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Title: The Beaver, Vol. 1, February, 1921, No. 5
Author: Hudson's Bay Company
Language: English
As this book started as an ASCII text book there are no pictures available.
Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

*** Start of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Beaver, Vol. 1, February, 1921, No. 5" ***

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    Vol. I        FEBRUARY, 1921        No. 5

[Illustration: _The Beaver_

_A Journal of Progress_]

[Illustration: _Little Miss Ouikpigak, a future Eskimo belle of Great
Whale River, whose father is a famous hunter for H.B.C. The fat of the
seal is Ouikpigak's only candy--more sweet to her than any all-day

[Illustration: _Devoted to The Interests of Those Who Serve the
Hudson's Bay Company_]

H.B.C. Pioneer Steamer Ruled West Coast Trade 20 Years

_The "Beaver," of 109 Tons Burthen, Took Prominent Part in History of
British Columbia--Cared for Wants of 40,000 Natives._


THERE was not a single phase of British Columbia history from 1835 to
1874 in which H.B.S.S. "Beaver" did not play a large part. She was
admired by all those old pioneers associated with the history of the
West Coast.

The foundation of Victoria City was laid by the "Beaver." Fort Rupert
and Nanaimo were built under her protection, and though Fort Simpson
was founded prior to her arrival on the coast, she was the main
protection of that establishment for many years afterwards.

_Ship Used to Keep Law and Order_

Operations of the Hudson's Bay Company in Russian America were entirely
under her control and many minor difficulties in that region were
effectively settled promptly on her arrival at the seat of trouble.
When, too, the reign of law and order was threatened closer home, in
every case the arrival of the "Beaver" was awaited before effective
steps could be taken to bring affairs back to a normal state.

On one occasion, two murderers escaped to Cowichan and the warship
"Thetis" sent a hundred and fifty of her men on the "Beaver" and
proceeded to Cowichan under command of James Douglas to administer the

There were many other cases of this nature that demonstrated the
"Beaver's" usefulness in developing and colonizing British Columbia,
particularly the north coast.

_The "Beaver" Steamed Round the Horn_

It was, to many, a marvel that a small boat of this kind could steam
round Cape Horn and weather any storm that she encountered. These
men forget that, though small, she was built of stoutest oak and was
considered a more able and seaworthy craft than many of much larger
size operating today.

Her keel was of unusual size and in full keeping with the British oak
stem and stern post. The best greenheart and oak ribs were used, being
carefully dressed and of large size. The spaces between these frames
were filled in solidly to a level above the water line with curved
timbers of the same material as the ribs. Outside planking was oak and
African teak, fastened with copper bolts and tree nails, covered with a
layer of thick tar paper and then sheeted with fir fastened with spikes
of bronze composition. The hull was surfaced with a sheeting of copper.

_Launched Under Royal Patronage_

Her length was a hundred and one feet, breadth inside paddle boxes
twenty feet, outside thirty-three feet, depth eleven and one-half
feet, having one hundred and nine tons burden. She carried a crew of
twenty-six men and was armed with five nine-pounders. Her building, and
especially her launching, created a great interest, as she is reported
to have plunged into the mighty Thames under the patronage of royalty
and in the presence of a vast throng of spectators.

_H.B.C. Quality Shewn in Building_

The construction of the "Beaver" indicates that the Hudson's Bay
Company were up-to-date and were living up to their British traditions
by being always first in the field in any new enterprise that required
capital and far-sighted commercial methods. It must be remembered
that steam vessels were not at that time proven to be successful, but
were in the experimental stage. The spirit of adventure, as the term
was understood in those days, was much in evidence when the Company's
Governor and Committee ordered the "Beaver" in 1834 from Messrs. Green,
Wigham & Green, at Blackwall, London.

[Illustration: _The "Beaver" Riding at Anchor Near Victoria_]

Two new masts were made and installed at Port Simpson in 1858 by a
carpenter named Rudlin, and she was sent to Sitka, Alaska, to be
overhauled by the Russians the same winter (1858). Apart from this,
nothing seems to have been spent on her other than what her own crew
could do.

She had two engines 35 nominal horsepower, each of the long since
obsolete side-lever type, though much in favour during those early
times following the "Beaver's" construction.

It was an interesting day when the keel of this wonderful little black
steamer was laid, but how much more interesting must the 29th day of
August, 1835, have been when the "Beaver" glided down into the English
Channel and out on the trackless ocean on her voyage to the north
Pacific ocean to become famous in the annals of the west.

The "Beaver" arrived at Robinson Crusoe Island, via Cape Horn, December
17th, 1835, and Astoria (Columbia River) April 4th, 1836.

_H.B.C. Fur Headquarters on Columbia River_

The Hudson's Bay Company's fur trade up to this date had as its
headquarters on the Pacific Coast the Columbia River, but as the trade
was being developed it was soon apparent that Columbia River was not
the most suitable location from which to administer affairs. The ships
from London were taking great risks when crossing the Columbia River
bar, and as there were no steam tugs available, going up the Columbia
River with a sailing vessel for one hundred miles or more was not at
all to their liking. The coastwise boats, apart from the "Beaver," were
all small sailing-ships and the voyage to the Columbia from Puget Sound
was really a stupendous undertaking.

The Hudson's Bay Company's possessory rights in Oregon were the
stumbling blocks. If the Columbia River establishments were abandoned
the Company's claim might be jeopardized, and rather than do that a
route was opened through from Fort Vancouver to Nisqually on the Puget
Sound via the Cowlitz River, where trade goods could be transported by
boat and ox-cart and shipped north on the ships engaged in the trade,
thereby saving much time to the ships but wasting considerable of the
time of the land forces.

_The "Beaver's" Coast Route_

From Nisqually, the "Beaver" took a full cargo in January, proceeding
to Fort Simpson, calling en route at all Indian villages where she
would anchor, throw out her boarding nets and proceed to trade, so that
by the time she reached Fort Simpson a large part of her cargo would
have been traded.

At Fort Simpson the furs collected were taken ashore and stored and
the ship restocked with trade goods; then she proceeded, calling at
all villages en route to Taku. Returning to Fort Simpson, furs were
unloaded and more goods taken.

This procedure was kept up all summer, the "Beaver" making about four
trips north, and the same number south, leaving off in time to reach
Victoria before Christmas.

The "Beaver" was not subject to orders from any but Sir James Douglas,
but she had all Posts on the route she covered under her control. It
was estimated that she _had to cater to the wants of forty thousand

_Monarch of Trade for Twenty Years_

For twenty years she was complete monarch of the coast. In all new
Indian trade countries and indeed in all new white settlements, the
wants of the population had gradually increased, until in 1852 the
"Beaver" was found to be totally inadequate for the trade. A new boat
was built for the Company in England and named the "Otter," arriving at
Victoria in April, 1853.

_Victoria to San Francisco in Four Days_

One of the "Otter's" first duties after arriving at Victoria from
England was to go to San Francisco. Sir James Douglas says, "In spite
of head winds, she went down in four days and returned in five days,
and she was much admired where her unexpected arrival created quite a

She was the first steamer propelled by a screw to be brought out by the
Company, and was altogether just as successful as was the "Beaver" and
had the same fault--being too small. However, the "Beaver" and "Otter"
between them were able to take care of the work for a few years, until
the "Enterprise" was purchased in 1862, to help out on the Fraser River
run during the great Caribou gold excitement.

_"Beaver" Chartered to British Government_

It is easy to understand that by this time the "Beaver's" engines
were in need of attention, and it was under discussion as to whether
they should be taken out and sent home to be re-bored, or whether the
steamer should be sent herself to have repairs effected; but before a
decision was reached, the boat was chartered to the British Government
for the purpose of survey work.

Meanwhile, the Hudson's Bay Company had built in England another ship,
the "Labouchere." She was of the paddle-wheel type, but much larger and
more costly to operate than the "Beaver." The zeal of the Hudson's Bay
Company's officers to get an up-to-date boat caused them to overlook
the fact that money and business were not plentiful, and a steamer to
operate successfully on the coast must be carefully selected. When they
realized their mistake, other work was sought, with the result that she
was placed on the San Francisco-Victoria mail route in competition with
the California Steam Navigation Company's steamer "Active," and a rate
war, probably the first on the coast, was started. It ended suddenly,
however, when the "Labouchere" on her second trip was wrecked at Point



_Sioux Lookout, Ontario_


[Illustration: _H.B.C. Store, Sioux Lookout, Ont._]

GRAHAM is one of the comparatively small number of H.B.C. "line"
posts, _i.e._, fur trading establishments located close to railway
transportation. Graham Post is on the Canadian National Railway at
Sioux Lookout, a town of nearly one thousand people and a railroad and
lumbering centre.

The name "Sioux Lookout" was taken from the high rocky hill just west
of the town. Indian legends relate that this high hill was often used
by wandering bands of Sioux warriors, who, ranging far from their
Dakota prairies, watched with keen eyes from the top of this hill the
narrow gorge from Pelican to Abraham's Lake as they laid plans to
ambush and exterminate the Indians of that district. A fire ranger's
observation tower now stands at the summit of the hill.

Sioux Lookout lies close by Pelican Lake, one of the chain of lakes
comprising the original H.B.C. freight route from the Canadian Pacific
Railway to inland posts to the northward--_Lac Seul_, _Osnaburgh_,
_Fort Hope_ and _Cat Lake_.

The staff of the Company's present day post at Graham includes the
post-manager, three clerks, a deliveryman, bookkeeper and junior office
clerk. The Company's business, in addition to fur trading, is derived
from the population of Sioux Lookout and comprises the transient trade
to and from the lumber camps located to the east and west of the town.

The wonderful waterways and remarkable scenic beauty of the country
surrounding Sioux Lookout rival those of Minaki. Vacationers and
camping parties in ever increasing numbers are going to Sioux Lookout
every Summer, where nearly everybody has a motor boat or canoe to
traverse the wondrous stretches of waterways with their miles and miles
of beautiful bays and fine sandy beaches.


_The Fur-ious Medicine Man_

By S. A. TAYLOR, Saskatchewan District

    THE Medicine Man--his wife was mad,
      He had done much to peeve 'er
    Ten minks he'd caught; their tails cut off,
      Just simply for to grieve 'er.

    And when for _bear_-ly half a day
      He'd strived hard to appease her,
    He said, "It's why I call 'er mine
      Just so as I can tease 'er."

    And if she don't improve her ways,
      Next time I come home then,
    In order to hear what she says,
      Again will I _mar_(r)_ten_.

    Ten of my very choicest _mink_,
      A spell I will cast o'er them;
    If that don't make her stop and think,
      I'll with my jack knife bore them.

    Next day whilst at the water hole
      His wife fell in the "wotter,"
    He said this time I'll _fisher_ out
      Because I think I _o't ter_.

    As cunning as a _fox_ his wife
      Was bound she would get even.
    She thought, I cannot take his life
      Because of children seven.

    Next day she ran off in the bush
      She'd had too many drinks.
    They searched all night; to scare the wolves
      They carried flaming _links_.

    No doubt the _wolves_ of her made hash,
      For she was never found.
    His marriage to her he _mus_(t)_quash_
      Her hubby would be bound.

    Her carcass you will never find
      He said; the wolves have got her
    So let's go home and never mind.
      He was an awful rotter.

    Now, motto for this pome there's none
      But for it there's a reason.
    Each verse contains some kind of _fur_
      We hope to get this season.



_And Why it Builds Successful Companies_

By H. F. HARMAN, _Land Commissioner_

THE literal meaning of "Esprit de Corps" denotes the common spirit
pervading the members of a body or association of persons.

It implies sympathy, enthusiasm, devotion, and jealous regard for the
honor of the organization as a whole.

This French phrase was the unwritten but ever present motto or slogan
which finally brought about the successful termination of the war for
the Allies.

Read slowly the interpretation of the phrase and you will realize its
tremendous import when faithfully, persistently exercised.

This is the spirit which, for the past 250 years, has animated so
many loyal officials and servants of the "Governor and Company of
Adventurers of England Trading into Hudson Bay." Let this generation
see to it that we do not become indifferent to this very essential and
necessary characteristic.

This spirit should prevail throughout the Company's service in the
Dominion and elsewhere, and when difficulties and differences of
opinion arise, as they always will in the natural course of our
everyday pursuits, let us all, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, in
towns, cities and the farthest interior, just remember to say to
ourselves "Esprit de Corps, under all circumstances," or, as the
Governor put it during his recent visit to Canada, "pour a little oil
on the machinery when it does not run perfectly and smoothly." (It's
the only lubricant available these days.)

Try to put yourself in the other fellow's shoes and do unto him as you
would he should do unto you.

If I were asked, "What institutions do you consider have been, and are
yet, of the greatest service to Canada?" my reply would be: "Hudson's
Bay Company and Canadian Pacific Railway." "And what has been the
chief factor which has created such an enviable position for these two
companies?"--"Esprit de Corps."

The success of any organization or corporation depends upon this; let
us constantly keep this motto before us.


Lost in the Bush


IT being a bright, cold, frosty morning in the latter part of October,
the Indians all off to their hunting grounds and nothing much doing
around the post, I thought that I would take a day off and go and put
down some marten and fisher traps.

