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Title: Margaret Mahaney Talks About Turkeys
Author: Mahaney, Margaret
Language: English
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Copyright Status: Not copyrighted in the United States. If you live elsewhere check the laws of your country before downloading this ebook. See comments about copyright issues at end of book.

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  to defect the approach of the disease
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[Illustration: MISS MAHANEY AT TURKEY PARK]

                            MARGARET MAHANEY

                         _Talks About Turkeys_


                               Price, $1.00



                             Margaret Mahaney

                           TALKS ABOUT TURKEYS

                                   _By_
                             MARGARET MAHANEY



                         THE SKILLFUL NEW ENGLAND
                       RAISER TELLS US SOME OF THE
                        SECRETS OF THE SUCCESSFUL
                            RAISING OF TURKEYS

                              _PUBLISHED BY_

                          THE PARK & POLLARD CO.

                              BOSTON, MASS.



                            Copyright 1913 by
                          THE PARK & POLLARD CO.
                          Boston, Massachusetts

------------------------------------------------------------------------



                              INTRODUCTION

                           BY PHILIP R. PARK


  More than a century and a quarter ago there was fired in Concord,
  Mass., a shot that was heard around the world. This shot terminated
  the domination of monopoly and marked the opening of a new era,—the
  building of a new empire.

  Not less important to all lovers of turkeys is the shot fired in this
  same beautiful old town by Margaret Mahaney, when she first put an
  end to the bogy that has been hovering over the Turkey industry so
  long, i. e., _Blackhead_. Not less triumphant has been her conquest
  of practically all the ailments besetting this beautiful bird.

  It is really beyond belief that Miss Mahaney has raised in a season
  300 turkeys with a loss of less than 2 per cent, when for years the
  Experiment Stations and Agricultural Colleges, as well as nearly all
  poultrymen, have claimed that turkeys could not be raised in this
  State. All would recognize this as wonderful work if applied to
  chickens, but when accomplished with turkeys it is doubly wonderful.
  These same Experiment Station directors had told Miss Mahaney that
  she could not do the things she was already accomplishing, but when
  they visited her farm they held up their hands and departed,
  acknowledging that here was a woman who had performed the miracle.

[Illustration: MISS MAHANEY’S $150.00 PRIZE TOM]

  Miss Mahaney was a wonderfully capable trained nurse who broke down
  at her work and was ordered to the country to save her life, urged
  particularly to take up some out-of-door work. Poultry keeping
  appealed to her from the first, but turkeys particularly for the
  reason of the difficulties to be surmounted. If she could do what
  others could not she would be satisfied. Anyone could raise chickens,
  but hardly anyone could raise turkeys. Here was a task that delighted
  her and a problem that appealed to her. The difficulties she
  encountered would have discouraged any one but a pioneer of her
  character. Her deep maternal instinct (and she is, figuratively
  speaking, mother to everything and everybody upon the beautiful
  estate where she lives) brought the babies and old turkeys through
  their blackhead troubles, and from her medical training, together
  with the aid she received from contact with members of her family who
  were physicians, she recognized symptoms and remedies which one could
  acknowledge as miracles and not overstep the truth. She has applied
  the fruits of her life work to the solving of a problem, and some day
  the country at large from Maine to California will raise its hat to
  Margaret Mahaney, the lady from Concord, Mass., who restored what was
  supposed to be lost:—the art of raising turkeys,—and that in
  confinement in poultry houses under practically the same conditions
  as chickens.

  If you find time to go to Concord, by all means call on Miss Mahaney
  and she will make you welcome. She will show you more turkeys than
  have ever before been raised in one flock in the eastern states, and
  she will delight in telling you the simple methods she uses. On the
  following pages she will tell you in her own way how she accomplishes
  it.

  We repeat, Miss Mahaney is a wonderful woman. She has a beautiful
  estate on which to produce these birds, but others are doing just as
  wonderful work with them by following her teachings.



                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                            PAGE

        INTRODUCTION                                         iii

        A LETTER TO MY READERS                                 3

        FACTS ABOUT TURKEY RAISING                            13

          Breeding                                            15

        BRIEF OUTLINE OF MY METHOD OF RAISING TURKEYS         23

          Throwing the Red                                    27

        BREEDING                                              31

          Selection and Treatment of Breeding Stock           31

          Rules for the Selection of Stock                    32

          Kind of Hens to Select                              33

          Number of Females to One Male                       35

          Care to be Given Breeding Stock                     36

          Mating                                              38

          Feeding During Breeding Season                      38

          Nests and Nesting                                   40

          Hatching                                            42

          First Feed                                          43

          Avoid Vermin                                        45

          The Setting of the Turkey Hen                       46

        THE THROWING OF THE RED AND YOUNG TURKEYS             55

        INVESTIGATION OF DISEASES                             65

        BLACKHEAD                                             71

          My First Successful Fight Against Blackhead         73

          To Detect Blackhead                                 78

          Treatment of Full Grown Turkeys                     79

          Blackhead in Young Turkeys                          81

          Starts With a Common Cold                           84

          Treatment of a Common Cold                          84

        COMMON DISEASES                                       91

          Rheumatism                                          91

          “Rotten Crop,” Sometimes Mistaken for Blackhead     93

          Cold—Catarrh—Cough—Bronchitis                       94

          Roup                                                96

          Consumption of the Throat                          100

          Consumption of the Lungs                           101

          Swollen Heads                                      104

          Sore Eyes and Head                                 109

          Constipation in Turkeys                            110

          Diarrhea                                           112

          Diarrhea in Little Turkeys                         115

          Gapes                                              116

          Tape Worm                                          117

          Peritonitis                                        119

        THE BRONZE TURKEY                                    125

          The Organs and Size                                125

          Coloring                                           126

          Selection of Breeding Stock                        127

          Marketing                                          129

          Dressing                                           130

          Shipping                                           131



                        FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS


 Miss Mahaney at Turkey Park                              _Frontispiece_

 Miss Mahaney’s $150.00 Prize Tom                                      v

 Showing Style of Runs                                                17

 The Mahaney System Develops Strong, Hardy Birds                      23

 “Give the Turkeys All the Milk You Can”                              26

 R. I. Reds and Plymouth Rocks Make Excellent Mothers                 43

 Breeding Pens                                                        47

 Turkeys Should Be Tamed                                              51

 Friends (Miss Mahaney and “Grandma Cleaves”)                         77

 Women Make the Most Successful Turkey Raisers                        82

 Turkeys Thrive Best on High Land                                     92

 Turkey Raising Is an Interesting and Healthful Occupation           126



                         A LETTER TO MY READERS


                                                        TURKEY PARK,
                                                        CONCORD, MASS.

  My dear Readers:—

  The following is a copy of a letter recently received by me, and
  which represents the type of communications I have received daily for
  over three years from all parts of the country:

    My dear Miss Mahaney:—

    Altho we are strangers to each other, I am writing you today,
    regarding turkey raising. I read some time ago in the “Boston
    Post” that you had good success in raising turkeys, so I take the
    liberty of writing you for instructions, if you will kindly give
    them to me. I have tried for several years to raise a few, but it
    has been a hard job. They would do well for about six or seven
    weeks, then grow sick with liver and bowel trouble and fade away.
    Now what is the trouble? What must they be fed with? Must they
    range or be kept in a yard? In fact, what way must I manage to
    raise turkeys? What is your experience? Please write me.

                                                            Sincerely,
                                                            etc.

    It is in answer to such letters as the foregoing that I am
    placing my methods in book form on the market, in order to
    enlighten the breeders of turkeys and to inform them how I first
    succeeded where others have failed.

    In the first place, I visited two or three farms in the country.
    I found that no care whatever was taken of the turkeys. A common
    hen was fairly well looked after, fed and kept warm. The turkey
    was supposed to forage for itself, roost on old wagons or any
    sort of roost that the bird found convenient, at night and in all
    kinds of weather. Conditions were anything but sanitary.
    Inbreeding was permitted year after year, as one tom was thought
    sufficient for the hen turkeys of five or six neighbors.

    I visited one farm in particular, which had on it turkeys from
    very nice stock, about twenty in all. Of course they were small
    and pale, and had not developed as they should have. They roosted
    in a sort of shed right off the barn cellar, so that they had
    access to the barn cellar, and they roamed around on the manure
    pile all day. The manure was turned down through an opening under
    the cows. The roof of that shed had no shingles on it, and in wet
    weather the rain simply poured down on those birds. It is only
    natural that conditions such as these will bring on roup and all
    kinds of diseases. The birds will not be developed and cannot
    possibly be strong enough when the spring comes to fulfill the
    duties of the breeding season.

    Birds hatched amid such surroundings are tainted with roup and
    other afflictions.

    It is not very long ago since I had a talk with a gentleman from
    Vermont. He told me that at one time Vermont made a large amount
    of money in turkey raising. When the turkeys got to be four or
    five weeks old, the raisers simply turned them out, and let them
    take care of themselves. Those that lived through the summer,
    weathered storms and all other sorts of hardships, they rounded
    up in the fall, fattened for market or sold for breeders. This
    was what they called “clear profit.” Everyone can readily
    understand to what that “clear profit” has led.

    The result is that our splendid bronze turkeys are dying out by
    the thousands each year, and within seven or eight more years, if
    something is not done to strengthen the turkey and keep it up to
    the standard of at least the common hen, our famous turkey of
    America will be a thing of the past. Whereas, if the turkey when
    hatched is given good feed as described in another part of my
    book, taken care of until the red is thrown, and then turned into
    a good, warm shed at night, kept dry and warm in damp weather,
    and fed reasonably, three-thirds of the trouble in raising
    turkeys can be avoided.

    Care must be given to the breeding hens. They must be kept in
    sanitary quarters, given plenty of good feed, with four drops of
    tincture of iron to a gallon of water, plenty of lime and sand,
    about half and half, and left where they can eat it at their own
    convenience. If you give ground bone, have it very fine, for it
    is apt to lodge in the corner of the mouth and sometimes will
    cause ulceration. When this happens, the jowl of the bird will
    become swollen, and on close examination, there will be found a
    small piece of white bone which will have to be removed and the
    mouth washed with sulpho-napthol or Presto Disinfectant. I
    generally use my salve two or three times before the wound is
    healed. If the bird that lays the eggs is good and strong, the
    turkeys that are hatched will be strong and rugged, and to “_keep
    them growing from the start_” has always been my motto.

