vases are called _Yao pien_, or transmutation-vases.

"It is probable that many of the specimens which are covered with single
glazes are of a coarse ware--rather a kind of stone-ware than true
porcelain. Some of the glazes have been applied at a somewhat lower
temperature, called by the French _demi-grand feu_."

Porcelain-painting is done in two ways: under the glaze directly on the
clay, or upon the glaze. Most of it is upon the glaze, into which it is
melted by a mild heat. To show to the uninitiated what time, talent, and
labor, are applied to pottery and porcelain, it may be well to state
that fine work requires many firings, and that the delicate teacup,
which fools hardly look at, passes through some seventy hands to reach
its perfectness! In some eyes a big thing (even if ugly) is admirable; a
small thing, however beautiful, is contemptible. In the eye of God is
anything small, anything large?

ENAMELING is a style of glaze mostly applied to a stronger, more opaque
body, often not porcelain at all. The enamel, which is made from oxide
of tin, may be applied in masses of color upon the glaze so as to
produce the effect of slight relief, or cameo. Much of it is beautiful,
but it often lacks the fineness and preciousness of china.

Of the EGG-SHELL china most have seen excellent examples brought from
Japan, where it is now made. The cups are turned down to an extreme
thinness, almost to that of thick writing-paper, before the last glaze
is applied. The oldest egg-shell was a pure white; later, flowers in
colors were applied.

[Illustration: FIG. 112.--_Grains-of-Rice Pot._]

The "reticulated" cups are very curious and interesting; the inner cup
for holding the tea is surrounded by another pierced through its side
with a variety of designs. It is difficult to see how these could have
been baked together without fusing and fastening them.

The "grains-of-rice" cups are made by cutting the design through the
body, which spaces are then filled with a translucent glaze; the cut
spaces show when held up to the light, and resemble in most cases grains
of rice. The engraving (Fig. 112) represents a pot in Mr. Avery's
collection.

Just when the "crackle" decoration was applied cannot well be known, but
it was in vogue in the beginning of the Ming dynasty.

It seems that the purity of the paste was greater during this period
than later, and that the colors, therefore, became more brilliant.
"Crackle" china has long been prized, and much sought for, especially
the best specimens. This ware shows a network of veins covering the
whole piece, the lines of which are sometimes filled with a color such
as brown, black, green, etc. It remains a mystery to us how this effect
is produced, though it is still made. Marryat seems to believe that the
crackle is produced in the glaze, and possibly by subjecting it, when
heated, to sudden cold, which causes the contraction and crackle; a
close examination shows that the crackles are in the body itself, and
are afterward covered with the glaze. This decoration is curious rather
than beautiful. The crackles vary in size from a half-inch to a very
fine network; and this last is most valued.

Mr. Franks gives the following as the result of his investigations:

"This is one of the most peculiar productions of the art of the Chinese
potter, and has not been successfully imitated elsewhere. Occasionally
European pieces assume a crackled appearance, but this has not been
intentionally produced, and has been subsequent to the baking.

"There is a considerable variety in the colored glazes which are thus
crackled. Some colors, such as turquoise-blue and apple-green, seem
nearly always to assume a crackled appearance; others, such as the reds,
are rarely affected. The color chiefly selected is a grayish white; the
forms are archaic, and with ornaments in dark brown, occasionally gilt.
The crackled appearance, though now always artificial, doubtless owes
its origin in the first instance to accident, and at an early period.
Some of the vases of the Sung dynasty (A. D. 960 to 1270) are noticed as
being crackled. The productions of the two brothers Chang, who lived
under that dynasty, were distinguished by one being crackled and the
other not. Crackled vases were called 'Tsui-khi-yao,' under the southern
Sung dynasty (1127 to 1279), and are thus described in the 'History of
King-te-chin:' 'The clay employed was coarse and compact, the vases were
thick and heavy; some were of a rice-white, others pale blue. They used
to take some Hoa-chi (steatite), powder it, and mix it with the glaze.
The vases exhibited cracks running in every direction, as though broken
into a thousand pieces. The cracks were rubbed over with Indian-ink or a
red color, and the superfluity removed. Then was seen a network of
charming veins, red or black, imitating the cracks of ice. There were
also vases on which blue flowers were painted on the crackled ground.'

[Illustration: FIG. 113.--_Crackle Vase._]

"A different mode of making the crackles is described in another Chinese
work, and is as follows: 'After covering the vases with glaze, they are
exposed to a very hot sun, and, when they have become hot, they are
plunged into cold water for a moment. On being baked, they appear
covered with innumerable cracks.' The way in which the size of the
crackle is regulated seems to be indicated in one of the receipts for
making crackle-vases, given in the 'History of King-te-chin' (page 214),
from which we learn that the material of the glaze was to be finely or
coarsely washed, according to the size of the crackle required.

"The difference between the paste and the thick glaze is well
illustrated by fragments of ancient vases, some of which are exhibited.
The interior is of a coarse paste, nearly resembling stone-ware, and of
a buff or even pale-red color. This is coated on both sides with a
white material, in which alone the crackles appear. This illustrates a
passage in the 'History of King-te-chin,' where porcelain is spoken of
as having red bones. Such vases would not be transparent."

[Illustration: FIG. 114.--_From Mr. Avery's Collection._]

The Japanese now produce a crackle under the glaze, and also a very fine
crackle in the glaze itself; which last is probably much the easiest to
do.

Fig. 113, copied from M. Jacquemart's work, represents a rather
clumsily-shaped vase with the larger crackle, which is less prized. Fig.
114 is finely crackled, and is most subtile in form. It is in Mr.
Avery's collection.

At the end of this chapter will be found some of the most important
_marks_ for dates, etc.

These few are used by the Chinese as symbolic:

[Illustration: _Pearl._]

[Illustration: _Sonorous Stone._]

The _Pearl_ is the symbol of talent, and was sometimes used to mark
pieces intended for poets and literary men; the _Sonorous Stone_ was for
high judicial functionaries; the _Tablet of Honor_ for men in official
positions; the _Sacred Axe_ for warriors; the "Cockscomb" promised
longevity; and the "Outang or Leaf," the "Shell," the "Precious
Articles," had each a significance, and often indicate pieces of china
intended as presents or as expressions of honor.

[Illustration: _Tablet of Honor._]

[Illustration: _Sacred Axe._]

[Illustration: _Cockscomb (flower)._]

[Illustration: _Outang._]

[Illustration: _Shell._]

[Illustration: _Precious Articles._]

It is probable that many of the best examples of Chinese porcelain date
from the Ming dynasty, some of which are to be found in our public and
private collections. The history of the manufacture there since that
time is thus summed up by Mr. Franks:

"The troubles of the later emperors of the Ming dynasty, who succeeded
one another rapidly, and were constantly at war with the Tartars,
probably caused the porcelain-works to fall into decay; we hear, at any
rate, nothing of their productions, nor have any dated specimens been
seen.

"With the accession of the Tsing dynasty of Tartars, still occupying the
throne of China, a new period of activity commenced. Under Kang-he, the
second emperor of the dynasty (1661 to 1722), a great impulse was given
to the ceramic arts. The long and peaceful reign of this emperor,
extending to sixty-one years, his great understanding, and the
assistance perhaps of the Jesuit missionaries, led to many improvements
in the porcelain-manufacture, and to the introduction of several new
colors. It is probably to this reign that we may refer most of the old
specimens of Chinese porcelain that are to be seen in collections, even
when they bear earlier dates. The wares made under his successor,
Yung-ching (1723 to 1736), do not appear to have been remarkable.

"The fourth emperor, Keen-lung (1736 to 1795), reigned for sixty years,
when he abdicated. A large quantity of fine china was made during his
long reign, much of it exhibiting very rich and minute decoration. Under
his successors the manufacture appears again to have diminished in
excellence; and the destruction caused by the rebellion of the Taipings
not only greatly interfered with the extent of production, but caused
the downfall of the most celebrated of the fabrics--that of
King-te-chin.

"As we have already said, however, the native accounts do not furnish
much information that can be rendered available; but they show very
clearly that at all times the porcelain-makers were in the habit of
copying the works of their predecessors, and instances are given where
they have even succeeded in imposing upon the best judges of their own
country.

"The places at which manufactories of porcelain have existed or still
exist in China are very numerous, no less than fifty-seven being
recorded in the 'History of King-te-chin.' They extend to thirteen of
the eighteen provinces into which the country is divided, but are
especially numerous in Honan, Chihkiang, and Kiangsi, probably owing to
the presence of the materials for the manufacture in these provinces.
The following is a summary:

  Chihli                5
  Keang-nan             5
  Shansi                5
  Shantung              2
  Honan                13
  Shensi                4
  Kansuh                1
  Chihkiang             8
  Kiangsi               8
  Szechuen              1
  Fokien                2
  Kwangtung             1
  Hoonan                2

"Of all these manufactories, the most famous appears to be that of
King-te-chin, in the province of Kiangsi. It has long been the site of a
fabrique, as in A. D. 583 the then emperor ordered the inhabitants of
the district now called King-te-chin to send him porcelain vases. The
old name was Chang-nan-chin, and the present one was assumed in the
period King-te (A. D. 1004 to 1007), whence its name. In 1712 Père
d'Entrecolles states that there were three thousand porcelain furnaces
in this town, which found employment for an immense multitude of people.
The manufactory has suffered severely, as we have already stated, during
the rebellion of the Taipings.

"Porcelain is termed by the Chinese _Yao_, a name which seems to have
been brought into use at the commencement of the Tang dynasty (A. D.
618), before which it had been called _Tao_. The word 'porcelain' is
European, possibly Italian, and is supposed to have been derived from
the similarity of the glazed surface to that of the cowrie-shell
(_porcellana_), which itself took its name from its form (_porcella_, a
little pig). Marco Polo employs the word in both senses. In French
mediæval inventories the word '_pourcelaine_' is often found, and
evidently denoted a substance which could be sculptured. M. de Laborde
has collected a number of quotations, in the valuable 'Glossaire'
appended to his catalogue, of the enamels in the Louvre, and has come to
the conclusion that mother-of-pearl was intended; it will, however, be
safer to consider that the word was used for any kind of shell, the
cowrie and other shells being as well, or even better, adapted for
carving than mother-of-pearl. In later inventories the word seems to
have been used both for shell and Oriental porcelain.

"The claim of greatest antiquity that has been hitherto put forward for
specimens found out of the limits of the Celestial Empire have been in
favor of the little Chinese bottles, which were stated by Rossellini and
others to have been found in undisturbed Egyptian tombs, dating from not
less than 1800 years B. C. This claim has, however, been disallowed. The
bottles are of good white porcelain, painted in colors, and bearing
inscriptions. Now, we have seen that the Chinese themselves do not claim
a greater antiquity for the invention of porcelain than between B. C.
206 and A. D. 87. Color-painting must have been introduced at a much
later date. The inscriptions are in the grass-character, which was not
invented till B. C. 48, and contain passages from poems which were not
written till the eighth century of our era. They are, in fact, identical
with snuff-bottles still for sale in China. Their introduction,
therefore, into Egyptian tombs must have been due to the fraud of Arab
workmen. The whole subject has been gone into by M. Stanislas Julien, in
the preface to the 'History of King-te-chin,' as well as by others.

"The next claim has been made on behalf of the _murrhine_ vases of the
ancients, which are described as 'cooked in Parthian fires.' Now, it is
probable that, at the commencement of our era, Chinese porcelain was not
far advanced beyond pottery or stone-ware, and little superior to the
so-called Egyptian porcelain. No fragments of Chinese vases have been
found with Greek or Roman antiquities, nor of imitations of them in
other materials, so as to correspond with the false murrhine of the
ancients. It is therefore far more probable, as has been suggested by
Mr. Nesbitt, in his notes on the 'History of Glass-making,' that the
murrhine vases were made of agates and other hard stones, of which the
colors had been modified in the East by heating and staining. The false
murrhines would then be the glass bowls imitating hard stones, but with
various strange tints not to be found in natural stones.

"In 1171 we first find any distinct mention of porcelain out of China.
In that year Saladin sent to Nur-ed-din various presents, among which
were forty pieces of Chinese porcelain.

"Marco Polo, traveling in 1280, visited one of the sites of the
porcelain manufacture, and mentions that it was exported all over the
world. It is probable that he may have been the means of calling the
attention of his countrymen to this production of the far East. Many
other notices from travelers of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries
might be cited. It was probably through Egypt that it reached Europe; at
any rate, a present of porcelain vases was sent by the Sultan of Egypt,
in 1487, to Lorenzo de' Medici. To the Portuguese is no doubt due the
first direct importation of Chinese wares into Europe, in which they
were followed by the various India companies of Holland, England,
France, Sweden, etc.

"It may be convenient shortly to describe the mode of making porcelain
in China, as derived from the letters of Père d'Entrecolles (1712 to
1722), and the 'History of King-te-chin,' in which M. Julien has
reproduced the Chinese plates illustrating the processes.

"Porcelain in China is usually formed of two materials: the one, termed
in Chinese _Pe-tun-tse_, is a white, fusible material--a mixture of
feldspar and quartz, obtained from a pounded rock by repeated washing,
and formed into cakes or bricks, whence its Chinese name, 'white-clay
bricks;' the other, termed Kaolin from its locality, is infusible, being
a hydrated silicate of alumina, derived from the decomposed feldspar of
granite; this is also formed into cakes. These two materials, having
been thoroughly cleansed, are kneaded together in varying proportions,
and form a clay ready for the potter. The wet clay is turned on the
wheel or potter's table, and, after passing through the hands of several
workmen, who add handles and other accessories made in moulds, smooth
the surface, etc., the vessel is put out to dry, the foot still
remaining a solid mass; any decoration in blue, or other colors which
require to be highly fired, is then added. The glaze is next applied,
either by dipping, or by blowing it on with a tube. This strengthens the
vessel sufficiently to enable the workmen to fashion the foot on the
wheel, and to inscribe any mark; this being likewise coated with glaze,
the vessel is ready for the furnace. The pieces of porcelain are packed
in clay seggars to protect them from injury, and placed according to the
degree of heat which each specimen requires. The furnace is then
lighted, the entrance walled up, and it is kept supplied with wood
during a night and a day, when it is allowed to cool and the porcelain
removed. If enamel-colors are to be applied, it then passes into the
hands of the painters, who are very numerous, and each confined to his
own special detail; any gilding or silvering is added at this stage. It
is then baked again, at a much lower temperature, in a small muffle or
an open furnace. It should be mentioned that the glaze is formed of
Pe-tun-tse, mixed with fern-ashes and lime, but other materials are
occasionally used; for instance, Hwa-chi (steatite) is employed,
sometimes mixed with the glaze, as well as sometimes with the paste of
the porcelain. Any colors which will bear to be highly fired, and are
required to cover the whole surface, are mixed with the glaze before it
is applied.

"There is considerable difficulty in distinguishing glazed vases of
Chinese pottery from true porcelain, as the colored glaze in many cases
conceals the material, and the thickness prevents their being
translucent--a distinguishing quality of porcelain. The substance of
many of the vases is coarse, sometimes gray or even red, and such as
would, in European fabriques, be termed stone-ware. By Chinese writers,
however, no distinction seems to be made, and even enamels on copper are
included in the term they use for porcelain. It has, therefore, been
thought best to class together glazed Chinese pottery and porcelain,
though some of the specimens are undoubtedly stone-ware."

The key to Oriental decoration may be expressed by the word
_individualism_. The artist did draw from the "depths of his moral
consciousness," and did not copy blindly. He seems to have expressed
what he _felt_, rather than what he saw. His perception and arrangement
of color seem to have been inspired, not learned. He is daring; he does
not hesitate to hang his ladies in a balcony up in the air above the
procession passing beneath, as may be seen in a very ancient vase
belonging to Mrs. Gridley Bryant, of Boston; he does not fear to put
blue leaves to his trees, or to make a green horse; his butterfly is as
large as a man, if he wishes to show a figure or a mass of color; his
boats are smaller than the passenger, if that suits his fancy; he
attempts little perspective, and it is, we may say, impossible on a
china bowl; symmetry he abhors; pairs do not exist.

What is the result? We see it in the porcelain of China and Japan, the
shawls and carpets of India, the pottery of the Persians and the Moors,
the architecture of Karnak and the Alhambra, all of which are satisfying
to the eye and to the taste.

I believe they had no schools of art; they were not _taught_ to do what
some one else had done, to copy a master or to copy Nature, or to think
symmetry beauty, or the circle the perfect line.

The artist was, as he ought to be, a law to himself; he saw what _he_
saw, and felt what _he_ felt, and he expressed these in his own way; not
in Titian's way, or Rembrandt's way, or Giorgione's way. There is,
therefore, a freedom, a freshness, an _abandon_ about this work that we
find nowhere else, and a charm which never tires.

We are intellectualists rather than artists; and, moreover, we are
ruined by cheap and incompetent criticism, the whole gospel of which is,
"Always condemn, never praise." Too much writing _about_ art and too
little doing it, is the fashion of to-day; and he who does least finds
most fault with him who creates. The artist is the creator, the critic
the destroyer; and yet the last values himself most! The "third estate"
did not rule in China.

If _we_ are to have a true and high artistic expression, our artists,
must dare; and we must allow them to dare; we must encourage rather than
discourage.

We must, above all, get rid of the base old notion that head-work is
divine and "gentlemanly," hand-work ignoble and vulgar: both are divine,
and when the two are combined we shall see the finest possible man--an
_artist_, whether he works with paint, marble, wood, clay, or metal.

MARKS, ETC.--The following copies of marks, as translated by Mr. Franks,
will be found useful:

[Illustration: 1.

A. D. 1721.]

[Illustration: 2.

A. D. 1078 to 1086.]

[Illustration: 3.

A. D. 1368 to 1399.]

[Illustration: 4.

A. D. 1403 to 1425.]

[Illustration: 5.

 A. D. 1426 to 1436.]

[Illustration: 6.

 A. D. 1465 to 1488.]

[Illustration: 7.

A. D. 1465 to 1488.]

[Illustration: 8.

A. D. 1488 to 1506.]

[Illustration: 9.

A. D. 1506 to 1522.]

[Illustration: 10.

 A. D. 1522 to 1567.]

[Illustration: 11.

A. D. 1567 to 1573.]

[Illustration: 12.

A. D. 1573 to 1620.]

[Illustration: 13.

A. D. 1644 to 1661.]

[Illustration: 14.

A. D. 1661 to 1722.]

[Illustration: 15.

A. D. 1723 to 1736.]

[Illustration: 16.

A. D. 1736 to 1795.]

[Illustration: 17.

A. D. 1796 to 1821.]

[Illustration: 18.

 A. D. 1821 to 1851.]

[Illustration: 19.

A. D. 1851 to 1862.]

[Illustration: 20.

A. D. 1862 to 1875.]

[Illustration: 21.

A. D. 1875.]

[Illustration: 22.

A. D. 1004 to 1097.]

[Illustration: 23.

A. D. 1403 to 1425.]

[Illustration: 24.

A. D. 1426 to 1436.]

[Illustration: 25.

A. D. 1723 to 1736.]

[Illustration: 26.

A. D. 1736 to 1795.]

[Illustration: 27.

A. D. 1736 to 1795.]

[Illustration: 28.

A. D. 1796 to 1821.]

[Illustration: 29.

 A. D. 1821 to 1851.]

[Illustration: 30.

A. D. 1851 to 1862.]

[Illustration: 31.

A. D. 1862 to 1875.]



CHAPTER XI.

THE PORCELAIN OF JAPAN.

     Corean Porcelain.--Katosiro-ouye-mon.--The Province of
     Idsoumi.--Styles prevailing in Japan.--Marks.--Japanese
     Blue.--Indian Porcelain.--Dutch East India Company.--Egg-shell and
     Crackle.--Mandarin China.--Kaga Ware.--Satsuma Ware.--Japanese
     Art.--The Philadelphia Exhibition.


Of porcelains from the island of Corea but little is known, and all our
statements are made with doubt. It is believed by some that from Corea
came the first porcelain-makers into Japan. In New York, Mr. Hoe and Mr.
Avery have each pieces which are peculiar, being bolder in decoration
and cruder in color than the Chinese or Japanese, but which may have
been made in Japan.

So, too, with Persian porcelain: there is about it much vagueness and
uncertainty. There seems to be testimony to prove that porcelain was
made in that country.

In India, too, it has been now and then asserted that porcelain was
made. But, as the Chinese and Japanese had much trade with those
nations, and as they certainly did work from designs sent from other
countries, it is most reasonable to believe that what some persons have
supposed was Indian or Persian was really Chinese porcelain.

Japanese porcelain is a more difficult subject for study than the
Chinese, owing to this circumstance: About the year 1211 or 1212, a
Japanese artist crossed over to China, to study the processes by means
of which the Chinese had reached such surprising excellence. His name,
according to Dr. Hoffman, was Katosiro-ouye-mon. Through him the art
received in Japan a new impulse, new knowledge, new methods. It may be
of service to us to know that the wonderful perfection achieved by the
Japanese in this art was due not only to the skill of her artists, but
also, and more, to the fact that the government gave direct, persistent,
and liberal pecuniary aid to the industry.

Genius will, of course, work its miracles; but, if we in the United
States are to reach excellence in art-work, it will be, must be, only
fitful and short-lived, if it is to depend upon individual effort or
chance patronage: only by means of the persistent and intelligent
fostering of a state, whose life is perennial, can the greatest things
be accomplished. There are fanatics who hold to free trade in poetry,
invention, art, patent-right, copyright. No doubt they mean well, but
the nation may beware of them.

The art-museums now being established cannot fail to do good; but they
will fall lamentably short of their aims if they are not directly and
powerfully aided by the state. To illustrate this, let me refer to the
fine collections known as the Kensington Museum and the British Museum,
in England. Both are the creations of the state, and both have been
generously treated. It would have taken a hundred or a thousand years of
individual contributions to accomplish what the Kensington Museum has
done in twenty.

Already, it is a great and noble school--teaching by example--of _art
applied to the uses of life_; and already it has placed some of the
manufacturers of England in the first place of the world.

I wish, then, to repeat that the work which Katosiro did would not have
been done--could not have been done--by his own individual effort.

He not only added vastly to the satisfaction and delight and riches of
his own people, but he has given us cause to bless the Government of
Japan for the satisfaction and delight we, too, are enabled to draw from
his work.

Pennsylvania is taking the lead here. With a keen perception and a
profound wisdom, that State, I am told, has united with the city of
Philadelphia to found and maintain a school of applied art, which cannot
fail to be an incalculable good to the industries and the happiness of
her people.

Depending upon individual contributions, Boston and New York must
struggle far behind, and finally dwindle away.

We need, in every great industrial centre, a "Council on Instruction,"
which shall provide models of art-work, and teaching enough to make
these models plain to industrial seekers.

We have tried free schools, free trade, free press, and no one is happy.
I pray we may for a century fairly and fully try household art: that is
the art which shall make the home the most attractive place on this
footstool of heaven.

In this work all sects and sexes may unite. Every man and woman can and
will agree that his or her home shall be a page from the book of
paradise; one on which they can write, and one from which all may read.

According to the best authorities we are able to get, we conclude that
the Japanese have from the earliest days been great potters, and that
the Chinese discovery of porcelain was carried to Japan probably in the
century before our era.

It appears from the researches of Dr. Hoffman, of Holland, that in 662 a
Buddhist monk introduced the secrets of translucent porcelain into the
province of Idsoumi, and a village then became famous as _To-ki-moura_,
"village for making porcelain."

In the year 859 the two provinces of Idsoumi and Kavatsi went into a
violent quarrel over a mountain which contained clay and firewood.

But the vast wants of such a tasteful and teeming people as the Japanese
advanced this most useful and beautiful industry until the time of
Katosiro (in the 1200's), when it went forward to perfection, and
rivaled or excelled the best work of China.

In later years the great centre of porcelain-production has been the
island of Kiushiu.

Upon the Idsoumi-yoma (or Mountain of Springs), where was found the
kaolinic clay, Dr. Hoffman numbers some five-and-twenty shops famous for
porcelains.

From the recent work of Messrs. Audesley and Bowes, it seems that the
province of Hizen has produced the finest examples of Japanese
porcelain. The first number of this work has just reached us, and gives
great promise. The authors are Mr. George Ashdown Audesley, architect,
and James Lord Bowes, President of the Liverpool Art Club. No work upon
the ceramic art has appeared superior to this, especially in its
decorations.

[Illustration: FIG. 115.--_Japanese Vase._]

While the fine, delicate perception and touch of the Japanese have given
an added grace and finish to most of their work, as a whole their
porcelain may be said to be a following (rather than a copying) of the
Chinese: in China porcelain was indigenous; in Japan it was an
importation. In China, then, we shall find more original invention and
greater variety; in Japan, more finish. The best work of Japan is often
superior in the paste and in the glaze to the Chinese. As to
classification, it is found that the two styles of China porcelain
called "The Chrysanthemo-Pæonienne" and "The Famille-Rose" are the two
which most prevail in Japan; and it is not easy to distinguish the fine
work of the one country from that of the other.

In the rose family is to be found much of the best work of Japan. In
Figs. 115 and 116 are two good examples of this work.

The "Famille-Vert," or green, was not made there.

[Illustration: FIG. 116.--_Tea-Caddy._]

We cannot do better than to quote from Jacquemart:

"A radical difference separates the two countries as regards drawing. At
Niphon the figures, though affected, and too much resembling each other
not to be the produce of 'pouncing,' have a simple grace and softness,
the evident reflex of Oriental manners. Certainly, it is not an
imitation of Nature; it is not art, such as we understand it, with its
complex qualities; but it is a dreamy act, a first manifestation of
thought under form. A scene of frequent occurrence represents two women
standing, one upon a rose, the other upon a leaf, and thus floating upon
the waves in an aureole of clouds: the first, elegantly attired, holds a
sceptre; the second is her attendant, and carries a basket of flowers
passed through a kind of lance or instrument for ploughing. According to
the indications of the Japanese Pantheon, it is the goddess of the seas
or patroness of fishermen. It matters little which it may be; but, by
the modest grace of the attitude, the easy elegance of the draperies,
this painting approaches the graceful vellums of our artists of the
middle ages. The birds and plants partake of these merits, and are
truthfully drawn, the details most delicately rendered. Nothing is more
beautiful than these venerated silver pheasants, the proud-looking cocks
perched upon the rocks or lost among the flowers; nothing more charming
than certain crested blackbirds with rose-colored breasts, and other
passerine birds of beautiful plumage."

While it is true that the Japanese flower-painting approaches nearer to
Nature than the Chinese, it does not seem correct to say that it
approaches to, or is, a copy of Nature. It is difficult to see anything
which is not treated freely and strongly rather than naturally.

Some of the decorations peculiar to Japan may be mentioned as follows:

The kiri, or flower of the paulownia.

The imperial _three_-clawed dragon.

The noble bird.

The sacred tortoise.

The pine, the bamboo, and

The crane.

The crane and the tortoise are emblems of longevity.

Two marks were the official signs of the Mikado: first, the kiri-mon, or
flower of the paulownia; and, second, the guik-mon, or chrysanthemum;
while to the temporal prince, or Siogoun, belonged the three-leaved
mallow.

[Illustration: _Kiri-mon._]

[Illustration: _Guik-mon._]

[Illustration: _Three-leaved Mallow._]

The vase here given (Fig. 117), from Mr. Avery's collection in the New
York Museum of Art, is a good illustration of the way the Japanese used
natural forms artistically rather than naturally.

[Illustration: FIG. 117.--_From Mr. Avery's Collection._]

The description is as follows:

"VASE, of elegant form, a ground of white, a branch of a tree in violet
color running around the body, from which depend the fruit and flowers
of the peach of longevity in rich colors. Storks delicately outlined in
black, their bodies being filled in with dead-white enamel, peck at the
fruit or blossoms, or disport through the air. The neck is ornamented
with a band of yellow, scrolls, fruit, bats, and _honorific_ designs."

[Illustration: FIG. 118.--_From Mr. Avery's Collection._]

We give in Fig. 118 a bottle of square form painted delicately on each
side with groups of figures, most likely representing incidents in
Japanese history. It is a fine example from Mr. Avery's collection. The
colors are green, blue, and yellow, and are very rich and harmonious.

A style of decoration found among the Japanese rather than the Chinese
might be described as a sort of medallion-painting: the round spaces are
distributed over the pot regardless of symmetry, and the effect is
charming. Fig. 119 shows one of these, belonging to Mrs. Rockwell, of
Boston. It is modern work, and, while not expensive, is very
satisfactory. An impression prevails that it is very creditable to pay
dear for and to own antique work--not so modern work. But, if we are to
do any good ourselves, we must believe in our own modern work when we
can, and be glad to buy and pay for it. Also, we must praise our
artists. Let us do so, and let us not forget that what is old and good
now was once _new_ and good; none the less good because it was new.