I got away about 7 a.m. and after paddling about six miles I arrived
at the end of the lake and took to the bush. Heading in a northerly
direction I trudged along, placing snares for fur at various likely
looking places, and so interested was I in my work that I did not
notice that the day was fast slipping by and night approaching.

It must have been late in the afternoon when I startled a flock of
partridges which got away before I could get a shot at them. After
following the direction in which they had gone for some distance and
failing to locate them, I thought, therefore, that I would hit the
trail for home, but after walking for some time I realized that I was

In the meantime, the wind was getting up and low, angry clouds were
scudding across the sky, which foretold, as a sailor would say, "a
dirty night." Not expecting to be so long away, I had not brought
provisions with me, so was beginning to feel hungry.

The sun had long since disappeared and the night was coming on, so I
thought it best to look for a good camping place. I luckily came across
a spot with any amount of dry and green wood, so started to make things
comfortable for the night. I first of all cut down some green trees and
with the branches made a shelter. Then I cut enough dry wood to last
the night, made a good fire and lay down in front of it. Fortunately,
having a good supply of tobacco and my pipe, I was able to make myself

About 8 o'clock, however, things changed for the worse. The thermometer
dropped and it began to blow and snow. It snowed more or less all
night, and having no blankets or overcoat with me, I was employed the
best part of the night in keeping the fire burning. The long night came
to an end at last. The wind dropped and the snow ceased falling. Soon
the sun appeared above the tree tops, looking warm and big. I was then
enabled to get my bearings. I took out my watch and pointed the hour
hand towards the sun. Midway between the hour hand and twelve o'clock I
knew was south. It does not matter what hour of the day one does this,
the result is the same.

By this means I was enabled to get my bearings, and knowing that I
had been travelling in a more or less northeasterly direction the day
previous I took a southwesterly course. After travelling for six hours
through thick bush, climbing over dead falls and crossing many creeks,
I struck the lake where I had left my canoe and found it a little over
a mile from where I came out to the lake.

Ice was forming on the lake and the country was white with a blanket
of snow. Having no mitts, my fingers got numbed from time to time. I
soon launched the canoe and made for home. At last the post came in
sight, and I can assure you that I received a great welcome. It was not
long before I had a moose steak put before me. This, washed down with
several cups of hot coffee, soon made me forget my experience of the


The Lure of the North


   _Poets tell of the sunny climes
    And speak in beautiful lines
    Of the flowers, the birds and song
    Of Summer's rapturous throng._

   _They liken it to the freshness of the dew,
    They speak of smiling skies of blue.
    The awakening bud--the breath of June
    Is ever the same old poet's tune._

   _But I would speak of the dazzling snows
    That only our great Northland knows.
    There is a beauty yet untold
    A majestic power a poet cannot unfold._

   _There is a rapture in plains of virgin-white
    In the snow-clad mountain height,
    And a solemnity so deep--austere
    That one feels a God-like presence near._

   _There is a wonder in the deep, deep silence,
    And the mighty wind's defiance
    Mingled with the Spirit of Unconquered Might
    And the undefined mystery of the night._

   _The call of the North I cannot define,
    It has a lure of the great--sublime.
    Man is a being as yet too small
    To explain or resist the Northland's call._


Explorations by Adventurers of the H.B.C.

(_Continued from December Number_)

Arranged by J. PREST

Sometimes more dangerous game than buffalo was encountered. On
September 17, Hendry writes, "Two men were miserably wounded by a
grizzly bear that they were hunting today. One may recover but the
other never can. His arm is torn from his body, one eye gouged out and
his stomach ripped open." The next day the Indian died.

The Assiniboines were marching southwest from the Pas towards the
land of the Blackfeet. They were now three hundred miles southwest
of the French House. To Hendry's surprise they came to a large river
with high banks that looked exactly like the Saskatchewan. It was the
South Branch of the Saskatchewan, where it takes the great bend south
of Prince Albert. Canoes had been left far behind. What were the four
hundred Assiniboines to do? But the Indians solved the difficulty
in less than half a day. Making boats of willow branches and moose
parchment skin--like the bull boats of the Missouri--the Assiniboines
rafted safely across. The march now turned west toward the Eagle River
and Eagle Hills and North Saskatchewan. The Eagle Indians are met and
persuaded to bring their furs to York Fort.

As winter approached, the women began dressing the skins for moccasins
and clothes. A fire of punk in an earth hole smoked the skins. Beating
and pounding and stretching pelts, the squaws then softened the skin.
For winter wear, moccasins were left with the fur inside. Hendry
remarks how in the fall of the year the women sat in the doors of their
wigwams "knitting moose leather into snow shoes" made of seasoned wood.
It was October before the Indians of the far western plains were met.
These were the famous Blackfeet, for the first time now seen by an
English trader. They approached the Assiniboines mounted and armed with
bows and spears. Hendry gave them presents to carry to their chief.
Hendry notes the signs of mines along the banks of the Saskatchewan. He
thought the mineral iron. What he saw was probably an outcropping of
coal. The jumping deer he describes as a new kind of goat. As soon as
ice formed on the swamps, the hunters began trenching for beaver, which
were plentiful beyond the fur traders' hopes. When, on October 11th,
the marchers for the third time came on the Saskatchewan, which the
Indians called Waskesaw, Hendry recognized that all the branches were
forks of one and the same great river, the Saskatchewan, or, as the
French called it, Christinaux. The Indian names for the two branches
were Keskatchew and Waskesaw.

For several days the far smoke of an encampment had been visible,
southwest. On October the 14th, four riders came out to conduct Hendry
to an encampment of three hundred and twenty-two tents of Blackfeet
Indians, "pitched in two rows with an opening in the middle, where we
were conducted to the leader's tent." This was the main tribe of which
Hendry had already met the outrunners. "The leader's tent was large
enough to contain fifty persons. He received us seated on a buffalo
skin, attended by twenty elderly men. He made signs for me to sit down
on his right hand, which I did. Our leaders (the Assiniboines) set
several great pipes going the rounds and we smoked according to their

Not one word was spoken. Smoking over, boiled buffalo flesh was served
in baskets of bent wood. I was presented with ten buffalo tongues. My
guide informed the leader I was sent by the grand leader who lives on
the Great Waters to invite his young men down with their furs. They
would receive in return, powder, shot, guns and cloth. He made little
answer; said it was far off and his people could not paddle. We were
then ordered to depart to our tents which we pitched a quarter of a
mile outside their lines. Again invited to the leader's tent the next
morning, Hendry heard some remarkable philosophy from the Indian.
"The chief told me his tribe never wanted food as they followed the
buffalo, but he was informed the natives who frequented the settlements
often starved on their journey, "which was exceedingly true," added
Hendry. Reciprocal presents closed the interview. The present to
the Assiniboine Chief was a couple of girl slaves, one of whom was
murdered at York ten years afterwards by an Indian in a fit of jealousy.

Later, Hendry learned that the Assiniboines did not want these
Blackfeet of the far west to come down to the Bay. Neither would the
Assiniboines hunt except for food. Putting the two facts together,
Hendry rightly judged that the Assiniboines acted as middlemen between
the traders and the Blackfeet.

By the end of October, Hendry had left the plains and was in a rolling,
wooded land northwest of the North Saskatchewan. Here, with occasional
moves as the hunting shifted, the Indians wintered: his journal says,
"eight hundred and ten miles west of York," moving back and forward
north and south of the river. Eight hundred and ten miles would bring
Hendry in the region between the modern Edmonton and Battleford.
It is to Hendry's credit that he remained on good terms with the
Assiniboines. If he had been a weakling, he would easily have become
the butt of the children who infested the tents like imps, but he
hunted with the hunters, trapped with the trappers, and could outmarch
the best of them.

When he met Indians hunting for the French forts, with true trader
instinct he bribed them with gifts to bring their furs down to Hudson
Bay. Almost the entire winter camp moved from bend to bend or branch to
branch of the North Saskatchewan, heading gradually eastward. Towards
spring, different tribes joined the Assiniboines to go down to York.
Among these were "green scalps" and many women captives from those
Blackfeet Indians Hendry had met. Each night the scalps hung like flags
from the tent poles. The captives were given around camp as presents.
One hears much twaddle of the red man's noble state before he was
contaminated by the white man. Hendry saw these tribes of the Far West
before they had met any white men but himself, and the disposal of
those captives is a criterion of the red man's noble state. Whenever
one was not wanted--the present of a girl, for instance, resented
by a warrior's jealous wife, she was summarily hacked to pieces and
not a passing thought given to the matter. The killing of a dog or a
beaver caused more comment. On the value of life as a thing of worth in
itself, the Indian had absolutely no conception, not so much conception
as a domestic dog trained not to destroy life.

    (_To be continued_)


Montizambert Post News

H. H. BUSCH, Post Manager at Montizambert, widely known in Lake
Superior District, recently detailed himself as a "fatigue party" to
undertake a task usually considered too weighty for one man to handle.
The job was to remove the engine from Mrs. Busch's motor boat.

Once started, however, his pride would not let him quit. He sailed into
the craft with a hammer, two wrenches, a file and a pair of chisels.
Chips began to fly; nuts and bolts and ejaculations filled the air.

Some hours later the clerk saw our doughty factor wrestling at the
water's brim, trying to carry the big engine to the fur house. One
spectator remarks, "A fog was rising from him like that from a hot
spring in winter." After a long tussle he and the engine arrived at the
fur house.

At lunch, however, our factor was a changed man; his appetite was way
below normal. And all afternoon the "sap" appeared to have all gone out
of him. For once, Mr. Busch had tackled a job too big for him, but he
saw it through.--A.D.H.


Lectures on H.B.C. Operations

THE Canadian Watchman Press, Publishers and Booksellers, of Oshawa,
Ontario, have recently been holding meetings of their employees where
lectures, illustrated with maps and charts, are given, dealing with the
operations of the Hudson's Bay Company in the Northland.


"Are caterpillars good to eat?" asked little Tommy at the dinner table.

"No," said the father; "what makes you ask a question like that while
we are eating?"

"You had one on your lettuce, but it has gone now," replied Tommy.


A Remarkable Trip by U.S.A. Airmen in a Free Balloon

_From New York to Moose Factory, James Bay, Ontario, 820 Miles in 25

By J. BEVERIDGE, Moose Factory

THREE U. S. A. Airmen left Rockaway Station, Long Island, New York, on
Monday, 13th December, in a free balloon, with the intention of flying
across the State of New York.

After ascending, and while crossing New York City, a storm caught them,
and drove them off their course. Being at an altitude of 6000 feet, and
above the clouds, they were unable to see the ground.

The country over which they were flying was high, necessitating the
discharge of ballast to prevent the balloon striking high land.

Having no chart, and, therefore, losing their bearings, they were
unable to tell over which part of the country they were flying.

On Tuesday, December 14th, after being in the air about 24 hours, the
men thought they heard a dog bark, and through a rift in the clouds
they saw a house; they then decided to descend.

The pilot opened the valve, and the balloon commenced to descend at a
rapid speed. The wind had carried the balloon beyond the place where
they had seen the house, and there was nothing but trees on which to
land. All the remaining ballast was thrown overboard to prevent the
basket crashing on the trees; thermos flasks and all the furnishings
were cast over. But their descent had been too rapid to be arrested so
easily, and the basket collided with the trees. Too much gas had been
released to allow the balloon to ascend again. The basket continued to
drag through the bush till at last the balloon came to a halt tangled
on the side of a tree.

The time of landing was about 2 p.m. Taking a southerly course by
their compass, which they had managed to retain, they commenced to
walk through the bush, but made little headway owing to the dense mass
of foliage, spruce trees, willows and marshy land. They built a fire,
cooked one of three carrier pigeons. This was the only food they had
had since leaving New York.

Making themselves as comfortable as possible, they rested for the night
but had little sleep. Keeping the fire going all night was the only
means of being warm.

On Wednesday, the 15th, they commenced their slow progress once more
through the bush. The serious nature of their situation was only
dawning on them at this time, and finding no house, nor any traces of
dogs, they began thinking their minds had been playing them tricks.

No food whatever was available, so they had to make their two
remaining pigeons last indefinitely, not knowing when they would reach

As their strength was waning, the oldest man of the party had discarded
nearly all his clothes keeping only his flying suit and underclothes.
He was nearly "all in" and kept falling down, but the older of the
other two kept them all going, knowing that to keep going was their
only means of salvation. To stop would have meant being frozen. Moss
was their only food this day. Again they made a fire and rested for the

On December 16th, Thursday, they set off again, travelling in a
southerly direction. A second pigeon was devoured. At last they struck
a creek and they were thankful to escape from the bush, walking on the
ice being much easier. They travelled all day but discerned no signs of
human life. The usual nightly performance was gone through, and each
thought it all was rather hopeless, but "life is sweet."