    In my closing paragraph I wish to say to all my readers that I
    have been most sincere and straightforward in everything that I
    have written in this book. To one and all who may read this, I
    extend a cordial invitation to visit my turkey farm in Concord,
    Massachusetts, that you may see for yourselves the progress I
    have made in the last eight years in raising turkeys in yards
    under the same conditions as chickens, a feat which has been
    claimed heretofore by experiment stations to be impossible to
    accomplish, in poultry-congested New England.

    I have labored with the problem of turkey raising for many years,
    and sincerely believe myself to be in a position to advise others
    who may be beginners, as I once was, concerning the difficulties
    of turkey raising, and the best method of overcoming them.

                                          I remain,
                                          Sincerely yours,
                                          MARGARET MAHANEY.

                                          March 19, 1913.



                       FACTS ABOUT TURKEY RAISING


    The one great essential on the part of a person raising or
    attempting to raise turkeys is patience, or persistency,
    whichever you care to call it. To anyone thinking of starting in
    this work I can only say that you will meet with plenty of
    difficulties and much that will discourage and dishearten you,
    but when you remember that each failure or discouragement means
    just that much more added to your knowledge of, and experience in
    this work, it should give you heart to keep on, and if you do
    keep on and on, using each little bit of experience thus gained
    and using it to good effect, in the end success is bound to come.
    I am going to tell you a few of the discouraging things that
    happened to me, and also of my method of raising turkeys, a
    method based on long experience and perfected in the face of many
    discouragements, and I hope that in the telling, you may learn
    something that will be of benefit.

    I started with twelve turkey eggs. Had I known then how hard they
    are to raise, I wonder if I would have attempted it? I hatched
    out eight turkeys from that lot of eggs, and I raised just one. I
    named her Hen-Hen, and she is on my place today, and is at the
    head of all my flock.

    The following year I hatched out over thirty turkeys, and only
    succeeded in raising four. My work was then carried on on low
    land. The next year, I put old Hen-Hen on higher ground, where I
    am raising all my flock today. She hatched out fifteen turkeys,
    and I raised all but one. I killed off some of the young toms,
    and kept all the pullets, all of which I still have, and they are
    splendid, strong stock, short-legged, heavy and a splendid bronze.

    I then sent to Kentucky and brought out some of the best stock I
    could find down there, and then began my battle to raise turkeys.
    I had very good success, that is, as far as I went. At first, I
    knew hardly anything about the proper way to feed, and the right
    food to give my turkeys, but as the years went by, my experience
    in feeding taught me a great deal.


                                BREEDING

    Now I will tell you in as concise a way as possible, the method I
    consider proper in raising turkeys. In the first place, it is
    necessary to have a good, strong two-year-old hen to breed from
    with a tom that is no relation whatever to the family. One of the
    foremost things you must be particular _not_ to do is to inbreed.
    I much prefer a common hen to put my first hatch of eggs under;
    that will give the turkey hens a much longer time to lay. I
    consider it better to put my _turkey_ hens on my June eggs. I put
    fifteen eggs under a turkey hen, and eleven under a common hen.

    When the little turkeys come out, I disinfect their heads and
    under the wings with my own salve. Have you ever seen a little
    turkey that has a cold in its head wipe its beak under its wing?
    I have many times found the feathers under their wings matted as
    a result of this ill-bred habit of theirs. That, of course, is
    not a healthy state for a young bird that is growing, and that is
    the reason that I disinfect with my salve under their wings and
    on their heads, and they always seem brighter afterward.

[Illustration: SHOWING STYLE OF RUNS]

    I have good, strong runs, 5 feet long and 4 feet wide, with high
    coops and thorough ventilation from the top, which carries off
    all the impure and overheated air, and keeps the temperature
    normal at the bottom of the coops for the little turkeys. On hot
    days I cover my runs with burlap.

    The turkeys must be kept clean and dry and their straw must be
    well aired every day. Once a week, I wash out the bottom of the
    coop with disinfectant, and put in clean straw.

    I give them all the lettuce they can eat three times daily, as
    the secret of raising turkeys is to keep their bowels in good
    order, and the droppings a bright green. Just as soon as I see a
    little turkey with its wings drooping, I take it away from the
    others and treat it as described on page 82.

    I have invented my own pills for the cure of blackhead and they
    are now being largely used by turkey raisers all through New
    England.[1]

    When my little turkeys are about three or four days old, I give
    them _Margaret Mahaney’s_ Turkey Feed, and a little skimmed milk
    with a good solid feed of lettuce—all they can eat. At noon, I
    feed them lettuce again and clean water containing tincture of
    iron, 4 drops to each gallon of water. At night, I feed them
    bread soaked in milk and lettuce cut up fine with an onion and a
    shake of red pepper. After having dry feed all day, they relish
    the soft feed at night. There is no reason why, if you use my
    method in raising turkeys, and have your runs on high ground, you
    cannot be successful.

    If the turkeys are raised in the right way, they are no harder to
    raise than chickens. When the pullets are about four months old,
    they should be given epsom salts twice a week (a small
    teaspoonful to a gallon of water). This keeps the turkey in good
    condition and the blood cool. Also a tablespoonful of sulphate of
    iron in a pail of water should be left in some place where they
    can drink it. Keep them good and dry until they are ready for
    shipment, for turkeys are subject to blackhead until they are one
    year old.

    I will be only too glad to give any information in my power to
    people who are interested in this subject. While the Experimental
    Colleges have put out some bulletins on the care of turkeys, the
    person that is going to issue a report on the raising of turkeys
    must get out in the field and be with them from the time they are
    baby chicks until they are ready to be disposed of, and then it
    will be many years before he will know all there is to know about
    turkey raising. I have spent years on my turkeys, and I think
    that I am now in a position to give any information that any
    grower may require in regard to this matter.

[Illustration: THE MAHANEY SYSTEM DEVELOPS STRONG, HARDY BIRDS]



             BRIEF OUTLINE OF MY METHOD OF RAISING TURKEYS


    In the first place I select a good quiet hen that has been
    setting two or three days and put her in a deep, warm nest, not
    too far from the top of the box, so that when she goes to feed,
    the hen will not break the eggs by jumping on them when she
    returns to the nest. Twelve eggs seems a great number of turkey
    eggs to put under one hen, but that is what I put under every
    common hen, and I sometimes hatch out all the eggs. I spray the
    nests well with sulphur and also use my salve on the hen up until
    the sixteenth day. I never put any disinfectant on the hen or on
    her nest after that because there is life inside the eggs by that
    time, and the disinfectant is very apt to kill it.

    When the eggs begin to hatch, some will hatch out before the
    rest; these I take away, placing them in a good warm box wrapped
    in flannel and keep them good and warm until all the eggs are
    hatched out and the mother able to receive them. When they are
    two days old, I put the young turkeys in a good clean coop, well
    whitewashed and waterproof. My runs are 5 ft. long and 4 ft.
    wide. I shut my little birds up in the coop for the first four
    days, until they become good and strong. After that, if the
    weather is fine and warm, I let them out about ten o’clock and
    put them in about three o’clock.

    Their first food consists of a hard boiled egg, a shake of red
    pepper and three parts dandelion, cut up fine. You can give them
    all the green food they will eat, and also powdered charcoal and
    fine grit. After they are 3 or 4 days old, I give them bread and
    milk squeezed dry, and the _Margaret Mahaney_ Turkey Feed.

    The young poults are kept in runs which should be moved to a new
    spot each day and care taken that they are kept clean, dry and
    warm, and the straw must be taken out of the coops and thoroughly
    aired and kept good and clean, as the sanitary condition is half
    the battle in raising turkeys. Place your runs on a side hill,
    facing the south. On hot days, cover the runs with burlap.

    Let them out into the runs for two hours or more every afternoon
    that is pleasant and dry until the time the birds are nine weeks
    old. Do not let them out in damp weather before they are two
    years old, for they are very susceptible to dampness and should
    be kept housed and warm in rainy and damp weather. While the
    little birds are out, watch carefully for hawks and pests.

    Give the turkeys all the milk you can afford to give, as this
    will keep them growing. Plant a good field of lettuce and give
    them all this vegetable they can eat, and you will find that they
    will eat lettuce three times a day with good relish.

    One of the secrets of raising turkeys is to keep the droppings a
    bright green; that, of course, keeps the liver in good condition,
    and goes a long way in keeping blackhead out of the flock. Take
    some lime, slack it, put half sand with it and make a sort of
    soft mush out of it. Place this on a board and dry it; then
    crumble it up and leave it around where your little turkeys can
    get it to eat.

[Illustration: “GIVE THE TURKEYS ALL THE MILK YOU CAN”]

    Keep them in dry, tight houses with the south side open so that
    they may have an abundance of fresh air without draughts.

    When it is time to let them out of the runs, you can let them out
    for three and four hours at a time; you will find that they will
    want to go back to the runs when they become tired. Do not give
    them much feed at night; give them plenty of time to digest
    everything in their bowels, and they will then be ready for a
    good morning meal.


                            THROWING THE RED

    When they show signs of throwing the red, put four drops of
    tincture of iron to a gallon of drinking water three or four
    times a week. If it is cold, rainy weather, put a drop of aconite
    in the water every day while the wet weather lasts. This will
    prevent their taking cold, and, as cold is the first sign of
    blackhead and diarrhea, it can be easily seen that a little
    precaution is worth more than a pound of cure.

    In regard to keeping lice off the little turkeys—you must
    disinfect your hens and the turkeys very frequently. My salve for
    that purpose is a convenient and effective remedy.

    If you will do as I have instructed you in the above paragraphs I
    do not think you will have much trouble in raising turkeys. Keep
    them dry by all means until they are five months old.



