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Title: Ten Years in India - Ten Years in India, in the 16th Queen's Lancers, and Three - Years in South Africa, in the Cape Corps Levies
Author: Gould, W.J.D.
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  _IN THE_










  GHUZNEE,                 CABUL,
  ALIWAL,                  SOBRAON,

  AND KAFFIR WAR OF 1850-51.



  W. J. D. GOULD,

  _Formerly Sergt. 16th Queen's Lancers, "The Terror of India,"
  afterwards Lieut. Cape European Levies._


  [Illustration: (Publisher's colophone.)]

  ENTERED according to the Act of the Parliament in Canada, in the
  year one thousand eight hundred and eighty, by W. J. D. GOULD, in
  the Office of the Minister of Agriculture.




  John Douglas Sutherland Campbell,

  K.T., K.C.M.G.



  &c., &c., &c.

  This Work is Dedicated








  TORONTO, Ontario, 1880.

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


The most pleasant memories of my boyhood are clustered around the
old family fireplace, in our home in Brighton, England, when my
father, gathering us all around him, with occasionally a few intimate
friends, recounted such tales of war as often made me desire I was
a man at once, in order that I might there and then enrol myself
as one of my country's defenders. He had served, I believe, with
distinction, in the Tenth Royal Hussars, as an officer, both under
Sir John Moore, and the Iron Duke. He was present at the retreat on
Corunna, and, as the old man touchingly gave that narrative, I well
remember the big tears course down his cheeks, losing all control of
himself, his utterances almost ceasing when he pictured the hour
when his heart-broken comrades,

    "Buried him darkly, at dead of night."

This was not all, however. Rising to a pitch of the greatest
excitement, his language grew bolder and more fierce as he
progressed, bringing us all through Salamanca, Talavera,
Duoro, Orthes, with the Iron Duke, down to the "King-making
Victory,"--Waterloo. He may have been too fond of dwelling on
his own exploits--the fierce charge on squares--the hand to hand
encounters--sabreing this one and then that one--for, as the
night's entertainment closed, for such it was considered, his old arm
chair would be many yards away from its original position, driven
by force of arms and legs, depicting this cut at a trooper's head,
that point at a breast, this guard from an intended cleaver, as he
called it, and I have often since thought, how wise my mother was in
her forethought to hide away his sword at such times, for I verily
believe, so forgetful was he on those occasions, some damage would be
done to arms or legs, in his enthusiasm of description.

It is not to be wondered at, this early training though unintended
on his part, had its effect on his son in after life. Intended for
the profession of a Land Surveyor, I could brook nothing short of
following in his footsteps. The scenes plainly set forth in this
narrative occurred mostly in India, during the first Afghan war, in
1839, the Maharatta war, and the subsequent war in the Punjaub, from
1843 to 1846, trying times to the army in India. That country is so
full of study, in its ancient buildings, mosques, temples, shrines,
and manners and customs, that, I have only cursorily glanced at them,
and only when positions and incidents are necessary for the full
understanding of my movements, I have no doubt, however, that, by a
careful perusal of the whole much interest will be created, and more
sympathy excited for the men, who, careless of all else, ventured
life to uphold the honour of dear old England. In some cases, war is
too often employed to further ambition, or in adding some coveted
spot to an already overgrown empire. With this, the soldier has
nothing to do. The English soldier has been often pitted against
great odds, and as there is no retreating in our army, but "to do or
die," much more interest centres around him than a soldier of any
other country. Kind reader, may I ask you to follow me through, while
I endeavour to picture to you such battles as Ghuznee and Cabul,
Maharajpoor and Buddewal, Aliwal and Sobraon; and I am sure you will
be convinced, as was the old King of Delhi, that men who carried the
red cross banner through such actions as these, were really, as he
dubbed my old corps, the Sixteenth Queen's Royal Lancers, afterwards,
"The pride of England, and the terror of India."

  TORONTO, Ont., 1880.

[Illustration: (Vignette)]

[Illustration: (Vignette)]



  Sixteenth Queen's Lancers--Regiment in India--Gravesend--Scenes
  _en route_--Embark on board _Lord Exmouth_--Sprung a
  Leak--Plymouth Sound--Passage--Passing the line--Father
  Neptune--Cape de Verde Islands--Becalmed--Fishing--Cape
  of Good Hope--Albatrosses--Pass St. Paul and
  Amsterdam--Storm--Isle of Fraun--Sandhead--Hooghly--Fort
  William--View of Calcutta--Disembark--Chinasura Garden
  reach--Dutch Fort--Cholera--Orders for Cawnpore--Up Ganges in
  Boats--Typhoon--Swamped--Loss of a Lady--Scenery along the
  River--Benares, the holy city--Allahabad--Cawnpore--Night
  marching--Camp--Description of large Banyan
  Tree--Meerat--Regiment--Captain Havelock--War Rumours             17


  Dost Mahomet usurps the throne of Afghanistan--Meerut division
  ordered to assemble five miles from Delhi--The King inspects
  our army--Pass through Maharajah Rimjut Sing's country--The
  Punjaub--Sir H. Vane--Hindoo Koosh--General John Keane--Cross the
  attack--Sufferings on the Sandy Plain--Valley of Shaul--Entrance
  to Bolam Pass--Lieut. Imvariety--Candahar--Crowning
  Shah-Soojah--Through the Pass--First sight of Dost's Army--Battle
  of Ghuznee--Storming--Col. Sale--Citadel sacked--Feelings
  after Battle--Natives--Orders received for Cabul--March--Cabul
  Camp opposite city--Enter--Supposed some of the Lost Tribes
  of Israel--Proof--Affecting scene at the Death of Colonel
  Arnold--finding of two old tombstones with date 1662--Russian
  ambition--Elphinstone left to protect Shah-Soojah--Back to
  India through the Kyber, swarming with Kyberees--Dost and
  his commanders prisoners with us--General Avetavela escorts
  us through Peshwa--Punishment of Robbers--Crossing the
  Boundary--Meerut--Memorial                                        30


  Native sobriety and European drunkenness--Hindoo Mahoram feast
  Ceremony--Native habits--Shooting Sandgeese, Ducks, Parrots,
  Monkeys--Report of death of Shah-Soojah--Akbar Khan assumes
  the government--General Elphinstone retires--Mr. McNaughton
  killed--Massacre in Guddulock Pass by Akbar Khan--44th foot cut
  to pieces--A few escape to Jellelabad--Colonel Denny--Major
  Havelock--Colonel Sale attacks Akbar--Denny killed--Havelock in
  command--General Pollock pushes on from Bengal--Doctor Brydon--His
  miraculous escape through the Pass--General Nott ordered to
  Ghuznee--Pollock reinforces Sale--Lord Auckland succeeded by Lord
  Ellenborough--The Gates of the Temple of Somnuth--The Maharajah
  of Lahore pays his respects to Lord Ellenborough--Durbar at
  Delhi--Review before the King and Indian Princes--Meerut again--My
  comrade Jaco--The Spaniel and Jaco                                49


  Rio Scinde having died, his throne usurped by the Rannie or
  Queen of Gwalior--Ordered to join Lord Gough's Army at Agra--The
  Palace of Agra--The ancient seat of the Moguls of Delhi--Lord
  Ellenborough rewarding Pollock and Nott--The Targ or Marble
  Tomb of Akbar's favourite daughter--March through the country
  of the Ryots--Grain-fields--Religious superstition--The white
  bull--Women--The Chumble river crossed--No enemy in sight--Nature
  of ground before Maharajpoor--Christmas morning--General Grey and
  his Division to arrive at Gwalior--Disposition of Troops--March
  to Battle--Wheat-shocks filled with Sharpshooters--Battle--Push
  on to within fifteen miles of Gwalior--The Raumi comes out
  to meet us--Unconditional surrender--Gwalior a formidable
  Place--The Queen and her army surrenders--Grey joins us 3rd
  January--Reinstatement of the young King--Grand Review--Incident
  on a Shooting Excursion--"Bob, don't go, Bob, don't go"--Break
  up Camp, 3rd February--Ordered back to Meerut--Passage of the
  Chumble--Frightened Game--A Chase with a Stag--Through Agra and
  Delhi to Meerut                                                   61


  Old companionship at Meerut--General Arbuthnot and the
  16th--Grand turn out--A bet won--40th leave for home--9th
  Lancers for Umballa--Natives with tattoo bring in fruit and
  vegetables--Description of the Mango--Sedanna--The Begum or Queen,
  a pensioner of the Company--Something of her life--Persuades
  the Rajah to fly--Feigning assassination caused him to stab
  himself--Proclaimed Queen by her army--Marries a French
  Adventurer--Visit to our Camp--Her palace--Rumours of an invasion
  of our territory by the Shieks near Ferozepoor--Lord Gough at
  Umballa--News from the Punjaub--The Rannie or Queen had dethroned
  Dulep Sing--Ordered to Punjaub--Sketch of the Sing dynasty--Three
  French officers revolutionize the army and bring under the French
  model--They possess the whole of the Punjaub Peshwa--An eye on
  Bengal--Advised to become allies--Treaty with Lord Auckland--The
  Queen makes away with the three eldest sons--Her paramour, Lal
  Sing--Confines the youngest in the harem--Lord Gough at Mudkee Sir
  R. Sale killed--Ferusha--50th and 62nd Foot--Ignorance at Meerut
  of all their movements--March on the Sutledge--Sad evidences _en
  route_ of late havoc                                              78


  Hureka Gaut--Sir Harry Smith ordered to intercept Rungour
  Sing--Joined by 77th foot--March--View of Buddural--Opened
  fire--16th to hold ground while infantry push on--Too weak to fight
  yet--Baggage cut off--Some of 31st foot made prisoners--Treatment
  of their sergeant by the enemy--Push into Loodianna--News of their
  retreat--Ordered to intercept--Arrival at fort--Harem--Finding two
  bags of rupees--Reinforced and advance--Order of troops--Battle
  of Aliwal commenced--Sir Harry's telescope cut in two--"Lancers,
  three cheers for our Queen"--Charge--A square of guards--Corporal
  Newsom--Bravery--Killed--Green flag in his hand--"Immortalized
  16th"--Fearful loss--Join another squadron--Pursuit to
  river--Destruction--Wounded to village--March to join Lord
  Gough--Two hundred cannon belching together--Sobraon 10th
  February--Description of battle--British flag planted--The
  bridge blown up--Charge the entrenchments--Victory and end
  of Sikh War--Losses--Labour--Chiefs bring out the young
  Maharajah--Reception in Lord Hardinge's marquee--Terms--Crowning
  the young King--Proud Sikhs--Retort on our Sepoys                 90


  Sir H. Lawrence--Orders for home--Re-cross
  Sutledge--Jerosha--Scenes of previous engagement--Meerut--Leave
  for Calcutta--Down Ganges--Col. Cureton's farewell--Dum
  Dum--Calcutta, city, grand Ball--Sights--Embark for home--Bay
  of Bengal--Ascension--St. Helena--Doru Cliffs--Boats coming
  off--Relatives--March to Canterbury--Furlough--London--Meet Sisters
  and Mother--Deal--Battle--Anniversary--Buckingham Palace--Reviewed
  by Her Majesty--Claim Discharge--Causes--Take Ship for South Africa


  The religion of the
  by mixed marriages--The Triune Godhead: Brahma the centre, Vishnu
  the preserver or sustainer, and Siva, the destroyer--The Hindoo
  Pantheon--Brahmin place of worship--The Sacred Cow--Transmigration
  of souls--Degrees of punishment for various sins--The fate of the
  murderer, the adulterer, the unmerciful                          124


  Delhi the ancient capital of the Mogul Empire--General description,
  population, &c.--The king's palace--Embattled walls and
  guns--Martello towers--Jumna Musjeed, or chief mosque--The tombs of
  the Humayoon, and of Sefjar Jung--The Shelima gardens--The ancient
  Patons, or Afghan conquerors of India--The celebrated Cattab
  Minar--The tomb of Humayoon--The aqueduct of Alikhan--College for
  Orientals and Europeans                                          133


  Cape of Good Hope--First sight of--Inhabitants--Descent and
  other particulars--Sir Harry again--Sandicea in rebellion--War
  rumours--Join a Volunteer Corps--Off for frontier--East
  London--Army at Fort William--Join them--Gazetted Lieutenant--The
  Jungle--Kaffir women--73rd Regiment--Arrangements--Enter the
  Gaika tribe country--The huts--The kraal--43rd, 60th and 12th
  Lancers--General Somerset--Fort Beaufort--Colonel Fordyce
  shot--Buffalo Post--Capture cattle--Pursuit of Kaffirs--Sardillas'
  horse shot--Bridle neck bush--Time-expired men--Back to
  recruit--The Hottentot--East London again                        145


  Transferred to Fingoe Service--Fingoe character--Ordered to Kye
  river--Chief Krielle--Colonel Eyre--Through the bush--The Chief's
  position--Battered by big guns--Cattle captured--On return
  march--Harassed by enemy--One month on march bring in 500 head--Sir
  Harry called home--Sir George Cathcart--Sandilla surrendered--Chief
  Moshusha--Attack his stronghold--Surrenders--Back to Fort
  William--Disbanded--Off on elephant hunt--Provisions for--Plan
  to capture--Kill four--Trading with Chiefs and their
  wives--Precautions against lions--Elephant's spoor--Excursion often
  fatal--Back to Grahamstown--Stiles' Hotel                        159


  West to Clanwilliam--Mr. Shaw--Productions of
  farm--Back to the Cape--Open an hotel--Pleasures of
  Cape life--Ships put in for Australia--Imports--Market
  day--Arrangements--Waggons--Fish--Lobsters--Off to Port
  Elizabeth--Whale fishing--Sea elephants--Manner of killing--The
  Penguin--Habits of the bird--Back to the Cape--English Church
  at Newlands--The Bay--Wreck of a Baltimore vessel--Loss
  of two children, captain's wife, and the mate--Habits of
  Hottentots--Manner of living--A marriage--A present and
  its return--Loss in business by partner absconding--Leave
  the Cape--East India docks--Buckinghamshire--Relatives at
  home--Station master--Accident detailed--Near Rugby--Exonerated and
  promoted--Liverpool--Brighton--To Canada--Farewell address       175

[Illustration: (Vignette)]



  Sixteenth Queen's Lancers--Regiment in India--Gravesend--Scenes
  _en route_--Embark on board _Lord Exmouth_--Sprung a
  Leak--Plymouth Sound--Passage--Passing the line--Father
  Neptune--Cape de Verde Islands--Becalmed--Fishing--Cape
  of Good Hope--Albatrosses--Pass St. Paul and
  Amsterdam--Storm--Isle of Fraun--Sandhead--Hooghly--Fort
  William--View of Calcutta--Disembark--Chinasura Garden
  reach--Dutch Fort--Cholera--Orders for Cawnpore--Up Ganges in
  Boats--Typhoon--Swamped--Loss of a Lady--Scenery along the
  River--Benares, the holy city--Allahabad--Cawnpore--Night
  marching--Camp--Description of large Banyan
  Tree--Meerut--Regiment--Captain Havelock--War Rumors.

Though now fast approaching the valley we all must enter, I feel a
certain degree of pride when I remember the Saturday in November,
eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, which made me one of Her
Majesty's Sixteenth Queen's Lancers. The Regiment was then in India,
and, as Maidstone in Kent was at that time the centre for all depôts
whose corps were abroad, I was sent thither. I am not going to
trouble the reader with all the minutiæ of drill, horse and foot,
always necessary to make a man perfect for his profession, suffice,
it was long and arduous, borne with pleasure, so as to get as quickly
as possible ready for service abroad. For this purpose I joined, and
for this I done my utmost to prepare.

[Sidenote: Embark on Board "Lord Exmouth."]

In February, the following year, I, with members of my own and other
corps, left Maidstone for Gravesend en route for Calcutta. I need
hardly detail any scenes which may have occurred in our progress
to the port of embarkation. They are often witnessed in England,
and once seen can never be forgotten. Preceded by a band playing
patriotic airs, brings to the windows and doors all the inhabitants
on the line. The soldiers answer cheer with cheer, for their spirits
must have vent, and they can read goodwill and Godspeed on the faces
of all the people they meet. At this time there was a rumour in
England of approaching trouble in Afghanistan. The people as they
looked on us, seemed to understand this, and some may have been
thinking, "Poor fellows, how many of you will come back, but no
matter, they are glad to go, and fight too." British soldiers always
are; and in this, a draft for active service differs from those that
are sent off in times of peace, when a man would be glad to skulk if
he could get the chance.

Arrived at Gravesend, we go aboard the _Lord Exmouth_ transport, and
as the ship's bell announces the hour for weighing anchor, cheer
after cheer bursts forth again from the men all along the docks,
caught up by the sailors on the yards, and again by the crowd of
spectators ashore, and the ship carries us out of port, away from the
land which has seen thousands and thousands of heroes go forth to
make Britain what she is.

The confusion for the while is very great, but with willing hands all
soon get righted--the golden rule on board a troop ship is rigidly
adhered to, "A place for everything, and everything in its place."
All now settle down to life aboard. On the fifth day out, our ship
in a fog struck a rock, sprung a leak, and we were obliged to put
into Plymouth Sound; in three days all was again righted, and we
started on our voyage. Nearing the Cape de Verde Islands, we pass the
line, and as it may be interesting I will here give a description of
the customary honours paid to old Father Neptune while passing the
equator. All who had not crossed this imaginary line before, which,
of course, in our case were few, had to be shaved, or pay a fine to
Father Neptune. The boatswain acted as the redoubtable father; over
the side under the bowsprit; he first challenges, then comes on board
attended by his sea-nymphs, riding on a gun rigged for him; a board
is placed over a large tub of sea-water; the men who have not paid
their respects before--crossed the line--are ranged along the board,
lathered with a tar brush, and shaved with an old iron hoop, then
soused into the tub of salt water, amid roars of laughter.

[Sidenote: Cape of Good Hope--storm.]

Passing Cape de Verde Islands, the first land we saw for six weeks,
we were becalmed--not a breath of wind, the heat in the tropics
intense. We spent some of our time in fishing; we caught several
beneta--a beautiful fish--and some dolphins. We now got a good
breeze, rounded the Cape of Good Hope far to the west, and entered
the Pacific Ocean. Here we encountered some rough weather, when
calmed we caught many albatrosses with pork; this is a splendid
bird, measuring eighteen feet from tip to tip of wing, all white,
and strange to say, when they are brought on deck, they get giddy,
and cannot fly, though free to do so. Passing the barren, rocky
islands of Saint Pauls and Amsterdam, we approach the Indian Ocean.
Just before entering these waters, the sky had every appearance of
a storm, and sure enough the day after we noticed the indication,
we encountered a perfect hurricane, carrying away fore-mast, main
and mizzen, long boat, our good cow and sheep, and seven pigs,
leaving us a perfect wreck. This lasted two days and nights. We were
drifted about one thousand miles away from land, but Captain Warren
rigged jury masts, and the day after we sighted a French ship. After
passing signals the Captain promised to keep by us till we got to
the Mauritius. In five days we sighted the Isle of France, here
our vessel was overhauled, everything made right to enable us to
continue our voyage. All went well until our arrival at the Sandheads
off the mouth of the Hooghly river. Here we signalled for a pilot,
and soon made the Hooghly, one of the many branches of the Ganges.
Passing Tiger island, many of the natives came off in dingies, almost
naked, to see us. At first we supposed they were women, from having
their hair tied up and fastened with a comb on the top of the head.
Diamond harbor was also passed, until we made Fort William, where we
anchored. Just five months' sail from England.

[Sidenote: Disembark--Dutch fort.]

When viewed from on board ship, Calcutta, in the bright morning sun,
presents a beautiful picture; the city rises high from the edge of
the grand old river with imposing majesty. The marvellous line of
architecture in every possible variety of form--countless numbers of
temples, small and great, and over-topping these, fortress-looking
stone and marble palaces--certainly nothing could be more unique than
such a first glimpse under a bright sun, and blue sky, of forms so
fantastic--brightest lights and shadows numberless; of balconies,
verandahs, towers, cupolas, projections, recesses, galleries endless
and undescribable; and again, the costume of the natives who came
to see us, merchants, nabobs, Chinese, Parsees, people from Bengal,
Bombay, Madras, in fact from every place under the sun one would

On the following day we disembarked, and proceeded to Chinsura,
about twelve miles along the river. This is a large fortress, built
by the Dutch. As we proceeded we saw the Governor-General's palace,
built of white marble. Garden Reach must be a most beautiful place
to reside, with its villas on the banks, and delightful palaces, and
cocoanut trees sloping to the water's edge. It is here generally the
European merchants reside. We found the Dutch fortress or barracks
a most spacious building, with lofty rooms, each capable of holding
one hundred men. The Twenty-sixth Cameronians, and part of the
Forty-ninth Foot were here awaiting orders for China, and detachments
of the Third Light Dragoons, Thirteenth and Forty-fourth Infantry,
waiting orders, as we ourselves were also, to proceed up the country
to join their respective regiments.

[Sidenote: Scenery along the Ganges.]

While waiting at the fort, before proceeding to join the Regiment,
the cholera broke out among the troops, and for the time it lasted
we suffered severely--as many as twenty falling victims in one day.
In July we received orders to proceed up the Ganges to Cawnpore,
embarking on the fifteenth in large boats with thatched roofs,
looking like floating houses; each boat's crew consisting of seven
sailors in charge of a Jemida, or Captain. I learned after these
men were pressed from the surrounding villages, as many of them
ran away, and, indeed, no wonder, for the work must have been very
laborious, pulling by ropes along the bank, and at this season the
current was all against them, as the river had lately overflowed
its banks. Nearing Ghazapoor, we encountered one of those severe
typhoons, so common, and which come on so suddenly in India. This one
broke with terrific force, capsizing the boat I was in, and giving
all hands a baptising in the raging river. The sergeant-major, his
wife, and myself were washed to a sand bank. One young lady, going up
the country to join her father, a captain in one of the Regiments,
was lost--we suppose, as the river was full of alligators, she was
captured by one of them. The Jamida and his crew we never could
find; but suppose they ran away. The other boats had gone ahead, and
as soon as I found my way clear--being a good swimmer, I shot out for
the bank, ran along for more than a mile, until I reached the rest.
They sent back aid and rescued the man and his wife. If this was to
be my experience of the Ganges, give me before it half a dozen ocean

[Sidenote: Allahabad--Cawnpore.]