Friday, December 17th, they commenced their slow and wearisome journey
once more, walking on the creek; but at last the creek joined the
river and here they perceived sleigh tracks. Noting the direction it
had travelled by the imprint of the dog's feet, they followed the
trail. About noon they sighted the sleigh, and the younger of the three
commenced to hurry in an endeavour to overtake the sleigh. At last
the man, an Indian trapper, observed that someone was endeavouring to
overtake him, but, instead of waiting as would be expected, the Indian
commenced to hurry. It appears that he was very frightened at the
airman's uniform or his sudden appearance. The young officer managed at
last to overtake the Indian, due to the slow progress of the dogs.

The Indian was at last made to understand that the men were starving
and lost, so he took the young airman to his house which happened to
be at hand, and was, in fact, on Moose Island. A team was sent for the
other two airmen, and all were brought to the Company's Post, where
they were thawed out, given a good meal, and put off to bed.

The airmen's footwear consisted of ordinary leather boots, but thanks
to the mild spell and little snow there were no bad effects. "All's
well that ends well." Now they are looking forward to the two hundred
miles of snowshoeing to the main line and let their wives and families
know they are safe and sound.

The names of the airmen are:

Lieutenant Farrell, senior; Lieutenant Hinton, the one who was
responsible for keeping up the courage of the party, and who was pilot
on the N.C. 4 when Commander Read made the famous Trans-Atlantic
flight; Lieutenant Kloor, the only free balloon pilot in the party, and
who overtook the Indian.

The trip was, I believe, a record flight for a free balloon, 820 miles,
as the crow flies, in 25 hours.


_Issued Every Now and Then in the Interests of Those in the Service of
the Hudson's Bay Company_

[Illustration: PRO PELLE CUTEM]

The Beaver

    "_A Journal of Progress_"

    Copyright, 1921, by the Hudson's Bay Company

    Address all communications to Editor,
    "THE BEAVER," York and Main Streets,
    Winnipeg, Canada

    Vol. I       FEBRUARY, 1921       No. 5

Never a "Wild West" in Canada

CANADA never knew a "Wild West." We are forced to turn elsewhere
for "penny thriller" and "dime novel" material, based on frontier
lawlessness and bloodshed.

Three agencies have been mainly responsible for the peaceful and
prosperous peopling of the West. Two of them, the R.N.W.M.P. and the
Hudson's Bay Company, have long ago received recognition for their
part in this marvel of empire-building. But there is another whose
achievement is but little known or lightly heralded.

It is WOMAN. Wives and daughters of the bearded pioneers who conquered
Canada's plains trekked west _with_ them; lived in lowly sod-houses;
shared all hardships; made instant Home wherever the oxen were unyoked.
These women helped tame a wilderness, and wherever they went was law
and order.

Elsewhere in Western America, the hotbloods, the blacksheep and fortune
hunters sloughed off from a rising civilization went into the West
without the good influence of womenfolks--and straight-way became "bad
men," "killers" and "road-agents."

Because nearly every early Canadian in the West had found _good women_
nearby, there was no "Wild West." And the influence of Canadian women
is still alive--on the farms, in the factories, the stores and in the
modern civic life of this oldtime buffalo kingdom of the Northwest.

Abroad at Home

WHAT has become of the old-fashioned winter? We would like to know the
feelings of that self-exiled band who fled the wholesome prairies of
Canada last fall, as they open up their home papers on some Californian
strand and read of the ice famine in Iceland; of the hens laying and
the dandelions sprouting in Canada, in December; of outdoor swimming at
Vancouver; of spring-like mornings in Manitoba, with birds singing and
school boys laying off overcoats at play.


ENTHUSIASM is the spark which fires the fuel of ability and personality
to do its work. Without Enthusiasm, these qualities are dormant and
ineffective--mere potentialities of power.

A man may overcome error; he may lack judgment and acquire it; he may
make mistakes and remedy them; but he can do none of these things
without enthusiasm.

To have enthusiasm is a matter of "morale"; if you believe in yourself
and believe in the things you do, Enthusiasm is sure to ignite
your dormant power and bring out your capacities to their utmost
accomplishment. Conquer doubt, Enthusiasm's greatest foe.

Be enthusiastic in the doing of even the smallest job!


NO INSTITUTION ever amounted to anything until some man or group of
men back of it established an Ideal and set out to attain it. The
realization of any Ideal, or the success of any business which is
struggling toward an Ideal, requires conviction. _Skepticism, cynicism
and pessimism never made a dollar for anyone._

H.B.C. has an Ideal and that is to _serve_. Too often, indeed, this is
said by business firms in a trite, meaningless, parrot-fashion way; but
not so with the Hudson's Bay Company.

With the Company, to _serve_ means to _satisfy_. Real satisfaction
results only from high quality merchandise and high standards of
business dealing. The honor of H.B.C. is bound up with these, because
the Company established them as Ideals _centuries ago_.

The Wilderness Is Shrinking

"FLY TO FORT NORMAN" is the bold headline of a startling advertisement
in Western newspapers, "... in absolute safety and comfort; flying time
about eight hours each way," continues this epochal announcement.

Commercial enterprise has brought the air-boat to its aid in
penetrating the fastnesses of the Northland where, reports say, oil
will soon be gushing. But yesterday, this thousand-mile journey from
McMurray down toward the Arctic Ocean was achieved only by toilsome
weeks of tedious travel. What must the astonishment of leather-hued
rivermen be to view these winged canoes darting from civilization to
Norman almost "between meals." How that great wilderness shrinks and
becomes smaller. The terror and loneliness of it, the hardships of it
begin already to pass away.

There are men living who labored over Chillkoot and spent months on the
ghastly Klondike trail, and they must marvel at the advantages given by
science and invention to the prospectors of 1921.

The Key to Progress

TO the plumber, the bathroom is the most beautiful room in the
house. To him, pipes and joints and taps are more interesting than
Chippendales and Wedgwood.

Is your office, your desk, your work the most attractive and
interesting in the whole institution--to YOU? Whatever your situation
or task in the great H.B.C. organization, endeavor to find such beauty,
charm and satisfaction in the business of your own little "work-shop"
that the seduction of "greener fields" may not deceive you. The
greatest symptom of individual progress is a sincere love for _the work
in hand_; advancement follows naturally upon a faithful apprenticeship.

The Speed Game

HOCKEY, king of speed games, is Canada's _national sport_. The pace of
it, the skill and thrill of it appeal to the youth of Canada. No other
boys in the world could ever play hockey quite as Canadian youngsters
do. Hockey has developed to suit a temperament which expresses itself
most completely in this game. It is the spirit of Vimy Ridge and
Festubert that crops out strongest in a fast rush down the ice with
the puck. The vigor, stamina, fearlessness and self reliant manliness
demanded by the game are _natural_, because the Canadian came first and
then hockey developed as his characteristic sport.

What Is _Your Best_?

IF one does _his best_ every day, it is soon noticeable that what was
_his best_ at one time is not now _his best_ by any means. Practice
in hard work never fails to enlarge the capacity for hard work. It is
a natural law that to be strong one must not only possess muscles but
must use them constantly.

There is an immense "shake-up" and "shake-down" going on in commerce
and industry all over the world. Today the time of trial for individual
efficiency has arrived. The bricklayer who lays more bricks than the
"average" bricklayer and the man who can raise his _level best_ a
little higher every day is the man who will weather the storm.

Covering a Wide Field

_THE BEAVER_ goes to every H.B.C. employee at the retail stores from
Winnipeg to the Coast; at all branches of the wholesale department,
including the candy factory at Winnipeg; at every fur trade post and
outpost in all provinces and the Northwest Territories; at the Land
Department, Winnipeg, and its branches in Edmonton and Victoria; at the
Executive, Accounting, Audit and Publicity offices in Winnipeg; at the
Eastern Buying offices, Montreal and New York; at the London offices
and fur warehouse; and to retired officers of the Company, members of
the Canadian Advisory Committee, the London Board, the Governor and

_The Beaver_, by special request, exchange and subscription, also
reaches a large number of leading Canadian and United States business
concerns, prominent citizens, government officials, editors, and the
principal libraries of the continent.

_The Beaver_ is a great "traveller." It is doing a good work. Please
keep these facts in mind as H.B.C. employees and associate editors and
correspondents of our journal.



(_Continued from page 4_)

[Illustration: 208 MAIN STREET WINNIPEG]

_New Quarters of H.B.C. Executive, Accounting and Audit Departments
were occupied at 208 Main Street, Winnipeg, January 14th. The quaint
old building originally housed the general offices of the land
department more than two decades ago, but most recently was used by the
Adanac Club of Winnipeg. The Company has always owned both building and
site but several tenants have occupied the premises during the past
twenty years._



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    Obtain particulars of this helpful alliance. While you are
    doing so, procure particulars of THE BEST THERE IS in Life
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              The Great-West Life Assurance Company
               Dept. "D 30"   Head Office: WINNIPEG
    _A postal will bring full information by mail. State age._


"A Type That Made H.B.C. Leadership"

[Illustration: ERNEST RENOUF]

_ERNEST RENOUF, who has been appointed manager of Fort George Post
James Bay District, appears in the photograph. Mr. Renouf joined
the H.B.C. service as apprentice clerk in 1910, served in James Bay
District until November, 1916, when he enlisted for active service
overseas; and since September, 1919, he has been stationed at Moose



(_Continued from last issue_)

By N. A. Howland

The only other boat besides mine that remained above the rapid was the
York boat, drawn back up to the Island on the cable to re-load and
continue the trip to McMurray if necessary.

_We Cut Loose to Shoot the Rapids_

Gathering my crew and sundry other loose boatmen lying around, we
embarked on the scow for the short but swift journey, there being
sixteen souls aboard. We shoved off, the steersman standing on the
after-deck, alertly watching the stream. He worked the boat into the
passage by means of the sweep, which is a massive oar protruding half
of the scow's length over and pivoted to the stern with a steel pin.
This acted as a rudder, but twice as effectively as the ordinary
rudder, because of its length, with the additional advantage that
being movable up, down and to either side it offers no resistance to
the rocks, therefore cannot break. We travelled slowly at first, but
gradually gaining impetus, the scow was soon tossing in the boiling
waters, travelling with the speed of an express train. It trembled from
stem to stern with the shock of the waves. There was an exhilarating
sensation with an element of danger in it.

_The Steersman Distinguished Himself_

The performance of the steersman was admirable. It was difficult to
believe that this lithe, active fellow who with powerful arms handled
the heavy sweep with such ease, bearing down on the handle to lift the
blade clear of the water, jumping from one gunwale to the other with
a speed and agility truly astonishing, could be the same slow-moving
figure that idly lounged on his oar all the previous way.

_We Made the Big Eddy Safely_

He seemed to guide the boat as by instinct and with such unerring
skill, twisting and turning her among the boulders in the roughest
of the water through the narrow channel, that we had hardly time to
realize what was happening before the restless figure in the stern
resumed his usual listless attitude and we were riding in the Big Eddy.
At the cry of "Out oars," we were quickly rowed ashore by the remainder
of the crew.

_Pulling the Scow Back by Cable_

After dropping passengers, no time was lost in endeavoring to pick up
the cable and pull back to the island. Luck was against us. Repeatedly
the scow was swept away before the log attached to the end of the rope
could be caught, though we knew it was being tossed around on the outer
rim of the eddy. After battling the current for an hour the men put
me ashore. There were still some matters requiring attention on the
island, so I walked back, ferrying across again above the rapids. When
I reached the landing place the crew had just managed to secure the
cable and were being pulled up.

After loading the rails and car wheels there was nothing to hinder our
departure. My work was done.

The next eighty miles to our destination was a succession of rapids,
but none bad enough at this time to necessitate unloading. The journey
was continued next morning, the previous evening having been spent by
all hands in a futile attempt to dislodge the tug "Crester." It was
apparent that nothing but a further rise of water would move her off,
so we left a force of men to help Captain Barber out of his difficulty
and continued on our way.

_We Carried Russian Passengers_

Cornwall had previously arranged with me to take some of the Russians
as passengers, his boat being too crowded for rough water work. Thus
it happened that thirty of these smelly gentlemen were transferred to
me. They were not desirable company on account of their odour. Besides,
they were afraid of the rapids. The weather, which ever since our
leaving Athabasca Landing had been perfect, now changed. The bright
sky was obscured by clouds. It rained intermittently all day. The
Russians huddled themselves up under my tarpaulins. They presented an
inexpressibly comic appearance to me, as they sat around for the most
part completely covered up, dismal faces now and then peering out from
unexpected places to survey the scenes. When the boat hit a few waves,
the lumpy canvas would contort and wriggle all over in anguish, uncouth
muffled sounds arising. Louison, who rarely smiled, took particular
pains to seek out the worst water. He grinned broadly whenever we
struck a big wave.

_The Arrival at Fort McMurray_

[Illustration: _H.B.C. Store at Fort McMurray, Alberta_]

Next day this eventful voyage ended. We arrived at Fort McMurray before
noon. There was one particularly handsome fellow among my passengers,
who attracted me by his refined appearance, but he spoke no English.
The lad with many of his companions went in to bathe in the Clearwater
River, which joins the Athabasca at this point. In front of the village
it is very shallow. This man went out too far. There was a hole into
which he fell and could not swim out. He was drowned before it was
possible for a boat to reach him. A drag was improvised out of a
two-by-four to which were attached cords fitted with fish hooks. After
six hours' labor our mournful task was successfully accomplished and he
was laid to rest in a new outfit of store clothes in accordance with
the Mohomedan faith. Thus for a week was my journeying at an end.