[Illustration: FIG. 119.--_From Mrs. Rockwell's Collection._]

The Japanese blue is exquisite, certainly, but it lacks the deep vivid
brilliancy of the Nanking. It is believed that the blue is applied over
the glaze, and it has a melting softness which is most pleasing. Many of
these pieces bear the six marks, as with the Chinese.

Another blue, which is a deep or mazarin color incorrectly called
"celestial," is quite a different thing, but very choice and beautiful.
The color is applied as an enamel, and in relief, and with wonderful
skill. I have never seen any pieces of this which were supposed to date
far back; and it is certain that it is among the fine productions of
to-day, but none the less beautiful for that.

A porcelain with very marked decoration and coloring has been somewhat
of a puzzle, and has been called Indian, being so very distinct from
anything produced in China. Jacquemart thus describes it:

"A particular decoration which we call variegated-leaved is very
brilliant, and might have found grace even in the eyes of the Puritan
Wagenaar. The principal subject is a group of pointed leaves, some in
blue under the glaze; others of a pale green, or of a pink and yellow
enameled; at the base of the tuft expands a large ornamental flower,
with notched pink petals lined with yellow; the heart, forming a centre,
is yellow or greenish streaked with pink; notwithstanding the
indentations which overload it, it is easy to recognize the flower as an
anona or custard-apple. The leaves would lead one to suppose them, by
their form and size, to be those of a chestnut-tree, while their color
recalls the tricolor plane-tree so beloved by the Orientals, and which
decks itself with tufts, varying from light green to red, passing
through the intermediary tints. Behind these leaves, and upon the edge
of the pieces, appear light and delicate small enameled flowers of
iron-red, yellow, rose, or blue." (Fig. 120.)

This porcelain was made in Japan, and was brought by the Dutch into
Europe at a time when their trade was so great. The Dutch East India
Company was formed in 1602. In the year 1664, forty-four thousand nine
hundred and forty-three pieces of rare porcelain were carried into
Holland from Japan, and sixteen thousand five hundred and eighty pieces
of the same work were sent from Batavia.

In some way not known, this peculiar work has been called "Indian." I
found two pieces of it in Holland, one of which is in Mr. Wales's
collection, and one piece, my own, is figured here. It is not easy to
see anything more perfect.

The Japanese have excelled also in the production of "crackle," also of
the "egg-shell" porcelain, neither of which differs enough from the
Chinese to need description.

[Illustration: FIG. 120.--_Japanese Variegated-leaved Porcelain._]

In the loan collection at New York is to be seen a crackled bottle,
which has broad bands running around it, that are not crackled. More
remarkable than this is a crackle vase belonging to Mr. H. Dwight
Williams, which contains reclining figures delicately painted, that are
not crackled. Technical skill can go no further, it would seem.

The Japanese lacquer far exceeds anything made in China, and is among
the most beautiful of human work. We know but little of the processes of
its manufacture, and only introduce it here because the Japanese have
applied it to the decoration of porcelain. Very charming and surprising
effects are produced. The lacquer is laid on as a varnish made from some
vegetable gum or gums, but in what way or how applied we know not. It is
exceedingly hard and durable, and takes a variety of colors exquisitely.
It is applied mostly to wood, sometimes to porcelain.

Mr. George James, of Nahant, has a very fine porcelain figure which is
finished with lacquer.

"_Cloisonné_" work applied to porcelain has been made in Japan. How the
delicate metal lines can be fastened to the surface of the porcelain,
and how the vitrifiable colors can be melted into the spaces with such
perfection, can never fail to surprise. To see such perfect and delicate
workmanship is a satisfaction: what pleasure must the artist himself not
enjoy!

The "mandarin china" (Fig. 121), as it is termed, was made in Japan
rather than in China. This term is applied to such vases and pieces as
bear the figures of mandarins wearing the toque or cap topped with the
button which marks their grade. It appears that the Thsing conquerors,
when they overcame the Ming dynasty in China, attempted to efface the
old customs and dress, and among other things they ordered was the
adoption of the toque or cap. Hence, to protest against their
conquerors, no such designs appear on the old Chinese porcelain; but
only on the Japanese, which was carried to China and sold.[13]

This variety is not to be confounded with a gayly-colored kind of heavy
porcelain made in China, which often goes under the name of mandarin.

On this Japanese mandarin-ware, gilding is likely to be found, and
indeed the Japanese were much more inclined to its use than the Chinese.

European and Christian subjects were sometimes painted upon the
Japanese porcelain to meet the wants of the Dutch exporters. In the
Metropolitan Museum of Art at New York are some of these pieces
belonging to Mr. Avery's collection: one has a portrait of Luther;
another has the baptism of Christ, another a Dutch landscape with
figures. They are most curious, and upon the Scripture subjects hangs a
tale:

[Illustration: FIG. 121.--_Mandarin China._]

As early as 1534 we know that the Portuguese had established a trade
with Japan, and, with the aggressive spirit of all Occidentals, had
attempted to introduce their religion into Japan, against the usages and
prejudices of the Japanese, which were potent then. They pushed it to an
irritating point, and it is asserted that their meddling with the
decorations in the porcelain factories at last led to their expulsion,
and to the massacre and destruction of some forty thousand of their
Christian converts in 1641.

The Dutch then persuaded the Japanese to allow them the privileges of
trade, which they held for some two hundred years; and it is through
them that most of our fine examples have been brought to Europe and
here.

[Illustration: FIG. 122.--_Example of Old Satsuma Ware._]

Besides the porcelain productions of Japan are two varieties of pottery
or faience, which are remarkable for richness of color and decoration:
the one is called "KAGA WARE," the other "SATSUMA," from the districts
where they are produced. Most of the Kaga ware brought to us is of a
thick, heavy body, and colored with a dark sort of Indian-red, touched
with lines of gilding. Some of the finer specimens, however, like the
vases shown in the recent work of Messrs. Audesley and Bowes, are in
polychrome, and very beautiful.

The Satsuma faience is made of a rich, creamy paste, and is thicker than
most porcelain; but it is delicious in tone and delightful in
decoration. There are a few pieces in this country; and more, but not
large quantities, in Europe. Some of the finest pieces I have seen are
in the collection of the eminent English artist, Mr. Frederick Leighton,
whose house, as well as works, can only give pleasure.

[Illustration: FIG. 123.--_Example of Modern Satsuma Ware._]

The old Satsuma has peculiarities which, added to its rarity, make it
exceedingly valuable and desirable.

Fig. 122 is one of the pieces pictured in the Audesley-Bowes book, as an
example of the old Satsuma, and is very curious in form.

The modern Satsuma is much of it very beautiful, but of course it
commands no such prices as the older. Most of it shows the glaze broken
throughout into a most delicate network of crackle, which is peculiar
and interesting.

The small teapot here shown is not only perfect in tone, glaze, and
decoration, but also in form. It is modern work, and was imported by Mr.
Briggs, of Boston. (Fig. 123.)

Mr. Franks thus writes: "The princes of Satsuma have founded a
manufactory from which have issued some very remarkable products, much
esteemed by collectors; the paste is of a pale yellowish tint, not
unlike Wedgwood's queen's-ware in color, and is slightly crackled; over
this are thrown sprays of plants, with rich diapered borders, the effect
of which is enhanced by the delicacy of the colors and the richness of
the gilding. This ware is probably not very ancient. Mr. A. B. Mitford
has informed me that he does not remember seeing any specimens more than
fifty years old, and that the oldest were undecorated.

"Another beautiful ware is that made near Kioto, in which the colors are
much stronger, and the paste of a darker tint. Some of the specimens
seem to be of considerable antiquity.

"At Kutani (the Nine Valleys), in the province of Kaga, is made another
fine ware, some of which appears to be porcelain. The most
characteristic products of this factory are bowls and dishes decorated
only in red with gilding.

"Another peculiar fabric has produced very thin teapots of a gray
stone-ware, showing the marks of the workman's hands. Mr. Mitford has
furnished me with the following note respecting them: 'For some thirty
years past a man named Banko Insetzu, of Kuana, in the province of Isé,
has been famous for producing a curious kind of pottery, which, being
finished off with the finger and thumb before being subjected to the
fire, shows the lines of the skin of the hand upon its surface. No
teapots equal those of Banko for producing a delicate infusion of tea,
and all lovers of tea patronize them; they are fragile to a degree, the
paste being as thin as a wafer.'"

The peach, or, as the Japanese term it, the "peach of longevity," is a
favorite decoration with the Japanese; we can appreciate its value, as
one of the finest fruits of our temperate zone. We give here (Fig. 124)
a teapot showing the fruit with some of the leaves. This is copied from
Jacquemart; but the curious may see a better example at the Metropolitan
Museum of Art, from Mr. Avery's Oriental collection.

Japanese art is still more marked than the Chinese in that it is as free
and yet more delicate. The artist clearly was a close observer of
Nature, and saw and felt its infinite variety; saw, too, that Nature
was never square, or round, or double. Nothing in Nature need duplicate
any other thing.

We Occidentals have delighted in the use of--

The square,

The circle, and

Of pairs, or a symmetrical arrangement of ornament, or of columns, or
openings.

We have also found a crude satisfaction in the use of strong, glaring
colors.

We have delighted to _copy_ and to tell a common story in a common way
in our decorations.

I believe this is wholly wrong. The Japanese artist never uses the
square, or the circle, or the pair.

Nor does he use crude and glaring colors; always the most subtile and
fascinating shades and vanishing tints.

He _suggests_ the story; he never tells it as Watteau did.

[Illustration: FIG. 124.--_Teapot with Peach Decoration._]

A pair of vases belonging to Mrs. James, of Cambridge, have a picture of
a gentleman and lady, above whose heads is seen a canopy or roof. The
meaning is thus explained by a Japanese gentleman of this day, who was
in Boston:

The figures represented are a nobleman and his wife, one of the five
hundred families of the _flowery class_; they are dressed in the ancient
costume of Japan, now no longer worn.

The part of a tent or pavilion indicates that they are out-of-doors, at
a picnic; the white blossoms of the cherry which surround them show a
favorite tree in Japan; the color of this vase and the kind of crackle
prove its age.

All is suggested; the imagination is spoken to, not the intellect; the
artist feels, and makes us feel.

We are forcing ourselves and our civilization upon the Japanese who do
not want us, and we curse them. We have attacked the simplicity of their
lives, we shall increase their immorality, and we shall degrade their
art. Twenty years hence, artistic and patient work will have disappeared
from among them.

Good work has almost disappeared from among us, as well as from Europe:
we do all in a hurry, all for cheapness, all for money. The artist, the
workman, delight no more in _perfect work_, which is Godlike.

"Progress," they tell us, requires us to force the Japanese to trade
with us. It is a much-abused word; in the hands of plunderers and
traders it means only--"You shall give us the opportunity to cheat you."
We have demanded that, and have succeeded; but we shall be none the
better for it, and the Japanese will be the worse. They will learn, do
learn fast, to cheat back; and already we see signs of it in their
demoralized productions. They are already making copies--counterfeits of
some of the high-priced porcelains of China--and putting on these the
marks intended to deceive.

Fools say, "Trade is a blessing;" wise men, "It is oftener a curse."
Honest, faithful production _is_ a blessing; juggling, barter, _is_
always a curse.

In the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia the Japanese had the
largest and the finest exhibit of porcelain. We were told by the
officials that there are at Hizen some five factories of fictile wares;
at Kioto, ten; at Owari, three; at Kaga, five; at Satsuma, one; at
Banko, one; and at Tokio (Yedo), forty-three. This last statement was a
surprise, but it was reiterated.

The porcelains of Hizen rank first, and the exhibit from there was the
largest. The two great vases, some eight feet high, of lacquer or
porcelain, were the largest pieces of potter's work we had ever seen,
and they seemed cheap at twenty-five hundred dollars. In the middle part
of the two great cases were two small tea-sets of some five pieces each,
which were the finest of porcelain in all particulars, and yet no one
bought them at one hundred and thirty dollars each; not even the
Philadelphia Museum, which showed a marvelous skill in selecting the
best. There were also quite a number of excellent pots and vases, from
which Mr. Brown secured a very desirable pair, sage-green with white
bands containing grotesque designs.

It was to be expected that the Chinese and the Japanese, if they made an
exhibit at all, would take the places of honor. This they have done for
quantity, and the Japanese do so for quality also.

The Owari porcelain is mostly the blue. The body or paste seemed clear,
but there was a want of good form and superiority of coloring and
decoration. Some excellent and striking pieces could be found here. But,
so far as one visit could reveal, there was nothing equal to the old
six-mark blue.

The Kioto is a faience of a weaker body than the Satsuma, and running
more to a lemon-yellow. Its decoration is marked by a certain delicacy
which in small articles is good, but which in large ones lacks strength.
Shimzi, of Kioto, had a case of good pieces.

Meyagama, of Yokohama, had some delightful porcelain vases, decorated in
relief with butterflies, plants, etc., which, it is satisfactory to
know, were bought by our New York friends.

The case of old wares shown by Kiriu Kosho Kuwaisha, from Tokio,
contained a collection which had a kind of mysterious fascination even
to us "outside barbarians," which we suppose might have become an
intense desire to possess, could we have known anything about them.



CHAPTER XII.

THE PORCELAINS OF CENTRAL EUROPE--DRESDEN, BERLIN, HÖCHST, ETC.

     Dresden China.--Porcelain in Europe.--The Alchemists.--Augustus
     II.--Böttger.--Tschirnhaus.--Experiments.--Kaolin
     discovered.--Höroldt and Kändler.--Fine Art, or Decorative
     Art.--Lindenir.--Angelica
     Kauffmann.--Rococo-Work.--Collectors.--Marcolini.--Prices.--Marks.
     --Berlin.--The Seven Years' War.--Frederick the Great.--Prices.
     --Marks.--Vienna.--Stenzel.--Maria Theresa.--Lamprecht.--Prices.
     --Marks.--Hungary.--Herend.--Fischer.--Marks.--Höchst, or Mayence.
     --Ringler.--Marks.--Frankenthal, or Bavarian.--Carl Theodor.--Melchior.
     --Prices.--Marks.--Fürstenburg, or Brunswick.--Von Lang.--Prices.--Marks.
     --Nymphenburg.--Heintzmann and Lindemann.--Prices.--Marks.--Ludwigsburg,
     or Kronenburg.--Fulda.--Hesse-Cassel.--Switzerland.--Marks.


In this chapter I wish to give some comprehensive account of the famous
porcelain of Dresden, which in Europe first came into prominence, and
kept its place for so long a time. With this the other manufactories of
Central and Eastern Europe will be grouped, for convenience rather than
for the purposes of classification. We will take a comprehensive survey
of--

1. Dresden, Meissen, or Saxony (it has all these names).

2. Berlin, or Prussian.

3. Vienna and Hungary.

4. Höchst, or Mayence.

5. Fürstenburg, or Brunswick.

6. Frankenthal, or the Palatinate.

7. Nymphenburg.

8. Kronenburg.

9. Fulda.

10. Limbach.

11. Switzerland, etc.

We are apt to think that the mental force of Europe, down to very recent
days quite into the last century, was directed almost wholly to the
science and the practice of war. A great force certainly was so
exhausted; but there was also, after the Renaissance (A. D. 1200 to
1300), a powerful stream turned upon literature, science, art, and
religion. The alchemists, in their searchings for the secret of
happiness--for the changing of baser things to gold--in their hunt for
the fountain of perennial youth, were all chemists; and out of their
(what we are pleased to term) "visionary notions" came many discoveries
most curious and valuable to man.

When, in 1518, the Portuguese introduced fine Oriental porcelains into
Europe, and, after them, the Dutch brought by ship-loads the beautiful
productions of China and Japan, they were spread over Europe like water
passing its dikes. Every king, every noble, every man of taste, was
touched as by a fairy wand, and became inspired with a desire of
possession, and also with a wish to create such articles of use and
beauty. But the secrets of porcelain were locked in the souls of those
keen Orientals, who would not part with their knowledge.

Still the chemists, the alchemists, of Europe were at work, peering with
curious eyes into the composition of the most exquisite of fictile ware.
The paste, the glaze, the ornament--all were of profound interest.
Pottery of various kinds had been made in Europe from the earliest
times, but no porcelain.

How could the superior European compete with or equal the inferior
Mongol? A hard question.

For a long time it has been believed that the earliest European
production of porcelain was in Saxony, about the years 1710 to 1715. But
within a late period it has been found that porcelain--soft paste--was
discovered and made in Florence as far back as 1575 to 1587, under the
direction and patronage of Francesco I. (de' Medici), the Grand-duke of
Tuscany. No great quantities were made, and but few pieces of it exist
now, of which we may treat hereafter.

The porcelain of Dresden is also called Saxon and Meissen; Dresden being
the capital of Saxony, and Meissen the village, some twelve miles from
Dresden, where the factories are established.

How were they established, and why?

Augustus II., Elector of Saxony, and afterward by election King of
Poland, born in 1670, was a man of expensive habits and luxurious
tastes. While a young man he visited Italy and other countries, always
indulging these tastes by the purchase of pictures and other works of
art. The beautiful porcelains of China and Japan, then rare in Europe,
interested him, and he became of course a collector; and so he continued
through his luxurious and troublesome life. That I cannot write; it may
only be said that he combined with Peter the Great and with Denmark to
drive out and keep out of his part of Europe that enterprising and
indefatigable fighter, Charles XII. of Sweden, and was himself utterly
routed and driven from Poland in 1704. He still retained the throne of
Saxony, to which his son succeeded. This elector inherited the tastes
and habits of his father, and continued to encourage and support the
manufactory of porcelain at Meissen, until, entangling himself with
Maria Theresa of Austria in an alliance against Frederick the Great,
that restless and irresistible king overran his country, and for a time
destroyed the production of porcelain in Saxony (A. D. 1756).

In 1706 it appears that a Prussian named Böttger, an apothecary's clerk,
in danger of persecution as an alchemist, fled to Dresden for safety.
The elector, believing or hoping that he knew the secret of making gold,
sent for him, anxious to learn the secret, which Böttger denied that he
possessed. The elector thought it best, nevertheless, to put him in
charge, for safe-keeping, of his alchemist Tschirnhaus; and with him he
worked on, seeking to discover the "philosopher's stone." That he did
not discover--few have done so--but, in mixing clays and preparing
crucibles, it so chanced that a hard and semi-vitreous pottery was
produced, which at once excited attention and sharpened invention. Was
it porcelain, or could it be worked into porcelain? From that day
Böttger's whole thought and ingenuity were at work to produce porcelain;
the philosopher's stone was forgotten, and he and Tschirnhaus worked at
their new problem.

While the character of Böttger does not bear careful inspection, there
is no question that he was a keen, dexterous, and daring man. The
picture we have of him indicates a man of executive force (Fig. 125).

[Illustration: FIG. 125.--_Johann Friedrich Böttger._]

In 1708 some ware was produced by him and Tschirnhaus which approached
the characters of Oriental porcelain, but it was not white or
translucent. A teapot of this ware in red unglazed, and one in black
glazed, are in the valuable collection of W. C. Prime, Esq., of New York
(Fig. 126, the two tall teapots on the right and left).

This was not white, nor was it true, porcelain. In 1710, however, they
succeeded in making white porcelain of an inferior quality; it was
"thick and muddy." Nothing as yet was perfect. What they lacked was the
two fine materials known to the Chinese as kaolin and pe-tun-tse.

Kaolin is a native clay, the result of decayed feldspar. It is found in
Europe at Aue in Saxony, near St.-Yrieix-la-Perche in France, in
Cornwall in England, and in Delaware in America.

Pe-tun-tse is a siliceous stone found in China, and in Cornwall,
England, is known as a granite. This last melts at a lower heat, and a
mixture of kaolin is essential to give strength and hardness to the
work.

Oriental china (and all true porcelain) has the quality of hardness,
and, when held up to the light, of translucency.

European porcelains are known as hard and soft, the _pâte dure_ and
_pâte tendre_ of the French. The Dresden china is hard.

[Illustration: FIG. 126.--_Dresden._]

In 1710 Böttger had not succeeded in making perfect porcelain. He had
not yet the perfect clay. But the clay was found; and this, too, was
accidental--so we now term it: once, a happy discovery was called
"providential." The discovery came at the right moment. It seems that a
rich iron-master of Saxony, when riding one day (1711), saw that his
horse's feet were held with tenacity in a soft white clay. It struck him
that this white clay might be dried and made into hair-powder, then
greatly in use. He tried it; it succeeded, and large quantities were
sold. The hair-dresser of Böttger used it, and, when Böttger found it
was heavy and a mineral, he at once applied it to the production of
porcelain. "Eureka!" the secret was found!

It was kaolin, the great clay--the body or bones of porcelain. Doubt
fled. Courage was assured.

Augustus at once built the great factory at Meissen, and in 1715 enough
porcelain was produced to be offered for sale at the fair of Leipsic.
The first ware made was white, and this was ornamented with vine-leaves
and grapes in low-relief, or was pierced through the sides or borders.
It is doubtful whether any of this white was sold, most of it being
disposed of as presents.

The first color used was blue, probably in imitation of the Nanking
ware.

Böttger, who appears to have been a sort of artistic scamp, died in
1719, at the age of thirty-seven, a victim of his own vices; but his
work was carried onward by others.

The news of this successful discovery spread, like fire on a prairie,
throughout Europe, and every device was resorted to to get at the
secrets, which were closely guarded at Meissen. Every director and
officer was monthly sworn to secrecy; every workman had before his eyes,
"Be secret to death!" and it was well known that any traitor would be
punished with imprisonment, or worse.

The works were continued, after the death of Böttger, under Höroldt's
direction; and it was during this time that the decorations swung clear
of Oriental imitation. Painting in colors, and gilding, were employed;
vases, dishes, services, were made; delicate copies of paintings were
produced; also birds, insects, animals, flowers, etc.

A sculptor named Kändler was employed from 1731 to 1763, and under him
figures of many sorts were produced, some of them still quite
famous--"The Tailor and his Wife" riding on goats, figures of the
Carnival of Venice, figurines of Cupids, of lawyers, doctors, and many
professions and trades. He also modeled animals and birds, the twelve
Apostles, of life-size, etc.

Chaffers quotes from the _London Magazine_ of 1753: "This fabric, which
brings annually great sums of money into the country, is daily
increasing in reputation, and is carried to all the courts of Europe.
Even the Turks come from Constantinople to purchase it, and the rarest
pieces that are made are carried thither to embellish the
grand-seignior's and his great officers' houses and seraglios."

Let us quote further from the same: "The sets of porcelain for tea,
coffee, or chocolate, may be had for fifteen to sixty guineas. There is
one particular kind from which they will abate nothing of one hundred
guineas the set; this is a double porcelain, not made at once, but a
second layer added to the first form, resembling a honey-comb on the
outside, which is of a pale-brown color, the _letts_ or cavities being
all painted, as well as the bottoms of the insides of the cups and
dishes. This, as all other sorts, may be had painted with landscapes and
figures, birds, insects, fruits, flowers: the first being the dearer;
the latter, the best executed, being almost equal to Nature in beauty
and liveliness of the colors. The grounds of all these different sorts
of porcelain are various, some being painted on white, others on pink;
some in compartments, others without. The spaces between are sometimes
of a white, yellow, or pea-green color; or the whole ground is white,
with running flowers. This sort and the pea-green in compartments are
the newest made and in the most elegant taste."

Table-services at this time cost from one hundred to one thousand
guineas each, according to the number of pieces and the elaborateness of
the decoration.

The figure-pieces, some fifteen inches high, were sold at from sixteen
to twenty guineas; and the smaller figurines, five or six inches high,
for as many pounds.

These Dresden figures of this early period now sell for very high
prices, and are much sought for, as are also the figure-pieces of the
Höchst and Chelsea factories.

But let us ask ourselves, "Why should we pay such great prices for work
which, as _art_, has but a reflected value?" I am sure that no great
sculptor will apply his best work to china, or to any material which is
so liable to be spoiled in the baking, and to one which, after all, is
not suited to what we term high or fine art.

These figures are of value, of course, as illustrations of the
possibilities, and also as historical illustrations, of the growth and
development of the fictile art. No man will wish to have an Ariadne in
china made by an excellent artist, if he can have the same work of the
same artist in marble.

We have the same feeling in regard to a fine painting: would any one
wish to exchange the Dresden Madonna of Raphael on the canvas for a
perfect copy in mosaic, or in the most exquisite Gobelin tapestry? None.
And yet the mosaic or the tapestry has cost ten times more of human
labor.

The artificialities of life come to be supreme at times, and the human
mind, in some stages of development, loses all sense of what is good or
bad, in an exaggerated appreciation of what is difficult or uncommon;
and, in many cases, a fashion or whim of the hour rides down a sound
judgment. Among the more intellectual peoples this prevails.

Assuming that the Orientals are races who perceive or feel, rather than
reason--while the reverse of this is true of Europeans and Americans--we
find our art often losing its way, which that of the Orientals seldom
does. The natural or instinctive soul, by its native sense, is guided in
matters of color and decoration more truly than we who attempt to reason
out these things. Now, applying this to the facts of fictile art, we
find that the Chinese and Japanese never attempted figure-work in
porcelain, except in some few cases of burlesques, or of animals and
birds. Their work was applied to that which comes into the uses of
life--for the table first and mostly; after that for vases, which became
works of pure ornament, but yet behind which lay the motive of _use_. In
all this, it seems to me, the Orientals were right, and the Saxons
wrong.

I believe, then, that the best and purest art will be found in porcelain
when applied to the decoration of dinner and tea services, of vases, and
of articles which do not attempt to rival sculpture or high art; and
those may reach perfection, while the porcelain sculptures will not.

I believe, too, that the best style of decoration for porcelain is not
imitative, but suggestive--that is, an elaborate and careful _copy_ of a
flower or a figure upon the clay is not so appropriate or so
satisfactory as a free translation of the sentiment of the flower or the
figure, which suggests it to the soul rather than tickles the eye.

It is not appropriate, so it seems to me, that a delicate painting of a
beautiful girl should be made on the dinner-plate upon which you are to
put your squash or your pudding; such delicate penciling should be
devoted to art pure and simple--to "fine art," as it is called. Such
paintings on china cannot be put to use; they are too costly, and
therefore they fail to be either useful art or fine art.

Now, the tendency of European porcelain-decoration is always in this
"fine-art" direction, and is always false; that of Oriental porcelain is
always in the useful-art direction, and therefore true.

The pure white porcelain of Meissen was not at first sold, but was
reserved for the king's use, or for presents to distinguished
personages. In later times it was sold, and is still; and the pieces so
disposed of have a _scratch_ cut across the _mark_, to indicate that
they were not painted in the factory.

The works at Meissen grew in importance and in public favor up to the
time of the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763), when Frederick the Great
overran Saxony, broke up the Meissen factory, and removed the workmen to
Berlin, where he established the Prussian potteries, which afterward
came to be of great consequence.

An English merchant visited the works at Meissen in 1750, and found
"about seven hundred men employed, most of whom have not above ten
German crowns a month, and the highest wages are forty, so that the
annual expense is not estimated above eighty thousand crowns. This
manufactory being entirely for the king's account, he sells yearly to
the value of one hundred and fifty thousand crowns, and sometimes two
hundred thousand crowns (thirty-five thousand pounds sterling[14]),
besides the magnificent presents he occasionally makes, and the great
quantity he preserves for his own use."

The best period of Dresden production is estimated as being from about
1730 to 1756. During this period the works of Kändler were made, and
also the paintings of Lindenir, which are much valued. In Fig. 126 is to
be seen a fine plate with a pierced border, in the centre of which are
painted birds, in the style introduced by Lindenir. The other pieces
shown in Fig. 126 are excellent examples of good Meissen porcelain; the
cup and saucer, showing Cupids, is most delicately and elaborately
painted. Among those who painted somewhat upon the Dresden china was
Angelica Kauffmann, whose figures are pervaded with a certain grace and
refinement always charming.

[Illustration: FIG. 127.--_Dresden._]

Fig. 127 shows some choice small pieces from Mr. Wales's collection The
centre flower-dish is very finely painted with birds, and the meandering
lip, intended to confine the flowers, is peculiar.

The two cups and saucers on the right are very richly gilded, the
compartments containing delicate flower-painting.

The cup and saucer on the left is one of the best examples of the
Marcolini period; the gilded edges are exquisitely done, and the
flowers, painted in tender browns and greens--not in high colors or in
the colors of Nature--are charming.