The beauty of the scenery along the Ganges is hard to
describe--fertile valleys innumerable, indigo plantations--here
and there flocks of beautiful parrots; monkeys by the hundreds,
capering about, particularly in the Tarmarand trees, pulling and
throwing cocoa-nuts about, and as we moored at night the trees would
be swarmed, grimacing and yelling, such an unearthly noise--add
to this, all around seemed spotted with fire from the innumerable
fireflies, while the chorus the monkeys made, and the noise from the
flocks of flying foxes, almost scares a stranger. As the face of the
country alters, so the extent of the overflow can be best seen. In
some places, where the land is low, five or six miles in breadth is
covered with water; in others between high rocky banks, confine its
course, and here the flow of water is very great, trying enough on
the boats, and the unfortunate men pulling them. At Benares we stayed
one day. This is the holy city of the Hindoos, as Jerusalem to the
Jews, or as Mecca to the Mahommedan. This city contains from nine
hundred to one thousand temples, and thousands of images of the many
gods worshipped by its people. The highest ambition of the Hindoo
devotee is, although he may be tottering with age or sickness, and
almost crawling on the earth through deformity, to visit the shrines
at Benares, and walk for fifty miles around its sacred territory.
Here they come from all parts of India, as it is considered a sure
passport to glory to die within it. The temples have all their gods;
some of them ugly looking monsters. The people prostrate themselves
and strike a bell, which is in every one of them, and then depart.
At certain great festivals, thousands assemble from the city on
the banks of the river--a great bell is struck--horns are blowed
by the priests, then these fanatics, thousands of them, men, women
and children, rush headlong into the deep water, and hundreds are
drowned. From Benares we went to Allahabad. Here the waters of
the Jumna unite with the Ganges. This is also considered a very
sacred place; the water from here is taken to all parts of Hindostan
in bottles, as holy water. It was here Lord Clive gained such a
decisive victory over the Great Mogul of Delhi, as secured Bengal to
the East India Company. From Allahabad, we proceeded to Cawnpore,
where we arrived on the fifteenth of October. Disembarking, we went
into tents, and soon after joined the camp waiting for us. I merely
rambled through this city to get some things at the bazaars. The
goods were all exposed to view without shop-windows, as at home. The
merchant sitting, tailor-fashion, on the boards. Of money changers
there was plenty; heaps of gold and silver coin on small tables. The
sugar dealers, or rather confectioners, had large coppers boiling,
making jillavies, a mixture of butter and sugar. There is also a
goodly number of bungalos and gardens, residences of rich merchants.
Early in the morning, generally at three o'clock, when the march of
troops commences, one is surprised at the number of animals required
for the several conveyances. Elephants and camels for tents and
baggage; bullock Hackerys for women and children. Married soldiers
are well provided for in India, a fund provided by Lord Clive allows
every woman five, and every child three rupees per month, almost
enough to keep them comfortable. The first day's march was over by
eight o'clock in the morning, when tents were pitched, and breakfast
prepared by black servants. After this, what time you don't want for
rest may be spent as one chooses. The weather being intensely hot,
we found shade under plenty of orange and mango trees, occasionally
issuing from cover to shoot pigeon, or chase monkeys. Birds of all
plumage filled the air with their beautiful notes; the mocking bird
was particularly favourable to us soldiers, as numbers of them
followed us. We were now on our march to Meerut, where the head
quarters of my regiment were stationed, and I felt more than anxious
till I joined them. On the fourth day from Cawnpore we halted under
a famous Banyan tree, which on some previous occasion had shaded
five thousand troops. This idea may seem preposterous; but when you
take into consideration the length of time it has been growing and
spreading, it seems simple enough, each branch on rising a certain
height, drops, takes root again, rises again, and again drops, and
so on for ages, until from the one parent root, branches and roots
covered acres of ground.

[Sidenote: Meerut--regiment--Captain Havelock.]

Meerut is at last reached on the 14th of November. This is a
frontier station. The military cantonments were extended on an
open plain three miles in length. The most beautiful barracks,
like villa residences. The English Church side by side with the
Theatre, standing between cavalry and infantry lines. Here I found my
regiment, and having acted as provost _en route_, I was introduced by
Captain Havelock--afterwards General--who came out with us, to his
brother Charles, who was adjutant of our regiment.

Now commenced my service in India in earnest. What was rumoured
in England proved here a fact, of an army being got ready for
Afghanistan. Captain Havelock left to join his regiment; all who had
known him, and experienced his kindness on board, and on the march to
this station, felt the parting much, as he was invariably kind and
very good to all his men.

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  Dost Mahomet usurps the throne of Afghanistan--Meerut division
  ordered to assemble five miles from Delhi--The King inspects
  our army--Pass through Maharajah Rimjut Sing's country--The
  Punjaub--Sir H. Vane--Hindoo Koosh--General John Keene--Cross
  the attack--Sufferings on the Sandy Plain--Valley of
  Shaul--Entrance to Bolam Pass--Lieut. Imvariety--Candahar--Crowning
  Shah-Soojah--Through the Pass--First sight of Dost's Army--Battle
  of Ghuznee--Storming--Col. Sale--Citadel sacked--Feelings
  after Battle--Natives--Orders received for Cabul--March--Cabul
  Camp opposite city--Enter--Supposed some of the Lost Tribes
  of Israel--Proof--Affecting scene at the Death of our Colonel
  Arnold--finding of two old tombstones with date 1662--Russian
  ambition--Elphinstone left to protect Shah-Soojah--Back to
  India through the Kyber, swarming with Kyberees--Dost and
  his commanders prisoners with us--General Avetavela escorts
  us through Peshwa--Punishment of Robbers--Crossing the

[Sidenote: Meerut division.]

The order for marching for active service at last came, and on
the 25th November, we left Meerut to join the force assembling
under General Sir Henry Vane, to proceed to Afghanistan to replace
Shah-Soojah on the throne usurped by Dost Mahomet. The force he was
to have under him consisted of the entire Meerut division--three
brigades of cavalry--three of artillery--and three regiments of
infantry--the 16th Queen's Lancers were commanded by Colonel Robert
Arnold, and were eight hundred strong.

Our route lay through the City of Delhi, so famous in all Indian
annals--the city, beautiful as we passed through, must have been
almost a paradise before being sacked and plundered by Nider Shah,
the Persian adventurer--he and his army are reported to have carried
off one hundred and fifty camel loads of treasure, consisting of gold
and silver--jewels and articles of great value. The principal street
running through the city is called Chan-de-la-gore, a stream of water
dividing it all through, with orange and tamarand trees on each of
its banks,--the bazaars were crowded with people, and goods for sale,
chiefly jewellery, silverware, and in some, costly apparel, such
as the gorgeous Cashmere shawl, and elegant Persian carpet. I must
reserve a full description of Delhi to another part of my experience.

The army, under the Commander-in-Chief was to assemble on a plain
five miles from Delhi, and was to number thirty thousand men of
all arms. To this rendezvous we marched. The following day we were
reviewed before the King of Delhi, he and his Court could not help
but be well pleased with the dashing fellows that passed before
them, we then continued our march through the protected Sikh States,
until we arrived at the Sutleg river, where we halted until a formal
permission to proceed was secured from the Maharaja Runjiet Sing in
order to pass through his country, the Punjaub. At this time the
Maharaja or king was very powerful, had a large army, with four
French generals in his service--Avitavula--Ventura--La Court and
Belasses. Permission was granted to pass through to upper Scinde.

[Sidenote: Sufferings on the sandy plain.]

At this distance of time, and looking back on the misery endured in
that dreadful march. The country is very sandy--the heat is intense,
and days without water. Eventually, after much suffering we reached
Attack, or the upper waters of the Indus near Hyderabad. Here we
halted a while and refreshed, Sir Harry Vane refusing to proceed
through those sterile mountains of the Hindoo Koosh without strong
reinforcements to keep his communications open with the rear. General
Sir John Keene was ordered up with a force from Bombay, consisting of
the 4th Light Dragoons, accompanied by artillery and infantry. Sir
Harry Vane, through illness, not feeling able to continue in command,
resigned, left for home, but died on the passage.

Crossing the Attack river, on the 15th January, new horrors presented
themselves thick and fast; the country still continued very sandy,
in fact a desert, no appearance of anything around or ahead of us to
instil a hope of comfort; again we had great suffering through want
of water. Before we proceeded far it was deemed advisable to send
back the elephants, and as for the poor camels they dropped off by
scores for lack of food, the tents and a great part of the baggage
and forage had to be burnt, the men were attacked with dysentery in
its worst form, and many died. This may be allowed was an auspicious
commencement of my military life in India. Did our men regret, or
get faint-hearted?--No. Did we think of home and all its comforts,
and the little thought there of the endurance of her soldiers?--we
did; but there was no such thing as repining--though we did think too
much was expected. Endurance has an end,--and that those who plan
such designs, should be obliged to accompany the army through this
country, and put up with, and be content with all we had to put up
with, without a sign of discontent.

[Sidenote: Candahar--crowning Shah-Soojah.]

Through much suffering we reached the valley of Shaul, through
Beloochistan to the entrance of the Bolan Pass. This gradually rises
to an elevation of something like 12,000 feet. It appears as if some
convulsion of nature--and I have no doubt of it--split the mountain
completely in two. At this time no Doctor Russell or Archibald Forbes
ever thought of such a mad freak as to accompany an army--they are
free to do so now, because perhaps, in many particulars the army
is better equipped and provided for--comforts unknown to us, are
supplied now--and so it should be--for the soldiers who fought for
England half a century ago, must have been hardier, and possessed
of greater endurance, to do as they did on hard rations, and often
half rations, with less formidable arms, no possible comfort, and
discipline almost carried to extremes.

In passing through the valley we were obliged to dismount, and
actually pull or drive our horses along, they were so used up.
While camped in the Pass, Lieutenant Inverrity strayed from his
regiment, was surprised by a party of Beloochees, and cut and hacked
to pieces. After losing many horses and men, and having undergone
much privation and suffering, we arrived at Candahar, here we rested
to somewhat recruit our health--procure fresh horses, and here we
crowned Shah-Soojah. The rest we had here was very acceptable,
and after all we endured on the sandy plains, and through the
valley--the refreshment, plentiful here for the inner man--was in
abundance--grapes and pears were very large, and vegetables without
stint--the cabbage here is about the size of an ordinary wash-tub,
very sweet and good. The inhabitants vied with each other to please
us, as we were the first British troops they ever saw. The city,
like all places of note in India, is very attractive, the houses
flat-roofed--any woman you meet in the street all belong to the low
caste, very heavily veiled--the High caste women are never seen out.

On the 4th of June we broke up camp and started for Ghuznee, our
way lying through the Bolan Pass. As we approach, its appearance is
formidable, the mountains at each side seem to reach to the clouds,
they have an ascent of 14,000 feet. Arriving at Ghuznee on the 21st
July, we observed on the hills, Hadjie Khan the commander of Dost
Mahomet's army encamped with twenty thousand men. Ghuznee is strongly
fortified--cut out of solid rock, on the slopes of a hill, surrounded
by a moat. As the enemy commenced firing on the 22nd with heavy shot,
our commander thought better to move the camp back about two miles.

[Sidenote: Battle of Ghuznee--storming.]

On the morning of the 23rd, we moved up at three o'clock, and got
into position. One division of cavalry opposite the gate on the
Cabul road; one part of our force moved off to our left, to watch
the enemy on the hills, and make a feint attack on their position on
the opposite side, so as to draw their attention from us. We were
occupied in placing batteries so as to command the gate; at the
same time Colonel Thompson, of the Engineers, was laying a chain
cable to throw a bridge across the Moat. When this was accomplished,
a mine was laid under the stone buttresses, and at a quarter to six
o'clock the mine was opening, and up went the gates with a terrific
crash. The storming party, consisting of the 13th Light Infantry,
under Colonel Robert Sale; the 2nd or Queen's, under Sir Thomas
Wiltshire; when the bugle sounded, commenced their attack under a
heavy fire--the 13th had the honour of leading. The enemy every
where made a terrific resistance. Colonel Sale was knocked off his
horse and trampled upon, still he ordered the bugler to sound a
retreat, instead of which, whether intentional or not, the advance
was sounded. Nothing could daunt the ardour and bravery of the men.
They soon gained a footing inside, where hand to hand encounters was
carried on in its most relentless form, and in half an hour, both
regiments were firmly established inside the walls. By day light the
British flag was mounted on the Citadel, many of the enemy having
thrown themselves therefrom, rather than surrender, to the Moat
below, a distance of 150 feet. We were ordered to enter and seize the
horses, which were running wildly without riders, which we did after
some hard work, and brought them to the prize agent outside. We were
annoyed, however, very much, through having to encounter the worst
of firing, as many of the Afghans popped at us from loop-holes and
windows in every street of the city. When the sun rose on the hills
the Infantry could plainly be seen ascending the greatest heights
of the Citadel, far above the city; here they got into the bank,
and loaded themselves with money. Many of the enemy were trying to
escape to the valley away on our left; these, and the force on the
mountains, kept our troops in that direction busy. By 2 o'clock,
p.m., all was over, and Ghuznee was in possession of the British.

[Sidenote: Feelings after battle.]

When all opposition ceased, and one went through the city, now filled
with sounds of wailings, he cannot but be struck with the dreadful
havoc war brings with it. This was my first general action, and
although when in the heat of it, I felt no pity for any one, at
least I cannot remember feeling so, still, when the desolation is
complete, and you are met everywhere with its sad effects, property
destroyed, mutilation of brutes, horses, camels, &c., dead, and
writhing in pain from wounds; wounded men and women every where
begging for mercy or succour, the dead piled all round, the most
hardened must give way to sadness. Shah-Soojah, our newly crowned
king, was busy on our right, hanging and shooting traitors, some
of them leading Chiefs who had fallen into his hands. The whole of
the 24th was occupied in burying the dead, and on the following day
Hadjee Kan came in, and gave up his sword, a beautiful one, the hilt
studded with costly gems; for its possession the officers had a race,
which was won by the 4th Light Dragoons. The horses captured, all of
them valuable Arab or Turcoman were sold by auction, the proceeds
appropriated as prize money.

We halted here three weeks, sending out detachments to scour the
country for Dost Mahomet's troops. During this time the inhabitants
began to be much familiarized to us, and brought on all the supplies
we required. We had much trouble, however, in striking bargains, as
they do not speak Hindoostanee; but this we did experience, their
great liking for us, over the regular Indian troops, our Sepoys.

On the 2nd February we received orders to prepare for an advance on
Cabul. Colonel Cureton was to proceed with two troops of the 16th
Lancers and three troops of heavy artillery as an advance, my troop
was one of these. On the 3rd, our way lay through high rocky passes,
these we had to ascend, not without great difficulty, and on the
second day's advance, we came upon four guns planted so as to command
a lead in the road. They were loaded, but abandoned. The artillery
unloaded them, blowing up the timbrels, one of the men through
accident having his arm blown off. Our march through the gorges and
passes was very tedious till we arrived at Cabul, the capital.

[Sidenote: Cabul--camp opposite city--enter.]

As we approached, the inhabitants gathered to greet us, and a right
hearty welcome we got, as we were the body guard of the King, and
the first British soldiers they ever saw. Encamping opposite the
main gate, we were supplied with all the dainties of the city--milk,
bread and fruit in any quantity. They were very kind, particularly to
us horsemen, and would take no money in return. As we had two days
before the headquarters with General Keene would arrive, I had many
a stroll through the city and the bazaars; but as Cabul has come
into great notoriety since I was there, and has been described over
and over again, I will not enter into much detail. The inhabitants
are mostly Mahomedans, some Armenians and Hindoos, who are generally
merchants. They strike one on first appearance with the Jewish type
of features, and it would not, perhaps, be risking too much to say
they are descendants of one of the lost tribes of Israel, for we
read in the 9th chapter, 1st Book of Kings, that King Solomon gave
to King Hiram, in exchange for wood brought to build the Temple,
twenty cities, and he called them the land of Cabul unto this day. We
found at that time plenty of Russian money and goods, showing that
that nation then, as lately, had an avaricious desire for possession
of the country. The people are mostly of fair complexion, and the
women are certainly very fine looking, of the Circassian type. After
the arrival of General Keene, we commenced forming batteries and
trenches. One sad occurrence overtook our regiment, which caused more
profound regrets, more heart-felt sorrow, than anything else that
could possibly befall us, and that was the death of our old esteemed
Colonel Arnold. He was fully half a century in the army, loved his
men as a father his children,--a splendid cavalry officer, six feet
two inches high. Feeling he could not live much longer, he desired
to see his regiment before he died. His cot was brought out, he,
having all the appearance of death, propped in it. The regiment was
formed on foot, three deep. We then marched slowly past him, giving
one sorrowful look, and that a long one, at our poor Colonel. Tears
filled all eyes. The officers, as their troops passed, fell in at
the side of the cot, and when all had passed through, his lips were
constantly moving, seemingly muttering some farewell, he audibly
exclaimed "My poor, dear fellows," fell back and expired. His remains
were interred with great military and masonic honours in the Moslem

[Sidenote: Elphinstone to protect Shah-Soojah.]

While we remained at Cabul, his grave was often visited, and many
a deep regret was expressed over it. While looking about the many
stones marking the place of the departed, I was struck with a stone
erected to the memory of two English people, dated 1662. How they
came to Cabul, or anything about them, no one could inform me. It was
certainly an early period--nearly two centuries ago.

The object of the expedition became now a matter with which every one
was acquainted. Shah-Soojah, an ally of our Government, was placed
on the throne, to counteract Russian ambition to our Indian Empire,
Russia at the time was engaged in war in Circassia.

Towards the end of September, leaving General Elphinstone with
a small force to protect the king, the remainder of the troops,
under Sir John Keene, left Cabul on our march towards India,
_via_ the Guddulek and Kyber Passes, taking Dost Mahomet and his
commander-in-chief as prisoners of war. The 16th Lancers acting
as body-guard, had also the care of the prisoners. The force now
consisted of my regiment, two troops Horse Artillery, one regiment
native infantry, with Skinner's Irregular Horse. Our route lay
towards the Gillum river; this our horses had to swim. Colonel
Curston, now commanding the 16th, nearly lost his life. As his horse
rolled over in the current, one of his men ran along the bank, and,
although heavily booted and spurred, jumped in, caught him by the
hair, and thus pulled him out.

The first week in October we entered the Kyber Pass, and although
the mountains on both sides swarmed with Kyberees and Ghysaltees,
they made no hostile demonstration, and allowed us to pass. Had
there been any attempt at a rescue, we had previous orders to shoot
the king, now captive, and his commander-in-chief. After a tedious
march through the rugged pass, we reached the fort of Jumrood, which
stands at the mouth of the Plains of Peshwa, and the French General
Avetavela was governor of that district for the king of the Panjaub.
He came to meet us and pay his respects to Sir John Keene, and escort
us through the Province of Peshwa. Here we halted five days, during
which time I saw thirty bodies hanging in trees, and was informed
that was the punishment meted out by the French General to robbers,
mostly hill tribe men.

[Sidenote: Crossing the boundary--Meerut.]

The Panjaub is a very fertile country, abounding in game, wild boar,
deer and pea fowl. We killed no bullocks on our march, out of respect
to the inhabitants, as they are mostly Brahmins and worship the
bull as sacred. We crossed the Sutledge, the British boundary, and
arrived at Meerut in complete rags, horses and men worn and jaded;
what clothes we had, patched with sheep and goat skin. We left just
sixteen months before, in all the ardour of youth, bright scarlet
and gold lace, now sad-looking spectacles--brown as mahogany, and
faces covered with rough hair. Our losses during that time were very
great. Besides our Colonel, we left two hundred officers and men
behind, almost all through hardship and fatigue. The loss during the
campaign in horses alone was 3,000, in camels 1,400. On arriving
at Meerut we subscribed a week's pay each, had a handsome marble
monument erected to our departed comrades in the churchyard. We now
required some rest, and we had it. As the recruits from England were
awaiting us, they relieved us from duty for awhile, and having a
large amount of pay and battier money due us, we gave ourselves up to
rest--recreation such as one can have in a hot country--and general
enjoyment. The area of India is about 1,558,254 square miles. From
the northern extremity of the Punjaub to Cape Cormoran in the south,
it measures 1830 miles; its greatest breadth is about the same; its
population is about 270,000,000.

[Sidenote: The prevailing religions.]

