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Title: Souvenir Album of the Great European War - With Pictorial Maps of the Battlegrounds
Author: Anonymous
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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                             SOUVENIR ALBUM
                                _of the_
                             GREAT EUROPEAN
                                  WAR

                           WITH PICTORIAL MAP
                         _of the_ BATTLEGROUNDS

                             COPYRIGHT 1914
                          THE OSBORNE COMPANY
                 GENERAL OFFICES AND WORKS NEWARK N.J.
                         OSBORNE ART CALENDARS



                             Introduction.


The pictures in this album are reproduced from actual photographs taken
in Europe, many of which have already appeared, in more or less crude
form, in the newspapers.

Believing that these photographs of men and events in the most
stupendous war of the world's history possess a world wide interest, and
will be of permanent historical value, we have reproduced them in the
actual colors of life, and in form which is more worthy of preservation
than the mere half tone newspaper cuts.

The pictures were published for sale in post cards. But when we saw how
attractive they were, it occurred to us to gather them together in this
album and present it to our customers.

Please accept it with our compliments, and as an expression of our
appreciation of your confidence in us and of the business we have
received from you.


                          THE OSBORNE COMPANY
                         Osborne Art Calendars
                             NEWARK, N. J.
                  Largest Calendar Sales in the World



                      French Cuirassiers Helping a
                         Wounded Comrade at St.
                                Quentin

The cuirassiers are heavy cavalry for charging, not scouting. The French
and German armies have each twelve regiments, and the Russians four.
They are a survival of the 17th century, wearing steel cuirasses and
helmets with horsehair plumes. Napoleon III's bodyguard, "Les
Cents-Gardes," wore aluminum. They carry a long double-edged stabbing
sword. St. Quentin was on the French route of retreat to Paris in the
first stage of the war.

[Illustration: FRENCH CUIRASSIERS HELPING WOUNDED COMRADE AT ST. QUENTIN
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                      The Terrible Turcos--Native
                        Algerians in the French
                                  Army

These are not negroes, but men of Berber origin with black beards and
tanned faces. They are recruited in Algiers and are called "tirailleurs
algieriens." Their headgear is the characteristic fez. The object
resembling a football which they carry on the hip is a water bottle.

In the war of 1870 these troops became greatly feared and hated by the
Germans, because of their trick of "playing possum" until the enemy
passed and then springing up and striking from the rear. They are
impetuous fighters, and the difficulty the French generals find in their
employment is to hold them back at times when to charge the enemy is
foolhardy.

[Illustration: THE TERRIBLE TURCOS-NATIVE ALGERIANS IN THE FRENCH ARMY
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                        Sharp Shooters of France

There are thirty battalions of "chausseurs alpins," who spend half each
year in the French Alps. Each carries an alpenstock and a pack. They are
among the hardiest and best trained French infantry, skilled with the
rifle and in mountain warfare. Among the Vosges Mountains they tied
themselves in trees, so when wounded they would not drop and betray
their position.

The mule is a useful creature in time of war--especially in the
commissary department, to carry pots, pans and provisions. Like the
burro of the American southwest, the Alpine mule is a sure-footed
climber.

[Illustration: SHARP SHOOTERS OF FRANCE
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                         The Famous Scots Greys

The Royal Scots Greys were the first regiment of dragoons raised in
Great Britain (1681). There are now half a score of dragoon guard and
dragoon regiments, all mounted and equipped as medium heavy cavalry.
They are armed with carbine and sabre, and wear metal helmets (except
the Scots Greys). This noted regiment has served with distinction in all
parts of the world, and has already counted big in the British defense
in France and Belgium. The "Grey" does not refer to the uniform, but to
the horses, which all have their tails trimmed half-short.

[Illustration: THE FAMOUS SCOTS GRAYS
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                     The Grenadier Guards--British
                        Veterans of the Boer War

In the Boer War the Grenadier Guards shared the brunt of the fighting,
and it was in South Africa that their leader lost his arm.

The Prince of Wales is a second lieutenant in this regiment.

The building on the right of the picture is Buckingham Palace.