Many pieces of the old Dresden porcelain (and of modern work

[Illustration: FIG. 128.--_Dresden Vase._]

also) are elaborately decorated with rococo scrolls and flower-work in
relief, applied upon candelabra, chandeliers, vases, cups, etc.
Unsympathetic buyers will be apt to seize upon these pieces, and they
are most common in ordinary collections; but they are very far from
being the best or the most interesting. This style of work was
introduced and practised by Kändler (1731 to 1763) at the period when
the best works were produced; but this style of work is not itself the
best, though it may be the most costly.

In Fig. 128 we present one of the most elaborate and magnificent
examples of this excessive decoration. Nothing is spared; the painting
is most delicate, the flowers most intricate, the figures all most
perfectly modeled; and yet upon one it produces satiety. It is overdone.
Like an overdressed woman, we have lost the divine creation in her
clothes.

[Illustration: FIG. 129.--_Dresden._]

In Fig. 129 may be seen a style of Dresden work which has had much
popularity; it is costly, for it shows great difficulties well
surmounted. But do you care for it as you would for a fine plate or an
ample punch-bowl?

It is a candelabrum sold at the Bernal collection, and is thus
described: "A pair of superb candelabra, each formed of a female draped
figure bearing scroll-branches for five lights, seated on pedestals,
round which Cupids are supporting shields-of-arms. These magnificent
objects of decoration are twenty-four inches high."

The price was two hundred and thirty-one pounds sterling (eleven hundred
and fifty-five dollars).

It may not be amiss to hint to incipient collectors that not all Dresden
porcelain is equally beautiful or desirable--which is true of the
paintings of Raphael or Murillo--and that every collector should
consider the intrinsic excellence of each piece, rather than the mark or
name of the factory.

The productions of the Dresden factory have continued down to the
present time, but the periods of greatest excellence have been from 1731
to 1756, and from 1763 to 1814.

In 1796 Count Marcolini was made director, and under him was produced
some of the finest flower-painting; he also introduced the classic
shapes and decorations into the vases; which style of decoration came
into wide fashion during the days of Napoleon I., who was an imitator of
Cæsar, and of the work of Cæsar's day.

Some idea of the values of pieces of Dresden china may be of use, and I
take a few from the great Bernal sale made in London in 1855:

  A scalloped cup and saucer, with minute landscapes   £ 1 14_s._       $8 50

  A pair of cups and saucers, with buildings on gold
  ground                                                 7 7_s._        36 75

  A coffee-pot, crimson ground, with landscape           9 5_s._        46 00

  A small oval pierced tray, with two figures in green;
  and a small coffee-pot, with figures after Watteau,   19 8_s._ 6_d._  100 00

Marks for Dresden porcelain:

[Illustration: _Augustus Rex, 1709 to 1712._]

[Illustration: _The Caduceus, about 1712 to 1720._]

[Illustration: _Böttger, about 1718._]

[Illustration: _Böttger, about 1718._]

[Illustration: _Imitation of Oriental, about 1718._]

[Illustration: _Höroldt, manager, about 1720._]

[Illustration: _About 1726._]

[Illustration: _About 1730._]

[Illustration: _About 1739._]

[Illustration: _Bruhl, manager, about 1750._]

[Illustration: _Bruhl, manager, about 1750._]

[Illustration: _Meissen Porzellan-Manufactur._]

[Illustration: _Early Mark._]

[Illustration: _About 1750._]

[Illustration: _Königlichen Porzellan-Manufactur._]

[Illustration: _About 1770._]

[Illustration: _Marcolini, manager, about 1796._]

[Illustration:

     _A small engraved cut across the swords was placed on white pieces
     for sale. When there are_ TWO _engraved cuts, it means the pieces
     are not wholly perfect_.
]

The crossed swords are still used.

We often meet with pieces of Dresden china which have an engraved cut or
scratch across the swords, which indicates, as before said, that the
pieces have been _painted_ outside the factory.

The beds of fine clay in Saxony are much deteriorated; and the
productions at Meissen no longer hold so high a place as they once did.

BERLIN PORCELAIN--HARD PASTE.--It was not until 1751 that attempts were
made to produce porcelain in Prussia. This was a private enterprise
undertaken by a Mr. Wegeley. The _Gentleman's Magazine_ of 1753 spoke of
him in this way: "There has been discovered here at Berlin the whole art
of making china-ware, without any particular kind of earth, from a kind
of stone which is common enough everywhere," etc.

Wegeley worked on for eight years, but could not make the production
pay, and abandoned it; when it was taken up by a banker named
Gottskowski (1762), who, having capital, pushed it toward success. In
1763 the establishment was bought by Frederick the Great, who made it a
royal manufactory, and forced a success.

[Illustration: FIG. 130.--_Berlin Porcelain._]

When Frederick took Dresden, the porcelain-works at Meissen were
temporarily suspended. He had an eye to understand the value of the
porcelain industries, and he took measures to grace his capital and
increase the wealth of Prussia by establishing a great manufactory at
Berlin. He carried off from Meissen some of the best examples of the
porcelain collection, transported to Berlin tons of the fine clay, and
borrowed the best workmen and the most distinguished artists for his new
factory; among these the names of Meyer, Klipsel, and Böhme, are
mentioned.

The Berlin productions soon rose into fame and obtained a wide
circulation. Not only did the king spread the work abroad by means of
exquisite presents; he also took measures at home to secure a market. He
ordered that no Jew should marry until he had provided himself a
sufficient outfit of porcelain from the royal manufactory. Now, the Jew
does not like to waste his money, and he at once sought a market for the
wares he had been forced to buy. All this advertised and spread abroad
the excellent work.

During the collapse of Meissen, Russia became a large customer for
Berlin; and its finished and elegant dinner-services went into her
palaces and mansions. The best work of Berlin equals the best work of
Dresden; its paste is more creamy, and some of its painters were not
excelled. A favorite decoration at Berlin was the small Watteau
figure-pieces, painted in medallions or reserves. Its examples of
pierced or open-worked border plates are excellent.

In Fig. 130 are two examples of these, from Mr. Prime's collection,
which are perfectly painted in the naturalistic way. So, too, is the
tureen, which has finely-modeled heads for handles, which yet are
unsatisfactory. This is one piece of a large dinner-service.

Berlin porcelain ranks high, and good specimens bring good prices.

Two factories continue to produce fine porcelain--one at Berlin, and one
at Charlottenberg, which was founded in 1790--and both are under the
direction of the state.

The Berlin factory grew to such importance in the last century that it
employed seven hundred workmen.

The prices paid for some pieces of Berlin porcelain at the Bernal sale
were as follows:

  A Berlin coffee-pot, with river-scene and landscape      £5     $25 00

  A plate, with Salmacis and Hermaphroditus, gold border,  13 10_s._ 67 00

  A cup and saucer, deep blue, with female busts in red,
  on gold ground                                            4 10_s._ 22 00

  A cup and saucer, with pink festoon border and exotic
  birds                                                     1 10_s._  7 50

  A cup, cover, and stand, pink, with black medallions
  of the Princess de Lamballe and her cipher                5 15_s._ 29 00

Marks of Berlin porcelain:

[Illustration: _This indicates Wegeley, and was in use about 1751 to
1761._]

[Illustration: _The globe and cross-mark are found on a few pieces,
about 1830._]

[Illustration: _The mark of the sceptre was afterward used in various
forms._]

[Illustration: 1833.]

[Illustration: _Another form of sceptre._]

[Illustration: _Sometimes these are painted over the sceptre._]

Since 1833 the mark has been a double eagle, surrounded by the words
"_Porzellan-Manufactur, Königl._"

The mark of Charlottenburg has been the double eagle crowned, holding a
sceptre in one hand, a globe in the other.

VIENNA PORCELAIN--HARD PASTE.--The Vienna manufactory was started about
1717 to 1720, and was a private enterprise. The principal man was
Stenzel, who had escaped from Meissen, and was warmly welcomed at
Vienna. He possessed the Meissen secrets, and was able to give character
and value to the Vienna ware. The early examples were thicker and
coarser than that of Dresden, and the paste was grayer and less pure. It
was not till 1744, when Maria Theresa purchased the works, that Vienna
porcelain rose to its best estate. This beautiful and capable woman for
a long time was a prominent figure in the politics of Europe. Her
father, the Emperor Charles VI. of Hapsburg, during his life secured to
her the succession of the Austrian throne, by an agreement with the
other powers called the "Pragmatic Sanction," which, however, proved a
treacherous security, so that wars and rumors of wars followed her.

The porcelain-works were, however, not neglected, and the patronage of
the court, and the fashion the courtiers made, secured a good success;
so that, in 1785, more than five hundred workmen were employed.

Not only were the products largely used in Austria, but there came a
great demand from Turkey. The first work was, of course, a following of
Dresden. The best painters possible were engaged, and animals,
landscapes, and figures, were applied.

[Illustration: FIG. 131.--_Vienna and Herend Porcelain._]

About 1796 a painter named Lamprecht painted excellent animals, and his
pieces bear his name; they are rare. Some of the other painters were
Perger, Furstler, Wech, and Varsanni. Nigg was a painter of rare
flower-pieces.

The Turkish demand caused the production at Vienna, and also in Hungary,
of what may be called Oriental or Asiatic styles of decorations.
Figures, of course, gave way to arabesques--for no true Moslem copies
the human figure--and more and richer colors were used.

The best work was made during the latter part of the last century, when
a style of decoration of burnished gold in relief upon dead gold was
used, which is now much prized. The work went on, with varying success
and at great cost, till 1856, when it was given up.

Some of the pieces at the Bernal sale were as follows:

  A plate with green border and white stars, with flowers  £2  2_s._  $10 50

  One with brown and gold border, with flowers              1  1_s._    5 00

  A plate with lilac border, and friezes, from gems in
  Indian-ink                                               37 16_s._  189 00

  A cup and saucer, beautifully painted, with Venus and
  Cupid, after Sir Joshua Reynolds                          8 15_s._   44 00

The teapot and cup and saucer in Fig. 131 are Vienna work, and are
excellent examples both of paste and coloring.

The three lower pieces in Fig. 131 are _Hungarian_; the bowl and
sugar-bowl are highly colored, and are very Oriental in both color and
decoration. The plate with fish is a direct imitation of the Chinese.

Marks for Vienna porcelain:

[Illustration: _This shield varies in shape and size. It has been in use
since 1744._]

HUNGARY.--Toward the end of the last century a porcelain-factory was at
work in Herend, at which porcelain of an Oriental character and much
richness was made. This was doubtless intended for the Turkish and
Asiatic markets. A piece bought in Ispahan, as Oriental, is now
pronounced to be Herend, and was purchased by the South Kensington
Museum in 1863.

Some pieces figured on the lower line of the engraving (Fig. 131) show
the Oriental character of the decorations, but not the bright and rich
colors.

The word "Herend" is found impressed on the ware; sometimes in incised
letters.

In 1839 Fischer established a porcelain-manufactory, which, I believe,
is still at work. Sometimes he used the shield of the arms of Austria
for a mark, and at others his own initials, =MF= (Morris Fischer),
combined.

HÖCHST (OR MAYENCE) PORCELAIN--HARD PASTE.--Mayence, or Mainz, was once
a small state or duchy, presided over by the elector, who was archbishop
of the state. Pottery had been made there for many years; and at last,
in 1740, an escaped workman from Vienna, named Ringler, taught them the
secrets of porcelain. He seems to have been a man of force--one who
worked for excellence--and under his direction some of the best
porcelain was made. When the manufactory became a state establishment,
the services of an artist named Melchior were secured as modeler and
decorator. He was one of those rare men who have an innate sense of the
beauties of form and proportion, which study had made more keen and
true.

His figures and small groups rank highest of any for their spirit,
grace, and delicacy, and command to-day extreme prices. The letter "M"
is engraved on the bottom of many of Melchior's productions, in addition
to the wheel, or wheel and crown, which was the common mark for the
factory.

The vases and table-ware partake of the general character of the
Dresden, which led all the rest; it had a good sale, and, being never
produced in great quantities, the pieces are not now very common. They
are desired in all good collections, and the prices are high.

One day, when Ringler had taken too much wine, his workmen stole from
his pocket the secret for mixing the paste, and from this many of the
smaller manufactories of Germany took their start. The factory was
destroyed by the French in 1794.

The mark of the Höchst ware was a wheel, with or without the crown.

[Illustration: _The wheel was sometimes in gold, then in red, then in
blue. Demmin thinks these indicate their respective periods since
1720._]

FRANKENTHAL, (OR BAVARIAN) PORCELAIN--HARD PASTE.--Hannong, a Strasburg
potter, having discovered the secret of porcelain, and being forbidden
to use it in France, sought work in the palatinate at a town called
Frankenthal in the year 1754. Soon after this, Ringler, who had had the
care of the works at Höchst, having had his secrets stolen, left that
place in disgust, and offered his services to Hannong at Frankenthal,
and was gladly received. Together they at once brought their productions
to a point of great excellence; and when, in 1761, the Elector Palatine,
Carl Theodor, purchased the works, and made them a state establishment,
they grew into great fame.

Melchior, whose figures had made the work of Höchst so famous, was
induced to come to Frankenthal, where his skill and taste were made most
useful.

Examples of this porcelain are much sought for.

The excellence of the work declined afterward; and about the year 1800,
the country being overrun by French armies, the works were ruined and
the tools were sold.

The prices at the Bernal sale were about the same as the best Dresden.

We give some form-marks supposed to belong to Frankenthal:

[Illustration: _Crest of the Palatinate._]

[Illustration: _Mark of Joseph Adam Hannong._]

[Illustration: _The Crown._]

The first, the crest of the palatinate, was used from 1755 to 1761.

PH combined, sometimes found on this porcelain, marks the work of
Hannong.

The crown, with the letters C. T. (Carl Theodor), indicates the late
period from 1762 to 1798.

FÜRSTENBURG (OR BRUNSWICK) PORCELAIN.--The interest excited by the
production of porcelain at Dresden, Vienna, and Höchst, inspired many
of the rulers of states with a desire to establish manufactories of the
beautiful wares in their own dominions; among whom was Charles, Duke of
Brunswick (1750). One of the Höchst workmen was secured to superintend
the works at Fürstenburg; but he soon died, when Baron von Lang was
placed in charge. He was an accomplished chemist, and his skill, with
the funds put at his disposal by the duke, enabled him to produce work
equal in decoration to that at Dresden, though the paste is not
considered so fine. Fine vases, groups, and dinner and tea services,
were the result, which are now much prized.

At the Bernal sale a Fürstenburg cup, cover, and stand, painted with
flowers and surmounted by a flame, sold for six pounds ten shillings
sterling (thirty-two dollars).

The mark is a cursive letter _F_ more or less rudely done in blue.

[Illustration: FIG. 132.--_Fürstenberg._]

In Fig. 132 is seen a basket from Mr. Wales's collection, made at
Fürstenburg, which is carefully modeled, though it bears very little
decoration.

NYMPHENBURG, in Bavaria, had a small porcelain-manufactory as early as
1746 or 1747, but it seems to have had only a fitful and uncertain
existence until after the death of Carl Theodor, when the Frankenthal
workmen were taken to Nymphenburg, carrying with them skill, taste, and
knowledge. The manufactory received many favors, and much good work was
done. Among the known artists employed were Heintzmann, who painted
landscapes; Adler, who did the figures; and Lindemann. Some of the white
pieces made at Nymphenburg bear the impressed stamp of the factory, and
painters' marks also, when decorated outside the walls of the
manufactory.

The establishment is said to be still in existence. Nymphenburg was once
a royal palace, a few miles from Munich.

At the Bernal sale some pieces sold as follows:

  A Nymphenburg basin with an elaborate painting of a
    battle, in Indian-ink                              £10             $50 00
  A cup and saucer with figures, in Indian-ink and
    gold                                                 2              10 00
  A basin with figures and scrolls, in Indian-ink and
    gold                                                 2 12_s._ 6_d._ 13 00
  A basin with medallions in Indian-ink, figures in colors,
    and gold scrolls                                    14              70 00
  A basin with three landscapes                          4              20 00

The marks of the Nymphenburg are--

[Illustration: _The shield of the arms of Bavaria. A section of this was
sometimes used._]

[Illustration: _The double triangle, with numerals and letters._]

Besides these more important manufactories of porcelain were a number of
less note, which sprang up during this period of active interest; such
as those of _Ludwigsburg_, or _Kronenburg_, _Fulda_, _Hesse-Cassel_,
etc.

In THURINGIA, also, were a number of small establishments, many of which
produced fine work.

Marks of Ludwigsburg, or Kronenburg:

[Illustration: _From 1758._]

[Illustration: _Sometimes without the crown._]

Mark of Fulda, in Hesse (1763 to 1780):

[Illustration: _Signifying the Prince of Fulda._]

Marks of Limbach, in Saxe-Meiningen (about 1760):

[Illustration: _Sometimes this was a script L._]

[Illustration: _Another mark._]

In SWITZERLAND, at Nyon and at Zurich, small factories went to work,
whose productions are sought for by collectors; but they do not reach
the importance of the leading German establishments. The manufactory at
Nyon (1712) had sometimes a fish, and sometimes a painter's name in
script-letters, as _Guide_, or _G_.

[Illustration: _Nyon-mark._]

[Illustration: _The mark of Zurich_ (1755).]



CHAPTER XIII.

THE PORCELAIN OF FRANCE--ST.-CLOUD, CHANTILLY, SÈVRES, ETC.

     Hard and Soft Porcelain.--Discovery of Kaolin.--St.-Cloud.--_Pâte
     Tendre._--Marks.--Rouen.--Small Manufactories.--Marks of
     same.--Chantilly.--Sceaux-Penthièvre.--Niderviller.--Marks.
     --Limoges.--Sèvres.--Flower-Work.--Hard Porcelain, _Pâte Dure_.
     --The Grand Monarque.--Florid      Taste.--Boucher.--Vieux
     Sèvres.--Three Vases.--Greek Vases.--Prices at Bernal
     Sale.--Chemists.--Colors used.--Collections.--Art Museums.
     --Alexandre Brongniart.--Marks and Dates.


The porcelain of Sèvres is probably better known than any other by name,
if not by sight. The production has been steadily under the protection
of the state since 1760, when the crown became sole owner of the works.
Time, thought, skill, talent, ingenuity, and money, have been spent upon
this work unceasingly for more than a century; and some of the most
elaborate, most finished, and most costly pieces of porcelain which the
world has anywhere seen, have come out of the small town of Sèvres.

Kings, nobles, poets, painters, have recognized the beauty and value of
this work, and have given of their strength to help it onward toward
perfection.

The history of the manufactory at Sèvres might fill a book: here we are
limited to a brief space, which may suffice for most readers.

Some experts hold that _true_ porcelain is only what is known as hard
porcelain, called _pâte dure_ by the French. Such is always the
porcelain of China and Japan; such is that of Dresden and the centre of
Europe.

This hard porcelain has always the two qualities of hardness and
translucency. We have elsewhere explained to what these qualities are
due, and how and when they were brought to perfection in Europe, first
at Dresden or Meissen (see Dresden porcelain).

France lacked the peculiar clay necessary for making hard porcelain till
the year 1765, when chance discovered the magic earth at St.-Yrieix;
after which time its manufacture was brought to a high pitch of
excellence at Sèvres.

The soft porcelain, or _pâte tendre_, can be made without the admixture
of the clay called by the Chinese _kaolin_. It has the quality of
translucency, but lacks hardness and strength. It melts at a lower heat,
and, while very delicate and beautiful, it is not so enduring as the
_pâte dure_. Experts can distinguish the two at sight; but there are
some signs which will help the uninitiated. The soft porcelain is likely
to be more creamy, and softer to the eye and touch, than the hard; the
painting blends more into the glaze; the bottoms of the pieces or the
rims are covered with the glaze; while, in the hard porcelain, these
rims, from standing on the sanded floor of the furnaces, show no glaze.
The painting on the hard porcelain is likely to be sharper, and more on
the surface, than that on the soft, into which it seems to melt.

ST.-CLOUD.--Before the discovery of kaolin in Europe, as early as 1695,
soft porcelain, or _pâte tendre_, was made at St.-Cloud in great variety
and of considerable excellence; and the story of French porcelain, begun
there, may be divided into two parts: 1. Soft porcelain, begun at
St.-Cloud in 1695, continued there, and afterward at Chantilly; then at
Vincennes, in 1745; still later at Sèvres, in 1756. The production of
soft porcelain, or _pâte tendre_, continued at Sèvres, in company with
that of the _pâte dure_, until 1804. 2. The hard porcelain, or _pâte
dure_ of the French; which was made after the discovery of the kaolin of
St.-Yrieix, at Sèvres.

Marks used at St.-Cloud:

[Illustration: _The mark of the Sun._]

[Illustration: _Another one._]

[Illustration: _The fleur-de-lis, sometimes impressed._]

[Illustration: _This mark indicated the factory and the name of the
director (Trou) from_ 1730 to 1762.]

The early porcelain made at St.-Cloud is said to have been quite coarse
and unsatisfactory. Examples of it are very scarce. That made later was
better, but a long way behind what was made afterward at Sèvres.

At ROUEN, in France, porcelain appears to have been made, but it never
proceeded so far as to be a business.

At MENECY-VILLEROY, about 1735, soft paste was made; and later there
were various limited efforts at Brancas-Lauraguais, at Arras, at
Vincennes, at Boulogne, at Étoilles, at Bourg-la-Reine, at Clignancourt,
at Orleans, at Luneville, at Bordeaux, at Valenciennes, at Limoges, at
Sarreguemines, at Strasbourg; at Paris, a great number, some of the
products of which are still in existence.

We give the marks of some of the most important.

Marks of Clignancourt:

[Illustration: _A windmill in blue._]

[Illustration: _Another form._]

[Illustration: _This varies a good deal_ (1775).]

[Illustration: _Monograms of Louis Stanislas Xavier, Count de
Provence._]

[Illustration: _Porcelaine de Monsieur_ (1780).]

Marks of Orleans:

[Illustration: _A label_ (_lambel d'Orléans_).]

[Illustration: _A label_ (_lambel d'Orléans_).]

[Illustration: _A label_ (_lambel d'Orléans_).]

[Illustration: _Monogram of Benoist le Brun, the director._]

[Illustration: _Monogram of Benoist le Brun, the director._]

Marks of Valenciennes:

[Illustration:

     _The letter V, for Valenciennes, combined with L, the name of the
     wife of the director._
]

[Illustration:

     _The letter V, for Valenciennes, combined with L, the name of the
     wife of the director._
]

[Illustration:

     _The letter V, for Valenciennes, combined with L, the name of the
     wife of the director._
]

Marks of Strasbourg:

[Illustration: _Either of these marks indicates the name of Hannong, the
founder._]

Mark of Marseilles:

[Illustration: _This letter indicates M. Robert, the founder_ (1766).]

The PARIS marks are so manifold that the student must refer to some
manual of marks, such as are mentioned in the list of books at the end
of the volume.

Besides the smaller factories first mentioned, a few words may be well
upon some factories whose productions are now and then offered for sale.

CHANTILLY.--As early as 1725 this factory produced a great variety of
articles of soft paste, which were and are highly esteemed. A design
used there--a small blue flower upon the white--called _Barbeau_, was
much in fashion.

The workmen at Chantilly were afterward engaged at Vincennes. The mark
is a hunting-horn, sometimes impressed, sometimes painted on.

[Illustration: _Hunting-horn._]

SCEAUX (sometimes Sceaux-Penthièvre) was a small factory near Paris,
begun in 1750, where, for some twenty or thirty years, very delicate
soft-paste porcelain was made. The marks were sometimes the letters S X
or S P, and the anchor.

[Illustration: _Sceaux-Penthièvre_ (_about_ 1750 to 1760).]

[Illustration: _The anchor in blue_ (1751 to 1792).]

At NIDERVILLER, near Strasbourg, in 1760, a factory was established by
Baron de Beyerlé, which afterward (about 1780) went into the possession
of General de Custine, whose head was cut off during the French
Revolution. Both soft and hard porcelain were made here, and some of the
biscuit figures are of great excellence.

The marks most known are these; but the letter _N_ in script is
sometimes found on pieces of this work.

Marks of Niderviller:

[Illustration: _Baron de Beyerlé, the founder_ (1760).]

[Illustration: _General de Custine_ (1786).]

[Illustration: _Another variety._]

[Illustration: _Monogram of F. C. Lanfray, director._]

[Illustration: _Lanfray, director._]

At LIMOGES, in 1773, soft porcelain was made; later, hard paste was
made. The old mark was =C. D.= At the present time a number of factories
are busily at work there, among which is that of Haviland and Company,
whose faience will be mentioned elsewhere.

SÈVRES.--We cannot to-day appreciate the enthusiasm which existed at
this period (1750) in France, as well as in many other states of Europe,
upon the subject of porcelain manufacture. Among royal and noble people
it was peculiarly strong. The kings of France were always open to the
projects of experts, who promised to produce wonderful results; and, in
1745, when the company was formed to produce porcelain at Vincennes, the
king, Louis XV., contributed to the capital the sum of one hundred
thousand livres.

Madame de Pompadour, at this period the most beautiful woman and the
most influential personage in France, was an eager patron of the ceramic
arts, and gave all her influence to promote their development; the
queen, too, was greatly interested; we may be sure that all good
courtiers followed their lead. About this time (1740 to 1750) a
wonderful production of porcelain flowers was in vogue at Vincennes, and
the most elaborate work was done there, so that two bouquets made for
the king and dauphine cost them the great sum of three thousand livres
(francs) each; which was a great deal more than three thousand francs is
now. A single order given by the king amounted to the sum of eight
hundred thousand livres. This attempt to _imitate_ flowers in colored
porcelain we now consider foolish, as well as false art; and very
properly it has passed away as one of the whimsies of the time. Some of
these flowers, such as double ranunculuses, orange-flowers, anemones,
etc., still remain, wonders of fictile work, in the Musée Céramique, at
Sèvres.

But the porcelain-works at St.-Cloud and Vincennes, the _avant couriers_
of Sèvres, produced many other and more legitimate objects of use as
well as art. The dinner and tea services made here were most elaborate
and costly; one made for the Empress of Russia was decorated with
paintings of antique cameos, and the cost was some three hundred and
sixty thousand livres, a vast sum surely.

At certain seasons the courtiers were expected to purchase the work of
the royal factory, and presents were sent hither and thither; so that
for a time the manufactory not only enjoyed the favor of the king, but
also the sunshine of the court.

In 1748 a superb vase was made and presented to the queen. It stood on a
bronze pedestal, and was about three feet high. The marvelous part of it
was the great bouquet it contained, which consisted of four hundred and
eighty porcelain flowers exquisitely modeled and colored after Nature.

The mark used at Vincennes will be given with those of Sèvres.

In 1756 the porcelain-works of Vincennes were removed to Sèvres, and
from that period everything possible was concentrated there; and in 1759
or 1760 the whole came under the control and direction of the king. We
see, therefore, how out of the efforts at St.-Cloud and Chantilly and
Vincennes the works at Sèvres at last grew up. All was now combined at
Sèvres.

The production of hard porcelain at this period had become a matter of
importance; for it was well known that at Dresden most finished work of
this kind had for a long time been made. Soft porcelain, though equally
or more beautiful, was difficult to make, was then expensive, and lacked
the strength and durability of the hard. Hard porcelain or _pâte dure_,
was the one thing desired. But this could not be made without the
peculiar clay called kaolin, which the Saxons had, but which they would
not allow the French to get. This was not obtained, as has been said,
till 1765, and from that time Sèvres entered upon a period of production
which has had no equal in Europe.

The buildings were ample, the gardens were pleasant, and the interest in
the production of the royal works may be appreciated from the fact that
the king, accompanied by Madame de Pompadour, made weekly visits, to see
that all went well. And all did go will. No money was wanting; artists
of the highest rank were enlisted; skilled men of every kind contributed
their knowledge and keenness to bring the delicate work to perfection.

Madame de Pompadour, herself an artist in her way, not only came weekly
to enjoy the work of others, but she often applied her own hands to
making designs, or to touching or perfecting what fine thing might be
going forward. Under such stimulus as this it was inevitable that every
modeler, every artist, every colorist, should be inspired to do his
best. They were patronized by royal hands which disposed of all the
glory and wealth of France.

Painters having a wonderful technical skill were eagerly engaged, and
much of the work done has the merit--not the highest one, certainly--of
being most delicately and elaborately penciled. No work of this kind
ever has surpassed what was done on the vases, teacups, écuelles, etc.,
made at Sèvres. The variety of decoration upon these elaborate pieces
was great, comprising among others, birds, flowers in wreaths and
garlands, and bouquets, landscapes, figures, arabesques, Cupids,
emblems, cameos, masks, miniatures, Watteau pictures, children, pastoral
subjects, Chinese and Japanese imitations, butterflies, medallions,
sea-pieces, insects, etc.: the whole of Nature and art was ransacked for
interesting and attractive material.