The prevailing religions are Buddhism, Brahminism, and Mahommedism.
The first contains many excellent moral precepts and maxims, but
practically it is a religion of Atheism. The doctrines of merit
teach its devotees to believe in the transmigration of souls. "If
any man sin" it tells him to build a pagoda, or carve an idol, it
threatens him with degradation into a soulless brute, it leaves him
without hope, without a god in the world. Brahminism is idolatry
in its most debasing forms. It has three hundred millions of gods,
but no creed; sun, moon, and stars are deified; sticks, stones, or
a lump of clay smeared with red paint, are convertible into objects
of superstitious reverence. The rites which it imposes are impure,
and sensual. Mahommedanism differs from the other two in that it
is not idolatrous. It professes a reverence for the supreme being,
but like all human systems of religion it is unsatisfactory, it
recognizes no divine mediator between God and man; maintained by
the sword, it exercises a cruel and despotic sway over the minds
of its votaries, it is remorslessly intolerant and persecuting,
deprives men of liberty, upholds slavery and polygamy, and degrades
women to the level of the brutes. It is one of the most powerful
anti-Christian systems in the world, holding under its iron sway
one hundred and seventy-six millions of the human race. A tradition
prevails that Christianity was first introduced by Saint Thomas the
Apostle. However that may be, when the Portuguese arrived in India,
A.D. 1500, they found a large body of professing Christians with
upwards of a hundred churches, who traced their history for thirteen
hundred years through a succession of bishops to the Patriarch of
Antioch. The Hindoos resisted all attempts of the Portuguese priests
to convert them to the Roman Catholic faith. "We are Christians,"
said they, "and do not worship idols." Many of them were seized and
put to death as heretics. Many missionaries went to India in the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. But the East India Company did
not encourage the mission work, as they seemed to keep the natives
ignorant of Christianity, and by keeping the Hindoos and Mahomedans
antagonistic to each other it aided them in their conquests and
growing power. But recently a great many colleges have been built in
Bengal, Bombay, and Madras by rich Parsee merchants, and the Hindoo
youth are deriving great benefit, and since steam has opened up the
rapid passage and the voyage shortened through the Suez Canal they
have more frequent intercourse with the European, his manners and

[Illustration: (Vignette)]

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  Native sobriety and European drunkenness--Hindoo Mahoram feast
  Ceremony--Native habits--Shooting Sandgeese, Ducks, Parrots,
  Monkeys--Report of death of Shah-Soojah--Akbar Khan assumes
  the government--General Elphinstone retires--Mr. McNaughton
  killed--Massacre in Guddulock Pass by Akbar Khan--44th foot cut
  to pieces--A few escape to Jellelabad--Colonel Denny--Major
  Havelock--Colonel Sale attacks Akbar--Denny killed--Havelock in
  command--General Pollock pushes on from Bengal--Doctor Brydon--His
  miraculous escape through the Pass--General Nott ordered to
  Ghuznee--Pollock reinforces Sale--Lord Auckland succeeded by Lord
  Ellenborough--The Gates of the Temple of Somnuth--The Maharajah
  of Lahore pays his respects to Lord Ellenborough--Durbar at
  Delhi--Review before the King and Indian Princes--Meerut again--My
  comrade Jaco--The Spaniel and Jaco.

I have often been ashamed in India, when called a Christian, to see
an officer or a man under the influence of liquor. Both Mahomedans
and Hindoos are very abstemious--never touching anything that
intoxicates. I had now more proof of this than at any other time,
there being so many attendants allowed soldiers, indeed as many
followers as men, I could well judge their aversion to drink. Of all
the native cooks, belt-wallas, scyses for horses, and grass-cutters,
I never knew one to drink ask them, they grimace and turn away.

During the time we were recruiting our strength the Hindoos had a
festival called the Mahoram. They assemble by thousands from all
parts, with richly dressed elephants and camels, and gorgeously
dressed Princes and Nabobs. The common folk go through a sort of
sham-fight with bladders. A large image made of wicker work and
filled with combustibles is elevated some seventy feet high. Two
beautiful children are drawn in a car richly dressed by two sacred
bulls. These children fire two arrows each at the image, and are
then taken to the Temple, and, as I was informed, sacrificed in the
evening amid a great display of fire-works.

[Sidenote: Shooting sand-geese, ducks, etc.]

All the natives sleep during the great heat of the day, and are up
all night around the fires made of horse and cow manure, which keep
off mosquitoes. They make a horrid din, beating a drum called tum,
tum, and singing, so that with the noise all through the bazaars,
the drumming and the mosquito chorus, a foreigner has little rest.
Our men enjoyed plenty of shooting, sand-geese, ducks, parrots, and
peacocks; although dangerous to shoot the latter, the Hindoos holding
them as sacred. We had almost everything to beguile our time; drill
and field-days at early morning, besides a good library, ball-alley,
racket, quoits, cricket, and a theatre, named the Victoria.

Returning to quarters one evening, after a shooting excursion, and
the day having been intensely hot, many were enjoying a cool nap on
the cot outside the door of the camp. Apart from all the rest, by
himself, was an old crusty sergeant, nicknamed "Old Nick,"--a bath,
there being plenty about for the use of the men, stood near him, and
after a moment's consultation, as he snored away, we decided to play
him a trick. Our party being all of the same rank, (four sergeants)
even if we were discovered, it would not be deemed so bad as if it
were done by inferiors, but this we thought nothing of. Lifting him
very carefully, and so gently as not to disturb his heavy snoring,
we conveyed our friend "Old Nick" to the bath, laid him evenly and
gently as possible, looking round seeing each our way clear for
a good run--let go, and soused he fell into the water. Splutter,
splutter, occasionally as we ran, a fierce yell and a curse. We were
in bed in five minutes, in fact before he had time to properly shake
himself, and although enquiry and enquiry was made, and a reward for
the miscreants offered by himself, no one ever learned who did it for
years after.

We were not to remain long at peace, war broke out again on the
death of Shah-Soojah. Akbar Khan had seized the reins of government
of Afghanistan, shot Mr. McNaughton, the agent, had prevailed on
General Elphinstone to retire, who was weak enough to do so, instead
of holding his position until aid arrived; and as soon as Akbar got
him into the Guddulock Pass, commenced an indiscriminate massacre.
The 44th Regiment was almost cut to pieces; some were taken prisoners
with the officers' wives, including Lady Sale; some few escaped to
Jellelabad, at the entrance of the Kyber Pass, where General Sale,
Colonel Denny, and Major Havelock were with the 13th Light Infantry.
When the winter was far enough advanced to march, Akbar wanted to
attack Sale, but he, not wishing to be caught, marched out and met
him in battle, and fully routed him and his army. Poor Colonel Denny
being killed, Havelock then assumed the command.

[Sidenote: Doctor Brydon--his miraculous escape.]

In the early spring General Pollock was pushed on with a force from

Before I proceed farther I will here give the following incident
which occurred at the time of the massacre in the Guddulock Pass, in

When the slaughter was nearly complete, a Doctor Brydon endeavoured
to escape; among the survivors was a native assistant, who, seeing
Brydon sorely pressed, called to him, saying, "Doctor Saib, I cannot
possibly escape, I am dying of cold and hunger, take my pony and do
the best you can for yourself." Brydon tried to encourage him, but
no, he was dying. Brydon mounted, and through the confusion, forced
his way to the front. Reaching all safe, he found a group of mounted
officers, who knowing they were just at the end of the Pass where
it opens on the plain where Jellelabad stands, determined to make a
bold push for life. Seeing Brydon on a wretched pony, they declared
they could not wait for him, mounted as he was, and any delay would
be sure to cause their immediate destruction. On they went, leaving
Brydon slowly toiling after them. The Afghans saw the group advancing
at full swing, met them and slew them every man, and thinking no one
else was coming, went back to the hills; just then Brydon jogged past
unobserved. News of Elphinstone's force was anxiously waited for at
Jellelabad. Towards evening one man slowly riding a worn-out pony
was descried at the entrance of the Pass,--cavalry were immediately
sent to bring him in--it was Brydon. As he entered the gate he fell
senseless from fatigue. When restoratives were applied, at least such
as were at hand, he revived, and the first question he asked was
about his pony, the pony that had saved his life--it was dead. Brydon
was with General Sale during the gallant defence of Jellelabad, and
lived to take part in the defence of Lucknow.

[Sidenote: Gates of the temple of Somnuth.]

Pollack pushed through the Kyber Pass to the relief of Sale. Another
force under General Nott marched from Bombay towards Ghuznee, to the
relief of our troops hemmed in there--the two divisions were to meet
at Cabul as an avenging army. Both pushed on as rapidly as possible,
and after long and arduous marches, reached Cabul, rescued the
prisoners, and burnt the capital to the ground. General Elphinstone
having died, completely broken down through this sad disaster, Lord
Auckland was called home, and Lord Ellenborough replaced him as
Governor-General of India.

In January, 1843, an army of observation was formed on the banks
of the Sutledge, to meet Generals Nott and Pollock on their return
through the Kyber Pass, bringing with them the gates of the temple of
Somnuth, from in front the Mahomedan mosque, at Ghuznee,--carried off
eight hundred years before, on the conquest of India and subjugation
of the Hindoos--and now restored after that lapse of time by British
valour, and thereby conciliating the original possessors of Hindostan.

These gates were made of sandal-wood, each one drawn on a waggon by
twelve bullocks; they were also covered with crimson curtains fringed
with gold.

The Maharajah of Lahore came down with six thousand cavalry as an
escort to pay his respects to Lord Ellenborough. We marched towards
Delhi on the first of February, through the protected Sikh states.
Arriving at Delhi we encamped on the race course. Lord Ellenborough
had summoned all the Rajahs and petty princes to meet him and the
king at a Durbar; along with the King of Delhi was the Rajah of
Burtpoor, the Rajah of Jypoor, the Rajah of Puttealea. All the
Indian nobility gave a grand dinner to the Governor-General, Lord
Gough, and all the British officers. A large place was built of
wicker-work, covered with flags, banners, streamers, and variegated
lamps; and tables were laid for five hundred guests; the service was
of silver and gold. The Governor-General and staff went down in three
carriages, escorted by two troops 16th Lancers--my troop happened to
be one of them--when the cavalcade arrived, a royal salute was fired,
and salvo after salvo almost shook the air; the crowd was so dense we
could almost ride over turbaned heads. After dinner there was a grand
presentation to Lord Ellenborough,--a gold salver full of jewels,
two elephants, richly caparisoned, and four Arab horses--then came
such a display of fireworks as never has been equalled since. It was
twelve p.m. before we started for camp.

[Sidenote: Meerut again.]

The day following all this display a grand field-day was held, in
order to show these native princes the power of Britain, and what
good soldiers she boasted of. In all the movements, the troops
sustained their traditional name; the 16th made a dashing charge,
covering the infantry, who had fallen into square; we astonished the
king and the several princes by the quickness of our movements, they
calling us the Lall Goral Wallas, or Bullam Wallas. We broke up in
a few days afterwards, each regiment marching to their respective
stations, the 16th back to Meerut, where we arrived on the 4th of

[Sidenote: My comrade Jaco.]

I might have introduced to the reader before this an inseparable
companion I had while in cantonments, and one who not only shared
my bed and board, but one who, during many hours of serious thought
and fretfulness about all at home, mother and sisters, made me laugh
and forget what I had been thinking about a few moments before;
this creature was Jaco, my monkey; where he was born, or where
he originally sprung from, or his race, I cannot tell. I am no
Darwinian, but positively, the amount of tact and knowledge displayed
by Jaco, often since has led me to consider our possible relationship
well. I purchased Jaco for a small sum from a native, intending, if
he remained with me, to train him well and keep him as a companion;
I took him to my quarters, and as a first lesson to teach him
subjection and obedience, tied him to the handle of my trunk; here,
I kept him sufficiently long, that, by kind treatment, I thought I
had weaned him from any bad tricks he had learned; he, of course,
got quite used to a sword, a carbine, and of my dress; I made him a
nice-fitting scarlet jacket, blue pants, and a cap with gold lace,
and, dear me, how I laughed to see my tiny mock soldier strutting
about; this pleased him well. My comrade had a spaniel dog. Jaco and
the spaniel got quite friendly. This creature was also very biddable,
and on both, my comrade and I commenced a series of drill, providing
Jaco with a wooden sword. In a short time they got so advanced, that
on the word "mount," Jaco would stride the spaniel, and away out with
either of us to parade for guard mounting; this they continued to
do, till mounting guard became an every-day's duty, creating a great
amount of laughter, and they were never absent. If I happened to be
tired, and lying down getting a little rest, Jaco would jump on the
table, make faces at himself in the glass, then, to annoy me, or get
me up, as he knew he was disturbing me, get pen and ink, as he had
seen me do, and destroy any paper that lay about with his scrawling;
if I took no notice, and he found it was no use teasing me that way,
he usually licked the pen, spitting out several times, made ugly
faces, all the time looking at me, I pretending to sleep. I don't
know that he had one bad habit, but thieving, and this he was expert
at; if I had received a paper, or was sending one home, and left it
on the table, nothing pleased poor Jaco better than to make away with
it. His usual plan was to leap on my table, watch me well for a time,
to make sure I was asleep, he gently came on the bed, above my head,
put his finger softly to my eyes and try to open them; this was done,
I suppose, to see if I would stir, then with a bound away on the
table, seize the package, and away to the woods, where he generally
remained till night, when he quietly came back, getting into bed at
my feet.

Jaco was a great pet all over the cantonment. I intended, if I had
been fortunate enough in keeping him, to bring him home: he, however,
often got me into blame for his thieving tricks, and one day returned
to my tent with a broken arm; how he got it I could never make out;
I applied splints, and he seemed to recover the use of it, but I
fancied the pain drove him mad, for he went to the woods one day, and
never came back.

[Illustration: (Vignette)]

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  Rio Scinde having died, his throne usurped by the Rannie or
  Queen of Gwalior--Ordered to join Lord Gough's Army at Agra--The
  Palace of Agra--The ancient seat of the Moguls of Delhi--Lord
  Ellenborough rewarding Pollock and Nott--The Targ or Marble
  Tomb of Ackbar's favourite daughter--March through the country
  of the Ryots--Grain-fields--Religious superstition--The white
  bull--Women--The Chumble river crossed--No enemy in sight--Nature
  of ground before Maharajpoor--Christmas morning--General Grey and
  his Division to arrive at Gwalior--Disposition of Troops--March
  to Battle--Wheat-shocks filled with Sharpshooters--Battle--Push
  on to within fifteen miles of Gwalior--The Raumi comes out
  to meet us--Unconditional surrender--Gwalior a formidable
  Place--The Queen and her army surrender--Grey joins us 3rd
  January--Reinstatement of the young King--Grand Review--Incident
  on a Shooting Excursion--"Bob don't go, Bob don't go"--Break
  up Camp, 3rd February--Ordered back to Meerut--Passage of the
  Chumble--Frightened Game--A Chase with a Stag--Through Agra and
  Delhi to Meerut.

Peace was not of long duration. The old King of Rio Scinde having
died, the British Government, by treaty with him, were bound to see
his son established on his throne. It was now usurped by the Rannie
of Gwalior, who deposed the rightful heir.

The 16th Lancers were ordered to join the army summoned to assemble
at Agra to meet the Governor-General and Lord Gough, on the 15th
November. The Cawnpore division, under General Grey, were moving up
on the other side. The Meerut division consisted of ourselves--three
troops horse artillery, 39th and 40th regiments, three regiments
of native infantry, a battery foot artillery, three companies
sappers and miners. We were received by Lord Gough, who lately
arrived from England as Commander-in-Chief, with Sir Harry Smith as
Adjutant-General, and Colonel Havelock, my old friend, as Persian

[Sidenote: Country of the Ryots.]

Agra was at one time the summer residence of the Moghul of Delhi--it
stands on the Jumna river, whose waters lave the walls of the Palace.
On the marble slab in front of the throne, where in days gone by
stood many a proud Mahometan, when the Rajpoots lorded over the
conquered Hindoos, stood Lord Ellenborough, representative of proud
England, surrounded by her warriors and heroes of many a hard-fought
battle, and knighted Generals Pollock and Nott by Her Majesty's
command for bravery. In Agra also is the tomb or Targ of the great
and mighty Ackbar's favourite daughter, built of white marble, and
looked upon as one of the wonders of the world for its unsurpassing
grandeur--it was erected 700 years ago. Under the immense dome are
two slabs, covering the mausoleum, inlaid with precious stones. The
dome is flanked by four marble minarets 150 feet in height--the
garden approaching the tomb is full of orange and lemon trees--the
sacred lotus flower perfumes the air--every spot around it is sacred
to the Mahometan.

The order to march was issued on the 20th of November. This is the
most delightful time of the year in India--not so hot during the
day--mornings and evenings lovely and cool. The country of the Ryots
through which we marched is certainly a beautiful one, judging at
this time of the year. They are mostly Hindoos, are quiet, harmless
and industrious. It looked strange to us, now so near Christmas, to
see hundreds of acres of golden wheat ready for harvesting--no hedges
or fencing here, but as far as the eye can reach one field of waving
yellow, mixed with red poppy.

The Hindoos are firm believers in transmigration, consequently
never eat any animal food. The Brama or Sacred Bull, mostly white,
with a hump on his shoulders, his head hung with garlands of
flowers, is allowed to range where he likes, and is fed out of
flour or sugar-barrels, and none dare molest him. The women are
most degraded--never educated,--they are not supposed to possess
souls--they never eat with men, and among the high caste they are
not allowed to be seen by another man. After marriage, which is
contracted when about twelve years of age, they are old and ugly when
thirty is reached. When I have seen a group of these girls waiting
with their lamps at the four corners of the road for the bridegroom,
I have often thought of the parable of the Ten Virgins.

[Sidenote: The Chumble river crossed.]

Our march was generally finished by nine in the morning. After
guards and pickets have been placed, I have nearly always visited
the nearest village, having learned some Hindoostanee. I could make
them understand. I always found them civil and kind, but afraid of
soldiers, some Europeans being very insulting, and even I have heard
complaints of being robbed of fruit, poultry, or anything suitable
to them. The followers of an Indian army being all natives, but of
course of different parts of India, are generally great thieves.
Naturally an army _en route_ is very destructive, so many animals to
feed--elephants, camels, horses. The Government profess to pay for
everything used, especially if camped in a grain or cotton field.

[Sidenote: March to battle.]

We arrived at the river Chumble on 24th December, and moved as
follows:--16th Lancers in front, 40th following, up to their armpits
in water, next the artillery, then the 39th, and so on. We had
information before crossing that the enemy would probably oppose
the landing, as they were in the neighbourhood, but we saw none of
them. We were ordered to gallop to the front and reconnoitre. As
we advanced about five miles we saw the enemy's camp at a distance
between two villages. We halted allowing the column to come up.
The ground here was very rough, and interspersed by ugly ravines.
Between us and them was a very deep Nulla, with only two places to
ford it, five miles apart. Wet as we were from our recent fording
the Chumla, I had to go on in charge of the advance guard and remain
all night. Our baggage, or tents, not having come up--what was worse
the Commissariat had not arrived, and we felt hungry. The enemy's
cavalry were reconnoitering on our front, and during the night a
very strict watch was kept up. Morning at last dawned, beautiful as
weather could make it--Christmas morning and all--and a pretty plight
it found us in, hungry, wet clothes, and if we wanted to drink we had
plenty muddy water. About four o'clock, p.m., I was ordered to mount
again, take twenty men, and strengthen the outlying pickets. We had
not taken off boots or clothes for four days, nor had the saddles
been off the horses during the same time. I was further directed
by the officer in charge of the picket, after I had reported to
him, to take six troopers to the front as an extra look-out on the
ford, patrolling myself between my post and the main picket every
half-hour. About twelve at night a rocket went up from a village
within our lines, and was answered immediately by a light from the
enemy's camp. The village was at once surrounded, and every man in
it made prisoners. I suffered fearfully that night, being so long in
the saddle with wet trousers; my legs were as raw as a piece of beef.
Give me fighting--fair open fighting, at once--in preference to such
torture. We waited here, without attacking, three days, expecting
some of General Grey's division, mainly from Cawnpore, towards

On the night of the 28th we got orders quietly to turn out at 4
o'clock in the morning, 29th December, to march without baggage or
other incumbrance, with one day's cooked rations. We fell into line
exactly to time, when Lord Gough with Lord Ellenborough and staff
rode along the front, speaking words of encouragement to each corps.

[Sidenote: Battle.]

Sir Joseph Thackwell, who had only one arm, commanded the Light
Division, consisting of the 16th Lancers, Body Guards, three
troops Horse Artillery, Outram's Irregulars. The centre division
was commanded by Colonel Vallient, comprised the 40th foot, two
batteries Foot Artillery, two corps of Native Infantry, one company
of Engineers. The Left Division consisting of 39th Foot, five
Native Cavalry, two regiments Native Infantry, and one company of
Sappers under Sir Harry Smith. Each division crossed the ravine
within one mile of each other. They were in position between three
villages--Maharajpoor in the centre, Juna on the right, and Chuna on
the left. We marched until seven o'clock, when we halted. The enemy
at once opened fire from their half-moon battery. Nothing could be
more welcome; we hurrahed several times and shouted lustily, "There
goes the Prize-Money," showing, without doubt, the general feeling
of our army,--there was no such thing as failure. The trumpeter now
sounded for us "To Horse, To Horse," and away we went at a swinging
trot to the front, preceded by Quarter-Master General Churchill, as
it is that officer's business to learn the position of an enemy, and
the nature of the ground, we advanced in close column of troops. Our
route lay through a cotton plantation, and on nearing the enemy we
were received by a discharge from a six-gun battery. A six-pound shot
took my horse in the heart, and we both rolled over. I was extricated
by some Grenadiers of a Native regiment just passing, much bruised.
I was not long without a horse, as peppering had been going on by
the advanced picket, a horse, minus the rider, fully accoutred,
which had belonged to the enemy, passed. I seized it, and soon came
up with my troop. We formed in line, in front of us being a field
of wheat standing in shocks; these we found occupied by the enemy's
sharp-shooters, quite concealed. A shot from one of these picked off
General Churchill; as he fell, Colonel Somerset, an aide, dismounted
to assist him; he was nearly as unfortunate, as a shot from one of
their batteries broke his leg, killing his horse on the spot--poor
Churchill died as he was being taken to the rear. The battle now
became more fierce. The centre division, led by the 40th, under
Colonel Vallient, charged, and at the point of the bayonet took the
Village of Maharajpoor. Just then, the enemy's cavalry were coming
down like a dark cloud upon our guns, when the 16th, my regiment, and
the Body Guards were ordered to charge; this we were quite prepared
to do, as soldiers, at least so far as my experience teaches, do
not like to be onviewers, or watchers. Charge we did, but to our
astonishment, as soon as they saw our movement, retreat was their
order, and we afterwards heard they never stopped until they reached
Gwalior. At noon the battle was over, the enemy fled, leaving all
their camp equipage, guns, and about six thousand dead on the field.
Their force was estimated 24,000, while ours only numbered 10,000,
in having left 4,000 to protect our camp and hospital. Our loss was
2,500 officers, rank and file.

[Sidenote: The Queen surrenders.]