[Illustration: THE GRENADIER GUARDS--BRITISH VETERANS OF THE BOER WAR
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                     British Field Artillery at the
                                 Marne

This 18-pound ordnance is of English make, and will shoot both faster
and farther than the Krupp guns. Its caliber is 3.3 inches, and the
muzzle velocity 1,600 feet per second. The gunners are able to get away
29 shots per minute, while the German rate of fire is only twenty. The
maximum effective range is 6,300 yards against 6,000 for any other gun
of its class. Each gun and carriage weighs 2,690 pounds. There are six
guns in a battery, and the number of rounds of ammunition normally
issued is 176 per gun.

[Illustration: BRITISH FIELD ARTILLERY AT THE MARNE
PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.]


                      Canadian Troops Off for the
                                  War

The loyalty and enthusiasm of the Dominion at this critical time is very
impressive. The picture shows the Ninetieth Winnipeg Rifles on the march
from the training camp at Valcartier, eighteen miles north of
Quebec--the largest practice encampment ever established in America.
Many of Canada's soldiers are veterans of the British army; some saw
service in South Africa; the rest are intelligent farmers' sons or young
business men from the cities. Thirty-three thousand Canadians
disembarked at Plymouth on October 14, with more to follow.

[Illustration: CANADIAN TROOPS OFF FOR THE WAR
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                       Exhausted French Dragoons
                       Camping in Village Street

Dragoons were originally trained to fight either on horseback or afoot.
Many of them carry bamboo lances, said to be even stronger than steel.
The term "dragoon" probably comes from the dragon worked on the muzzle
of the old carbine they used to carry, as dragons were supposed to spout
fire. The bivouac on piles of straw, with weapons stacked ready for
instant service, suggests vividly the condition of soldiers in the
intervals of hard fighting. This is an actual scene on the line of
retreat toward Paris.

[Illustration: EXHAUSTED FRENCH DRAGOONS CAMPING IN VILLAGE STREET
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                         German Field Artillery

The splendid "fitness" of the German artilleryman is illustrated by
these vigorous, intelligent fellows, smiling at the photographer as he
snapped them. They might be riding to a picnic, instead of to awful war.
Their helmets are tipped with a brass ball instead of a spike such as
the infantry have, in order that the eyes may not be injured when the
men bend over the guns to aim them. The box, or caisson, on which two
men are sitting, contains projectiles and equipment for use in serving
the gun.

[Illustration: GERMAN FIELD ARTILLERY
PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.]


                        The Famous 75 Millimeter
                        French Guns at the Marne

The French guns, by many military experts, are said to be superior to
any other field artillery. Their bore is only 2.95 inches, but the
initial velocity and accuracy are greater than the German guns, and
their lightness makes them more mobile in action. A battery has about
the same effect on an advancing line as a mowing-machine on a harvest
field.

[Illustration: THE FAMOUS 75 MILLIMETER FRENCH GUNS AT THE MARNE
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                        French Hussars at Rouen

The Hussars are light cavalry intended for scouting, and use much
smaller horses than the cuirassiers. Many French race-horses were seized
by the government for the use of these troops, and a maximum price of
$200 was paid, though some of the thoroughbreds were valued at $10,000
by their owners.

In the background are seen the towers of the cathedral at Rouen, which
is a quaint, old Norman town, the capital of William the Conqueror,
before he crossed the Channel.

[Illustration: FRENCH HUSSARS AT ROUEN
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                      French Line Infantry Passing
                          Monument of Napoleon

The monument is near the village of Vauchamps, where the French defeated
Blucher and the Prussians on February 14, 1814. It is in the Department
of the Marne: scene of the first victory of the allies in the present
war.

Red caps and trousers have been the uniform of French soldiers since
Napoleon's day, but they provide the enemy with a good target, and are
poorly suited to modern campaigning. The Germans, however, gave France
no time to equip her army with khaki, and the French soldiers took the
field in their historic garb.

[Illustration: FRENCH LINE INFANTRY PASSING MONUMENT OF NAPOLEON
PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.]


                            Terrible Uhlans

This variety of light cavalry was introduced into central Europe by the
Tartars of Asia in the middle ages. They were armed with sabre, pistol
and lance, at first carried in the left hand. The pennon is intended to
frighten the enemy's horses, and identifies the men as Prussians. The
Poles, Austrians, and Russians also adopted uhlans. In the
Franco-Prussian War of 1870 they led the invasion of northern France,
and won great fame by their fearless activity.