Almost or quite all of this may be characterized as most clever
imitation, exquisitely painted. Even the artists who were inspired by
love of Oriental work seem to have imitated or copied that; they did not
learn by it how to express Occidental life and growth, in their own
individual way, and with that piquant fresh touch which marks so much
of the best Oriental work. Nevertheless, it is exquisite, and conveys a
sense of satisfaction and completeness because of that, even to those
who do not approve of it as the best decorative art.

It is safe to say that the Grand Monarque, Louis XIV., was the greatest
affliction which the kingdom of France was ever called upon to endure.
His reign was unfortunately long--1643 to 1715. It was marked by a false
splendor of success, by luxury such as the world had not seen since the
days of the decline and fall of Rome, by the most venal public service
except that which his successor permitted, by the most unblushing
corruption in private life, among men and women both; and by a general
degradation of all the standards of frugality, sincerity, honor, and
nobleness, in public and in private life. Was it possible for art to
escape this contamination? Impossible!

The florid and foolish taste of the perruquier prevails everywhere, in
architecture, in painting, in sculpture, in dress; all is tainted with
the showy and the shallow. The flowing scroll appears in all its
splendor, decoration is piled in meaningless profusion, and talent and
taste, heart, mind, hand, and gold, are lavished in folly and vice,
which finally culminated in the social and political Revolution of Louis
XVI., when king and noble, lord and lady, went under in a sanguinary
flood of anarchy and ruin.

Could the taste and the art which prevailed at Sèvres escape this? It
could not, and it did not.

While, therefore, we cannot but admire the care, the pains, the skill,
of the workmen and the artists, let us not be misled by the false
glamour of that time, so as to learn to love or to imitate their florid
and extravagant tastes in architecture, in furniture, in dress, or in
porcelain.

Chaffers, in his work upon "Pottery and Porcelain," gives the private
marks of some one hundred and twenty-six painters, who were employed at
Sèvres before 1800, and quite a number who have painted there since.
Among these are some who reached a European reputation: of these
_Boucher_ is perhaps most famous; his medallions are sought for, and
highly valued.

[Illustration: FIG. 133.--_Enameled Sèvres Vase, called "Vase
Genicault."_]

A distinction is sometimes made between old Sèvres and modern Sèvres.
The old--_vieux Sèvres_--comes down to the year 1800; after that it is
designated as modern, for convenience. It does not intend to exalt one
and condemn the other, as too many now are apt to think, the truth being
that equally good work has been done since that time as before it.

Indeed, within this year I have seen some pieces of Sèvres painting,
such as I fancy have never been done there before, and which can hardly
be excelled; in which the artist ceases to be a copyist, abandons
himself to the imagination, and produces work which gratifies the
highest faculty. Somebody, then, has broken away from traditions and
academic rules.

Not only were the early painters ranked as artists, but designers and
modelers of vases and other pieces had high rank and high pay, so much
so that their names were and are attached to their productions; as, for
example, vase Clodion, vase Duplessis, vase Falconnet, etc. I may say
here that elaborate and beautiful as many of them certainly are, the
Sèvres vases, inspired as they too often are by that expression of art
so acceptable to Louis XIV. and XV., are so decorated, scrolled, and
worked, that they create a sense of surfeit in many minds.

In Figs. 133, 134, and 135, we have three excellent examples of this
work which may really be called _magnificent_. They have all the
qualities which characterize the elaborate work of Sèvres. The size and
elaborateness of these force them into the collections of emperors and
kings, and here and there into the fine museums of the world, where they
are to be seen of all men.

Fig. 133 is a superb covered vase, enameled most elaborately and
exquisitely, in the best of what may be termed a Renaissance decoration,
which had its birth in Italy. The masks and floating figures suggest a
delicate reminiscence of Pompeii and the luxury and decadence of those
Greek Romans, which there reached a full development, and which remain
to us when all of Rome is in ruin, preserved by the ashes of Vesuvius
through these nineteen centuries.

The vase, Fig. 134, is the largest of all, reaching some forty inches in
height.

Fig. 135 shows us a superb vase, called "_Cuve ovale Ducereau_." In this
vase the artist has closely approximated to the _form_ of some of the
old Greek vases, but the decoration is more striking and elaborate.

[Illustration: FIG. 134.--_Sèvres Vase, called Vase Etrusque Carafe._]

A perception of this excessive ornamentation came to somebody about the
year 1785, for in that year Louis XVI. bought from M. Denon a collection
of Greek vases, "to serve as models of pure and simple forms, and thus
change the exaggerated, exuberant contours given to porcelain in the
preceding reign."

[Illustration: FIG. 135.--_Sèvres Vase, called "Cuve Ovale Ducereau."_]

The wonderful virtue of simplicity which the Greeks at their best fully
valued, seems to have fled from France during the times of Louis XIV.
and XV. This, in a degree, was restored by the purer and better tastes
of the time of Louis XVI., when there was a reaction toward the classic
in both literature and art.

In Fig. 136 we have engraved a vase of the time of Louis XVI., which
indicates the improvements made at that time, both in form and
decoration. It approaches the classic forms of Greece, and is a step
away from that excessive and meretricious decoration which marked the
times of Louis XIV. and XV. It was sold at the Bernal sale, and is thus
described: "A magnificent centre vase and cover, _gros bleu_, with
upright handles of foliage, a festoon of leaves, raised gilt, encircling
the vase and falling over the handles, the lower part fluted with
pendant lines of leaves; in the centre is a most exquisite painting of a
peasant and two girls gathering cherries, a donkey with panniers filled
with cherries at their side, a group of flowers on the reverse--on
square plinth, eighteen inches high. Sold to the Marquis of Hertford for
eight hundred and seventy-one pounds ten shillings sterling (four
thousand three hundred and fifty-five dollars).

[Illustration: FIG. 136.--_Sèvres Vase._]

I have spoken of the many styles of painting applied at Sèvres, and also
of the great carefulness and elaborateness of the modeling. Another
skilled body of men was called upon to contribute toward the perfection
at which they all aimed; these were the _chemists_. To devise, to
combine, and to adapt many and more and more beautiful colors than any
in use, which could be applied to porcelain and would stand supreme
heat, required the aid of science. This the chemists gave; and the
result has been such rich, such subtile, such brilliant colors as no
other manufactory has reached. Some of these colors have become well
and widely known under the following names:

_Bleu de roi_, made from cobalt; a deep lapis lazuli, sometimes veined
and sown with gold. _Gros bleu_, a deeper color of the same.

_Bleu céleste_, a turquoise blue, from copper.

_Rose Pompadour_, improperly called _Rose du Barri_ in England.

_Violet pensée_, a rare and beautiful violet.

_Jonquille_, a rich canary.

_Vert pomme_, a delicious apple-green.

_Vert pré_, a bright grass-green.

_Rouge de fer_, a brilliant red.

These are among the most famous colors used to cover the ground or body
of the finest vases, the reserved spaces being filled with the rarest
paintings. In addition to these perfect colors, gilding of the heaviest
kind was used--often too freely. To glorify the work still more, what
are termed _jewels_ were applied in rows, or singly, of many colors; but
pearls and rubies were most in use.

The _rose Pompadour_, or _rose du Barri_, has, within the last twenty
years, become most in vogue, so that at the Bernal sale, in 1856, a pair
of vases of this color, painted with groups of Cupids in medallions, was
purchased by the Marquis of Bath at eighteen hundred and fifty guineas.
An English collector, of moderate views, told me he proposed to purchase
a pair of vases of this color, some twelve inches high, at a sale at
Christie's, some five years since, if he could do so for, say, one
hundred pounds sterling. The first bid was one thousand pounds, and they
were knocked down at sixteen hundred and fifty guineas.

The variety and splendor of these _vases de luxe_ are great. They are to
be seen in most of the collections of Europe, and, to some extent, in
America; but their great cost, and the fact that they are so rarely
offered for sale here, make them quite uncommon in the United States.

Visitors to Europe should see those in the Kensington Museum, and in
private galleries; such as that of M. Rothschild, whose collection is
worth _millions_.

[Illustration: FIG. 137.--_Sèvres._]

It is a singular thing that during that fearful tempest known as the
French Revolution, when almost everything which had a suspicion of
royalty or luxury was swept away, the works at Sèvres were not
destroyed, but were carefully guarded and supported by the republican
Directory.

Besides these "articles of luxury," the Sèvres works have always made a
large number of services for household use, which, however, must always
be costly. Some of these are in this country; also a good many single
pieces, particularly from the collections of Louis Philippe, which were
large, and which were scattered at the time of the Revolution of 1848.
Quite a goodly number were in the sale of Mr. Lyons's collection, in
1876.

Some of these dinner-services were of course very elaborate and some
intended for royal houses were finished in the rich and heavy colors,
such as the _bleu de roi_, which for myself I would never desire; but
most of them were decorated with edges of very rich gold, and bands or
bouquets of flowers painted on the white.

[Illustration: FIG. 138.--_Sèvres, White and Gold._]

In Fig. 137 we present some pieces from a handsome service belonging to
W. C. Prime, Esq., of New York. The forms as well as the decoration are
perfect; the dark bands are a rich yellow, and the edges are finished
with heavy gold leafage and lines. This is a large and complete set.

The single plate shown in the picture, containing the portrait of
Montaigne, of course does not belong to the service. It is an admirable
piece of the miniature work done at Sèvres, and must find its place as a
picture does on the walls of the house. Plates, however, as valuable as
this should have the protection of a frame.

Fig. 138 is from a part of a tea or breakfast service belonging to the
collection of George W. Wales, Esq., of Boston. It is clear and
brilliant, being wholly of white and gold, and is really surprisingly
attractive, partly from its simplicity, and more from its perfectness.

Some of the finest pieces of Sèvres porcelain in our country are to be
found in the collections I have already mentioned. There are also fine
examples in possession of Mr. Barlow, Mr. Belmont, and Mr. Matthews, of
New York; of Dr. Mitchell, and other connoisseurs, at Philadelphia. Mr.
J. V. L. Pruyn, of Albany, has one large and beautiful dinner-service of
the white and gold Sèvres, and one made for Louis Philippe, having bands
in colors. In his collection are two plates jeweled--one bearing the
portrait of the Princess Lamballe, painted by Le Guay; and the other,
that of Gabrielle d'Estrées--which are of the highest class.

The knowledge of and love for good examples of fine porcelain are on the
increase, and no doubt in a few years we shall be able to see and enjoy
fine work, without the disagreeable experience of crossing the
implacable ocean.

Our art-museums will also give to thousands the opportunity of seeing
and studying these things which no private collections can so well do.

The name of ALEXANDRE BRONGNIART (Fig. 139) is now identified with the
best period of Sèvres porcelain, and its high reputation and great
success are due more to him than to any one man. Not only did he aim for
excellence himself, he also insisted that others should do likewise. He
gave tone and character to what was done there. Nothing having any flaw
or blemish was allowed to go from the works; and in that way the
standard was kept high in the minds of artists and workmen as well as in
those of amateurs. Prices, too, were kept at such a point that more and
more could be attempted and accomplished. To Brongniart is due the
_Musée Céramique_ at Sèvres. In this museum are examples of all or
nearly all the famous work ever done there, as well as a great number of
examples of both porcelain and faience made elsewhere. This museum is
still receiving constant additions.

Before his appointment Brongniart was ranked as a _savant_ in other
branches. He was known among the most eminent of geologists, and in
conjunction with Cuvier he made a careful examination of the geology of
the neighborhood of Paris, and wrote upon it a learned essay. He was
also a student of chemistry, and this knowledge was most valuable after
he became director at Sèvres. For some fifty years after 1800 he held
that post, and during the time he gave his soul to the work he had in
hand; he encouraged the mature and he brought forward the young. His
work "Traité des Arts Céramiques" is most valuable, and is looked upon
as an authority to-day.

[Illustration: FIG. 139.--_Portrait of Alexandre Brongniart._]

Since his day the works have been in careful and competent hands, and
admirable porcelain is still produced in many styles.

MARKS.--The Vincennes mark used from 1745 to 1753 was the interlaced L's
without any inclosed letter, like the first mark of Sèvres.

Beginning at 1753 the Sèvres mark was the interlaced L's inclosing the
letter A. The marks at Sèvres changed many times, so that it is
necessary to give quite a list of them as well as a table showing how
the letters of the alphabet indicate the year when the piece was made.

The following table will help to explain the use of the letters of the
alphabet when placed in the interlaced L's:

  A                 1753
  B                 1754
  C                 1755
  D                 1756
  E                 1757
  F                 1758
  G                 1759
  H                 1760
  I                 1761
  J                 1762
  K                 1763
  L                 1764
  M                 1765
  N                 1766
  O                 1767
  P                 1768
  Q                 1769
  R                 1770
  S                 1771
  T                 1772
  U                 1773
  V                 1774
  X                 1775
  Y                 1776
  Z                 1777
  AA                1778
  BB                1779
  CC                1780
  DD                1781
  EE                1782
  FF                1783
  GG                1784
  HH                1785
  II                1786
  JJ                1787
  KK                1788
  LL                1789
  MM                1790
  NN                1791
  OO                1792
  PP                1793
  QQ                1794
  RR                1795
  T9*               1801
  X*                1802
  11*               1803
  --\\--            1804
  /|\               1805
  ==:==             1806
  7                 1807
  8                 1808
  9                 1809
  10                1810
  o.z. (onze)       1811
  d.z. (douze)      1812
  t.z. (treize)     1813
  q.z. (quatorze)   1814
  q.n. (quinze)      1815
  s.z. (seize)      1816
  d.-s. (dix-sept)  1817
  18                1818
  19                1819
        Etc., etc.

[Illustration: _A comet was sometimes used as a mark in the year
1769._]

Marks used at Sèvres:

[Illustration: _The royal period, sometimes with a crown (1753)._]

[Illustration: _Hard paste first made (1768)._

_Republic (1792 to 1798)._]

[Illustration: _Republic (1792)._]

[Illustration: _Consular period (1803)._]

[Illustration: _Imperial manufactory (1804 to 1809)._]

[Illustration: _Imperial manufactory (1810 to 1814)._]

[Illustration: _Louis XVIII., and the year (1814 to 1824)._]

[Illustration: _Charles X. (1824 to 1829)._]

[Illustration: _On plain ware (1829 and 1830)._]

[Illustration: _On decorated ware (1829 and 1830)._]

[Illustration: _Louis Philippe (August to December, 1830)._]

[Illustration: _Louis Philippe (1831 to November, 1834)._]

[Illustration: _Louis Philippe (November, 1834, to July, 1845)._]

[Illustration: _Louis Philippe (1837)._]

[Illustration: _Louis Philippe (1845 to 1848)._]

[Illustration: _On white porcelain (1833 to present time)._]

[Illustration: _Republic (1848 to 1851)._]

[Illustration: _Napoleon III., emperor (1852)._]

[Illustration: _Napoleon III., emperor (1854 and after)._]

[Illustration:

     _Present mark--the cut shows pieces sold in the white (1861)._
]



CHAPTER XIV.

THE PORCELAINS OF SOUTHERN EUROPE--ITALY, SPAIN, ETC.

     Florentine, or Medicean.--Is it a True Porcelain?--The House of
     Medici.--Marks.--Doccia Porcelain.--The Marquis
     Ginori.--Beccheroni.--Present
     Work.--Marks.--Venice.--Vezzi.--Cozzi.--Marks.--Turin.
     --Gioanetti.--Marks.--Nove.--Terraglia.--Marks.--Capo di
     Monte.--Naples.--In Relief.--Marks.--Spanish Porcelain.--Buen
     Retiro.--Marks.--Portugal.


Florentine (or Medicean) Porcelain.--In the time of the 1700's, after
the discovery of kaolin in Saxony, kings and princes were eager to
signalize themselves by establishing porcelain-works in their states,
and upon these they spent much money. It has come to light within a few
years that the merchant-princes of the house of Medici enlisted in the
same cause, and were the _first_ to establish a porcelain-factory in
Europe; this discovery, made by Dr. Foresi, of Florence, has been
confirmed by various others. The question only is, "Is it porcelain?"
Mr. J. C. Robinson, a distinguished English writer, says:

"A discovery of some curiosity and interest in connection with the
history of the manufacture of porcelain in Southern Europe has recently
been made by the acumen of Dr. Foresi, of Florence, and which has the
effect of antedating the manufacture by at least a century. Before this
discovery the fabrique at St.-Cloud, in France, was the earliest that
could be authenticated. This was about the year 1695; but the facts now
brought forward prove the existence of a factory for the manufacture of
a true porcelain at Florence, under the patronage of the Grand-duke
Francis I., about the years 1580 to 1590. For some time the doctor had
observed a peculiar ancient porcelain of a fine body and glaze, and
covered with an arabesque ornament in blue, which, while it generally
resembled Oriental porcelain, showed unmistakable features of European
design. It was also marked in a peculiar manner, and, as one mark
consisted of the well-known pellets of the Medici family arms, he was
induced to search the records of the house, and, to his surprise,
found--what had been overlooked by all historians of the potter's
art--that the duke above named had attached to his well-known laboratory
in the Boboli Gardens a small manufactory of porcelain. By continuing
his researches he at last exhumed a manuscript from the Magliabecchian
Library, which had been compiled by some person employed by the duke,
and which also detailed the facts connected with the composition of the
ware."

This manufacture continued from 1575 to 1587.

THE MEDICI.--The history of this remarkable family of the Medici can
never fail to interest. Roscoe has presented it well in his "Life of
Lorenzo the Magnificent," etc. The origin of the family is very vague;
but the fact is well known that the founder of its greatness was
Giovanni de' Medici (he died 1429), who, instead of grasping states and
principalities with one hand, while the other held the glittering sword,
as had for so long a time been the fashion, seized upon the great trade
which then had sprung up between the Occident and the Orient, and which
became vast and profitable in the hands of the merchants of Florence,
Genoa, and Venice.

This trade poured ducats into his coffers like the flow of a river, and
when he died he left vast stores of gold to his sons Cosmo and Lorenzo.

Cosmo, instead of degenerating into a "rich man's son," went on with the
work which his father had begun; but he conducted it as a great man
should, not as a great miser would. This was true of his successors, who
continued to be merchants and bankers, even after they had come to be
grand-dukes and rulers of the Florentine state. This wealth was used, of
course, to push their own fortunes and ambitions, but it was used in a
ducal way, not only in the building of palaces and galleries, but in the
encouragement of the arts and of letters, all of which increased his own
glory, while it ministered to the magnificence of the state. The Medici
had ceased to be merchants long before the time of Francis, but it is
easy to believe that the traditions of his family ran in his veins, and
that he should have been ready to attempt the production of porcelain in
his city, when the love for it and the desire for it had grown to be an
influence in Europe, as it had in the seventeenth century. Nineteen
specimens only are known of this earliest porcelain, and these are in
the hands of museums and of private collectors. Examples may be seen in
the Sèvres and Kensington Museums.

It seems that the best quality was made for the family of the founder,
and this bears the mark of six pellets, each with a letter and one with
a _fleur-de-lis_. These letters, F. M. M. E. D. II., mean _Franciscus
Medici Magnus Etruriæ Dux Secundus_.

[Illustration: FIG. 140.--_Medicean Porcelain._]

We engrave here (Fig. 140) a beautiful _bocca_, or pitcher, fifteen
inches high, of this porcelain, which is in the collection of the Baron
de Rothschild. The decoration resembles the style of maiolica known as
Raffaelesque; the body is white and the painting of a light blue. The
handle is a crown, formed by uniting those of the Medici and of Austria.
The less beautiful pieces are described as "coarse, opaque, and of a
bluish gray, the glaze thick and vitreous." This china was something
between hard and soft.

Whether this production of Italy is really porcelain, is open to doubt.
M. Demmin, who is certainly entitled to great consideration, denies it
very plainly. He states that the vase exhibited by M. Rothschild, in
1865, showed a break at the neck, and that the body was not porcelain,
but a white clay--_terre de pipe_. He states, also, that the five pieces
in the museum of Sèvres are not translucid, and have no signs such as
mark the _pâte tendre_ of France or Italy. English writers choose to
class this under the head of porcelain, which seems, at least, to be
very questionable. The two marks are:

[Illustration: _The Duomo of Florence and the six pellets of the
Medici._]

DOCCIA (near Florence)--HARD AND SOFT PASTE.--In the beginning of the
last century there existed in the north of Italy families who had
inherited wealth and honor, and who still retained their vigor. They may
not have been many, but among them the Ginori were numbered. Italy has
been living in the luminous glories of the art of the Renaissance these
five centuries, and the light, as it seems to us, grows dim rather than
glowing. Neither painting, sculpture, nor architecture, seems to-day to
have more than a thin flavor of that past, when Church and state, noble
and simple, combined to welcome the advent of a new artist. The
production of porcelain belongs to the later time; but it certainly, in
a limited way, shows signs of life and of originality more than any art
of the later time, except, perhaps, music. To-day it is not so.

The productions of the south--Capo di Monte--I have elsewhere spoken of
as not being servile imitations of anything, and as possessing much
merit and originality. Of the productions at Doccia I have seen none,
and the descriptions in books do not enable me to form any judgment. Of
the maiolicas of Italy, now being reproduced largely at Doccia, I shall
write hereafter.

The Marquis Ginori founded a manufactory near Florence in 1735, which is
in a flourishing condition to-day. Inspired with the desire to produce
work of a high character, he spared neither trouble nor cost, and sent a
ship to China to procure there the clays which had secured the Chinese
porcelain its peculiar character and its great excellence. Not only were
services for the table and other articles for social use produced by the
workmen and artists under the direction of the marquis, but almost
immediately they were engaged in the production of statues and groups,
in great variety, and some of which were half the size of life; many
were modeled from fine work of the Greek sculptors.

The paste is said to have been of a high grade, but the glaze was then
lacking in the finest effects of the Chinese potters. Having seen none
of it, I am unable to say more than that.

A pair of vases from this factory, in Walpole's collection at Strawberry
Hill, are described as "vases with blue and white oblique flutes; they
are of coarse workmanship, although the form is good."

Forsyth, an English traveler who visited the factory in 1802, speaks of
the works and the work very disparagingly, and says the latter was then
much inferior to that of England, as it doubtless was.

In 1821, when the Capo di Monte factory, at Naples, was discontinued,
the moulds were bought and taken to the Doccia works, and are still
owned there. The peculiar work in relief, which will be spoken of under
the head of "Capo di Monte," is now made there, and is sold in
considerable quantities, and often for the genuine Capo di Monte, from
which, of course, it is not easy to distinguish it. Marryat states that
this was made at Doccia, in the last century, probably from moulds
procured then at Naples.

Sèvres shapes and designs were imitated at Doccia, and a large
production is now going on of the maiolica vases and dishes of the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, which are sold all over Europe and
in America. In Paris are produced copies of these, not only in design,
but also with marks to indicate age, intended to deceive the unwary. We
do not believe this of the works at Doccia. Still, one can but regret
that the public demand for these copies should be so great as to forbid
original work there.

The artist most praised is Beccheroni, and his painting of miniatures is
spoken of as "exquisite." Baldassini and Tuppi are also mentioned in
terms of high praise.

A note in Marryat's volume says: "The manufactory now employs two
thousand persons. Attached to the establishment are a fine park and
farm, schools for the children, an academy of music for the workmen, a
savings-bank, and everything that can be devised to promote the moral
improvement of its occupants. In the chapel annexed are monuments in
porcelain of the deceased marquises; and in the adjacent parochial
church the high altar, _torchères_, candlesticks, ciborium, etc., are
all in porcelain--an offering of the Ginori family."

Some of the ware made here is stamped _Ginori_; others bear some one of
the following three marks.

[Illustration: _Doccia marks._]

VENICE--HARD AND SOFT PASTE.--Pottery had been made at Venice from an
early day, at least as far back as 1515. But, after the production of
true porcelain at Dresden, it seems that a rich merchant of Venice,
named Vezzi, in company with some others, engaged in the production of
porcelain there, getting his clay from Saxony. Various articles were
made, and their production probably continued till about 1740. But it
was not a success, owing, besides other causes, to the fact that the
clay had to be transported so far. It could not, of course, compete
with the works at Dresden. Some few examples of this exist, but very
few.

The mark of Vezzi's factory was the letters, painted or stamped,
Ven^A, a contraction for Venezia.

Later, about 1753, a German named Hewelcke made some attempts at Venice,
with no practical result.

_Cozzi's_ productions were of more importance.

Chaffers quotes from an official report as follows: "Concerning the
manufactory of Japanese porcelain, it was commenced only in 1765, your
excellencies were eye-witnesses of its rapid progress and therefore
deservedly protected and assisted him. He now works with three furnaces,
and has erected a fourth, a very large one, for the manufacture of
dishes. He has constantly in his employ forty-five workmen, including
the six apprentices whom he has undertaken to educate, and from the date
of his privilege, in August, 1765, down to the middle of December, 1766,
has disposed of sixteen thousand ducats' worth of manufactured goods,
etc., so that it may be fairly inferred that he will yet continue to
make greater progress both in quantity and quality."

At these works, for about fifty years, a great variety was made, such as
vases, statuettes, both white and colored, plates, dishes, services,
etc.

The imitations of Chinese work were so good as to deceive many. The
designs of Dresden, Sèvres, and the English workmen, were also produced
here with great skill.

Some excellent vases made at Venice are to be found in the collections
in Europe. In New York, Mr. Barlow and Mr. Prime have some pieces which
may be of Venice, or they may be of Chelsea, as the paste and the mark
are almost identical. The marks of the Vezzi and the Cozzi wares are as
follows:

[Illustration: _Marks of the Vezzi and the Cozzi wares. The anchor-mark
was used at Chelsea._]

At TURIN and Treviso porcelain was made in the last century; as to the
latter but little is to be said. Some pieces are known, upon which is
the mark G. A. F. F. and the name _Treviso_ in script.

Near Turin, at Vineuf, a manufactory was established about 1770 by a
physician named Gioanetti. "It was noted for its fine grain and the
whiteness of its glaze," says Chaffers; while Marryat says, "The glaze,
however, is wavy and yellowish."

It was sometimes marked with a simple +, at others with a =V= under the
cross, and again as shown here:

[Illustration: _Meaning Vineuf, Dr. Gioanetti._]

NOVE--HARD PASTE.--Porcelain seems to have been attempted at Nove, near
Bassano, in Italy, about 1752, by a man named Antonibon, who with his
son afterward continued it till 1781 or later. Some elaborate pieces
were made here, one of which we have taken from Marryat's book, because
it seems to possess, what so few do, excellence and originality. It is
in the Reynolds collection in England, and is some twenty-seven and a
half inches high--a superb piece of work (Fig. 141). The business passed
into other hands, and after 1800 it gradually went to decay.

In 1825 it was revived by some descendants of the first Antonibon, who
struggled on for ten years, but they could not sustain themselves
against the capital, the clay, the brains, and skill of Saxony and
Sèvres. They still make there, as they always did, maiolica, fine and
common, and _terraglia_ faience, in considerable quantities and of much
excellence, called in France _terre de pipe_. This _terraglia_, it may
be said, is a sort of demi-porcelain, being made of a mixture of the
true porcelain clay and the native potter's clay. It is susceptible of
great precision of modeling and of a high finish, and some beautiful
work has been done in it in Italy.

[Illustration: FIG. 141.--_Nove Porcelain Vase._]

The marks of Nove were usually a star or asterisk, with six rays;
sometimes the letter N, or the word NOVE, was added.

[Illustration: _Marks of Nove._]

CAPO DI MONTE--SOFT PASTE.--This beautiful porcelain was made first at
Naples in 1736, under the direct patronage of the king, Charles IV.,
afterward Charles III. of Spain. The king was an enthusiast, and
sometimes worked in the factory himself, and under this inspiration it
is not surprising that excellent work was done. But, besides this, very
common services and figures were made later, many of which bear the mark
of the _fleur-de-lis_, so that all Capo di Monte is not equally good or
equally valuable. And the same may be said of the productions of any man
or any manufactory.

A letter written to Lord Chatham in 1760 says of this King Charles: "He
is particularly fond of the china-manufacture at Capo di Monte. During a
fair held annually in the square before his palace at Naples, there is a
shop solely for the sale of a part of this china, and a note was daily
brought to the king of what was sold, together with the names of those
who bought; and it is said he looked often favorably upon the persons
who made any purchases."

[Illustration: FIG. 142.--_Capo di Monte._]

The king, being of a Spanish family, succeeded to the crown of Spain in
1759, when he carried with him many of the workmen and his own tastes,
and established there the manufactory of _Buen Retiro_, of which is a
brief account hereafter. After his departure the factory languished,
lacking his interested inspiration.