                                BREEDING


               SELECTION AND TREATMENT OF BREEDING STOCK

    There are some rules that must be followed in the selection of
    turkeys for breeding if it is hoped to succeed. Careless
    indifference has given no end of trouble to turkey raisers. In
    some instances which the writer has investigated all the turkeys
    owned in one locality have descended from the one original bird
    purchased many years before! In one case it was said that for
    twenty years no new blood had come into the neighborhood. If this
    foolish procedure had been continued it would have resulted in
    the destruction of the constitutional vigor of the turkeys.


                    RULES FOR THE SELECTION OF STOCK

    A few plain rules which may be observed to advantage are as
    follows:

    1. Always use as breeders turkey hens over one year old. Be sure
    that they are strong, healthy and vigorous, of good medium size.
    In no instance select the smaller ones but do not strive to have
    them unusually large.

    2. The male may be a yearling or older. Do not imagine that the
    large, overgrown males are the best. Strength, health and vigor
    with a well proportioned medium size are the main points of
    excellence.

    3. Avoid close breeding. New blood is of vital importance to
    turkeys. Better send a thousand miles for a new male than risk
    the chance of inbreeding. Secure one in the fall so as to be
    assured of his healthy and vigorous constitution prior to the
    breeding season.


                         KIND OF HENS TO SELECT

    No matter what variety of turkey may be selected for keeping,
    they should, above all things, be strong, vigorous, healthy
    and well matured, but not akin. Better secure the females
    from one locality and the male from another to insure their
    non-relationship rather than run the risk of inbreeding. In
    all fowls it is well to remember that size is influenced
    largely by the female and color and finish by the male.
    Securing an over-large male to mate with small, weakly hens
    is not wise policy. A medium size male with a good size
    female of good constitutional vigor and mature age will do
    far better than the largest male bird with the smallest
    females.

    The wise farmer always selects the very best corn or grain of all
    kinds for seeds. Equal care should be given the selection of the
    breeding stock in turkeys. The best raised on the farm should be
    reserved for producers and the fact should be kept in mind that
    turkey hens of the best quality after their second and third year
    make the best producers. Keep your best young hens with this in
    view. Undersized hens that lack constitutional vigor are not the
    kinds to select for successful turkey breeding. When you stop to
    consider that the male turkey is half of the entire flock in the
    matter of breeding, we may be led to greater care in the
    selection. None can be too good for the purpose. Constitutional
    vigor is of the first importance. Without this he can have no
    value whatever for the purpose intended. Plenty of bone, a full
    round breast and a long body are important. No matter of what
    stock or breeding the hen may be, the male should be selected
    from one of the standard varieties. If the hens are of the same
    standard variety the male of the same variety should be selected
    so as to maintain the stock in its purity. Well selected
    individuals of some one of the several standard varieties will
    give better results than can be secured by cross breeding, which
    has a tendency to bring to the surface the weak points of both
    sides of the cross. Proper crosses may improve the first issue
    but if followed up they rarely prove successful.


                     NUMBER OF FEMALES TO ONE MALE

    The best rule for mating is to confine in yards, using eight or
    nine females to one male; some say twelve, but all I ever mate to
    one tom is eight females. The result of this number is that all
    my eggs prove fertile.

    When they are yarded and from eight to ten females are kept, it
    is better to have two toms and keep one shut up while the other
    is with the hens, changing them at least twice a week. When they
    run at large on a farm they will naturally divide into flocks.
    Under such conditions use one male to no more than six females.


                    CARE TO BE GIVEN BREEDING STOCK

    March and April are the two months of the year that the breeding
    hen should have particular care. In the first place, I keep them
    warm and comfortable, with a box of sand where they can dust
    themselves every day. There is no bird that takes such pleasure
    in dusting herself as the turkey. She will roll on the sand for
    hours at a time in the sun, and this makes her happy and
    contented.

    At this time I feed plenty of _Margaret Mahaney’s_ Turkey Feed
    with Oyster Shells always within reach and a mixture of wheat,
    oats, barley, a very little cracked corn and beef scraps fed
    three or four times a week. Give plenty of drinking water and
    three or four times a week put a drop or two of tincture of iron
    to a gallon of drinking water. This keeps the bird healthy and
    strong. Take half lime and half sand, make a mush of it and
    spread it on a board to dry. When it is hard, place it in a box
    and leave it where your turkey hen can get it to eat at her own
    convenience. That helps to mature the eggs. She is very tender at
    this time. All through the laying season she must be kept warm
    and comfortable. It all goes towards making a successful season
    of turkey raising.


                                 MATING

    March is the proper time to mate up your pens of turkeys. I put
    one tom in a pen with eight hens. I watch my turkey hens very
    closely to see that they are not injured in any way by the spurs
    of the tom. If the turkey hen goes around with one wing down, you
    will know that she has been hurt, and if you take her up you will
    probably find that her side has been torn by the tom. Wash her
    carefully with a disinfectant, and if the wound needs a stitch it
    had better be taken as it will heal quicker.


                     FEEDING DURING BREEDING SEASON

    In February and March do not feed your turkey hens too rich food
    or too many beef scraps or food of any kind that will force the
    hens to lay too early. You do not want any young chicks hatched
    out before the first of May or the last of April. When my turkey
    hens start to lay I feed a ground feed that is put up under my
    formula by The Park & Pollard Company of Boston, Mass., which
    they are putting out under the name of _Margaret Mahaney’s Turkey
    Feed_, and which can be procured of them all ready for feeding.
    Have plenty of beef scraps and oyster shells within easy reach.
    Twice a week put tincture of iron in the drinking water, four
    drops to a gallon of water; allow one gallon of water to each
    pen. The tincture of iron keeps the birds strong and in good
    condition, as a young turkey hen is very apt to weaken after her
    first litter of eggs is laid. Sometimes they die if not properly
    cared for.

    Keep on hand within easy reach, constantly, a mixture of half
    sand and half lime made into a soft mush. When dry crumble up and
    leave it where your turkeys can get it to eat. They will eat this
    ravenously and it helps to harden the shells of the eggs.


                           NESTS AND NESTING.

    When the turkey hen is ready to lay she will start in first by
    looking in all the corners, for if she is yarded up, it is her
    nature to look for a dark and secluded spot in which to lay. I
    place to eight turkey hens four good dark nests. I make these by
    using packing cases with the cover on and the opening turned
    towards the wall of the house, allowing just enough room for the
    bird to enter. I put good, clean hay in the box. The turkey hen
    will be very happy when she finds that nobody can see her in her
    nest. It will make her very contented, and as we are now breeding
    turkeys in the domestic state, almost the same as the common hen,
    why not give them just the same care? You will find in the long
    run that you will raise many more turkeys if a turkey hen is
    properly housed and kept warm during the cold months of winter.
    The turkey hen begins to grow her eggs three months before she
    begins to lay, and as we all know that the turkey is a very cold
    bird, it is only natural that she should be kept warm. My houses
    are comfortable, tight and dry, but well ventilated from the
    south side.

    When the turkey hen has laid about eighteen or nineteen eggs she
    will show signs of wanting to sit. Very quietly take her off the
    nest, remove her to another coop, give her a good range to run in
    with plenty of _Margaret Mahaney’s_ Turkey Feed. In the meantime
    set the eggs under two good common hens. I find that Plymouth
    Rocks make good mothers. I put eleven or twelve eggs under a good
    Plymouth Rock hen, and make a good round nest in a half bushel
    box, stuffing the corners well so that the nest will stay in
    shape, as a good nest is half the hatching. In the meantime the
    turkey hen having had her run has forgotten all about sitting,
    and has started to laying again and I put her back in the mating
    pen. This process can be repeated three times during the season
    as a turkey hen will lay three litters in succession. I let my
    turkey hens sit on my June eggs and these hatch about the tenth
    or eleventh of July. These make good hardy birds for the coming
    cold weather. Disinfect the hen with _Margaret Mahaney’s_ Salve,
    per directions, before setting on the eggs.

[Illustration: R. I. REDS AND PLYMOUTH ROCKS MAKE EXCELLENT MOTHERS.]


                                HATCHING

    To go back to the hatching of the turkeys; the eggs that are
    right under the breast of the hen will hatch first. Sometimes I
    do not wait for them all to come out of the shell, taking them
    away, say four or five at a time, thus giving the outside eggs a
    chance to hatch. The eggs which I take away I put in an incubator
    which has previously been regulated to the right heat. When they
    are all hatched, I have my coop well whitewashed and about six
    inches of good clean straw on the bottom. I place my biddy in the
    coop and put the little turkeys all around her. Be very careful
    in giving them drink or water that the little turkeys do not get
    wet, for they often take cold in that way.


                               FIRST FEED

    The first feed that I give them is common sting nettle, chopped
    fine, with a hard boiled egg and a little shake of red pepper.
    You will find that they will eat the green stuff ravenously, and
    this acts on the bowels as a regular physic.

    When they are three days old I begin feeding them the prepared
    ground feed,—_Margaret Mahaney’s_ Turkey Feed—with a little
    wheat bread soaked in milk, squeezed dry and mixed with the egg
    and nettle. As the Park & Pollard Company carry this ground feed
    it can be easily had there. I keep this always before them. In
    the morning I give them nothing but the _Margaret Mahaney_ Turkey
    Feed with a good feed of lettuce. At night I give them the sting
    nettle again with bread soaked in milk and squeezed dry and a
    little chopped onion, if convenient. You will find that the birds
    you feed the sting nettle to will throw the red three weeks
    before the ones that do not have it fed to them.


                              AVOID VERMIN

    When the little chicks first come out, before you put them in the
    coop, you must remember to disinfect with my salve on the head
    and under the wings; also give the foster mother the same
    treatment with the salve, for if there are vermin on the hen they
    will leave the hen and go to the little turkeys and unless cared
    for the little birds will sicken and die. If affected with lice
    the bodies will become very red and irritated. You will find the
    lice especially under the wings or in the fringe of the wings.
    When the feathers do not grow evenly on a little turkey (some
    growing long while others are short) you will know that the
    turkey has lice, and you should at once “get busy.” One or two
    doses of my salve will make a marked improvement. I always
    disinfect the hen when I put her on the eggs, but never disinfect
    her after the fifteenth day for at that time there is life in the
    chick, and you are very apt to kill it, as they breathe through
    the air cells of the egg.