[Illustration: THE TERRIBLE UHLANS
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                   Feeding the Men in the Trenches--A
                          German Field Bakery

Napoleon said "An army travels on its stomach." This is part of the
wonderful German organization for supplying the men in the field with
daily bread. Each wagon supplies 1,600 men--there are twenty-five with
each army corps of 40,000. The war ration includes bread, biscuit, eggs,
meat, beans, rice, dried vegetables, salt and coffee.

[Illustration: FEEDING THE MEN IN THE TRENCHES--A GERMAN FIELD BAKERY
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                       The German Defense Against
                       the Airship--Krupp Gun on
                                 Motor

This is one of the deadly Krupp aeroplane guns, mounted on a Mercedes
auto truck. The rear wheels are braced to steady the gun from vibration
under the heavy shock of firing.

An aeroplane is a very difficult target, not only on account of its
rapid flight, but also because the only vital spots are the engine and
the passengers.

[Illustration: THE GERMAN DEFENSE AGAINST THE AIRSHIP--KRUPP GUN ON
MOTOR
PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.]


                        Crack Austrian Regiment
                              from Vienna

Austrian military traditions are equal to any in Europe. In the
sixteenth century they turned back the tide of Turkish conquest and
saved Europe. Military service is compulsory on all able-bodied males
from 20 to 42, and totals twelve years--three in the line, seven in
reserve, and two in the "Landwehr." The long trousers worn by these
troops show that they are recruited from the Germanic part of the
empire--for the Austrian army, like the empire itself, contains men
speaking twenty-six different languages.

[Illustration: CRACK AUSTRIAN INFANTRY FROM VIENNA
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                       Cossacks--The Rough Riders
                               of Russia

The Cossacks of the river Don pay no taxes, but are liable to military
service from eighteen to fifty, and each must furnish his own horse.
They are wonderful riders, and excellent scouts or skirmishers. Their
hollow circle formation is a favorite one for defense.

The government is so arranged as to furnish the largest military array
on the shortest notice. In personal appearance, the Cossacks are more
slender and handsomer than the Russians.

[Illustration: COSSACKS--THE ROUGH RIDERS OF RUSSIA
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                     Russian Regulars on the March
                            Through Galicia

Contrary to popular impression, the number of trained men in the Russian
army is no greater than in the German. The number of recruits available
is, of course, much larger.

The Russian infantry is famous for close fighting with the bayonet,
which is made a part of the gun and cannot be removed. The faces of the
men are a distinctively Slavic type. They are patient, enduring, brave,
and fight with a stubborn tenacity which has wrecked the hopes of every
general in history who attempted the invasion and conquest of their
territory.

[Illustration: RUSSIAN REGULARS ON THE MARCH THROUGH GALICIA
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                            The Black Watch

"Faithful, constant, generous in the hour of victory, and endued with
calm perseverance under trial and disaster," the Highlanders of Scotland
have won conspicuous honor on England's many battlefields.

These are the men who are said in the present war to have repeated the
famous charge made by their ancestors at Waterloo a century ago. Each
infantryman, grasping the stirrup of a cavalryman of the Scots Greys,
kept pace with the horses, as the two regiments rushed with terrific
momentum against the hostile lines.

[Illustration: THE BLACK WATCH
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                       German Hussars in Brussels

Not all German cavalrymen are Uhlans. The Hussars also are light
cavalry, adapted for reconnoitering. Both Uhlans and Hussars carry
lances over ten feet long, made of a single steel tube drawn to a
tempered point, with a pennon fluttering from it. In actual conflict
these are usually removed. The color of the pennon shows from what state
of the Empire the troopers come--the black-and-white ones in the picture
show that they are Prussians.

[Illustration: GERMAN HUSSARS IN BRUSSELS
PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.]


                       England's Indian Regiment

Here is the pride of India's contingent, 70,000 native troops--Sikhs and
Ghurkas from the Himalayas, Bengal lancers from the Ganges, and Mahrata
infantrymen from the torrid central plains. They wear their turbans even
in Europe, where the remainder of the uniform is khaki.