    (_To be continued_)



(_Continued from December issue_)


BUFFALO were plentiful in my first years and I have seen thousands of
them. Many of the old freighters have told me that very often when the
buffalo were travelling south that they were compelled to stop their
brigades of carts and camp for one or two days until the great herds
passed. Of course the freighters picked out the choice ones, or as many
as they required, for meat supply on the trip.

I saw where buffalo in the fall had tried to cross the Saskatchewan
River, and had broken through the ice. The animals behind had forced
the others on, trampling them to death. Carcasses of dead buffalo
completely bridged the river, the remainder of the herd passing over
them. Buffalo always followed the leader like sheep. There were
millions of them in that part of the country and all disappeared in a
few years. Today there is a herd of about two hundred and fifty animals
in the MacKenzie River valley. They have not increased in numbers. The
Siberian wolves get among them continually and destroy many of the
calves. There is another herd in the government park at Wainwright,
Saskatchewan, which is thriving and increasing.

After the buffalo had disappeared, the plains Indians, who numbered
many thousands at that time, were reduced to starvation. Many of them
died, and the Canadian government of that day was compelled to gather
them all into reservations throughout the country, and ration them.
Living in small log houses, with only one room, was a great change from
their roaming, open-air life on the plains, and they became afflicted
with all kinds of diseases, consumption being their greatest destroyer.

The number of horses an Indian owned was the gauge of his wealth. Some
of them had as many as three hundred head, of which quite a large
number were in the buffalo-runner class. A horse in that class was
never put to any other work. He had to be extra long-winded, swift
and tough as steel, able to keep pace with a stampeding herd until
his rider had shot down ten or fifteen animals. As a rule, these
horses stood about fourteen and a half hands high and weighed nearly a
thousand pounds. Their sires were usually imported thoroughbreds. The
most of that breed of horses have gone to the "happy hunting grounds"
where the Indian says the buffalo have gone. The gun used was a single
barrel, muzzle-loading, flint-lock shot gun, using number twenty-eight
ball instead of shot. Skill in riding was necessary and quickness at

Fort Ellice, where I was assigned to duty, was built on the south bank
of the valley of the Assiniboine River. It was a beautiful location
with charming scenery, about three miles from where the Qu'Appelle
River empties into the Assiniboine. The Assiniboine Valley was about
two miles wide and that of the Beaver Creek about one thousand yards.
The Fort was built on the top level between the two, on a beautiful
plain dotted with little poplar bluffs, with numerous springs of
gushing water up at the top of the level in the face of the banks.
The river in the centre of the valley winds its tortuous way to empty
itself later on into the Red River, thence to Lake Winnipeg, thence to
Hudson Bay and the Atlantic Ocean.

The Fort itself was built in a large square, the big front gates being
about thirty yards from the edge of the bank which was very precipitous
at this point, and well wooded with small trees, ferns and saskatoon

On one side of the square was a long row of one-storey log buildings,
with thatched roofs all joined with one another. Our carpenter shop
was at one end of this row and the blacksmith's shop at the other. The
doors or entrances all faced to the Fort. There was the men's house,
the mechanics' house, the native servants' and dog drivers' houses,
also the married servants' houses, each consisting of one large room.

A door opened into each from the outside and there was no other means
of entrance to any of the other houses in that long row of buildings,
except by its own door or down the chimney. Two tiers of rough bunks
round the walls represented the sleeping accommodations. A large mud
chimney and open fire-place provided ventilation. We did all cooking at
the open fireside.

On the other side of the square, in an equally long row, built in the
same style, were warehouses, ration houses, dry meat and pemmican
house, flour, pork and beef house, and a well-appointed dairy, with
a good cellar and lots of ice. These buildings were one and a-half
storeys high and were without chimneys or fire-places.

At one side of the big gate in front was the trading store and
district office, and on the other side the fur store and reserve stock
warehouse. Each of these buildings was very long and substantial, fully
one and a-half storeys high.

The main building in the Fort was the Factor's dwelling or the "big
house," as it was called. This was the quarters of the officers and
clerks. It stood well back in the square, its front being in line with
the end of the long rows of buildings on either side, so that every
house in the Fort could be seen from its windows. The "big house" was a
two and a-half storey building, with a large kitchen behind, built from
the same plan as the officers' dwellings in Fort Garry, and known as a
Red River frame building.

It had a fine balcony and verandah. The main entrance was in the centre
of the building opening into a large recreation and council hall.


[Illustration: _Carrying supplies aboard an H.B.C. flatboat or scow
on the Athabasca River. The scow has remained one of the principal
links in the Company's chain of transportation in this district where
tumbling waters make steam or motor boat operation precarious._]


The Factor's private office was at the right, and the parlour or
sitting-room to the left. The large mess-room, dining-room, and
private bedrooms were in the rear. Upstairs was a large hall and
reading-room, and bedrooms for the clerks. The upper floor was heated
with large Carron stoves, as well as the hall downstairs, and the
trading shop and district office.

There were four fire-places on the ground floor and another in the
kitchen, as well as a large cooking range. A splendid mud oven stood
outside for baking bread and cooking extra large roasts. There was also
a fine well close at hand with the proverbial oaken bucket attached to
a rope and chain. The "big house" and kitchen were thatched, and all
the houses were mudded and white-washed with lime. They presented a
good appearance from a distance.

A four foot sidewalk ran all around the square, and another one from
the front gate to the front door of the "big house." There was a nice
vegetable, flower and kitchen garden of about an acre behind the house.
The flagstaff stood at the front gate, and the belfry stood outside
the Factor's private office. While a high stockade enclosed the whole
square, so when the big gates were locked at night there was no danger
of losing any scalps before morning.

    (_To be continued_)

[Illustration: _Igloos, the bungalows of Eskimo-land, on the east coast
of Hudson Bay. No, that is not a destroyer in the distance. It is a
sleigh filled with eatables placed high on a stage of snow blocks out
of reach of the vandal dogs_.]


Captain Freakley Married

CAPTAIN NORMAN FREAKLEY, Superintendent of Transport for the Company,
with headquarters at Montreal, came to Winnipeg last month to claim
a bride from the head office staff of the Fur Trade Department. The
captain was wedded December 30th to Miss Frances Menagh, at St.
George's Church, Winnipeg. Miss Menagh, daughter of the late Mr. and
Mrs. Thomas Menagh of Cork, Ireland, had been engaged with the Company
at Winnipeg for several years.


Two Ends to Every Stick

By J. M. GREEN, Portage la Loche.

   _Oh, it's easy for to sit and grouch when letters don't arrive;
    Letters you've been waitin' for and letters that you prize;
    And you sit and cuss the postman, and you cuss the bloomin' mail,
    And maybe you cuss the writer and pile it good and thick,
    But have you ever stopped to think of his end of the stick?_

   _You can sit in cosy rooms back home, the Post does all the rest.
    Perhaps to post a letter you walk a block at best.
    And then you sit and wonder why the devil don't he write?
    To keep us all awaitin', it's a shame--it isn't right.
    And you growl like a grizzly. Sure; you'd make an Indian sick,
    Just because you don't know anything of his end of the stick._

   _Suppose the nearest mail box was a hundred miles or more.
    And no one but yourself to pack the letters to your door;
    And suppose there ain't no street cars, no motors, not a road.
    Just a team of mangy mongrels to help you pack your load;
    And its forty below zero, and your feet both feel like brick,
    I wonder what would happen were that your end of the stick?_

   _And s'pose the mail man ain't arrived an' spring's set in at last,
    And there ain't no snow but just the ice arotten' good and fast;
    And you know to miss the mail man means to wait three months or so
    Before you read a letter, and you don't want for to go,
    But you can't wait any longer and your heart is mighty sick,
    I wonder would you grumble, would you grin, or would you stick?_

    |    LETHBRIDGE     |

MR. JAMES YOUNG originally hails from Scotland, and comes to us from
the Macleod store to take charge of the dry goods department. Mr. Young
has had wide experience, both in Canada and in the Old Land.

MR. P. K. SANGSTER, of New Westminster, B.C., has joined the Lethbridge
staff as Advertising Manager. Mr. Sangster was with the I. H. Smith
Co., of New Westminster for twelve years, excepting for the period
when he was overseas. Mr. Sangster was one of the fortunate Canadian
exchanged prisoners from Germany. He was picked up on the field in the
Paschendaele affair, having had four inches of bone blown out of one of
his legs. Mr. Sangster was a prisoner in Germany eight months prior to
his exchange.

AFTER four and one-half years with the Lethbridge store, Miss Annie
Hurst was presented with a pair of Hudson's Bay blankets and linen
towels prior to her marriage to Mr. J. Wilsoncroft on January 17th in
St. Mary's Church of England. A reception was held in the evening at
the home of the bride's parents.

MRS. MARS, manager of the ladies' ready-to-wear department, recently
had the pleasure of a visit from her sister, Mrs. Carney and Dr.
Carney, of Great Falls, Montana.

    |   NELSON, B.C.    |

THE Nelson "STORE BABY" is leaving very soon. She is supposed to be
going into another branch of work, but there are those who think it is
another style of work altogether. A little bird claims she is a good
cook and excellent housekeeper.

THE HUDSONIA SOCIAL CLUB is continuing its good work of last year.
Several card and dance parties have been held. A big evening open to
the public will have been held by the time this goes to press. Last
year, a similar affair was the hit of the season.



_They Are All Deserving of Prizes and Deciding Winners Was Difficult_

PROMISING people indeed are the little pink-toed, plump-jowled babies
of H.B.C. fathers who occupy the centre of our interest this month.
They are a "full-stage" attraction in this issue of _The Beaver_. Find
them over the page in bonnie _ensemble_; all at that happy stage of
life when affectation has utterly no power over dress, expression or
gesture. None of them has been specially posed for the occasion; some
were snapped at most unconventional moments.

There is no sign of race suicide here. Yet this showing is only a
partial one; we publish only those winning prizes or deserving special
mention; and in the limited time allowed for photographs, there was
no opportunity to hear from a great many points in the far northern

If we could have got them all in this group, surely this would be a
"Baby Show" to evoke the plaudits of the greatest "baby experts."
Weaklings are notably absent amongst H.B.C. children, and the judges of
the group of H.B.C. infants presented in this issue are firmly inclined
to the opinion that H.B.C. babes of the types shown score just a little
higher than babes ordinarily pictured.

The limitation of the prizes to three in number proved a real hardship
for the judges, as it was considered the lot of them possessed
prize-winning qualities. Deciding on the winners was difficult, but
awards were finally made as follows:

_First Prize_--

    Silver mounted comb and brush set awarded to Miss Bettie
    Everitt, daughter of Mr. B. A. Everitt, of the H.B.C. land
    department, Winnipeg.

_Second Prize_--

    Sterling silver thumb spoon, awarded to Kindersley Lidstone,
    son of Mr. I. T. Lidstone, buyer of crockery H.B.C. store
    at Kamloops, British Columbia. This fine baby was born on
    the day of the 250th Anniversary Celebration at Kamloops
    and was named for Governor Sir Robert Kindersley by special

_Third Prize_--

    Sterling and ivory bell rattle, awarded to Kathleen Flora
    Gould, daughter of Mr. Gould, of H.B.C. Edmonton Store.


    Presenting a Bevy of Fine Babies


    H.B.C. Staffs

    Catherine Mary Bartleman
    Age 9½ Months--Wt. 22 Lbs.

    Margaret Rhoda Milne
    Age 7 Months--Wt. 19 Lbs.

    1ST. PRIZE
    Betty Iris Everitt
    Age 9 Months--Weight 27 Lbs.

    Margaret Mitchell
    Age 12 Months--Wt. 20 Lbs.

    Frank Richard Rogers
    Aged 2 months--Wt. 9¾ Lbs.

    Stanley Philip Oakes
    Age 13 Months

    3RD. PRIZE
    Kathleen Flora Gould
    Age 3½ Months--Weight 18 lbs.

    Lilian Jessie Blake
    Age 2 Months--Wt. 11¾ Lbs.

    2ND. PRIZE
    Kindersley Lidstone
    Age 8 Months--Wt. 22½ Lbs.

    Margaret L. Coulter
    Age 9½ Months--Wt. 18½ Lbs.

    Elfreda Grace Sewell
    Age 7½ Months--Weight 19 Lbs.

    Mary Geraldine Wilmot
    Age 5½ Months

    Sydney Roy Upton
    Age 9 Months--Wt. 20 Lbs.

    James Arthur Hillman
    Age 11 Months--Wt. 23 Lbs.

    Edward Ross Thompson
    Age 7 Months--Weight 22 Lbs.

    Wallace Beatty MacDonald
    Age 12 Months--Weight 27 Lbs.

    Gwynne Shapter
    Age 16 Months--Wt. 27 Lbs.

    William E. Andrews
    Age 9 Months

    Bernard Philip Jones
    Age 18 Months--Wt. 25 Lbs.

    Bonnie Gibson
    Age 16 Months--Wt. 35 Lbs.]