The following day we pushed on, halting some fifteen miles from
Gwalior. Here we camped for a time. The Rannie, or Queen, came down
with a strong guard, four thousand cavalry, to pay her respects, and
make terms of peace with Lord Ellenborough. He would not hear of any
only an unconditional surrender. The day after the Rannie's visit
we marched on the capital, reaching Gwalior about nine a.m. Of all
the fortified places ever I had seen, this was the most formidable.
A large rock in the centre of an extensive plain, the city built in
the middle, and so surrounded by the rocky wall, as to leave only one
ascent, and that a zigzag one. The walls all round were loop-holed
and bristled with cannon. Our first thought was--We are done now.
But, of course, engineering skill and brave hearts laugh at stone
walls. All was got ready to storm, as if taken, it must be taken at
a dash, and as is always the case, a flag of truce was despatched
to warn of our intention of giving them one hour to choose between
unconditional surrender or the consequence of a refusal. In half that
time the Ranee and her army marched out, a battalion of our infantry
entered, and hoisted the British flag on the walls.

We remained in Gwalior until joined by General Grey on January 3rd.
This division had marched from Cawnpore, and consisted of the 9th
Lancers, 3rd Buffs, three regiments Native Infantry, 2 brigades of
Artillery, and the 50th Foot, under command of Colonel Anderson. They
had been engaged with other portions of the enemy at Punneah on the
same day we were fighting at Maharajpoor.

On the 4th, the day following, the entire army was paraded to do
honour to the young king, who had been reinstated on his throne,
the ceremony being performed before all the people, in front of
the city--and on the following day we were reviewed by Lord Gough,
in presence of His Majesty, Lord Ellenborough, and the king's
ministers. In the Governor-General's address of thanks to the army,
he promised us a medal in shape of a star for the capture of Gwalior,
and the Ranee, though now deposed, gave one crow of rupees. This
was given directly, and a squadron of the 9th and one of the 16th
Lancers escorted it in bags, carried by fourteen camels, to the
Commander-in-Chief's camp.

In any part of India I have ever been, I have always seen plenty of
game, but the territory of Gwalior can certainly boast of more than
any other. The gardens were laid out beautiful. Fruit of every kind
was abundant. The principal people here are half Portuguese.

[Sidenote: "Bob, don't go, Bob, don't go."]

The following incident occurred on one of my shooting excursions.
Three of us went out looking for pea-fowl, as they make a beautiful
dish. We reached a Mango grove, and sat under a tree. A stream of
water ran a few yards away from us, beautiful in appearance to bathe
in. Robert Prichard, a corporal in the regiment, one of us, took
it into his head to bathe. I remonstrated with him, urging probably
the presence of venomous snakes or serpents, very numerous in the
Bengal Presidency. He would go, and go he did. My last words were:
"Bob, don't you go." As he started, immediately there came the same
words--"Bob, don't you go"--"Bob, don't you go," again came more
rapidly. Bob did turn back rather afraid, still he persuaded himself
he was no coward, away he went again, and again the same words came
thick and fast, "Bob, don't you go," "Bob, don't you go." On looking
up we discovered a number of brown birds, similar in appearance to
thrushes, in the trees, and as we rose to leave the cry went on,
"Bob, don't you go," "Bob, don't you go," but Bob did bathe, and was
bitten by a venomous snake, and died that evening.

I have previously stated that the Hindoos are very superstitious,
and do not kill anything--not even the poisonous snake. This part
of India is not much travelled over by Europeans, and all sorts of
dangerous reptiles and wild beasts live on undisturbed to kill man.

The 16th Lancers had by this time completed twenty-two years'
service in India, and naturally enough, many looked forward for the
order to bring them back to England. It was not to be yet, however,
although we all thought that the 9th had come out to relieve us.

On the third of February we broke up camp, and commenced and
marched back to our several cantonments. On our way the time passed
pleasantly enough. After camp-pitching for the day, if a village
was within easy distance, I generally went thither, accompanied by
some companion. Generally the villagers will shy away when they get
a glimpse of a soldier, they are afraid of being plundered, but the
most reasonable excuse is, I think, to be found in their religion
being insulted, at least here, for almost everything is sacred. Their
former rulers, the Rajahs, plundered unmercifully, and allowed their
men to commit the vilest of crimes.

[Sidenote: Frightened game.]

So full is this country of game as we neared the river Chumble,
where I had on my way up got such a severe wetting in crossing, as
to fasten a severe cold on me for some days. One morning at sunrise,
geese, duck, and other water-fowl rose off the water in such a large
dense cloud as to darken the air, as if a thunder-storm were coming
on. No one with us ever saw such a multitude. Like every other living
thing, they are never disturbed, but live on and multiply.

No matter what our position in life--either high or low--or whatever
our tastes for a variety of food, no men feel the loss of satisfying
this desire more than soldiers on a campaign, always confined to the
same diet. I have heard old soldiers say they remembered they had
such an abhorrence for hard biscuit, and such an appetite for fresh
bread, impossible to get at the time, that if a year's pay could get
one fresh loaf, they would give it. We felt now something of this
feeling, and all ranks longed for a change of some sort, either in
bread or meat. Here was a fine opportunity, and it was availed of
to the full extent, as far as the animal food could do it. Three of
our officers, Captain Meek, Lieutenant Patterson, and the Veterinary
Surgeon, respectively nicknamed--Meek, The Hair Trunk; Patterson,
Black Jack; and the veterinary, Hot-water Jack--were sitting together
engaged in mending their jackets and pants, one occasionally rising
to feed the fire over which was pinioned on the sticks a leg of a
stag or of mutton, I could not say which, and no doubt, as they
felt hungry, anticipating a nice feed, when all of a sudden we were
startled by shouts and hurrahs and roars of laughter. A dog had
stolen unawares, when they were engaged in their tailoring, and
making one bounce, seized the roasting limb, and away with him. The
three, with jackets pants and flannels flying from their arms, after
the poor hungry brute, shouting with all their might--"Stop thief!
stop thief!" It was relished after all, notwithstanding the extra
handling and dog-bites it got.

[Sidenote: Through Agra and Delhi to Meerut.]

After passing the river and ascending the hill on the opposite bank,
we came suddenly on a herd of antelopes. So astonished did they seem,
on perceiving horsemen, they actually stood staring at us, until
nearing them, they started at a bound, some dashing through the ranks
of our squadron. One of our men gave chase to a splendid buck, as he
ran towards a village, near which we knew was a pond. The stag took
to it; the man followed, having jumped off his horse, and seized him
by the horns. The stag was the strongest, and dashed the man away in
the water; still he held on until an officer coming on the scene,
stabbed him, and, amid roars of laughter, the corporal emerged,
covered with green slime and chick-weed. That day we had venison for
twelve, the officers taking the rest.

Agra and Delhi was at last reached, then Meerut on the 4th March,
having been five months on that campaign, and lost fifty men from the
regiment. Here we passed the hot season, from the middle of March
to the beginning of May, as what are called the hot winds blow from
eight in the morning till between four and five in the evening, no
one in that time can stir out of doors--not even the natives can
stand the scorching heat. The torment, the mosquitoes, are busy
humming all this time. I have seen men almost blinded with their
swollen faces; however, there is one relief, every soldier can have a
native to fan him, and keep them off. Another pest during this season
is found in the numbers of jackalls who run in packs at night, and
actually bold enough to get under the beds.

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  Old companionship at Meerut--Arbuthnot and the 16th--Grand
  turn out--A bet won--40th leave for home--9th Lancers
  for Umballa--Natives with tattoo bring in fruit,
  vegetables--Description of the Mango--Sedanna--The Begum or Queen,
  a pensioner of the Company--Something of her life--Persuades
  the Rajah to fly--Feigning assassination caused him to stab
  himself--Proclaimed Queen by her Army--Marries a French
  adventurer--Visit to our Camp--Her palace--Rumours of an invasion
  of our territory by the Shieks near Ferozepoor--Lord Gough at
  Umballa--News from the Punjaub--The Rannie or Queen had dethroned
  Dulep Sing--Ordered to Punjaub--Sketch of the Sing dynasty--Three
  French officers revolutionize the Army and bring it under the
  French model--They possess the whole of the Punjaub Peshwa--An eye
  on Bengal--Advised to become allies--Treaty with Lord Auckland--The
  Queen makes away with the three eldest sons--Her paramour, Lal
  Sing--Confines the youngest in the harem--Lord Gough at Mudkee--Sir
  R. Sale killed--Ferusha--50th and 62nd Foot--Ignorance at Meerut
  of all their movements--March on the Sutledge--Sad evidences _en
  route_ of late havoc.

[Sidenote: General Arbuthnot and the 16th.]

Old companionship of regiment is never forgotten in the service. We
had beside us now in cantonment the Fortieth Foot, a corps that had
served in times gone by with the 16th in the Peninsular wars and at
Waterloo. They had now been four years in Afghanistan, were present
at Kilat, Gilzie and Candahar. Having plenty of money on hand, after
our late campaign, we often fraternized with them, and indeed were
boon companions as far as we could in the pleasures and enjoyments of
camp life at Meerut. Dinners and parties, at which I am sorry to add
much intoxication prevailed, was an every-day occurrence. So much was
revelling carried on that on General Arbuthnot coming to the station
to assume command, and when at dinner with the Colonel, the state of
the regiment was the subject of discussion. This was the question,
"What would you do, Colonel, if your regiment was required to-morrow
morning for immediate service; they are all drunk and wandering about
anywhere." This matter was soon settled by a heavy wager--I suppose
merely in name--by the Colonel, who stated the regiment would be out
at daylight in the morning--it was then ten o'clock--and if any man
was absent, or should fall off his horse, the bet was forfeited. The
Adjutant, Lieutenant Dynon, gave orders at once to sound "boot and
saddle," the regiment to turn out half-an-hour before daylight. The
trumpeters did their duty, galloped all over the lines sounding the
alarm; the men tumbled in from all directions.

The hour named for the parade arrived--the regiment, complete, not
a man absent, stood out on the plain awaiting the General and his
staff. They, accompanied by a number of ladies, put in an appearance.
The roll was called in front of them, and with the exception of
ninety-seven men, invalids in hospital, every man of the corps was
present. To test the regiment more thoroughly, twenty-four difficult
movements were gone through at a gallop, then we advanced in review
order, every horse covered with foam. The General, of course, could
do nothing after losing his wager, and witnessing our splendid
movements, but compliment us most highly. As we marched back to
cantonments we were wildly cheered by native and European regiments,
and as a reward we received from the Colonel a few more days' leave
for enjoyment. Dinner parties and suppers commenced again, and
continued well up to the time the Fortieth were ordered to Calcutta,
to embark for England.

[Sidenote: 9th Lancers for Umballa.]

In July the rainy season commences. It falls in torrents three weeks
at a time, forming deep nullas or ravines, which make it difficult,
indeed dangerous, to get about, and this lasts till after the middle
of August.

In November, the Ninth Lancers came up from Cawnpore, and as we had
not met them, or at least the two regiments had not been together
since eighteen hundred and eighteen, what could be expected than that
another fraternization as had taken place with the Fortieth would be
repeated. This I need hardly say occurred, and continued till the 9th
marched for Umballa.

We now enter the months when fruit and vegetables get ripe, and
many a visit we had from the natives to our camp, driving or rather
leading their tattoos on poneys laden with luxurious fruit. The mango
is here very plentiful, and it may be interesting to describe it,
the most delicious fruit in the world. The tree is about the size of
a large oak; the fruit, when ripe, is of a greenish yellow, with
reddish cheeks, the skin, when removed, presents a sort of jelly; a
small stone, the size of a peach stone, in the middle. We eat them
out of a large pan, in which is first placed some cold water. We had
also plentiful supplies of guava, custard fruit, plantain, bananna,
and water-melon of the size of an English beer-barrel for three pice,
or a penny.

[Sidenote: Queen marries a French adventurer.]

Some five miles from Meerut cantonments is a town called Sedanna,
where the Begum or Queen resided, who was once the monarch of this
district, subject only to the once powerful Mogul of Delhi, but at
this time a pensioner of the East India Company. There is a curious
story told of this extraordinary woman, and I will here give it.
She was the favourite of a Rajah who reigned some years back. She
was instrumental in raising a revolt, and then urged him to fly,
which he did. She, of course, accompanied him, but carried in a
palanquin. While in this conveyance she pretended to stab herself,
and screamed wildly. When the Rajah heard it, thinking she had
been assassinated--not a very uncommon thing in India--he plunged
a poniard into his heart, and died on the spot. No sooner was the
Rajah dead than she jumped on a horse, galloped back, surrounded
by her guards, collected the army, harangued them, saying she
would now lead them to victory. They cheered. She did lead them
against a powerful enemy, and by her perseverance--a second Joan of
Arc--conquered. She was established in the favour of her army, who
confirmed her Queen. Subsequently she married a French adventurer,
Sombra Dyce, and made him general. He, being a Roman Catholic,
converted her, at least nominally, built a chapel, which I have been
in, and in which she had a tomb erected to the memory of the old
Rajah, her first husband. There is also another to that of Sombra
Dyce, her second. She had two sons by her second marriage, who
were always at law with the old East India Company, claiming some
possessions of their mother; but I could never learn the result, as
the appeals were frequent to the Home Government.

She was now getting old, but frequently came to our cantonment, as
she was friendly with our Colonel, and loved to see the 16th Lancers.
She has even been to our theatre, and whenever, in passing, she saw
any children, always threw them handfuls of silver coin. A number
of her people had embraced Christianity, who were ministered to by
a regular priest. Whenever we strolled out to her palace we were
received very kindly, were allowed the use of her billiard tables,
as all the furniture was of European make, and many a good picnic we
enjoyed in the mango grove of the palace.

On Sunday, the thirteenth November, 1845, as we were marching from
church, news soon spread that war had again broken out, and the
Meerut division were to make forced marches to join Lord Gough,
who had pushed on from Umballa, as the Sikhs had crossed into our
territory in large force near Ferozepoor. The Cawnpore and Delhi
divisions were also to move up in haste. This was astounding news to
men so long in India as most of the 16th had been, but nevertheless
all felt glad--in fact rejoiced--at the prospects of another good
campaign, so eager were our men for it that the sick in hospital,
such as were convalescent, would persuade the surgeon they were well
enough, and begged to be let go with the regiment.

[Sidenote: Sketch of the Sing dynasty.]

Before starting, we had learned a civil war had broken out in the
Punjaub. The Rannie had dethroned Dulep Sing, the rightful heir, the
army was divided--one half for her, and the other against--and this
state of things had been going on for several months; we then, the
army of Her Majesty, as is always the case, had to set matters right.
Before entering upon any further particulars, a short history of the
Sing family will not be out of place.

Runjeit Sing was the founder of the dynasty; he was a powerful chief,
having conquered all the smaller chiefs around him, established
himself as Maha Rajah at Lahore. In time, two French officers came
along from Persia, soldiers of fortune, as such men are to be found
everywhere, ready for anything as long as they get good pay. These
men had served under the first Napoleon. One of them offered to raise
a regiment to imitate the old French Imperial Guards, and the other
made similar offers to raise one of cavalry. The offer was accepted.
Both regiments were risen to the satisfaction of the Rajah; he made
the first a General, the second a Colonel. To one, the General, he
gave one of his daughters to wife. Subsequently, another Frenchman
came into the county, named La Court, and his services were accepted,
so that between the three old French soldiers the Rajah raised a
powerful and well-equipped force; and having defeated a powerful
neighbouring chief at Rungier, or the seven-hilled city, he became
master of the whole Punjaub, or country of five rivers. After these
successes he attacked the Afghans, drove them out of Pesheva, and
took possession of the entrance of the Kyber, where he built the fort
alluded to previously in this work, called Junrood. Runjeit Sing
signifies, in their language, Fierce Lion. When he succeeded thus
far in his conquests it became apparent he had an eye on Bengal,
and thought he could drive the British back to the sea. His French
generals, however, told him different, advising him not to interfere
with them, or he might lose all. Craftiness, and perhaps fear, caused
him to become an ally, as he made a treaty with Lord Auckland,
signing it on the banks of the Sutledge river, bringing very valuable
presents to be sent to our Queen. Four sons survived him, named
Currick Sing, Nunihall Sing, Sheer Sing, and Dulep Sing. The first
three were easily made away with by assassination, by the favourite
Queen, who had the youngest, Dulep, placed in the harem, where old
Runjeit had five hundred wives and concubines. Having accomplished
all this, she united the contending parties under her paramour, Lal
Sing, meditating an attack upon the East India Company territories.
They assembled at the fort of Umritsa seventy thousand strong,
crossed the Sutledge before our Government were aware of their doings.

[Sidenote: Lord Gough at Mudkee.]

[Sidenote: Sad evidences of late havoc.]

Their first action was with Lord Gough, at Mudkee, 19th December,
1845, where he was encamped. The men, when surprised, were preparing
their morning meal; they soon, however, got in fighting trim, some
in their shirt-sleeves. The 3rd Light Dragoons, assisted by the
fiftieth foot and others, gained a complete victory over them. It
was here General Sir R. Sale got killed. Lord Gough pushed on that
night, 21st December, and came on the main body encamped at Ferusha,
fought them all that day, 22nd, and but for a ruse would have been
surely defeated. Ammunition falling short, a troop of Horse Artillery
galloped off to Ferospoor for a supply. The enemy's cavalry, seeing
them through a cloud of sand, imagined their retreat was being cut
off, panic-stricken, they bolted, when the 3rd Light Dragoons and 4th
Native Cavalry charged under a heavy fusilade from the infantry--50th
and 62nd--completely routed them from their position. In this charge,
Colonel Somerset, aide to Lord Gough, was killed. The Meerut division
knew nothing of all this until we arrived at Muddkee on the 1st
January, when the sights we met confirmed our suspicion. At first we
came across dead camels, then, on approaching the village, several
of our native regiment soldiers came out to greet us. A sad sight
indeed--some bandaged almost from head to foot; arms and legs off.
All left behind in the hurry to keep up with the enemy. On laying
out our picket guard with the Quarter-Master General, as I was in
the advanced guard, we came upon a heap of sand, out of which part
of a man's hand projected; also, a little further on, part of a
hand and wrist, with so much of the cuff of a coat as showed a 50th
button. We, of course, performed the duty of burying all such, as the
pursuing army had no time. Making a reconnaisance with my captain,
we entered a kind of park-like enclosure, and here we found traces
of the fearful work of Gough's engagement. Men, horses, and camels
lay in heaps unburied, vultures in hundreds feasting on them; none
had been touched, all lay as they fell. The Sikhs lay in heaps under
their guns, the Light Dragoons as they fell from their horses, the
tents of the blind half-hundred still standing, knapsacks around in
all directions. The guns we secured, and fatigue parties performed
the sickening duty of burying the dead.

[Illustration: (Vignette)]

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  Hureka Gaut--Sir Harry Smith ordered to intercept Rungour
  Sing--Joined by 77th foot--March--View of Buddural--Opened
  fire--16th to hold ground while infantry push on--Too weak to fight
  yet--Baggage cut off--Some of 31st foot made prisoners--Treatment
  of their sergeant by the enemy--Push into Loodianna--News of their
  retreat--Ordered to intercept--Arrival at fort--Harem--Finding two
  bags of rupees--Reinforced and advance--Order of troops--Battle
  of Aliwal commenced--Sir Harry's telescope cut in two--"Lancers,
  three cheers for our Queen"--Charge--A square of guards--Corporal
  Newsom--Bravery--Killed--Green flag in his hand--"Immortalized
  16th"--Fearful loss--Join another squadron--Pursuit to
  river--Destruction--Wounded to village--March to join Lord
  Gough--Two hundred cannon belching together--Sobraon 10th
  February--Description of battle--British flag planted--The
  bridge blown up--Charge the entrenchments--Victory and end
  of Sikh War--Losses--Labour--Chiefs bring out the young
  Maharajah--Reception in Lord Hardinge's marquee--Terms--Crowning
  the young King--Proud Shieks--Retort on our Sepoys.

[Sidenote: Joined by the 77th Foot.]

After this melancholy duty was performed, we pushed on to the
Sutledge river, to overtake Lord Gough, and on the 5th January
reached Hureka Gaut, encamping on the right of his Lordship's
division. We lay here till the 15th, when General Sir Harry Smith
was ordered to intercept Rungour Sing, he having crossed the river
higher up, and burnt Loodianna, one of our stations. On the third
day's march Sir Harry sent back for reinforcements, and the 16th
Lancers, with a troop of artillery, was sent to him. We made forced
marches in order to overtake him, which we did at Jugram; here we
were joined by the 77th, having been pushed up from Calcutta. On the
evening of the 20th we received orders to leave all our tents and
baggage; subsequently the order to take all was given, and we mounted
at 3 o'clock next morning, stopping at eight to roll our cloaks. As
we were doing so, some of the look-out descried the enemy's cavalry.
We remounted, and, as usual, I was sent on the advance picket.

[Sidenote: Arrival at fort.]