The helmeted officers are Englishmen. The Indians have already proved
their courage and skill against the Germans. Like all the regulars of
the British army, they are wonderful bayonet fighters.

[Illustration: ENGLAND'S INDIAN INFANTRY
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                       A Detachment of the French
                             Aviation Corps

The aeroplane is one of the factors that have revolutionized modern
warfare. Its use for dropping bombs on hostile cities gives it a
spectacular place in the news columns of to-day, but its real military
value consists in scouting, getting the range for artillery, and
preventing surprises by the enemy.

The French army is thoroughly equipped with the swiftest monoplanes in
Europe, and the French are wonderful aviators--skillful, fearless, and
resourceful.

[Illustration: A DETACHMENT OF THE FRENCH AVIATION CORPS
PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.]


                        One of Germany's Mammoth
                               Zeppelins

These great dirigible airships, hundreds of feet long, were invented and
perfected by the aged Count Zeppelin. They are effective within a range
of one thousand miles. The German Empire has unquestionably surpassed
all its rivals in Europe in the thorough application of the inventions
of modern science to the making of war.

In the right background is seen the hangar, or shed, in which the craft
is housed. The sheep have become accustomed to the hovering giant and
feed quietly under it.

[Illustration: ONE OF GERMANY'S MAMMOTH ZEPPELINS
PHOTO © BROWN BROS,. N.Y.]


                     Ready for the Uhlans--Belgian
                           Armored Motor Cars

The flat lowlands of Belgium and northern France are networked with
perfect roads, making possible very rapid movement of troops. Armored
motor cars have been much used by all the armies, especially as escorts
for aviators. The car on the left carries a machine gun; the one on the
right is simply armored with sheet steel to stand heavy fire.

The Belgians employed these cars extensively in the first month of the
war, in their attempt to prevent the raids of the German cavalry.

[Illustration: READY FOR THE UHLANS--BELGIAN ARMORED MOTOR CARS
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                      The Prussian Crown Prince's
                                Regiment

The Crown Prince is always colonel of the Death's Head Hussars, and when
he had a "difference" with his father a few years ago, the Kaiser exiled
him to his command at Danzig, where the regiment was permanently
stationed. In state reviews the Crown Princess often appears in her
Death's Head uniform as honorary colonel. Naturally, German noblemen are
eager to join this regiment, which is one of the "crack" organizations
of the Prussian army.

[Illustration: THE PRUSSIAN CROWN PRINCE'S REGIMENT]


                    British Artillery Embarking for
                                 France

This is one of the barges used to carry horses and guns to the transport
ship. The horses are then lifted into the vessel by means of a belt
around their bellies. Some of the jackies have taken off their shoes and
stockings and rolled up their trousers. The artilleryman, partly hidden
behind his mount, is dressed in khaki.

[Illustration: BRITISH ARTILLERY EMBARKING FOR FRANCE
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                       Part of the Russian Steam
                       Roller--One of the Czar's
                            Crack Regiments

There are twelve regiments of Grenadiers of the Guard, all composed of
big men. The picture shows a formal review, the regimental band playing
parade music as the Guard marches by.

Only a few days before the war broke out, President Poincare, of France,
reviewed these famous troops of the Czar in St. Petersburg--now
Petrograd.

[Illustration: PART OF THE RUSSIAN STEAM ROLLER--ONE OF THE CZAR'S CRACK
REGIMENTS
PHOTO © UNDERWOOD & UNDERWOOD, N.Y.]


                     Canadian Royal Horse Artillery
                               Mobilizing

This is part of Canada's splendid contribution to the defense of the
motherland. The Royal Horse were among the first contingent of 33,000 to
embark--Canada pledged 200,000 altogether.

Canadian horses are noted for their strength and beauty. They play a
large part in the development of Canada's rich agricultural resources,
and the Royal Artillery took the finest of Canadian horses across with
them.

[Illustration: CANADIAN ROYAL HORSE ARTILLERY MOBILIZING]


                      The Surprise of the War--The
                          New German Siege Gun

These are the guns that battered Namur into ruins, reduced Meubeuge, and
were employed in the capture of Antwerp. The Germans demonstrated their
marvelous efficiency in the "art of war" by keeping the existence of
these fort-destroyers a complete secret until they were ready to use
them against Belgium and France.