                     THE SETTING OF THE TURKEY HEN

    In the wild state the hen seeks the most secluded and
    inaccessible spot where there is protection from birds and beasts
    of prey. Security against attack is the main thing instinct
    prompts her to look out for. A tangled thicket of briars, a
    sheltering ledge, a hollow stump, a clump of brush filled with
    decaying leaves suits her fancy. With little preparation she
    drops her eggs on the bare ground in these secluded places.
    Domestic turkeys are usually allowed a good deal of freedom in
    choosing their nests. I generally set them the same as I do the
    common hen. A half bushel basket is a comfortable nest for a
    turkey hen, and will give plenty of room for fifteen or eighteen
    eggs.

[Illustration: BREEDING PENS]

    Turkeys require a good deal of attention while they are on the
    nests. They should be in one yard or building, or at least, not
    far distant from one another that it may take as little time as
    possible to make the frequent visits necessary to each. Give the
    eggs room and have the nest deep enough to prevent their rolling
    out of the nest. A turkey hen will lay from fifteen to thirty
    eggs at a litter, but she cannot always cover the whole lot. Very
    large old birds will cover twenty eggs; smaller birds will cover
    from fifteen to eighteen which is about the proper number to
    allow one bird to take care of.

    If you have a dozen turkey hens in your flock,—which is about
    the right number for a good range,—it will not be difficult to
    set several birds at once, and this may be arranged by placing
    the nests containing artificial eggs within a few feet of each
    other. You can keep part of the hens upon their nests a few days
    until three or four are ready to sit. Then select eggs of as near
    equal age as possible and put them under the hens that are
    sitting persistently. If the hens close together are not set at
    the same time, there is danger when the first begins to hatch
    that her neighbor will hear the peep of the first chick and
    perhaps forsake her nest. If all the group of three or four nests
    are hatching at the same time, there is no trouble of this kind.

    Before putting the eggs in the nest it is well to disinfect the
    hen with turkey salve under her wings. It will prevent vermin of
    any kind.

    If any of the eggs get fouled with the yolk of a broken egg
    before or after setting, the shells should be carefully cleaned
    with warm water to secure their hatching. Two or three turkeys
    will sometimes lay in the same nest. This will do no harm in the
    early part of the season, but they should be separated before
    setting, allowing only one bird to a nest. This may be done by
    making nests nearby and putting porcelain eggs into each new
    nest. Turkeys are not liable to crowd onto an occupied nest when
    there is a vacant one nearby. The group of hens that sit
    together, and bring off their young at the same time, will
    naturally feed and ramble together, and this will save time in
    looking after them.

    The turkey is a close sitter and will not leave her nest for
    several days at a time. Grain and water should be kept near the
    nest all the time. When the turkeys begin to hatch I take the
    little chicks out just the same as I do when under a common hen,
    and give the ones that are not hatched a chance to do so.

    When they are all ready to go into the coop, I lift the hen very
    gently and carry her to the coop, generally putting the little
    turkeys into the coops first as the turkey hen is a very nervous
    bird and will scratch around and sometimes walk on the little
    birds.

[Illustration: TURKEYS SHOULD BE TAMED]

    That is why I like to have them good and strong before they go
    into the coop with the mother. The little fellows seem to
    understand that the mother should not step on them for they will
    crowd over towards the side of the coop out of her reach. She
    will soon get used to them and to being fed and will settle down
    to taking care of her babies in good shape, as the turkey hen is
    a very devoted mother. She will watch out for those who feed her
    and take care of her little babies. They will run to meet me when
    they see me coming, that is, of course, if they are out in the
    field. I have had them come home themselves when I let them out
    for a ramble, and when I have gone to feed them the mother would
    be in the coop with all her little babies.

    I give the same treatment to the turkey chicks that are brought
    up by their mother as I do when they are brought up by a common
    hen, only the common hen will leave them long before the turkey
    hen will think of forsaking her babies. I have gone into the
    turkey house when they were five or six months old and would find
    a young turkey pullet nestling close to her mother. You do not
    find this in any other domestic bird that I know of.



               THE THROWING OF THE RED AND YOUNG TURKEYS


    As there seems to be some difference of opinion about the
    “throwing of the red”, first let me tell you what the throwing of
    the red means.

    More or less blood must flow into the brain and head of the
    turkey when it shows so plainly through the skin. When a turkey
    is five weeks old or even four, it is time for it to begin to
    “throw the red”, as when blood comes from the liver and heart, of
    course it must have some action on the little pullets. I have had
    young turkeys throw the red in five weeks, and show it very
    plainly,—that is after being fed twice a day on sting nettle. On
    the other hand, before I knew what to feed to them, I have had
    them linger along up until seven or eight weeks, and at the end
    of that time, they would usually die. What had happened was that
    the blood had returned to the liver, become stagnant and caused
    diarrhea, which, of course, caused the death of the young turkey.
    When a young turkey is in good condition it ought to shoot the
    red from the beginning to the end in ten days. Of course it will
    not be as prominent as in a larger bird. As the bird grows, the
    red becomes more apparent.

    When the little turkey is about four weeks old the feathers will
    begin to fall from the head some. Then you will know that the
    critical time is at hand. The little bird begins to shoot the
    red. It mopes around sometimes for days. There will be nothing
    wrong with him except that he just does not feel well. Give
    plenty of sting nettle and a little tincture of iron three times
    a week (4 drops of tincture of iron to a gallon of drinking
    water) and you will see an improvement in a couple of days.

    The young toms are much stronger than the pullets. Some of them
    will shoot the red and grow splendidly all through it with no
    signs of any drooping whatever, but there is always a marked
    change in the little pullets.

    After the red is grown, the secret of success in turkeys is to
    keep them growing. You can give them all the skimmed milk and all
    the sour milk they will drink. Feed them all the lettuce they can
    eat three times a day with nettle in the feed, if you have it on
    the place. It is one of the necessities in raising turkeys that
    you keep the liver clean and if you feed lettuce two or three
    times a day, the droppings will be a bright green and in good
    condition.

    For my birds I have large runs, 6 ft. each way, which makes a
    good square run. I move the runs every day to clean ground; the
    straw is taken out and aired. If it is damp weather, put clean
    straw in at least every other day. My coops are high and well
    ventilated at the top which takes off all the hot and impure air,
    and helps keep the little turkeys strong and healthy. I allow
    about ten runs out at a time consisting of ten birds each and let
    them go for a good long ramble. They do not stay away from their
    houses very long, however, but soon get tired and come back,
    usually staying out about two hours. Then I put them in their
    coops and let out about ten more runs. When I put them back into
    the coops I feed them lettuce and clean drinking water. (I
    continue this process until I have let out the entire flock.) I
    let out so many runs at a time so there will be no confusion in
    putting them in. I do this daily, every fair day, until the
    turkey is four or five months old. Then I let them all out
    together. I put them in larger houses every night, keep them good
    and warm, with good roosts and clean straw, and I have very
    little trouble from disease.

    Every turkey should be allowed out for a while each day if the
    weather is fine and there are no signs of rain. If it is lowery
    or dark, do not let them out until the weather is pleasant again.
    This method of letting them out keeps them growing rapidly and
    makes them very tame so that they can be handled much more easily.

    Why not give a turkey the same care that we give a hen. People
    tell me many ways in which their turkeys are neglected. They seem
    to think that they do not need to look after turkeys and after
    they are hatched they turn them out and let them wander and
    forage for themselves. The time of that kind of treatment for
    turkeys is past. Remember we are raising turkeys now by the
    approved methods and full feeding applied to modern poultry
    raising. People will come to me and tell me that their turkey
    hens are roosting out in the trees nights when it is below zero.
    As I have stated before, if it is in January these turkey hens
    are beginning to grow eggs. What vitality is there back of eggs
    grown under conditions of that kind? None whatever.

    On hot days you must cover the runs with burlap or shade of some
    description. I use the burlap sacks in which I receive dried
    bread waste that I buy.

    With reference to feeding bread, be sure never to feed bread that
    is mouldy for if you do you will start diarrhea in the young
    turkeys in no time.

    When fall is coming on you must be very careful of the pullets.
    As I said before, they are much more subject to blackhead than
    are the toms. When I house them up,—that is, in large houses,
    say forty or fifty to one pen, I have my prepared feed for
    turkeys (_Margaret Mahaney’s Turkey Feed_) before the pullets all
    the time. The less corn you give any turkey hen the less trouble
    you will have from blackhead, for corn is heating. To keep the
    pullets in good condition you will find all the ingredients in
    this prepared feed, which is put up and sold now by The Park &
    Pollard Company, 46 Canal Street, Boston, under the name of
    _Margaret Mahaney’s_ Turkey Feed.

    Give more or less whole corn to the toms if you want to get them
    in good condition for shipping or for dressing around
    Thanksgiving. They do not fatten up as quickly as the turkey hen,
    which is the reason I keep all corn and corn meal away from the
    turkey hens.

    Put one-half teaspoonful of salicylate of soda in the drinking
    water in each pan at night. In the mornings give them fresh water
    and twice a week place in it a little tincture of iron (4 drops
    to each gallon of water). Do this up to about January, and then,
    if your turkey hens are kept warm and comfortable, they are over
    the dangers of the blackhead season.

    Give the same treatment to the young toms.



                       INVESTIGATION OF DISEASES


    “What _is_ the disease?” is the first and most important question
    to ask. The number of people who fatefully assume from the
    beginning that the answer to this question is beyond their reach
    is inexcusably large. If the non-professional reader would apply
    even a limited amount of study and common sense many of the
    lesser ills might be avoided, and many others successfully
    treated. A little special instruction is here given to enable one
    to detect a disease before it is too late, and thus, in a great
    measure, to avoid those disheartening ravages which, at times,
    come upon the uninformed owner of turkeys.

    The small number of diseases which are liable to be confused
    makes it comparatively easy to form the right conclusion by
    eliminating from the possible list those that do not show the
    particular symptoms of the other diseases.

    A general knowledge of the organism, habits, and appearance of
    turkeys when in health is, of course, very desirable. A
    reasonably close observation is about all we can expect in this
    matter from the ordinary owner of a large flock of turkeys. The
    experienced fancier adds to this a frequent handling and more
    detailed study to learn the normal hardness and suppleness of the
    flesh and the warmth, moisture and color of the skin, especially
    about the vent, and the outline and structure of the skeleton. It
    is also eminently desirable that one know what is a right
    condition of all the organs, but this is particularly true in
    respect to the liver and other digestive organs.