A large body of cavalry-men were moving in front, parallel with us.
Soon we made a sand-hill, and on going up it saw the Fort heavily
mounted with cannon, thousands of bayonets glittering in the morning
sun. This was Buddiwal, a village lying between us and it. We halted
till the body of the regiment came up, when a battery opened on us.
The 31st foot behind could scarcely travel up--the sand was so deep.
Sir Harry rode to our colonel, telling him to keep ground with the
artillery till all the infantry had passed on, as he did not intend
to fight them that day, but would pass on to Loodianna. They were
20,000 strong, we only about 4,000. Here was evidently some error,
or some order neglected, for the baggage was too far in rear instead
of being well up behind the column. As soon as these flying columns
of cavalry saw the unprotected state of the baggage, they who had
been seen moving parallel with us, dashed like a thick cloud, cut off
our camels with the tents, bedding, money-chests, capturing also the
guard of the 31st regiment, a sergeant and twelve men. That night was
one of debauch over the spoils. They cruelly treated their prisoners.
The Sikh soldiers run a red-hot iron through the sergeant's body.
This treatment they would all have received, but it came to the ears
of their General who stopped it. We, pushing on, got to Loodianna,
and found great havoc had been committed. The barracks and mess-house
had been burned, after the 50th left to join the army. What few
troops we found there were our native soldiers, and they were shut
up in the fort. Here we remained till the 23rd, until some of our
elephants with tents and baggage, who had escaped from the raid and
gone a long way round, came up. On 23rd January, Sir Harry received
intelligence; the enemy were in full retreat from the fort, and
cavalry and horse artillery went off at a gallop to intercept them.
Sir Harry was too late; when we got to the fort it was deserted--they
had the start of us. Ordered to dismount and enter the fort, we found
they had burnt the bedding, money-chests and tents, taking with them
all of value, and it was quite apparent they hurried away, fearing
we would come down on them from Loodianna. The town also bore the
marks everywhere of a quick departure. On entering the palace, we
found it undisturbed, profusely furnished with European furniture;
and on going into one of the best rooms, my comrade and I heard
some women scream. Rushing to where the sound proceeded from--an
adjacent room--we saw some of our native cavalry ill-treating two
women--Circassians--who had belonged to the Rajah's harem. They were
forcing their jewellery off them. On seeing two white soldiers, they
ran to us. By persuasion, and at times by threats, they showed us
where some money was hid. Taking us into the Seraglio, they pointed
out a black stone near a fire stove. The floor of this apartment
was made of marble, chequered black and white. On lifting the stone
pointed out, we discovered two bags containing rupees. Counting them
in camp, one had three hundred, the other four hundred and fifty. The
girls were beautiful Circassian slaves, and could not have cost less
than one thousand rupees each. They were much obliged to us, saying,
"Company Dewoy, thank you, thank you." We had great fun that night
in camp, appropriating anything found of use. We killed cows and
sheep, made cakes, had plenty of milk, and, besides, the two young
Circassians attended on us.

[Sidenote: Battle of Aliwal.]

Reinforcements of infantry constantly arriving from Lord Gough, on
the 26th we numbered 10,000 fighting men, and on the 28th we were to
march to meet the enemy, who had re-crossed the Sutledge, and added
to their number 4,000 men, making them 24,000 in all. We marched
in solid square; cavalry in front, then infantry, artillery in
centre, and cavalry in rear. The enemy were in sight, as reported
by our advance picket, at eight o'clock. As we got near, they moved
out of camp, and deployed into line. The 16th Lancers, with the 5th
native cavalry and two troops of horse artillery, were ordered to
the left. Two regiments of native cavalry, with horse artillery and
31st and 50th foot in centre, all flanked by four regiments of native
infantry. The enemy commenced the action at half-past eight, opening
a heavy cannonade from the village of Aliwal, their centre--their
line reaching three miles from right to left. Very soon the 31st and
50th stormed the village. Colonel Cureton, of the 16th, Brigadier
of Cavalry, turned the enemy's left by a rapid movement of cavalry
and artillery. On the right a large body of choice Sikh troops were
coming down through a wood to outflank us. On this being apparent,
our left wing--the 16th Lancers and the 5th Native Cavalry--charged,
putting them to the route. I was acting as orderly to Sir Harry,
and just where we stood a shell from the enemy, as it flew above
us, burst overhead, a piece falling and cutting his telescope in
two, as he took it from his eye. This seemingly vexed Sir Harry, for
he immediately despatched me to Major Smyth, commanding the right
wing, with orders to take that battery. As I delivered the order
I fell in with my troop. In front was a battalion of the Rajah's
Guards in square. Major Smyth shouted, "Boys, three cheers for the
Queen."--"Lancers charge." Away we went as fast as horses could
gallop, right through the square, and away to the battery of guns,
sabering the gunners, and captured and spiked the guns. An incident
is here worthy of recording. The square was just broken by a corporal
named Newsome, leaping his horse right into it. As he jumped he
shouted, "Here goes, boys; death or a commission!" Unfortunately for
the country, and the service, to which he was an ornament, he was
killed, and when found, after the square was broken, he had nineteen
bayonet stabs on his body, with the green standard of Mahomet in the
grasp of his hand. My lieutenant was wounded, and the Cornet killed
here, the Sergeant-Major severely wounded. We were separated from
the wing. I gave the word "about," and as we came back, it was as
bad as going to the front. The enemy were scattered, firing in every
direction. Our Major fell from his horse wounded. Him we brought to
the rear, when we met the General, who shouted: "Well done 16th, you
have immortalized yourselves to-day." Missing so many officers, he
added: "Where are your officers--all wounded or dead?"

[Sidenote: "Immortalized 16th."]

On being informed, he desired me to take the remnant of the troop and
join the squadron going over the hill there, pointing them out. I had
45 men out of 87. We joined the other squadron just in time; it was
commanded by Major Beer, and was just about charging another square,
enfiladed by artillery; having done so, a retreat of the whole enemy
was the result. We followed in pursuit to the river; our guns cut
their bridge of boats; the flying enemy took to the water--and such
a sight!--men, horses, camels, artillery all swamping together. Our
gunners, in addition, shelling them from the shores. This was the
last of glorious Aliwal.

We formed on the bank, cavalry and artillery. Sir Harry passed along
our front as we gave a ringing cheer, his hat in hand. "Men," said
he, "it is I should cheer you, for you did the work. Your Queen and
country shall know of it." Then another ringer. And now for the
melancholy part of the work.

[Sidenote: Wounded to the village.]

We had not tasted meat or drink since six o'clock in the morning;
it was now evening. We had five miles to go over to collect the
wounded, and bury the dead. The carnage was fearful; horses, dead
and mutilated most fearfully, as they plunge very much when wounded.
Several were trying to get about on three legs; we killed these
outright. Where the fighting was close, as in square, men's bodies
were thickest; wounded in all conceivable ways; jaws shot away; often
heads; some disemboweled. But enough--it is not pleasant to remember,
particularly some who were near comrades; we lost in all seventy-six
officers and men killed, seventy-seven wounded, and one hundred and
sixty horses. Five thousand of the enemy had been killed, besides a
number drowned in the river on the retreat. We captured fifty pieces
of artillery and all their camp. It was laughable to see a man of the
31st lugging to his camp an elephant, by a piece of rope tied to his
trunk, and another with three camels tied together. In the evening
I was ordered to take some wounded to the hospital at the village,
two miles back. On getting there, the wounded were laid out on straw
down the centre street, the surgeons busy in their shirt sleeves
amputating arms and legs by the light of torches. Riding back in the
dark we could plainly hear the groans of the wounded and dying Sikhs;
we could not help them, and even if we attempted, they have been
known, even when almost dead, stretching out their hand and stabbing
a Sepoy or one of our own, who may have been near them. However,
all of ours were collected; when we got back the army was preparing
to bivouac for the night on the field. The following day was spent
in preparing lists of wounded and killed, and seeing the former as
comfortable as possible under cover of tents. On the 30th the wounded
and the guns captured were sent to Loodianna.

During the charge of the 16th Lancers through the squares of the
Imperial Guards, a sergeant of my troop received a musket shot in the
left side, and his horse also was shot dead. Then he was attacked
by four Sikhs; he defended himself bravely with his sword, having
cut down three. The fourth was about to finish him when a little
Ghoorka at a distance levelled his rifle and shot the foe, thus
saving the sergeant. Yet he died a few days after. These Ghoorkas are
small hill-tribe men. Under the Company there are three battalions,
officered by British officers, and good soldiers they are, loyal and
brave. They carry three formidable knives in the shape of a sickle,
and they have been known to kill a bear or tiger single-handed.
They are recruited from the tribes in the Himalaya Mountains beyond
Simla and Nina Tal. The officers and merchants, who reside on the
hills during the hot season, keep a number of these small hill men
as servants to carry the jompam, or fetch wood and water, each
family dressing them in Highland costume. They are very honest and
industrious. Numbers of them come in from the valleys with walnuts
and other fruits for sale.

[Sidenote: March to join Lord Gough.]

The scenery at the stations on the hills north of Bengal is grand.
Simla and Missuri, 14,000 feet above the sea level. The air is pure
and bracing, far above the mountains tower to 27,000 feet. When
the sun is setting in the west the view is splendid, as you see the
glaciers reflecting a thousand different colours. Then to look down
into the valleys below, far below, the roads are cut around the sides
of the hills, and you journey up from hill to hill, like going round
so many sugar loaves. Rose trees grow here to the size of oaks.
The birds are of gorgeous plumage, such as the Argus pheasant, the
Mango bird. The bantam fowl are numerous in the woods. Strawberries
and nectarines are in abundance, growing on the sides of the hills.
The natives bring in numbers of leopard and bear skins, also bears'
grease. Butterflies are beautiful also; beetles of a large size, such
as the elephant and stag beetle. I have made up cases of each that
went at 16 rupees or 32 shillings. The mule is the only carrying
animal who can travel round these roads with any safety. The ladies
are conveyed in jampanns, by four natives, a sort of palanquin, which
swings on a pole.

All being arranged, the following day we marched to join Lord Gough,
who with the main body are at Hureka Gaut. As we marched along the
villagers generally welcomed us with salaams.

[Sidenote: Battle of Sobraon.]

Lord Ellenborough had been succeeded as Governor-General by Lord
Hardinge. He, with General Gough, come out to meet Sir Harry and his
division. We halted, and both rode along our front, giving us great
praise for our victory at Aliwal on the 28th. We marched into camp,
and occupied a position on the right of the Army. Here we waited
five days, worried with picket and guard duty, waiting for the siege
guns being brought from Delhi by elephants. The enemy, we learned,
were in a strong position, well fortified, a sort of half-moon, each
horn resting on the Sutledge, with a bridge of boats in their rear,
either to bring up supplies with, or to retreat by--under the command
of Lall Sing, the Queen's favourite general. On the morning of the
tenth of February we formed, an hour before daybreak, not a sound
of trumpet or drum being heard. All was done silently. At daybreak
our mortars opened the ball by sending shell into the enemy's
position. At six we were answered, and over two hundred pieces of
ordnance roared away on both sides. A thirty-two pound ball, spent,
struck one of our elephants, and as it was the first we saw wounded,
we could not help laughing--indeed, the entire army burst into
laughter--though to laugh in such a scene seems almost incredible. He
had been hit on the rump, and to see him cantering and galloping over
that field, upsetting everything almost he came across was indeed
a sight. On the same field a fox started between the two armies,
and as the soldier's dog always follows him, one followed the fox,
but from the confusion at the time I lost sight of them, though the
fox stood some time confined, not knowing what way to get clear. At
nine the infantry began their work by firing all along the line--the
31st ordered to charge at a break made by our guns. They did, and
were repulsed by a heavy discharge of grape and canister. The 10th
were then ordered to advance and take part, and in a short time both
regiments, vieing with each other, made an entrance at the point
of the bayonet, one of the 31st mounted on the breastwork with the
British flag. It was completely perforated with shot, yet the man
was charmed, for he was not touched. He afterwards got a commission.
The 16th Lancers with a battery of Artillery, were ordered up to
command the bridge. The battery put in red-hot shot and destroyed
the bridge. The centre boat forming the bridge was filled with
combustibles. It was their intention, had they to retreat, to draw
us away after them, and then blow us up. Now commenced hot work. We
and the Infantry got into their intrenched position. All fought like
tigers, the Sikhs disputed every inch of ground down to the river
bank, and into it while they could stand. They fought till about
two o'clock, when the battle was ours. The river was all bloody and
choked with bodies now added to those that had by this time floated
down from Aliwal; and, strange, the water had risen two feet through
the jamming caused by this obstruction. Thus ended the battle of
Sobraon, and with it the Sikh war of 1845-46.

Our loss was one hundred and fifty officers and eight hundred rank
and file. General Dick was killed. The enemy left 16,000 dead and
wounded on the field.

[Sidenote: Reception in Lord Hardinge's marquee.]

Our Engineers, on the 12th of February, constructed a bridge.
We crossed over and marched towards their capital, Lahore. The
country was in a deplorable state through the previous civil war.
The agricultural and mercantile classes were ruined. As we neared
the city, after a seven days' march, not knowing how we would be
received, the principal chiefs and ministers made their appearance,
bringing the young heir, Dulep, a boy, with them, and to make terms
with the Governor-General they were received in his Lordship's
marquee, with a troop of the 9th and one of the 16th around inside
the tent. They begged hard that the British flag should not float on
the walls of Lahore, when his Lordship asked what compensation was
to be had for the blood of his countrymen shed, when they, without
provocation, invaded the Company's territory, "Yes," he added,
without reply, "the flag of England shall float over your walls,"
he would crown the young Maharajah and take the Doab, the territory
on the banks of the Sutledge up to Loodianna, as compensation for
the expense such acts had entailed. On the 21st we marched on to the
plain in front of the city, and encamped opposite the gate called
Delhi gate. The city is surrounded by high walls flanked by towers
mounting one hundred guns of large calibre, the whole surrounded
by a deep moat. The river Ravie flows through the city. The most
beautiful building was the Seraglio, the residence of the Rungeets,
six hundred concubines. Many a fair woman was in there at that time,
mostly from Circassia, captured by the Turcoman horse, in their raids
among the Circassian villages, and brought to the fairs held in India
every seven years for that purpose near the source of the Ganges.

[Sidenote: Departure of the French officers.]

On the 26th of February the young Maharajah was crowned in the
presence of the British Army and an immense throng of natives. The
day following, Lall Sing came in with 10,000 of his troops and
surrendered. They laid down their arms as they marched past us, our
Sepoys boasting they had defeated them. They retorted, saying, "No,
you black pigs, but it was the Europeans who had. The English were
brave, and they had fought them well." The Sikhs are a fine body
of men--tall, good looking, and very proud. They had mostly been
organized and drilled by French officers in Rungeit Sing's time, but
after his death and the civil war commenced, the Frenchmen left,
crossing to the Company's territories, some going home to France. It
is certain Avitavoolie took his wife, who was the daughter of the
Rungeit, and his daughter to Paris, to have them educated.

[Illustration: (Vignette)]

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  Sir H. Lawrence--Orders for home--Re-cross
  Sutledge--Jerosha--Scenes of previous engagement--Meerut--Leave
  for Calcutta--Down Ganges--Col. Cureton's farewell--Dum
  Dum--Calcutta, city, grand Ball--Sights--Embark for home--Bay
  of Bengal--Ascension--St. Helena--Doru Cliffs--Boats coming
  off--Relatives--March to Canterbury--Furlough--London--Meet Sisters
  and Mother--Deal--Battle--Anniversary--Buckingham Palace--Reviewed
  by Her Majesty--Claim Discharge--Causes--Take Ship for South Africa.

[Sidenote: Orders for home.]

Peace was proclaimed on the 4th March, and Sir Henry Lawrence was
appointed to remain as Resident, with a few of our troops, to protect
the young king. On the following day Sir Harry Smith told us the
Commander-in-Chief would now send us home, and volunteering would be
opened for two regiments, the 3rd Light Dragoons and 9th Lancers.
Any of us who chose might remain, however. Under the influence of
arrick, a mad drink, the 9th got one, and the 3rd got ninety, of
our men. The remnant, with the 31st Foot, left on the 8th of March
for Calcutta. Before leaving, we were highly complimented by Lords
Hardinge and Gough, and wished a safe voyage. Our bands struck up
"Home, Sweet Home," and I remember how sweet the very sound of that
air seemed so far away from home,--when one thought of the dear old
land, and those dearer still who were uncertain as to whether most of
us were living or dead.

[Sidenote: Calcutta. Grand ball.]

Pushing on now, on a different errand, we re-crossed the well-known
Sutledge River, came to Ferusha, where we fought on the 22nd and
23rd December, 1845; and, after pitching tents, rambled over the
field, one we had left in hot pursuit of the enemy. Words cannot
be found to describe our horror on finding all around was still
as death; not a living soul to be seen, the village completely
deserted, heaps of men, horses and camels lying there for three
months unburied; the infantry, just as they fell, clothed complete;
the dragoons the same way accoutred and spurred; the horses and
camels in the ditch just as they fell. We did as much as we could,
and went on towards Meerut, where we arrived on the 2nd May, being
met by the band of the 14th Light Dragoons, who played us to the
station. We were seven weeks from Lahore. Giving up our horses, we
made all preparations for home by Calcutta, 900 miles from Meerut.
We now sold our library, distributing the proceeds, together with
the benevolent and canteen fund, among the men. This, with our prize
money, after being separately awarded, was sent to our army agents
in London, to be drawn when we reached home. On the 8th of May we
started on foot for Gurmatesa Gaut, on the Ganges, just three days'
march, where we were to take boats for Calcutta. Before embarking
on the Ganges, a despatch was received from Lord Gough appointing
our Colonel, Cureton, Adjutant-General of the Army in Bengal. He
bade us a sorrowful good-bye, saying he came out with the regiment
in 1822, hoped to go home with them, but this promotion frustrated
that. "All the honours I have," said he, "and all the promotions I
have received, I attribute to the brave men of the 16th." All shook
hands with him, some went so far as to embrace him, and tears were
shed, for he was a father to his men. We had a strange voyage down
the Ganges, the water being low at this time of the year, and our
men did almost as they pleased, so joyful were they at the prospect
of going home. Few officers accompanied us, as many went over land
to England. Sailing at night was dangerous, our boats were therefore
moored; sandbars, stumps of immense trees, and an accumulation of
rubbish met us everywhere. Our time was generally passed shooting
flying-foxes, monkeys, alligators. We as often shot dead bodies as
living, the Hindoos consigning all the dead to the waters of their
goddess, Ganga. We reached Dum Dum, twelve miles from Calcutta, on
29th July, 1846, and as the ship at Calcutta was not ready, while
she was getting so we took up quarters in the Artillery barracks at
this station. Here we had a grand ball given by the citizens, and at
which our newly-appointed Colonel and a sergeant's wife made the only
couple who came out with the regiment. We had all the grandees of
Calcutta up at it. Every tree for miles was illuminated; dancing was
kept up all night. At this ball I met a young friend, who had been a
comrade of mine, when he was one of us, but who, fortunately, had
got married to a wealthy heiress, and was now settled near Calcutta,
in a most beautiful mansion. I have introduced the reader before
to Calcutta, but it was only a bird's-eye view from on board ship;
now, however, as I had leisure to visit it and walk through its
streets, I may give a more detailed description of it. Most of the
wealthy people live outside, in the suburbs, such as the Dum Dum or
Barrackpoor road. The city itself covers an area of sixteen square
miles, and has some fine streets; the principal ones, at each corner
have stands, where you can hire a pallankeen for a rupee, or two
shillings, a day, to go shopping or visiting; four waiters carry it,
two in front and two behind. They are beautifully got up, lined with
silk cushions and generally have a crimson blind. The old city is of
bamboo structure, thatched roofs, mostly inhabited by the lower order
of natives. In the city proper the buildings are large and handsome,
built mostly of brick, some of stone and marble. The brick houses
seem very old, as if they had been built at a very early period. It
is quite common to see elephants, mostly bearing some wealthy
Rajah in his howda, georgeously attired, towards the water front.
They are quite commonly used drawing heavy burdens, logs, &c. It is
hardly credible, but they are so sagacious as to be used in bringing
messages. I mean such as going alone for water. Camels may be met in
strings bringing goods from all points of India. In the evening, the
mall of Calcutta is the common cool resort. Here you may see all the
fashionables, and people from all parts of the earth. The bazaars are
very numerous; in any of them you can purchase for a small sum any
article you require. There are also some very fine hotels.


[Sidenote: Embark for home.]

[Sidenote: March to Canterbury.]

On the 14th of August we marched to Calcutta to embark, two hundred
and eighty-seven men all told. This was the remnant of eight hundred
who marched to the Panjaub in 1845. The hottest day ever known in
India was the day we embarked. Twelve men fell dead from the excess
of heat; indeed, the authorities were blamed for ordering us out
on such a day, on account of having some men who had been wounded,
and a number of women and children on board. The captain put to
sea at once, to avoid, if possible, any further sickness. On the
19th we got clear into the Bay of Bengal. The monsoons set in, and
we had a succession of storms for three weeks. We cleared in good
time Point de Galle; rounded Cape of Good Hope in the beginning of
October, and ran for St. Helena. Here we took in fresh water. A
French man-of-war, with troops from the island of Bourbon, anchored
alongside of us. Of course, we fraternized as well as we possibly
could, but the associations connected with St. Helena and England
were not then as well smoothed down as now. The island stands alone
like a large rock in mid-ocean. Passing the island of Ascension,
nothing particular occurred till our arrival in the British Channel,
on 23rd December, 1846. By daylight we looked on the land we loved,
and saw patches of snow here and there, and as we had seen none for
fifteen years, it was a sight we enjoyed. We felt all warmed up, and
hearts beat high when we saw the white cliffs of Dover. We waited
off Deal for a pilot, and being surrounded by bumboats, we found a
difference in the desire to cheat with exorbitant prices for bread,
butter or cheese, to what we had been used to by native Indians. The
Ramsgate tug came off and took us to Gravesend, where we arrived
on the evening of the 28th. Hundreds of boats put off, filled with
relatives--mothers, sisters, brothers and old sweethearts--to welcome
the living heroes, or hear some sad talk of the absent. The sight was
heart-rending in some instances. One poor mother, hearing of her son
having been killed at Sobraon, threw herself into the water, frantic,
and with difficulty was rescued. In the afternoon two war steamers
took us aboard for Herne Bay, to save us the march, as our station
was Canterbury, and it was distant from the bay only seven miles.
On landing, one of the men fell out, and actually knelt and kissed
the ground, a bystander in the crowd saying, "Bless his soul, how he
loves the old sod;" and many came and shook hands, not only with him
but with all within reach. Omnibusses and waggons were ready for the
sick, and women and children. We got leave to breakfast for a short
time, and what a rush for the hotels. Storming an enemy's fort was
nothing to it. Assembling at nine, we marched to Canterbury. Here,
the Mayor and Corporation, accompanied by two bands, came to meet us.
Between laurel branches in profusion, music from two bands, crowds
of ladies and gentlemen in carriages, citizens on foot shouting,
huzzahing and handkerchief-waving, we got a right royal reception in
the famous old city; and as the officers commanding considered it no
use to close the gates, or attempt to confine us within walls, we
were allowed two days' leave, to do as we pleased.