The guns are transported in sections by rail as far as possible, and
then by great traction engines. The block of wood in the cannon's mouth
protects the chamber from dust and rust.

[Illustration: THE SURPRISE OF THE WAR--THE NEW GERMAN SIEGE GUN
PHOTO © BROWN BROS., N.Y.]


                            Belgian War Dogs

One of the most interesting sidelights of the war is the use of dogs to
draw the Belgian "mitrailleuses." All who have visited Belgium have been
surprised at the amount of work, such as hauling market wagons,
performed by these animals. The rubber-tired gun carriage is in strange
contrast with the bizarre appearance of the "dogs of war"--tired out
after a stiff march.

[Illustration: BELGIAN WAR DOGS
PHOTO © AMER. PRESS ASSOC., N.Y.]



             Military and Naval Statistics of the European
                   Powers at the Outbreak of the War

====================================================================
              |  Area      |  Population  | Army         | Men     |
              |  Square    |              | Regulars     |         |
              |  Miles     |              | and Reserves |         |
--------------------------------------------------------------------
GREAT BRITAIN |    121,380 |   45,000,000 |      730,000 | 137,500 |
FRANCE        |    207,218 |   39,300,000 |    4,000,000 |  60,621 |
RUSSIA        |  8,650,000 |  160,000,000 |    5,500,000 |  52,463 |
GERMANY       |    208,830 |   64,900,000 |    5,200,000 |  66,783 |
AUSTRIA       |    115,903 |   49,400,000 |    2,000,000 |  17,581 |
SERVIA        |     23,661 |    4,000,000 |      240,000 |         |
BELGIUM       |     11,373 |    7,300,000 |      222,000 |         |
NETHERLANDS   |     12,582 |    5,900,000 |      180,000 |  11,164 |
ITALY         |    111,000 |   33,900,000 |    1,200,000 |  33,095 |
SPAIN         |    196,200 |   19,700,000 |      350,000 |  10,165 |
NORWAY        |    124,200 |    2,400,000 |      115,000 |   1,003 |
SWEDEN        |    172,900 |    5,400,000 |      450,000 |   5,715 |
DENMARK       |     15,582 |    2,700,000 |       70,000 |   4,000 |
PORTUGAL      |     34,600 |    5,400,000 |      150,000 |   6,000 |
TURKEY        |     11,100 |    2,000,000 |      700,000 |  30,000 |
GREECE        |     25,000 |    2,600,000 |      150,000 |   4,000 |
SWITZERLAND   |     15,976 |    3,300,000 |      275,000 |         |
==============+============+==============+==============+=========+

====================================================================
                 NAVAL STRENGTH                     AIR FLEET
---------+---------+----------+-------+--------+--------+-----------
         | Battle- | Cruisers | Other | Diri-  | Aero-  | National
         | ships   |          | Craft | gibles | planes | Debt
         |         |          |       |        |        | (1000s)
         |         |          |       |        |        |
---------+---------+----------+-------+--------+--------+-----------
GREAT    |      67 |      122 |   380 |      9 |    400 | $3,695,854
 BRITAIN |         |          |       |        |        |
FRANCE   |      32 |       31 |   356 |     22 |  1,400 |  6,283,675
RUSSIA   |      17 |       19 |   184 |     18 |    800 |  4,553,488
GERMANY  |      39 |       61 |   225 |     40 |  1,000 |  1,177,418
AUSTRIA  |      13 |       12 |    89 |      8 |    400 |  1,051,346
SERVIA   |         |          |       |        |     60 |    128,078
BELGIUM  |         |          |       |      2 |    100 |    759,632
NETHER-  |       6 |       11 |    53 |        |        |    467,709
 LANDS   |         |          |       |        |        |
ITALY    |      16 |       20 |   133 |        |        |  2,706,609
SPAIN    |       4 |        9 |    23 |        |        |  1,815,691
NORWAY   |         |        5 |    52 |        |        |     97,232
SWEDEN   |         |        1 |    75 |        |        |    162,428
DENMARK  |       1 |        1 |    25 |        |        |     94,330
PORTUGAL |       1 |        6 |    30 |        |        |    968,324
TURKEY   |       5 |        4 |    22 |        |        |    554,441
GREECE   |       3 |        1 |    35 |        |        |    183,886
SWITZER- |         |          |       |        |        |     23,614
 LAND    |         |          |       |        |        |
=========+=========+==========+=======+========+========+===========


              DISTANCES IN MILES BETWEEN EUROPEAN CITIES.