    One of the most common mistakes in the discovery of a disease is
    the forming of a decision after too little study. Finding one or
    two symptoms which are known to attend a suspected ailment, one
    is prone to jump at the conclusion that he has detected the real
    difficulty, when a further investigation would reveal other
    symptoms, which, in conjunction with these, would lead to the
    true conclusion. Every examination, therefore, should be thorough
    until a degree of certainty is felt. It is essential, too, that
    the raiser not expect that the disease will invariably present
    just the symptoms mentioned in any book, for they will vary more
    or less in different turkeys, and even in the same one at
    different times,—a caution which merely calls for the exercise
    of judgment and common sense.

    When any doubt is felt on the contagious nature of a disease, the
    affected turkey should be removed from the flock until the
    possible danger is passed. When a bird dies from an unknown
    cause, it should be opened and the condition of the internal
    organs noted, along with a study of their condition as taken up
    in the following pages of treatment.

    In general, it may be observed that the presence of lice and
    mites is often the cause of weakness and loss of condition,
    especially if the turkeys are allowed to roost with the common
    hens.



                               BLACKHEAD


    A great many people write to me, saying that they lose their
    pullets and young turkeys after they have grown the first
    feathers. I never lose a turkey at that time. I grow my turkeys
    in runs as you would chickens and it is a beautiful sight to see
    well onto three hundred healthy, strong turkeys in runs placed
    side by side. I never have any trouble with my young turkeys. As
    I said before in another part of my work, blackhead never appears
    in my flock until the turkey is six and seven months old. When I
    see any signs of blackhead, I move all my turkeys to new ground,
    disinfect all my coops with Presto Disinfectant, and start in to
    cure my blackhead, as described on page 79. I wait for a wet day,
    and put lime on the ground that I moved the coops from, as
    turkeys are very apt to return to their old dwelling place. In
    that way, I keep down blackhead. It is a very simple disease if
    taken in time and easily cured.

    When I first started raising turkeys, my little pullets died
    after they were feathered and about seven or eight weeks old.
    Some of them would not shoot the red until they were weighing two
    and a half pounds. Their heads would be dark, and their steps
    slow and dragging. As I said before, the blood lay dormant in the
    liver, and thus started blackhead. If a turkey does not throw the
    red, when seven or eight weeks old, on close examination it will
    be found that the abdomen is dark and of a bluish cast. The flesh
    is not in good condition, whereas in a young healthy turkey that
    has thrown the red at that age, the flesh will be pure and white.


              MY FIRST SUCCESSFUL FIGHT AGAINST BLACKHEAD

    When I first started to raise turkeys, and one came down with
    blackhead, I thought that there was no cure for her. I did all I
    possibly could, and if she died, I judged that she had to and
    that there was absolutely nothing that could be done to prevent
    it.

    One year I brought two handsome pullets in from Kentucky. They
    were fine, strong handsome birds, well marked, with splendid
    barrings, and a beautiful bronze. I grew extremely fond of them.
    When the spring of the year came on, about the last of March,
    around laying time, one of those two birds came down with
    blackhead and I determined that I would make a fight for her life.

    She was an extremely sick bird. I took her into the house, placed
    her in the back hall, in a cast-off oval shaped clothes basket. I
    put soft burlap under her and wrapped her up warmly. I had a good
    knowledge of homeopathic remedies, and I started to cure bowel
    and liver troubles. The fever I kept down with aconite by giving
    a drop in a little water every hour. I stayed by the side of that
    turkey all night long. There were times when she would scream
    with pain, and then I placed her feet in water as hot as she
    could bear it with plenty of mustard in it, and allowed the water
    to come up as high as the first joint of her legs. I allowed her
    to stand in that about ten minutes at a time, and then I dried
    her feet and legs and placed her back in the basket. She would be
    very weak after this treatment, but seemed easier. At other times
    she would become weak and lifeless, and I would then take her up
    in my arms, go out-of-doors and let her have the benefit of the
    cool air. The fight went on in this way until four o’clock in the
    morning, when she opened her eyes, raised her head, looked up at
    me and chirped a little. I decided then and there that there was
    such a thing as curing blackhead.

    I did not know then so much about the stoppage in the bowels. I
    did know, however, that nothing had passed through her bowels. I
    gave her a little warm whisky and milk, some more of my remedies,
    and then went for a couple of hours’ rest myself. When I went to
    her again about two hours afterward, the red had begun to flow
    back into her head, the fever had left her, and her pulse was
    normal. The pulse of a turkey begins to beat just above the crop
    and in case of death, will gradually creep up until, just before
    the breath leaves the bird, it will have reached a point under
    the throat. I kept the pulse in this bird down to the middle of
    the neck; I never let it get any further. There were times when I
    had to place a cloth dipped in ice water on her head, but I was
    fighting for the life of my little pet, and she seemed to realize
    what I was doing. She was very weak all the morning. I took her
    up, placed her out on the lawn in the sun, and she staggered to
    her feet about twelve o’clock of that day, and then a solid core
    came from her bowels. This had lodged in the cecum. At that time
    I knew very little about this trait of the disease. Attached to
    the core was a part of the lining of the intestine. The turkey
    hen was very weak for days. One thing in her favor was that she
    had an empty crop, and I immediately fed her a tablespoonful of
    cold water in which was dissolved four grains of common alum.
    That was given in order to form a skin and harden the sore and
    raw place in the bowel after the bird had passed the core. The
    turkey hen did not fully recover for three or four days.

[Illustration: FRIENDS (MISS MAHANEY AND “GRANDMA CLEAVES”)]

    That turkey hen is about one of the best I have on my place. I
    call her Grandma Cleaves. The Agricultural colleges maintain that
    a bird that has once been afflicted with blackhead is unfit for
    breeding stock. I have in my possession a young tom that was
    hatched out the fifteenth day of July, 1912, by that bird. He
    weighs 31 lbs. and is well developed in every way. She laid three
    litters of eggs last summer, and sat on the last litter, hatched
    twelve turkeys and raised eleven in that flock. In my opinion, a
    bird that has passed through blackhead is one of the best and
    strongest birds to breed from. I never had a bird come down the
    second season with blackhead. It is just like any other common
    fever that is contagious, and can afflict a person but once.

    After winning that fight, I made up my mind that something could
    be done for blackhead, and from that time on I have had great
    success in battling against this disease.

    My breeding grounds are not so far distant but that the people of
    Massachusetts can come to see me. I would be very glad to show
    them my runs and turkeys and my methods of breeding.


                          TO DETECT BLACKHEAD

    Blackhead is the disease to be most dreaded by the turkey raisers
    in New England and all over the country.

    When you go into the turkey house in the morning, go directly to
    the droppings board and see if you find any yellow droppings. If
    you do, look carefully over your flock. It will not take you long
    to discover the bird that has blackhead. The head is an unhealthy
    dusky gray, and the bird will mope around, apparently wanting to
    eat and yet not doing so. Then you can decide that you have
    blackhead in your flock.


                    TREATMENT OF FULL GROWN TURKEYS

    Take that bird away immediately; disinfect her head and under the
    wings with salve; massage the crop gently to see if it is full of
    undigested food. If it is, give a scant half teaspoonful of epsom
    salts in a little water. In about an hour’s time give a
    tablespoonful of olive oil and follow with a quarter of a
    teaspoonful salicylate of soda in two tablespoonfuls of warm
    water. After the crop is emptied put her in a box, say a good
    sized packing case, with plenty of straw, and cover with burlap.
    Give a teaspoonful of warm whisky and a tablespoonful of milk
    mixed together. This will keep up the vitality of the bird. A
    long necked milk testing bottle comes in very handy in a flock of
    any kind of fowl, for you can place the neck down below the
    windpipe and inject the liquids into the crop without any choking
    on the part of the fowl. Then watch and see if the droppings are
    yellow. If they are give one of the _Mahaney_ Blackhead pills
    every hour until the droppings become normal. You can place the
    pill on the tongue of the turkey and make her swallow it. If
    there is nothing in the crop except a brash of sour wind, give
    the pills and hot milk and whiskey at once.

    Be sure to keep the bird warm for a few days, and then disinfect
    before she goes out with the rest of the flock. Look over the
    droppings board every morning and see if there are any yellow
    droppings. Use plenty of lime. Twice a week, in the morning, give
    sulphate of iron, powdered, (one level teaspoonful in a gallon of
    water in an earthen dish). The other days, at night, give
    salicylate of soda in the same amount in the drinking water. This
    will keep your flock in good condition.


                       BLACKHEAD IN YOUNG TURKEYS

    The first symptom of blackhead in the young turkeys has the
    appearance of a common cold in the head. The turkey will sniff
    and water will sometimes come from the nose. The loss of appetite
    is apparent. The wings droop and when you let the turkeys out of
    the coops, the one affected will drag itself along behind the
    rest of the flock. I take that bird away from the rest. I
    disinfect the head and under the wings with my salve. Rub the
    salve lightly on the head. Hold the turkey gently across the
    back, press the wings down to the side. If you are not very
    gentle with them, and very careful, you are liable to break the
    wings.

    The moment you see one become lifeless, with dragging steps and
    loss of appetite, disinfect the whole flock with the salve twice
    a week. Dissolve in an earthen dish four or five of the _Margaret
    Mahaney_ Turkey Pills in a little warm water; then mix the
    solution in a quart of drinking water and give to the young
    turkeys to drink. This, repeated every day, with the straw well
    aired and kept clean, and the coop dry and water-proof, will make
    them show a marked improvement in three days. I never lose a
    young turkey. They thrive just as well as little chickens, and I
    think they are just as hardy.

[Illustration: WOMEN MAKE THE MOST SUCCESSFUL TURKEY RAISERS]

    As vermin is one of the enemies of young turkeys, use the salve
    twice a week always, and use it in the morning. Do not shut them
    up after putting on my salve because it is very strong. Let it
    evaporate before the little chickens go to bed at night, and you
    will have no vermin. There is an old saying about a louse in the
    head of a turkey which enters the brain and causes blackhead. I
    know very well that that does not cause blackhead, as this
    disease comes from a common cold, which descends to the bowels
    and liver and kills the turkey after a few days’ suffering if not
    relieved.