[Sidenote: "Home, sweet home."]

On the first of January I received my month's furlough. I started
for London. The day was very cold and snowing; how pleasant for me,
just home from the hottest spot on earth. A cab soon brought me to
Westminster, where my parents resided; I reached home at half-past
eleven a.m. My sisters, when I left, were children, in those few
years had grown women. One of them opened the door in answer to my
knock, and fainted on seeing one of the 16th, not perhaps that she
recognized me, as I was bronzed with the sun and heavily bearded.
This brought my mother; dear old mother, how one does get fond of
mother, when separated from her, and away, as I was in India, from
her kind care. Ah, mother, I remember you yet, though I am old now,
as you fell into my arms, and almost swooned. My sisters had to
remove her, till by the aid of restoratives they got her round; then,
such a look, sadness and joy combined. It was me, though the many
reports of the fearful suffering of my regiment, she could believe
until she saw me herself, whether her eyes would ever see her son
again. Yes, mother,

    Thy image is still--the dearest impressed on my heart,
    And the tablet so faithful--in death must be still
    Ere a trace of that image departs.

My father was, of course, rejoiced to see me, and so were all my old
friends and acquaintances. The charges of Aliwal and Sobraon were in
every one's mouth, and as I was the only man on leave near my home, I
had many an enquiry how I felt, and how this and that was done.

In this way, a month, the extent of my furlough, was not long in
passing, and I had to rejoin my regiment. I might have stated
before, I was in full charge of my troop all the way home; we had no
officers, and I was the senior sergeant. The reader will therefore be
as much surprised as I was, on joining my corps, to find the vacancy
of troop serjeant-major filled by the promotion of a man from the
depôt, without any fault whatever to me, as I was fully competent in
every respect, but merely to please the whim of some depôt officer.
I was very much stung to think I was the only serjeant left alive at
Aliwal, had brought my men home, and that one who had never crossed
the English Channel should be promoted over me.

From Canterbury we went to Deal, as a riot was feared at the
election. Here we met our old comrades, the 31st Foot, just home from
India. In May, 1847, we were ordered to Brighton, in Sussex. Our
route lay through Battle, near Hastings, where William the Conqueror
defeated Harold, paying a visit to the Abbey. Here the King (Harold)
was buried; his tomb is over-grown with ivy. An ancient painting
of the battle may be seen in the great hall, with two statues of
Saxon warriors on each side. We reached Brighton on the seventh of
May. In this fashionable watering-place we commemorated the second
anniversary of Aliwal with a grand ball, at which were the Duke of
Wellington, Prince Albert, the officers of all the Guards regiments,
and the fashionables from the Metropolis; the pavilion was filled
on the occasion--twenty of our troopers, medal-men, lining the grand
stairway. One entire regiment went to the theatre, where Jenny Lind

[Sidenote: Reviewed by Her Majesty.]

Fearing a Chartist riot in London, at a great meeting to be held on
Kensington Common, we were ordered up on the 10th April. We stopped
two days, and then proceeded, three troops to Ipswich, five to
Norwich. Here we remained till the spring of 1849, breaking young
horses, and getting ready for a grand review by Her Majesty. In May
we got the route for Hounslow, one troop to Kensington, to do Royal
Escort duty. I had the honour of being one of the escort of Her
Majesty on the 24th May, from Nine-Elms station to Buckingham Palace.
On the 26th following, before the Iron Duke, Prince Albert, Her
Majesty, and a host of the aristocracy, we paraded and went through
a field-day, charging as we did at Aliwal, and only stopped with
the horses' heads over the carriage of Her Majesty. Here, after the
review, she pinned on our breasts the Medals for the Punjaub.

Not feeling exactly pleased as to the way I was treated, after many
days' serious consideration, I determined to leave the regiment, as
I could now claim a free discharge, having completed twelve years'
service. I might have remained till my time of double service had
expired, when I would be entitled to a pension. Stung by seeing a
man my serjeant-major who should not be, and knowing I had earned
the step well, I applied for my discharge at once. The Colonel met
me with apologies and excuses, promising to recommend me for a
Commission, and so on, but feeling the position, if I did get it,
would be more than I could manage, on the pay which I would have to
support my rank on, I declined, and in time got what I asked for,
leaving the corps almost heart-broken.

[Sidenote: Take ship for South Africa.]

In July following I got the appointment of Steward, East India United
Service Club, in London, and entered upon those duties immediately.
In June, 1850, a gentleman whom I saw at the Club was going to settle
in South Africa. He intended to breed horses, and had selected a
large tract of land at Georgetown, on the Nysena river, for that
purpose. With him I made an engagement, sailing on the good ship
_Devonshire_, on the 15th July, and as I was fortunate in India to
arrive on the breaking out of hostilities, so the reader will find
I was equally fortunate on reaching the Cape, though a civilian, to
find men were wanted to stem the insurrection and rebellious spirit
of the Kaffirs, which is portrayed in the next chapter.

[Illustration: (Vignette)]

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  The religion of the
  by mixed marriages--The Triune Godhead: Brahma the centre, Vishnu
  the preserver or sustainer, and Siva, the destroyer--The Hindoo
  Pantheon--Brahmin place of worship--The Sacred Cow--Transmigration
  of souls--Degrees of punishment for various sins--The fate of the
  murderer, the adulterer, the unmerciful.

Before proceeding further in this work, it will be interesting to the
reader to understand something of the religion, what it springs from,
and the certain peculiarities in the intermixture of the several
Hindoo families, giving rise to the several castes and ranks to which
each is born to, and in which they must continue, or progress by
marriage in the higher scale when allowed by their code of laws. I
have been to a great deal of trouble in procuring this information,
as it is not found in many writings of that country, and will,
therefore, be new to a great many.

[Sidenote: Division of the Hindoo races.]

From the earliest period of which any records are extant, the Hindoo
races have been divided as a people into four distinct classes
or castes, designated Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas and Sudras,
originating with the creation of the world. Brahmins, according to
their mythological creed, proceeding from the mouth of Brahma, the
creator, the chief person of their theological belief--his mission
was to rule and instruct. He formed the caste distinguished by the
name Kshatriyas, which means sprung from the arms--of Brahma: and
this deity's duty was to protect. Vaisyas, from his thighs; and
the province allotted to this emanation of the deity was to trade,
and cultivate the earth. Sudra, the most abject, as produced from
the feet of Brahma, was doomed to be the servant or slave of the
superior caste; the four forming the yet existing classes or castes
of priests--soldiers, husbandmen or traders, and labourers.

The division of these four classes are, however, extended; and in
the fourteenth century B.C. the number of mixed classes recognized
by their laws of Menu had become very considerable. Of these we may
mention the classes which have sprung from the marriage of a man of
the upper caste with a woman of an inferior class.

1st, Murdhabhishicta, by a Brahmin with a woman of the Kshatriya
class: his duty is to teach military exercises. 2nd, Ambastha, by a
Brahmin from a woman of the Vaisya class or caste: he is a medicine
man. 3rd, Nishadhu, by a Brahmin from a woman of the Sudra class:
his occupation is to catch fish. 4th, Mahishya, by a Kshatriya from
a woman of the Vaisya class: his profession is music, astronomy and
attendance on cattle. 5th, Ugra, by a Kshatriya from a woman of the
Sudra class: his duty, according to Menu, is to kill or confine such
animals as live in holes: he is also a bard or poet. 6th, Carana,
by a Vaisya from a woman of the Sudra class: he is an attendant on
princes, or secretary.

[Sidenote: Sub-division of the Hindoo races.]

The classes which have sprung from a marriage of a woman of the upper
caste with a man of inferior caste is again sub-divided, and the
offspring of such is considered inferior than the other, and also
illegitimate. 1st, we will say Sota, by a Kshatriya from a woman of
Brahmin rank: his occupation is managing horses and driving carts.
2nd, Vaidscha, by a Vaisya from a woman of the Brahmin class: his
occupation is a waiter on women. 3rd, Chandola, by a Sudra from a
woman of the Brahmin class: he is regarded the most impure of the
whole race, and his business is to handle dead bodies, execute
animals, and to officiate in the most abject employment. 4th, Mahada,
by a Vaisya from a Kshatriya woman: his profession is, according to
Menu, travelling with merchandise; he is also an economist or bard.
5th, Asygara, by a Sudra from a woman of the Vaisya class; he is a
carpenter. And there is another class, Kohatti, by a Sudra from a
Kshatriya woman: his occupation is killing or confining animals who
live in trees. There are also other classes descending in the scale
of impurity from mixed marriages. One of those most known is that
of Pariahs; they are subject to labour of agriculture and to the
filthiest duty of scavengers. With these there is no intercourse
allowed, nor can one show the least sympathy for them, no matter how
low or depressed they may be.

[Sidenote: Hindoo deities.]

The faith of these several castes centres in a triune godhead,
Brahma the centre, Vishnu the preserver or sustainer, and Siva the
destroyer. Brahma, the superior, always remains in holy solitude
in the distance of the caste profound of measureless space, and
is beyond the reach of superstition to profane by even ideal
similitude; Vishnu and Siva are supposed to have been many times
incarnate, and hence the imagination of the Hindoo has clothed them
with a variety of visible forms, and each has become a distinct
deity, to whom worship is daily addressed. The Hindoo Pantheon also
includes a host of inferior deities or divinities. Nothing can be
done without supernatural intervention, in consequence of which the
elements, and every variety of animated nature, are placed under the
immediate guardianship of one of the crowd of deities that throng
the Brahmanical heaven. The goodly company is further augmented
by myriads of demi-gods, many of whom are of the most wretched
description. Thus, a little red paint smeared over a block of wood,
a shapeless stone, or a lump of clay, makes it a deity, and a number
of such monstrocities collected together indicate a Brahmin place of
worship, and invite to some act of worship as debasing in its nature
as its object is monstrous in conception. Among the animals which are
the objects of Hindoo worship or adoration, and one that I shall have
to refer to often, is the cow. This is the most sacred in most parts
of India. The cow is frequently termed the "Mother of the gods,"
and many are kept by the well-to-do Hindoo for the sole purpose of
worship. Circumstances are, however, at times even stronger than
superstition itself, and then the poor, who derive their chief
support from the labour of this useful animal so venerated, do not
hesitate to work it hard and to feed it very sparingly.

Besides the peculiar notions entertained by the Hindoo relative to
superior beings and the worship to be paid them, those that refer to
a future state form a prominent part of their theological system.
Here the doctrine of transmigration of souls is a distinguishing
feature. No people appear to have formed loftier ideas of its nature
independently of its connection with matter. They carry the idea to
so extravagant a height as to suppose the souls of both men and brute
animals to have been originally portions of the Supreme mind, and
consequently as participating in its eternity. The highest destiny
to which a mortal can aspire is therefore reabsorbed into the divine
essence, where the Hindoo's idea of supreme felicity receives its
perfection, and the mind reposes on an unruffled sea of bliss. But
to such a state only the most rigid ascetics who have spent a life
of self-inflicted torture can aspire, the best deeds of an ordinary
life cannot excite a hope of raising their author higher than one of
the various heavens over which their multiplied divinities separately
preside. But few are allowed to cherish the expectation of ascending
to even the lowest of these, and the great body of believers have
only to anticipate the consolations that flow from the transmigration
of souls.

[Sidenote: Punishments for sins.]

As regards punishment, a series have been devised to suit the
capabilities of the people and the irregular propensities of life.
The institutes of Menu affirm that he who steals grain in the husk
becomes a rat--should he take water, he is to be a diver--if honey,
a large gnat, and if flesh, he is transformed into a vulture. The
next birth of one who steals a deer or elephant is into a wolf, and
if a carriage, the thief is sure to become a camel. When once sunk
from the human to the brute creation, the Parana's assert that he
must pass through many millions of births before he regains the human
form. Their system of punishment is not however confined to these
terrestrial transgressions. The all-multiplying system of the Hindoo
theology has created a hundred thousand hells for those whom inferior
evils could not deter from the commission of more heinous crimes.
When the fatal moment arrives which changes their present position,
they are hurried away through the space of 688,000 miles among the
faithful rocks and eternal snows of the Himalaya mountains to the
judgment seat of Yoma, where the god messengers await to convey them
to their respective places of punishment, and here, too, the state
of retribution is adapted to the nature of the crime. The murderer
is fed on flesh and blood; the adulterer is to be embraced by an
image of red-hot iron, and the unmerciful to be unceasingly bitten by
snakes. Having endured this state of "penal servitude" for a period
proportionate to the magnitude of their crimes, the first step to
restoration is to pass a long series of ages in the form of some
degraded animal, whence they ascend to the scale of being already

[Illustration: (Vignette)]

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  Delhi the ancient capital of the Mogul Empire--General description,
  population, &c.--The king's palace--Embattled walls and
  guns--Martello towers--Jumna Musjeed, or chief mosque--The tombs of
  the Humayoon, and of Sefjar Jung--The Shelima gardens--The ancient
  Patons, or Afghan conquerors of India--The celebrated Cattab
  Minar--The tomb of Humayoon--The aqueduct of Alikhan--College for
  Orientals and Europeans.

Delhi being the ancient capital of the Mogul Empire, I will here give
a description of it, as, having a few days leave from cantonment,
I found it in my visit. It is situated on the eastern bank of the
Jumna, and some 950 miles from Calcutta. It is walled and fortified,
and has a population of somewhere near 200,000. It is between seven
and eight miles round it, and may be about two miles across. The
palace inhabited by the King stands in a very commanding position.
The entire city is built on a rocky range of hills, and, as said, is
surrounded by embattled walls and guns, with intervening Martello
towers facing along the whole extent with good masonry, moats and
glacis. Its chief houses are built of brick, the streets narrow;
the principal avenues all wide and handsome, and for an Asiatic
city, very clean. The bazaars along the avenues look remarkably
pretty; formerly the city had some noble wide streets, but these
have been divided by buildings all along the centre, and now spoil
their appearance. The next principal buildings to the Palace is the
Jumna Musjeed, or chief mosque. The tombs of the Emperor Humayoon,
and of Sefjar Jung, and Cuttub Menir; and within the new city are
the remains of many palaces. These structures are nearly all of red
granite inlaid and ornamented with white marble; the general style
is elegant, yet simple. The Palace, as seen from a distance, is very
high, with gothic towers and battlements rising above any other
building. It was built by Shah Jehan, and seems some sixty feet
high, with two noble gateways. It is allowed by travellers to far
surpass the Kremlin, in Moscow, in magnificence, or any other kingly
residence. I thought, on looking at it, of our old Windsor Castle,
and asked did any of them making the comparison ever see it. To my
mind old Windsor surpasses it, except in its material.

[Sidenote: The Shelima gardens.]

The gardens known as the Shelima, and mentioned in Lalla Rookh, were
formed by the same potentate, and are said to have cost the immense
sum of 1,000,000 pounds; but they are now wild and allowed to go in
ruins. The Mosque-Musjeed is considered the largest and most elegant
temple of worship in India, it cost sixty lakhs of rupees, and Shah
Jehan was six years in building it. It stands on a rocky eminence
scarped for the purpose. A flight of thirty-five steps brings you to
a beautiful gateway of red stones, the doors of which are covered
with wrought brass. The terrace on which it is built is about 1600
yards square, and surrounded by an arched collonade with pavilions
at convenient distances. In the centre stands a large marble cistern
supplied by machinery with water from the canal. On the west side
of the Mosque proper, of an oblong form, say 260 feet in length,
its entire front is coated with large slabs of white marble, and
compartments in the corner are inlaid with Arabic inscriptions in
black. The mosque is approached by another flight, and surrounded
by a marble dome at the flanks, as at all mosques, are minarets
about 150 feet high, each having three projecting galleries of black
marble and red stone alternately, their summits crowned with light
pavilions of white marble. The ascent is by winding stairs of 180
steps of red stone. It is truly a noble structure, well worth this
unequal description--for it must be seen to realize its beauty. It is
said this mosque is maintained by a grant from our Government. Not
far from the King's palace is another of red stone, used I suppose
by that personage and his princes for intermediate times of worship.
This one is surmounted with three gilt domes. Altogether there is
some fifty mosques in this city, of more or less grandeur, some
bear marks of great antiquity. One other, however, deserves a note
in passing, and that one was erected in 1710 by the daughter of the
great and mighty Arungzebee, and in which she is buried. Perhaps the
oldest is the one erected by the ancient Patons or Afghan conquerors
of India. It is of dark coloured granite, and of a different design,
but exactly like the Arab mosques.

[Sidenote: Cattab Minar--the Paton.]

The prospect south of the Shulnia gardens, as far as the eye can
reach, is covered with the remains of extensive gardens, pavilions,
sepulchres, all connecting the town of Cattab with the capital,
and through their neglected appearance, exhibiting one of the most
striking scenes of desolation to be witnessed.

The celebrated Cattab Minar is a very handsome round tower rising
from a polygon of twenty-seven sides, in five different stages,
gradually diminishing in circumference to the height of 250 feet, its
summit crowned with a majestic cupola rising from four arcades of red
granite is reached by a spiral staircase of 384 steps, and between
each stage a balcony runs round the pillar. The Paton, erected by the
old conquerors is almost in ruins, it was once a solid fortress, its
architecture not sinking, but there remains a high black pillar of
metal of Hindoo construction, originally covered with inscriptions.
I have before alluded to the tomb of Humayoon the conqueror, which
was erected by his daughter. It is of gothic architecture, and
stands in an immense garden with terraces and numerous fountains;
everything about it bears marks of decay. The garden is surrounded
by an embattled wall and cloister, and in its centre, on a platform
ascended by a flight of granite steps, is the tomb itself, a square
building with circular apartments, surrounded by a dome of white
marble. From the top of this building the ruins all round can best
be seen--where Indrapat once stood--extending almost over a range of
hills seven or eight miles distant.

[Sidenote: Manufactures of Delhi.]

The soil in the neighbourhood of Delhi seems singularly devoid of
vegetation. The Jumna annually overflows its banks during the rainy
season, but its waters, in this part of its course, are so much
empregnated with natron that the ground is almost barren. In order
to supply water to the royal gardens, the acqueduct of Ali-Khan
was constructed through the chief avenue, by which the pure and
wholesome water was brought from the mountains, over one hundred and
twenty miles off. This channel, during the troubles that followed
the decline of the Mogul Empire was stopped by rubbish, but when the
English got possession they cleared it, and it is now the sole source
of supply of Delhi. This was done in 1820, and is still remembered
by the inhabitants with, I trust, some degree of gratitude. It
was, at least, on the opening of the channel, for the inhabitants
then turned out, with drums beating, to welcome the water, throwing
flowers, and ghee, and sweetmeats in the current as it flowed along;
for this they called down all manner of blessings on the British.
But for this dearth of water, Delhi would be a great inland mart for
the interchange of commodities between India and the countries west
and north. Cotton, cloth and indigo are manufactured here, and there
is also a large Persian shawl factory, with weavers from Cashmere.
The bazaars rival any others in wealth and beauty. At the south of
the city stand the ruins of an observatory, erected by Jye Singh; it
formerly contained several instruments, but, like the building, long
ago partially destroyed. There is also a college in this city, with
two departments--Orientals and English--and the number of pupils are
270. I have dwelt rather long on this description of the famous city,
but I feel any picture I can give will be far short of the reality.
It is said seven cities, at different times of the earth's history,
have stood on the same site. Indraput was the first; then the
Patons, or Afghans; then Sultan Balun built and fortified one, after
destroying the Patons; then Mozes-ud-deem built another nearer the
Jumna; this destroyed, another nearer Cattal; and lastly, Shah Jehan,
towards the middle of the seventeenth century, chose the present site
for his capital. I might add that the census of any place in India
is hardly ever taken, for the reason of so much superstition in the
inhabitants--they could not be made to believe anything else but that
it was intended for their destruction. The estimate of the population
I have given was then considered as nearly as possible correct.


[Sidenote: The Black-hole.]

Calcutta presents a remarkable instance of what may arise from
small beginnings, if I might so speak. In 1640 the English obtained
permission to erect a factory at the ancient town of Hooghly, on
the opposite bank of the river. In 1696 the Emperor Aurungzcebee
allowed them to remove to the pretty village of Govindpoor, and in
the following year to secure it by erecting a fort. So slow was
the progress of the new settlement that up to 1717 the site of the
present City of Palaces remained an assemblage of huts, wretched
indeed, with only a few hundred inhabitants. In 1756 it had not
more than seventy houses in it occupied by the English. An attempt
had been made in 1742 to defend the place from the invasion of the
Maharattas, by surrounding it with a ditch, a precaution, however,
which availed but little against the attack, in June, 1756, by
Suradja-ud-douhal, or Viceroy of Bengal. In consequence of this
attack, apparently a surprise, the factory was deserted by the
governor, the commandant and many of the European functionaries
and residents. A memorable catastrophe of a most lamentable nature
ensued. Such of the English as had remained for its defence were
seized and thrust into a small uninhabited dungeon called the
Black-hole, and of one hundred and forty-six individuals who were
thus shut up at night, one hundred and twenty three perished
under the most frightful sufferings ere the arrival of morning. The
black-hole was afterwards converted into a warehouse, and upon an
obelisk, fifty feet high at its entrance, were inscribed the names of
the unhappy victims.


Early in the following year a squadron of five ships brought 2,400
troops under Lord Clive up the Hooghly from Madras, they retook the
town of Calcutta, from which the garrison of the Subidhar retired
after an attack of only two hours duration. The population now
amounts to some 600,000.

[Illustration: (Vignette)]

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  Cape of Good Hope--First sight of--Inhabitants--Descent and
  other particulars--Sir Harry again--Sandicea in rebellion--War
  rumours--Join a Volunteer Corps--Off for frontier--East
  London--Army at Fort William--Join them--Gazetted Lieutenant--The
  Jungle--Kaffir women--73rd Regiment--Arrangements--Enter the
  Gaika tribe country--The huts--The kraal--43rd, 60th and 12th
  Lancers--General Somerset--Fort Beaufort--Colonel Fordyce
  shot--Buffalo Post--Capture cattle--Pursuit of Kaffirs--Sardillas'
  horse shot--Bridle neck bush--Time-expired men--Back to
  recruit--The Hottentot--East London again.