The marked originality of the Capo di Monte porcelain is the _designs in
relief_ which were impressed upon the plaques, and also upon teacups,
vases, etc. These were very delicately and carefully _stippled_ in
colors, and this distinguishes them from imitations and reproductions
which have been made in great numbers at Florence, and which are sold at
very much smaller prices.

[Illustration: FIG. 143.--_Capo di Monte._]

Not only were these articles in relief and of great beauty made here,
but also very excellent, creamy, soft porcelain painted on the flat, and
exquisitely painted, too. The specimens I have seen have a character of
their own, which has the great merit of being indigenous and not an
imitation. The tea-services, of which we now and then see single pieces,
are lovely.

[Illustration: FIG. 144.--_Capo di Monte._]

Mr. Prime has some excellent pieces, of both styles; as has Mr. Wales,
from whose collection we have engraved our illustrations.

The three pieces marked Fig. 142, 143, and 144, are painted on the
glaze, and are exquisite both for design and color.

The single vase (Fig. 145) has two bands, most delicately modeled and
painted in relief.

[Illustration: FIG. 145.--_Capo di Monte._]

Work was continued with more or less success until 1821, when the moulds
were sold to the Doccia manufactory, at Florence; but after 1780 hard
paste was made at this factory, under the patronage of King Ferdinand.

The marks used are here given; the earliest was a ruder form of
_fleur-de-lis_. This _fleur-de-lis_ mark was also used at Madrid, and,
as the work was almost identical, it is not easy to distinguish them.

Demmin says the marks on the hard porcelain were a crown, under which
were sometimes the locked letters RE or FK.

Marks of Capo di Monte:

[Illustration: _About 1786._]

[Illustration: _About 1759._]

[Illustration: _About 1759._]

[Illustration: _Ferdinandus Rex (1780)._]

[Illustration: FIG. 146.--_Buen Retiro._]

SPANISH PORCELAIN--BUEN RETIRO.--When Charles III. came to the throne of
Spain in 1759, from Naples he brought with him many of the workmen and
much of the skill which had produced the beautiful china at Naples.
These he established near his palace of _El Buen Retiro_, at Madrid, and
here his experiments and the manufacture were carried on with great
secrecy and much care. A letter from Spain, written in 1777, quoted by
Marryat, says: "In the gardens of Buen Retiro the monarch has
established a china manufactory, which strangers have not hitherto been
permitted to examine. It is undoubtedly intended that experiments shall
be secretly made, and the manufacture brought to some perfection before
it be exposed to the eyes of the curious. Its productions are to be seen
nowhere except in the palace of the sovereign, or in some Italian
courts, to which they have been sent as presents," etc. During the
Napoleonic wars, when Spain was overrun with troops, the factory was
destroyed (1812), and it has not been restored.

The single illustration (Fig. 146) is a very beautiful small vase, from
Mr. Wales's collection. It is exquisitely painted, and closely resembles
the porcelain of Capo di Monte.

Marks supposed to have been used at Buen Retiro:

[Illustration: _The same as Ludwigsburg._]

[Illustration: _The same as Capo di Monte._]

[Illustration]

Some porcelain has been, and I believe still is, made at Alcora.

In PORTUGAL, at Oporto, porcelain has been made since 1790, of no
supreme qualities.

It is rather singular that the people who first introduced the fine
porcelains of China and Japan into Europe, who, for some two centuries,
had almost uninterrupted control of the commerce, who brought it by
ship-loads to all the countries of Europe, should apparently have had
less interest in the subject than any other, should have less of it to
show to-day than most others, should have made less effort to produce it
in the past, and should be doing almost nothing to-day.

But countries, like men, have their manhood and their dotage, and then
they pass out of the active life of the world: such seems to be the
condition of Portugal to-day.



CHAPTER XV.

THE PORCELAINS OF ENGLAND.

     Bow.--Chelsea.--Derby.--Chelsea-Derby.--Lowestoft.--Worcester.
     --Chamberlains.--Plymouth.--Bristol.--Pinxton.--Nantgaraw.--Swansea.
     --Turners.--Coalport.--Coalbrookdale.--Herculaneum.--Shelton, New
     Hall.--Rockingham.--Spode,      Copeland.--Place.--Daniell.--Minton.
     --Prices and Marks.


In England, following the discovery and production of porcelain in
Saxony, there sprang up a very wide interest in the art. It was not an
interest which enlisted all classes there--as, indeed, it did not
anywhere in Europe; but among persons of taste and wealth it became of
such importance as to be a "fashion."

The discovery of kaolin-clay in Saxony stimulated enterprising men to
seek for it elsewhere.

There is much doubt yet, and there has been a vast amount of time spent
upon the question in England, as to when and where the production of
china first took place in that country. It is not for me, here in
America, to make any attempts to solve it. What I may do is to try to
present to our own people, in some compact and readable form, what
Marryat, Chaffers, and others in England, have arrived at after much
patient research and comparison. Some of the most useful and most
important works on pottery and porcelain--of which enough have been
written to form a library of themselves--will be mentioned at the end of
this book; for in all of them much is to be found of value to those who
care to go into this curious and interesting branch of art-production
more fully than any one volume will enable them to do.

From these facts--that many of the manufactories in England had but a
short career; and that the work produced, in many cases, had no marks,
or had a great variety of marks; that in some cases but little work was
made, and that of that little much has disappeared--a surprising
interest has come to be attached to that which remains; and in some
cases surprising prices have been paid for it, and are now paid.

It is for these reasons, rather than for its intrinsic beauty, that most
English porcelain is so eagerly desired. It is not generally remarkable
for perfection of form or of paste, or for originality or beauty of
color and ornament; but in some cases all of these are to be found. The
early paste of the older factories, such as Bow and Chelsea, is
considered inferior to the best Chinese and Japanese, and to the early
Dresden and Sèvres. Afterward the paste was greatly improved, until now
that made at the porcelain-works at Worcester, and at some other of the
English factories, is not surpassed anywhere. It seems to me that the
English modelers have not cultivated that sense of perfection of form
and grace of line which was so wonderful in Greece, and in which the
French modelers excel the English. It may be that the desire for
strength, which seems to inspire most English porcelain, has demanded
the sacrifice of that delicacy, thinness, and niceness, which have for a
long time prevailed in France. But the English porcelain is noted for
its strength and wearing quality; it is certainly superior in this
respect to most of the French work.

Whoever has interest enough in the subject should visit, when in
England, the porcelain-works at Worcester, now conducted by Mr. Binns.
Here he can see all the processes going on, by means of which the teacup
and the dinner-plate are brought to perfection. It is not a simple
matter. Several kinds of clays are to be got together--some from
England; some, perhaps, from elsewhere. These are ground to such an
impalpable fineness that they are floated away in water, and are allowed
to settle into tanks, from which, when in the right condition, they are
taken to the moulder for use. The collecting, the mixing, the grinding
of these clays is the result of much brain and hand work--a great deal
more than most men are obliged to use in getting into Congress or
Parliament, or in writing a book.

As the dexterous potter moulds upon his wheel the forms of the Greek
amphora or the Chinese teacup, they seem to spring under his hand as if
touched by the fairy's wand.

I think no one can see this work grow without a feeling of surprised
pleasure; and, after witnessing it, no one can fail to have a greater
satisfaction at seeing and using the various objects of use and beauty,
to be found now in every house--a satisfaction increased by knowledge.
Even in the ordinary mug or jug which costs a sixpence, are often to be
detected great knowledge, much art. We do not give the workman half his
due when we fail to feel how much we owe to him. An eye to see the
beautiful, the good, the true, is to be prayed for.

When the turner and modeler has perfected his pot, it has to go through
its firings, glazings, paintings, until it comes to us a perfected work,
which we too often hardly look at. It is only a jug!

There is more than the money's worth in every good piece of
cabinet-work, iron-work, woven fabric, etc.; for with every honest
workman's hand goes a part of his soul: he gives it willingly, gladly.

BOW--SOFT PASTE.--The small village of Stratford-le-Bow, in Middlesex,
now, I think, a part of London, is believed to be the place where a
china-factory was first established in England, and some suppose it may
have been as early as 1730, though 1744 is the earliest authentic date
mentioned. Mr. Chaffers[15] says--and it has some interest to us
Americans, as perhaps showing whence the old and great England drew its
first porcelain life--"William Cookeworthy, of Plymouth, writing to a
friend in 1745, says: 'I had lately with me the person who has
discovered the _china-earth_. He had with him several samples of the
china-ware, which I think were equal to the Asiatic. It was found on the
back of Virginia, where he was in quest of mines; and having read Du
Halde, he discovered both the _petunze_ and _kaolin_. It is this latter
earth which he says is essential to the success of the manufacture. He
is gone for a cargo of it, having bought from the Indians the whole
country where it rises. They can import it for thirteen pounds sterling
the ton,'" etc.

It seems probable or possible that this earth was used to some extent in
the earlier productions at Bow, as it is mentioned in the application of
the company for patents, and as it appears that some hard porcelain is
found among the earlier examples existing, in which this kaolin was
perhaps used--called by the natives "unaker."

The enterprise at Bow was purely a private one, originating with Edward
Heylin, a merchant, and Thomas Frye, a painter. Unlike the works at
Meissen, Sèvres, and indeed many others on the Continent, none of the
factories in England had the assistance of the Government. The Bow works
were afterward carried on by Crowther and Weatherby. In the British
Museum is a large punch-bowl, made at Bow and painted by Thomas Craft,
which is accompanied with his certificate. This statement shows that the
works at Bow at that time (1760) had become extensive, if not
profitable, for he mentions, "They employed there three hundred persons;
about ninety painters (of whom I was one), and about two hundred
turners, throwers, etc."

The examples existing, and recently-discovered documents, go to show
that the paste or body at Bow was not of supreme excellence, and not at
all equal to that made on the Continent at that time. The painting was
in a variety of designs, as appears by some memorandum-books, still
existing: "Blue Newark pattern," "sets of blue teas," "a
dinner-service," "blue and pale as you please." Tea-sets were evidently
much made, and "white bud-sprigs," "sprigged tea-sets," and "Dresden
sprigs," are mentioned.

While all the first work at Bow was hand-painted, it appears that later,
about 1756, printed or transfer work was used there; this, of course,
secured cheaper sets.

A great variety and number of figures, such as shepherdesses, birds,
animals, hunters, Chinese figures, etc., were made at Bow as well as at
Chelsea, which, of course, have been much sought for, and have sold at
high prices. Though these figures are not desirable as pieces of
_sculpture_, many of them are interesting as showing the dresses of the
day, especially such figures as Woodward the actor, and Mistress Kitty
Clive, who were modeled at Bow.

Much confusion exists as to what is Bow and what is Chelsea, as the
styles of work run much together. Many pieces of each factory bore no
mark. Some of the best-known marks will be given at the end of this
account; but it may be well to say that the incised triangle, which for
a long time was supposed to be a sure indication of Bow, is now placed
with Chelsea. Some pieces marked "New Canton" are known to be Bow.

It is curious to note that he who would be a good salesman in those
"good old times," must do what salesmen in these later and baser times
are sometimes tempted to do. Let me explain.

Mr. Bowcocke was a manager or salesman at Bow, and he kept a note-book,
in which are written down his doings with Mrs. McNally, a good customer
of the wares:

  _Oct. 16._--Bought a china figure for Mrs. McNally  4_s._
            Painting  "     "                       1_s._ 3_d._
            Treating Mrs. McNally, wine             1_s._
            Went to see her home from the play      1_s._
            Paid                                        2_d._

If that were the only transaction, think of it!

  Sales             5_s._ 3_d._
  Expenses of same  2_s._ 4_d._

Not lucrative to the Bow salesman!

The Bow works continued with varied success until about 1775 to 1776,
when the moulds, implements, etc., were sold to Mr. Duesbury, who
transferred and merged all into the greater works at Derby. (_See_
DERBY.)

Marks on Bow porcelain:

[Illustration: _These are found on some pieces._]

[Illustration: _Positions vary._]

[Illustration: _The triangle now is given to Chelsea, possibly to Derby,
not to Bow._]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

CHELSEA--SOFT PASTE.--The porcelain-works at Chelsea, near London, were
begun before the year 1747, by some workmen brought from Burslem and
elsewhere; a little later, in 1748 to 1749, they were more firmly
established, under the direction of a foreigner named Sprimont, or
Spremont. The works were carried on by him until about the year 1769,
when they were advertised for sale, and he retired from the business.

Some very expensive, elaborate, and beautiful vases were made by him, of
which two in the possession of Earl Dudley are said to be hardly
surpassed by anything made at Dresden or Sèvres. The price paid for one
of them, in 1868, was two thousand pounds sterling.

The first work made seems to have been in imitation of Chinese
porcelain, and it is doubtful if much original designing was done at
Chelsea. Chaffers says: "The fine vases in the French style, in
imitation of Sèvres, with gros bleu, crimson, turquoise, and
apple-green, were made from about 1760 to 1765."

The illustration given (Fig. 147) is one of their most highly-decorated
vases, and is unquestionably brilliant. But it has the vice, as it seems
to me, of over-decoration; there is no restraint, none of the delicacy
of true art. The form, too, lacks perfectness in many ways.

The want of invention or original design in England would seem to
indicate that porcelain was not a natural or spontaneous art there. In
France and in Saxony, on the contrary, while much of the taste is
questionable, and some of it bad, many original and peculiar works were
designed and executed. This was not the case in England; and, indeed,
excepting Wedgwood, we can hardly point to any conspicuous examples of
creative power. Here the god of Trade comes in, for it _pays better_ to
copy than to create.

[Illustration: FIG. 147.--_Fine Chelsea Vase._]

About 1769 the Chelsea works went into the hands of Duesbury, of Derby,
who carried them on in connection with his Derby works until about 1784,
when all were transferred to Derby.

The paste or body used at Chelsea was so soft and tender that it was
nearly valueless for works of use. It was therefore confined to articles
of beauty and luxury, such as vases, bowls, dishes, cups, and
tea-services; also to figures in great variety, like those made at Bow.
These are much, sought for, and command high prices. They have been
counterfeited to some extent.

One very curious incident is quoted by Marryat, from Faulkner's "History
of Chelsea:" "Mr. H. Stephens was told by the foreman of the
china-factory (then in the workhouse of St. Luke's, Middlesex), that Dr.
Johnson had conceived a notion that he was capable of improving on the
manufacture of china." He visited the factory with his house-keeper, had
access to the various mixing-rooms, made his own composition, had them
baked, etc., but always "completely failed." The doctor retired in
disgust.

That the brain of the purblind, the prejudiced, the arrogant British
philosopher should have thought of many things, and should have believed
himself capable of any and all things, is not surprising; but the sight
of him in a porcelain-factory might well enough have originated the
stories in history of "the bull in a china-shop."

One might be pardoned for paying a "good penny" for a teacup modeled by
the dexterous hands of Dr. Johnson.

Another curious fact which may interest and encourage us in these
"trading-times" is, that the proprietors of the Chelsea works were then
obliged to protest and petition against the smuggling of French and
Dresden porcelain into England _for sale_ in quantities, under the cover
of the ministers' privilege to import for their own use. So, if all the
men in the days of our fathers were brave, they certainly were not all
honest.

At the sale of the Bernal[16] collection, in 1855, some Chelsea china
sold as follows:

  A pair of beautiful globular scalloped vases and covers, deep blue,
  painted with exotic buds, with pierced borders and covers of
  the highest quality                                              £110 5_s._

  A cup and saucer, with festoons in raised white (chipped)           1 1_s._

  Another, with flowers and crimson drapery edges                     3

  A beautiful two-handled cup and saucer, with medallions of Cupids
  in pink, and striped gold sides                                    21

Mr. Marryat mentions the sale of some "Chelsea" in 1865:

  At Lord Cardogan's sale, a pair of vases, painted with exotic
  buds on gold ground                                           60 guineas.

  A two-handled vase, open-work back and cover painted with
  flowers, on a gold ground, seventeen inches high             250 guineas.

  A fine figure of a female holding a branch, a lion at her feet,
  penciled in gold                                             100 guineas.

  Fifteen plates of old Chelsea, blue and gold, fetched       £150

There are but few examples of Bow and Chelsea in this country. Mr.
Prime, and Mr. Barlow, of New York, I am told, have some pieces. Mr.
Wales has a bowl, and cup and saucer, in very rich, warm colors, being
designs from china, which are no doubt Chelsea, and excellent work. They
are shown in Fig. 148, on the right-hand corner, but this cannot, of
course, give any idea of the fine coloring.

[Illustration: FIG. 148.--_English Porcelain._]

Marks of Chelsea porcelain:

[Illustration]

DERBY--SOFT PASTE.--The Derby china--and the "Crown Derby," now most
known--was famous in its day--from about 1750 to the end of the
century--and from Derby, in England, it was sold to a very wide extent
over Europe. Specimens are met with in Holland, Italy, Spain, etc. The
factory was established by William Duesbury, and was, after his death,
carried on by his son; by a Mr. Reeve, who married the widow; and, in
1815, it went into the possession of Robert Bloor. The works were not
finally closed till 1848. Duesbury, who purchased the moulds and
property of both the Bow and the Chelsea factories, carried on the works
at Derby and at Chelsea for some time; and much of the porcelain made at
that time is called Chelsea-Derby. The early mark of the Derby was a
capital D, and the Chelsea-Derby mark is the same D, with the Chelsea
anchor in its middle. The crown with the anchor, or with crossed lines
and dots, and sometimes with the D under it, was used after the
patronage of George III. had been extended to the works (about 1777),
and is now most commonly found upon the best work of this factory. After
1815 "Bloor's" name is found upon the work.

During the best portion of Duesbury's time, dinner, dessert, breakfast,
and tea services, of great richness and splendor, were made; and at that
time the patronage of nobility and gentry was more generous than it had
been to any other English factory. Duesbury carried to great perfection
the combination of a rich blue with gold, not only in his vases, urns,
etc., but also as edges to his dinner and tea services. "He has brought
the gold and blue to a degree of beauty never before obtained in
England, and the drawing and coloring of the flowers are truly elegant,"
writes a tourist in 1777.

In the examples I have had an opportunity of seeing, this is true; but
one is obliged to feel in this, as in almost all the fine china of
England, a lack of perfection and delicacy in form and modeling.

Groups and figures were made in great variety and number at Derby, upon
which no splendor or expense of gold and color was spared. These are
found in nearly all the good collections of England and the Continent.
At this time--the end of the last century--it was much the fashion for
ladies to paint, for their own use and for gifts, single pieces, and
indeed whole sets; and the white china of Derby was often sold for that
purpose. These amateur productions occasionally find their way into the
shops, and naturally perplex the collector.

Duesbury's prices were not high. In an invoice extant we find:

  Pair of knotting figures, finely enameled and gilt                £2 2_s._

  Twenty-four dessert-plates, in medallions and grapes, each           13_s._

  Three large punch-bowls, painted, ye allusion of stag-hunting, hare-hunting,
  and fishing; each                                                    42_s._

Great care was taken that nothing but perfect work went from, the
factory; this kept the character of the Derby works high. But it filled
their shops with many "seconds." When Mr. Bloor came into possession, of
the factory, these seconds were sold by auction in various parts of
England; and this greatly injured the name and fame of "Derby," from
which it did not recover.

The Bernal sale records of Chelsea-Derby and Derby:

  Five old Derby plates,
  with Cupids in pink and flower borders £9

  Three of Derby-Chelsea,
  with bases and deep-blue borders        2 12_s._ 6_d._

  A two-handled cup, cover,
  and saucer, with landscapes and roses
  on a yellow ground                     17  6_s._ 6_d._

None of these were the best work, and brought but corresponding prices.

Marks used on Derby porcelain:

[Illustration: _Duesbury (1756)._]

[Illustration: _Derby-Chelsea (1770)._]

[Illustration: _First in lilac, then in red._]

[Illustration: _Crown Derby (1780)._]

[Illustration: _Sometimes D is in old English--D (1780)._]

[Illustration: _Imitation of Sèvres (1798)._]

[Illustration: _Imitation of Chinese._]

[Illustration: _Probably workman's mark._]

[Illustration: _Sometimes in oval (about 1830)._]

LOWESTOFT--SOFT AND MOSTLY HARD PASTE.--Much uncertainty, discussion,
and perplexity, have prevailed concerning the porcelain made at
Lowestoft, on the eastern coast of England, near Yarmouth.

About 1756, as is agreed to by both Marryat and Chaffers, a gentleman
named Luson attempted a manufactory of pottery and porcelain there,
which was not successful. Shortly after another was attempted, which for
a time succeeded well; in this Mr. Robert Browne was the principal man.
Pottery and porcelain were made here in great variety and in
considerable quantities--much of it for exportation, and especially for
the Turkish markets; and some of it appears to have been marked with a
crescent, like that made at Worcester. But, as a rule, no marks, either
of the factory or the painter, were used at Lowestoft.

Not only was pottery, or earthenware, made here, but the early porcelain
was soft ware. Mr. Chaffers states that, about 1775, hard paste was
made there in close imitation of Chinese. He states, also, that some of
the heavier pieces, like tureens and punch-bowls, had a sort of uneven
surface, as if it had been patted into shape by the hand or a tool. This
patted or uneven surface is a defect; but as this is found also in heavy
pieces of porcelain, which are Chinese beyond question, it ceases to be
a distinguishing mark of Lowestoft work--if, indeed, it is a mark of it
at all, which one may be permitted still to doubt.

Some of the work reached great perfection, and the egg-shell cups, etc.,
made there are said to be equal to any others made in Europe. Among the
peculiar decorations were hares' heads for handles, fruits for knobs of
covers, doubled handles to mugs, braided or crossed, which are asserted
to be quite distinct from Oriental designs.

"Another striking variety is the fan and feather pattern, in imitation
of _Capo di Monte_, painted in purple, blue, and red, in the form of
basins and ewers. Many of these vases are elaborately painted, with
diaper-work in gold, and colors, and escutcheons of flowers, and small
landscapes. Among all the flowers and exquisite floral patterns the rose
predominates, and it is remarkable how easily the peculiar touch of the
artist--whose name was Rose--can be detected. Another style of
decoration peculiar to Lowestoft is a rococo scroll or running border of
flowers, slightly raised upon the plain surface in opaque white enamel."

In the collection of Mr. J. V. L. Pruyn, at Albany, is quite a large
dinner-service with the rose-decoration, which we can easily believe to
be true Lowestoft. The colors are not brilliant, nor is the glaze
perfect. The paste lacks the whiteness of the best Chinese, and is
lighter than any true Chinese porcelain I have seen. Some persons in
this country think that many or most of the dinner and tea services
ordered in the United States during the last century, and which it was
supposed were made in China, really came from Lowestoft through
Liverpool or Bristol; among them those sets which bore initials in a
sort of shield, and were finished on the edges with a deep-blue band
studded with gold stars. It seems certain that this kind of decoration
was done at Lowestoft; it is equally certain that it was also done in
China, from designs sent out there. I have myself some pieces so
decorated, which were imported direct from China to New Haven about the
end of the last century.

[Illustration: FIG. 149.--_Lowestoft Porcelain._]

The perplexity and discussion existing as to the hard-paste porcelain
made at Lowestoft have been increased by the statements made by Mr.
Marryat and Mr. Jewett, in England, that much white undecorated
porcelain was imported into Lowestoft from China, and was painted in
England. Some of the forms and decorations made at Lowestoft are so like
those made in China that it has been almost impossible to distinguish
them. To a person not interested, this will seem a matter of the very
slightest consequence; to a china-fancier quite the contrary. Sydney
Smith, you will remember, said it was strange, but quite true, that
"there were persons living who spoke disrespectfully of the equator, but
we should bear with them and pity them." This advice we must apply to
those who care nothing about porcelain.

Mr. Chaffers, in his work, "Marks and Monograms on Pottery and
Porcelain," presents very strong and varied testimony to show that no
white porcelain was imported from China and painted at Lowestoft; that
the hard paste made at Lowestoft is quite different, and not so hard as
that made in China, and need not be confounded with it. My own belief is
that much of what is called "Lowestoft," both in England and in the
United States, was made in China.

We engrave (Fig. 149) a pretty tea-service from Mr. Wales's collection,
which will recall to many of our readers what they have seen on their
grandmothers' tables any time in this century. It is a style of
decoration which was done at Lowestoft, and also in China.

No marks were used on the Lowestoft.

[Illustration: FIG. 150.--_Lowestoft Plate._]

The next illustration (Fig. 150), from the collection of John V. L.
Pruyn, Esq., of Albany, is characteristic as showing the use of the rose
at Lowestoft. No better example of it probably exists in this country.
The paste is peculiar, and not like much which is called Lowestoft. The
plate is sixteen and a half inches in diameter, the colors are good, and
the painting is carefully done.

WORCESTER--SOFT PASTE.--At Worcester, in the year 1751, the Worcester
Porcelain Company was formed, which has continued from that day to this.
Dr. Wall, a physician and chemist, has the credit of being the
originator of this the largest and most enduring of English
porcelain-works. The clergy of the cathedral were greatly interested,
and had much to do with the success of the company.

In the beginning, it seems, there was a large production of tea and
breakfast services for domestic use; and much of this was like the
Chinese blue and white, copied from Oriental designs. Afterward a trade
sprung up with Turkey, and much china was made for that market. Many of
the early marks, and particularly upon the Oriental designs, were copies
of those found upon pieces of Chinese porcelain; among which the square
seal-mark (given further on) is most often met with. The crescent, which
is a well-known Worcester mark, most likely came into use when the
production of porcelain for the Saracen markets became an important
business. It is curious to note how very large a demand for fine china
came from Turkey at that day, and it exists still. It is now some four
years ago that I found, in Holland, a large selection of high-priced
china had just been made for Constantinople, and I was told then that
there was always a good demand there, and at good prices. The Turk is
not altogether abominable, though he is a most disturbing quantity in
the politics of Europe (1876 to 1878).

The blue, so much in use in the early decoration, was not a good color,
being inclined toward black; but afterward this was greatly
improved--approaching the fine cobalt color, though it never reached the
exquisite "celestial blue" of Nanking.

A very large production at Worcester was in making copies of vases and
other work done at Dresden, upon which birds, insects, and flowers, were
painted with great care; so much so that, if the paste were not
different, it might not be easy to distinguish them from the Dresden.
The crossed swords and caduceus (see Dresden marks) were also used as
marks on these.

It is quite clear that those things which imitated what other nations
did, sold best at that time in England; and this, more than poverty of
invention, we may suppose induced those excellent English artists to
copy rather than create. Chaffers mentions the following as the most
noted painters at Worcester: Pennington, figures; Astle, flowers; Davis,
exotic birds; Webster, landscapes and flowers; Barber, shells; Brewer,
landscapes; Baxter, Lowe, and Cole, figure-subjects; Billingsly,
flowers.

[Illustration: FIG. 151.--_Royal Worcester Porcelain._]

Printing in black upon the porcelain was practised at Worcester to a
considerable extent; and mugs with pictures of Frederick the Great seem
to have been popular at that day, and are much sought for now. The
portraits of George II. and III. were also in demand, as well as many
others.

The flower-painting upon this, as upon all other European porcelain, was
naturalistic--copied, as nearly as possible, from Nature. Good as much
of it is beyond question, it fails to give to most persons the
gratification which comes from the Oriental treatment. The last is
decoration, the first is imitation.

[Illustration: FIG. 152.--_Worcester and Spode Porcelain._]

The rich dark blues, lighted up with much gilding, is a characteristic
of some of the best Worcester work, as well as that made at Derby.

Without reaching the fine translucency of the Dresden and Sèvres paste
or body, that at Worcester was a great advance upon the other English
factories, inasmuch as it was strong and durable; and the glaze was also
better; it did not "_craze_"--shoot into cracks--like much of that made
at Derby.

In 1783 the works went into the possession of the Messrs. Flight. In
1793 they were carried on by Flight and Barr. In 1840 they were
controlled by Chamberlain; and at the present time (1876) they are in
charge of Mr. K. W. Binns, who employs a great force, and produces much
excellent work, and some which may be called exquisite. His imitations
of Limoges enamels and Chinese ivory-work are perfect; as it seems to
me, quite too good. I should like to see such perfection applied to
genuine work and to original design. He has also made a specialty of
reproducing curious examples of Japanese, Chinese, and Corean porcelain,
sometimes identically and sometimes in modified forms. We engrave (Fig.
151) a fine example of the latter from the collection of Messrs. Tiffany
and Company, of New York.

Among our illustrations (see Fig. 148) are two plates containing
portraits of Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Dürer. The colors are red,
brown, and gold; also a teacup and saucer, most delightfully and richly
painted. These are in the possession of G. W. Wales, Esq., of Boston. In
Fig. 152 is a teapot in rich blue and gold, part of a set belonging to
Mr. W. C. Prime. This has the mark + of Bristol, but, as it is soft
paste, it is probably Worcester.