H.B.C. Helped Settlers Remain on Land During "Lean Years"

_Liberal and Constructive Policy of Company in Disposal of Its Farm
Land Estate in Canada Has Obtained Agriculturists for the West and Kept

PROBABLY no institution or organization in Canada has done more towards
pioneering and paving the way for settlement than the Hudson's Bay
Company. From the very beginning, when the first white settlers began
to arrive, agricultural lands were made available for settlement by the
Company in the Red River Valley, and as the demand increased, prairie
lands were surveyed into regular townships, and lands accruing to the
Company were made available for sale at reasonable prices, and every
inducement and encouragement given to agriculturists to settle thereon.

There were, of course, in those days, lean years as well as years of
abundant crops, but prices which could be realized for grains were
usually very low, and facilities for exporting were quite inadequate.

There were periods of depression and sometimes hardship, when the
early settlers and purchasers of the Company's lands were unable to
meet their interest payments, and in some cases the farmers could
not even meet their taxes. During these difficult times, when lands
were not by any means of such great value as they are today, and land
was a doubtful security, the Hudson's Bay Company never wavered in
its confidence in the future of the West, and in order to assist in
maintaining the optimism of the settlers, the Company did not unduly
press for the liquidation of its purchasers' obligations, but gave
every encouragement to the farmers who suffered reverses, would even
advance taxes to tide them over until crop conditions improved and they
were able to meet their commitments.

These conditions obtained fairly often, and by reason of unbounded
faith in the future of the prairie provinces by the Company's
officials, hundreds of settlers and agriculturists were retained for
Western Canada, who in other circumstances would have abandoned their
farms and left Canada for other parts.

Long before Dominion Government Surveyors were sent west to sub-divide
the prairies into rectangular townships under the existing system of
Dominion Government Surveys, and previous to the surrender of Rupert's
Land by the Company to the Crown, the Company arranged to have laid off
farming plots fronting on the Red River, running east and west to a
distance back of two or more miles.

The first regular sale of farming land by the Company under the
Government system of surveys is designated as sale No. 1, the land
having been sold to William McKechnie, of Emerson, Man. The sale was
negotiated on the 4th of August, 1879, covering the whole of section
8, township 1, range 3, east of the principal meridian, containing 640
acres, at the price of $6.00 per acre, the total consideration being
$3,840.00, which in those days was considered very fair compensation
for such land.

In the present day administration of the Company's land, the same sound
policy prevails, and by this time the Company has sold many thousands
of parcels and continues to make sales, preferring always to deal with
and sell to _bona-fide_ settlers.

No purchaser of Hudson's Bay Company's farming lands who has made
an honest endeavour to cultivate the land and use it for legitimate
farming purposes has ever had just cause for complaint in the treatment
he has received at the Company's hands. Lean years are bound to come,
and adversity as the result in some cases is bound to follow, and when
it is fairly established to the Company that the farmer has done his
part within reason, he has not been unduly pressed for liquidation of
his indebtedness.

Under the regular terms of Hudson's Bay farm land sales, the contracts
mature in seven years, but it sometimes happens that, on account of
adversity over which the purchaser has no control, it has taken him
from twenty to twenty-five years before he has been able to fully
meet his obligations and obtain title. The Company has always been
very patient and lenient with this class of purchaser. This method of
dealing with settlers and farmers is fundamentally sound, and instead
of a dissatisfied purchaser abandoning his interest and leaving the
West, he ultimately becomes the possessor of his farm, is retained to
Canada, and is a worthy asset to the community to which he belongs. The
Company's persistent policy in dealing with its estate in Canada is
fully in keeping with its traditions in every branch of its business,
and according to the Company's Land Commissioner, "the policy of the
directors, as above outlined, has been and is still one of the chief
reasons why the Company has thousands of satisfied land purchasers,
customers and friends with whom it has had dealings during the past
forty-two years.

"To date the Company has disposed of over three and a half million
acres of farming lands in the prairie provinces of Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and Alberta, and sales continue to be effected at the rate
of approximately 20,000 acres per month. Practically all the lands are
sold for development and farming purposes.

"The Company will continue its sound, proven policy always preserving,
under all circumstances, its established name for fair dealing, with
the primary object always of contributing, in the fullest measure
possible within its powers, towards the up-building of Western Canada,
and incidentally doing its quota towards the building, enlargement and
ever increasing integrity of the British Empire."


Dinorwic Post News

REV. CANON LOFTHOUSE, of Kenora, was a guest over the week-end at the
manager's house.

TOM CHIEF (brother of Chief William Chief), one of the oldest Indians
trapping here, died in St. Joseph Hospital, Kenora, on January 8th,
1921. He was one of our medalists, and a faithful hunter for the

"THE BEAVER" is awaited with great interest by the members of the
staff at this Post. It is getting better every issue. We would like to
see more news of the fur trade, in this section of the magazine, as
this news is of great interest to all in the fur trade department of
the Company; so all members of it should get busy and gather up all
the news they can. The advertising of the Company by its employees is
another good thing, so all together for it, "_The harder the pull, the
higher the flag of the H.B.C._"

L. R. JOHNSON (H.B.M.) was confined to his bed three days last month
with a severe cold.

GAME OVERSEER W. H. Martin, of Kenora, paid us an official visit last

MRS. FRED NAGLE, of Fort William, mother of Mrs. L. R. Johnson, was
visiting her for a few days in the month of December.


We Cannot Stand Still


General Manager, Calgary Retail

_IF there is no forward movement, we must slide back, as the power of
gravity ever grips where motion has ceased. The business, great or
small, that comes to a stand-still with a smile of self-satisfaction
is heading for the shelf of dry rot. Every business must strive in
its present year to beat that of the past, to beat the turnover, the
service, the public good-will and the net results. The very strife
after these ends develops the initiative, broadens the aspect and
reproduces better men; therefore do not hesitate, never stop, but
always keep climbing._


How Shipping Rates on Goods Affect Stores' Salespower

_What Change Should be Made in Proposed New Freight Classification (No.


    _Editor's Note._--_A circular letter, dated, 7th January,
    from one of the best organized trade associations of Canada,
    indicates that meetings are to be held soon to consider the
    application of the proposed new freight classification (No.

THE latterday high cost of transportation so vitally affects the
salespower of the Company's department stores (as well as other
wholesale or retail stores in Western Canada) that favourable
groupings of certain classes of goods under the proposed new freight
classification (No. 17) are considered important in view of the
Company's great problem of distribution.

While the new schedule is under consideration, H.B.C. traffic men
will see the advantage of working to secure a spread of _two classes_
between less-than-carload and full carload ratings on drygoods. It is
reported also that every effort will be made to convince carriers that
certain lines of drygoods should be listed separately or in greatly
restricted groups, instead of being carried, as at present, under
extensive groups. It is apparent that an important saving for H.B.C.
stores would result from such re-classification in view of the 35 per
cent. difference between first and third class and first and second
class ratings.

Under the proposed new freight classification (No. 17), certain
drygoods shipped in carlots will take a _second class_ rate. The
present classification (No. 16) on such drygoods gives no advantage in
rate for carloads.

Why classification No. 17 (under consideration) proposes to allow
a difference of only one class between L.C.L. and carloads of this
commodity is not clear, inasmuch as for other lines of goods a
difference of _two classes_ is allowed when shipped by the carload.
Drygoods certainly should be entitled to take _third class_ rate in

Furthermore, both the present classification (No. 16) and proposed
classification (No. 17) arbitrarily "lump" a great number of lines of
merchandise in a special class without giving a special carload rate on
them (see page 77, item 76, No. 16; page 97, item 60, No. 17).

One of the aims of the proposed new classification (No. 17) is to
place a reasonable restriction on the indiscriminate mixing of
merchandise which have a basic difference of origin. Accordingly, to
get the greatest advantage from this classification for the drygoods
business, those whose interests are affected will naturally insist
upon a reasonable minimum weight for carloads--say 18,000 pounds. This
would probably mean eliminating, of course, drygoods "not otherwise
specified" and substituting certain lines of drygoods which would be
entitled to mix and be eligible for _third class_ rate in carloads.

A few headings are here suggested for such specified lines:

    ALL KNITTED GOODS--Wool or cotton, such as underwear (men's,
    women's and children's), hose and half hose (wool and
    cotton), sweaters, toques, heavy wool gloves. These should
    be allowed to mix and make up a carload.

    CLOTH--and garments made from same.

    VELVETEENS, VELOURS, cotton velvets and cotton comforters,
    should be allowed to mix with cotton piece goods.

    Blankets and Boots could not mix with other lines.

Concerted effort on the part of shippers should result in these
reasonable, logical and necessary changes being made in the proposed
new classification (No. 17). In the case of the Company, the adoption
of suggested amendments along above lines would result in marked
savings on freight charges for at least three of the four larger H.B.C.

It may be said that the Company in some instances could not make up
carloads of its own merchandise. Granted that this is possible, there
are a large number of forwarders in every city of importance and it is
not difficult to have smaller packages included at carload rates.


  Load (lbs.) |  Class   |   From    |    To      |  Freight  | Saving
  18,000      |1st L.C.L.| Montreal  |  Winnipeg  |  $520.20  |
  18,000      |3rd C.L.  | Montreal  |  Winnipeg  |   347.40  | $172.80
              |          |           |            |           |
  18,000      |1st L.C.L.| Montreal  |  Calgary & |           |
              |          |           |  Edmonton  |  $894.60  |
  18,000      |3rd C.L.  | Montreal  |  Winnipeg, |           |
  thence by   |3rd C.L.  | Winnipeg  |  Calgary & |           |
              |          |           |  Edmonton  |   634.50  | $260.10
              |          |           |            |           |
  18,000      |1st L.C.L.| Liverpool |  Winnipeg  |  $736.20  |
  18,000      |3rd C.L.  | Liverpool |  Winnipeg  |   482.40  | $253.80
              |          |           |            |           |
  18,000      |1st L.C.L.| Liverpool |  Calgary & |           |
              |          |           |  Edmonton  | $1110.60  |
  18,000      |3rd C.L.  | Liverpool |  Winnipeg, |           |
  thence by   |3rd C.L.  | Winnipeg  |  Calgary & |           |
              |          |           |  Edmonton  |   769.50  | $341.10


  Load (lbs.) |  Class   |   From    |    To      |  Freight  | Saving
  18,000      |1st L.C.L.| Liverpool |  Calgary & |           |
              |          |           |  Edmonton  |  $1110.60 |
  18,000      |3rd C.L.  | Liverpool |  Winnipeg, |           |
  thence by   |1st L.C.L.| Winnipeg  |  Calgary & |           |
              |          |           |  Edmonton  |    909.90 | $200.70


  Load (lbs.) |  Class   |   From    |    To      |  Freight  | Saving
  18,000      |1st L.C.L.|  Montreal |  Vancouver |  $1110.60 |
  18,000      |3rd C.L.  |  Montreal |  Winnipeg  |           |
  thence by   |1st L.C.L.|  Winnipeg |  Vancouver |   1322.10 | $211.50

As at present possible on Groceries, for example, we can cite an
instance of freight being saved by taking carload rate to Winnipeg and
thence to Calgary or Edmonton through a forwarder. Below is a statement
of a shipment which moved recently:

    OLD WAY--1 barrel of Pickles, 140 pounds, Liverpool to
    Calgary, L.C.L. rate, at $5.81                   $8.13

    NEW WAY--1 barrel of Pickles, 140 pounds, Liverpool to
    Winnipeg, C.L. rate and Winnipeg to Calgary, C.L. rate,
    including forwarding charges at $3.04½           $4.68

    The saving of freight on this barrel of pickles alone
    was                                              $3.45.

Table No. 1 above shows class rate comparisons and will make clear the
savings possible on drygoods shipments under proposed new grouping and

Supposing in some cases it were not possible to make up a carload of
drygoods for Calgary or Edmonton, shipments from Liverpool to Winnipeg
in carloads and thence to the Alberta points by first class or less
than carloads would still show an appreciable saving as indicated by
Table No. 2.

Due to our inability to make up carloads from Winnipeg to
Vancouver--and the combined carload rate from Montreal to Winnipeg and
L.C.L. rate from Winnipeg to Vancouver being larger than the through
L.C.L. rate from Montreal to Vancouver--this saving in freight cost
would not be felt on Montreal or Liverpool shipments of drygoods
to Vancouver. The reason for this is indicated in Table No. 3. The
comparatively lower through L.C.L. rate from Montreal to Vancouver is
made to meet competition with the slower but cheaper water route via
the Panama Canal.

    |   WINNIPEG    |


Confirmed Winnipeg Bachelor Meets Waterloo

_The Happy Couple "Shot" Soon After The Event._

By Our Staff Photographer

    THIS is the tale of a white-coated masseur who used to
    be perhaps something of a woman-hater, the tale of an
    irresistibly beautiful maiden in distress, and of the
    gossamer strands of a brunette coiffure which were too
    short--oh, far too short. It's a story you'll never forget
    as long as you can remember it!