Favoured with beautiful weather, and nothing having occurred to mar
our passage, we sighted the Cape on the twentieth of October. As the
high land comes first to view, it has all the appearance of a lion
couchant--the flag-staff rising from the lion's tail, creeping round
the point to a narrow entrance, the whale rock and Robin Island come
in view, then Cape Town stretches before you, in a sort of basin.
Table Mountain at the back, the town sloping up from the bay, with
the Blue Berg Mountains away to the east. At this time of year summer
commences in the Cape. We had, therefore, a summer Christmas before
us. Landing on the twenty-sixth, we took up quarters in the Pier
hotel. Steamers did not venture on such long voyages in those days,
and the influx of visitors was not so great as now. Living we found
very cheap; a bottle of wine, and very good at that, cost fourpence;
British brandy, sixpence, it was called "Cape-smoke;" meat was
twopence per pound; peaches, pomegranates and grapes, one shilling
per basket--bushel. The villa residences on the outskirts are very
pretty--the fences surrounding them are either rose or geranium
bushes, standing as high as six feet; or cactus, or prickly pear. The
inhabitants of the Colony are mostly of Dutch descent, or Malays.
Originally it was a slave settlement. Hither they were brought from
Batavia--but on the British Government assuming control, slavery was
abolished. The descendants of these are now the most industrious, as
they are the wealthiest inhabitants. Their principal occupation is,
or was then, whaling and seal-fishing, with some tradesmen among
them. The aborigines of the Cape, or Hottentots, are a low, degraded,
idle class.

[Sidenote: Sir Harry Smith again.]

[Sidenote: Gazetted Lieutenant.]

Our old East Indian friend and General, Sir Harry Smith, I found here
as Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of South
Africa--and it was here, and at such a time, too, such an experienced
soldier was required. Sandilla, a Gaika chief, had commenced
hostilities on the frontier, and his Kaffirs had burnt over twenty
farms, butchered the farmers and their families, and carried off all
their cattle. Though now free from the service, it was but natural,
after my previous service, I should feel interested in anything
concerning military movements or threatenings of war, and I soon made
myself acquainted with all the particulars. The entire British force
in the Colony consisted of three infantry battalions. These were
scattered in detachments all over the country, only the head-quarters
of the 73rd were at Cape Town. The Governor and his staff, taking
these, left for the scene of disturbance, and levies were ordered
all over. Besides the atrocities mentioned, the Kaffirs had murdered
all the men in the three military villages of Auckland, Wobown and
Joanisburgh. I could not be expected to remain long unknown, as,
having seen service in the Sixteenth Lancers in India, was surprised
by a request from the Colonial Secretary to assist in raising levies,
who offered me a command as lieutenant in the Second Corps of
Europeans. A draft of two hundred men, with seventy-eight horses, was
ordered up to East London, and having given my consent, I was sent
in charge. On the first of February I went on board the war steamer
_Hermies_, with that number, and left for the frontier. On reaching
East London, we found we could get no nearer than about two miles.
Anchoring, surf-boats were brought alongside, and in these, after
immense trouble, all were safely landed. Well, I had seen many towns
and forts, and I have been in towns since called after our beautiful
capital, but such a place as this aspiring to the great name,
surprised me. The whole place consisted of one building, called a
hotel; four huts; four commissariat houses; and a small fort, with a
dozen or so Kaffirs, apparently friendly, standing round-about naked,
fine, manly-looking fellows, copper coloured, and all six feet high
or thereabouts. We found the army was encamped at Fort William,
eighteen miles from East London. I marched in charge of my detachment
of men and horses, to which was added a convoy of thirty-six waggons
loaded with provisions. We halted at Fort Murry, half-way. Captain
McLean, of the 6th Foot, was in charge here with one company. We were
now in a friendly chief's country; his name was Patto. Having been
detained longer than was expected by the slow travel of the bullock
waggons, it was late next afternoon when we reached the camp at King
William Fort. The next day being Sunday, I was ordered to parade my
men before General Sir Harry Smith--after which, and being quite
satisfied with his inspection, and some conversation about old times,
he ordered my rank to be confirmed as lieutenant, 2nd Corps Cape Town
Levies. Having had some time to rest, I was enabled to scan about me,
and see a little of the place and people. Here I had an opportunity
of seeing that dreadful bush so much spoken of--Kaffir land--and it
is a bush--so dense, and thick, and so full of the Momossa tree, with
its long thorns, it is almost impossible to penetrate. As one moved
any distance round, plenty of women and girls might be seen; they
come up the valleys with immense pumpkins, corn, or milk, to exchange
for beads, buttons, or, in fact, anything strange. As they don't know
the use of money, an old brass ring would buy all one wanted for a
day. They were quite as oblivious of dress as the men we had first
seen, only a small apron of deerskin around their waste. Some had
blankets. They looked horrible, so full of red clay for paint, and
they were disgustingly dirty. The Hottentots or Aborigines' worth is
all in cattle. The women feed them, build their own houses, sow the
corn, and do all the drudgery. The men do nothing but hunt, and in
war time fight. The boys are not allowed to associate with men until
after circumcision, which takes place at eighteen; then they may sit
round the council fire with the men.

[Sidenote: Enter the Gaika tribe country.]

I found our army composed of volunteers from Cape Town district,
Mossel Bay and Grahamstown--in all some 20,000 Europeans, Hottentots
and Fingoes, besides the British 6th and 73rd regiments. The Cape
mounted riflemen had, a few days previous to our arrival, most
of them at least, gone over to the enemy, taking their horses and
arms. They had intended to massacre all the 73rd regiment the night
previous, while they were asleep; this was frustrated through a
friendly chief giving information to Sir Harry Smith, and it was
thought strange that all the Hottentots of Wesleyan mission stations
remained loyal, when those situated east, under missionaries of other
denominations, joined the insurgents; these proved our worst foes,
being such good marksmen.

[Sidenote: Buffalo post--capture cattle.]

All arrangements being completed, we broke camp and marched towards
the river Kiskama, then crossed into the Gaika territory to hunt up
Sandilla. Here we remained three weeks, engaged in skirmishing and
picket duty, the Kaffirs troubling us much at night, firing from the
bush. This kind of warfare is most disliked by the soldier--every
bush containing an enemy, and no sooner you made one than they were
off to another. In fact, they were always near us, particularly at
night, and yet we could get no chance of having a good shot at them.
The kraal, better known now than ever before, is a collection of
huts, made in the form of large beehives, placed in a circle--the
cattle in the middle--we invariably burned them. They were erected
in some sheltered place, on the sides of hills or mountains. We
were now on the territory of the most powerful chief, Sandilla,
head of the Gaikas. Reinforcements joined us here from England--the
43rd foot, 60th Rifles and 12th Lancers; and General Sir Harry
Smith, considering he had troops sufficient, ordered an advance on
Fuller's-hook, and the Water-kloof where he had learned Sandilla
had massed some thirty-thousand warriors. General Somerset was at
this time at Fort Beaufort. At Fuller's-hook we had some terrible
bush fighting, but succeeded in driving them into Water-kloof.
The intricacies of this place, and the dense bush, it is almost
impossible to describe. Here we remained some six weeks, and were
joined by the 74th from Grahamstown, under Colonel Fordyce, who
was shot on the top of the kloof. Our advancement during that
time in the progress, of the war was very little, as we could get
no open field-fight, they proving as able as their opponents in
bushwhacking. Sir Harry, seeing little progress marched us back to
King Williamstown. Here the General sent for me, and ordered a start
at twelve that night with 100 men--Fingoes--and fifty of Armstrong's
horse, to capture 800 head of cattle in the Buffalo. Port Sandilla
was said to be with them. With my command, I made a rapid march so
as to reach before daybreak the place appointed, and arrived at the
foot of the mountain half-an-hour before sunrise. The Buffalo Port
I found a deep basin in the hills, the ascent very difficult and
dense with bush. This basin had an outlet called the Gether Goolie,
or Wolf's throat. With my men, I ascended the hill as best I could,
leaving some mounted men at the Pass to hold the cattle. On the word
"charge," down the hill we went, amid a volley from the Kaffirs, who
were almost indistinguishable. I received a cut from an assaigai,
knocking me off my horse, stunning me for a time. Soon, however,
I recovered sufficient to stay the wound--remounted and joined my
men, who by this time had joined the men below at the Pass. Here,
too, the Fingoes had the cattle. Handing them over to the mounted
men, we hurried on to the Yellow-wood--pursued by the Kaffirs. On
the following morning we reached King Williamstown, having lost two
men killed and nine wounded. During that day's engagement we were
hard pressed. It, however, nearly cost the Kaffirs their leader,
Sandilla--as one of our men had shot his horse, and nearly captured
himself. There was a £1,000 on his head. In July I was ordered, with
fifty Europeans and Lieutenant Fielding with one hundred Hottentots
Levy, to the Bridle Neck bush, on the road to East London, to protect
convoys of prisoners coming by sea. The enemy, knowing this, lay
in ambush to attack the waggons, and on returning we had to build
stockades by cutting huge trees and sinking them four feet in the
ground, leaving them four feet out, with the waggons inside for
the night. This was trying work, and watching all night against a
surprise. However, the duty was well done, and the convoy escorted
safe through the dense bush.

[Sidenote: Back to recruit.]

The time of the men who had joined for six months having more than
expired, I was ordered to take some five hundred of them to Cape
Town, on the war steamer _Styx_. I had orders to raise and bring
back as many mounted men as I could get, at a bounty of twenty-three
pounds and free rations, finding their own horses, and rations were
to be given them. It was chiefly expected my contingent would consist
of farmers' sons, and such like, who, for their own interests,
would join the army formed for the protection of their own homes.
After seeing the discharged men paid, I started on my recruiting
errand, and soon got together sixty men from Wooster, Swellingdam
and Clanwilliam, mostly sons of Europeans. The Affricandas, as they
are called, are good riders and fine shots. When at Clanwilliam, I
stayed with Mr. Shaw, and while out with him one day, we came across
the greatest herd of deer I ever saw. We came on the opening of an
immense plain, and for miles one could see swarms of gnu, elands,
heart-beasts, rye-buck, bonti-buck, blue-buck, and other common
deer. It was explained to me when there is a drought and scarcity of
provisions in the Karoo they are driven down to seek water and the
Salt licks. They are as bad as locusts to the farmer, not leaving a
blade of grass where they visit; consequently, they turn out and
destroy them as best they can, take their skins off, remove the best
of the beef to dry it for home use, leaving the carcase for the wild
dogs and lions. The farmers in South Africa generally hold from ten
to twenty thousand acres of land, with large flocks of sheep, and
numbers of brood-mares; in the eastern part, and in the western, they
mostly cultivate the grape for wine. There being no hotels in the
country parts, and the farm-houses conseqent on their large holdings,
very far apart, during the long rides the screeching of the guinea
fowl, together with the cooing of the turtle-dove, constantly salute
the ear. When you stop under the shade of some trees to make coffee,
it is easy to have a dainty bit of some wild bird to satisfy hunger,
by going a few yards and killing one. In my travels going east, I
have met dozens of waggons at a time going to Cape Town with wool,
hides, horns, bitter aloes, and gums. The Hottentots employed as
shepherds by these farmers seem fit for nothing else, an idle, lazy,
indolent race. Some are squatted on every farm for that purpose,
acting as shepherds. On my journey I came across packs of wild dogs.
These animals prove a great enemy to the farmer--worrying his sheep.
It may not seem truth, but there are in this part of the country
people of very small stature, wild, almost savage, at least bordering
on the brute called Bosjesmen, living in holes in the rocks, who are
adepts with bow and arrow, the latter of which they poison when at
war. They live chiefly on the wild dog; snakes do not come even amiss
to them. Europeans class them between the ape and the man. Darwin may
have founded his theory on them--evolution. We will leave it with
him, as beyond our solution.

[Sidenote: East London again.]

As soon as I procured all the recruits I could, I started for Cape
Town, and embarked on board the war steamer _Styx_, Captain Hall, for
East London. On arriving we were soon joined by one hundred horses
and men from Port Elizabeth, and again left for headquarters with
one hundred and twenty waggons of stores and ammunition. While _en
route_ we learned of the loss of the steamer _Birkenhead_, as she was
coming out of Simon's Bay with troops, drafts mostly for our army.
Very few escaped that fearful wreck. Arriving at the headquarters of
the army, the corps was named the "Montague Horse," in compliment
to the Colonial Secretary, Sir John Montague. Many of these men were
independent farmers.

[Illustration: (Vignette)]

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  Transferred to Fingoe Service--Fingoe character--Ordered to Kye
  river--Chief Krielle--Colonel Eyre--Through the bush--The Chief's
  position--Battered by big guns--Cattle captured--On return
  march--Harassed by enemy--One month on march bring in 500 head--Sir
  Harry called home--Sir George Cathcart--Sandilla surrendered--Chief
  Moshusha--Attack his stronghold--Surrenders--Back to Fort
  William--Disbanded--Off on elephant hunt--Provisions for--Plan
  to capture--Kill four--Trading with Chiefs and their
  wives--Precautions against lions--Elephant's spoor--Excursion often
  fatal--Back to Grahamstown--Stiles' Hotel.

[Sidenote: Cattle captured.]

In February, 1852, I was transferred to the Fort Peddie Fingoe Levy,
under Captain Fainton. The Fingoes are a tribe formerly conquered
and kept in bondage by the Amagahekas, but released by the British,
and located at the Fort of that name, near Grahamstown. They are
very loyal, industrious, and make fine farm servants to the Scotch
settlers on the frontier. So trustworthy are they, many are employed
as police. Understanding the traits of the Kaffir character, they
are very useful, particularly as they hold a grudge against their
old oppressors. Sir Harry Smith, having learned the enemy had sent
all their cattle across the Kye river to Chief Krielle, Colonel
Eyre, of the 73rd, was ordered, in conjunction with a squadron the
12th Lancers, under Major Tottenham, two troops Montague horse, with
all the infantry, consisting of 73rd, 43rd, and 60th Rifles, and my
company of Fingoes, to capture them, punishing the Chief Krielle
for his deception, as he had given his adhesion to the British. The
Montague horse, knowing the country so well, were advanced as guides
and picket, and hot work we had of it. When we got to the Kye, our
passage was strongly opposed, even without any opposition. It looked
a fearful place. The river flowed rapidly down a deep gully, between
two rugged, jagged mountains, a dense bush to the water's edge. One
thousand good men could keep twenty thousand from crossing if so
disposed; but as nothing ever stopped the progress of British troops,
if forward was the word, we forced the passage, after some fighting,
and the mounted force, under Tottenham, pushed on to intercept the
cattle before they drove them to Zululand, where Pandee was chief.
After seven days' hard marching, we reached the Umzuvoola river in
front of them, and now, as we had the river behind, and the cattle
in front coming up, we expected some severe bush fighting. This we
accomplished, seizing 30,000 head, besides sheep and goats. Many of
these cattle had been stolen from our settlers, comprising their
entire wealth, and by capturing these we were injuring our enemy as
much as in actual war, as the less they had the sooner would they
make peace. On returning, they were separated into three droves,
with infantry on the flanks, cavalry in rear, Fingoes driving. One
drove a day behind the other, one to the left, one to the extreme
right on account of the grass, and when halting at night, we lighted
fires all around to prevent a stampede, the enemy following us,
firing all night, to get a run. In approaching the river Kye, we had
great trouble in keeping them together. They had no water two days,
and naturally enough, the brutes were running over each other to
get at it. Then the rush down to the water, the confusion caused
by the presence of so many, the shouting of all the men in their
different dialects, swimming across the river, clambering over rocks
on opposite side, the barking of dogs, sheep and goats bleating,
hundreds lying down dying, the chasing of others along, trampling
on the fallen--such a bedlam and confusion of noises I never before
experienced, and heartily wished it all over. After one month's
marching, not all so bad, but nearly, as I have just described, we
reached headquarters at King William's Town, short 5,000 cattle and
sheep, eaten up by the lions, wolves and wild dogs following in our
track. As soon as the saved were rested, and it became known to the
farmers, all were sold to the farmers at a nominal sum.

Shortly after this affair, Sir Harry Smith was called home, Sir
George Cathcart having arrived to take his place. Sandilla, feeling
the immense loss of the cattle, came in and surrendered.

[Sidenote: Attack chief Moshusha's stronghold.]

The relief which this movement of Sandilla occasioned lasted only a
few weeks, news arriving of the uprising of another Chief, Moshusha,
of the Basautees' country. No news could be more unsatisfactory, as
the men hated bush fighting, never having a chance of open, man to
man warfare. Pleasant or unpleasant, we marched for his territory.
His stronghold we found in a high hill, standing almost alone in a
plain, but so covered with prickly pears and cactus as to seem almost
impossible to reach. Getting our big guns in position, we played
on his fortress with such good effect, it was soon abandoned, and
down they came on the plain where the 12th Lancers, after some hard
fighting, intercepted their retreat to the Transvaal. Finding it was
useless to continue the struggle, their chief capitulated, terms of
peace were arranged, and the volunteers returned to Fort William,
were disbanded, and returned to their respective homes.

Many had died of dysentery, brought on chiefly through lack of flour
for bread. Our living on this route was chiefly on fresh meat and
roasted corn cobs--no vegetables, and bad water. One instance of
the filth and dirty habits of the Kaffirs I saw on this expedition
which I may mention. On the slaughter of a bullock for our use, when
the paunch was exposed, filled with green food or fodder, it has
invariably been seized and devoured as a luxury, just as it was, hot
from the carcase.

[Sidenote: Off on elephant hunt.]

This last surrender of the Basantees' Chief put an end to the war.
All the native and European levies were disbanded, the officers
receiving six months' pay for the losses of effects. Each farmer
returned to his farm, the merchant to his legitimate business, and
the local magistrate, as we had many with us serving in the ranks, to
his business. I, with five others, planned an excursion to the Vaal
river, intending to trade with the natives for ivory, skins, gum, or
anything we could obtain of value, also intending to try our hands at
elephant shooting or hunting. This we found easy to commence, as the
merchants of Grahamstown supply all necessary articles for an outfit
to the amount of two hundred pounds, should the party pay one-half of
the sum provided on the return you trade the articles you received
with them. We were supplied with a waggon, fourteen oxen loaded
with articles to carry on our traffic. Each man mounted a good nag,
with a rifle slung across the shoulder, and a Hottentot as a driver
of the waggon. We had in it a barrel of flour, a case of brandy,
also quinine. Our guns would supply all the animal food required.
On approaching a tribe, our policy was to show great respect to the
chief, making first for his kraal, and as his wives approached,
giving them presents of trinkets, such as a string of beads, or a
piece of red cloth, this being understood as a friendly offering. We
found they are always pleased to meet the trader, and will do all
they can to protect him, in hopes of his coming again. Then, again,
by acts of kindness such as these, you secure a guide from the chief
to conduct you to the next.

After crossing the Vaal, it became necessary to light fires at night,
to protect our horses and ourselves from the great number of lions
in the country. One always remained on watch, he being relieved once
during the night. It is well known lions will not attack an animal
tied up for fear of being trapped, nor will they approach a fire, as
it dazzles their eyesight. They, however, use an expedient by roaring
terrifically, scaring any cattle or horses, expecting a general
stampede. This also we had to prepare against, by being always ready
to hold the animal in fright.

On reaching the elephant track a bushranger is procured. The best to
be got are from the Macatee tribe of Kaffirs. He starts on a hunt for
the spoor or footprint of the beast. We had two of these men, who
now took us to the ground most likely to find the herds. On reaching
their feeding ground we outspan the oxen; two men stop to guard the
waggon, the remaining four start in pursuit of game. As soon as we
came on the herd, browsing in a sort of park or plain, the males were
on the outside, the females and young in the centre. Our first care
was not to be scented; to avoid this we rode to the leeward, and then
we drew lots for our separate posts. Number one goes in first; next
number plants himself near a tree in sight of number one, and within
reach if necessary; the next a certain distance from number two, and
so with the last, near number three.

[Sidenote: Elephant hunting.]

When all are posted, number one moves out stealthily, as near as
possible to the greatest male with large tusks--previously I should
have said, dismounted--and, without any noise, delivers the shot
at the most vulnerable part of his body. As soon as hit, this one
blew his trumpet as an alarm and a defiance. Number one then shows
himself more distinctly in front of him, he stamped his feet in
wild rage and made a charge. Number one was quickly on horseback,
leading on to number two, who delivers his shot, then jumps his
horse and leads on to number three. The elephant each time going
for the one who last fired, and is on foot, thus follows all in
succession, giving the first who fired time to reload. He now, having
four different enemies, gets baffled, goes for each separately,
till tired, he crushes through the jungle or dense bush on his way,
and is easily shot down, falling with an awful thud. Marking the
spot where he lays, the herd is followed, now some miles away, and
the same planning is gone through till the hunters have all they
require. This is not done without a great deal of danger; coolness is
indespensable, also a good horse and guides. When we had thus killed
our fourth, we returned to each in succession, cut out the tusks,
loaded them on our waggon, and left the carcase for the lions. Our
larder, while out, was supplied with plenty of antelope and birds,
which swarm in the African jungles. On our return we again visit our
tribes, gathering skins, horns, or anything they have for barter, and
made tracks for Grahamstown.

The Hottentot holds that the lion never kills a man at once when he
has struck him down, unless he is irritated. This would appear to be
true, in general, as the following incidents may prove. I may add,
there is nothing absolute in history on the subject.

[Sidenote: Precautions against lions.]