                       STARTS WITH A COMMON COLD

                      Treatment of a Common Cold.

    Blackhead starts from a common cold. When you have a bird in your
    flock afflicted with a cold, place a small teaspoonful of Epsom
    Salts to one gallon of water. Do this three or four days in
    succession and put plenty of lime around your turkey houses. I
    put lime on the droppings boards every day; it will kill the
    disease in no time and do no injury to the turkey. Of course I
    put clean straw in my turkey house in damp weather every other
    day as the straw becomes damp and is very liable to breed disease.

    Give this Epsom Salts treatment in the hot weather whether the
    birds show symptoms of disease or not. It keeps their blood cool
    and avoids the tendency to disease.

    The time for blackhead season is in what is commonly called “dog
    days,” that is, mid-summer. The weather is heavy and dark and is
    very injurious to young turkeys. That is the time you must keep
    your coops good and dry and give plenty of green stuff, with
    aconite in the drinking water about twice a week to keep down any
    fever. Three drops in a pint of water is all I give them as
    aconite is very poisonous. If you have any sting nettle at the
    time be sure to feed it, as sting nettle _is one of the greatest
    aids to success in raising young turkeys_.

    When the turkey dies of blackhead the crop becomes apparently
    black and inflamed, and is very foul. The liver is enlarged, and
    has white or yellowish spots all over it. In some places it has
    the appearance of being eaten away. Underneath the liver, next to
    the back of the bird and around the heart you will find a
    brownish substance, just the same as you would find in a person
    who dies from peritonitis. You will also find in what is called
    the second stomach, that is, the bowel leading to the gizzard, a
    large core. Sometimes this will be very dark brownish yellow or
    ochre color, mingled with blood. This core forms a stoppage, and
    unless it is removed, is certain death for the turkey.

    I have had turkeys die with what is commonly called in human
    beings, “appendicitis”, as the appendix was matterated and badly
    swollen. In fact, in a bad case of blackhead all the bowels of
    the turkey become swollen. The gizzard is twice its natural size,
    the abdomen becomes swollen and black and the odor is very
    obnoxious. In a bad case of this kind there is nothing that can
    be done, the disease having become too far advanced, and that is
    why one ought to watch turkeys very closely. If the turkey is
    taken in time and _Margaret Mahaney’s_ pills given, and the
    turkey is kept warm, (for they will take the disease first with a
    chill just the same as a human being would take malaria) there is
    no need of any loss in the flock from blackhead. All the colleges
    of agriculture have diagnosed the case as a parasite on the
    intestines, but I have thoroughly investigated that theory, and
    wish to say that I have found no grounds for such a belief.



                            COMMON DISEASES


                               RHEUMATISM

                   (Sometimes confused with Blackhead)

    I have a great many people write me in regard to weak legs in
    turkeys. Of course, this is common rheumatism. The limbs suffer
    an impairment or loss of use, are hot, swollen and stiff. The
    toes then being drawn out of shape, the fowl persistently sits
    down and cannot use the perch. The heart may become involved and
    this produces death. I had it in my flock one year,—that is, I
    had several birds victims to the disease. They would squat down
    all the time. The breast bone grew all over to one side from
    sitting so much. They were fat and apparently healthy, except
    that they could not seem to stand up any length of time. I bathed
    their feet with mustard and water as hot as I thought they could
    stand it. I saved most of them, but it seemed to me that they
    never could walk as well as the flock that had not been affected.
    The cause of this affliction is that the turkeys are allowed out
    too early in the morning when the dew is on the grass and allowed
    to roam around in damp places. At this time I was raising my
    flock on lowland. I have never had any of it in my flock since I
    moved to high and dry land. Give five drops of bryonia in a pint
    of drinking water to six turkeys. After using the mustard water
    be careful to wipe the turkey’s legs dry and then rub well with
    camphorated oil the backs of the legs leading into the body. Keep
    in a warm and dry place and give sulphur in the feed (about a
    half teaspoonful to four turkeys).

[Illustration: TURKEYS THRIVE BEST ON HIGH LAND]


             “ROTTEN CROP” SOMETIMES MISTAKEN FOR BLACKHEAD

    Another disease very common in turkeys which is called blackhead
    and yet has nothing to do with blackhead, is what you would call
    “rotten crop” in a common hen. When this takes place the crop
    becomes very foul and heavy. The bird will drink water, which
    stays in the crop and becomes sour. I have often had to take the
    bird up, hold the head down and rub the crop gently so that all
    the water would run from the mouth. With the aid of a long neck
    milk testing bottle I fill the crop with warm water with a
    quarter teaspoonful baking soda in it, and relieve the crop by
    massaging the second time. Then I give a tablespoonful of olive
    oil. Put the bird away from the rest, with very little feed for a
    couple of days. I never have any difficulty in saving a bird
    affected with what is commonly called “rotten crop.” If not
    relieved, however, it will turn into blackhead and the turkey
    will die.


                     COLD—CATARRH—COUGH—BRONCHITIS

    All of these are substantially different stages and symptoms of
    the same disorder. Exposure to wet and cold is the general cause.
    Cough is, indeed, a symptom, not a disease, and is connected with
    the other three. It may, however, attend other diseases, and when
    its cause is not known, the article pertaining to roup should
    especially be consulted. Bronchitis is but an advanced stage or
    aggravated form of cold or catarrh. The three are marked by more
    or less discharge from the eyes and nostrils, sneezing, wheezing,
    and, particularly in bronchitis, coughing and a rattling sound in
    the throat. To distinguish this from roup, see whether the
    discharge is offensive. If it is, roup is to be treated; if not,
    catarrh or bronchitis. In all cases of doubt, use the precautions
    detailed for roup.

    Turkeys are subject to roup from the time they are babies, more
    so than common hens, as a cold is the cause of all their trouble.

    Treatment: Remove the turkey to warm, dry shelter, and give warm,
    soft food. These measures will usually be sufficient, but the
    following will be valuable as aids: _For cold or catarrh_ merely,
    and no distinction between them is here made, put three drops of
    strong tincture of aconite in a pint of the drink. If there is a
    swelling about the throat, two or three grains of the second
    trituration of mercuries three times a day will be useful. _For
    bronchitis_, in addition to the measures just named, give
    sweetened water for the drink, adding a few drops of nitric acid
    or sulphuric acid. _For both catarrh and bronchitis_ give some
    stimulant, such as ginger or cayenne pepper in the food or whisky
    in the water. Treat catarrh and cold promptly, to keep them from
    developing into roup. Do not neglect bronchitis lest it run into
    consumption.


                                  ROUP

    Roup is a highly contagious malady which first affects the lining
    membrane of the beak and then extends to the eyes, throat, and
    whole head, eventually involving the entire constitution.
    According to its manifest symptoms, it has been called
    diphtheria, sore head, swelled eyes, hoarseness, bronchitis,
    canker, snuffles, influenza, sore throat, quinsy, blindness, and
    by other names. It attacks all ages, and will kill young turkeys
    in a very short time. Turkeys given poor shelter, and kept in
    filthy quarters, are subject to roup.

    Symptoms:—Roup develops either slowly or rapidly, with the
    general signs of a bad cold in the head, such as wheezing, or
    sneezing, high fever and great thirst. The discharge from the
    eyes and nose is yellowish, being at first thin but growing
    thicker as the disease develops, and very offensive, closing the
    eyes, nostrils and throat (these parts and the whole head are
    swollen, sometimes enormously, so that blindness ensues, making
    the turkey unable to get its food, and thus hastening the decline
    of the system); pustular sores about the head and in the throat,
    discharging a frothy mucus; the breathing is impeded; the crop is
    often swollen; the comb and wattles may be pale or dark-colored.
    During the course of the disease the turkey is feeble and moping.
    A fatal case terminates in from three to eight days after the
    distinctive roup-symptoms set in, and those which are not treated
    when an epidemic is prevailing will generally be fatal. Upon
    opening a turkey that has died of roup one will find the liver
    and gall bladder full of pus, the flesh soft, of a bad odor, and,
    particularly about the lungs, slimy and spongy.

    Treatment:—It is of the highest importance that the treatment
    begin as soon as the first symptoms appear. To detect the
    approach of the disease, (and any turkey in the flock should be
    suspected if one has been infected), raise the wing and ascertain
    whether the feathers beneath it are stuck together, as the turkey
    has the habit of wiping its nose under the wings, and naturally
    the feathers will become matted and foul.

    Remove the turkey to a good warm place; wash her head with warm
    water with a drop or two of sulpho-napthol in the water; dry well
    with a good soft cloth and rub _Mahaney_ turkey salve on her
    head, throat and crop; open up her beak and oil the inside of her
    mouth and throat well with the salve. A little swab can be made
    for that purpose. Give one of the _Margaret Mahaney_ blackhead
    pills, three times a day, and make a pill as large as a good
    sized bean as follows, one-half mustard and one-half sulphur;
    equal parts. Give the turkey one of these pills every night, and
    if swollen eyes and head has prevented her from seeing her food,
    feed her a little bread and milk, soft and warm, until she is
    able to feed herself. A drop or two of kerosene oil in the
    drinking water makes a good disinfectant for turkeys.

    When a disease of this kind enters your turkey house disinfect
    your droppings boards, and feed five quarts of hot mash from
    _Margaret Mahaney’s_ Turkey Feed with one or two onions chopped
    fine and put in the mash. A teaspoonful of red pepper also given
    to them every night before going to roost will help to prevent
    the disease from spreading. Keep your turkey house clean and dry,
    and if you see any sign of this disease it is much better to
    remove the droppings every day, and if taken in time roup is not
    a fatal disease.


                       CONSUMPTION OF THE THROAT

    The special symptoms of consumption of the throat are a frequent
    cough, roughness of the voice, and often a failure to partake of
    food either from loss of appetite or from pain caused by
    swallowing. Attacks of fever, followed by shivering, are more or
    less regular. For treatment keep the bird in a very warm
    atmosphere, chop up onions very fine and mix in the feed, also
    give a teaspoonful of olive oil three times a day with one to two
    drops of aconite to a cup of water.