    The co-respondent in the case, the debonair gentleman in
    question, Mr. William Saalfeld, administrator of Winnipeg
    store's beauty parlor, though usually triumphantly
    successful in the treatment of the feminine's crowning
    glory, was baffled to the point of desperation. (Ha!--the
    plot fattens!)

    Try as he might, he, the designer of fabulously rare
    head-dresses, could not induce this charming Madam's hair to
    stay "coiffed." Finally in great disgust, disregarding his
    reputation for impeccable deportment, _finesse_ and _savoir
    faire_, Mr. Saalfeld abandoned this bewitching minx to her
    fate, her tresses uncombed, un-marcelled and undone.

    Of course, anyone who could not detect a "rat" in this yarn,
    somewhere, must have no more imagination than an oyster has
    shins. The fascinating damsel so endearingly referred to is
    a wax figure, as you might have seen upon close scrutiny
    of the portrait. The display department in performing some
    little operation, such as amputating a finger, adding a
    new one and powdering her face, tossed her pretty locks.
    Mr. Saalfeld, whose services were requisitioned (as you
    have just heard), gave up in desperation. How they finally
    re-dressed her hair is a professional secret which Mr.
    Macgregor refuses to divulge. And the darling maintained a
    serene silence, only the deep blush upon her cheek betraying
    how her sensibilities had been offended.

WHILE WE HAVE NO infallible information regarding recent seismographic
disturbances in China, we would cheerfully volunteer the information
that Mr. Kaufman sat down quite impromptu and with considerable
emphasis during a curling game recently.


_Applied to Efficiency_


WE are told our brain is composed of thousands of small cells and
that the average person in a lifetime only develops a small number.
Surely we were given a brain to use and not let half or more of it lie
dormant. So let us try and see how many cells we can develop; in other
words, train your memory to help you more and more, every day.

Think out a better way of doing some particular duty you have to
perform--a way that will save time or result in greater satisfaction
to the customer or the Company. Memorize this and when the opportunity
presents itself, give it a trial. This principle applies to any
department you may be in, selling, delivering, packing or unpacking; it
all amounts to the same in the end, we are all serving the customer in
one way or another.

A salesman I know greatly improved his position in the Company's
service, by memorizing the names of all the customers he served. His
method was to note the personal appearance of the customer and any
peculiarities such as carriage, gesture or attire, at the same time
pronouncing the name clearly and making a mental effort to fix it in
memory. After the departure of the customer, he occasionally repeated
the name to himself. He associated the customer and the name with
as many ideas as possible; for example, the particular part of the
store where the customer was purchasing or the customer's attitude at
the counter. The impression thus made was reinforced by subsequent
repetition of the name.

Similar plans may be used to memorize many other things. The particular
"salesman" referred to is now a buyer and he attributes his success in
a large measure to the foregoing. Of course, we can't all be buyers,
but we can all be a little more efficient and in that way pave our way
to greater success.

Futuristic Fables

   _Winnipeg Store News as it Will,
    Perhaps (?) Be Reported in the
    Halcyon Days of, Say, 1945 A.D._

MR. GEORGE ASHBROOK, our resident buyer in Buenos Ayres, South America,
wirelesses his congratulations to _The Beaver_ upon its attainment
to its twenty-fifth year of publication. He adds that the annual
revolution in Peru will occur two weeks later this spring on account of
the prolongation of the rainy season.

THE MARRIAGE is announced of Frank R. Rogers, the prominent young
Winnipeg banker, son of our print-shop and book bindery superintendent,
to the belle of the season, Miss Helen Ogston, on Tuesday next. Social
circles are all agog over the event.

SHORT WEEK-END air flights from surrounding suburbs to see Winnipeg
with its 1,000,000 population and its Hudson's Bay Store, are becoming
quite the thing. Among those who alighted gracefully upon the store's
roof-garden 'drome last week-end and dropped in to see us all, we
noticed Mr. W. J. McLaughlin, of Vancouver; Mr. J. Prest, of Edmonton;
Mr. F. R. Reeve, of Calgary, and Mr. Hudson, from Hudson Bay, the
genial senior partner of the firm. Mr. Reeve stated that his engine
had been "missing" ever since he passed over Regina. A search party
had been organized to locate it. "Mac" declares it is still raining in
Vancouver, but (like the cold one does not feel) Coast rain does not
wet one!

DURING BONSPIEL week a very great curiosity visited the store. An old
gentleman with a typical Scotch tam upon his head roamed through the
aisles with the fires of recollection burning in his eyes. The snow of
many Winters was upon his brow and as he moved gingerly about leaning
heavily upon his cane he was evidently an interested spectator of the
great progress evidenced on every hand. His manner and garb plainly
bespoke that prosperity and independence which possession of plenty
of this world's goods always develops. He claimed to be Mr. George
Bowdler, erstwhile champion curler and a member of the store's staff
twenty years ago.

The Store Jokesmith

MR. CONDUCTOR, please stop the Orchestra just a moment, while we
breathlessly inquire whether Mr. _Tom Bone_, reported in January
_Beaver_ as _vers librist_ and musical instrument maker of Vernon,
should not spell his name _Trom Bone_? Sounds like sax-oph-one and
half-a-dozen of the other to us. (Quick, Friday, the mallet!)

RUMORED, MR. AULIS, in the grocery, has lately purchased a new house.
We hope he made a good deal and can sell it, if he wants to, for a
$1000 or so profit, without being called a profiteer!

THERE IS A GENTLEMAN down here on the prairies who admits he has bowled
228. Mr. Samuel Beggs offers to tell who it is, if anyone is in doubt.

IF WISHES were material things we bet: _Mr. Kaufman would have a waist
like Annette Kellerman._

SH-SH-SH! Strictly _entre nous_! Mr. Wood or anybody'll tell you that
standing up for the principles one believes in is like learning to
roller skate. You won't get anywhere if you sit down too often.

Do You Know

  --that Hudson's Bay Company's city delivery rigs made
    218,049 deliveries, travelled 131,162 miles, and disposed of
    267,625 packages during the year 1920? The figures are given
    by Mr. G. Russel, the shipping room manager.

  --that the Hudson's Bay Company's shipping department
    despatched to out-of-town points by express, freight and
    mail, 59,519 packages during the year 1920?

  --that the dining room manageress, Miss Beggs, states that
    her staff served 28,238 meals during the month of December,


Write Like the Dickens Is Right

AN Oriental paper having an English section printed the following

    "_The news of English we tell the latest. Writ in perfectly
    style and most earliest. Do a murder commit, we hear of
    and tell it. Do a mighty chief die, we publish it and in
    borders somber. Staff has each been colleged and write
    like the Kipling and the Dickens. We circle every town and
    extortionate not for advertisements._"

MISS CONSTANCE GREENFIELD was married on February 5th, at St. Luke's
Church, to Mr. Norman Horton. Mrs. Horton (nee "Connie" Greenfield)
has been with us for eight years and her place will really seem vacant
for a long time to come. We hope the newlyweds will enjoy a regular
story-book romance. They will reside at Guelph Apartments.

    |    _WHOLESALE-DEPOT_     |

SEVERAL enjoyable skating and toboggan parties have been organized by
the members of the staff who have taken full advantage of the mild
Winter experienced at Winnipeg.

The Dears Have Taken Up Curling

TUESDAY night, January 18th saw the commencement of what we hope to see
as a regular feature, ladies' night at the Heather Rink. Four rinks
turned out under the direction of such experienced skips as D. Swan,
Alex. Thompson, McMicken and Bill Phelan. The girls had some good
sport, but all couldn't win. D. Swan and Bill Phelan took the honors.

_Heard next morning:_

1st Girl--"Oh my arms do ache!"

2nd Girl--"Only your arms?"

3rd Girl--"They tell me the stones weigh 40 lbs. each."

4th Girl--"400 lbs., you mean, judging by my back and arms."

Chorus--"Oh, for ma wee white bed."

The Ladies' Rinks

    Miss Smith                  Miss Poole
    Miss Gow                    Miss Thomas
    Miss Hatfield               Miss Davis
    Mr. A. Thompson, Skip       Mr. D. Swan, Skip

    Miss E. Smeaton             Miss Rosenberg
    Miss Kellet                 Miss Norris
    Miss Brown                  Miss M. Smeaton
    Mr. McMicken, Skip          Mr. W. Phelan, Skip


                  P.  W.  L.
    Swan          3   3   0
    McMicken      3   2   1
    A. Thompson   3   1   2
    W. Phelan     3   0   3

    Wholesale packing room played retail delivery January 31st.
    The draws resulted in a decisive victory for the wholesale;
    score 24 to 8.

    Retail Skips     Wholesale Skips
    Tait               Swan
    Mills              McMicken

MRS. PETER RENNIE and son and daughter arrived recently from Seattle.

MISS ROSE PARADIS, recently one of our steno. stars, is shortly to be
married, and has our best wishes.

HEARTIEST congratulations from the wholesale staff to Mr. McDonald on
the birth of a son. Mrs. McDonald is doing well.

MISS C. NORRIS is the latest addition to wholesale staff, taking the
place of Miss Paradis as a steno. star.

MISS MASIE STYNE left us at Christmas to take a well deserved rest with
her parents on the farm at Eriksdale.

MISS LAURA SHEILDS has taken over the switch board vacated by Maisie.

WHO IS THE traveller that sold dud eggs as new laid, and what shall be
done to him?



                  _Land Department_
                   | Games   |     |        |
    SKIP           | Played  | Won |  Lost  | Standing
    Harman         |    6    |  4  |   2    |   .666
    Bellingham     |    6    |  4  |   2    |   .666
    McDill         |    6    |  2  |   4    |   .333
    Joslyn         |    6    |  2  |   4    |   .333

                      _Retail Store_
    Scott          |    6    |  6  |   0    |  1.000
    Bowdler        |    6    |  4  |   2    |   .666
    Pearen         |    6    |  4  |   2    |   .666
    Mills          |    5    |  3  |   2    |   .600
    Ogston         |    5    |  3  |   2    |   .600
    Parker         |    6    |  3  |   3    |   .500
    Tait           |    6    |  3  |   3    |   .500
    Sidey          |    6    |  3  |   3    |   .500
    MacGregor      |    6    |  2  |   4    |   .333
    Healy          |    6    |  2  |   4    |   .333
    Sparling       |    6    |  1  |   5    |   .166
    Pugsley        |    6    |  1  |   5    |   .166

    A. Thompson    |     6   |  6  |   0    |  1.000
    Johnson        |     5   |  3  |   2    |   .600
    Swan           |     7   |  4  |   3    |   .571
    Veysey         |     6   |  3  |   3    |   .500
    Poitras        |     6   |  3  |   3    |   .500
    Phelan         |     6   |  3  |   3    |   .500
    Brock          |     6   |  3  |   3    |   .500
    Kinsman        |     6   |  2  |   4    |   .333
    McMicken       |     6   |  2  |   4    |   .333
    O. Thompson    |     6   |  1  |   5    |   .166

    |    CALGARY       |

_Retail Store News_

[Illustration: _Photograph taken August 1st, 1914, at H.B.C. Athletic
Grounds, Calgary. First men of the store to enlist at the outbreak of
war, in Tenth Battalion._

    Back Row--A. B. Dowty.      S. Atwell.      H. Bennet.
                J. Gough.      F. H. Davies.
                       D. Morris.

  H. BENNET, has now returned to Calgary.

  S. ATWELL, killed at St. Julien, April 22nd, 1915.

  A. B. DOWTY, wounded and gassed at St. Julien, April 24th,
    1915, now back in the store.

  F. H. DAVIES, wounded at craters, St. Elois, June 6th, 1916,
    obtained commission and was killed at Mount St. Eloi, Vimy

  J. GOUGH, gassed at St. Julien, April 22nd, 1915, now at
    Victoria, B.C.

  D. MORRIS, with tenth battalion till September 15th,
    transferred to headquarters, 3rd Echelon; now at Newtown N.

Why Not a Hudson's Bay Bonspiel Week?

IS it possible for the stores or other departments in the Company's
service to hold a Bonspiel, say in the last week of February, choosing
some central point, Calgary, for instance. Curling has many fans
amongst Hudson's Bay men and some crack rinks could be assembled.

Could it not be arranged under the auspices of the H.B.A.A.A. and
become a yearly event? As the rinks consist of four men only, could
they not be spared during the Bonspiel period?

It would undoubtedly arouse much interest and enthusiasm in the Company
and is good publicity too. _Sweep hard, you curlers, and let's have
some suggestions._

As a starter, Calgary issues a challenge to any rink in the
Service.--_Calgary H.B.A.A.A._

A Noteworthy Event

BABY STODDART was the first arrival in Calgary in 1921. Roy Stoddart of
the carpet department is the proud father of the fine son, who arrived
at 7 a.m. New Year's morning, and is the recipient of many useful gifts
presented by the Calgary _Herald_ and city merchants.

Random Shots

MISS PATTON, our hosiery buyer, says: "Window space, like hosiery, gets
most attention when properly filled."

MR. HERRING, in men's furnishing department, says: "No wonder we can't
buy a cigar for five cents--look where the price of vegetables is."