-----------------+-------+-------+--------+-------+---------+-------+
                 | Berlin| Paris | London | Vienna| St.     | Bel-  |
                 |       |       |        |       | Peters- | grade |
                 |       |       |        |       | burg    |       |
-----------------+-------+-------+--------+-------+---------+-------+
BERLIN           |   ... |   475 |    510 |   275 |     750 |   560 |
PARIS            |   475 |   ... |    175 |   560 |   1,175 |   790 |
LONDON           |   510 |   175 |    ... |   675 |   1,080 |   920 |
VIENNA           |   275 |   560 |    675 |   ... |     860 |   275 |
ST.  PETERSBURG  |   750 | 1,175 |  1,080 |   860 |     ... |   980 |
BELGRADE         |   560 |   790 |    920 |   275 |     980 |   ... |
ROME             |   650 |   600 |    780 |   410 |   1,260 |   380 |
MADRID           | 1,000 |   560 |    680 |   970 |   1,680 | 1,100 |
MOSCOW           |   875 | 1,360 |  1,360 |   900 |     350 |   980 |
COPENHAGEN       |   200 |   550 |    530 |   475 |     675 |   725 |
-----------------+-------+-------+--------+-------+---------+-------+

-----------------+-------+--------+-------+--------
                 | Rome  | Madrid | Mos-  | Copen-
                 |       |        | cow   | hagen
-----------------+-------+-------+--------+---------
BERLIN           |   650 |  1,000 |   875 |    200
PARIS            |   600 |    560 | 1,360 |    550
LONDON           |   780 |    680 | 1,360 |    530
VIENNA           |   410 |    970 |   900 |    475
ST. PETERSBURG   | 1,260 |  1,680 |   350 |    675
BELGRADE         |   380 |  1,100 |   980 |    725
ROME             |   ... |    740 | 1,290 |    830
MADRID           |   740 |    ... | 1,850 |  1,020
MOSCOW           | 1,290 |  1,850 |   ... |    850
COPENHAGEN       |   830 |  1,020 |   850 |    ...
-----------------+-------+-------+--------+---------

11 a. m. at Chicago is 6 a. m. at London.



[Illustration: THE BATTLEGROUND OF THE NATIONS

This "pictorial map" was offered in October by The Osborne Company, as a
calendar, and as a hanger without calendar pad. It met with instant
approval and our available presses have scarcely been able to keep pace
with the sales. The business of The Osborne Company in the United
States, since the outbreak of war, has been the largest of any
corresponding months in our history. We think this fact is a splendid
symptom of reviving and growing business in America, which is bound to
extend while the rest of the world continues to need more and more
products of our fields and factories.]



                           THE NATIONS AT WAR


                                 SERVIA

Servia is an independent kingdom. The capital is Belgrade. For centuries
Servia was a province of the Turkish Empire, constantly in revolt and
passionately striving to become independent. By the Treaty of Berlin in
1878 Servian independence was secured. With the triumph of the Balkan
Allies--Servia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Greece--over Turkey in 1913,
much valuable territory was added to all the Balkan nations. The great
ambition of Servia to secure territory on the sea was thwarted, however,
by Austria-Hungary; and the ancient Servian hatred for Austria, roused
to action, brought about the incident immediately leading to the great
European War.

This was the assassination of the Austrian crown prince, in June, by a
Servian conspirator. Austria claimed that the Servian government was a
party to the murder, and sent an ultimatum making peremptory demands
that the murderers be punished. The Servian government, denying any
connection with the assassins, none the less agreed to all the Austrian
demands save one. They refused to permit Austrian officials to try the
conspiracy cases. Austria declared war.


                            AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

A dual monarchy, inhabited by several nationalities and comprising two
semi-independent countries, each with its own government but also with a
common parliament, army and emperor, Francis Joseph. He belongs to the
house of Hapsburg, which has ruled Austria for six hundred years, and
himself has held the throne at Vienna since 1848.