    I generally have what is commonly called a hospital for sick
    birds; that is, I set aside one coop, keep it warm and have it
    heated with an incubator lamp, a large one. The temperature
    should be kept around 70 degrees, until the bird ceases to cough.


                        CONSUMPTION OF THE LUNGS

    A distinct feature of consumption of the chest or lungs is a
    tubercular deposit in the chest, liver and bowels. The first
    symptoms are a thinning of the voice and occasionally sneezing.
    When the sneezing comes on in the morning and continues during
    the day, the lungs have become involved, and eventually a puffed
    appearance will be manifest in the chest. Give the same treatment
    for consumption of the chest as given for consumption of the
    throat. Add a few drops of tincture of iron (four drops to a
    gallon of water) to the water each day until the appearance of
    the bird has improved.

    Light, ventilation and pure air are three of nature’s most potent
    agencies in counteracting disease. Every turkey should have a
    liberal allowance of sunlight, though the power and directness of
    the rays should be determined by the climate, which is only
    natural. Among those that need frequent sun baths are the wild
    birds of the air and as the turkey was originally a wild bird, in
    the very nature of things, it demands a great deal of sunlight.
    It makes no difference how hot the day is, the turkey will lie in
    the sun and seem to enjoy it when the temperature is even up to
    100 degrees. This is the reason I keep my turkeys warm and
    comfortable, as it is a preventive of consumption or any disease
    of that nature.

    A good dirt bath should be provided for a turkey all winter;
    light sand, half clay, with a measure of air-slacked lime. The
    turkey will wallow in that for an hour at a time, thoroughly
    enjoy it and seem so much brighter after it.

    If turkeys are allowed to run on the frozen ground and roost in
    the trees all winter, how can one reasonably expect them to
    remain in a healthy condition when they positively need warm,
    comfortable quarters? If suitable houses are provided for
    turkeys, warm, clean and comfortable with plenty of lime, grit
    and charcoal during the winter months, it will be found that
    there will be very little trouble with blackhead during the
    summer and consequently less tendency to consumption and other
    diseases in the colder months.


                             SWOLLEN HEADS

    Swollen heads in turkeys seems to me to be the prevailing disease
    this spring of 1913. Complaints have come to me from all over the
    country, also sick birds have been sent to me to treat.

    I do not know whether it would be called roup or canker, but the
    appearance of it is that of a common cold, a watery discharge
    from the nose, eyes half closed, and sometimes wholly closed,
    with a large projecting formation in the orbital cavity under the
    eyes, which, if left there, will cause the death of the turkey
    after the turkey loses its sight. Press your hand gently on the
    formation. If the formation has not become hard, but is still in
    a spongy condition, press firmly on both sides of the nose under
    the eyes, and force out the thick, foul discharge which has
    gathered. Wash the head with Sulpho-Napthol or Presto
    Disinfectant, dry well, and then disinfect with my salve. Repeat
    this every day until the turkey is well. In the meantime the
    turkey will have a little hacking cough that is caused by a
    watery discharge from the head, which flows down inside the nose
    and drops on to the windpipe. A human being has a chance to
    relieve the head and throat, but the turkey does not have this
    advantage.

    If, however, the formation in the orbital cavity has become hard,
    an operation is necessary. Have some one hold the bird gently on
    its side, with its wings close to the body in natural form, for
    in the struggle, the bird is very apt to break its wing. Wash the
    head with Sulpho-Napthol or Presto Disinfectant and dry well.
    Have ready a good sharp operating knife, thoroughly sterilized,
    and also sterilize your hands. About one-fourth inch below the
    eye you will find one or two leaders. You must try to avoid
    cutting through these. Always try to avoid cutting through any
    veins. Make a clean cut about one-half inch in length, running
    straight down the orbital cavity to the beak so that when it
    heals up it will leave no scar. If the turkey is in good blood
    and a male bird, they are very apt to bleed quite a little. I
    would then stop the blood with cotton batten, or by bathing with
    water mixed with a little alum. Leave the bird for that day. The
    next morning open up the cut, take out the canker, which you will
    find to be a yellow, cheesy substance, with a very bad odor.
    Remove all this canker, wash out the cavity with peroxide of
    hydrogen, dry well, fill the cavity with _Margaret Mahaney’s_
    Salve, which keeps the head soft and clean. Wash the head lightly
    for a few days. When the wound heals up you will find a sort of
    dry core in the wound. Remove this, wash out, and your turkey is
    all well. Trust the rest to nature.

    If you find that the lump under the eye has become hard and white
    before you operate, and that the blood has flowed back from the
    head, there is no need of waiting for the wound to stop bleeding.
    You can remove the canker at once.[2]

    In the meantime, in the feed put a half teaspoonful of sulphur
    each morning for a week in a warm mush made from _Margaret
    Mahaney’s_ Turkey Feed. This will keep the bowels in good
    condition, and hasten the recovery of the turkey.

    This canker is sometimes found in the rectum of the turkey.
    Syringe the bird with warm water in which has been dissolved a
    little piece of Castile soap. Add to one quart of water a half
    teaspoonful of boric acid, and after the bird has been thoroughly
    washed out, wash again with the above solution. Dry the vent
    thoroughly and sponge on a little sweet oil. Do this for a few
    days with sulphur in the feed, and you will find that the bird
    will be all right. Use about ½ teaspoonful of sulphur to ½ pint
    of feed.


                           SORE EYES AND HEAD

    The eyes may become sore from dust, excessive heat, dampness and
    other causes, and give out a watery discharge. The whole head may
    become involved in the inflammation. Such mild afflictions are to
    be distinguished from canker and roup, but it is always safe to
    keep a sharp look-out for the latter when the eyes are sore.

    Wash the parts with a weak solution of white vitriol (sulphate of
    zinc) or with alum-water, or with a solution of alum and camphor.
    If the discharge has become gummy or hardened, remove it with
    warm water and Castile soap, followed with alum and water. Dry
    the head well with a soft cloth, and then rub gently with
    _Margaret Mahaney’s_ Turkey Salve, as it contains all the
    ingredients that heal and cleanse.

    To about four turkeys put one-half teaspoonful of sulphur in the
    feed with a shake of red pepper three or four times a week, and a
    little tincture of iron in the water (about four drops to a
    gallon of water).


                        CONSTIPATION IN TURKEYS

    Constipation is caused by indigestion, taking cold, too close
    confinement, too much dry feed and too little green, a deficient
    supply of good water and the like. It is indicated by frequent
    attempts to evacuate the bowels, either wholly unsuccessful or
    resulting only in hard, dark droppings. The turkey is uneasy and
    perhaps staggers.

    Give an abundance of green food and a soft mixture of bran and
    oatmeal and ten drops of sulphate of magnesia to a pint of the
    drinking water. Along with these directions for the feed, it will
    be well to give two drops of aconite to a half glass of water,
    giving the bird a teaspoonful of the solution every hour until
    the fever disappears, following this with a solution made of two
    drops of nux vomica to a half glass of water, giving a
    teaspoonful of the solution every hour until well, or if a cold
    is the cause, use two drops of bryonia in the water instead of
    the nux vomica. I have often had this disease in my flock when
    the turkeys are about three months old, just before I let them
    out for a good day’s ramble, so that is why I always recommend
    plenty of good lettuce. It keeps the bowels in good condition,
    keeps the intestines cool, and makes up itself for all fever
    remedies.


                                DIARRHEA

    This disease is often mistaken for blackhead in grown turkeys. It
    may result from an excessive use of tainted food, mouldy bread or
    mouldy grain, impure water, extreme heat, exposure in damp
    weather, filthy quarters and general indigestion, poison, or any
    inflammatory affliction of the intestines or the stomach.

    The symptoms are loose droppings of different colors which befoul
    the feathers, lassitude, and a loss of condition. In dysentery
    which results from a diseased condition of the intestines, the
    droppings are more frothy and mingled with blood, and attended
    with rapid prostration.

    A form of diarrhea essentially different from the two described,
    occurs in an old female turkey in which a white discharge comes
    away more or less constantly, often dribbling out, and keeps the
    feathers about the vent incrusted with a white, chalk-like
    deposit. It is doubtless due to some derangement in the
    shell-making function, and can best be treated by promoting the
    general health and using the means noted below.

    Treatment: Have your pharmacist make up pills made of a mixture
    of five grains of powdered chalk, five of rhubarb, and five of
    cayenne pepper, adding a half grain of opium in severe cases.
    Give two pills daily. Another good remedy is camphorated spirits
    of barley meal, three to six grains for each bird according to
    age, or ten to twenty drops of the same may be put in a pint of
    the drink. For mild cases and in the early stages of others,
    powdered chalk on boiled rice may be sufficient. The remedy last
    named is recommended for the white discharge of old females, for
    which the pills described above should be used as well as a
    little lime water, made by allowing about ½ teaspoonful
    air-slacked lime to ½ pint water for a bird. Dissolve and then
    pour off the liquid for them to drink instead of plain water.

    Restrict the drink in all forms of these disorders and put into
    it a little tincture of iron (four drops to a gallon of water).

    Dysentery with blood discharges is a serious disorder. It is best
    to give a teaspoonful of castor oil, followed with three to six
    drops of laudanum every few hours, supplying an exclusive diet of
    mild food. It is important that the afflicted bird be kept quiet
    and apart from the flock, especially in dysentery.

    Isolate the afflicted bird when you are at all doubtful regarding
    the nature of the disorder. Give a couple of tablespoonfuls of
    ground chalk to a pint of warm mash made from _Margaret
    Mahaney’s_ Turkey Feed. This will also be found beneficial at any
    time to the laying turkey hens of five or six years old. Allow
    one pint of mash to four turkeys three times a day. A little
    camphor, about the size of a good sized bean, to four turkeys
    will hasten the recovery; dropped in the drinking water once a
    week, will help to keep the birds in good laying condition.