MR. McKERNAN says: "Speaking of women having more sense than men--did
you ever notice that when the baby gets big enough to walk, father
wants to give away the baby carriage, but mother puts it up in the

GEORGE GAULD expects to compete in the skating carnival, 1922. The new
figures that George cuts while on the ice are somewhat sensational!

"STOP THE PRESS" FLASH.--Bud Fisher will wear that beautiful new tie on
Easter Sunday. Bud always goes to Church "Easter Sunday."

MRS. F. WALLIS, of the audit office, left the Store last month after
four years' service. On behalf of the staff with which she has been
associated, Miss I. Dunlop presented her with a beautiful cut glass
salad bowl.

MRS. M. MOODIE, of the office staff, is on a three months' visit to
Ireland. From letters received, she seems to be having a wonderful

MRS. McCRACKEN (nee Miss Watson), buyer of the ladies' furs, is leaving
after nearly seven years' service.

She had a recent offer of a better position, and accepted it--_she is
going to devote her energies to looking after her husband and her home_.

The best wishes of the whole staff go with her. Mrs. McCracken is to be
succeeded by Mrs. Thorburn from the Winnipeg store, who is assured of a
hearty welcome to Calgary.

January Dance Lively Affair

WITH plenty of "JAZZ" music and real girls who knew all about dancing
and its inventor, the Calgary store staff held their monthly dance on
January 19th, at Hickman Hall. With all the store boosters helping it
along, it could not help but be a success and those who were present
will tell you it was the best dance of the season. Our Calgary Editor,
Frank Reeve, was the only one of the store managers present. He
promises to bring more of the buyers and other store managers with
him if he has to burn up his own gasoline to get them there. Our
ever-smiling dining room manageress was in no small manner responsible
for the success of the dance.

Calgary Boys Are Enthusiastic Curlers


THE Calgary stores' curling club, like everything under the direction
of the athletic body of the big store, is an unbounded success. No game
that one could mention is without its followers in our store and not
only are they followers of the rock and broom game, the boys who have
taken it up are good at it, at least they will say so and are willing
to back up their assertions at any time.

Jack Smith is moving around the store with a lot of extra pep. He is
skipping the only undefeated rink at present. Jack took the first game
from our G.M. and the second round was also a win for him after a hard
battle with Bill Cunningham. The following skips have broken even so
far: J. M. Gibson, Bill Cunningham, Joe Marsh and Hutchinson.


_Two Calgary Girls--A Policeman--and the Boarding House Missus_

By G. Brennand

SOME mixup--not the bottle and the girls, but the girls and the
boardin' house missus.

Miss "Joe" Hickey, who hails from Owen Sound, and Miss Irma Oliver,
from the Gateway City, Winnipeg, came together in Mrs. Boyd's invoice
office. They decided to room together forever. If there is such a thing
as two girls marrying--they married--and so one Wednesday afternoon
they set out to seek lodging quarters. The first place they called, the
woman looked them over and said, "Awa' wi' you! I'll have no young and
beautiful girls amucking up my parlor with their boy friends." At the
next place they were in luck. So the story goes, the boarding missus
referred to above, welcomed them, welcomed them with the odor of Scotch
and cloves.

They were to have the "two-room" suite in the attic, including use of
the front "piazza." Joe thought it was a cook stove and Irma giggled
in delight; she thought it was a Christmas cake. So they moved in. As
all "movings in" are dressed up by the imagination they were going to
have such fun in this "dear" of a place--they talked of parties with
coca-cola and everything!

Then they retired--poor Joe woke Irma up and said, "Did she (the woman
of the Scotch and cloves) say this was a _feather_ mattress?" Sleepily
Irma said, "Yes." Joe pushed Irma out on the floor. "You sleep there
then, it's my turn to sleep on the feathers." In the morning, they
broke the ice in the pitcher to get water. Irma said, "Not for me; ice
baths may be well for Mrs. Blair, who has time to take 'em, but not for
me, I've got that old card to punch!" With a dab here and a dab there
of a little powder, they were away to work.

Coming home at night, bubbling over with anticipation and parcels
oozing out of every pocket, they arrived in the "suite" with the piazza

There on the mantel rested an empty Scotch bottle! Someone had removed
the chair and the curtains. Evidently the bottle was left as payment.
Poor Irma, through her tears, said, "Joe, this is no place for
respectable folks, let's move again." The boarding house missus, who
had been listening with her ear to the keyhole, tumbled in the door,
for the lock was broken too, "I'll hold your trunks," and poor Irma
blubbed, "When you button your coat your trunk is locked. So is mine.
We'll see if you will." And away they went to the policeman on the
corner. He said, "Go to the sergeant; I've troubles of my own."

The sergeant said, "Pay your rent; then move." And so they did! In
the next episode of this serial, the young ladies, our heroines, are
nestled peacefully in the folding bed that went with the Third Floor
Back, in the Travers Block.


MRS. CLARKE, buyer of the ladies' ready-to-wear, is at present in the
East. She finds conditions there are a little difficult as to hotel
accommodation. She has been able to pick up some very smart lines in
coats, dresses and suits.

Mrs. Clarke writes that indications in New York point to a coat and
dress season. Taffetas are also to be strongly represented.

IF ANY OF THE LADIES are in doubt as to the whereabouts of Joe Marsh
at the dances we would advise them to look into the kitchen. No, Joe
doesn't stay there because he is tired--he's fond of the lunch part of
the dance.

CURLING has taken such a hold in the store that the fair sex are coming
out at the next game with a couple of strong rinks. The girls have been
reminded to get out the old style skirt and dig up their rubbers for
the game.

WE ARE NOT GOING to mention any names, but we will say that she does
the typing for our Associate Editor, and more than that, she is a real
nice girl. The same girl wants to know why they turn out the lights
for a moonlight waltz if they won't allow you to get up just a little

A HEATED DEBATE was started among the men on the sixth floor the other
day, as to who is the most popular man in the store. After considerable
argument, it was unanimously agreed that the porter who closes the
windows at 5:20 was the lucky man. Ed. Note--(The Store closes at 5.30).

THERE'S A BIG WIDE SMILE wandering around in the wholesale tobacco
department in these days, and if you should run up against it you'll
see behind it the happy face of Mr. Sadler.

Yes, sir, he'll tell you, it's the finest boy you ever saw, by heck,
he's so much like me you can't tell us apart; furthermore, I've got
money that says he's the second 1921 baby in the Hudson's Bay service,
being born on January 10th last.

WE REGRET that Miss Finn and Mrs. Goodman of the ready-to-wear section
are at present indisposed. Here's hoping for their speedy recovery.

    |              _MONTREAL_               |
    | _H.B.C. Eastern Buying Agency News_   |

MISS A. K. SMITH, of Vancouver, and Mr. W. G. Florence, of Edmonton,
are again in Montreal. This time, however, their visit is merely a
"stop over" as they are en route for Europe where they are purchasing,
not only for their own branches, but also for the new Victoria Store,
which is to open next summer. Mr. Florence tells us that he has been
transferred to Victoria and will enter upon his new duties some time in
June. He will take with him the very best wishes of the E.B.A. staff.

THE following shoe buyers, who have been attending the convention at
Milwaukee, are again in Montreal:

    Mr. S. D. Wilson, Vancouver, Retail
    Mr. H. N. Parker, Calgary, Retail
    Mr. W. E. Johnson, Edmonton, Retail
    Mr. A. C. Dunbar, Winnipeg, Retail


    |     EDMONTON       |

_Retail Store Notes_

[Illustration: _Left to Right, Front Row, Officials and Team:_

_G. Roberts, team manager; P. A. Stone, President A. & A.A.; A.
Carmichael, defence; H. Perry, sub.; M. Coleman, left wing; M. R.
Baker, centre; J. Howey, right wing; S. Stephens, defence; D. Alton,
goal; S. Ferris, sub.; D. MacKenzie, sub.; F. F. Harker, store manager;
J. D. McLean, supt._]

H.B.C. Edmonton Hockey Team Sensation of Season

_But They Have Yet to Reckon With H.B.C. Vancouver!_

HAVING entered a team in the Senior City Hockey League, it was apparent
that some good opponents would be encountered, so the H.B.C. team
settled down to hard practice. Having beaten two Mercantile League
teams in exhibition games by scores which savored more of cricket than
of hockey, they opened their league engagements against the University
of Alberta, and a few days later played the Alberta Government

Many good judges of the game were of the opinion that either of these
two teams would be champions of the league, but the H.B.C. boys played
the 'Varsity to a draw of 6-6, and beat the 'Phones 5-3.

The 'Varsity Game was a stunner, thirty minutes extra time failing to
break the deadlock.

The 'Phones had already won their opening league game and were
confident of winning, but they were disappointed, our boys beating them
on merit.

Following up these two games, we met and defeated the south side team,
13-5, on January 19th, and now head the league.

All the players are members of the H.B.C. staff and incidentally of the
Amusement and Athletic Association, under whose auspices the team is

We hear Vancouver store has a hockey team, and we certainly long for a
wallop at them on their own ice.

Monthly Dances Becoming Popular

ON Tuesday, January 20th, the association gave another very enjoyable
dance in the Memorial Hall. About two hundred couples participated.
Everyone was highly delighted with the fine floor and the splendid
music rendered by Boyle's orchestra. Judging by the ever-increasing
numbers who are attending these monthly dances, they are becoming very


MISS MOORE, pianist in the music department, is causing no little
comment among the customers who crowd around this department to hear
her splendid accompaniment in conjunction with the pathephones. The
effect is exactly like an orchestra.

MR. ROBERTS, who resigned from the Company's service in 1915, to enter
the employ of W. E. Campbell Co., of Lacombe, has returned to Edmonton
to manage the dress goods section, recently vacated by Mr. Florence.

MR. LOCKIE, who has been in the dress goods department since his return
from overseas, has been promoted to buyer for the staple section. We
extend to him our most hearty congratulations.

MISS MACDONALD, the assistant manager of the millinery department,
and MISS PETERSON, the millinery trimmer, have just returned from a
business trip to Calgary.

MR. HARKNESS, until recently assistant manager in the staple
department, has been transferred to the men's furnishing department as
assistant to Mr. Chassey.

THE GROCERY DEPARTMENT has been closed out completely in order to
make room for the new Furniture Department. The GROCETERIA is to be
continued more aggressively than ever.

Salesman Should Be Active Socially, but Not to Excess

By W. G. CUNNINGHAM, _Asst. Supt._

BESIDES his duties to the Company and to himself, the salesman has
a definite place, and definite duty towards his community. Social
relations are helpful in gaining selling success, and a good salesman
always has many friends, but like all other classes of people, he must
choose his friends with care, for we are all judged by the friends we
make and keep.

The salesman should always be of the social type, the kind that is fond
of good company, but he must never let the social duties encroach on
his business sufficiently to impair his efficiency. Social ambitions
are dangerous to successful selling. An evening out occasionally at
a social function with several nights intervening for quiet rest is
a good rule. When a salesman loses the sleep he needs he will soon
develop into the order-taker type. It takes live, wide-awake human
effort and energy to make sales.

We Must Have Confidence


_Unless_ the general manager has confidence in the merchandise manager
and his buyers--

_Unless_ the buyers have confidence in the sales force--

_Unless_ the sales force have confidence in the merchandise they are

We cannot hope to have the confidence of our customers.

The whole H.B.C. merchandising system is built on _confidence_. The
merchandise we buy and sell must be of that same quality as the Old
Hudson's Bay Company have sold and traded for the past two hundred and
fifty years. Confidence in the Old Company for quality of merchandise
and for fair dealing with those we sell to and those we buy from must
be maintained at all cost.



    _Her tiny ears are covered,
      With her hair of golden brown,
    Her swan-like neck is open
      To the gaze of half the town;
    Her ankles, trim and graceful,
      That delight the roving eye,
    With a filmy gauze are covered,
      To intrigue all passers by._

    _A thing of youth and beauty,
      As she gaily trips along,
    With her laugh and with her giggle,
      And her little snatch of song.
    Her head both light and empty,
      She holds up like a Queen,
    The "Flapper" of the moment,
      Thus upon the street is seen._

    _What dwells within the compass,
      Of that decorated head?
    What thoughts and what ambitions,
      And what dreams within are bred;
    Is she a painted puppet,
      But for laughter and for scorn,
    A little social butterfly
      That but for play was born?_

    _There is Ethleen McEwan,
      And pert little Alice Wright,
    There's vivacious Bessie Ogilvie
      And cute Ruth Williamson,
    There are scores of other heart breakers,
      Employed at Edmonton,
    We've got to hand it to 'em,
      Whether it's right or wrong._

    _Will they be sedate and serious,
      As the years speed on apace?
    Or grow more mature in wisdom,
      And more matronly in grace?
    Shall youthful effervescence,
      Disappear in lightsome gleam,
    And the "Flapper" be a woman,
      Yes, the woman of our dream._
                          --With apologies, J.P.

Edmonton Wholesale News

EDMONTON wholesale is busy with outfit 1921, getting food supplies
ready to ship north. It is with considerable satisfaction we feel that
while other houses are slowing down we are obliged to keep going at
full speed.