Marks of Worcester porcelain:

[Illustration: _Worcester crescent (1755)._]

[Illustration: _Used down to 1793._]

[Illustration: _Used by Dr. Wall._]

[Illustration: _Imitation Chinese._]

[Illustration: _Imitation Oriental._]

[Illustration: _Imitation Oriental._]

[Illustration: _Imitation Dresden._]

[Illustration: _Imitation Dresden._]

[Illustration: _Imitation Dresden._]

[Illustration: _Messrs. Flight (1783 to 1788)._]

[Illustration: _Flight and Barr (1793 to 1807)._]

[Illustration: _Barr (1793 to 1803)._]

[Illustration: _Barr, Flight and Barr (1807 to 1818)._]

The marks used at the present time at Worcester (1876) are as follows:

[Illustration: _In use since 1852._]

[Illustration: _In use since 1857._]

CHAMBERLAIN'S--WORCESTER.--In 1786 Robert and Humphrey Chamberlain began
a porcelain-factory at Worcester. Robert had learned the business in the
old Worcester works, and was an accomplished man. Some splendidly-decorated
porcelain was made by them; and a breakfast-set, made for Lord Nelson,
is quite famous. Pieces of it are found in collections. The Chamberlains
employed the best painters, and paid high wages. Their expensive work
was made rich with much gold.

A dessert-service in the possession of Mr. W. C. Prime, of New York,
shows this, and is brilliant and effective. We engrave one of the plates
(Fig. 152). The birds are tropical, and fine in color, and the plants
are bordered with gold. The Chamberlains' factories are now incorporated
with the "Worcester Company," under the charge of Mr. Binns.

The Chamberlains' first mark was the name "Chamberlain," written with a
brush in a running hand. Afterward a stamp was used, containing a crown
and the names "Chamberlain and Company," and Worcester. Then the names
simply of

CHAMBERLAIN,
WORCESTER.

Marks of Chamberlain porcelain:

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

PLYMOUTH--HARD PORCELAIN.--The first true or hard-paste porcelain made
in England was made by William Cookworthy, who, being greatly interested
in porcelain-making, established a factory at Plymouth about 1760. He
seems to have discovered the true kaolin clays in Cornwall, the beds
from which so much of the English clays are now taken. He took out
patents for "a kind of porcelain newly invented, composed of Moorstone
or growan, and growan clay," found in Devon and Cornwall. He advertised
for painters, and a Frenchman named Soqui seems to have been very
skillful. Bone, also, was one of his best painters. The ware made was
perfect hard porcelain, but it was much more costly than the ordinary
soft porcelain of England, and could not compete with it for price. Many
of the pieces were warped or crazed in the strong heat necessarily used,
and the loss in this way was great. Besides this, the good public did
not care to pay high for what then had no prestige, and was really no
more beautiful than the soft-paste porcelain of England. As the _first_
hard-paste porcelain made in England, and as but little of it was made,
it is now valued by china-collectors, and it sells for high prices.

Some highly-finished dinner and tea services made there, like the
Nanking blue, are excellent, and are much valued. Vases and other pieces
painted in colors, with birds and other highly-colored designs, were
also produced in the same styles as those made on the Continent.
Figures, also, then much in fashion, were modeled here, like those made
at Chelsea and elsewhere.

Cookworthy spent much money, and made none, and he came to his end. At
last, in 1774, he sold his interests and patents to Champion, of
Bristol, and the work ceased.

The mark used was the sign of the planet Jupiter--very nearly the figure
_4_. It was somewhat varied.

Marks used on Plymouth porcelain:

[Illustration: Marks used on Plymouth porcelain]

BRISTOL--HARD PASTE.--The production at Bristol grew out of that at
Plymouth, of which we have given a brief account. Richard Champion,
merchant, of Bristol, was a man of much activity and ability. He took up
the making of porcelain with eagerness, and is said to have produced
both soft and hard china at his factory. The hard paste was used after
his purchase of the patents, etc., of the Plymouth factory in 1774.
Besides some very indifferent porcelain, some very beautiful work was
made at Bristol; and for two or three years there was much activity
there. But Champion, having no technical knowledge or skill, and but
insufficient capital, soon failed, and the work ceased in 1777. He
emigrated to South Carolina, where he died in 1791.

So little of this Bristol hard porcelain was made that it now brings
great prices.

Blue and white tea and dessert services, in the style of the Chinese,
were made there, as were many articles decorated with flowers. Walpole
mentions, in his list of prices, "a cup and saucer, white, with green
festoons of flowers, of Bristol porcelain."

Marryat refers to a fine tea and coffee service made for Edmund Burke in
1774, who presented it to a Mrs. Smith, who had entertained him during
his election. He says: "The china is rich in gilding, the design
elegant, and the execution good."

Mrs. James, of Cambridge, has one or two cups and saucers of blue hard
paste marked with the + in gold--not in blue, which was the usual mark
of Bristol; but there is little doubt that these are true Bristol.

Marks found on Bristol porcelain:

[Illustration: _About 1773._]

[Illustration: _Imitation of Oriental._]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration: _The cross is impressed._]

[Illustration: _Crossed swords of Dresden._]

[Illustration: _Supposed to be the name of Tebo, a modeler._]

PINXTON, DERBYSHIRE--SOFT PASTE.--About 1793 to 1794 a small manufactory
of porcelain was started at Pinxton by John Coke and William Billingsly.
This last had been a practical potter and an excellent painter of
flowers at Derby. He had some secrets for mixing his paste, which
secured great translucency, but it was very tender, and easily damaged
or destroyed in the kiln. This peculiar paste made by him at Pinxton,
afterward at Nantgarw or Nantgarow, and at Swansea, breaks with a
granulated fracture, and is quite different in this respect from any
other. A favorite decoration was what was termed the "French sprig,"
composed of forget-me-nots and gold sprigs scattered over the plate.
Flowers and landscapes also were painted, and the dishes were usually
finished with a blue or a gold edge. No marks were used, though a letter
P is sometimes attributed to this factory.

NANTGARW--HARD PORCELAIN.--This porcelain-factory in Glamorganshire was
started in 1813 by the same Billingsly. He made a clear and beautiful
paste, and his productions, whether made at Pinxton, Nantgarw, or
Swansea, are highly valued.

The mark was nearly always NANTGARW, impressed.

SWANSEA.--Earthen-ware was made at Swansea as early as 1750 in
considerable quantities. But it was not till near the end of the century
that porcelain was produced there by Messrs. Haines and Company.

The porcelain subsequently made (about 1814, and later) is now much
prized. About 1820 the Swansea works were purchased by Mr. Rose, and all
was concentrated at Coalport.

Both at Nantgarw and Swansea very free and finely-colored roses appear
on the work, probably done by Billingsly. But little of either of these
factories exists.

Marks used on Swansea porcelain:

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

[Illustration]

TURNER (THOMAS) erected a porcelain-factory at Caughley, near
Bridgnorth, in 1775. The Caughley works were commenced in 1751 by Mr.
Browne, of Caughley Hall, in a small way, for earthen-ware, and reached
little distinction until they came into the hands of Turner. Turner made
excellent porcelain, and has the credit of introducing the famous
"Willow-pattern"--copied from the Nanking blue; also the "blue
Dragon"--into England. The principal marks are as follows.

Marks of Caughley and of Turner:

[Illustration: _Used in 1750._]

[Illustration: _Used in 1772._]

[Illustration: _Used by Rose in 1799._]

[Illustration: _Various Marks._]

COALPORT, IN COLEBROOK DALE, SHROPSHIRE.--Works were established here by
Mr. John Rose, about 1780 to 1790. The Caughley works were subsequently
incorporated with these, as were the Swansea and Nantgarw works. The
factory is still in operation at Coalport, where fine porcelain is
produced.

Marks used at Coalport:

[Illustration: _About 1787._]

HERCULANEUM.--This pottery was established near Liverpool in 1790, by
Richard Abbey; about 1796 it went into the hands of Messrs. Worthington,
Humble, and Holland. Porcelain was made here, though earthen-ware was
the principal production. On nearly all the porcelain the name
"Herculaneum" is either printed or stamped. The works ceased wholly
about the year 1841, having passed through a number of hands. The site
is now occupied by the Herculaneum Dock, at Liverpool.

SHELTON, OR NEW HALL--HARD PASTE.--A small factory of porcelain grew up
at Shelton, out of the wreck of Champion's works at Bristol. Champion
appears to have sold his patents and good-will to a partnership of
potters about 1777, and Champion himself became their superintendent for
a time at Tunstall. Afterward the works were removed to the New Hall, at
Shelton.

The work done was hard paste, and much like that made at Bristol, the
same workmen and processes being employed. At first hard porcelain was
made, which was stamped with an "N." After 1810 soft paste was used, and
the mark then was "New Hall," in a circle.

The factory went out of existence in 1825.

ROCKINGHAM.--Some admirable porcelain was made at the Swinton pottery,
under the patronage of the Marquis of Rockingham, upon whose estate the
factory stood. About 1807 the works went into the hands of the two
Bramelds, who made porcelain of the best description, sparing no pains
or cost to bring it to perfection. Of course, they could make no
money--it is not easy when one gives more than one gets. Some of the
pieces of "Rockingham" rank as high as any made in England. Specimens
are rare in England, and I know of none in this country. The works
ceased in 1842.

The mark was a griffin, the Rockingham crest:

[Illustration]

SPODE.--Some of the richest and most beautiful English porcelain I have
ever seen is marked "Spode." A tea-set, in Fig. 152 (cup and saucer, and
sugar-bowl), is perfect in form, paste, and decoration; the bands are in
high colors, and the flowers, which appear black in the engraving, are
of a subtile blue.

The sugar-bowl on the right, in the same plate (Fig. 152), is highly and
richly colored. No black-and-white print can give anything of the
splendor of color of some pieces of Spode I saw in England, or of the
piece here figured, which is from Mr. Prime's collection.

There seems to have been no fashion or "rage" for this delightful work
in England--just why, it is not easy to explain; consequently, prices
have not risen beyond the means of ordinary mortals.

The first "'Siah Spode" worked as an apprentice with Mr. Whieldon, of
Fenton, in 1749, at 2_s._ 3_d._ or 2_s._ 6_d._ per week, "if he deserved
it." When he became his own man, in 1754, he got 7_s._ 6_d._ per
week--quite a different wages-tale from what is now told at Worcester.

His son, Josiah Spode, began the porcelain fabric about the year 1800,
at Stoke, under the firm-name of Spode, Son, and Copeland. He is said to
have introduced _bones_ into the paste--now in general use in soft
porcelain.

In 1833 the works were purchased by Alderman W. T. Copeland. In 1843 the
firm-name was Copeland and Garrett. Afterward, Alderman Copeland alone
was again the proprietor. His mark was two crossed C's, with the name
Copeland beneath:

[Illustration]

The works are now conducted under the name of W. T. Copeland and Sons,
and the mark is nearly the same, the only difference being that the
crossed C's are ornamented.

The Copelands are noted for the excellence of the style and finish of
their higher grades of porcelain, in which they are surpassed by no
other English house. One of their specialties is jeweled porcelain, in
which jewels are represented by colored enamels with fine effect. We
give an example of this in Fig. 153, from the collection of Messrs.
Tiffany and Company.

Mr. FRANCIS PLACE, a gentleman of Yorkshire, made porcelain late in the
1600's or early in the 1700's. A few examples of it only are known to
exist, and it probably was made rather as an experiment, and did not
reach a commercial circulation.

H. and R. DANIELL, of Stoke and Shelton, made fine porcelain and
stoneware as early as 1826. Some of this porcelain is highly praised by
Chaffers. It is doubtful if we have any of it in the United States.

WEDGWOODS.--The old house of Wedgwood, founded by Josiah--of whom I
speak in another place--is still in active service, and has in these
later years produced porcelain of great excellence.

MINTON'S works, at Stoke-upon-Trent, are now very extensive. Not only is
porcelain made there in great variety, but earthen-ware and tiles
largely.

The factory was established in 1791, by Thomas Minton. Some of the most
elaborate pieces of porcelain-work are now made there. The mark is
"Minton," stamped on the pieces.

[Illustration: FIG. 153.--_Copeland's Jeweled Porcelain._]

Among the principal artists in the Messrs. Mintons' employ is M. Solon,
formerly of Sèvres, who has produced some exquisite vases in
_pâte-sur-pâte_--a method which consists in working, upon a dark body or
paste, designs in a white or lighter paste. This, being
semi-transparent, admits of delicate shading and modeling. This
fascinating and finished style of work originated, so far as we know, in
France, where some admirable pieces have been made, more perfect even
than those by M. Solon. The vases by him, which were exhibited in
Philadelphia in 1876, and which were sold to Sir Richard Wallace for six
hundred guineas, have a deep olive-green body, upon which the figures
seem floating, as if they had just appeared from the dark, or might at
any moment sink into it. The mystery and strength of color no one can
fathom or explain, nor can one at all put into words the ineffable
satisfaction which one receives from such work as this. It is gratifying
to know that two pairs of these vases were bought in this country--one
by the Philadelphia Industrial Museum, and one by Henry Gibson, Esq., of
that city.

The example which we engrave (Fig. 154) is from the collection of
Messrs. Tiffany and Company, of New York. The ground is a luminous blue,
the figures in a delicate white.

Although M. Solon has transferred his labors to England, he must be
regarded as the outcome rather of the French than of the English soil.

[Illustration: FIG. 154.--_Vase in Pâte-sur-Pâte, by Solon._]

Another feature of the Minton productions is the imitation of
_cloisonné_ work, using porcelain instead of metal, and painting on it
with colors mixed with opaque enamels, as is practised also in China. We
give a fine representation in Fig. 155.

The technical excellence of the modern English porcelain is very great,
but it is not remarkable for originality of design. The tea and dinner
services shown at the Philadelphia Exhibition were great in number,
variety, and excellence. We give illustrations of some pieces made by
Messrs. Brown-Westhead, Moore and Company (Figs. 156 and 157), which
were satisfactory.

[Illustration: FIG. 155.--_Bottle, in Cloisonné._]

Messrs. Bromfield and Son also had some excellent examples of
dinner-porcelain. The excellence of the paste and the finish were
notable in all of the displays by the many English exhibitors.

In such an exhibition one looks, of course, for pieces made specially to
catch the eye and excite surprise, which might be called the gymnastics
of art; and one is usually gratified. The exhibition was rich with them,
and, of course, they demanded attention, and achieved their purpose.

[Illustration: FIG. 156.--_Porcelain of Brown-Westhead, Moore and
Company._]

[Illustration: FIG. 157.--_Porcelain of Brown-Westhead, Moore and
Company._]

The largest and most varied exhibition was made by Messrs. Daniells and
Son, of London; and they had collected their work from many potters,
some of them among the most distinguished of England at the present
time.



CHAPTER XVI.

THE PORCELAINS OF NORTHERN EUROPE.

     Holland and Belgium.--Oriental
     Trade.--Weesp.--Marks.--Loosdrecht.--Amstel, Old and
     New.--Marks.--The Hague.--Marks.--Lille.--Mark.--Tournay.
     --Marks.--Sweden.--Gustavus Adolphus and Charles
     XII.--Marieberg.--Rörstrand.--Marks.--Denmark.--Copenhagen.
     --Marks.--Russia.--Peter the Great.--Catherine
     II.--Marks.--Tver.--Gardner.--Moscow.--Popoff.--Gulena.
     --Mark.--Poland.--Korzec.


Holland AND BELGIUM.--It may be said that long before Holland attempted
the production of porcelain she had been making faience or earthen-ware,
which is now well known under the name of delft, of which I have given a
condensed account elsewhere.

When one remembers that Holland has long winters and cool summers; that
her people have not only had to fight their fellow-men, but have had to
snatch from the cruel sea a considerable portion of what is now dry
land; that she has had to build two hundred miles of broad and strong
dikes, and to see that they are always strong and safe; and, added to
this, has had to draw forth from the soil and the sea the food to feed
her millions--when one remembers these things, one well may wonder that
there has grown up there such a love for art as has produced the most
interesting school of painters in all the world; that all over this
hollow land are well-built cities and most comfortable houses, and that
in these houses are probably more fine porcelains and curious clocks,
pictures, and tapestries, than in any other land, one wonders still
more.

The two secrets which help to explain this singular success are these:
This necessary warfare with Nature has made a hardy, a patient, and a
frugal people. Not only has this people conquered and subdued the
_land_--it has also conquered and subdued the _sea_, and has drawn
stores of wealth from both. So it has come to pass that one hundred
thousand men were engaged, in the last century, in the fisheries, and a
common saw was that "the foundations of Amsterdam were laid on
herring-bones."

But these fisheries created a class of men who were ready to rove the
ocean in search of good or gold. Her daring navigators soon followed
Vasco da Gama around the Cape of Good Hope, and in due time succeeded to
the trade of the East, which she held for over two centuries, and out of
which she gained untold wealth; with which she built cities and castles
and churches; with which she paid artists; with which she stocked her
houses with the finest porcelains of the East.

Thus, from that early day, a great love for fine porcelain has existed
in the "Low Countries"--what we now know as Holland and Belgium. At the
present time no field bears a better yield for the gleaner who seeks
fine examples of old porcelain, and especially of the Oriental, than
these countries. Thousands upon thousands of porcelains were imported
into Holland after the year 1640, whence they were distributed over
Europe. But Holland could not hold her monopoly of trade; France and
England sought to grasp it, too, and England succeeded. During the last
century England has steadily drawn the trade of the East to herself, and
Holland has lost what England has gained.

In the many changes consequent upon this, many stores of good porcelain
gathered in Holland have gradually come to be sold to persons who wanted
them more than the Dutch did.

Out of this great trade with the Orientals it is easy to see that the
Dutch should come to be connoisseurs and lovers of porcelain. It is also
easy to see that a sufficient interest should spring up there, after the
discovery of true porcelain at Dresden, to induce persons to attempt the
manufacture in Holland. This was stimulated during the Seven Years' War,
when the works at Meissen (Dresden) were closed, and for a time broken
up. Then in Holland, as well as in other countries of Europe, there was
an opportunity. The love for porcelain had grown great after the
discoveries at Dresden, and the demand for it was vastly increased. The
disturbances in Saxony, amounting to prohibition of the manufacture,
gave other countries a possible chance to compete with the advantages
of Saxony, which otherwise were overwhelming. Still, in Holland no great
commercial success was reached. In none of these northern countries has
the making of fine porcelain been an assured success. This is owing to
many causes, among which we may point to--

1. The genius of the people does not impel them.

2. The clay and the wood and the coal are not at their doors.

3. Other nations have taken the lead and driven them from the markets of
the world, sometimes from their own.

In the Low Countries we may mention as places where the manufacture was
attempted--with, however, only a fictile life: Weesp, Loosdrecht,
Arnheim, Amsterdam, Amstel--old and new--The Hague, Tournay, Brussels,
Luxemburg, Lille (now in France).

WEESP--HARD PASTE.--The first effort was made at Weesp, not far from
Amsterdam, about 1764, during the Seven Years' War. For a short time,
until 1771, fine and white porcelain was made here, but not in great
quantities, and the attempt was not a commercial success.

The marks were:

[Illustration]

At LOOSDRECHT (HARD PASTE), not far from Utrecht, De Moll began a small
factory in 1772. He made a fine quality of china, closely following the
Dresden. It had but a short existence. His mark was "M o L.," meaning
_Manufactur oude Loosdrecht_.

AMSTEL (_Oude_), near Amsterdam, made the next essay (1782), and
produced good porcelain; but it could not hold its own against that
which the English were now sending forth into the markets of the
world--patriotism was not equal to cope with cheapness.

The mark was the letters A and D combined, in script.

At NEW AMSTEL, nearer to Amsterdam, the attempt was also made, which
continued through 1808 to 1810, when it too died. The mark here was also
in script.

Marks used at Amsterdam:

[Illustration]

[Illustration: FIG. 158.--_Porcelain of The Hague._]

At THE HAGUE, about 1775, both hard and soft porcelain was made, and of
great excellence. More was done here than at Amsterdam, and the work was
of superior quality. Some of the painting was excellent--equal to that
done at Dresden. Tea and dinner services of great beauty were made,
which are now and then to be bought in Europe. The examples shown in
Fig. 158 are a plate, and cup and saucer, from Mr. Wales's collection.

The mark was a stork holding a fish, the symbol of the town.

[Illustration]

At LILLE (SOFT PORCELAIN), Sieurs Dorez and Pelissier, uncle and nephew,
were granted privileges for making porcelain as early as 1711, and this
with that at St.-Cloud were the only factories at that time in Europe.
But little is known of this ware, except that it resembled that made at
St.-Cloud, and that it had no distinctive mark. Hard porcelain was
afterward made there (1784) by one Durot, which showed great excellence,
the decoration being mostly flowers and gold. These pieces are quite
rare.

The mark was a crowned dolphin.

[Illustration]

At TOURNAY (DOORNICK) soft-paste porcelain was made in 1750, and a very
large business was done at one time, as many as two hundred workmen
being employed in 1762. Chaffers says this factory is still at work, and
that _pâte tendre_ is still made there, which is in close imitation of
that once made at Sèvres.

The mark of the tower is sometimes referred to Tournay, and sometimes to
the porcelain made at Vincennes. It is in doubt. The other mark in gold
indicates best; in blue or red, second-best. The marks "To" and "Ty" are
supposed to be old marks of Tournay.

The marks used:

[Illustration]

SWEDEN.--That the coldest and most savage country of Europe should be
rich in anything except men and women is strange. And is it? According
to the standards of England or America, we may say, No. And yet
travelers tell us that in the towns and on the country estates are
houses rich with works of art, and filled with books. So far as these go
they indicate wealth and leisure. But the best sign of a prosperous
people is not pictures; neither is it books. Is it not that more than
one-half her people own their lands and raise the food they eat? Is it
not that the greedy cormorant called "Trade" has not shut up most of her
people in those Bastiles called factories, and thus degraded body and
soul to the verge of, if not into, the gulf of pauperism and vice?

This helps to explain the general well-being which is still to be found
in those northern countries of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark; but it does
not _fully_ explain whence came the first flow of wealth and the first
gatherings of art into Sweden. I believe they came from the great and
successful wars of Gustavus Adolphus and Charles XII.

By no possibility can war be careful of the rights of man. War is
intended to hurt, to exhaust, to consume other nations. War not only
takes food and munitions in the conquered country; it takes whatever it
wants and can take, whether of necessaries, luxuries, gold, or art. War,
we know, enabled the first and great Napoleon to enrich his palaces and
the museums of Paris with the finest works of art found in the countries
he overran. War, I do not doubt, brought into Sweden the beginnings of
those collections which now count many of the fine pictures of Guido and
Raphael, of Teniers and Douw. Frugality and general well-doing have done
the rest; so that all through the south of Sweden, and less in Norway,
are to be found delightful houses and cultivated people. But neither
Sweden nor Norway has made Art the first business or first glory of
life; and well for her that they have not. This is the ornament and
finish of the structure, not its body or soul.

We do not look, therefore, to find here any such institutions as those
of Meissen or Sèvres.

[Illustration: FIG. 159.--_Marieberg Porcelain and Faience._]

At MARIEBERG, near Stockholm, in 1759, porcelain of a good quality was
made, and continued to be made in a small way for some twenty years.
Before this, faience or pottery was made there, and at Rörstrand, as
early as 1727. Some good examples were at the Exhibition at Philadelphia
in 1876. Of the work of Marieberg I know of none in this country,
except that in Mr. Wales's collection, at Boston, consisting of some
small porcelain custard-cups and a very beautiful faience vase, both of
which we have had engraved (Fig. 159).

The mark used:

[Illustration:

     _The three crowns and the letters MB are sometimes followed by the
     private marks of the painters, as in the above._
]

[Illustration: FIG. 160.--_Porcelain of Denmark._]

DENMARK.--Porcelain, it is believed, was made at Copenhagen as early as
1760; but it did not continue for a long time. Few specimens of this
early work are believed to exist. A hard-paste factory was begun in
1772, by Müller, who, with the aid of the Baron von Lang, made a
company, by which the capital was raised. It did not pay, and in 1775 it
became a royal factory, and the Government paid its annual deficit.
Excellent work was made here, the great aim being to equal the
production at Dresden. It was up-hill work and a costly whim. Within a
short time (1876) the works are said to have gone into private hands,
who are prosecuting the business with vigor and skill. Certainly a very
creditable display was made by some three or four firms of Copenhagen at
the Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876. In faience and terra-cotta they
have arrived at great excellence. The Greek vase has been there revived,
and copied with much precision. Seipsius and Ruch are mentioned by
Marryat as the leading painters at the royal works at Copenhagen in the
last century. Our illustration, from Mr. Wales's collection, is good
work, and follows the lead of the Dresden painters (Fig. 160).

In the "Manual of Marks," by Hooper and Phillips, are two marks--given
here--but the "three wavy lines" is the mark almost universally known.
They indicate the waters of the Sound and Great and Little Belts.

[Illustration]

RUSSIAN PORCELAIN--HARD PASTE.--When Peter Alexeyevitch, called Peter
the Great--that shrewd savage--undertook to make his kingdom a power in
Europe, he soon saw that he must create among his people wants which
then did not exist. In 1697 he made his first pilgrimage to the
dock-yards of Saardam and the quays of London, to see for himself what
those nations did to make themselves rich and strong, feared if not
loved. He found ships, trade, factories. He went back to his barbarians,
and forced them to build a new port--St. Petersburg (1703); set them to
work to make dock-yards, to build ships, to organize factories; he
forced upon them new wants and new industries. If he did not make them
happier, he certainly made them stronger. He organized them, combined
them, so that they moved at his own powerful will. His successors,
following his example, have made Russia the second power of Europe.
When, in 1716, Peter visited Paris, he carried back to his capital great
store of works of art--not that he cared for works of art, but his
savage shrewdness told him these were the things which the growing and
grasping nations of Western Europe valued; and so he would have them,
too. But Art has had but an imitative life in Russia, even to this
present time. Now, her silversmiths, and at least one artist, a worker
of bronze named Lanceray, have made such exquisite work, and shown it at
the Philadelphia Exhibition in 1876, that one begins to believe that Art
in this savage Russia may not forever be content to copy what some one
else has done. As to porcelain, Russia has not done much, but yet
something.

The Government of Russia, inspired, like the rest, after the success at
Dresden, with the desire to produce fine works, at once made efforts to
secure the services of accomplished men to establish a porcelain-manufactory.
This appears to have been done in the year 1744, by the Empress
Elizabeth Petrovna, when good porcelain was produced, probably in small
amount. In 1765, however, the Empress Catherine II., with her accustomed
restless energy, threw herself into the competition. She enlarged the
works and secured whatever was possible of artists and workmen, and
produced some of the finest porcelains of Europe. The clays used appear
to have been wholly Russian, and her market was mostly with the rich
nobility of her own kingdom. Still the china-fanciers of all Europe,
then even more eager than now, purchased the Russian work; and it is
found in good collections, though but little of it is offered for sale.

M. Demmin quotes from a Russian work of 1773: "Il existe une fabrique de
porcelaine, située sur la Néva, route de Schlüsselburg, à quatorze
versts de Pétersbourg. Elle fabrique des porcelaines tellement belles et
fines, qu'elles ne le cèdent en rien à la porcelaine de Saxe, soit pour
la blancheur et la finesse de l'émail, soit pour la beauté du décor. Sa
blancheur est même supérieure à celle de Meissen. Le directeur,
l'inspecteur, tous les maîtres et ouvriers sont à la solde de la cour,"
etc.

The porcelain has a fine glaze, the paste being hard and slightly
bluish; the decorations usually highly finished in the styles prevailing
at Dresden.

[Illustration: FIG. 161.--_Russian Porcelain._]

The piece shown in Fig. 161 is a teapot, of superior glaze and finish,
from Mr. Wales's collection; the handle and spout are peculiar,
finishing, as they do, with the neck and head of a bird, ending at the
base of the spout in a small wing-decoration. The paste, the glaze, and
the painting of the teapot and the cup and saucer are excellent.

The Russian marks most used are:

[Illustration: _A mark in blue, supposed to be an early one._]

[Illustration: _The Empress Catherine II.'s mark (1762 to 1796)._]

[Illustration: _The Emperor Paul's mark (1796 to 1801)._]

[Illustration: _The Emperor Alexander I.'s mark (1801 to 1825)._]

[Illustration: _The Emperor Nicholas's mark (1825 to 1855)._]

[Illustration: _The mark now is a crown, with the letter A in script,
Alexander II._]

TVER.--About 1787 an Englishman named Gardner made some porcelain at
Tver, of which so little is to be obtained that it is hardly known in
collections. His mark seems to have been [illustration: symbol], the
monogram in Russian letters of A. Gardner, and sometimes the full name
in Russian characters.