Austria possesses important ports on the Adriatic, and if she had
territory in the Balkan peninsula might gain access to the Mediterranean
and prevent Russia from doing the same. She once tried to reach the sea
through Italy, but failed. The growth of the Slavic states in the
Balkans is directly contrary to Austrian interests and ambitions. A
power occupying the Balkan peninsula might easily control the Suez
Canal, connecting Europe with the Orient.

Agriculture is the principal pursuit, and Austria is able to supply her
own food. In the north, wheat and barley grow, and corn in the south.
The mineral wealth is great--coal and salt abound. Cotton, woolen, linen
and silk goods are manufactured; also metals, glass, leather and musical
instruments. Commerce is mainly with Germany and Turkey.


                                GERMANY

Twenty-five states constitute the German Empire, formed by the first
imperial chancellor, Bismarck, in 1871. Its capital is Berlin. The king
of Prussia is emperor (William II, since 1888). He may declare war and
conclude peace, contract alliances and make treaties.

The German people are intelligent and industrious. Since the founding of
the empire their industrial and commercial development has been
wonderful. Less than half the population is now engaged in agriculture,
but Germany still produces the larger part of her food supply. Almost
one-third as many cattle are raised as in the United States, and Germany
leads the world in sugar production.

Colonial expansion, commerce, and the need of food imports has built up
a great German merchant marine and navy. If Austria were part of the
Empire, with a path to the Mediterranean, Germany would have the harbors
and seaways needed to increase her maritime power and would also possess
the shortest trade route to the Orient. Bismarck wanted to secure
Germany from attack, so that she could develop her industries in peace,
and with this end in view made alliances with Austria and Italy, at the
same time encouraging naval and military growth.


                                 RUSSIA

One of the most powerful countries, including all northern Asia as well
as eastern Europe. It is an absolute monarchy, ruled by the Czar
Nicholas II at Petrograd (St. Petersburg). He came to the throne in
1894.

The population is mostly Slavic, and the racial sympathy is therefore
with the Balkan peoples. Russia, like Austria and Germany, would like a
port on the Mediterranean, as she now has access to the Atlantic only
through the Baltic Sea and the Dardanelles (between the Black Sea and
the Ægean).

Sixty years ago Russia attacked Turkey, menacing Great Britain's route
to her Oriental possessions. These two powers combined with France and
repulsed Russia in the Crimean War. Since the time of Peter the Great
the Russians have had their eyes on Constantinople, and as long as they
cannot have it will try to prevent Germany or Austria from getting it.

Seven-eighths of the peasants are farmers, and two-thirds of the land is
sown to cereals.


                                 FRANCE

A republic. Paris is the capital, and the president (since 1913) is
Raymond Poincare. It is more than three-fourths the size of Texas, and
has about two-fifths the population of the United States.

Most of the people live by agriculture, which is carried to a high
standard. Wheat, oats, barley and corn are grown, also root-crops,
fruits, tobacco, grapes and silk. There are rich mines of coal, iron and
lead. In 1912 France ranked fourth in imports and exports. In
manufactures of silk the French predominate, and they make fine muslins,
porcelains, glass, jewelry and clocks.


                             GREAT BRITAIN

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, comprising England,
Ireland, Scotland and Wales. London is the capital, and George V, since
1910, has been King of Great Britain and Emperor of India. The coast
line measures about twenty-eight hundred miles, and the English navy is
equal to any other two. "The sun never sets on her colonial
possessions," and her world-trade is the largest of any nation.

Manufacturing is the leading industry. Most of the large cities are near
the coal-fields in the north central part. London, Liverpool and
Edinburgh are the principal ports.

England has no fear of losing India, but does not look with favor on
Russia's Balkan ambitions. At the same time she is opposed to the spread
of a great German empire from Holland to the Ægean Sea, which would
upset the English doctrine of small independent states and the "balance
of power" in Europe.


                                BELGIUM

A democratic kingdom ruled by Albert, since 1909 (capital Brussels). Its
length is 165 miles and width 120; the population about 650 to the
square mile, composed of Flemish and Walloons--the former of French and
the latter of German extraction.