                      _Diarrhea in Little Turkeys_

    Diarrhea in a little turkey is white, something the same as that
    trouble in a common chicken, and if you look very carefully you
    will see that the little legs are dotted with white, and the
    little turkeys will be lifeless and not appearing to thrive. That
    is the time to give them _Mahaney_ pills (four to a quart of
    drinking water for 10 or 11 young turkeys). Boil a piece of meat,
    grind fine, and put in the feed, and that will help them get back
    their vitality. A drop of aconite in the drinking water on damp
    days will help to prevent fever of any kind.


                                 GAPES

    There are many remedies for gapes, but the following is always
    beneficial and dependable. It manifests itself first by the birds
    gaping around just as a person would yawn.

    Fill a common, long-necked oil can such as is used for oiling a
    sewing machine, with kerosene oil; open the turkey’s mouth and
    wait until it breathes in order that the windpipe may be open,
    then inject a good spray of the kerosene, perhaps a teaspoonful
    in all. Three doses will usually cure the turkeys of the gape
    worm. Give treatment three times a day, in the morning, at noon
    and night. Shut the turkeys up in their run for about a week,
    then move them to new ground.


                               TAPE WORM

    The tape worm is an entirely different thing and is rather more
    serious, and will produce substantially the same symptoms as
    indigestion. If they are in the bowels, costiveness or diarrhea
    may be more marked, while the turkey will be uneasy and picking
    at the vent if they are in the lower part of the intestine. In
    all cases there will be more or less loss of flesh and often
    diminished gloss in the feathers, while the bird has either an
    impaired or a voracious appetite. The only unmistakable symptom
    is the presence of worms in the droppings when they first pass
    out.

    An unhealthy condition of the digestive organs is the main cause.
    The treatment for this is a teaspoonful of castor oil followed by
    a light addition of sulphur to the feed, and this may expel the
    worms and restore the general health. A little cayenne pepper in
    the feed and tincture of iron in the water will aid the cure. The
    use of four drops of oil of ferm to a tablespoonful of water is
    beneficial in a case of this kind. Give in the morning before the
    bird has eaten anything.

    I had one bird this last year which had a tape worm. I noticed
    the worm in the droppings first. I took the bird away and put her
    on a board floor and gave her a good dose of castor oil. She had
    only passed half of the worm at one time, and I watched her very
    closely until she passed the head.

    In a case of tape worm the droppings will be more or less white
    and limy. A turkey requires a great deal of lime. I have even
    seen turkeys pick at an old wall where it had been plastered.
    Lime, mixed with sand, should be left in all the corners of the
    farm for turkeys to eat, as it is a sure preventive of worms.


                              PERITONITIS

    Peritonitis in turkeys is often mistaken for blackhead. It is a
    very difficult disease to treat, and it is only with the milder
    cases that success can reasonably be expected. The affected bird
    must be kept quiet, protected from any current of air, and opium
    in doses of one (1) grain every four hours is recommended to
    quiet the pain and reduce the movement of the intestines, or mix
    three or four drops of aconite in a half glass of water and give
    a teaspoonful three or four times a day. Injections of tepid
    water are recommended to counteract constipation. Take a hot
    water bag. Do not have the water so hot that it would be
    uncomfortable for the turkey; wring a flannel out of warm water
    and lay it over the hot water bag, and then place the bag against
    the wall of the abdomen. Renew them as often as necessary to keep
    up a moist heat. This treatment should be continued from a half
    hour to an hour. Repeat three or four times a day, drying the
    surface of the wall afterwards so that the bird will not take
    cold. If there is a great weakness, one or two drops of ether, or
    four or five drops of tincture of camphor may be injected under
    the skin as a stimulant.

    In case the disease is due to rupture of the oviduct or
    perforation of the intestine, treatment is useless; if it has
    followed inflammation of the intestine, the treatment for
    enteritis should be combined with that for peritonitis.

    On opening the abdominal cavity of a turkey which has died from
    peritonitis, the lining membrane is found to be a deep red in
    color, and is sometimes covered by an exudate, which may consist
    of a thin, transparent layer, or it may be thick yellowish or
    reddish yellow. The abdomen may contain more or less liquid which
    may be transparent or it may be turbid with a yellow or reddish
    color. If the trouble is due to the perforation of the intestine,
    the liquid will have a very offensive odor from the
    multiplication of the putrefactive germs. If it has resulted from
    the rupture of the oviduct, the egg, either intact or broken,
    will generally be found in the abdominal cavity, and the ruptured
    place in the wall of the oviduct is easily discovered.

    The writer had two cases of peritonitis in her flock of turkey
    hens just around the laying season. One died and the other I
    succeeded in saving by the breaking of the bound egg and washing
    out the rectum with a syringe. For a wash of this kind four or
    five drops of iodine should be added. It is good to relieve pain
    and acts as a stimulant for the bird. The bird must be kept very
    warm and comfortable after a thing of that kind for three or four
    days. It is well to feed the bird on stimulating food and keep
    her away from the breeding pens until she recovers her strength.



                           THE BRONZE TURKEY


                          THE ORGANS AND SIZE

    This variety holds the place of honor. It probably originated
    from a cross between the wild and the tame product. Its
    beautiful, rich plumage and size have come from the wild
    progenitor. To maintain this quality, crosses are continually
    made. In this way the mammoth size has been gained. Their
    standard weight ranges from twenty, thirty-six to forty and fifty
    pounds, according to age and sex. Probably more of this variety
    are grown each year than all the others. They have been pushed on
    all sides, almost to the exclusion of the others. Until within a
    few years, if possible, the bronze turkey has been developed too
    much in the direction of size. While size within reasonable
    limits is to be desired and encouraged, when it is confined to
    length of thigh and shank, it is a gain of weight with but little
    additional value.


                                COLORING

    The coloring of this variety is a ground of black bronze, or
    shaded with bronze. This shade is rich and glowing, and when the
    sun rays are reflected from them, they shine like polished steel.
    The female is not as rich in coloring as the male, but both have
    the same color and shade. Much of its richness and color is lost
    by inbreeding, and it is improved each year with the wild
    specimens. Of all our domestic fowl, none suffer more from
    inbreeding than the turkey. This should be guarded against at all
    times if it is hoped to gain the best results.

[Illustration: TURKEY RAISING IS AN INTERESTING AND HEALTHFUL
OCCUPATION]


                      SELECTION OF BREEDING STOCK

    Naturally the bronze turkey should be the largest in size, the
    most vigorous in constitution and the most profitable to grow.
    This would be the status of the variety at present were it not
    that too little attention has been given to the selection of the
    females for breeding stock. It should be fully understood that
    size and constitutional vigor come largely from the female, and
    to have this influence to the fullest extent, well proportioned,
    vigorous females in their second or third year should be selected
    as breeders. Do not select very large specimens for this purpose;
    those of a medium size are usually the best. Discard undersized
    females at all times, as they are of little value as producers.
    Length of shank and thigh, if out of proportion, should not be
    mistaken for size. Full rounded body and breast indicates value
    most clearly; size and strength of bone indicate constitutional
    vigor which should be maintained through the selection of the
    very best at all times for producing stock.

    When especial care is given to the selection of breeding birds,
    and the grower bears in mind those profitable market
    characteristics—compactness of form, length of breast and body,
    and constitutional vigor, the most satisfactory results may be
    obtained from the growing of this variety, but no matter how much
    care may be given those conditions, only partial success will
    come if inbreeding is permitted. The use of over-sized males with
    small females is of less advantage than the use of smaller males
    with well matured, medium sized females.


                               MARKETING

    Of course, we cannot all sell our turkeys for breeding. That
    would entirely rob the table of its Thanksgiving luxury. After
    the turkeys are grown and ready for market, quite as much care
    and attention should be given to the killing and shipping as to
    the proper growing. When these things cannot be done to good
    advantage, it would be better to sell them alive. Buyers who are
    prepared to kill, dress, pack and ship turkeys and to save the
    feathers, should be in a position to pay what they are worth
    alive, and should be able to handle them at a profit better than
    can the grower, who may not be prepared to do this work to
    advantage. So much depends upon marketing them in the best
    condition that small growers should either dress and sell to
    their home market or, providing it can be done at a fair price,
    sell alive to someone who makes a business of handling such
    stock. Kill nothing but well fattened stock. It seldom pays to
    sell ill-favored stock to the market. Do not give any feed to the
    turkeys for twelve hours before killing. This allows their crops
    and entrails to become empty and avoids much of the danger of
    spoiling. Full crops and entrails count against the value; they
    often taint the meat, and prevent it from being kept for any
    length of time.


                                DRESSING

    Dry picking is always to be preferred when preparing fowl for
    market. When in fine condition, nicely picked, and sent to market
    without having been packed in ice, the turkey is at its best and
    consequently commands the highest price. When the fowl is
    plucked, hang its head down in a cool place until all the animal
    heat is gone from the body, being careful not to hang it where it
    will be exposed to the cold as it is likely to freeze. Do not
    remove the head, feet or entrails, but have the whole carcass,
    including the head and feet, perfectly clean.


                                SHIPPING

    For shipping, pack as closely as possible into close boxes or
    barrels, nicely lined with white or manila paper. Do not use
    brown, soiled or printed paper. Have the package completely
    filled so as to prevent the poultry from shifting. Have all the
    heads laid one way, breasts up. Do not use hay or straw for
    packing as it marks and stains the fowl, detracting from the
    value. The above method can only be used when the poultry is sent
    to market without being packed in ice, and when this can be done
    in safety either in refrigerator cars or for a short distance in
    cold weather, it is by far the best.

    The greater part, however, must be packed in ice. When necessary
    to do this, use nice clean barrels, cover the bottom with broken
    ice, then put in a layer of turkey, then a layer of ice; continue
    this until the barrel is packed full. Always use perfectly clean
    ice for packing. Head the barrel tightly, and mark its contents
    plainly on the head. Never ship mixed lots of poultry in the same
    package if it can be avoided.


                                Footnotes

Footnote 1:

      The call has been so heavy that is been impossible for me to
      handle the business of the remedies from my Concord home, and
      they are now for sale with the Park & Pollard Company of Boston.

Footnote 2:

      For the operation above described I have been using of late,
      and cannot recommend too highly, a knife which may be procured
      at Park & Pollard’s, called a Killing Knife.

[Illustration]





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