MOSCOW.--In 1830 some porcelain was made at Moscow by A. Popoff, a piece
of which is in the South Kensington Museum, marked with his name in
Russian characters. There seems also to have been porcelain made at
Moscow by M. Gulena, of which little is known. His mark was the initial
letters of Fabrica Gospodina, and his own name, in Russian characters.

[Illustration]

POLAND.--At Korzec, in Poland, in 1803, a Frenchman named Mérault, from
Sèvres, made porcelain for a few years, probably in small quantity; and
a mark upon some pieces of his is a triangle containing an eye.



CHAPTER XVII.

POTTERY AND PORCELAIN IN THE UNITED STATES.

     The First Porcelain made here.--Bonnin and Morris.--Franklin
     Institute.--William Ellis Tucker.--Tucker and Hemphill.--Thomas
     Tucker.--General Tyndale.--Porcelain of T. C. Smith and
     Sons.--Early Advertisements.--Josiah Wedgwood.--Lord Sheffield's
     Report.--Alexander Hamilton's Report.--History of Norwich.--Samuel
     Dennis, New Haven.--Isaac Hanford, Hartford.--Gallatin's
     Report.--The "Washington Pitchers."--Lyman and Fenton,
     Vermont.--Rouse and Turner, New Jersey.--Potteries at Trenton.--In
     Ohio.--The Centennial Exhibition.


Doubts have been expressed whether PORCELAIN was made in the United
States as early as 1770; though there was no question as to the
existence of the true china-clays, and that Wedgwood and other potters
in England knew of them and had used them. More, they were fearful that
they would be put to use in this country, to the injury of their trade.

The investigations of Charles Henry Hart, Esq., of Philadelphia, seem to
remove the doubt as to the making of porcelain in that city as early as
1769 or 1770. Looking over the newspapers, he finds, under date of
December 29, 1769, an advertisement as follows:

     "NEW CHINA-WARE.--Notwithstanding the various difficulties and
     disadvantages which usually attend the introduction of any
     important manufacture into a new country, the proprietors of the
     china-works now erecting in Southwark have the pleasure to acquaint
     the public that they have proved to a certainty that the clays of
     America are productive of as good PORCELAIN as any heretofore
     manufactured at the famous factory in Bow, near London," etc.

Subsequently other advertisements appeared for apprentices, etc., signed
by G. Bonnin and G. A. Morris. This would seem conclusive. Mr. Hart
also states that some specimens of the work then made are deposited in
the Franklin Institute of his city.

It is not likely that the work reached a commercial success, or that it
was long continued.

Subsequently porcelain was made and decorated in that city by Messrs.
Tucker and Hemphill, as will clearly appear from the following
communications.

Mr. Thomas Tucker prepared for the Historical Society of Pennsylvania,
in 1868, this brief statement:

"William Ellis Tucker, my brother, was the first to make porcelain in
the United States. My father, Benjamin Tucker, had a china-store in
Market Street, in the city of Philadelphia, in the year 1816. He built a
kiln for William in the yard back of the store, where he painted in the
white china, and burnt it on in the kiln, which gave him a taste for
that kind of work.

"After that he commenced experimenting with the different kinds of
clays, to see if he could not make the ware. He succeeded in making a
very good opaque ware, called 'queen's-ware.' He then commenced
experimenting with feldspar and kaolin to make porcelain, and, after
much labor, he succeeded in making a few small articles of very good
porcelain. He then obtained the old water-works at the northwest corner
of Schuylkill Front and Chestnut Streets, where he erected a large
glazing-kiln, enameling-kiln, mills, etc.

"He burnt kiln after kiln, with very poor success. The glazing would
crack and the body would blister; and, besides, we discovered that we
had a man who placed the ware in the kiln, who was employed by some
interested parties in England to impede our success.

"Most of the handles were found in the bottom of the seggars[17] after
the kiln was burnt. We could not account for it until a deaf-and-dumb
man in our employment detected him running his knife around each handle
as he placed them in the kiln.

"At another time every piece of china had to be broken before it could
be taken out of the seggar. We always washed the round O's--the article
in which the china was placed in the kiln--with silex, but this man had
washed them with feldspar, which, of course, melted, and fastened every
article to the bottom; but William discharged him, and we got over that
difficulty.

"In the year 1827 my brother received a silver medal from the Franklin
Institute of Pennsylvania, and in 1831 received one from the Institute
in New York. In 1828 I commenced to learn the different branches of the
business.

"On the 22d of August, 1832, my brother William died. Some time before,
he connected himself with the late Judge Hemphill. They purchased the
property at the southwest corner of Schuylkill Sixth and Chestnut
Streets, where they built a large store-house and factory, which they
filled with porcelain. After the death of my brother, Judge Hemphill and
myself continued the working of porcelain for some years, until he sold
out his interest to a company of Eastern gentlemen; but, being
unfortunate in their other operations, they were not able to give the
porcelain attention. In the year 1837 I undertook to carry it on alone,
and did so for about one year, making a large quantity of very fine
porcelain, many pieces of which I still have.

"The gilding and painting are now as perfect as when first done."

Mr. Tucker presented at this time a piece of the work, which is now in
the collection at Philadelphia.

In addition to this I give a communication from General Hector Tyndale,
which adds confirmation to the above:

"About the years 1760 to 1770 potteries were established in the United
States--notably at Philadelphia--of which few records now remain. But
they attracted the attention of the English potters, as may be seen by a
letter from Josiah Wedgwood (page 367, Meteyard's 'Life of Wedgwood,'
London, 1865), wherein he expressed apprehension of the effect of these
upon British 'trade and prosperity.'

"Porcelain-works, to which Mr. Elliott alludes, were established in
Philadelphia (corner of Schuylkill Sixth and Chestnut Streets) about the
year 1830, Judge Hemphill being among the most prominent of the founders
of them. The wares made were of very good, and, in some respects, of
excellent qualities. The products were white and decorated table and
tea services, and decorative wares. The 'body' was very good, being
hard, dense, tough, and translucent, quite vitreous, with sharp and
clear ring, and withstanding great and rapid changes of temperature. In
appearance it somewhat resembled the French (Limoges) porcelain of that
day, and, in durability and use, that of Berlin, and quite equal to
either. The glaze was good, and well adapted to receive colors. The
forms were copies of the French and English of the time, and these were
almost always bad. The ornamentation was generally poorly copied from
the English or French, or, if original, was decidedly worse. English,
French, and German artisans were imported, but whatever skill these may
have had was soon lost, owing perhaps to the want of comparative and
competitive productions, and also to the want of taste among the general
buyers and the public. So far as ornament was concerned, and a knowledge
of æsthetic rules or a prevailing _sense_ of beauty and fitness were
involved, this attempt at manufacture was premature. These works
continued, with a diminishing success, for several years; and the
founders, who lost much money in the establishment, deserve much credit
for their serious and wellnigh successful effort.

"At present there are porcelain-works near New York--at Greenpoint, and
perhaps elsewhere--making very good and enduring wares, of excellent
'body' and glaze, but of coarse and inartistic form and ornament."

The porcelain-factory last spoken of is that of T. C. Smith and Sons,
which, at the Centennial Exhibition, made a creditable display.

Through the courtesy of Mr. Prime, editor of the "Hand-Book of the New
York Museum of Art," I am able to give some extracts essential to this
brief history:

"When Delft pottery began to be used for table and household purposes in
England, it is probable that small quantities found their way to this
country, but neither crockery nor porcelain took the place of pewter and
wood on American tables, and the importations increased but slowly with
the increase of population and wealth. Wooden trenchers, pewter dishes,
mugs, water-pitchers, etc., continued in general use until the present
century. By an examination of early newspapers we are enabled to learn
much of the character of the table-furniture which dealers advertised
for sale, and these were probably alike in all parts of the country. We
find pewter always prominent. In the _New Haven Gazette_ of September
30, 1784, a druggist advertises Wedgwood mortars and pestles. In the
same paper, October 21st, a dealer advertises 'blue and white
stone-ware, consisting of butter-pots, jars, and cans;' also 'quart,
pint, and half-pint water-flasks; matted ditto; spaw ditto; Bristol
ditto.' In the same paper, November 25th, a dealer advertises
'queen's-ware in small crates, well assorted,' which had been imported
direct to New Haven; and, December 2d, he advertises 'English china cups
and saucers.' On November 4, 1784, the same dealer advertised 'a large
assortment of coarse stone-ware in crates, large round bottles holding
nearly two quarts, in small, convenient hampers, and quart, pint, and
half-pint flasks,' with a discount to those who buy large quantities.
This last advertisement may refer to wares made in America. In 1785 we
find advertised 'Nottingham, queen's, china, and glass ware.'
'Nottingham ware' had long been a popular name in England for brown
potteries, originally made at Nottingham, and the name continued in use
here until a very recent date.

"Bricks and ruder forms of pottery were made in New England in the
eighteenth, and possibly in the seventeenth, century. Investigations in
progress may elicit information now wanting on this subject. Josiah
Wedgwood, in a letter written in 1765, speaks of a pottery then
projected in the Carolinas of whose work he had great apprehensions, and
seems to desire some government interference to prevent the colonies
from making their own pottery and thus injuring the home business.
Before the end of the eighteenth century many potteries were established
in various parts of the country, but, so far as is now known, no
articles were produced except the ordinary coarser kinds of household
utensils.

"'A Brief Examination of Lord Sheffield's Observations on the Commerce
of the United States,' by Matthew Carey, was printed in successive
numbers of the _American Museum_, in 1791, and was collected in a
volume, printed the same year at Philadelphia, with a supplementary note
on 'The Present State of American Manufactures,' etc. On pages 126 and
127 he has the following observations: 'Manufactures of glass, of
earthen-ware, and of stone, mixed with clay, are all in an infant state.
From the quantity and variety of the materials which must have been
deposited by Nature in so extensive a region as the United States, from
the abundance of fuel which they contain, from the expense of
importation, and loss by fracture, which falls on glass and earthen
wares, from the simplicity of many of these manufactures, and from the
great consumption of them, impressions of surprise at this state of
them, and a firm persuasion that they will receive the early attention
of foreign or American capitalists, are at one produced. Coarse tiles,
and bricks of an excellent quality, potter's wares, all in quantities
beyond the home consumption, a few ordinary vessels and utensils of
stone mixed with clay, some mustard and snuff bottles, a few flasks or
flagons, a small quantity of sheet-glass and of vessels for family use,
generally of the inferior kinds, are all that are now made.'

"Hamilton's return of exports of the United States from August, 1789, to
September, 1790, printed in the appendix to Carey's book, gives, for
earthen and glass ware, nineteen hundred and ninety dollars.

"In Miss Caulkins's 'History of Norwich,' Chapter XLIX., it is stated
that in 1796 'a pottery for the manufacture of stone-ware was
established at Bean Hill, which continued in operation far into the
present century, seldom, however, employing more than four or five
hands.' In Morse's 'Gazetteer,' 1797, we read, under Norwich, that the
inhabitants manufacture 'stone and earthen ware.' In the _Norwich_
(Connecticut) _Gazette_, September 15, 1796, we find this advertisement
of a pottery, which appears to have been in operation by a Mr. Lathrop
prior to 1796, and is, without doubt, the one referred to by Miss
Caulkins and Dr. Morse:

     "'C. POTTS & SON, informs the Public, that they have lately
     established a Manufactory of EARTHEN WARE at the shop formerly
     improved by Mr. Charles Lathrop, where all kinds of said Ware is
     made and sold, either in large or small quantities, and warranted
     good.'

"A memorial of Samuel Dennis, dated New Haven, October 9, 1789, to the
General Assembly of Connecticut, shows 'that he is acquainted with the
potter's business, and is about to erect a stone-pottery; and there is
in this country a plenty of clay which he presumes of the same kind with
that from which the queen's-ware of Staffordshire is usually made; and
that he wishes to erect a pottery for the purpose of manufacturing the
finer kinds of ware usually made in Staffordshire, particularly the
queen's-ware,' and he asks the aid of the State in founding the works.
His memorial was negatived, and it does not appear whether he went on
with his project.

"Isaac Hanford, of Hartford, Connecticut, took out a patent, January 20,
1800, for a new method of making bricks, tiles, and pottery-ware in
general, and of discharging the moulds. Nothing further is known of his
work; but coarse pottery has, from the beginning of the century, been
made in Hartford. Prior to 1800 a pottery was in existence at
Stonington, Connecticut, managed by Adam States, who was succeeded in
the business, after 1804, by his sons, Adam and Joseph. They made jugs,
butter-pots, jars of all sizes, and some small wares with handles,
uniformly of soft pottery, usually gray in color, with salt-glaze.
Contemporary with this was a pottery at Norwalk, Connecticut, which made
red wares of soft pottery in many forms. We learn from a lady, whose
memory extends back to 1804, that it made jars and pots of all sizes,
teapots, mugs, and large milk-pans, then in common use among the farmers
in Connecticut, glazed with a lead-glaze, the color deep red with
flashes of black, probably caused by smoke in the firing. Other
potteries produced wares similar to the Stonington and Norwalk.

"From a report of the Secretary of the Treasury (Mr. Gallatin), made in
1810, it appears that the exports of 'coarse earthen-ware' exceeded the
imports. In this report the secretary says that progress has been made
in the manufacture of 'queen's and other earthen ware,' and that 'a
sufficient quantity of the coarser species of pottery was made
everywhere. Four manufactories of a finer kind had lately been
established which made ware resembling that of Staffordshire.' Dr.
Dwight, in his 'Travels' (1822), after quoting the above, states that he
had gained access to the reports from Massachusetts and Connecticut,
upon which the secretary's report had been founded, and gives among the
manufactures of Connecticut for the year, potteries, twelve; 'value of
earthen and stone ware, thirty thousand seven hundred and forty
dollars;' and for Massachusetts, 'earthen-ware, eighteen thousand seven
hundred dollars.'

"Before the end of the last century direct trade had been established
between the United States and China, and Oriental porcelain began to
make its appearance in America. The English trade increased rapidly in
the early part of the present century, and English manufacturers had
begun to decorate pottery with American subjects for the American
market. Porcelain seems to have been decorated at Lowestoft with
American designs, for special orders, before 1800.

"From 1810 to 1830 great quantities of English pottery, especially blue
and white wares, were imported. Much of this was decorated with American
views, buildings, landscapes, and pictures of public events, the
principal exporters in England being J. and R. Clews, of Cobridge, and
the Ridgways, of Shelton."

[Illustration: FIG. 162.--_The "Washington Pitchers."_]

The "Washington Pitchers" were made at this period by the English
potters, and were shipped here and sold in great numbers. They are now
much prized, but are not uncommon. Few of them have any merit as works
of art, being intended only to please the patriotic sentiment of the
country.

The smaller one of our illustration (Fig. 162) contains the best picture
of Washington of any I have seen painted upon porcelain, and is really
an excellent engraving after Stuart's great picture.

It is said to have been made in England, by order of a Philadelphia
dealer, in 1801. Both of these pitchers are in the Historical Society of
Philadelphia.

The larger one is more patriotic and less artistic. Around the portrait
are entwined the names of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island,
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland,
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Vermont,
Kentucky--fifteen States, and fifteen stars.

On the front is the eagle, and the patriotic Latin, _E pluribus unum_.
Also the name of the owner, James Taylor, M. D. On the other side, in an
oval, is some poetry, made in England for our use, as follows:

    "As he tills your rich glebe the old peasant shall tell,
       While his bosom with Liberty glows,
     How your WARREN expired, how MONTGOMERY fell,
       And how WASHINGTON humbled your foes."

The _intentions_ of the poet we may accept as good, even if slightly
mercenary.

One more brief extract will complete this history:

"In 1847 a factory was established in Bennington, Vermont, by Messrs.
Lyman and Fenton, and continued in operation till about 1860. Pottery
was made in various forms, with good enamel; bisque or Parian wares were
produced, and soft-paste porcelain of good quality, well decorated. So
far as is at present known, this was the first American factory which
has attempted to make figures of men and animals. A peculiar enamel
seems to have been patented by Mr. Fenton, of this firm, which was used
on some of the pottery. The impressed mark on pottery of this class was
arranged in a circle, 'Lyman, Fenton and Co., Fenton's Enamel, Patented
1849, Bennington, Vermont.'

"Some time prior to 1829 a factory was established in Jersey City, New
Jersey, by persons not now known (said to be French), which made
porcelain. No mark was used, but we are indebted to Messrs. Rouse and
Turner, the present proprietors, for fragments of the porcelain made
prior to 1829, which is hard paste of fair quality. The enterprise was
not successful, and in 1829 David Henderson and Co. bought the works,
and carried them on under the name of the American Pottery Company. They
made white and brown potteries, decorating the former with prints, and
the latter with colored enamels and raised work; and also a translucent
pottery, which is apparently a natural soft-paste porcelain. Their mark
was 'American Pottery Company, Jersey City, New Jersey,' in a circle,
stamped in the paste. They executed work for druggists and other dealers
in New York, printing labels on their jars, boxes, etc. A favorite
pattern was a brown pottery pitcher, the handle a hound, the surface
covered with a raised representation of a hunt. It was made in various
sizes, and is still produced, with a changed form of the same
decoration. In 1855 Messrs. Rouse and Turner became proprietors of the
factory, and have since carried it on with much success, producing
granite, Rockingham, and stone wares, plain and decorated, for table and
general use. They use clay obtained from Woodbridge, New Jersey, and
another clay from Bath, South Carolina; and occasionally a clay from
Glen Cove, Long Island, which contains silex. Their stone-wares are made
by the mixing of certain clays, without the addition of other
substances. They use no mark on their fabrics.

"Important works are now in operation at Baltimore, Maryland, and at
Trenton, New Jersey, making varieties of pottery, plain and decorated,
and stone-wares of excellent quality."

At the Exhibition at Philadelphia good exhibitions were made by Messrs.
Otto and Brewer, Mercer Pottery Company, James Moses and Isaac Davis, of
Trenton; also by Laughlin Brothers, of East Liverpool, Ohio.

Some twenty firms, mostly from Trenton, were collected in the southeast
corner of the Main Building, where they made a creditable display of
what is known as the "white granite" ware, so useful and so detestable;
thick, that it may resist the hostility of the Milesian maiden, clumsy
because of that, without color or decoration of any kind, and cheap: can
we expect or demand much? Looking more carefully, we found in Otto and
Brewer's exhibit a modeler named Broome, who had made some base-ball
players which were full of life and spirit; also some unglazed vases
which had excellence of form and precision of modeling and decoration,
showing that good things may be done here. In Fig. 163 we show one of
the Parian vases designed by Broome, who only needs encouragement to
develop into excellence. James Moses, too, had some white-and-gold work
which was good. Isaac Davis, one of these granite-potters, had ventured
to turn his cups with a sense of good form, and with a thin lip from
which one might drink without being reminded of the horse-trough; he
must beware lest it should not pay!

[Illustration: FIG. 163.--_Parian Vase._]

Laughlin Brothers, of Ohio, had a good show of the same kind of wares,
and they had also a decorated dinner-set which was good. They had more
than this, in that they promised us something. They are using feldspars,
kaolins, clays, silexes, from various parts of the United States, and
believe we have the best and the greatest variety to be found in any
country; but besides these a new clay or mineral, as they think, has
been found in Missouri, which promises to be of infinite value. It is
cheap, is easily ground and mixed, and imparts to the body a creamy
softness and a beauty which add much to the production. That this is
true was shown in some of the cups made with it. Moreover, as Mr.
Laughlin states, several of the best porcelain-makers of Europe are
seriously contemplating the propriety of establishing themselves on this
shore of the sea, and putting to use these kaolinic treasures. And why
not? With cheap clays, cheap fuels, cheap foods, may we not begin to
supply ourselves, if not some of the rest of the world, with the finest
productions of the potter's wheel? And it would seem a good thing for us
to do.



APPENDIX.

BOOKS UPON POTTERY AND PORCELAIN.


The following synopsis of works on "pottery and porcelain," for which we
are indebted to Mr. G. W. Wales, will be found useful and interesting:

     GENERAL HISTORICAL TREATISES.--Jacquemart, "History of the Ceramic
     Art"--a descriptive philosophical study of the pottery of all ages
     and nations, profusely illustrated in aquatint and woodcut, and
     containing one thousand marks and monograms; Semper, "Der Stil in
     den Künsten," in the second volume treats of ceramics, and is a
     well-illustrated, comprehensive, and useful hand-book; Mareschal,
     "La Faïence Populaire au 18me Siècle," has one hundred and
     twelve colored plates, mostly of French and Delft porcelain; Maze,
     "Recherches sur la Céramique" is illustrated by photographs, and
     has a list of marks and monograms; Burty, "Chefs-d'OEuvre des
     Arts Industriels," gives a popular account of ceramics, well
     illustrated (there is a translation by Chaffers); Stallknecht's
     papers on "Artistic Pottery and Porcelain" give also an account of
     the articles in the Vienna Exposition of 1875; Treadwell's "Manual"
     is a brief popular work; Hall, "Bric-à-brac Hunter." One of the
     best works in English is Marryat's "History," well illustrated, in
     colors. So also is Graesse's "Guide de l'Amateur," a very complete
     collection, in fac-simile, of marks and monograms. Chaffers's
     "Keramic Gallery," besides historical notices and descriptions,
     gives several hundred photographs of rare and curious specimens of
     these arts.

     Besides these works, devoted especially to ceramics, it will be
     well to refer to the following, selected out of many books treating
     generally of the arts of the middle ages, most of them illustrated
     in the best style, in which may be found chapters or short
     treatises on pottery and porcelain, with admirable illustrations
     adapted for use as designs for decoration: Sommerard's "Arts au
     Moyen Âge," plates; Villemin, "Monumens Français;" Lenoir, "Musée
     des Monumens Français;" Lacroix, "Arts of the Middle Ages;"
     Louandre, "Arts Somptuaires;" "Instrumenta Ecclesiastica;" Racinet,
     "L'Ornement Polychrome;" Jones, "Grammar of Ornament;" Bedford,
     "Treasury of Ornamental Art;" Newbery, "Gleanings from Ornamental
     Art;" Chenavard, "Album de l'Ornamentiste;" "Tradesman's Book of
     Ornamental Designs;" Wyatt, "Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth
     Century;" Durand, "Recueil et Parallèles des Edifices de tout
     Genre;" South Kensington Museum, "Industrial Arts;" "Photographs
     from the British Museum;" Labarte, "Arts Industriels au Moyen Âge;"
     Zahn, "Ornamentmalerei."

     MANUFACTURE.--The following books treat more particularly of the
     processes of manufacture of pottery and porcelain, only
     incidentally touching the artistic history. They are mostly in
     French, viz.: Brongniart, "Traité des Arts Céramiques," two volumes
     of text and one of plates. This is well illustrated, and cited by
     all writers on the subject as high authority. Figuier, in the first
     volume of the "Merveilles de l'Industrie," which treats both sides
     of the subject, is very fully illustrated as regards both the
     manufacture and the art-history of glass, pottery, and porcelain.
     Other briefer treatises are those by Guillery,
     Bastenaire-Daudenart, Boyer, and a treatise on pottery (Paris,
     1772), in volume ii. of the "Description des Arts et Métiers." In
     English: Tomlinson's "Brief History," from the "Encyclopædia
     Britannica;" and Arnoux, in volume iii. of Bevans's "British
     Manufacturing Industries." See also Turgau, "Les Grandes Usines de
     France," for history of the Sèvres porcelain; Denistoun, "Dukes of
     Urbino," volume iii., page 382, for an account of the manufacture
     of maiolica in the duchy of Urbino; Rosina, "Memoria sulle
     Stoviglie," on manufacture of utensils and analysis of clays in the
     Lombardo-Venetian territory.

     The following books give some practical instructions on painting,
     enameling, etc.: Tilton, "Designs and Instructions for decorating
     Pottery;" Snell, "Practical Instructions;" "Art Recreations;"
     Gessart, "Art of Enameling;" Sutherland, "Practical Guide;"
     Reboulleau.

     MARKS AND MONOGRAMS.--Chaffers's "Marks and Monograms," which
     contains also an historical essay on English pottery, with
     illustrations; also his "Collector's Hand-book"--a
     concisely-arranged volume of fac-similes of marks, a supplement to
     the work just named; Mareschal, "Iconographie de la Faïence"--a
     dictionary of ceramic artists and marks, with colored illustrations
     of the different styles; Hooper and Phillips, "Manual"--a
     dictionary of easy reference; Demmin, "Guide de l'Amateur de
     Faïences" (two volumes)--a comprehensive, illustrated work of high
     authority; Bohn's "Guide to Knowledge of Pottery and Porcelain,"
     containing also a priced catalogue of the Bernal collection, and an
     essay; Maze, "Recherches," illustrated by photographs; Meteyard's
     "Wedgwood Hand-book"--a thorough history of this exquisite ware.
     See also a work by the same author, for admirable photographs of
     Wedgwood's principal works, and Fortnum's "Catalogue of Maiolica."

     The following books treat of the history of pottery and porcelain
     of different countries and periods:

     ENGLAND.--For a sketch of the art of pottery in England, see the
     introductory chapters of volume i. of Eliza Meteyard's "Life of
     Josiah Wedgwood;" her "Wedgwood Hand-book," which gives marks,
     monograms, priced catalogues, and a glossary of technical terms.
     The same author has recently (1876) published "Wedgwood and his
     Works," admirably illustrated with photographs of his more
     important works; also "Wedgwood Memorial," likewise beautifully
     illustrated. Prefixed to Chaffers's "Marks and Monograms" is an
     Essay on the Vasa Fictilia of England;" Jewitt's "Life of Wedgwood"
     contains also a "History of the Early Potteries of Staffordshire,"
     well illustrated; Haslem's "Old Derby China," illustrated in color,
     gives a full account of this ware and of the principal workmen,
     with marks and price-lists; Binns's "Century of Potting in
     Worcester" gives in an appendix a sketch of Celtic, Roman, and
     Mediæval pottery in Worcestershire. See also "Wedgwood, an Address
     by W. E. Gladstone" (1863); Boyer, "Traité sur l'Origine, les
     Progrès et l'État actuel des Manufactures de Porcelaine et de
     Faïence en Angleterre"--one of the excellent Roret manuals of arts
     and trades.

     FRANCE.--Mareschal, "Faïence Populaire au 18me Siècle," with one
     hundred and twelve finely-colored plates, mostly of French and
     Delft ware (Paris, 1872); Pottier, "Histoire de la Faïence de
     Rouen" (1870), two volumes, quarto--an elaborate and
     finely-illustrated treatise; Pouy, "Les Faïences d'Origine Picarde"
     (1872), with colored plates and marks; Forestié, "Les Anciennes
     Faienceries de Montauban," and other places in the department of
     Tarn-et-Garonne. On the pottery of the Gauls, see Du Cleuzion,
     "Poterie Gauloise." A publication by the Arundel Society gives fine
     photographs of twenty examples of "Henri-Deux ware" from the South
     Kensington Museum.

     ITALY, GERMANY, SPAIN, ETC.--On "maiolica," see the history by
     Passeri, treating of the products of Pesaro and Urbino, and of the
     works of Giorgio da Gubbio. On "maiolica and Italian faience," see
     the splendidly-illustrated works by Delange and Sauzay, "Monographe
     de l'OEuvre de Bernard Palissy" (Paris, 1872); and the "Recueil
     de Faïences Italiennes" of the fifteenth, sixteenth, and
     seventeenth centuries (Paris, 1869), by Delanges, Darcel, and
     Bornemann. Fortnum's "Maiolica;" also his "Catalogue of Maiolica,
     Hispano-Moresco, Persian, Damascus, and Rhodian wares in the South
     Kensington Museum," finely illustrated in color, and giving marks
     and monograms; "Centennial Exposition Catalogue of the Castellani
     Collection;" Beckwith's "Majolica and Fayence" (New York, 1877) is
     a concise and useful general treatise on ceramics, containing much
     information in small space, with numerous photo-engraved
     illustrations; Drake's "Notes on Venetian Ceramics;" Riaño,
     "Catalogue of Art Objects of Spanish Production in the South
     Kensington Museum;" De Jorio, "Galleria de' Vasi, Real Museo
     Borbonico;" "Le Secret des Vraies Porcelaines de la Chine et de
     Saxe" (1752); Robinson, "Catalogue of the Soulages Collection."
     Asselineau, "Meubles et Objets divers du Moyen Âge" gives specimens
     of Palissy and Flemish ware. Lazari, "Notizie della raccolta Correr
     di Venezia."