Belgium is low and flat in the north; hilly and timbered in the south.
The country is well watered and networked with canals. Rich in minerals,
it is a prominent manufacturing country. Linens, laces, cottons and
woolens, carpets, machines and cutlery are exported, with coal, iron and
farm products. The imports are coffee, sugar, petroleum, hides and raw
materials. Agriculture is carried to great perfection, but the country
is not self-supporting.

Brussels is a great manufacturing center, and Antwerp the principal
seaport.


                                 ITALY

The king of Italy is Victor Emmanuel III, whose rule began in 1900. The
products are fruits, rice, wheat, silk, olives, marble, etc. Naples is
the largest city, and has varied manufactures.

Previous to 1859 Italy was divided into separate states. In 1870 Victor
Emmanuel, king of Sardinia, united Italy and made Rome the national
capital. Austria tried to thwart this movement. England and France were
friendly to Italy at that time, and Germany was neutral.


                               ALLIANCES

The Triple Alliance was formed by Bismarck, after the Franco-Prussian
War. Its object was to strengthen Germany and isolate France. A dual
league was made in 1879 between Austria and Germany, which Italy joined
in 1880. By this alliance the nations intended to aid each other in
defense. Bismarck wanted Russia in the league, but trouble in the
Balkans broke off this project.

Soon after France formed a league with Russia. Bismarck fell from power
in 1890, but the Triple Alliance was still stronger than its rival,
until France brought England into the Triple Entente, agreeing to give
England a free hand in Egypt in return for the same in Morocco.


                                STRATEGY

The German attack on France is weakened by the fact that Italy did not
act with the other members of the Triple Alliance, as a diverting attack
from the south would divide the French defense. From the map it is easy
to see why Germany advanced through Belgium, in spite of the fact that
Germany, in 1878, had been one of the powers to guarantee Belgium's
neutrality, because the mountains bordering France from the Alps to
Verdun were strongly fortified, while the approach from Belgium was not.

It is also clear that Russia was compelled to establish her position
along the Carpathian Mountains before advancing on Berlin--so that a
northward movement from Austria-Hungary might not cut her line of
communication.



                    The Effect of the War on Osborne
                         Art Calendars for 1916


You probably know that the outbreak of war immediately resulted in a
scarcity of dye stuffs. In the calendar business this has affected inks
for color printing, paints for water colors, coloring matter for ribbon,
paper and cord. The rag used in high grade paper was also affected, and
to some extent even the clay for enameled stock--part of this material
coming from the war area.

The Osborne Company acted promptly in the crisis. Taking advantage of
the large capital fortunately at our command, we purchased outright
practically an entire year's supply of materials, at prices which cannot
be duplicated today for materials of equal grade.

As a result the new line of Osborne Art Calendars for 1916 will be sold
to our customers at no advance in price, and there will be no
deterioration in quality through the substitution of inferior or
untested materials.

On the contrary, the new line will offer you unexpected value for every
dollar of your calendar appropriation.

It is absolutely, in all respects, the superlative line--the
masterpiece--of the 25 years of progress since this Company originated
the art calendar business.

Do not buy in haste--before you see Osborne Art Calendars for 1916.
Wait--the reward will be better and more attractive advertising, a
subject yours exclusively for your town (no jobber's calendar gives you
this important service) and the greatest value any calendar house does
or can offer you for your money.

The Osborne man will surely call. Wait for him in your own interest.

                                           EDMUND B. OSBORNE, President.


                          THE OSBORNE COMPANY
                   NEW YORK      CHICAGO      LONDON
             GENERAL OFFICES AND WORKS, NEWARK, NEW JERSEY

                  LARGEST CALENDAR SALES IN THE WORLD



                           Transcriber Notes:

Passages in italics were indicated by _underscores_.

Small caps were replaced with ALL CAPS.

The individual illustrations were originally to the left or right of the
text associated with that illustration. Those illustrations have been
moved to be after the associated text.

Decorative illustrations have been removed.

The tables have been reformatted to fit the formatting of a text file.

The illustration "THE BATTLEGROUND OF THE NATIONS" has been moved before
the section "THE NATIONS AT WAR".





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