MR. JOHN SUTHERLAND, of Fort McMurray, spent several days in Edmonton
last month, and MR. H. N. PETTY, accountant at Grouard, has been
transferred to McMurray in the transport service.

    |    VANCOUVER      |

[Illustration: _PICTURING a group of H.B.C. Vancouver store elevator
operators, with the starter and sentry._

_These young ladies have more "ups and downs in life" than others,
yet withal preserve an equanimity and amiability throughout the day
that has endeared them to their fellow employees and added much to the
popularity of the store._]


Rest Room Antics

AFTER all, associating with the store family day after day is not so
unlike going to school, is it girls? There is no pleasanter sight than
to watch the younger set enjoying the tripping of the light fantastic
toe at the luncheon hour in the employees' rest room. Another pleasant
feature of this hour of recreation is to see with what good humour and
patience the senior employees gather around the walls in order to allow
the young folk scope for using their superfluous energy.

Always, too, one or another can be found to play the waltz or two-step
for the merry-makers. This is as it should be, and the spirit of
"give and take" thus inculcated will be of inestimable service in the
building of character.


MR. H. T. LOCKYER, our General Manager, was recently made a member of
the Vancouver Rotary Club. "He Profits most who Serves Best."

MRS. MCDERMID is back in the children's section again after an illness
which lasted nearly two weeks.

ARE WE, or are we not going to have a cricket club this year? Have we
the players? If so, will they organize and get ready for practise? Any
employee of the store who wishes to play this year should send in his
name to Mr. Winslow as quickly as possible.

MISS A. K. SMITH is in England purchasing notions, laces, and other
lines for the Victoria store, as well as for her own departments.

MR. W. R. BOYLE is in the East making purchases for his department. A
line of dresses he bought to sell at $19.75 and $13.95 were sold off

MR. S. D. WILSON is in the Eastern markets after having attended the
shoe convention in Milwaukee.

MR. J. WHITE, London buyer, was a welcome visitor in Vancouver
recently, on a flying trip. His first-hand information as to market
conditions in the Old Land will be of great assistance to the buying
staff here.

CAPT. T. P. O'KELLY, assistant to the Fur Trade Commissioner, is in
Vancouver in connection with Company transportation business.

Strong H.B.C. Hockey Aggregation at Vancouver

_But Could Vancouver Get Away With this Stuff Against Edmonton H.B.C.?_

ICE hockey has taken a hold on the staff to such an extent this Winter
that we are able to produce one of the foremost teams in the commercial
league. The team is on an even basis with the speedy Kerrisdale team
for first place. These two teams have not met as yet, but when they do
it is safe to say it will be one of the hardest contested games of the

It is interesting to note that our hockey team has not lost a game as

Our genial general manager witnessed the H.B.C. team double the score
on the C.P.R. septette and personally congratulated each of the players
on their fine showing. We hope to see him at all the games.

Our all-round sport champion, "Jimmie" McDonald, can make them all
travel. When it comes to goal getting, "Jimmie" ranks as one of the
best in the league.

Our stonewall defence, Timmins, Anderson and Ham, are just about the
pick of the league. Percy Timmins, our coming star defence player, is a
decided attraction to the games, especially to the fair sex, eh what?
"Doc" Almas can still step out and show the younger ones how to get
goals, as well as stop 'em all when they come.

We would be glad to hear of any Eastern H.B.C. teams that are prepared
to make a tour. We can't guarantee gate receipts or expense accounts,
but we can assure them a "whale" of a good time if they come to

In our three games this season, only six goals have been scored against
us. This speaks well for our goal-tender, W. Barber.--_L. A. Keele._

Dance at Navy League Hall

ONE of the most successful dances of the Vancouver season was the
H.B.E.A. affair on January 20th, at the Navy League Hall.

Mr. and Mrs. H. T. Lockyer and Mrs. Leonard Lockyer honored the
function with their presence and a thoroughly enjoyable time was spent
by all the three hundred fifty guests.

Dancing commenced at 9 p.m. and continued until 1 a.m. W. Garden's
orchestra rendered selections which were highly appreciated. Dainty
refreshments were served, and the whole event proved to be a further
laurel in the crown of the able social committee of the H.B.C. Welfare


What's in a Name

A STALWART Swede stepped into a corner drug store. "I bane sick," said
he to the clerk. "And I want some viskey." "Nothing doing," answered
the clerk. "Don't you know the country is dry?" But he added, "You
might be able to get some squirrel whiskey over there at that saloon."

Across the street the big Swede made known his wants. "Squirrel
whiskey," yelled the astonished proprietor, "we don't have such a
thing, but," in a whisper, "I can fix you up with a little 'Old Crow.'"
The Swede shook his head.

"I no want to fly," he answered, "I yoost want to yump around avhile."

Vancouver Welcomes H.B.C. Arctic Navigators

_Captain Henry Hendriksen and Engineer Rudolph Johnson Return to
Vancouver after Six Years in the North_


[Illustration: _Captain Hendriksen (left) and Engineer Johnson (right)_]

WHETHER it's because of the climate or because the hearts of those
in the West are big, we know not, but the fact is recognized that no
branch of the Company's service gives a heartier handshake and welcome
to the Company's employees than does Vancouver retail. When Captain
Hendriksen and Engineer Johnson dropped in recently after spending six
years in the frozen north, they were royally welcomed here as brothers
in the H.B.C.

Captain Hendriksen and Engineer Johnson operate the H.B.C. gas schooner
"Fort McPherson," a boat of fifty tons which, together with the "Ruby"
left Vancouver in 1914 to carry provisions to the Company's Western
Arctic posts together with lumber and materials for the building of a
post at Herschel and Baillie Islands.

Fair weather and good luck attended the expedition until it reached
Point Barrow where ice was encountered and they were compelled to fall
back to Tellar Point, a hundred miles north of Nome, Alaska, before
returning south, where the cargo of the "Ruby" was discharged and the
"Fort McPherson" beached for the Winter. In July, 1915, the "Ruby"
returned from the south, picked up her cargo again, and with the
schooner "Fort McPherson," set sail for Herschel Island, arriving there
in August, 1915.

Since August, 1915, the Company has opened seven fur trade posts in
the Western Arctic, the first being at Herschel Island; then followed
one at Baillie Island, two hundred fifty miles east of Herschel and
since then others have been established at Kittigazuit, Aklavick, Fort
Thomson, Three Rivers, Kent's Peninsula and Shingle Point.

The "Fort McPherson" is the Company's supply boat which during the
Summer distributes the goods sent to Herschel Island and to the small
posts in the Arctic.

Captain Hendriksen and Engineer Johnson are on their way to Winnipeg
on vacation. During their leave of absence, the "Fort McPherson" will
remain at Kittigazuit. It is the Captain's intention to continue this
trip to the home of his aged mother who is about to celebrate her
centenary in Denmark, and whom he has not seen for thirty years.

The journey to the coast was, as they term it, an uneventful one, being
the same kind of an experience they are accustomed to and which is part
of the daily round of all the Company's employees in the Arctic. But to
us it reads like a fairy tale.

Imagine, if you will, two men starting on a twelve hundred mile "mush"
from Herschel Island to Fairbanks in a sleigh drawn by four large

The frozen country they traversed is broken only by the remains
of a once great forest, an ice-locked lagoon, horizons bounded by
irridescent glaciers whose tips pierce the sky--and over all the
sparkling arctic sunshine flooding the wide plains which stretch away
to the Mystery of the World. In their long hike they met no human
being except one roving band of Indians. But they saw immense herds of
cariboo, many moose, and now and then a cinnamon or grizzly bear. And
all the while, the thermometer ranged from 47 to 70 degrees below zero.

At night they rested under the canopy of the stars in a small tent
perched impertinently in one of earth's most awful and majestic

Picture to yourself the long trail, the occasional pause in the
wilderness to stalk and kill a cariboo or moose for food to replenish
the larder of the voyageurs and their faithful dogs.

Their journey lasted for forty days. Arctic blizzards crossed their
path. These stout hearted men, however, were able to make their way
through to seaboard and embark for civilization for the first time
since before the great war.

H.B.C. Salespeople Will Be on _Qui Vive_ During Coming Outfit

STORES generally realize that the coming six months will test the worth
of salespeople more than for many months past. We haven't been selling
goods; _we've been handing them out_. _People have been anxious to buy._

A change has taken place. The public is inclined to look for further
price reductions. H.B.C. people know that the goods on our shelves have
been bought wisely and well. Every advantage of our buying organization
was used in their assembling. The same goods cannot be purchased
elsewhere for less money; that gives the sales-person confidence in

Let us prove to the Company that we are _salespeople_--not order
takers; let's do this by being willing, courteous and eager to please.


ACKNOWLEDGING receipt of the Company's Anniversary Brochure, Mr. David
Russell of Departure Bay writes:

"If I may be allowed to quote Kipling (with slight alteration) to
illustrate the inseparable connection between the history of the growth
of the Hudson's Bay Company and Canada as a nation, I would say,"

   _God took care to hide that country
    Till he judged his people ready,
    Then He chose you for his whisper,
    And you've found it, and it is ours._

It is sentiments like this from people who have been customers of the
Company for years that should spur us to honour the great name that our
Company has earned during its two hundred and fifty years of serving
the people of Canada and make us the more proud to be servants of this
great institution.


_In Canadian Trade and Finance_

(From Reports of the Union Bank)

THE Canadian official record shows that the increase of wholesale
prices of all commodities reached in May, 1920, over the average
prices of the year 1913, was 163 per cent, and that, as between the
figures for May and December, a decline of almost fifteen per cent.
was recorded. The decline was especially noticeable in the prices for
grains, fresh vegetables, breadstuffs, tea, coffee and sugar; certain
items in the textile group--cotton, silks and jutes, also show declines.

_Canada's Volume of Trade Increases Half Billion_

Notwithstanding the fact that an adverse balance will be shown for the
first time since the outbreak of the war, the year 1920 was a record
one so far as the total trade of Canada is concerned. Statistics for
the twelve months ending October, 1920 (the latest figures available),
show that the total volume of trade amounted to $2,603,423,987, an
increase of $500,000,000 as compared with the previous twelve months'
period. The unfortunate feature, however, is the excess of imports
amounting to more than seventy-five million dollars, which compares
with a favorable balance of about three hundred and fifty millions for
the twelve months ending October, 1919. Practically the whole of the
half billion dollar increase in the total volume of trade is due to the
growth of our imports for our export increase amounted to approximately
only eleven million dollars. The important feature of the statistics is
the record of our buying and selling with the United Kingdom and the
United States. Compared with last year, our imports from the United
Kingdom have increased to the extent of nearly one hundred fifty

_Canadian Banking System Demonstrates Merit_

On account of the fact that practically all the business of Canada
is transacted through its banks, the Canadian Banking System enjoys
a unique position compared with the systems of other countries, and
accordingly the statement of the Chartered Banks of Canada for the year
ending October, 1920, reflects better than any other medium, the actual
business condition of this country.

[Illustration: _LOADING the boats at an H.B.C. inland post. The start
of a long journey to the great auction market in London._]

_Banks Curtailed Credit to Stabilize Business_

Much has been said and written in criticism of the policy of the banks
in curtailing credit, but there is not the least doubt that the present
comparatively favorable condition of Canada is due in good part to the
continuous pressure that has been exercised by the banks, throughout
the year, to restrict advances.

Notwithstanding this effort on the part of the banks, current loans are
higher by three hundred million dollars than they were a year ago. If a
conservative policy had not been adopted, the increase in loans would
have been considerably greater; as it stands, the increase is balanced
by a corresponding decrease in holdings of Government securities,
acquired originally in connection with the Dominion and Imperial
Governments' war financing, and now redeemed.



By J. H. Pearin

   _Boost, and the trade boosts with you,
      Knock and you shame yourself.
    Everyone gets sick of the one who kicks
      And wishes he'd kick himself._

   _Boost, when the day is cloudless,
      Boost through the cold and rain.
    If you once take a tumble, don't lie there and grumble,
      But bob up and boost again._

   _Boost for your comrades' advancement,
      Boosting makes toiling sublime,
    For the fellow whose found on the very top round
      Is a booster every time._

Hudson's Bay Company

    INCORPORATED      1670

[Illustration: PRO PELLE CUTEM]

For Service Value, H.B.C. "Point" Blankets are Unparalleled

OBTAINABLE at all Department Stores and Posts of the Company throughout


     _4 point Size--72 x 90 in., $25.00 pr._
    _3½ point Size--63 x 80 in., $22.50 pr._
     _3 point Size--61 x 74 in., $20.00 pr._



       *       *       *       *       *

Transcriber's Notes:

Punctuation errors repaired. Pages seven and eight in the article
titled "Explorations by Adventurers of the H.B.C." has two paragraphs
with opening quoation marks without closing them. As no obvious
conclusion could be reached, this was retained as printed.

Pages 4 and 12, the article titled "H.B.C. Pioneer Steamer Ruled West
Coast Trade 20 Years" had a final paragraph that was split across these
two pages. It was brought from page 12 to page 4.

Page 13, "to" changed to "the" (reached the landing place)

*** End of this Doctrine Publishing Corporation Digital Book "The Beaver, Vol. 1, February, 1921, No. 5" ***

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