     ORIENTAL AND SAVAGE RACES.--Alabaster, "Chinese Art Objects in
     South Kensington Museum;" Audsley and Bowes, "Keramic Art," now in
     course of publication, splendidly illustrated with colored plates
     by Racinet; Jarves, "Glimpse at the Art of Japan;" Schweinfurth,
     "Artes Africanæ;" Hartt, "Manufacture of Pottery among Savage
     Races." On the _cloisonné_ enamels of China, see appendix to
     Julien's "Industries de l'Empire Chinois." On "Chinese porcelain
     decoration," consult "Owen Jones's Examples of Chinese Ornament,"
     giving one hundred fine colored plates, from examples at South
     Kensington.

     TILES.--Nichols's "Examples of Decorative Tiles, in fac-simile,
     chiefly in Original Size;" chapter entitled "Céramique," by
     Riocreux and Jacquemart, in volume iv. of Lacroix's "Moyen Âge et
     la Renaissance," which contains a bibliography of ceramics.

     ANCIENT POTTERY.--Birch's "History of Ancient Pottery" treats of
     Assyrian, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, Etruscan, Celtic, Teutonic, and
     Scandinavian pottery, and is fully illustrated. It contains also a
     list of the principal collections of ancient pottery. One of the
     best works is Millingen's "Ancient Unedited Monuments," giving
     excellent colored illustrations of painted Greek vases. Other
     valuable works are those of Inghirami, "Pitture di Vasi Etrusche,"
     four volumes quarto, with fine outlines of Greek vase-decoration,
     some in color; a very beautifully-illustrated work (in color) is
     that of the Count of Syracuse, "Notizia dei Vasi dipinti rinvenuti
     a Cuma;" see also Lucien Bonaparte's "Museum Étrusque;" Donati,
     "Della Maniera d'interpretare le Pitture ne' Vasi fittili antichi;"
     "Description of the Ancient Terra-Cottas in the British Museum,"
     illustrated by line-engravings; Stackelberg, "Die Gräber der
     Hellenen," giving plates of urns, vases, bass-reliefs, etc.;
     Dumont, "Inscriptions Céramiques de Grèce;" Fabroni, "Vasi fittili
     aretini;" Kramer, "Ueber den Styl und die Herkunft der bemalten
     griechischen Thongefässe;" De Sanctis, "Vasi antichi della
     Collezione Hamilton," with outline illustrations; G. Gerhard,
     "Vases Grecs relatifs aux Mystères," outline illustrations;
     Gerhard, "Etruskische und kampanische Vasenbilder" (Berlin, 1843),
     with finely-colored illustrations of vases; Gerhard, "Auserlesene
     griechische Vasenbilder" (Berlin, 1856), two volumes text, two
     volumes plates, quarto, also admirably illustrated; Fitzwilliam
     Museum at Cambridge, part iii., "Fictile Vases;" Schliemann,
     "Trojanische Alterthümer;" "British Museum Catalogue of Greek and
     Etruscan Vases," with outlines; "Catalogue of the St. Petersburg
     Imperial Collection of Vases in the Ermitage," with sixteen plates
     of outlines; Inghirami, "Etrusco Museo Chinsino," copperplate
     outlines; "Engravings of Ancient Vases in the Collection of Sir
     William Hamilton" (Naples, 1791), three volumes folio.

     On Egyptian pottery consult Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians;" and
     the splendid illustrated volumes of Champollion, Lepsius, and
     Belzoni, for illustrations from the monuments.

     BIOGRAPHY.--Jouveaux, "Histoire de trois Potiers Celèbres,"
     biographical sketches of Palissy, Wedgwood, and Böttger; "Lessons
     from Noble Lives" (Palissy); see C. C. Perkins's "Tuscan
     Sculptors," volume i., for a chapter on "Luca della Robbia," also
     in Vasari; Vasari, volume xiii., page 72, "Vita di Battista
     Franco." For a list of books of reference on "ceramics," see
     Chaffers's "Marks and Monograms."



INDEX.


A  PAGE

Abbey, Richard, Potter, 312

Abderrahman III., 83

African Pottery, 65

Alabastron, 47

_A la corne_, 146

Alchemists, The, 230

Alcora Porcelain, 287

Alexander Severus, Emperor, 172

Alhambra, The, 83

---- Vase of the, 84

Amateur Painters, 298

Amatorii, 104

American Pottery, 23

Amphora, 18, 40, 46

Amstel Porcelain, 321

Andreoli, Maestro Giorgio, 113

Andrews, W. L., 185

Antonibon, Potter, 281

Apostle Mugs, 75

Arabic Pottery, 90

Arabs of Spain, The, 72, 81

Arcesilaus, Cup of, 51

Archaic Man, 14

---- Style, 41

Arezzo, 27

Art in Decoration, 236

---- Japanese, 225

---- Oriental, Character of, 190, 206

Aryballos, 35, 46

Aspasia, House of, 45, 58

Assyrians, Glazed Ware of, 70

Athenian Prize-Vase, 49

Augustus II., Elector of Saxony, 231

Avery, S.P., 92. 189, 195, 200, 210, 216, 222

Aztec Civilization, 21


B

Baireuth, 75

Baldassini, Painter, 279

Balearic Islands, 95

Bamboo, Wedgwood's, 168

Banko Ware, 225

Barberini Vase, 171

Barbizôt, M., 149

Barlow, S. L. M., 270, 296

Basalt, Wedgwood's, 168, 171

Bavarian Porcelain, 249

Beauvais Pottery, 141

Beccheroni, Painter, 279

Beckford, Mr., 195

Belgium, 319

Bellarmine, Cardinal, 76

Bellarmins, 76

Belleek, 149

Belmont, A., 270

Bennington Potteries, 339

Bentley, Mr., 167

Berlin Porcelain, 242

Bernal Sale, The, 131, 141, 240, 244, 247, 250, 251, 295, 298

Betts, F. J., 76

Billingsly, Potter, 310

Binns, R. W., Potter, 289, 306

Birch, Mr., 41, 70

Bloor, Potter, 297

Blue, Celestial, 181, 193

---- Cobalt, 190

---- Dragon Decoration, 311

---- Japanese, 218

Bonnin, Potter, 331

Boston Museum of Arts, 86

Böttger, J., 231

Boucher, Painter, 261

Bow and Chelsea, Confusion between, 292

---- Porcelain, 290

Bramelds, The, Potters, 313

Breslau, Pottery Monument in, 80

Brianchon, M., 149

Bricks, Glazed, 70

Bristol Porcelain, 309

British Museum, 211

Broeck, Village of, 159

Bromfield and Son, Potters, 317

Brongniart, Alexandre, 41, 270

Bronze Age, 16

Brown-Westhead, Moore and Co., Potters, 317

Brunswick Porcelain, 249

Bryant, Mr., 30

Buen Retiro Porcelain, 286

Burke, Edmund, 309

Burlingame, Mrs. Anson, 182, 184, 186, 189


C

Caistre, 26

Calle, Raffaelle del, 104

Calpis, 46

Cameos, Wedgwood's, 168

Campanienne Vase, 49

Cantheros, 46

Capo di Monte Porcelain, 282

Carl Theodor, Elector Palatine, 249

Castel-Durante, 116

Catherine II. of Russia, 166

Caughley Porcelain, 311

Caulkins's History of Norwich, 336

_Céladon_, The Color, 195

Celestial-Blue Porcelain, 181, 193

Centennial Exhibition, 22, 25, 63, 130, 227, 340

Ceramicus, The, 32

Cesnola Collection, 24

Chaffers, G. W., 136, 161, 235, 290, 299, 302

Chamberlain, Potter, 307

Champion, Potter, 309

Chantilly Porcelain, 257

Chapelet, M., 149

Charles, Duke of Brunswick, 250

Charles IV., King, 283

Charlotte, Queen, 166

Charlottenburg, 244

Cheap Work, 164

Chelsea Porcelain, 293

China, Egg-shell, 197, 220

---- Mandarin, 221

Chinese Porcelain, 175

Classification of Greek Pottery, 41

Clay Figures, 63

Clays, American, 340

---- Cornwall, 308

Clerissy, Antoine, 146

Cleuziou, M., 27

Cloisonné Work, 221, 316

Coalport Porcelain, 312

Coblentz, 77

Coffee-pots, 158

Coke, Potter, 310

Collections of Pottery, 53

Collinot, M., 149

Colors, Chemical, 266

Connecticut Potteries, Early, 338

Conrad, 139

Content, The God of, 176

Cooking Animal, Man a, 14

Cookworthy, Potter, 308

Copelands, The, Potters, 313

Copenhagen Porcelain, 326

Corean Porcelain, 210

Cornwall Clays, 308

Cortez, 20

Cotyle, 46

Counterfeit Chinese Porcelain, 300

Counterfeit Maiolica, 119

---- Porcelain, 227

Couthon, 51

Couverte, 69

Cozzi, Potter, 280

Crackle, 197, 219

Craft, Painter, 291

Crater, 47

Cruche, 47

Crusades, Effects of, 96

Cup of Arcesilaus, 51

---- of Samos, 26

Custode, Pierre, 139

Cyathos, 46

Cylix, 47

Cyrenaica, 37

Cyrene, 51


D

Damascus Pottery, 89

Daniell, H. and R., Potters, 314

Daniell, Thomas, Painter, 166

Daniells and Son, Potters, 318

Danish Pottery, 67

Dark Ages, The, 96

Decadence Style, 41

Deck, M., 152

Decoration, Early, 18, 23

---- Japanese, 215

---- Sèvres, 260

---- Symbolic, 186

Delft, 97, 153

Della Robbia, Andrea, 101

---- Luca, 93, 99

Demmin, M., 41, 126, 155, 328

Denmark, Porcelain of, 326

Dennis, Potter, 336

Derby Porcelain, 297

Dinner-Service, Remarkable, 166

Dinner-Services, Delft, 157

Diogenes, Tub of, 62

Dixwell, J. J., 62

Doccia Porcelain, 277

Dog of Fo, The, 187

Doulton Stone-ware, 77

Dragon, The, 188

Dresden Figure-pieces, 235

---- Porcelain, 230

Dress, Greek, 56

Drinking-Cups, Inscriptions on, 27

Druggists' Pots, 117

Duesbury, Potter, 294, 297

Dutch Pottery, 153

---- Trade with Japan, 223

Dwight, Dr., 337


E

Earthen-ware, 97

---- English, 161

Edgeworth, Maria, 162

Egg-shell China, 197

Egyptian Art, 33

---- Red Ware, 65

---- Tombs, Porcelain in, 179, 203

---- Water-Colors, 63

---- Glazed Ware of, 70

Elers, Messrs., 162

Elizabethan Ware, 162

Elizabeth Petrovna, Empress, 328

Enamel, 69

Enameling, 197

_En camaïeu_, 146

England, Porcelains of, 288

---- Want of Invention in, 293

English Pottery, 67, 161

Engobe, 52, 73, 98

Entrecolles, Père d', 205

Etruscan Vases, 37, 62

Exhibition, Philadelphia, 22, 25, 63


F

Factories, Japanese Porcelain, 227

Faenza, 117

Faience, 97, 117

---- d'Oiron, 131

Faience, Japanese, 223

Figuier, M., 28

Figures, Porcelain, 283, 291, 308, 339

Figurines attributed to Palissy, 129

Fine Style, The, 41

Fischer, Potter, 247

Flandre, Grès de, 73

Flaxman, 168

Fleur-de-Lis Mark, 283, 286

Flight and Barr, Potters, 306

Florentine Porcelain, 274

Flowers, Porcelain, 258

Fong-hoang, The, 187

Fontana Family, 108

---- Orazio, 104, 109

Foresi, Dr., 274

Fortnum, Mr., 88

France, Porcelain of, 253

Franco, Battista, 104

Frankenthal Porcelain, 249

Franks, A. W., 195, 201, 207

Frederick the Great, 231

Free-Trade Fanaticism, 211

French Faience, 138

French Sprig Decoration, 310

Fulham Pottery, 162

Fürstenburg Porcelain, 249

Furstler, Painter, 246


G

Gallatin, Secretary, 337

Gallic Pottery, 28

Gardner, Potter, 330

German Pottery, 28, 74

---- Glazed Pottery, 78

---- Tribes, The, 78

---- Work, Lack of Taste in, 163

Gibson, Henry, Mr., 316

Ginori, Factory of, 112

---- The, 277

Gioanetti, Potter, 281

Giorgio, Maestro, 113

Giustiniani, Factory of, 112

Gladstone, Mr., 173

Glaze, Definition of, 69

---- Value of, 72

Glazed Bricks, 70

---- Pottery, 78, 81

Glazes in Porcelain, 195

Gouffier, Claude, 135

Grains-of-rice Cups, 197

Granada, 83

Graybeards, 76

Greek Dress, 56

---- Fret, 18, 47

---- House, The, 30, 54

---- Man, The, 60

---- Pottery, Classification of, 41

---- Vase, The, 29

---- Vases, Varnish of, 71

---- Woman, The, 54

Greenpoint Porcelain, 334

Grès de Flandre, 73

Grinnell, Mrs. R. M., 100

Gubbio Maiolica, 112, 113

Gulena, 330


H

Haarlem, 154

Hague, Porcelain of The, 322

Haguenau Pottery, 148

Haines and Co., Potters, 311

Hanford, Potter, 337

Hangest, Madame Hélène de, 133

Hannong, Potter, 148, 249

Hart, Charles Henry, 331

Hartford Pottery, 337

Haviland, Messrs, 150

Heard, Mr., 194

Henderson and Co., Potters, 340

Henri-Deux Ware, 131, 136

Henry III. of France, 124

Herculaneum, 59

---- Porcelain, 312

Herend Porcelain, 247

Hetairai, The, 57

Hewelcke, Potter, 280

Hirschvogel, 80

Hispano-Moresque Ware, 86

Hizen, Porcelains of, 228

Höchst Porcelain, 248

Hoe, Robert, Jr., 191, 210

Holland, 319

Holland, Importation of Porcelain to, 219

Homer's Heroes, Palaces of, 30

Höroldt, 234

House, The Greek, 30, 54

Huguenots, 123

Hungarian Porcelain, 247

Hydria, 47


I

Idols, Mexican, 20

Italian Maiolicas at the Philadelphia Exhibition, 121

Italian Porcelain, 274

---- Renaissance, 96

Ives, Mrs. Moses, 146


J

Japanese Art, 214, 225

---- Figures, 64

---- Porcelain, 210

Jasper, Wedgwood's, 168

Jewels in Decoration, 267

Jewett, Mr., 173

Johnson, Dr., 295

Julia Mammæa, 172


K

Kaga Ware, 223, 228

Kalpis, 47

Kändler, 234

Kantharos, 46

Kaolin, 78, 178, 205, 232, 234

Katosiro-ouyi-mon, 210

Kauffmann, Angelica, 238

Kelebe, 46

Kensington Museum, 211

Keramicus, The, 32

King-te-Chin, City of, 180, 203

Kioto Ware, 225, 228

Korzic Porcelain, 330

Kotyle, 47

Krater, 47

Kruche, 47

Kyathos, 47

Kylin, The, 188

Kylix, 47


L

Lacquer, Japanese, 220

Lacustrine Dwellings, 15

Lafon, M., 151

Lake-Dwellers, 15

Lambeth Pottery, 162

Lamprecht, Painter, 246

Lanceray, Bronze-founder, 328

Lang, Baron von, 327

Laughlin Brothers, Potters, 342

Laurin, M., 149

Layard, 70

Leighton, Frederick, 88, 94, 224

Lekythos, 47, 50

Lille Porcelain, 323

Limoges Porcelain, 258

---- Pottery, 150

Lindencher, M., 151

Lindus Pottery, 89

Longbeards, 76

Louis Philippe, 269

Louis XIV, 143, 261

Lowestoft Porcelain, 299

Luson, Potter, 299

Lustres, 83, 114, 116

Lyman and Fenton, Potters, 339

Lyons, Mr., 269


M

Madrid Porcelain, 286

Maiolica, 87, 95, 97

Majorca, 87

Malaga, 85

Man, The Greek, 60

Mandarin China, 221

Marcolini, Count, 241

Marco Polo, 179, 204

Maria Theresa, 245

Marks, Alcora, 287

---- Amstel, 322

---- Berlin, 245

---- Bow, 292

---- Bristol, 310

---- Capo di Monte, 286

---- Caughley, 311

---- Chamberlain's, 308

---- Chantilly, 257

---- Chelsea, 297

---- Chinese, 207

---- Clignancourt, 255

---- Copeland, 314

---- Copenhagen, 327

---- on Delft, 160

---- Derby, 299

---- Dresden, 241

---- Frankenthal, 249

---- Fulda, 252

---- Fürstenburg, 250

---- Höchst, 248

---- Japanese Symbolic, 215

---- Kronenburg, 251

---- Lille, 323

---- Limbach, 252

---- Limoges, 258

---- Ludwigsburg, 251

---- Maiolica, 119

---- Marieberg, 326

---- Marseilles, 256

---- Moscow, 330

---- Nantgarw, 310

---- New Hall, 312

---- Niderviller, 257

---- Nove, 282

---- Nymphenburg, 251

---- Nyon, 252

---- Orleans, 256

---- Paris, 257

---- Plymouth, 309

---- Porcelain, 325

---- Rockingham, 313

---- Russian, 329

---- Sceaux-Penthièvre, 257

---- Sèvres, 272

---- St.-Cloud, 254

---- Strasbourg, 256

---- Swansea, 311

---- Symbolic, 200

---- The Hague, 323

---- Tournay, 324

---- Turin, 281

---- Turner, 311

---- Valenciennes, 256

---- of Vezzi and Cozzi, 280

---- Vienna, 247

---- Vincennes, 271

---- Weesp, 321

---- Worcester, 306

---- Zurich, 252

Marryat, Mr., 155, 174, 301

Marseilles Pottery, 148

Massachusetts Potteries, Early, 338

Matthews, Mr., 270

Mayence Porcelain, 248

Medicean Porcelain, 274

Medici, Lorenzo de', 195, 204

---- The, 275

Meissen Porcelain, 230

Melchior, Painter, 249

Menecy-Villeroy Porcelain, 255

Meteyard, Miss, 168, 172

Metropolitan Museum of Art, 24, 120, 384

Mexican Pottery, 20, 66

Mezza-Maiolica, 98

Mintons, The, Potters, 314

Mitchell, Dr., 270

Monument of Pottery, 80

Moorish Pottery, 72

Moors in Spain, 82

Morris, Potter, 331

Moscow Porcelain, 330

Mosque of Omar, 89

Mounds, Western, 22

Moustiers Pottery, 146

Müller, Potter, 327

Murrhine Vases, Ancient, 204

Musée Céramique at Sèvres, 270

Museum of Arts, Boston, 86, 120


N

_Nacre_, 149

Nanking-Blue Porcelain, 181

Nanking Tower, 177

Nantgarw Porcelain, 310

Naples, Pottery from, 64

Napoleon I., 324

Nelson, Lord, 307

Nevers Faience, 139

New Hall Porcelain, 312

New Jersey Potteries, Early, 340

Niderviller Porcelain, 257

Nigg, Painter, 246

Nimrúd, Palace at, 70

Northern Europe, Porcelains of, 319

Norwalk Pottery, 337

Norwich Pottery, 336

Nottingham Ware, 335

Nove Porcelain, 281

Nymphenburg Porcelain, 250


O

OEnochoe, 47

Olery, Maître, 146

Olpe, 46

Omar, Mosque of, 89

Onyx, Wedgwood's, 168

Oporto Porcelain, 287

Oriental Art, Character of, 190, 206, 236

Ornaments of Delft-ware, 158

Owari Porcelain, 228

Oxybaphon, 46


P

Painters, Amateur, 298

---- at Worcester, 304

Palaces of Homer's Heroes, 30

Palissy, Bernard, 123

Panathenaic Festival, 149

_Pâte dure_, 233, 253

_Pâte tendre_, 233, 253

_Pâte-sur-pâte_, 315

Peabody Museum, 22

Peach Decoration, Japanese, 225

Pelice, 45

Pellipario Family, 109

Pepys's Diary, 158, 161

Perger, Painter, 246

Pericles, 58

Persian Pottery, 90

Peruvian Pottery, 22

Pesaro, 98

Peter the Great, 327

---- the Hermit, 96

Pe-tun-tse, 178, 205, 233

Phallus, 23

Pharmaceutical Emblems, 118

Phiale, 46

Philadelphia Art School, 211

---- Exhibition, 22, 25, 63, 130, 227, 340

---- Industrial Museum, 316

---- Porcelain, 331

Piccolpasso, Book of, 116

Pindar, 40

Pinxton Porcelain, 310

Pipe Clay, 134

Pithos, 62

Pizarro, 22

Place, Francis, Potter, 314

Plumbiferous Glaze, 98, 161

Plymouth Porcelain, 308

Poland, Porcelain of, 330

Pompadour, Madame de, 258

Pompeii, 59

Popoff, Potter, 330

Porcelain Biscuit, Wedgwood's, 168

Porcelain, _Céladon_, 195

---- of Central Europe, 229

---- of China, 175

---- Chrysanthemo-Pæonienne, 182

---- Colors of, 180, 194

---- Discovery of, 178

---- Earliest European, 230

---- in Egyptian Tombs, 179, 203

---- of England, 288

---- Famille-rose, 185

---- Famille-vert, 184

---- Flowers, 258

---- of France, 253

---- Imperial Yellow, 195

---- Importation of Chinese, 204

---- Japanese, 210, 227

---- Manufacture, Sites of, 202

---- Manufacture in China, 201

---- Mode of making in China, 205

---- of Northern Europe, 319

---- Painting, 196

---- Origin of Word, 203

---- of Southern Europe, 274

---- Styles of Japanese, 214

---- Tower at Nanking, 177

---- of the United States, 331

---- Variegated-leaved, 219

---- Varieties of Chinese, 181

Portland Vase, 171

Portuguese Trade with Japan, 222

Potteries, Greek, 53

Potter's Art, Antiquity of, 13

---- Wheel, 19, 34

Pottery, Chinese, 178

---- Monument of, 80

Pottier, M. André, 132

Pottle-pot, 77

Poutai, Chinese God, 64, 176

Prices of Henri-Deux Ware, 136

---- of Wedgwood Ware, 174

Prime, William C., 76, 89, 92, 100, 282, 244, 285, 287, 296, 306, 307, 334

Prizes for Victors, 48

Prize Vase, Athenian, 49

Prochoos, 46

Protestant Persecutions in France, 123

Pruyn, J. V. L., 270, 300, 302


Q

Queen Elizabeth's Housekeeping, 161

Queen's Ware, Wedgwood's, 166


R

Raffaelle Ware, 106

Reindeer Age, 15

Reticulated Cups, 197

Rhode Island, Rouen Pottery in, 146

Rhodian Pottery, 87

Rhyton, 47

Ringler, Potter, 249

Ritter, 99

Robinson, Mr. J. C., 133

Rockingham Porcelain, 312

Rockwell, Mrs., 218

Roman Pottery, 124, 27, 161

Rörstrand, 325

Rose, John, Potter, 312

Rose, Painter, 300

Rothschild, Baron, 267, 276

Rouen Pottery, 142, 255

Rouse and Turner, Potters, 340

Roux, Maître, 146

Rovigo, Francisco Xanto Avelli da, 104, 108

Ruch, Painter, 327

Ruel, Durand, M., 149

Russia, Porcelain of, 327


S

Saladin, Porcelain sent by, 204

Salt-glaze, 73, 162

Salzmann, Mr., 89

Samian Ware, 25

Samos, Cup of, 26

Sappho, 57

Sarcophagus of Pottery, 80

Sarreguemines Pottery, 149

Satsuma Ware, 224, 228

Saxon Porcelain, 230

Sceaux-Penthièvre, 257

---- Marks, 257

School Education, 163

Ségange, M. Broc de, 139

Seipsius, Painter, 327

Sèvres Marks, 273

---- Porcelain, 258

Sgraffiato Ware, 119

Sheffield, Lord, 335

Shelton Porcelain, 312

Simplicity, Greek, 265

Six-mark Porcelain, 192

Skyphos, 46

Slip, 98

Smith and Sons, Potters, 334

Socrates, 61

Solon, Painter, 315

Spanish Pottery, 64

Spode, Josiah, Potter, 313

---- Porcelain, 313

Sprimont, Potter, 293

Staffordshire Potteries, 174

Stamnos, 45

Stanniferous Glaze, 72, 83, 93, 98

States, Potter, 337

St.-Cloud Porcelain, 254

Steel, Daniel, 166

Steen, Jan, 155

Stenzel, 245

Stoke-upon-Trent, 162

Stone Age, 15

Stone-ware, 161

Stonington Pottery, 337

St. Petersburg, 327

Strasbourg Pottery, 148

Stratford-le-Bow, 290

Swansea Porcelain, 311

Sweden, Porcelain of, 324

Symbolic Animals, Chinese, 187

---- Colors, Chinese, 188

---- Marks, 200


T

Table-Furniture, Early American, 334

Taiping Rebels, 178, 181

Tea and Teapots, 158

Tea-Services, Delft, 157

Terra-Cotta, Wedgwood's, 167

Terraglia Faience, 281

_Terre de Pipe_, 73, 134

Tiffany and Co., 306, 316

Tiles, Dutch, 160

---- Moorish, 83

---- Persian or Arabic, 92

Toltecs, 21

Tombs, Egyptian, 71

---- Relics from, 31

Tournay Porcelain, 323

Trenton Potteries, 341

Treviso Porcelain, 281

Tripods, 70

Tschirnhaus, 231

Tucker and Hemphill, Potters, 332

Tuppi, Painter, 279

Turin Porcelain, 281

Turkey, Porcelain sold in, 246, 299, 303

Turkish Pottery, 65

Turner, Thomas, Potter, 311

Turquoise-Blue Porcelain, 193

Tver Porcelain, 330

Tyg, 162


U

Unglazed Pottery, 63

United States, Pottery and Porcelain of the, 331

Urban VIII., Pope, 172

Urbino, 102


V

Valencia, 86

Van der Meer, 155

Vandervelde, William, 155

Variegated-leaved Porcelain, 219

Varnish, 69

Varsanni, Painter, 246

Vase, Alhambra, 84

---- Etruscan, 62

---- Great Numbers of, 53

---- Greek, 29

---- Pictures on, 61

---- Sèvres, 263

Venice Porcelain, 279

Vermont Potteries, Early, 339

Vezzi, Potter, 279

Vienna Exposition, 181

---- Porcelain, 245

Vincennes Porcelain, 259

Violins, Delft, 157

Virginia Clays, 290


W

Wales, George W., 90, 94, 146, 185, 238, 269, 285, 296, 302, 306, 326

Wall, Dr., 303

Wallace, Sir Richard, 112, 315

Washington Pitchers, 338

Watcombe Pottery, 67

Water-Coolers, 63

Wech, Painter, 246

Wedgwood, Josiah, 163, 333

Wedgwoods, The, Potters, 314

Wedgwood Ware, Prices of, 174

Weesp Porcelain, 321

Wegeley, Mr., 242

Wheel, Potter's, 19

Wilkinson, Sir Gardiner, 70

Williams, H. D., 220

Willow-Pattern, 311

Woman, The Greek, 54

Worcester Porcelain, 303

Wyman, Miss, 185


X

Xantippe, 61

Xanto, 104, 108


Z

Zeuxis, 44


THE END.

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                              FOOTNOTES:

 [1] _See_ Demmin, "Guide," etc., p. 130.

 [2] "La Poterie Gauloise, Description de la Collection Charvet," par
 Henri du Cleuziou, Paris, 1872.

 [3] Birch's "History of Ancient Pottery."

 [4] "Guide de l'Amateur de Faïences et Porcelaines."

 [5] "Traité des Arts céramiques."

 [6] Published at Nevers in 1863.

 [7] Demmin says that MM. Jauffret et Mouton are at work there still.

 [8] Earthen-ware.

 [9] "Histoire de la Porcelaine Chinoise."

 [10] Marryat, "Pottery and Porcelain."

 [11] Jacquemart.

 [12] From a Chinese dictionary quoted by Jacquemart.

 [13] This mandarin porcelain Mr. A. W. Franks, the latest writer on
 the subject, believes was made in China; and thus he differs from
 Jacquemart.

 [14] The crown thus becomes three shillings and sixpence sterling.

 [15] "Marks and Monographs of Pottery and Porcelain," G. W. Chaffers.

 [16] Bohn's Catalogue.

 [17] An article made of fire-clay, to place the china in when being
 burnt.

       *       *       *       *       *

Typographical errors corrected by the etext transcriber:

and and that time=> and that time {pg 7}

Louis Phillippe=> Louis Philippe, {pg 269}





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