My comrade had one day wounded a lion which had been sneaking after
our bullocks, and was in the act of reloading when the lion sprung
on him. He stood on ground a little elevated, the animal caught him
on the shoulder, and both tumbled to the ground, the lion bellowing
heartily close to his head; he then shook him with as much ease as
a terrier would a rat. He, remembering after, and as he related it,
this shaking produced a sort of stupor, a sort of dreaminess in
which he neither felt pain nor terror, though quite conscious of his
position and all that was happening. Whatever was the cause of this
he could never make out--no sense of horror whatever on seeing the
beast, and he in his power. It led me to think if this unconscious
state is produced on all animals who are killed by the carnivora, it
is a wise provision of Providence for lessening pain. The animal's
eye was directed towards me, as I raised my piece to shoot him at a
distance of about fifteen yards. My gun missed in both barrels as he
sprang on me. Leaving his fallen victim he was despatched by a spear
in the hands of a Kaffir, one of our attendants. A farmer told me
that while unyoking his oxen, a lion made a plunge and killed two
outright by breaking their spine. Now it seems by this the lion takes
quite a different course in despatching the larger animals, and I
have thought what can be the reason. Man inspires him with fear, and
the lion's natural prudence causes him to suspect some ambuscade,
even when man is in his power. Even the Africans allow themselves,
the lion's knowledge between the different colour of Europeans and
themselves, they are very cautious of the whites.

These excursions often prove fatal to many. Numbers have never been
heard of. Whether they fell a prey to the numerous wild animals,
whether they were prostrated by fevers so prevalent, or their oxen
got the tongue sick from the tyse flies or other insects so numerous,
I could never learn, but many leaving on this sport have never

Travelling in the wilds of Africa during the day the scenery all
around is grand in the extreme, and so wild; the different-coloured
foliage in the sunbeams, the wild craggy hills covered with thick
bush, the roar of the lion occasionally as he scents some antelope
or zebra near a river or stream, birds of every colour, monkeys
innumerable, while the dense gloom that settles on all at night in
the great solitude is indescribable.

On arriving at Grahamstown, our merchant received all our articles,
and we retired to Stile's hotel to talk of our adventures and enjoy
ourselves as Christians should, making some arrangements as to our
future movements. While here we came across many who lived in this
way; they are called Winklere; some, by continuing and being lucky,
have realized a considerable amount of money, while others, as I have
before stated, go, but have never returned.

[Sidenote: Dutch Boers of South Africa.]

The Kaffir's memory is remarkable. He will not forget a bullock he
has once seen, and two or three years afterwards he will identify
it at once, and without difficulty; they will also remember a white
man the same. During the war a man of the Macomos tribe was brought
in a prisoner; two years after, when I was through that part of the
country and visited Macom, that man recognized me, and spoke of the
good treatment he got when a prisoner.

The Dutch Boers of South Africa have become so nomadic in their
instincts that even when they are permanently settled in villages
they still sleep in their clothes. Moreover, they never dream of
indulging in the luxury of candles, but turn in with the setting sun,
as they did in their waggons, and they detest the British since the
abolition of slavery. They are truly patriarchal, living in large
families, and having large flocks of sheep, and herds of cattle. The
minister of the Lutheran Church travels from place to place, stopping
a month at each, when they have camp-meetings. Then the neighbours
assemble from all the surrounding farms, bringing waggons, women and
children, also Hottentot servants with them.

[Sidenote: British heroes.]

When my memory carries me back to the battles in the north-west of
India, and I think of the bravery displayed by my comrades in arms,
what need to go back to Greek History for heroes. Where is there a
nation that has produced greater men than Great Britain, on the field
of battle, or in the council. Go back to Poitiers and Agincourt,
Blenheim and Malplaquet. Then in the Peninsula, Generals Moore,
Nelson, Wellington, Picton, Ponsonby; then again, in India: Lords
Clive, Gough, Hardinge, Sir Harry Smith, Havelock, Lawrence, Sir
Colin Campbell--a long list of heroes whose names are handed down
to future generations. Then go back to the Crimea for a Cathcart,
who fell at Inkerman; the gallant charge of the 16th Lancers through
three squares of infantry, at Aliwal; and the Sikhs were no mean
foe; they acknowledged the prowess of the British; also the death
ride of the gallant 600 at Balaclava; the Guards and Light Division,
at Inkerman, against fearful odds. The British soldiers have in
most critical times, been surrounded when there seemed no hope of
deliverance, yet they have cut their way out, often with heavy loss.
Let me remind the reader of the Indian mutiny, of the rebels that had
been pampered by the East India Company, how they massacred women and
children without mercy, and all hope of saving India seemed gone. Yet
that noble man Lawrence went and raised a body of Sikhs and Afghans,
our old foes, and with them aided the few Europeans to crush the
rebellion, and at the siege of Delhi gained the crowning victory.

Yet there are other heroes as brave. The pioneers in this new
country, who have had to face innumerable difficulties, such as the
lurking Indian, the wolf, bear and panther in the wild bush, opening
up the country and making the wilderness blossom as the rose.

I have often been surprised during my residence in Canada, at the
little interest the people here take in our affairs in other parts of
the globe. Very few seem to know the extent of the British Empire, or
the geographical positions of Bengal, Australia, or the Cape Colony,
and seem to forget that the settlers in those other parts of the
Empire are brothers of the same flesh and blood, and all from the old
sod, English, Scotch and Irish, and that the sun never sets on the
British dominions, and the English language is spoken in every land.
Where shall we find the land that has sent forth these heroes. Look
at the map of the world and you can hardly trace the little spots
called the British Isles; yet they are gems in the ocean, and how
many good Christian heroes have they sent forth to every clime to
battle for the Cross; and the Word of God has been printed in every

[Illustration: (Vignette)]

[Illustration: (Vignette)]


  West to Clanwilliam--Mr. Shaw--Productions of
  farm--Back to the Cape--Open an hotel--Pleasures of
  Cape life--Ships put in for Australia--Imports--Market
  day--Arrangements--Waggons--Fish--Lobsters--Off to Port
  Elizabeth--Whale fishing--Sea elephants--Manner of killing--The
  Penguin--Habits of the bird--Back to the Cape--English Church
  at Newlands--The Bay--Wreck of a Baltimore vessel--Loss
  of two children, captain's wife, and the mate--Habits of
  Hottentots--Manner of living--A marriage--A present and
  its return--Loss in business by partner absconding--Leave
  the Cape--East India docks--Buckinghamshire--Relatives at
  home--Station master--Accident detailed--Near Rugby--Exonerated and
  promoted--Liverpool--Brighton--To Canada--Farewell address.

I now left the East, after mature consideration, and went west to
Clanwilliam, where I found Mr. Shaw, who has before been introduced
in these pages. He had been engaged in the war, having three hundred
Hottentots under him. He was a magistrate, lived in a fine brick
house, had ten thousand acres of land, was a bachelor, and a jolly
good fellow at that. On being asked how he could live alone, his
answer immediately was, "Jolly times, jolly times." "I am monarch of
all I survey." Visitors were constant at his place from Cape Town on
shooting excursions, game being plentiful and choice on large farms.
Besides the raising of cattle, his farm produced fine oranges, wheat,
Indian corn, and grapes. Home-made wine and brandy were in abundance.
Stopping with him three weeks I started again for the Cape, stopping
at night in farm houses, where they gladly receive a visitor. Most of
the farms along to the Cape are wine farms, the soil mostly sandy,
and the weather being very hot, unfits it for grazing land. I found,
on arriving, that I had been reported as killed in the Mackazana
bush. Not having any fixed purpose as to my future movements, and
meeting here with a comrade officer who, like me, had nothing to do,
we, after duly weighing all matters, determined to erect and open an
hotel. At this time the Australian gold-fields were drawing largely
on the population of Europe, and as the Cape would be the coaling
and watering place for vessels on passage, we christened it "The
Australasian." Soon after opening the _Great Britain_ put into port,
with seven hundred passengers for Melbourne. Of these we secured one
hundred and seventy-six as boarders for the time being. Next along
came the _Sarah Sands_ from London, with three hundred, after her,
the _West Wind_ from New York, with six hundred. Of all these we had
a good share of boarders, giving them pleasure jaunts to the wine
farms of Constancia and the Pearl, and took them around the mountain
to see the beautiful scenery in this land of the myrtle and the vine.

[Sidenote: Imports--market day.]

There is a weekly market held on Wednesday at the Cape, at which
articles brought from Europe are sold. Wines and brandies from Spain
and Portugal; perfumes and silks from France; linens, calicoes, and
broadcloths, also, ready-made clothing from England. This market
commences at six in the morning. Farmers' waggons arrive during the
night before. Everything is sold after the Dutch fashion. Waggons
are arranged in line according to the article for sale. Grain, first
line of waggons; vegetables, second; and fruit of all kinds in the
third line. The Hottentot boys are the drivers of the yoke, having
for an ornament in their caps splendid ostrich feathers. Ostrich
eggs or feathers can be had from these boys for sixpence each; they
picking them up on the sand can afford to sell cheap. Fish at the
Cape is very plentiful and good, and easily caught by line. Lobsters,
by dozens, can be brought up by putting a piece of liver in a basket
weighted with stones, attached to a rope--lower, in five minutes pull
up. I have done this myself.

[Sidenote: The penguin--habits of the bird.]

Off Port Elizabeth a large business is done in whale oil. Taking a
trip in a boat belonging to a firm engaged in this business, named
Seawright, I saw the whole process of catching and extracting the
oil. The Bird Islands are in the Mosambique Channel, and here the sea
elephant, as it is called, is plentiful; the animal is amphibious.
The men go out at night when it is time for these animals to quit
the sea for the shore; when well up on the sand, they noiselessly
creep between them and the water, then they are attacked with clubs
and beaten to death; if he escapes to water again he carries with
him anything in his way, but only to secure a good ducking. Thirty
or forty will thus be killed in one night by eight or nine men;
the blubber is boiled down into oil, and sent to the Cape. These
animals are the size of a good land pig, with tusks like elephants--a
species of whale, though commonly called sea elephants. The Island
abounds with rabbits and goats, and a curious bird may be found here
called the "Penguin." They never use their wings, but march upright
in flocks like a company of soldiers. Seeing them at a distance, as
they are large, and having a red spot on the breast, they might be
taken for a company of soldiers. If, in walking, you meet with a
thousand they never get out of the way, you may do as you please, but
they only peck at you. I stayed at the Islands three days while the
ship was being freighted with oil, and on returning to the Cape I
mightily enjoyed the sail on the beautiful calm sea in this southern
hemisphere--the whale spouting, and the golden dolphin swimming
around the boat. As we neared the Cape, better known to me now, and
as it was after four in the afternoon, no one could be seen on the
streets, but many under the stoops of their houses, in the cool,
sleeping. All outdoor work is over at ten in the morning; after five
in the evening all is bustle and life again--ladies promenading
the Kesingraf, or ladies' walk. The road from the town leading to
Newlands through Rondebosch, is very pleasant--trees on both sides
for eight or nine miles. The clergyman of the English Church at
Newlands showed me a collection of animals he had for the then Lord
Derby, some fine specimens of eland, giraffe, and gazelle, the
smallest of the deer species; he had also a lion and a panther. The
heavy rolls from the Atlantic set in early in winter, and during the
season no vessels venture into the bay; if they got safely in there
they should remain until spring. The weather on land is very pleasant
during this time--much like an English autumn. In November, a bark
from Baltimore, in the States, bound to Bombay, came ashore on Robbin
Island a wreck; a number went off to assist the crew; on reaching
the rocks the captain and a number of sailors had got ashore--his
wife, two children, and the mate were missing. The captain was nearly
out of his mind through the loss, they were found the next day--two
beautiful girls--and I can never forget the man's looks as he saw
them laid out for burial. The wife was found under the keel of the
vessel, and the mate jammed between the casks of porter in the hold.
It was a melancholy funeral.

[Sidenote: Habits of Hottentots]

I will now revert to my travels in Kaffraria, to mention some things
interesting which I omitted then. In commencing, I may say that the
meaning of Kaffir is thief, by calling men of some tribes who know
this, they are very indignant. They generally have from three to
six wives, who do all the laborious work, even to building the hut
for herself, my lord going into which he pleases. They do all the
gardening, sow corn, plant pumpkins and other vegetables, milk cows
and cook, the boys helping, and are never allowed to eat with the
men; these latter attend to the cattle until eighteen, when they are
circumcised and allowed to sit with the warriors and hunt with them.
When he has arrived at the period of manhood to marry, he selects a
wife, the chief and councillors set a price on her according to her
charms, say, two cows or three heifers, and if he does not possess so
much he will steal from the nearest settler or from another tribe;
this occurring often is the cause of much war between the several
tribes. One day a fine young fellow named Magesa, a chief's son of
the Patos tribe, came to me, pulling a long face. He said he wanted
a girl of another tribe, but he had not her value, nor would his
father give him the cow and two heifers he required, as he wanted to
buy another wife for himself. This boy previously had done me a good
turn, and feeling for him, as well as to prevent him from stealing,
I got the required cattle which he accepted. He brought his bride
afterwards to thank me. I was surprised, however, when he made a
request for a row of beads to decorate her neck, and also for a plug
of tobacco with which to console himself. These I gave him, and in
return the high favour of kissing the newly married lady was imposed
upon me. Their clothing being very scant, and all procured by hunting
the deer, don't cost much, but their begging propensities are very
great, for a chief with four wives and five hundred head of cattle
would beg as this lad had done.

[Sidenote: Leave the Cape.]

There is very little emigration to the Cape, the reason is, capital
is required. Labour is so cheap, no white man will engage in it
for a living. Land can be purchased, worked to advantage, either
in grain, or stock-farming, and this requires means. The principal
export is merino wool. The native sheep are like goats, with hair.
They have extraordinary large tails, all fat. I have seen a tail as
large as the carcase.

In consequence of the loss of my wife and child by small-pox,
brought to the Cape in a slaver captured on the west coast, and the
defalcations of my partner in the hotel business, through which he
absconded to Australia with one thousand pounds of our money, I was
compelled to resign my business and return to England. A vessel on
her way from Calcutta, putting in for water, I took passage, and bid
good-bye to the Cape. The voyage was a rough one, we encountered many
storms, arriving safe at the East India Docks on 24th March, 1855,
after a voyage of ten weeks. I immediately left for Buckinghamshire,
where my family had removed during my absence, and found, to my
great sorrow, my poor mother had been dead just two months, her
last words were: "Oh, that I could but see my dear son before I
am called away." My father, feeling this affliction deeply, having
lived together some forty-six years, soon followed her, and I had
had that consolation of being present when he died, and laid him
beside my dear angel mother. After arranging some family matters at
our old home, I left for London, expecting to get a commission in
the Turkish contingent, from Lord Panmure. While waiting for this,
peace was proclaimed, and the troops ordered home from the Crimea.
Notwithstanding all the excitement caused by that war, my services
were not forgotten, though, perhaps, in the eyes of some, the famous
charge of the Six Hundred, had eclipsed Aliwal and Sobraon, still
I had a good friend in the Marquis of Chandos, who gave me the
appointment of station-master on the London and North-Western Railway
below Rugby, where I remained till 1859.

[Sidenote: Railway catastrophy.]

In the month of November, 1859, a serious accident occurred on my
section of this road, which might have been more serious for me,
as I was only recently appointed, had I not used the caution on
the moment I did, showing my training as a soldier was useful even
on a railroad. About three in the afternoon, the Midland Express,
twenty minutes overdue, a mineral train came along. I cautioned the
driver to get clear as quickly as possible, which he did, till about
three hundred yards from the station he broke down. I immediately
telegraphed "line blocked." Soon the Express, late, came in sight,
thundering along under two engines--twelve carriages and two guard
vans. Trying all means, I could not stop it, danger signal was up,
waved red flag, still on she came at a rate of seventy miles an hour.
As they passed me, still waving and shouting, they screwed down
to twenty miles; but on she went into the mineral train, smashing
the engine and telescoping the carriages. Fortunately a down train
for Aylesbury had just passed the freight train, or it would have
been much worse. As it was, I felt much worse than ever I did when
charging up to the mouth of a big gun at Magarajpoor, or charging
square of Sikhs, at Aliwal. There were many of the passengers
wounded, one, a lady's maid, was killed. The wounded were removed to
a gentleman's residence near by. Lord and Lady Byron were slightly
injured. The Board of Directors of course had an investigation to
which I was summoned, but completely exonerated from all blame, as
it was proved the station-master below me had neglected his duty,
in not seeing my telegraph "line blocked." I received great praise
from the London papers, and was promoted by the Board to a more
responsible and lucrative post. Still I never could feel happy on my
post. My wife--having married again--constantly fretted for fear of
a repetition, and as it was a worry to my mind, I resigned as I have
before stated, in 1859.

I then went to Liverpool to fill an appointment as Drill Instructor
to the Exchange corps of Volunteers, under Captain Bright, and in
that city I remained, until the opening of the Great Exhibition, in
1862, when I got an appointment in the first great world's show. When
it closed I went to Hampstead, where I was college drill-master until
1869, when I left for Brighton, my birthplace, as superintendent
of the Grand Hotel. So many early associations connected with this
place, and as I had lost all my relatives nearly, I made up my
mind to remove to America along with an old friend of mine, who
determined, like me, to anchor at last in the New World.

[Sidenote: Farewell address.]

Having now reached the point of the story of my life when I must
bid farewell to my reader, I feel refreshed--life renewed almost in
having gone over the history of my early connection with the army,
and the subsequent perils, combats, and adventures in which I was
engaged. I can scarcely credit, on looking back, that all such has
occurred, and that I am the same who, so many years ago, toiled
under great disadvantages through the hot sands of India, parched
with thirst, and ill-provided with food fit for such a climate. I
sometimes think if it is possible, or is a long-past dream--the
charges on Sikh squares at Aliwal and Sobraon, the storming of huge
works, the capture of citadels, the marching in triumph through many
a proud eastern city, after teaching their arrogant rulers that
treachery or treason could not be tolerated by the British. Did I
once stand on the steps of the throne of the once powerful Moguls of
Delhi, and assist at the capture, and escort, after toilsome marches,
some of the turbulent princes of India; and in all these had the
honour of serving under such soldiers as Hardinge, Gough, Pollock,
Nott, Smith, Havelock, and a Cathcart. Apart from this, in another
continent, hunting the huge elephant in the jungles, the slow,
stealthy creep to the leeward of the beast--the shot--the roar--the
crash into the thicket--the double shot--and eventually the heavy
thud with which he falls to the earth almost lifeless.

It has often been said, "Once a soldier, always a soldier," and
another common saying equally as true, "It runs in the blood." These
assertions are true as far as my experience has led me to judge. I
am but a poor example of the truth. One has only to read over the
names of our country's heroes, and, tracing them for generations
back, their ancestors have mostly belonged to either branch of
Her Majesty's service. I am now in the sere and yellow leaf, but
would to-morrow, if not so incapacitated heartily join my old
comrades--"The Pride of England--the Terror of India," ready to go
over the same ground again. This cannot be, however. We all have our
day; young men are coming to the front every day, animated with the
same spirit, but, it seems to me, possessed with more caution. They,
no doubt, when called, will emulate the example of their predecessors
in deeds of bravery.

The Peninsular war, ending at Waterloo, produced brave and heroic
men, who have left their names on the scroll of fame. The Sikh war
added another long list, in which Aliwal and Sobraon heroes figure
conspicuously, as did also the Maharatta war. Again, the Crimea, with
its terrible charge of the Six Hundred, and the dreadful sufferings
through the severe winter of 1854 and 1855, will never be forgotten.
Then the Indian Mutiny, where our countrymen's names come in with
those of Sir Colin and Havelock, for a high meed of praise--all
showing that in the breasts of the sons of the "Three Kingdoms"
there is born a living fire, which, when kindled on the cry of the
oppressed or down-trodden of earth will burn till liberty and freedom
is enthroned.

                  GOD SAVE THE QUEEN.


  Italic text is denoted by _underscores_.

  Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been
  corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within
  the text and consultation of external sources.

  Except for those changes noted below, misspelling by the author,
  and inconsistent or archaic usage, has been retained. For example,
  body guard, body-guard; daylight, day light; everywhere, every where;
  headquarters, head-quarters.

  p. viii  duplicate 'and' removed from 'this one and and'.
  p. xiii 'Incideut' replaced by 'Incident'.
  p. xiii, 61 'Wheat-shooks' replaced by 'Wheat-shocks'.
  p. 17 'eighteeen' replaced by 'eighteen'.
  p. 21 'Mauritus' replaced by 'Mauritius'.
  p. 23 'Governor General's' replaced by 'Governor-General's' for
  p. 24 'aligators' replaced by 'alligators'.
  p. 31 'though' replaced by 'through'.
  p. 33 'though' replaced by 'through'.
  p. 38, 66 'p. m.' replaced by 'p.m.' for consistency.
  p. 41  duplicate 'and' removed from 'city and and'.
  p. 43 'Shah Shojah' replaced by 'Shah-Soojah'.
  p. 43 'Elphinston' replaced by 'Elphinstone'.
  p. 52 'souse' replaced by 'soused'.
  p. 54 'couse' replaced by 'cause'.
  p. 55 'Khyber' replaced by 'Kyber' for consistency.
  p. 59 'make ugly' replaced by 'made ugly'.
  p. 75 '--' added after 'Jack'.
  p. 78 'Grand turnout' replaced by 'Grand turn out' for consistency.
  p. 98 'meet' replaced by 'meat'.
  p. 99 duplicate 'the' removed from 'squares of the the'.
  p. 109 'Ferosha' replaced by 'Ferusha'.
  p. 127 'Kshadriya' replaced by 'Kshatriya'.
  p. 130 'bath' replaced by 'birth'.
  p. 131 'baths' replaced by 'births'.
  p. 135 'lacks' replaced by 'lakhs'.
  p. 141 duplicate 'and' removed from 'and and twenty'.
  p. 147 'attrocities' replaced by 'atrocities'.
  p. 151, 152 'Gaiku' replaced by 'Gaika'.
  p. 172 'Poictiers' replaced by 'Poitiers'.
  p. 189 'Maharratta' replaced by 'Maharatta'.

  Many occurences of 'Sing' have been retained; probably should
      be 'Singh'.

  For consistency:
      several occurrences of 'Shah Soojah' replaced by 'Shah-Soojah';
      several occurrences of 'Affghanistan' replaced by 'Afghanistan';
      two occurrences of 'Alliwal' replaced by 'Aliwal';
      two occurrences of 'Jellalabad' replaced by 'Jellelabad'.

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